A Guide to Four Cs

Transcript

1 Preparing 21st Century Students for a Global Society An Educator’s Guide to the “Four Cs” Great Public Schools for Every Student

2 Table of Contents An Educ An Educ Letter from Dennis Van Roekel 2 3 Introduction A A tor’s Guid tor’s Guid 5 The Importance of Teaching the “Four Cs” 7 The “Four Cs” 1 Critical Thinking and Problem Solving 8 E to E Communication 13 2 to t h Collaboration 19 3 t E h Four E 4 Creativity and Innovation 24 Four c 31 Frequently Asked Questions s c 32 Next Steps and Conclusion s Additional Resources 34 References 36 Notes 37 Pre iety P aring 21st Century s tudents for a g lobal s o C 1

3 An Educ Dear Members and Educators, As many of you know, NEA is at the forefront of the 21st century education movement in this country. As educators, we are determined to help all students A reach their full potential. This is no small challenge, and it is our responsibility tor’s Guid to prepare our young people for the unique demands of a 21st century world. As a founding member of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, NEA is extraordinarily proud of our partnerships with leaders in education, business, and policy circles to forge a common vision for education that will prepare our young people for college, work, and life. We all believe that every child should possess strong content mastery, as well as the “Four Cs”: E critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and creativity. We designed this guide, Preparing 21st to Century Students for a Global Society: An Educator’s Guide to the “Four Cs” , to clarify this vision for classroom teachers and education support professionals. t h This guide includes ideas and resources that will help advance the “Four Cs” in classroom practices. E These resources include practical techniques to integrate the “Four Cs” in the classroom setting; Four tools for developing better proficiency in technology; and methods to ensure that students are learning in a meaningful context. It also offers suggestions for you to encourage your department, school, district, and state to embrace the “Four Cs.” c Though this guide is just a step, it is designed to help you get started with ideas on how to bring the s “Four Cs” to life in your classroom. Many of you may have started this process already, but we must all work together to improve our 21st century practices. It is clear that our school systems need to respond better to a changing world. Franklin D. Roosevelt once said, “We cannot build the future for our youth—but we can build our youth for the future.” It is our duty to do whatever we can to help our students connect learning with real life and to provide them with the necessary skills to prepare them for success. As our global economy expands, our need to prepare this next generation for new careers becomes even more imperative. If we seize this moment and work together, America’s students will be our most valuable assets to compete in the 21st century. Join us in this effort. Share with us your views and best practices. Let’s work together tirelessly to bring our students, our schools, our districts and our nation effectively into the 21st century. Sincerely, Dennis Van Roekel President National Education Association Pre iety C o s lobal g tudents for a s aring 21st Century P 2

4 ll educators want to help their students succeed in life. What Introduction was considered a good education 50 years ago, however, A is no longer enough for success in college, career, and An Educ citizenship in the 21st century. Using the ‘Four Cs’ The “21st Century Skills” movement is more than a decade old. “ to engage students is Yet, educators still pose important questions about how to move 21st century education forward. NEA has been an advocate of the imperative. As educators A 21st century education movement from its inception and wants to tor’s Guid prepare students for empower educators to move it forward in their own practice. this new global society, Ten years ago, NEA helped establish the Partnership for 21st teaching the core content Century Skills (P21) and in 2002 began a two-year journey to develop subjects—math, social what became known as a “Framework for 21st Century Learning,” highlighting 18 different skills. In the last eight years, 16 states joined studies, the arts— P21 and agreed to build 21st century outcomes into their standards, E must be enhanced by to professional development, and assessments. incorporating critical Over the years it became clear that the framework was too long and t thinking, communication, complicated. To resolve this issue, we interviewed leaders of all kinds h E to determine which of the 21st century skills were the most important collaboration, and for K-12 education. There was near unanimity that four specific skills Four We need creativity. were the most important. They became known as the “Four Cs”— new tools to support critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and creativity. classroom teachers c Now the challenge is building the “Four Cs” into K-12 education. s and education support Discussions on this topic are pending at the federal and state levels and in many school districts around the country. To encourage professionals in their more members and leaders to incorporate this policy into their own profession, even as they instruction, NEA developed this guide to introduce educators to the implement new strategies concept, stress the importance of the “Four Cs,” and put 21st century education into classroom practice. in their classrooms. ” Several other national organizations partnered with NEA to develop this guide. This group includes*: John Stocks ` ` American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) National Association for Music Education (MENC) ` ` National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE) ` ` ` National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) ` ` National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) ` P o s lobal iety g Pre tudents for a aring 21st Century s C 3 3 3 3

5 Introduction An Educ Mathematical Association of America (MAA) ` ` ` Anita Maxwell, communication and ` instructional issues specialist, West Virginia National Council of Teachers of Mathematics ` ` Education Association (NCTM) ` ` Larry Wicks, executive director, Ohio National Science Teachers Association ` ` Education Association (NSTA) A Jessica Brinkley, policy analyst, Education ` ` tor’s Guid In addition to the contributions of these Support Professionals Quality, NEA groups, portions of the guide were derived from materials developed by P21. We want ` ` Mike Kaspar, policy analyst, Education Policy to thank the P21 Board members and staff for and Practice, NEA their dedication to the cause of 21st century ` ` Andrea Prejean, associate director, Education education and to developing this rich set of Policy and Practice, NEA materials. We sincerely hope this guide will benefit you and We would also like to thank the following E your colleagues as you advance the work of the to members of the NEA leaders, members, and “Four Cs” and the preparation of your students staff who were responsible for reviewing multiple for the challenges of 21st century lives. drafts of this document. They include: t *The full list of partners is listed in the ` ` Daryl Gates, NEA IDEA Resource Cadre, h “Additional Resources” section of this guide. Louisiana Education Association E Four Bobbi Ciriza Houtchens, NEA ELL Culture ` ` & Equity Committee, teaching ambassador fellow, U.S. Department of Education, California Teachers Association c ` Jeri Stodola, ESP network engineer ` s and ESPRT member, Illinois Education Association Blake West, president, Kansas National ` ` Education Association Peg Dunlap, director, Instructional Advocacy, ` ` Kansas National Education Association Roxanne Fonoimoana, Uniserv, Oregon ` ` Education Association o s lobal g tudents for a s aring 21st Century P Pre iety C 4

6 The Importance of merica’s system of education was built for an economy Teaching the “Four Cs” and a society that no longer exists. In the manufacturing A and agrarian economies that existed 50 years ago, it An Educ An Educ was enough to master the “Three Rs” (reading, writing, and arithmetic). In the modern “flat world,” the “Three Rs” simply I’m calling on our “ aren’t enough. If today’s students want to compete in this global nation’s governors and society, however, they must also be proficient communicators, state education chiefs creators, critical thinkers, and collaborators (the “Four Cs”). A A tor’s Guid tor’s Guid to develop standards Students need to master additional subject areas, including and assessments that foreign languages, the arts, geography, science, and social studies. Educators must complement all of those subjects with the “Four Cs” don’t simply measure to prepare young people for citizenship and the global workforce. whether students can fill Arne Duncan, secretary of the Department of Education, has been in a bubble on a test, but a proponent of integrating new skills into classrooms, proclaiming, E E whether they possess to to “I want to develop a system of evaluation that draws on 21st century skills like meaningful observations and input from [teachers’] peers, as well as a sophisticated assessment that measures individual student t t problem-solving and h h 2 growth, creativity, and critical thinking.” E E critical thinking and Life today is exponentially more complicated and complex than it Four Four entrepreneurship and was 50 years ago. This is true for civic life as much as it is for work creativity. life. In the 21st century, citizenship requires levels of information ” and technological literacy that go far beyond the basic knowledge c c that was sufficient in the past. President s s 1 Barack Obama With a host of challenges facing our communities, along with instant connectivity to a global society, civic literacy couldn’t be more relevant or applicable to the curricula in our schools. Global warming, immigration reform, pandemic diseases, and financial meltdowns are just a few of the issues today’s students will be called upon to address. Today’s students must be prepared to solve these challenges. In addition, workforce skills and demands have changed dramatically in the last 20 years. The rapid decline in “routine” work has been well documented by many researchers and organizations. At the same time, there has been a rapid increase in jobs involving nonroutine, analytic, and interactive communication skills. Today’s job market requires competencies such as critical thinking and the ability to interact with people from many linguistic and cultural backgrounds (cultural competency). Pre iety P aring 21st Century s tudents for a g lobal s o C 5 5

7 The Importance of Teaching the “Four Cs” An Educ Our ever changing workforce creates a century. This guide is intended to help you critical need for innovation. Ken Kay, CEO of understand the fundamental aspects of the EdLeader21, remarked, “Today’s students need “Four Cs” and how you can implement them critical thinking and problem-solving skills not into your instruction. just to solve the problems of their current jobs, but to meet the challenges of adapting to our A R tions EC l EF constantly changing workforce.” tor’s Guid Throughout this guide, you will be asked Today, people can expect to have many jobs in to reflect on some key questions that multiple fields during their careers. The average will be useful to your practice. In this person born in the latter years of the baby boom introduction, we would like you to reflect held 11 jobs between the ages of 18 and 44, on the following questions: 3 according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The new social contract is different: only people ` ` What can you do in your classroom to who have the knowledge and skills to negotiate better prepare your students for the E constant change and reinvent themselves for challenges of 21st century citizenship? 4 to new situations will succeed. ` ` How can educators become more According to a 2010 study — the American intentional and purposeful about Management Association, the AMA 2010 Critical t critical thinking, collaboration, h Skills Survey — the “Four Cs” will become even communication, and creativity as E more important to organizations in the future. competencies our young people Four Three out of four (75.7 percent) executives who will fully possess by the time they responded to the AMA survey said they believe graduate from their K-12 education? these skills and competencies will become more ` How can educators work ` important to their organizations in the next collaboratively to improve their three to five years, particularly as the economy c students’ performance of the “ improves and organizations look to grow in a s Four Cs”? global marketplace. Additionally, 80 percent of executives believe fusing the “Three Rs” and “Four Cs” would ensure that students are better prepared to enter the workforce. According to these managers, proficiency in reading, writing, and arithmetic is not sufficient if employees are unable to think critically, solve problems, 5 collaborate, or communicate effectively. It is clear that the “Four Cs” need to be fully integrated into classrooms, schools, and districts around the country to produce citizens and employees adequately prepared for the 21st tudents for a iety o s lobal g C s aring 21st Century P Pre 6

8 An Educ The “Four Cs” A In this section, you will find an overview of each of tor’s Guid the “Four Cs”: critical thinking and problem solving, communication, collaboration, and creativity and innovation. Each of the “Four Cs” has a section on: `` The Importance of the “C” E to The Definition of the “C” `` t `` How the “C” is Related to Other Skills h E Four `` Ways to Integrate the “C” into Your Classroom `` Reflections on the “C” `` Resources on the “C” c s s tudents for a Pre aring 21st Century P iety C o s lobal g 7

9 Critical Thinking and Problem Solving The Importance of Critical Thinking An Educ The link between critical thinking and education is obvious: one can’t learn well without thinking well. Critical thinking contributes to Critical thinking has career success, but also to success in higher education. In research long been a valued skill conducted for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, University of in society. Today, every Oregon professor David T. Conley finds that “habits of mind” such as A “analysis, interpretation, precision and accuracy, problem solving, and student—not just the tor’s Guid reasoning” can be as or more important than content knowledge in academically advanced— 6 determining success in college courses. needs it. While critical Teaching critical thinking and problem solving effectively in the thinking and problem classroom is vital for students. Learning critical thinking leads students solving used to be the to develop other skills, such as a higher level of concentration, deeper analytical abilities, and improved thought processing. domain of gifted students, E to now it’s a critical domain Today’s citizens must be active critical thinkers if they are to compare evidence, evaluate competing claims, and make sensible decisions. for every student. t Today’s 21st century families must sift through a vast array of h information regarding financial, health, civic, even leisure activities E to formulate plausible plans of action. The solutions to international Four problems, such as global warming, require highly developed critical thinking and problem-solving abilities. In everyday work, employees must employ critical thinking to better c s serve customers, develop better products, and continuously improve themselves within an ever-changing global economy. Economists Frank Levy and Richard Mundane have described the new world of work in which the most desirable jobs—the ones least likely to be automated or outsourced—are those that require expert thinking and 7 According to the AMA 2010 Critical Skills . complex communication Survey , 73.3 percent of business executives polled identified critical thinking as a priority for employee development, talent management, 8 and succession planning. Definition of Critical Thinking Critical thinking and problem-solving can be defined in many ways, 9 but P21 defines critical thinking as follows: Reason Effectively ` ` Use various types of reasoning (inductive, deductive, etc.) as appropriate to the situation Pre iety C o s lobal g tudents for a s aring 21st Century P 8

10 Critical Thinking and Problem Solving An Educ When one engages in high-quality thinking, Use Systems Thinking one functions both critically and creatively; one ` ` Analyze how parts of a whole interact with produces and assesses, generates and judges each other to produce overall outcomes in 10 the products of his or her thought. complex systems Critical thinking also draws on other skills, such Make Judgments and Decisions as communication and information literacy, to A Effectively analyze and evaluate evidence, ` ` examine, then analyze, interpret, and evaluate it. tor’s Guid arguments, claims, and beliefs According to educator Thomas Hoerr, the Analyze and evaluate major alternative ` ` very notion of intelligence has changed. We points of view no longer rely on the limits of our single mind to access the information resources we need Synthesize and make connections between ` ` 11 Problem solving has to solve problems. information and arguments always involved teamwork and cooperation. ` Interpret information and draw conclusions ` Today, however, open source programs, wikis, E based on the best analysis blogs, and other Web 2.0 technologies enable to total strangers divided by space and time to ` Reflect critically on learning experiences and ` collaborate. Successful problem solving in the processes 21st century requires us to work effectively and t h creatively with computers, with vast amounts of Solve Problems E information, with ambiguous situations, and with ` Solve different kinds of unfamiliar problems ` Four other people from a variety of backgrounds. in both conventional and innovative ways ` Identify and ask significant questions that ` Ways to Integrate Critical Thinking clarify various points of view and lead to into Your Classroom better solutions c P21 forged alliances with key national organizations s (See the “critical thinking rubric” created by the that represent the core academic subjects, Catalina Foothills School District as an example: including social studies, English, science, http://rubrics.metiri.wikispaces.net/file/view/ geography, world languages, mathematics, and Catalina_Foothills_Critical_Thinking_Rubric-1.doc ) the arts. These collaborations resulted in the 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the intersection between core subjects and 21st Century Skills. This Related to Other Cs section includes examples of what critical thinking While the importance of critical thinking is skills might look like in core academic content paramount, its connection to the other Cs is classrooms. These examples, drawn primarily from equally important. Leading experts on critical the aforementioned content maps, demonstrate thinking stress its connection to creative thinking how critical thinking and problem solving can be skills. According to philosophers Richard Paul integrated into classroom teaching and learning and Linda Elder, “...sound thinking requires across a variety of grade levels and disciplines. both imagination and intellectual standards.” g C o s lobal iety tudents for a s aring 21st Century P Pre 9

11 Critical Thinking and Problem Solving An Educ E A ts – 4th G R RA d amenities at each park, campsites available, recreation opportunities, etc.) along with data Students individually articulate different ways to about population in the state. Groups develop interpret the same musical passage. Students case studies to advocate for additional culturally then compare the various interpretations and and linguistically responsive amenities at their determine which one is most effective, taking state parks using documentation such as maps, into account age-appropriate considerations A examples from other parks in other states, etc. such as the style and genre of the music. tor’s Guid d E En G lish – 12th G RA lA n s – 4th G Wo R ld E d G u AGE RA In small groups, students create a plan for With the job title omitted, students read various involving students in making technology job/career advertisements and then match the decisions in the school. The process may appropriate job title to the ad. Students are include gathering student input from surveys, divided into groups. Each group is asked to establishing a student advisory committee, using investigate 3-5 different career/job sites and students to help provide tech support or other identify the jobs and careers that are in high E services to the school, evaluating cost/value to demand in a particular city, region, or country. ratios, and fundraising proposals to support their Students present their findings to the class. recommended strategies. These plans should t be used in a presentation to the principal or the d CE sC i E E RA – 8th G n h school board. Students research how the physical and chemical E properties of different natural and human- Four o A i l tudi E s – 12th G RA d E C s s designed materials affect their decomposition In groups, students explore how selected under various conditions. They compare their societies of the past used their natural resources findings to the material evidence used by for fuel (e.g., England’s use of its forests at the scientists to reconstruct the lives of past cultures, beginning of the Industrial Revolution) and c as well as create a map of their classroom as the economic impact of that use. Students use s a future archeological site (including written videoconferencing (e.g., www.skype.com) to descriptions of artifacts and what they imply collect information from relevant government about the cultures) discovered by scientists. officials about the use of corn for biofuel instead The students plan and conduct scientific of food and analyze the environmental and investigations and write detailed explanations economic implications of this use. Students based on their evidence. Students compare their use district-approved wikis to publish the explanations to those made by scientists and results of their research. Using sound reasoning relate them to their own understandings of the and relevant examples, students analyze the natural and designed worlds. historical evolution of a contemporary public policy issue, place it within a cultural and E RA GRA o G E d phy – 8th G historical context, and use a digital publishing Students are assigned to groups to research tool to report their work. information about a specific state park (different g C o s lobal iety tudents for a s aring 21st Century P Pre 10

12 Critical Thinking and Problem Solving An Educ A ti E d RA M EMA C s – 12th G th Resources on Critical Thinking Students explore the napkin ring problem: if a The following list of critical thinking resources hole of height “h” is drilled through the center is divided into “General Resources” and of a sphere, the volume of the portion of the “Classroom Resources.” Use these resources sphere that remains does not depend on the to help generate dialogue and action in your size of the original sphere; it depends only on h. classroom, department, and school. A They share and critique their insights into why tor’s Guid this is so. Then students explore mathematician General Resources Keith Devlin’s 2008 discussion of the problem , www.maa.org/devlin/devlin_04_08.html at The Foundation for Critical Thinking where Devlin provides the full computation and The Foundation and its related entities aim explains why some solutions posted online are to improve education in all subjects at every incorrect. Students explore solutions currently level by providing information, research, and appearing online and assess which solutions are resources on critical thinking. This site provides accurate and which are not. excellent background resources on the subject E to of critical thinking. www.criticalthinking.org Reflections on Critical Thinking As you begin to integrate critical thinking t Classroom Resources h into classroom practices, consider the E following questions: Catalina Foothills Critical Thinking Rubric Four ` How can you model critical thinking/ ` Catalina Foothills School District created a series problem solving for your students? of rubrics to assess student critical thinking skills. They measure critical thinking skills such as What kind of learning environment ` ` comparing, classifying, inductive and deductive is necessary to emphasize problem c reasoning, error analysis, and decision making. solving skills in your classroom? s http://tinyurl.com/ydteapw ` What could you do to make critical ` Council for Aid to Education’s (CAE’s) thinking and problem solving more Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) and intentional and purposeful in your College and Work Readiness Assessment classroom? (CWRA) How can you encourage students to ` ` These assessments from CAE measure analytic be better critical thinkers and problem thinking, critical thinking, problem solving, and solvers? written communication skills. The CWRA is available for high school use. Access the scoring How can you and your colleagues ` ` rubric at http://tinyurl.com/2vh3ugo. work collectively to prioritize effective http://www.cae.org/content/pro_collegework.htm. higher order thinking pedagogy across classrooms? tudents for a iety o s lobal g C s aring 21st Century P Pre 11

13 Critical Thinking and Problem Solving An Educ Critical Thinking Lesson Plans – University of North Carolina (UNC) These lesson plans integrate critical thinking into core academic subjects such as science, English language arts, social studies, geography, and others. A http://tinyurl.com/3w3a8e8 tor’s Guid FIRST LEGO® League Rubrics The FIRST LEGO League (FLL) robotics program not only focuses on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), but also stresses teamwork and collaboration, communication skills, creativity, and innovation and critical thinking. There are several rubrics E here that help measure the 4C’s. to http://tinyurl.com/3urrave t Helping Students Learn Critical Thinking Skills h This general purpose, well-organized Web site E provides examples of how to help students Four develop effective inquiry skills, argument structure, reliability, and reasoning skills. http://tinyurl.com/3kyqcpn Isaksen and Treffinger’s Model for Critical and c Creative Thinking s Scott Isaksen and Donald Treffinger developed a six-stage, critical and creative thinking model Creative Problem that is outlined in their book, (1985). Solving: The Basic Course Their model is briefly described in this PDF: http://tinyurl.com/3wmsc3a , and in this article: . http://tinyurl.com/ydv82hz tudents for a iety o s lobal g C s aring 21st Century P Pre 12

14 Communication The Importance of Communication An Educ Students must be able to effectively analyze and process the overwhelming amount of communication in their lives today. Which Expressing thoughts information sources are accurate? Which ones are not? How can they clearly, crisply articulating be used or leveraged effectively? opinions, communicating The power of modern media and the ubiquity of communication A coherent instructions, tor’s Guid technologies in all aspects of life make teaching strong motivating others through communication skills even more important. While education has always emphasized fluent reading, correct speech, and clear writing, powerful speech—these there is evidence that students are not mastering these most basic skills have always been , employers note Are They Really Ready to Work? skills. In the report, valued in the workplace that although oral and written communication are among the top four skills they seek in new hires, all graduates are lacking in these areas. and in public life. But E to High school graduates fare the worst, with 72 percent of employers in the 21st century, citing this group’s deficiency in writing in English, and 81 percent citing these skills have been their deficiency in written communications. Almost half of employers t h said employees with two-year degrees were still lacking skills in these transformed and are even E two areas, while over a quarter of employers felt four-year graduates more important today. 12 Four continued to lack these skills. Additionally, there are now “global teams” that work together in business. Linguistically and culturally effective communication is c essential to contribute successfully to these teams. And as technology s gives rise to global work teams that span time zones, nations, and cultures, it is imperative that tomorrow’s graduates communicate clearly and effectively in a variety of languages. Communication skills are especially critical in the expanding service economy—estimated to be 81 percent of jobs by 2014—where relationships with customers and fellow employees are of vital importance. Linguistically and culturally effective listening, empathy, and effective communication skills are essential skills for every person in the service economy. Economists Levy and Mundane offer further evidence of the importance of communication in today’s workplace. Because complex communication involves explanation, negotiation, and other forms of intense human interaction, jobs that require these 13 skills are not as likely to be automated. iety Pre C o aring 21st Century s tudents for a g lobal s P 13

15 Communication An Educ effectively with diverse teams, making necessary Definition of Communication compromises to accomplish a common Communication can be defined in many ways, goal, and assuming shared responsibility for 14 but P21 defines communication skills as follows: collaborative work. Communication cannot be Communicate Clearly effective unless the message is received and understood. ` ` Articulate thoughts and ideas effectively A using oral, written, and nonverbal Research backs up the importance—and tor’s Guid communication skills in a variety of forms interconnection—of communication and and contexts collaboration as well. In her work with young children, Professor Carol Seefeldt found that Listen effectively to decipher meaning, ` ` “social skills and communication skills go hand including knowledge, values, attitudes, and in hand. Children who look at the child they are intentions talking with, who understand turn taking when ` ` Use communication for a range of purposes communicating, and who know how to solve (e.g. to inform, instruct, motivate, and E verbal conflicts, are those who make and keep 15 to persuade) friends easily.” ` ` Use multiple media and technologies, The communication/collaboration link is just and know how to assess impact and their as valid for adults as well. John Seeley Brown t effectiveness a priori h and Paul Duguid describe effective work E teams as those in which “the talk and the ` Communicate effectively in diverse ` Four work, the communication and the practice are environments (including multilingual and 16 For Daniel Pink, collaborative, inseparable.” multicultural) empathic, and social skills—what he calls “high touch” aptitudes—along with the high A “communication rubric,” created by the concept aptitudes listed earlier, represent the Amphitheater School District, can be found c 17 It is “whole mind” that the future will prize. here: http://www.p21.org/route21/index. s important to consider how today’s technologies php?option=com_jlibrary&view=details&task=d shape words and images, as we receive ownload&id=849 many of our messages today through one or more digital devices. Thus, communication Communication and Collaboration skills are intertwined with information, media, While it is important to emphasize communication, and technology skills. communication skills, it can be difficult to separate them from the other Cs—especially Ways to Integrate Communication collaboration. As represented in the 21st into Your Classroom Century Skills Framework, communication P21 forged alliances with key national competencies such as clearly articulating organizations that represent the core academic ideas through speaking and writing are closely subjects, including social studies, English, related to collaboration skills, such as working g C o s lobal iety tudents for a s aring 21st Century P Pre 14

16 Communication An Educ science, geography, world languages, that communicates a clear message or point of mathematics, and the arts. These collaborations view about the specific site or environment. The resulted in the 21st Century Skills Maps that dance is recorded and posted on appropriate illustrate the intersection between core subjects Web sites for public view and comment. and 21st Century Skills. This section includes examples of what communication skills might GRA E G o d phy – 8th G RA E A look like in core academic content classrooms. Student groups, adopting various perspectives, tor’s Guid These examples, drawn primarily from the research a recent world/local event (hurricane, aforementioned content maps, demonstrate volcanic eruption, flood, war, famine, mass how communication skills can be integrated into migration, earthquake, etc.). The perspectives classroom teaching and learning across a variety students use could be: an environmentalist, a of grade levels and disciplines. politician, a relief worker from the U.N., a local journalist, etc. Students create a slideshow of ld u n AGE s – 12th G RA d E lA R Wo G the event from their unique perspective to show As part of a unit on community development, to the rest of the class. Students write a journal E students communicate with a Peace Corps at the conclusion to synthesize how various to volunteer, community activist, or local leader perspectives can influence understanding of an who is fluent in the target language and has field event. Students articulate thoughts and ideas t work experience. Students exchange information clearly and effectively through speaking and h related to the work/projects being undertaken writing. E in that country or locally. Areas of focus may Four include: agriculture, business, education, health, RA – 8th G E d CE sC n E i and the environment. Students in the advanced Students interview local scientists (e.g., university range can narrate and describe using connected researcher, local television meteorologist, sentences and paragraphs in at least three medical technician) about the ways in which timeframes when discussing topics of personal, computer models inform their work. Students c school, and community interest. They can create a digital gallery of images from the s comprehend main ideas and significant details different models accompanied by audio files of regarding a variety of topics. Students generally the interviews. Students are familiar with the use reach this proficiency range after participating of computational models as tools to describe in a well-articulated standards based K-12 and predict real-world phenomena. language program. A i C o s tudi E d RA s – 4th G E s l R E A ts – 12th G RA d Working in small groups, students choose an area Students research existing site-based from their state’s history, organize a storyboard choreography to analyze the impact a location on the person/place/event, and use digital tools makes on the choreographic composition and to create a presentation that teaches their topic the messages communicated from both the to the remainder of the class. Students research, specific site and movement governed by that organize, and present historical information in site. Students then create their own piece of clear, complete, and effective formats. choreography based on another specific site g C o s lobal iety tudents for a s aring 21st Century P Pre 15

17 Communication An Educ G En lish – 4th G E d RA team is given building constraints on floor area, wall area, and minimum number of windows. The Students pose a question about a local design team interviews the client for preferences issue on a secure, collaborative space such regarding: window and door placement; size and as ed.voicethread.com or galleryofwriting. placement of bed, desk, and closets; and size and org. Each student gives a short written or locations for any wall posters or other decorative recorded response to the issue and then invites A items that the client asks to have included. The community leaders to add their responses. tor’s Guid design team produces a scale drawing of the These students can articulate thoughts clearly room with an explanation of why it satisfies the and effectively through writing and speaking. constraints and the wishes of the client. The client checks the design and sends it back for more d RA s – 4th G C th EMA E M A ti work if necessary. Students work in groups to design a bedroom. One student in the group plays the role of client, and the others act as the design team. The design Resources on Communication E The following list of communication skills to resources is divided into “General Resources” and “Classroom Resources.” Use these Reflections on Communication resources to help generate dialogue and action As you begin to integrate t in your classroom, department, and school. communication into classroom practices, h consider the following questions: E General Resources Four ` ` How can you model communication skills for your students? National Council of Teachers of English’s (NCTE’s) 21st Century Curriculum and ` ` How can you emphasize Assessment Framework communication skills in general and Twenty-first century readers and writers need to: oral communication skills in particular c s in your classroom? ` ` Develop proficiency with the tools of technology How can students be encouraged ` ` to give oral presentations to varied Build relationships with others to pose and ` ` community audiences? solve problems collaboratively and cross- culturally ` How can you encourage students ` in your class to be better ` ` Design and share information for global communicators? communities to meet a variety of purposes ` How can students be encouraged ` ` Manage, analyze, and synthesize multiple ` to use technology and new media streams of simultaneous information to communicate innovatively and Create, critique, analyze, and evaluate ` ` effectively? multimedia texts g C o s lobal iety tudents for a s aring 21st Century P Pre 16

18 Communication An Educ ` ` Attend to the ethical responsibilities the standards movement—giving all students required by these complex environments the opportunity to reach or exceed world-class standards. http://www.ncte.org/positions/ statements/21stcentframework The Institute’s Web site has numerous resources on Accountable Talk, pioneered by Resnick. New Literacies Research Lab She describes Accountable Talk as “talk that A Lisa Zawilinski, Donald Leu, and members is orchestrated by teachers so that students tor’s Guid share of the New Literacies Research Lab learn to formulate responses to problems, additional thoughts on 21st century literacies. interpretations of text that are correct in Good insights on how digital texts and disciplinary terms and go beyond what was information is affecting reading, writing and actually written there...The basic idea is the communication skills. more you manipulate the pieces of knowledge, http://www.ncte.org/magazine/extended the better you understand them, the better you remember them, the more complex your E memories become and the smarter you get.” Classroom Resources to http://ifl.lrdc.pitt.edu/ifl/ Chapter Five – Procedures for Classroom Talk Content-Area Conversations by Douglas Fisher, Video of Resnick describing Accountable Talk t Nancy Frey, and Carol Rothenberg http://ifl.lrdc.pitt.edu/ifl/index.php/resources/ h ask_the_educator/lauren_resnick E This chapter includes focus on English Four Language Learners and discusses the types of Accountable Talk Sourcebook for Classroom classroom talk that can be enhanced (including Conversation That Works accountable talk), includes discussion on how to Sarah Michaels, Clark University; Mary Catherine structure effective collaborative discussions and O’Connor, Boston University; Megan Williams groups with emphasis on communication. c Hall, University of Pittsburgh, with Lauren B. http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/108035/ s Resnick University of Pittsburgh chapters/Procedures-for-Classroom-Talk.aspx http://ifl.lrdc.pitt.edu/ifl/index.php/download/ats Institute for Learning – Accountable Talk Accountable Talk – General Overview Resources This clear, concise overview is focused on fourth- The Institute for Learning at the University of sixth graders. Pittsburgh was founded by Lauren Resnick in http://www.scholastic.ca/education/ 1995. Resnick, an internationally renowned movingupwithliteracyplace/teachingtips.html cognitive psychologist, senior scientist at the Learning Research and Development Center of The Reading and Writing Project the University of Pittsburgh, and leader in the K-8 writing samples. standards movement, was asked by leading practitioners to help them achieve the goals of tudents for a iety o s lobal g C s aring 21st Century P Pre 17

19 Communication An Educ http://tc.readingandwritingproject.com/resources/ student-writing/kindergarten s MM Co E tiv REA C tion CA uni kills A C tiviti E s h o R h i G F sC hool s tud E nts http://www.essortment.com/teaching-good- A communication-skills-classroom-36140.html tor’s Guid E to t h E Four c s Pre C iety o s lobal g tudents for a s aring 21st Century P 18

20 Collaboration The Importance of Collaboration An Educ Sites like Wikipedia highlight how interconnected our world has Collaboration is essential become and emphasizes the benefits of collaborative work. The in our classrooms because resulting products are those to which millions of users have contributed. The comprehensive nature of these articles reflects the collaborative it is inherent in the culture of the site and demonstrates how people working together can A nature of how work is tor’s Guid produce extremely inclusive and valuable resources. accomplished in our civic Generally, collaboration has been accepted as a skill that’s essential and workforce lives. Fifty to achieve meaningful and effective results. In the past decade, years ago, much work however, it has become increasingly clear that collaboration is not only important but necessary for students and employees, due to was accomplished by globalization and the rise of technology. individuals working alone, E to The Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment but not today. Much of (GLOBE) Program, a worldwide, hands-on, primary and secondary all significant work is school-based science and education program, is an example of t h accomplished in teams, students collaborating with each other to impact global problems. E GLOBE’s vision promotes and supports students, teachers, and and in many cases, Four scientists to collaborate on inquiry-based investigations of the global teams. environment and the Earth system working in close partnership with NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) Earth System Science c s Projects (ESSP’s) in study and research about the dynamics of Earth’s environment. Over 1.5 million students have participated in GLOBE, contributing more than 21 million measurements to the GLOBE database for use in their inquiry-based science projects. More projects like GLOBE are needed for students to be prepared for a global, 18 technology-based workforce. Various scholars and authors have emphasized the importance of collaboration. Author James Surowiecki, for example, explains how we use the “wisdom of crowds” in the new economy by saying that “under the right circumstances, groups are remarkably intelligent, and are often smarter than the smartest people in them.” Surowiecki underscores the importance of collaboration by remarking that “... a large group of diverse individuals will come up with better and more robust forecasts and make more intelligent decisions than even the 19 Diversity brings multiple individual most skilled ‘decision maker.’” and cultural perspectives into the collaboration. Not only does a collaborative effort create more holistic results than individual efforts, aring 21st Century C iety s P o s tudents for a g Pre lobal 19

21 Collaboration An Educ but it also creates knowledge for a greater look like in core academic content classrooms. number of people. These examples, drawn primarily from the aforementioned content maps, demonstrate As a result of students working collaboratively, how collaboration skills can be integrated into the group can generate more knowledge, classroom teaching and learning across a variety making collaboration a key ingredient to student of grade levels and disciplines. success in today’s global society. A tor’s Guid G n lA s – 4th G RA d E ld R u Wo AGE Definition of Collaboration Students team with another class in a target Collaboration can be defined in many ways, but language country to identify and compare 20 P21 defines collaboration as follows: endangered species in both countries. Using basic information in the target language, the Collaborate with Others students collaborate to produce a multimedia ` ` Demonstrate ability to work effectively and informational presentation for their peers. respectfully with diverse teams E to A ts – 4th G RA d E R ` ` Exercise flexibility and willingness to be While rehearsing a piece in music class, helpful in making necessary compromises to students discuss as a group how each individual accomplish a common goal t part (melody, descant, harmonic or rhythmic h ` Assume shared responsibility for collaborative ` accompaniment) contributes to the musical E work, and value the individual contributions effectiveness of the overall performance, and Four made by each team member how all musicians must work together to create a satisfying whole. Students also experiment with A “collaboration rubric,” created by the and discuss how the director (whether student New Technology High School, can be found or teacher) communicates with the ensemble http://www.p21.org/route21/index. here: (gestures, head movements, facial expressions) c php?option=com_jlibrary&view=details&task=d to help shape performance. s ownload&id=382 RA CE – 8th G d E sC i E n Ways to Integrate Collaboration Working in collaboration with other classes into Your Classroom in the school, students investigate water P21 forged alliances with key national runoff on their school grounds and use Global organizations that represent the core academic Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic subjects, including social studies, English, Information System (GIS) technologies to create science, geography, world languages, relevant maps. Students are assigned specific mathematics, and the arts. These collaborations interdependent roles based on their interests resulted in the 21st Century Skills Maps that and talents including background research, data illustrate the intersection between core subjects gathering, GPS and GIS use, creating graphics, and 21st Century Skills. This section includes and communicating findings. Students meet in examples of what collaboration skills might g C o s lobal iety tudents for a s aring 21st Century P Pre 20

22 Collaboration An Educ lish – 12th G G En d RA E their investigation teams. They also meet with students in other classes who share their roles in Students collaborate with senior citizens in a the project (i.e., GPS operators from each class digital storytelling workshop. The teams bring meet together to discuss their work). Students to life a story from a senior’s history as they work collaboratively, either virtually or face-to- collaborate on writing and creating the video, face, while participating in scientific discussions including recording the narration and selecting A and appropriately using claims, evidence, and images and music. The students present the tor’s Guid reasoning. finished videos in a community film festival. Each team designs criteria for evaluating their video in advance, and grades their work accordingly. E d RA G E o GRA phy – 8th G Students demonstrate the ability to work After studying an environmental community effectively with diverse teams. issue (landfills, water quality, maintaining open space, recycling), students compose email EMA E d C ti M A th RA s – 8th G messages appropriate to various local, state, and national officials, stating their opinion and Students form investigative teams. Each team E offering alternatives to current methods of to is asked to investigate the crime rate in a dealing with the issue. Encourage students to particular city, represented by the variable “x”. consider their audience and develop effective Each team then formulates a question about t ways to create a coordinated and articulate email a possible causal variable “y”. For example, h campaign that will have an impact. Students a team might ask if crime rates are lower in E demonstrate the ability to work effectively with cities with a larger police force, or higher in Four diverse teams. cities with higher poverty rates. The team then chooses 30 to 40 other cities with which to compare their city’s crime rate. By conducting d E s o C i A l s tudi E s – 12th G RA an Internet search, they collect data on x and y. Working in small groups, students survey favorite If team members find their data too difficult to forms of recreation among local teens. Students c access, they consider revising the question. For also research the local history of recreational s example, if they are not finding suitable data on youth facilities for teens and the potential poverty rates, team members might decide to sources of political and economic support. The investigate the size of the police force in each information is graphed and analyzed, and each city instead. Team members analyze the data group creates a business plan for developing a they have collected, define the relationship local recreation center/club for teens. Students between x and y, and discuss questions such present survey results, need, and plan to a as the reliability of the data, its statistical community group or civic association using significance, and the validity of the sources. Each technology tools. Working in small groups, team prepares a presentation, explaining the students research a current issue and analyze its findings and team members’ conclusions. historical, political, and economic components, various viewpoints, and potential solutions, and create a digital presentation that clearly describes all sides of the issue. iety C o s lobal g tudents for a s aring 21st Century P Pre 21

23 Collaboration An Educ group believes classrooms should CORAL The Resources on Collaboration provide places whe,,dre students have the The following list of collaboration resources opportunity to be learners actively working is divided into “General Resources” and together on a specific learning objective, a “Classroom Resources.” Use these resources goal endorsed by the Forum on Technology to help generate dialogue and action in your in Education (U.S. Department of Education, classroom, department, and school. A 1999) and others (e.g., Dede, 2000). The model tor’s Guid developed by the project uses the CORAL General Resources Internet as a collaborative tool connecting university-level students in varied disciplines CORAL and at distant sites in an effort to complete a Collaborative Online Reseasrch and Learning joint project. is a multidisciplinary collaborative (CORAL) http://coral.wcupa.edu/ task force composed of members at various universities who are dedicated to creating and The GLOBE Program testing a model to integrate technology with E The Global Learning and Observations to to collaborative teaching and learning. Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program is a worldwide, hands-on, primary and secondary school-based science and education program. t Reflections on Collaboration h GLOBE’s vision promotes and supports students, E teachers, and scientists to collaborate on As you begin to integrate collaboration Four inquiry-based Earth system and environmental into classroom practices, consider the investigations working in close partnership following questions: NOAA, NASA, Earth System NSF and with How can you model effective ` ` Science Projects (ESSPs). collaboration skills for your students? c Introduced in 1994, GLOBE began operations How can you create a learning ` ` s on Earth Day 1995. Today, the international environment that emphasizes GLOBE network includes representatives from collaboration skills? 111 participating countries coordinating GLOBE How can you provide students ` ` activities that are integrated into their local substantial opportunities to work in and regional communities. Due to their efforts, diverse teams? GLOBE-trained 54,000 there are more than teachers representing over schools 23,000 ` How can you encourage students to ` around the world. Over 1.5 million students have be more effective collaborators? participated in GLOBE, contributing more measurements to the GLOBE than 21 million ` ` How can teachers share/improve their database for use in their inquiry-based science practices for increasing collaboration projects. activities in their classroom practices? http://globe.gov/about g C o s lobal iety tudents for a s aring 21st Century P Pre 22

24 Collaboration An Educ Meta Collab Classroom Resources A discussion of Wikiversity, other collaboration Project Based Learning (PBL) Starter Kit: 21st efforts—the wiki on collaboration. Century Skills Rubrics http://collaboration.wikia.com/wiki/ The Collaboration Rubric can be used to Category:Education assess how well a student works as a member A of a team during a project. It is designed NoodleTools: Curriculum Collaboration Toolkit tor’s Guid to assess individual performance, not the Very helpful Q&A for teachers that provides group as a whole. The Presentation Rubric links to various documents and suggestions on guides assessment of an individual or a team collaboration. presentation to an audience, which may be http://www.noodletools.com/debbie/consult/ accompanied by the use of media or visual collab/ aides. http://www.bie.org/images/uploads/useful_stuff/ Department of Education—Teacher’s Guide to PBL_St_Kit_rubrics.pdf International Collaboration on the Internet E to A list of resources for cross-cultural interaction Using Groups Effectively: 10 Principles and project work compiled by the Department A useful list of ten principles for teaching of Education. collaboration effectively in classrooms. Answers t http://www2.ed.gov/teachers/how/tech/ h questions such as: When are groups effective international/guide_pg2.html E as means of learning? What tasks are better Four accomplished collaboratively than individually? How do you structure groups for optimal effectiveness and results? http://eduratireview.com/2011/01/using-groups- effectively-10-principles/ c s Creating Online Professional Learning Communities and How to Translate Practices to the Virtual Classroom A beneficial “best practices” list that explains the role of professional learning communities in schools, who joins them, and what they do. http://www.elearnmag.org/subpage.cfm?section =articles&article=122-1 lobal g tudents for a s aring 21st Century P Pre iety C o s 23

25 Creativity and Innovation The Importance of Creativity An Educ Author Daniel Pink remarked, “The future belongs to a very different kind of person with a very different kind of mind—creators and In the past, Americans empathizers, pattern recognizers and meaning makers. These perceived creativity and people...will now reap society’s richest rewards and share its greatest innovation as secondary 21 If students leave school without knowing how to continuously joys.” A create and innovate, they will be underprepared for the challenges of in our national curriculum. tor’s Guid society and the workforce. Today, creativity and In today’s world of global competition and task automation, innovative innovation are key drivers capacity and a creative spirit are fast becoming requirements for in the global economy. personal and professional success. Sir Kenneth Robinson, a leading thinker and speaker on creativity said, “Creativity is as important in 22 education as literacy and we should treat it with the same status.” E to According to Robert Sternberg of Tufts University, “Successful individuals are those who have creative skills, to produce a vision t for how they intend to make the world a better place for everyone; h analytical intellectual skills, to assess their vision and those of others; E practical intellectual skills, to carry out their vision and persuade Four people of its value; and wisdom, to ensure that their vision is not a 23 selfish one.” In a world in which good design is increasingly used as a means of c s differentiating objects of mass production, creative design skills are highly desired in the labor force. As a result, entrance into a topnotch MFA program is now more competitive than getting into Harvard 24 Howard Gardner cites “the creating mind” as Business School. one of the five minds we’ll need in the future. To cultivate such a mind, he says, we need an education that features “exploration, challenging problems, and the tolerance, if not active encouragement, 25 Similarly, author Richard Florida stated, “I of productive mistakes.” call the age we are entering the creative age because the key factor propelling us forward is the rise of creativity as the primary mover of 26 our economy.” Perhaps Pink sums it up best, “In a world enriched by abundance but disrupted by the automation and outsourcing of white-collar work, everyone must cultivate an artistic sensibility. We may not all be Dali or 27 Degas. But today we must all be designers.” aring 21st Century P Pre o C lobal g tudents for a s s iety 24

26 Creativity and Innovation An Educ can be found here: http://www.p21.org/route21/ Definition of Creativity and index.php?option=com_jlibrary&view=details&t Innovation ask=download&id=160 Creativity can be defined in many ways, but P21 defines creativity Relationship to Other Cs 28 as follows: Creativity is closely intertwined with some of A Think Creatively the other skills previously identified. Innovation tor’s Guid today has a social component and requires ` Use a wide range of idea creation techniques ` adaptability, leadership, teamwork, and (such as brainstorming) interpersonal skills. Increasingly, today the Create new and worthwhile ideas (both ` ` capacity to innovate is linked to the ability incremental and radical concepts) to connect with others and with a facility for communication and collaboration. Elaborate, refine, analyze, and evaluate ` ` original ideas to improve and maximize E creative efforts Ways to Integrate Creativity into to Your Classroom Work Creatively with Others P21 forged alliances with key national ` ` Develop, implement, and communicate new organizations that represent the core academic t ideas to others effectively h subjects, including social studies, English, E science, geography, world languages, Be open and responsive to new and diverse ` ` Four mathematics, and the arts. These collaborations perspectives; incorporate group input and resulted in the 21st Century Skills Maps that feedback into the work illustrate the intersection between core subjects ` Demonstrate originality and inventiveness in ` and 21st Century Skills. This section includes work and understand the real world limits to examples of what creativity and innovation c adopting new ideas skills might look like in core academic content s classrooms. These examples, drawn primarily ` ` View failure as an opportunity to learn; from the aforementioned content maps, understand that creativity and innovation are demonstrate how creativity and innovation skills part of a long-term, cyclical process of small can be integrated into classroom teaching and successes and frequent mistakes learning across a variety of grade levels and disciplines. Implement Innovation ` Act on creative ideas to make a tangible and ` RA ts – 12th G d R A E useful contribution to the field in which the After studying a composer’s work, students innovation will occur compose a theme, then create variations on For another rubric that details creativity, refer to that theme in that composer’s style. Students Catalina Foothills’ interpretation of the skill in notate their compositions using electronic its “Critical and Creative Thinking” rubric, which software, orchestrate their compositions using aring 21st Century P Pre iety C o s lobal g tudents for a s 25

27 Creativity and Innovation An Educ a variety of sound sources (synthesized or observations, and formulating explanations, acoustic), and publish their compositions in a and can apply these processes in their own class book for other students to check out, listen investigations. to, and perform. The students investigate new processes, implement creative ideas, and revisit GRA o E G E d RA phy – 8th G traditional ideas to create new and reinterpret After identifying a local issue (i.e., recycling A existing works of visual and performing art. opportunities, congested traffic, excessive litter tor’s Guid in a park, noise pollution, water contamination, lA d Wo R ld RA n G u AGE s – 12th G E recreation facilities), students conduct primary Students investigate alternative energy projects research, gather numerical data, and convert in a target language country (e.g., Solar it to statistical information (means, trends, correlations). Students present their findings Decathlon Europe) and use ideas gleaned from in graphs, charts, and maps, use software to their investigation to design and explain an develop community digital data bases, and original design of an electric car, solar house, present a position on the issue. Students E or renewable energy alternative specific to prepare an editorial slideshow presentation for to their school. Students vote on the best use of a local governing board, or develop a Web site renewable energy and defend their choice in an to use in presenting their position, and make a alternative energy publication. t multimedia presentation for local service clubs, h such as Kiwanis, Rotary, Library Guild, etc. d – 8th G sC i E E CE n RA E Four Student teams design plans for a device that s – 4th G C i A l s tudi E o RA d E s will assist people with disabilities and create 3-D Students interview students and/or teachers sketches of their device using simple computer- to identify a problem (e.g., bullying on the aided design software. The class develops criteria playground) and as a group brainstorm creative for peer review, and then teams pass their plans ways to address the problem (producing a play c to another team that makes recommendations that examines the issue, hosting a contest for s for refinements to improve the original plans. best ideas). Students develop creative solutions All teams debrief together on their experience to a class or school problem. with the engineering/design process and identify the different scientific disciplines they used to En d RA lish – 4th G G E create their design (biology, physics, engineering, Students collect a variety of newspaper and etc.) and how those disciplines interrelate when magazine articles on a social or environmental applied to solving the design problem. Students issue. In small groups, they decide on an issue also discuss what other expertise they could use and a theme and style for a poem. They use to improve their designs—including input from words and phrases cut from the articles to create people with the disabilities their designs address. a “found poem” on their topic. Students are able to describe how science and engineering involve creative processes that include generating and testing ideas, making iety C o s lobal g tudents for a s aring 21st Century P Pre 26

28 Creativity and Innovation An Educ its importance in the 21st century economy. The piece also details emerging research on Reflections on Creativity cognition and neuroscience and how these As you begin to integrate creativity and new findings are changing how we think about innovation into classroom practices, creativity. consider the following questions: http://www.newsweek.com/2010/07/10/the- A ` How can you model creativity and ` creativity-crisis.print.html tor’s Guid innovation skills for your students? How—and why—to teach innovation in our ` ` How can you encourage creativity schools and innovation in your classroom? This article by Alexander Hiam eSchool News discusses the “Five I’s”: Imagination, Inquiry, ` ` How can you incorporate more Invention, Implementation, and Initiative. creativity and innovation into your http://tinyurl.com/ydv82hz lesson plans? E ` How can you encourage students to ` It’s Time to Get Serious About Creativity in the to Classroom be more creative and innovative? Jim Moulton’s Edutopia blog post discusses How can you and your colleagues ` ` “freedom within a structure”—in other words, t work together to improve your h making the assignment clear and focused, pedagogical practices involving E but allowing real freedom in how the tasks will innovation and creativity? Four be accomplished. For example: “Let’s say we bring a group of kids into the art room and tell them they can do whatever they want. Will they become creative? I always thought the answer to Resources on Creativity this was yes, but turns out the answer is no.” c The following list of resources on creativity http://www.edutopia.org/freedom-structure- s are divided into “General Resources” and balance-classroom “Classroom Resources.” Use these resources to help generate dialogue and action in your Classroom Resources classroom, department, and school. Arts Edge—The Kennedy Center General Resources This rich Web site features lessons, activities, projects, and curriculum guidelines for educators The Creativity Crisis to use to promote creativity in the arts, history, Newsweek article by Po Bronson and Ashley This literature, and other humanities disciplines. Merryman is an excellent background document In addition, there is a wealth of multimedia for strategic conversations around creativity in resources and ideas to encourage the use of education. It covers some of the historical and technology as a creative educational tool. global context of creativity in the classroom and P s g tudents for a s aring 21st Century lobal Pre o C iety 27

29 Creativity and Innovation An Educ http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/educators. Mathematics and the Arts aspx of the American In this issue of the Notices Mathematical Society, the theme is Critical and Creative Thinking—Bloom’s “Mathematics and the Arts.” Even in the time of Taxonomy the ancient Greeks it was generally recognized This site addresses key questions such as: that mathematics and art are inextricably A What are critical thinking and creative thinking? intertwined. The symbiosis has continued tor’s Guid What’s Bloom’s taxonomy, and how is it helpful through the ages. Today, with computer graphics in project planning? How are the domains of and many new artistic media, this interplay has learning reflected in technology-rich projects? taken startling and enlightening new forms. Here http://eduscapes.com/tap/topic69.htm are four articles to showcase different aspects of mathematics and art. Dan Pink’s Right Brain Discussion Guide for http://www.ams.org/notices/201001/ Educators This basic discussion guide encourages Teaching Creativity E educators to consider how their education Written by an art teacher, this article covers to systems incorporate “right brain” (creative) pedagogical approaches to teaching creativity approaches to teaching and learning. The guide in the classroom: “I write this as an art teacher draws from Pink’s book, A Whole New Mind . t for other art teachers. However, I think teachers h http://www.danpink.com/PDF/ in every area need to reflect on what they are E AWNMforeducators.pdf doing that tends to foster or hinder the creative Four critical thinking that is so essential as a survival Habits of Mind in Math—blog post and success skill in today’s world.” This blog post lists ideas that touch on the issue http://www2.goshen.edu/~marvinpb/arted/ of creativity/“tinkering” in mathematics. These tc.html ideas, as well as the comments section, may c provide thought-provoking ideas for educators The Creative Wisconsin Guide for Local s who are interested in exploring inquiry-based Community Action Planning: A Toolkit for approaches to mathematics instruction. Communities Seeking to Advance the Arts and Creativity in Education http://mathteacherorstudent.blogspot. This guide provides valuable tools and processes com/2010/09/habits-of-mind.html for local teams—comprised of representatives Intel: Visual Ranking, Seeing Reason, and from area businesses, schools, community Showing Evidence Tools groups, and cultural arts organizations—to These free, online tools are effective ways of improve arts and creativity in education in their bringing idea creation techniques into the communities. classroom. The site also provides tutorials, http://www.creative.wisconsin.gov/ project examples, and instructional strategies. http://www.intel.com/education/teachers/ iety C o s lobal g tudents for a s aring 21st Century P Pre 28

30 Creativity and Innovation An Educ The Marshmallow Challenge The Marshmallow Challenge is a remarkably fun and instructive design exercise that encourages teams to experience simple but profound lessons in collaboration, innovation, and creativity. A http://www.marshmallowchallenge.com/ tor’s Guid Welcome.html For a fascinating take on who does this challenge best, see this TED talk: http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/tom_wujec_ build_a_tower.html E to t h E Four c s P aring 21st Century s tudents for a g lobal s o C iety Pre 29

31 Frequently Asked Questions An Educ While this guide provides a wealth of information on the “Four Cs,” information can sometime raise as many questions as it answers. Here are the answers to 12 of the most frequently asked questions about the “Four Cs.” these skills find that their students are better Q: Will the focus on the “Four Cs” dilute prepared for the new, redesigned AP exams. A our commitment to content mastery? tor’s Guid How will the “Four Cs” impact Q: Absolutely not. In fact, content learning is A: curriculum and instruction? enriched when critical thinking, collaboration, A: Educators must reflect on what changes communication, and creativity are part of are required as the Common Core standards classroom practice. and the AP exams deemphasize memorization and more strongly emphasize critical thinking Are the “Four Cs” just an add-on? Q: and problem solving. Educators must adopt E A: No. Integrating the “Four Cs” into strategies that accentuate the importance of to teaching and learning is good practice. Critical problem solving. Project-based learning is thinking, collaboration, communication, and one of the strategies likely to be helpful in this creativity are outstanding teaching strategies context. t that should be used every day. h E How will the “Four Cs” impact Q: Four How do the “Four Cs” relate to the new Q: professional development? Common Core standards that most states Professional development must A: have adopted? emphasize how to teach critical thinking, The Common Core standards include A: collaboration, communication, and creativity c increased emphasis on critical thinking, skills. This can be done effectively in professional s reasoning, and communication skills. Therefore, learning communities where colleagues work they create a context in which the “Four Cs” are collaboratively to improve classroom practices of essential. Teachers who want to prepare their the “Four Cs.” students for the Common Core standards will place more emphasis on critical thinking and Q: Where are we today in the assessment communication skills. of the “Four Cs”? Assessments are being developed based A: How do the “Four Cs” relate to the Q: on the Common Core standards that place more newly updated AP exams? emphasis on critical thinking and communication A: The biology and history AP exams have skills. The AP exams place more emphasis on been redesigned to emphasize critical thinking and critical thinking, problem solving, and applied problem solving skills. Educators who emphasize knowledge. This creates a major impetus for s lobal g tudents for a s aring 21st Century iety C o P Pre 30

32 Frequently Asked Questions An Educ teaching the “Four Cs.” In addition, teachers, A growing number of colleges of education A: schools, and districts should incorporate the are beginning to build the “Four Cs” into their assessment of the “Four Cs” into portfolio curriculum for preservice teachers. Examples assessments, performance-based assessments, of these practices are included in a paper and capstone projects. prepared by AACTE, NCATE, and P21 that outlines what colleges of education should be A Q: You want us to focus on the “Four doing to emphasize the “Four Cs” in their work. tor’s Guid Cs,” but what about topics like global (http://www.p21.org/documents/aacte_p21_ competence, financial literacy, and whitepaper2010.pdf) environmental literacy? These additional topics are very important. A: How proficient in English must English Q: In fact, some schools and districts have adopted learners be before they can begin to develop them in addition to the “Four Cs.” Educators 21st Century Skills? must also contemplate teaching the “Four Cs” in A: There is no need to wait for students to E the context of these subjects. For example, it is to acquire English fluency before introducing 21st important to engage in global problem solving, Century Skills into their instruction. In fact, global communications, global collaboration, English learners have much to share regarding and global innovation. It is most exciting for t language and cultural knowledge that may help students when you teach the “Four Cs” in the h develop 21st Century Skills for their English-only context of engaging content and challenging E classmates. In addition, use of 21st Century problems. Four Skills can enhance the English learners’ language skills in their primary languages, as well as How can technology help support the Q: English. Using 21st Century Skills can help make “Four Cs”? difficult academic content concepts accessible to English learners before they acquire English A: Technology has a crucial role to play in c fluency. mastering the “Four Cs.” While critical thinking, s collaboration, communication, and creativity can all be taught in a low-tech environment, 21st Q: Are the “Four Cs” for all students, century students need to harness technology including those students with special needs? to be effective problem solvers, collaborators, A: Yes, all students will need the “Four Cs” communicators, and creators. They must to achieve in the new global economy. In fact, use technology to collaboratewith others in the Council for Exceptional Children supports communities beyond their own. a concept called “Authentic Learning,” which encourages educators to design lessons in which How are colleges of education teaching Q: special education students engage in thinking prospective teachers about the “Four Cs”? creatively to solve real world problems. tudents for a iety o s lobal g C s aring 21st Century P Pre 31

33 Next Steps An Educ hat are the next steps you could take? i n y our s chool Hopefully, this guide has inspired you to W Adoption of the “Four Cs” will go much become more proactive in advancing the “Four more smoothly if your school leaders are fully Cs” throughout education. Here are some initial supportive. Urge your principal to share the suggestions you can use to ensure the “Four Cs” “Four Cs” with the department chairs and impact education from your classroom to your consider using this strategy as a professional A state capital. development theme. In addition, urge them tor’s Guid to include more project-based learning in all professional development activities. i y our Classroom n This guide has provided some ideas to help Consider creating a book club or literature study you incorporate the “Four Cs” into your group around 21st Century Skills reading. You own teaching practice. If your content area can find examples of 21st Century Skills books in expertise is covered by one of the P21 content the “Additional Resources” section. maps mentioned in the introduction, be E sure to download the map and read it. Many to our y n i istrict d educators have come to realize that they must While adoption of the “Four Cs” within your engage in more problem- and project-based specific school is very important, ultimately, learning if they are to embed the “Four Cs” t implementation of the “Four Cs” won’t happen into their classroom practices.. Specifically, we h systematically unless the entire district gets recommend the materials from the Buck Institute E behind it. You should urge your superintendent for Education (BIE) (www.bie.org). Last year, Four and leadership team to actively support the they issued the PBL starter kit for 6-12 grade “Four Cs” and integrate them into curriculum teachers. This year, they issued the PBL kit for and instruction, professional development, and K-5 teachers. These are excellent sources to help assessment in your district. you increase the use of project-based learning. c In addition, many superintendents and district s y our n i d epartment leaders around the country have begun district- wide initiatives supporting the “Four Cs.” Some In addition to incorporating more of the of them have joined EdLeader21, a professional “Four Cs” in your classroom practices, include learning community of district leaders discussions about the “Four Cs” in your committed to 21st century education (www. departmental activities. If there is a P21 content edleader21.org). You should suggest that your map in your discipline, share it with your superintendent and district leaders consider department chairs, and urge them to use it as an joining EdLeader21. awareness tool for teachers in the department. If there are professional learning communities tate i n y our s in your department, urge them to focus a At the time this guide was published, 16 states significant amount of their time on embedding had formally adopted 21st century education the “Four Cs” into teacher practice. as a strategy for all of their students. Visit the C o s lobal g tudents for a s aring 21st Century P iety Pre 32

34 Next Steps An Educ P21 Web site (www.p21.org) to see your state’s ationally n status. If yours is a P21 state, you can work with You can actively promote the “Four Cs” in your NEA affiliate to determine who in the state national policy by working with your NEA government is responsible for promoting 21st affiliate to impress upon your Congressional century education. Find out what resources they representatives the importance of including the have that could help your school and district “Four Cs” in the reauthorization of ESEA . You A with their 21st century education efforts. If your can also encourage the Obama administration tor’s Guid state is not a P21 state, contact your NEA state to include the “Four Cs” in their “Blueprint for affiliate and P21 to find out what you can do to Reform” for education. Go to www.ed.gov and promote state policy that supports 21st century leave a message telling them to include the education and the “Four Cs.” “Four Cs” in their proposal.  E to Conclusion Over the last decade, an enormous amount of energy has been expended on the need for new federal and state policies around 21st century learning. However, if 21st century education is ever t going to make a difference in the lives of students, teachers must have the support they need to do h this work in classrooms every day. E Four The teaching critical thinking and problem solving, communication, collaboration, and creativity and innovation are not new concepts for educators. In fact, they are the basis of great teaching, and most teachers aspire to teach in a manner that incorporates these strategies. c The number of students leaving our K-12 schools and districts with effective critical thinking, s communication, collaboration, and creativity skills, however, is very uneven. We now know, based on the work of the 21st Century Skills movement, that every child needs these skills to be an effective citizen and participant in the new global economy. Teachers and education support personnel have a huge role to play the ensure that every student is adequately prepared. This guide is intended to help prepare better educators in a new global landscape. aring 21st Century P Pre s lobal C g tudents for a iety o s 33

35 Additional Resources An Educ Affiliated National Content Group Associations M TO INK L ROUP G FFILIATED A ECT j UB S AP http://www.p21.org/documents/Skills%20Map/ American Council on World Languages f p21_worldlanguagesmap.pd the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) A tor’s Guid National Association for http://www.p21.org/documents/P21_arts_ Arts map_final.pdf Music Education (MENC) National Council for http://www.p21.org/ Geography Geographic Education documents/21stcskillsmap_geog.pdf (NCGE) http://www.p21.org/ National Science Teachers Science Association (NSTA) documents/21stcskillsmap_science.pdf E to National Council for the http://www.p21.org/documents/ss_ Social Studies map_11_12_08.pdf Social Studies (NCSS) t National Council of http://www.p21.org/documents/21st_century_ English h Teachers of English (NCTE) skills_english_map.pdf E Four http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/P21_ National Council of Mathematics Teachers of Mathematics Math_Map.pdf (NCTM) c s 21st Century Skills Books The Intellectual and Policy Foundations of the 21st Century Skills Framework Below is a list of books that provide more Some of the language in this guide was derived information about 21st Century Skills: from “The Intellectual Policy Foundations of the 21st Century Skills: Learning for Life in Our 21st Century Skills Framework,” written by the Times Partnership for 21st Century Skills in 2007. by Bernie Trilling and Charles Fadel The full report, which details the rationale Jossey-Bass, 2005 behind of 21st Century Skills, can be found at: Curriculum 21: Essential Education for a http://www.p21.org/route21/images/stories/ Changing World epapers/skills_foundations_final.pdf by Heidi Jacobs ASCD, 2010 C s aring 21st Century lobal P Pre iety tudents for a g s o 34

36 Additional Resources An Educ The Global Achievement Gap: Why Even Our Video 21 link: Best Schools Don’t Teach the New Survival Skills https://thepartnershipfor21stcenturyskills238. Our Children Need—And What We Can Do eduvision.tv/default.aspx About It by Tony Wagner Teach 21 Basic Books, 2008 West Virginia teachers designed Teach 21 to A assist colleagues in planning and delivering 21st Century Skills: Rethinking How tor’s Guid effective 21st century instruction in West Virginia Students Learn classrooms. It enables educators to quickly Coedited by James Bellanca and Ron Brandt access 21st century content standards, learning Solution Tree Press skills, and technology tools for West Virginia The Case for Twenty-First Century Learning schools, as well as other resources that exemplify Coedited by Eric Schwarz and Ken Kay rigorous and relevant instructional design and Jossey Bass delivery. E Project Based Learning for the 21st Century Information is easily accessible for teachers, to Starter Kit administrators, parents, and students. Standards- http://www.bigg e.org/store/item/pbl_starter_kit based units, lesson plans, instructional guides and project based learning designs model t Project Based Learning for the 21st Century in h the integration of content, learning skills the Elementary Grades E and technology standards, research-based http://www.bie.org/store/item/pbl_elementary Four instructional strategies, differentiated instruction, and rich classroom assessments, including a Route 21 culminating performance, product or project Route 21, a P21 online database, houses dozens with an accompanying rubric. of articles, chapters, classroom tools, and other c Student achievement is at the heart of the items related to creativity The site is a one-stop- s triangle.. The wealth and depth of resources shop for 21st century skills-related information, provided support West Virginia’s goal to prepare resources, and community tools. students to be successful in tomorrow’s world. www.p21.org/route21/ Route 21 link: Teach 21 link: Video 21 http://wvde.state.wv.us/teach21/ P21’s video collection is comprised of contributions from educators across the country. What does combining the “Three Rs” and the “Four Cs” look like in your classrooms? What is the importance of 21st century readiness to our youth, our communities and our nation? iety C o s lobal g tudents for a s aring 21st Century P Pre 35

37 References An Educ Independent School “About GLOBE.” The GLOBE Program. Globe.gov. Schools Need to Foster It.” Fall 2003: 76-83. Print. Web. 16 May 2011. http://globe.gov/about . The New Levy, Frank, and Richard J. Mundane. “AMA 2010 Critical Skills Survey: Executive Division of Labor: How Computers Are Creating the P21.org. American Management Summary.” . New York: Russell Sage Foundation, Association, 15 Apr. 2010. Web. 16 May 2011. next Job Market http:// www.p21.org/documents/Critical%20Skills%20 2004. Print. Survey%20Executive%20Summary.pdf . A “Number of Jobs Held, Labor Market Activity, and tor’s Guid P21.org Earnings Growth Activity, and Earnings Growth . The “Are They Really Ready To Work?” Among the Youngest Baby Boomers: Results from a Conference Board, 29 Sept. 2006. Web. 16 May 2011. Bureau of Labor Statistics Longitudinal Survey.” . U.S. http://www.p21.org/documents/FINAL_REPORT_ . Department of Labor, 10 Sept. 2010. Web. 16 May PDF09-29-06.pdf . http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/nlsoy.pdf 2011. The Social Life Brown, John Seely, and Paul Duguid. . Boston: Harvard Business School, of Information Obama, Barack. “Obama’s Remarks On Education.” 2000. Print. Breaking News Headlines: Business, Entertainment & World News - CBS News . CBS News, 10 Mar. 2009. P21.org “Communication and Collaboration.” . Web. 16 May 2011. http://www.cbsnews.com/8301- Partnership for 21st Century Skills. Web. 16 May 2011. 503544_162-4855902-503544.html . E http://www.p21.org/index.php?option=com_content to . Paul, Richard, and Linda Elder. “Critical Thinking: The &task=view&id=261&Itemid=120 Nature of Critical and Creative Thought.” Journal of Conley, David T. “Toward a More Comprehensive Developmental Education 30.2 (2006): 34-35. Print. Conception of College Readiness.” Educational t Policy Improvement Center, 8 Feb. 2008. Web. . New York: Pink, Daniel. A Whole New Mind h Riverhead, 2006. Print. 16 May 2011. http://epiconline.org/files/pdf/ E . Houston%20A+%20Friday%202-15-088.pdf Four Robinson, Ken. “Ken Robinson Says Schools Kill Creativity.” Speech. TED Talks. Long Beach/Palm P21.org “Creativity and Innovation.” . Partnership for TED Talks Springs. 16 May 2011. http://p21.org/ . Web. 16 May 21st Century Skills. Web. 16 May 2011. 2011. http://www.ted.com/talks/ken_robinson_says_ index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=262 &Itemid=120 . schools_kill_creativity.html . c . “Critical Thinking and Problem Solving.” Seefeldt, Carol. “Helping Children Communicate.” P21.org . Scholastic, Sept. 2004. Web. Partnership for 21st Century Skills. Web. 16 May 2011. Early Childhood Today s 16 May 2011. http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/ http://www.p21.org/index.php?option=com_content &task=view&id=260&Itemid=120 article.jsp?id=3747357 . . Sternberg, Robert J. Wisdom, Intelligence, and Duncan, Arne. “An Open Letter from Arne Duncan to U.S. Department of Education. America’s Teachers.” Creativity Synthesized. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, U.S. Department of Education 2007. Print. , 2 May 2011. Web. 16 May 2011. http://www.ed.gov/blog/2011/05/in-honor- . New The Wisdom of Crowds Surowiecki, James. of-teacher-appreciation-week-an-open-letter-from- York: Anchor, 2005. Print. . arne-duncan-to-americas-teachers/ 21st Century Skills Trilling, Bernie, and Charles Fadel. Florida, Richard L. The Flight of the Creative Class . . San Francisco, CA: Learning for Life in Our times New York: HarperBusiness, 2005. Print. Bass, 2009. Print. Jossey- , Gardner, Howard. Five Minds for the Future. Boston MA: Harvard Business School, 2007. Print. Hoerr, Thomas. “Distributed Intelligence and Why Pre iety C o s lobal g tudents for a s aring 21st Century P 36

38 Notes An Educ 1 12 Obama, Barack. “Obama’s Remarks On Education.” . The P21.org “Are They Really Ready To Work?” CBS News, 10 Mar. 2009. Web. 16 May CBS News. Conference Board, 29 Sept. 2006. Web. 16 May http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503544_162- 2011. http://www.p21.org/documents/FINAL_ 2011. 4855902-503544.html . . REPORT_PDF09-29-06.pdf 2 13 Duncan, Arne. “An Open Letter from Arne Duncan Levy, Frank, and Richard J. Murnane. to America’s Teachers.” U.S. Department of 14 . P21.org “Communication and Collaboration.” Education. U.S. Department of Education, 2 May Partnership for 21st Century Skills. Web. 16 May 2011. Web. 16 May 2011. http://www.ed.gov/ A http://www.p21.org/index.php?option=com_ 2011. blog/2011/05/in-honor-of-teacher-appreciation- tor’s Guid content&task=view&id=261&Itemid=120 . week-an-open-letter-from-arne-duncan-to-americas- teachers/ . 15 Seefeldt, Carol. “Helping Children Communicate.” 3 Early Childhood Today . Scholastic, Sept. 2004. “Number of Jobs Held, Labor Market Activity, http://www2.scholastic.com/ Web. 16 May 2011. and Earnings Growth Among the Youngest Baby . browse/article.jsp?id=3747357 Boomers: Results from a Longitudinal Survey.” U.S. Department of Bureau of Labor Statistics. 16 The Social Brown, John Seely, and Paul Duguid. http://www. Labor, 10 Sept. 2010. Web. 16 May 2011. Life of Information . Boston: Harvard Business bls.gov/news.release/pdf/nlsoy.pdf . School, 2000. Print. 4 Trilling, Bernie, and Charles Fadel. 21st Century 17 E Pink, Daniel. A Whole New Mind . New York: . San Francisco, Skills Learning for Life in Our times to Riverhead, 2006. Print. CA: Jossey-Bass, 2009. Print. 18 . The GLOBE Program. “About GLOBE.” Globe.gov 5 “AMA 2010 Critical Skills Survey: Executive . http://globe.gov/about Web. 16 May 2011. Summary.” . American Management P21.org t Association, 15 Apr. 2010. Web. 16 May 2011. http:// 19 New Surowiecki, James. The Wisdom of Crowds. h www.p21.org/documents/Critical%20Skills%20 York: Anchor, 2005. Print. . Survey%20Executive%20Summary.pdf E 20 “Communication and Collaboration.” Four 6 Conley, David T. “Toward a More Comprehensive 21 Conception of College Readiness.” Educational Pink, Daniel. Policy Improvement Center, 8 Feb. 2008. Web. 22 16 May 2011. http://epiconline.org/files/pdf/ Robinson, Ken. “Ken Robinson Says Schools Kill Houston%20A+%20Friday%202-15-088.pdf TED Creativity.” Speech. TED Talks. Monterey, CA. http://www.ted.com/talks/ Talks . Web. 16 May 2011. 7 Levy, Frank, and Richard J. Murnane. The New c . ken_robinson_says_schools_kill_creativity.html Division of Labor: How Computers Are Creating s 23 the next Job Market . New York: Russell Sage Wisdom, Intelligence, and Sternberg, Robert J. Foundation, 2004. Print. . Cambridge: Cambridge UP, Creativity Synthesized 2007. Print. 8 “AMA 2010 Critical Skills Survey: Executive 24 Summary.” Pink, Daniel. 9 25 “Critical Thinking and Problem Solving.” P21.org . Gardner, Howard. Five Minds for the Future. Partnership for 21st Century Skills. Web. 16 May Boston, MA: Harvard Business School, 2007. Print. http://www.p21.org/index.php?option=com_ 2011. 26 The Flight of the Creative Class . Florida, Richard L. content&task=view&id=260&Itemid=120 . New York: HarperBusiness, 2005. Print. 10 Paul, Richard, and Linda Elder. “Critical Thinking: 27 Pink, Daniel. The Nature of Critical and Creative Thought.” Journal of Developmental Education 30.2 (2006): 28 “Creativity and Innovation.” . Partnership P21.org 34-35. Print. for 21st Century Skills. Web. 16 May 2011. http:// 11 p21.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=vie Hoerr, Thomas. “Distributed Intelligence and Why w&id=262&Itemid=120 . Independent School Schools Need to Foster It.” Fall 2003: 76-83. Print. iety C o s lobal g tudents for a s aring 21st Century P Pre 37

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