Change It Up! What Girls Say About Redifing Leadership Executive Summary (English)

Transcript

1 titutE Girl Scout rESEarch inS A Report from the Change it Up! What Girls Say About Redefining Leadership Executive Summary

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3 Change Up! it What Girls Say About Redefining Leadership A Report from the titute Girl Scout reSearch inS

4 Chair, NatioNal Board of direCtors Patricia Diaz Dennis Chief exeCutive offiCer Kathy Cloninger y, advoCa seNior viCe PresideNt, PuBliC PoliC Cy, aNd the researCh iNstitute Laurie A. Westley out researCh iNstitute viCe PresideNt, researCh, Girl sC Michael Conn, Ph.D. authors, Girl sC out researCh iNstitute Judy Schoenberg, Ed.M., Director, Research and Outreach Kimberlee Salmond, M.P.P., Senior Researcher Paula Fleshman, M.S., Research & Evaluation Analyst CoNduCted iN C oNjuNCtioN with flueNt: PuBliC oPiNioN + Market researCh Nellie Gregorian, Founder and President William Sandy, Executive Director Akua Ofori-Adjei, Research Analyst researCh advisory Body Girl sC out CouNCil advisory Body Dr. Saletta Boni, Senior Consultant, Managing Partner, Leadership Connie Argotsinger, Field Vice President of the Board of Directors, Consulting Associates Girl Scouts of Eastern Missouri, Inc. Patricia Deyton, Director, Center for Gender in Organizations and Pattie Dash, Senior Vice President, Membership & Program, Senior Lecturer, Simmons School of Management, Simmons College Girl Scouts of Central Maryland, Inc. Dr. Katherine Giscombe, Vice President, Women of Color Research, Kitty Frank, Development Specialist, Girl Scouts of Kansas Heartland Catalyst Wendy Garf-Lipp, Program Director, Girl Scouts of Eastern Massachusetts Dr. Marc Mannes, Director of Applied Research, Search Institute Jennifer Muzia, Director of Planning and Strategic Initiatives, The Washington Post Mildred Nicaragua, Business Analyst, Girl Scouts of Western Washington Rachel Simmons, Author, Founding Director, Girls Leadership Linda Scott, Membership Collaborations Manager, Girl Scouts of Institute West Central Florida Melanie Smith, Outreach Program Manager, Girl Scouts of Central Texas Nicole Yohalem, Program Director, Forum for Youth Investment Acknowledgment is made to the following departments at GSUSA for their contributions: Public Policy, Advocacy, and the Research Institute; Marketing and Communications; Program Development; Program Collaborations and Initiatives; and the Office of the CEO. Acknowledgment is also made to Rennert Translation Group and the following individuals at GSUSA for their contributions to the Spanish translation of this research study: Amelia de Dios Romero, Manager, Multicultural Marketing; Milagros Benitez, Senior Researcher/Council Liaison; Nilsa J. Cordero, Program Manager, Goizueta Foundation Grant; María L. Cabán, Project Manager, Environmental & Outdoor Program; Gladys Padró-Soler, Director, Membership Strategies. The Girl Scout Research Institute expresses special appreciation to the girls, mothers, and boys who participated in this study. What Girls Say About Redefining Leadership Inquiries related to should be directed to the Girl Scout Research Institute, Change It Up! Girl Scouts of the USA, 420 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10018-2798. This report may not be reproduced in whole or in part in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system now known or hereafter invented, without the prior written permission of Girl Scouts of the United States of America, 420 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10018-2798. © 2008 by Girl Scouts of the USA All rights reserved. First Impression 2008 978-0-88441-721-7 ISBN: 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

5 content S ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 5 Introduction ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 5 Background and Research Goals ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6 A Note on Methodology ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 7 What Girls Say: Overview of Findings •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 8 Insight #1: Girls Redefine Leadership in Meaningful Terms ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 17 Insight #2: Self-Confidence + Skills = New Girl Leaders 22 ••••••••••••••••••••••••• Insight #3: Opportunities + Experiences + Support = New Girl Leaders ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 30 Insight #4: Girls Have a Range of “Leadership Identities” 37 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Conclusion and Future Research ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 39 Appendix •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 46 Resources

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7 introduction hile the topic of gender and leadership has been widely explored by social scientists and W management practitioners, little or no specific in-depth research has been done on how girls and youth view leadership itself. Girls explore leadership opportunities in school and college, on the sports field, in after-school programs, and in other social institutions and organizations, but little is known about how they understand their leadership experiences, their motivations for pursuing these opportunities, or the implications of their current behaviors and attitudes on their future lives. Will the leadership experiences of this generation of girls translate into their obtaining greater leadership roles as adults? What kind of leadership does this generation of girls aspire to and connect with? What do we need to know in order to support the next generation of girl and women leaders? presents findings from a national study of girls and boys on a broad spectrum of Change It Up! issues related to leadership: how they define it; their experiences, failures, and successes with leadership experimentation; their aspirations, hopes, and fears; the effect of gender biases and stereotypes; and predictors of leadership aspiration. From the evidence of this report, girls are clearly saying that we need to “change it up” in how we define and think about leadership. Background and research goals he development of girl leadership has been at the heart of Girl Scouts since its founding th T anniversary, it is renewing its in 1912. As the Girl Scout Movement approaches its 100 commitment to leadership development, and has launched a body of work to identify what girls need to be successful as leaders today. This work will inform a transformation process that was launched in 2004 and designed to ensure the role of Girl Scouting as the premier leadership st century. experience for girls in the 21 Since its formation in 2000, the Girl Scout Research Institute (GSRI) has emerged as a significant national resource on girls’ issues, both for Girl Scouts of the USA and for educators, policymakers, and others committed to the healthy development of girls throughout our society. Confronted by a national lack of data on girls and leadership, the GSRI published a research review in 2007, Exploring Girls’ Leadership . This report analyzed the literature from the youth development and youth leadership fields, contrasted continued misperceptions with youths’ realities, and Exploring Girls’ Leadership discussed examined community approaches to leadership in the field. the contribution of single-sex environments to girls’ leadership, and included findings from a small online pilot survey and a series of focus groups of girls around the country. Though Exploring Girls’ Leadership identified a wealth of information on youth leadership programs, it found relatively little national gender-specific data within the youth development 5

8 literature on how girls experience leadership. The GSRI, in response to this lack and in keeping with the core mission of the Girl Scouts, took on the task of identifying what girls need to develop their full leadership potential. Specifically, the GSRI recognized the need to conduct primary research in a number of important areas, including: • girls’ definitions of leadership; • girls’ experiences of leadership; girls’ aspirations for and barriers to leadership; • • the qualities and skills girls associate with leadership; • predictors of leadership; • issues related to gender bias and leadership; and leadership education and support systems. • Girl Scouts of the USA, in collaboration with Fluent, a New York-based research firm, commis- sioned this first-of-its-kind research study of thousands of girls, boys, and mothers to address these and other dimensions of girls’ attitudes, perceptions, behaviors, and experiences toward leadership. (Boys were included in the sample to provide data for gender comparisons, and mothers were in- cluded to see if there was a connection between their leadership aspirations and those of their daughters.) A distinguished group of advisors in the youth development and leadership fields also assisted in guiding the direction of this work, as well as a Girl Scout council advisory body. A note on Methodology he first phase of research was qualitative and exploratory in nature and employed a T combination of traditional focus groups and ethnographies, engaging 165 girls, boys, and mothers. Research was conducted in January 2007 in four geographically and culturally diverse locations: Hackensack, New Jersey; Cincinnati, Ohio; Atlanta, Georgia; and San Diego, California. Upon completion of the qualitative research, a nationwide online survey was administered to a national stratified sample of 2,475 girls and 1,514 boys between the ages of 8 and 17 years. The online survey was fielded from June 22, 2007, to June 29, 2007. The margin of error did not exceed 1.5%. The sample was weighted to reflect the U.S. Census representation of racial/ethnic groups among the target-age population. This report is based on an integrated analysis of both qualitative and quantitative research. (See Appendix for a fuller discussion of the research methodology underlying Change It Up! ) 6

9 WhA t girls sA y: o vervieW of findings he research reveals several key insights into girls and their views and attitudes about T leadership that the GSRI hopes will provide a significant contribution to the national dialogue on leadership development among girls and young women: Girls, even at a very young age, have definite ideas about what it means and takes to be a leader. • • Promoting leadership in girls is primarily a matter of fostering their self-confidence and providing supportive environments in which to acquire leadership experience. • To be relevant to and successful with girls, a leadership program must address their aspirational or preferred definition of leadership, their need for emotional safety, and their desire for social and personal development. • Girls have a range of “leadership identities,” from strong aspiration to outright rejection of the leadership role. The last point above notwithstanding, girls are signaling that leadership needs to change in order to fully engage them. As will be seen in the findings, the conventional command-and-control model of leadership so prevalent in the culture does not resonate with their desire to make a difference in the world around them. Furthermore, while the majority of girls see themselves as leaders, many are ambivalent about leadership itself. The greatest single barrier to leadership reported by girls is self-perception—a lack of self-confidence in their own skills and competencies. Research reveals other reported barriers girls face such as stress, fear of talking in front of others, seeming bossy, and peer pressure. While boys and girls are, by and large, free of prejudice in regard to gender and competencies in leadership roles, girls are more aware of expressions of gender bias toward women than are boys. At the same time, leadership is highly idealized for girls, who set the bar very high for what it takes to be a leader today. Race and income are also strongly correlated with leadership aspiration; however, their impact is indirect—they come into play through self-perception and attitude. Other factors influencing girls’ leadership aspirations include family, particularly mothers, and also peers—who can play both a negative and a positive role. Participation in organized and informal activities and exposure to leadership opportunities are also strongly correlated with leadership aspirations. Girls relate that environments in which they can develop leadership skills are scarce. Notably, youth do not feel they have much power to change things or teach/help others in many environments. This presents a great opportunity to the youth development and leadership fields to develop leadership programs that resonate with girls and give them safe spaces in which to experiment with a range of leadership roles. Finally, many of the findings in this study reveal that additional research is needed to explore more deeply the intersection of gender, race/ethnicity, and leadership. The conclusion of the report presents important potential areas for further exploration. 7

10 1 insight # G i r l S h i p l e a d e r S r e d e f i n e in MeaninGful terMS ven at a young age, girls have well-formed ideas about what it means Definitions of Leaders to be a leader. In focus groups around the country, the top-of-mind E definition of leadership was in terms of authority exercised through TOTAL GIRLS BOYS command and control. However, both girls and boys find this definition One who brings people 64% 72% 69% together to get things done of leadership the least appealing or aspirational. their preferred One who stands up for his definitions of leadership imply personal principles, ethical beha- 62% 57% 65% or her beliefs and values Many girls emphasize what vior, and the ability to effect social change. One who tries to change , rather than focusing on specific roles or for leadership should be used 51% 46% 54% the world for the better positions. For example, 72% of girls say a leader is someone who “brings One who is in charge of 50% 49% 49% other people and makes people together to get things done,” and 65% say a leader is someone decisions that affect them who “stands up for his or her beliefs and values.” One who has skills that 46% 46% 46% make others respect them to be, both girls and When asked what kind of leader they would want One who tries to be the 36% 38% 36% boys express the aspiration to be someone who stands up for his or her very best at something beliefs, brings people together to get things done, and tries to change the world for the better, although girls feel these sentiments more strongly than do boys. Types of Leaders Youth Want to Be The disconnect between the aspirational types of leadership and the (% responding they want to be like “a lot”) conventional command-and-control model may help explain girls’ ambivalence about leadership as a goal. BOYS GIRLS TOTAL One who stands up for 65% 59% 68% their beliefs and values One who brings people 55% 52% 58% together to get things done One who tries to change 55% 49% 59% the world for the better One who has skills that 50% 49% 50% make others respect them One who tries to be the 49% 50% 49% very best at something One who is in charge of other people and makes 33% 34% 33% decisions that affect them Highlighted findings indicate a statistically significant difference between girls and boys. 8

11 lEadErShip a S a Goal When asked about their top goals in general, being a leader does not figure prominently for youth, ranking number 15 out of 19 options. About one-fifth (22% of girls and 23% of boys) say that it is very important. The number-one goal for all youth is staying free of alcohol and tobacco, followed by doing well in school, being nice to others, and getting into college. This is consistent with the qualitative research, which revealed that the majority of girls and boys do not consider leadership as a goal in and of itself. While this does not mean that youth are uninterested in leadership per se, it does point to the fact that they have many competing priorities. Bott om Goals Top Goals tan t” ) (% responding “v er y impor ery important”) (% r esponding “v 40% 30% 20% 10% 0 50% 40% 30% 0% %7 20% 10% 60 0 ee of drugs, ying fr Sta Making a lot % 72 26% alcohol, and toba cc o of mone y 35 % % 62 61 % 28 % Doing w ell in school ur Helping yo 54% % 22 communit y % 59 24 % s Being nice to other Fitting in 52 % 25% 22 % % 57 Getting into college Being a leader 23 % 49 % 51% 19% t Being the bes Being a good athlete GIRLS 28% 50% ou do at what y YS BO 18% 51% Starting a family cessful ca re er A suc 18% 48% 16% 51% Ha ving a bo yfriend Helping other s 17% 42% or girlfriend 16% 50% Ha y ving enough mone Being popular 16% 51% to live comfortably 46% 10% Being famous Helping animals 34% 13% or the envir onmen t GIRLS 44% YS BO orld Making the w 36% e a better plac Differences between boys and girls are pronounced in relation to social or altruistic goals, such as helping others, helping animals and the environment, making the world a better “a leader is place, and being nice to others. As the charts on the next page demonstrate, while girls and any person of great boys at the youngest ages rank these goals similarly, their importance for boys drops off spirit and heart.” dramatically as they get older. rd —girl, 3 grade, San Diego 9

12 Importance of Helping Animals or the Environment Importance of Helping Others (% responding “very important”) (% responding “very important”) 100% 100% 90% 90% GIRLS GIRLS BOYS BOYS 80% 80% 70% 70% Ages 8–10 Ages Ages 60% Ages 60% Ages Ages 8–10 11–13 11–13 14–15 Ages 16–17 Ages 50% 50% 14–15 16–17 40% 40% 30% 30% 20% 20% 10% 10% 0% 0% Importance of Making the World Importance of Being Nice to Others a Better Place (% responding “very important”) (% responding “very important”) 100% 100% 90% 90% GIRLS GIRLS BOYS BOYS 80% 80% Ages 70% 70% Ages 8–10 Ages Ages 11–13 14–15 60% 60% 16–17 Ages Ages Ages Ages 8–10 11–13 50% 50% 16–17 14–15 40% 40% 30% 30% 20% 20% 10% 10% 0% 0% 10

13 E a d E S i r E to B l E a d E r Research reveals that the relationship of girls and boys to leadership is ambivalent. On the one hand, many girls and boys are reluctant to think of themselves as non-leaders or followers. Forty percent of girls and 39% of boys report they would rather be leaders than followers. On the other hand, a significant number of girls and boys lack an active desire to be a leader: “y ou don’t have When asked if they want to be leaders, 39% of girls say yes. • to be a leader of a • 52% say they would not mind being a leader, but that it’s not particularly important to them. group. y ou don’t 9% say they do not want to be leaders. • have to be a leader of an organization. These proportions are mirrored among boys. you don’t have to be a leader of a class. The desire to be a leader changes with age. For girls, it peaks at 44% among 8- to 10-year-olds, it’s just personally then drops to 36% for 11- to 13-year-olds, rises to 40% for 14- to 15-year-olds, and drops within yourself, like importance back to 36% for 16- to 17-year-olds. Interestingly, trends for the of being a leader knowing that you’re independent, go in the opposite direction. Twenty-one percent of girls ages 8-10 say it is very important knowing that you to be a leader, compared with 26% of girls ages 16-17. In other words, leadership rises in can make the right importance for girls as their desire to be a leader diminishes or fluctuates. decision. y ou can be a leader for yourself.” As the graph below illustrates, the desire to be a leader is highest among Asian American, th grade, San Diego — girl, 11 African American, and Hispanic girls, as well as African American and Hispanic boys. Caucasian girls and boys and Asian American boys feel more ambivalent about leadership. “of course i want to be a leader; no one would ever want to Desire to Be a Leader by Ethnicity be a follower.” th grade, —boy, 9 Hackensack BOYS GIRLS 100% 3% 6% 6% 7% 6% 10% 10% 10% 90% 80% 38% 40% 44% 44% 41% 70% 61% 58% 56% 60% 50% 40% 30% 59% 50% 49% 53% 50% 20% 33% 32% 34% 10% Asian Asian Hispanic Caucasian African Hispanic African Caucasian American American American American I WANT TO I DON’T WANT TO BE A LEADER I DON’T MIND BEING A LEADER, BUT IT’S NOT THAT BE A LEADER IMPORTANT TO ME 11

14 SElf- S a S a lEadEr aSSESSmEnt We also asked if youth see themselves as leaders. Overall, 61% of all respondents currently see themselves as leaders. African Americans (75%) and Hispanics (70%) are more likely than Asian Americans(65%) and Caucasians (56%) to do so. Caucasians are most likely not to think of themselves as leaders when compared with all other racial/ethnic groups combined (44% vs. 39%). The proportion of youth who think of themselves as leaders is highest among African American girls (75%), African American boys (74%), and Hispanic girls (72%). “t he good thing e/Ethnicity Rac by Self- Assessments as a Leader about being a leader is to help others and GIRL YS BO S 100% make them happy.” nd 90% grade, San Diego —girl, 2 25% 26% 28% 33% 34% 80% 36% 44% 44% 70 % 60% 50% 40% 74 % 75 % 72 % % 67 64% 66% 30% 56% 56% 20% 10% Caucasian Hispanic Asian Caucasian Asian African Hispanic African American American American American I DO NO T THINK OF MY SELF AS A LEADER I THINK OF MY SELF AS A LEADER motivationS for lEadErShip Youth who want to be leaders are driven by a variety of motivations, with the desire to help others topping the list. Overall, both girls and boys share personal and altruistic moti- Girls and boys rank similar reasons for leadership vations for wanting to be leaders. aspiration highly: to help other people, to help themselves be successful in life, to develop “i would like to be a leader some day useful skills and qualities, and to share their knowledge and skills with others. This is further so that i can change evidenced in girls’ and boys’ choices of role models. No matter who the role models are—be it different aspects a family member, a historic figure, or a celebrity—what youth admire and want to emulate is of the world, such their commitment to fighting against injustices in society, their focus on helping others, and as homelessness, their determination in overcoming adversity and standing up for their beliefs. poverty, and unjust happenings.” th —boy, 8 grade, Atlanta 12

15 However, there are significant differences in the relative importance of leadership motivations girls are more likely than boys to want to be leaders because they want for girls and boys. to help other people (67% vs. 53%), share their knowledge and skills with others (53% vs. 45%), and change the world for the better (45% vs. 31%). Boys are more likely than girls to be motivated by the desire to be their own bosses, (38% vs. 33%), make more money (33% vs. 26%), and have more power (22% vs.14%). ation Reasons for Leadership Aspir (N=1534) % 60 % 70 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0 100% 90% 80% I wa nt to help other people % 67 % 53 It will help me be % 53 e cessful in lif suc 47 % % 53 It will allo w me to shar e my “i want to be a leader 45% kno s wledge and skills with other for girls everywhere 53 % ve It will help me de lop because lately i 43% useful skills and qualities haven’t seen a single 50% I wa ro le nt to be a girl role model out in 38% model for other s the world that i could 40% ould I w a ra ther be look up to, because % 39 leader than a foll ower every time you 45% I wa e nt to change th look to somebody, 31% world for the better they go out and do 33% I wa nt to be my o wn boss something stupid.” 38% th —girl, 9 grade, Atlanta 31% ge I li being in char ke 33% “y es, i do want It will help me 31% people to look up to eams fulfill my dr 26% me and say, ‘i want to 26% It will help me be just like her.’” 33% re mone e mo y mak th grade, Cincinnati —girl, 4 27 % I ha the qualities ve 23% needed to be a leader 23% g I am the best at somethin 22% and wa d nt to be ackno wledge 14% re po we mo ve I will ha r 22% GIRLS I can’t help it — BO YS 15% it’s who I am 14% to ke I w ould li 13% ower foll ha s ve 13% 30% 40% 10% 70 % 60 % 0 20% 50% 100% 80% 90% 13

16 inGrEdiEnt S of lEadErShip: SEttinG thE Bar hiGh Girls and boys set the benchmark for leadership skills very high. Leadership is highly ideal- ized and perceived to require a wide range of skills and qualities. Leaders are expected not only to be confident, assertive, and persuasive, but are also expected to be honest, caring, nice, and creative. This does not seem attainable to all girls, and may prevent some from even trying to acquire these skills. Girls and boys in the study expect a leader to have at her or his disposal a wide array of qualities and skills that can be strategically employed depending on a specific situation. In focus groups and interviews, girls and boys frequently talked about situational leadership – a need to be able to adapt to a particular situation. While some situations might call for a collaborative, team-oriented approach, others demand an executive style of decision-making. When asked to assess themselves on the same list of skills and qualities they deem important to leadership, girls and boys consistently gave themselves relatively modest ratings . While 92% of girls believe anyone can acquire the skills of leadership, only 21% believe they Leadership Skills Assessment esponding “ describes me v ery w ell”) (% r 30% 10% 30% 40% 50% 60 % 0 10% 20% 20% 40% 50% 60 % 0 e about other s Car Ta lented 58% 36% 47 % 33% e Str Nic ong 54% 34% 49 % % 35 Good with Hones t 50% 32% number s 43% 36% e Cr eativ 31% 50% Competitive 39 % % 37 34% 45% Smart t Persisten 30% 44% 47 % % 37 Passionate about Good writer 24 % 38% something 33% 43% Inte re sted in t Confiden 31% 43% exploring the world Good-looking 39 % Team pl er ay 30% 39 % 31% S GIRL 36% Emotional 40% Outgoin g BO YS 37 % 20% 40% 28% Har g dw orkin The best at % 37 31% something 25% 40% Responsibl e c Athleti 35 % 36% 31% % 39 Highly Good listener 30% % 27 ated motiv 14

17 currently have most of the key qualities required to be a good leader. This discrepancy is potentially a real barrier. If youth do not feel they possess the skills and competencies necessary for leadership, they may be discouraged altogether from aspiring toward this goal. Girls and boys rate themselves the highest on qualities such as being caring, honest, and nice. Overall, girls appear to be more positive in their self-assessment than boys, and give them- selves higher ratings on qualities or skills like caring, nice, honest, creative, passionate, good listener, good writer, and highly motivated. They are also more likely to describe themselves as emotional. Boys are more likely than girls to think of themselves as athletic, competitive, and good with numbers. however, an important disconnect occurs as girls rate themselves on skills they consider paramount for leadership, including being organized, good at dealing with conflict, taking charge, decision-making, and motivation. A comparison of importance and self- assessment ratings indicates that girls are not yet confident about having the essential skills and competencies they think of as most important for a leader. Self-Assessment vs. Importance (% of girls responding “very important” or “describes me very well”) 80% 60% 20% 0 60% 40% 20% 0 40% Responsible Take charge 40% 24% 76% 64% Honest Passionate about 47% 50% something 60% 76% 45% 40% Hardworking Smart 57% 73% 25% 24% Good Good speaker 72% 59% decision-maker 54% 33% Confident Nice 58% 69% 39% 40% Team player “t he type of Outgoing 68% 56% leadership depends 39% 34% Persistent Good listener on the situation — 55% 70% for example, in a fire, 31% Persuasive 25% Highly motivated you must tell people 54% 68% what to do and Creative 50% 21% Good at dealing cannot afford to 53% 67% with conflict be nice about it.” 22% Assertive 25% th Organized grade, Atlanta –girl, 4 66% 51% 34% 58% Strong Care about others 52% 66% 26% Flexible 51% IMPORTANCE SELF-ASSESSMENT 15

18 implicationS The disconnect between the command-and-control definition of leadership and the more aspirational types of leadership points to potential pitfalls in communicating with girls about the benefits of leadership development programs. The way girls interpret the intended definition of leadership may determine whether they will find a leadership program appealing. It may also color their expectations for the program, which if not met could result in disappointment. It is important that messages about leadership programs state clearly what definition of leadership is intended. Leadership is also highly idealized and perceived to require a wide range of skills and qualities. It does not seem attainable to all girls. At the same time, the desire of girls for leadership differs by race and ethnicity, making it important to understand girls’ individual experiences rather than communicate to girls universally as one group. More specifically, communications with girls about a leadership program must: Frame communications in language that makes the program relevant and appealing. • • Help girls understand, identify, and verbalize different forms of leadership. • Make clear which aspects of leadership are at the core of the program. • Set expectations and leadership skill development goals at a reasonable and attainable level. 16

19 insight # 2: onfidence + SkillS = new Girl leaderS Self-c prEdictorS of lEadErShip One goal of this research was to uncover the demographic and identity factors, if any, that predict a youth’s desire to be a leader. As mentioned previously, the study asked girls and boys to rate themselves on a list of leadership qualities and skills. For analytic purposes, skills and qualities were grouped thematically into four categories: • Extraversion (outgoing, confident, assertive, charismatic, etc.) Organizational Skills (organized, good decision-maker, etc.) • Caring • (nice, honest, cares about others, etc.) Creativity (creative, talented, good writer, etc.) • In addition, youth were asked to rate themselves on a range of attitudinal variables (e.g., “I prefer when I have a lot of control over what I do and when I do it,” “I would rather someone else took over the leadership role when I am involved in a group project,” and “When I see a problem, I prefer to do something about it rather than sit by and let it continue.”) These responses were grouped into the following psychographic factors: • Dominance (preference for control, giving orders, winning, doing better than others) • Decision Avoidance (pushing decisions off to someone else, preference for someone else to take on leadership roles, reliance on others to make decisions and solve problems) • Positive Problem-Solving (taking initiative to solve problems, optimism, consensus building, making decisions) factorS with a StronG influEncE on GirlS’ dESirE to purSuE lEadErShip The factor that most strongly influences girls’ desire to actively pursue leadership is confidence in their skills and competencies. Interestingly, it is not only what skills youth rate themselves highly on that impact their leadership aspirations, but how much confidence they have in general. The greatest single barrier to leadership seems to be low self-regard about skills and qualities. Or, to put it another way, youth who report high self-regard on a number of leadership skills and qualities are more likely . . to aspire to leadership 17

20 Specific factors that influence a girl’s desire for leadership are: • Organizational skills Extraversion • “Dominant” profile/identity • • Involvement in organized and informal group activities • Experience with leadership roles Of all factors, organizational skills and extraversion are the strongest predictors of girls’ and boys’ attitudes toward leadership. Dominance is also positively related to leadership, although the effect is small. Decision avoidance is negatively related, which means that those youth identifying in this category are not likely to pursue leadership. Leadership aspirations and self-assessments are also strongly correlated with participation in extracurricular activities, and with experience with leadership roles or positions of respon- sibility for others. factorS that havE littlE EffEct Age and gender play a very limited role in predicting leadership aspirations. Girls and boys have an equal likelihood of aspiring to and thinking of themselves as leaders. The age effect is significant, but small. Self-perception as a leader is highest at the younger ages (grades 2-4); drops in grades 7-10; and rises again slightly in grades 11-12. As noted previously, desire to be a leader fluctuates slightly as well, peaking at the younger ages and dropping off at the oldest for both boys and girls. factorS that havE an indirEct EffEct Two additional variables—race/ethnicity and household income—have an indirect predictive impact on leadership. As noted earlier, African American, Hispanic, and, to a lesser extent, Asian American girls and boys indicate a stronger desire to be leaders and are more likely to think of themselves as leaders than Caucasians. Youth from households with higher income are also more likely to have leadership aspirations. However, what actually appears to be at play here is not race/ethnicity and household income alone, but the fact that youth from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds and higher-income families rate themselves more highly on leadership skills and dimensions than do others. For example, african american and hispanic youth rate themselves higher than do Caucasian youth on extraversion, organizational skills, creativity, caring, dominance, and positive problem-solving. they are also more likely to report having leadership experiences. in other words, it is attitudes, self-perceptions, and experiences that drive leadership aspirations in youth, not their race/ethnicity or income. 18

21 BarriErS to lEadErShip For those youth who are not interested in leadership, the following pose significant barriers: Lack of confidence in skills and competence • Fear of embarrassment • • Stress Fear of seeming bossy • • Fear of talking in front of others • Negative peer pressure prominEnt BarriErS for GirlS It is important to note that barriers to leadership are consistent among boys and girls, Fully but that girls experience fears and inhibitions about social acceptance more acutely. one-third of girls who do not want to be leaders attribute their lack of motivation to fear of being laughed at, making people mad at them, coming across as bossy, or not being These barriers make clear that some girls still struggle with the unwritten liked by people. rules of what it means to be “feminine” and exhibiting stereotypically “female” behaviors like being nice, quiet, polite, agreeable, and liked by all. as well, Caucasian youth in general are more likely than youth from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds to not want to be leaders due to their fear of speaking in public, fear of being laughed at, and the perception that Unfortunately, as will be discussed in the section on others are more qualified than they are. leadership experiences (p. 26), a fear of being ridiculed by peers is not entirely unfounded. Barriers to Leadership Aspiration (N=360) 0 10% 20% 40% 30% 30% 0 10% 20% “i do not want to People might not like me I do not want to speak be a leader because 27% 45% in front of others 19% 38% people will think Other people are better 25% i am bossy if i am 43% I am too shy qualified than me 26% 26% a leader.” rd I don’t have experience 23% 32% I am simply not interested —girl, 3 grade, San Diego to be a good leader 34% 29% I do not have the skills 32% 21% I am afraid I would fail “i don’t think i can 24% 25% handle the stress Too much stress 21% 32% I do not want to in my life already 15% 25% be laughed at as well as others.” th Leading doesn’t matter, as — boy, 9 grade, Cincinnati 18% 30% I do not want people long as I do what I enjoy 27% 21% to get mad at me 16% I do not want the Leading isn’t a priority 29% “i wouldn’t like responsibility 19% 27% getting in front I want to be a team player 14% I do not want to seem bossy 29% of people.” 17% 13% GIRLS th — girl, 10 grade, Atlanta BOYS 28% I do not want to tell 26% others what to do These questions were only asked of those youth not interested in leadership. 19

22 GEndEr StErEotypES and Bia SES The research also looked at whether gender stereotypes and biases about roles for women and men exist among youth today. When asked directly, a strong majority (82%) of youth agree that girls and boys are equally good at being leaders. However, 56% of respondents also agree that “in our society, it is more difficult for a woman to become a leader than for a man.” More than half (52%) agree that “girls have to work harder than boys in order to gain positions of leadership,” although this perception is more widely held by girls (57%) than boys (44%). These findings speak to the fact that external barriers in the general environment still exist for girls and young women pursuing leadership roles. When confronted with statements about women’s or men’s roles or qualities, both boys and girls find no difference in their inherent abilities. However, women are judged by all respondents to be better at fulfilling roles traditionally associated with females, such as “taking care of others,” “forming and maintaining relationships,” “running a household,” and “listening to others.” As discussed previously, these types of stereotypes can inhibit leadership aspirations because straying from “accepted” female qualities or roles can be seen as inappropriate for a girl. Furthermore, there are expectations that “running a state or country” and “running a business” are best fulfilled by males. Boys are more likely than girls to feel this way. ve is gener Who do y er at the follo wing types of things ? ou belie ally bett % 100 % 90 43% 43% 47 % % 80 48% 52% 47 % 56% 62% 63% 66% 66% 65% 65% 67 % 67 % 67 % 70 % 70 % 77% 71% 72 % 74 % 74 % 74 % 75% 76 % 76 % 80% 79 % 60 % 2% 3% 2% 5% 7% 50% 6% 3% 40% 6% 12% 3% 8% 10% 9% 55 % 53% % 30 51% 17% 5% 13% 18% 48% 9% 46% 5% 7% 42% 41 % 15% 31% 12% 20% 17% 9% 24 % 30% 31% 18% 13% 27% 26 % 24 % 24 % 23% 21% 19% 19% 18% 17% 15% 10% 12% 12% 12% 8% 8% 6% 4% 4% GIRLS BO GIRLS GIRLS BO BO BO GIRLS GIRLS BO GIRLS GIRLS GIRLS BO BO GIRLS GIRLS BO GIRLS BO BO GIRLS BO BO BO GIRLS BO GIRLS 0 YS YS YS YS YS YS YS YS YS YS YS YS YS YS oblems Running a Solving pr Running a Running Listening e d Forming an Taking car Or ganizing Resolving Handling a Finishing g Managin Collaborating ting va Moti state or country orld in the w s busines maintaining pr ojects of other ey mon t s s with other en s other ev an to other t a conflic s a crisis household on time relationships MALE S NO DIFFERENCE FEMALES 20

23 implicationS These findings provide a clear roadmap for leadership development programs. If the goal of a program is to promote girls’ interest in leadership, it has to boost girls’ self-confidence as well as provide opportunities to develop leadership skills and safely experiment with leader- ship roles in supportive environments. It should also offer girls high-status, challenging, fun, and exciting projects that can provide a meaningful framework for leadership training. Again, this research reveals that promoting leadership is above all about fostering self- and providing positive, supportive environments in which to acquire experience. confidence More specifically, a leadership development program for girls should: • Create a supportive environment for girls to express themselves freely and experiment with their leadership identities. • Involve supportive, inspiring, and influential mentors and role models. • Provide teamwork, collaborative experiences, and networking opportunities with peers. • Provide girls with opportunities to support or take responsibility for others. • Practice and develop specific skills, such as speaking in front of others and giving and receiving critical feedback. • Debrief girls by reviewing what they learned and how they learned it. • Be mindful of existing social and gender stereotypes about girls and leadership. 21

24 3 insight # S + o p p o r t u n i t i e e x p e r i e n c e S + Support = new Girl leaderS ExpEriEncE of lEadErShip Girls and boys experience a wide range of e with F ormal Experienc activities involving some form of leadership and Informal Leadership or responsibility for others. These activities, Activities whether informal or formal, run the gamut GIRLS BO YS from taking care of people or pets, raising t e of a pe Took car 74 % 80% money for a cause, or being captain of a sports 50% 58% Tried to stop friends fr om team to trying to change something about something wr e ong or unsaf their neighborhood, starting a petition, or 47 % 55% Helped to tak e car e of someone even organizing a protest. Girls prefer a social 41 % 51% y for a cause Helped to r aise mone change-oriented definition of leadership and are 33% 55% Ba by sat for someone relatively active in charitable and social 38% 45% Been r esponsible for a service activities; however, they are much less younger brother or siste r experienced with leadership roles aimed at Been leader of a team 26% 31% t for a school projec social change or political activism, compared e ed to do community servic Volunteer with more informal leadership activities. 22% 29% They are also less experienced with traditional 19% 23% olv ed Tried to get friends or family inv ve nt s in some community service or e leadership activities. 25% 15% Or ganized a game in y our neighborhood Participation in these types 18% 14% Been a captain or co-captain of a sports team of leadership activities Been a mentor to someone else 12% 15% differs across age. For Run for a class or school offic e 10% 13% example, as girls Started a club 9% 11% get older they are 9% 11% more likely to Started an online gr oup , blog, or chatline try to stop their 6% 11% Been an officer in a club 8% 9% our Tried to change something about y neighborhood or community y ou didn’t lik e 4% 5% Started a petition or sent a letter to a politician or newspaper editor Or ganized a pr otes t 3% 3% Highlighted findings indicate a statistically significant difference between girls and boys. 22

25 friends from doing something that is wrong or unsafe (54% of 8- to 10-year-olds vs. 68% of 16- to 17-year-olds). Older girls are also more likely to be leaders of teams for school projects (24% of 8- to 10-year-olds vs. 37% of 16- to 17-year-olds). This progression in age and leadership responsibility is not as evident in girls being captains/co-captains of a sports team, organizing a game in the neighborhood, starting a club or petition, or trying to change something in the neighborhood that they did not like. Differences in leadership activities across race and ethnicity are also evident among girls. Caucasian girls are more likely than African American, Hispanic, and Asian American girls to help raise money for a cause. Asian American girls are more likely to start a club, be leader of a team for a school project, or run for a class or school office. Asian American and Hispanic girls are more likely than Caucasian and African American girls to start an online group, blog, or chat room. Overall, four in six girls (67%) believe they have had some opportunity to be a leader. One in six girls, however, is unsure whether she has or not. Across race and ethnicity, Caucasian girls are more likely to be unsure about their experiences than girls of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds, especially African American girls. This uncertainty may speak to their inability to recognize leadership experiences as such. Have you ever had the opportunity to be a leader? GIRLS BOYS 100% 100% 7% 8% 9% 12% 11% 13% 18% 17% 90% 90% 12% 15% 15% 9% 80% 80% 16% 18% 19% 21% 70% 70% 60% 60% 50% 50% 78% 79% 77% 78% 40% 40% 70% 72% 64% 61% 30% 30% 20% 20% 10% 10% Asian Hispanic Asian Caucasian African Hispanic African Caucasian American American American American NOT SURE YES NO 23

26 EnjoymEnt of lEadErShip ExpEriEncE Across race and ethnicity, girls experience being a leader differently. The large majority (86%) say their most recent leadership experiences were positive (i.e., they rated the experiences as good or great). African American (89%) and Hispanic (92%) girls are more likely than Caucasian (85%) girls to report enjoying their leadership experiences. these findings suggest not only that girls of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds are more likely than Caucasian girls to aspire to leadership and seek out leadership experiences, but that they are also more likely to have a better time being leaders. Reasons for Having a Negative Reasons for Having a Positive Experience Being a Leader Experience Being a Leader (N=214) (N=1304) 0 10% 20% 30% 40% 40% 30% 20% 0 10% Learning new things and Did not like 41% 31% developing new skills speaking in public 22% 26% 28% 37% It was too stressful Being able to impact others 35% 24% It was scary 26% 23% Getting others to do something you think is important 20% 21% 25% 22% Peers were not supportive GIRLS Being able to effect change 22% 26% BOYS 24% It was embarassing 21% Overcoming your fears 16% 15% 20% Encouragement of your peers GIRLS 20% BOYS 16% Being in charge 26% This question was asked only of youth who reported This question was asked only of youth who reported a positive experience being a leader. a negative experience as a leader. Further, income has a direct positive correlation with leadership experience. The higher the household income of youth, the more likely they are to have had a leadership experience. girls derive greater satisfaction from learning (31% vs. 22%) in leadership experiences; boys derive greater satisfaction from being in charge (26% vs. 16%). girls and boys equally cite “being able to effect change” as a reason for their positive experience. For the 5% of youth who find their most recent experience of leadership to be negative, the top reasons for their dissatisfaction are fear of speaking in public, stress, and lack of support from peers. While girls more significantly than boys (41% vs. 26%) fear speaking in public, both equally cite stress and lack of peer support as factors. 24

27 Support Sy StEm Given the potential association of fear or dissatisfaction with leadership, the influence of family, particularly mothers, on girls’ and boys’ leadership goals and aspirations cannot be overstated. Consistently, across all age groups and regions, girls and boys identify their immediate family members and relatives (mothers, fathers, older siblings, grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins) as their role models and the people they most admire. mothErS’ influEncE Within this study, qualitative research with mothers of girls indicates a close correlation between mothers’ own ambitions and outlook on life and leadership with their daughters’ aspirations for leadership. Such research also indicates that mothers are remarkably well informed about and attuned to their daughters’ dreams and aspirations. Although many mothers do not necessarily want their daughters to hold traditional positions of leadership, they do want them to develop and use leadership skills and qualities for their self-empower- ment and for the sake of the greater good. Mothers want their daughters to have a positive impact on their spheres of influence. They share instructive stories about their lives with their daughters, and contend that girls can draw constructive lessons and inspiration to succeed even from examples of their parents’ failures and disappointments. People Who Influence You to Be a Leader 100% 90% 80% 81% 75% 70% GIRLS BOYS 65% 64% 60% 62% 56% 55% 50% 47% 40% 43% 40% 35% 30% 32% 32% 31% 29% 27% 25% 20% 23% 23% 22% 10% 13% 11% 11% 10% 0 Religious Mother Friends Celebrities Coach Teacher Girl Scouts/ Father Classmates/ Uncle/aunt, Brothers/ Teammates leaders sisters peers Boy Scouts cousin, grandparent 25

28 S othEr adult Other influential actors in girls’ and boys’ lives are teachers, coaches, religious leaders, Girl Scout and Boy Scout troop leaders, and representatives of other youth-serving clubs and organizations. Girls are more likely than boys to look up to their teachers (65% vs. 56%), while boys are more likely than girls to look up to their coaches (32% vs. 23%). Younger girls and boys are more likely than older youth to be influenced by Girl Scout or Boy Scout leaders. Interestingly, girls and boys do not rate celebrities highly as positive influences on their leadership aspirations. Only a few media personalities, such as Oprah Winfrey, are mentioned by girls and boys in qualitative research as role models for leadership. Girls express disappointment and weariness with celebrity scandals and personal crises that so often play out in public. pEEr rElationShipS Peer relationships play an important role for all youth, but particularly for adolescent girls. Qualitative research within this study finds that some girls cite friends or classmates as role models for setting higher academic and personal goals. At the same time, friends and classmates also serve as negative role models in girls’ lives in terms of their leadership More than one-third of all girls (39%) report having been dis- aspirations and efforts. couraged or put down, usually by peers and classmates, when they were trying to lead. Although this may be seen as normal behavior during youth, the impact should not be underestimated. In qualitative research, girls complain about the emotional toll of “high school drama.” This toll dampens girls’ enthusiasm for achievement and distinction in their academic or personal goals. Which of the following people have ever discouraged you when you were trying to lead? (N=1476) 80% 90% 100% 0 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 0 Classmates/peers 64% 58% Friends 42% 41% Teammates 24% 21% GIRLS Brother/sister BOYS 21% 19% This question was asked only of youth who reported being discouraged when they were trying to lead. 26

29 EnvironmEnt S Although youth experience leadership in different environments, the majority experience it more at school (75%) than home (24%) or church (22%). Boys see more opportunity to practice leadership on a sports team than do girls, and boys of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds seem to rely on sports teams even more than Caucasian boys (45% each of African American and Hispanic boys, and 48% of Asian American boys vs. 37% of Caucasian boys). Girls, on the other hand, expect to have leadership experience in clubs and at church to a greater extent than boys. Notably, African American girls see more opportunity to practice leadership in a church environment than do girls of other ethnicities (36% vs. 26% of total girl sample). Where did your most recent leadership experience take place? 70% 50% 30% 10% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0 100% 90% At school 78% 67% At home 24% 21% GIRLS 25% At church BOYS 20% 11% In my community 12% 20% In a club or organization 21% 19% On a sports team 30% 5% Online 6% In addition to the best role models, home provides the most influential environment for girls and boys to express themselves freely. However, the school environment is perceived as more conducive to learning new skills, meeting new people, being in charge, making decisions, and having choices. Religious institutions also play a big role in young people’s lives, with girls drawing more support from religious leaders than boys. importantly, youth do not feel they have much power to change things or teach/help others in any environment, even though their preferred idea of leadership is focused on social change. When asked to rate environments in which they felt they could effect change, they rate “school” highest—at 23%—but give “none” the same rating. After-school environments are rated significantly lower at 7%. 27

30 lEadErShip Education Participation in organized and informal activities and exposure to leadership opportunities however, environments in which girls are strongly correlated with leadership aspirations. can develop leadership skills and safely experiment with leadership roles are scarce. it is therefore not surprising that the majority of girls express high levels of interest in leadership training opportunities. In the quantitative research, girls were asked about their interest in a range of leadership training programs and activities. In addition to welcoming peer-to-peer partnerships, girls welcome peer-to-adult partnerships and parent participation in leadership programs. ogr erest in Leadership Pr Int e/Ethnicity Rac ams by erest (% r esponding “v ery int ed”) % 70 ASIAN AFRICAN UCASIAN CA ANIC HISP AMERICAN AMERICAN 60% 50% 40% 30% Ha ving an adult help am tha Being in a pr ogr t Participating in a Being in a leadership Doing gr oup activities you learn to be would ask you to help Girl Scouts pr ogr am to ed one pr ogr olv am that inv with other girls that help a better leader someone y ounger than yo u build leadership skills ents or both of y our par you to be a better leader Asian American and African American girls exhibit higher interest than Caucasian or Hispanic girls in almost every program. African American girls are most interested in helping younger youth, and Asian American girls are most attracted to a program in which adults help them to become better leaders. Caucasian girls express less interest than do girls of other ethnicities in every program. Not surprisingly, current Girl Scouts are significantly more interested in all proposed programs than past or nonmembers, and most of all in a Girl Scout leadership program. Although girls’ interest in a Girl Scout leadership program is correlated with age and membership, a majority of all teenage girls (80%) still believe that Girl Scouts can promote leadership among them. Since girls’ leadership participation and opportunities strongly correlate with their leader- ship aspirations, providing a strong and positive support system for these opportunities serves as a foundation for developing girl leaders. Parents and daughters alike need to be educated about expanded definitions of leadership and the value of leadership skills development. 28

31 outs ou think the Girl Sc Do y can pr omot e leadership among e y ou? girls lik es”) (% r esponding “y 100% 90% 80% Ages Ages Ages 8– 10 Ages 11– 13 70 % 14– 15 16– 17 60% GIRLS 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% implicationS To be relevant and successful to girls, a leadership program must address girls’ aspirational or preferred definition of leadership, need for emotional safety, and their desire for social and personal development. Such programs should: • Expand girls’ social circles. • Create supportive relationships (peer-to-adult and peer-to-peer). • Provide safe and supportive environments for free expression. • Create opportunities for girls to experience a range of leadership activities, from social change and political activism to more traditional positions of leadership. 29

32 insight # 4 S h av e a G e o f G i r l r a n “leaderShip identitieS” s we have seen, girls vary widely in terms of their leadership aspira- tions and self-perception. To help clarify these variances and their A significance, we have sorted respondents into five categories, based on their desire to be leaders and their self-assessment as leaders. The categories range from girls (and boys—both sexes fall into exactly the same categories in exactly the same proportions) who think of themselves as leaders and actually want to be leaders to those who do not think of themselves as leaders and do not want to be leaders. A comparison of these groups reveals substantial differences not only among their respective orientations to leadership, but also in relation to their general attitudes, goals, aspirations, and behaviors. What is encouraging is that more than 9 out of 10 girls either want to be or would not mind being leaders. this means that fewer than 1 out of 10 girls flatly reject leadership as an aspiration and self-perception for themselves. lEadErShip v anGuard Vanguard is the largest leadership identity category, and includes 36% of girls and boys. Youth in this group already think of themselves as leaders and actively desire to be leaders. They have the highest self- confidence, a higher focus on academic, personal, and career success, and high social change values. 30

33 “LEADERSHIP VANGUARD” 36% OVERVIEW: The largest leadership segment. Youth in this group have the highest self- confidence, already think of themselves as leaders, and actively desire to be leaders. Demographics đŏŏ-1(ŏ#!* !.ŏ/,(%0 đŏŏ+1*#!.ŏ0$*ŏ+0$!.ŏ#.+1,/Ďŏŏ$%#$!.ŏ,.+,+.0%+*ŏ+"ŏĉġŏ0+ŏāĀġ5!.ġ+( / đŏŏ%#$!.ŏ,.+,+.0%+*ŏ+"ŏ".%*ŏ)!.%*ŏ* ŏ%/,*%ŏ5+10$ đŏŏ%#$!.ŏ$+1/!$+( ŏ%*+)! đŏŏ%#$!.ŏ,.!*0(ŏ.!(%#%+1/ŏ%*2+(2!)!*0 Key Attributes đŏŏ%#$!.ŏ"+1/ŏ+*ŏ !)%/Čŏ#!00%*#ŏ%*0+ŏ+((!#!Čŏ$2%*#ŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏ ŏŏŏŏ/1!//"1(ŏ.!!.Čŏ * ŏ!%*#ŏŏ#++ ŏ0$(!0! đŏŏ%#$ŏ/+%(ŏ$*#!ŏ2(1!/Ďŏ)'%*#ŏ0$!ŏ3+.( ŏŏ!00!.ŏ,(!Čŏŏŏ ŏŏŏŏ$!(,%*#ŏ+0$!./Čđ * ŏ$!(,%*#ŏ+))1*%05 đŏŏ40.!)!(5ŏ$%#$ŏ(!2!(/ŏ+"ŏ/!("ġ+*ü !*!Ďŏ.0!ŏ0$!)/!(2!/ŏŏ ŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏ ŏŏŏŏ$%#$!.ŏ+*ŏ((ŏ (! !./$%,ŏ/'%((/ŏ* ŏ!4$%%0ŏ +)%**!ŏ* ŏŏ ŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏ ŏŏŏŏ,+/%0%2!ŏ,.+(!)ġ/+(2%*#ŏ0.%0/ đŏŏ!!(%*#/ŏ+"ŏ!%*#ŏ!),+3!.! ŏ0+ŏ$*#!ŏ0$!ŏ3+.( đŏŏ+ŏ#!* !.ŏ%/ đŏŏ%#$!.ŏ,.+,+.0%+*ŏ+"ŏ/01 !*0/ŏ3%0$ŏ$%#$ŏ#. !/ đŏŏ%#$ŏ.!,.!/!*00%+*ŏ+"ŏ%.(ŏ+10/ Leadership Behaviors đŏŏ +.!ŏ(%'!(5ŏ0+ŏ$2!ŏ$ ŏŏ(! !./$%,ŏ!4,!.%!*!ŏ* ŏ.0! ŏ%0ŏ/ŏ#.!0 đŏŏ +.!ŏ(%'!(5ŏ0$*ŏ+0$!./ŏ0+ŏ$2!ŏ$ ŏ!4,!.%!*!ŏ%*ŏ+.#*%6! ŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏ ŏŏŏŏ#.+1,ŏ0%2%0%!/Čŏ/1$ŏ/ŏ+*ŏ/,+.0/ŏ0!)/Čŏ%*ŏ/$++(ŏ(1/Čŏ* ŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏ ŏŏŏŏ"%0$ġ/! ŏ(1/ đŏŏ%#$(5ŏ!*0$1/%/0%ŏ+10ŏ(! !./$%,ŏ+,,+.01*%0%!/ŏ* ŏŏ ŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏ ŏŏŏŏ(! !./$%,ŏ !2!(+,)!*0 31

34 amBivalEnt lEadErS Ambivalent leaders represent 25% of the overall youth population. Youth in this segment think of themselves as leaders and would not mind being leaders, although leadership is not expressly a goal for them. They share most of the attributes and behaviors of Vanguard leaders to a lesser degree. “AMBIVALENT LEADERS” 25% OVERVIEW: Youth in this segment think of themselves as leaders and would not mind being leaders, although leadership is not expressly a goal for them. They share most of the attri- butes and behaviors of Vanguard leaders to a lesser degree. Demographics Leadership Behaviors đŏŏ-1(ŏ#!* !.ŏ/,(%0 đŏ %'!ŏ0$!ŏ(! !./$%,ŏ*#1. Čŏ)+.!ŏ(%'!(5 ŏŏŏ0+ŏ$2!ŏ$ ŏŏ(! !./$%,ŏ!4,!.%!*! đŏŏ%#$!.ŏ,.+,+.0%+*ŏ+"ŏāāġŏ0+ŏāĈġ5!.ġ+( / đŏ +.!ŏ(%'!(5ŏ0$*ŏ((ŏ+0$!./Čŏ!4!,0ŏ0$+/!ŏ%* Key Attributes ŏŏŏ0$!ŏ(! !./$%,ŏ*#1. Čŏ0+ŏ$2!ŏ$ ŏŏ ŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏ ŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏ đŏŏ$.!ŏ)+/0ŏ+"ŏ0$!ŏ#+(/ŏ3%0$ŏ0$!ŏŏŏŏ ŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏ ŏŏŏ!4,!.%!*!ŏ+*ŏ/,+.0/ŏ0!)/ŏ* ŏŏ ŏŏŏŏ(! !./$%,ŏ*#1. ŏ!4!,0ŏ0+ŏŏ/(%#$0(5ŏŏŏŏ ŏŏŏ"%0$ġ/! ŏ(1/ ŏŏŏŏ(!//!.ŏ !#.!! đŏ*0$1/%/0%ŏ+10ŏ(! !./$%,ŏ+,,+.01*%0%!/ đŏŏ%#$ŏ(!2!(/ŏ+"ŏ/!("ġ+*ü !*!čŏ.0!ŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏ ŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏ ŏŏŏŏ0$!)/!(2!/ŏ$%#$!.ŏ+*ŏ((ŏ(! !./$%,ŏ/'%((/ŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏ đŏ!(0%2!(5ŏ$%#$ŏ%*0!.!/0ŏ%*ŏ(! !./$%,ŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏŏ ŏŏŏŏ0$*ŏ+0$!.ŏ#.+1,/Čŏ!4!,0ŏ0$+/!ŏ%*ŏ0$! ŏŏŏ !2!(+,)!*0ŏ,.+#.)/ ŏŏŏŏ(! !./$%,ŏ*#1. đŏŏ!!(%*#/ŏ+"ŏ!%*#ŏ(!//ŏ!),+3!.! ŏ0+ ŏŏŏŏ$*#!ŏ0$!ŏ3+.( đŏŏ%#$!.ŏ,.+,+.0%+*ŏ+"ŏ/01 !*0/ŏ3%0$ŏ$%#$ŏŏŏŏŏŏŏ ŏŏŏŏ#. !/ŏ0$*ŏ*5ŏ+0$!.ŏ#.+1,Čŏ!4!,0ŏ ŏŏŏŏ0$+/!ŏ%*ŏ0$!ŏ(! !./$%,ŏ*#1. 32

35 hopEfulS Hopeful leaders make up only 4% of the overall youth population. The smallest segment of the leadership index, these girls and boys want to be leaders even though they do not think of themselves as leaders. They are not as confident as the Vanguard leaders, or even the Ambivalent leaders. “HOPEFULS” 4% OVERVIEW: Youth in this group lack confidence in their current leadership skills but have the desire to be a leader. Demographics đŏŏ-1(ŏ#!* !.ŏ/,(%0 đŏŏ %'!ŏ0$+/!ŏ%*ŏ0$!ŏ(! !./$%,ŏ*#1. Čŏ0!* ŏ0+ŏ!ŏ5+1*#!.Ďŏ ŏŏŏŏŏ$%#$!.ŏ,.+,+.0%+*ŏ+"ŏĉġŏ0+ŏāĀġ5!.ġ+( / đŏŏ +3ŏ$+1/!$+( ŏ%*+)! Key Attributes đŏŏ!("ġ+*ü !*!ŏ%/ŏ+),.(!ŏ0+ŏ0$0ŏ+"ŏ)%2(!*0ŏ(! !./Ďŏ0$!5ŏ.!ŏ.!(0%2!(5 đŏŏ+*ü !*0ŏ%*ŏ0$!%.ŏ+3*ŏ/'%((/ŏ* ŏ$.0!.ŏ0.%0/ŏ10ŏ*+0ŏ/ŏ+*ü !*0ŏ/ŏ0$+/!ŏ%*ŏ0$! đŏŏ(! !./$%,ŏ*#1. Leadership Behaviors đŏŏ%.(5ŏ!*0$1/%/0%ŏ+10ŏ(! !./$%,ŏ+,,+.01*%0%!/ đŏŏ+)!ŏ%*0!.!/0ŏ%*ŏ(! !./$%,ŏ !2!(+,)!*0ŏ,.+#.)/ 33

36 unmotivatEd Girls and boys who are unmotivated in leadership aspirations represent 26% of the leader- ship identities. Although they would not mind being leaders, they do not think of themselves as leaders. They have relatively low self-confidence and are unmotivated in pursuing leadership opportunities. “UNMOTIVATED” 26% OVERVIEW: Unmotivated represents the second-largest leadership segment. Youth in this group have lower self- confidence, do not think of themselves as leaders, and are ambivalent about being a leader. Demographics đŏŏ-1(ŏ#!* !.ŏ/,(%0 đŏŏ%#$!.ŏ,.+,+.0%+*ŏ+"ŏāāġŏ0+ŏāĈġŏ5!.ŏ+( / đŏŏ%#$!.ŏ,.+,+.0%+*ŏ+"ŏ1/%*ŏ5+10$ đŏŏ +3!.ŏ,.!*0(ŏ.!(%#%+1/ŏ%*2+(2!)!*0 Key Attributes đŏŏ !//ŏ"+1/ŏ+*ŏ !)%/ đŏŏ !//ŏ"+1/ŏ+*ŏ$2%*#ŏŏ/1!//"1(ŏ.!!. đŏŏ +3!.ŏ/+%(ŏ$*#!ŏ2(1!/ đŏŏ!(0%2!(5ŏ(+3ŏ(!2!(/ŏ+"ŏ/!("ġ+*ü !*! đŏŏ!!(%*#/ŏ+"ŏ!%*#ŏ(!//ŏ!),+3!.! ŏ0+ŏ$*#!ŏ0$!ŏ3+.( Leadership Behaviors đŏŏ !//ŏ!4,!.%!*!ŏ%*ŏ+.#*%6! ŏ#.+1,ŏ0%2%0%!/ đŏŏ !//ŏ(%'!(5ŏ0+ŏ$2!ŏ$ ŏŏ(! !./$%,ŏ!4,!.%!*! đŏŏ +.!ŏ(%'!(5ŏ0+ŏ.!,+.0ŏ0$0ŏ(! !./$%,ŏ!4,!.%!*!ŏ3/ŏ ŏ+.ŏ*+0ŏ/+ŏ#++ đŏŏ +3ŏ%*0!.!/0ŏ%*ŏ(! !./$%,ŏ+,,+.01*%0%!/ đŏŏ +3ŏ%*0!.!/0ŏ%*ŏ(! !./$%,ŏ !2!(+,)!*0ŏ,.+#.)/ 34

37 rEjEctErS Fewer than 1 in 10 girls and boys reject leadership as a goal. These youth do not want to be leaders and do not think of themselves as leaders. A small segment of the population, this group of girls and boys has the lowest self-confidence, feels powerless to change the world, and is more likely to believe that leadership cannot be learned. “REJECTERS” 8% OVERVIEW: Rejecters represent a relatively small segment of the population. Youth in this group have the lowest self- confidence, do not think of themselves as leaders, and have no desire to be leaders. Demographics đŏŏ-1(ŏ#!* !.ŏ/,(%0 đŏŏ%#$!.ŏ,.+,+.0%+*ŏ+"ŏāāġŏ0+ŏāĈġ5!.ġ+( / đŏŏ%#$!.ŏ,.+,+.0%+*ŏ+"ŏ1/%*ŏ5+10$ đŏŏ +3!.ŏ$+1/!$+( ŏ%*+)! đŏŏ +3!/0ŏ,.!*0(ŏ.!(%#%+1/ŏ%*2+(2!)!*0 Key Attributes đŏŏ +3ŏ !)%ŏ)%0%+* đŏŏ 'ŏ+"ŏ"+1/ŏ+*ŏ/+%(ŏ$*#!ŏ2(1!/ đŏŏ40.!)!(5ŏ(+3ŏ(!2!(/ŏ+"ŏ/!("ġ+*ü !*!Ďŏ.0!ŏ0$!)/!(2!/ŏ(+3!.ŏ+*ŏ!2!.5ŏ(! !./$%,ŏ/'%(( đŏŏ2!ŏ !%/%+*ġ2+% *!ŏ0.%0/ đŏŏ!!(%*#/ŏ+"ŏ('ŏ+"ŏ,+3!.ŏ0+ŏ$*#!ŏ0$!ŏ3+.( đŏŏ +.!ŏ(%'!(5ŏ0+ŏ!4,.!//ŏ#!* !.ŏ/0!.!+05,!/ đŏŏ +.!ŏ(%'!(5ŏ0+ŏ!(%!2!ŏ0$0ŏ(! !./$%,ŏ**+0ŏ!ŏ(!.*! đŏŏ%#$!/0ŏ,.+,+.0%+*ŏ+"ŏ/01 !*0/ŏ3%0$ŏ(+3ŏ#. !/ Leadership Behaviors đŏŏ +.!ŏ(%'!(5ŏ0+ŏ$2!ŏ*!2!.ŏ$ ŏŏ(! !./$%,ŏ!4,!.%!*! đŏŏ +.!ŏ(%'!(5ŏ0+ŏ$2!ŏ$ ŏŏ ŏ!4,!.%!*!ŏ!%*#ŏŏ(! !. đŏŏ !/0ŏ!4,!.%!*!ŏ%*ŏ+.#*%6! ŏ/,+.0/ŏ+.ŏ/$++(ŏ(1/ đŏŏ 'ŏ+"ŏ%*0!.!/0ŏ%*ŏ(! !./$%,ŏ+,,+.01*%0%!/ đŏŏ 'ŏ+"ŏ%*0!.!/0ŏ%*ŏ(! !./$%,ŏ !2!(+,)!*0ŏ,.+#.)/ 35

38 idEntity diffErEncES BEtwEEn racial and Ethnic GroupS Although there are no gender differences within each of the five segments, substantial differences exist between racial/ethnic groups. As the chart below illustrates, the proportion of youth with high leadership motivations and self-perceptions is greater among African American and Hispanic girls and boys, and Asian American girls. (The subsample of Asian American girls is too small to make the results conclusive.) Notably, Caucasian girls are twice as likely as African American or Hispanic girls to be in the “Rejecters” category—that is, among those who have absolutely no interest in leadership. e/Ethnicity and Gender Rac oups by Leadership Gr BO GIRLS YS 100% 3% 3% 5% 5% 5% 8% 7% 8% 9% 10% 90% 20% 16% 15% 22% 21% 33% 80% 26% 26% 4% 4% 30% 32% 3% 9% 70 % 5% 4% 4% 25% 27 % 60% % 24 16% 4% 3% 21% 50% % 27 25% 25% 26% 26% 40% 30% 50% % 49 % 47 46% 44% 20% 36% 36% 33% 31% 28% 10% African African African- Total Caucasian Asian Hispanic Asian African- Total Caucasian Hispanic American American American American American American TIV ATED LEADERSHIP V ANGU ARD HOPEFULS AMBIV ALENT LEADERS REJECTERS UNMO It is also interesting that leadership profiles of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic youth are very similar for both genders, whereas there are notable differences between Asian American girls and boys—with Asian American girls having leadership dispositions similar to these of African American and Hispanic girls, and Asian American boys being more closely aligned to the leadership profiles of Caucasian boys. implicationS Those desiring to create effective leadership development programs should: • Recognize the leadership identities and needs that youth demonstrate. • Identify and create opportunities to engender positive leadership aspirations, behaviors, goals, and self-perceptions across settings and environments (e.g., school, home, church or house of worship, peer groups, community organizations, online). • Diversify youth program to meet their various leadership identities, skills, and needs. • Understand how factors such as race, ethnicity, household income, religious involve- ment, age, and culture may impact the development of programs and how youth respond to these programs. 36

39 conclusion And future reseArch he goal of this study was to explore girls’ aspirations, perceptions, and experiences of leadership on a national scale. We found that girls aspire to leadership not in the form in which it most commonly appears in the culture—command T and control—but to a model of leadership that is purpose-driven and oriented toward social change. We also found that youths’ leadership aspirations and experience are greatly dependent on their perceptions of their own abilities and the opportunities and experiences they have had to exercise leadership. In addition, the results show that opportunities to develop leadership skills are scarce, and that youth-developing organizations such as the Girl Scouts need to give young people the opportunity to effect change, which is what they are passionate about. The impact of positive adult role models, especially mothers, cannot be underestimated. Finally, the data show a seriousness of purpose and degree of aspiration toward leadership in young people that deserve to be taken seriously and further explored. Based on the findings of this study, there is clearly a need for additional research on the factors that contribute to girls’ developing leadership skills today and in the future. Potential areas for further exploration and research include: lEadErShip EnvironmEnt S This research suggests that the more experience youth have with leadership roles and extra- curricular activities, the more likely they are to aspire to leadership. However, environments in which girls can develop and safely practice leadership skills are scarce, which signals an urgent need for organizations such as the Girl Scouts to fill the gap. In the quantitative research, girls were asked about their interest in a range of leadership training programs and activities. In addition to welcoming peer-to-peer partnerships, girls welcome peer-to-adult partnerships and parent participation in leadership programs. Girls of all ages find the idea of girl-adult partnerships very attractive and seem open to their parents’ participation in leadership programs. Future research is needed to determine what environments are most conducive to girls’ gaining leadership skills and how adults can fully support girls in leadership opportunities that resonate with them. racE/Ethnicity, culturE, and lEadErShip In this study, African American and Hispanic girls aspired to leadership more than Caucasian girls and also had greater and more positive leadership experiences. Future research is needed to understand more fully what leadership experiences girls of different cultures are having and how that impacts their conceptions of leadership. African American and Hispanic youth rated themselves higher than Caucasian youth on qualities such as creativity, caring, and problem- solving, which are key predictors of their aspirations for leadership. Future research needs to focus on what factors impact the self-confidence of girls from diverse cultures and how this in turn impacts their experiences with leadership. 37

40 ExplorinG divErSE dEfinitionS of lEadErShip S with GirlS and adult While many girls do not relate to the conventional command-and-control model of leadership, they are interested in how leadership could be used for social change and for motivating others to make a difference in the world. Leadership programs need to be clear about what definition(s) of leadership they are promoting among girls. They also need to invest in their adult advisors. Girls prefer a social change-oriented definition of leadership and are relatively active in charitable and social service activities; however, they are much less experienced with leadership roles aimed at social change or political activism than with more informal leadership activities. They are also less experienced with traditional leadership activities. Further research is needed to determine what conditions could promote a social change-oriented leadership framework for girls and what it would take to make their aspirations toward this end a reality. At the same time, leadership skills cannot be imparted to girls without the proper training and support from adults. Future research is needed to explore how adult advisors to youth think about leadership and how their conceptions impact the skill sets they deliver to girls. GirlS’ friEnd ShipS and lEadErShip Many of the major barriers to leadership are consistent among boys and girls; however, girls experience fears and inhibitions around social acceptance more acutely. Fully one-third of girls who do not want to be leaders attribute their lack of motivation to fear of being laughed at, making people mad at them, coming across as bossy, and not being liked by people. These barriers make clear that girls still struggle with conventional notions of what it means to be feminine—being nice, quiet, polite, agreeable, and liked. Future research is needed to explore what girls think would help to mitigate these fears, what adults can do, and what environments are conducive to creating a safe space in which girls can take risks that allow them to challenge stereotypical “female” behaviors that limit their aspirations. 38

41 Appendix MethodoloG y The study utilized both qualitative and quantitative research. This report is based on an integrated analysis of both types of findings. Data presented on charts and tables came from an online and mall-intercept survey to which 3,989 girls and boys responded. QualitativE rESEarch The first phase of research was qualitative and exploratory in nature and employed a combination of traditional focus groups and ethnographies. The ethnographies provided the opportunity to interview and observe respondents in their natural environments, such as at home, in school, or in an after-school program. They were designed to include a range of modes, configurations and interviewing techniques, such as friendship dyad, mother/daughter dyad, town hall meeting, small group discussion, observation, and Q&A sessions. This provided the opportunity to observe girls and boys demonstrating their leadership skills and aspirations in action. The research was conducted in January 2007 in four geographically and culturally diverse locations: Hackensack, New Jersey; Cincinnati, Ohio; Atlanta, Georgia; and San Diego, California. A total of 13 focus groups and six ethnographies were conducted. San Diego: Three focus groups and two ethnographic interviews: one with a parent/girl dyad (2nd–3rd grade) and one with a best friend boy dyad (4th–5th grade). Three focus groups and one ethnography with a Girl Scout troop (4th–5th grade). atlanta: Cincinnati: Three focus groups and one ethnography with a group of 22 high school students (girls and boys). The protocol included a town hall meeting, small group discussions, leadership role simulation tasks, group presentations, Q&A sessions, and an “exit poll.” new Jersey: Four focus groups and two ethnographic interviews: one with a best friends dyad (middle school girls), and one with a mother/daughter dyad. One of the focus groups in this market combined two separate modes: two simultaneous but separate groups with 6th - 8th-grade girls and their mothers, and then a joined mother/daughter focus group. All respondents completed a home assignment on their perception of leadership and leadership aspirations prior to participating in the ethnographies or focus groups. 39

42 QuantitativE rESEarch Upon completion of the qualitative research, a nationwide online survey was administered to a national stratified sample of 2,475 girls and 1,514 boys between the ages of 8 and 17 years. The online survey was fielded from June 22, 2007, to June 29, 2007. The margin of error did not exceed 1.5%. The sample was weighted to reflect the U.S. Census representation of racial/ ethnic groups among the target-age population. Due to the under-representation of African American and Hispanic households with lower income in online panels, mall-intercept interviews were conducted as part of this sample. A total of 649 African American and Hispanic preteen and teen girls and boys were interviewed at 15 locations across the country in urban, suburban, and rural localities. The data from this sample were used to provide additional insight into correlations between race and various aspects of attitudes toward leadership and leadership aspirations. To ensure uniformity of interviewing techniques, respondents at mall intercept facilities completed the survey online. This portion of the survey was fielded from June 26, 2007 to July 16, 2007. The quantitative findings are based on the combined online and mall intercept portions of the survey. data analy SiS The analysis of the quantitative phase of the study was based on a robust sample size of 3,989 respondents. Data were analyzed utilizing several statistical methods and procedures, including cross-tabulations, correlations, factor analysis, univariate analysis of variance, multiple regression analysis, and logistic regression. In order to determine factors that drive leadership aspiration and to identify leadership segments, we took the following steps. crEation of c ompo SitE v ariaBlES First, we combined two items to create a “dependent variable.” We had two questions that addressed leadership aspiration and self-assessment: (1) whether a youth thinks of herself or himself as a leader, and (2) whether a youth wants to be a leader. We determined that the two variables correlate strongly with each other (.51), and both correlated similarly with the leadership factor scores detailed below. We therefore combined the two questions into a single leadership index, ranging from 0 to 4. 4 = “think of self as a leader” and “want to be a leader” 3 = “think of self as a leader” and “don’t mind being a leader” 2 = “not think of self as a leader” but “want to be a leader” 1 = “not think of self as a leader” and “don’t mind being leader” 0 = “not think of self as a leader” and “don’t want to be leader” In the report, we have used this index in two ways. For multivariate analyses, we have used this index as a continuous scale. For descriptive analyses, we have used it as a categorical variable, and we 40

43 dubbed these segments, in the descending order: “Leadership Vanguard” (4), “Ambivalent Leaders” (3), “Hopefuls” (2), “Unmotivated” (1), and “Rejecters” (0). The sub-segment “see self as a leader and don’t want to be a leader” was too small to be analyzed (~1%) and was therefore dropped from the analysis. The distribution of these segments is noted in the body of the report. Our second step in the analysis was to use factor analysis to group the long list of skills and qualities that respondents used to describe themselves into smaller categories. We discovered that these skills and qualities (with the exception of “emotional” which appeared to be unrelated to other skills) could be grouped into four factors that explained 51% of the item variance (see Table A1): • Extraversion (outgoing and competitive) • Caring • Organizational skills (organized, motivated, good at handling conflict, etc.) • Creative 41

44 ta B l E a 1 : fac to r S i S o f S E l f - d E S c r i p t i v E S k i l l S a n d Q ua l i t i E S a n a ly ExtravErtEd orGanizEd crEativE carinG Good-lookinG 0.17 0.02 0.25 D1 0.58 StronG 0.63 0.31 0.20 0.12 D2 aSSErtivE 0.66 0.11 0.25 0.18 D3 crEativE 0.29 0.33 0.06 0.62 D4 t 0.15 0.72 honES 0.20 0.14 D5 Religious 0.22 0.36 0.14 -0.02 D6 rESponSiBlE 0.23 0.56 0.46 0.11 D7 paSSionatE aBout SomEthinG 0.46 0.40 D8 0.06 0.35 compEtitivE 0.02 0.22 0.00 D9 0.70 tEnt 0.20 0.57 pErSiS 0.14 0.23 D10 0.59 0.27 0.10 0.24 D11 chariSmatic out GoinG 0.67 0.24 0.07 0.18 D12 nicE D13 0.22 0.75 -0.01 0.21 thE BES 0.55 0.19 0.16 0.31 D14 t at SomEthinG humBlE 0.15 D15 0.23 0.09 0.57 D16 tEam playEr 0.40 0.59 0.18 -0.01 D17 confidEnt 0.61 0.30 0.29 0.17 D20 athlEtic 0.56 0.10 0.34 -0.18 takE charGE 0.04 0.53 0.25 D21 0.52 Flexible 0.41 0.20 0.44 0.18 D22 0.05 0.14 0.33 0.67 D23 Good writEr orGanizEd 0.12 0.24 0.73 0.07 D24 D25 Good dEciSion makEr 0.29 0.36 0.60 0.21 Good at dEalinG with conflict 0.30 0.29 0.59 0.18 D26 Smart 0.23 D27 0.32 0.55 0.26 D28 Good liS tEnEr 0.07 0.58 0.42 0.20 D29 Good SpEakEr 0.35 0.03 0.52 0.42 D30 Good with numBErS 0.14 0.12 0.51 0.26 pErSua 0.46 D31 0.09 0.34 0.37 SivE SElflESS 0.05 0.44 0.31 0.18 D32 D33 hardworkinG 0.23 0.49 0.51 0.14 D34 hiGhly motivatEd 0.38 0.30 0.58 0.20 D35 0.09 0.70 0.09 0.32 carE aBout othErS D36 inteRested in exploRing the woRld 0.25 0.28 0.19 0.37 D38 talEntEd 0.40 0.16 0.24 0.56 42

45 We then tested the internal consistency of four scales comprised of the highest-loading items on each factor (bolded items in Table A1). We obtained Cronbach’s alpha’s of .77 to .91, meaning that the items “hang together” well when organized this way. We used this same factor structure when organizing responses to another series of questions about importance of these same skills and qualities in an ideal leader. the Our third step was to conduct factor analysis (using oblique rotation) of a battery of psychographic self-statements about leadership. This analysis yielded three factors that explain 51% of the item variance (see Table A2). We named them: • Dominance Avoiding decisions • Positive problem solving • actor analy SiS of pS ychoGraphic SElf-StatEmEnt taBlE a2: f S avoidinG SitivE po dominancE dEciSionS proBlEm SolvinG -0.15 0.61 0.20 I prefer when I have a lot of control over what I do and when I do it. 0.39 -0.30 0.50 I would prefer to be a leader rather than a follower. Others usually know what is best for me. 0.06 0.66 0.12 I enjoy making my own decisions. 0.34 -0.25 0.50 When faced with an opportunity, I usually focus on the risks involved. 0.55 0.44 -0.07 I would rather someone else took over the leadership role when I am 0.09 0.76 -0.12 involved in a group project. I consider myself to be generally more capable of handling situations 0.43 -0.11 than others are. 0.44 When I see a problem I prefer to do something about it rather than sit by and let it continue. 0.05 -0.11 0.71 . When it comes to orders, I would rather give them than receive them -0.07 0.73 -0.07 I wish I could push many daily decisions off on someone else. -0.13 0.65 0.30 I like to wait and see if someone else is going to solve a problem so that I don’t have to be bothered by it. -0.19 0.64 0.27 0.66 0.09 It is important that I do better than others. 0.05 0.12 0.09 0.52 People who take risks have more interesting lives. -0.22 It annoys me when other people perform better than I do. 0.65 0.27 0.57 -0.08 0.17 I enjoy being unique and different from others in many ways. Winning is the most important thing. 0.27 0.63 -0.11 0.76 -0.11 I always look on the bright side of things. 0.07 When working on a team, it is important that everybody comes to 0.70 0.09 -0.04 an agreement. 43

46 One’s self-rating on positive is correlated .29 with the leadership index, and problem Solving all four leadership dimensions (extraverted, is highly correlated (.43 to .55) with self-ratings on of decisions is negatively correlated (r = -29) with the caring, organized, creative). avoidance leadership index and modestly negative correlated (r = - .14 to - .17) with all four self-rated Dominance leadership factors. In contrast, one’s self rating on the psychographic factor also correlates with the leadership index (r = .25), but is most strongly correlated with extraversion (r = .35), more modestly correlated (.19 to .20) with organization and creativity, and entirely unrelated (r = .00) to caring. GEndEr diffErEncES on lEadErShip mEa SurES After we developed the leadership index and organized the self-descriptive qualities/skills and psychographic self-statements into factors, we used bivariate analyses to examine whether there were any differences by gender (without controlling for age or any other variable). This initial gender difference analysis revealed: a. no gender difference on: • Overall leadership index (self-rating as a “leader”) • Self-perception as extraverted • Self-perception of having organizational skills • Perceived importance of a leader being extraverted B. Boys rate themselves higher than do girls on: • Valuing dominance (psychographic), yet also... Valuing avoiding decisions (psychographic) • C. girls rate themselves higher than do boys on: • Valuing positive problem solving • Self-perception as caring • Self-perception as creative D. girls believe to a greater degree than do boys that a leader needs to be: • Caring • Organizationally skilled • Creative (near-significant trend for a gender difference) multivariatE analy SES Our next step was to determine factors that predict leadership utilizing multivariate analysis, 1 which allows us to control for the influence of other factors. The hierarchical regression analysis , 1 Because the survey instrument for 8- to 10-year-olds didn’t include the psychographic battery of questions, the results of the regression analysis reported here are based on the sample of 11- to 17-year-olds. 44

47 using the leadership index as the dependent variable, was performed by entering sets of predictors in steps. The effects of variables in each subsequent step were already statistically controlled for the effects of variables in prior steps. These steps were as follows: • We first entered demographic predictors: grade level, gender, race, and income. • Next, we added self-ratings on leadership skill factors. • Next, we added psychographics factors. • Finally, we added participation in the extracurricular activities and past experience with leadership roles. We conducted three analyses: one for the combined sample of boys and girls, one for girls only, and another for boys. As described in the body of the report, we found the following: Demographic variables have a modest impact, together explaining about 4% of the variance: age and gender do not matter much. • • There is no difference in self-perceived leadership by gender. Age effect is significant but very small (explains 0.4% of variance). • • Self-perception as a leader drops in grades 7/8 and 9/10, rises again slightly in grades 11/12. • Prior analysis showed no significant age x gender interaction – pattern by age is generally similar for both genders. • effect of race/ethnicity is significant but modest. • African American as compared to White (beta weight = .057, p < .0001) Hispanic as compared to White (beta weight = .079, p < .0001) • • Self-ratings on leadership dimensions are the big drivers, together explaining 30% of the variance. • Organizational skills (beta weight = .360, p < .0001) • Extraverted (beta weight = .264, p < .0001) • Caring (negatively related, beta weight = - .163, p < .0001) • Creative is unrelated (beta weight = -.023, ns) • p sychographic factors add as well (explain additional 4% of the variance). • Avoiding decisions is negatively related (beta = -.185, p < .0001). • Dominance is positively related, but not too strong (beta = .143, p < .0001). • Finally, past experience with leadership roles explains additional 1% of the variance (beta weight = .122, p < .0001). Regression predictors of leadership index are very similar for both genders. Small age effect for girls becomes non-significant after adding self-rating factors. 45

48 resources SS, B. m. Ba (1960). New York: Harper Brothers. Leadership, Psychology, and Organizational Behavior. Ba . a volio (1994). SS, B. m., and B. j Improving Organizational Effectiveness Through Transformational Leadership. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications. (1992). Brown, l. m., and c. GilliGan Meeting at the Crossroads: Women’s Psychology and Girls’ Development . New York: Ballantine Books. corporation for c (2003). ommunity and national SErvicE “Encouraging Leadership in Girls with an After-School Program: Effective Practices Collection.” Accessed from http://www.nationalservicesresources.org/node/17611 Gly, a. h., and B. t . johnSon (1990). Ea “Gender and Leadership Style: A Meta-Analysis.” 108, 233-256. Psychological Bulletin Ea Gly, a. h., m. c. johannESEn-Schmidt, and m.l. van EnGEn (2003). “Transformational, Transactional, and Laissez-Faire Leadership Styles: A Meta-Analysis Comparing Women and Men.” Psychological Bulletin , 569-591. Galink . t . Bond (2003). Sy, E., k. Salmond, and j Boston: Families and Work Leaders in a Global Economy: A Study of Executive Women and Men—Executive Summary. Institute, Catalyst and the Center for Work and Family, Boston College, Carroll School of Management. thE GirlS’ c oalition of GrEatEr Bo Ston (2005). Girl Matters: Ethnicity, Diversity and the Face of the Future: Girls as Leaders. Volume 11, Issue 2. Winter 2005. Girl Scout rESEarch inS titutE (2007). Exploring Girls’ Leadership . New York: Girl Scouts of the USA. Girl Scout rESEarch inS titutE (2006). The New Normal: What Girls Say About Healthy Living. New York: Girl Scouts of the USA. Girl Scout rESEarch inS titutE (2003). Paths to Positive Youth Development. New York: Girl Scouts of the USA. Girl Scout rESEarch inS titutE (2006). Unpublished Pilot Survey Results on Girls and Leadership. New York: Girl Scouts of the USA. 46

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51 Girl Scout S of the a (GSuS a) is the preeminent organization for and leading authority on girls with uS 3.6 million girl and adult members. Now in its 96th year, Girl Scouting builds girls of courage, confidence, and character, who make the world a better place. reSearch inS titute (GSri) , formed in 2000, is a center for research and public policy the Girl Scout information on the healthy development of girls. Its main goal is to elevate the voices of girls on key issues that affect their lives, such as their emotional and physical health and safety. The GSRI originates national projects and initiatives, synthesizes existing research and conducts outcomes evaluation to support the development of Girl Scout programs and to provide information to educational institutions, not-for-profits, government agencies, public policy organizations, parents seeking ways to support their daughters, and girls themselves. The GSRI includes staff and advisors who have expertise in child development and advisors from academia, industry, government, and not-for-profit organizations. GSuS a’S public policy and advocacy office , located in Washington, D.C., educates representatives of the legislative and executive branches of federal, state, and local government and advocates for public policy issues important to girls and Girl Scouting. 49

52 Girl Scouts of the USA 420 Fifth Avenue New York, NY 10018-2798 www.girlscouts.org ISBN 978-0-88441-721-7

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