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1 U.S. Government Printing Offi ce Style Manual An official guide to the form and style of Federal Government printing 2008 Preliminary-CD.indd i Preliminary-CD.indd i 3/4/09 10:18:04 AM 3/4/09 10:18:04 AM

2 Production and Distribution Notes Th is publication was typeset electronically using Helvetica and Minion Pro typefaces. It was printed using vegetable oil-based ink on recycled paper containing 30% post consumer waste. Th e GPO Style Manual will be distributed to libraries in the Federal Depository nd a depository library near you, please go to the Federal Library Program. To fi depository library directory at Th e electronic text of this publication is available for public use free of charge at Use of ISBN Prefi x cial U.S. Government edition of this publication and is herein Th is is the offi ed to certify its authenticity. ISBN 978–0–16–081813–4 is for U.S. identifi e Superintendent of cial editions only. Th ce offi Government Printing Offi ce requests that any re- Documents of the U.S. Government Printing Offi printed edition be labeled clearly as a copy of the authentic work, and that a new ISBN be assigned. P t n e m n r e v o G . S . U , s t n e m u c o D f o t n e d n e t n i r e p u S e h t y b e l a s r o F e c i f f O g n i t n i r 8 n t e r n e t : ; 0 0 8 1 - 2 1 5 ) 6 6 ( I e e r f l l o t : e n o h P v o g . o p g . e r o t s k o o b 2 a r e a ( D 0 C 0 2 ) 5 1 2 - 1 8 0 C D I p o t S : l i a M 4 0 1 2 - 2 1 5 ) 2 0 2 ( : x a F 1 0 0 0 - 2 0 4 0 2 C D , n o t g n i h s a W , C (CD) I S B N 978-0-16-081813-4 II Preliminary-CD.indd ii Preliminary-CD.indd ii 3/4/09 10:18:05 AM 3/4/09 10:18:05 AM

3 THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE STYLE MANUAL IS PUBLISHED UNDER THE DIRECTION AND AUTHORITY OF THE PUBLIC PRINTER OF THE UNITED STATES Robert C. Tapella UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE STYLE BOARD M. Michael Abramson, Chairman Ernest G. Baldwin Kevin M. Lane James T. Cameron Barbara Day Prophet Tony N. Gilbert Margaret V. Ross Michele Y. Harris Andrew M. Sherman Yalanda Johnson Pamela S. Williams Ex offi cio Olivier A. Girod, Managing Director, Plant Operations John W. Crawford, Production Manager, Plant Operations Dannie E. Young, Superintendent, Pre-Press Division M. Michael Abramson Kenneth C. Puzey Terence D. Collins Foreperson Foreperson Foreperson Proof and Copy Markup Section Proof and Copy Markup Section Proof and Copy Markup Section Shift Shift 1 Shift 2 3 JOINT COMMITTEE ON PRINTING Representative Robert A. Brady, Chairman Vice Chairman Senator Dianne Feinstein, Representative Michael E. Capuano Senator Daniel K. Inouye Representative Susan A. Davis Senator Patty Murray Senator Robert F. Bennett Representative Vernon J. Ehlers Senator Saxby Chambliss Representative Kevin McCarthy Previous printings of the GPO Style Manual: 1894, 1898, 1900, 1903, 1908, 1909, 1911, 1912, 1914, 1917, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1926, 1928, 1929, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1937, 1939, 1945, 1953, 1959, 1962, 1967, 1973, 1984, 2000 III Preliminary-CD.indd iii Preliminary-CD.indd iii 3/4/09 10:18:05 AM 3/4/09 10:18:05 AM

4 EXTRACT FROM THE PUBLIC PRINTING LAW (TITLE 44, U.S.C.) § 1105. Form and style of work for departments Th e Public Printer shall determine the form and style in which the printing or binding ordered by a depart ment is executed, and the material and the size of type used, having proper regard to econ- omy, workmanship, and the purposes for which the work is needed. (Pub. L. 90–620, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1261.) Historical and Revision Notes Based on 44 U.S. Code, 1964 ed., § 216 (Jan. 12, 1895, ch. 23, § 51, 28 Stat. 608). IV Preliminary-CD.indd iv Preliminary-CD.indd iv 3/4/09 10:18:05 AM 3/4/09 10:18:05 AM

5 About This Manual By act of Congress the Public Printer is authorized to determine the form e GPO Style Manual is the product and style of Government printing. Th of many years of public printing experience, and its rules are based on prin- ciples of good usage and custom in the printing trade. Editors and writers whose disciplines have taught them aspects of style dif- ferent from rules followed in this Manual will appreciate the diffi culty of establishing a single standard. Th e GPO Style Manual has served Federal printers since 1894, and with this 30th edition, the traditions of printing and graphic arts are carried forward in the 21st century. Essentially, the GPO Style Manual is a standardization device designed to achieve uniform word and type treatment, and it aims for economy of word use. Such rules as are laid down for the submission of copy to GPO point to the most economical manner for the preparation and typesetting of manu- script. Following such rules eliminates additional chargeable processing by GPO. It should be remembered that the GPO Style Manual is primarily a GPO printer’s stylebook. Easy rules of grammar cannot be prescribed, for it is assumed that editors are versed in correct expression. Likewise, decisions on design and makeup are best determined by the individual publisher to meet the needs of the intended audience. As a printer’s book, this Manual necessarily uses terms that are obvious to those skilled in the graphic arts. Users of the GPO Style Manual should consider it as a general guide. Its rules cannot be regarded as rigid, for the printed word assumes many shapes and variations in type presentation. An eff ort has been made to pro- vide complete coverage of those elements that enter into the translation of manuscript into type. Th e GPO Style Board made signifi cant revisions to update this edition of the GPO Style Manual. Th e changes include redesigning the format to make it more modern and easier to read; replacing “What is GPO Access ?’’ with “GPO’s Online Initiatives’’; removing the atomic weights column from the Chemical Symbols table; expanding and updating time zone abbreviations; v Preliminary-CD.indd v Preliminary-CD.indd v 3/4/09 10:18:05 AM 3/4/09 10:18:05 AM

6 vi About This Manual listing additional entries to the Post Offi ce abbreviations; extensively re- viewing the capitalization chapter to remove outdated entries and include new ones; realigning the abbreviations lists to create a new list of technical abbreviations and initialisms; updating old and adding new tables to the Useful Tables chapter; expanding military titles; creating new sample pages for the Reports and Hearings chapter; providing many URLs as references; and including many suggestions by users. Comments and suggestions from users of the GPO Style Manual are in- vited. All such correspondence should be addressed as follows: GPO Style Board Mail Stop PDE ce U.S. Government Printing Offi 732 North Capitol Street, NW. Washington, DC 20401 email address: [email protected] For the purposes of the GPO Style Manual, printed examples throughout are to be considered the same as the printed rules. Acknowledgments Th e GPO Style Board would like to thank the following people for assistance in the production of this edition of the GPO Style Manual: Stanley P. Anderson, Editor, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, Nebraska, for the new soil orders in the capitalization chapter. Molly N. Cameron, for technical advice on the Index. Robert W. Dahl, Cadastral Surveyor, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of La nd Ma nagement, Minera ls & Rea lt y Ma nagement Directorate, Div ision of Lands, Realty & Cadastral Survey (WO–350), for his contribution of the Principal Meridians and Base Lines of the United States tables. Cynthia L. Etkin, Program Planning Specialist, Library Services and Content Management, Government Printing Offi ce, for her technical advice on the ANSI/NISO standards for publications. Preliminary-CD.indd vi Preliminary-CD.indd vi 3/4/09 10:18:05 AM 3/4/09 10:18:05 AM

7 About This Manual vii Ro b e r t R . Fi nc h , M a rk E . Ro c k we l l , M ic he le L . Spi ro, O p e r at ion s D i re c t or at e , Document Automation and Production Service (DAPS), Defense Logistics Agency, for their contribution to the list of military ranks. Dean Gardei, Brand/Web Manager, Government Printing Offi ce, for the design of the cover and title page. Jeremy Gelb, Pre-Press Specialist, Government Printing Offi ce, for technical assistance in the production of this Manual. Geography Division, U.S. Census Bureau, for supplying the cities list. Robert McArtor, past Chairman of the GPO Style Board and U.S. Board on Geographic Names, who acted as an adviser to the present GPO Style Board. ce of the General Counsel, U.S. Department of Trans- Joanne Petrie, Offi portation, and Andrew Novick, National Institute of Standards and Technology, for their assistance with time zone abbreviations. Betty R. Smith, composition system operator, Government Printing Offi ce, for technical assistance in the production of this Manual. ce, Doug la s E . Sm it h, Sr., I nter na l Pr i nt i ng O ffi cer, Government Printing Offi for preproduction planning and administrative assistance. Janice Sterling, Director, Creative Services, and Marco Marchegiani, Graphic Designer, Government Printing Offi ce, for development and production of the new design. ce, Govern- ompson, Director, Congressional Record Index Offi Marcia Th ment Printing Offi ce, for revisions to the pages relating to the Congressional Record Index. Employees of the Proof and Copy Markup Section of the Government Printing Offi ce, for their contributions during the production process. Current users who have contributed many ideas and suggestions that were incorporated into this edition of the GPO Style Manual. Preliminary-CD.indd vii Preliminary-CD.indd vii 3/4/09 10:18:05 AM 3/4/09 10:18:05 AM

8 Preliminary-CD.indd viii Preliminary-CD.indd viii 3/4/09 10:18:05 AM 3/4/09 10:18:05 AM

9 GPO’s Online Initiatives Printing continues to serve an important purpose in the Federal Government. cial reports, pamphlets, books, regulations Congressional documents, offi and statutes, passports, tax and census forms, statistical data, and more—in printed form these documents represent a major avenue of communication and information transaction between the Government and the public. In the 21st century, the Government Printing Offi ce (GPO) is committed to providing printed information products for Congress, Federal agencies, and ciently, creatively, and cost-eff ectively as the most modern the courts as effi technology will allow. With the advent of the electronic information age, GPO has also assumed the responsibility for providing public access to the online versions of most of the offi cial documents it prints, as well as—to the greatest extent possi- ble—the online versions of Government publications that are not printed but are otherwise made available on other Federal Web sites. GPO recog- nizes that a Federal author today oft en begins the content creation process at a personal computer, and frequently publishes the fi nal document on the Web, without creating a print version that will make its way to a user’s hands or a library’s shelves. Many Government publications are now born digital and published to the Web, with few if any copies printed for traditional pub- lic access via bookstores or libraries. To accommodate this transition in Federal publishing strategies while pre- serving the core responsibility for ensuring public access to Government publications, in 1993 Congress enacted Public Law 103–40, the Government Printing Offi ce Electronic Information Access Enhancement Act, which re- quired GPO to establish online access to key Government publications and provide a system of storage to ensure permanent public access to the infor- mation they contain. Since then, the number of publications featured by the resulting Web site, GPO Access , at, has grown exponen- tially, as has its use by the public. A decade later the National Archives and Records Administration formally recognized GPO as an affi liated archive for the digital content on the GPO Access site. To meet continued public demand for online access to Government publi- cations, provide for an increased range of search and retrieval options, and ix Preliminary-CD.indd ix Preliminary-CD.indd ix 3/4/09 10:18:05 AM 3/4/09 10:18:05 AM

10 x GPO’s Online Initiatives ensure the preservation of offi cial Government information content in the 21st century, in 2004 GPO embarked on the construction of a more com- prehensive online capability, called GPO’s Federal Digital System, or FDsys. Scheduled to become available for public use in late 2008, the new system will serve as GPO’s digital platform for the production, storage, and dis- cial Government publications for the years to come. semination of offi GPO Access GPO Access Web site was GPO’s entrance Opened to the public in 1994, the GPO Access provides free electronic access to a wealth of into the digital age. e important information products produced by the Federal Government. Th cial published version, and information re- information provided is the offi GPO Access can be used without restriction unless specifi cally trieved from noted. Th is free service is funded through annual appropriations provided to GPO’s Federal Depository Library Program. legislation, the Superintendent of Documents, under Under the GPO Access the direction of the Public Printer, is required to: (1) Maintain an electronic directory of Federal electronic information; (2) provide a system of online access to the Congressional Record, the Federal Register, and other appro- priate publications as determined by the Superintendent of Documents; (3) operate an electronic storage facility for Federal electronic information; and (4) maintain the Federal Bulletin Board, which was then already in existence. GPO Access services GPO Access services are designed to meet the needs of a variety of users. consists of content and links, including offi GPO Access cial, full-text infor- mation from the three branches of the Federal Government. Databases are updated based on their print equivalent and generally date back to 1994. Users can fi nd information on the Federal Depository Library Program, which provides no-fee public access to publications disseminated by GPO, GPO Access enables users to locate a depository library regardless of format. in their area. Preliminary-CD.indd x Preliminary-CD.indd x 3/4/09 10:18:06 AM 3/4/09 10:18:06 AM

11 GPO’s Online Initiatives xi Users may also locate and order publications available for sale through GPO’s Publication and Information Sales Program. Orders may be placed online curely through the U.S. Government Bookstore at http://bookstore.gpo. se gov. Ben’s Guide to the U.S. Government provides learning tools for K–12 stu- dents, parents, and educators. Th c explanations e site provides age-specifi about how the Federal Government works, explains the use of the primary source materials available on , and explains GPO’s role in the GPO Access Federal Government. GPO Access Users needing assistance with or other dissemination services may direct inquiries to the GPO Contact Center specialists available by email ([email protected]), telephone (1–866–512–1800), or fax (202–512–2104). Authentication of digital documents Th e increasing use of electronic documents poses a special challenge in veri- fying authenticity, because digital technology makes such documents easy to alter or copy in unauthorized or illegitimate ways. To help meet this challenge, GPO has implemented digital signatures on that not only establish GPO as certain electronic documents in GPO Access the trusted information disseminator, but also provide the assurance that an electronic document has not been altered since GPO disseminated it. In early 2008, GPO authenticated the fi rst-ever online Federal budget by digital signature. Th e visible digital signatures on online PDF documents serve the same purpose as handwritten signatures or traditional wax seals on printed documents. Th e digital signature verifi es document integrity and authenticity for online Federal documents, disseminated by GPO, at no cost to the customer. GPO’s Federal Digital System (FDsys) is ensuring Keeping America Informed A critical part of GPO’s mission of permanent access to published Government documents. GPO is developing a Preliminary-CD.indd xi Preliminary-CD.indd xi 3/4/09 10:18:06 AM 3/4/09 10:18:06 AM

12 xii GPO’s Online Initiatives comprehensive digital content system capable of managing all known Federal Government documents within the scope of GPO’s Federal Depository Library Program and other information dissemination programs. GPO’s Federal Digital System (FDsys) is an integrated content management system which incorporates state-of-the-art technology for document authentica- tion and digital preservation. FDsys supports GPO’s transformation from a print-based environment to a content-based environment, in which digital content is created, submitted, preserved, authenticated, managed, and de- e design of FDsys is based on the Reference Model livered upon request. Th for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) (ISO 14721:2003), which describes a generalized structure for storing, preserving, and providing access to digital content over time. FDsys will automate content life-cycle processes and make it easier to deliver digital content in formats suited to customers’ needs. FDsys will allow Federal content creators to submit content for preservation, authentication, and de- livery to users. Content entered into the system will be cataloged according to GPO and library standards, and will be available on the World Wide Web for searching and viewing, downloading and printing, as document mas- ters for conventional and on-demand printing, or by other dissemination methods. Content may include text and associated graphics, video, audio, and other forms that emerge. FDsys capabilities will be deployed in a series of releases. An internal proof- of-concept release of FDsys was completed in September 2007 to support the last stage of testing. FDsys is scheduled to become available to agencies and the public in early 2009, beginning a process of incremental releases. Each release will add functionality to the previous one. Th rst public release e fi will provide FDsys core capabilities, including such foundational elements as system infrastructure and security, and a digital repository that conforms to the OAIS reference model and enables the management of content and metadata. Th is release will replace the familiar Wide Area Information , in use since 1994, with enhanced search Server (WAIS)-based GPO Access and retrieval functionality. For a comprehensive discussion of system capabilities by release, see the FDsys documentation at Preliminary-CD.indd xii Preliminary-CD.indd xii 3/4/09 10:18:06 AM 3/4/09 10:18:06 AM

13 xiii GPO’s Online Initiatives Information Th e rules of grammar, spelling, punctuation, and related matters, as stated in this Manual, will serve well when preparing documents for electronic dissemination. Most of the documents currently available via GPO Access are derived from databases used in the printing of Government publications. However, as electronic dissemination of Government information continues to grow, the rules as stated in this Manual will continue to be the GPO’s standard for all document preparation, electronic or otherwise. Preliminary-CD.indd xiii Preliminary-CD.indd xiii 3/4/09 10:18:06 AM 3/4/09 10:18:06 AM


15 Contents Chapter Page v is Manual ... About Th ix GPO’s Online Initiatives ... 1. Advice to Authors and Editors ... 1 2. General Instructions ... 7 3. Capitalization Rules ... 27 4. Capitalization Examples ... 43 5. Spelling ... 79 6. Compounding Rules ... 95 7. Compounding Examples ... 109 8. Punctuation ... 193 Abbreviations and Letter Symbols ... 221 9. Standard word abbreviations ... 238 Standard letter symbols for units of measure ... 247 Standard Latin abbreviations ... 251 Information technology acronyms and initialisms ... 255 Signs and Symbols ... 259 10. 11. Italic ... 265 12. Numerals ... 269 13. Tabular Work ... 281 14. Leaderwork ... 299 15. Footnotes, Indexes, Contents, and Outlines... 303 16. Datelines, Addresses, and Signatures ... 309 17. Useful Tables ... 321 U.S. Presidents and Vice Presidents ... 321 Most Populous U.S. Cities by State ... 322 Principal Foreign Countries... 325 Demonyms: Names of Nationalities ... 332 Currency ... 334 Metric and U.S. Measures ... 339 Common Measures and Th eir Metric Equivalents ... 340 Measurement Conversion ... 341 Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions ... 343 18. 19. Congressional Record ... 371 Congressional Record Index ... 406 20. Reports and Hearings ... 417 Index ... 433 XV Preliminary-CD.indd xv Preliminary-CD.indd xv 3/4/09 10:18:06 AM 3/4/09 10:18:06 AM

16 1. Advice to Authors and Editors Th e GPO Style Manual is intended to facilitate Government printing. Careful observance of the following suggestions will aid in expediting your publication and also reduce printing costs. 1.1. er submission of copy delays the production of Making changes aft the publication and adds to the expense of the work; therefore, copy must be carefully edited before being submitted to the Government Printing Offi ce. 1.2. Legible copy, not faint reproductions, must be furnished. Copy should be on one side only with each sheet numbered con- 1.3. secutively. If both sides of copy are to be used, a duplicate set of copy must be furnished. 1.4. To avoid unnecessary expense, it is advisable to have each page begin with a new paragraph. Proper names, signatures, fi gures, foreign words, and technical 1.5. terms should be written plainly. 1.6. Chemical symbols, such as Al, Cl, Tl are sometimes mistaken for A1, C1, T1. Editors must indicate whether the second character is a letter or a fi gure. 1.7. Footnote reference marks in text and tables should be arranged consecutively from left to right across each page of copy. Photographs, drawings, and legends being used for illustrations 1.8. should be placed in the manuscript where they are to appear in the publication. Th ey should be on individual sheets, as they are handled separately during typesetting. 1.9. If a publication is composed of several parts, a scheme of the desired arrangement must accompany the fi rst installment of copy. 1.10. To reduce the possibility of costly blank pages, avoid use of new odd pages and halft itles whenever possible. Generally these refi nements should be limited to quality bookwork. 1 / c a p t e r 1 . i n d d 1 chapter1.indd 1 1 1 h 1 3 / 0 8 2 : 0 3 : 1 2 P M 11/13/08 2:03:12 PM

17 2 Chapter 1 1.11. Samples should be furnished if possible. Th ey should be plainly marked showing the desired type, size of type page, illustrations if any, paper, trim, lettering, and binding. In looseleaf or perforated-on-fold work, indicate folio sequence, in- 1.12. rst text page cluding blank pages, by circling in blue. Begin with fi (title). Do not folio separate covers or dividers. Indicate on copy if separate or self-cover. When reverse printing in 1.13. whole or in part is required, indicate if solid or tone. 1.14. is can be done Avoid use of oversize fold-ins wherever possible. Th by splitting a would-be fold-in and arranging the material to appear as facing pages in the text. Where fold-ins are numerous and cannot be split, consideration should be given to folding and inserting these into an envelope pasted to the inside back cover. Every eff 1.15. ort should be made to keep complete jobs of over 4 pages to signatures (folded units) of 8, 12, 16, 24, or 32 pages. Where possible, avoid having more than two blank pages at the end. 1.16. Indicate alternative choice of paper on the requisition. Where pos- sible, confi ne choice of paper to general use items carried in inventory as shown in the GPO Paper Catalog. If nonstandard trim sizes and/or type areas are used, indicate head 1.17. and back margins. Otherwise, GPO will determine the margins. 1.18. Customers should submit copy for running heads and indicate the numbering sequence for folios, including the preliminary pages. 1.19. Corrections should be made on fi rst proofs returned, as later proofs are intended for verifi cation only. All corrections must be indicated on the “R” (revise) set of proofs, and only that set should be returned to GPO. 1.20. Corrections should be marked in the margins of a proof opposite the indicated errors, not by writing over the print or between the lines. All queries on proofs must be answered. c h a p t e r 1 . i n d d 11/13/08 2:03:12 PM chapter1.indd 2 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 2 : 0 3 : 1 2 P M 2

18 Advice to Authors and Editors 3 Th e following GPO publications relate to material included in this 1.21. Manual. Th ey may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Offi ce, Washington, DC 20402. Word Division: Supplement to the United States Government Printing Offi ce Style Manual nding correct word Th is publication serves as a quick reference guide for fi divisions, as well as a spelling and pronunciation guide. In addition to the list of words with divisions, it also contains wordbreak rules and line-ending rules. Prepared especially for GPO printers and proofreaders, this supple- ment is equally useful for keyboarding. 1987. cations Government Paper Specifi e purpose of these standards is to achieve compliance with relevant stat- Th utes regarding printing papers; address environmental, workplace safety, and paper longevity issues; and achieve maximum savings in the Government’s paper purchases. 2008. GPO Paper Samples is publication is a supplement to Government Paper Specifi Th cation Standards. It includes samples of papers used by GPO. Used as a planning aid and guide in selecting an adequate grade, weight, and color of paper for a job of printing. 2008. For the latest information about the availability of these and other such pub- lications, go to: c h 11/13/08 2:03:12 PM p t e r 1 . i n d d 3 chapter1.indd 3 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 2 : 0 3 : 1 2 P M a

19 4 Chapter 1 1.22. Corrections made to proofs should be indicated as follows: 1 In lieu of the traditional mark “tr” used to indicate letter or number transpositions, the striking out of the incorrect letters or numbers and the placement of the correct matter in the margin of the proof is the preferred method of indicating transposition corrections. 2 Corrections involving more than two characters should be marked by striking out the entire word or number and placing the correct form in the margin. Th is mark should be reserved to show transposition of words. 3 Th e form of any query carried should be such that an answer may be given simply by crossing out the complete query if a negative decision is made or the right-hand (question mark) portion to indicate an affi rmative answer. c h a p t e r 1 . i 11/13/08 2:03:12 PM d d 4 chapter1.indd 4 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 2 : 0 3 : 1 2 P M n

20 Advice to Authors and Editors 5 Note.—Th e system of marking proofs can be made easier by the use of an imaginary vertical line through the center of the type area. Th e placement of corrections in the left -hand margin for those errors found in the left -hand portion of the proof and in the right-hand margin for right-side errors prevents overcrowding of marks and facilitates corrections. c h a p t e r 1 . i n d d 11/13/08 2:03:14 PM 5 chapter1.indd 5 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 2 : 0 3 : 1 4 P M


22 2. General Instructions Job planning Th e use of computers has dramatically altered every phase of the 2.1. printing industry beginning with the basic planning of each new job. New publications are evaluated by application specialists who review their requirements and design the necessary formats. Each cations for format is made to conform exactly to the copy’s specifi page dimensions, line length, indentions, typefaces, etc. Upon com- pletion, sample pages are produced and submitted to the customer. At this time, customer agencies are requested to indicate precise de- tails of any style changes because this set of pages serves as a guide for the copy preparer, the beginning of actual production. 2.2. In recent years, changes in the needs of the library community have led to a move toward uniform treatment of the component parts of publications. In developing standards to guide publishers of Government documents, consideration has been given to the changing needs of those who seek to produce, reference, index, abstract, store, search, and retrieve data. Certain identifying ele- ments shall be printed on all publications in accordance with this Manual and with standards developed by the (ANSI) American National Standards Institute. Publications such as books and pamphlets should contain: (a) Title and other title information; (b) Name of department issuing or creating publication; (c) Name of author(s) and editor(s) (department or individual); (d) Date of issuance; (e) Availability (publisher, printer, or other source and address); (f ) Superintendent of Documents classifi cation and stock numbers if applicable; and (g) Th e ISBN (International Standard Book Number). (See ANSI Standard Z39.15, Title Leaves of a Book.) Reports of a scientifi c or technical nature should contain: (a) Title and other title information; (b) Report number; 7 chapter2.indd 7 chapter2.indd 7 1/27/09 9:59:34 AM 1/27/09 9:59:34 AM

23 8 Chapter 2 Sponsoring Federal Aviation organization Administration Report DOT/FAA/AM–08/6 number Availability Office of Aerospace Medicine statement Washington, DC 20591 Title Use of Weather Information by General Aviation Pilots, Part I, Quantitative: Reported Use and Value of Providers and Products Author William R. Knecht Performing Civil Aerospace Medical Institute organization Oklahoma City, OK 73125 name and address Date March 2008 Ty p e o f Final Report report Notes: is sample report cover is reduced in size. ( 1 ) Th (2) In this sample, items are justifi . Other cover designs and ed left typefaces are acceptable. ( 3 ) Th is sample page was prepared according to the guidelines of the American National Standards Institute, 25 West 43d St., New York, NY 10036. Users of ANSI standards are cautioned that all standards are reviewed periodically and subject to revision. chapter2.indd 8 chapter2.indd 8 1/27/09 9:59:35 AM 1/27/09 9:59:35 AM

24 General Instructions 9 (c) Author(s); (d) Performing organization; (e) Sponsoring department; (f) Date of issuance; (g) Type of report and period covered; (h) Availability (publisher, printer, or other source and address); and (i) Superintendent of Documents classifi cation and stock numbers if applicable. c and Technical (See ANSI/NISO Standard Z39.18—1995, Scientifi Reports—Elements, Organization, and Design.) Journals, magazines, periodicals, and similar publications should contain: (a) Title and other title information; (b) Volume and issue numbers; (c) Date of issue; (d) Publishing or sponsoring department; (e) Availability (publisher, printer, or other source and address); (f) International Standard Serial Number; and cation and stock numbers (g) Superintendent of Documents classifi if applicable. (See ANSI Standard Z39.1, American Standard Reference Data and Arrangement of Periodicals.) Makeup 2.3. Th e design and makeup of a publication is the responsibility of the publisher. However, when the following elements occur in Government publications, they generally appear in the sequence listed below. Th e designation “new odd page’’ generally refers to bookwork and is not required in most pamphlet- and magazine- type publications. ( a) Frontispiece , faces title page. False title (frontispiece, if any, on back). ( b ) ( c) Title page (new odd page). chapter2.indd 9 chapter2.indd 9 1/27/09 9:59:36 AM 1/27/09 9:59:36 AM

25 10 Chapter 2 Back of title , blank, but frequently carries such useful biblio- ( d ) graphic information as list of board members, congressional resolution authorizing publication, note of editions and print- ings, GPO imprint if departmental imprint appears on title page, sales notice, etc. ( Letter of transmittal (new odd page). e) Foreword , diff ers from a preface in that it is an introductory ( f) note written as an endorsement by a person other than the au- ers from a foreword thor (new odd page). An introduction diff or a preface in that it is the initial part of the text; if the book is divided into chapters, it should be the fi rst chapter. ( Preface , by author (new odd page). g) ( h) Acknowledgments (if not part of preface) (new odd page). ( i) Contents (new odd page), immediately followed by list of illus- trations and list of tables, as parts of contents. ( j) Te x t , begins with page 1 (if halft itle is used, begins with p. 3). ( k) (new odd page). Glossary l) (new odd page). ( Bibliography m) Appendix ( (new odd page). ( n) Index (new odd page). 2.4. Preliminary pages use small-cap Roman numerals. Pages in the back of the book (index, etc.), use lowercase Roman numerals. Booklets of 32 pages or less can be printed more economically with 2.5. a self-cover. A table of contents, title page, foreword, preface, etc., is not usually necessary with so few pages. If some of this preliminary matter is necessary, it is more practical if combined; i.e., contents on cover; contents, title, and foreword on cover 2, etc. 2.6. Widow lines (lines less than full width of measure) at top of pages are to be avoided, if possible, but are permitted if absolutely neces- sary to maintain uniform makeup and page depth. Rewording to fi ll the line is a preferred alternative. chapter2.indd 10 chapter2.indd 10 1/27/09 9:59:36 AM 1/27/09 9:59:36 AM

26 General Instructions 11 Paragraphs may start on the last line of a page whenever necessary. 2.7. If it is found necessary to make a short page, the facing page should be of approximate equal depth. 2.8. A blank space or sink of 6 picas should be placed at the head of each new odd or even page of 46-pica or greater depth; pages with a depth of from 36 to 45 picas, inclusive, will carry a 5-pica sink; pages less than 36 picas, 4 picas. When top centered folios are used, the folio on a new page is set 2 2.9. ey are centered at the bottom points smaller than the top folios. Th and enclosed in parentheses. 2.10. Where running heads with folios are used, heads are included in rst pages of chapters and pages with overall page depth. However, fi bottom folios do not include the folios as part of the overall page depth. Jobs that have both running heads and bottom folios or just bottom 2.11. folios will align all of the page numbers on the bottom in the mar- gin, including those on preliminary pages. If at all possible avoid use of running heads in conjunction with bottom folios. 2.12. Contents, list of illustrations, preface, or any other matter that makes a page in itself will retain normal 6-pica sink. 2.13. Footnote references are repeated in boxheads or in continued lines over tables, unless special orders are given not to do so. 2.14. When a table continues, its headnote is repeated without the word . Continued 2.15. A landscape or broadside table that continues from an even to an odd page must be positioned to read through the center (gutter) of the publication when its size is not suffi cient to fi ll both pages. 2.16. A broadside table of less than page width will center on the page. 2.17. Centerheads, whether in boldface, caps, caps and small caps, small caps, or italic, should have more space above than below. Uniform spacing should be maintained throughout the page. chapter2.indd 11 chapter2.indd 11 1/27/09 9:59:36 AM 1/27/09 9:59:36 AM

27 12 Chapter 2 2.18. In making up a page of two or more columns, text preceding a page-width illustration will be divided equally into the appropriate number of columns above the illustration. Two or more short footnotes may be combined into one line, with 2 2.19. ems of space between. 1 2 3 Preliminary. Imported. Including imported cases. 2.20. All backstrips should read down (from top to bottom). Copy preparation 2.21. At the beginning of each job the proper formats must be plainly marked. New Odd or New Page, Preliminary, Cover, Title, or Back Title should also be plainly indicated. 2.22. Copy preparers must mark those things not readily understood when reading the manuscript. Th ey must also mark the correct ele- ment identifi er code for each data element, as well as indicate other matters of style necessary to give the publication good typographic appearance. Preparers must indicate the proper subformat at the beginning of 2.23. each extension, verify folio numbers, and plainly indicate refer- ences, footnotes, cut-ins, etc. Unless otherwise marked, text matter will be set in 10-point solid and tables in 7 point. In tables utilizing down rules, unless a specifi c weight is requested by the customer, hairline rules will be used. (See rule 13.3.) 2.24. Quoted or extract matter and lists should be set smaller than text with space above and below. Quotation marks at the beginning and end of paragraphs should be omitted. If the same type size is used, quoted matter should be indented 2 ems on both sides with space top and bottom, and initial and closing quotes should be omitted. Capitalization 2.25. Unusual use of capital and lowercase letters should be indicated by the customer to guarantee correct usage. chapter2.indd 12 chapter2.indd 12 1/27/09 9:59:36 AM 1/27/09 9:59:36 AM

28 General Instructions 13 Datelines, addresses, and signatures 2.26. Copy preparers must mark caps, small caps, italic, abbreviations, indentions, and line breaks where necessary. (For more detailed in- structions, see Chapter 16 “Datelines, Addresses, and Signatures.’’) Decimals and common fractions I n fi gure columns containing both decimals and common fractions, 2.27. e columns such decimals and/or fractions will not be aligned. Th will be set fl ush right. Et cetera, ” “ etc., ” and “ and so forth ” “ 2.28. In printing a speaker’s language, the words and so forth or et cet- era are preferred, but in “FIC & punc.’’ matter etc. , is acceptable. If a quoted extract is set in type smaller than that of the preceding text and the speaker has summed up the remainder of the quota- and so forth et cetera , these words should be tion with the words or placed at the beginning of the next line, fl ush and lowercase, and an em dash should be used at the end of the extract. Folioing and stamping copy 2.29. Folio numbers should be placed in the upper right corner, prefer- ably half an inch from the top. Headings 2.30. Th e element identifi er codes to be used for all headings must be marked. Caps, caps and small caps, small caps, caps and lowercase, rst up (fi rst word and proper nouns capitalized), or italic lowercase fi must be prepared. (See rule 3.49.) Pickup 2.31. Th e jacket number of a job from which matter is to be picked up must be indicated. New matter and pickup matter should conform in style. chapter2.indd 13 chapter2.indd 13 1/27/09 9:59:36 AM 1/27/09 9:59:36 AM

29 14 C ha pte r 2 Sidenotes and cut-in notes Sidenotes and cut-in notes are set each line fl and ragged 2.32. ush left right, unless otherwise prepared, and are always set solid. Sidenotes picas wide. Footnotes to sidenotes and are usually set in 6 point, 4½ picas. text should be set 21½ An alleged violation of the rule relating to admission to the fl oor Sec. 920. Abuse presents a question of privilege (III, 2624, 2625; VI, 579), but not a higher question of privilege than an election case (III, 2626). In one of the rule. case where an ex-Member was abusing the privilege * * *. Signs, symbols, etc. 2.33. All signs, symbols, dashes, superiors, etc., must be plainly marked. Names of Greek letters must be indicated, as they are frequently mistaken for italic or symbols. Some typesetting systems produce characters that look the same as 2.34. gure 1 and a capital O looks like fi gures. A lowercase l resembles a fi a fi gure 0. Questionable characters will be printed as fi gures unless otherwise marked. Letters illustrating shape and form 2.35. Capital letters of the text face will be used to illustrate shape and form, as U-shape(d), A-frame, T-bone, and I-beam. 2.36. Plurals are formed by adding an apostrophe and the letter s to letters Golf tee(s) illustrating shape and form, such as T’s and Y’s. should be spelled, as shape is not indicated. A capital letter is used in 2.37. , V– 8 , and other expressions which U-boat have no reference to shape or form. Fol. lit. and FIC & punc. 2.38. A ft er submittal to GPO, manuscript copy is rubber-stamped “Fol. lit.’’ or “FIC & punc.’’ Th e diff erence between these two typesetting instructions is explained thus: Copy is followed when stamped “Fol. lit.’’ (follow literally). Copy au- thorized to be marked “Fol. lit.’’ must be thoroughly prepared by the requisitioning agency as to capitalization, punctuation (including chapter2.indd 14 chapter2.indd 14 1/27/09 9:59:36 AM 1/27/09 9:59:36 AM

30 General Instructions 15 gures, and italic. compounding), abbreviations, signs, symbols, fi Such copy, including even obvious errors, will be followed. Th e lack of preparation on copy so designated shall, in itself, constitute prep- aration. “Fol. lit.’’ does not include size and style of type or spacing. Obvious errors are corrected in copy marked “FIC & punc.’’ (follow, including capitalization and punctuation). 2.39. In congressional hearings, the name of the interrogator or witness who continues speaking is repeated following a head set in boldface, a paragraph enclosed in parentheses, and a paragraph enclosed in brackets. In a head set in boldface, the title “Mr.’’ is not used, and “the Honorable’’ preceding a name is shortened to “Hon.’’ Street ad- dresses are also deleted. Example: “Statement of Hon. John P. Blank, Member, American Bar Association, Washington, DC.’’ 2.40. Paragraph or section numbers (or letters) followed by fi gures or let- ters in parentheses will close up, as “section 7(B)(1)( a ),’’ “paragraph 23( a ),’’ “paragraph b( 7 ),’’ “paragraph ( a )(2)’’; but “section 9(a) ( 1 ) and ( 2 a and b ’’. In case of an unavoidable break, division )’’, “section 7 er elements in parentheses, and no hyphen is used. will be made aft Bill style .—Bill copy will be followed as supplied. Bills will be treated 2.41. as “FIC & punc.’’ Th ber optic is data is transmitted to the GPO via fi transmission with element identifi er codes in place. Th erefore, it is not cost eff ective to prepare the manuscript as per the GPO Style Manual and update the data once it is in type form. Copy preparer’s instructions, which accompany each job, are writ- 2.42. ten to cover the general style and certain peculiarities or deviations from style. Th ese instructions must be followed. Abbreviations 2.43. In marking abbreviations to be spelled, preparers must show what the spelled form should be, unless the abbreviations are common and not susceptible to more than one construction. An unfamiliar abbreviation, with spelled-out form unavailable, is not changed. chapter2.indd 15 chapter2.indd 15 1/27/09 9:59:36 AM 1/27/09 9:59:36 AM

31 16 Chapter 2 Ty pe composit ion Operators and revisers must study carefully the rules governing 2.44. composition. In correcting pickup matter, the operator must indicate plainly on 2.45. the proof what portion, if any, was actually reset. 2.46. Every precaution must be taken to prevent the soiling of proofs, as it is necessary for the reviser to see clearly every mark on the margin of a proof aft er it has been corrected. 2.47. Corrections of queries intended for the author are not to be made. Such queries, however, are not to be carried on jobs going directly to press. Leading and spacing Spacing of text is governed by the leading, narrow spacing being 2.48. more desirable in solid than in leaded matter. 2.49. A s i n g l e j u s t i fi ed word space will be used between sentences. Th is applies to all types of composition. 2.50. C e n t e r o r fl ush heads set in caps, caps and small caps, small caps, or boldface are keyed with regular justifi ed spaces between words. Centerheads are set apart from the text by the use of spacing. Th e 2.51. amount of space varies with each publication. However, more space is always inserted above a heading than below. In 10-point type, the spacing would be 10 points over and 8 points under a heading; in 8- and 6-point type, the spacing would be 8 points above and 6 points below. 2.52. Solid matter (text) is defi ned as those lines set without horizontal space between them. Leaded text is defi ned as lines separated by 1 or 2 points of space. 2.53. Unless otherwise marked, fl ush heads are separated from text by 4 points of space above and 2 points of space below in solid matter, and by 6 points of space above and 4 points of space below in leaded matter. chapter2.indd 16 chapter2.indd 16 1/27/09 9:59:36 AM 1/27/09 9:59:36 AM

32 General Instructions 17 Full-measure numbered or lettered paragraphs and quoted extracts 2.54. are not separated by space from adjoining matter. from the text by smaller type or are in- 2.55. Extracts which are set off dented on both sides or indented 3 ems on the left side (courtwork only) are separated by 6 points of space in leaded matter and by 4 points of space in solid matter. 2.56. Extracts set solid in leaded matter are separated from the text by 6 points. 2.57. Flush lines following extracts are separated by 6 points of space in leaded matter and by 4 points in solid matter. 2.58. Footnotes are leaded if the text is leaded, and are solid if the text is solid. 2.59. Legends are leaded if the text is leaded, and solid if the text is solid. Leaderwork is separated from text by 4 points above and 4 points below. Indentions 2.60. In measures less than 30 picas, the paragraph indention is 1 em. Paragraph indentions in cut-in matter are 3 ems, overs are 2 ems. Datelines and signatures are indented in multiples of 2 ems. ush left Addresses are set fl . 2.61. In matter set 30 picas or wider, the paragraph indention is 2 ems. Paragraph indentions in cut-in matter are 6 ems, overs are 4 ems. Datelines and signatures are indented in multiples of 2 ems. ush left . Addresses are set fl 2.62. In measures less than 30 picas, overruns in hanging indentions are 1 em more than the fi rst line, except that to avoid confl ict with a following indention (for example, of a subentry or paragraph), the overrun indention is made 1 em more than the following line. 2.63. In matter set 30 picas or wider, overruns in hanging indentions are 2 ems more than the fi rst line, except that to avoid confl ict with a following indention (for example, of a subentry or paragraph), the overrun indention is made 2 ems more than the following line. chapter2.indd 17 chapter2.indd 17 1/27/09 9:59:36 AM 1/27/09 9:59:36 AM

33 18 Chapter 2 Indention of matter set in smaller type should be the same, in points, 2.64. as that of adjoining main-text indented matter. Two-line centerheads are centered, but heads of three or more lines 2.65. are set with a hanging indention. 2.66. ush heads are indented 2 ems in measures less than 30 O v e r s i n fl picas, and 3 ems in wider measures. Legends for illustrations 2.67. It is preferred that legends and explanatory data consisting of one or two lines are set centered, while those with more than two lines are set with a hanging indention. Legends are set full measure regard- less of the width of the illustration. Paragraph style is acceptable. Legend lines for illustrations that appear broad or turn page 2.68. (landscape) should be printed to read up; an even-page legend should be on the inside margin and an odd-page legend on the out- side margin. 2.69. Unless otherwise indicated, legends for illustrations are set in 8-point roman, lowercase. 2.70. Periods are used aft er legends and explanatory remarks beneath il- lustrations. However, legends without descriptive language do not use a period. (See rule 8.112.) 2.71. At the beginning of a legend or standing alone, Figure preceding the identifying number or letter is set in caps and small caps and is not abbreviated. Figure 5, not Fig. 5 Figure A, not Fig. A 2.72. If a chart carries both a legend and footnotes, the legend is placed above the chart. 2.73. Letter symbols used in legends for illustrations are set in lowercase italic without periods. Proofreading 2.74. All special instructions, layouts, and style sheets must be included with the fi rst installment of each job.

34 General Instructions 19 If the proofreader detects inconsistent or erroneous statements, it is 2.75. his or her responsibility to query them. If the grammatical construction of a sentence or clause is ques- 2.76. tioned by a proofreader and it seems desirable to change the form, he or she must indicate the proposed correction, add a query mark, and enclose all in a circle. All queries appearing on the copy must be carried to the author’s set 2.77. of proofs. 2.78. Proofs that are illegible or are in any manner defective must be called to the attention of the deskperson. Th e manner in which correction marks are made on a proof is of 2.79. considerable importance. Straggling, unsymmetrical characters, disconnected marks placed in the margin above or below the lines to which they relate, irregular lines leading from an incorrect let- ter or word to a correction, large marks, marks made with a blunt pencil, indistinct marks, and frequent use of the eraser to obliterate marks hastily or incorrectly made are faults to be avoided. 2.80. In reading proof of wide tables, the proofreader should place the correction as near as possible to the error. Th e transposition mark should not be used in little-known words or in fi gures. It is better to cancel the letters or fi gures and write them in the margin in the order in which they are to appear. 2.81. To assure proper placement of footnotes, the proofreader and re- viser must draw a ring around footnote references on the proofs, each corresponding footnote number. then check off 2.82. Proofreaders must not make important changes in indentions or tables without consulting the referee. 2.83. Th e marks of the copy preparer will be followed, as he or she is in a position to know more about the peculiarities of a job than one who reads but a small portion of it. 2.84. Any mark that will change the proof from the copy as prepared must be circled in the margin. 2.85. All instructions on copy must be carried on proof by readers.

35 20 Chapter 2 2.86. Folios of copy must be run by the proofreader and marked on the proof. 2.87. All instructions, comments, and extraneous notes on both copy and proofs that are not intended to be set as part of the text must be circled. Revising galley proofs Th 2.88. e importance of revising proofs cannot be overemphasized. Although a reviser is not expected to read proof, it is not enough to follow the marks found on the proof. He or she should be alert to detect errors and inconsistencies and must see that all corrections have been properly made and that words or lines have not been transposed or eliminated in making the corrections. 2.89. A reviser must not remodel the punctuation of the proofreaders or make any important changes. If an important change should be made, the reviser must submit the proposed change to the supervi- sor for a decision. 2.90. In the body of the work, new pages must be properly indicated on the proof. (For new page information, see rule 2.3 “Makeup.’’) 2.91. All instructions and queries on proofs must be transferred to the revised set of proofs. Revising page proofs 2.92. Page revising requires great diligence and care. Th e reviser must see that the rules governing the instructions of previous workers have been followed. 2.93. Th e reviser is responsible for marking all bleed and off -center pages. 2.94. A blank page must be indicated at the bottom of the preceding page. 2.95. Special care must be exercised in revising corrected matter. If it appears that a correction has not been made, the reviser should

36 General Instructions 21 carefully examine each line on the page to see if the correction was inserted in the wrong place. Th e following rules must be carefully observed: 2.96. ( a) See that the proof is clean and clear; request another if necessary. ( b) Verify that the galley proofs are in order and that the data on the galleys runs in properly to facilitate continuous makeup. ( erent sets of proofs of the same job are cor- c) Make sure that diff rectly marked in series (“R,’’ “2R,’’ “3R,’’ etc.); where a sheet is stamped “Another proof,’’ carry the same designating “R’’ on the corresponding clean proof. Advance the “R,’’ “2R,’’ “3R,’’ etc., on ce. each set of page proofs returned from the originating offi ( d) Run the page folios, make sure they are consecutive and that the running heads, if used, are correct. Check connection pages. Verify correct sequence for footnote references and placement. It is imperative that footnotes appear or begin on the same page as their reference, unless style dictates that all footnotes are to appear together in one location. e) Watch for dropouts, doublets, and transpositions. ( ( f) Legend lines of full-page illustrations that appear broad should be printed to read up—the even-page legend on the binding or inside margin and the odd-page legend on the outside margin. ( g) If a footnote is eliminated, do not renumber the footnotes; change footnote to read “Footnote eliminated.’’ 2.97. If a footnote is added in proof, use the preceding number with a 15a . superior letter added, as 2.98. Where a table with footnotes falls at the bottom of a page containing footnotes to text, print the table footnotes above the text footnotes, separated by a rule 50 points long, fl ush left , with spacing on each side of the rule. (See also rule 13.77.) chapter2.indd 21 chapter2.indd 21 1/27/09 9:59:37 AM 1/27/09 9:59:37 AM

37 22 Chapter 2 Press revising Press revising calls for the exercise of utmost care. Th 2.99. e press re- viser must be thoroughly familiar with the style and makeup of Government publications. He or she is required to OK all forms that go to press—bookwork, covers, jobwork, etc.—and must see that all queries are answered. A knowledge of the bindery operations re- quired to complete a book or job and familiarity with all types of imposition, folds, etc., is helpful. Th e reviser must be capable of as- certaining the proper head, back, and side margins for all work, to ensure proper trimming of the completed job. Although speed is essential when forms reach the press reviser, ac- 2.100. ced. curacy is still paramount and must not be sacrifi Signature marks, etc. 2.101. Unless otherwise indicated, signature marks are set in 6-point low- ercase and indented 3 ems. 2.102. Figures indicating the year should follow the jacket number in sig- nature marks: 125–327—08——4 116–529—08—vol. 1—— 3 116 –529— 08—pt. 5 —— 3 2.103. When the allmark ( ) and signature or the imprint and signature  appear on same page, the signature line is placed below the allmark or imprint. (See rule 2.117.) 2.104. Th e allmark is placed below the page, bulletin, or circular number but above the signature line, if both appear on the same page. 2.105. Imprints and signature lines appearing on short pages of text are placed at the bottom of the page. 2.106. On a congressional job reprinted because of change, the House and Senate have approved the following styles: House of Representatives: Senate: 17–234— 08—— 2 17–235— 08—— 2 (Star Print) chapter2.indd 22 chapter2.indd 22 1/27/09 9:59:37 AM 1/27/09 9:59:37 AM

38 General Instructions 23 Th 2.107. e following forms are used for signature marks in House and Senate documents and reports printed on session jackets: S. Doc. 57, 08–1—— 2 H. Doc. 73, 08–1—— 2 S. Doc. 57, 08–2, pt. 1—— 2 S. Doc. 57, 08–2, vol. 1—— 2 S. Rept. 100, 08–2—— 9 H. Rept. 120, 08–2—— 8 2.108. In a document or report printed on other than a session jacket, use the jacket number, year, and signature number only, omitting the document or report number. (See rule 2.102.) For pasters, the jacket number, the year, and the page to be faced by 2.109. the paster are used as follows (note punctuation): 12–344—— 08 (Face p. 10) 2.110. On a paster facing an even page, the marks are placed on the lower right-hand side; on a paster facing an odd page, the marks are placed on the lower left -hand side. 2 .111. If more than one paster faces the same page, each is numbered as follows: 12–344—— 08 (Face p. 19) No. 1 12–344—— 08 (Face p. 19) No. 2 2.112. When a paster follows the text, the allmark is placed on the last page of the text and never on the paster. Reprints 2.113. T o a i d b i b l i o g r a p h i c i d e n t i fi cation of reprints or revisions, the dates of the original edition and of reprint or revision should be sup- plied by the author on the title page or in some other suitable place. Th us: First edition July 1990 Original edition May 1990 Reprinted July 1995 Reprinted May 1995 Revised July 1997 First printed June 1990 Revised June 1995 2.114. Th e year in the imprint on cover, title page, or elsewhere is not changed from that in the original print, nor are the signatures changed, unless other mends are necessary. chapter2.indd 23 chapter2.indd 23 1/27/09 9:59:37 AM 1/27/09 9:59:37 AM

39 24 Chapter 2 Imprints 2.115. Unless otherwise stipulated, the GPO imprint must appear on all printed matter, with the exception of certain classifi ed work. 2.116. Th e full GPO imprint is used on the title page of a congressional speech. Th e imprint and allmark are not used together on any page; if one is 2.117. used, the other is omitted. 2.118. e imprint is not used on a halft itle or on any page of a cover, with Th the exception of congressional hearings. If there is a title page, the imprint is placed on the title page; but if 2.119. there is no title page, or if the title page is entirely an illustration, the imprint is placed on the last page of the text 4 ems from fl ush right and below the bottom folio. 2.120. Th e GPO logo is used only on GPO publications. If it is printed on page ii, the full imprint is used on the title page; if it is printed on the title page, use the half imprint only, thus—Washington : 2008. Sales notices 2.121. e use of sales notices is discouraged. Th If there is a cover but no title page, the sales notice is printed on the 2.122. cover. Unless otherwise indicated, if there is a title page, with or without a cover, the sales notice is printed at the bottom of the title page below a cross rule. If there is no cover or title page, any sales notice is printed at the end of the text, below the imprint, and the two are separated by a cross rule. Imprint variations 2.123. Th is is one style of an imprint that can appear on the title page. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Offi ce · · Phone: Toll Free 866–512–1800 Internet: · DC area 202–512–1800 · Fax: 202–512–2104 · Mail: Stop SSOP, Washington, DC 20402–0001 · chapter2.indd 24 chapter2.indd 24 8/2/10 2:39 PM 8/2/10 2:39 PM

40 General Instructions 25 In the event that a title page is not used, the imprint is printed on the 2.124. below the text. last page and positioned fl ush left For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing ce Offi Internet: · Phone: toll free 866–512–1800 · DC area 202–512–1800 · Fax: 202–512–2250 · · Mail: Stop SSOP, Washington, DC 20402–0001 · 2.125. Outside-purchase publications are identifi ed by an open star at the beginning of the imprint line. Th ese lines are positioned 4 ems from the right margin. U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 2008—456–789 2.126. Publications purchased outside which are reprinted by the GPO use an em dash in lieu of the open star. —U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 2008—456–789 2.127. Jobs set on outside purchase but printed by the GPO use an asterisk in lieu of the open star. *U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 2008—456–789 2.128. Publications produced from camera copy supplied to the GPO are ed by cc printed at the end of the line. identifi U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 2008—123–456–cc Franking 2.129. Th e franking (mailing) privilege on covers for Government publi- cations should be at least 1⅛ inches from the trim. Bibliographies or references Th ere are many styles available to bibliographers, for there are many 2.130. classes of documents. A Government bulletin citation, according to one authority, would be treated as follows: Author’s name (if the article is signed); title of article (in quotation marks); the publication (usually in italic), with correct references to volume, number, series, pages, date, and publisher (U.S. Govt. Print. Off .). chapter2.indd 25 chapter2.indd 25 1/27/09 9:59:37 AM 1/27/09 9:59:37 AM

41 26 Chapter 2 erefore the example would read: Th U.S. Department of the Interior, “Highlights in history of forest and related , No. 41 (serial number natural source conservation,’’ Conservation Bulletin U.S. Govt. Print. Off .), or not italic), Washington, U.S. Dept. of the Interior ( or p. 1). 1997. 1 p. ( Another Government periodical citation would read as follows: Reese, Herbert Harshman, “How To Select a Sound Horse,’’ Farmers’ Bulletin , No. 779, pp. 1–26 (1926), U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Clarity may be maintained by capitalizing each word in book titles, rst word in the title of articles. but only the fi Other examples are: Th e Great Crusade And Aft er: 1914–1928 (New York: Preston W. Slosson, Macmillan, 1940) Edward B. Rosa, “Th e economic importance of the scientifi c work of the government,’’ J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 10, 342 (1920) o r : Preston W. Slosson, Th e Great Crusade and Aft er: 1914–1928 (New York: Macmillan, 1940) e Economic Importance of the Scientifi c Work of the Edward B. Rosa, “Th Government,’’ J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 10, 342 (1920) Note that the principal words in both book titles and titles of arti- cles are capitalized. Consistency is more important in bibliographic style than the style itself. Th e science of bibliography is covered in many texts, and the follow- ing references are available for study: Better Report Writing, by Willis H. Waldo. Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York, 1965. Macmillan Handbook of English, by Robert F. Wilson. Macmillan Co., New York, 1982. Th e Chicago Manual of Style, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2003. Words Into Type, Prentice-Hall, New York, 1974. chapter2.indd 26 chapter2.indd 26 1/27/09 9:59:37 AM 1/27/09 9:59:37 AM

42 3. Capitalization Rules (See also Chapter 4 “Capitalization Examples” and Chapter 9 “Abbreviations and Letter Symbols”) It is impossible to give rules that will cover every conceivable prob- 3.1. lem in capitalization, but, by considering the purpose to be served and the underlying principles, it is possible to attain a considerable degree of uniformity. Th e list of approved forms given in Chapter 4 will serve as a guide. Obviously such a list cannot be complete. Th e correct usage with respect to any term not included can be deter- mined by analogy or by application of the rules. Proper names Proper names are capitalized. 3.2. Macadam Italy Rome John family Anglo-Saxon Brussels Macadam Derivatives of proper names Derivatives of proper names used with a proper meaning are 3.3. capitalized. Roman (of Rome) Johannean Italian 3.4. Derivatives of proper names used with acquired independent com- mon meaning, or no longer identifi ed with such names, are set lowercased. Since this depends upon general and long-continued usage, a more defi nite and all-inclusive rule cannot be formulated in advance. roman (type) italicize macadam (crushed rock) brussels sprouts watt (electric unit) anglicize venetian blinds plaster of paris pasteurize Common nouns and adjectives in proper names A common noun or adjective forming an essential part of a proper 3.5. name is capitalized; the common noun used alone as a substitute for the name of a place or thing is not capitalized. Massachusetts Avenue; the avenue Washington Monument; the monument Statue of Liberty; the statue Hoover Dam; the dam 27

43 28 Chapter 3 Boston Light; the light Modoc National Forest; the national forest Panama Canal; the canal Soldiers’ Home in Holyoke; the soldiers’ home Johnson House (hotel); Johnson house (residence) Crow Reservation; the reservation Cape of Good Hope; the cape Jersey City Wa sh i ng ton Cit y city of Washington; the city but Cook County; the county Great Lakes; the lakes Lake of the Woods; the lake North Platte River; the river Lower California but lower Mississippi Charles the First; Charles I Seventeenth Census; the 1960 census 3.6. If a common noun or adjective forming an essential part of a name becomes separated from the rest of the name by an intervening common noun or adjective, the entire expression is no longer a proper noun and is therefore not capitalized. Union Station: union passenger station Eastern States: eastern farming States United States popularly elected government 3.7. A common noun used alone as a well-known short form of a spe- cifi c proper name is capitalized. the Capitol building in Washington, DC; but State capitol building the Channel (English Channel) the Chunnel (tunnel below English Channel) the District (District of Columbia) 3.8. Th e plural form of a common noun capitalized as part of a proper name is also capitalized. Seventh and I Streets Lakes Erie and Ontario Potomac and James Rivers State and Treasury Departments British, French, and United States Governments Presidents Washington and Adams 3.9. A common noun used with a date, number, or letter, merely to de- note time or sequence, or for the purpose of reference, record, or chapter3.indd 28 chapter3.indd 28 1/13/09 8:41:36 AM 1/13/09 8:41:36 AM

44 Capitalization Rules 29 temporary convenience, does not form a proper name and is there- fore not capitalized. (See also rule 3.38.) gure 7 room A722 abstract B fi rst district (not fi rule 8 act of 1928 amendment 5 congressional) schedule K ight 007 apartment 2 fl section 3 graph 8 signature 4 appendix C article 1 group 7 spring 1926 history 301 station 27 book II mile 7.5 chapter III table 4 page 2 chart B title IV class I paragraph 4 treaty of 1919 collection 6 part I volume X phase 3 column 2 war of 1914 drawing 6 plate IV ward 2 exhibit D region 3 3.10. Th e following terms are lowercased, even with a name or number. aqueduct irrigation project shipway breakwater jetty slip buoy levee spillway turnpike chute lock watershed dike pier dock reclamation project weir drydock ship canal wharf Defi nite article in proper place names To achieve greater distinction or to adhere to the authorized form, 3.11. the the word (or its equivalent in a foreign language) is capitalized cial name or title. When such name or when used as a part of an offi title is used adjectively, is not capitalized, nor is the supplied at the any time when not in copy. British Consul v. Th e Mermaid (title of legal case) Th e Dalles (OR); Th but the Dalles region; the Weirs streets e Weirs (NH); Th but the Hague Court; the Second Hague Conference e Hague; El Salvador; Las Cruces; L’Esterel Th e National Mall; Th e Mall (Washington, DC only) Th e Gambia but the Congo, the Sudan, the Netherlands chapter3.indd 29 chapter3.indd 29 1/13/09 8:41:36 AM 1/13/09 8:41:36 AM

45 30 Chapter 3 Rule 3.11 does not apply in references to newspapers, periodicals, 3.12. vessels, airships, trains, fi rm names, etc. the Washington Post U–3 the Los Angeles the Times the the Federal Express the Atlantic Monthly the Mermaid the National Photo Co. Particles in names of persons 3.13. d’, da, de, della, den, du, van, and In foreign names such particles as are capitalized unless preceded by a forename or title. Individual von usage, if ascertainable, should be followed. Da Ponte; Cardinal da Ponte Den Uyl; Johannes den Uyl; Prime Minister den Uyl Du Pont; E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. Van Rensselaer; Stephen van Rensselaer Von Braun; Dr. Wernher von Braun but d’Orbigny; Alcide d’Orbigny; de la Madrid; Miguel de la Madrid 3.14. In anglicized names such particles are usually capitalized, even if preceded by a forename or title, but individual usage, if ascertain- able, should be followed. Justice Van Devanter; Reginald De Koven Th omas De Quincey; William De Morgan Henry van Dyke (his usage) Samuel F. Du Pont (his usage); Irénée du Pont 3.15. If copy is not clear as to the form of such a name (for example, La Forge or Laforge ), the two-word form should be used. De Kalb County (AL, GA, IL, IN) but DeKalb County (TN) 3.16. In names set in capitals, de, von , etc., are also capitalized. Names of organized bodies 3.17. Th e full names of existing or proposed organized bodies and their shortened names are capitalized; other substitutes, which are most oft en regarded as common nouns, are capitalized only in certain specifi ed instances to indicate preeminence or distinction.

46 Capitalization Rules 31 National governmental units: U.S. Congress: 110th Congress; the Congress; Congress; the Senate; the House; committee (all other con- Committee of the Whole, the Committee; but gressional committees) Department of Agriculture: the Department; Division of Publications, the Division; similarly all major departmental units; legislative, execu- but tive, and judicial departments the agency Bureau of the Census: the Census Bureau, the Bureau; but Environmental Protection Agency: the Agency Geological Survey: the Survey ce: the Printing Offi Government Printing Offi ce ce, the Offi American Embassy, British Embassy: the Embassy; the consulate; the con- but sulate general Treasury of the United States: General Treasury; National Treasury; Public Treasury; the Treasury; Treasury notes; New York Subtreasury, the subtreasury Department of Defense: Military Establishment; Armed Forces; All-Volunteer Forces; armed services but U.S. Army: the Army; All-Volunteer Army; the Infantry; 81st Regiment; Army Establishment; the Army Band; Army offi cer; Regular Army of- fi cer; Reserve offi cer; Volunteer offi cer; but army shoe; Grant’s army; Robinson’s brigade; the brigade; the corps; the regiment; infantryman U.S. Navy: the Navy; the Marine Corps; Navy (Naval) Establishment; Navy but cer; naval station offi cer; naval shipyard; naval offi U.S. Air Force: the Air Force U.S. Coast Guard: the Coast Guard French Ministry of Foreign Aff airs; the Ministry; French Army; British Navy International organizations: United Nations: the Council; the Assembly; the Secretariat Permanent Court of Arbitration: the Court; the Tribunal (only in the proceed- ings of a specifi c arbitration tribunal) Hague Peace Conference of 1907: the Hague Conference; the Peace Conference; the Conference Common-noun substitutes: Virginia General Assembly: the assembly California State Highway Commission: Highway Commission of California; the highway commission; the commission Montgomery County Board of Health: the Board of Health, Montgomery County; the board of health; the board Common Council of the City of Pittsburgh: the common council; the council Buff alo Consumers’ League: the consumers’ league; the league Republican Party: the party chapter3.indd 31 chapter3.indd 31 1/13/09 8:41:36 AM 1/13/09 8:41:36 AM

47 32 Chapter 3 Southern Railroad Co.: the Southern Railroad; Southern Co.; Southern Road; the railroad company; the company Riggs National Bank: the Riggs Bank; the bank Metropolitan Club: the club Yale School of Law: Yale University School of Law; School of Law, Yale Uni- versity; school of law 3.18. Th e names of members and adherents of organized bodies are capi- talized to distinguish them from the same words used merely in a descriptive sense. a Shriner a Boy Scout a Representative (U.S.) a Socialist a Republican a Knight (K.C., K.P., etc.) an Elk an Odd Fellow a Communist a Federalist Names of countries, domains, and administrative divisions Th e offi cial designations of countries, national domains, and their 3.19. principal administrative divisions are capitalized only if used as part of proper names, as proper names, or as proper adjectives. (See Chapter 17, Principal Foreign Countries table.) United States: the Republic; the Nation; the Union; the Government; also Federal, Federal Government; but republic (when not referring specifi - cally to one such entity); republican (in general sense); a nation devoted to peace nite political subdivision of fi New York State: the State, a State (a defi rst rank); State of Veracruz; Balkan States; six States of Australia; State rights; but state (referring to a federal government, the body politic); foreign states; church and state; statehood; state’s evidence Territory (Canada): Yukon, Northwest Territories; the Territory(ies), Terri- torial; but territory of American Samoa, Guam, Virgin Islands Dominion of Canada: the Dominion; but dominion (in general sense) Ontario Province, Province of Ontario: the Province, Provincial; but prov- ince, provincial (in general sense) 3.20. Th commonwealth, confederation (federal), e similar designations government, nation (national), powers, republic, etc., are capitalized only if used as part of proper names, as proper names, or as proper adjectives. British Commonwealth, Commonwealth of Virginia: the Commonwealth; but a commonwealth government (general sense) chapter3.indd 32 chapter3.indd 32 1/13/09 8:41:37 AM 1/13/09 8:41:37 AM

48 Capitalization Rules 33 Swiss Confederation: the Confederation; the Federal Council; the Federal Government; but confederation, federal (in general sense) ench and Italian Governments: the French Government: the Government; Fr Governments; government (in general se nse); the Churchill govern- but ment; European governments Greek nation; American nations Cherokee Nation: the nation; but but national customs c nation); National Government (of any specifi Allied Powers, Allies (in World Wars I and II); but our allies, weaker allies; Central Powers (in World War I); the powers; European powers but Republic of South Africa: the Republic; republic (in general sense) but Names of regions, localities, and geographic features 3.21. A descriptive term used to denote a defi nite region, locality, or geo- graphic feature is a proper name and is therefore capitalized; also for temporary distinction a coined name of a region is capitalized. Middle East the North Atlantic States Middle Eastern the Gulf States the Central States Mideast the Pacifi c Coast States Mideastern (Asia) the Lake States Near East (Balkans, etc.) East North Central States the Promised Land the Continent (continental Europe) Eastern North Central States the Western Hemisphere Far Western States Eastern United States the North Pole the West the North and South Poles the Midwest the Temperate Zone the Middle West the Torrid Zone the Far West the East Side the Eastern Shore (Chesapeake Bay) Lower East Side (sections of the Badlands (SD and NE) a city) the Continental Divide Western Europe, Central Europe) Deep South (political entities) Midsouth but the Far East Far Eastern lower 48 (States) the East the Northeast corridor 3.22. A descriptive term used to denote mere direction or position is not a proper name and is therefore not capitalized. north; south; east; west northerly; northern; northward eastern; oriental; occidental chapter3.indd 33 chapter3.indd 33 1/13/09 8:41:37 AM 1/13/09 8:41:37 AM

49 34 Chapter 3 east Pennsylvania southern California northern Virginia west Florida; but West Florida (1763–1819) eastern region; western region north-central region east coast; eastern seaboard northern Italy southern France but East Germany; West Germany (former political entities) Names of calendar divisions Th e names of calendar divisions are capitalized. 3.23. January; February; March; etc. Monday; Tuesday; Wednesday; etc. spring; summer; autumn (fall); winter but Names of holidays, etc. 3.24. e names of holidays and ecclesiastic feast and fast days are Th capitalized. April Fools’ Day Independence Day Labor Day Arbor Day Armed Forces Day Lincoln’s Birthday Birthday of Martin Luther Memorial Day (also King, Jr. Decoration Day) Christmas Day, Eve Mother’s Day Columbus Day New Year’s Day, Eve Presidents Day Father’s Day Feast of the Passover; the Passover Ramadan Flag Day Rosh Hashanah St. Valentine’s Day Fourth of July; the Fourth Halloween Th anksgiving Day Hanukkah Washington’s Birthday Hogmanay Yom Kippur Inauguration Day (Federal) but election day, primary day chapter3.indd 34 chapter3.indd 34 1/13/09 8:41:37 AM 1/13/09 8:41:37 AM

50 Capitalization Rules 35 Trade names and trademarks 3.25. Trade names, variety names, and names of market grades and brands are capitalized. Some trade names have come into usage as generic terms (e.g., cellophane, thermos, and aspirin); when ref- erence is being made to the formal company or specifi c product name, capitalization should be used. (See Chapter 4 “Capitalization Examples” trade names and trademarks.) Choice lamb (market grade) Xerox (the company) but Red Radiance rose (variety) photocopy (the process) Scientifi c names Th 3.26. e name of a phylum, class, order, family, or genus is capitalized. Th e name of a species is not capitalized, even though derived from a proper name. (See rule 11.9.) Arthropoda (phylum), Crustacea (class), Hypoparia (order), Agnostidae Agnostus (genus) (family), Agnostus canadensis; Aconitum wilsoni; Epigaea repens (genus and species) 3.27. In scientifi c descriptions coined terms derived from proper names are not capitalized. aviculoid menodontine 3.28. Any plural formed by adding s to a Latin generic name is capitalized. Rhynchonellas Spirifers 3.29. In soil science the 12 soil orders are capitalized. (See Chapter 4 “Capitalization Examples” soil orders.) Alfi sols Andisols Aridisols 3.30. Capitalize the names of the celestial bodies as well as the planets. Sun Earth Venus Moon Mercury Mars Jupiter Uranus but the moons of Jupiter Saturn Neptune chapter3.indd 35 chapter3.indd 35 1/13/09 8:41:37 AM 1/13/09 8:41:37 AM

51 36 Chapter 3 Historical or political events Names of historical or political events used as a proper name are 3.31. capitalized. Middle Ages Revolution, the Battle of Bunker Hill Christian Era New Deal American, 1775 D-day New Federalism English, 1688 French, 1789 Dust Bowl New Frontier Prohibition Russian, 1917 Fall of Rome Great Depression Restoration, the V–E Day Reformation War of 1812 Great Society Renaissance Holocaust, the War on Poverty Korean war; cold war; Vietnam war; gulf war but cation Personifi 3.32. A vivid personifi cation is capitalized. e Chair recognizes the gentlewoman from New York; Th but I spoke with the chair yesterday. For Nature wields her scepter mercilessly. All are architects of Fate, Working in these walls of Time. Religious terms 3.33. Words denoting the Deity except who, whose, and whom; names for the Bible and other sacred writings and their parts; names of confessions of faith and of religious bodies and their adherents; and cally denoting Satan are all capitalized. words specifi ee; Th ou; He; Him; but himself; You, Heavenly Father; the Almighty; Lord; Th y, Th ine; [God’s] fatherhood Yo u r ; Th Mass; red Mass; Communion Divine Father; but divine providence; divine guidance; divine service Son of Man; Jesus’ sonship; the Messiah; but a messiah; messiahship; messi- anic; messianize; christology; christological Bible, Holy Scriptures, Scriptures, Word; Koran; also Biblical; Scriptural; Koranic New Testament; Ten Commandments Gospel (memoir of Christ); but gospel music Apostles’ Creed; Augsburg Confession; Th irty-nine Articles Episcopal Church; an Episcopalian; Catholicism; a Protestant Christian; also Christendom; Christianity; Christianize Black Friars; Brother(s); King’s Daughters; Daughter(s); Ursuline Sisters; Sister(s) Satan; the Devil; but a devil; the devils; devil’s advocate chapter3.indd 36 chapter3.indd 36 1/13/09 8:41:37 AM 1/13/09 8:41:37 AM

52 Capitalization Rules 37 Titles of persons 3.34. Civil, religious, military, and professional titles, as well as those of nobility, immediately preceding a name are capitalized. Dr. Bellinger President Bush Nurse Joyce Norton Queen Elizabeth II Ambassador Acton Professor Leverett Lieutenant Fowler Examiner Jones (law) Vice-Presidential candidate Smith Chairman Williams but baseball player Ripken; maintenance man Flow; foreman Collins 3.35. To indicate preeminence or distinction in certain specifi ed in- stances, a common-noun title immediately following the name of a person or used alone as a substitute for it is capitalized. Title of a head or assistant head of state: George W. Bush, President of the United States: the President; the President- elect; the Executive; the Chief Magistrate; the Commander in Chief; ex-President Clinton; former President Truman; similarly the Vice President; the Vice-President-elect; ex-Vice-President Gore Tim Kaine, Governor of Virginia: the Governor of Virginia; the Governor; the Lieutenant Governor; but secretary of state of Idaho; attor- similarly ney general of Maine Title of a head or assistant head of an existing or a proposed National governmental unit: Condoleezza Rice, Secretary of State: the Secretary; similarly the Acting Secretary; the Under Secretary; the Assistant Secretary; the Director; the Chief or Assistant Chief; the Chief Clerk; Secretaries of the military but departments; secretaryship Titles of the military: General of the Army(ies): United States only; Supreme Allied Commander; Admiral Michael Mullen, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff ; Joint Chiefs of ; Chief of Staff Staff ; but the commanding , U.S. Air Force; the Chief of Staff general; general (military title standing alone not capitalized) Titles of members of diplomatic corps: Wa lter S . Gi ff ord, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary: the American Ambassador; the British Ambassador; the Ambassador; the similarly the Envoy Extraordinary Senior Ambassador; His Excellency; and Minister Plenipotentiary; the Envoy; the Minister; the Chargé d’Aff aires; the Chargé; Ambassador at Large; Minister Without Portfolio; but the consul general; the consul; the attaché Title of a ruler or prince: Elizabeth II, Queen of England: the Queen; the Crown; Her Most Gracious Majesty; Her Majesty; similarly the Emperor; the Sultan chapter3.indd 37 chapter3.indd 37 1/13/09 8:41:37 AM 1/13/09 8:41:37 AM

53 38 Chapter 3 Charles, Prince of Wales: the Prince; His Royal Highness Titles not capitalized: Charles F. Hughes, rear admiral, U.S. Navy: the rear admiral Steven Knapp, president of Th e George Washington University: the president C.H. Eckles, professor of dairy husbandry: the professor Barbara Prophet, chairwoman of the committee; the chairman; the chairper- son; the chair 3.36. In formal lists of delegates and representatives of governments, all titles and descriptive designations immediately following the names should be capitalized if any one is capitalized. 3.37. A title in the second person is capitalized. Mr. Chairman but not salutations: Your Excellency Madam Chairman Your Highness my dear General Mr. Secretary my dear sir Your Honor Titles of publications, papers, documents, acts, laws, etc. 3.38. In the full or short English titles of periodicals, series of publica- tions, annual reports, historic documents, and works of art, the fi rst word and all important words are capitalized. Statutes at Large; Revised Statutes; District Code; Bancroft ’s H istor y ; Jou r na l (House or Senate) (short titles); but the code; the statutes Atlantic Charter; Balfour Declaration; but British white paper but Chicago’s American; Chicago American Publishing Co. Reader’s Digest; but New York Times Magazine; Newsweek magazine Monograph 55; Research Paper 123; Bulletin 420; Circular A; Article 15: Un i for m C o d e of M i l it a r y Ju s t ic e ; S e n at e D o c u me nt 70 ; Hou s e Re s olut ion 45; Presidential Proclamation No. 24; Executive Order No. 24; Royal Decree No. 24; Public Law 89–1; Private and Union Calendars; Calendar No. 80; Calendar Wednesday; Committee Print No. 32, committee print; but Senate bill 416; House bill 61; Congressional Record Annual Report of the Public Printer, 2007; but seventh annual report, 19th annual report Declaration of Independence; the Declaration but New Constitution (United States or with name of country); constitutional; York State constitution: fi rst amendment, 12th amendment Kellogg Pact; North Atlantic Pact; Atlantic Pact; Treaty of Versailles; Jay Treaty; but treaty of peace, the treaty (descriptive designations); treaty of 1919 United States v. Four Hundred Twenty-two Casks of Wine (law) American Gothic, Nighthawks (paintings) chapter3.indd 38 chapter3.indd 38 1/13/09 8:41:37 AM 1/13/09 8:41:37 AM

54 Capitalization Rules 39 All principal words are capitalized in titles of addresses, articles, 3.39. books, captions, chapter and part headings, editorials, essays, head- ings, headlines, motion pictures and plays (including television and radio programs), papers, short poems, reports, songs, subheadings, e foregoing are also quoted. subjects, and themes. Th 3.40. In the short or popular titles of acts (Federal, State, or foreign) the fi rst word and all important words are capitalized. Revenue Act; Walsh-Healey Act; Freedom of Information Act; Classifi cation Act; the act; Harrison narcotic law; Harrison narcotic bill; interstate but commerce law; sunset law 3.41. Th e capitalization of the titles of books, etc., written in a foreign language is to conform to the national practice in that language. First words Th e fi rst word of a sentence, of an independent clause or phrase, of a 3.42. direct quotation, of a formally introduced series of items or phrases following a comma or colon, or of a line of poetry, is capitalized. Th e question is, Shall the bill pass? He asked, “And where are you going?’’ rmative, 23; in the negative, 11; not voting, 3. Th e vote was as follows: In the affi Lives of great men all remind us We can make our lives sublime. 3.43. Th e fi rst word of a fragmentary quotation is not capitalized. She objected “to the phraseology, not to the ideas.’’ 3.44. Th rst word following a colon, an exclamation point, or a question e fi mark is not capitalized if the matter following is merely a supple- mentary remark making the meaning clearer. Revolutions are not made: they come. Intelligence is not replaced by mechanism: even the televox must be guided by its master’s voice. But two months dead! nay, not so much; not two. What is this? Your knees to me? to your corrected son? chapter3.indd 39 chapter3.indd 39 1/13/09 8:41:37 AM 1/13/09 8:41:37 AM

55 40 Chapter 3 3.45. e fi rst word following Whereas in resolutions, contracts, etc., is Th rst word following an enacting or resolving not capitalized; the fi clause is capitalized. Whereas the Constitution provides * * *; and erefore be it Whereas, moreover, * * *: Th Whereas the Senate provided for the * * *: Now, therefore, be it Resolved, Th at * * *; and be it further Resolved (jointly), Th at * * * Th at * * *. Resolved by the House of Representatives (the Senate concurring), (Concurrent resolution, Federal Government.) Resolved by the Senate of Oklahoma (the House of Representatives concurring Th at * * *. (Concurrent resolution, using name of State.) therein), Th at * * *. Resolved by the senate (the house of representatives concurring therein), (Concurrent resolution, not using name of State.) Th at * * *. Resolved by the Assembly and Senate of the State of California (jointly), (Joint resolution, using name of State.) Resolved by the Washington Board of Trade, Th at * * * Provided, Th at * * * Th at * * * Provided further, Th at * * * Provided, however, Th at * * * And provided further, Ordered, Th at * * * Be it enacted, Th at * * * Center and side heads 3.46. Unless otherwise marked, centerheads are set in capitals, and side- heads are set in lowercase and only the fi rst word and proper names are capitalized. In centerheads making two lines, wordbreaks should be avoided. Th rst line should be centered and set as full as e fi possible. 3.47. c or ac, if available, is used in such In heads set in caps, a small-cap names as McLean or MacLeod ; otherwise a lowercase c or ac is used. In heads set in small caps, a thin space is used aft c or the ac. er the 3.48. In such names as LeRoy, DeHostis, LaFollette , etc. (one-word forms only), set in caps, the second letter of the particle is made a small cap, if available; otherwise lowercase is used. In heads set in small caps, a thin space is used. (See rule 3.15.) 3.49. In matter set in caps and small caps or caps and lowercase, capital- ize all principal words, including parts of compounds which would chapter3.indd 40 chapter3.indd 40 1/13/09 8:41:37 AM 1/13/09 8:41:37 AM

56 Capitalization Rules 41 e articles a, an the; the prepo- be capitalized standing alone. Th , and , and and, as, but, the conjunctions at, by, for, in, of, on, to sitions up; , and and the second element of a compound numeral are if, or nor; not capitalized. (See also rule 8.129.) World en Route to All-Out War Curfew To Be Set for 10 o’Clock Man Hit With 2-Inch Pipe No-Par-Value Stock for Sale Yankees May Be Winners in Zig-Zag Race Ex-Senator Is To Be Admitted Notice of Filing and Order on Exemption From Requirements but Building on Twenty-fi rst Street (if spelled) One Hundred Twenty-three Years (if spelled) Only One-tenth of Shipping Was Idle Many 35-Millimeter Films in Production Built-Up Stockpiles Are Necessary ( Up is an adverb here) His Per Diem Was Increased ( Per Diem is used as a noun here); Lower Taxes per Person ( per is a preposition here) 3.50. If a normally lowercased short word is used in juxtaposition with a cance, it should also be capitalized. capitalized word of like signifi Buildings In and Near the Minneapolis Mall 3.51. In a heading set in caps and lowercase or in caps and small caps, a normally lowercased last word, if it is the only lowercased word in the heading, should also be capitalized. All Returns Are In 3.52. Th e fi rst element of an infi nitive is capitalized. Controls To Be Applied but Aid Sent to Disaster Area 3.53. In matter set in caps and small caps, such abbreviations as etc., et al., and p.m. are set in small caps; in matter set in caps and lowercase, these abbreviations are set in lowercase. Planes, Guns, Ships, etc. In re the 8 p.m. Meeting Planes, Guns, Ships, etc. In re the 8 p.m. Meeting James Bros. et al. (no comma) James Bros. et al. chapter3.indd 41 chapter3.indd 41 1/13/09 8:41:38 AM 1/13/09 8:41:38 AM

57 42 Chapter 3 3.54. Paragraph series letters in parentheses appearing in heads set in caps, caps and small caps, small caps, or in caps and lowercase are to be set as in copy. section 1.580(f)(1) Addresses, salutations, and signatures Th 3.55. rst word and all principal words in addresses, salutations, and e fi signatures are capitalized. See Chapter 16 “Datelines, Addresses, and Signatures.’’ Interjections 3.56. Th e interjection “O” is always capitalized. Interjections within a sentence are not capitalized. Sail on, O Ship of State! For lo! the days are hastening on. But, oh, how fortunate! Historic or documentary accuracy 3.57. Where historic, documentary, technical, or scientifi c accuracy is re- quired, capitalization and other features of style of the original text should be followed. chapter3.indd 42 chapter3.indd 42 1/13/09 8:41:38 AM 1/13/09 8:41:38 AM

58 4. Capitalization Examples Administration, with name; capitalized A standing alone if Federal unit: A-bomb Farmers Home abstract B, 1, etc. Food and Drug Academy: Maritime Air Force; the Academy Transportation Security Andover; the academy but Bush administration; Coast Guard; the Academy administration bill, policy, etc. Merchant Marine; the Academy Administrative Law Judge Davis; Judge Military; the Academy Davis; an administrative law judge National Academy of Sciences; the Admiralty, British, etc. Academy of Sciences; the academy Admiralty, Lord of the Naval; the Academy Adobe Acrobat Reader service academies but Adviser, Legal (Department of State) see Agreement) accord, Paris peace ( Africa: accords, Helsinki east Act (Federal, State, or foreign), short or East Coast popular title or with number; the act: north Appropriations South cation Classifi South-West (Territory of) Clear Skies We st C oa st Economy Black; Negro) see African-American ( Flood Control Agency, if part of name; capitalized Military Selective Service standing alone if referring to Behind No Child Left Federal unit: Organic Act of Virgin Islands Central Intelligence; the Agency Panama Canal Chippewa (Indian); the agency PAT R IO T agent orange Revenue Age(s): Sarbanes-Oxley Age of Discovery Stockpiling Dark Ages Ta r i ff Elizabethan Age Tradema rk Golden Age (of Pericles only) Wa lsh-Hea ley Ac t ; Wa lsh-Hea ley but Middle Ages law (or bill) but atomic age; Cambrian age; copper act, labor-management relations age; ice age; missile age; rocket age; Acting, if part of capitalized title space age; stone age; etc. Active Duty Agreement, with name; the agreement: see Adjutant General, the ( Th e) General Agreement on Tariff s and Trade (GATT); the general agreement 43 chapter4.indd 43 chapter4.indd 43 2/4/09 3:48:00 PM 2/4/09 3:48:00 PM

59 44 Chapter 4 North Atlantic Treaty Organization International Wheat Agreement; the ( see Organization) ee agreement wheat agreement; the coff We ster n Powers North American Free-Trade Allied (World Wars I and II): Agreement (NAFTA) armies but status-of-forces Status of Forces; Governments agreements Nations United States-Canada Free-Trade peoples Agreement; the free-trade agreement but Powers; the powers; European the Geneva agreement; the Potsdam but powers agreement; Paris peace agreement Supreme Allied Commander Air Force: Allies, the (World Wars I and II); also National) Air National Guard ( see members of Western bloc (political see Base (with name); Air Force base ( our allies; weaker allies, but entity); Base; Station) etc. Civil Air Patrol; Civil Patrol; the patrol Al Qaeda Command) see Command ( Alzheimer’s disease One (Presidential plane) Ambassador: Reserve British, etc.; the Ambassador; the cers’ Training Corps Reserve Offi Senior Ambassador; His Excellency Airport: La Guardia; Reagan National; Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary; the airport the Ambassador; Ambassador at Al Jazeera Large; an ambassador Alaska Native (collective term for Aleuts, amendment: Eskimos, Inuits, and Indians of Baker amendment Alaska): Social Security Amendments of 1983; the Native; but Ohio native, a 1983 amendments; the Social Security native of Alaska, etc. amendments; the amendments Alliance, Farmers’, etc.; the alliance to the Constitution (U.S.); but First powers): also see alliances and coalitions ( Amendment, 14th Amendment, etc.; Allied Powers; the powers (World the Amendment Wars I and II) American: Atlantic alliance Federation of Labor and Congress of Axis, the; Axis Powers; the powers Industrial Organizations (AFL−CIO); Benelux (Belgium, Netherlands, the federation Luxembourg) Gold Star Mothers, Inc.; Gold Star c Big Four (European); of the Pacifi Mothers; a Mother Big Th ree see Legion) Legion ( Central Powers; the powers (World National Red Cross; the Red Cross War I) Veterans of World War II (AMVETS) Coalition of the Willing War Mothers; a Mother European Economic Community AmeriCorps Program Fritalux (France, Italy, Benelux Amtrak (National Railroad Passenger countries) Corporation) chapter4.indd 44 chapter4.indd 44 2/4/09 3:48:01 PM 2/4/09 3:48:01 PM

60 Capitalization Examples 45 Amphitheater; the amphitheater Ancient Free and Accepted Masons; a Bridge) see Memorial Bridge ( Mason; a Freemason see National Cemetery ( Cemetery) Annex, if part of name of building; the Arm, Infantry, etc. (military); the arm annex Armed Forces (synonym for overall Antarctic Ocean ( see Arctic; Ocean) Military Establishment): but appendix 1, A, II, etc.; the appendix; British Appendix II, when part of title: 1 Retirement Home (AFRT) Appendix II: Education Directory of the United States bill): appropriation bill ( see also armed services defi ciency armistice Department of Agriculture Armory, Springfi eld, etc.; the armory for any governmental unit Army, American or foreign, if part of name; ces independent offi capitalized standing alone only if aquaculture; acquiculture referring to U.S. Army: Arab States Active; Active-Duty Arabic numerals Adjutant General, the Arboretum, National; the Arboretum All-Volunteer Archipelago, Philippine, etc.; the Band) see Band ( archipelago branches; Gordon Highlanders; Royal Architect of the Capitol; the Architect Guards; etc. Archivist of the United States; the Archivist Brigade, 1st, etc.; the brigade; Arctic: Robinson’s brigade Circle Command) see Command ( see Current ( Current) Command and General Staff College Ocean ( see College) zone Company A; A Company; the company but subarctic Confederate (referring to Southern arctic (descriptive adjective): Confederacy); the Confederates clothing Continental; Continentals conditions see Corps, Reserve ( Corps) fox District of Washington (military); the grass district night Division, 1st, etc.; the division seas Engineers (the Corps of Engineers); the Area, if part of name; the area: Engineers; Army engineer but Cape Hatteras Recreational Establishment White Pass Recreation; etc. Field Establishment area 2; free trade area; Metropolitan but Forces) Field Forces ( see Washington area; bay area; Finance Department; the Department nonsmoking area 1st, etc. Arlington: General of the Army; but the general Memorial Amphitheater; the Memorial 1 Th e colon is preferred; a dash is permissible; but a comma is too weak. chapter4.indd 45 chapter4.indd 45 2/4/09 3:48:01 PM 2/4/09 3:48:01 PM

61 46 Chapter 4 see Astrophysical Observatory ( ; the Staff General Staff Observatory) Headquarters, 1st Regiment see Atlantic ( c): Pacifi also Headquarters of the; the headquarters see Charter) Charter ( Regiment, 1st, etc.; the regiment coast Regular Army offi cer; a Regular Coast States Revolutionary (American, British, community French, etc.) otilla; Destroyer Flotilla; the destroyer fl service otilla the fl see Surgeon General, the ( Surgeon Fleet ( Fleet) see General) mid-Atlantic Volunteer; the Volunteers; a Volunteer North army: seaboard Lee’s army; Clark’s 5th Army but slope mobile South mule, shoe, etc. time) see time, standard time ( of occupation; occupation army but cisatlantic; transatlantic Red Attorney General (U.S. or foreign country); Arsenal, Rock Island, etc.; the arsenal attorney general of Maine, etc. but Article 15, when part of title: article 15; but attorney, U.S. Article 15: Uniform Code of Authority, capitalized standing alone if Military Justice referring to Federal unit: Articles: National Shipping; the Authority of Confederation (U.S.) Port Authority of New York and New of Impeachment; the articles Jersey; the port authority; the Asian ( see Orient, the; oriental) authority Assembly ( United Nations) see St. Lawrence Seaway Authority of see Assembly of New York; the assembly ( Canada; the authority also Legislative Assembly) Te n n e s Valley; the Authority see Assistant, if part of capitalized title; the Auto Train (Amtrak) assistant autumn Presidential) see assistant, Presidential ( Avenue, Constitution, etc.; the avenue Secretary) see Assistant Secretary ( Awa rd: Associate Justice ( see Supreme Court) Academy Association, if part of name; capitalized Distinguished Service standing alone if referring to Merit Federal unit: Mother of the Year American Association for the decorations, etc.) the award ( see also Advancement of Science; the see Axis, the ( alliances) association Ayatollah; an ayatollah Federal National Mortgage (Fannie Mae); the Association B Young Women’s Christian; the Badlands (SD and NE) association Balkan States ( see States) chapter4.indd 46 chapter4.indd 46 2/4/09 3:48:01 PM 2/4/09 3:48:01 PM

62 Capitalization Examples 47 eld, Bull Run, etc. battlefi Baltic States ( States) see battleground, Manassas, etc. Band, if part of name; the band: Bay, San Francisco Bay area; the bay area Army, Marine, Navy Belt, if part of name; the belt: Eastern, etc. (of Cherokee Indians) Bible Bank, if part of name; the bank; capitalized Farm standing alone if referring to Rust international bank: Sun Export-Import Bank of the United States; but money belt Ex-Im Bank; the Bank Beltway, capitalized with name; the beltway Farm Loan Bank of Dallas; Dallas Farm Supreme Bench) Bench ( see Loan Bank; farm loan bank; farm loan see Benelux ( alliances) bank at Dallas Bible; Biblical; Scriptures; Ten Farmers & Mechanics, etc. Commandments; etc. ( see also book) Federal Land Bank of Louisville; bicentennial Louisville Federal Land Bank; land bill, Kiess; Senate bill 217; House bill 31 ( see bank at Louisville; Federal land bank appropriation bill) also Federal Reserve Bank of New York; Bill of Rights (historic document); but GI Richmond Federal Reserve Bank; bill of rights but Reserve bank at Richmond; Bizonia; bizonal; bizone Federal Reserve bank; Reserve Black ( see African-American; Negro) bank; Reserve city see Black Caucus ( Congressional) First National, etc. bloc ( We ster n) see German Central; the Bank block (grants) International Bank for Reconstruction Bluegrass region, etc. and Development; the Bank B’nai B’rith but blood bank, central reserve, soil bank Board, if part of name; capitalized standing Bar, if part of name; Maryland (State) Bar alone only if referring to Federal or Association; Maryland (State) bar; the international board: State bar; the bar association Employees’ Compensation Appeals Barracks, if part of name; the barracks: Federal) see Federal Reserve ( Carlisle Military Production and Supply Disciplinary (Leavenworth) (NATO) Marine (District of Columbia) National Labor Relations A barracks; barracks A; etc. but board of of Directors (Federal unit); but Base, Andrews Air Force; Air Force base; directors (nongovernmental) see Sandia the base ( also Naval); but of Health of Montgomery County; Base Montgomery County Board of Health; see geographic terms) Basin ( the board of health; the board Battery, the (New York City) of Regents (Smithsonian) Battle, if part of name; the battle: of Visitors (Military and Naval battle at Gettysburg; but of Gettysburg; Academies) etc. on Geographic Names of the Bulge; of the Marne; of the Railroad Retirement Wilderness; of Waterloo; etc. chapter4.indd 47 chapter4.indd 47 2/4/09 3:48:01 PM 2/4/09 3:48:01 PM

63 48 Chapter 4 Budget of the United States Government, bond: the Budget (publication) Government Building, if part of name; the building: savings Capitol Building) see Capitol ( series EE Colorado Treasur y ce House (or Senate) Offi book: Investment books of the Bible New House (or Senate) Offi ce First Book of Samuel; etc. Old House Offi ce Good Book (synonym for Bible) Pentagon but Book 1, when part of title: book 1, I, etc.; the National Archives; the Archives e Golden Legend Book 1: Th Treasur y; Treasur y A nnex Boolean: Bulletin 420; Farmers’ Bulletin No. 420 logic Bureau, if part of name; capitalized operator standing alone if referring to Federal search or international unit: border, United States-Mexican of Customs (name changed to U.S. Borough, if part of name: Borough of the Customs and Border Protection) Bronx; the borough of Engraving and Printing Botanic Garden (National); the garden (not of Indian Aff airs Botanical Gardens) Bowl, Dust, Rose, Super, etc.; the bowl C Boy Scouts (the organization); a Boy Scout; C−SPAN a Scout; Scouting; Eagle Scout; Cabinet, American or foreign, if part of Explorer Scout see also name or standing alone ( Branch, if part of name; capitalized foreign cabinets): standing alone only if referring to a British Cabinet; the Cabinet Federal unit: the President’s Cabinet; the Cabinet; Accounts cer, member Cabinet offi Public Buildings Calendar, if part of name; the calendar: but executive, judicial, or legislative Consent; etc. branch House Bridge, if part of name; the bridge: No. 99; Calendars Nos. 1 and 2 Arlington Memorial; Memorial; of Bills and Resolutions Francis Scott Key; Key Private but Baltimore & Ohio Railroad bridge Senate Brother(s) (adherent of religious order) Unanimous Consent budget: Union department Wednesday (legislative) estimate see Ages) Cambrian age ( Federal Camp Lejeune; David, etc.; the camp message Canal, with name; the canal: performance-type Cross-Florida Barge President’s chapter4.indd 48 chapter4.indd 48 2/4/09 3:48:01 PM 2/4/09 3:48:01 PM

64 Capitalization Examples 49 the 23d and subsequent decennial Isthmian censuses Panama Center, if part of name; the Center see geographic terms) Cape ( (Federal); the center (non-Federal): Capital, Capital City, National Capital Agricultural Research, etc.; the Center (Washington, DC); but the capital (Federal) (State) Kennedy Center for the Performing Capitol Building (with State name); the Arts; the Kennedy Center; the capitol Center (Federal) Capitol, the (Washington, DC): the Lincoln Center; the center (non- Architect of Federal) Building central Asia, etc. caucus room Central America Chamber Central Europe Cloakroom Central States dome see central time ( time) Grounds century, fi rst, 21st, etc. Halls (House and Senate) ed Chair, the, if personifi Halls of Congress Chairman, Chairwoman, Chair: Hill; the Hill of the Board of Directors; the Police ( see Police) chairman of but Chairman (Federal); Power Plant the board of directors (non-Federal) Prayer Room of the Committee of the Whole House; Press Gallery, etc. the Chairman rotunda of the Federal Trade Commission; the Senate wing Chairman stationery room Vice Statuary Hall chairman, chairwoman, chair the well (House or Senate) (congressional): west front of the Appropriations Committee catch-22 of the Subcommittee on Banking Caucasian ( see White) Chairman Davis, Chairwoman but caucus: Republican; but Congressional Landrieu Black Caucus (incorporated name); Chamber of Commerce; the chamber: Sun Belt Caucus of Ada; Ada Chamber of Commerce; CD−ROM the chamber of commerce Cemetery, if part of name: Arlington of the United States; U.S. Chamber of National; the cemetery Commerce; the chamber of Census: commerce; national chamber Twenty-third Decennial (title); Chamber, the (Senate or House) Twenty-third (title); the census channel 3 (TV); the channel 2000 census Chaplain (House or Senate); but Navy 2000 Census of Agriculture; the census chaplain of agriculture; the census chapter4.indd 49 chapter4.indd 49 2/4/09 3:48:01 PM 2/4/09 3:48:01 PM

65 50 Chapter 4 Latin Quarter (Paris) but Chapter 5, when chapter 5, II, etc.; North End part of title: Chapter 5: Research and Northwest Washington, etc. (District Development; Washington chapter, but of Columbia); the Northwest; Red Cross northwest (directional) aires, British, etc.; the Chargé Chargé d’Aff the Loop (Chicago) aires; the Chargé d’Aff City, if part of corporate or popular name; chart 2, A, II, etc.; but Chart 2, when part of the city: legend: Chart 2.—Army strength Kansas City; the two Kansas Citys Charter, capitalized with name; the charter: Mexico City Atlantic New York City; but city of New York United Nations Tw i n C i t i e s cheese: Camembert, Cheddar, Parmesan, Wa sh i ng ton Cit y ; but city of Washington Provolone, Roquefort, etc. Windy City (Chicago) Chief, if referring to head of Federal unit; Bank) see but Reserve city ( the Chief: civil action No. 46 Clerk civil defense see Forester) Forester ( Civil War ( see Wa r) Intelligence Offi ce Clan, if part of tribal name; Clan Judge MacArthur; the clan Justice (U.S. Supreme Court); but chief class 2, A, II, etc.; Class 2 when part of but justice (of a State) title: Class 2: Leather Products Magistrate (the President) Clerk, the, of the House of Representatives; of Division of Publications of the Supreme Court of the United of Engineers (Army) States of Naval Operations clerk, the, of the Senate of Staff client Christian; Christendom; Christianity; client/server christen Christianize; but coal sizes: pea, barley, buckwheat, stove, etc. church and state coalition; coalition force; coalition church calendar: members, etc. Christmas coast: Atlantic, east, gulf, west, etc. Easter Coast Guard, U.S.; the Coast Guard; Lent a but Coastguardsman Smith; Pentecost (Whitsuntide) coastguardsman; a guardsman; Church, if part of name of organization or Reserve building Coastal Plain (Atlantic and Gulf ) Circle, if part of name; the circle: Code (in shortened title of a publication); Arctic the code: Logan District but great circle Federal Criminal Circular 420 Internal Revenue ( also Ta x C ode) cities, sections of, offi cial or popular names: International (signal) East Side of Federal Regulations French Quarter (New Orleans) chapter4.indd 50 chapter4.indd 50 2/4/09 3:48:01 PM 2/4/09 3:48:01 PM

66 Capitalization Examples 51 of Fine Arts Penal; Criminal; etc. Public Buildings Pennsylvania State Commissioner, if referring to Federal or Radio international commission; the Te l e v i s i o n Commissioner: Uniform Code of Military Justice Land Bank; but land bank United States commissioner loans ZIP Code (copyrighted) of Customs and Border Protection but civil code; fl ag code; Morse code U.S. (International Boundary codel (congressional delegation) Commission, etc.) collection, Brady, etc.; the collection but a U.S. commissioner collector of customs Committee (or Subcommittee) (if part of College, if part of name; the college: name; the Committee, if referring to Armed Forces Staff international or noncongressional Command and General Staff Federal committee or to the Gettysburg Committee of the Whole, the National War Committee of the Whole House, or of Bishops the Committee of the Whole House on electoral college but the state of the Union): college degrees: bachelor of arts, master’s, American Medical Association etc. Committee on Education; the but Colonials (American Colonial Army); committee on education; the colonial times, etc. committee Colonies, the: Appropriations, etc.; the committee; irteen Th Subcommittee on Appropriations; the irteen American Th subcommittee; subcommittee of the Th irteen Original Appropriations Committee but 13 separate Colonies Democratic National; the national colonists, the committee; the committee; Command, capitalize with name; the Democratic national committeeman command: Democratic policy committee; the Air Force Materiel committee Army Joint Committee on Printing; the Joint Central (CENCOM) Committee; the committee; but a joint Naval Space committee Zone of Interior of Defense Ministers (NATO); the Commandant, the (Coast Guard or Marine Corps only) see Organization, Committee ( also Commandos, the; Commando raid; a North Atlantic Treaty) commando of One Hundred, etc.; the committee Commission (if part of name; capitalized on Finance; the committee standing alone if referring to Federal President’s Advisory Committee on or international commission): Management; the Committee International Boundary, United States Republican National; the national and Canada committee; the committee; chapter4.indd 51 chapter4.indd 51 2/4/09 3:48:01 PM 2/4/09 3:48:01 PM

67 52 Chapter 4 Conference, if referring to governmental Republican national committeeman (U.S.) or international conference: Republican policy committee; the Bretton Woods; the Conference committee Judicial Conference of the United Senate policy committee States; U.S. Judicial Conference; Subcommittee on Immigration; the Judicial Conference; the Conference subcommittee Tenth Annual Conference of the but Baker committee United Methodist Churches; the ad hoc committee conference conference committee Congress (convention), if part of name; Committee Print No. 32; Committee Prints capitalized standing alone if referring Nos. 8 and 9; committee print to international congress: Common Cause Library of Commonwealth: of Industrial Organizations British Commonwealth; the of Parents and Teachers, National; the Commonwealth congress of Australia Congress (legislature), if referring to of Kentucky national congress: of Massachusetts of Bolivia, etc.; the Congress of Pennsylvania of the United States; First, Second, of Virginia 10th, 103d, etc.; the Congress Communist Party; a Communist Congressional: sheries, etc.; the compact, U.S. marine fi Black Caucus; the Black Caucus; the compact caucus Company, if part of name; capitalized Directory, the directory standing alone if referring to unit of District, First, 10th, etc.; the First Federal Government: District; the congressional district; the Panama Canal Railway Company; the district Company see Medal of Honor ( decorations) Procter & Gamble Co.; the company but congressional action, committee, etc. Comptroller of the Currency; the Congressman; Congresswoman; Comptroller Congressman at Large; Member of Comptroller General (U.S.); the Congress; Member; membership Comptroller Conservative Party; a Conservative Comsat Constitution, with name of country; Concord capitalized standing alone when Confederacy (of the South) referring to a specifi c national Confederate: New York State constitution; but Army Constitution; the constitution fl ag constitutional Government consul, British, general, etc. soldier consulate, British, etc. States Confederation, Articles of chapter4.indd 52 chapter4.indd 52 2/4/09 3:48:01 PM 2/4/09 3:48:01 PM

68 Capitalization Examples 53 Chemical Consumer Price Index (offi cial title); the diplomatic price index; the index; but a Finance consumers’ price index (descriptive) Foreign see cer ( Foreign Service Offi Continent, only if following name; Service) North American Continent; the Job continent; but the Continent Judge Advocate General’s (continental Europe) Marine ( see Marine Corps) Continental: Medical Army; the Army Military Police Congress; the Congress Nurse Divide) see Divide ( of Cadets (West Point) Outer Continental Shelf of Engineers; Army Engineers; the Shelf; the shelf; a continental shelf Army engineer; the but Engineers; continental Europe, United States, etc. corps Continentals (Revolutionary soldiers) Ordnance Convention, governmental (U.S.), Peace; Peace Corpsman; the corpsman international, or national political; Quartermaster the convention: Reserve Offi cers’ Training (ROTC) 89th National Convention of the VII Corps, etc. American Legion Signal Constitutional (United States, 1787); Tra nspor tat ion the Convention Yo u t h Democratic National; Democratic diplomatic corps but Genocide (international) corpsman; hospital corpsman on International Civil Aviation corridor, Northeast Republican National; Republican Council, if part of name; capitalized Universal Postal Union; Postal Union standing alone if referring to Federal also International Postal; Warsaw or international unit ( United see also Ages) copper age ( see Nations): Corporation, if part of name; the Boston City; the council Corporation, if referring to unit of Choctaw, etc.; the council Federal Government: Her Majesty’s Privy Council; the Privy Commodity Credit Council; the Council Federal Deposit Insurance National Security; the Council National Railroad Passenger (Amtrak) of Foreign Ministers (NATO); the Rand Corp.; the corporation Council St. Lawrence Seaway Development of the Organization of American States; Union Carbide Corp.; the corporation the Council Virgin Islands Philadelphia City; the council Corps, if part of name; the corps, all other counsel; general counsel uses: County, Prince George’s; county of Prince Adjutant General’s George’s; County Kilkenny, etc.; Army Reserve chapter4.indd 53 chapter4.indd 53 2/4/09 3:48:02 PM 2/4/09 3:48:02 PM

69 54 Chapter 4 Japan Loudoun and Fairfax Counties; the North Equatorial county customhouse; customs offi cial Court (of law) capitalized if part of name; czar; czarist capitalized standing alone if referring to the Supreme Court of the United D States, to the Court of Impeachment Dalai Lama (U.S. Senate), or to an international Dalles, Th the Dalles region but e; court: Ages) see Dark Ages ( Circuit Court of the United States for the Daughters of the American Revolution; Tenth Circuit; Circuit Court for the a Daughter Tenth Circuit; the circuit court; the daylight saving time court; the tenth circuit Declaration, capitalized with name: Court of Appeals for the State of North of Independence; the Declaration Carolina, etc.; the Tenth Circuit Court of Panama; the declaration of Appeals; the court of appeals; the decorations, medals, etc., awarded by court United States or any foreign national Court of Claims; the court government; the medal, the cross, the Court of Impeachment, the Senate; the also see ribbon ( Awa rd): Court Air Medal District Court of the United States for Bronze Star Medal the Eastern District of Missouri; the Commendation Ribbon district court; the court Congressional Medal of Honor International Court of Justice; the Court Croix de Guerre Permanent Court of Arbitration; the Distinguished Flying Cross Court Distinguished Service Cross Superior Court of the District of Distinguished Service Medal Columbia; the superior court; the Good Conduct Medal court Legion of Merit see Supreme Court of the United States ( Medal for Merit Supreme Court) Medal of Freedom Supreme Court of Virginia, etc.; the Medal of Honor supreme court; the court Mother of the Year Tax Court; the court Purple Heart U.S. Court of Appeals for the District Silver Star Medal of Columbia; the court Soldier’s Medal Covenant, League of Nations; the covenant Victoria Cross Creed, Apostles’; the Creed Victory Medal crown but Crown, if referring to a ruler; oakleaf cluster but colony, lands, etc. Carnegie Medal; Olympic Gold also cruise missile Medal; but gold medal Current, if part of name; the current: Decree ( see Executive); Royal Decree Arctic Deep South Humboldt chapter4.indd 54 chapter4.indd 54 2/4/09 3:48:02 PM 2/4/09 3:48:02 PM

70 55 Capitalization Examples diesel engine, dieselize nelson, half nelson, etc. Defense Establishment ( Establishment) see dixie cup neon light Deity, words denoting, capitalized dotted swiss newton epsom salt nissen hut Delegate (U.S. Congress) fedora hat norfolk jacket Delegates, Virginia House of frankfurter oriental rug french chalk oxford shoe delegate (to a conference); the delegate; the french dressing panama hat delegation french-fried potatoes parianware fuller’s earth paris green Delta, Mississippi River; the delta gargantuan parkerhouse roll Democratic Party; a Democrat gauss pasteurized milk georgette crepe persian lamb Department, if part of name; capitalized german silver petri dish standing alone if referring to a Federal gilbert pharisaic glauber salt philistine or international unit: gothic type photostat of Agriculture graham cracker pitman arm herculean task pitot tube of the Treasury hessian fl y plaster of paris airs of Veterans Aff holland cloth prussian blue hoolamite detector quisling Yale University Department of hudson seal (fur) quixotic idea Economics; the department of india ink quonset hut india rubber rembert wheel economics; the department italic type roentgen Department of New York, American jamaica ginger roman candle japan varnish roman cement Legion jersey fabric roman type department: johnin test russia leather joule russian bath executive knickerbocker rutherford judicial kraft paper sanforize lambert saratoga chips legislative leghorn hat scotch plaid, but Depot, if part of name; the depot ( also see levant leather Scotch tape levantine silk (t radema rk) Station) lilliputian shanghai Depression, Great logan tent siamese twins london purple spanish omelet Deputy, if part of capitalized title; the but lyonnaise potatoes stillson wrench deputy macadamized road surah silk mach (no period) swiss cheese derivatives of proper names: number timothy grass alaska seal (fur) burley tobacco madras cloth turkey red angora wool canada balsam maginot line turkish towel angstrom unit (microscopy) (nonlitera l) utopia, utopian argyle wool carlsbad twins manila paper vandyke collar artesian well (petrography) maraschino cherry vaseline astrakhan fabric cashmere shawl mason jar venetian blind babbitt metal castile soap maxwell venturi tube benday process cesarean section melba toast victoria (carriage) bologna chantilly lace mercerized fabric vienna bread bordeaux chesterfi eld coat merino sheep virginia reel bourbon whiskey china clay molotov cocktail wedgwoodware bowie knife chinese blue morocco leather wheatstone bridge braille collins (drink) morris chair wilton rug brazil nut congo red murphy bed zeppelin brazilwood cordovan leather navy blue brewer’s yeast coulomb bristolboard curie dial-up brussel sprouts degaussing apparatus Diet, Japanese (legislative body) brussels carpet ware delft bunsen burner derby hat diplomatic corps ( see also Corps; service) chapter4.indd 55 chapter4.indd 55 2/4/09 3:48:02 PM 2/4/09 3:48:02 PM

71 56 Chapter 4 e National; Th e Mall Mall, Th Director, if referring to head of Federal or Mayor (when pertaining to the District international unit; the Director: of Columbia only) District Director of Internal Revenue Metropolitan Police; Metropolitan of Fish and Wildlife Service policeman; the police of National Geodetic Survey police court of the Mint Public Library; the library Offi ce of Management and Budget ecting Pool; the pool Refl but director, board of directors Tidal Basin; the basin (nongovernmental) Washington Channel; the channel Director General of Foreign Service; the Divide, Continental (Rocky Mountains); Director General; the Director the divide diseases and related terms: divine guidance, divine but Divine Father; ciency AIDS (acquired immunodefi providence, divine service syndrome) Division, Army, if part of name: 1st Cavalry Alzheimer’s disease Division; 1st Air Cavalry Division; the cerebral palsy division Down syndrome Division, if referring to Federal German measles governmental unit; the Division: ciency virus) HIV (human immunodefi Buick Division; the division; a division Hodgkin’s disease of General Motors Lyme disease Passport; the Division Marfan’s syndrome but Trinity River division Ménierè’s syndrome (reclamation); the division myasthenia gravis Dixie Parkinson’s disease docket No. 66; dockets Nos. 76 and 77 Reye’s syndrome Doctrine, Monroe; the doctrine; but spina bifi da Truman, Eisenhower doctrine Distinguished Service Medal, etc. ( see doctrine, fairness decorations) Document, if part of name; the document: District, if part of name; the district: Document No. 130 Alexandria School District No. 4; Document Numbered One Hundred school district No. 4 Th irty Congressional (with number) draconian Federal) see Federal ( but drawing II, A, 3, etc.; Drawing 2 when Los Angeles Water; the water district part of title: Drawing 2.— customs district No. 2; fi but rst assembly Hydroelectric Power Development district; public utility district Bowl) see Dust Bowl ( District of Columbia; the District: ats Anacostia Flats; the fl E Arlington Memorial Bridge; the Earth (planet) Memorial Bridge; the bridge East: Children’s Hospital; the hospital Coast (Africa) District jail; the jail; DC jail Middle, Mideast (Asia) Ellipse, the chapter4.indd 56 chapter4.indd 56 2/4/09 3:48:02 PM 2/4/09 3:48:02 PM

72 Capitalization Examples 57 Army Field Near (Balkans) Defense Side of New York Federal South Central States Military the East (section of United States) but Naval; naval establishment; east: Naval Establishments Regs Africa Navy coast (U.S.) Postal Pennsylvania Regular Eastern: Reserve Gulf States Shore Middle, Mideastern (Asia) civil establishment; legislative but North Central States establishment Shore (Chesapeake Bay) Estate, Girard (a foundation); the estate States estate, third (the commons); fourth United States (the press); tax; etc. eastern: Eurodollar, euro France Excellency, His, Her; Th eir Excellencies seaboard Exchange, New York Stock; the stock Wisconsin exchange; the exchange easterner Executive (President of United States): EE-bond Chief electoral college; the electors but Decree No. 100; Decree 100; Ages) see Elizabethan Age ( Executive decree; direction email (lowercase within a sentence) Mansion; the mansion; the White House Email (uppercase “E’’ to start a sentence) Offi ce; the Offi ce see Emancipation Proclamation ( but Executive Order No. 34; Order 34; Proclamation) order Embassy, British, etc.; the Embassy power Emperor, Japanese, etc.; the Emperor executive: Empire, Roman; the empire agreement Engine Company, Bethesda; engine branch company No. 6; No. 6 engine communication company; the company department Engineer offi cer, etc. (of Engineer Corps); document the Engineers paper Engineers, Chief of (Army) privilege see Engineers, Corps of ( Corps) exhibit 2, A, II, etc.; but Exhibit 2, when Envoy Extraordinary and Minister part of title: Exhibit 2: Capital Plenipotentiary; the Envoy; the Expenditures, 1935−49 Minister Expedition, Byrd; Lewis and Clark; the Equator, the; equatorial expedition Establishment, if part of name; the Exposition, California-Pacifi c establishment: International, etc.; the exposition Army chapter4.indd 57 chapter4.indd 57 2/4/09 3:48:02 PM 2/4/09 3:48:02 PM

73 58 Chapter 4 Coldwell Banker F Colgate-Palmolive Co. Fair Deal Comcast Fair, World’s, etc.; the fair; Texas State Fair Dow Jones & Co., Inc. fall (season) Dun & Bradstreet Falls, Niagara; the falls eBay Far East, Far Eastern; Far West (U.S.); but E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. far western FedEx Farm, if part of name; the farm: GlaxoSmithKline Johnson Farm; Johnson’s farm but c Tea Co. (A&P) Great Atlantic & Pacifi San Diego Farm Hamilton Beach/Proctor Silex, Inc. Wild Tiger Farm Hartmarx Corp. Fascist; fascism Hewlett-Packard Father of his Country (Washington) Houghton Miffl in Co. Fed, the (no period) Ingersoll-Rand Co. Federal (synonym for United States or other Intel Corp. sovereign power): J.C. Penney Co., Inc. but Federal Depository Library Program Johns-Manville Corp. depository library, libraries Kennecott Exploration Co. District (Mexico) Kmart Establishment Libbey-Owens-Ford Co. Government (of any national Macmillan Co. government) Merck & Co., Inc. grand jury; the grand jury Merrill Lynch land bank ( see Bank) Microsoft Register (publication); the Register zer Inc. Pfi Reserve Board, the Board; Federal also Phelps Dodge Corp. Reserve System, the System; Federal PricewaterhouseCoopers but Reserve Board Regulation W, Procter & Gamble Co. regulation W Rand McNally & Co. a federal form of government but Rolls-Royce federally Sun Microsystems fellow, fellowship (academic) 3M Field, Byrd, Stewart, etc.; the fi eld Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. but Figure fi gure 2, A, II, etc. (illustration); US Airways 2, when part of legend: Figure 2.— Wa l-Ma r t Market scenes We yerhaeu ser C o. fi rewall Xerox Corp. fi rm names: First Family (Presidential) ACDelco First Lady (wife of President) America Online (AOL) First World War ( see Wa r) Bausch & Lomb Inc. fl ag code BP fl ag, U.S.: Bristol-Myers Squibb Old Flag, Old Glory Carson, Pirie, Scott & Co. chapter4.indd 58 chapter4.indd 58 2/4/09 3:48:02 PM 2/4/09 3:48:02 PM

74 Capitalization Examples 59 Foreign Legion (French); the legion Stars and Stripes Foreign Service; the Service: Star-Spangled Banner cer offi fl ags, foreign: cer Corps; the corps Offi Tricolor (French) Reserve offi cer; the Reserve offi cer Union Jack (British) cer Corps; the Reserve Reserve Offi United Nations Corps; the corps eet: Fleet, if part of name; the fl Staff offi cer; the Staff offi cer Atlantic cer Corps; the Staff Offi Corps; the Staff Channel corps Grand Forest, if part of name; the national forest; High Seas the forest: Marine Force Angeles National Naval Reserve Black c, etc. (naval) Pacifi Coconino and Prescott National Forests 6th Fleet, etc. but see State and National forests ( U.S. System) fl ex fuel Forester (Chief of Forest Service); the Chief; fl oor (House or Senate) Chief Forester also fl yway; Canadian fl yway, etc. Form 2, when part of form 2, A, II, etc.; but Force(s), if part of name; the force(s): title: Form 1040: Individual Income Active Forces Tax Return; withholding tax form but Active-Duty Fort McHenry, etc.; the fort Air Force) Air ( also see Foundation, if part of name; capitalized All-Volunteer standing alone if referring to Federal Armed Forces (synonym for overall unit: U.S. Military Establishment) Chemical; the foundation Army Field Forces; the Field Forces Ford; the foundation Fleet Marine National Science; the Foundation see Navy Battle ( Navy) Russell Sage; the foundation Navy); Reserve Force Navy Scouting ( see Founding Fathers; Founders/Founder (of Rapid Deployment this Nation, Country) but task Task Force 70; the task force; four freedoms force report Framers (of the U.S. Constitution; of the United Nations Emergency; the Bill of Rights) but Emergency Force; the Force; free world United Nations police force Frisco (for San Francisco; no apostrophe) foreign cabinets: Fritalux ( see alliances) Minister of Foreign Aff airs; Foreign Fund, if part of name; capitalized standing Minister; the Minister alone if referring to international or airs; the Ministry Ministry of Foreign Aff United Nations fund: Offi ce of Foreign Missions; the Offi ce Democracy (United Nations); the Fund Minister Plenipotentiary International Monetary; the Fund Premier but civil service retirement fund; Prime Minister chapter4.indd 59 chapter4.indd 59 2/4/09 3:48:02 PM 2/4/09 3:48:02 PM

75 60 Chapter 4 Geyser Park highway trust fund; mutual security Glacier Pass fund; national service life insurance Glen Passage Gorge Peak fund; revolving fund Gulch Peninsula Gulf Plain G Gut Plateau Harbor Point Gadsden Purchase Head Pond Gallery of Art, National ( National) see Hill Pool Hogback Port (water body) Gallup Poll; the poll Hollow Prairie GAO (Government Accountability Offi ce) Hook Range (mountain) Horn Rapids Geiger counter Hot Spring Ravine General Order No. 14; General Orders No. Icefi eld Reef Ice Shelf Reservoir 14; a general order Inlet Ridge General Schedule Island River Isle Roads (anchorage) gentile Islet Rock Geographer, the (State Department) Keys (Florida only) Run (stream) Knob Sea geographic terms (terms, such as those Lagoon Seaway 2 listed below, are capitalized if part of Lake Shoal Landing Sink name; are lowercased in general sense Ledge Slough (rivers of Virginia and Maryland)): Lowland Sound Marsh Spit Archipelago Cave Massif Spring Area Cavern Mesa Spur Arroyo Channel; but Monument Strait Mississippi River Atoll Moraine Stream channel(s) Bank Mound Summit Cirque Bar Mount Swamp Coulee Basin, Upper (Lower) Mountain Te r r a c e Cove Colorado River, Narrows Th oroughfare Crag etc. (legal entity); Neck Trench Crater but Hansen Needle Trough Creek fl ood-control basin; Notch Va l le y Crossroads Missouri River Oasis Vo l c a n o Current (ocean basin (drainage); Ocean Wa sh feature) upper Colorado Oxbow Water way Cut River storage project Palisades Wood s Cutoff Bay Dam Bayou Geological Survey ( see Survey) Delta Beach Desert Bench GI bill of rights Divide Bend Girl Scouts (organization); a Girl Scout; a Dome (not geologic) Bight Draw (stream) Bluff Scout; Scouting Dune Bog G-man Escarpment Borough (boro) Estuary Bottom Gold Star Mothers ( see American) Falls Branch (stream) Golden Age ( see Ages) Fault Brook Flat(s) But te Golden Rule Floodway Canal; the canal rst four books of Gospel, if referring to the fi Ford (Panama) Forest Canyon but the New Testament; gospel music Fork (stream) Cape Government: Gap Cascade British, etc.; the Government 2 List compiled with cooperation of the U.S. Board on Geographic Names. chapter4.indd 60 chapter4.indd 60 2/4/09 3:48:03 PM 2/4/09 3:48:03 PM

76 Capitalization Examples 61 Society department, offi cials, -owned, see Wa r ( Wa r) publications, etc. (U.S. Government) White Way (New York City) National and State Governments great circle (navigation) see ce) Offi Printing Offi ce ( Greater Los Angeles, Greater New York U.S.; National; Federal gross national product (GNP) Government information product Group: government: G8 (Group of 8) (representatives of the Churchill eight leading industrial nations) Communist Helsinki Monitoring; the group District (of Columbia) Military Advisory Group; the group European governments Standing ( see Organization) Federal, State, and municipal World Ba n k governments but group 2, II, A, etc.; Group 2, when part insular; island of title: Group II: List of Counties by military States seat of National) see Guard, National ( State Coast Guard; National guardsman ( see State and Provincial governments Guard) Te r r i t o r i a l Gulf: governmental but Coast States; gulf coast Governor: of Mexico; the gulf of Louisiana, etc.; the Governor; a States Governor; State Governor(s); Stream; the stream Governors’ conference of Puerto Rico; the Governor H of the Federal Reserve Board; the Hall (U.S. Senate or House) Governor Halls of Congress Governor General of Canada; the Governor H-bomb; H-hour General Headquarters: GPO Access Alaskan Command; the command grand jury ( see Federal) headquarters Grange, the (National) 4th Regiment Headquarters; regimental grant, Pell headquarters Graph 2, when part graph 2, A, II, etc.; but 32d Division Headquarters; the division of title: Graph 2.—Production levels headquarters Great: hearing examiner Basin Heaven (religious); heaven (place) Depression Heimlich maneuver Divide hell (place) c Lakes; the lakes; lake(s) traffi Hells (no apostrophe) Canyon Plains; southern Great Plains but Hemisphere, Eastern; Western; etc.; the Seal (any nation) hemisphere chapter4.indd 61 chapter4.indd 61 2/4/09 3:48:03 PM 2/4/09 3:48:03 PM

77 62 Chapter 4 Hudson’s Bay Co. Hezbollah Hurricane Andrew, Katrina, Rita, etc. High Church High Commissioner I see High Court ( Supreme Court) see Ages) ice age ( nition high defi imam High School, if part of name: Western; the Independent Party; an Independent high school Indians: Highway No. 40; Route 40; State Route 9; Absentee Shawnee the highway Alaska ( see Native) Hill (the Capitol) Eastern (or Lower) Band of Cherokee; Hispanic the band Holocaust, the (World War II); a holocaust Five Civilized Tribes; the tribes Holy Scriptures; Holy Writ (Bible) Native Americans home page Shawnee Tribe; the tribe Hospice, if part of name Six Nations (Iroquois Confederacy) Hospital, if part of name; the hospital: Initiative, Caribbean Basin; but strategic Howard University defense initiative St. Elizabeths (no apostrophe) Inquisition, Spanish; the Inquisition naval (marine or Army) hospital but inspector general see corpsman) hospital corpsman ( Institute, if part of name; capitalized House, if part of name: standing alone if referring to Federal Blair or international organization: Johnson house (private residence) National Cancer; the Cancer Institute; of Representatives; the House (U.S.) the Institute see ce Building ( Building) Offi National Institutes of Health; the Ohio (State); the house Institutes but both Houses; lower (or upper) of International Law; the Institute House (Congress) Woman’s; the institute House of Representatives (U.S.), titles of Institution, if part of name; capitalized offi cers standing alone capitalized: standing alone if referring to Chairman (Committee of the Whole) Federal unit: Chaplain Brookings; the institution legislative clerk, etc. Clerk; but Carnegie; the institution Doorkeeper Smithsonian; the Institution Offi cial Reporter(s) of Debates insular government; island government Parliamentarian intercoastal waterway ( see waterway) Postmaster interdepartmental post offi ce interface Sergeant at Arms International Court of Justice; the Court Speaker pro tempore international: Speaker; speakership banks ( see Bank) HUD (Department of Housing and Urban boundary Development) chapter4.indd 62 chapter4.indd 62 2/4/09 3:48:03 PM 2/4/09 3:48:03 PM

78 Capitalization Examples 63 Latter-day Saints dateline law, copyright law; Ohm’s, etc. law League, Urban; the league Code) see Morse code ( Legion: Internet, Intranet American; the Legion; a Legionnaire; Interstate 95; I−95; the interstate French Foreign; the legion Intracoastal Waterway; the waterway ( see Legislative Assembly, if part of name: waterway) also of New York; of Puerto Rico, etc.; the intrastate legislative assembly; the assembly Irish potato legislative branch, clerk, session, etc. Iron Curtain; the curtain Legislature: Islam; Islamic National Legislature (U.S. Congress); see Canal) Isthmian Canal ( the Legislature Isthmus of Panama; the isthmus Ohio Legislature; Legislature of Ohio; J the State legislature; the legislature Current) Japan Current ( see but Letters Patent No. 378,964; patent No. Java (computer language) 378,964; letters patent Jersey cattle Liberal Party; a Liberal Job Corps Libertarian Party; a Libertarian ; Chiefs of Staff Joint Chiefs of Staff Liberty Bell; Liberty ship see Joint Committee on Printing ( Librarian of Congress; the Librarian Committee) Library: Journal clerk; the clerk Army; the library Journal (House or Senate) Harry S. Truman; the library Judge Advocate General, the of Congress; the Library judge; chief judge; circuit judge; district Hillsborough Public; the library judge; but Judge Judy Lieutenant Governor of Idaho, etc.; the judiciary, the Lieutenant Governor Justice; Justice Stevens, etc. Light, if part of name; the light: Boston K Buff but alo South Pier Light 2; light No. yeh (Arabic headdress) kaffi 2; light 2 King of England, etc.; the King but Massachusetts Bay lights Koran, the; Koranic see Light Station) Lighthouse ( Krugerrand Lightship, if part of name; the lightship: Grays Reef L North Manitou Shoal Laboratory, if part of name; capitalized Light Station, if part of name; the light standing alone if referring to Federal station; the station: unit: Forest Products; the Laboratory; Minots Ledge laboratory (non-Federal) but Watch H i l l Lake: Erie, of the Woods, Great Salt; the Line(s), if part of name; the line(s): lake Greyhound (bus) Lane, if part of name: Maiden; the lane chapter4.indd 63 chapter4.indd 63 2/4/09 3:48:03 PM 2/4/09 3:48:03 PM

79 64 Chapter 4 mariculture Holland-America (steamship) Marine Corps; the corps: Maginot (fortifi cation) Marines (the corps); marines but line: (individuals) Mason-Dixon line or Mason and Reserve; the Reserve Dixon’s line also a marine; a woman marine; the State women marines (individuals); soldiers, listserv sailors, coastguardsmen, and marines Local: Maritime Provinces (Canada) ( see Province) Columbia Typographical Union, see Supreme Court) Marshal ( Local 101 marshal (U.S.) International Brotherhood of Electrical decorations) medals ( see Workers Local 180; but local No. 180 Medicaid time) local time, local standard time ( see MediCal locator service Medicare Act; Medicare plan Loop, the ( cities) see Medicare Plus Louisiana Purchase Medicare Program Low Church Medigap Lower, if part of name: Member, if referring to Senator, California (Mexico) Representative, Delegate, or Resident Colorado River Basin also Commissioner of U.S. Congress; Egypt Member at Large; Member of Peninsula (of Michigan) Parliament, etc.; but membership; lower: member of U.S. congressional 48 (States) committee House of Congress Memorial: Mississippi Jeff erson M Lincoln Madam: Vietnam Chair WWII Chairman Korean Chairwoman Franklin D. Roosevelt etc.; the memorial Magna Carta Merchant Marine Reserve; the Reserve; Majesty, His, Her, Your; Th eir Majesties but U.S. merchant marine; the Majority Leader Reid; Majority Leader merchant marine Hoyer; but the majority leader (U.S. Metroliner Congress) but Metropolitan Washington, etc.; e Mall (District of Mall, Th e National; Th Washington metropolitan area Columbia) midcontinent region Mansion, Executive ( see Executive) see Ages) Middle Ages ( map 3, A, II, etc.; Map 2, when part of but Middle Atlantic States title: Map 2.—Railroads of Middle Middle East; Mideast; Mideastern; Middle Atlantic States Eastern (Asia) chapter4.indd 64 chapter4.indd 64 2/4/09 3:48:03 PM 2/4/09 3:48:03 PM

80 Capitalization Examples 65 National Museum of the American Midwest (section of United States); Indian Midwestern States; but midwestern farmers, etc. N Academy) see Military Academy ( but Nation (synonym for United States); a Military Establishment ( see Establishment) nation; nationwide; French also milkshed, Ohio, etc. (region) nation, Balkan nations millennium Nation, Creek; Osage; etc.; the nation Minister Plenipotentiary; the Minister; nation, in general, standing alone Minister Without Portfolio ( see also National, in conjunction with capitalized foreign cabinets) name: foreign cabinets) Ministry ( see Academy) see Academy of Sciences ( Minority Leader McConnell; Minority and State institutions, etc. Leader Boehner; but the minority Archives and Records Administration leader (U.S. Congress) Capital (Washington); the Capital; but Mint, Philadelphia, etc.; the mint national capital area minutemen (colonial) Endowment for the Arts; the missiles: capitalize such missile names as Endowment Hellfi re, Sparrow, Tomahawk, Scud, Gallery of Art; the National Gallery; but cruise missile, air-to- Trident, etc.; the gallery air missile, surface-to-air missile, etc. Grange; the Grange Mission, if part of name; the mission: Guard, Ohio, etc.; Air National; the Gospel National Guard; the Guard; a diplomatic mission; military mission; but guardsman; Reserve; but a National Jones mission Guard man; National Guardsman Monument: see Institute ( Institute) Bunker Hill; the monument see Legislature) Legislature ( Grounds; the grounds (Washington Muir Woods National Monument etc.; Monument) the national monument; the National) see National ( monument Washington; the monument (District see Museum) Museum ( of Columbia) Naval Medical Center (Bethesda, MD) Mountain States Park, Yellowstone, etc.; Yellowstone Park; mountain time, mountain standard time the national park; the park time) see ( Treasury; the Treasury Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) Wa r C ol lege Mr. Chairman; Mr. Secretary; etc. Woma n’s Pa r t y Mujahedeen see Zoological) Zoological Park ( mullah national: Museum, capitalize with name; the agency check (NAC) museum: anthem, customs, spirit, etc. Field British, Mexican, etc. National defense agencies National Air and Space; the Air Museum chapter4.indd 65 chapter4.indd 65 2/4/09 3:48:03 PM 2/4/09 3:48:03 PM

81 66 Chapter 4 African-American; Black) see Negro ( stockpile network water policy New Deal; anti-New Deal but Native: Alaska; American; Ohio native, New England States Alaska) see etc. ( New Federalism Naval, if part of name: New Frontier Academy ( see Academy) but new world order New World; Air Station (NAS) Patuxent River; North: Pensacola; etc. Atlantic Base, Guam Naval; the naval base Atlantic States Establishment) Establishment ( see Atlantic Treaty ( see Treat y) Observatory ( Observatory) see Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Reserve; the Reserve; a reservist ( see Organization) Reserve Force; the force Current) Equatorial Current ( see cer Reserve offi cer; a Reserve offi Korea Shipyard (if preceding or following name): Pole Brooklyn Naval Shipyard; Naval Slope (Alaska) the naval but Shipyard, Brooklyn; Star (Polaris) shipyard the North (section of United States) Volunteer Naval Reserve north: War College; the War College; the college Africa naval, in general sense: Ohio, Virginia, etc. command ( Command) see north-central region, etc. cer, expenditures, maneuvers, offi Northeast corridor service, stores, etc. northern Ohio Naval petroleum reserves; but Northern States Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (Buena northerner Vista Hills Naval Reserve); reserve c Northwest Pacifi No. 2 Northwest Territory (1799) navel orange Northwest, the (section of the United States) Navy, American or foreign, if part of name; cities) Northwest Washington ( see capitalized standing alone only if Northwestern: referring to U.S. Navy: States Admiral of the; the admiral United States Battle Force; the Battle Force; the force numbers capitalized if spelled out as part of Establishment; the establishment a name: Hospital Corps; hospital corpsman; the Air Force One (Presidential plane) corps Charles the First Regular Committee of One Hundred Seabees (construction battalion); a Census) see Tw e n t y- t h i r d C e n s u s ( Seabee navy yard O Nazi; nazism Observatory, capitalized with name: Near East (Balkans, etc.) Astrophysical; the Observatory chapter4.indd 66 chapter4.indd 66 2/4/09 3:48:04 PM 2/4/09 3:48:04 PM

82 Capitalization Examples 67 Operation Iraqi Freedom, Desert Storm Lick; the observatory Order of Business No. 56 (congressional (nongovernmental) calendar) Naval; the Observatory Ordnance: Occident, the; occidental see Corps ( Corps) Ocean, if part of name; the ocean: Department; the Department Antarctic Organization, if part of name; capitalized Arctic standing alone if referring to Atlantic international unit: North Atlantic, etc. International Labour (ILO) Pacifi c North Atlantic Treaty (NATO): c, etc. South Pacifi Chiefs of Staff c, etc. Southwest Pacifi Committee of Defense Ministers Oceanographer (the Hydrographer), Navy Council ce, if referring to unit of Federal Offi Council of Foreign Ministers ce: Government; the Offi Defense Committee Executive Military Committee Foreign and Commonwealth (U.K.) of American States (OAS) Government Printing; the Printing Pact Offi ce; the Offi ce Regional Planning Group; the Group Naval Oceanographic Standing Group; the Group of Chief of Naval Operations c, United Nations Educational, Scientifi of General Counsel and Cultural Organization UNESCO) of Management and Budget Asian) Orient, the; oriental ( see of Personnel Management Osama bin Laden of the Secretary (Defense); Secretary’s Outer Continental Shelf ( see Continental) Offi ce Patent and Trademark P New York regional offi but ce (including also c ( see Atlantic): Pacifi branch, division, or section therein); Basin the regional offi ce ce; the offi coast offi cer: Coast (or slope) States Army Northwest but naval and marine offi cers Marine; rim cers Navy; Navy and Marine offi seaboard Regular Army; Regular; a Regular slope Reserve South Old Dominion (Virginia) States Old South time, Pacifi c standard time ( see time) Old World c c; transpacifi cispacifi but Olympic Games; Olympiad; XXIX Olympic pan-American games; but Pan American Games Day ombudsman, Maryland (State) Pan American Union (renamed; see online Organization of American States) chapter4.indd 67 chapter4.indd 67 2/4/09 3:48:04 PM 2/4/09 3:48:04 PM

83 68 Chapter 4 Plaza, Union Station (Washington, DC); Panel, the Federal Service Impasses the plaza (Federal), etc.; the Panel Pledge of Allegiance; the pledge P a n h a n d l e o f Te x a s ; Te x a s P a n h a n d l e ; t h e Pole: North, South; the pole; subpolar panhandle; etc. Pole Star (Polaris); polar star papers, Woodrow Wilson, etc.; the papers; Police, if part of name; the police: but white paper Capitol Parish, Caddo, etc.; but parish of Caddo Park, U.S. (Louisiana civil division); the parish White House also see Park, Fairmount, etc.; the park ( political action committee (PAC) National) political parties and adherents ( see specifi c Park Police, U.S.; park policeman political party) Zoological) see Park, Zoological ( Pool, Northwest Power, etc.; the pool Parkway, George Washington Memorial; , primate papal, patriarch, pontiff but Pope; the memorial parkway; the parkway Port, if part of name; Port of Norfolk; Parliament, Houses of; the Parliament see Norfolk Port; the port ( Authority) Parliamentarian (U.S. Senate or House) Post Offi ce, Chicago, etc.; the post offi ce Part 2, when part of but part 2, A, II, etc.; P.O. Box (with number); but ce box post offi title: Part 2: Iron and Steel Industry (in general sense) Party, if part of name; the party Postmaster General Pass, Brenner, capitalized if part of name; a postscript but PostScript; the pass Powers, if part of name; the powers ( see Letters Patent) patent ( see also alliances): Peninsula Upper (Lower) (Michigan); the Allied (World Wars I and II) peninsula Axis (World War I) Penitentiary, Atlanta, etc.; the penitentiary We ster n petrodollar European powers but phase 2; phase I precinct; fi rst, 10th precinct Philippines, Republic of the Premier ( see foreign cabinets) Pilgrim Fathers (1620); the Pilgrims; a Preserve, Sullys Hill, National Game Pilgrim ce of the head of Presidency (offi Place, if part of name: Jeff erson Place; the Government) place President: Plains (Great Plains), the of the United States; the Executive; the plan: Chief Magistrate; the Commander Colombo in Chief; the President-elect; ex- controlled materials also President; former President; 5-year preceding name Marshall (European Recovery Program) of any other country; the President of Planetarium, Fels, Hayden; the planetarium Federal or international unit but Plant, Picatinny Arsenal; the plant; president of the Norfolk Southern but United States Steel plant Railroad; president of the Federal Plate 2, when part of but plate 2, A, II, etc.; Reserve Bank of New York title: Plate 2.—Rural Structures chapter4.indd 68 chapter4.indd 68 2/4/09 3:48:04 PM 2/4/09 3:48:04 PM

84 Capitalization Examples 69 Q Presidential assistant, authority, order, Quad Cities (Davenport, Rock Island, proclamation, candidate, election, Moline, East Moline, and Bettendorf ) timber, year, etc. query Prime Minister ( see foreign cabinets) queue Prison, New Jersey State; the prison Council) see Privy Council, Her Majesty’s ( R Prize, Nobel, Pulitzer, etc.; the prize Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Proclamation, Emancipation; Presidential Railroad, Alaska; the Railroad Proclamation No. 24; Proclamation Ranch, King, etc.; the ranch No. 24; the proclamation; but Range, Cascade, etc. (mountains); the range Presidential proclamation Rebellion, if part of name; the rebellion: Program, if part of name: Boxer European Recovery Whisky Food for Peace Reconstruction period (post-Civil War) Fulbright Red army Head Start Red Cross, American ( see American) Mutual Defense Assistance Reds, the; a Red (political) Social Security Reformatory, Michigan; the reformatory but universal military training; Refuge, Blackwater National Wildlife, etc.; government bailout Blackwater Refuge; the refuge Progressive Party; a Progressive region, north-central, etc.; fi rst region, 10th Project: region; region 7; midcontinent Gutenberg Regular Army, Navy; a Regular ( see also Manhattan offi cer) Vo t e S m a r t regulation: Proposition 13 greenhouse gas Prosecutor; Special Prosecutor (Federal) see W ( also Federal Reserve Board) Province, Provincial, if referring to an but Veterans Entitlements Regulations administrative subdivision: Ontario religious terms: Province; Province of Ontario; Baha’i Maritime Provinces (Canada); the Baptist Province Brahman Proving Ground, Aberdeen, etc.; the Buddhist proving ground catholic but Catholic; Catholicism; Public Law; Public Law 110−161, etc. (universal) Public Printer; the Government Printer; the Christian Printer Christian Science public utility district ( see District) Evangelical United Brethren Pueblo, Santa Clara; the pueblo Hindu; Hinduism Purchase, Gadsden, Louisiana, etc. Islam; Islamic Puritan; puritanical Jewish Pyrrhic victory Latter-day Saints chapter4.indd 69 chapter4.indd 69 2/4/09 3:48:04 PM 2/4/09 3:48:04 PM

85 70 Chapter 4 Reservation (forest, military, or Indian), if Muslim: Shiite; Sunni part of name; the reservation: ought New Th Hill Military Protestant; Protestantism Standing Rock Scientology see Reserve, if part of name; the Reserve ( Seventh-day Adventists Air Force; Army Corps; Coast also Seventh-Day Baptists Guard; Foreign Service; Marine Sikh Corps; Merchant Marine; Naval; Zoroastrian National Guard): Renaissance, the (era) Active Report, if part of name (with date or Air Force number); the annual report; the report: Army 2007 Report of the Chief of the Forest Bank) see bank ( Service Federal) Board, Federal ( see 9/11 Commission Report see Bank) city ( Annual Report of the Secretary of components Defense for the year ended Enlisted September 30, 2008 Establishment Grace Commission report Inactive President’s Economic Report; the Naval Economic Report cer offi Railroad Retirement Board Annual Offi cers’ Training Corps but Report, 2007; annual report of the Ready Railroad Retirement Board Retired Report No. 31 Standby United States Reports (publication) Strategic Reporter, the (U.S. Supreme Court) Reserves, the; reservist Representative; Representative at Large Resolution, with number; the resolution: (U.S. Congress); U.N. House Joint Resolution 3 Republic, capitalized if part of name; Senate Concurrent Resolution 18 capitalized standing alone if referring War Powers Resolution (short title) to a specifi c government: To n k i n r e s o l u t i o n but Czech Revised Statutes (U.S.); Supplement to the French Revised Statutes; the statutes; Statutes Irish at Large (U.S.) of Bosnia and Herzegovina Revolution, Revolutionary (if referring to of Panama the American, French, or English of the Philippines Wa r) also Revolution) ( see Slovak (Slovakia) c rim rim; the Pacifi United States Road, if part of name: Benning; the road the American Republics; South also Roman numerals, common nouns used American Republics; the Latin with, not capitalized: American Republics; the Republics book II; chapter II; part II; etc. Republican Party; a Republican

86 Capitalization Examples 71 airs (British); for of State for Foreign Aff but Book II: Modern Types (complete the Commonwealth, etc.; the ought heading); Part XI: Early Th Secretary (complete heading) of the Smithsonian Institution; the Route 66, State Route 9 (highways) Secretary Rule 21, when part of but rule 21; rule XXI; also the Assistant Secretary; the title: Rule 21: Renewal of Motion Executive Secretary Rules: Secretary General; the Secretary General: but rules of the House of Representatives; Organization of American States of the House; House rule X United Nations Standing Rules of the Senate Section 2, when but section 2, A, II, etc.; rules of the Senate (publication); but part of title: Section 2: Test Commission rules also eory Construction Th S Selective Service ( Service; System) see Sabbath; Sabbath Day cers standing Senate (U.S.), titles of offi bond) see savings bond ( alone capitalized: but schedule 2, A, II, etc.; Schedule 2, when Chaplain part of title; Schedule 2: Open and Chief Clerk Prepay Stations Doorkeeper School, if part of name; the school: cial Reporter(s) Offi any school of U.S. Armed Forces Parliamentarian Hayes Postmaster Pawnee Indian President of the Public School 13; P.S. 13 President pro tempore see District) school district ( Presiding Offi cer Scriptures; Holy Scriptures (the Bible) Secretary Seabees ( see Navy) Sergeant at Arms seaboard, Atlantic, eastern, etc. Senate, Ohio (State); the senate seasons: lowercased if Senator (U.S. Congress); but autumn (fall) referring to a State senator, unless spring preceding a name summer senatorial winter Sergeant at Arms (U.S. Senate or House) see geographic terms; Authority; seaway ( Sermon on the Mount Corporation) server Wa r) Second World War ( see Service, if referring to Federal unit; the see Secretariat ( United Nations) Service: but Secretaries of the Army and the Navy; Extension Secretaries of the military Federal Mediation and Conciliation departments; secretaryship Fish and Wildlife Secretary, head of national governmental see Foreign ( Foreign Service) unit: Forest of Defense; of State; etc.; the Secretary Internal Revenue chapter4.indd 71 chapter4.indd 71 2/4/09 3:48:04 PM 2/4/09 3:48:04 PM

87 72 Chapter 4 Oxisols Gelisols Marshals Histosols Spodosols National Park Inceptisols Ultisols Mollisols Vertisols Natural Resources Conservation Soldiers’ Home; the soldiers’ home; ( see Postal Armed Forces Retirement Home) Secret (Homeland Security) Solicitor for the Department of Labor, etc.; Selective ( see also System); but selective the Solicitor service, in general sense; selective Solicitor General (Department of Justice) cation 1−A, 4−F, etc. service classifi Son of Man (Christ) Senior Executive Sons of the American Revolution service: (organization); a Son; a Real Son airmail South: Army American Republics ( see Republic) city delivery American States consular Atlantic customs Atlantic States diplomatic Deep South (U.S.) employment (State) Korea extension (State) Midsouth (U.S.) general delivery Pacifi c naval Pole Navy the South (section of United States); parcel post Southland eld postal fi Southeast Asia rural free delivery; rural delivery; free southern California, southeastern delivery California, etc. special delivery Southern States star route Southern United States Shelf, Continental ( see Continental) southerner ship of state (unless personifi ed) Southwest, the (section of United States) Sister(s) (adherent of religious order) space shuttle; the shuttle see Indians) Six Nations ( space station Smithsonian Institution ( see Institution) Wa r) see Spanish-American War ( Social Security Administration (U.S.), Speaker of the House of Representatives; application, check, number, pension, the Speaker trust fund, system, etc. special agent Socialist Party; a Socialist specialist Society, if part of name; the society: Special Order No. 12; Special Orders, No. American Cancer Society, Inc. 12; a special order of the Cincinnati but Spirit of ̓76 (painting); spirit of ̓76 (in soil bank general sense) soil orders: Sputnik sols Alfi Aridisols Andisols Entisols Square, Lafayette, etc.; the square chapter4.indd 72 chapter4.indd 72 2/4/09 3:48:04 PM 2/4/09 3:48:04 PM

88 Capitalization Examples 73 Middle Atlantic Staff , Foreign Service ( see Foreign Service); Middle Western Air (U.K.) Midwestern time) see standard time ( Mountain Star of Bethlehem New England fl ag) see Star-Spangled Banner ( North Atlantic State: Northwestern, etc. Champion Organization of American government c Pacifi Legislature) see legislature ( Pacifi c Coast line, Iowa; Ohio-Indiana, etc. rights New York South American of Israel South Atlantic of Maryland Southern of the Union Message/Address the six States of Australia; a foreign state of Veracruz Th irteen Original; original 13 States out-of-State (adjective); out-of-stater but western Gulf; western We ster n; but prison farming States Vat ic a n Cit y Station, if part of name; the station; not state: capitalized if referring to surveying church and or similar work: of the art: state-of-the-art technology Air Force base welfare Grand Central also downstate, instate, multistate, Naval Air Engineering statehood, statehouse, stateside, television station WSYR−TV statewide, substate, tristate, upstate Union; Union Depot; the depot State’s attorney WAMU station; station WMAL; radio state’s evidence station WSM; broadcasting station states’ rights WJSV States: station 9; substation A Arab Statue of Liberty; the statue Balkan Revised Statutes at Large (U.S.) ( also see Baltic Statutes) East North Central ghter Stealth: bomber, fi East South Central Stockpile, Strategic National Eastern; but eastern industrial States see stone age ( Ages) Eastern Gulf storage facility Eastern North Central, etc. see Stream, Gulf ( Gulf; geographic terms) Far Western Street, if part of name; the street: Gulf; Gulf Coast I Street (not Eye Street) Lake 110t h St reet Latin American U Street (not You Street) lower 48 subcommittee ( see Committee) Middle chapter4.indd 73 chapter4.indd 73 2/4/09 3:48:05 PM 2/4/09 3:48:05 PM

89 74 Chapter 4 Federal land bank system also see tropical) subtropical, subtropic(s) ( summit meeting; Earth summit T Sun; a sun but table 2, II, A, etc.; Table 2, when part of Super Bowl title: Table 2: Degrees of Land Superfund; the fund Deterioration Superintendent, if referring to head of see Force) task force ( Federal unit; the Superintendent: Team, USAREUR Technical Assistance, of Documents (Government Printing etc.; the team Offi ce) Station) television station ( see of the Naval (or Military) Academy Te l n e t Supplement to the Revised Statutes ( see Te n C o m m a n d m e nt s Revised Statutes) Territorial, if referring to a political High also Supreme Bench; the Bench; subdivision Bench; High Tribunal Territory: High Supreme Court (U.S.); the Court; also Northwest (1799); the territory Court; titles of offi cers standing alone c Islands; Trust Territory of the Pacifi capitalized: c Islands Trust Territory; the trust Pacifi Associate Justice territory; the territory Chief Justice Yu kon, Nor t hwe st Ter r itor ie s ; t he Clerk Te r r i t o r y (i e s), Te r r i t o r i a l (C a n a d a) Marshal territory of: American Samoa, Guam, but Reporter Virgin Islands but Ohio Supreme Court; the supreme Th e, part of name, capitalized: court e Hague; e Gambia; Th e Dalles; Th Th Surgeon General, the (Air Force, Army, e Weirs; Th the Dalles Dam; the but Navy, and Public Health Service) Dalles region; the Federal Bulletin Survey, if part of name of Federal unit; the Board; the Hague Conference; the Survey: Geodetic; Geological Weirs streets System, if referring to Federal unit; the but the Adjutant General; the National System: Archives; the Archives; the Times; the Federal Home Loan Bank; the System Mermaid; the Federal Express Federal Reserve; the System Th ird World National Forest; the System see Th irteen American Colonies, etc. ( National Highway; Interstate Highway; Colonies) the System Th irteen Original States National Park; the System Th ruway, New York State; the thruway National Trails; the System time: National Wild and Scenic Rivers; the Alaska, Alaska standard System Atlantic, Atlantic standard Regional Metro System; Metro system central, central standard also Selective Service ( see Service) eastern, eastern daylight, eastern daylight State and National forests saving (no s ), eastern standard Amtrak railway system; Amtrak but Greenwich mean time (GMT) system; the system chapter4.indd 74 chapter4.indd 74 2/4/09 3:48:05 PM 2/4/09 3:48:05 PM

90 Capitalization Examples 75 tropical; neotropic, neotropical, sub- Hawaii-Aleutian standard tropic(s), subtropical local, local standard Tr ust, Power, etc. mountain, mountain standard trust territory ( see Te r r i t o r y) c standard Pacifi c, Pacifi but Tunnel, Lincoln, etc.; the tunnel; universal irrigation, railroad, etc., tunnel title 2, II, A, etc.; but Title 2, when part of Turnpike, Pennsylvania, etc.; the turnpike title: Title 2: General Provisions Twin Cities (Minneapolis and St. Paul) To m b : Grant’s; the tomb U of the Unknowns; of the Unknown U-boat Soldier; Unknown Soldier’s Tomb; Under Secretary, if referring to offi cer of see also the tomb ( Unknown Soldier) Federal Government; the Under Tow e r, E i ff el, etc.; the tower Secretary: Township, Union; township of Union of Agriculture trade names and trademarks: of State TiVo Blu-Ray Coca-Cola U-Haul of the Treasury UNIX Dr Pepper Uniform Code of Military Justice ( Code) see VISA Hersheypark iPod WebTV Union (if part of proper name; capitalized iTunes Yahoo! standing alone if synonym for United ZIP Code (Postal) MasterCard States or if referring to international Trade Representat ive (U.S.) unit): c; trans-Siberian, transatlantic; transpacifi Columbia Typographical Tra nsjorda n; Tra ns-A laska but etc.; European Treasurer, Assistant, of the United States; see Pan American (former name; assistant but the Assistant Treasurer; Organization of American States) treasurer at New York, etc. union passenger station; but Station; Treasurer of the United States; the Treasurer union freight station Treasur y notes; Treasur ys Teamsters Union; the Teamsters; the Treasury, of the United States; General; union; the Auto Workers, etc. also National; Public Universal Postal; the Postal Union Treaty, if part of name; the treaty: see We ster n ( alliances) Jay Treaty Woman’s Christian Temperance North Atlantic; North Atlantic Defense a painters union; printers union but of Versailles United Nations: treaty of 1919 but Charter; the charter triad Educational, Scientifi c, and Cultural see Indians) tribe ( Organization (UNESCO) ( see Tribunal, standing alone capitalized only in Organization) cial reports of a minutes and offi Food and Agriculture Organization High specifi c arbitration; also (FAO) Tribunal; the Tribunal (Supreme General Assembly; the Assembly Court) Tropic of Cancer, of Capricorn; the Tropics chapter4.indd 75 chapter4.indd 75 2/4/09 3:48:05 PM 2/4/09 3:48:05 PM

91 76 Chapter 4 W International Children’s Emergency War, if part of formal name: Fund (UNICEF) Between the States International Court of Justice; the Court Civil see Permanent Court of Arbitration ( First World War; World War I; World Court) Wa r ; Great Wa r ; S econd World Wa r ; Secretariat, the World War II Secretary General for Independence (1776) Security Council; the Council French and Indian (1754−63) World Employment Conference Mexican World Hea lt h Orga n i z at ion (W HO); of 1812 the Organization of the Rebellion; the rebellion universal: on Crime military training ( Program) see on Drugs time ( see time) on Poverty University, if part of name: Stanford; the on Terrorism, Global university Revolutionary; of the Revolution; the Unknown Soldier; Unknown of World War Revolution II; World War II Unknown; Seven Years’ Unknown of Korea; Korea Six-Day (Arab-Israeli) see Unknown; the Unknowns ( also Spanish-American Tomb) the two World Wars Upper, if part of name: also post-World War II Colorado River Basin war, descriptive or undeclared: Egypt cold, hot Peninsula (of Michigan) European upper House of Congress but French and Indian wars U.S.S.R. (former Union of Soviet Socialist Indian Republics) Korean V Persian Gulf; gulf the but Valley, Shenandoah, etc.; the valley; third world; world war III valleys of Virginia and Maryland Vietnam V−E D a y ; V−J D a y ; V- c h i p with Mexico veteran, World War II; Vietnam see Wa r C ol lege, Nat iona l ( College) airs, Department of ( Ve t e r a n s A ff see American) War Mothers ( see Department) rst, 11th, etc. ward 1, 2, etc.; fi Vice Chairman, etc. (same as Chairman) Wa sh i ng ton’s Fa rewel l Add ress vice consul, British, etc. District) see water district ( Vice President (same as President) but waterway, inland, intercoastal, etc.; Voice of America; the Voice Intracoastal Waterway but volume 2, A, II, etc.; Volume 2, when Web: part of title; Volume 2: Five Rivers in page America’s Future site chapter4.indd 76 chapter4.indd 76 2/4/09 3:48:05 PM 2/4/09 3:48:05 PM

92 Capitalization Examples 77 the Wilderness but wilderness; Week, Fire Prevention; etc. eld) (Virginia battlefi welfare state Wood, if part of name: We st : Belleau Bank (Jordan) County Coast (Africa); west coast (U.S.) but Fort Leonard End, etc. (section of city) free world but ird; World: New, Old, Th Europe (political entity) World Bank; the Bank Far West; Far Western States World S er ie s Florida (1763−1819) Wa r) World Wa r ( see Middle (United States); Midwest World Wa r I I veter a n South Central States, etc. World Wide Web (W W W), t he Web also the West (section of United States; world political entity) X west, western Pennsylvania x ray (note: no hyphen) We ster n: bloc Y civilization scal year, calendar, fi countries Yo u r E x c e l l e n c y ; Yo u r Ho n o r ; Yo u r Europe(an) (political entity) Majesty; etc. Hemisphere; the hemisphere Youth Corps; the Corps ideas Z Powers ZIP Code number; ZIP+4 States Z39.50 United States Zone, if part of name; the zone: World British (in Germany) far western; western farming States but Canal (Panama) (U.S.) Eastern, Western (Germany) westerner Frigid Whip, Majority; Minority Hot (infectious area) see Rebellion) Whisky Rebellion ( Command) see of Interior ( see White ( Caucasian) Te m p e r a t e , To r r i d ; t h e z o n e White House: U.S. Foreign Trade; Foreign Blue Room the foreign trade but Trade Zone; East Room zone, free trade zone Oval Offi ce zone: see Police ( Police) Arctic Red Room eastern standard time Rose Garden no-fl y State Dining Room polar white paper, British, etc. tropical Wilderness, capitalized with name; San Zoological Park (National); the zoo; Joaquin Wilderness, CA; the the park chapter4.indd 77 chapter4.indd 77 2/4/09 3:48:05 PM 2/4/09 3:48:05 PM


94 5. Spelling (See also Chapter 7 “Compounding Examples” and Chapter 9 “Abbreviations and Letter Symbols”) 5.1. GPO uses Webster’s Th ird New International Dictionary as its guide for the spelling of words not appearing in the GPO Style Manual. Colloquial and dialect spellings are not used unless re- quired by the subject matter or specially requested. Th e tendency of some producers of computer-assisted publications to rely on the limited capability of some spell-checking programs adds impor- tance to this list. cult spellings Preferred and diffi 5.2. In addition to indicating the preferred forms of words with variant spellings, the list also contains other words frequently misspelled or causing uncertainty. (See also “Word Division,” a supplement to the GPO Style Manual.) A adjurer all right aqueduct abattoir adjuster altogether archaeology (completely) aberration ad nauseam arrester all together abetter adviser artifact (col lec t ively) abettor (law) advisor (law) artisan aluminum abridgment adz ascendance, -ant ambidextrous absorb (take in) aegis ascent (rise) amoeba adsorb (adhesion) aesthetic assent (consent) ampoule abysmal aff ect (infl uence, v.) assassinate analog a cappella ect (result, eff athenaeum analogous nish, n., v.) fi accede (yield) attester anemia aft erward(s) exceed (surpass) autogiro anesthetic accepter erword aft awhile (for some aneurysm acceptor (law) aging time) anomalous accessory aid (n., v.) a while (a short anonymous accommodate aide time) antediluvian accordion aide-de-camp ax antibiotics (n.) accouter albumen (egg) aye antibiotic (adj.) accursed albumin B (chem ist r y) anyway (adv.) acetic (acid) align backward anywise (adv.) ascetic (austere) allottee appall, -ed, -ing baloney (nonsense) acknowledgment all ready (prepared) appareled, -ing bologna (sausage) acoustic adapter already (previous) aquatic bandanna 79 chapter5.indd 79 chapter5.indd 79 1/13/09 8:41:54 AM 1/13/09 8:41:54 AM

95 80 Chapter 5 compliment casual (informal) butadiene bargainer (praise) causal (cause) bargainor (law) C confectionery catalog, -ed, -ing baritone caff eine confi dant (masc., cataloger bark (boat) fem.) calcareous catsup barreled, -ing dent (sure) confi calcimine caviar bastille confi rmer caldron caviled, -er, -ing bathyscaph confi rmor (law) calendar center battalion conjurer calender (paper centipede bazaar (event) nish) fi connecter centrifugal bizarre (strange on caliber connector (road) cesarean absurd) caliper connoisseur chairmaned behoove calk (spike) consecrator chaise longue cent benefi caulk (seal) consensus chancellor benefi ted, -ing calligraphy consignor channeled, -ing bettor (wagerer) consulter callus (n.) chaperon beveled, -ing consummate callous (adj.) chautauqua biased, -ing contradicter calorie chauvinism blessed control, -lable, -ling canceled, -ing chiff onier bloc (group) converter cancellation chile con carne block (grants) conveyor candor chili (pepper) blond (masc., fem.) cookie canister chiseled, -ing bluing cornetist cannot chlorophyll born (birth) corollary canoeing cigarette borne (carried) corvette cantaloupe citable bouillon (soup) councilor (of canvas (cloth) cite (quote) bullion (metal) council) canvass (solicit) site (place) boulder counselor capital (city, money) clamor bourgeoisie (adv iser) capitol (building) climactic (climax) breach (gap) counseled, -ing carabao (sing., pl.) climatic (climate) breech (lower part) cozy carat (gem weight) cocaine brier sh crawfi caret (omission coconut briquet, -ted, -ting creneled, -ing mark) cocoon Britannia crystaled, -ing karat (gold weight) coleslaw broadax crystalline carbureted, -ing colloquy bronco crystallize carburetor colossal brunet (masc., fem.) cudgeled, -ing Caribbean combated, -ing buccaneer cyclopedia caroled, -ing commenter buncombe czar carotene commentor (law) bunion carrot D commingle bur cartilage darndest commiserate burned caster (roller) debarkation complement bus, bused, buses, (complete) einated decaff castor (oil) busing chapter5.indd 80 chapter5.indd 80 1/13/09 8:41:55 AM 1/13/09 8:41:55 AM

96 Spelling 81 exhibitor enameled, -ing decalogue distill, -ed, -ing, -ment exhilarate encage defense distributor deliverer encase exonerate diverter deliveror (law) encave exorbitant divorcee demagogue enclasp expellant doctoral demarcation enclose exposé (n., doctrinaire dependent enclosure exposure) doggerel descendant (n., adj.) encumber expose (v., to lay dossier desecrater encumbrance open) doweled, -ing desiccate encyclopedia exsiccate downward desuetude endorse, -ment extant (in existence) dreadnought (suspended) endwise extent (range) dreamed ) destitute (bereft enfeeble extoll, -ed, -ing drought detractor enforce, -ment eying dueled, -ing develop, -ment engraft eyrie duff elbag device (contrivance) enroll, -ed, -ing, dullness -ment F devise (convey) dumfound enshade fantasy dextrous (syllable dwelt ensheathe farther (distance) division) dyeing (coloring) ensnare further (degree) diaeresis dying (death) ensure (guarantee) favor diaeretic insure (protect) fecal diuretic (water pill) E entrench feces diagramed, -ing eastward entrepreneur fetal diagrammatic ecstasy entrust dialed, -ing fetish edema entwine dialogue fetus edgewise envelop (v.) dialysis fi ber electronics (n.) envelope (n.) diaphragm che) fi che (microfi electronic (adj.) enwrap diarrhea fi ligree eleemosynary eon dickey fi nable elicit (to draw) epaulet, -ed, -ing dietitian fi nagle illicit (illegal) epiglottis diff user fi nancier embarrass epilogue dike fj ord embed equaled, -ing dilettante not fl ammable ( embellish infl ammable) erysipelas dinghy (boat) emboweled, -ing fl ection escallop diphtheria emboweler fl edgling escapable discreet (prudent) emigrant (go from) fl exitime esophagus discrete (distinct) immigrant (go fl ier etiology disheveled, -ing into) fl otage evacuee disk emigree fl otation evanescent dispatch eminent (famous) fl uorescent eviscerate imminent (soon) dissension focused, -ing evocative employee distention chapter5.indd 81 chapter5.indd 81 1/13/09 8:41:55 AM 1/13/09 8:41:55 AM

97 82 Chapter 5 folderal jujitsu graveled, -ing impasse forbade imperiled, -ing gray juxtaposition impostor forbear (endurance) grievous K forebear (ancestor) impresario groveled, -ing karat foresee imprimatur gruesome kerneled, -ing forgettable inculcate guarantee (n., v.) kerosene forgo (relinquish) indict (to accuse) guaranty (n., law) kidnapped, -ing forego (precede) indite (to compose) guerrilla (warfare) kidnapper format, formatted, inequity (unfairness) gorilla (ape) kilogram formatting iniquity (sin) guesstimate knapsack forswear inferable guttural kopek fortissimo infold gypsy kumquat forward (ahead) ingenious (skillful) foreword (preface) H L ingenuous (simple) fricassee hallelujah labeled, -ing innocuous fuchsia hara-kiri lacquer innuendo fueler harass landward inoculate fulfi ll, -ed, -ing, harebrained lath (wood) inquire, inquiry -ment healthful (for install, -ed, -ing, lathe (machine) fulsome health) -ment laureled fungus (n., adj.) healthy (with installation leukemia health) funneled, -ing instill, -ed, -ing leveled, -ing heinous furor insure (protect) leveler hemoglobin fuse (all meanings) ensure (guarantee) liable (responsible) hemorrhage fuselage intelligentsia libel (legal) heterogeneous fusillade interceptor liaison hiccup interment (burial) libelant G highfalutin internment (jail) libeled, -ing gaiety hijack intern libelee gaily homeopath intervener libeler galosh homogeneity intervenor (law) license gamboled, -ing homologue intransigent (n., adj.) licenser (issuer) garrote hors d’oeuvre iridescent licensor (grantor) gauge hypocrisy italic licorice gazetteer hypotenuse likable gelatin J lilliputian I genealogy jalopy linage (lines) idiosyncrasy generalissimo jalousie lineage (descent) idle (inactive) germane jerry-(built) liquefy idol (statue) glamorous jury-(rigged) liquor idyll glamour jeweled, -ing, -er liqueur glycerin imminent (soon) jewelry liter gobbledygook eminent (famous) judgeship livable judgment goodbye impaneled, -ing chapter5.indd 82 chapter5.indd 82 1/13/09 8:41:55 AM 1/13/09 8:41:55 AM

98 Spelling 83 novocaine perennial mil (1⁄1000 inch) loath (reluctant) (a nest het ic) periled, -ing mill (1⁄1000 dollar) loathe (detest) numskull permittee mileage lodestar perquisite (privilege) miliary lodestone O (t ubercu losis) prerequisite lodgment obbligato milieu (requirement) logistics (n.) obloquy milk cow personal (individual) logistic (adj.) ocher millenary (1,000) personnel (staff ) louver octet millinery (hats) perspective (view) luster off al millennium prospective lyonnaise off ense minable (ex pec ted) omelet M missilery petaled, -ing ophthalmology madam misspell pharaoh opossum Mafi a miter pharmacopeia orangutan maim moccasin phoenix orbited, -ing maize (corn) modeled, -ing phlegm ordinance (law) maze (labyrinth) modeler phony ordnance maneuver mold phosphorus (n.) (militar y) manifold mollusk phosphorous (adj.) organdy manikin (dwarf) molt photostated overseas or oversea mannequin (model) pickax moneys P mantel (shelf) picnicking monogramed, -ing pajamas mantle (cloak) pipet monologue paleontology marbleize plaque mortise paneled, -ing marijuana plastics (n.) movable n paraffi marshaled, -ing plastic (adj.) mucilage paralleled, -ing marshaler pledger mucus (n.) parallelepiped marveled, -ing pledgor (law) mucous (adj.) parceled, -ing marvelous plenitude Muslim partisan material (goods) pliers mustache pastime materiel (military) plow patrol, -led, -ling N meager poleax peccadillo naphtha medaled, -ing pollination pedant (n.) Navajo medalist pommeled, -ing pedantic (adj.) nazism medieval pontoon peddler neophyte metaled, -ing porcelaneous penciled, -ing niacin metalize practice (n., v.) pendant (n.) nickel meteorology precedence pendent (u.m.) niter (weat her) (priority) percent nonplused metrology precedents (usage) peremptory northward (weights a nd prerogative (decisive) Novocain pretense measures) preemptory (t radema rk) preventive (preference) meter chapter5.indd 83 chapter5.indd 83 1/13/09 8:41:55 AM 1/13/09 8:41:55 AM

99 84 Chapter 5 stifl ing sewage (waste) principal (chief ) reinforce stratagem sewerage (drain relater principle system) (proposition) stubbornness relator (law) sextet privilege stultify remodeler Shakespearean proff er stupefy renaissance shellacking programmatic subpoena, -ed reparable shoveled, -ing programmed, -mer, subtlety repellant (n.) -ming shriveled, -ing succor repellent (adj.) prologue sideward sulfur (also requester promissory derivatives) signaled, -ing requestor (law) pronunciation sulfanilamide siphon rescission propel, -led, -ling sulfureted, -ing site (place) responder propellant (n.) supererogation (elec t ron ic s) cite (quote) propellent (adj.) surfeit responser sizable (elec t ron ic s) prophecy (n.) surreptitious skeptic reveled, -er, -ing prophesy (v.) surveillance skillful rhyme, rhythmic ptomaine swiveled, -ing skulduggery RIFing, RIFed, RIFs pubic (anatomy) sylvan ) sleight (deft rivaled, -ing synonymous pulmotor slight (meager) roweled, -ing syrup pusillanimous smolder ruble sniveled, -ing T Q snorkel S taboo quarreled, -ing soliloquy saccharin (n.) tactician quartet sometime saccharine (adj.) tasseled, -ing quaternary (formerly) sacrilegious tattoo questionnaire some time (some salable taxied, -ing queue time ago) sandaled, -ing technique some times (at R savable times) teetotaler raccoon savanna southward tercentenary racket (all meanings) savior spacious (space) theater rapprochement Saviour (Christ) specious therefor (for it) rarefy (deceptive) scalloped, -ing therefore (for that rarity specter reason) schizophrenia ratable spirituous (liquor) thiamine scion (horticulture) rational (adj.) spirochete thralldom scurrilous rationale (n.) spoliation thrash (beat) seismology rattan xed) stationary (fi thresh (grain) selvage (edging) raveled, -ing stationery (paper) threshold salvage (save) reconnaissance statue (sculpture) tie, tied, tying sentineled, -ing stature (height) reconnoiter timber (wood) separate (v., adj.) statute (law) timbre (tone) recyclable sepulcher tinseled, -ing staunch referable seriatim titer stenciled, -ing settler refuse tonsillitis stenciler settlor (law) registrar chapter5.indd 84 chapter5.indd 84 1/13/09 8:41:55 AM 1/13/09 8:41:55 AM

100 Spelling 85 W V triptych tormenter wainscoting vacillate trolley totaled, -ing warranter valance (drape) troop (soldiers) toward warrantor (law) valence troupe (actors) toweled, -ing (chem ist r y) warranty troweled, -ing toxemia veld weeviled, -ing tryptophan cking traffi veranda welder tularemia trammeled, -ing vermilion westward tunneled, -ing tranquilize(r) vicissitude whimsy tunneler tranquillity victualed, -ing whiskey, -s turquoise transcendent victualer willful typify transferable vilify withe tyrannical transferor villain woeful tyro transferred visa, -ed, -ing woolen transonic U vitamin woolly transponder unctuous vitrify (elec t ron ic s) worshiped, -er, -ing unwieldy volcanism transshipment upward voluntarism traveled, -ing uremia votable traveler usable vying travelogue Anglicized and foreign words Diacritical marks are not used with anglicized words. 5.3. A crepe de chine cafeteria elite caique abaca critique entree canape aide memoire critiquing etude cause celebre a la carte D F chateau a la king debacle facade cliche a la mode debris faience cloisonne angstrom debut comedienne faux pas aperitif debutante comme ci fete applique decollete comme ca fi ance (masc., fem.) apropos communique dejeuner frappe auto(s)-da-fe confrere denouement G consomme B depot cortege garcon blase dos-a-dos coulee glace boutonniere E coup de grace grille brassiere eclair coup d’etat gruyere C eclat coupe H cabana ecru creme crepe cafe elan habitue chapter5.indd 85 chapter5.indd 85 1/13/09 8:41:55 AM 1/13/09 8:41:55 AM

101 86 Chapter 5 moire I seance portiere ingenue pousse cafe senor N premiere smorgasbord naive J protege (masc., fem.) soiree naivete jardiniere puree nee souffl e L R suede laissez faire O rale litterateur T e opera bouff recherche opera comique M table d’hote regime materiel tete-a-tete risque P matinee tragedienne role papier mache melange rotisserie V piece de resistance melee roue vicuna pleiade menage porte cochere mesalliance vis-a-vis S metier saute porte lumiere 5.4. Foreign words carry the diacritical marks as an essential part of their spelling. passé (masc., fem.) entrepôt aires chargé d’aff à l’américaine pâté exposé congé attaché père longéron crédit foncier béton piña mañana crédit mobilier blessé précis maté curé calèche raisonné mère déjà vu cañada résumé nacré détente cañon touché outré doña chargé Plural forms o to form 5.5. Nouns ending in s immediately preceded by a vowel add to es the plural; nouns ending in preceded by a consonant add o form the plural, except as indicated in the following list. sextodecimos merinos falsettos albinos sextos mestizos gauchos armadillos siroccos octavos ghettos avocados solos octodecimos halos banjos tangelos pianos indigos cantos tobaccos piccolos infernos cascos twos pomelos juntos centos tyros provisos kimonos didos virtuosos quartos lassos duodecimos zeros salvos magnetos dynamos mementos escudos chapter5.indd 86 chapter5.indd 86 1/13/09 8:41:56 AM 1/13/09 8:41:56 AM

102 Spelling 87 When a noun is hyphenated with an adverb or preposition, the plu- 5.6. ral is formed on the noun. comings-in hangers-on markers-up listeners-in fi llers-in passers-by goings-on lookers-on swearers-in 5.7. When neither word is a noun, the plural is formed on the last word. also-rans go-betweens run-ins come-ons higher-ups tie-ins 5.8. cant word In forming the plurals of compound terms, the signifi takes the plural form. rights-of-way Signifi cant word fi rst: secretaries general adjutants general sergeants at arms aides-de-camp sergeants major ambassadors at large solicitors general attorneys at law surgeons general attorneys general billets-doux cant word in middle: Signifi bills of fare assistant attorneys general brothers-in-law assistant chiefs of staff chargés d’aff aires assistant comptrollers general chiefs of staff assistant surgeons general commanders in chief comptrollers general Signifi cant word last: consuls general assistant attorneys courts-martial assistant commissioners crepes suzette assistant corporation counsels daughters-in-law assistant directors governors general assistant general counsels grants-in-aid brigadier generals heirs at law deputy judges inspectors general s deputy sheriff men-of-war general counsels ministers-designate judge advocates mothers-in-law judge advocate generals notaries public lieutenant colonels pilots-in-command major generals postmasters general provost marshals presidents-elect provost marshal generals prisoners of war quartermaster generals reductions in force chapter5.indd 87 chapter5.indd 87 1/13/09 8:41:56 AM 1/13/09 8:41:56 AM

103 88 Chapter 5 men employees trade unions secretaries-treasurers under secretaries women aviators vice chairmen No word signifi cant in itself: cant: Both words equally signifi forget-me-nots Bulletins Nos. 27 and 28 not hand-me-downs but Bulletin Nos. 27 and 28 jack-in-the-pulpits Bulletin No. 27 or 28 man-of-the-earths coats of arms pick-me-ups masters at arms will-o’-the-wisps men buyers form the plural by adding s 5.9. Nouns ending with ful at the end; if it is necessary to express the idea that more than one container was fi lled, the two elements of the solid compound are printed as sepa- rate words and the plural is formed by adding s to the noun. fi ve bucketfuls of the mixture (one bucket fi lled fi ve times) fi ve buckets full of earth (separate buckets) lled three times) our (one cup fi three cupfuls of fl ee (separate cups) three cups full of coff 5.10. e following list comprises other words the plurals of which may Th culty. cause diffi cherub, cherubs addendum, addenda cicatrix, cicatrices adieu, adieus Co., Cos. agendum, agenda coccus, cocci alga, algae consortium, consortia alumnus, alumni (masc.); alumna, alumnae (fem.) corrigendum, corrigenda antenna, antennas (antennae, crisis, crises zoology) criterion, criteria appendix, appendixes curriculum, curriculums aquarium, aquariums datum (singular), data (plural, but automaton, automatons singular in collective sense) axis, axes desideratum, desiderata bandeau, bandeaux dilettante, dilettanti basis, bases dogma, dogmas bateau, bateaux ellipsis, ellipses beau, beaus equilibrium, equilibriums c) (equ i l ibr ia , scient i fi cactus, cactuses erratum, errata calix, calices executrix, executrices cargo, cargoes fl ambeau, fl ambeaus chassis (singular and plural) chapter5.indd 88 chapter5.indd 88 1/13/09 8:41:56 AM 1/13/09 8:41:56 AM

104 Spelling 89 phenomenon, phenomena focus, focuses phylum, phyla folium, folia plateau, plateaus formula, formulas podium, podiums forum, forums procès-verbal, procès-verbaux fungus, fungi radius, radii genius, geniuses radix, radixes genus, genera referendum, referendums gladiolus (singular and plural) sanatorium, sanatoriums helix, helices sanitarium, sanitariums hypothesis, hypotheses septum, septa c) index, indexes (indices, scientifi sequela, sequelae insigne, insignia seraph, seraphs italic (singular and plural) seta, setae Kansas Citys ski, skis lacuna, lacunae stadium, stadiums larva, larvae stimulus, stimuli larynx, larynxes stratum, strata lens, lenses stylus, styluses lira, lire syllabus, syllabuses locus, loci symposium, symposia madam, mesdames synopsis, synopses Marys tableau, tableaus matrix, matrices taxi, taxis maximum, maximums terminus, termini media medium, mediums or testatrix, testatrices memorandum, memorandums thesaurus, thesauri minimum, minimums thesis, theses minutia, minutiae thorax, thoraxes monsieur, messieurs vertebra, vertebras (vertebrae, nucleus, nuclei zoology) oasis, oases virtuoso, virtuosos octopus, octopuses vortex, vortexes opus, opera parenthesis, parentheses Endings “ible” and “able” ible ; other words in this class end in able . Th e following words end in 5.11. combustible coctible appetible abhorrible comestible coercible apprehensible accendible commonsensible cognoscible audible accessible compactible cohesible avertible addible compatible collapsible bipartible adducible competible collectible(s) circumscriptible admissible chapter5.indd 89 chapter5.indd 89 1/13/09 8:41:56 AM 1/13/09 8:41:56 AM

105 90 Chapter 5 inexpressible impersuasible distractible compossible infallible implausible divertible comprehensible infeasible impossible divestible compressible exible infl imprescriptible divisible conducible infractible imputrescible docible conductible infrangible inaccessible edible uxible confl infusible inadmissible educible congestible innascible inapprehensible eff ectible contemptible inscriptible inaudible eff ervescible controvertible insensible incircumscriptible eligible conversable (oral) instructible incoercible eludible conversible insubmergible incognoscrible erodible (conver t ible) insuppressible incombustible evasible convertible insusceptible incommiscible eversible convincible intactible incompatible evincible corrigible intangible incomprehensible exemptible corrodible intelligible incompressible exhaustible corrosible interconvertible inconcussible exigible corruptible interruptible incontrovertible expansible credible intervisible inconvertible explosible crucible invendible inconvincible expressible cullible invertible incorrigible extensible decoctible invincible incorrodible fallible deducible invisible incorruptible feasible deductible irascible incredible fencible defeasible irreducible indefeasible fl exible defectible irrefrangible indefectible fl uxible defensible irremissible indefensible forcible delible irreprehensible indelible frangible deprehensible irrepressible indeprehensible fungible depressible irresistible indestructible fusible descendible irresponsible indigestible gullible destructible irreversible indiscernible horrible rangible diff legible indivertible ignitible diff usible mandible indivisible illegible digestible marcescible indocible immersible dimensible misicible inducible immiscible discernible negligible ineff ervescible impartible discerpible nexible ineligible impatible discerptible omissible ineludible impedible discussible ostensible inevasible imperceptible dispersible partible inexhaustible impermissible dissectible passable (open) inexpansible imperscriptible distensible chapter5.indd 90 chapter5.indd 90 1/13/09 8:41:56 AM 1/13/09 8:41:56 AM

106 Spelling 91 transmissible sensible ectible refl passible (feeling) transvertible sponsible exible refl perceptible tripartible suasible refrangible perfectible unadmissible subdivisible remissible permissible uncorruptible submergible renascible persuasible unexhaustible submersible rendible pervertible unexpressible subvertible reprehensible plausible unintelligible suggestible repressible possible unresponsible supersensible reproducible prehensible unsusceptible suppressible resistible prescriptible vendible susceptible responsible producible vincible suspensible reversible productible visible tangible revertible protrusible vitrescible tensible risible putrescible terrible runcible receptible thurible sconcible redemptible traducible seducible reducible Endings “ise,” “ize,” and “yze” or ise, ize, 5.12. A large number of words have the termination e . Th yze letter is followed by yze if the word expresses an idea of loosening or l separating, as ; all other words of this class, except those end- analyze x . ing with the suffi and those in the following list, end in ize wise prise (to force) excise compromise advertise prize (to value) exercise demise advise reprise exorcise despise aff ranchise revise franchise devise apprise (to inform) rise improvise disenfranchise apprize (to appraise) supervise incise disfranchise arise surmise merchandise disguise chastise surprise misadvise emprise circumcise televise mortise enfranchise comprise premise enterprise Endings “cede,” “ceed,” and “sede” 5.13. ceed (supersede); only three end in sede Only one word ends in (ex- cede ceed, proceed, succeed); all other words of this class end in (precede, secede, etc.). chapter5.indd 91 chapter5.indd 91 1/13/09 8:41:56 AM 1/13/09 8:41:56 AM

107 92 Chapter 5 Doubled consonants A single consonant following a single vowel and ending in a 5.14. x monosyllable or a fi nal accented syllable is doubled before a suffi beginning with a vowel. bag, bagging red, reddish but format, formatting rob, robbing total, totaled, totaling travel, traveled, traveling input, inputting transfer, transferred 5.15. If the accent in a derivative falls upon an earlier syllable than it does in the root word, the consonant is not doubled. refer, reference prefer, preference infer, inference Indefi nite articles Th e indefi 5.16. a is used before a consonant and an aspirated nite article h an is used before a silent h and all vowels except u pronounced as ; visual pronounced as in o in one . and an herbseller a historic occasion but a hotel an hour an H-U-D directive a human being an honor a HUD directive a humble man an onion a union an oyster 5.17. y, or When a group of initials begins with b, c, d, g, j, k, p, q, t, u, v, w, nite article a is used. z , each having a consonant sound, the indefi a BLS compilation a WWW search a GAO limitation a CIO fi a UFO sighting nding 5.18. a, e, f, h, i, l, m, n, o, r, s, or x , When a group of initials begins with each having a vowel sound, the indefi nite article an is used. an AEC report an NSC (en) proclamation an RFC (ahr) loan an FCC (ef ) ruling 5.19. Use of the indefi nite article or an before a numerical expression a is determined by the consonant or vowel sound of the beginning syllable. an 11-year-old cation an VIII (eight) classifi a onetime winner a IV–F (four ef ) category (military draft ) a III (three) group a 4–H Club chapter5.indd 92 chapter5.indd 92 1/13/09 8:41:57 AM 1/13/09 8:41:57 AM

108 Spelling 93 Geographic names e spelling of geographic names must conform to the decisions 5.20. Th of the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN) (http://geonames. In the absence of such a decision, the U.S. Directory of Post Offi ces is to be used. 5.21. If the decisions or the rules of the BGN permit the use of either the local offi cial form or the conventional English form, it is the ce to select the form that is most prerogative of the originating offi suitable for the matter in hand; therefore, in marking copy or read- ing proof, it is required only to verify the spelling of the particular form used. GPO’s preference is for the conventional English form. Copy will be followed as to accents, but these should be consistent throughout the entire job. Nationalities, etc. Th e table on Demonyms in Chapter 17 “Useful Tables” shows forms 5.22. to be used for nouns and adjectives denoting nationality. In designating the natives of the States, the following forms will be 5.23. used. Ohioan Louisianian Alabamian Oklahoman Mainer Alaskan Oregonian Marylander Arizonan Pennsylvanian Massachusettsan Arkansan Rhode Islander Michiganian Californian South Carolinian Minnesotan Coloradan South Dakotan Mississippian Connecticuter Te n n e s s e a n Missourian Delawarean Te x a n Montanan Floridian Utahn Nebraskan Georgian Ve r m o nt e r Nevadan Hawaiian Virginian New Hampshirite Idahoan Wa sh i ng ton ia n New Jerseyan Illinoisan We st Vi rg i n ia n New Mexican Indianian Wisconsinite New Yorker Iowan Wyomingite North Carolinian Kansan North Dakotan Kentuckian

109 94 Chapter 5 5.24. Observe the following forms: African-American Alaska Native (Aleuts, Eskimos, Indians of Alaska) Amerindian Native American (American Indian) Puerto Rican Part-Hawaiian (legal status) but part-Japanese, etc. Native American words 5.25. Words, including tribal and other proper names of Indian, Aleut, Hawaiian, and other groups, are to be followed literally as to spell- ing and the use of spaces, hyphens, etc. Transliterat ion 5.26. In the spelling of nongeographic words transliterated from Chinese, Japanese, or any other language that does not have a Latin alphabet, copy is to be followed literally. chapter5.indd 94 chapter5.indd 94 1/13/09 8:41:57 AM 1/13/09 8:41:57 AM

110 6. Compounding Rules (See also Chapter 7 “Compounding Examples”) 6.1. A compound word is a union of two or more words, either with or without a hyphen. It conveys a unit idea that is not as clearly or quickly conveyed by the component words in unconnected succes- sion. Th e hyphen is a mark of punctuation that not only unites but also separates the component words; it facilitates understanding, aids readability, and ensures correct pronunciation. When com- pound words must be divided at the end of a line, such division xes and combining forms of more than should be made leaving prefi one syllable intact. 6.2. In applying the rules in this chapter and in using the list of ex- amples in the following chapter, “Compounding Examples,” the fl uid nature of our language should be kept in mind. Word forms cation. Although it is oft en the case that constantly undergo modifi hyphenated compound words eventually lose their hyphen, many of them start out unhyphenated. 6.3. Th e rules, therefore, are somewhat fl exible. Exceptions must nec- essarily be allowed. Current language trends continue to point to closing up certain words which, through either frequent use or widespread dissemination through modern media exposure, have become fi xed in the reader’s mind as units of thought. Th e tendency to merge two short words continues to be a natural progression to- ward better communication. General rules 6.4. In general, omit the hyphen when words appear in regular order and the omission causes no ambiguity in sense or sound. banking hours real estate eye opener blood pressure fellow citizen rock candy book value living costs training ship census taker palm oil violin teacher patent right day laborer 95

111 96 Chapter 6 6.5. Words are usually combined to express a literal or nonliteral (fi gura- tive) unit idea that would not be as clearly expressed in unconnected succession. forget-me-not right-of-way aft erglow bookkeeping gentleman whitewash cupboard newsprint 6.6. A derivative of a compound retains the solid or hyphenated form of the original compound unless otherwise indicated. Y-shaped coldbloodedness outlawry footnoting praiseworthiness ill-advisedly railroader 6.7. A hyphen is used to avoid doubling a vowel or tripling a consonant, er the short prefi xes co, de, pre, pro, and re, which are gen- except aft erally printed solid. (See also rules 6.29 and 6.32.) cooperation semi-independent shell-like deemphasis brass-smith hull-less preexisiting Inverness-shire but anti-infl ation thimble-eye co-occupant micro-organism ultra-atomic cross section Solid compounds Print solid two nouns that form a third when the compound has 6.8. xed noun consists only one primary accent, especially when the prefi of only one syllable or when one of the elements loses its original accent. airship cupboard footnote bathroom dressmaker locksmith bookseller fi workman shmonger 6.9. Print solid a noun consisting of a short verb and an adverb as its sec- ond element, except when the use of the solid form would interfere with comprehension. blowout builddown fl areback breakdown cooldown giveaway hangover runoff but holdup setup cut-in makeready showdown phase-in markoff thowaway run-in pickup tradeoff sit-in c h a p t e r 6 . i n d 11/17/08 1:43:40 PM 9 6 chapter6.indd 96 1 1 / 1 7 / 0 8 1 : 4 3 : 4 0 P M d

112 Compounding Rules 97 Compounds beginning with the following nouns are usually printed 6.10. solid. book mill snow eye play way horse school wood house shop work 6.11. Compounds ending in the following are usually printed solid, espe- xed word consists of one syllable. cially when the prefi keeping room berry bird land shop blossom light site board like skin boat line smith book load stone borne maid store bound maker tail box making tight boy man time (not clock) brained master ward bug mate ware bush mill water cam mistress way craft monger wear fi eld over weed sh fi owner wide ower fl but #ownership wise fl y person woman girl picker wood grower picking work headed piece worker hearted plane working holder power worm hopper proof worthy house keeper roach writer c h a p t e r 6 . i n d d 11/17/08 1:43:40 PM 9 7 chapter6.indd 97 1 1 / 1 7 / 0 8 1 : 4 3 : 4 0 P M

113 98 Chapter 6 6.12. and some when combi ned w it h body, thing, Print solid any, every, no, . When is the second element, print as two words if where and one meaning a single or particular person or thing. To avoid mispro- as two words at all times. nunciation, print no one anybody everywhere somebody anything everyone something anywhere nobody somewhere anyone nothing someone everybody nowhere everything no one any one of us may stay; every one of the pilots is responsible; every body was but accounted for 6.13. Print compound personal pronouns as one word. herself oneself yourself himself ourselves yourselves itself themselves myself thyself 6.14. Print as one word compass directions consisting of two points, but er the fi rst point when three points are combined. use a hyphen aft northeast north-northeast southwest south-southwest north-south alignment also Unit modifi ers Print a hyphen between words, or abbreviations and words, com- 6.15. er immediately preceding the word bined to form a unit modifi ed, except as indicated in rule 6.16 and elsewhere throughout modifi this chapter. Th is applies particularly to combinations in which one element is a present or past participle. Federal-State-local cooperation agreed-upon standards German-English descent Baltimore-Washington road guided-missile program collective-bargaining talks hearing-impaired class contested-election case high-speed line contract-bar rule large-scale project cost-of-living increase law-abiding citizen drought-stricken area long-term loan English-speaking nation line-item veto fi re-tested material c h a p t e r 6 . i n d d 11/17/08 1:43:40 PM 9 8 chapter6.indd 98 1 1 / 1 7 / 0 8 1 : 4 3 : 4 0 P M

114 Compounding Rules 99 agship U.S.-owned propert y; U.S.-fl long-term-payment loan 1-inch diameter; 2-inch-diameter low-cost housing pipe lump-sum payment a 4-percent increase, the 10-percent most-favored-nation clause rise multiple-purpose uses no-par-value stock but one-on-one situation 4 percent citric acid part-time personnel 4 percent interest. (Note the absence rust-resistant covering . Th a, an, or of an article: the e service-connected disability word is understood here.) of state-of-the-art technology supply-side economics tool-and-die maker up-or-down vote 6.16. Where meaning is clear and readability is not aided, it is not nec- essary to use a hyphen to form a temporary or made compound. Restraint should be exercised in forming unnecessary combina- tions of words used in normal sequence. national defense appropriation atomic energy power natural gas company bituminous coal industry per capita expenditure child welfare plan Portland cement plant civil rights case production credit loan civil service examination public at large durable goods industry public utility plant fl ood control study real estate tax free enterprise system small businessman ground water levels Social Security pension high school student soil conservation measures elementary school grade special delivery mail income tax form parcel post delivery interstate commerce law speech correction class land bank loan land use program no-hyphen rule (readability but life insurance company no hyphen rule not aided); mutual security funds 6.17. Print without a hyphen a compound predicate (either adjective or noun) whose second element is a present participle. xing. e shale was oil bearing. Th Th e duties were price fi Th ects were far reaching. Th e eff e area is used for beet raising.

115 100 Chapter 6 Print without a hyphen a compound predicate adjective the second 6.18. element of which is a past participle. Omit the hyphen in a predicate er of comparative or superlative degree. modifi Th is material is fi re tested. Th e area is drought stricken. Th e paper is fi ne grained. Th e cars are higher priced. ne grained wood. Th e reporters are better informed. Moderately fi 6.19. Print without a hyphen a two-word modifi er the fi rst element of which is a comparative or superlative. better drained soil but uppercrust society best liked books lowercase, uppercase type higher level decision highest priced apartment upperclassman larger sized dress bestseller (noun) lighter-than-air craft better paying job lower income group higher-than-market price 6.20. Do not use a hyphen in a two-word unit modifi er the fi rst element of which is an adverb ending in ly, nor use hyphens in a three-word unit modifi er the fi rst two elements of which are adverbs. but eagerly awaited moment ever-normal granary wholly owned subsidiary unusually well preserved specimen ever-rising fl ood ned usage still-new car very well defi still-lingering doubt longer than usual lunch period not too distant future well-known lawyer most oft en heard phrase well-kept secret 6.21. Proper nouns used as unit modifi ers, either in their basic or derived form, retain their original form; but the hyphen is printed when combining forms. Seventh-day Adventists Latin American countries but North Carolina roads Minneapolis-St. Paul region a Mexican-American North American-South American South American trade sphere Spanish-American pride French-English descent Winston-Salem festival Washington–Wilkes-Barre route African-American program or Washington/Wilkes-Barre Anglo-Saxon period route Franco-Prussian War

116 Compounding Rules 101 er with the word it modifi es. Do not confuse a modifi 6.22. well-trained schoolteacher elderly clothesman elementary school teacher old-clothes man preschool children (kindergarten) competent shoemaker pre-school children (before school) wooden-shoe maker rezoned wastesite fi eld canning factory hazardous-waste site tomato-canning factory brave servicemen but service men and women common stockholder light blue hat (weight) stock ownership light-blue hat (color) small businessman average taxpayer working men and women income-tax payer steam powerplant site American fl agship (military) meat packinghouse owner American-fl agship 6.23. Where two or more hyphenated compounds have a common basic element but this element is omitted in all but the last term, the hy- phens are retained. 2- to 3- and 4- to 5-ton trucks but 2- by 4-inch boards, boards 2 to 6 inches wide 8-, 10-, and 16-foot boards 6.4-, 3.1-, and 2-percent pay raises not moss and ivy-covered walls moss- and ivy-covered walls, long- and short-term money rates, not long and short-term money rates but twofold or threefold, two or threefold not not goat, sheep, and calfskins goat, sheep, and calf skins, not intra-state and -city intrastate and intracity, American owned and managed companies preoperative and postoperative examination 6.24. er consisting of a foreign Do not use a hyphen in a unit modifi phrase. ante bellum days cio member per diem employee ex offi per capita tax de transaction bona fi prima facie evidence 6.25. Do not print a hyphen in a unit modifi er containing a letter or a numeral as its second element. point 4 program class II railroad abstract B pages grade A milk article 3 provisions ward D beds

117 102 Chapter 6 er enclosed in quotation marks 6.26. Do not use a hyphen in a unit modifi unless it is normally a hyphenated term, but quotation marks are not to be used in lieu of a hyphen. “blue sky” law but “good neighbor” policy right-to-work law line-item veto “tie-in” sale 6.27. Print combination color terms as separate words, but use a hyphen when such color terms are unit modifi ers. bluish-green feathers bluish green dark green iron-gray sink silver-gray body orange red 6.28. Do not use a hyphen between independent adjectives preceding a noun. a fi ne old southern gentleman big gray cat xes, and combining forms Prefi xes, suffi Print solid combining forms and prefi xes, except as indicated 6.29. elsewhere. peri patetic infra red birth aft er plano convex inter view Anglo mania poly nodal spinal intra ante date script post vert intro anti slavery pre exist iso metric bi weekly consul pro macro analysis law by pseudo scholastic thorax meso circum navigation enact re genesis meta cis alpine retro spect phone micro operate co semi mis state contra position cial offi mono gram counter case step father color multi energize de secretary sub neo phyte demi tasse market super non neutral ex communicate thermo couple off set curricular extra tran sonic out bake tell fore trans ship active over heroi comic tri color cosmic pan hyper sensitive ultra violet para centric hypo acid un necessary coated parti bound in under fl ow c h a p t e r 6 . i n d d 11/17/08 1:43:40 PM 1 0 2 chapter6.indd 102 1 1 / 1 7 / 0 8 1 : 4 3 : 4 0 P M

118 Compounding Rules 103 Print solid combining forms and suffi xes, except as indicated 6.30. elsewhere. ment procure geo graphy able port inner most hood man cover age partner ship ish self oper ate some lone kin pump cite plebis home stead less meat twenty fold ward north out let spoon ful wise clock wave like gram kilo Print solid words ending in 6.31. , but use a hyphen to avoid tripling a like rst element is a proper name. consonant or when the fi lifelike girllike Scotland-like lilylike bell-like McArtor-like 6.32. Use a hyphen or hyphens to prevent mispronunciation, to ensure nite accent on each element of the compound, or to avoid a defi ambiguity. re-cover (cover again) anti-hog-cholera serum re-creation (create again) co-occurrence re-lay (lay again) co-op re-sorting (sort again) mid-decade re-treat (treat again) multi-ply (several plies) un-ionized non-civil-service position un-uniformity non-tumor-bearing tissue pre-midcourse review but pre-position (before) rereferred pro-choice rereviewed pro-life 6.33. Use a hyphen to join duplicated prefi xes. re-redirect sub-subcommittee super-superlative 6.34. Print with a hyphen the prefi and . ex, self, xes quasi quasi-argument ex-governor quasi-corporation ex-serviceman quasi-young ex-son-in-law ex-vice-president but self-control ood selfh self-educated selfsame quasi-academic c h a p t e r 6 . i n d d 1 0 3 11/17/08 1:43:40 PM 1 1 / 1 7 / 0 8 1 : 4 3 : 4 0 P M chapter6.indd 103

119 104 Chapter 6 6.35. Unless usage demands otherwise, use a hyphen to join a prefi x or e hyphen is retained in combining form to a capitalized word. (Th words of this class set in caps.) non-Federal anti-American pro-British but un-American nongovernmental non-Government overanglicize neo-Nazi transatlantic post-World War II post-Second World War or Numerical compounds 6.36. Print a hyphen between the elements of compound numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine and in adjective compounds with a nu- rst element. merical fi three-and-twenty twenty-one two-sided question twenty-fi rst multimillion-dollar fund 6-footer 10-dollar-per-car tax 6-foot-11-inch man thirty- (30-) day period 24-inch ruler 3-week vacation but 8-hour day one hundred twenty-one 10-minute delay 100-odd 20th-century progress foursome 3-to-1 ratio threescore 5-to-4 vote foursquare .22-caliber cartridge $20 million airfi eld 2-cent-per-pound tax second grade children four-in-hand tie 6.37. Print without a hyphen a modifi er consisting of a possessive noun preceded by a numeral. (See also rule 8.14.) 3 weeks’ vacation 1 month’s layoff 1 minute’s delay 1 week’s pay a 1-minute delay 2 hours’ work but c h a p t e r 6 . i n d d 11/17/08 1:43:40 PM 1 0 4 chapter6.indd 104 1 1 / 1 7 / 0 8 1 : 4 3 : 4 0 P M

120 Compounding Rules 105 Print a hyphen between the elements of a fraction, but omit it 6.38. between the numerator and the denominator when the hyphen ap- pears in either or in both. one-thousandth twenty-three thirtieths two-thirds twenty-one thirty-seconds two one-thousandths three-fourths of an inch 6.39. A unit modifi er following and reading back to the word or words ed takes a hyphen and is printed in the singular. modifi motor, alternating-current, 3-phase, 60-cycle, 115-volt glass jars: 5-gallon, 2-gallon, 1-quart belts: 2-inch, 1¼-inch, ½-inch, ¼-inch Civil and military titles Do not hyphenate a civil or military title denoting a single offi ce, 6.40. but print a double title with a hyphen. secretary-treasurer ambassador at large sergeant at arms assistant attorney general treasurer-manager commander in chief under secretary comptroller general under-secretaryship but Congressman at Large vice president major general vice-presidency but notary public secretary general designate, as the last element of a title, re- elect e adjectives Th 6.41. and quire a hyphen. ambassador-designate President-elect (Federal) minister-designate Vice-President-elect (Federal) Secretary of Housing and Urban Development-designate c h a p t e r 11/17/08 1:43:41 PM . i n d d 1 0 5 chapter6.indd 105 1 1 / 1 7 / 0 8 1 : 4 3 : 4 1 P M 6

121 106 Chapter 6 c and technical terms Scientifi Do not print a hyphen in scientifi 6.42. c terms (names of chemicals, dis- eases, animals, insects, plants) used as unit modifi ers if no hyphen appears in their original form. whooping cough remedy carbon monoxide poisoning guinea pig raising but hog cholera serum Russian-olive plantings methyl bromide solution r tree Douglas-fi stem rust control equivalent uranium content Chemical elements used in combination with fi gures use a hyphen, 6.43. except with superior fi gures. 90 Freon-12 uranium-235 Sr 234 235 U polonium-210 U 92 6.44. Note use of hyphens and closeup punctuation in chemical formulas. 9-nitroanthra(1,9,4,10)bis(1)oxathiazone-2,7-bisdioxide Cr-Ni-Mo 2,4-D 6.45. Print a hyphen between the elements of technical or contrived com- pound units of measurement. candela-hour light-year work-year crop-year passenger-mile but kilowatthour -hour horsepower-hour staff Improvised compounds 6.46. Print with a hyphen the elements of an improvised compound. George “Pay-As-You-Go” Miller blue-pencil (v.) stick-in-the-mud (n.) 18-year-old (n., u.m.) let-George-do-it attitude know-it-all (n.) how-to-be-beautiful course know-how (n.) hard-and-fast rule nger-and-test-the-wind lick-the-fi penny-wise and pound-foolish policy economics rst-come-fi rst-served basis fi make-believe (n., u.m.) but rst served a basis of fi rst come, fi one-man-one-vote principle ship roll-on/roll-off c h a p t e r 6 . i n d d 1 11/17/08 1:43:41 PM 6 chapter6.indd 106 1 1 / 1 7 / 0 8 1 : 4 3 : 4 1 P M 0

122 Compounding Rules 107 Use hyphens in a prepositional-phrase compound noun consisting 6.47. of three or more words. cat-o’-nine-tails man-of-war but government-in-exile mother-in-law heir at law next of kin grant-in-aid mother-of-pearl offi cer in charge jack-in-the-box patent-in-fee 6.48. When the corresponding noun form is printed as separate words, the verb form is always hyphenated. cold-shoulder blue-pencil cross-brace 6.49. icting Print a hyphen in a compound formed of repetitive or confl terms and in a compound naming the same thing under two aspects. young-old hanky-panky boogie-woogie but murder-suicide comedy-ballet bowwow nitty-gritty dead-alive dillydally pitter-patter devil-devil hubbub razzle-dazzle even-stephen nitwit walkie-talkie farce-melodrama riff raff willy-nilly fi ddle-faddle Use a hyphen in a nonliteral compound expression containing an 6.50. apostrophe in its fi rst element. asses’-eyes bull’s-eye crow’s-nest ass’s-foot cat’s-paw 6.51. Use a hyphen to join a single capital letter to a noun or a participle. but C-section H-bomb x ray V-necked I-beam x raying S-iron T- s h a p e d S turns T- s q u a r e U-boat X-ed out C-chip 6.52. Print idiomatic phrases without hyphens. insofar as come by nowadays Monday week inasmuch as c h a p t e r 6 . i 11/17/08 1:43:41 PM d d 1 0 7 chapter6.indd 107 1 1 / 1 7 / 0 8 1 : 4 3 : 4 1 P M n


124 7. Compounding Examples 7.1. Th e following examples are based on the rules for compounding found in chapter 6. Obv iously, t his list or a ny ot her list of compound words could not possibly be a complete reference due to sheer vol- ume. However, an analogy of the words listed with like prefi xes and suffi xes together with an application of the rules will result in easier handling of those compound words not listed. In order to keep the list from becoming cumbersome, certain re- 7. 2 . strictions had to be adopted. Th e listing of hyphenated compounds ending in ed was kept to a 7. 3 . e rationale was to provide one or two examples under minimum. Th a keyword rather than needless repetition. 7.4 . Similarly, many two-word forms which create no diffi culty were omitted. 7. 5 . Care was exercised to achieve fuller coverage of solid compounds, particularly when the adopted form is diff erent than that of ird New International Dictionary. Th Webster’s Th is dictionary is GPO’s guide for spelling with the exception of those words listed in rule 5.2. It is not GPO’s guide to compounding. 7.6 . A distinction exists between words used in a literal sense and a non- literal sense. With few exceptions, one-word forms usually express a nonliteral interpretation, while two-word forms invariably convey a literal meaning. For example, a person may have an interesting sideline or hobby, but be forced to sit on the side line during periods of inactivity. 7.7. Distinction should also be made in the compounding of two words to form an adjective modifi er and the use of the same words as a predicate adjective; e.g., “crystal-clear water,’’ but “the water is crys- re tested.’’ tal clear’’; “fi re-tested material,’’ but “the material is fi 109

125 110 Chapter 7 7. 8 . Caution should be exercised when distinguishing whether a succes- sion of words is being used as a compound or whether they simply appear together. Consider, for example, ‘‘We know someone should ought to be.’’ some one do it and who that For better appearance, it may sometimes be necessary to treat alike 7. 9. words that would have diff erent forms when they appear separately; and queen bee e.g., farmhand and ranch hand . In juxta- bumblebee , position, these and similar words should be made uniform by being printed as two words. Th is is only a temporary expedient and does not supersede the list. 7.10. xes are usually printed solid. For greater Combining forms and prefi readability, the hyphen is sometimes used to avoid doubling a vowel anti-infl ation, naso-orbital ; to facilitate a normally capitalized word ( ) ) ; to assure distinct pronunciation of each ( mid-April, non-European element of a compound or ready comprehension of intended mean- contra-ion, un-ionized ) ; or to join a combining form or prefi x to ing ( a hyphenated compound ( equi-gram-molar, pro-mother-in-law ) . 7.11. As nouns and adjectives, holdup, calldown, layout, makeup, and similar words should be printed solid. Th eir derivatives, ( holder- er and ) require hyphens. Such up, caller-down, layer-out, maker-up compounds as run-in, run-on, and tie-in resist quick comprehen- ey are therefore hyphenated. sion when solid. Th Words spelled alike but pronounced diff erently, such as tear-dimmed 7.12 . and wind tunnel and windup, are listed under the same tearsheet, keyword. 7.13 . ush in the following list combine with the words Word s pr i nte d fl which follow to indicate solid or hyphenated compounds. A space- mark (#) appearing before an indented entry indicates a two-word form, but two-word forms appearing in the adjective position usu- ally take a hyphen. 7.14 . To indicate word function, several abbreviations have been ap- pended. Th ey are: adv., adverb; n., noun; v., verb; u.m., unit modifi er; pref., prefi x; c.f., combining form; and conj., conjunction.

126 C o m p o u n d i n g E x a m p l e s 111 show forms) (c .f.) actino A sick -cool (v.) all one word A -slaked (u.m.) -cooled (u.m.) addle BC(s) (n.) sleeve course brain –B–C (u.m.) space crew head -bomb speed -dried (u.m.) pate -day stream -driven (u.m.) add-on (n., u.m.) at -fl strike drome adeno (c .f.) -frame strip drop all one word -pole #time (radio and -dry (u.m., v.) (c .f.) aero -sharp TV) fare -otitis a wave oated (u.m.) -fl rest one word borning, etc. woman fl ow afore foot worthy foil all one word while (adv.) alder-leaved (u.m.) -formed (u.m.) aft er (c .f.) (c .f.) abdomino ale frame all one word all one word cup freight agar-agar able -fed (u.m.) gap age -bodied (u.m.) glass glow less -minded (u.m.) alkali#land hammer long about-face all head -old (u.m.) above -absorbing (u.m.) hole -stricken (u.m.) -cited (u.m.) -aged (u.m.) hose -weary (u.m.) deck -American lane agribusiness -found (u.m.) -clear (n., u.m.) lift ague -given (u.m.) -fi red (u.m.) #line (line for air) -faced (u.m.) ground (u.m.) otation -fl line (aviation) -plagued (u.m.) -mentioned (u.m.) (mining) liner -sore (u.m.) -named (u.m.) #fours link aide-de-camp -said (u.m.) #in locked air -water (u.m.) -inclusive (u.m.) mail bag -written (u.m.) mark (printing) mark (v.) base absentminded -out (u.m.) marker bill ace-high (u.m.) -possessed (u.m.) mass blast acid -round (u.m.) minded -blasted (u.m.) fast spice park blown -treat (v.) -star (u.m.) path brake works time (u.m.) photo brush ack-ack wise port (all burst acre alleyway meanings) cargo -foot allo (c .f.) #raid -clear (u.m.) -inch all one word scoop coach almsgiver ship -condition (all

127 112 Chapter 7 aquo (c .f.) -imperial -eyed (u.m.) along -ion -infl ation, etc. -faced (u.m.) ship rest one word -life food shore arc -missile-missile (c .f.) angio side -over (n., u.m.) (u .m.) all one word alpen -weld (v.) missile angle glow arch (pref.) personnel hook stock band trust, etc. meter alpha bishop -New#Deal, etc. wing -cellulose duke rest one word worm -iron enemy antro (c .f.) (c .f.) Anglo -naphthol -Protestant all one word -American, etc. also-ran (n., u.m.) archeo (c .f.) anvil rest one word alto all one word -faced (u.m.) (c .f.) anhydr(o) cumulus archi (pref.) -headed (u.m.) all one word relievo all one word any ankle stratus (c .f.) archo body bone amber all one word how -deep (u.m.) -clear (u.m.) (c .f.) areo one jack -colored (u.m.) all one word #one (one thing ant -tipped (u.m.) (c .f.) aristo or one of eater ambi (c .f.) all one word a group) hill all one word arithmo place (adv.) (c .f.) ante (pref.) amidships (c .f.) aorto all one word #bellum, etc. amino all one word arm -Christian, etc. #acid (pref.) apo band #mortem x, all one as prefi all one word word bone mortem apple ampere chair (nonlitera l) cart -foot hole rest one word jack -hour lift antero (c .f.) #juice meter pit all one word sauce -minute plate anthra (c .f.) -scented (u.m.) -second rack all one word April-fool (v.) (pref.) amphi rest anthropo (c .f.) aqua all one word -shaped (u.m.) all one word culture amylo (c .f.) armor anti (pref.) lung all one word -clad (u.m.) -American, etc. marine anchor -piercing (u.m.) -choice meter hold plate christ puncture #light -plated (u.m.) god tint plate smith -hog-cholera tone (u .m.) angel arm’s-length (u.m.) -icer cake

128 Compounding Examples 113 slide band visual arrow space bite (v.) auri (c .f.) head spin biter -iodide -leaved (u.m.) spread bone rest one word plate staff breaker authorship -shaped (u.m.) stage cap (c .f.) auto shot stairs chain -logon -toothed (u.m.) stamp charge matic#backup arseno (c .f.) stay -country (u.m.) -objective all one word stitch cross -observation art-colored (u.m.) stop date -omnibus arterio (c .f.) strap down (n., u.m.) -ophthalmoscope all one word -streeter drop rest one word (c .f.) arthro stretch (n.) face awe all one word string feed -bound (u.m.) artillery strip (book) fi ll -fi lled (u.m.) man stroke fi re -inspired (u.m.) woman -swath (v.) fl ap some asbestos swept fl ash ax -covered (u.m.) swing ow fl -adz -packed (u.m.) tack -focus (v.) -grinding (u.m.) ash talk furrow hammer bin tender ground head can tenter hand -shaped (u.m.) -colored (u.m.) -titrate (v.) haul axletree -free (u.m.) track (v.) -in (n., u.m.) axo (c .f.) -gray (u.m.) trail lash all one word #heap up (n., u.m.) list (v.) azo (c .f.) pan wall log -orange pile wash lotter -orchil pit water packer (n.) -orseilline tray backer paddle (v.) rest one word assembly -down pay #line B -off payment man -up pedal (v.) B-fl at #room bag plate baby (c .f.) astro boy rest #boomer all one word -cheeked (u.m.) road face (n.) attorney#at#law girl run #food audio pipe saw sit (v.) frequency -shaped (u.m.) scatter sitter gram baggage set back meter man shift ache tape

129 114 Chapter 7 pot bat bar #rack setter blind #bit #room -shaped (u.m.) -eyed (u.m.) code #train stalk fowl keeper bailout (n., u.m.) bear wing maid bake baiting batch#fi le post oven herd bath tender pan hide mat -wound (u.m.) shop hound robe bare bald (n., u.m.) off #towel -armed (u.m.) faced trap tub back head (n.) beater batswing (cloth) bone pate -out battercake faced ball -up battle foot fi eld beauty ax handed #game -blind (u.m.) -fallen (u.m.) legged -like -clad (u.m.) front necked park (nonliteral) #shop ground worn #park (literal) beaverpelt -scarred (u.m.) barge-laden (u.m.) player bed ship bark point (n., u.m.) board stead cutter stock chair wagon peel ballot#box chamber baud#rate -tanned (u.m.) band clothes baybolt barley aid cord beach corn box cover comber mow cutter -fallen (u.m.) head #water saw fast wagon barnstormer stand fellow bead barrel string frame ush fl head -tailed (u.m.) lamp roll -roll (v.) wagon linen beak -shaped (u.m.) width pad head base bandy pan iron ball ball plate -shaped (u.m.) ball#bat -legged (u.m.) post beam line bangup (n., u.m.) quilt lling fi #line (surveying) bank rail -making (u.m.) -minded (u.m.) book #rest bean basi (c .f.) note ridden bag all one word #paper rock cod basketball side (stream) sheet -fed (u.m.) bas-relief bantamweight sick pole

130 Compounding Examples 115 bird’s -eyed (u.m.) crank side -eye head (ego) -crowned (u.m.) sore #nest (literal) (n.) horn (sheep) hanger space -nest (n., u.m., v.) -horned (u.m.) hop spread birth -leaguer mouthed spring bed mouthed ringer stand #date name (top rank) wether stead day (n., u.m.) belly straw mark bill ache time place back band bee right beetle buster bread #year broker button -eater biscuit-shaped fold fed (u.m.) herd (u .m.) head pinch hive (c .f.) bismuto hook belowstairs keeper all one word poster belt line bit sticker -driven (u.m.) way stock billet saw beechnut -mapped -doux bench beef bitter head fellow eater -ender billingsgate -hardened (u.m.) #extract head bio (c .f.) made (u.m.) -faced (u.m.) sweet -aeration mark (nonliteral) head -tongued (u.m.) -osmosis #mark (surveying) steak black rest one word warmer tongue ball (nonliteral) birchbark bentwing (n., u.m.) bees -bordered (u.m.) bird (c .f.) benzo wax -eyed (u.m.) bath all one word wing guard bander berry-brown (u.m.) beet jack cage best eld fi leg call #man #sugar list catcher seller (n.) beetle mail #dog (literal) beta -browed (u.m.) mark dog (nonliteral) -glucose head #market (n.) -eyed (u.m.) tron stock -market (u.m., v.) -faced (u.m.) between before -marketer life decks -cited (u.m.) out (n., u.m.) lime whiles hand plate (printing) lore (pref.) bi -mentioned (u.m.) print mouthed -iliac -named (u.m.) -robed (u.m.) seed rest one word behindhand #sheep (all shot big bell meanings) watcher -eared (u.m.) -bottomed (u.m.)

131 116 Chapter 7 head torch bath shirted beat snake hook tube curdling strap (n.) house up (n., u.m.) -drenched (u.m.) -tie (u.m.) loader blue -giving (u.m.) top owner -annealed (u.m.) guilty #widow #people beard (n.) -hot (u.m.) blast setter blood hound hole shop bonnet letting plate side book (nonliteral) mobile (c .f.) blasto swain bottle -red (u.m.) all one word wright coat (n.) ripe bleach yard -eyed (u.m.) shed ground bob gill shot works cat grass spiller blear sled -gray (u.m.) spot eye stay -green (u.m.) stain -eyed (u.m.) tail -hot (u.m.) stock -witted (u.m.) white jack stream (c .f.) blepharo bobby jacket sucker all one word pin nose thirsty blight-resistant -soxer -pencil (v.) -warm (u.m.) (u .m.) body point (oyster) bloody blind bearer print -nosed (u.m.) -bomb (v.) bending stocking -fl ying (u.m.) -red (u.m.) builder streak (nonliteral) fold blossom -centered (u.m.) tongue (n.) -loaded (u.m.) -bordered (u.m.) guard blunder #man -laden (u.m.) -mind buss spot blow plate head stitch back bog blunt by (n., u.m.) story -eyed (u.m.) -edged (u.m.) cock blink-eyed (u.m.) land -spoken (u.m.) down (n., u.m.) blithe-looking (u.m.) man boar gun blitz trot (v.) spear hard (n.) buggy boil staff hole krieg down (n., u.m.) board iron block (n., u.m.) off #foot lamp buster out (n., u.m.) rack (n., u.m.) off head over (n., u.m.) walk out (n., u.m.) hole (v.) boiler boat pipe ship -off builder spray blood -out crew through (u.m.) -alcohol (u.m.)

132 Compounding Examples 117 bottle fold brake plate -learned (u.m.) drum works -fed (u.m.) -lined (u.m.) head boiling#house neck list meter bold -nosed (u.m.) lore shoe face (printing) bottom#land lover brandnew (u.m.) -spirited (u.m.) boughpot mark brandy bolt bow mobile -burnt (u.m.) cutter back plate wine head bent rack brass hole grace rest -armed (u.m.) -shaped (u.m.) head sale -bold (u.m.) strake knot seller -smith bomb legged shelf works drop -necked (u.m.) stack brave fall pin stall hearted shell shot stamp -looking (u.m.) sight sprit stand -minded (u.m.) thrower stave stitch brazen -throwing (u.m.) string -stitching (u.m.) -browed (u.m.) bone wow -taught (u.m.) face ache box wright bread #ash car boom basket black haul town crumb breaker head (printing) truck earner -bred (u.m.) truck boondoggling fruit -dry (u.m.) boxer boot #knife -eater -off black liner -hard (u.m.) -up hose plate head brachio (c .f.) jack seller lace all one word lace stuff meal (c .f.) brachy last #tray set all one word leg winner shaker brain lick break -white (u.m.) cap strap away (n., u.m.) boobytrap child bore ax boogie-woogie -cracked (u.m.) hole back (n., u.m.) book pan safe bone (fever) binder sick sight #circuit case -spun (u.m.) bosom down (n., u.m.) dealer storm -deep (u.m.) -even (u.m.) #end -tired (u.m.) -folded (u.m.) fast fair -making (u.m.) fast#room -fed (u.m.) wash

133 118 Chapter 7 broom brilliant breeze front #handle -cut (u.m.) -borne (u.m.) -in (n., u.m.) -leaved (u.m.) -green (u.m.) ed (u.m.) -lift neck -making (u.m.) brine-soaked (u.m.) -swept (u.m.) off (n., u.m.) stick bringer-up way out (n., u.m.) brother bristle bribe point -german cone (u.m.) -free (u.m.) through (n., u.m.) hood -pointed (u.m.) giver up (n., u.m.) -in-law broad taker wind (n.) brow acre bric-a-brac breaker beat ax brick -down point band (n., u.m.) bat -off post -beamed (u.m.) -built (u.m.) -up brown brim -colored (u.m.) breast back cast kiln band -eyed (u.m.) cloth layer beam out (n., u.m.) head liner bone print #jump mason -deep (u.m.) brush leaf (n.) -red (u.m.) -fed (u.m.) ball -leaved (u.m.) setter feed #holder loom work -high (u.m.) off (n., u.m.) minded yard hook -treat (v.) -mouthed (u.m.) bride mark brusher share (n., v.) bed piece -off sheet (n.) bowl pin -up side cake plate buck sword chamber plow eye wife cup rail -eyed (u.m.) woven groom rope horn broken knot work hound -down (u.m.) lace breath passer -legged (u.m.) maiden -blown (u.m.) plate -mouthed (u.m.) stake -tainted (u.m.) pot bromo (c .f.) bridge taking saw all one word builder breech shot (c .f.) bronchio head block skinned all one word pot cloth stall broncho (c .f.) tree loader stay all one word #wall -loading (u.m.) stove broncobuster work lock tooth bronze briefcase pin wagon -clad (u.m.) bright plug wash -covered (u.m.) -colored (u.m.) sight bucket-shaped -red (u.m.) -eyed (u.m.)

134 Compounding Examples 119 -tube ngered (u.m.) -fi proof (u .m.) cab head bull’s buff driver butt -eye (nonliteral) -tipped (u.m.) fare -joint (v.) -foot ware #owner saw bumble -yellow (u.m.) stand stock bee bug cabbagehead strap foot bear cabinet -weld (v.) kite bite maker butter bung -eyed (u.m.) making ball hole build cable-laid (u.m.) -colored (u.m.) start down (n., u.m.) caco (c .f.) fat burn up (n., u.m.) all one word ngers fi -in (n., u.m.) built cage#bird head out (n., u.m.) -in (u.m.) cake milk up (n., u.m.) -up (u.m.) baker mouth burned-over (u.m.) bulb-tee (u.m.) bread nut burner-off (c .f.) bulbo -eater print burnt all one word mixer -rigged (u.m.) -out (u.m.) bulk -mixing (u.m.) scotch -up (u.m.) head pan -smooth (u.m.) bus -pile (v.) walk wife boy weigh (v.) calci (c .f.) -yellow (u.m.) #conductor bull all one word button driver baiting calk-weld (v.) -eared (u.m.) fare dog call -headed (u.m.) doze girl back (n., u.m.) hold -faced (u.m.) line box hole fi ght load down (n., u.m.) hook frog bush -in (n., u.m.) mold head beater note buzzerphone -mouthed (u.m.) buck -off (n., u.m.) by neck out (n., u.m.) -and-by fi ghter nose -over (n., u.m.) -the-way (n., pen -grown (u.m.) up (n., u.m.) u.m.) ring hammer camshaft -your-leave (n., #terrier -leaguer camel u.m.) toad ranger back (rubber) rest one word -voiced (u.m.) whacker -backed (u.m.) whack C driver wife whip -faced (u.m.) C bustup (n., u.m.) bullet camel’s-hair (u.m.) -sharp busy head -star body maker

135 120 Chapter 7 back (n., u.m.) car fi tter camp barn layer -by (u.m.) re fi break -smooth (u.m.) off (n., u.m.) ground builder -sweeping (u.m.) out (n., u.m.) stool fare weaver -ridden (u.m.) can goose -weaving (u.m.) -weld (v.) capper hop web caster not jacker woven -off #opener lot carpo (c .f.) -out canalside -mile -olecranal castlebuilder candle (nonlitera l) owner rest one word bomb cat pool carriage-making -foot (u .m.) back port holder carrot beam sick -hour -colored (u.m.) bird wash lighter head (nonliteral) call (c .f.) carbo lit juice -eyed (u.m.) all one word -meter top (nonliteral) face (n.) (c .f.) carbol power carry fall all one word -shaped (u.m.) all (n., u.m.) gut carcino (c .f.) stand around (n., u.m.) head all one word stick back (n., u.m.) hole card wick forward (n.) case hook wright -in (n., u.m.) -index (u.m., v.) -ion candystick out (n., u.m.) player like cane over (n., u.m.) sharp nap -backed (u.m.) cart stock nip brake load (c .f.) cardio -o’-nine-tails crusher wheel (coin) -aortic stitch cutter whip rest one word walk #sugar wright care CAT scan canker case free catch -eaten (u.m.) bearer giver all (n., u.m.) -mouthed (u.m.) nding fi -laden (u.m.) -as-catch-can (u .m.) cannonball hammer taker cry canvas-covered harden -tired (u.m.) (u .m.) penny load worn cap plate mated carpet ash (v.) -fl up (n., u.m.) worker bagger nut weight caser-in beater screw word ow cashfl #cleaner sheaf cater cast -cleaning (u.m.) corner away (n., u.m.) shore -covered (u.m.)

136 Compounding Examples 121 cheek broiler (c .f.) centri wauling bone coal all one word cat’s strap pit (c .f.) centro -eye (nonliteral) cheerleader woman all one word -paw (nonliteral) cheese charge cephalo (c .f.) cattle burger #book all one word #boat cake off (n., u.m.) cerato (c .f.) feed cloth out (n., u.m.) all one word -raising (u.m.) curd chartbook (c .f.) cerebro yak cutter chattermark -ocular ower caulifl head cheapskate rest one word -eared (u.m.) lip check certifi cate holder #ware parer bite cervico (c .f.) causeway plate forger -occipital cave chemico (c .f.) hook -orbicular dweller all one word -in (n., u.m.) rest one word -dwelling (u.m.) chemo (c .f.) list cess sh #fi all one word mark pipe -in (n., u.m.) cherry nut pit cease-fi re (n., u.m.) -colored (u.m.) (n., u.m.) off pool cedar-colored (u.m.) stone (nonliteral) out (n., u.m.) cutter chaff celi (c .f.) #stone (literal) passer (n.) chain all one word chestnut point #belt celio (c .f.) -colored (u.m.) rack -driven (u.m.) all one word -red (u.m.) rail #gang cell chicken rein stitch cement bill ring chair -covered (u.m.) -billed (u.m.) roll fast mason #breast rope mender -temper (v.) breasted row person census #coop sheet -shaped (u.m.) #taker #farm strap warmer -taking feed string chalk center heart up (n., u.m.) cutter #fi eld (sports) pox washer line head (printing) #yard weigher -white (u.m.) line chief writer chamber most #justice checker maid piece -justiceship -in woman -second #mate -off changeover (c .f.) centi child -out chapfallen all one word bearing -up chapelgoing centimeter-gram- bed char second

137 122 Chapter 7 work cigar choir birth claw case boy care bar cutter #master crowing -footed (u.m.) -shaped (u.m.) choke hood hammer cigarette bore kind hatchet #holder chain life -tailed (u.m.) #maker damp -minded (u.m.) clay -making (u.m.) out (n., u.m.) ridden bank cine (c .f.) point wife -colored (u.m.) all one word strap chill-cast (u.m., v.) pan circuitbreaker chole (c .f.) chin pit (pref.) circum all one word band works c, arctic, pacifi chondro (c .f.) -bearded (u.m.) clean etc. -osseous -chin -cut (u.m.) -Saturnal, etc. rest one word cloth handed rest one word chop cough out (n., u.m.) cirro (c .f.) -chop -high (u.m.) -shaved (u.m.) all one word stick rest -smelling (u.m.) cis (pref.) chowchow strap up (n., u.m.) alpine Christ china clear atlantic -given (u.m.) -blue (u.m.) cole -trans (u.m.) -inspired (u.m.) #shop -cut (u.m.) rest one word like ware cut (forestry) (n., city (c .f.) chromo Chinatown v.) -born (u.m.) all one word chipmunk -eyed (u.m.) -bred (u.m.) chrono (c .f.) chiro (c .f.) headed folk all one word all one word -sighted (u.m.) #man chuck chisel up (n., u.m.) scape hole -cut (u.m.) wing clam plate -edged (u.m.) clearinghouse bake wagon #maker cleft shell chucklehead chitchat -footed (u.m.) clampdown (n., chunkhead chitter-chatter (v.) -graft u.m.) church (c .f.) chloro client/server clap #choir all one word cliff net goer chock dweller trap like ablock -dwelling (u.m.) clasphook work -full (u.m.) hanger class yard chocolate side book churn -brown (u.m.) top -conscious (u.m.) -butted (u.m.) -coated (u.m.) -worn (u.m.) #consciousness milk #maker clinch-built (u.m.) #day

138 Compounding Examples 123 cod breaker basket clink-clank bank #car brush clinker-built (u.m.) shing fi dealer #closet clip head digger horse -clop #liver -faced (u.m.) pin -edged (u.m.) piece hole line sheet pitchings -laden (u.m.) press clipper-built (u.m.) smack #loader rack cloak code #mine #tree -and-dagger (n., #name #oil cloud u.m.) -named (u.m.) pit base room ee coff rake burst clock break sack (astron. only) cap case cake shed -hidden (u.m.) face -colored (u.m.) ship clover -minded (u.m.) -growing (u.m.) #tar bloom setter pot #truck leaf #speed room yard seed watcher coff erdam coastside sick clod coffi n-headed (u.m.) coat club head cogwheel hanger #car hopping coin-operated rack foot pate (u .m.) tailed hand close cold cob haul bred blooded head mobile -connected (u.m.) -chisel (v.) meal ridden cross cuts shed room -cut (u.m.) -draw (v.) web root down (n.) nch fi cock -shaped (u.m.) -fertilize (v.) ow (v.) -fl bill co (pref.) fi sted -forge (v.) brain -op handed frame crow exist, operate, etc. -knit -hammer (v.) eye processor minded -hammered (u.m.) ght fi rest one word mouthed pack head coach out (n., u.m.) -press (v.) pit -and-four up (n., u.m.) -roll (v.) #robin builder closed -rolled (u.m.) spur whip -circuit (u.m.) -short (u.m.) sure coal #end -shortness -tailed (u.m.) bag #shop -shoulder (v.) up (n., u.m.) bed cloth-backed (u.m.) type (printing) cockleshell bin clothes #war cockscomb -black (u.m.) bag

139 124 Chapter 7 costo (c .f.) works #law #wave all one word copy place -work (v.) cotton cat #sense (n.) cole -clad (u.m.) cutter sense (u.m.) seed -covered (u.m.) weal desk slaw -growing (u.m.) wealth #editor coli (c .f.) #mill companionship tter fi all one word mouth (snake) le compressed#fi holding collar packer comptime reader bag picker, ing cone right band seed -shaped (u.m.) writer bone sick speaker coral (c .f.) colo countdown (n., u.m.) conference#room -beaded (u.m.) all one word counter Congressman#at -red (u.m.) color #check (banking) #Large cork bearer #septum contra (pref.) -lined (u.m.) blind -off -acting screw #blindness act, propaganda, -approach corn fast top, etc. -ion bin -free (u.m.) rest one word as combining bread #line form, one cook cake type (printing) word book cob (n.) country off (n., u.m.) cracker -washed (u.m.) -born (u.m.) out (n., u.m.) crib comb-toothed -bred (u.m.) shack crusher (u .m.) folk stove cutter come people coolheaded dodger -along (tool) side cooped -fed (u.m.) back (n., u.m.) wide -in (u.m.) husk -between (n.) county -up (u.m.) loft down (n.) #seat cop meal (n., u.m.) -off wide #out (v.) #pone -on (n., u.m.) court out (n.) stalk -out (n.) bred copper starch -outer -martial -bottomed (u.m.) corner uppance ship -colored (u.m.) bind comic#book cousin head post command -german -headed (u.m.) corpsmember -line hood #mine cost #prompt -in-law nose ective (n.) #eff commander#in cover plate ectiveness -eff #chief alls -plated (u.m.) wise common let smith -carrier

140 Compounding Examples 125 side -fi ber (u.m.) cross -driven (u.m.) up (n., u.m.) fi le -appeal pin cow fi re arm pit barn ow fl band shaft bell foot bar crapehanger catcher -grained (u.m.) beam crashdive (v.) -eyed (u.m.) hair bearer crawlup (n., u.m.) gate hand bedded crazy hand hatch belt bone herd haul bench cat hide head -bidding cream hitch -immunity bill (bird) cake lick -index (u.m.) #bill (legal) -colored (u.m.) path -interrogate (v.) bind creditworthiness pen -interrogatory bolt creek #pony -invite (v.) bond bed pox legged bones side puncher legs bred creep shed -level (v.) breed hole sucker -license (v.) -bridge (v.) mouse crab lift (v.) -brush (v.) crepe#de#chine cake lock -carve (v.) crestfallen catcher lots -channel (u.m.) crew eater mark -check cut faced member -claim member hole patch -compound (v.) cribstrap meat path -connect (v.) crime stick plow (v.) -country (u.m.) fi ghter crack -pollinate (v.) -cultivate (v.) solver down (n., u.m.) -purpose (n.) current wave house (slang) -question -curve (math.) (n.) crisscross jaw rail cut crook pot -reaction -date (v.) all one word -the-whip (n., -refer (v.) -drain (v.) crooked u.m.) -reference -dye (v.) -foot (n.) up (n., u.m.) road -dyeing (n.) -legged (u.m.) cradle row -examine (v.) -nosed (u.m.) side -service -eye (n., u.m.) crop #snatcher -shaft -eyed (u.m.) -bound (u.m.) song -slide fall -haired (u.m.) (c .f.) cranio -staff feed head all one word -sterile -fertile (u.m.) mark crank -stitch -fertilize (v.) -year case

141 126 Chapter 7 break cure-all (n., u.m.) -stone D -bright (u.m.) curly cation -stratifi D care head -sue (v.) -day dawn locks (n.) -surge (v.) -major dream currycomb talk -plus-4-day y (aviation) (v.) -fl cussword tie dairy ying (u.m.) -fl custom town -fed (u.m.) going -built (u.m.) track -made (u.m.) lighted -made (u.m.) trail daisy#chain lit -tailored (u.m.) tree damp long (u.m.) cut under (n., u.m.) proofi ng mark away (n., u.m.) -vote -stained (u.m.) side back (n., u.m.) walk damping-off (n., star glass web u.m.) -to-day (u.m.) -in (n., u.m.) wind dancehall worker (n., u.m.) off word danger#line (pref.) de out (n., u.m.) crow dare -air rate (u.m.) bait -all (n., u.m.) icer throat bar devil -ink -toothed (u.m.) foot say -ion -under (u.m.) crownbar dark centralize, -up (n., u.m.) crow’s -eyed (u.m.) energize, etc. cutter -foot (nonliteral) horse (nonliteral) rest one word -built (u.m.) -nest (nonliteral) room (n.) dead -down crybaby -skinned (u.m.) -alive head crypto (c .f.) dash beat (n.) -off -Christian, etc. plate born -out rest one word wheel -burn (v.) -rigged (u.m.) crystal data #center -up -clear (u.m.) bank -cold (u.m.) cuttlebone -girded (u.m.) base -dip (v.) (c .f.) cyano -smooth (u.m.) set -drunk (u.m.) all one word cubbyhole date -ender cyber (c .f.) cumulo lined eye (n.) cyclecar all one word mark -eyed (u.m.) (c .f.) cyclo cup daughter-in-law fall -olefi n bearer dawn head rest one word cake -gray (u.m.) -heated (u.m.) cysto (c .f.) ful streak -heater all one word head day -heavy (u.m.) (c .f.) cyto curb beam latch all one word side bed #load stoner

142 Compounding Examples 127 dong (pref.) di horn lock dining#room all one word hound pan (c .f.) dinitro dia (pref.) meat -roast (v.) #spray all one word stalker weight (n., u.m.) rest one word dialog#box stand wood dip dial-up tick death -dye (v.) diamond dehydr(o) (c .f.) bed all one word -grained (u.m.) back blow (pref.) demi head -backed (u.m.) day -Christian, etc. stick -shaped (u.m.) -divided (u.m.) -incognito dipper-in (c .f.) diazo -doom (v.) rest one word direct -oxide #house dermato (c .f.) -connected (u.m.) rest one word -struck (u.m.) all one word -indirect dice trap desk nding direction-fi cup watch #room (u .m.) play -weary (u.m.) top (n., u.m.) dirt die decision dessert -cheap (u.m.) -away (u.m.) #making (n.) #fork fast back -making (v.) #knife -incrusted (u.m.) case deckhand spoon plate -cast (u.m., v.) deep deutero (c .f.) dirty caster -aff ected (u.m.) all one word -faced (u.m.) -cut (u.m., v.) -cut (u.m.) devil -minded (u.m.) cutter -felt (u.m.) -devil #work hard (n., u.m.) -freeze (u.m., v.) dog (a marine) dis (pref.) head -frying (u.m.) -inspired (u.m.) all one word #proof (philately) going -ridden (u.m.) dish (n.) -grown (u.m.) dew cloth setter -laid (u.m.) beam #cover sinker most cap pan -square (u.m.) mouthed -clad (u.m.) rack stock -rooted (u.m.) claw rag diesel #sea damp #towel -driven (u.m.) -seated (u.m.) -drenched (u.m.) -set (u.m.) washer -electric (u.m.) drop -sunk (u.m.) disk dillydally #drive fall -voiced (u.m.) dim jockey -fed (u.m.) water (u.m.) -lighted (u.m.) deer pack -laden (u.m.) lit drive (n.) plow lap out (n., u.m.) -eyed (u.m.) -shaped (u.m.) point diner-out food (c .f.) dextro ding herd all one word bat

143 128 Chapter 7 head dot trick ditch bank mixer -matrix trot digger nut #pitch watch rider down double -weary (u.m.) side beat -barrel (n., u.m.) doll dive by -barreled (u.m.) face -bomb (v.) cast -bitt (v.) -faced (u.m.) #bomber check -breasted (u.m.) dollyhead do coast -charge (v.) donkey -all (n., u.m.) come check (n., v.) back -gooder -covered (u.m.) checked (u.m., v.) -drawn (u.m.) -little (n., u.m.) crier -chinned (u.m.) -eared (u.m.) -nothing (n., cry -click doomsday u.m.) curved cross (nonliteral) door dock cut deal (v.) bed hand dale -decker bell head draft dipper case side drag (nonlitera l) check worker face -duty (u.m.) frame dog fall -dye (v.) head bite feed -edged (u.m.) jamb -bitten (u.m.) fi lled -ender keeper breeder fl ow -entendre knob cart fold handed knocker catcher grade -headed (u.m.) mat #days gradient header nail -drawn (u.m.) growth -jointed #opener -ear (v.) hanging -leaded (u.m.) plate -eared (u.m.) haul -quick (u.m.) post face (soldier) hearted -sided -shaped (u.m.) -faced (u.m.) hill #space (v.) sill fall lead #take step ght fi load talk stop food lock (n.) tone (printing) dope -headed (u.m.) look tree fi end hole most -trouble passer leg payment -up (u.m., v.) pusher #owner pour #work sheet race rate dough (c .f.) dorsi shore right boy all one word sled river -colored (u.m.) (c .f.) dorso -tired (u.m.) rush face -occipital tooth shore -faced (u.m.) rest one word -toothed (u.m.)

144 Compounding Examples 129 bolt sheet -out side by (n., u.m.) span -up sitting cap stop dragon slip head string -eyed (u.m.) slope -in (n., u.m.) tongs y fl (u .m.) -soft pipe tube #piece spout screw drawer drain stage #shaft -down cleaner stairs way -in pipe state drop -off plug stream away (n., u.m.) -out tile street bolt drawing drainage stroke cloth #board #area sun (adv., u.m.) -down #room #basin swing -forge (v.) dream way take front -haunted (u.m.) draw throw hammer land -arch (n.) thrust head lore arm time kick world back town leaf (n., u.m.) dredge#net bar trampling leg dressup (n., u.m.) beam trend off (n., u.m.) dressing#room bench trodden out (n., u.m.) drift bolt turn sonde #boat bore valley stitch bolt bridge weigh drug meter cut weight -addicted (u.m.) -mining (u.m.) down (n., u.m.) wind mixer #net fi le draft passer pin gate age (allowance) pusher wind gear #age seller drill glove -exempt (u.m.) #user case head drag drum -like horse bar beat stock knife bolt re fi drip knot net head cock link pipe stick -drip loom rope -up (n., u.m.) -dry (u.m., v.) net saw dry sheet off (n., u.m.) staff -burnt (u.m.) stick out (n., u.m.) wire #cell drive pin dragger clean away (n., u.m.) plate -down -cure (v.) belt point -in

145 130 Chapter 7 easy lobe dunderhead dock going mark (c .f.) duo -dye (v.) mark (n.) #muff all one word -farm (v.) -rising (u.m.) phone dust farming (n., -spoken (u.m.) -piercing (u.m.) bag u.m.) eavesdrop plug bin gulch ebbtide ring brush (nonlitera l) edge screw cloth lot #plane shot -covered (u.m.) -pack (u.m., v.) shot sore fall -rotted (u.m.) ways splitting -gray (u.m.) -salt (v.) wise tab -laden (u.m.) wash eel wax pan duck cake wig storm bill catcher witness duty -billed (u.m.) fare earth bound bore pot bank -free (u.m.) #breast pout born dwelling#house foot (tool) skin -bred (u.m.) dye -footed (u.m.) spear fall mixer pin egg fast stuff pond beater (all -fed (u.m.) works walk meanings) ll fi (pref.) dys due cup grubber all one word -in (n., u.m.) eater #house out (n., u.m.) E fruit kin duff elbag E-minor head (nonliteral) lit dug e hot (n.) mover fi le out (n.) nog nut Government -up (u.m.) plant quake Library dull -shaped (u.m.) -shaking (u.m.) mail -edged (u.m.) shell slide eagle head -white (u.m.) -stained (u.m.) #eye -looking (u.m.) eight wall -eyed (u.m.) -witted (u.m.) -angled (u.m.) east ear dumdum #ball bound ache dumb fold -central (u.m.) cap bell penny (nail) going drop head -ply (u.m.) -northeast drum waiter score #side fl ap dump -wheeler -sider guard car elbowchair -southeast hole cart Eastertime lap site

146 Compounding Examples 131 ordinary every (c .f.) entero elder polar day (n., u.m.) all one word #brother -strong (u.m.) #day (each day) entry -leaved (u.m.) territorial how #book electro (c .f.) vascular one (all) way -optics eye #one (distributive) envelope -osmosis #appeal #time #holder ltration -ultrafi ball evil #maker rest one word bank doer epi (pref.) embryo (c .f.) bar #eye all one word all one word blink -eyed (u.m.) (c .f.) equi empty -blurred (u.m.) -faced (u.m.) -gram-molar handed bolt -looking (u.m.) rest one word -looking (u.m.) brow minded (u.m.) ere en -conscious (u.m.) sayer long #banc cup speaker now #gros fl ap wishing errorproof #route glance ex erythro (c .f.) encephalo (c .f.) glass #cathedra all one word all one word hole cathedral even end lash communicate glow -all (n., u.m.) lens -Governor handed bell lid #libris minded brain mark cio #offi -numbered (u.m.) gate -minded (u.m.) #post#facto song lap #opener #rights -tempered (u.m.) long peep -serviceman ever -match (v.) pit -trader -abiding (u.m.) matcher point -vice-president bearing -measure (v.) service extra blooming most shade -alimentary -constant (u.m.) -shrink (v.) shield -American -fertile (u.m.) ways shot bold glade ender sick -Britannic going -on sight -condensed (u.m.) green -up sore curricular lasting (c .f.) endo spot ne (u.m.) -fi more all one word -spotted (u.m.) hazardous -normal (u.m.) engine stalk judicial -present (u.m.) #shop strain -large (u.m.) -ready (u.m.) -sized (u.m.) string -long (u.m.) sporting (biol.) work tooth marginal which #worker wash mural #yard

147 132 Chapter 7 -free (u.m.) away (n., u.m.) fairy #weariness head -borne (u.m.) folk wink -soluble (u.m.) -distant (u.m.) hood witness father -eastern (u.m.) tale F -confessor -famed (u.m.) faithbreaker -in-law fetched fall F land fl ung (u.m.) away (n., u.m.) -fl at fault gone back (n., u.m.) -horn nder fi (u .m.) -off #guy -sharp line #out -in (n., u.m.) fable slip -reaching (u.m.) out (n., u.m.) #book faux#pas seeing -plow (v.) teller fax -seen (u.m.) -sow (v.) face -and-voice# -set (u.m.) trap about (n., u.m., v.) mailbox sight fallow#land -arbor (v.) #modem farm false cloth -on-demand -bred (u.m.) -bottomed (u.m.) -harden (v.) fear hand #face -hardened (u.m.) -free (u.m.) hold -faced (u.m.) lift ing nought owner hood mark -pursued (u.m.) people -tongued (u.m.) (n.) -off -shaken (u.m.) place fame -on (n., u.m.) feather stead -crowned (u.m.) plate bed (v.) worker -thirsty (u.m.) up (n., u.m.) bedding fashion fan fact bone -led (u.m.) back book brain #piece (naut.) nding fi bearer edge #plate sheet #belt -footed (u.m.) -setting (u.m.) fade fare head fast away (n., u.m.) fold -leaved (u.m.) -anchored (u.m.) -in (n., u.m.) foot stitch back out (n., u.m.) -jet -dyed (u.m.) fail-safe -stitched (u.m.) -leaved (u.m.) going faint -stitching marker hold heart -tongue (v.) -shaped (u.m.) -moving (u.m.) -voiced (u.m.) weight -tailed (u.m.) -read (v.) fair wing (moth) fancy -reading (u.m.) ground fed-up (u.m.) -free (u.m.) -lead (n., u.m.) #time (daylight -loose (u.m.) feeble saving) minded -woven (u.m.) -bodied (u.m.) fat play -wrought (u.m.) minded back -skinned (u.m.) far feed -bellied (u.m.) #trade (u .m.) -aloft back (n., u.m.)

148 Compounding Examples 133 print fi le trap bag shell card -warm (u.m.) bin spin -hard (u.m.) ber fi box stall name -faced (u.m.) crusher tip setter glass cutter re fi (u .m.) -soft #optics head arm fi ll stitch lot back (n.) -in (n., u.m.) Fiberglas mixer ball out (n., u.m.) (copy r ig ht) pipe bell -up (n., u.m.) fi bro (c .f.) rack bolt ller fi -osteoma store bomb cap rest one word stuff brand -in ckleminded fi feeder brat -out ddle fi -in break -up back -up brick lm fi -faddle fellow -burnt (u.m.) cutter head craft -clad (u.m.) goer -shaped (u.m.) ship coat going stick rest two words cracker #paper string felt crest slide fi eld cutter -cure (v.) strip ball -lined (u.m.) damp -struck (u.m.) glass packer #drill n fi goal fenbank -eater back -strip fence fall -shaped (u.m.) erce fi post fang ne fi -eyed (u.m.) #row fi ghter -cut (u.m., v.) -looking (u.m.) fern guard -draw (v.) ery fi -clad (u.m.) -hardened (u.m.) -drawn (u.m.) aming (u.m.) -fl leaf horse -featured (u.m.) -hot (u.m.) -leaved (u.m.) hose -looking (u.m.) -red (u.m.) (c .f.) ferro lit -set (u.m.) -tempered (u.m.) -carbon-titanium pit fi nger fi g -uranium place breadth bar rest one word plow -cut (u.m.) eater ferry plug hold leaf boat -polish (v.) hole shell #car power hook fi gure #slip proof mark head fever -red (u.m.) nail -of-eight (u.m.) less -resistant (u.m.) parted #work (printing) -stricken (u.m.) safe post

149 134 Chapter 7 eet fl jack plate side foot are fl pond spout -footed (u.m.) back (n., u.m.) pool trap wing out (n., u.m.) pot truck esh fl path pound wall brush up (n., u.m.) trap warden hook ash fl weir fi rm -pink (u.m.) back (n., u.m.) works -footed (u.m.) pot bulb fi sher -set (u.m.) fl eur-de-lis card folk -up (n., u.m.) fl extime cube man fi rst fl ight gun people #aid crew lamp shyback (n., u.m.) fi -aider -hour pan t fi -born (u.m.) path point out (n.) -class (u.m.) -test (v.) fl at strip comer fl am imfl back ve fi hand (u.m.) ip fl (bookbinding) bar -made (u.m.) -fl ap bed (printing) fold -named (u.m.) op -fl -bottomed (u.m.) -ply (u.m.) -nighter -up (n., u.m.) car -pointed (u.m.) -rate (u.m.) fl ood -compound (v.) -reeler fi sh cock fold score back fl ow foot (n.) ag fl bed gate hat bearer -bellied (u.m.) lamp head pole bolt lighting iron post bone mark nose -raising (u.m.) bowl #plain out (n., u.m.) ship cake tide -rolled (u.m.) -signal (v.) eater wall sawn staff eye water top stick -eyed (u.m.) oor fl -topped (u.m.) fl ame fall beam woods -colored (u.m.) #farm cloth ax fl -cut (v.) -fed (u.m.) head drop out (n.) food lamp -leaved (u.m.) proof garth mat -polled (u.m.) thrower hook mop seed annelmouth fl -joint (v.) #show ea fl ap fl kill space bite cake #ladder stain -bitten (u.m.) doodle meal walker trap -eared (u.m.) mouth

150 Compounding Examples 135 light(s) #light fl (c .f.) uvio #wax lining -ridden (u.m.) all one word -waxing (u.m.) locker fold fl y fl ophouse loose -in away oppy#disk fl mark up (n., u.m.) back our fl note folk ball bag pad #dance -bitten (u.m.) bin path lore blow #mill pick song blown sack plate follow -by-night (n., er #sift -pound -on u.m.) ow fl -pound-second through (n., catcher chart print u.m.) eater meter race up (n., u.m.) -fi sh (v.) off (n., u.m.) rail follower-up sher -fi sheet rest food sherman -fi through (n., rope -fasted (u.m.) #fi shing u.m.) scald -fasting (v.) fl ap fl ower -second packer -free (u.m.) bed slogger store leaf bud sore stuff paper -crowned (u.m.) stalk foolhardy sheet #grower stall foolscap speck -hung (u.m.) step foot -specked (u.m.) #piece stick -and-mouth tier pot stock (u .m.) trap -scented (u.m.) stool ball weight #shop -ton band wheel fl ue-cure (v.) walk bath winch uid fl wall blower ying fl -compressed -weary (u.m.) board #boat (u .m.) worn brake #fi sh extract (pharm.) for (pref.) breadth foam (n.) all one word bridge bow glycerate fore candle -crested (u.m.) fl (c .f.) uo -age fall -white (u.m.) all one word -and-aft (n., u.m.) -free (u.m.) fog (c .f.) uoro fl -and-aft er (n.) gear bound all one word -edge -grain bow fl ush -end hill dog -cut (u.m.) -exercise hold eater -decked (u.m.) word lambert -hidden (u.m.) -decker rest one word licker horn gate

151 136 Chapter 7 fuel -mile some forest #line #room square -clad (u.m.) #oil #train -wheeler -covered (u.m.) full fresh fox #land back -looking (u.m.) -faced (u.m.) side -bellied (u.m.) -painted (u.m.) hole fork blood water hound head -bound (u.m.) frog #hunting lift -duplex belly skinned -pronged (u.m.) face eater tailed tail -fashioned (u.m.) -eyed (u.m.) trot -tailed (u.m.) -fl owering (u.m.) face fracto (c .f.) form -grown (u.m.) mouth all one word fi tting -handed (u.m.) nose frameup (n., u.m.) #work (printing) -headed (u.m.) pond free forth -lined (u.m.) tongue booter coming #load (medicine) born right mouth front drop with -strength (u.m.) -end (u.m.) -for-all (n., u.m.) fortune -text -focused (u.m.) -grown (u.m.) #hunter -time (u.m.) runner hand (drawing) teller fundraising stall handed forty-niner funlover -wheel (u.m.) hold foul funnel fronto (c .f.) lance #line form -occipital loader -looking (u.m.) -shaped (u.m.) -orbital -minded mouthed fur rest one word masonry -spoken (u.m.) -clad (u.m.) frost #post -tongued (u.m.) coat bite -spoken (u.m.) up (n., u.m.) -lined (u.m.) bow standing (u.m.) fountainhead skin -free (u.m.) thinker four -trimmed (u.m.) -hardy (u.m.) trader -bagger fuse -heaving (u.m.) wheel (u.m., v.) -eyed (u.m.) box -killed (u.m.) wheeler (n.) usher fl #gauge lamp #will (n.) fold plug line will (u.m.) -footed (u.m.) fruit ghter freedom#fi -in-hand (n., G cake freeze u.m.) G y #fl down (n., u.m.) -masted (u.m.) -major growing out (n., u.m.) -master -man #shop up (n., u.m.) penny (nail) -minor stalk freight -ply (u.m.) -sharp frying#pan #house score

152 Compounding Examples 137 glass (c .f.) genito line (auto) gabfest blower all one word #line (queue) gad #ceiling gentle lock about (n., u.m.) cutter folk #main fl y -eater -looking (u.m.) #mask -topsail gaff -eyed (u.m.) man meter gag -hard (u.m.) -mannered (u.m.) works -check (v.) house mouthed gastro (c .f.) #order works -spoken (u.m.) -omental root (c .f.) glauco woman rest one word #rule all one word geo (c .f.) gate gaugepin glidepath all one word house gain globetrotter germ-free (u.m.) keeper say glosso (c .f.) gerrymander leg (u.m.) -sharing (u.m.) all one word get pin (c .f.) galact(o) glow -at-able post all one word lamp away (n., u.m.) tender gallbladder meter (n., u.m.) off works galley#proof gluc(o) (c .f.) -together (n., gay (printing) all one word u.m.) #blade galvano (c .f.) glue up (n., u.m.) cat all one word pot ghost -colored (u.m.) game stock -haunted (u.m.) #dog bag (c .f.) glycero write (v.) -looking (u.m.) cock all one word giddy gear gang (c .f.) glyco brain box boss all one word head case plank go -paced (u.m.) -driven (u.m.) saw -ahead (n., u.m.) gilt-edge (u.m.) tter fi gapeseed -around (n., u.m.) gin-run (u.m.) -operated (u.m.) garnet-brown -as-you-please ginger set (u .m.) (u .m.) #ale shift gas -back (n., u.m.) bread wheel bag -between (n.) -colored (u.m.) gelatin bomb by (n.) snap -coated (u.m.) -driven (u.m.) cart spice -making (u.m.) fi eld -devil (n.) give gelatino (c .f.) red (u.m.) -fi -getter -and-take (n., bromide ring fi -getting (n., u.m.) u.m.) chloride tter fi (n., u.m.) -off away (n., u.m.) gem -heated (u.m.) goal (c .f.) glacio cutter -laden (u.m.) post all one word -set (u.m.) lamp #setter #stone lighted

153 138 Chapter 7 (c .f.) grapho Government lled (u.m.) -fi goat all one word (U.S. or foil -bearded (u.m.) grass foreign) -inlaid (u.m.) -drunk (u.m.) -clad (u.m.) -in-exile leaf -eyed (u.m.) -covered (u.m.) -owned (u.m.) plate (v.) herd cutter wide -plated (u.m.) goat’s at fl governmentwide -plating (u.m.) -hair (State, city, etc.) -green (u.m.) smithing -horn grab hop -wrought (u.m.) God -all (n., u.m.) nut golden -conscious (u.m.) #bag plot ngered (u.m.) -fi -fearing (u.m.) hook roots (nonliteral) -headed (u.m.) -forsaken (u.m.) rope #roots (literal) good -given (u.m.) grade widow -bye head fi nder grave -for-nothing (n., -man mark clothes u.m.) -ordained (u.m.) grain digger -looker -sent (u.m.) -cut (u.m.) side -looking (u.m.) -sped (u.m.) eld fi stead -natured (u.m.) speed -laden (u.m.) gravel #will (kindness) -taught (u.m.) mark -blind (u.m.) will (salable god sick stone asset) child gram gray goose daughter -fast (u.m.) back (n., u.m.) bone father -meter beard (n.) bumps head -molecular -clad (u.m.) -cackle hood -negative (u.m.) coat (n.) #egg less -positive (u.m.) -eyed (u.m.) -eyed (u.m.) mother grand -haired (u.m.) esh fl parent aunt head -footed (u.m.) send child, etc. -headed (u.m.) herd ship stand out (n., u.m.) mouth son grant-in-aid grease neck sonship grape #gun pimples goggle-eyed (u.m.) fruit #pit rump goings-on #juice gold proof step -leaved (u.m.) beater great wing seed brick (shirker) -aunt gospel stalk #brick (of real gold) coat like vine -bright (u.m.) -eared (u.m.) -true (u.m.) graph -brown (u.m.) -grandchild, etc. gourdhead alloy digger -headed (u.m.) #paper #dust heart

154 Compounding Examples 139 brush rack wave mouthed -check (n.) -rivet (v.) work green cloth runner group-connect (v.) back (n., u.m.) cut (n.) shop grownup (n., u.m.) belt do shot grubstake (com mu n it y) dresser -shy (u.m.) guard -clad (u.m.) bered (u.m.) -fi sight house -eyed (u.m.) lock stock plate gage (plum) pin wale rail gill #ribbon gut guest grocer space (printing) less chamber horn splitting string house keeper spring gutter room -leaved (u.m.) streak blood guided-missile sand (geology) stroke (printing) -bred (u.m.) (u .m.) sick #trigger snipe guidepost stuff half spout guider-in sward -and-half (n., (c .f.) gymno gum town (com mu n it y) u.m.) all one word boil #wood (literal) -afraid gyneco (c .f.) chewer wood (forest) -alive all one word digger greyhound -angry gyro drop grid back (football) #horizon -gum iron -backed (u.m.) #mechanism lac lock -baked (u.m.) #pelorus -saline (n.) griddlecake -bound (u.m.) plane, compass, shoe grillroom caste etc. gun grip -clear #barrel H sack cock (v.) bearer wheel cocked H blast gross (nonlitera l) -bar builder -minded (u.m.) -dark -beam cotton #weight #day -bomb crew ground deck -hour deck breaking -decked (u.m.) hack ght fi hog -decker barrow fi re mass -feed (v.) hammer fl int nut hearted log lock path -hourly (u.m.) saw paper plot -life hailstorm pit -sluicer #load hair play speed -loaded (u.m.) band point #water -mast breadth powder

155 140 Chapter 7 up (n.) off (n., u.m.) -bound (u.m.) -miler hanger out (n., u.m.) bow -monthly (u.m.) -back pick (v.) brake -on (n., u.m.) -on post breadth pace -up press brush penny happy-go-lucky print -built (u.m.) -ripe hara-kiri rail car -shy harbor reading -carry (v.) -sole (v.) master saw cart staff side scrape (v.) -carve (v.) stitch hard set clap -strength (u.m.) -and-fast (u.m.) shake clasp title back (beetle) spade -clean (v.) tone (printing) -baked (u.m.) spike crank track -bitten (u.m) splice cuff -true -boiled (u.m.) split -cut (v.) -truth case spring -embroidered -weekly (u.m.) copy (n.) spun (u .m.) wit core -stamp (v.) -fed (v.) -witted (u.m.) #disk stand fold -yearly (u.m.) #drive stitch grasp hallmark st (n.) fi stroke grenade ham handed stuff grip shackle hat (n.) -tailored (u.m.) guard string head tap gun hammer -hit (u.m.) tool -held (u.m.) cloth -looking (u.m.) -tooled (u.m.) -high (u.m.) dress (v.) mouthed -tooling (u.m.) hold -hard (u.m.) nose truck hole -harden (v.) pan weave -in-hand (u.m.) -hardened (u.m.) -pressed (u.m.) wheel kerchief head -set (u.m.) worked -knit (v.) lock #shell (n.) woven -knitter #thrower ship write (v.) laid toe spun written -letter (v.) -weld (v.) stand wrought (t r uck) lift -wrought (u.m.) tack hands#free liner hand top (auto) handlebar made bag ware hang -me-down (n., ball -won (u.m.) dog u.m.) bank (v.) #work nail mix (v.) barrow -working (u.m.) net mold (v.) bill wrought out (n., u.m.) mower book

156 Compounding Examples 141 burn liner cock hare deep lock #fever brain felt long fi eld foot free (u.m.) master fork hound grief mistress lift lip heavy mold loft -mad (u.m.) leaf most market harness-making -leaved (u.m.) note mow (u .m.) nut -on (u.m.) rack harum-scarum quake phone rake harvesttime seed plate rick has-been (n.) sick post -scented (u.m.) hashmark sore quarters seed hat string rail stack band struck reach wire box throb rest hazardous brim -throbbing (u.m.) ring #waste#site brush -weary (u.m.) rope hazel cleaner hearth set -eyed (u.m.) pin rug shake nut rack warming sill he-man rail heat space head stand drops spin ache #tree #pump spring achy hatchback #rash stall band hatchet-faced (u.m.) -resistant (u.m.) stand bander haul stroke start block about (n., u.m.) treat (v.) stick cap away (n., u.m.) -treating (u.m.) stock chair back (n.) #wave stream cheese have-not (n., u.m.) heaven strong chute haversack bound waiter cloth hawk -inspired (u.m.) wall count bill -sent (u.m.) wind dress -billed (u.m.) heaver header-up -ender head -off heal-all (n., u.m.) fi rst -nosed (u.m.) -out heart frame hawse -over ache gate hole heavy aching gear pipe back beat hunter hay -duty (u.m.) block lamp band -eyed (u.m.) blood ledge cap -footed (u.m.) break lighting cart

157 142 Chapter 7 #proof on hole handed -reaching (u.m.) to hound -looking (u.m.) -rigger (n.) tofore -red (u.m.) -set (u.m.) rise (building) under helpmeet #water road unto helter-skelter weight (n., u.m.) #seas upon hemstitch hecto (c .f.) -speed (u.m.) with hema (c .f.) all one word stepper herringbone all one word hedge -tension (u.m.) hetero (c .f.) (c .f.) hemato born #tide -ousia, etc. all one word breaker -up (u.m.) rest one word (pref.) hemi hog #water hexa (c .f.) all one word hop higher-up (n.) all one word (c .f.) hemo pig hill hi-fi all one word row culture hide hemp #trimmer (farming) -and-seek (n., seed heel side u.m.) string ball top away (n., u.m.) hen band hind out (n., u.m.) bill block brain high coop cap cast ball -feathered (u.m.) fast gut (n.) binder house grip head born pecked pad leg bred roost path most brow (nonliteral) hence plate quarter -caliber (u.m.) forth post saddle -class (u.m.) forward print sight -density (c .f.) hepato ring wing ier (n.) fl all one word stay hip fl ying (u.m.) (c .f.) hepta strap bone -foreheaded all one word tap mold (u .m.) here (c .f.) helio shot #frequency about all one word (c .f.) hippo handed er aft hell all one word -hat (v.) at bender histo (c .f.) jinks by bent all one word lander from born hit #light (literal) in bound -and-miss (u.m.) light (nonlit.) inabove bred -and-run (u.m.) -minded (u.m.) inaft er cat -or-miss (u.m.) -power (u.m.) inbefore diver hitchhiker -pressure (u.m., v.) into dog hoarfrost -priced (u.m.) of re fi

158 Compounding Examples 143 -nosed (u.m.) stead -in-the-wall (n.) hoary-haired (u.m.) pin stretch through hob up (n., u.m.) town hollow goblin hooker woven back nail (bookbinding) -off homeo (c .f.) nob -backed (u.m.) -on all one word hobbyhorse -eyed (u.m.) -out home#page hockshop faced -over homo hocus-pocus #legalis -ground (u.m.) -up hod#carrier #sapiens (c .f.) holo hoopstick hodgepodge homo (c .f.) all one word hop hog -ousia, etc. holy about (n., u.m.) back rest one word #day off (n., u.m.) -backed (u.m.) honey stone scotch -faced (u.m.) -colored (u.m.) home toad fat comb -baked (u.m.) hope#chest frame -cured (u.m.) body hopper hide dew born burn nose (machine) drop bred dozer -nosed (u.m.) eater brew horehound pen -laden (u.m.) builder hormono (c .f.) sty lipped #buyer all one word -tie (v.) moon comer horn wash mouthed coming bill -wild (u.m.) pot -fed (u.m.) blende hog’s-back (geol.) sucker felt blower hogshead sweet folk -eyed (u.m.) hoistaway (n.) honor freeze (u.m., v.) pipe hold bound front stay all (n., u.m.) #guard furnishings (n.) tip back (n., u.m.) #man going hornyhanded -clear (n., u.m.) horse hood grown down (n., u.m.) back cap lander fast (n., u.m.) breaker mold life off (n., u.m.) car wink made out (n., u.m.) hoof cloth maker up (n., u.m.) beat dealer owner holder mark fair #ownership -forth print fi ght plate -on -printed (u.m.) esh fl #rule -up hook hair seeker hole ladder head sick #in#one nose herd spun -high (u.m.)

159 144 Chapter 7 #blindness hunchback broken hide blink hundred builder hoof block fold #call -hour bone -legged (u.m.) cleaner jockey breaker -percenter -cleaning (u.m.) laugh cap -pounder coat meat -clad (u.m.) weight dress mint -cold (u.m.) hung-up (u.m.) father play -cooled (u.m.) hunger furnishing(s) (n.) pond -covered (u.m.) -mad (u.m.) guest power-hour #cream -worn (u.m.) hold power-year fall hurly-burly husband pox #fi shing hush mother race fl oe (island) -hush owner #sense (n.) ow (current) fl #money parent shoe -free (u.m.) up (n., u.m.) pest thief maker (c .f.) hydro plant #trade melt all one word -raising (u.m.) whip pack hydro#station ridden hot plant hygro (c .f.) top bed plow all one word trailer blood quake hyper (pref.) wares -blooded (u.m.) #storm -Dorian, etc. warming brain #water linked wife cake (c .f.) ideo text how -cold -unit rest one word -do-you-do (n.) dog rest one word hypo (c .f.) ever foot idle all one word soever head (n.) headed hystero (c .f.) hub -mix (u.m.) -looking (u.m.) -oophorectomy cap pack -minded (u.m.) -salpingo-oopho- -deep (u.m.) patch (c .f.) ileo rectomy humankind plate all one word rest one word humble -press (v.) ilio (c .f.) bee rod (nonliteral) I all one word -looking (u.m.) -roll (v.) ill I mouthed -rolled (u.m.) -advised (u.m.) -bar -spirited (u.m.) spot -being (n.) -beam humdrum -work (v). -born (u.m.) -iron hump hotelkeeper -bred (u.m.) -rail back houndshark #breeding (n.) ice -shouldered hourglass -doing (n., u.m.) berg (u .m.) house -fated (u.m.) blind humpty-dumpty breaking

160 Compounding Examples 145 packed -red (u.m.) -axillary -humored (u.m.) Java shod -esophageal -looking (u.m.) #applets shot (mineral) -umbilical -treat (v.) Beans (u .m.) rest one word -use (v.) Script #shot (golf ) ink #will jaw side -black (u.m.) -wisher bone -willed (u.m.) mixer -wishing (u.m.) breaker works pot in -locked (u.m.) ironer-up slinger -and-in (u.m.) twister island spot -and-out (u.m.) jay -born (u.m.) -spotted (u.m) -and-outer hawk -dotted (u.m.) stain -being (u.m.) walk (c .f.) iso stand ight (u.m.) -fl jelly -octane well -house bean -oleic inner -law (n.) roll -osmosis -city (u.m.) asmuch, sofar jerry rest one word #man #re, #rem, #situ, -build (v.) ivory spring etc. builder -tinted (u.m.) ino (c .f.) (pref.) in -built (u.m.) type (photog.) all one word active (u.m.) jet -white (u.m.) insect-borne (u.m.) breeding #airliner ivy (pref.) inter depth (u.m.) #airplane -clad (u.m.) -American, etc. hospital (u.m.) -black (u.m.) -covered (u.m.) rest one word migration (u.m.) lag (pref.) intra service J liner -atomic, etc. (u .m.), etc . J-bolt port rest one word inch jack -powered (u.m.) (pref.) intro -deep (u.m.) ass prop all one word -long (u.m.) hammer -propelled (u.m.) Irish meal head #propulsion -American (u.m.) -pound -in-the-box stream -born (u.m.) -ton knife wash iron worm -of-all-trades jewel #age index-digest -o’-lantern -bright (u.m.) back indigo -plane (v.) -studded (u.m.) -braced (u.m.) -blue (u.m.) pot jib clad -carmine (u.m.) rabbit head sted fi Indo (c .f.) screw -o-jib -free (u.m.) chinese jail stay handed -European, etc. bird jig hard (pref.) infra house -a-jig -lined (u.m.) -anal jam back mold -auricular nut

161 146 Chapter 7 -on (n., u.m.) king -laying (u.m.) -drill (v.) out (n., u.m.) bolt #line saw up (n., u.m.) #crab keepsake job knocker head kerato (c .f.) #lot -off hood all one word seeker -up hunter kettle #shop knot maker drum site hole piece stitch joggle#piece horn pin key joint#owner know kins board joulemeter -all (n., u.m.) folk bolt joy -how (n., u.m.) people hole hop -it-all (n., u.m.) kiss-off (n., u.m.) lock ride -little (n., u.m.) kite note stick -nothing (n., fl ier punch jump u.m.) fl ying ring master knuckle knapsack seat off (n., u.m.) bone knee stone rock buster -braced (u.m.) stop jungle -deep (u.m.) brush word -clad (u.m.) -kneed (u.m.) cap worker -covered (u.m.) -deep (u.m.) kick #gym L -high (u.m.) about (n., u.m.) side L hole back (n., u.m.) junkpile -bar -jerk (u.m.) -in (n., u.m.) jury -beam pad off (n., u.m.) #box -block pan out (n., u.m.) xing (u.m.) -fi -shaped strap up (n., u.m.) -rigged (u.m.) -square knick killjoy just#in#time (c .f.) labio knack kiln (c .f.) juxta all one word point -dry (u.m., v.) -ampullar laborsaving knight eye -articular lace -errant hole rest one word -edged (u.m.) head rib K #edging hood stick wing (insect) knitback tree K -winged (u.m.) knock kilo (pref.) #car worked about (n., u.m.) gram-meter -ration lackluster away (n., u.m.) voltampere -term ladder-backed down (n., u.m.) watthour keel (u .m.) -knee (n.) rest one word block lady -kneed (u.m.) kindheart fat beetle (n., u.m.) off haul

162 Compounding Examples 147 on (n., u.m.) -named (u.m.) mark nger fi out (n., u.m.) latch mass killer up (n., u.m.) bolt mine ship layer key ce #offi lake -on string owner bed -out late -poor (u.m.) front -over -born (u.m.) right lander -up comer scape shore lazy -lamented (u.m.) sick side bones -maturing (u.m.) side lameduck boots latero (c .f.) slide (nonlitera l) #guy all one word slip (n., u.m.) legs lath-backed (u.m.) spout lamp lead lathe-bore (v.) storm black -alpha latter wash -blown (u.m.) -burn (v.) -day (u.m.) wire -foot lled (u.m.) -fi most wrack hole -gray (u.m.) lattice lantern-jawed -hour -in (n., u.m.) #stitch (u .m.) house line work lap lighter #line (medical, laughing belt lit naut. only) #gas -lap post off (n., u.m.) stock robe shade out (n., u.m.) launch streak stand #pencil #pad top wick time site weld (v.) land leaden laundry#room -welded (u.m.) #base -eyed (u.m.) law -welding (u.m.) -based (u.m.) pated -abiding (u.m.) large #bird -souled (u.m.) book -eyed borne leader#line breaker -handed (u.m.) fall leaf -fettered (u.m.) -minded (u.m.) fast bud giver mouthed fi ll -clad (u.m.) #offi ce -scale (u.m.) ood fl -eating (u.m.) suit lark form -shaped (u.m.) lawnmower -colored (u.m.) grabber stalk lay spur -grant (u.m.) lean away (n., u.m.) laryngo (c .f.) holding -faced (u.m.) back (n., u.m.) all one word lady -looking (u.m.) -by (n.) last locked -to (n., u.m.) down (n., u.m.) -born (u.m.) look leap -minded (u.m.) -cited (u.m.) lord frog (n., u.m.) off -ditcher lubber

163 148 Chapter 7 water stream up (n., u.m.) #year linch style letter lease bolt tide bomb back (n., u.m.) pin time #carrier hold line vest drop leased-line -bred (u.m.) weary (u.m.) gram leather -breed (v.) (n., u.m.) -off lift head back casting light -perfect (u.m.) -backed (u.m.) crew -armed (u.m.) press -bound (u.m.) cut (printing) -clad (u.m.) space -brown (u.m.) nder fi -colored (u.m.) writer -covered (u.m.) -item (u.m.) -drab (u.m.) (c .f.) leuc(o) head up (n., u.m.) (u .m.) -draft all one word neck walker face (printing) liberal-minded side link -footed (u.m.) (u .m.) ware up (n., u.m.) handed lieutenant leavetaking #up (v.) house#keeping #colonel lee-bow (v.) lion (nautica l) -colonelcy leech -bold (u.m.) #housekeeping #governor eater -headed (u.m.) (domest ic) -governorship #rope hearted mouthed life left -maned (u.m.) -producing (u.m.) belt -bank (v.) lip ship blood eld (sports) #fi read -struck (u.m.) boat -hand (u.m.) service weight (n., u.m.) #buoy -handed (u.m.) stick -year #cycle -hander listener-in lighter-than-air -cycle (u.m.) most (c .f.) litho (u .m.) drop -sided (u.m.) set -off like oat fl wing (political) rest one word -looking (u.m.) giver leg little -minded (u.m.) giving band -known (u.m.) lily guard puller neck (clam) handed hold rope (v.) -used (u.m.) -shaped (u.m.) jacket work live -white (u.m.) long lend-lease (n., u.m.) #load lime #net length long #juice raft ways stock kiln ring wise #wire lighter saver lepto (c .f.) wire (nonliteral) pit -size (u.m.) all one word liver quat -sized (u.m.) let -brown (u.m.) stone span down (n., u.m.) -colored (u.m.) wash spring (n., u.m.) off

164 Compounding Examples 149 lower looker-on -distance (u.m.) wurst case (printing) loop -drawn (u.m.) living#room #deck hole felt loadmeter most #knot hair (n.) loanword lug stitch -haired (u.m.) lob bolt loose hand (nonliteral) fi g mark leaf (u.m.) -handed (u.m.) lolly sail mouthed -handled (u.m.) lobster-tailed (u.m.) lukewarm -tongued (u.m.) head (n.) lock lumber lop horn (cattle) box jack -eared (u.m.) -horned (u.m.) fast #room sided johns hole lumbo (c .f.) loud #jump jaw -ovarian mouthed leaf nut rest one word #speaker (orator) -leaved (u.m.) out (n., u.m.) lumen-hour speaker (radio) -legged (u.m.) pin lunch -voiced (u.m.) legs (n.) ring box love -lived (u.m.) step #hour bird mouthed stitch room born -necked (u.m.) up (n., u.m.) time -inspired (u.m.) nose (n.) washer lying-in (n., u.m.) #knot -nosed (u.m.) locker#room lorn -past (u.m.) lode M seat play (records) star M-day sick playing (u.m.) stone macebearer low run (u.m.) log machine born shoreman book -fi nished (u.m.) boy spun in gun bred standing (u.m.) jam -hour brow (nonliteral) stitch on -made (u.m.) browed #term (n.) off #shop (nonlitera l) -term (u.m.) roll #work -built (u.m.) wave (radio) sheet macro (c .f.) down (n., u.m.) ways loggerhead all one word -downer wool (sheep) (c .f.) logo mad -lander look all one word brain -lived (u.m.) down (n., u.m.) long cap -lying (u.m.) -in (n., u.m.) -awaited (u.m.) man (n.) -power (u.m.) out (n., u.m.) beard (n.) #money -pressure (u.m.) over (n., u.m.) -bearded (u.m.) made rise #over (v.) -billed (u.m.) -over (u.m.) #water through (n., bow -up (u.m.) u.m.) cloth

165 150 Chapter 7 master manic-depressive -minor magnetite #at#arms manifold make -basalt mind mantel -believe (n., u.m.) -olivinite #of#ceremonies piece fast (n.) -spinellite piece shelf over magneto (c .f.) ship tree ready (printing) -optics #stroke many shift rest one word #workman -colored (u.m.) up (n., u.m.) mahjong mat-covered (u.m.) -folded (u.m.) weight maid match -layered (u.m.) maker #of#honor book plies -off servant head -sided (u.m.) -up maiden -lined (u.m.) mapreader making#up hair mark marble mal (c .f.) head safe head all one word hood stick -looking (u.m.) man #name maxi (n.) -topped (u.m.) back mail maxi (pref.) -white (u.m.) -child bag all one word mare’s -created (u.m.) clad May -nest -day clerk #Day -tail eater guard -day (u.m.) mark -fashion (u.m.) -order (u.m.) pole down (n., u.m.) -grown (u.m.) pouch tide (n., u.m.) off handle room may shot hater slot be (adv.) up (n., u.m.) -high (u.m.) truck beetle marker hole main day (distress call) -down -hour frame hap -off killer mast mealymouth -up kind pin mean marketplace -made (u.m.) sail -acting (u.m.) marrowbone -minute sheet -spirited (u.m.) marsh -of-war (ship) spring time buck power stay (meanwhile) mallow servant stream #time (con fec t ion) -size (u.m.) (nonlitera l) (ast ronom ica l) #mallow (plant) slaughter top tone (u.m.) mass slayer topmast while -minded (u.m.) stealer #yard meat -produce (v.) stopper major ball mast trap -domo cutter -brown (u.m.) -woman #league -eater head -year -leaguer

166 Compounding Examples 151 dam middle mess -fed (u.m.) feed -aged (u.m.) hall hook hand breaker kit -hungry (u.m.) -headed (u.m.) brow (nonliteral) room packer pond -burst (v.) tin works post buster -up (n., u.m.) wrapper race #ear meta (pref.) (c .f.) mechanico ring #ground all one word all one word stock man (nonliteral) metal medico (c .f.) stream most ammonium all one word wright -of-the-roader -clad (u.m.) (c .f.) medio (c .f.) milli -sized (u.m.) -coated (u.m.) all one word gram-hour splitter -lined (u.m.) medium rest one word weight works -brown (u.m.) mincemeat midi (n.) meter -size(d) (u.m.) mind midi (pref.) -amperes weight (n., u.m.) #healer all one word gram meek -healing (u.m.) mighty-handed -kilogram -eyed (u.m.) reader (u .m.) -kilogram-second hearted set (n.) mil-foot -millimeter -spirited (u.m.) sight mild (c .f.) metro meetingplace mine -cured (u.m.) all one word megalo (c .f.) fi eld -mannered (u.m.) mezzo all one word layer -spoken (u.m.) graph melon ship mile relievo grower sweeper -long (u.m.) soprano -laden (u.m.) thrower -ohm tint -shaped (u.m.) works post micro (c .f.) melt mini (n.) -pound -organism down (n., u.m.) mini (pref.) -ton rest one word water all one word -wide (u.m.) (c .f.) mid men minor milk -American, etc. folk #league -fed (u.m.) -April kind -leaguer head day (c .f.) meningo minute#book #run -decade all one word mirror shake -dish menu-driven -faced (u.m.) shed -ice merry scope sick -level -go-round (pref.) mis sop -1958 meeting all one word -white (u.m.) -Pacifi c, etc. -minded (u.m.) mischiefmaking mill -Vic tor i a n, e tc . meshbag mist cake rest one word meso (c .f.) bow course all one word

167 152 Chapter 7 van mopping-up (u.m.) (c .f.) mono -clad (u.m.) moundbuilder morning -ideistic -covered (u.m.) mountain #sickness -iodo fall -high (u.m.) #star -iodohydrin miter side tide -ion #box top mosquito -ousian -lock (v.) -walled (u.m.) -free (u.m.) rest one word mix mouse #net month blood -brown (u.m.) moss end up (n.) -eared (u.m.) back long (u.m.) mixing#room -eaten (u.m.) -clad (u.m.) moon mizzenmast hole -green (u.m.) beam mock trap -grown (u.m.) blind -heroic (u.m.) mouth head #blindness #turtle lling (u.m.) -fi -lined (u.m.) blink up (n., u.m.) -made (u.m.) most-favored-nation born mocker-up piece (u .m.) -bright (u.m.) mocking wash moth eye stock muck ball face -up (u.m.) rake (v.) -eaten (u.m.) gazing mold raker hole glow made (u.m.) sweat proof head #shop (c .f.) muco mother lighter mole all one word board lit catcher mud hood -mad (u.m.) -eyed (u.m.) bank -in-law path head bath -of-pearl rise hill -colored (u.m.) moto (c .f.) sail money fl at all one word set bag ow fl motor shade changer guard bike shine getter head bus shot grubber hole cab sick lender lark cade struck -mad (u.m.) sill car tide maker slinger coach walker saver -splashed (u.m.) cycle -white (u.m.) monkey stain -driven (u.m.) moosecall -faced (u.m.) sucker jet mop nut track -minded (u.m.) head pod #turtle #scooter stick pot muddlehead ship up (n., u.m.) shine truck mopper-up #wrench

168 153 Compounding Examples fangled tie puller mule -fashioned (u.m.) (c .f.) necro rod back -front (v.) all one word -shaped (u.m.) #deer -made (u.m.) needle -studded (u.m.) skinner -mown (u.m.) bill name multi (c .f.) -rich (u.m.) case -calling (u.m.) all one word newlywed -made (u.m.) -dropping (u.m.) multiple-purpose news nose (pliers) plate (u .m.) boy point sake muscle case -shaped (u.m.) nano (c .f.) bound cast -sharp (u.m.) all one word power clip worked naptime music dealer ne’er-do-well (c .f.) narco lover #editor (c .f.) neo all one word -mad (u.m.) letter -Greek, etc. narrow maker paper rest one word -mouthed (u.m.) room paper#work nephro (c .f.) minded (c .f.) musico photo all one word (c .f.) naso all one word print nerve -occipital musk reader ache -orbital #deer reel -celled (u.m.) rest one word melon sheet -racked (u.m.) nationwide #ox stand net native-born (u.m.) rat story ball navy-blue (u.m.) mutton teller braider naysayer #chop (meat) nick -veined (u.m.) near chop (shape) -eared (u.m.) work by st fi -miss name #worth head sighted nickel nettle (c .f.) myria neat’s-foot (u.m.) plate (v.) fi re all one word neck -plated (u.m.) foot mytho (c .f.) band -plating (u.m.) some all one word bone type (c .f.) neuro (c .f.) myxo -breaking (u.m.) night all one word all one word cloth -black (u.m.) never -deep (u.m.) #blindness -ending (u.m.) N fast cap more nail guard -clad (u.m.) theless bin -high (u.m.) clothes new brush hole club born head lace dress -car (u.m.) -headed (u.m.) line fall comer #hole mold y (aviation) (v.) -fl -created (u.m.) print

169 154 Chapter 7 -fl ying (u.m.) noble oat -led (u.m.) gown bin over (n., u.m.) -born (u.m.) -grown (u.m.) cake pipe -featured (u.m.) hawk -fed (u.m.) ring heartedness long (u.m.) meal -thumbing (u.m.) -looking (u.m.) mare seed up (n., u.m.) -minded (u.m.) #school oathbreaker wheel nol-pros (v.) shade object-oriented note non #shift oblong book -civil-service shirt -elliptic (u.m.) #paper (u .m.) side -leaved (u.m.) worthy -European, etc. tide -linear (u.m.) notwithstanding -interactive walker -ovate (u.m.) novel -pros (v.) nimble -shaped (u.m.) -reading (u.m.) #sequitur, etc. -fi ngered (u.m.) -triangular (u.m.) #writer -tumor-bearing footed (c .f.) occipito -writing (u.m.) (u .m.) nimbostratus -otic nucleo (c .f.) x, one as prefi (cloud s) rest one word all one word word nine ocean nut none fold -born (u.m.) breaker such #holes borne -brown (u.m.) theless -lived (u.m.) -girdled (u.m.) cake noon pin going cracker day score side hatch tide nitpicker -spanning (u.m.) hook time nitro (c .f.) octo (c .f.) pecker north -hydro-carbon all one word pick -central (u.m.) rest one word odd -shaped (u.m.) east no -jobber shell going -account (n., u.m.) -job man sweet most -fault -looking (u.m.) -northeast -fee man (arbiter) O -sider -good (n., u.m.) -numbered (u.m.) oak nose -hitter (n.) off -beamed (u.m.) how bag -and-on (u.m.) -clad (u.m.) #man’s land bleed beat -green (u.m.) #one bone cast #leaf -par (u.m.) dive center (u.m.) -leaved (u.m.) -par-value (u.m.) down (n., u.m.) color (u.m.) oar -show (n., u.m.) gay -colored (u.m.) -footed (u.m.) -thoroughfare (n.) guard cut (printing) lock whit -high (u.m.) day -year (funds) oarsman -fall (v.) hole

170 Compounding Examples 155 -step (dance) #butter ohm -fl avor (n., u.m.) -striper #gear -ammeter ow -fl time (formerly) #oil meter -go (n.) (u .m.) #strut -mile going -time (one action) as combining oil grade (u .m.) form, one word #burner hand -two-three olive cake -hours -way (u.m.) -brown (u.m.) can line onion -clad (u.m.) cloth loading peel -drab (u.m.) coat look skin -growing (u.m.) cup -lying (u.m.) op-ed #oil -driven (u.m.) peak (newspaper) -skinned (u.m.) -fed (u.m.) print open wood fi eld put -air (u.m.) #wood (color) -forming (u.m.) -reckoning (n.) -armed (u.m.) omni (c .f.) -harden (v.) saddle -back (u.m.) -ignorant hole scape -backed (u.m.) rest one word meal scour band (yarn) on paper scum cast (n., u.m.) -and-off proofi ng -season cut (mining) board (u.m.) seed set -end (u.m.) -go (n.) #shale shoot -ended going skinned shore -faced (u.m.) line#service -soaked (u.m.) side handed site spill (n.) site #house noun, adjective, stove -sorts (n.) minded one word -temper (v.) spring mouthed once tightness stage #shop -over (n.) #well street side (u.m.) -run (u.m.) old take -sided (u.m.) one -fashioned (u.m.) -the-record (u.m.) worked -armed (u.m.) -fogy (u.m.) type opera -decker -growing (u.m.) -wheel (n.) goer -eyed (u.m.) -looking (u.m.) -wheeler (n.) going fold #maid -white (u.m.) #house -half -maidish (u.m.) #year operating#system -handed (u.m.) #man ce offi ophthalmo (c .f.) ness -new #boy all one word -piece (u.m.) style (printing) holder orange self timer seeker ade -sided (u.m.) #woman -seeking (u.m.) colored (u.m.) -sidedness -young entimes oft peel signed (u.m.) oleo times oft

171 156 Chapter 7 -looking (u.m.) seed -oblong (u.m.) -red (u.m.) -reddish (u.m.) shell ovato (c .f.) stick (c .f.) paleo -white (u.m.) -oblong orchard#house -Christian, etc. -orbicular orderly#room P rest one word rest one word (c .f.) organo pace pallbearer oven all one word maker palm baked (c .f.) ornitho #setter -green (u.m.) dried all one word -setting (u.m.) #leaf peel orrisroot pachy (c .f.) #oil ware ortho (c .f.) all one word -shaded (u.m.) over all one word pack palmi (c .f.) age (surplus) (c .f.) osteo builder all one word age (older) (n., all one word cloth pan u.m.) other horse -American, etc. all (n., u.m.) wise -laden (u.m.) -broil (v.) -the-counter #world sack #ice (u .m.) worldly saddle rest one word as combining (c .f.) oto staff form, one word Pan all one word thread owl-eyed (u.m.) #A mer ic a n Un ion out up (n., u.m.) ox hellenic -and-out (u.m.) packing#box biter panel-lined (u.m.) -and-outer (n.) padlock blood (color) panic-stricken -loud (u.m.) (u .m.) paddlefoot bow -Machiavelli, etc. panto (c .f.) page brake migration all one word -for-page (u.m.) cart -of-date (u.m.) panty hose #proof (printing) cheek -of-door(s) (u.m.) paper painkiller eye -of-State (u.m.) back (n.) painstaking -eyed (u.m.) -of-the-way (u.m.) #box paint gall placement #carrier box harrow -to-out (u.m.) cutter brush hide as prefi x, one hanger mixer horn word shell (n., u.m.) pot shoe outer -shelled (u.m.) spray tail -city (u.m.) -thin (u.m.) stained (u.m.) #team #man weight pale (c .f.) oxy most -white (u.m.) belly all one word wear papier#mache -blue (u.m.) oyster outward (c .f. or pref.) para buck bed -bound (u.m.) -analgesia -cheeked (u.m.) #crab -bounder -anesthesia face (n.) house ovate legal -faced (u.m.) root -acuminate (u.m.)

172 Compounding Examples 157 head jacket -feeding (u.m.) medic knife nut lled (u.m.) -fi rest one word manship pod #play parcel #name shooter paste #carrier point -sized (u.m.) down (n., u.m.) -plate (v.) pusher stick pot #post rack peace up (n., u.m.) parchment script -blessed (u.m.) pastureland -covered (u.m.) -shaped (u.m.) breaker patent-in-fee #maker stock -loving (u.m.) path -making (u.m.) trough maker breaker parieto (c .f.) pencil #pipe nder fi -occipital #box time way rest one word holder peach (c .f.) patho parimutuel -mark (v.) bloom all one word park penny blow (color) patri (c .f.) #forest -a-liner -colored (u.m.) all one word land pincher pear-shaped (u.m.) patrol way weight pearl man part winkle -eyed (u.m.) #wagon nished (u.m.) -fi worth shing fi pattycake #owner pent-up (u.m.) -pure (u.m.) pawn -time (u.m.) (c .f.) penta -set (u.m.) broker -timer (n.) -acetate -studded (u.m.) shop #way rest one word -white (u.m.) pay (c .f.) parti all one word pepper peat back (n., u.m.) party#line corn -roofed (u.m.) check (c .f.) parvi #jelly moss #cut all one word mint stack day pass pot pebble dirt back (n.) -red (u.m.) -paved (u.m.) load book peptalk -strewn (u.m.) (n., u.m.) off key per (n., u.m.) peeloff out (n., u.m.) out (n., u.m.) #annum peep #raise port cent eye roll through (n., #centum hole sheet u.m.) compound show -T V way (chem ic a l) sight pea word current peer-to-peer #coal passenger-mile (botanical) pegleg coat passer(s)-by #diem pellmell cod passion salt (chemical) pen -green (u.m.) -driven (u.m.) #se -cancel (v.) hen

173 158 Chapter 7 pile marker -oxidation de sulfi driver pan -oxidative (pref.) peri -driving (u.m.) plant rest one word -insular hammer #plate phrasemark (music) rest one word up (n., u.m.) -stuff ed (u.m.) (c .f.) phreno permafrost pest #weave #tin all one word hole woven piece phyllo (c .f.) -ridden (u.m.) pill -dye (v.) all one word petcock pusher #goods (c .f.) phylo petit rolling meal all one word grain taker mold physico (c .f.) #jury pillow (c .f.) piezo all one word #larceny case -oscillator physio (c .f.) #point made rest one word all one word petro (c .f.) slip pig (c .f.) phyto -occipital top -back (v.) all one word rest one word pilot -backed (u.m.) piano pharmaco (c .f.) #boat -bellied (u.m.) forte -oryctology house belly graph rest one word #light -eyed (u.m.) #player (c .f.) pharyngo pin face pick -esophageal ball -faced (u.m.) aback -oral block foot ax rest one word bone -footed (u.m.) lock phase case headed -me-up (n., u.m.) -in (n., u.m.) cushion herd (n., u.m.) off meter -eyed (u.m.) #iron over (n., u.m.) out (n., u.m.) fall out #over (v.) -wound (u.m.) feather pen pocket pheno (c .f.) fi re root pole all one word fold stick shaft philo (c .f.) head sty up (n., u.m.) -French, etc. hold tailed picker-up rest one word hole wash picket#line (c .f.) phlebo hook pigeon pickle-cured (u.m.) all one word lock gram picture phonebook paper hole #book phono (c .f.) point -toed (u.m.) #writing all one word prick wing pie phospho (c .f.) rail piggyback bald all one word setter pike crust photo (c .f.) spot -eyed (u.m.) -eater -off set stripe staff -eyed

174 Compounding Examples 159 room plane #valve -tailed (u.m.) script #curve pit up (n., u.m.) suit load #boss wheel thing -mile #bull pinch time -parallel (u.m.) -eyed (u.m.) back wright table (surveying) fall bar #yard plani (c .f.) head beck pleasure all one word -headed (u.m.) cock -bent (u.m.) (c .f.) plano hole st fi #boat all one word mark -hit (v.) -seeking (u.m.) plant -marked (u.m.) -hitter -tired (u.m.) #food -rotted (u.m.) penny -weary (u.m.) life saw pine pleo (c .f.) site side apple all one word plasterboard pitch -bearing (u.m.) pleuro (c .f.) plate -black (u.m.) -clad (u.m.) all one word cutter blende #cone plow #glass #box -fringed (u.m.) back (n., u.m.) -incased (u.m.) -colored (u.m.) #needle -bred (u.m.) layer -dark (u.m.) #oil hand mark #darkness -shaded (u.m.) horse #proof (printing) fork #tar pan -roll (v.) hole pink point -rolled (u.m.) -lined (u.m.) -blossomed (u.m.) -shaped (u.m.) (c .f.) platy man eye (n.) share all one word -marked (u.m.) -eyed (u.m.) shoe play out (n., u.m.) pipe sole -act (v.) #pipe -drawn (u.m.) staff back (n., u.m.) up (n., u.m.) dream #tail bill place tter fi wright book card layer plug boy kick line -and-play broker plague-infested -shaped (u.m.) hole day (u .m.) stem -in (n., u.m.) down (n., u.m.) plain walker tray fellow back (fabric) welder -ugly (n., u.m.) goer -bodied (u.m.) pisci (c .f.) plumbline going clothes (u.m.) all one word plume-crowned ground clothesman pistol-whipped (v.) (u .m.) mate -headed (u.m.) piston pluri (c .f.) (n., u.m.) off -looking (u.m.) head all one word pen -spoken (u.m.) #pin reader woven (u.m.) #rod

175 160 Chapter 7 -raising (u.m.) card -vault (v.) (c .f.) pluto #yard -Christian, etc. #vaulter all one word pound -cold-war (u.m.) politico (c .f.) (c .f.) pneumato cake #diem -orthodox -hydato-genetic -foolish (u.m.) -free (u.m.) rest one word (u .m.) -foot haste poll rest one word worth #hospital book (c .f.) pneumo powder (militar y) #parrot all one word -blue (u.m.) #meridiem #tax pock box #mortem (literal) poly (c .f.) mark #house mortem all one word -marked (u.m.) #keg (nonlitera l) poor -pit (v.) #mill #partum -blooded (u.m.) pocket #room #school (military) farm book (purse) -scorched (u.m.) audit, graduate, -spirited (u.m.) #book (book) power etc. pop -eyed (u.m.) boat as prefi x, one corn knife #mower word eye -sized (u.m.) -operated (u.m.) postal#card gun -veto (v.) pack pot up (n., u.m.) poet plant ash poppy -artist praise bellied -bordered (u.m.) #laureate -deserving (u.m.) boil cock -painter -spoiled (u.m.) eye -red (u.m.) pointblank worthiness hanger seed Point-to-Point pre (pref.) head pork poison-dipped -Incan, etc. herb barrel (n., u.m.) (u .m.) audit, existing, hole #chop pole etc. hook fi sh arm rest one word hunter #pie -armed (u.m.) president latch port ax -elect lid cullis burn #pro#tempore luck re fi cat press pie folio -dried (u.m.) #agent pourri hole horse -agentry rack hook -pile (v.) board #roast manteau setter feeder shot -mouthed (u.m.) -shaped (u.m.) -forge (v.) potato#fi eld side sitter -made (u.m.) poultry #wine -stack (v.) mark #keeper post star pack (v.) -keeping (u.m.) #bellum timber plate #raiser #boat trap

176 Compounding Examples 161 punch #ring psalmbook #proof (printing) preter (pref.) taker board pseudo (c .f.) all one word winner bowl -Messiah, etc. price -winning (u.m.) card -occidental #cutter pro -drunk (u.m.) cial -offi -cutting (u.m.) -Ally, etc. mark -orientalism #fi xer -choice -marked (u.m.) -orthorhombic xing (u.m.) -fi #football, etc. out (n.) -osteomalacia #index #forma punctureproof -owner list -life pup#tent rest one word -support (u.m.) #rata psycho (c .f.) pure tag #tem -organic blood prick #tempore rest one word bred -eared (u.m.) as prefi x, one (c .f.) ptero #line (biological) mark word all one word purple seam problem-solver public -blue (u.m.) priesthood procto (c .f.) hearted -clad (u.m.) prime all one word -minded (u.m.) #minister -colored (u.m.) profi t -spirited (u.m.) -ministerial -and-loss (u.m.) heart (wood) #works (u .m.) -sharing (u.m.) purse pug -ministership prong making nose -ministry buck -proud (u.m.) prince -pile (v.) -hoe (v.) #strings hood pull horn push -priest -horned (u.m.) back (n., u.m.) button print proof #box card cloth #press down (n., u.m.) cart out read -in (n., u.m.) (n., u.m.) off script reader off (n., u.m.) -pull (u.m.) printing sheet -on (n., u.m.) up (n., u.m.) -in (n., u.m.) prop out (n., u.m.) pussy #ink jet -push (u.m.) cat #offi ce wash through (n., foot -out (n., u.m.) (c .f.) proso u.m.) #willow all one word prison up (n., u.m.) put (c .f.) proto bound puller back (n., u.m.) -Egyptian, etc. -free (u.m.) -in off (n., u.m.) rest one word -made (u.m.) -out -on (n., u.m.) proud prisoner-of-war pulp out (n., u.m.) hearted (u .m.) board -put (n.) -looking (u.m.) prize wood -up (n., u.m.) ghter fi -minded (u.m.)

177 162 Chapter 7 range telephone queen#bee putter -forth nder fi rag quick -in #light bolt -change (u.m., v.) -off rider #doll -drawn (u.m., v.) -on rapid -made (u.m.) freeze (u.m., v.) -out re #fi sorter lime -through #transit tag sand -up rash time set pyo (c .f.) -brained (u.m.) rail silver all one word -headed (u.m.) bird step (c .f.) pyro -hearted (u.m.) car #time all one word guard -minded (u.m.) -witted (u.m.) head rat quin (c .f.) Q -ridden (u.m.) bite all one word Q road catcher quit -boat setter hole claim -fever splitter -infested (u.m.) rent (c .f.) quadri #train #race -invariant R way#maker -tailed (u.m.) rest one word wayman -tight (u.m.) quarrystone rabbit rain trap quarter -backed (u.m.) band rate -angled (u.m.) -eared (u.m.) -beaten (u.m.) #cutter back #fever bow -cutting (u.m.) -bloom (u.m.) #foot check -fi xing (u.m.) #boards mouth coat payer -bound (u.m.) -mouthed (u.m.) drop -raising (u.m.) -breed (u.m.) skin fall setting -cast (u.m.) race #forest rattle -cut (u.m.) about (n., u.m.) -soft (u .m.) brain deck course spout snake -miler goer storm trap #note horse wash raw pace track water boned -phase (u.m.) way (n., u.m.) rakeoff -edged (u.m.) saw (v.) radarscope ram hide staff radio jet -looking (u.m.) stretch generally two rod razor -yearly (u.m.) words except shackle back quartermaster the following forms ranch -billed (u.m.) #general frequency #hand #blade -generalship isotope house edge quasi Random-access telegraph -keen (u.m.) all hyphened

178 Compounding Examples 163 ring -sharp (u.m.) -billed (u.m.) (c .f.) rhino -adorned (u.m.) all one word strop -blooded (u.m.) -banded (u.m.) rhizo (c .f.) razzle-dazzle bone -billed (u.m.) all one word re (pref.) buck bolt rhod(o) (c .f.) -cover (cover cap (porter) again) giver all one word coat (n.) -create (create head rhomb(o) (c .f.) eye (n.) again), etc. -in (n., u.m.) all one word -eyed (u.m.) -cross- lead (v.) rice -faced (u.m.) examination leader growing -haired (u.m.) -ice -necked (u.m.) #water handed -ink -off (n., u.m.) rich head (n.) -redirect pin -bound (u.m.) -hot (u.m.) evaluate, process, -porous (u.m.) -clad (u.m.) -legged (u.m.) etc. -shaped (u.m.) -looking (u.m.) #line (literal) rest one word side rickrack #man reading#room sight ridge out (n., u.m.) read stand band -skinned (u.m.) out (n.) stick pole tape (nonliteral) through (n., u.m.) -tailed (u.m.) top #tape (literal) README -up (n., u.m.) riff raff -throated (u.m.) ready worm eshot rifl -yellow (u.m.) -built (u.m.) rip rig reformat -handed (u.m.) cord out (n., u.m.) regionwide made (u.m.) (n., u.m.) -off -up (n., u.m.) (c .f.) religio -mix (u.m.) rap right all one word #reference roaring about remote-access room sack about-face repair#shop -witted (u.m.) saw -angle (u.m., v.) representative rear snorter -angled (u.m.) #at#large #end tide #away -elect guard -up (n., u.m.) eld (sports) #fi research#worker most river -handed (u.m.) resino (c .f.) view (u.m.) bank -hander all one word ward bed -headed (u.m.) (c .f.) retro reception#room #bottom most -ocular recordbreaker ow fl -of-way -omental recti (c .f.) -formed (u.m.) wing (political) -operative all one word front rim -oral (c .f.) recto head -deep (u.m.) rest one word all one word scape re fi rheo (c .f.) red side lock bait (v.) all one word wash rock

179 164 Chapter 7 roughing-in (u.m.) bush off (n., u.m.) -worn (u.m.) road head -on (n., u.m.) round bank -headed (u.m.) out (n., u.m.) about (n., u.m.) bed -scented (u.m.) over (n., u.m.) about-face block -sweet (u.m.) top -faced (u.m.) builder tan up (n., u.m.) head head #water roller -made (u.m.) hog rotor #blade mouthed kill craft #coaster nose (tool) map ship -made (u.m.) out (n., u.m.) #runner (bird) rotten -milled (u.m.) robin (petition) #show -dry (u.m.) #skate seam Romano (c .f.) side -minded (u.m.) table (panel) -canonical, etc. -test (v.) rough -tailed (u.m.) -Gallic, etc. way -and-ready (u.m.) -topped (u.m.) roof -weary (u.m.) -and-tumble (n., #trip u.m.) garden rock -tripper cast (u.m., v.) line abye up (n., u.m.) -coat (v.) top bottom rub -cut (u.m.) tree (nonlitera l) -a-dub draw (v.) room #climber down (n., u.m.) dress (v.) #clerk -climbing (u.m.) rubber dry (u.m., v.) keeper fall (n.) band -face (v.) mate -fallen (u.m.) -down -faced (u.m.) roominghouse fi ll -lined (u.m.) hew root fi rm neck house bound pile -off -legged (u.m.) cap -ribbed (u.m.) -set (u.m.) -looking (u.m.) -cutting (u.m.) #salt stamp neck fast shaft (nonlitera l) (n., u.m., v.) rider hold slide #stamp (n.) setter #mean#square rod-shaped (u.m.) -stamped (u.m.) shod #rot roe ruby -sketch (v.) stalk buck -hued (u.m.) stuff stock #deer -red (u.m.) tailed rope roentgeno (c .f.) -set (u.m.) #work (n.) dance all one word -throated (u.m.) work (v.) layer roll rudder wrought stitch about (n., u.m.) head rougher walk back (n., u.m.) hole -down rose call post -out -bright (u.m.) -fed (v.) -up stock bud lm fi

180 Compounding Examples 165 rule#of#thumb tooth sage sample -toothed (u.m.) rum brush #book sable-cloaked (u.m.) leaf -crazed (u.m.) #box Sabrejet -leaved (u.m.) runner maker (c .f.) saccharo sail seller -making (u.m.) all one word cloth rumpus#room sand sack -dotted (u.m.) run bag bearer fl ying about (n., u.m.) bank cloth saintlike around (n., u.m.) bar #coat sales away (n., u.m.) bath -coated (u.m.) book back (n., u.m.) bin -making (u.m.) clerk by (n.) blast -shaped (u.m.) manship down (n., u.m.) blown sacro (c .f.) people -in (n., u.m.) box all one word person (n., u.m.) off -built (u.m.) sad salmon -on (n., u.m.) -buried (u.m.) -eyed (u.m.) -colored (u.m.) out (n., u.m.) -cast (u.m., v.) iron -red (u.m.) over (n., u.m.) culture #sack salpingo (c .f.) through (n., u.m.) #dune -voiced (u.m.) -oophorectomy up (n., u.m.) fi ll saddle -oophoritis runner-up fl ea back -ovariotomy (c .f.) Russo glass -backed (u.m.) -ovaritis -Chinese, etc. heat bag rest one word rest one word hill bow salt rust -hiller cloth box -brown (u.m.) hog -graft (v.) cellar -eaten (u.m.) hole #horse -cured (u.m.) proofi ng lapper -making (u.m.) #lick -resistant (u.m.) lot nose mouth -stained (u.m.) paper -nosed (u.m.) pack eld rye#fi pile sore pan pipe S -stitched (u.m.) peter pit S tree pit -pump (u.m., v.) -bend -wire (u.m.) pond shoe -brake safe shaker spit -iron blower spoon storm -ray cracker sprinkler table -shaped -deposit (u.m.) water weld (v.) -trap guard works -welded (u.m.) -wrench hold salver -welding (u.m.) saber #house form sandy-bottomed (u .m.) -legged (u.m.) #site -shaped (u.m.)

181 166 Chapter 7 sangfroid scale -trained (u.m.) play bark #year screw sans down (n., u.m.) (c .f.) co scientifi ball #serif pan all one word bolt #souci -reading (u.m.) scissor cap sapphire scapegoat bill down (u.m.) -blue (u.m.) scapulo (c .f.) -tailed (u.m.) drive (v.) -colored (u.m.) all one word -winged (u.m.) -driven (u.m.) (c .f.) sarco scar scissors driver all one word -clad (u.m.) hold head sashcord face -shaped (u.m.) hook satin -faced (u.m.) #smith jack #cloth #tissue (c .f.) sclero -lift ed (u.m.) -lined (u.m.) scare -oophoritis nut -smooth (u.m.) crow -optic ship sauce head rest one word #thread dish scarfpin score -threaded (u.m.) pan scarlet board -turned (u.m.) sauer -breasted (u.m.) book scroll braten #fever card -back kraut -red (u.m.) sheet head save-all (n., u.m.) scatter scot-free work saw brain Scoto (c .f.) scuttlebutt back good -Britannic, etc. scythe-shaped belly (u .m.) #rug Scotsman bill (bird) sea scene scout -billed (u.m.) #base er shift #badge bones (n.) -based (u.m.) wright #car buck -bathed (u.m.) schisto (c .f.) hood dust beach all one word master -edged (u.m.) -beaten (u.m.) schizo (c .f.) scrap horse bed all one word basket setter #bird school book timber -blue (u.m.) bag #paper tooth board #board works -toothed (u.m.) #boat book scratch sax -born (u.m.) bus brush cornet borne children -brusher horn bound day -coated (u.m.) tuba -bred (u.m.) -made (u.m.) #pad say coast mate #test -nothing (n., u.m.) -deep (u.m.) ship screen -so (n.) dog teacher out (n., u.m.)

182 Compounding Examples 167 less -driven (u.m.) search servo drome #engine accelerometer ness -encircled (u.m.) light er amplifi same fare (food) plane control exive prefi x, refl use hyphen fi ghter seat mechanism sell oor #fl belt motor off (n., u.m.) folk #cover system out (n., u.m.) food -mile sesqui (c .f.) (pref.) semi front second all one word -armor-piercing girt -class (u.m.) set (u .m.) goer -degree (u.m.) -aside (n., u.m.) -Christian, etc. going -foot back (n., u.m.) -idleness hound -guess (v.) bolt -indirect, etc. lane hand (adv., u.m.) down (n., u.m.) annual, arid, etc. #level #hand (n.) -fair (n.) rest one word lift #in#command head send #lion -rate (u.m.) -in (n., u.m.) off (n., u.m.) mark #sight (n., u.m.) off out (n., u.m.) port -sighted (u.m.) -on (n., u.m.) senso (c .f.) Secret Service quake out (n., u.m.) all one word secretary #room over (n., u.m.) septi (c .f.) #general scape pin all one word -generalcy #scout screw (c .f.) septo -generalship scouting -stitched (u.m.) all one word section#man shell -to (n., u.m.) sergeant#at#arms seed shine up (n., u.m.) serio (c .f.) bed shore setter all one word cake sick -forth case side sero (c .f.) -in coat stroke -on all one word kin #time (clock) -out serrate stalk wall -to -ciliate (u.m.) seer weed -up -dentate (u.m.) band wing seven server-based hand worn -branched (u.m.) service sucker worthiness fold -connected (u.m.) seesaw -wrecked (u.m.) penny (nail) man (c .f.) seismo seam score #man#and #woman all one word blasting -shooter member self rend (v.) -up (n.) person dom stitch severalfold wide -extracting shade weld (v.) hood -giving (u.m.) -welded (u.m.) woman

183 168 Chapter 7 shine hole -grown (u.m.) -witted (u.m.) store shadow shavetail -like string boxing shear shocked tree gram pin shelterbelt shootoff (n., u.m.) graph waters shield-shaped (u .m.) shop #line shedhand shilly-shally folk shag sheep shin lift er bark biter bone -made (u.m.) -haired (u.m.) crook guard mark #rug dip plaster owner shake #dog shiner-up -soiled (u.m.) down (n., u.m.) faced ship talk out (n., u.m.) #farm breaker walker up (n., u.m.) fold broken window shallow gate broker shore -draft (u .m.) herder builder #bird -headed (u.m.) hook lap #boat shame kill mast fast -crushed (u.m.) -kneed (u.m.) owning going nose (apple) faced -rigged (u.m.) #leave pen shank shape side shank bone side short shear (v.) #mill wreck -armed (u.m.) shearer (n.) shapeup (n., u.m.) shipping bread shed share #master cake stealer bone #room change (v.) walk broker shirt changer -white (u.m.) cropper band #circuit sheer holder #sleeve -circuited (u.m.) (n., u.m.) off out (n., u.m.) tail coming up (n., u.m.) ware waist cut (n., u.m., v.) sheet sharp shock fall (n.) block -angled (u.m.) #therapy -fed (u.m.) ood fl -cut (u.m.) #troops hand (writing) #glass -edged (u.m.) #wave -handed (u.m.) rock -freeze (u.m., v.) shoe head (whale) ways -freezer black horn (n., u.m.) shell -looking (u.m.) brush -horned (u.m.) back naysayer horn -lasting (u.m.) burst -set (u.m.) lace leaf (u.m.) re fi shod pack -lived (u.m.) shery fi shooter scraper rib #game -tailed (u.m.)

184 Compounding Examples 169 walk shuttlecock run (u.m.) -witted (u.m.) wall sick simulcast sighted -wheeler bay sin staff winder bed -born (u.m.) stop sight #call -bred (u.m.) #term hole #leave sine#die -term (u.m.) read list single wave (radio) saver room bar shot seeing sickle-cell (u.m.) -breasted (u.m.) gun setter side -decker hole sign arms -edged (u.m.) put (n., u.m.) off band handed star -on (n., u.m.) board hood shoulder post bone -loader #belt up (n., u.m.) burns -minded (u.m.) #blade car silico (c .f.) -phase (u.m.) -high (u.m.) check all one word -seater #strap -cut (u.m.) silk stick show dress (v.) #screen #stitch boat fl ash tree -stockinged (u.m.) card head (printing) singsong works case hill sink siltpan down (n., u.m.) hook head silver off (n., u.m.) kick hole -backed (u.m.) piece Sino (c .f.) lap beater place -Japanese, etc. #light (literal) -bright (u.m.) room sister light (nonliteral) sh fi through -german #line (literal) -gray (u.m.) (printing) (n., u.m.) hood line (nonliteral) -haired (u.m.) up (n., u.m.) -in-law long -lead (u.m.) shredout (n., u.m.) sit note -leaved (u.m.) shroud down (n., u.m.) plate plate (v.) -laid (u.m.) -downer play -plated (u.m.) plate fast (n., u.m.) saddle point (drawing) shut -in show print away (n., u.m.) up (n., u.m.) slip tip down (n., u.m.) sitter splitting -tongued (u.m.) eye (n., u.m.) -by step top -in (n., u.m.) -in stitch simon-pure (u.m.) -mouthed (u.m.) -out -stitched (u.m.) simple off (n., u.m.) sitting#room sway -headed (u.m.) out (n., u.m.) sitz swipe -minded (u.m.) #bath track up (u.m.) -rooted (u.m.)

185 170 Chapter 7 mark slab-sided (u.m.) -looking (u.m.) -motion (u.m.) six slack sleetstorm mouthed -cylinder (u.m.) -bake (v.) sleeveband poke fold -fi lled (u.m.) sleuthhound #time penny (nail) #water slide up (n., u.m.) -ply (u.m.) slambang fi lm -witted (u.m.) -shooter slant-eyed (u.m.) knot sluice -wheeler slap #rule box sizeup (n., u.m.) bang sling #gate ski dab ball slum #jump dash shot dweller #lift down (n., u.m.) slip gullion plane happy along (u.m.) gum #suit jack band lord skid stick case slumber-bound (u .m.) lift (t r uck) -up (n., u.m.) cover small road slate knot #arms #row -blue (u.m.) #law #businessman skin -colored (u.m.) -on (n., u.m.) pox -clad (u.m.) works #proof (printing) -scale (u.m.) deep slaughter proof sword diver house ring talk int fl pen sheet -time (u.m.) -graft (v.) slave shod town (u.m.) skipjack -born (u.m.) sole smart skirtmarker -deserted (u.m.) step #aleck skullcap holding stitch -alecky (u.m.) skunk #market stream -looking (u.m.) head owner -up (n., u.m.) #set top pen washer -tongued (u.m.) sky Slavo (c .f.) slit smashup (n., u.m.) -blue (u.m.) -Hungarian, etc. -eyed (u.m.) smearcase gazer sledge shell smoke -high (u.m.) #hammer #skirt -blinded (u.m.) jacker -hammered (u.m.) slop bomb lift meter -molded (u.m.) chaser look (v.) sleep seller -dried (u.m.) rocket -fi lled (u.m.) slopeways -dry (v.) sail talker slow -dyed (u.m.) scape walker belly lled (u.m.) -fi scraper sleepy down (n., u.m.) house shine -eyed (u.m.) -footed (u.m.) jack writer head going

186 Compounding Examples 171 ox snuffb -nosed (u.m.) -boiled (u.m.) jumper so sniperscope -laden (u.m.) #coal -and-so snooperscope pot #copy beit (n., conj.) snow screen #drink -called (u.m.) ball stack #goods -seeming (u.m.) bank smoking#room head -so berg smooth -pedal (v.) soap blind bore -shelled (u.m.) box #blindness -browed (u.m.) -soap (nonliteral) (v.) bubble blink -cast (u.m.) -soaper dish block -mouthed (u.m.) (nonlitera l) (n.) fl akes -blocked (u.m.) -tongued (u.m.) -spoken (u.m.) #opera blower -working (u.m.) tack rock break snackbar ware stock capped snail wood -choked (u.m.) suds -paced (u.m.) sole clad (u.m.) sob -slow (u.m.) cutter #cover #sister snail’s#pace plate -covered (u.m.) #story snake (c .f.) somato drift sober bite all one word fall -minded (u.m.) -bitten (u.m.) some fi eld sides -eater day fl ake social -eyed (u.m.) how line #work head one (anyone) melt #worker hole #one (distributive) -melting (u.m.) socio (c .f.) pit place (adv.) mobile -offi cial snap time (adv., u.m.) pack economic, etc. dragon pit sod head #time (some time ago) plow buster hook what scape culture -on (n., u.m.) son-in-law shade #house out (n.) song shed soda ring bird shine jerk roll fest shoe #pop shooter writer sled #water shot sonobuoy slide sofa -up (u.m.) sooth slip #bed snapper fast storm #maker -back sayer suit -making (u.m.) -up sore -topped (u.m.) snipe -ridden (u.m.) -eyed (u.m.) #water bill soft -white (u.m.) #eel ball foot (n.)

187 172 Chapter 7 -legged (u.m.) trap west footed (u.m.) legs up (n., u.m.) soybean head (n., u.m.) shanks spell sow sorry-looking (u.m.) spine binding back soul bone check belly -deep (u.m.) -broken (u.m.) down (n., u.m.) space mate -pointed (u.m.) -free (u.m.) bar -searching (u.m.) spino (c .f.) spend craft sick -olivary -all (n.) -cramped (u.m.) sound rest one word thrift #key -absorbing (u.m.) spirit (c .f.) spermato mark #fi eld -born (u.m.) all one word ship fi lm -broken (u.m.) (c .f.) spermo #time -minded (u.m.) #writing all one word spade off (n., u.m.) spit spheno (c .f.) -dug (u.m.) track ball -occipital foot #wave fi re rest one word -footed (u.m.) soup stick (c .f.) sphygmo -shaped (u.m.) bone splanchno (c .f.) all one word Spanish #bowl all one word spice -American #kitchen splay -burnt (u.m.) -born (u.m.) #plate footed cake -speaking (u.m.) spoon mouthed -laden (u.m.) spare sour spleen spider -bodied (u.m.) belly -born (u.m.) #crab rib bread sick -legged #room dough (n.) -swollen (u.m.) -spun (u.m.) spark faced spleno (c .f.) #web (n.) #plug (literal) -natured (u.m.) all one word web (u.m., v.) plug (nonliteral) -sweet split spike speakeasy (n.) source nger fi horn spear book (cr u st acea n) -kill (v.) cast #fi le fruit -pitch (v.) head south mouth spill -high (u.m.) -born (u.m.) saw over (n., u.m.) -shaped (u.m.) bound #second way spectro (c .f.) -central (u.m.) -tongued (u.m.) spin all one word east up (n., u.m.) back speech going spoilsport #doctor (slang) (u .m.) -bereft lander (c .f.) spondylo off -read (v.) paw all one word spindle speed #side sponge -formed (u.m.) boating -sider #bath head letter -southeast

188 Compounding Examples 173 bred -hour -clean (v.) cake #gauge time #fever diver #time stag nger fi -diving (u.m.) staphylo (c .f.) -handled (u.m.) -grown (u.m.) -shaped (u.m.) all one word head halt spongio (c .f.) star -headed (u.m.) head all one word blind horn -plow (v.) spoolwinder bright -horned (u.m.) -plowed (u.m.) spoon dust hound tide (season) -beaked (u.m.) gazer hunter time -billed (u.m.) -led (u.m.) stage trap bread light coach spritsail -fed (u.m.) lit hand spur -shaped (u.m.) lite (gem) #set -clad (u.m.) ways nose (mole) -struck (u.m.) -driven (u.m.) sporeformer shake stair gall (c .f.) sporo shine case -galled (u.m.) all one word shoot head -heeled (u.m.) sports -spangled (u.m.) step spy #editor stroke #well glass person -studded (u.m.) stake hole wear #time head tower writer starchworks out (n.) square spot stark stale-worn (u.m.) -bottomed (u.m.) #check -blind (u.m.) stall -built (u.m.) -checked (u.m.) -mad (u.m.) -fed (u.m.) -faced (u.m.) -face (v.) -naked (u.m.) -feed (v.) fl ipper light -raving (u.m.) stand head weld (v.) starter-off by (n., u.m.) -headed welded (u.m.) start-stop down (n., u.m.) #mile -welding (u.m.) startup (n., u.m.) fast (n., u.m.) -rigged (u.m.) spray-washed (u.m.) stat (pref.) -in (n., u.m.) #root spread all one word off (n., u.m.) -set (u.m.) -eagle (u.m., v.) State sh offi shooter head -aided (u.m.) out (n., u.m.) squeeze out (n., u.m.) #line pat -in (n., u.m.) over (n., u.m.) -owned (u.m.) pipe out (n., u.m.) -set (v.) state point up (n., u.m.) spring hood post squirrel-headed back (u .m.) (bookbinding) -of-the-art (u.m.) still (n., u.m.) stackup (n., u.m.) bok quake up (n., u.m.) staff -born (u.m.) room standard -herd (v.) buck side #bearer

189 174 Chapter 7 stir post plate station#house about (n., u.m.) #wheel works stato (c .f.) fry -wheeler steep all one word -up (n., u.m.) sterno (c .f.) -rising (u.m.) statute stitch all one word -to (u.m.) -barred (u.m.) down (n., u.m.) (c .f.) stetho -up (u.m.) #book up (n., u.m.) all one word -walled (u.m.) stay stock stew steeple -at-home (n., u.m.) breeder pan chase bar broker pot -high (u.m.) bolt #car stick jack boom feeder -at-it (n., u.m.) top lace holding fast (n.) stem log jobber -in-the-mud (n., head pin judging u.m.) post plow list out (n., u.m.) sickness sail pile pin winder wire pot -to-it-iveness (n.) stencil-cutting (u.m.) steam rack up (n., u.m.) (c .f.) steno boating raiser sticker all one word car -still (u.m.) -in step -cooked (u.m.) taker -on aunt -driven (u.m.) truck -up child, etc. tter fi wright stiff dance pipe stoke -backed (u.m.) down (n., u.m.) plant hold neck -in (n., u.m.) -pocket (v.) hole -necked (u.m.) ladder power (n.) stomach still off (n., u.m.) #powerplant #ache -admired (u.m.) -on (n., u.m.) -propelled (u.m.) lling (u.m.) -fi birth over (n., u.m.) roll (v.) #pump born -up (n., u.m.) roller (u.m., v.) -shaped (u.m.) -burn (v.) stepping ship -sick (u.m.) sh (v.) -fi -off (u .m.) table -weary (u.m.) -hunt (v.) -out (u.m.) tightness (c .f.) stomato #life stone steamer#line all one word -recurring (u.m.) (c .f.) stereo steel stone stand all one word -blue (u.m.) biter stink stern -bright (u.m.) blind ball castle -cased (u.m.) brash bomb -faced (u.m.) clad breaker bug -heavy (u.m.) -framed (u.m.) broke damp -looking (u.m.) -hard (u.m.) brood pot most head

190 Compounding Examples 175 strap -in (n., u.m.) cast wind -bolt (v.) -cold (u.m.) out (n., u.m.) #window hanger #crab -over (n., u.m.) storyteller head crusher striker stout -shaped (u.m.) cutter -in -armed (u.m.) watch -dead (u.m.) -out heartedness strato (c .f.) -deaf (u.m.) -over -minded (u.m.) all one word -eyed (u.m.) string stove straw head course brush eld berry#fi layer halt -heated (u.m.) boss lift er #proof (density) pipe -built (u.m.) mason ways stow hat shot strip away (n., u.m.) -roofed (u.m.) #wall (n.) cropping down (n., u.m.) splitting wall (u.m., v.) #mine straddle stack #writing tease back ed (u.m.) -stuff stony strong -face (v.) #vote -eyed (u.m.) -arm (u.m., v.) -legged (u.m.) walker #land back (nautical) straight -yellow (u.m.) stop -backed (u.m.) away stray back (n.) box -backed (u.m.) away (n., u.m.) block hold -cut (u.m.) #line clock #man (literal) edge mark cock man (nonliteral) -edged (u.m.) stream gap -minded (u.m.) #face bank hound point (n.) -faced (u.m.) bed list stub forward ow fl log runner head head -loss (u.m.) -toed (u.m.) -legged (u.m.) lined off (n., u.m.) wing #line side watch stubble -lined (u.m.) street storage#room eld #fi -out (n., u.m.) -bred (u.m.) store -mulch (u.m.) -spoken (u.m.) car front stubbornminded #time cleaner house stucco-fronted -up (u.m.) (u .m.) -cleaning (u.m.) storm -up-and-down stuck (u .m.) sweeper -beaten (u.m.) up (n., u.m.) strainslip walker cock -upper strait (c .f.) strepto ow fl -uppish (u.m.) -chested (u.m.) all one word -laden (u.m.) stud jacket stretchout (n., u.m.) -swept (u.m.) bolt laced strike -tossed (u.m.) horse stranglehold breaker #trooper

191 176 Chapter 7 (pref.) sur lamp (c .f.) sulfa mare all one word lit all one word stuntman sure quake (c .f.) sulfo stupid re (u.m.) -fi ray all one word head -footed (u.m.) rise sulfon (c .f.) -headed (u.m.) -slow scald all one word -looking (u.m.) surf set sullen sturdy-limbed (u.m.) -battered (u.m.) shade hearted stylebook board shine -natured (u.m.) stylo (c .f.) sh #fi -shot (u.m.) summer all one word -swept (u.m.) shower -clad (u.m.) sub (pref.) swallow spot -dried (u.m.) -Himalayan, etc. pipe stricken -fallow (v.) machinegun -tailed (u.m.) stroke -made (u.m.) #rosa, #specie, etc. swampside struck tide -subcommittee swan tan time (season) polar, standard, etc. -bosomed (u.m.) #time (measure) #time (daylight rest one word dive time (dawn) saving) subject herd up sun -object mark sunny -baked (u.m.) -objectivity neck -looking (u.m.) bath (pref.) subter song -natured (u.m.) -bathed (u.m.) all one word swansdown super (pref.) beam such-and-such swash -Christian, etc. blind suck buckler #high frequency #blindness -egg (n., u.m.) plate -superlative bonnet hole sway highway, market, bow -in (n., u.m.) back (n., u.m.) etc. break sugar -backed (u.m.) rest one word burn #beet bar Super Bowl burst #bowl -brace (v.) supra (pref.) -cured (u.m.) cake swearer-in -abdominal dial cane sweat -acromial dog -coat (v.) band -aerial down -coated (u.m.) #gland anal dress -cured (u.m.) #shirt -angular -dried (u.m.) loaf shop -arytenoid -dry (v.) plum sweep -auditory fall spoon back (aviation) -auricular fast sweet (n., u.m.) -axillary glade #water forward -Christian, etc. glare works (av iat ion) (n., rest one word glow u.m.) #hat

192 Compounding Examples 177 stake bar foremost T through (n., u.m.) dingle gate T washer #gate head -ball sweet #shift -heavy (u.m.) -bandage bread stock hook -beam -breathed (u.m.) -swang lamp -boat brier tree pin -bone faced swingle pipe -cloth heart bar race -iron meat tree spin -man mouthed switch stock -rail -pickle (v.) back -tied (u.m.) -scale (score) -sour blade twister -shape -sweet box -up (n., u.m.) -shaped swell gear wheel -shirt -butted (u.m.) plate wind -square head plug tailor table toad rail -cut (u.m.) cloth swelled-headed tender made (u.m.) -cut (u.m.) (u .m.) swivel -suited (u.m.) cutter swept #chair take -cutting (u.m.) back (n., u.m.) eye -all (n.) -formed (u.m.) forward (n., -eyed (u.m.) down (n., u.m.) #linen u.m.) -hooked (u.m.) -home (n., u.m.) -shaped (u.m.) wing (n., u.m.) sword -in (n., u.m.) spoon swift -armed (u.m.) off (n., u.m.) talk foot bearer out (n., u.m.) top -footed (u.m.) #belt over (n., u.m.) ware -handed (u.m.) bill up (n., u.m.) (c .f.) tachy -running (u.m.) fi shing taker all one word swill play -down tag bowl -shaped (u.m.) -in -affi xing (u.m.) tub stick -off lock swimsuit syn (pref.) -over rag swine all one word -up sore -backed (u.m.) synchro tale tail bread cyclotron bearer band head fl ash carrier #coat herd mesh teller -cropped (u.m.) pox tron talkfest #end sty (c .f.) Syro talking-to (n.) -ender swing -Arabian, etc. tall back (n., u.m.) phenician rst fi boy (n.)

193 178 Chapter 7 -laden (u.m.) (c .f.) tele string -built (u.m.) -looking (u.m.) -tied (u.m.) all one word paid tallow taper (c .f.) teleo payer -faced (u.m.) bearer all one word #roll -pale (u.m.) -fashion (u.m.) tell -supported (u.m.) tally -headed (u.m.) tale taxi #board tapestry truth auto #clerk -covered (u.m.) (c .f.) telo bus ho #maker all one word cab #room -making (u.m.) tempest-rocked meter (u .m.) #sheet #work stand temporo (c .f.) tame tapper-out tea -occipital -grown (u.m.) tar ball rest one word -looking (u.m.) -brand (v.) cake ten tan brush cart fold bark -coal (u.m.) -colored (u.m.) penny (nail) works -dipped (u.m.) cup pins tangent #paper dish tender -cut (v.) -paved (u.m.) kettle #boat -saw (v.) pot #party -faced (u.m.) tangle -roofed (u.m.) pot foot foot works room -haired (u.m.) -footed (u.m.) tariff -protected -scented (u.m.) (u .m.) tank footish spoon tarpaulin #car -handed (u.m.) taster -covered (u.m.) farm heart teamplay #maker ship loin tear -making (u.m.) town -looking (u.m.) bomb tarso (c .f.) tap tenement#house -dimmed (u.m.) all one word bolt tent down (n., u.m.) task dance -dotted (u.m.) drop #force hole pole #gas setter net -sheltered (u.m.) (n., u.m.) -off tattletale (n., u.m.) off #show -out (n., u.m.) (c .f.) tauro -riveted (u.m.) terra pit all one word room #cotta sheet tax root rma #fi stain -burdened (u.m.) -tap mara -stained (u.m.) #collector water terrace-fashion teen (u .m.) eater tape age (u.m.) y (v.) test-fl -exempt (u.m.) #deck ager tetra (c .f.) -free (u.m.) #drive gatherer all one word teeter-totter #measure

194 Compounding Examples 179 latch with bred thanksgiving strap (c .f.) thermo -dried (u.m.) thatch-roofed (u .m.) thrombo (c .f.) all one word fare text all one word thick going -based through -blooded (u.m.) -made (u.m.) le #fi out head paced #mode put -looking (u.m.) pin theater #road pated thought goer way set (n., u.m.) -free (u.m.) going throw skinned -out (u.m.) thenceforth away (n., u.m.) skull (n.) -provoking (u.m.) (c .f.) theo back (n., u.m.) skulled thousand all one word -in (n., u.m.) -tongued (u.m.) fold theologico (c .f.) #line wit -headed (u.m.) all one word off (n., u.m.) -witted (u.m.) -legged (u.m.) there -on (n., u.m.) -wooded (u.m.) legs (worm) about(s) out (n., u.m.) -woven (u.m.) thrall above over (n., u.m.) thin born across -weight -clad (u.m.) dom er aft thrust-pound down (n., u.m.) -less against thumb set (u.m.) thread among #hole -voiced (u.m.) bare around -made (u.m.) thio (c .f.) -leaved (u.m.) at mark all one word worn away -marked (u.m.) third three before nail -class (u.m.) -bagger between print -degree (u.m.) -cornered (u.m.) by screw hand (adv., u.m.) -dimensional (u .m.) for stall #house fold fore string -rate (u.m.) -in-hand from sucker -rater -master in tack thistledown penny (nail) er inaft worn (c .f.) thoraco -piece (u.m.) inbefore thunder all one word -ply (u.m.) into bearer thorn score on blast back some over bolt bill -spot through clap -covered (u.m.) -square tofore cloud -set (u.m.) -striper under head -strewn (u.m.) throat until peal tail band unto shower thorough cutter upon storm -bind (v.)

195 180 Chapter 7 struck tiger #town -honored (u.m.) (c .f.) thymo eye tintblock (printing) keeper all one word #lily tip killer thyro (c .f.) #shark burn lag all one word -striped (u.m.) cart lock (c .f.) tibio tight -curled (u.m.) outs (n., u.m.) all one word -belted (u.m.) head piece tick sted fi -in (n., u.m.) pleaser #feed tting (u.m.) -fi most saver seed lipped off (n., u.m.) server tacktoe rope over (n., u.m.) sheet tick -set (u.m.) staff slip tock -tie (v.) stock slot ticket wad tank span #seller wire -tap -stamp (v.) -selling (u.m.) tile study toe #writer -clad (u.m.) table top tidal#wave #drain taker -up (u.m.) tiddlywink -red (u.m.) waster tire tide worn setter changer at fl tin works dresser head -bearing (u.m.) wright fi tter mark #can tilt #gauge -marked (u.m.) -capped (u.m.) hammer #iron race -clad (u.m.) rotor -mile table cup up (n.) #rack -tossed (u.m.) #fi sh (torpedo) timber shaper waiter foil -built (u.m.) some -worn (u.m.) horn head tit tie kettle -headed (u.m.) bit back (n.) -lined (u.m.) jack #for#tat #bar man line mouse #beam pan -propped (u.m.) titano (c .f.) down (n., u.m.) plate #wolf all one word -in (n., u.m.) -plated (u.m.) wright tithe -on (n., u.m.) pot time book -out (n., u.m.) -roofed (u.m.) bomb -free (u.m.) pin type born payer -plater -white (u.m.) card right #rod tinsel clerk title #tack -bright (u.m.) clock holder up (n., u.m.) -clad (u.m.) -consuming (u.m.) -holding (u.m.) (t r uck) tierlift -covered (u.m.) frame #page

196 Compounding Examples 181 gallant (n., u.m.) tter fi winner taker tom #grinder -winning (u.m.) -graft (v.) boy -grinding (u.m.) to hat cat head -and-fro -hatted (u.m.) foolery holding -do (n.) heavy -tom kit #wit kick tommy mark toad knot gun plate back liner rot post -bellied (u.m.) mark ton rack blind mast -hour setter sh fi milk -kilometer shed -green (u.m.) most -mile slide stool notch (nonliteral) -mileage stock tobacco rail -mile-day tooth #grower rope ache -growing (u.m.) tone sail #and#nail #shop -deaf (u.m.) -secret (u.m.) -billed (u.m.) toe down (n., u.m.) -shaped (u.m.) brush cap -producing (u.m.) side (naut.) drawer #dance up (n., u.m.) soil mark hold (c .f.) topo tongue -marked (u.m.) -in (n., u.m.) all one word -baited (u.m.) paste -mark (v.) topsy-turvy -bound (u.m.) pick nail torch -free (u.m.) plate plate bearer -lash (v.) powder print #holder #lashing puller toil lighted play -pulling (u.m.) -beaten (u.m.) lit -shaped (u.m.) -set (u.m.) some torpedo shot -shaped (u.m.) -stained (u.m.) sore #boat some -weary (u.m.) tack #room wash worn tied torquemeter top toilet#room tip toss #brass toll #twister pot cap (n.) bar -twisting (u.m.) up (n., u.m.) coat #bridge tool touch #and#go cutter #call bag back (n., u.m.) #dog gate #belt down (n., u.m.) -drain (v.) gatherer box hole #drawer house builder -me-not (n., u.m.) dress (v.) #line #chest pan ight (u.m.) fl payer crib reader full dresser road

197 182 Chapter 7 top tram (c .f.) tracheo stone -borne (u.m.) all one word #trunk up (n., u.m.) car (c .f.) trachy trellis-covered tough all one word rail (u .m.) -headed (u.m.) track road trench -looking (u.m.) barrow way back -skinned (u.m.) hound trans (pref.) coat tow layer away alpine foot mark boat atlantic #knife -mile head -Canadian, etc. mouth side pacifi c line #plow walker uranic mast -plowed (u.m.) tractor-trailer rest one word #net tri (c .f.) trade transit#time -netter -iodide #board trap path -ply (u.m.) -in (n., u.m.) door rope state, etc. -laden (u.m.) fall #truck rest one word -made (u.m.) shoot tower tribespeople mark trashrack -high (u.m.) (c .f.) tribo #name travel -shaped (u.m.) all one word off -bent (u.m.) town (c .f.) tricho #union time -bred (u.m.) all one word #wind -tired (u.m.) #clerk trim tradespeople -worn (u.m.) #crier -cut (u.m.) traffi c-mile trawlnet -dotted (u.m.) -dressed (u.m.) tragico (c .f.) tread folk -looking (u.m.) all one word mill gate trinitro (c .f.) trail wheel going all one word blazer treasure hall trip breaker -fi lled (u.m.) lot -free (u.m.) -marked (u.m.) #house ship hammer side -laden (u.m.) side wire sight treaty site triple -weary (u.m.) breaker talk -acting (u.m.) train -sealed (u.m.) -weary (u.m.) back (sofa) bearer tree towns branched (u.m.) bolt #belt fellow -edged (u.m.) crew -clad (u.m.) people fold line #line toy #play -mile -lined (u.m.) #dog -tailed (u.m.) shed nail -sized (u.m.) tree (n.) sick -ripe (u.m.) scape trolley#line stop town

198 Compounding Examples 183 turner-off #trot seeker troop turtle (c .f.) Tu r k o -seeking (u.m.) ship back -Greek, etc. teller #train dove rest one word try (c .f.) tropho -footed (u.m.) turn -on (n., u.m.) all one word neck (u.m.) about (n., u.m.) out (n., u.m.) (c .f.) tropo #shell about-face square all one word twelve again (n., u.m.) works trouble fold around (n., u.m.) tube -free (u.m.) penny (nail) back (n., u.m.) -eyed (u.m.) -haunted (u.m.) score buckle -fed (u.m.) maker twenty cap head shooter -fi rst coat -nosed (u.m.) some fold cock works truce -one down (n., u.m.) tuberculo (c .f.) breaker twice gate all one word -seeking (u.m.) -born (u.m.) -in (n., u.m.) tubo (c .f.) truck -reviewed (u.m.) key -ovarian driver -told (u.m.) off (n., u.m.) rest one word #farm twin out (n., u.m.) tug -mile #boat over (n., u.m.) boat stop born pike #of#war true -engined (u.m.) pin tumbledown (n., -aimed (u.m.) fold plate u.m.) -blue (u.m.) -jet (u.m.) round (n., u.m.) tune born -motor (u.m.) screw out (n., u.m.) bred -screw (u.m.) sheet up (n., u.m.) -eyed (u.m.) two sole tunnel -false -a-day (u.m.) spit -boring (u.m.) love (n., u.m.) -along (n.) stile -shaped (u.m.) penny (n.) (bookbinding) stitch vision #time -decker table turbo (c .f.) trunk -faced (u.m.) tail -ramjet (u.m.) back fold -to (n.) rest one word nose -handed (u.m.) under (n., u.m.) turf trust penny (nail) up (n., u.m.) -built (u.m.) breaking -piece (u.m.) turned -clad (u.m.) buster -ply (u.m.) -back (u.m.) -covered (u.m.) -controlled (u.m.) score -down (u.m.) #war -ridden (u.m.) -seater -in (u.m.) turkey worthy some -on (u.m.) back truth -spot -out (u.m.) #buzzard lled (u.m.) -fi -step (dance) -over (u.m.) #gobbler lover

199 184 Chapter 7 -ionized (u.m.) -striper river -curve self-conscious -suiter stairs -engine sent-for (u.m.) -up (n., u.m.) state -neck thought-of (u.m.) -way (u.m.) stream -shaped rest one word -wheeler swing -type under tympano (c .f.) take vacant age (defi cit) all one word tight (n., u.m.) -eyed (u.m.) age (younger) type #tight (v.) -looking (u.m.) (n., u.m.) case -to-date (u.m.) -minded (u.m.) #cultivation cast #to#date vagino (c .f.) (t i l lage) cutter town all one word cultivation face trend vainglorious (insuffi cient) foundry turn valve #secretary script wind -grinding (u.m.) -secretaryship set upper -in-head (u.m.) way write (v.) case (printing) van as prefi x, one (c .f.) typho #class driver word all one word classman guard (c .f.) uni (c .f.) typo crust (n., u.m.) pool -univalent all one word cut vapor rest one word (c .f.) tyro #deck lled (u.m.) -fi union all one word most -heating (u.m.) -made (u.m.) (c .f.) urano #lock U #shop all one word vase-shaped (u.m.) U unit-set (u.m.) (c .f.) uretero vaso (c .f.) -boat up all one word all one word -cut -anchor (u.m., v.) (c .f.) urethro vegeto (c .f.) -magnet -and-coming all one word all one word -rail (u .m.) uro (c .f.) vein -shaped #and#up all one word -mining (u.m.) -tube beat used-car (u.m.) -streaked (u.m.) ultra (pref.) coast user vellum -ambitious, country #default -bound (u.m.) -atomic, etc. dip ned -defi -covered (u.m.) -English, etc. end (v.) -friendly velvet high#frequency front (n., u.m.) #group -crimson (u.m.) -high-speed (u.m.) grade #interface -draped (u.m.) #valorem, etc. gradient utero (c .f.) -green (u.m.) rest one word keep all one word -pile (u.m.) un (pref.) lift V venthole -American, etc. load (c .f.) ventri V called-for (u.m.) -over (u.m.) heard-of (u.m.) rate -connection all one word

200 Compounding Examples 185 ventro ower (c .f.) vinegar vow fl -like -bound (u.m.) all one word -fl avored (u.m.) -painting (u.m.) breaker vertebro (c .f.) -hearted (u.m.) paper -pledged (u.m.) all one word -making (u.m.) plate (c .f.) vulvo (c .f.) vesico -tart (u.m.) -sided (u.m.) all one word all one word violet walled (c .f.) vibro -blue (u.m.)` W -in (u.m.) all one word -colored (u.m.) -up (u.m.) W vice -eared (u.m.) war -engine #admiral #ray #dance -shaped -admiralty -rayed (u.m.) -disabled (u.m.) -surface #consul #water -famed (u.m.) -type -consulate violin-shaped (u.m.) fare wage #governor vis-a-vis head #earner -governorship viscero (c .f.) horse (nonliteral) -earning (u.m.) #minister all one word like #scale -ministry (c .f.) vitreo monger worker -presidency all one word waist -made (u.m.) #president vitro (c .f.) band path -president-elect -clarain belt plane -presidential -di-trina cloth ship #rector rest one word coat -swept (u.m.) -rectorship vivi (c .f.) -deep (u.m.) #time (clock) regal all one word -high (u.m.) time (duration) -regency voice line ward #regent -capable waiting heeler royal #mail #list robe #squad over (n.) #man ship #versa volleyball #room warm #warden volt #woman blooded videotape ammeter walk -clad (u.m.) Vietcong -ampere around (n., u.m.) up (n., u.m.) view -coulomb away (n., u.m.) warmed-over (u.m.) fi nder meter -on (n., u.m.) warpsetter point ohmmeter out (n., u.m.) wash vile-natured (u.m.) -second over (n., u.m.) basin vine (c .f.) volta up (n., u.m.) basket -clad (u.m.) all one word way board -covered (u.m.) vote walkie-talkie bowl dresser -casting (u.m.) wall cloth growing getter board -colored (u.m.) day stalk -getting (u.m.) eyed

201 186 Chapter 7 down (n., u.m.) -colored (u.m.) fellow -soak (v.) -in (n., u.m.) -cool (v.) going -soaked (u.m.) off (n., u.m.) -cooled (u.m.) laid -soluble (u.m.) out (n., u.m.) #cooler lay spout pot course mark stain rag craft post #table #sale dog side tight stand -drinking (u.m.) -sore (u.m.) wall tray drop -up (n., u.m.) works trough fall worn worn tub lled (u.m.) -fi weak watt up (n., u.m.) -backed (u.m.) fi nder -hour washed -eyed (u.m.) fl ood meter -out (u.m.) handed fl ow -second -up (u.m.) -kneed (u.m.) fog wave waste minded -free (u.m.) -cut (u.m.) basket mouthed front form land weather gate guide leaf beaten head -lashed (u.m.) (bookbinding) blown length hole paper -borne (u.m.) mark horse site break meter -inch word cock -moist (u.m.) -laden (u.m.) watch glass -on (n., u.m.) lane going band (n., u.m.) off leaf -hardened (u.m.) case -swept (u.m.) #line #house #chain -worn (u.m.) -lined (u.m.) -marked (u.m.) cry wax locked most dog bill log ng proofi -free (u.m.) -billed (u.m.) #main -stain (v.) glass chandler mark strip tower cloth melon -stripped (u.m.) water -coated (u.m.) meter worn bag -headed (u.m.) plant web bank #paper pot ngered (u.m.) -fi bearer #stone power foot -bearing (u.m.) -yellow (u.m.) proofi ng -footed (u.m.) -beaten (u.m.) way quake master -bind (v.) back (n., u.m.) -rot (v.) #press #blister beam scape Web #site bloom bill shed wedge buck down (n., u.m.) shoot -billed (u.m.) color farer side

202 187 Compounding Examples hand as -shaped (u.m.) -set-up (u.m.) head weed -settled (u.m.) at side -choked (u.m.) side by what -hidden (u.m.) -spoken (u.m.) for abouts (n.) hook spring fore ever killer stead from -is-it (n.) week -thought-of (u.m.) in not (n.) day -thought-out insoever soever end (u .m.) into -you-may-call-it -ender -to-do (u.m.) of (n.) -ending (u.m.) -wisher on wheat long (u.m.) -wishing (u.m.) over cake -old (u.m.) -worn (u.m.) soever -colored (u.m.) weigh welterweight through ear bridge werewolf to -fed (u.m.) -in (n., u.m.) west under eld fi lock bound upon grower out (n., u.m.) -central (u.m.) with -rich (u.m.) shaft #end withal stalk -faced (u.m.) well wherever wheel going -being (n.) which band most -beloved (u.m.) ever barrow -northwest -born (u.m.) soever base #side -bound (u.m.) etree whiffl chair -sider -bred (u.m.) whip -cut (u.m.) wet -clad (u.m.) cord going #bar -deserving (u.m.) crack horse (nonliteral) -cheeked (u.m.) -doer -graft (v.) #load -clean (v.) -doing (n., u.m.) #hand -made (u.m.) land -drained (u.m.) lash plate -nurse (v.) -drilling (u.m.) -marked (u.m.) race pack eld #fi post spin wash -grown (u.m.) saw stitch whale head -shaped (u.m.) -worn (u.m.) back -headed (u.m.) socket wright -backed (u.m.) hole staff when bone -informed (u.m.) stalk ever -built (u.m.) -known (u.m.) stall -issued (u.m.) -headed (u.m.) -looking (u.m.) stick soever -mouthed (u.m.) -meaner stitch ship where -nigh (u.m.) stock wharf abouts (u .m.) -off #boat aft er -read (u.m.) -tailed (u.m.)

203 188 Chapter 7 sleeve #man -tailed (u.m.) whipper sock wind -in -throated (u.m.) speed will snapper top (n.) stop -less whirl vein storm -o’-the-wisp about (n., u.m.) wash stream power blast who swept wilt-resistant (u.m.) pool ever #tunnel wind (v.) -shaped (u.m.) soever worn down (n., u.m.) wind whole window up (n., u.m.) whirlybird -headed (u.m.) breaker bag whisk #hog -breaking (u.m.) ball broom -hogger #cleaner blown #tail sale -cleaning (u.m.) brace whistle some #dresser breaker blower whomsoever -dressing (u.m.) burn (nonlitera l) whooping#cough wicker-woven (u.m.) pane catcher #blower (literal) wicket peeper -chapped (u.m.) stop keeper #shade chill white keeping -shop (v.) fall back wide -shopping (u.m.) fast beard (n.) -angle (u.m.) sill -fertilized (u.m.) #book -awake (u.m.) #work fi rm (d iplomat ic) -handed (u.m.) wine fl ow cap (n.) mouthed bag #force coat (n.) -open (u.m.) -black (u.m.) gall -collar (u.m.) spread -drinking (u.m.) -galled (u.m.) comb (n.) -spreading (u.m.) glass #gauge corn widow growing hole -eared (u.m.) #bird -hardy (u.m.) -hungry (u.m.) -eyed (u.m.) hood pot jammer face wife #press lass -faced (u.m.) beater -red (u.m.) mill foot (n.) hood seller pipe -footed (u.m.) killer taster -pollinated (u.m.) handed -ridden (u.m.) tester -rode (u.m.) -hard (u.m.) wigwag vat row head wild wing screen -headed (u.m.) cat (n.) band -shaken (u.m.) -hot (u.m.) -eyed (u.m.) bar -shear (u.m.) #line re fi beat shield out (u.m., v.) #land bolt shock pot bone side life tail

204 Compounding Examples 189 -turning (u.m.) hound hair (dog) borne -walled (u.m.) pack -haired (u.m.) bow wind (music) woman less cut working (u.m.) folk #line ap #fl wooden hood photo -footed (u.m.) head (n.) kind puller handed -hulled (u.m.) womenfolk #rope -heavy (u.m.) wool wonder spun -loading (u.m.) fell land stitch -loose (u.m.) gatherer strong -stitched (u.m.) nut grader -struck (u.m.) -tailed (u.m.) over (n., u.m.) growing wood tap -shaped (u.m.) head bark (color) walker -shot (u.m.) -laden (u.m.) bin works span -lined (u.m.) bined -wound (u.m.) -swift (u .m.) pack block wise tip press -built (u.m.) acre top shearer -cased (u.m.) crack wall shed chipper guy -weary (u.m.) sorter chopper head (n.) winter stock chuck -headed (u.m.) -beaten (u.m.) washer craft -spoken (u.m.) -clad (u.m.) wheel cut wishbone -fallow (v.) -white (u.m.) grub witch -fed (u.m.) winder hole craft feed woolly horse #hazel #green (color) -coated (u.m.) hung (u.m.) #hunt green (plant, etc.) -headed (u.m.) land -hunting (u.m.) -hardy (u.m.) -looking (u.m.) -lined (u.m.) with kill -white (u.m.) lot draw -made (u.m.) word -paneled (u.m.) hold -sown (u.m.) -blind (u.m.) pecker in tide book pile out time builder -planing (u.m.) stand -worn (u.m.) catcher print within wire -clad (u.m.) pulp -bound (u.m.) bar -deaf (u.m.) ranger -named (u.m.) -caged (u.m.) ow fl rock woe -cut (u.m.) jobber #rot begone cutter list shed worn dancer -perfect (u.m.) side wolf draw (v.) play stock -eyed (u.m.) -edged (u.m.) seller turner sh #fi #gauge

205 190 Chapter 7 -chromosome -up (n., u.m.) station smith -disease wreath-crowned stream work #rated (u .m.) study aday (n., u.m.) -shaped wreck-free (u.m.) table -and-turn (u.m.) -virus wring time away (n., u.m.) x bolt up (n., u.m.) bag -axis staff ways basket #ray (n.) wrist -weary (u.m.) bench -ray (u.m.) band week book xantho (c .f.) bone worn card all one word drop working day (c .f.) xeno fall #capital -driven (u.m.) all one word lock #load fare (c .f.) xero #pin #room ow fl all one word plate world folk xylo (c .f.) watch beater force all one word write -conscious (u.m.) group back (n., u.m.) #consciousness hand Y -in (n., u.m.) #line -hardened (u.m.) Y off (n., u.m.) #power horse -chromosome -protect -shaking (u.m.) -hour (u.m.) -joint up (n., u.m.) -weary (u.m.) housed -level writing#room worm life -potential wrong -eaten (u.m.) load -shaped doer -eating (u.m.) manship -track -ended (u.m.) hole out (n., u.m.) -tube -minded (u.m.) -riddled (u.m.) pace Ya n k e e -D o o d le -thinking (u.m.) -ripe (u.m.) pan yard wrought seed paper arm #iron shaft people -deep (u.m.) -up (u.m.) wood place -long (u.m.) wry worn room stick bill #away saving -wide (u.m.) -billed (u.m.) down (u.m.) sheet yaw -faced (u.m.) out (u.m.) shoe meter -looking (u.m.) outness shop -sighted (u.m.) -mouthed (u.m.) worrywart -shy (n., u.m.) year neck worth -shyness book -set (u.m.) less site day while (n., u.m.) slip X end whileness (n.) space -hour (u.m.) X wrap -stained (u.m.) long (u.m.) -body around (n., u.m.) stand

206 191 Compounding Examples zip youthtide -no -old (u.m.) #gun yuletide yester -round (u.m.) line day yellow Z -lipped (u.m.) year back Z lock yoke -backed (u.m.) -bar zoo (c .f.) fellow -bellied (u.m.) zero all one word mating belly axial (c .f.) zoologico -toed (u.m.) -billed (u.m.) -dimensional all one word young brush (u .m.) zygo (c .f.) eyed (u.m.) #fever gravity all one word -headed (u.m.) -headed (u.m.) #hour zygomatico (c .f.) -ladylike -tailed (u.m.) zigzag -orbital -looking (u.m.) -throated (u.m.) zinc rest one word -manlike top -coated (u.m.) zymo (c .f.) -old yes -white (u.m.) all one word -womanhood -man


208 8. Punctuation 8.1. Punctuation is used to clarify the meaning of written or printed language. Well-planned word order requires a minimum of punc- tuation. Th e trend toward less punctuation calls for skillful phrasing to avoid ambiguity and to ensure exact interpretation. Th e GPO Style Manual can off er only general rules of text treatment. A rigid design or pattern of punctuation cannot be laid down, except in broad terms. Th e adopted style, however, must be consistent and based on sentence structure. Th e general principles governing the use of punctuation are: If it 8.2. does not clarify the text it should be omitted; and, in the choice and placing of punctuation marks, the sole aim should be to bring out more clearly the author’s thought. Punctuation should aid reading and prevent misreading. Apostrophes and possessives Th e possessive case of a singular or plural noun not ending in s 8.3. is formed by adding an apostrophe and s . Th e possessive case of a sin- gular or plural noun ending in s or with an s sound is formed by adding an apostrophe only. Some irregular plurals require both an apostrophe and an . (For possessives of italicized nouns, see rule s 11.6.) boss’, bosses’ man’s, men’s child’s, children’s medium’s, media’s people’s, peoples’ citizen’s, citizens’ Essex’s, Essexes’ Congress’, Congresses’ criterion’s, criteria’s Jones’, Joneses’ Co.’s, Cos.’ Jesus’ erratum’s, errata’s Mars’ hostess’, hostesses’ Dumas’ lady’s, ladies’ Schmitz’ 8.4. In compound nouns, the ’ s is added to the element nearest the object possessed. comptroller general’s decision attorney at law’s fee attorneys general’s appointments John White, Jr.’s (no comma) account Mr. Brown of New York’s motion 193

209 194 Chapter 8 8.5. Joint possession is indicated by placing an apostrophe on the last el- ement of a series, while individual or alternative possession requires the use of an apostrophe on each element of a series. editor’s or proofreader’s opinion soldiers and sailors’ home Clinton’s or Bush’s administration Brown & Nelson’s store Mrs. Smith’s and Mrs. Allen’s children men’s, women’s, and children’s clothing the Army’s and the Navy’s work master’s and doctor’s degrees St. Michael’s Men’s Club 8.6. In the use of an apostrophe in fi rm names, the names of organiza- tions and institutions, the titles of books, and geographic names, the authentic form is to be followed. (Note use of “St.”) Johns Hopkins University Masters, Mates & Pilots’ Association Hinds’ Precedents Dentists’ Supply Co. of New York Harpers Ferry International Ladies’ Garment Hells Canyon Workers’ Un ion Reader’s Digest Court of St. James’s Actor’s Equity Association St. Peter’s Church but Martha’s Vineyard St. Elizabeths Hospital er names of coun- Generally, the apostrophe should not be used aft 8.7. tries and other organized bodies ending in s , or aft er words more descriptive than possessive (not indicating personal possession), . s except when plural does not end in teachers college United States control merchants exchange United Nations meeting children’s hospital Southern States industries Young Men’s Christian Association Massachusetts laws Bureau of Ships report but House of Representatives session Veterans’ Administration Te a m s t e r s Un i o n (now Department of Veterans editors handbook airs) Aff syrup producers manual Congress’ attitude technicians guide 8.8. Possessive pronouns do not take an apostrophe. its yours ours hers theirs whose c h a p t e r 8 . i n 11/13/08 3:14:19 PM d 1 9 4 chapter8.indd 194 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 4 : 1 9 P M d

210 Punctuation 195 8.9. Possessive indefi nite or impersonal pronouns require an apostrophe. each other’s books another’s idea someone’s guesstimate some others’ plans one’s home is his castle 8.10. e singular possessive case is used in such general terms as the Th following: arm’s length fuller’s earth attorney’s fees miner’s inch printer’s ink author’s alterations confectioner’s sugar traveler’s checks cow’s milk writer’s cramp distiller’s grain 8.11. While an apostrophe is used to indicate possession and contrac- tions, it is not generally necessary to use an apostrophe simply to show the plural form of most acronyms, initialisms, or abbrevia- tions, except where clarity and sense demand such inclusion. e’er (ever) 49ers class of ’08 (2008) TVers spirit of ’76 (1776) OKs MCing not in her ’70s (age) RIFing better: in her seventies RIFs RIFed during the ’90s not YWCAs better: during the 1990s or ABCs during the twenties 1920s IOUs but 10s (thread) he never crosses his t’s 4½ s (bonds) she fails to dot her i’s 3s (golf ) a’s, &’s, 7’s 2 by 4s watch your p’s and q’s IQs are they l’s or 1’s don’t (do not) the Oakland A’s I’ve (I have) a number of s’s it’s (it is/it has) his résumé had too many I’s ne’er (never)

211 196 Chapter 8 When the plural form of an acronym appears in parentheses, a s is included within the parentheses. lower case (MPDs) (IPOs) (MP3s) (SU Vs) (JPEGs) 8.12. Th e apostrophe is omitted in abbreviations, and also in shortened forms of certain other words. Dan’l Halloween, not Hallowe’en Danl., not ’phone copter, not ’c opt e r not phone, coon, not ’c o on not ’possum but ma’am possum, 8.13. Th e plural of spelled-out numbers, of words referred to as words, s or ; and of words containing an apostrophe is formed by adding es is added to indicate the plural of words used as words if omis- s but ’ culty in reading. sion of the apostrophe would cause diffi twos, threes, sevens yeses and noes ands, ifs, and buts yeas and nays ins and outs but the haves and have-nots ups and downs do’s and don’ts which’s and that’s whereases and wherefores pros and cons 8.14. Th e possessive case is oft en used in lieu of an objective phrase even though ownership is not involved. 1 day’s labor (labor for 1 day) for charity’s sake 12 days’ labor for pity’s sake 2 hours’ traveltime several billion dollars’ worth a stone’s throw but $10 billion worth 2 weeks’ pay 8.15. Th e possessive case is not used in such expressions as the following, es another. in which one noun modifi day labor (labor by the day) State prison quartermaster stores State rights c h a p t e r 8 11/13/08 3:14:19 PM i n d d 1 9 6 chapter8.indd 196 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 4 : 1 9 P M .

212 Punctuation 197 8.16. For euphony, nouns ending in s or ce and followed by a word begin- s ning with form the possessive by adding an apostrophe only. for goodness’ sake for acquaintance’ sake Mr. Hughes’ service for conscience’ sake for old times’ sake 8.17. A possessive noun used in an adjective sense requires the addition ’s of . Stern’s is running a sale. He is a friend of John’s. 8.18. A noun preceding a gerund should be in the possessive case. the ship’s hovering nearby in the event of Mary’s leaving Brackets Brackets, in pairs, are used— 8.19. In transcripts, congressional hearings, the Congressional Record, testimony in courtwork, etc., to enclose interpolations that are not specifi cally a part of the original quotation, such as a correction, explanation, omission, editorial comment, or a caution that an error is reproduced literally. ce [GPO]. We found this to be true at the Government Printing Offi He came on the 3d [2d] of July. Our conference [lasted] 2 hours. Th e general [Washington] ordered him to leave. Th e paper was as follows [reads]: I do not know. [Continues reading:] [Chorus of “Mr. Chairman.”] Th ey fooled only themselves. [Laughter.] Our party will always serve the people [applause] in spite of the opposition [loud applause]. (If more than one bracketed interpolation, both are in- cluded within the sentence.) Th e Witness. He did it that way [indicating]. Q. Do you know these men [handing witness a list]? not been paid. [Italic added.] or [Emphasis added.] Th e bill had Th e statue [sic] was on the statute books. Th e Witness. Th is matter is classifi ed. [Deleted.] [Deleted.] Mr. Jones. Hold up your hands. [Show of hands.] Answer [aft er examining list]. Yes; I do. Q. [Continuing.] A. [Reads:]

213 198 Chapter 8 A. [Interrupting.] the record.] [Discussion off [Pause.] Th e Witness [interrupting]. It is known—— Mr. Jones [continuing]. Now let us take the next item. Mr. Smith [presiding]. Do you mean that literally? Mr. Jones [interposing]. Absolutely. [Th e matter referred to is as follows:] Th e Chairman [to Mr. Smith]. Th e Chairman [reading]: Mr. Kelley [to the chairman]. From 15 to 25 percent. [Objected to.] [Mr. Smith nods.] [Mr. Smith aside.] [Mr. Smith makes further statement off the record.] Mr. Jones [for Mr. Smith]. A Voice From Audience. Speak up. Several Voices. Quiet! 8.20. In bills, contracts, laws, etc., to indicate matter that is to be omitted. 8.21. In mathematics, to denote that enclosed matter is to be treated as a unit. 8.22. When matter in brackets makes more than one paragraph, start each paragraph with a bracket and place the closing bracket at end of last paragraph. Colon e colon is used— Th 8.23. Before a fi nal clause that extends or amplifi es preceding matter. Give up conveniences; do not demand special privileges; do not stop work: these are necessary while we are at war. Railroading is not a variety of outdoor sport: it is service. 8.24. To introduce formally any matter that forms a complete sentence, question, or quotation. Th e following question came up for discussion: What policy should be adopted? She said: “I believe the time is now or never.” [When a direct quotation follows that has more than a few words.] c h a p t e r 8 . i n d d 1 11/13/08 3:14:20 PM 8 chapter8.indd 198 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 4 : 2 0 P M 9

214 Punctuation 199 Th ere are three factors, as follows: First, military preparation; second, indus- trial mobilization; and third, manpower. 8.25. Aft er a salutation. My Dear Sir: Ladies and Gentlemen: To Whom It May Concern: 8.26. In expressing clock time. 2:40 p.m. 8.27. Aft er introductory lines in lists, tables, and leaderwork, if subentries follow. Seward Peninsula: Council district: Northern Light Mining Co. Wild Goose Trading Co. Fairhaven district: Alaska Dredging Association (single subitem runs in). Seward Peninsula: Council district (single subitem runs in): Northern Light Mining Co. Wild Goose Trading Co. 8.28. In Biblical and other citations. Luke 4:3. I Corinthians 13:13. Journal of Education 3:342–358. 8.29. In bibliographic references, between place of publication and name of publisher. Congressional Directory. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Offi ce. 8.30. To separate book titles and subtitles. Financial Aid for College Students: Graduate Germany Revisited: Education in the Federal Republic 8.31. In imprints before the year (en space each side of colon). U.S. Government Printing Offi ce Wa sh i ng ton : 20 0 8 8.32. In proportions. Concrete mixed 5:3:1 but 5–2–1 or 5-2-1 (when so in copy) c h a p t e r 8 . i n d d 11/13/08 3:14:20 PM 9 9 chapter8.indd 199 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 4 : 2 0 P M 1

215 200 Chapter 8 8.33. In double colon as ratio sign. 1:2::3:6 Comma Th e comma is used— gures that might otherwise be To separate two words or fi 8.34. misunderstood. Instead of hundreds, thousands came. Instead of 20, 50 came. December 7, 1941. In 2003, 400 men were dismissed. To John, Smith was very kind. What the diffi culty is, is not known. but He suggested that that committee be appointed. 8.35. Before a direct quotation of only a few words following an introduc- tory phrase. He said, “Now or never.” 8.36. To indicate the omission of a word or words. Th en we had much; now, nothing. 8.37. Aft er each of a series of coordinate qualifying words. streams; but short tributary streams short, swift 8.38. Between an introductory modifying phrase and the subject modifi ed. Beset by the enemy, they retreated. 8.39. er Jr., Sr., Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S., Inc., etc., within a sen- Before and aft tence except where possession is indicated. Henry Smith, Jr., chairman but Peter Johns, F.R.S., London John Smith 2d ( II); Smith, John, II or Mr. Smith, Junior, also spoke Washington, DC, schools Motorola, Inc., factory (where only last name is used) Brown, A.H., Jr. ( not Brown, Jr., A.H.) Alexandria, VA’s waterfront c h a p t e r 8 . i n d d 11/13/08 3:14:20 PM 2 0 0 chapter8.indd 200 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 4 : 2 0 P M

216 Punctuation 201 8.40. To set off parenthetic words, phrases, or clauses. erson, who was then Secretary of State, favored the location of the Mr. Jeff National Capital at Washington. It must be remembered, however, that the Government had no guarantee. ce cannot function. It is obvious, therefore, that this offi Th e atom bomb, which was developed at the Manhattan project, was fi rst used in World War II. eir high morale might, he suggested, have caused them to put success of Th the team above the reputation of the college. Th e restriction is laid down in title IX, chapter 8, section 15, of the code. Th e man who fell [restrictive clause] broke his back. but e dam that gave way [restrictive clause] was poorly constructed. Th He therefore gave up the search. 8.41. words or phrases in apposition or in contrast. To set off Mr. Green, the lawyer, spoke for the defense. Mr. Jones, attorney for the plaintiff , signed the petition. Mr. Smith, not Mr. Black, was elected. James Roosevelt, Democrat, of California. Jean’s sister, Joyce, was the eldest. (Jean had one sister.) but Jonathan’s brother Moses Taylor was appointed. (Jonathan had more than one brother.) 8.42. Aft er each member within a series of three or more words, phrases, letters, or fi gures used with and, or, or nor . red, white, and blue horses, mules, and cattle; horses and mules and cattle but by the bolt, by the yard, or in remnants a, b, and c neither snow, rain, nor heat 2 days, 3 hours, and 4 minutes (series); but 70 years 11 months 6 days (age) 8.43. Before the conjunction in a compound sentence containing two or more independent clauses, each of which could have been written as a simple sentence. Fish, mollusks, and crustaceans were plentiful in the lakes, and turtles fre- quented the shores. Th e boy went home alone, and his sister remained with the crowd. c h a p t e r 8 . i n 11/13/08 3:14:20 PM d 2 0 1 chapter8.indd 201 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 4 : 2 0 P M d

217 202 Chapter 8 Aft er a noun or phrase in direct address. 8.44. Senator, will the measure be defeated? Mr. Chairman, I will reply to the gentleman later. but Yes, sir; he did see it. No, ma’am; I do not recall. 8.45. er an interrogative clause, followed by a direct question. Aft You are sure, are you not? You will go, will you not? 8.46. Between the title of a person and the name of an organization in the of of the . absence of the words or colonel, 12th Cavalry Regiment Chief, Division of Finance president, University of Virginia chairman, Committee on Appropriations 8.47. Inside closing quotation mark. He said “four,” not “fi ve.” “Freedom is an inherent right,” he insisted. Items marked “A,” “B,” and “C,” inclusive, were listed. 8.48. gures. To separate thousands and millions in numerical fi 4,230 but 1,000,000,000 is more clearly 50,491 illustrated as 1 billion 1,250,000 8.49. Aft er the year in complete dates (month, day, year) within a sentence. Th e dates of September 11, 1993, to June 12, 1994, were erroneous. Th ected in the June 13, 2007, report. is was refl but Production for June 2008 was normal. Th e 10 February 2008 deadline passed. Th e comma is omitted— 8.50. Between superior fi gures or letters in footnote references. 1 2 Numerous instances may be cited. a b Data are based on October production.

218 Punctuation 203 Before ZIP (Zone Improvement Plan) Code postal-delivery 8.51. number. Government Printing Offi ce, Washington, DC 20401–0003 East Rochester, OH 44625–9701 8.52. Between month, holiday, or season and year in dates. 150 B.C. June 2008 Labor Day 2006 22d of May 2008 Easter Sunday 2006 February and March 2008 5 January 2006 (military usage) January, February, and March 2008 spring 2007 January 24 A.D. 2008; 15th of June autumn 2007 A.D. 2008 8.53. Between the name and number of an organization. Columbia Typographical Union No. 101–12 American Legion Post No. 33 8.54. In fractions, in decimals, and in serial numbers, except patent numbers. ½ 500 1.0947 page 2632 202–275–2303 (telephone number) 1721–1727 St. Clair Avenue Executive Order 11242 motor No. 189463 1450 kilocycles; 1100 meters 8.55. Between two nouns one of which identifi es the other. Th e Children’s Bureau’s booklet “Infant Care” continues to be a bestseller. 8.56. Before an ampersand (&). Brown, Wilson & Co. Mine, Mill & Smelter Workers 8.57. Before abbreviations of compass directions. 6430 Princeton Dr. SW. 8.58. In bibliographies, between name of the publication and volume or similar number. American Library Association Bulletin 34:238, April 1940. 11/13/08 3:14:20 PM h a p t e r 8 . i n d d 2 0 3 chapter8.indd 203 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 4 : 2 0 P M c

219 204 Chapter 8 Wherever possible without danger of ambiguity. 8.59. $2 gold Executive Order No. 21 General Order No. 12; General Orders, No. 12 but Public Law 85–1 He graduates in the year 2010 (not the year 2,010) My age is 30 years 6 months 12 days. or II) John Lewis 2d ( Murphy of Illinois; Murphy of New York (where only last name is used) ed with place); Carroll of Carrollton; Henry of Navarre (person closely identifi but Clyde Leo Downs, of Maryland; President Levin, of Yale University James Bros. et al.; but James Bros., Nelson Co., et al. (last element of series) Dash A 1-em dash is used— To mark a sudden break or abrupt change in thought. 8.60. He said—and no one contradicted him—“Th e battle is lost.” If the bill should pass—which God forbid!—the service will be wrecked. Th e auditor—shall we call him a knave or a fool?—approved an inaccurate statement. 8.61. To indicate an interruption or an unfi nished word or sentence. A 2-em dash is used when the interruption is by a person other than the speaker, and a 1-em dash will show self-interruption. Note that extracts must begin with a true paragraph. Following extracts, col- loquy must start as a paragraph. “Such an idea can scarcely be——” “Th e word ‘donation’——” “Th e word ‘dona’——” He said: “Give me lib——” Th e bill reads “repeal,” not “am——” Q. Did you see—— A. No, sir. Mr. Brown [reading]: “Th e report goes on to say that”—Observe this closely—“during the fi scal year * * *.” 8.62. Instead of commas or parentheses if the meaning may thus be clarifi ed. Th ese are shore deposits—gravel, sand, and clay—but marine sediments underlie them.

220 Punctuation 205 8.63. Before a fi nal clause that summarizes a series of ideas. Freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, freedom from fear—these are the fundamentals of moral world order. 8.64. Aft er an introductory phrase reading into the following lines and indicating repetition of such phrase. I recommend— Th at we submit them for review and corrections; Th at we then accept them as corrected; and Th at we also publish them. 8.65. With a preceding question mark, in lieu of a colon. How can you explain this?—“Fee paid, $5.” 8.66. To precede a credit line or a run-in credit or signature. Lay the proud usurpers low! Tyrants fall in every foe! Liberty’s in every blow! Let us do or die! —Robert Burns. Every man’s work shall be made manifest.—I Corinthians 3:13. Th is statement is open to question.—Gerald H. Forsythe. 8.67. Aft er a run-in sidehead. 8.68. To separate run-in questions and answers in testimony. Q. Did he go?—A. No. A 1-em dash is not used— 8.69. At the beginning of any line of type, except as shown in rule 8.66. 8.70. Immediately aft er a comma, colon, or semicolon. A 3-em dash is used— 8.71. In bibliographies to indicate repetition. Powell, James W., Jr., Hunting in Virginia’s lowlands. 1972. 200 pp. ——— Fishing off Delmarva. 1972. 28 pp. c h a p t e r 8 . i n d d 2 0 11/13/08 3:14:20 PM chapter8.indd 205 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 4 : 2 0 P M 5

221 206 Chapter 8 An en dash is used— In a combination of (1) fi gures and 8.72. gures, (2) capital letters, or (3) fi capital letters. An en dash, not a hyphen, is used, even when such ers. terms are adjectival modifi fi gures: 5–20 (bonds) 85–1—85–20 (Public laws. Note em dash between two elements with en dashes) 1–703–765–6593 (telephone number) 230–20–8030 (Social Security number) $15–$25 (range) capital letters: WTOP–AM–FM–TV (radio and television stations) CBS–TV AFL–CIO (union merger) C–SPAN (satellite television) fi gures and capitals: 6–A (exhibit identifi cation) DC–14 (airplane) I–95 (interstate roadway) 4–H (Club) LK–66–A(2)–74 (serial number) but Rule 13e–4 section 12(a)–(b) (en dash used for the word “to”) ACF-Brill Motors Co. (hyphen with capital letters and a word) loran-C (hyphen with lowercase word and capital letter) MiG-25 (hyphen with mixed letters with fi gure) ALL-AMERICAN ESSAY CONTEST (hyphen in capitalized heading) Four Corners Monument, AZ-NM-UT-CO (hyphen with two-letter state abbreviations) 8.73. In the absence of the word to when denoting a span of time. 2005–2008 January–June Monday–Friday An en dash is not used— 8.74. For to when the word from precedes the fi rst of two related fi gures or expressions. From June 1 to July 30, 2005; from June 1–July 30, 2005 not 8.75. For when the word between precedes the fi rst of two related and gures or expressions. fi Between 2000 and 2008; not between 2000–08 c h a p t e r 8 . i n d d 11/13/08 3:14:20 PM 2 0 6 chapter8.indd 206 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 4 : 2 0 P M

222 Punctuation 207 Ellipses Th ree asterisks (preferred form) or three periods, separated by en 8.76. spaces, are used to denote an ellipsis within a sentence, at the begin- ning or end of a sentence, or in two or more consecutive sentences. To achieve faithful reproduction of excerpt material, editors using period ellipses should indicate placement of the terminal period in relation to an ellipsis at the end of a sentence. Note, in the following examples, the additional spacing necessary to clearly defi ne com- mas and the terminal period when period ellipses are employed. Th e Senate having tried Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, upon articles of impeachment exhibited against him by the House of Representatives, and two-thirds of the Senators present not having found him guilty of the charges contained in the second, third, and eleventh articles of impeachment, it is therefore Ordered and adjudged . Th at the said Andrew Johnson, President of the United States be, and he is, acquitted of the charges in said articles made and set forth. e Senate having tried Andrew Johnson * * * upon articles of impeach- Th ment * * * and two-thirds of the Senators present not having found him guilty of the charges * * *, it is therefore Ordered and adjudged. at the said Andrew Johnson, President of the Th United States be * * * acquitted of the charges * * *. Th e Senate having tried Andrew Johnson . . . upon articles of impeachment . . . and two-thirds of the Senators present not having found him guilty of the charges . . . , it is therefore Ordered and adjudged. Th at the said Andrew Johnson, President of the United States be . . . acquitted of the charges. . . . 8.77. Ellipses are not overrun alone at the end of a paragraph. 8.78. When periods are not specifi cally requested for ellipses in copy that has both periods and asterisks, asterisks will be used. 8.79. A line of asterisks indicates an omission of one or more entire para- graphs. In 26½-pica or wider measure, a line of “stars” means seven asterisks indented 2 ems at each end of the line, with the remaining space divided evenly between the asterisks. In measures less than 26½ picas, fi ve asterisks are used. Quotation marks are not used on a line of asterisks in quoted matter. Where an ellipsis line ends a complete quotation, no closing quote is used. * * * * * * * c h a p t e r 8 . i n d d 2 11/13/08 3:14:20 PM 7 chapter8.indd 207 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 4 : 2 0 P M 0

223 208 Chapter 8 8.80. Indented matter in 26½-pica or wider measure also requires a seven-asterisk line to indicate the omission of one or more entire paragraphs. If an omission occurs in the last part of a paragraph immediately 8.81. before a line of asterisks, three asterisks are used, in addition to the line of asterisks, to indicate such an omission. 8.82. Equalize spacing above and below an ellipsis line. Exclamation point e exclamation point is used to mark surprise, incredulity, admi- 8.83. Th ration, appeal, or other strong emotion which may be expressed even in a declarative or interrogative sentence. Who shouted, “All aboard!” [Note omission of question mark.] “Great!” he shouted. [Note omission of comma.] He acknowledged the fatal error! How breathtakingly beautiful! Timber! Mayday! Mayday! 8.84. ed object, O is used In direct address, eit her to a person or a personifi without an exclamation point, or other punctuation; but if strong feeling is expressed, an exclamation point is placed at the end of the statement. O my friend, let us consider this subject impartially. O Lord, save Th y people! 8.85. In exclamations without direct address or appeal, is used instead oh of O, and the exclamation point is omitted. Oh, but the gentleman is mistaken. Oh dear; the time is so short. Hyphen Th e hyphen (a punctuation mark, not an element in the spelling of words) is used— To connect the elements of certain compound words. (See Chap- 8.86. ter 6 “Compounding Rules.”) c h a p t e r 8 . i n d d 2 0 11/13/08 3:14:21 PM chapter8.indd 208 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 4 : 2 1 P M 8

224 Punctuation 209 8.87. To indicate continuation of a word divided at the end of a line. (See Word Division, supplement to the Style Manual.) 8.88. Between the letters of a spelled word. Th e Style Board changed New Jerseyite to New J-e-r-s-e-y-a-n. A native of Halifax is a H-a-l-i-g-o-n-i-a-n. Th e Chinese repressive action took place in T-i-a-n-a-n-m-e-n Square. 8.89. To separate elements of chemical formulas. Th e hyphen, as an element, may be used— 8.90. To represent letters deleted or illegible words in copy. Oakland’s - - bonic plague Richard Emory H - - - - Parentheses Parentheses are used— 8.91. important matter not intended to be part of the main To s e t o ff statement that is not a grammatical element of the sentence. In colloquy, brackets must be substituted. Th is case (124 U.S. 329) is not relevant. Th e result (see fi g. 2) is most surprising. Th e United States is the principal purchaser (by value) of these exports (23 per- cent in 1995 and 19 percent in 1996). 8.92. To enclose a parenthetic clause where the interruption is too great to be indicated by commas. nd it neither in French dictionaries (at any rate, not in Littré) nor in You can fi English dictionaries. 8.93. To enclose an explanatory word not part of a written or printed statement. the Winchester (VA) Star; but the Star of Winchester, VA Portland (OR) Chamber of Commerce; Athens, GA, schools but 8.94. To enclose letters or numbers designating items in a series, either at the beginning of paragraphs or within a paragraph. Th e order of delivery will be: (a) Food, (b) clothing, and (c) tents and other housing equipment. You will observe that the sword is (1) old fashioned, (2) still sharp, and (3) un- usually light for its size. Paragraph 7(B)(1)( a ) will be found on page 6. (Note parentheses closed up.)

225 210 Chapter 8 To enclose a fi rm a written or printed state- 8.95. gure inserted to confi cally requested. ment given in words if double form is specifi Th is contract shall be completed in sixty (60) days. 8.96. A reference in parentheses at the end of a sentence is placed before the period, unless it is a complete sentence in itself. Th e specimen exhibits both phases (pl. 14, A, B ). Th e individual cavities show great variation. (See pl. 4.) 8.97. If a sentence contains more than one parenthetic reference, the one at the end is placed before the period. Th is sandstone (see pl. 6) is in every county of the State (see pl. 1). 8.98. gure is followed by a letter in parentheses, no space is used When a fi gure and the opening parenthesis; but, if the letter is between the fi gure is repeated with each letter, the not in parentheses and the fi letter is closed up with the fi gure. a ). Classes, grades, and sizes. 15( a . Classes, grades, and sizes. 15 8.99. If both a fi gure and a letter in parentheses are used before each paragraph, a period and an en space are used aft er the closing paren- thesis. If the fi gure is not repeated before each letter in parentheses rst letter, the period is placed aft but is used only before the fi er the fi gure. However, if the fi gure is not repeated before each letter in pa- rentheses and no period is used, space is inserted aft er the number if at least one other lettered subsection appears. 15( ). When the fi gure is used before the letter in each paragraph— a 15( b ). Th e period is placed aft er the closing parenthesis. 15. ( a ) When the fi gure is used before the letter in the fi rst paragraph but not repeated with subsequent letters— b ) Th e period is used aft er the fi gure only. ( Sec. 12 (a) When no period is used and a letter in parentheses appears aft er a numbered item— (b) Space must be used aft er the number if at least one other lettered subsection is shown. 8.100. Note position of the period relative to closing parenthesis: Th e vending stand sells a variety of items (sandwiches, beverages, cakes, etc.). Th e vending stand sells a variety of items (sandwiches, beverages, cakes, etc. (sometimes ice cream)).

226 Punctuation 211 Th ese include sandwiches, bever- e vending stand sells a variety of items. (Th ages, cakes, etc. (6).) 8.101. To enclose bylines in congressional work. (By Harvey Hagman, archeological correspondent) 8.102. When matter in parentheses makes more than one paragraph, start each paragraph with a parenthesis and place the closing parenthesis at the end of the last paragraph. Period Th e period is used— er a declarative sentence that is not exclamatory or aft 8.103. Aft er an im- perative sentence. Stars are suns. He was employed by Sampson & Co. Do not be late. On with the dance. 8.104. er an indirect question or aft er a question intended as a sugges- Aft tion and not requiring an answer. Tell me how he did it. May we hear from you. May we ask prompt payment. 8.105. In place of a closing parenthesis aft er a letter or number denoting a series. a. Bread well baked 1. Punctuate freely b. Meat cooked rare 2. Compound sparingly c. 3. Index thoroughly Cubed apples stewed 8.106. Sometimes to indicate ellipsis. 8.107. Aft er a run-in sidehead. Conditional subjunctive. —Th e conditional subjunctive is required for all unreal and doubtful conditions. 2. Peacetime preparation. — a. Th e Chairman of the National Security Resources Board, etc. 2. Peacetime preparation—Industrial mobilization plans. e Chairman of —Th the National Security Resources Board, etc. 2. Peacetime preparation. Industrial mobilization. —Th e Chairman of the — National Security Resources Board, etc. c h a p t e r 8 . i n d d 11/13/08 3:14:21 PM 2 1 1 chapter8.indd 211 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 4 : 2 1 P M

227 212 Chapter 8 62. — a. Statement of characteristics. —Before types of Determination of types. equipment, etc. Steps in planning for procurement. —To pl a n —(1) Determination of needs. for the procurement of such arms, etc. Determination of types.—(a) Statement of characteristics. 62. —Before, etc. DETERMINATION OF TYPES.—Statement of characteristics. —Before types of, etc. Note.—Th e source material was furnished. but Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 8.108. Paragraphs and subparagraphs may be arranged according to the following scheme. Th e sequence is not fi xed, and variations, in ad- dition to the use of center and side heads or indented paragraphs, may be adopted, depending on the number of parts. I. Outlines can begin with a capital Roman numeral. A. Th e number of levels and the width of the column determine alignment and indention. 1. A set space (en space) following the identifi er aids alignment. Usually, typefaces and sizes are chosen to agree with the hierarchy of a. the head breakdowns. (1) Aligning runover lines with the fi rst word which follows the number or letter aids readability. a ( ) It is important to vary (alternate) the use of letters and num- bers in any outline. (i) Th e lowercase Roman numerals (i), (ii), etc. may be used as parts of the outline or to identify subparts of any previous parts. ( aa ) When absolutely necessary, double (or triple) lowercase letters may be used. II. Where not needed, the capital Roman numerals may be discarded and the outline can begin with the letter A. As in any composition, consistency in indentions and order is essential. 8.109. To separate integers from decimals in a single expression. 13.75 percent 1.25 meters $3.50 0.08 mile 8.110. In continental European languages, to indicate thousands. 1.317 72.190.175 c h a p t e r 8 . i n d d 11/13/08 3:14:21 PM 2 1 2 chapter8.indd 212 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 4 : 2 1 P M

228 Punctuation 213 8 .111. er abbreviations, unless otherwise specifi ed. (See Chapter 9, Aft “Abbreviations and Letter Symbols.”) Apr. RR. but fi g. Ph.D. m (meter) kc (kilocycle) NE. (Northeast) NY (New York) SSE. (South-Southeast) 8.112. Aft er legends and explanatory matter beneath illustrations. Legends without descriptive language do not receive periods. Figure 1.—Schematic drawing. 1.—Continued. Figure but Figure 1 (without legend, no period) 8.113. er Article 1, Section 1, etc., at the beginning of paragraphs. Aft A center period is sometimes used— 8.114. To indicate multiplication. (Use of a multiplication sign is preferable.) a b a  b • Th e period is omitted— Aft 8.115. er— Lines in title pages but is not omitted aft er run-in Center, side, and running heads; sideheads Continued lines Boxheads of tables Scientifi c, chemical, or other symbols Th is rule does not apply to abbreviation periods. 8.116. Aft er a quotation mark that is preceded by a period. She said: “I believe the time is now or never.” 8.117. er letters used as names without specifi c designation. Aft cer B, Subject A, Brand X, etc. Offi A said to B that all is well. Mr. A told Mr. B that the case was closed. Mr. X (for unknown or censored name). c h a p t e r 8 . i n d d 11/13/08 3:14:21 PM 2 1 3 chapter8.indd 213 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 4 : 2 1 P M

229 214 Chapter 8 but Mr. A. [for Mr. Andrews]. I do not want to go. Mr. K. [for Mr. King]. Th e meeting is adjourned. 8.118. er a middle initial which is merely a letter and not an abbrevia- Aft tion of a name. Daniel D Tompkins Ross T McIntire but Harry S. Truman (President Truman’s preference) 8.119. er a short name which is not an abbreviation of the longer form. Aft Alex Mac Ed Sam 8.120. Aft er Roman numerals used as ordinals. Super Bowl XLII King George V Apollo XII insigne 8.121. er words and incomplete statements listed in columns. Full- Aft measure matter is not to be regarded as a column. 8.122. Explanatory matter should be set in 6 point type under leaders or rules. ... ... ... (Address) (Name) (Position) 8.123. Immediately before leaders, even if an abbreviation precedes the leaders. Question mark Th e question mark is used— 8.124. To indicate a direct query, even if not in the form of a question. Did he do it? He did what? Can the money be raised? is the question. Who asked, “Why?” [Note single question mark.] “Did you hurt yourself, my son?” she asked. 8.125. To express more than one query in the same sentence. Can he do it? or you? or anyone? c h a p t e r 8 . i n d d 2 1 11/13/08 3:14:21 PM chapter8.indd 214 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 4 : 2 1 P M 4

230 Punctuation 215 8.126. To express doubt. He said the boy was 8(?) feet tall. (No space before question mark.) Th e statue(?) was on the statute books. cation Dorothia ? was noted. (Roman “?”.) Th e scientifi c identifi Quotation marks Quotation marks are used— 8.127. To enclose direct quotations. (Each part of an interrupted quotation begins and ends with quotation marks.) Th e answer is “No.” He said, “John said, ‘No.’ ’’ (Note thin space between single and double closing quotes.) “John,” asked Henry, “why do you go?” 8.128. To enclose any matter following such terms as entitled, the word, ed, named, endorsed, cited as, the term, marked, designated, classifi or signed; however, quotation marks are not used to referred to as, known as, called, so-called, enclose expressions following the terms etc., unless such expressions are misnomers or slang. Congress passed the act entitled “An act * * *.” Aft er the word “treaty,” insert a comma. Of what does the item “Miscellaneous debts” consist? Th e column “Imports from foreign countries” was not * * *. e document will be marked “Exhibit No. 21;” Th e document may be Th but made exhibit No. 21. Th e check was endorsed “John Adamson.” It was signed “John.” Beryllium is known as glucinium in some European countries. but It was called profi t and loss. Th e so-called investigating body. 8.129. To enclose titles of addresses, articles, awards, books, captions, editorials, essays, headings, subheadings, headlines, hearings, mo- tion pictures and plays (including television and radio programs), operas, papers, short poems, reports, songs, studies, subjects, and themes. All principal words are to be capitalized. An address on “Uranium-235 in the Atomic Age” Th e article “Germany Revisited” appeared in the last issue. He received the “Man of the Year” award. “Th e Conquest of Mexico,” a published work (book) Under the caption “Long-Term Treasurys Rise” Th e subject was discussed in “Punctuation.” (chapter heading)

231 216 Chapter 8 It will be found in “Part XI: Early Th ought.” Th e editorial “Haphazard Budgeting” “Compensation,” by Emerson (essay) “United States To Appoint Representative to U.N.” (heading for headline) In “Search for Paradise” (motion picture); “South Pacifi c” (play) A paper on “Constant-Pressure Combustion” was read. “O Captain! My Captain!” (short poem) e report “Atomic Energy: What It Means to the Nation”; Th annual report but of the Public Printer is was followed by the singing of “Th Th e Star-Spangled Banner.” Under the subhead “Sixty Days of Turmoil” will be found * * *. e subject (or theme) of the conference is “Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy.” Th Account 5, “Management fees.” also Under the heading “Management and Operation.” Under the appropriation “Building of ships, Navy.” 8.130. At the beginning of each paragraph of a quotation, but at the end of the last paragraph only. To enclose a letter or communication that bears both date and 8.131. signature. 8.132. To enclose misnomers, slang expressions, sobriquets, coined words, or ordinary words used in an arbitrary way. His report was “bunk.” It was a “gentlemen’s agreement.” Th e “invisible government” is responsible. George Herman “Babe” Ruth. but He voted for the lameduck amendment. 8.133. To close up characters except when they precede a fraction or an gure or letter, in which apostrophe or precede or follow a superior fi case a thin space is used. A thin space is used to separate double and single quotation marks. Quotation marks are not used— 8.134. In poetry. Th e lines of a poem should align on the left , those that rhyme taking the same indention. Why seek to scale Mount Everest, Queen of the air? Why strive to crown that cruel crest And deathward dare?

232 Punctuation 217 Said Mallory of dauntless quest: “Because it’s there.” 8.135. To enclose titles of works of art: paintings, statuary, etc. To enclose names of newspapers or magazines. 8.136. To enclose complete letters having date and signature. 8.137. 8.138. To enclose extracts that are indented or set in smaller type, or solid extracts in leaded matter; but indented matter in text that is already quoted carries quotation marks. 8.139. In indirect quotations. He could not say no. Tell her yes. 8.140. Before a display initial which begins a quoted paragraph. 8.141. Th e comma and the fi nal period will be placed inside the quotation marks. Other punctuation marks should be placed inside the quota- tion marks only if they are a part of the matter quoted. Ruth said, “I think so.” “Th e President,” he said, “will veto the bill.” e trainman shouted, “All aboard!” Th Who asked, “Why?” Th e President suggests that “an early occasion be sought * * *.” Why call it a “gentlemen’s agreement”? 8.142. In congressional and certain other classes of work showing amend- ments, and in courtwork with quoted language, punctuation marks er the quotation marks when not a part of the quoted are printed aft matter. Insert the words “growth”, “production”, and “manufacture”. To be inserted aft er the words “cadets, U.S. Coast Guard;”. Change “February 1, 1983”, to “June 30, 2008”. “Insert in lieu thereof ‘July 1, 1983,’.” 8.143. When occurring together, quotation marks should precede footnote reference numbers. 1 Th ed.” e commissioner claimed that the award was “unjustifi 2 Kelly’s exact words were: “Th e facts in the case prove otherwise.” c h a p t e r 8 . i n d d 2 11/13/08 3:14:21 PM 7 chapter8.indd 217 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 4 : 2 1 P M 1

233 218 Chapter 8 Quotation marks should be limited, if possible, to three sets (double, 8.144. single, double). e question in the report is, ‘Can a person who obtains his certifi cate of “Th de” citizen of the United naturalization by fraud be considered a “bona fi States?’ ” Semicolon Th e semicolon is used— To separate clauses containing commas. 8.145. Donald A. Peters, Jr., president of the First National Bank, was also a director of New York Central; Harvey D. Jones was a director of Oregon Steel Co. and New York Central; Th omas W. Harrison, chairman of the board of McBride & Co., was also on the board of Oregon Steel Co. Reptiles, amphibians, and predatory mammals swallow their prey whole or in large pieces, bones included; waterfowl habitually take shellfi sh entire; a n d g a l l i n a c e ou s bi rd s a r e pr ov i d e d w i t h g i z z a rd s t h a t g r i n d u p t h e h a rd e s t seeds. Yes, sir; he did see it. No, sir; I do not recall. 8.146. To separate statements that are too closely related in meaning to be written as separate sentences, and also statements of contrast. Yes; that is right. No; we received one-third. It is true in peace; it is true in war. War is destructive; peace, constructive. 8.147. To s e t o ff explanatory abbreviations or words that summarize or explain preceding matter. Th e industry is related to groups that produce fi nished goods; i.e., electrical machinery and transportation equipment. Th ere were three metal producers involved; namely, Jones & Laughlin, Armco, and Kennecott. Th e semicolon is not used— 8.148. Where a comma will suffi ce. Offi ces are located in New York, NY, Chicago, IL, and Dallas, TX.

234 Punctuation 219 Single punctuation Single punctuation should be used wherever possible without 8.149. ambiguity. 124 U.S. 321 (no comma) Sir: (no dash) Joseph replied, “It is a worthwhile eff ort.” (no outside period) Ty pe All punctuation marks, including parentheses, brackets, and supe- 8.150. rior reference fi gures, are set to match the type of the words which er a run-in boldface side- they adjoin. A lightface dash is used aft head followed by lightface matter. Lightface brackets, parentheses, or quotation marks shall be used when both boldface and lightface matter are enclosed. Charts: C&GS 5101 (N.O. 18320 ), page 282 (see above); 93491 (Plan); N.O. page 271. c h a p t e r 11/13/08 3:14:22 PM . i n d d 2 1 9 chapter8.indd 219 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 4 : 2 2 P M 8

235 9. Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 9.1. Abbreviations and letter symbols are used to save space and to avoid distracting the reader by use of repetitious words or phrases. Th e nature of the publication governs the extent to which abbrevia- 9.2. tions are used. In the text of technical and legal publications, and in parentheses, brackets, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, leaderwork, and bibliographies, many words are frequently abbreviated. Heads, leg- ends, tables of contents, and indexes follow the style of the text. Internal and terminal punctuation in symbols represening units 9.3. of measure are to be omitted to conform with practice adopted by scientifi c, technical, and industrial groups. Where the omission of terminal punctuation causes confusion; e.g., the symbol in (inch) in , the symbol should be spelled out. mistaken for the preposition 9.4. Standard and easily understood forms are preferable, and they should be uniform throughout a job. Abbreviations not generally known should be followed in the text by the spelled-out forms in parentheses the fi rst time they occur; in tables and leaderwork such explanatory matter should be supplied in a footnote. As the printer cannot rewrite the copy, the author should supply these explanatory forms. In technical matter, symbols for units of measure should be used 9.5. only with fi gures; similarly, many other abbreviations and symbols should not appear in isolation. For example, energy is measured in foot-pounds, NOT energy is measured in ft •lbs. Capitals, hyphens, periods (points), and spacing 9.6. In general, an abbreviation follows the capitalization and hyphen- ation of the word or words abbreviated. It is followed by a period unless otherwise indicated. ft •lb c.o.d. St. but 221

236 222 Chapter 9 9.7. Abbreviations and initials of a personal name with points are set without spaces. Abbreviations composed of contractions and ini- tials or numbers, will retain space. B.S., LL.D., Ph.D., B.Sc. H.S.T. but J.F.K. H.R. 116 ( S. 116, S. Con. L.B.J. Res. 116) U.S. C.A.D.C. ( but App. D.C.) U.N. A.B. Secrest, D.D.S. but Rev. Stat.) U.S.C. ( A.F. of L.-CIO (AFL–CIO preferred) but A.D., B.C. AT&T e.s.t. Texas A&M i.e., e.g. ( but R&D op. cit.) 9.8. Except as otherwise designated, points and spaces are omitted aft er initials used as shortened names of governmental agencies and of other organized bodies. “Other organized bodies” shall be interpreted to mean organized bodies that have become popularly ed with a symbol, such as MIT (Massachusetts Institute identifi of Technology), GM (General Motors), GMAC (General Motors Accepta nce C or p.), etc. (See “List of Abbrev iat ions.”) Sy mbols, when they appear in copy, may be used for acts of Congress. Example: ARA (Area Redevelopment Act). VFW TVA ARC NLRB AFL–CIO ASTM Geographic terms United States must be spelled out when appearing in a sentence 9.9. containing the name of another country. Th e abbreviation U.S. will be used when preceding the word Government or the name of a Government organization, except in formal writing (treaties, Executive orders, proclamations, etc.); congressional bills; legal cita- tions and courtwork; and covers and title pages. U.S. Government U.S. Congress U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. district court U.S. Supreme Court ( but Supreme Court of the United States) U.S. Army ( but Army of the United States) chapter9.indd 222 chapter9.indd 222 2/4/09 3:48:36 PM 2/4/09 3:48:36 PM

237 Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 223 Nantucket U.S. monitor U.S.-NATO assistance U.S. Government efforts to control inflation must be successful if the United States is to have a stable economy. but British, French, and United States Governments; United States-British talks 9.10. With the exceptions in the preceding rule, the abbreviation U.S. is used in the adjective position, but is spelled out when used as a noun. United States Steel Corp. U.S. foreign policy (legal title) U.S. farm-support program U.S. attorney Foreign policy of the U.S. citizen United States cial title) United States Code (offi Temperatures vary in the U.S. not 9.11. Th e names of foreign countries are not abbreviated, with the excep- tion of the former U.S.S.R., which is abbreviated due to its length. 9.12. ned in rule 9.9, all States of the In other than formal usage as defi United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands are abbreviated immediately following any capitalized geographic term, includ- ing armory, arsenal, airbase, airport, barracks, depot, fort, Indian agency, military camp, national cemetery (also forest, historic site, memorial, seashore, monument, park), naval shipyard, proving ground, reservation (forest, Indian, or military), and reserve or sta- tion (military or naval). Arlington National Cemetery, VA Prince George’s County, MD Mount Rainier National Forest, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD WA Baltimore-Washington Stone Mountain, GA International Airport, MD National Naval Medical Center, Redstone Arsenal, AL Bethesda, MD Mark Twain National Wildlife but Refuge, IL-IA-MO (note use of Leavenworth freight yards, hyphens here) Kansas Richmond, VA Altoona sidetrack, Wisconsin 9.13. Th e Postal Service style of two-letter State, Province, and freely associated State abbreviations is to be used.

238 224 Chapter 9 United States [Including freely associated States] Alabama ... AL Kentucky ...KY Ohio ... OH Alaska ... AK Louisiana ... LA Oklahoma ... OK American Samoa ... AS Maine... ME Oregon ...OR Arizona ...AZ Marshall Islands ... MH Palau ...PW Arkansas ...AR Maryland ... MD Pennsylvania ... PA California ...CA Massachusetts ... MA Puerto Rico ... PR Colorado ... CO Michigan ... MI Rhode Island ... RI Connecticut ...CT Minnesota ... MN South Carolina ...SC Delaware ... DE Mississippi ...MS South Dakota ... SD District of Columbia ... DC Missouri ... MO Tennessee ... TN Federated States of Montana ...MT Texas ... TX Micronesia ... FM Nebraska ...NE Utah ...UT Florida ... FL Nevada ... NV Vermont ...VT Georgia ... GA New Hampshire ...NH Virgin Islands ... VI Guam ... GU New Jersey ...NJ Virginia ... VA Hawaii ...HI New Mexico ... NM Washington ...WA Idaho ...ID New York ... NY West Virginia... WV Illinois ...IL North Carolina ... NC Wisconsin ...WI Indiana ...IN North Dakota ... ND Wyoming ... WY Iowa ... IA Northern Mariana Kansas ... KS Islands ... MP Canada Alberta ...AB Prince Edward Island ...PE Northwest Territories ... NT British Columbia ... BC Quebec ... QC Nova Scotia ... NS Manitoba ... MB Saskatchewan ...SK Nunavut ... NU New Brunswick ...NB Yukon ... YT Ontario ... ON Newfoundland and Labrador ...NL 9.14. Th e names of other insular possessions, trust territories, and Long Island, Staten Island, etc., are not abbreviated. 9.15. Th e names of Canadian Provinces and other foreign political subdi- visions are not abbreviated except as noted in rule 9.13. Addresses Word s such a s Street, 9.16. Avenue, Place, Road, Square, Boulevard, Terrace, Drive, Court, and Building , following a name or number, are abbreviated in footnotes, sidenotes, tables, leaderwork, and lists. 9.17. In addresses, a single period is used with the abbreviations NW., SW., NE., SE. (indicating sectional divisions of cities) following name or number. North, South, East, and We st are spelled out at all times. chapter9.indd 224 chapter9.indd 224 2/4/09 3:48:36 PM 2/4/09 3:48:36 PM

239 Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 225 Th e word or Avenue as part of a name is not abbreviated even 9.18. Street in parentheses, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, lists, or leaderwork. 14th Street Bridge Ninth Avenue Bldg. 9.19. e words Th and Port are not abbreviated. County, Fort, Mount, Point, ( St .) a nd Sainte ( Ste Saint .) should be abbreviated. Descriptions of tracts of land half and quarter are 9.20. If fractions are spelled out in land descriptions, one-half or one-quarter ). used (not south half of T. 47 N., R. 64 E. 9.21. In the description of tracts of public land the following abbreviations are used (periods are omitted aft er abbreviated compass directions gures): that immediately precede and close up on fi SE¼ NW¼ sec. 4, T. 12 S., R. 15 E., of the Boise Meridian lot 6, NE¼ sec. 4, T. 6 N., R. 1 W. N½ sec. 20, T. 7 N., R. 2 W., sixth principal meridian Tps. 9, 10, 11, and 12 S., Rs. 12 and 13 W. T. 2 S., Rs. 8, 9, and 10 E., sec. 26 E½ T. 3 S., R. 1 E., sec. 34, W½ SE¼ SE¼ , W½ , and W½ sec. 32 (with or without a township number) 9.22. In case of an unavoidable break in a land-description symbol group er fraction. at end of a line, use no hyphen and break aft Names and titles Th e following forms are not always abbreviations, and copy should 9.23. be followed as to periods: Al Ben Fred Walt Alex Ed Sam Will 9.24. In signatures, an eff ort should be made to retain the exact form used by the signer. George Wythe Geo. Taylor 9.25. I n c ompa ny a nd ot her for m a l na me s , i f it i s not ne c e s s a r y to pre s er ve the full legal title, such forms as Bro., Bros., Co., Corp., Inc., Ltd., and & are used. Association and Manufacturing are not abbreviated.

240 226 Chapter 9 Electronics Manufacturing Co. Radio Corp. of America Texas College of Arts & Industries Aluminum Co. of America Robert Wilson & Associates, Inc. Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey U.S. News & World Report H.J. Baker & Bro. Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Jones Bros. & Co. Mine, Mill & Smelter Workers American Telephone & Te l e g r a p h C o . Norton Enterprises, Inc. but Maryland Steamship Co., Ltd. eater Company Little Th Chesapeake & Delaware Canal Senate Banking, Housing and Fairmount Building & Loan Urban Aff airs Committee Association 9.26. Corporation are not abbreviated in names of Federal and Company Government units. Commodity Credit Corporation Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation t Guaranty Corporation Pension Benefi 9.27. In parentheses, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, and leaderwork, ( railway and railroad abbreviate the words ), Ry. and RR. except in such names as “Washington Railway & Electric Co.” and for “Florida Railroad & Navigation Corp.” SS for mo- steamship, MS etc., preceding name are used at all times. torship, is spelled 9.28. In the names of informal companionships the word and out. Gilbert and Sullivan Currier and Ives 9.29. In other than formal usage, a civil, military, or naval title preceding a name is abbreviated if followed by fi rst or given name or initial; are but Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms., M., MM., Messrs., Mlle., Mme., and Dr. abbreviated with or without fi rst or given name or initial. United States military titles and abbreviations Offi cer rank - Offi cer ranks in the United States military consist of commissioned offi cers and warrant offi e commissioned ranks are the highest in the cers. Th military. Th ese offi cers hold presidential commissions and are confi rmed at cers are their ranks by the Senate. Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps offi eld grade cers in the pay grades of O–1 to O–3, fi called company grade offi chapter9.indd 226 chapter9.indd 226 2/4/09 3:48:37 PM 2/4/09 3:48:37 PM

241 227 Abbreviations and Letter Symbols cers in pay grades O–7 offi cers in pay grades O–4 to O–6, and general offi e equivalent offi and higher. Th cer groupings in the Navy are called junior grade, mid-grade, and fl ag. Wa r r a nt offi cers hold warrants from their service secretary and are special- ists and experts in certain military technologies or capabilities. Th e lowest ranking warrant offi cers serve under a warrant, but they receive commis- cer 2. Th ese sions from the President upon promotion to chief warrant offi commissioned warrant offi cers are direct representatives of the President ey derive their authority from the same source as of the United States. Th commissioned offi cers but remain specialists, in contrast to commissioned offi cers, who are generalists. Th ere are no warrant offi cers in the Air Force. Navy Army Marines Air Force Coast Guard Fleet Admiral General of the Air Force General of the Army (Reserved for wartime only) (Reserved for wartime only) (Reserved for wartime only) Admiral ADM General General General Chief of Naval Operations Gen. O10 GEN Gen. Commandant of the and Army Chief of Staff Air Force Chief of Staff Marine Corps Commandant of the Coast Guard Lieutenant Lieutenant Lieutenant Vice Admiral O9 General General General VA D M LTG Lt. Gen. Lt. Gen. Rear Admiral Major General Major General Major General O8 Upper Half MG Maj. Gen. Maj. Gen. RADM Rear Admiral Brigadier General Brigadier General Brigadier General O7 Lower Half BG Brig. Gen. Brig. Gen. RDML Colonel Colonel Captain Colonel O6 CAPT Col. COL Col. Lieutenant Colonel Commander Lieutenant Colonel Lieutenant Colonel O5 LTC CDR Lt. Col. Lt. Col. Lieutenant Major Major Major Commander O4 MAJ Maj. Maj. LCDR Captain Captain Lieutenant Captain O3 LT Capt. CPT Capt. chapter9.indd 227 chapter9.indd 227 2/4/09 3:48:37 PM 2/4/09 3:48:37 PM

242 228 Chapter 9 Navy Army Marines Air Force Coast Guard First Lieutenant First Lieutenant Lieutenant Junior Grade First Lieutenant O2 LTJG 1st Lt. 1LT 1st Lt. Second Lieutenant Ensign Second Lieutenant Second Lieutenant O1 2nd Lt. 2nd Lt. ENS 2LT Chief Warrant Offi cer Chief Warrant Offi Chief Warrant Offi cer 5 cer W5 NO WARRANT CW5 CWO5 CWO5 cer 4 Chief Warrant Offi cer 4 Chief Warrant Offi cer 4 Chief Warrant Offi W4 NO WARRANT CWO4 CWO4 CW4 Chief Warrant Offi Chief Warrant Offi cer 3 cer 3 cer 3 Chief Warrant Offi W3 NO WARRANT CWO3 CW3 CWO3 Chief Warrant Offi cer 2 cer 2 Chief Warrant Offi cer 2 Chief Warrant Offi W2 NO WARRANT CW2 CWO2 CWO2 Wa r ra nt O ffi cer 1 cer 1 Wa r ra nt O ffi cer 1 Wa r ra nt O ffi W1 NO WARRANT WO1 WO WO1 Source: cers.html. Enlisted rank Service members in pay grades E–1 through E–3 are usually either in some kind of training status or on their initial assignment. Th e training includes the basic training phase where recruits are immersed in military culture and values and are taught the core skills required by their service component. Basic training is followed by a specialized or advanced training phase that provides recruits with a specifi c area of expertise or concentration. In the Army and Marines, this area is called a military occupational specialty; in the Navy it is known as a rate; and in the Air Force it is simply called an Air Force specialty. Leadership responsibility signifi cantly increases in the mid-level enlisted ranks. Th is responsibility is given formal recognition by use of the terms noncommissioned offi cer and petty offi cer. An Army sergeant, an Air Force staff e Navy sergeant, and a Marine corporal are considered NCO ranks. Th NCO equivalent, petty offi cer, is achieved at the rank of petty offi cer third class. chapter9.indd 228 chapter9.indd 228 2/4/09 3:48:37 PM 2/4/09 3:48:37 PM

243 229 Abbreviations and Letter Symbols At the E–8 level, the Army, Marines, and Air Force have two positions at the same pay grade. Whether one is, for example, a senior master sergeant or a fi rst sergeant in the Air Force depends on the person’s job. Th e same is true for the positions at the E–9 level. Marine Corps master gunnery sergeants and sergeants major receive the same pay but have diff erent responsibilities. E–8s and E–9s have 15 to 30 years on the job, and are commanders’ senior advisers for enlisted matters. A third E–9 element is the senior enlisted person of each service. Th e sergeant major of the Army, the sergeant major of the Marine Corps, the master chief cer of the Navy, and the chief master sergeant of the Air Force are petty offi the spokespersons of the enlisted force at the highest levels of their services. Navy Army Air Force Marines Coast Guard Master Chief Petty Offi cer of the Navy Chief Master Sergeant Sergeant Major of the Sergeant Major (MCPON) E9 of the Air Force Marine Corps of the Army (CMSAF) (Sg tMajMC) and (SMA) Coast Guard (MCPOCG) Fleet/ Master Command Command Command Chief Master Sergeant Chief Sergeant Chief First Sergeant Master Master Gunnery E9 Major Petty Major Master Sergeant Major Chief Sergeant Sergeant (SGM) cer Offi (SgtMaj) Sergeant (CSM) Petty (CMSg t) (MGySgt) (MCPO) (CCM) cer Offi Senior First Senior Chief Petty Master Master First Master E8 First Sergeant Sergeant Sergeant Offi Sergeant cer Sergeant Sergeant (MSG) (1SG) (MSgt) (SCPO) (SMSg t) Master cer Gunnery Sergeant Sergeant First Class Chief Petty Offi E7 First Sergeant Sergeant (SFC) (CPO) (GySg t) (MSgt) cer Petty Offi Staff Sergeant Te c h n i c a l S e r g e a nt Staff Sergeant E6 First Class (TSgt) (SSG) (SSgt) (PO1) Petty Offi cer E5 Sergeant Staff Sergeant Sergeant Second Class (SSgt) (SGT) (Sg t) (PO2) Petty Offi cer Senior Airman Corporal Specialist Corporal E4 Th ird Class (SrA) (SPC) (CPL) (Cpl) (PO3)

244 230 Chapter 9 Navy Army Air Force Marines Coast Guard Private First Class Seaman Lance Corporal Airman First Class E3 (PFC) (SN) (LCpl) (A1C) Airman Seaman Apprentice Private First Class Private E–2 E2 (PV2) (PFC) (Amn) (SA) Seaman Recruit E1 Private Airman Basic Private (SR) Source: Spell out Senator, Representative, 9.30. commandant. and 9.31. Unless preceded by the , abbreviate Honorable, Reverend, and when followed by the fi Monsignor rst name, initials, or title. Hon. Elihu Root; the Honorable Elihu Root; the Honorable Mr. Root the Honorables John Roberts, John Paul Stevens, and Ruth Bader Ginsberg Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.; the Reverend Dr. King; Rev. Dr. King; Reverend King ( Rev. King, nor the Reverend King) not Rt. Rev. James E. Freeman; the Right Reverend James E. Freeman; Very Rev. Henry Boyd; the Very Reverend Henry Boyd Rt. Rev. Msgr. John Bird; the Right Reverend Monsignor John Bird 9.32. Th er a name: e following and similar forms are used aft Esq., Jr., Sr. 2d, 3d ( II, III) (not preceded by comma) or Degrees: LL.D., M.A., Ph.D., etc. Fellowships, orders, etc.: FSA Scot, F.R.S., K.C.B., C.P.A., etc. 9.33. Esq. and other titles such as Mr., Mrs., and Dr., Th e abbreviation should not appear with any other title or with abbreviations indi- cating scholastic degrees. John L. Smith, Esq., not Mr. John L. Smith, Esq., John L. Smith, Esq., A.M.; nor but James A. Jones, Jr., Esq. Ford Maddox, A.B., Ph.D., not Mr. Ford Maddox, A.B., Ph.D. George Gray, M.D., Mr. George Gray, M.D., nor Dr. George Gray, M.D. not Dwight A. Bellinger, D.V.M. 9.34. Sr. and Jr. should not be used without fi rst or given name or initials, but may be used in combination with any title. Jones, Junior not Jones, Jr., nor A.K. Jones, Jr., or Mr. Jones, Junior, President J. B. Nelson, Jr. chapter9.indd 230 chapter9.indd 230 2/4/09 3:48:38 PM 2/4/09 3:48:38 PM

245 Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 231 When name is followed by abbreviations designating religious 9.35. and fraternal orders and scholastic and honorary degrees, their rst; theological degrees; sequence is as follows: Orders, religious fi academic degrees earned in course; and honorary degrees in order of bestowal. Henry L. Brown, D.D., A.M., D.Lit. T.E. Holt, C.S.C., S.T.Lr., LL.D., Ph.D. Samuel J. Deckelbaum, P.M. 9.36. Academic degrees standing alone may be abbreviated. but bachelor of arts degree (lowercase John was graduated with a B.A. degree; when spelled out). She earned her Ph.D. by hard work. 9.37. In addresses, signatures, lists of names, and leaderwork but not in tables nor in centerheads, Mr., Mrs., and other titles preceding Esq., Jr., Sr., 2d, a name, and 3d following a name, are set in and roman caps and lowercase if the name is in caps and small caps. If the name is in caps, they are set in caps and small caps, if small caps are available—otherwise in caps and lowercase. Parts of publications 9.38. Th e following abbreviations are used for parts of publications mentioned in parentheses, brackets, footnotes, sidenotes, list of ref- gures, letters, or erences, tables, and leaderwork, when followed by fi Roman numerals. pl., pls. (plate, plates) app., apps. (appendix, pt., pts. (part, parts) appendixes) sec., secs. (section, sections) art., arts. (article, articles) subch., subchs. (subchapter, bull., bulls. (bulletin, bulletins) subchapters) ch., chs. (chapter, chapters) subpar., subpars. (subparagraph, col., cols. (column, columns) subparagraphs) ed., eds. (edition, editions) subpt., subpts. (subpart, subparts) gure, fi gures) fi g., fi gs. (fi subsec., subsecs. (subsection, No., Nos. (number, numbers) subsections) p., pp. (page, pages) supp., supps. (supplement, par., pars. (paragraph, supplements) paragraphs) vol., vols. (volume, volumes)

246 232 Chapter 9 9.39. article and the word section are abbreviated when appear- Th e word ing at the beginning of a paragraph and set in caps and small caps followed by a period and an en space, except that the fi rst of a series is spelled out. but Article 1; Section 1 Art. 2; Sec. 2; etc.; but Article I; Section I Art. II; Sec. II; etc.; 9.40. At the beginning of a legend, the word fi gure preceding the legend number is not abbreviated. Figure 4.—Landscape. Terms relating to Congress , when accompanied by a numeri- e words Congress and 9.41. Th session cal reference, are abbreviated in parentheses, brackets, and text footnotes. In sidenotes, lists of references, tables, leaderwork, and footnotes to tables and leaderwork, the following abbreviations are used: 106th Cong., 1st sess. Public Law 84, 102d Cong. 1st sess., 106th Cong. Private Law 68, 102d Cong. 9.42. In references to bills, resolutions, documents and reports in paren- theses, brackets, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, and leaderwork, the following abbreviations are used: H. Conf. Rept. 10 (House H.R. 416 (House bill) conference report) S. 116 (Senate bill) H. Doc. 35 (House document) Th e examples above may be S. Doc. 62 (Senate document) abbreviated or spelled H. Rept. 214 (House report) out in text. S. Rept. 410 (Senate report) H. Res. 5 (House resolution) Ex. Doc. B (Executive document) H. Con. Res. 10 (House concurrent Ex. F (92d Cong., 2d sess.) resolution) Ex. Rept. 9 (92d Cong., 1st sess.) H.J. Res. 21 (House joint resolution) Misc. Doc. 16 (miscellaneous S. Res. 50 (Senate resolution) document) S. Con. Res. 17 (Senate concurrent Public Res. 47 resolution) S.J. Res. 45 (Senate joint resolution) chapter9.indd 232 chapter9.indd 232 2/4/09 3:48:38 PM 2/4/09 3:48:38 PM

247 Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 233 References to statutes in parentheses, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, 9.43. leaderwork, and congressional work are abbreviated. Rev. Stat. (Revised Statutes); 43 Rev. Stat. 801; 18 U.S.C. 38 Supp. Rev. Stat. (Supplement to the Revised Statutes) Stat. L. (Statutes at Large) but Public Law 85−1; Private Law 68 Calendar divisions Names of months followed by the day, or day and year, are abbrevi- 9.44. ated in footnotes, tables, leaderwork, sidenotes, and in bibliographies. (See examples, rule 9.45.) and July are always spelled out. May, June, In narrow columns in tables, however, the names of months may be abbreviated even if standing alone. Preferred forms follow: Jan. Apr. Oct. Feb. Aug. Nov. Mar. Sept. Dec. 9.45. In text only, dates as part of a citation or reference within paren- theses or brackets are also abbreviated. (Op. Atty. Gen., Dec. 4, 2005) (Congressional Record, Sept. 25, 2007) [From the New York Times, Mar. 4, 2008] [From the Mar. 4 issue] On Jan. 25 (we had commenced on Dec. 26, 2005) the work was fi nished. (In footnotes, tables, leaderwork, and sidenotes) On January 25, a decision was reached (Op. Atty. Gen., Dec. 4, 2006). (Text, but with citation in parentheses) but On January 25 (we had commenced on December 26, 2008) the work was fi nished. (Not a citation or reference in text) 9.46. Weekdays are not abbreviated, but the following forms are used, if necessary, in lists or in narrow columns in tables: Sun. Wed. Fri. Mon. Th urs. Sat. Tu e s . chapter9.indd 233 chapter9.indd 233 2/4/09 3:48:38 PM 2/4/09 3:48:38 PM

248 234 Chapter 9 Time zones Th 9.47. e following forms are to be used when abbreviating names of time zones: GMAT—Greenwich mean AKDT—Alaska daylight time astronomical time AKST—Alaska standard time GMT—Greenwich mean time AKT—Alaska time (implies HDT—Hawaii-Aleutian daylight time standard or daylight time) (not observed in HI) AST—Atlantic standard time HST—Hawaii-Aleutian standard time AT—Atlantic time LST—local standard time CDT—central daylight time MDT—mountain daylight time CST—central standard time MST—mountain standard time CT—central time MT— mountain time DST—daylight saving (no “s”) time PDT—Pacifi c daylight time EDT—eastern daylight time PST—Pacifi c standard time EST—eastern standard time PT—Pacifi c time ET—eastern time UTC—coordinated universal time GCT—Greenwich civil time Acronyms and coined words 9.48. To obtain uniform treatment in the formation of acronyms and coined words, apply the formulas that follow: Use all capital letters when only the fi rst letter of each word or selected words is used to make up the symbol: APPR (Army package power reactor) EPCOT (Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow) MAG (Military Advisory Group) MIRV (multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle) SALT (strategic arms limitation talks); ( avoid SALT talks) STEP (supplemental training and employment program) Use all capital letters where fi rst letters of prefi xes and/or suffi xes are utilized as part of established expressions: c ardio p ulmonary r esuscitation) CPR ( ESP ( erception) xtra s ensory p e r FLIR ( orward- ooking i nfra f ed) l Copy must be followed where an acronym or abbreviated form is copyrighted or established by law: ACTION (agency of Government; not an acronym) MarAd ( Mar itime Ad ministration) N ational A ssociation of Co unties) NACo ( MEDLARS ( Med ical L iterature A nalysis and R etrieval S ystem) Use caps and lowercase when proper names are used in shortened form, any word chapter9.indd 234 chapter9.indd 234 2/4/09 3:48:38 PM 2/4/09 3:48:38 PM

249 Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 235 rst letter of each word: of which uses more than the fi Conrail (Consolidated Rail Corporation) Pepco (Potomac Electric Power Co.) Inco (International Nickel Co.) Aramco (Arabian-American Oil Co.) Unprofor (United Nations Protection Force) Use lowercase in common-noun combinations made up of more than the fi rst letter of lowercased words: loran ( l ong- r ange n avigation) sonar ( s ound n avigation r anging) s eparation c ontrol of a ircraft by n onsynchronous t echniques) secant ( 9.49. Th infra and supra are not abbreviated. e words Terms of measure Compass directions are abbreviated as follows: 9.50. N. S. ESE. NE. NNW. 10° N. 25° W. E. W. NW. by N. ¼ W. SW. 9.51. latitude longitude, followed by fi gures, are abbre- e words and Th viated in parentheses, brackets, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, and leaderwork, and the fi gures are always closed up. long. 13°21'10" E. lat. 52°33'05" N. 9.52. Avoid breaking latitude and longitude fi gures at end of line; space out line instead. In case of an unavoidable break at end of line, use hyphen. 9.53. gures. When the de- Temperature and gravity are expressed in fi gree mark is used, it must appear closed up to the capital letter, not against the fi gures. Note the following related abbreviations and let- ter symbols and their usages: API, American Petroleum abs, absolute Institute Bé, Baumé 1 2 Tw a d , Tw a d d e l l °C, degree Celsius 100 °C °F, degree Fahrenheit 1 212 °F °R, degree Rankine K, kelvin 671.67 °R 273.15 K 18 °API °A PI 1 gures preceding it, ̊ Without fi C or ̊ F should be used only in boxhead and over fi gure columns in tables. 2 Preferred form (superseding Centigrade). chapter9.indd 235 chapter9.indd 235 2/4/09 3:48:39 PM 2/4/09 3:48:39 PM

250 236 Chapter 9 9.54. References to meridian in statements of time are abbreviated as follows: not 10:00 a.m.) 10 a.m. ( 12 p.m. (12 noon) 12 a.m. (12 midnight) 2:30 p.m. 9.55. Th o’clock is not used with abbreviations of time. e word not 10 o’clock p.m. 9.56. Metric unit letter symbols are set lowercase roman unless the unit name has been derived from a proper name, in which case the fi rst letter of the symbol is capitalized (for example Pa for pascal and W for watt). Th e exception is the letter L for liter. Th e same form is used for singular and plural. Th e preferred symbol for cubic centimeter is 3; use cc only when requested. cm A space is used between a fi gure and a unit symbol except in the case of the symbols for degree, minute, and second of plane angle. 3 m 45 mm 25 °C but 33°15'21" Metric units Prefi xes for multiples and submultiples —1 18 ) d deci (10 ) m meter (for length) E exa (10 15 —2 P peta (10 ) gram (for weight or mass) ) c centi (10 g 12 —3 T tera (10 ) m milli (10 ) L liter (for capacity) 9 —6 G giga (10 ) μ micro (10 ) 6 —9 M mega (10 ) ) n nano (10 —12 3 k kilo (10 ) p pico (10 ) 2 —15 h hecto (10 ) ) f femto (10 —18 a d a dek a (10) at to (10 ) Volume Length Area 2 3 km kilometer km square kilometer km cubic kilometer 2 3 hm hectometer hm cubic hectometer square hectometer hm 2 3 dam decameter dam cubic dekameter square decameter dam 3 2 m meter m square meter m cubic meter 3 2 dm decimeter dm square decimeter dm cubic decimeter 2 3 cm centimeter cm square centimeter cm cubic centimeter 2 3 mm millimeter mm square millimeter mm cubic millimeter chapter9.indd 236 chapter9.indd 236 2/4/09 3:48:39 PM 2/4/09 3:48:39 PM

251 Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 237 Weight Capacity of containers Land area kL kiloliter kg kilogram ha hectare hg hectogram a acre hL hectoliter dag dekagram daL dekaliter L liter g gram dg decigram dL deciliter cg centigram cL centiliter mg milligram mL milliliter μg microgram 9.57. A similar form of abbreviation applies to any unit of the metric system. A ampere V volt mF millifarad voltampere watt mH millihenry VA W F farad kc kilocycle μF microfarad (one- Henry kV H millionth of a farad) kilovolt Hz Hertz kVA kilovoltampere J joule kW kilowatt 9.58. Th e following forms are used when units of English weight and measure and units of time are abbreviated, the same form of ab- breviation being used for both singular and plural: Length Area and volume 2 square inch in inch in 3 in foot ft cubic inch 2 yd yard mi square mile 3 mi mile (statute) ft cubic foot Time Weight Capacity yr year gill (not abbreviated) gr grain mo month dr dram pt pint d day oz ounce qt quart h hour lb pound gal gallon cwt hundredweight pk peck min minute s second dwt pennyweight bu bushel ton(s) (not abbreviated) bbl barrel but t metric ton (tonne) 9.59. c matter, magnitudes and units In astrophysical and similar scientifi of time may be expressed as follows: s h h m 9 4.5 3 5

252 238 Chapter 9 Money e following are some of the abbreviations and symbols used for 9.60. Th indicating money: (For the abbreviations of other terms indicating currency, see the table “Currency” in Chapter 17 “Useful Tables.”) $, dol (dollar) Mex $2,650 ₧ (peso) c, ct, ¢ (cent, cents) TRL175 (Turkish) £ (pound) d (pence) USD15,000 € (euro) Use “USD” if omission would result in confusion. Standard word abbreviations If abbreviations are required, use these forms: 9.61. AFL–CIO—American Federation 2,4D (insecticide) of Labor and Congress of 3d—third Industrial Organizations 4 ̊—quarto AID—Agency for International 8 ̊—octavo Development A1 (rating) AIDS—acquired immuno- A.A.—Alcoholics Anonymous ciency syndrome defi AARP—American Association of a.k.a.—also known as Retired Persons A.L.R.—American Law Reports abbr.—abbreviation AM—amplitude modulation (no abs.—abstract periods) acct.—account A.M.—(anno mundi) in the year of ACDA—Arms Control and the world Disarmament Agency A.M. or M.A.—master of arts ACTH—adrenocor ticotropic a.m.—(ante meridiem) before noon hormone Am. Repts.—American Reports A.D.—(anno Domini) in the year Amtrak—National Railroad of our Lord (A.D. 937) Passenger Corporation ADDH—attention defi cit disorder AMVETS—American Veterans of with hyperactivity World War II; Amvet(s) ADHD—attention defi cit hyper- (indiv idua l) activity disorder antilog—antilogarithm (no period) AEF—American Expeditionary AOA—Administration on Aging Forces API—American Petroleum AF—audiofrequency Institute AFB—Air Force Base chapter9.indd 238 chapter9.indd 238 2/4/09 3:48:39 PM 2/4/09 3:48:39 PM

253 Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 239 BLM—Bureau of Land ce (no APO—Army post offi Management periods) BLS—Bureau of Labor Statistics App. D.C.—District of Columbia Blvd.—boulevard Appeal Cases b.o.—buyer’s option App. Div.—Appellate Division B.S. or B.Sc.—bachelor of science APPR—Army package power c. and s.c.—caps and small caps reactor ca.—(circa) about approx.—approximately ca—centiare ARC—American Red Cross CACM—Central American ARS—Agricultural Research Common Market Service CAD—computer-aided design ASCS—Agricultural Stabilization CAP—Civil Air Patrol and Conservation Service CARE—Cooperative for ASME—American Society of American Remittances to Mechanical Engineers Everywhere, Inc. A.S.N.—Army service number CAT scan—computerized axial ASTM—American Society for tomography Testing and Materials C.C.A.—Circuit Court of Appeals ATM—automatic teller machine CCC—Commodity Credit Atl.—Atlantic Reporter; A.2d, Corporation Atlantic Reporter, second CCITT—Consultative Committee series for International Telegraphy AUS—Army of the United States and Telephony Ave.—avenue C.Cls.—Court of Claims AWAC S — a i r b o r n e w a r n i n g a n d C.Cls.R.—Court of Claims Reports control system C.C.P.A.—Court of Customs and AWOL—absent without leave Patents Appeals B.A. or A.B.—bachelor of arts CCR—Commission on Civil Rights BBB—Better Business Bureau CDC—Centers for Disease Control B.C.—before Christ (1200 B.C.) and Prevention B.C.E.—Before Common Era C.E.—Common Era BCG—(bacillus Calmette-Guerin) CEA—Council of Economic antituberculosis vaccine Advisers bf.—boldface cf.—(confer) compare or see not of ) BGN—Board on ( CFR—Code of Federal Regulations Geographic Names CFR Supp.—Code of Federal airs BIA—Bureau of Indian Aff Regulations Supplement BIS—Bank for International CHAMPUS—Civilian Health Settlements and Medical Program of the Blatch. Pr. Cas.—Blatchford’s Uniformed Services Prize Cases CIA—Central Intelligence Agency Bldg.—building CIC—Counterintelligence Corps B. Lit(t). or Lit(t).B.—bachelor of C.J.—(corpus juris) body of law; literature Chief Justice

254 240 Chapter 9 DHS—Department of Homeland CNN—Cable News Network Security cer CO—commanding offi Dist. Ct.—District Court Co.—company (commercial) D.Lit(t). or Lit(t).D.—doctor of c.o.d.—cash on delivery literature COLA—cost-of-living adjustment DNC—Domestic Names Comp. Dec.—Comptroller’s Committee (BGN) Decisions (Treasury) do.—(ditto) the same Comp. Gen.—Comptroller DOC—Department of Commerce General Decisions DOD—Department of Defense con.—continued DOE—Department of Energy conelrad—control of DOJ—Department of Justice electromagnetic radiation DOL—Department of Labor (civil defense) DOS—Department of State Conus—continental United States DOT—Department of Corp.—corporation (commercial) Tra nspor tat ion cos—cosine (no period) DP—displaced person (no period) cosh—hyperbolic cosine (no D.P.H.—doctor of public health period) D.P.Hy.—doctor of public hygiene cot—cotangent (no period) DPT—diphtheria, pertussis, coth—hyperbolic cotangent (no tetanus innoculation period) dr.—debit; debtor c.p.—chemically pure Dr.—doctor; drive C.P.A.—certifi ed public d.s.t.—daylight saving (no “s”) time accountant D.V.M.—doctor of veterinary CPI—Consumer Price Index medicine CPR—cardiopulmonary E.—east resuscitation EDGAR—Electronic Data cr.—credit; creditor Gathering, Analysis and C–SPAN—Cable Satellite Public Retrieval (SEC) airs Network Aff EEOC—Equal Employment csc—cosecant (no period) Opportunity Commission csch—hyperbolic cosecant (no EFTA—European Free Trade period) Association Ct.—court EFTS—electronic funds transfer Dall.—Dallas (U.S. Supreme system Court Reports) e.g.—(exempli gratia) for example DAR—Daughters of the American EHF—extremely high frequency Revolution emcee—master of ceremony d.b.a.—doing business as e.o.m.—end of month d.b.h.—diameter at breast height EOP—Executive Offi ce of the D.D.—doctor of divinity President D.D.S.—doctor of dental surgery EPA—Environmental Protection DDT—dichlorodiphenyl- Agency trichloroethane chapter9.indd 240 chapter9.indd 240 2/4/09 3:48:39 PM 2/4/09 3:48:39 PM

255 Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 241 FHA—Federal Housing et al.—(et alii) and others Administration et seq.—(et sequentia) and the FmHA—Farmers Home following Administration etc.—(et cetera) and so forth FHLBB—Federal Home Loan EU—European Union Bank Board Euratom—European Atomic FHWA—Federal Highway Energy Community Administration Euro—currency (common) FICA—Federal Insurance Eurodollars—U.S. dollars used to Contributions Act fi nance foreign trade FLSA—Fair Labor Standards Act Ex. Doc. (with letter)—executive FM—frequency modulation document FMC—Federal Maritime Ex-Im Bank—Export-Import Commission Bank of the United States FMCS—Federal Mediation and .—and following page (pages) f., ff Conciliation Service FA A—Federa l Av iat ion FNMA—Federal National Administration Mortgage Association FAC S —Fac u lt y of t he A mer ic a n (Fannie Mae) College of Surgeons FNS—Food and Nutrition Service FAO —Food a nd Ag r ic u lt u re f ̊—folio Organization f.o.b.—free on board f.a.s.—free alongside ship FPC—Federal Power Commission FAS —Foreig n Ag r ic u lt u ra l ce (no periods) FPO—fl eet post offi Service FR—Federal Register FBI—Federal Bureau of (publication) Investigation FRG—Federal Republic of FCA—Farm Credit Germany Administration FRS—Federal Reserve System FCC—Federal Communications FS—Forest Service Commission FSLIC—Federal Savings and Loan FCIC—Federal Crop Insurance Insurance Corporation Corporation FSS—Federal Supply Service FCSC—Foreign Claims F.Supp.—Federal Supplement Settlement Commission FTC—Federal Trade Commission FDA—Food and Drug FWS—Fish and Wildlife Service Administration GAO—Government FDIC—Federal Deposit Insurance ce Accountability Offi Corporation GATT—General Agreement on FDLP—Federal Depository s and Trade Ta r i ff Library Program GDR—German Democratic Fed.—Federal Reporter; F.3d, Republic Federal Reporter, third series GI—general issue; Government FEOF—Foreign Exchange issue Operations Fund chapter9.indd 241 chapter9.indd 241 2/4/09 3:48:39 PM 2/4/09 3:48:39 PM

256 242 Chapter 9 IADB—Inter-American Defense GIS—Geographic Information Board System IAEA—International Atomic G.M.&S.—general, medical, and Energy Agency surgical ibid.—(ibidem) in the same place GNMA—Government National ICBM—intercontinental ballistic Mortgage Association missile (Ginnie Mae) id.—(idem) the same GNP—gross national product IDA—International Development Gov.—Governor Association GPO—Government Printing IDE—integrated drive electronics Offi ce i.e.—(id est) that is GPS—Global Positioning System IEEE—Institute of Electrical and gr. wt.—gross weight Electronic Engineers GSA—General Services IF—intermediate frequency (no Administration periods) GSE—Government-Sponsored IFC—International Finance Enterprise Corporation H.C.—House of Commons IMCO—Intergovernmental H. Con. Res. (with number)— Maritime Consultative House concurrent resolution Organization H. Doc. (with number)—House IMF—International Monetary document Fund hazmat—hazardous material Insp. Gen. (also IG)—inspector nition television HDTV—high defi general HE—high explosive (no periods) Interpol—International Criminal HF—high frequency (no periods) Police Organization HHS—Health and Human IOU—I owe you Services (Department of) IQ—intelligence quotient HIV—human immunodefi ciency IRA—individual retirement virus account H.J. Res. (with number)—House IRBM—intermediate range joint resolution ballistic missile HMO—health-maintenance IRE—Institute of Radio Engineers organization IRO—International Refugee HOV—high-occupancy vehicle Organization How.—Howard (U.S. Supreme IRS—Internal Revenue Service Court Reports) ISO—International Standards H.R. (with number)—House bill Organization H. Rept. (with number)—House ITO—International Trade report Organization H. Res. (with number)—House ITU—International resolution Telecommunications Union HUD—Housing and Urban JAG—Judge Advocate General Development (Department of ) chapter9.indd 242 chapter9.indd 242 2/4/09 3:48:39 PM 2/4/09 3:48:39 PM

257 Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 243 M.D.—doctor of medicine jato—jet-assisted takeoff MDAP—Mutual Defense J.D.—(jurum or juris doctor) Assistance Program doctor of laws MediCal—Medicaid California JOBS—Job Opportunities in the memo—memorandum Business Sector MF—medium frequency; JIT—just in time microfi che Jpn.—Japan or Japanese where MFN—most favored nation necessary to abbreviate MIA—missing in action (plural Jr.—junior MIA’s) Judge Adv. Gen.—Judge Advocate MIRV—multiple independently General targetable reentry vehicle LAFTA—Latin American Free Misc. Doc. (with number)— Trade Association miscellaneous document lat.—latitude Mlle.—mademoiselle LC—Library of Congress Mme.—madam LCD—liquid crystal display Mmes.—mesdames lc.—lowercase mo.—month L.Ed.—Lawyer’s edition (U.S. MOS—military occupational Supreme Court Reports) specialty liq.—liquid M.P.—Member of Parliament lf.—lightface MP—military police LF—low frequency Mr.—mister (plural Messrs.) LL.B.—bachelor of laws MRI—magnetic resonance LL.D.—doctor of laws imaging loc. cit.—(loco citato) in the place Mrs.—mistress cited Ms.—feminine title (plural Mses.) log (no period)—logarithm M.S.—master of science long.—longitude MS.—MSS., manuscript, loran (no periods)—long-range manuscripts navigation Command MSC—Military Sealift lox (no periods)—liquid oxygen Msgr.—monsignor ed petroleum gas LPG—liquefi m.s.l.—mean sea level Ltd.—limited National MSNBC—Microsoft Lt. Gov.—lieutenant governor Broadcasting Co. M—money supply: M1, M2, etc. MTN—multilateral trade M.—monsieur; MM., messieurs negotiations m.—(meridies) noon N.—north M—more NA—not available; not applicable MAC—Military Airlift Command NACo.—National Association of MAG—Military Advisory Group Counties MarAd—Maritime NAFTA—North American Free Administration Trade Ag reement MC—Member of Congress (emcee, master of ceremonies) chapter9.indd 243 chapter9.indd 243 2/4/09 3:48:40 PM 2/4/09 3:48:40 PM

258 244 Chapter 9 cally provided n.s.p.f.—not specifi NAS—National Academy of for Sciences NW.—northwest NASA—National Aeronautics and OAPEC— Orga nization of Arab Space Administration Petroleum Exporting NATO—North Atlantic Treaty Countries Organization OAS — Orga nization of A merica n NCUA—National Credit Union States Administration OASDHI— Old-Age, Sur v ivors, NE.—northeast Disability, and Health n.e.c.—not elsewhere classifi ed Insurance Program n.e.s.—not elsewhere specifi ed OASI— Old-Age a nd Sur v ivors net wt.—net weight Insurance N.F.—National Formulary OCD—Offi ce of Civil Defense NFAH—National Foundation on OD—offi cer of the day the Arts and the Humanities OD—overdose; Odd, overdosed NIH—National Institutes of O.D.—doctor of optometry Health OECD—Organization for NIST—National Institute of Economic Cooperation and Standards and Technology Development n.l.—natural log or logarithm OK—Oked, Oking, Oks NLRB—National Labor Relations OMB—Offi ce of Management and Board Budget NNTP—Network News Transfer Op. Atty. Gen.—Opinions of the Protocol Attorney General No.—Nos., number, numbers op. cit.—(opere citato) in the work NOAA—National Oceanic and cited Atmospheric Administration OPEC—Organization of n.o.i.b.n.—not otherwise indexed Petroleum Exporting by name Countries n.o.p.—not otherwise provided OSD—Offi ce of the Secretary of (for) Defense ed n.o.s.—not otherwise specifi OTC—Organization for Trade NOVS—National Offi ce of Vital Cooperation Statistics PA—public address system NPS—National Park Service Pac.—Pacifi c Reporter; P.2d, NRC—Nuclear Regulatory c Reporter, second Pacifi Commission series NS—nuclear ship PAC—political action committee NSA—National Security (plural PAC’s) Agency Passed Asst. Surg.—passed NSC—National Security Council assistant surgeon NSF—National Science PBS—Public Building Service Foundation PCV—Peace Corps Volunteer ed by kind n.s.k.—not specifi

259 Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 245 Rev.—reverend Pet.—Peters (U.S. Supreme Court Rev. Stat.—Revised Statutes Reports) RF—radiofrequency Ph—phenyl R.F.D.—rural free delivery Phar.D.—doctor of pharmacy Rh—Rhesus (blood factor) Ph.B. or B.Ph.—bachelor of RIF—reduction(s) in force; RIFed, philosophy RIFing, RIFs Ph.D. or D.Ph.—doctor of R.N.—registered nurse philosophy ROTC—Reserve Offi cers’ Ph.G.—graduate in pharmacy Tra ining Cor ps PHS—Public Health Service RR.—railroad PIN—personal identifi cation RRB—Railroad Retirement Board number Rt. Rev.—right reverend Pl.—place Ry.—railway er noon p.m.—(post meridiem) aft S.—south; Senate bill (with post P.O. Box (with number)— but number) offi ce box (in general sense) SAC—Strategic Air Command POP—Point of Presence; Post SAE—Society of Automotive Offi ce Protocol Engineers POW—prisoner of war (plural S&L(s)—savings and loan(s) POWs) SALT—strategic arms limitation PTSD—post-traumatic-stress talks disorder SAR—Sons of the American Private Res. (with number)— Revolution private resolution SBA—Small Business Prof.—professor Administration pro tem—(pro tempore) sc.—(sci licet) na mely (see a lso ss) temporarily s.c.—small caps P.S.—(post scriptum) postscript; S. Con. Res. (with number)— public school (with number) Senate concurrent resolution PTA—parent-teachers’ association s.d.—(sine die) without date Public Res. (with number)—public SDI—Strategic Defense Initiative resolution S. Doc. (with number)—Senate PX—post exchange document QT—on the quiet SE.—southeast racon—radar beacon SEATO—Southeast Asia Treaty radar—radio detection and Organization ranging SEC—Securities and Exchange R&D—research and development Commission rato—rocket-assisted takeoff sec—secant Rd.—road sech—hyperbolic secant RDT&E—research, development, 2d—second testing, and evaluation SHF—superhigh frequency REA—Rural Electrifi cation shoran—short range (radio) Administration chapter9.indd 245 chapter9.indd 245 2/4/09 3:48:40 PM 2/4/09 3:48:40 PM

260 246 Chapter 9 SWAT—special weapons and SI—Systeme International d’Unités tactics (team) sic—thus T.—Tps., township, townships sin—sine tan—tangent sinh—hyperbolic sine tann—hyperbolic tangent S.J. Res. (with number)—Senate TB—tuberculosis joint resolution T.D.—Trea su r y Decisions sonar—sound, navigation, and TDY—temporary duty ranging (no period) Te r.— t e r r a c e SOP—standard operating t.m.—true mean procedure TNT—trinitrotoluol SOS—wireless distress signal TV—television SP—shore patrol TVA—Tennessee Valley Authority SPAR—Coast Guard Women’s uc.—uppercase Reserve ( s emper p aratus— UHF—ultrahigh frequency a eady) lways r UMTA—Urban Mass c gravity sp. gr.—specifi Tra nspor tat ion Sq.—square (street) Administration Sr.—senior U.N.—United Nations S. Rept. (with number)—Senate UNESCO—United Nations report Educational, Scientifi c, and S. Res. (with number)—Senate Cultural Organization resolution UNICEF—United Nations SS—steamship Children’s Fund ss—(scilicet) namely (in law) (see U.S.—U.S. Supreme Court Reports also sc.) U.S.A.—United States of America SSA—Social Security USA—U.S. Army Administration USAF—U.S. Air Force SSS—Selective Service System U.S.C.—United States Code St.—Ste., SS., Saint, Sainte, Saints U.S.C.A.—United States Code St.—street Annotated Stat.—Statutes at Large U.S.C. Supp.—United States Code STP—standard temperature and Supplement pressure USCG—U.S. Coast Guard Sup. Ct.—Supreme Court USDA—U.S. Department of Reporter Agriculture Supp. Rev. Stat.—Supplement to USES—U.S. Employment Service the Revised Statutes U.S. 40—U.S. No. 40, U.S. Supt.—superintendent Highway No. 40 Surg.—surgeon USGS—U.S. Geological Survey Surg. Gen.—Surgeon General USIA—U.S. Information Agency SW.—southwest USMC—U.S. Marine Corps S.W.2d—Southwestern Reporter, USN—U.S. Navy second series chapter9.indd 246 chapter9.indd 246 2/4/09 3:48:40 PM 2/4/09 3:48:40 PM

261 Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 247 w.a.e.—when actua lly employed USNR—U.S. Naval Reserve Wa l l.—Wa l lace (U. S . Supreme U.S.P.—United States Court Reports) Pharmacopeia wf—wrong font USPS—U.S. Postal Service Wheat.—Wheaton (U.S. Supreme U.S.S.—U.S. Senate Court Reports) v. or vs.—(versus) against WHO—World Health VA — D e p a r t m e n t o f Ve t e r a n s Organization airs Aff WIPO—World Intellectual VAT—value added tax Property Organization VCR—video cassette recorder WMAL—WRC, etc., radio stations VHF—very high frequency w.o.p.—w it hout pay VIP—very important person Yale L.J.—Yale Law Journal viz—(videlicet) namely ZIP Code—Zone Improvement VLF—very low frequency Plan Code (Postal Service) VTR—video tape recording ZIP+4—9-digit ZIP Code W.—we s t Standard letter symbols for units of measure Th e same form is used for singular and plural senses. 9.62. Bd—baud A—ampere bd. ft .—board foot (obsolete); use fb m Å—angstrom Bé—Baumé a—are Bev (obsolete); see GeV a—atto (prefi x, one-quintillionth) Bhn—Brinell hardness number aA—attoampere bhp—brake horsepower abs—absolute (temperature and bm—board measure gravity) bp—boiling point ac—alternating current Btu—British thermal unit AF—audiofrequency bu—bushel Ah—ampere-hour c—¢, ct; cent(s) A/m—ampere per meter c—centi (prefi x, one-hundredth) AM—amplitude modulation C—coulomb asb—apostilb °C—degree Celsius At—ampere-turn cal—calorie (also: cal at—atmosphere, technical , International IT atm—atmosphere Table ; c a l —thermochemical) th at wt—atomic weight cd/in2—candela per square inch au—astronomical units cd/m2—candela per square meter avdp—avoirdupois cg—centigram b—barn cd•h—candela-hour B—bel Ci—curie b—bit cL—centiliter bbl—barrel cm—centimeter bbl/d—barrel per day c/m—cycles per minute chapter9.indd 247 chapter9.indd 247 2/4/09 3:48:40 PM 2/4/09 3:48:40 PM

262 248 Chapter 9 FM—frequency modulation cm2—square centimeter ft —foot cm3—cubic centimeter ft 2—square foot cmil—circular mil ft 3—cubic foot cp—candlepower ft H cP—centipoise O—conventional foot of water 2 cSt—centistokes ft •lb—foot-pound cwt—hundredweight ft •lbf—foot-pound force D—darcy ft /min—foot per minute d—day ft 2/min—square foot per minute d—deci (prefi x, one-tenth) ft 3/min—cubic foot per minute d—pence ft -pdl—foot poundal x, 10) da—deka (prefi ft /s—foot per second dag—dekagram ft 2/s—square foot per second daL—dekaliter ft 3/s—cubic foot per second dam—dekameter ft /s2—foot per second squared dam2—square dekameter ft /s3—foot per second cubed dam3—cubic dekameter G—gauss dB—decibel G—giga (prefi x, 1 billion) dBu—decibel unit g—gram; acceleration of gravity dc—direct current Gal—gal cm/s2 dg—decigram gal—gallon dL—deciliter gal/min—gallons per minute dm—decimeter gal/s—gallons per second dm2—square decimeter GB—gigabyte dm3—cubic decimeter Gb—gilbert dol—dollar g/cm3—gram per cubic centimeter doz—dozen GeV—gigaelectronvolt dr—dram GHz—gigahertz (gigacycle per second) dwt—deadweight tons gr—grain; gross dwt—pennyweight x, 100) h—hecto (prefi dyn—dyne H—henry EHF—extremely high frequency h—hour emf—electromotive force ha—hectare emu—electromagnetic unit HF—high frequency erg—erg hg—hectogram esu—electrostatic unit hL—hectoliter eV— elec t ronvolt hm—hectometer °F—degree Fahrenheit hm2—square hectometer F—farad hm3—cubic hectometer f—femto (prefi x, one-quadrillionth) hp—horsepower fb m—board foot; board foot measure hph—horsepower-hour fc—footcandle Hz—hertz (cycles per second) fL—footlambert id—inside diameter fm—fentometer ihp—indicated horsepower chapter9.indd 248 chapter9.indd 248 2/4/09 3:48:40 PM 2/4/09 3:48:40 PM

263 Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 249 3—pound-force per cubic foot lbf/ft in—inch lbf/in2—pound-force per square inch in2—square inch psi) (see in3—cubic inch —pound per foot lb/ft in/h—inch per hour 2—pound per square foot lb/ft inH O—conventional inch of water 2 3—pound per cubic foot lb/ft inHg—conventional inch of mercury lct—long calcined ton in-lb—inch-pound ldt—long dry ton in/s—inch per second LF—low frequency J—joule lin ft —linear foot J/K—joule per kelvin l/m—lines per minute K—k ayser lm—lumen K—kelvin (use without degree symbol) lm/ft 2—lumen per square foot x, 1,000) k—k i lo (prefi lm/m2—lumen per square meter k—thousand (7k=7,000) lm•s—lumen second kc—kilocycle; see also kHz (kilohertz), lm/W—lumen per watt kilocycles per second l/s—lines per second kcal—kilocalorie L/s—liter per second keV—kiloelectronvolt lx—lux kG—kilogauss x, 1 million) M—mega (prefi kg—kilogram M—million (3 M=3 million) kgf—kilogram-force m—meter kHz—kilohertz (kilocycles per second) x, one-thousandth) m—milli (prefi kL—kiloliter M1—monetary aggregate klbf—kilopound-force m2—square meter km—kilometer m3—cubic meter km2—square kilometer x, one-millionth) μ—micro (prefi km3—cubic kilometer μm—micrometer km/h—kilometer per hour mA—milliampere kn—knot (speed) μA—microampere kΩ—kilohm MB—megabyte kt—kiloton; carat mbar—millibar kV—k ilovolt μbar—microbar kVA—kilovoltampere Mc—megacycle; see also MHz kvar—kilovar (megahertz), megacycles per kW—kilowatt second kWh—kilowatthour mc—millicycle; see also mHz L—lambert (millihertz), millicycles per L—liter second lb—pound mD—millidarcy lb ap—apothecary pound meq—milliquivalent lb—avdp, avoirdupois pound MeV—megaelectronvolts lbf—pound-force mF—millifarad lbf/ft —pound-force foot μF—microfarad 2—pound-force per square foot lbf/ft

264 250 Chapter 9 x, one-billionth) n—nano (prefi mG—milligauss N—newton mg—milligram nA—nanoampere μg—microgram nF—nanofarad Mgal/d—million gallons per day N•m—newton meter mH—millihenry 2 N/m μH—microhenry —newton per square meter MHz—megahertz nmi—nautical mile mHz—millihertz Np—neper mi—mile (statute) ns—nanosecond 2 mi2—square mile N•s/m —newton second per square mi/gal—mile(s) per gallon meter mi/h—mile(s) per hour nt—nit mil—mil od—outside diameter min—minute (time) Oe—oersted (use of A/m, amperes per μin—microinch meter, preferred) mL—milliliter oz—ounce (avoirdupois) mm—millimeter x, one-trillionth) p—pico (prefi mm2—square millimeter P—poise mm3—cubic millimeter Pa—pascal μm2—square micrometer pA—picoampere μm3—cubic micrometer pct—percent μμ—micromicron (use of compound pdl—poundal prefi xes obsolete; use pm, pF—picofarad (micromicrofarad, picometer) obsolete) μμf—micromicrofarad (use of pF—water-holding energy compound prefi xes obsolete; use pH—hydrogen-ion concentration pF) ph—phot; phase mmHg—conventional millimeter of pk—peck, mercury p/m—parts per million mΩ—megohm ps—picosecond mo—month psi—pounds per square inch mol—mole (unit of substance) pt—pint mol wt—molecular weight pW—picowat t mp—melting point qt—quart 15 ms—millisecond quad—quadrillion (10 ) μs—microsecond °R—rankine Mt—megaton °R—roentgen mV—m i l l i v o l t R—degree rankine μV—m ic rovolt R—degree reaumur MW—megawatt rad—radian mW—m i l l iw at t rd—rad μW—microwat t rem—roentgen equivalent man MWd/t—megawatt-days per ton r/min—revolutions per minute Mx—maxwell rms—root mean square chapter9.indd 250 chapter9.indd 250 2/4/09 3:48:40 PM 2/4/09 3:48:40 PM

265 Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 251 tsp—teaspoonful r/s—revolutions per second Twad—twaddell s—second (time) u—(unifi ed) atomic mass unit s—shilling UHF—ultrahigh frequency S—siemens V—volt sb—stilb VA — v o l t a m p e r e scp—spherical candlepower var—var —second-foot s•ft VHF—very high frequency shp—shaft horsepower V/m—volt p er me ter slug—slug W—wat t sr—steradian Wb—weber sSf—standard saybolt fural Wh—watthour sSu—standard saybolt universal W/(m•K)—watt per meter kelvin stdft 3—standard cubic foot (feet) W/sr—watt per steradian Sus—saybolt universal second(s) W/(sr•m2)—watt per steradian square T—t e r a (pre fi x, 1 trillion) meter Tft 3—trillion cubic feet x —unknown quantity (italic) T—t e s l a yd—yard t—tonne (metric ton) yd2—square yard tbsp—tablespoonful yd3—cubic yard thm—therm yr—year ton—ton Standard Latin abbreviations 9.63. When Latin abbreviations are used, follow this list. ad inf.—ad infi nitum, to infi nity a.—annus, year; ante, before ad init.—ad initium, at the beginning A.A.C.—anno ante, Christum in the ad int.—ad interim, in the meantime year before Christ ad lib.—ad libitum, at pleasure A.A.S.—Academiae Americanae ad loc.—ad locum, at the place Socius, Fellow of the American ad val.—ad valorem, according to Academy [Academy of Arts and A.I.—anno inventionis, in the year of Sciences] the discovery A.B.—artium baccalaureus, bachelor al.—alia, alii, other things, other of arts persons ab init.—ab initio, from the beginning A.M.—anno mundi, in the year of the abs. re.—absente reo, the defendant world; Annus mirabilis, the being absent wonderful year [1666]; a.m., ante A.C.—ante Christum, before Christ meridiem, before noon A.D.—anno Domini, in the year of our an.—anno, in the year; ante, before Lord ann.—annales, annals; anni, years a.d.—ante diem, before the day A.R.S.S.—Antiquariorum Regiae nem, at the end, to one end n.—ad fi ad fi Societatis Socius, Fellow of the ad h.l.—ad hunc locum, to this place, Royal Society of Antiquaries on this passage

266 252 Chapter 9 dwt.—d. for denarius, wt. for weight A.U.C.—anno urbis conditae, ab pennyweight urbe conolita, in [the year from] e.g.—exempli gratia, for example the building of the City [Rome], et al.—et alibi, and elsewhere; et alii, or 753 B.C. aliae, and others B.A.—baccalaureus artium, bachelor etc.—et cetera, and others, and so forth of arts et seq.—et sequentes, and those that B. Sc.—baccalaureus scientiae, follow bachelor of science et ux.—et uxor, and wife C.—centum, a hundred; condemno, I lius, son F.—fi nd guilty condemn, fi at, let it be made; forte, strong f.—fi c.—circa, about fac.—factum similis, facsimile, an cent.—centum, a hundred exact copy cf.—confer, compare fasc.—fasciculus, a bundle C.M.—chirurgiae magister, master of owers; fl ores, fl oruit, fl ourished; fl .—fl surgery fl uid uidus, fl coch.—cochlear, a spoon, spoonful f.r.—folio recto, right-hand page coch. amp.—cochlear amplum, a F.R .S.—Fraternitatis Regiae Socius, tablespoonful Fellow of the Royal Society coch. mag.—cochlear magnum, a large f.v.—folio verso, on the back of the leaf spoonful guttat.—guttatim, by drops coch. med.—cochlear medium, a H.—hora, hour dessert spoonful h.a.—hoc anno, in this year; hujus coch. parv.—cochlear parvum, a anni, this year’s teaspoonful hab. corp.—habeas corpus, have the con.—contra, against; conjunx, wife body—a writ C.P.S.—custos privati sigilli, keeper of h.e.—hic est, this is; hoc est, that is the privy seal h.m.—hoc mense, in this month; huius C.S.—custos sigilli, keeper of the seal mensis, this month’s cwt.—c. for centum, wt. for weight, h.q.—hoc quaere, look for this hundredweight H.R.I.P.—hic requiescat in pace, here D.—Deus, God; Dominus, Lord; d., rests in peace decretum, a decree; denarius, a H.S.—hic sepultus, here is buried; hic penny; da, give situs, here lies; h.s., hoc sensu, in D.D.—divinitatis doctor, doctor of this sense divinity H.S.S.—Historiae Societatis Socius, D.G.—Dei gratia, by the grace of God; Fellow of the Historical Society Deo gratias, thanks to God h.t.—hoc tempore, at this time; hoc D.N.—Dominus noster, our Lord titulo, in or under this title D. Sc.—doctor scientiae, doctor of I—Idus, the Ides; i., id, that; science immortalis, immortal d.s.p.—decessit sine prole, died ib. or ibid.—ibidem, in the same place without issue id.—idem, the same D.V.—Deo volente, God willing i.e.—id est, that is chapter9.indd 252 chapter9.indd 252 2/4/09 3:48:41 PM 2/4/09 3:48:41 PM

267 Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 253 loq.—loquitur, he, or she, speaks imp.—imprimatur, sanction, let it be L.S.—locus sigilli, the place of the seal printed l.s.c.—loco supra citato, in the place I.N.D.—in nomine Dei, in the name of above cited God £ s. d.—librae, solidi, denarii, pounds, in f.—in fi ne, at the end shillings, pence inf.—infra, below M.—magister, master; manipulus, init.—initio, in the beginning handful; medicinae, of medicine; in lim.—in limine, on the threshold, at m., meridies, noon the outset M.A.—magister artium, master of arts in loc.—in loco, in its place M.B.—medicinae baccalaureus, in loc. cit.—in loco citato, in the place bachelor of medicine cited M. Ch.—magister chirurgiae, master in pr.—in principio, in the beginning of surgery in trans.—in transitu, on the way M.D.—medicinae doctor, doctor of i.q.—idem quod, the same as medicine i.q.e.d.—id quod erat demonstrandum, m.m.—mutatis mutandis, with the what was to be proved necessary changes J.—judex, judge m.n.—mutato nomine, the name being J.C.D.—juris civilis doctor, doctor of changed civil law MS.—manuscriptum, manuscript; J.D.—jurum or juris doctor, doctor of MSS., manuscripta, manuscripts laws Mus. B.—musicae baccalaureus, J.U.D.—juris utriusque doctor, doctor bachelor of music of both civil and canon law Mus. D.—musicae doctor, doctor of L.—liber, a book; locus, a place music gures £—libra, pound; placed before fi Mus. M.—musicae magister, master of thus £10; if l., to be placed aft er, as music 401. N.—Nepos, grandson; nomen, name; L.A.M.—liberalium artium magister, nomina, names; noster, our; n., master of the liberal arts natus, born; nocte, at night L.B.—baccalaureus literarum, N.B.—nota bene, mark well bachelor of letters ni. pri.—nisi prius, unless before lb.—libra, pound (singular and plural) nob.—nobis, for (or on) our part L.H.D.—literarum humaniorum nol. pros.—nolle prosequi, will not doctor, doctor of the more prosecute humane letters non cul.—non culpabilis, not guilty Litt. D.—literarum doctor, doctor of n.l.—non licet, it is not permitted; non letters liquet, it is not clear; non longe, LL.B.—legum baccalaureus, bachelor not far of laws non obs.—non obstante, LL.D.—legum doctor, doctor of laws notwithstanding LL.M.—legum magister, master of non pros.—non prosequitur, he does laws not prosecute loc. cit.—loco citato, in the place cited chapter9.indd 253 chapter9.indd 253 2/4/09 3:48:41 PM 2/4/09 3:48:41 PM

268 254 Chapter 9 q. pl.—quantum placet, as much as non seq.—non sequitur, it does not seems good follow logically cit, suffi cient q.s.—quantum suffi O.—octarius, a pint quantity ob.—obiit, he, or she, died; obiter, q.v.—quantum vis, as much as you incidentally will; quem, quam, quod vide, ob. s.p.—obiit sine prole, died without which see; qq. v., quos, quas, or issue quae vide, which see (plural) o.c.—opere citato, in the work cited R.—regina, queen; recto, right-hand op.—opus, work; opera, works page; respublica, commonwealth op. cit.—opere citato, in the work cited  —recipe, take P.—papa, pope; pater, father; pontifex, R.I.P.—requiescat, or requiescant, in bishop; populus, people; p., pace, may he, she, or they, rest in partim, in part; per, by, for; pius, peace holy; pondere, by weight; post, R.P.D.—rerum politicarum doctor, aft rst; pro, for er; primus, fi doctor of political science p.a.—or per ann., per annum, yearly; R.S.S.—Regiae Societatis Sodalis, pro anno, for the year Fellow of the Royal Society p. ae.—partes aequales, equal parts S.—sepultus, buried; situs, lies; pass.—passim, everywhere societas, society; socius or percent.—per centum, by the hundred sodalis, fellow; s., semi, half; pil.—pilula, pill solidus, shilling Ph. B.—philosophiae baccalaureus, s.a.—sine anno, without date; bachelor of philosophy secundum artem, according to P.M.—post mortem, aft er death art p.m.—post meridiem, aft ernoon S.A.S.—Societatis Antiquariorum pro tem.—pro tempore, for the time Socius, Fellow of the Society of being Antiquaries prox.—proximo, in or of the next sc.—scilicet, namely; sculpsit, he, or [mont h] she, carved or engraved it P.S.—postscriptum, postscript; P.SS., Sc. B.—scientiae baccalaureus, postscripta, postscripts bachelor of science q.d.—quasi dicat, as if one should say; Sc. D.—scientiae doctor, doctor of quasi dictum, as if said; quasi science dixisset, as if he had said S.D.—salutem dicit, sends greetings q.e.—quod est, which is s.d.—sine die, indefi nitely Q.E.D.—quod erat demonstrandum, sec.—secundum, according to which was to be demonstrated sec. leg.—secundum legem, according Q.E.F.—quod erat faciendum, which to law was to be done sec. nat.—secundum naturam, Q.E.I.—quod erat inveniendum, which according to nature, or naturally was to be found out sec. reg.—secundum regulam, q.l.—quantum libet, as much as you according to rule please chapter9.indd 254 chapter9.indd 254 2/4/09 3:48:41 PM 2/4/09 3:48:41 PM

269 Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 255 S.T.D.—sacrae theologiae doctor, seq.—sequens, sequentes, sequentia, doctor of sacred theology the following S.T.P.—sacrae theologiae professor, S.H.S.—Societatis Historiae Socius, professor of sacred theology Fellow of the Historical Society sub.—subaudi, understand, supply s.h.v.—sub hac voce or sub hoc verbo, sup.—supra, above under this word t. or temp.—tempore, in the time of s.l.a.n.—sine loco, anno, vel nomine, tal. qual.—talis qualis, just as they without place, date, or name come; average quality s.l.p.—sine legitima prole, without U.J.D.—utriusque juris doctor, doctor lawful issue of both civil and canon law s.m.p.—sine mascula prole, without ult.—ultimo, last month (may be male issue abbreviated in writing but should s.n.—sine nomine, without name be spelled out in printing) s.p.—sine prole, without issue ung.—unguentum, ointment S.P.A.S.—Societatis Philosophiae u.s.—ubi supra, in the place above Americanae Socius, Fellow of the mentioned American Philosophical Society ut dict.—ut dictum, as directed s.p.s.—sine prole superstite, without ut sup.—ut supra, as above surviving issue ux.—uxor, wife S.R.S.—Societatis Regiae Socius or v.—versus, against; vide, see; voce, Sodalis, Fellow of the Royal voice, word Society v. —— a., vixit —— annos—lived [so ss—scilicet, namely (in law) many] years S.S.C.—Societas Sanctae Crucis, verb. sap.—verbum [satis] sapienti, a Society of the Holy Cross word to the wise suffi ces stat.—statim, immediately v.g.—verbi gratia, for example S.T.B.—sacrae theologiae viz—videlicet, namely baccalaureus, bachelor of sacred v.s.—vide supra, see above theology Information technology acronyms and initialisms 9.64. If abbreviations are required, use these forms: AES—advanced encryption standard AARP—Apple Address Resolution le format AIFF—audio interchange fi Protocol AIP—Archival Information Package ABLS—Automated Bid List System AIS—Archival Information Storage ABM—asynchronous balanced mode ANSI—American National Standards cates for ACES—access cer tifi Institute electronic services AP—access processor ACP—Access Content Package ARK—archival resource key ACS—Access Content Storage ARP—address resolution protocol ACSIS—Acquisition, Classifi cation, ASCII—American Standard Code for and Shipment Information Information Interchange System chapter9.indd 255 chapter9.indd 255 2/4/09 3:48:41 PM 2/4/09 3:48:41 PM

270 256 Chapter 9 ASP—application service provider EAC—estimate at completion BAC—billing address code EAP—enterprise application platform BBS—bulletin board service EBCDIC—Extended Binary Coded BPEL—business process execution Decimal Interchange Code language ePub—Electronic Publishing Section BPI—business process information FAQ—frequently asked question BPS—business process storage cate FBCA—Federal Bridge Certifi cation authority CA—certifi Authority CCSDS—Consultative Committee for ber distributed data interface FDDI—fi Space Data Systems FDLP—Federal Depository Library CD—compact disk Program CDN—content delivery network FDsys—Federal Digital System CDR—critical design review FICC—Federal Identity Credentialing CD–ROM—compact disk read only Committee memory rst out FIFO—fi rst in fi CE—content evaluator FIPS—Federal Information Processing CFR—Code of Federal Regulations Standard CGP—Catalog of U.S. Government FOB—free on board Publications FOSI—format output specifi cation CMS—content management system instance CMYK—cyan, magenta, yellow, black FTP—fi le transfer protocol CO—content originator GAP—GPO Access Package COOP—continuity of operations plan GDI—graphical device interface CP—content processor GFE—government furnished CPI—content packet information equipment CRC—cyclic redundancy checks GFI—government furnished CSV—comma separated variable information DBMS—database management system GGP—gateway-to-gateway protocol DES—data encryption standard GIF—graphics interchange format DIP—Dissemination Information GILS—Government Information Package Locator Service DMI—desktop management interface GUI—graphical user interface DNS—domain name system nition television HDTV—high defi DO—digital objects HMAC—key hashed message er DOI—Digital Object Identifi authentication code DoS—denial of service HSM—hardware security module DPI—dots per inch HTML—hypertext markup language DSR—deployment system review HTTP—hypertext transfer protocol DSSL—document style and semantics Hz—Hertz language ICMP—internet control message DVD—digital versatile disc protocol EA—enterprise architecture ID—Information Dissemination EAD—encoded archival description IDD—interface design description chapter9.indd 256 chapter9.indd 256 2/4/09 3:48:41 PM 2/4/09 3:48:41 PM

271 Abbreviations and Letter Symbols 257 IEEE—Institute of Electronics and NFC—National Finance Center Electrical Engineers NIST—National Institute of IETF—Internet Engineering Task Standards and Technology Force NNTP—network news transfer ILS—Integrated Library System protocol IP—internet protocol OAI— Open Archives Initiative IPR—internal progress review OAI–PMH— Open Archives Initiative IPSEC—internet protocol security Protocol for Metadata Harvesting ISO—International Organization for OAIS — Open Archiva l Information Standardization Systems ISP—internet service provider OCLC—Online Computer Library ISSN—International Standard Serial Center Number OCR—optical character recognition IT—information technology OLTP—online transaction processing ITU—International PRONOM—Practical Online Telecommunications Union Compendium of File Formats nition Format JDF—Job Defi PTR—program tracking report JPEG—Joint Photographic Experts PURL—persistent uniform resource Group locator LAN—local area network RAID—redundant array of LDAP—lightweight directory access inexpensive disks protocol RAM—random access memory LPI—lines per inch RFC—request for comments MAC—message authentication code RGB—red, green, blue MARC—Machine Readable RI—representation information Cataloging RMA—reliability, maintainability, METS—Metadata Encoding and availability Transmission Standard RPC—remote procedure call MHz—megahertz RSA—Rivest, Shamir, Adleman MIME—multipurpose internet mail (public key decryption algorithm) extensions RTF—rich text format MIPS—millions of instructions per RVTM—requirements verifi cation second traceability matrix MMAR—Materials Management SAML—security assertion markup Procurement Regulation language MODS—Metadata Object Descriptive SDLC—soft ware/system development Schema life cycle MPCF—marginally punched SDR—system design review continuous forms Section 508—Section 508 of the NAT—network address translation Rehabilitation Act NDIIPP—National Digital SGML—standard generalized markup Information Infrastructure and language Preservation Program SHA—secure hash algorithm chapter9.indd 257 chapter9.indd 257 2/4/09 3:48:41 PM 2/4/09 3:48:41 PM

272 258 Chapter 9 VLAN—virtual local area network SIP—Submission Information Package VPN—virtual private network SLIP—serial line internet protocol VRML—virtual reality modeling SMP—storage management processor language SMS—storage management system W3C —World Wide Web C onsor t iu m SMTP—simple mail transfer protocol WAIS—wide area information service SNMP—simple network management WA N — w i d e a r e a n e t w o r k protocol WAP—wireless application protocol SPA—simplifi ed purchase agreement WAV—waveform audio format SSL—secure sockets layer WIP—work in process SSP—system security plan WML—wireless markup language ware specifi SSR—soft cation review ow management system WMS—workfl TDES—Triple Data Encryption WWW—World Wide Web Standard WYSIWYG—what you see is what TIFF—tagged image fi le format you get TLS—transport layer security XML—extensible markup language UDP—user datagram protocol XMLDsig—xml signature URL—uniform resource locator XMLENC—xml encryption URN—uniform resource name/ number chapter9.indd 258 chapter9.indd 258 2/4/09 3:48:42 PM 2/4/09 3:48:42 PM

273 10. Signs and Symbols 10.1. e increased use of signs and symbols and their importance in Th c work have emphasized the necessity of technical and scientifi standardization on a national basis and of the consistent use of the standard forms. Certain symbols are standardized—number symbols (the digits, 0, 10.2. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9); letter symbols (the letters of the alphabet, a, b, c, d, etc.); and graphic symbols (the mathematical signs +, −, ±, ×, ÷). 10.3. Th e signs +, −, ±, ×, and ÷, etc., are closed against accompanying fi gures and symbols. When the × is used to indicate “crossed with” cation, it will be separated (in plant or animal breeding) or magnifi from the accompanying words by a space. i–vii+1–288 pages Early June × Bright (crossed with) Th e equation A+B × 4 (magnifi cation) miles ÷ gallons Th e result is 4×4 20,000±5,000 Symbols with fi gures 10.4. In technical publications the degree mark is used in lieu of the word degree following a fi gure denoting measurement. 10.5. gure, the spelled form is preferred. Th e percent sym- Following a fi percent to be bol is used in areas where space will not allow the word used. In that period the price rose 12, 15, and 19 percent. not In that period the price rose 12 percent, 15 percent, and 19 percent. 10.6. Any symbol set close up to fi gures, such as the degree mark, num- ber mark, dollar mark, or cent mark, is used before or aft er each fi gure in a group or series. $5 to $8 price range but 5'–7' long, not 5–7' long § 12 (thin space) 3¢ to 5¢ (no spaces) ¶ 1951 (thin space) ±2 to ±7; 2°±1° from 15 to 25 percent 45° to 65° F #61 to #64 45 to 65 °F not 259

274 260 Chapter 10 Letter symbols Letter symbols are set in italic (see rule 10.8) or in roman (see rule 10.7. 9.56) without periods and are capitalized only if so shown in copy, erent meaning. since the capitalized form may have an entirely diff Equations 10.8. In mathematical equations, use italic for all letter symbols—capitals, lowercase, small capitals, and superiors and inferiors (exponents and subscripts); use roman for fi gures, including superiors and inferiors. If an equation or a mathematical expression needs to be divided, 10.9. break before +, −, =, etc. However, the equal sign is to clear on the left of other beginning mathematical signs. 10.10. A short equation in text should not be broken at the end of a line. Space out the line so that the equation will begin on the next line; or better, center the equation on a line by itself. An equation too long for one line is set fl 10.11. , the second half ush left ush right, and the two parts are balanced as of the equation is set fl nearly as possible. 10.12. Two or more equations in a series are aligned on the equal signs and centered on the longest equation in the group. Connec t i ng words of ex pla nat ion, such as hence, therefore, and 10.13. simi- larly , are set fl ush left either on the same line with the equation or on a separate line. 10.14. Parentheses, braces, brackets, integral signs, and summation signs should be of the same height as the mathematical expressions they include. Inferiors precede superiors if they appear together; but if either in- 10.15. ferior or superior is too long, the two are aligned on the left . c h a p t e r 1 0 . i n d d 2 6 11/13/08 3:17:21 PM chapter10.indd 260 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 7 : 2 1 P M 0

275 Signs and Symbols 261 Chemical symbols e names and symbols listed below are approved by the 10.16. Th International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Th ey are set in roman without periods. Atomic Atomic Symbol Element Element Symbol No. No. Actinium ... Ac 89 Mendelevium ... Md 101 80 Mercury ... Hg Aluminum ... Al 13 95 Molybdenum ... Mo 42 Americium ... Am 51 Neodymium ... Nd 60 Antimony ... Sb 18 Argon ... Ar Neon ... Ne 10 Arsenic ... As 93 Neptunium ... Np 33 Astatine ... At 85 Nickel ... Ni 28 41 Barium ... Ba 56 Niobium ... Nb Nitrogen ... N 7 Berkelium ... Bk 97 Nobelium ... No 102 4 Beryllium ... Be Bismuth ... Bi 76 Osmium ... Os 83 8 107 Oxygen ... O Bohrium ... Bh Palladium ... Pd 46 Boron ... B 5 35 Bromine ... Br Phosphorus... P 15 48 Cadmium ... Cd Platinum ... Pt 78 20 94 Calcium ... Ca Plutonium ... Pu Californium ... Cf Polonium ... Po 98 84 Carbon ... C 6 Potassium ... K 19 58 Praseodymium ... Pr 59 Cerium ... Ce 55 61 Cesium ... Cs Promethium ... Pm Protactinium ... Pa Chlorine ... Cl 17 91 88 Radium ... Ra Chromium ... Cr 24 Cobalt ... Co 27 86 Radon ... Rn 29 Rhenium ... Re 75 Copper ... Cu Rhodium ... Rh 45 96 Curium ... Cm 111 Roentgenium ... Rg 110 Darmstadtium ... Ds 105 Rubidium ... Rb 37 Dubnium ... Db Dysprosium ... Dy 66 44 Ruthenium ... Ru Einsteinium ... Es 99 104 Rutherfordium ... Rf Erbium ... Er Samarium ... Sm 62 68 Europium ... Eu Scandium ... Sc 63 21 106 Fermium ... Fm 100 Seaborgium ... Sg Selenium ... Se 9 Fluorine ... F 34 14 Silicon ... Si Francium ... Fr 87 Silver ... Ag Gadolinium ... Gd 64 47 Sodium ... Na 11 Gallium ... Ga 31 38 Strontium... Sr 32 Germanium... Ge Gold ... Au 16 Sulfur ... S 79 Hafnium ... Hf 73 Tantalum ... Ta 72 Hassium ... Hs 43 108 Technetium ... Tc Tellurium ... Te 52 Helium ... He 2 65 Terbium ... Tb Holmium ... Ho 67 81 allium ... Tl Th Hydrogen ... H 1 49 Indium ... In orium ... Th 90 Th 69 ulium ... Tm Th 53 Iodine ... I Tin ... Sn Iridium ... Ir 50 77 Iron ... Fe Titanium ... Ti 22 26 Krypton ... Kr 74 Tungsten ... W 36 Lanthanum ... La 57 Uranium ... U 92 Lawrencium ... Lr 103 23 Vanadium ... V 82 Xenon ... Xe 54 Lead ... Pb Ytterbium ... Yb 70 3 Lithium ... Li 71 Lutetium ... Lu Yttrium ... Y 39 30 Zinc ... Zn Magnesium... Mg 12 40 Zirconium ... Zr Manganese ... Mn 25 Meitnerium ... Mt 109 1 c a p t e r 1 0 . i n d d 2 6 1 chapter10.indd 261 h 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 7 : 2 1 P M 11/13/08 3:17:21 PM

276 262 Chapter 10 Standardized symbols Symbols duly standardized by any national scientifi 10.17. c, profes- sional, or technical group are accepted as preferred forms within the fi eld of the group. Th e issuing offi ce desiring or requiring the use of such standardized symbols should see that copy is prepared accordingly. Signs and symbols 10.18. Th e following list contains some signs and symbols frequently used in printing. Th e forms and style of many symbols vary with the method of reproduction employed. It is important that editors and writers clearly identify signs and symbols when they appear within a manuscript. c h a p t e r 1 0 . i 11/13/08 3:17:22 PM d d 2 6 2 chapter10.indd 262 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 7 : 2 2 P M n

277 Signs and Symbols 263 c h a p t e r 1 0 . i n d d 2 6 3 11/13/08 3:17:22 PM 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 7 : 2 2 P M chapter10.indd 263

278 264 Chapter 10 1 Sta nda rd let ter sy mbols used by t he Geolog ic a l Sur vey on geolog ic maps. Capita l let ter i nd ic ates the system and one or more lowercased letters designate the formation and member where used. c h a p t e r 1 0 . i n d d 2 6 11/13/08 3:17:24 PM chapter10.indd 264 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 7 : 2 4 P M 4

279 11. I t a l i c (See also Chapter 9 “Abbreviations and Letter Symbols” and Chapter 16 “Datelines, Addresses, and Signatures”) 11.1. erentiate or to give greater prominence Italic is sometimes used to diff to words, phrases, etc. However, an excessive amount of italic defeats this purpose and should be restricted. Emphasis, foreign words, and titles of publications Italic is not used for mere emphasis, foreign words, or the titles of 11. 2 . publications. 11. 3 . In nonlegal work, ante, post, infra, and supra are italicized only when part of a legal citation. Otherwise these terms, as well as the abbrevia- tions id., ibid., op. cit., et seq., and other foreign words, phrases, and their abbreviations, are printed in roman. 11.4 . When “emphasis in original,” “emphasis supplied,” “emphasis added,” or “emphasis ours” appears in copy, it should not be changed; but “underscore supplied” should be changed to “italic supplied.” Th erefore, when emphasis in quoted or extracted text is referred to by the foregoing terms, such emphasized text must be refl ected and set in italic. When copy is submitted with instructions to set “all roman (no 11. 5 . italic),” these instructions will not apply to Ordered, Resolved, Be it enacted, etc.; titles following signatures or addresses; or the parts of datelines that are always set in italic. Names of aircraft, vessels, and spacecraft 11.6 . Th e names of aircraft , vessels, and manned spacecraft are italicized unless otherwise indicated. In lists set in columns and in stubs and reading columns of tables consisting entirely of such names, they will be set in roman. Missiles and rockets will be set in caps and lowercase and will not be italicized. 265

280 266 Chapter 11 Havtroll MV (motor vessel) SS America ; the liner America (U.S. spaceships) , Atlantis Apollo 13 the Bermuda Clipper West Virginia class or type (subma ri ne) Los Angeles USS the s (roman “s”) turret Missouri’ USS Wisconsin the U–7 ’s (roman “s”) deck ex-USS Savannah USCGS (U.S. Coast and Geodetic but nder Pathfi Survey) ship Air Force One (President’s plane) C.S.N. Virginia B 50 (type of plane) – CG cutter Th etus 882 – DD the U–7 1155 – LST 31 destroyer 35 - MiG; MiG H.M.S. Hornet PT – 109 HS (hydrofoil ship) Denison – 22 Raptor F MS (motorship) Richard F – GTS (gas turbine ship) Alexander ghter) 117 Nighthawk (Stealth fi NS (nuclear ship) Savannah underbolt A – 10 Th Names of vessels are quoted in matter printed in other than lowercase 11.7. roman, even if there is italic type available in the series. Sinking of the “Lusitania” Sinking of the “Lusitania” Sinking of the “Lusitania” SINKING OF THE “LUSITANIA” Names of legal cases which is v., e names of legal cases are italicized, except for the Th 11. 8 . always set in lowercase. When requested, the names of such cases may be set in roman with an italic . In matter set in italic, legal cases v are set in roman with the v . being set roman. “The Hornet” and “The Hood,” Smith v. Brown et al. (heading) 124 F.2d 45 SMITH v. BROWN ET AL. Smith v. Brown et al. (heading) Durham Smith Bros. case (172 App. rule Div. 149) Brown decision Smith Bros. Richard Roe , supra John Doe v. case case Smith Bros. John Doe against Richard Roe, but Cement . Smith Bros. the As cited in case chapter11.indd 266 chapter11.indd 266 1/27/09 10:01:31 AM 1/27/09 10:01:31 AM

281 Italic 267 Scientifi c names Th c names of genera, subgenera, species, and subspecies 11. 9. e scientifi (varieties) are italicized but are set in roman in italic matter; the names of groups of higher rank than genera (phyla, classes, orders, families, tribes, etc.) are printed in roman. A.s. perpallidus ? sp. (roman “?”) Dorothia Tsuga canaden si s Cypripedium parvifl orum var. pubescens genera Quercus and the Liriodendron the family Leguminosae; the family Nessiteras rhombopteryx Measurements of specimens of Cyanoderma erythroptera neocara 11.10. Quotation marks should be used in place of italic for scientifi c names appearing in lines set in caps, caps and small caps, or boldface, even if there is italic type available in the series. Words and letters Th e words 11.11. Resolved, Resolved further, Provided, Provided, however, Provided further, And provided further, and ordered , in bills, acts, resolutions, and formal contracts and agreements are italicized; also the words To be continued, Continued on p. —, Continued from p. —, and See and see also (in indexes and tables of contents only). Resolved, Th at (resolution) Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, Th at [ To b e c o n t i n u e d ] (centered; no period) Continued from p. 3 [ ] (centered; no period) see also Mechanical data (index entry) 11.12 . All letters (caps, small caps, lowercase, superiors, and inferiors) used as symbols are italicized. In italic matter, roman letters are used. Chemical symbols (even in italic matter) and certain other standard- ized symbols are set in roman. n th degree; x dollars 2.7 2.7 D V ÷0.025 =0.042/ G −1 V m m 5Cu S.2(Cu,Fe,Zn)S.2Sb S O 2 2 3 4

282 268 Chapter 11 11.13 . Letter designations in mathematical and scientifi c matter, except chemical symbols, are italicized. 11.14 . Letter symbols used in legends to illustrations, drawings, etc., or in text as references to such material, are set in italic without periods and are capitalized if so shown in copy. 11.15 . Letters ( a ) , ( b ) , ( c ) , etc., and a, b, c, etc., used to indicate sections or paragraphs, are italicized in general work but not in laws or other legal documents. 11.16 . Internet Web sites and email addresses should be set in roman.

283 12. Numerals (See also Chapter 13 “Tabular Work” and Chapter 14 “Leaderwork”) Most rules for the use of numerals are based on the general prin- 12.1. ciple that the reader comprehends numerals more readily than c, or numerical word expressions, particularly in technical, scientifi statistical matter. However, for special reasons, numbers are spelled out in certain instances, except in FIC & punc. and Fol. Lit. matter. 12.2. Th e following rules cover the most common conditions that require a choice between the use of numerals and words. Some of them, however, are based on typographic appearance rather than on the general principle stated above. 12.3. Arabic numerals are preferable to Roman numerals. gures Numbers expressed in fi A fi 10 or more w it h t he exception g ure is used for a single number of 12.4. of the fi rst word of the sentence. (See also rules 12.9 and 12.23.) 24 horses nearly 13 buckets 50 ballots about 40 men 10 times as large 10 guns Numbers and numbers in series When 2 or more numbers appear in a sentence and 1 of them is 12.5. 10 or larger, fi gures are used for each number. (See supporting rule 12.6.) Each of 15 major commodities (9 metal and 6 nonmetal) was in supply. Each of nine major commodities (fi ve metal and four nonmetal) was in supply. but elds, of which 8 were discovered in 1956. Petroleum came from 16 fi but Petroleum came from nine fi elds, of which eight were discovered in 1956. Th at man has 3 suits, 2 pairs of shoes, and 12 pairs of socks. but Th at man has three suits, two pairs of shoes, and four hats. Of the 13 engine producers, 6 were farm equipment manufacturers, 6 were principally engaged in the production of other types of machinery, and 1 was not classifi ed in the machinery industry. but Only nine of these were among the large manufacturing companies, and only three were among the largest concerns. Th ere were three 6-room houses, fi ve 4-room houses, and three 2-room cottages, and they were built by 20 carpenters. (See rule 12.21.) 269 chapter12.indd 269 chapter12.indd 269 1/7/09 2:06:54 PM 1/7/09 2:06:54 PM

284 270 Chapter 12 ere were three six-room houses, fi ve four-room houses, and three two- Th room cottages, and they were built by nine carpenters. If two columns of sums of money add or subtract one into the other and one but carries points and ciphers, the other should also carry points and ciphers. ed. At the hearing, only one Senator and one Congressman testifi ve things that can be done. Th ere are four or fi 12.6. A unit of measurement, time, or money (as defi ned in rule 12.9), which is always expressed in fi ect the use of fi g- gures, does not aff ures for other numerical expressions within a sentence. Each of the fi ve girls earned 75 cents an hour. Each of the 15 girls earned 75 cents an hour. A team of four men ran the 1-mile relay in 3 minutes 20 seconds. is usually requires from two to fi ve washes and a total time of 2 to 4 hours. Th is usually requires 9 to 12 washes and a total time of 2 to 4 hours. Th Th e contractor, one engineer, and one surveyor inspected the 1-mile road. but Th ere were two six-room houses, three four-room houses, and four two-room cottages, and they were built by nine workers in thirty 5-day weeks. (See rule 12.21.) 12.7. Figures are used for serial numbers. 290 U.S. 325 Bulletin 725 Genesis 39:20 Document 71 202–512–0724 pages 352–357 (telephone nu mber) lines 5 and 6 the year 2001 paragraph 1 1721–1727 St. Clair Avenue chapter 2 but Letters Patent No. 2,189,463 12.8. A colon preceding fi gures does not aff ect their use. Th e result was as follows: 12 voted yea, 4 dissented. Th e result was as follows: nine voted yea, seven dissented. Measurement and time 12.9. Units of measurement and time, actual or implied, are expressed in fi gures. a. Age: 6 years old a 3-year-old at the age of 3 (years implied) 52 years 10 months 6 days

285 Numerals 271 b. Clock time (see also Time): 4:30 p.m.; half past 4 10 o’clock not 10 o’clock p.m.; 2 p.m. in the aft ernoon; 10:00 p.m.) or 10 p.m. ( 12 p.m. (12 noon) 12 a.m. (12 midnight) h m h 4 4.5 or , in scientifi c work, if so written in copy 30 0025, 2359 (astronomical and military time) 08:31:04 (stopwatch reading) c. Dates: 9/11 (referring to the attack on the United States that occurred on Septem- ber 11, 2001) June 1985 ( June, 1985); June 29, 1985 ( not June 29th, 1985) not not March 6 to April 15, 1990 ( March 6, 1990, to April 15, 1990) May, June, and July 1965 ( but June and July 1965) 15 April 1951; 15–17 April 1951 (military) but 4th of July ( Fourth of July, meaning the holiday) the 1st [day] of the month ( but the last of April or the fi rst [part] of May, not referring to specifi c days) in the year 2000 ( not 2,000) scal year, consecutive years, or a continuous period In referring to a fi of 2 years or more, when contracted, the forms 1900–11, 1906–38, 1931–32, 1801–2, 1875–79 are used ( upon change of century, but 1895–1914 and to avoid multiple ciphers together, 2000–2001). For two or more separate years not representing a continuous period, a from pre- comma is used instead of a dash (1875, 1879); if the word inclusive follows it, the second year is not cedes the year or the word shortened and the word to is used in lieu of the dash (from 1933 to 1936; 1935 to 1936, inclusive). follows the year In dates, A.D. precedes the year (A.D. 937); B.C. (254 B.C.); C.E. and B.C.E. follow the year. d. Decimals: In text a cipher should be supplied before a decimal point if there is no whole unit, and ciphers should be omitted aft er a decimal point unless they indicate exact measurement. 0.25 inch; 1.25 inches but .30 caliber (meaning 0.30 inch, silver 0.900 fi ne bore of small arms); 30 calibers specifi c gravity 0.9547 (length) gauge height 10.0 feet chapter12.indd 271 chapter12.indd 271 1/7/09 2:06:54 PM 1/7/09 2:06:54 PM

286 272 Chapter 12 e. Use spaces to separate groups of three digits in a decimal fraction. (See rule 12.27.) 0.123 456 789; but 0.1234 f. Degrees, etc. (spaces omitted): but longitude 77°04'06'' E. two degrees of justice; 12 35°30'; 35°30' N. degrees of freedom a polariscopic test of 85° 32d degree Mason an angle of 57° 150 million degrees Fahrenheit strike N. 16° E. 30 Fahrenheit degrees dip 47° W. or 47° N. 31° W. 25'.5 25.5' (preferred) also g. Game scores: 1 up (golf ) 7 to 6 (football), etc. 2 all (tie) 3 to 2 (baseball) h. Market quotations: 4½ percent bonds gold is 109 wheat at 2.30 Treasury bonds sell at 95 sugar, .03; 0.03 not Metropolitan Railroad, 109 Dow Jones average of 10500.76 i. Mathematical expressions: a factor of 2 multiplied by 3 square root of 4 divided by 6 j. Measurements: 3 ems 7 meters 20/20 (vision) about 10 yards e) 30/30 (rifl 8 by 12 inches 12-gauge shotgun 8- by 12-inch page 2,500 horsepower 2 feet by 1 foot 8 inches by 1 foot 3 15 cubic yards inches 6-pounder 2 x 4 or 2 2 by 4 (lumber) ( not  4) 80 foot-pounds 1½ miles 10s (for yarns and threads) 6 acres f /2.5 (lens aperture) 9 bushels 1 gallon chapter12.indd 272 chapter12.indd 272 1/7/09 2:06:54 PM 1/7/09 2:06:54 PM

287 Numerals 273 six bales but two dozen tenpenny nail one gross fourfold zero miles three-ply seven-story building fi ve votes k. Money: but $3.65; $0.75; 75 cents; 0.5 cent $3 ( not two pennies $3.00) per 200 pounds three quarters 75 cents apiece one half Rs32,25,644 (Indian rupees) or 2.5 francs fr2.5 six bits, etc. 65 yen P 265 l. Percentage: 50–50 (colloquial expression) 12 percent; 25.5 percent; 0.5 percent 5 percentage points or one-half of 1 percent) ( a 1,100-percent increase, or an thirty-four one hundredths of 1100-percent increase 1 percent 3.65 bonds; 3.65s; 5–20 bonds; 5–20s; 4½ s; 3s m. Proportion: 1:62,500 1 to 4 1–3–5 n. Time (see also Clock time): but 6 hours 8 minutes 20 seconds four centuries 10 years 3 months 29 days three decades 7 minutes three quarters (9 months) 8 days statistics of any one year 4 weeks in a year or two 1 month ernoons four aft scal year 3 fi scal years; third fi one-half hour 1 calendar year the eleventh hour millennium FY10 FY 2010

288 274 Chapter 12 ers: o. Unit modifi a 5-percent increase 5-day week 20th-century progress 8-year-old wine 8-hour day but 10-foot pole two-story house ½ -inch pipe fi ve-member board 5-foot-wide entrance eld $20 million airfi 10-million-peso loan p. Vitamins: B , etc. , B , A 12 T 1 Ordinal numbers 12.10. Except as indicated in rules 12.11 and 12.19, and also for day preced- ing month, fi gures are used in text and footnotes to text for serial 10th. In tables, leaderwork, foot- ordinal numbers beginning with gures are used at notes to tables and leaderwork, and in sidenotes, fi all times. Military units are expressed in fi gures at all times when Corps. not the beginning of a sentence, except (For ordinals in addresses, see rule 12.13.) eighth parallel; 38th parallel 29th of May, May 29 but fi ft h ward; 12th ward First Congress; 102d Congress ninth birthday; 66th birthday ninth century; 21st century fi rst grade; 11th grade Second Congressional District; 20th 1st Army Congressional District 1st Cavalry Division seventh region; 17th region 323d Fighter Wing but 12th Regiment XII Corps (Army usage) 9th Naval District Court of Appeals for the Tenth 7th Fleet Circuit 7th Air Force Seventeenth Decennial Census (title) 7th Task Force When ordinals appear in juxtaposition and one of them is 10th 12.11. or more, fi gures are used for such ordinal numbers. Th is legislation was passed in the 1st session of the 102d Congress. He served in the 9th and 10th Congresses. chapter12.indd 274 chapter12.indd 274 1/7/09 2:06:54 PM 1/7/09 2:06:54 PM

289 Numerals 275 From the 1st to the 92d Congress. eir children were in 1st, 2d, 3d, and 10th grades. Th We read the 8th and 12th chapters. rst and second precincts. Th e district comprised the fi but He represented the fi rst, third, and fourth regions. Th e report was the sixth in a series of 14. 12.12. Ordinals and numerals appearing in a sentence are treated ac- cording to the separate rules dealing with ordinals and numerals standing alone or in a group. (See rules 12.4, 12.5, and 12.24.) Th e fourth group contained three items. Th e fourth group contained 12 items. Th e 8th and 10th groups contained three and four items, respectively. Th e eighth and ninth groups contained 9 and 12 items, respectively. 12.13. 10th , fi gures are used in text matter for numbered Beginning with gures are used at all times and streets, avenues, etc. However, fi street, avenue, etc. are abbreviated in sidenotes, tables, leaderwork, and footnotes to tables and leaderwork. First Street NW.; also in parentheses: (Fift h Street) (13th Street); 810 West 12th Street; North First Street; 1021 121st Street; 2031 18th Street North; 711 Fift h Avenue; 518 10th Avenue; 51–35 61st Avenue Punctuation 12.14. Th e comma is used in a number containing four or more digits, except in serial numbers, common and decimal fractions, astro- nomical and military time, and kilocycles and meters of not more than four fi gures pertaining to radio. Chemical formulas 12.15. In chemical formulas full-sized fi gures are used before the symbol or group of symbols to which they relate, and inferior fi gures are used aft er the symbol. 6PbS•(Ag,Cu) S•2As S O 2 3 2 4 chapter12.indd 275 chapter12.indd 275 1/7/09 2:06:54 PM 1/7/09 2:06:54 PM

290 276 Chapter 12 Numbers spelled out 12.16. Spell out numbers at the beginning of a sentence or head. Rephrase a sentence or head to avoid beginning with fi gures. (See rule 12.25 for related numbers.) not 5 years ago * * * Five years ago * * *; Five hundred fi 550 men hired * * * ft y men hired * * *; not not “5-Year Plan Announced” (head) “Five-Year Plan Announced”; Th e year 2065 seems far off not 2065 seems far off * * * * * *; Workers numbering 207,843 * * *; 207,843 workers * * * not ts of $69,603,566 * * *; not Benefi ts * * * $69,603,566 worth of benefi 1958 report change to the 1958 report $3,000 budgeted change to the sum of $3,000 budgeted 4 million jobless change to jobless number 4 million 12.17. In verbatim testimony, hearings, transcripts, and question-and- gures are used immediately following Q. and A. answer matter, fi or name of interrogator or witness for years (e.g., 2008), sums of money, decimals, street numbers, and for numerical expressions 101 beginning with . Mr. Birch, Junior. 2008 was a good year. Mr. Bell. $1 per share was the return. Two dollars in 1956 was the alltime high. Two thousand ten may be another story. Colonel Davis. 92 cents. Mr. Smith. 12.8 people. Mr. Jones. 1240 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20004. Mr. Smith. Ninety-eight persons. But Q. One hundred years? Q. 101 years? A. 200 years. Mr. Smith. Ten-year average would be how much? 12.18. A spelled-out number should not be repeated in fi gures, except in legal documents. In such instances use these forms: fi ve (5) dollars, not fi ve dollars (5) ten dollars ($10), not ten ($10) dollars

291 Numerals 277 12.19. Numbers appearing as part of proper names, used in a hypothetical or inexact sense, or mentioned in connection with serious and dig- nifi ed subjects such as Executive orders, legal proclamations, and in formal writing are spelled out. three score years and ten Th ree Rivers, PA, Fift eenmile Te n C o m m a n d m e nt s Creek, etc. Air Force One (Presidential irteen Original States the Th plane) in the year two thousand eight back to square one the One Hundred Tenth Congress behind the eight ball millions for defense but not one our policy since day one cent for tribute 12.20. If spelled out, whole numbers should be set in the following form: two thousand twenty ft y one thousand eight hundred fi one hundred fi ft y-two thousand three hundred fi ve eighteen hundred fi ft y (serial number) When spelled out, any number containing a fraction or piece of a whole should use the word “and” when stating the fraction or piece: sixty-two dollars and four cents ninety-nine and three-tenths degrees thirty-three and seventy-fi ve one-hundredths shares 12.21. Numbers below 100 preceding a compound modifi er containing a fi gure are spelled out. but -inch boards two ¾ 120 8-inch boards twelve 6-inch guns three four-room houses two 5-percent discounts 12.22. Indefi nite expressions are spelled out. midthirties (age, years, money) the seventies; the early seventies; a thousand and one reasons but the early 1870s or 1970s but nor 80’s in his eighties, not his ’80’s 1 to 3 million between two and three hundred mid-1971; mid-1970s between 200 and horses ( better 40-odd people; nine-odd people 300 horses) 40-plus people twelvefold; thirteenfold; fortyfold; 100-odd people hundredfold; twentyfold to 3½ -fold; 250-fold; 2.5-fold; 41-fold thirtyfold

292 278 Chapter 12 nearly, about, around, approximately, etc., do not Word s such a s ect indefi nite expressions. refl Th e bass weighed about 6 pounds. She was nearly 8 years old. 12.23. 10 is Except as indicated in rules 12.5 and 12.9, a number less than spelled out within a sentence. but six horses 3½ cans fi ve wells 2½ times or 2.5 times eight times as large 12.24. For typographic appearance and easy grasp of large numbers be- million ginning with million or billion is used. , the word Th gures as submitted in e following are guides to treatment of fi copy. If copy reads— $12,000,000, $12 million change to change to 2,750,000,000 dollars, $2,750 million 2.7 million dollars, change to $2.7 million 2⅜ million dollars, change to $2⅜ million two and one-half million dollars, $2½ million change to a hundred cows, 100 cows change to a thousand dollars, change to $1,000 change to 1½ million a million and a half, two thousand million dollars, change to $2,000 million less than a million dollars, change to less than $1 million but do not convert to $2.7 million $2,700,000, also $10 to $20 million; 10 or 20 million; between 10 and 20 million 4 million of assets amounting to 4 million $1,270,000 $1,270,200,000 $2¾ billion; $2.75 billion; $2,750 million $500,000 to $1 million chapter12.indd 278 chapter12.indd 278 1/7/09 2:06:55 PM 1/7/09 2:06:55 PM

293 Numerals 279 300,000; not 300 thousand billion (note full fi gure with second fraction); $1¼ $½ billion to $1¼ to $1½ billion three-quarters of a billion dollars 5 or 10 billion dollars’ worth 12.25. Related numbers appearing at the beginning of a sentence, sepa- rated by no more than three words, are treated alike. y or sixty more miles away is snowclad Mount Everest. Fift en, seventy listeners responded. Sixty and, quite oft y or, in some instances, almost 60 applications were fi Fift but led. Fractions 12.26. Mixed fractions are always expressed in fi gures. Fractions standing of a or of an , are generally spelled alone, however, or if followed by out. (See also rule 12.28.) two one-hundredths ¾ not three-fourths of an inch; one-thousandth ¾ of an inch nor inch fi ve one-thousandths one-half inch thirty-fi ve one-thousandths ½ of a farm not one-half of a farm; but one-fourth inch ½ to 1¾ pages seven-tenths of 1 percent ½ -inch pipe three-quarters of an inch ½ -inch-diameter pipe half an inch 3½ cans a quarter of an inch 2½ times one-tenth portion one-hundredth , ⅞ , ½ 954) or full-sized fi gures with the shil- 12.27. Fractions (¼ , ½ , ¾ , ⅜ , ⅝ ling mark (1/4, 1/2954) may be used only when either is specifi cally requested. A comma should not be used in any part of a built-up fraction of four or more digits or in decimals. (See rule 12.9e.) 12.28. Fractions are used in a unit modifi er. ⅞ ½ -inch pipe; -point rise not ¼ -mile run one-half-inch pipe chapter12.indd 279 chapter12.indd 279 1/7/09 2:06:55 PM 1/7/09 2:06:55 PM

294 280 Chapter 12 Roman numerals A repeated letter repeats its value; a letter placed aft er one of greater 12.29. value adds to it; a letter placed before one of greater value subtracts from it; a dashline over a letter denotes multiplied by 1,000. Numerals 1 I ... 25 XXV ... 70 LXX ... D ... 500 2 II ... 29 XXIX ... LXXV ... 75 600 DC ... III ... 3 XXX ... 30 79 LXXIX ... DCC ... 700 IV ... 4 XXXV ... 35 80 LXXX ... DCCC ... 800 5 V ... XXXIX ... 39 85 LXXXV ... 900 CM ... 6 VI ... XL ... 40 89 LXXXIX ... 1,000 M ... VII ... 7 45 XLV ... XC ... 90 1,500 MD ... 8 VIII ... XLIX ... 49 XCV ... 95 MM ... 2,000 IX ... 9 L ... 50 IC ... 99 3,000 MMM ... 10 X ... LV ... 55 C ... 100 MMMM - 15 XV ... 59 LIX ... CL ... 150 ... 4,000 or MV - 19 XIX ... LX ... 60 CC ... 200 5,000 ... V - 20 XX ... 65 LXV ... CCC ... 300 M ... 1,000,000 LXIX ... 69 CD ... 400 Dates MDC ... 1600 MCMXX ... 1920 MCMLXX ... 1970 MDCC ... 1700 MCMXXX ... 1930 MCMLXXX ... 1980 MDCCC... 1800 MCMXL ... 1940 MCMXC ... 1990 MCM or MDCCCC ... 1900 MCML ... 1950 MM ... 2000 MCMX ... 1910 MCMLX ... 1960 MMX ... 2010 chapter12.indd 280 chapter12.indd 280 1/7/09 2:06:55 PM 1/7/09 2:06:55 PM

295 13. Tabular Work (See also Chapter 9 “Abbreviations and Letter Symbols” and Chapter 14 “Leaderwork”) e object of a table is to present in a concise and orderly manner 13.1. Th information that cannot be presented as clearly in any other way. Tabular material should be kept as simple as possible, so that the 13.2. meaning of the data can be easily grasped by the user. 13.3. Tables shall be set without down (vertical) rules when there is at least an em space between columns, except where: (1) In GPO’s judgment down rules are required for clarity; or (2) the agency has indicated e mere presence of down rules in on the copy they are to be used. Th copy or enclosed sample is not considered a request that down rules be used. Th e publication dictates the type size used in setting tables. Tabular work in the Congressional Record is set 6 on 7. Th e balance of congressional tabular work sets 7 on 8. Abbreviations To avoid burdening tabular text, commonly known abbreviations 13.4. are used in tables. Metric and unit-of-measurement abbreviations are used with fi gures. 13.5. Th e names of months (except May, June, and July) when followed by the day are abbreviated. Th e words street, avenue, place, road, square, boulevard, terrace, 13.6. and building, following name or number, are abbre- drive, court, gures are used. viated. For numbered streets, avenues, etc., fi 13.7. United States if preceding the word Abbreviate the words Government, the name of any Government organization, or as an adjective generally. 13.8. Use the abbreviations RR. and Ry. following a name, and SS, MS, etc., preceding a name. gures. Use lat. and long. with fi 13.9. 13.10. Abbreviate, when followed by fi gures, the various parts of publica- tions, as article, part, section, etc. 281 1 c a p t e r 1 3 . i n d d 2 8 1 chapter13.indd 281 h 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 0 5 P M 11/13/08 3:18:05 PM

296 282 Chapter 13 Use, generally, such abbreviations and contractions as 98th Cong., 13.11. 1st sess., H. Res. 5, H.J. Res. 21, S. Doc. 62, S. Rept. 410, Rev. Stat., etc. 13.12. In columns containing names of persons, copy is followed as to ab- breviations of given names. er abbreviations followed by leaders. 13.13. Periods are not used aft Bearoff An en space is used for all bearoff s. 13.14. In a crowded table, when down rules are necessary, the bearoff 13.15. may be reduced in fi gure columns. Fractions are set fl of the allotted column 13.16. ush right to the bearoff width, and not aligned. Mathematical signs, parentheses, fractions, and brackets are set 13.17. with a normal bearoff . Boxheads 13.18. Periods are omitted aft er all boxheads, but a dash is used aft er any boxhead which reads into the matter following. 13.19. Boxheads run crosswise. 13.20. Boxheads are set solid, even in leaded tables. 13.21. Boxheads are centered horizontally and vertically. Down-rule style (see Rule 13.3) Employed boys and girls whose work records were obtained Time of year at beginning work [depth of this box does infl uence the depth of box on left ] not To t a l Sex and age September to May June to August Distri- Distri- Distri- Not re- Number bution Number bution Number bution ported (percent) (percent) (percent) 45.5 1,415 3,869 2,405 15.8 49 Boys (12 to 14) ... 9.6

297 Ta b u l a r Wo r k 28 3 No-down-rule style (preferred) Table 9.— Mine production of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in 2008 Gold Silver Short Copper Lead Zinc Class of material (fi ne (fi ne tons (pounds) (pounds) (pounds) ounces) ounces) Concentrate shipped to smelters and recoverable metals 763 6,260 Copper ... 70,357 14,242,346 9,950 220,346 72,500 5,044,750 Lead ... 3,931 392 48,326 290,980 263,400 Zinc ... 26,441,270 25,159 269 41,078 581,590 Total: ... 249,436 1,424 159,756 14,578,246 5,636,290 26,738,510 2008 2007 ... 367,430 1,789 432,122 10,622,155 13,544,875 11,923,060 Crude material shipped to smelters Dry gold, dry gold-silve 134 2,839 2,200 ... ... 52 r ore ... Copper: 124,100 Crude ore ... 107,270 844 2,200 39,861 2,442,882 285,421 ... ... Slag ... 421 10 165 Lead... 528 12 1,693 5,950 110,870 300 8,100 4,300 Mill cleanings (lead-zinc) ... 31 ... 254 1,450 Total: 2008 ... 125,749 919 45,444 30,375,754 249,710 6,890 ... 166,184 1,042 47,176 41,601,845 497,125 26,940 2007 In referring to quantity of things, the word 13.22. in boxheads is Number spelled if possible. 13.23. Column numbers or letters in parentheses may be set under box- heads and are separated by one line space below the deepest head. (If alignment of parentheses is required within the table, use brack- ets in boxhead.) Th ese column references align across the table. Units of quantity are set in parentheses within boxheads. Department of Agriculture Department of Commerce Civil Aero- Commod- Disaster loans, Bureau of Public nautics Va lue of ity Credit etc. (payments Roads: Highway Adminis- Special commod- Corpora- to assist States construction tration— school ities dis- tion, value States in furnishing Federal milk tributed Emer- of com- hay in 1 airport program within Regular gency modities droughtstriken 2 program— States grants 3 grants donated areas) regular grants (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) $79,284 $1,176,401 $247,515 $7,9 70,875 ... Alabama ... $4,730,154 $1,520,362 591,487 266 12,366,106 472,749 ... 297, .. 269,274 393,484 Alaska ... Arizona ... 4,545, 639 ... 127,749 9,317,853 ... 983 823,136 6,512, 13.24. Leaders may be supplied in a column consisting entirely of symbols or years or dates or any combination of these.

298 284 Chapter 13 ush entries, and subentries Centerheads, fl gures and 13.25. Heads follow the style of the tables as to the use of fi abbreviations. Punctuation is omitted aft 13.26. er centerheads. Flush entries and sub- entries over subordinate items are followed by a colon (single sub- entry to run in, preserving the colon), but a dash is used instead of a colon when the entry reads into the matter below. 25 Miscellaneous: Powerplant equipment ... ... $245,040.37 ... 275,900.34 26 Roads, railroads, and bridges ... ... 520,940.71 Total ... transmission plant 42 Structures and improvements ... ... 26,253.53 43 Station equipment ... ... 966,164.41 ... 992,417.94 Total ... general plant General plant: ... 753,248.97 Norris ... ... 15,335.81 Other ... Total ... ... 768,584.78 Grand total ... ... 2,281,943.43 13.27. In reading columns if the centerhead clears the reading matter below by at least an em, the space is omitted; if it clears by less than an em, a space is used. If an overrun, rule, etc., in another column, or in the same column, creates a blank space above the head, the extra space is not added. 13.28. Units of quantity and years used as heads in reading and fi gure col- umns are set in italic with space above but no space below. No-down-rule style (preferred) Th e rules are used here to aid readability. 2007 Oct. 1 ... 35.6 15 Jan. 16 ... 45.2 15 May 8 ... 46.5 15 Oct. 31 ... 45.0 15 50.2 15 May 22 ... 45.1 18 Feb. 4 ... 18 June 9 ... 43.4 15 Nov. 14 ... 40.9 47.1 14 Feb. 17 ... Dec. 24 ... 41.7 Mar. 4 ... 45.6 15 June 24 ... 48.2 16 15 Mar. 19 ... 42.7 15 July 9 ... 46.6 17 16 2008 Apr. 2 ... 40.9 15 July 24 ... 45.9 Jan. 3 ... 43.9 15 Apr. 28 ... 47.7 13 Aug. 6 ... 46.5 16

299 Ta b u l a r Wo r k 28 5 Down-rule style (see Rule 13.3) 2007 15 Jan. 16 ... 45.2 15 May 8 ... 46.5 15 Oct. 1 ... 35.6 15 Feb. 4 ... 50.2 15 May 22 ... 45.1 18 Oct. 31 ... 45.0 40.9 18 Feb. 17 ... 43.4 Nov. 14 ... June 9 ... 47.1 14 15 Dec. 24 ... 15 Mar. 4 ... 45.6 15 June 24 ... 48.2 16 41.7 Mar. 19 ... 42.7 15 July 9 ... 46.6 17 Apr. 2 ... 2008 15 July 24 ... 45.9 16 40.9 Jan. 3 ... 43.9 15 Apr. 28 ... 47.7 13 Aug. 6 ... 46.5 16 Ciphers 13.29. rst number in a column or under a cross rule is wholly Where the fi of its decimal point. A cipher a decimal, a cipher is added at the left used alone in a money or other decimal column is placed in the unit row and is not followed by a period. Th e cipher repeats in mixed units before decimals unless the group totals. 1 January ... +26.4 0 0 0 0 0 +$0.7 27.1+ +40.4 February ... +66.7 0 0 0 0 0 −.9 65.8+ +98.1 March ... +143.1 +2.6 −7.5 0 0 0 +12.4 150.6 +224.1 13.30. In columns containing both dollars and cents, ciphers will be sup- gures. plied on right of decimal point in the absence of fi 13.31. Where column consists of single decimal, supply a cipher on the right unless the decimal is a cipher. 0.6 0 3.0 4.2 5.0 13.32. Where column has mixed decimals of two or more places, do not supply ciphers but follow copy. 0.22453 1.263 4 2.60 3.4567 78 12.6 102.14423 13.33. Copy is followed in the use of the word None or a cipher to indicate None in fi gure columns. If neither one appears in the copy, leaders are inserted, unless a clear is specifi cally requested.

300 286 Chapter 13 13.34. gures under the heading £ s d, if a whole number of In columns of fi s and one under if pounds is given, one cipher is supplied under d; . d only shillings are given, one cipher is supplied under gures under Ft In, if only feet are given, supply 13.35. In columns of fi if only inches are given, clear under Ft; if ciphers In; cipher under None, place one cipher under both Ft and In. are used for In any column containing sums of money, the period and ciphers 13.36. are omitted if the column consists entirely of whole dollars. Continued heads 13.37. In continued lines an em dash is used between the head and the . No period is carried aft er a continued line. word Continued Continued heads over tables will be worded exactly like the table 13.38. heading. Notes above tables are repeated; footnote references are re- peated in boxheads and in continued lines. Dashes or rules 13.39. Rules are not carried in reading columns or columns consisting gure of serial or tracing numbers, but are carried through all fi columns. 13.40. Parallel rules are used to cut off gures from other fi gures below fi that are added or subtracted; also, generally, above a grand total. Ditto (do.) 13.41. Th e abbreviation do. i s u sed to i nd ic ate t hat t he pre v iou s l i ne i s bei ng repeated instead of repeating the line, verbatim, over and over. It is used in reading columns only, lowercased and preceded by leaders (6 periods) when there is matter in preceding column. If ditto marks are requested, closing quotes will be used. Capitalize Do. in the fi 13.42. ese are indented rst and last columns. Th 1 or 2 ems, depending on the length of the word being repeated, or the width of the column; the situation will determine as it is encountered. c h a p t e r 1 3 . i n d d 11/13/08 3:18:06 PM 2 8 6 chapter13.indd 286 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 0 6 P M

301 Ta b u l a r Wo r k 287 In mixed columns made up of fi gure and reading-matter items, 13.43. do. is used only under the latter items. is not used— 13.44. Do. (1) In a fi gure or symbol column (tracing columns are fi gure columns); (2) In the fi rst line under a centerhead in the column in which the centerhead occurs; (3) Under a line of leaders or a rule; (4) Under an item italicized or set in boldface type for a specifi c reason (italic or boldface do. is never used; item is repeated); (5) Under an abbreviated unit of quantity or other abbrevia- tions; or (6) Under words of three letters or less. Do. 13.45. None is used, however, under a clear space and under the word in a reading column. does not apply to a reference mark on the preceding item. Th e 13.46. Do. reference mark, if needed, is added to do. Leaders are not used before Do. in the fi rst column or before or aft 13.47. er Do. in the last column. In a fi rst and/or last column 6 ems or less in width, a 1-em space 13.48. Do. In all other columns 6 ems or less in width, six is used before periods are used. Bearoff is not included. 13.49. In a fi rst and/or last column more than 6 ems in width, 2 ems of space are used before Do. In all other columns more than 6 ems in width, space is not included. If the preceding six periods are used. Bearoff Do. is increased accordingly. line is indented, the indention of 13.50. Do. under an indented item in an inside reading column, with or without matter in preceding column, is preceded by six periods which are indented to align with item above. c h a p t e r 1 3 . i n d d 11/13/08 3:18:06 PM 2 8 7 chapter13.indd 287 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 0 6 P M

302 288 Chapter 13 Dollar mark Th e dollar mark or any other money symbol is placed close to the 13.51. fi gure; it is used only at the head of the table and under cross rules when the same unit of value applies to the entire column. In columns containing mixed amounts (as money, tons, gallons, 13.52. etc.), the dollar mark, pound mark, peso mark, or other symbol, as required, is repeated before each sum of money. 13.53. If several sums of money are grouped together, they are separated from the nonmoney group by a parallel rule, and the symbol is gure of the separated group only. placed on the fi rst fi 1958 1967 Water supply available (gallons) ... 4,0 00,000 3,000,000 Wheat production (bushels) ... 9, 000,000 8,000,000 Operations: $442,496 $ Water-dispatching operations ... 396,800 Malaria control ... .. 571,040 426,600 .. 134,971 58,320 Plant protection ... Total ... ... 1,148,507 881,720 ... 642 525 Number of plants ... Percent of budget ... ... 96.8 78.8 Note.—Preliminary fi gures. Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. In a double money column, dollar marks are used in the fi 13.54. rst group of fi gures only; en dashes are aligned. $7–$9 10 –12 314 –316 1,014–1,016 13.55. Th e dollar mark is omitted from a fi rst item consisting of a cipher. 0 but $0.12 $300 13.43 500 15.07 700 23.18 13.56. e dollar mark should be repeated in stub or reading columns. Th 0 to $0.99 ... $1 to $24 ... $25 to $49 ... $50 to $74 ... c h a p t e r 1 3 . i n d d 11/13/08 3:18:06 PM 2 8 8 chapter13.indd 288 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 0 6 P M

303 Ta b u l a r Wo r k 28 9 Figure columns 13.57. ere is no Figures align on the right, with an en space bearoff . Th on leaders. bearoff 13.58. may be reduced in fi gure columns In a crowded table the bearoff only. It is preferable to retain the bearoff . 13.59. Figures in parentheses align. 13.60. In double rows of fi gures in a single column, connected by a dash, a plus, or minus sign, and in dates appearing in the form 9–4–08, the dashes or signs can be aligned. 13.61. of fi gures are placed against the fi g- Plus or minus signs at the left ures regardless of alignment; plus and minus signs at the right of fi gures are cleared. 13.62. gure columns are aligned on the Words and Roman numerals in fi right with the fi gures, without periods. $224 Median value of livestock ... . ... $62 Median value of machinery ... $54 Small ... ... Median value of furniture ... $211 $100 . ... Possessing automobiles (per cent) ... ... 25 17 ... Median age (yea 5.5 ... ... ... ... rs) ... Median value . ... ... $144 ... Fraternal membership: Men ... ... IV 486 Women ... ... ... ... None 13.63. Figures (including decimal and common fractions) expressing mixed units of quantity (feet, dollars, etc.) and fi gures in parenthe- ses are aligned on the right. 13.64. Decimal points are aligned except in columns containing numbers that refer to mixed units (such as pounds, dollars, and percentage) and have irregular decimals. 13.65. It is preferred that all columns in a table consisting entirely of fi gure columns be centered. Footnotes and references 13.66. Footnotes to tables are numbered independently from footnotes to text unless requested by committee or department.

304 290 Chapter 13 13.67. gures are used for footnote references, beginning with 1 Superior fi in each table. 13.68. If fi gures might lead to ambiguity (for example, in connection with a chemica l formula), asterisks, daggers, or ita lic superior letters, etc., may be used. 13.69. gure When items carry several reference marks, the superior-fi reference precedes an asterisk, dagger, or similar character used for reference. Th ese, in the same sequence, precede mathematical signs. A thin space is used to bear off an asterisk, dagger, or similar character. Footnote references are repeated in boxheads or in continued lines 13.70. over tables. 13.71. References to footnotes are numbered consecutively across the page from left to right. Footnote references are placed at the right in reading columns and 13.72. symbol columns, and at the left in fi of gure columns (also at the left None gure columns), and are separated by a thin such words as in fi space. 13.73. Two or more footnote references occurring together are separated by spaces, not commas. In a fi gure column, a footnote reference standing alone is set in 13.74. ushed right. In a reading column, it is set at the parentheses and fl left in parentheses and is followed by leaders, but in the last column it is followed by a period, as if it were a word. In a symbol column it is set at the left and cleared. 13.75. Numbered footnotes are placed immediately beneath the table. If a sign or letter reference in the heading of a table is to be followed, it is not changed to become the fi rst numbered reference mark. Th e footnote to it precedes all other footnotes. Th e remaining footnotes in a table will follow this sequence: footnotes (numbers, letters, or symbols); Note.—; then Source:. 13.76. For better makeup or appearance, footnotes may be placed at the end of a lengthy table. A line reading “Footnotes at end of table.” is supplied. c h a p t e r 1 3 . i n d d 11/13/08 3:18:06 PM 9 0 chapter13.indd 290 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 0 6 P M 2

305 Ta b u l a r Wo r k 291 If the footnotes to both table and text fall together at the bottom of 13.77. a page, the footnotes to the table are placed above the footnotes to ush the text, and the two groups are separated by a 50-point rule fl ; but if there are footnotes to the text and none to the table, the left 50-point rule is retained. 13.78. Footnotes to cut-in and indented tables and tables in rules are set full measure, except when footnotes are short, they can be set in 1 em under indented table. 13.79. Footnotes are set as paragraphs, but two or more short footnotes should be combined into one line, separated by not less than 2 ems. Th 13.80. e footnotes and notes to tables are set solid. Footnotes and notes to tables and boxheads are set the same size, 13.81. but not smaller than 6 point, unless specifi ed otherwise. 13.82. Footnotes to tables follow tabular style in the use of abbreviations, fi gures, etc. gures, even at the begin- 13.83. In footnotes, numbers are expressed in fi ning of a note or sentence. If a footnote consists entirely or partly of a table or leaderwork, it 13.84. should always be preceded by introductory matter carrying the reference number; if necessary, the copy preparer should add an in- 1 troductory line, such as “ See the following table:”. An explanatory paragraph without specifi c reference but belonging 13.85. to the table rather than to the text follows the footnotes, if any, and is separated from them or from the table by space. Fractions All fractions are set fl 13.86. . ush right to the bearoff 47 43 44 0.455 46 0.42 48 ½ in. Total length ... 40¾ 41 10 10 10 11 11 11 Sleeve length ... 10⅝ 11 1 in. 11 Armhole length ... 8⅝ 8½ 9 9½ 9½ 10 10½ 10½ 11 1 in. Sleeve cuff length (if cuff is 5½ 5½ 5½ 57⁄12 5½ 57⁄12 5½ 5½ 5½ Maximum. used). Neck opening ... 26½ 26 2717⁄32 2815⁄32 28 2917⁄32 30 30 31 2 in. Wa ist : 7, 8, 9, 10 cut ... 23½ 24 25½ 2715⁄32 28 29½ 31 32 33½ 6 pct. 29 25 26½ 27½ 11, 12, 14 cut ... 22½ 30½ 31½ 33 6 pct. 23½ c 11/13/08 3:18:06 PM a p t e r 1 3 . i n d d 2 9 1 chapter13.indd 291 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 0 6 P M h

306 292 Chapter 13 Fractions standing alone are expressed in fi gures, even at the be- 13.87. ginning of a line, but should be spelled out at the beginning of a footnote. Headnotes 13.88. Headnotes should be set lowercase, but not smaller than 6 point, bracketed, and period omitted at end, even if the statement is a complete sentence; but periods should not be omitted internally if required by sentence structure. 13.89. Headnotes are repeated under continued heads but the word Continued is not added to the headnote. Indentions and overruns Subentries 13.90. Th e indention of subentries is determined by the width of the stub or reading column. Subentries in columns more than 15 ems wide are indented in 2-em units; in columns 15 ems or less, with short entry lines and few overruns, 2-em indentions are also used. All overruns are indented 1 em more. Subentries in columns of 15 ems or less are indented in 1-em units. 13.91. Overruns are indented 1 additional em space. Total, mean, and average lines 13.92. All total (also mean and average) lines are indented 3 ems. In very narrow stub columns, total lines may be reduced to 1- or 2-em in- dentions, depending on length of line. 13.93. Where overrun of item above confl icts, the total line is indented 1 em more. Runovers of total lines are also indented 1 additional em space. 13.94. It is not necessary to maintain uniform indention of the word To t a l throughout the same table. Th e word To t a l is supplied when not in copy.

307 Ta b u l a r Wo r k 293 Non- To t a l , a l l National Building Wide stub column—subentries 2 ems national banks banks associations banks ASSETS Loans and discounts: $74,518 Loans to banks ... $1,267,493 $135,619 $947,289 450,916 Commercial and industrial loans ... 2,753,456 211,597 18,949 1,158,886 Total (total lines generally indent 3 ems) ... 2,827,974 154,568 718,409 Real estate loans: 186,228 19,044 12,532 Secured by farmland ... 29,854 Secured by residential property other than rural 3,172,837 and farm ... 1,011,856 167,765 1,554,084 Total (indent 1 em more to avoid confl ict with 3,191,881 line above) ... 1,024,388 194,619 1,740,312 Securities: U.S. Government obligations: Direct obligations: U.S. savings bonds ... 1,149,764 3,285,721 23,506 2,361,796 Nonmarketable bonds (including invest- 732,689 167,735 ment series A–1965). ... 242,500 490,677 Total (indent 1 em more than runover 191,241 4 3,776,398 3,094,485 above) ... 1,392,26 Italic Names of vessels and aircraft (except in columns consisting entirely 13.95. of such names), titles of legal cases (except v. for versus ), and certain scientifi c terms are set in italic. Th e word “Total” and headings in the column do not aff ect the application of this rule. In gothic type- faces without italic, quotes are allowed. 13.96. Set “See” and “See also” in roman. Leaders 13.97. Leaders run across the entire table except that they are omitted from a last reading column. 13.98. Th e style of leadering is guided by two rules: (1) Tables with a single reading column leader from the bottom line, or (2) tables with any combination of more than one reading or symbol column leader from the top line.

308 294 Chapter 13 If leadering from the top line, overruns end with a period. 13.99. 13.100. A column of dates is regarded as a reading column only if leaders gure column. are added; in all other cases it is treated as a fi 13.101. In tables with tracing fi and right of page, leader from gures on left top line. Numerals in tables 13.102. Figures, ordinals, and fractions are used in all parts of a table, ex- cept fractions that will be spelled out at the beginning of a footnote. Parallel and divide tables are discouraged 13.103. Parallel tables are set in pairs of pages; beginning on a left -hand page and running across to facing right-hand page, leader from the top line. 13.104. Heads and headnotes center across the pair of pages, with 2-em hanging indention for three or more lines when combined measure exceeds 30 picas in width. Two-line heads are set across the pair of pages. A single-line head or headnote is divided evenly, each part set fl ush right and left , respectively. Words are not divided between pages. 13.105. Boxheads and horizontal rules align across both pages. 13.106. Continued added. Boxheads are not divided but are repeated, with 13.107. Traci ng fi gures are carried through from the outside columns of both pages and are set to “leader from the top line.” 13.108. In divide tables that are made up parallel, with stub column re- peated, the head and headnote repeat on each succeeding page, with Continued added to the head only. 13.109. Table s w it h t r ac i ng fi gures or stub, or both, repeating on the left of odd pages, are divide tables and not parallel tables. Over such tables the heads are repeated, with Continued added.

309 Ta b u l a r Wo r k 29 5 Reading columns gures and letters used to form a read- 13.110. Figures or combinations of fi and are followed by leaders. Do. ing column align on left is not used under such items. in a reading column; if both Th 13 .111. e en dash is not to be used for to throughout. occur, change to to Cut-in items following a colon are indented 2 ems. 13.112. 13.113. A single entry under a colon line should be run in; retain the colon. 13.114. Numerical terms, including numbered streets, avenues, etc., are ex- pressed in fi gures, even at the beginning of an item. Symbol columns gures, symbols, A column consisting entirely of letters, letters and fi 13.115. or signs, or any combination of these, is called a symbol column. It ush left and cleared, except when it takes the place of should be set fl the stub, it should then be leadered. No closing period is used when such column is the last column. Blank lines in a last column are is not used in a symbol column. cleared. Do. Army Filing Speci- Symbol product order cation General description Typical commercial designation fi symbol symbol symbol A G.&D. GM(2) ... Gasoline and diesel engine OR10 Fuel, grease, chassis, oil, SAE10 and SAE10W or soap base. grades. CG ... Ball and roller bearing BR essure ... Extreme pr –X–59 N 4l grease. 2 3 1 X ... WBG OE20 ... Wheel-bearing grease ... CW r tests being ... ... Furthe ed ... Grease not typifi conducted. G090 ... Universal gear lubricant ... 80D B S.&T. Water-pump grease ... Columns composed of both symbols and fi g- 13.116. gures are treated as fi ure columns and are set fl ush right. In case of blank lines in a last column, leaders will be used as in fi gure columns. Symbol Symbol Symbol Symbol or or or fi lling or speci- General description Typical commercial designation catalog product order cation fi number number symbol number 1359 WBD Chassis grease, cup grease, 961 A Especially adapted to very under pressure. cold climates. 14L88 Water-pump bearing grease ... Under moderate pressure ... 352 SWA 5190 AE10 12L N Exposed gear chain lubricant High-speed use ... For experimental use only.. NXL E.P. hypoid lubricant ... 863 X 749 owing in any weather Free fl 468 ... Special grade for marine use 376 c h a p 11/13/08 3:18:06 PM e r 1 3 . i n d d 2 9 5 chapter13.indd 295 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 0 6 P M t

310 296 Chapter 13 Tables without rules It is preferable to set all tables alike; that is, without either down 13.117. rules or cross rules and with roman boxheads. When so indicated on copy, by ordering agency, tabular matter may be set without rules, with italic boxheads. Column heads over fi 13.118. gure columns in 6- or 8-point leaderwork are set in 6-point italic. Horizontal rules (spanner) used between a spread or upper level col- 13.119. umn heading carried over two or more lower level column headings to right, between the are set continuous and without break, from left two levels of such headings. xed assets and related allowances Table 9.— Changes in fi Fixed assets Investment Operations Balance June 30, 2008 Balance June Current Adjustments Transfers Retirements (table 9 – a) additions 30, 2008 Supporting and general facilities: Transportation and utilities: $3 06 ... ($539) ($284,358) $11,838,606 Panama Railroad ... $12,123,197 Motor Transporta- 122,597 ... 2,14 tion Division ... 2,242,999 3 (147,561) 2,220,178 Steamship line ... 13,653,989 10,247 ... ... ... 13,664,236 6,311 ... (3 Power system ... 19,364,373 36 42) (290,174) 19,440,168 Communication ($113,261) ... (26,100) 2,751,470 system ... 2,739,012 151,819 Water system and hydroelectric 104,039 ... 1,661 (48,920) 10,647,600 facilities ... 10,590,820 Total, trans- portation and utilities .. 60,714,390 755,319 (113,261) 2,923 (797,113) 60,562,258 Employee service and facilities: (130,891) (36,418) 6,973,121 Commissary Division ... 7,012,701 105,952 21,777 Service centers ... 3, 684,670 29,086 ... 530 (230,276) 3,484,010 Housing Division... 35,7 ... (485,548 ) (937,916) 34,295,665 29,465 (10,336) Total employee service and facilities ... 46,426,836 124,702 (130,891) (463,241) (1,204,610) 44,752,796 Grand total ... 107,141,236 880,021 (244,152) (466,164) (2,001,723) 105,315,054 c h a p t e r 1 3 . i n 11/13/08 3:18:06 PM d 2 9 6 chapter13.indd 296 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 0 6 P M d

311 Ta b u l a r Wo r k 297 More than one fi gure column, also illustrating use of dollar mark, 13.120. , etc. rule, bearoff For property purchased from— Central Pipeline Distributing Co.: Capital stock issued recorded amount ... $75,000 Undetermined consideration recorded ... 341 3,476 Pan American Bonded Pipeline Co.: Recorded money outlay .. 730 M.J. Mitchell: Recorded money outlay ... ning Co.: R. Lacy, Inc., and Lynch Refi Recorded money outlay ... $157,000 Note issued ... 100,000 Subtotal ... 257,000 Less value of oil in lines and salvaged construction material ... 26,555 230,445 $309,992 For construction, improvements, and replacements, recorded money outlay ... 522 recorded money ou tlay ... For construction work in progress, 933,605 ... 1,244,119 Total ... Quantity Value at point (million of consumption cubic feet) Use: Residential ... 34,842 $21,218,778 Commercial ... 14,404 5,257,468 Industrial: Field (drilling, pumping, etc.) ... 144,052 10,419,000 All other industrial: Fuel for petroleum refi neries ... 96,702 ... Other, including electric utility plants ... 346,704 61,440,000 Total ... 636,704 98,335,246 Estimated 2004 2008 Change General account: $69,800 +$5,000 Receipts ... $64,800 Expenditures ... (70,300) (67,100) (-3, 20 0) Net improvement, 2008 over 2004 ... ... 1,800 Deduct 2004 defi cit ... ... 1,500 Net surplus, estimated for 2008 ... ... 300 c h a p t e r 1 3 . i 11/13/08 3:18:06 PM d d 2 9 7 chapter13.indd 297 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 0 6 P M n

312 298 Chapter 13 [In U.S.-dollar equivalent] Balance with the Treasury Department July 1, 2008... $165,367,704.85 Receipts: Collections ... $564,944,502.99 Return from agency accounts of currencies advanced for liquid- 4,450,577.07 ation of obligations incurred prior to July 1, 2007 ... Total receipts ... 569,395,080.06 Total available ... 734,762,784.91 Units of quantity 13.121. Units of quantity in stub columns are set in lowercase in plural form and placed in parentheses. 2 1 25,526,646 4,468,437 29,519,871 Coke (short tons) ... 5,080,403 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 1 ) ( ) ( ) ) ( ( Diatomite ... 765 6,828 1,046 9,349 Emery (pounds) ... 1 1 1 1 ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ( Feldspar (crude) (long tons) ... 2 2 18,388,766 259,303 30,719,756 183,465 Ferroalloys (short tons) ... 13.122. gure columns Units of quantity and other words as headings over fi are used at the beginning of a table or at the head of a continued page or continued column in a double-up table. 13.123. Over fi gure columns, units of quantity and other words used as headings, and the abbreviations a.m. and p.m. , if not included in the boxheads, are set in italic and are placed immediately above the fi gures, without periods other than abbreviating periods. In con- gressional work (gothic), or at any time when italic is not available, these units should be placed in the boxheads in parentheses. Any well-known abbreviation will be used to save an overrun, but if one unit of quantity is abbreviated, all in the same table will be abbrevi- ated. If units change in a column, the new units are set in italic with space above and no space below. Th e space is placed both above and below only when there is no italic available. Quoted tabular work 13.124. When a table is part of quoted matter, quotation marks will open on each centerhead and each footnote paragraph, and, if table is end of quoted matter, quotation marks close at end of footnotes. If there are no footnotes and the table is the end of the quotation, quotation marks close at end of last item.

313 14. Leaderwork (See also Chapter 9 “Abbreviations and Letter Symbols” and Chapter 13 “Tabular Work”) 14.1. Leaderwork is a simple form of tabular work without boxheads or rules and is separated from text by 4 points of space above and below in solid matter or 6 points of space in leaded matter. It consists of a reading (stub) column and a fi gure column, leadered from the bot- tom line. It may also consist of two reading columns, aligning on the top line. In general, leaderwork (except indexes and tables of contents, which are set the same style as text) is governed by the same rules of style as tabular work. Unless otherwise indicated, leaderwork is set in 8 point. Th e period is omitted immediately be- fore leaders. Bearoff 14.2. No bearoff is required at the right in a single reading column. Columns A fi gure column is at least an en quad wider than the largest group 14.3. of fi gures but not less than 3 ems in single columns or 2 ems in double-up columns. Total rules are to be the full width of all fi gure columns. Pounds Year: 2000 ... 655,939 Fiscal year: 2009 ... 368,233 2010 ... 100,000 Total ... 1,124,172 14.4. Where both columns are reading columns, they are separated by an em space. 299

314 300 Chapter 14 Artist Particulars To the French Government: Th e entire collection of French paintings on loan, Degas. with the exception of Mlle. DuBourg (Mme. Fantin-Latour). Avant la Course ... Do. To Col. Axel H. Oxholm, Washington, DC: Martha Washington, George Washington, and Attributed to erson. Th omas Jeff Jonathan E. Earl, Los Angeles, CA. Roses ... Renoir. Do ... Forain. Roses in a Chinese Vase and Sculpture by Maillol Vuillard. Maternity ... Gauguin. Continued heads 14.5. Th e use of continued heads in leaderwork is not necessary. Ditto (do.) Th 14.6. do. is indented and capitalized in the stub. It is e abbreviation capitalized and cleared in last reading column. Dollar mark and ciphers . 14.7 In a column containing mixed amounts (as money, tons, gallons, gures are aligned on the right, and the dollar mark or etc.) the fi other symbol is repeated before each sum of money. If several sums of money are grouped and added or subtracted to make a total, they are separated from the nonmoney group by a parallel rule, and the symbol is placed on the fi rst fi gure of the separated group only. 14.8 . If two columns of sums of money add or subtract one into the other and one carries points and ciphers, the other should also carry points and ciphers. Flush items and subheads 14.9. Flush items clear the fi gure column. 14.10. Subheads are centered in full measure. c h a p t e r 1 4 . i n d d 11/13/08 3:18:19 PM 3 0 0 chapter14.indd 300 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 1 9 P M

315 Leaderwork 301 Footnotes Footnotes to leaderwork follow the style of footnotes to tables. 14.11. Footnote references begin with 1 in each leadered grouping, and 14.12. footnotes are placed at the end, separated from it by 4 points of space. Separate notes from matter following by not less than 6 points of space. 14.13. If the leaderwork runs over from one page to another, the footnotes 1 will be placed at the bottom of the leadered material. Units of quantity Units of quantity or other words over a stub or fi gure column are set 14.14. italic. e following example shows the style to be observed where there 14.15. Th . In case of only one subentry, run in with is a short colon line at left colon line and preserve the colon. To n s Baltimore & Ohio RR.: Freight carried: May ... 50,000 June ... 52,000 Coal carried ... 90,000 Dixie RR.: Freight carried Jan. 1, 1999, including freight carried by 1 n all its subsidiaries ... 2,000 1 Livestock not included. If there is no colon line, the style is as follows: 14.16. To n s Freight carried by the Dixie RR. and the Baltimore & Ohio RR. in May ... 71,500 Explanatory matter is set in 6 point under leaders (note omission of 14.17. period): ... ... ... (Address) (Name) (Position) 1 If footnotes to leaderwork and text fall at bottom of page, leaderwork footnotes are placed above e two groups are separated by a 50-point rule. text footnotes. Th c h a p t e r 1 4 . i n d d 3 0 1 11/13/08 3:18:19 PM 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 1 9 P M chapter14.indd 301

316 302 Chapter 14 14.18. In blank forms, leaders used in place of complete words to be sup- plied are preceded and followed by a space. On this ... day of ... 20 ... 14.19. In half measure doubled up, units of quantity are aligned across the page. Inches Inches Seedlings: Black locust ... 27 Osage-orange ... 20 Honey locust ... 16 Catalpa ... 16 Green ash ... 7 Black walnut ... 10 14.20. gure column Mixed units of quantity and amounts and words in a fi are set as follows: Capital invested ... $8,000 Value of implements and stock ... $3,000 Land under cultivation (acres) ... 128.6 Orchard (acres) ... 21.4 50 Forest land (square miles) ... Livestock: Horses: Number ... 8 Value ... $1,500 Cows: Number ... 18 Estimated weekly production of butter per milk cow (pounds) ... 7½ Hogs: Number ... 46 Loss from cholera ... None 1 c a p t e r 1 4 . i n d d 3 0 2 chapter14.indd 302 h 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 1 9 P M 11/13/08 3:18:19 PM

317 15. Footnotes, Indexes, Contents, and Outlines Footnotes and reference marks Text footnotes follow the style of the text with the exception of those 15.1. things noted in Chapter 9 “Abbreviations and Letter Symbols.’’ Footnotes appearing in tabular material follow the guidelines set forth in Chapter 13 “Tabular Work.’’ 15.2. In a publication divided into chapters, sections, or articles, each beginning a new page, text footnotes begin with 1 in each such division. In a publication without such divisional grouping, foot- notes are numbered consecutively from 1 to 99, and then begin with 1 again. However, in supplemental sections, such as appendixes and bibliographies, which are not parts of the publication proper, foot- notes begin with 1. 15.3. Copy preparers must see that references and footnotes are plainly marked. If a reference is repeated on another page, it should carry the origi- 15.4. nal footnote; but to avoid repetition of a long note, the copy preparer may use the words “See footnote 3 (6, 10, etc.) on p.—.’’ instead of repeating the entire footnote. 15.5. Unless the copy is otherwise marked: (1) Footnotes to 12-point text are set in 8 point; (2) footnotes to 11-point text are set in 8 point, except in Supreme Court reports, in which they are set in 9 point; (3) footnotes to 10- and 8-point text are set in 7 point. Footnotes are set as paragraphs at the bottom of the page and are 15.6. ush left , with no less separated from the text by a 50-point rule, set fl than 2 points of space above and below the rule. 15.7. Footnotes to indented matter (other than excerpt footnotes) are set full measure. 15.8. To achieve faithful reproduction of indented excerpt material (par- ticularly legal work) containing original footnotes, these footnotes are also indented and placed at the bottom of the excerpt, separated 303 1 c a p t e r 1 5 . i n d d 3 0 3 chapter15.indd 303 h 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 3 3 P M 11/13/08 3:18:33 PM

318 304 Chapter 15 by 6 points of space. No side dash is used. Reference numbers are not changed to fi t the numbering sequence of text footnotes. 15.9. Footnotes must always begin on the page where they are referenced. If the entire footnote will not fi t on the page where it is cited, it will 1 be continued at the bottom of the next page. 15.10. Footnotes to charts, graphs, and other illustrations should be placed immediately beneath such illustrative material. 15.11. rule is not required between a chart or graph and its A cutoff footnotes. For reference marks use: (1) Roman superior fi gures, (2) italic supe- 15.12. rior letters, and (3) symbols. Superior fi gures (preferred), letters, and symbols are separated from the words to which they apply by thin spaces, unless immediately preceded by periods or commas. 15.13. Where reference fi gures might lead to ambiguity (for example, in matter containing exponents), asterisks, daggers, etc., or italic supe- rior letters may be used. 15.14. When symbols or signs are used for footnote reference marks, their sequence should be (*) asterisk, (†) dagger, (‡) double dagger, and (§) section mark. Should more symbols be needed, these may be doubled or tripled, but for simplicity and greater readability, it is preferable to extend the assortment by adding other single-charac- ter symbols. 15.15. Symbols with established meanings, such as the percent sign (%) and the number mark (#), are likely to cause confusion and should not be used for reference marks. 15.16. To avoid possible confusion with numerals and letters frequently occurring in charts and graphs, it is preferable in such instances to use symbols as reference marks. 1 ) is set When a footnote breaks from an odd (right-hand) page to an even (left -hand) page, the word ( Continued inside parentheses in italic below the last line of the footnote where the break occurs. A 50-point rule is used above each part of the footnote. When a footnote break occurs on facing pages, i.e., from an even page to an odd page, the ( Continue d) line is not set, but the 50-point rule is duplicated.

319 Footnotes, Indexes, Contents, and Outlines 305 When items carry several reference marks, the superior-fi 15.17. gure ref- erence precedes an asterisk, dagger, or similar character used for reference. 15.18. A superior reference mark follows all punctuation marks except a dash, but it falls inside a closing parenthesis or bracket if applying only to matter within the parentheses or brackets. 15.19. Two or more superior footnote references occurring together are separated by thin spaces. Indexes and tables of contents Indexes and tables of contents are set in the same style as the text, 15.20. See except that see also are set in italic. and Where a word occurs in an index page column, either alone or with 15.21. a fi gure, it is set fl ush on the right. If the word extends back into the leaders, it is preceded by an en space. Page Explanatory diagra m ... Frontispiece General instructions. ... viii Capitalization ( see also Abbreviations) ... 16 Correct imposition (diagram)... Facing 34 Legends. ( Miscellaneous rules.) See Appendixes A, B, C, and D, maps, illustrations, and excerpts ... In supplemental volume 15.22. For better appearance, Roman numerals should be set in small caps in the fi gure columns of tables of contents and indexes. 15.23. In indexes set with leaders, if the page numbers will not fi t in the leader line, the fi rst number only is set in that line and the other numbers are overrun. If the entry makes three or more lines and the gures is not full, do not use a period at the end. last line of fi If page folios overrun due to an excessive amount of fi gures use this form ... 220, 224, 227, 230, 240 And this way when overrun folios make two or more lines ... 220, 224–225, 230–240, 245, 246, 250–255, 258, 300, 320, 330, 350, 360, 370, 380, 390, 400, 410–500, 510, 520, 530, 540, 550, 560, 570, 580, 590, 600–620, 630, 640, 650

320 306 Chapter 15 (For examples of item indentions in a reading column of indexes set with leaders, see index in this Manual.) 15.24. Overrun page numbers are indented 3½ ems in measures not over 20 picas and 7 ems in wider measures, more than one line being ese indentions are increased as necessary to not used if necessar y. Th less than 2 ems more than the line immediately above or below. 15.25. es that all overs are to be a certain number of When copy specifi ems, the runovers of the fi gure column shall be held in 2 ems more than the specifi ed indention. 15.26. Examples of block-type indexes: Example 2 Example 1 Brazil—Continued Medical offi cer, radiological defense, 3 Medicolegal dosage, 44 Exchange restrictions—Continued Military Liaison Committee, 4 Williams mission ( see also Monitoring, 58 Williams, John H., special Air, 62 mission), exchange control situation, 586–588 Personnel, 59 Civilian, 60 Trade agreement with United States, proposed: Military, 59 Sea, 61 text, 558–567 Draft Ship, 61 Proposals for: Inclusion of all clauses, 531 Monitors, radiological defense, 3 15.27. In index entries the following forms are used: not Brown, Jr., A.H.) Brown, A.H., Jr. ( Brown, A.H., & Sons ( Brown & Sons, A.H.) not Brown, A.H., Co. ( not Brown Co., A.H.) Brown, A.H., & Sons Co. ( not Brown & Sons Co., A.H.) 15.28. In a table of contents, where or fi gure is followed by a chapter, plate, er the period. Th number and period, an en space is used aft e peri- ods are aligned on the right. Page Chapter I. Introduction... i II. Summary ... 1 VI. Conclusions ... 7 c h a p t e r 1 5 . i n d 11/13/08 3:18:33 PM 3 0 6 chapter15.indd 306 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 3 3 P M d

321 Footnotes, Indexes, Contents, and Outlines 307 Subheads in indexes and tables of contents are centered in the full 15.29. measure. 15.30. In contents using two sizes of lightface type, or a combination of boldface and lightface type, all leaders and page numbers will be set in lightface roman type. Contents set entirely in boldface will use boldface page numbers. All page numbers will be set in the pre- dominant size. Page Part I. Maintenance of Peace and Security ... 5 Disarmament ... 6 Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy ... 7 ... 5 Part I. Maintenance of Peace and Security Disarmament ... 6 Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy ... 7 Part I. Maintenance of Peace and Security ... 5 Disarmament ... 6 Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy ... 7 Outlines 15.31. Outlines vary in appearance because there is no one set style to fol- e width of the measure, the number of low in designing them. Th levels required for the indentions, and the labeling concept selected to identify each new level all contribute to its individuality. Th e following sample outline demonstrates a very basic and struc- tured arrangement. It uses the enumerators listed in rule 8.108 to identify each new indented level. Th e enumerators for the fi rst four levels are followed by a period and a fi e enumerators for the second four levels xed amount of space. Th are set in parentheses and followed by the same amount of fi xed space. Each new level indents 2 ems more than the preceding level, and data that runs over to the next line aligns with the fi rst word follow- ing the enumerator.

322 308 Chapter 15 Outline example: I. Balancing a checkbook A. Open your check register 1. Verify all check numbers a. Verify no check numbers were duplicated b. Verify no check numbers were skipped B. Open your bank statement 1. Put canceled checks in sequence 2. Compare amounts on checks to those in register a. Correct any mistakes in register b. Indicate those check numbers cashed check number on the statement (1) Mark off (a) Verify amount of check (i) Highlight discrepancies on statement (aa) Enter fi gures on back (ii) Enter missing check numbers on back with amounts (aa) Identify missing check numbers in register (bb) Verify those check numbers were not cashed previously c h a p t e r 1 5 11/13/08 3:18:34 PM i n d d 3 0 8 chapter15.indd 308 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 3 4 P M .

323 16. Datelines, Addresses, and Signatures 16.1. Th e general principle involved in the typography of datelines, ad- dresses, and signatures is that they should be set to stand out clearly from the body of the letter or paper that they accompany. Th is is accomplished by using caps and small caps and italic, as set forth below. Other typographic details are designed to ensure uniformity and good appearance. Street addresses and ZIP Code numbers are not to be used. In certain lists that carry ZIP Code numbers, reg- ular spacing will be used preceding the ZIP Code. Certain general instructions apply alike to datelines, addresses, and signatures. General instructions Principal words in datelines, addresses, and titles accompanying 16.2. signatures are capitalized. 16.3. Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms., and all other titles preceding a name, and Esq., Jr., Sr. , and 2d following a name in address and signature lines, are set in roman caps and lowercase if the name is in caps and small caps or caps and lowercase; if the name is in caps, they are set in caps and small caps, if small caps are available—otherwise in caps and lowercase. Spacing 16.4. At least 2 points of space should appear between dateline and text or address, address and text, text and signature, or signature and address. Datelines 16.5. Datelines at the beginning of a letter or paper are set at the right side of the page, the originating offi ce in caps and small caps, the address and date in italic; if the originating offi ce is not given, the address is set in caps and small caps and the date in italic; if only the date is given, it is set in caps and small caps. Such datelines are indented from the right 1 em for a single line; 3 ems and 1 em, successively, for two lines; or 5 ems, 3 ems, and 1 em, successively, for three lines. In measures 30 picas or wider, these indentions are increased by 1 em. 309

324 310 Chapter 16 HE W H OUSE , □□□ T HITE Washington, DC, January 1, 2008. □ T HITE OUSE , July 30, 2008. □ HE H W EPARTMENT , □□□□□ REASURY D T O OF THE T REASURER , □□□ FFICE January 1, 2008. Washington, DC , □ T D , July 30, 2008. □ REASURY EPARTMENT OF EPARTMENT OMMERCE , □□□ C D July 30, 2008. □ F C OUNTY AIRFAX □ , VA. FFICE OF J OHN S & C O ., □□□ MITH O , New York, NY June 6, 2008. □ ASHINGTON May 20, 2008—10 a.m. □ , W HURSDAY , M AY 8, 2008—2 P . M . □ T 24, 2008. □ ANUARY J ASHINGTON November 28, 2008. □□□ , W [Received December 5, 2008]. □ O B OARD N ONNECTICUT ,’’ □□□ USS “C January 22, 2008. □ 16.6. Congressional hearings: 1 TUESDAY, JULY 29, 2008 H OUSE OF R EPRESENTATIVES , □□□□□□□ C OMMITTEE ON THE J UDICIARY , □□□□□ S UBCOMMITTEE I MMIGRATION , □□□ ON C , R EFUGEES , □□□ ITIZENSHIP B S ECURITY , AND I NTERNAL L AW ORDER □□□ , Washington, DC. □ ENATE □□□□□ , U.S. S C ON A OMMITTEE S ERVICES , □□□ RMED Washington, DC. □ ONGRESS OF THE U NITED S TATES , □□□□□ C J C ON P RINTING , OINT OMMITTEE □□□ Washington, DC . □ 1 Normally, dates in House hearings on appropriation bills are set on the right in 10-point caps and small caps. c h a p t e r 1 6 . i n 11/13/08 3:18:49 PM d 3 1 0 chapter16.indd 310 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 4 9 P M d

325 Datelines, Addresses, and Signatures 311 Datelines at the end of a letter or paper, either above or below signa- 16.7. in caps and small caps for the address and italic tures, are set on left dated for the date. When the word is used, dateline is set in roman caps and lowercase. AY 7, 20 08. M □ R □ OANOKE , VA. □ R July 1, 2008. OANOKE , VA, □ Dated July 1, 2008. □ Dated Albany, March 13, 2008. 16.8. Datelines in newspaper extracts are set at the beginning of the para- graph, the address in caps and small caps and the date in roman caps and lowercase, followed by a period and a 1-em dash. A BOARD □ Ronald Reagan April 3, 2008.— USS □ N Y ORK EW , NY, August 21, 2008.—A message received here from * * *. Addresses 16.9. ush left at the beginning of a letter or paper in Addresses are set fl congressional work (or at end in formal usage). At beginning or at end: 16.10. MITH To S ONES and & J B □ & G REEN , Esqs., ROWN Attorneys for Claimant. (Attention of Mr. Green.) , IANNE F EINSTEIN Hon. D U.S. Senate. Hon. N ANCY , P ELOSI (Collective address.) U.S. House of Representatives. The P RESIDENT , The White House. 16.11. A long title following an address is set in italic caps and lowercase, the fi ush left and right, overruns indented 2 ems to clear a rst line fl following 1-em paragraph indention. ANIEL K. A KAKA , Hon. D Chairman, Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, □□ the Federal Workforce and the District of Columbia, U.S. Senate, □□ Washington, DC. c h a p t e 11/13/08 3:18:49 PM 1 6 . i n d d 3 1 1 chapter16.indd 311 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 4 9 P M r

326 312 Chapter 16 Th e name or title forming the fi 16.12. rst line of the address is set in caps ., or other title preceding a name, and and small caps, but Mr., Mrs following a name, are set in roman caps and , or 2d Esq., Jr., Sr. lowercase; the matter following is set in italic. Th U.S. Army e words immediately following a name are set in roman caps or U.S. Navy and lowercase in the same line as the name. OBERT L. V AN A NTWERP , Jr., U.S. Army, Lt. Gen. R Chief of Engineers. C OF E NGINEERS HIEF RMY . (Full title, all caps and small caps.) , U.S. A L. V AN A NTWERP , Jr., OBERT Lt. Gen. R Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army, Washington, DC. Hon. L ORRAINE C. M ILLER , Clerk of the House of Representatives. Hon. R C. B , OBERT YRD U.S. Senator, Washington, DC. Hon. J IM EBB , W Russell Senate Offi ce Building, Washington, DC. The C OMMITTEE ON A PPROPRIATIONS , House of Representatives. 16.13. General (or collective) addresses are set in italic caps and lower- case, fl ush left , with overruns indented 2 ems and ending with a colon, except when followed by a salutation, in which case a period is used. 16.14. Examples of general addresses when not followed by salutation (note the use of colon at end of italic line): To the Offi cers and Members of the Daughters of the American □□ Revolution, Washington, DC: To the American Diplomatic and Consular Offi cers: To Whom It May Concern: Collectors of Customs: To the Congress of the United States: Example of general address when followed by salutation (note the 16.15. use of period at end of italic line): Senate and House of Representatives. □ G ENTLEMEN : You are hereby * * *. c h a p t e r 11/13/08 3:18:50 PM 6 . i n d d 3 1 2 chapter16.indd 312 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 5 0 P M 1

327 Datelines, Addresses, and Signatures 313 Examples illustrating other types of addresses: 16.16. : To the E DITOR L. N Greeting: , OHN ELSON To J OHN ELSON , Birmingham, AL, Greeting: L. N To J LERK OF THE H OUSE OF : EPRESENTATIVES R To the C HIEF OF E NGINEERS C (Through the Division Engineer). □ M D EAR Y IR : I have the honor * * *. S □ M R . R EED : I have the honor * * *. □ D EAR M R . R EED : I have the honor * * *. OHN MITH , S Lt. (jg.) J Navy Department: □ The care shown by you * * *. S OF N EW Y ORK , TATE County of New York, ss: □ Before me this day appeared * * *. D ISTRICT OF OLUMBIA , ss: C □ Before me this day appeared * * *. Envelope addresses U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and Labor ce Building 2181 Rayburn House Offi Washington, DC 20515 Signatures Signatures, preceded by an em dash, are sometimes run in with last 16.17. line of text. 16.18. Signatures are set at the right side of the page. Th ey are indented 1 em for a single line; 3 ems and 1 em, successively, for two lines; and 5 ems, 3 ems, and 1 em, successively, for three lines. In measures 30 picas or wider, these indentions are increased by 1 em. Th e name or names are set in caps and small caps; Mr., Mrs., and all 16.19. other titles preceding a name, and Esq., Jr., Sr. , and 2d following a name, are set in roman caps and lowercase; the title following name is set in italic. Signatures as they appear in copy must be followed in regard to abbreviations.

328 314 Chapter 16 If name and title make more than half a line, they are set as two 16.20. lines. Two to eight independent signatures, with or without titles, are 16.21. , at approximately the center of the measure. aligned on the left CHWENK R OBERT . E. S Q . UEEN E. H UGHES E ROPHET . N. P RICA A NDRE , R ODGERS □ Commander, U.S. Navy (Retired). W H. C , Chairman. ILLIAM OUGHLIN 16.22. More than eight signatures, with or without titles, are set full mea- sure, roman caps and lowercase, run in, indented 5 and 7 ems in measures of 26½ picas or wider; in measures less than 26½ picas, indent 2 and 3 ems. Brown, Shipley & Co.; Denniston, Cross & Co.; Fruhling & □□□□□ Groschen, Attorneys; C.J. Hambro & Sons; Hardy, □□□□□□□ Nathan & Co.; Heilbut, Symons & Co.; Harrison Bros. & □□□□□□□ Hoare, Miller & Co.; Thomas □□□□□□□ Co., by George Harrison; Eaton Co. □□□□□□□ 16.23. e punctuation of closing phrases is governed by the sense. A de- Th tached complimentary close is made a new paragraph. 16.24. Examples of various kinds of signatures: NITED S TATES I MPROVEMENT C U ., O (By) J S , Secretary. OHN MITH EXARKANA T EXTILE & ERCHANTS M T M ANUFACTURERS ’ A SSOCIATION , J OHN L. J , Secretary. ONES EXARKANA T M ERCHANTS & EXTILE T M ANUFACTURERS , SSOCIATION ’ A J W ILDER , OANNE □ Board Member and Secretary. J OHN MITH □□□ W. S □ (A nd 25 other s) . J S MITH OHN □□□□□ , Lieutenant Governor □□□ (For the Governor of Maine). □ 1 c a p t e r 1 6 . i n d d 3 1 4 chapter16.indd 314 h 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 5 0 P M 11/13/08 3:18:50 PM

329 Datelines, Addresses, and Signatures 315 ORTH A I CE C O ., N MERICAN S R Secretary. YLVIA OONEY , J [his thumbmark] S . □ OHN MITH M. L OWEY , ITA N F RANK , OLF W □ Managers on the Part of the House. J R. B IDEN , Jr., OSEPH R L , ICHARD UGAR Managers on the Part of the Senate. □ □ I am, very respectfully, yours, □ F (Signed) C. K RED , □□□ LEINSCHMIDT □ Assistant Clerk, Court of Claims. □ On behalf of the Philadelphia Chamber of Commerce: G . W. P . EO HILIPS S AMPBELL AML . C . I have the honor to be, □ □□□ Very respectfully, your obedient servant, □ John R. King (Signed) (Typed) □ J R. K , OHN ING Secretary. □ or □ John R. King (S) J OHN R. K ING , Secretary. □ □ Attest: □ ICHARD R OE , Notary Public. R □ By the Governor: ATHANIEL , Secretary of State. □ C OX N Approved. □ Governor. MITH , OHN □ S J By the President: □ ONDOLEEZZA R ICE , Secretary of State. □ C Respectfully submitted. □ ARY F ARRELL , U.S. Indian Agent. □ M You r s t r u ly, □□□ AMES S TALEY , Jr., □□□ Capt. J Superintendent. □ □□□ Respectfully yours, □ RANK E. (B ETTY ) S HEFFIELD . Mrs. F □□□ Ver y respect f u l ly, ON G , U.S. Indian Agent. □ OLDEN R c h a p t e r 1 6 . i n d d 11/13/08 3:18:50 PM 3 1 5 chapter16.indd 315 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 5 0 P M

330 316 Chapter 16 In quoted matter: 16.25. □□□ “Very respectfully, “T S. G ILBERT ODD . “P ARTMAN . H AUL “D OLORES H ICKS . “A ONES H. J LBERT . “J C. N . OAN UGENT “B ROCTOR .’’ RANDON P 16.26. Examples of various kinds of datelines, addresses, and signatures: Re weather reports submitted by th e International Advisory Committee of the Weather Council. □□ Mr. J INGELL , OHN D. D Chairman, House Committee on Energy and Commerce, Washington, DC. □ D M R . D INGELL : We have been in contact with your offi EAR ce, etc. J L. “J ” H AYES , OHN ACK □□□□□ Executive Director, □□□ National Weather Service. □ L INCOLN P ARK , MI, February 15, 2008. □ Re Romeo O. Umanos, Susanna M. Umanos, case No. S–254, U.S. □□ Citizenship and Immigration Services, application pending. Hon. R USSELL EINGOLD , D. F Chairman, Subcommittee on the Constitution, Committee on the Judiciary, Washington, DC. □ D M R . F EINGOLD EAR : You have for some time * * *. □□□ Sincerely yours, E DWA RD P ULTORAK □□□ , Architectural Designer. □ c h a p t e 11/13/08 3:18:50 PM 1 6 . i n d d 3 1 6 chapter16.indd 316 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 5 0 P M r

331 Datelines, Addresses, and Signatures 317 OE L , Hon. Z OFGREN Chairman, Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security and International Law of the Committee on □□ the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Washington, DC. □□ D □ EAR M . L OFGREN : You have for some time * * *. S OF U.S. D EPARTMENT □□□□□ C □□□□□ OMMERCE , N W EATHER ATIONAL ERVICE , □□□ S Washington, March 3, 2008. □ Hon. G G ENE , REEN House of Representatives, Washington, DC. □ D R . G REEN M EAR : We will be glad to give you any further information. □□□ Sincerely yours, F.W. R , □□□ EICHELDERFER Chief of Service. □ EW ORK , NY, February 8, 2008. □ N Y To: All supervisory employees of production plants, northern and □□ eastern divisions, New York State. From: Production manager. Subject: Regulations concerning vacations, health and welfare plans, □□ and wage contract negotiations. □ It has come to our attention that the time * * *. W ASHINGTON May 16, 2008. □ , DC, The Honorable the S AV Y THE N OF . ECRETARY D □ M R . S ECRETARY EAR : This is in response to your letter * * *. □□□ Very sincerely yours, [ W. B □ G SEAL ] USH . □ EORGE c h a 11/13/08 3:18:50 PM t e r 1 6 . i n d d 3 1 7 chapter16.indd 317 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 5 0 P M p

332 318 Chapter 16 AST L , MI , June 10, 2008 . □ E ANSING To Whom It May Concern: I have known Kyu Yawp Lee for 7 years and am glad to testify as to his □ fi ne character. He has been employed * * *. cult and highly important job, we are, Wishing you success in your diffi □ Sincerely yours, □□□ A ONINO . GOSTINO J. G L M. G . ONINO OUISE , V EPARTMENT A FFAIRS OF □□□□□□□ U.S. D ETERANS O OF FFICE S ECRETARY OF □□□□□ THE V A FFAIRS □□□ ETERANS , □ Washington, DC. Hon. P EAHY , ATRICK J. L Chairman, Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate, Washington, DC. □ D EAR ENATOR L EAHY : Further reference is made to your reply * * *. S □□□ Sincerely yours, G ORDON M. M ANSFIELD □□□□□□□ , Deputy Secretary □□□□□ (For and in the absence of □□□ James B. Peake, Secretary). □ ASHINGTON , DC □ W , September 16, 2008. Mr. W E. J ILLIAM , Jr., ONES Special Assistant to the Attorney General, Attorney for Howard □□ ce of Alien Property. Sutherland, Director, Offi □ D M R . J ONES EAR : In reply to your letter * * *. □□□ You r s t r u ly, □ (Signed) T E. R HODES , □□□ HOMAS □ Special Assistant to the Attorney General. □ P.S.—A special word of thanks to you from J.R. Brown for your fi ne □□ help. T.E .R . □ 1 c a p t e r 1 6 . i n d d 3 1 8 chapter16.indd 318 h 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 5 0 P M 11/13/08 3:18:50 PM

333 Datelines, Addresses, and Signatures 319 OKYO , J , November 13, 2008. □ T APAN U.S. D H OMELAND S ECURITY , EPARTMENT OF U.S. C AND N ATURALIZATION ITIZENSHIP ERVICES , S Detroit, MI. □ G ENTLEMEN : This letter will testify to the personal character * * *. □□□ Very truly yours, Mrs. G C. L OHR , □□□□□ RACE □□□ Inspector General Section, HQ, AFFE, □ APO 343, San Francisco, CA. 16.27. e word seal appearing with the signature of a notary or of an or- Th ganized body, such as a company, is spaced 1 em from the signature. Th e word seal is to be set in small caps and bracketed. SEAL ] □ R [ R OE , □□□ ICHARD Notary Public. □ SEAL ] J.M. W ILBER . □ □ [ [ SEAL ] □ B ARTLETT , R OBINS & C O . □ 16.28. Presidential proclamations aft er May 23, 1967, do not utilize the seal except when they pertain to treaties, conventions, protocols, or other international agreements. Copy will be followed literally with respect to the inclusion of and between elements of numerical expressions. USH , T HEREFORE , I, G EORGE N OW , President of the United States of W. B America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim September 27, 2008, as National Hunting and Fishing Day. I call upon the people of the United States to join me in recognizing the contributions of America’s hunters sh and and anglers, and all those who work to conserve our Nation’s fi wildlife resources. * * * * * * * I W ITNESS W HEREOF , I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-sixth N day of September, in the year of our Lord two thousand eight, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-third. G EORGE W. B USH . □ 11/13/08 3:18:50 PM h a p t e r 1 6 . i n d d 3 1 9 chapter16.indd 319 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 8 : 5 0 P M c


335 17. Useful Tables Th is chapter contains useful tables presented in GPO style. Th e tables display various design features most frequently used in Government publications and can be considered examples of GPO style. U.S. Presidents and Vice Presidents Years President Vice President Years George Washington ... (1789–1797) John Adams ... ... (1789–1797) John Adams ... (1797–1801) Th omas Jeff erson ... (1797–1801) Th omas Jeff erson ... (1801–1809) Aaron Burr... .. (1801–1805) George Clinton ... (1805–1809) James Madison ... (1809–1817) George Clinton ... ... (1809–1812) Vacant ... (1812–1813) Elbridge Gerry ... (1813–1814) Vacant ... (1814–1817) ... (1817–1825) James Monroe... (1817–1825) Daniel D. Tompkins ... John Quincy Adams ... (1825–1829) John C. Calhoun ... ... (1825–1829) Andrew Jackson ... (1829–1837) John C. Calhoun ... ... (1829–1832) Vacant ... (1832–1833) Martin Van Buren ... (1833–1837) .. (1837–1841) Martin Van Buren ... (1837–1841) Richard M. Johnson... William Henry Harrison ... (1841) John Tyler ... .. (1841) ... (1841–1845) John Tyler ... (1841–1845) Vacant ... James K. Polk ... (1845–1849) George M. Dallas ... ... (1845–1849) ... (1849–1850) Zachary Taylor ... (1849–1850) Millard Fillmore ... Millard Fillmore ... (1850–1853) Vacant ... ... (1850–1853) Franklin Pierce ... (1853–1857) William R. King ... ... (1853) Vacant ... (1853–1857) ... (1857–1861) James Buchanan ... (1857–1861) John C. Breckinridge ... Abraham Lincoln ... (1861–1865) Hannibal Hamlin ... ... (1861–1865) Andrew Johnson ... (1865) ... (1865–1869) Andrew Johnson ... (1865–1869) Vacant ... ... (1869–1873) Ulysses S. Grant ... (1869–1877) Schuyler Colfax ... Henry Wilson... (1873–1875) Vacant ... (1875–1877) Rutherford B. Hayes ... (1877–1881) William A. Wheeler ... .. (1877–1881) James A. Garfi eld ... (1881) Chester A. Arthur ... (1881) Chester A. Arthur ... (1881–1885) Vacant ... ... (1881–1885) Grover Cleveland ... (1885–1889) Th omas A. Hendricks ... (1885) Vacant ... (1885–1889) Benjamin Harrison ... (1889–1893) Levi P. Morton ... ... (1889–1893) ... (1893–1897) Grover Cleveland ... (1893–1897) Adlai E. Stevenson ... ... (1897–1901) William McKinley... (1897–1901) Garret A. Hobart ... Th eodore Roosevelt ... (1901) Th eodore Roosevelt ... (1901–1909) Vacant ... ... (1901–1905) Charles W. Fairbanks ... (1905–1909) William H. Taft ... (1909–1913) James S. Sherman ... (190 9–1912) Vacant ... (1912–1913) Woodrow Wilson ... (1913–1921) Th omas R. Marshall ... (1913–1921) Warren G. Harding ... (1921–1923) Calvin Coolidge ... ... (1921–1923) Calvin Coolidge ... (1923–1929) Vacant ... ... (1923–1925) Charles G. Dawes ... (1925–1929) Herbert Hoover ... (1929–1933) Charles Curtis ... ... (1929–1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt ... (1933–1945) John Nance Garner ... .. (1933–1941) Henry A. Wallace ... (1941–1945) Harry S. Truman ... (1945) Harry S. Truman ... (1945–1953) Vacant ... ... (1945–1949) Alben W. Barkley ... (1949–1953) Dwight D. Eisenhower ... (1953–1961) Richard M. Nixon ... (1953 –1961) 321 1 c a p t e r 1 7 . i n d d 3 2 1 chapter17.indd 321 h 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 0 5 P M 11/13/08 3:19:05 PM

336 322 Chapter 17 U.S. Presidents and Vice Presidents—Continued Vice President Years Years President ... (1961–1963) John F. Kennedy ... (1961–1963) Lyndon B. Johnson... Lyndon B. Johnson ... (1963–1969) Vacant ... ... (1963–1965) Hubert H. Humphrey ... (1965–1969) Richard M. Nixon ... (1969–1974) Spiro T. Agnew... ... (1969–1973) Gerald R. Ford ... (1973–1974) Gerald R. Ford ... (1974–1977) Nelson Rockefeller ... ... (1974–1977) Jimmy Carter ... (1977–1981) Walter F. Mondale ... ... (1977–1981) Ronald Reagan ... (1981–1989) George H.W. Bush ... ... (1981–1989) ... (1989–1993) George H.W. Bush ... (1989–1993) J. Danforth Quayle ... ... (1993–2001) William J. Clinton ... (1993–2001) Albert Gore, Jr. ... ... (2001– ) George W. Bush ... (2001– ) Richard B. Cheney ... 1 Most Populous U.S. Cities by State [2006 Census estimates] Alabama: Delaware: Birmingham ... 229,424 Wilmington ... 72,826 Montgomery* ... 201,998 Dover* ... 34,735 Mobile ... 192,830 Newark ...30,014 Huntsville ... 168,132 Middletown ... 10,272 Tuscaloosa ... 83,052 Milford ... 7,852 Alaska: District of Columbia: Anchorage ... 278,700 Washington ... 581,530 Fairbanks ...31,142 Florida: Juneau* ... 30,737 Jacksonville ... 794,555 Wasilla ... 9,236 Miami ...404,048 Sitka City and Borough ... 8,920 Tampa ... 332,888 Arizona: St. Petersburg ...248,098 Phoenix* ...1,512,986 Tallahassee* ...159,012 Tucson ... 518,956 Georgia: Mesa ... 447,541 Atlanta* ... 486,411 Glendale ... 246,531 Augusta ... 189,366 Chandler ... 240,595 Columbus ... 188,660 Arkansas: Savannah ... 127,889 Little Rock* ... 184,422 Athens ... 111,580 Fort Smith... 83,461 Hawaii: Fayetteville ... 68,726 Honolulu* ... 377,357 Springdale... 63,082 Hilo ... 40,759 Jonesboro ... 60,489 Kailua ... 36,513 California: Kaneohe ... 34,970 Los Angeles ...3,849,378 Waipahu ...33,108 San Diego ...1,256,951 Idaho: San Jose ... 929,936 Boise* ... 198,638 San Francisco ... 744,041 Nampa ... 76,587 Sacramento* ... 453,781 Meridian ... 59,832 Colorado: Pocatello...53,932 Denver* ... 566,974 Idaho Falls ... 52,786 Colorado Springs ... 372,437 Illinois: Aurora ... 303,582 Chicago ...2,833,321 Lakewood ... 140,024 Aurora ...170,617 Fort Collins ... 129,467 Rockford ... 155,138 Connecticut: Naperville ... 142,901 Bridgeport ...137,912 Springfi eld* ... 116,482 Hartford* ... 124,512 Indiana: New Haven ... 124,001 Indianapolis* ... 785,597 Stamford ...119,261 Fort Wayne ... 248,637 Waterbury ...107,251 Evansville ... 115,738 c h a p t e r 11/13/08 3:19:05 PM 7 . i n d d 3 2 2 chapter17.indd 322 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 0 5 P M 1

337 Useful Tables 323 1 —Continued Most Populous U.S. Cities by State [2006 Census estimates] Indiana—Continued Mississippi—Continued South Bend ... 104,905 Biloxi ...44,342 Gary ...97,715 Southaven ... 41,295 Iowa: Missouri: Des Moines* ... 193,886 Kansas City ... 447,306 Cedar Rapids ... 124,417 St. Louis ...347,181 Davenport ...99,514 Springfi eld ... 150,797 Sioux City ... 83,262 Independence ... 109,400 Waterloo ... 65,998 Jeff erson City* ...39,274 Kansas: Montana: Wichita ... 357,698 Billings ... 100,148 Overland Park ... 166,722 Missoula ... 64,081 Kansas City ... 143,801 Great Falls... 56,215 Topeka* ... 122,113 Bozeman ... 35,061 Olathe ... 114,662 Helena* ...27,885 Kentucky: Nebraska: Louisville ... 554,496 Omaha ... 419,545 Lexington ... 270,789 Lincoln* ...241,167 Owensboro ... 55,525 Bellevue ...47,594 Bowling Green ...53,176 Grand Island ... 44,632 Frankfort* ...27,077 Kearney ... 29,385 Louisiana: Nevada: Baton Rouge* ... 229,553 Las Vegas... 552,539 New Orleans ... 223,388 Henderson ... 240,614 Shreveport ... 200,199 Reno ... 210,255 Lafayette ...114,214 North Las Vegas ... 197,567 Lake Charles ... 70,224 Carson City* ... 55,289 Maine: New Hampshire: Portland ...63,011 Manchester ... 109,497 Lewiston... 35,734 Nashua... 87,157 Bangor ... 31,008 Concord* ... 42,378 South Portland ... 23,784 Rochester ...30,117 Augusta* ... 18,560 Dover ... 28,422 Maryland: New Jersey: Baltimore ... 631,366 Newark ... 281,402 Rockville ... 59,114 Jersey City ... 241,789 Frederick ... 58,882 Paterson ... 148,708 Gaithersburg ...57,934 Elizabeth ... 126,179 Annapolis* ... 36,408 Trenton* ... 83,923 Massachusetts: New Mexico: Boston* ... 590,763 Albuquerque ...504,949 Worcester ... 175,454 Las Cruces ... 86,268 Springfi eld ...151,176 Santa Fe* ... 72,056 Lowell ... 103,229 Rio Rancho ... 71,607 Cambridge ... 101,365 Roswell ... 45,582 Michigan: New York: Detroit ...871,121 New York ...8,214,426 Grand Rapids ... 193,083 Buff alo ... 276,059 Warren ... 134,589 Rochester ... 208,123 Sterling Heights ...127,991 Yonkers ...197,852 Lansing* ...114,276 Albany* ... 93,963 Minnesota: North Carolina: Minneapolis ... 372,833 Charlotte ... 630,478 St. Paul* ... 273,535 Raleigh* ... 356,321 Rochester ... 96,975 Greensboro ...236,865 Duluth ... 84,167 Durham ...209,009 Bloomington ... 80,869 Winston-Salem ... 196,990 Mississippi: North Dakota: Jackson* ...176,614 Fargo ... 90,056 Gulfport ... 64,316 Bismarck* ... 58,333 Hattiesburg ... 48,012 Grand Forks ... 50,372 1 c a p t e r 1 7 . i n d d 3 2 3 chapter17.indd 323 h 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 0 6 P M 11/13/08 3:19:06 PM

338 324 Chapter 17 1 —Continued Most Populous U.S. Cities by State [2006 Census estimates] North Dakota—Continued Te n n e s s e e — C ont i nu e d Minot ... 34,745 Clarksville ...113,175 West Fargo ... 21,508 Te x a s : Ohio: Houston ... 2,144,491 Columbus* ... 733,203 San Antonio ...1,296,682 Cleveland ... 444,313 Dallas ...1,232,940 Cincinnati... 332,252 Austin* ... 709,893 Toledo ...298,446 Fort Worth ... 653,320 Akron ... 209,704 Utah: Oklahoma: Salt Lake City* ... 178,858 Oklahoma City* ...537,734 West Valley ... 119,841 Tulsa ... 382,872 Provo ... 113,984 Norman ... 102,827 West Jordan ... 94,309 Broken Arrow ...88,314 Sandy ... 94,203 Lawton... 87,540 Ve r m ont : Oregon: Burlington ... 38,358 Portland ...537,081 South Burlington ... 17,014 Salem* ... 152,239 Rutland ... 16,964 Eugene ... 146,356 Barre ...9,078 Gresham...97,105 Montpelier* ...7,954 Beaverton ... 89,643 Virginia: Pennsylvania: Virginia Beach ... 435,619 Philadelphia ...1,448,394 Norfolk ...229,112 Pittsburgh ... 312,819 Chesapeake ...220,560 Allentown ... 107,294 Richmond* ... 192,913 Erie ... 102,036 Newport News ... 178,281 Harrisburg* ...47,164 Wa sh i ng ton: Rhode Island: Seattle ...582,454 Providence* ... 175,255 Spokane ... 198,081 Warwick ... 85,925 Tacoma ... 196,532 Cranston ...81,479 Vancouver... 158,855 Pawtucket ... 72,998 Olympia* ...44,645 East Providence ...49,123 West Vi rg i n ia : South Carolina: Charleston* ... 50,846 Columbia* ...119,961 Huntington ... 49,007 Charleston ... 107,845 Parkersburg ...31,755 North Charleston ...87,482 Wheeling ... 29,330 Rock Hill ... 61,620 Morgantown ... 28,654 Mount Pleasant ...59,113 Wisconsin: South Dakota: Milwaukee ... 573,358 Sioux Falls ... 142,396 Madison* ... 223,389 Rapid City ... 62,715 Green Bay ... 100,353 Aberdeen... 24,071 Kenosha... 96,240 Watertown ... 20,526 Racine ... 79,592 Pierre*... 14,095 Wyoming: Te n n e s s e e : Cheyenne* ...55,314 Memphis ... 670,902 Casper ... 52,089 Nashville* ... 552,120 Laramie ... 25,688 Knoxville ... 182,337 Gillette ... 23,899 Chattanooga ... 155,190 Rock Springs ... 19,324 1 e fi ve most populous cities of each state are listed except where the capital city did not fall into the top fi ve, in Th h most populous city was replaced by the capital city. which case the fi ft * State capital. Source: Information courtesy of the U.S. Census Bureau. c h a p t e r 1 7 . i n d d 11/13/08 3:19:06 PM 3 2 4 chapter17.indd 324 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 0 6 P M

339 Useful Tables 325 Government type Do. Republic. Islamic Republic. under a Constitutional Monarchy. in fact a dictatorship. special treaty relationship with India. parliamentary system of government. Parliamentary Democracy. ... In transition to Constitutional Monarchy; ... Constitutional Parliamentary Democracy. ... Constitutional Monarchy with a bly (bicameral) ... Emerging Federal Democratic Republic. meral) ... ament (bicameral) ... Federal Parliamentary Democracy. sembly (bicameral) ... Parliamentary Democracy. Legislative body ral Council of the Valleys National As Council of Nations. (unicameral). People, House of Elders. Federal Parli Parliament (bicameral) ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Parliament (bica ... Legislative Council ... Constitutional Sultanate. ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Republic. ... National Congress (bicameral) ... Republic. ... Assembly (unicameral) ... Emerging Democracy. ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Parliamentary Republic. ... National Parliament (unicameral) ... Parliamentary Democracy. ... National Assembly (Parliament) ... Do. ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Republic. ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Republic: multiparty presidential regime. ... Legislature (bicameral) ... Constitutional Monarchy. ... Federal Assembly (bicameral) ... Federal Republic. ... National Assembly (bicameral) ... Republic in name, although ... National People’s Assembly, ... National Congress (bicameral) ... Federal Republic. ... National Assembly of House of ... National Congress (bicameral) ... Republic. ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Federal Parliamentary Democracy Chief of state General). General). General). General). General). Principal Foreign Countries as of June 2008 Capital imphu ... King ... Parliament (bicameral) ... UN member ... Sarajevo ... Chairman of the Presidency ... Parliamentary Assem e ... ... Nassau ... Queen (represented by Governor Country Albania ... ... Tirana (Tirane) ... ... Andorra ... ... Andorra la Vella ... Executive Council President ... Gene Australia ... ... Canberra ... Queen (represented by Governor Antigua and Barbuda .. ... Saint John’s ... Queen (represented by Governor Angola ... ... Luanda ... President ... Argentina ... ... Buenos Aires ... President ... Austria ... ... Vienna ... President ... Armenia ... ... Yerevan ... ... Bahrain ... ... Manama ... King ... Azerbaijan ... ... Baku (Baki, Baky) ... ... Algeria ... ... Algiers ... ... Barbados ... ... Bridgetown ... Queen (represented by Governor Bahamas, Th Belarus ... ... Minsk ... President ... Bangladesh ... ... Dhaka ... President ... Belgium ... ... Brussels ... King ... Afghanistan ... Yes ... Kabul ... President ... Belize ... ... Belmopan ... Queen (represented by Governor Bosnia and Herzegovina. Botswana ... ... Gaborone ... President ... Bhutan ... ... Th Brazil ... ... Brasilia ... ... Benin ... ... Porto-Novo ... President ... Bolivia ... ... La Paz ... President ... Brunei ... ... Bandar Seri ... Sultan and Prime Minister ... c h a p t e r 1 7 . i n d d 11/13/08 3:19:06 PM 3 2 5 chapter17.indd 325 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 0 6 P M

340 326 Chapter 17 2 Government type tary Junta. Communist State. Constitutional Monarchy. government structure. Federation. (est. 1960). Parliamentary Democracy and a ... Parliamentary Democracy. (bicameral) ... Constitutional Monarchy that is also a Legislative body t (bicameral) ... Do. Assembly (unicameral) ... Republic; Multiparty Presidential Regime National Congress (bicameral) ... Democratic Republic. (unicameral). (unicameral). People’s Assembly (unicameral) ... Mili Parliament .. Legislature (bicameral) ... Do. .. ... Do. ... ... Parliamentary Republic. ... People’s Assembly (unicameral) ... Constitutional Monarchy. ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Parliamentary Democracy. ... National Assembly (bicameral) ... Multiparty Democracy under a ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Republic. ... ... Do. ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Republic; Multiparty Presidential Regime. ... Assembly of the Union (unicameral) ... Republic. ... Congress (bicameral) ... Republic, Executive Branch dominates ... House of Assembly (unicameral) ... Parliamentary Democracy. ... Legislative Assembly (unicameral) ... Democratic Republic. ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Republic. ... Chamber of Deputies (unicameral) ... Republic. ... National Congress (bicameral) ... Do. ... Assembly (unicameral) ... Presidential/Parliamentary Democracy. ... National Assembly of People’s Power Communist State. ... National People’s Congress Chief of state Development Council (SPDC). General). osia) ... ... House of Representatives (unicameral) .. Republic. Principal Foreign Countries as of June 2008—Continued Capital a ... President ... National Assembly (unicameral) UN member ... Yamoussoukro ... ... National ... Bangui ... ... ... Brazzaville ... ... Parliamen ... ... Rangoon (Yangon) .. Chairman of the State Peace and 1 Country Burundi ... ... Bujumbura ... President ... Cameroon ... ... Yaounde ... President ... Cambodia ... ... Phnom Penh ... King ... Canada ... ... Ottawa ... Queen (represented by Governor Cape Verde ... ... Praia ... President ... Congo, Democratic ... Kinshasa ... ... Central African Congo, Republic of the. Cote d’Ivoire Comoros ... ... Moroni ... ... Republic of the. Republic. Chad ... ... N’Djamena ... ... Chile ... ... Santiago ... ... Colombia ... ... Bogota ... ... China ... ... Beijing ... ... Costa Rica ... ... San Jose ... ... (Ivory Coast). Croatia ... ... Zagreb ... ... Czech Republic ... ... Prague ... ... Cuba ... ... Havana ... ... Denmark ... ... Copenhagen ... Queen ... Djibouti ... ... Djibouti ... President ... Cyprus ... ... Nicosia (Lefk Dominican Republic ... ... Santo Domingo ... ... Dominica ... ... Roseau ... ... Burma (Myanmar) Burkina Faso ... ... Ouagadougou ... ... Bulgaria ... Yes ... Sofi c h a p t e r 11/13/08 3:19:06 PM 7 . i n d d 3 2 6 chapter17.indd 326 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 0 6 P M 1

341 Useful Tables 327 eocratic Republic. Republic. Do. Do. Th Do. ... Parliamentary Democracy. eral) ... Parliamentary Democracy. cal Commission for the State of Ecclesiastical. (unicameral). (unicameral). (unicameral). (unicameral). as Supreme Council). Vatican City (unicameral). Parliament (bicam ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Republic. ... House of People’s Representatives ... Pontifi ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Transitional Government. ... Legislative Assembly (unicameral) ... Do. ... Congress of the Republic (unicameral) .. Constitutional Democratic Republic. ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Do. ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Federal Republic. ... National People’s Asssembly ... National Assembly (bicameral) ... Do. ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Parliamentary Democracy. ... ... Republic. ... People’s National Assembly ... Islamic Consultative Assembly ... House of Representatives ... Republic. ... Parliament (unicameral) ... Constitutional Republic. ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Federal Republic. ... Parliament (unicameral) ... Do. ... Legislature (bicameral) ... Republic; Multiparty Presidential Regime. ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Federal Republic. ... National Congress (unicameral) ... Democratic Constitutional Republic. ... Parliament (unicameral) ... Parliamentary Republic. ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Republic, Parliamentary Democracy. ... Parliament (unicameral) ... Constitutional Democracy. ... ... Parliamentary Republic. ... People’s Assembly (bicameral)... Do. ... Council of Representatives ... Parliamentary Democracy. ... Parliament (unicameral, also known ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Republic. ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Do. ... National Congress (unicameral) ... Republic. General). ... ... Knesset (unicameral) ... 3 No ... Vatican City ... Pope ... e ... ... Banjul ... ... Italy ... ... Rome ... ... Gambia, Th France ... ... Paris ... ... Ecuador ... Yes ... Quito ... President ... Equatorial Guinea ... ... Malabo ... ... Fiji ... ... Suva (on Viti Levu) .. ... El Salvador ... ... San Salvador ... ... Gabon ... ... Libreville ... ... Egypt ... ... Cairo ... ... Finland ... ... Helsinki ... ... Estonia ... ... Tallinn ... ... Ethiopia ... ... Addis Ababa ... ... Eritrea ... ... Asmara (Asmera) ... ... Guinea ... ... Conakry ... ... India ... ... New Delhi ... ... Haiti ... ... Port-au-Prince ... ... Guinea-Bissau ... ... Bissau ... ... Iran ... ... Tehran ... Supreme Leader ... Germany ... ... Berlin... ... Ghana ... ... Accra ... ... City). Grenada ... ... Saint George’s... Queen (represented by Governor Guatemala ... ... Guatemala ... President ... Iraq ... ... Baghdad... President ... Greece ... ... Athens ... ... Ireland ... ... Dublin ... ... Honduras ... Yes ... Tegucigalpa ... President ... Israel ... ... Jerusalem Hungary ... ... Budapest ... ... Georgia ... ... T’bilisi ... ... Guyana ... ... Georgetown ... ... Indonesia ... ... Jakarta... ... Iceland ... ... Reykjavik... ... Holy See (Vatican 1 c a p t e r 1 7 . i n d d 3 2 7 chapter17.indd 327 h 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 0 6 P M 11/13/08 3:19:06 PM

342 328 Chapter 17 5 Government type Communist State one-man dictatorship. Jamahiriya. Do. association with the U.S. Parliamentary Government. with little power outside the Executive Branch. Legislative body (unicameral). (unicameral). Government (unicameral). ... Chamber of Deputies (unicameral) ... Constitutional Monarchy. ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Constitutional Monarchy. ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Constitutional Parliamentary Democracy. ... Assembly or Sobranie (unicameral) ... Parliamentary Democracy. ... Legislature (bicameral) ... Republic. ... Legislature (unicameral) ... Constitutional Government in free ... Supreme People’s Assembly ... Supreme Council (unicameral) ... Republic. ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Republic, Authoritarian Presidential rule, ... Kosovo Assembly of the Provisional ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Multiparty Democracy. ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Republic. ... National Assembly (bicameral) ... Republic. ... Parliament or Seimas (unicameral) ... Parliamentary Democracy. ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Republic. ... Parliament or Landtag (unicameral) ... Constitutional Monarchy. ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Do. ... House of Parliament (unicameral) ... Do. ... People’s Council (unicameral) ... Republic. ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Communist State. ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Republic. ... Diet (bicameral) ... Constitutional Monarchy with a ... House of Representatives (unicameral) .. Do. ... National Assembly (bicameral) ... Constitutional Monarchy. ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy. ... Parliament (unicameral) ... Parliamentary Democracy. ... General People’s Congress 4 ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Constitutional Emirate. Chief of state General). Principal Foreign Countries as of June 2008—Continued Capital UN member ... Skopje ... President ... Country Luxembourg ... ... Luxembourg ... Grand Duke ... Liechtenstein ... ... Vaduz ... Prince ... Mali ... ... Bamako... ... Malaysia ... ... Kuala Lumpur ... Paramount Ruler ... Yu goslav Republ ic . Malawi ... ... Lilongwe ... ... Lithuania ... ... Vilnius ... President ... Macedonia, former Maldives ... ... Male ... President ... Madagascar ... ... Antananarivo ... ... Malta ... ... Valletta ... ... Marshall Islands ... ... Majuro ... ... Lesotho ... ... Maseru ... King ... Libya ... ... Tripoli ... Revolutionary Leader Kosovo ... No ... Pristina (Prishtine) .. ... Liberia ... ... Monrovia ... President ... Lebanon ... ... Beirut ... ... Latvia ... ... Riga ... ... Kuwait ... Yes ... Kuwait ... Amir ... Korea, South ... ... Seoul ... President ... Kyrgyzstan ... ... Bishkek ... President ... Laos ... ... Vientiane ... ... Korea, North ... ... Pyongyang ... Premier ... Kiribati ... ... Tarawa ... ... Kazakhstan ... ... Astana ... President ... Kenya ... ... Nairobi ... ... Jordan ... ... Amman ... King ... Japan ... ... Tokyo ... Emperor ... Jamaica ... Yes ... Kingston ... Queen (represented by Governor ... c h a p 11/13/08 3:19:06 PM e r 1 7 . i n d d 3 2 8 chapter17.indd 328 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 0 6 P M t

343 Useful Tables 329 Do. association with the U.S. association with the U.S. ... Do. ed ... Constitutional Monarchy. . 6 (unicameral). unicameral) ... Majlis Oman (bicameral) ... Monarchy. ... National Parliament (unicameral) ... Constitutional Parliamentary Democracy. ... Congress (unicameral) ... Constitutional Government in free ... 330 seat Interim Parliament ... Constitutional Monarchy. ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Parliamentary Democracy. ... House of Representatives (unicameral) .. Parliamentary Democracy. ... Assembly (unicameral) ... Republic. ... States General (bicameral) ... Do. ... Assembly of the Republic (unicameral) .. Republic. ... Legislature (bicameral) ... Do. ... State Great Hural (unicameral)... Mixed Parliamentary/Presidential. ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Republic. ... Congress (bicameral) ... Constitutional Republic. ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Republic. ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Constitutional Democracy. ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Parliamentary Democracy. ... Parliament (unicameral) ... Republic. ... Congress (bicameral) ... Republic. ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Federal Republic. ... National Assembly (bicameral) ... Do. ... Federal Assembly (bicameral) ... Federation. ... Legislature (bicameral) ... Democratic Republic. ... National Congress (bicameral) ... Constitutional Government in free ... Assembly of the Republic (unicameral) .. Parliamentary Democracy. ... National Congress (bicameral) ... Federal Republic. ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Republic; presidential, multiparty system. ... ... Do. ... National Council (unicameral) ... Constitutional Monarchy. ... National Assembly (bicameral) ... Federal Republic. ... Congress of the Republic of Peru ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Constitutional Monarchy. ... Parliament (Storting), (modifi ... Advisory Council (unicameral) ... Emirate. ces cial capital; ... Parliament (unicameral) ... government offi in Yaren District. Poland ... ... Warsaw ... ... Portugal ... ... Lisbon ... ... Philippines ... ... Manila ... ... Paraguay ... ... Asuncion ... President ... Peru ... ... Lima ... ... Panama ... ... Panama ... ... Romania ... ... Bucharest ... President ... Papua New Guinea ... ... Port Moresby ... Queen ... Qatar ... ... Doha ... Amir ... Rwanda ... ... Kigali ... ... Palau ... ... Melekeok ... ... Oman ... ... Muscat ... Sultan and Prime Minister ... Russia ... ... Moscow ... ... Pakistan ... ... Islamabad ... President ... Saint Kitts and Nevis .. ... Basseterre ... Queen ... Nauru ... ... No offi Namibia ... ... Windhoek ... ... Nigeria ... ... Abuja ... ... Mozambique ... ... Maputo ... President ... Nepal ... ... Kathmandu ... Prime Minister ... Norway ... ... Oslo ... King ... Niger ... ... Niamey ... ... Nicaragua ... ... Managua ... President ... New Zealand ... ... Wellington ... ... Morocco ... ... Rabat ... King ... Montenegro ... ... Podgorica ... ... Netherlands ... ... Amsterdam ... Queen ... Mauritius ... ... Port Louis ... ... Micronesia, Federated ... Palikir ... ... Monaco ... ... Monaco ... Prince ... Mexico ... ... Mexico ... ... Mongolia ... ... Ulaanbaatar ... President ... Mauritania ... Yes ... Nouakchott ... President ... States of. Moldova ... ... Chisinau ... ... c h a p t e r 1 7 . i n d d 3 2 9 11/13/08 3:19:06 PM 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 0 6 P M chapter17.indd 329

344 330 Chapter 17 Government type Republic. military-dominated regime. structure to a Federal Republic. Government. transitional Parliamentary Federal General Council Legislative body tional Assembly (unicameral) ... Do. ational Assembly (unicameral) ... No permanent National Government; (bicameral). (unicameral). House of Assembly (unicameral) ... Do. . Consultative Council ... Monarchy. ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Constitutional Democracy. ... National Parliament (unicameral) ... Parliamentary Democracy. ... Parliament (unicameral) ... Constitutional Democracy. ... Supreme Assembly (bicameral) ... Republic. ... ... Parliamentary Republic. ... National Legislature (bicameral) ... Government of National Unity (GNU). ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Republic. ... Parliament (unicameral) ... Republic. ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Republic. ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Monarchy. ... Federal Assembly (bicameral) ... Formally a Confederation but similar in ... People’s Council (unicameral) ... Republic under an authoritarian ... National Council (unicameral) ... Parliamentary Democracy. ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Parliamentary Republic. ... ... Do. ... General Courts or National Assembly Parliamentary Monarchy. ... National Parliament (unicameral) ... Republic. ... National Assembly (bicameral) ... Constitutional Monarchy. ... Parliament (unicameral) ... Constitutional Monarchy. ... Legislative Assembly (unicameral) ... Do. ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Do. ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Republic. ... Legislative Yuan (unicameral) ... Multiparty Democracy. ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Parliamentary Democracy. Chief of state Principal Foreign Countries as of June 2008—Continued Capital UN member ... Sao Tome ... President ... Na ... Kingstown ... ... Country ... ... Madrid ... King ... 7 ailand ... ... Bangkok ... King ... Timor-Leste ... ... Dili ... President ... Th Tanzania ... Yes ... Dar es Salaam ... ... Sweden ... ... Stockholm ... King ... Taiwan ... No ... Taipei ... ... Swaziland ... ... Mbabane ... King ... Sudan ... ... Khartoum ... ... Tajikistan ... ... Dushanbe ... ... Suriname ... ... Paramaribo ... ... Switzerland ... ... Bern ... President ... Syria ... ... Damascus ... ... Sri Lanka ... ... Colombo ... President ... Sao Tome and Senegal ... ... Dakar ... President ... Samoa ... ... Apia ... Chief of State ... Principe. Saint Vincent and San Marino ... ... San Marino ... Co-Chiefs of State (Captains Regent) ... Grand and the Grenadines. Saudi Arabia ... ... Riyadh... King and Prime Minister ... Serbia ... ... Belgrade ... ... Saint Lucia ... Yes ... Castries ... Queen ... Seychelles ... ... Victoria ... ... Sierra Leone ... ... Freetown ... ... Solomon Islands ... ... Honiara ... Queen ... Slovenia ... ... Ljubljana ... ... Singapore ... ... Singapore ... ... Slovakia ... ... Bratislava ... ... Spain South Africa ... ... Pretoria ... President ... Somalia ... ... Mogadishu ... Transitional Federal President... N c h a p t e r 1 7 . i n d d 11/13/08 3:19:06 PM 3 3 0 chapter17.indd 330 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 0 6 P M

345 Useful Tables 331 ed powers . Constitutional Monarchy with a Republic. Republican Parliamentary Democracy Federation with specifi with little power outside the executive to member emirates. government and other powers reserved branch. branch. democratic rule. delegated to the UAE federal Parliamentary Democracy. Republic; Authoritarian Presidential rule, with little power outside the executive daw l. ; this decision was not approved by any sitting legislature liamentary Bodies: People’s al National Council (FNC) (unicameral). (unicameral). Assembly; unicameral). Chamber of Advisors (bicameral). Council and a National Assembly. ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Parliamentary Democracy. ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Parliamentary Democracy. ... Parliament (bicameral) ... Constitutional Monarchy. ... Parliament (unicameral) ... Parliamentary Republic. ... General Assembly (bicameral) ... Constitutional Republic. ... Supreme Assembly (bicameral) ... Republic; authoritarian presidential rule, ... Supreme Council (unicameral) ... Do. ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Federal Republic. ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Republic. ... ... Communist State. ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Do. ... Grand National Assembly of Turkey ... Legislature (bicameral) ... Republic. ... Chamber of Deputies and the ... Legislative Assembly (unicameral) ... Constitutional Monarchy. ... Parliament (also called House of ... National Assembly (unicameral) ... Republic under transition to multiparty e United States does not recognize Jerusalem as the capital and the U.S. Embassy continues to be located in ... Two Par (Ashkhabad). ... Abu Dhabi ... ... Feder cial title, but is de facto Chief of State. e Law of Succession, July 27, 1947, declared that Spain was constituted a Kingdom. Since 1989, the military authorities in Burma have promoted the name Myanmar as a conventional name for their state In 1950, the Israel Parliament proclaimed Jerusalem as the capital. Th Th In theory, governed by the populace through local councils; in practice, an authoritarian state. Government currently under power sharing agreement mandated by international mediators. No accurate English equivalents. Holds no offi 5 2 3 6 7 4 1 Zimbabwe ... ... Harare ... Executive President ... Uzbekistan ... ... Tashkent ... ... Vietnam ... ... Hanoi ... ... Yemen ... ... Sanaa ... ... Venezuela ... ... Caracas ... ... Vanuatu ... ... Port-Vila (on Efate) .. ... Zambia ... ... Lusaka ... ... Uruguay ... ... Montevideo ... President ... United Kingdom ... ... London ... Queen ... Emirates. Trinidad and Tobago .. ... Port-of-Spain... President ... Turkey ... ... Ankara ... ... Tunisia ... ... Tunis ... ... Turkmenistan ... ... Ashgabat United Arab Tonga ... ... Nuku’alofa... King ... Togo ... Yes ... Lome ... President ... Uganda ... ... Kampala ... President ... Tuvalu ... ... Funafuti ... Queen ... Ukraine ... ... Kyiv (Kiev) ... ... Source: World Factbook 2008, Central Intelligence Agency, Te l Av i v. in Burma, and the U.S. Government did not adopt the name, which is a derivative of the Burmese short-form name Myanma Naingngan c h a p t e r 1 7 . 11/13/08 3:19:06 PM n d d 3 3 1 chapter17.indd 331 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 0 6 P M i

346 332 Chapter 17 Demonyms: Names of Nationalities [Demonym is a name given to a people or inhabitants of a place.] Country Demonym* Country Demonym* Afghanistan ... Afghan. Costa Rica ... Costa Rican. Albania ... Albanian. Cote d’Ivoire ... Ivorian. Algeria ... Algerian. Croatia ... Croat or Croatian. American Samoa ... American Samoan. Cuba ... Cuban. Andorra ... Andorran. Cyprus ... Cypriot. Angola ... Angolan. Czech Republic ... Czech. Anguilla ... Anguillan. Denmark ... Dane. Antigua and Barbuda ... Antiguan Barbudan. Djibouti ... Djiboutian. Argentina ... Argentine. Dominica ... Dominican. Armenia ... Armenian. Dominican Republic ... Dominican. Aruba ... Aruban. Ecuador ... Ecuadorian. Australia ... Australian. Egypt ... Egyptian. Austria ... Austrian. El Salvador... Salvadoran. Azerbaijan ... Azerbaijani. Equatorial Guinea ... Equatorial Guinean or Th e Bahamas ... Bahamian. Equatoguinean. Bahrain ... Bahraini. Eritrea ... Eritrean. Bangladesh ... Bangladeshi. Estonia ... Estonian. Barbados ... Barbadian or Bajan. Ethiopia ... Ethiopian. Belarus ... Belarusian. Falkland Islands ... Falkland Islander. Belgium ... Belgian. Faroe Islands ... Faroese (singular and Belize ... Belizean. plural). Benin ... Beninese (singular and Fiji ... Fijian. plural). Finland ... Finn. Bermuda ... Bermudian. France ... Frenchman (men) or Frenchwoman Bhutan ... Bhutanese (singular and (women). plural). French Polynesia ... French Polynesian. Bolivia ... Bolivian. Gabon ... Gabonese (singular and Bosnia and Herzegovina ... Bosnian, Herzegovinian. plural). Botswana ... Motswana (singular), Th e Gambia ... Gambian. Batswana (plural). Georgia ... Georgian. Brazil ... Brazilian. Germany ... German. British Virgin Islands ... British Virgin Islander. Ghana ... Ghanaian. Brunei ... Bruneian. Gibraltar ... Gibraltarian. Bulgaria ... Bulgarian. Greece ... Greek. Burkina Faso ... Burkinabe (singular and Greenland ... Greenlander. plural). 1 Grenada... Grenadian. ) ... Burmese (singular and Burma (Myanmar Guam ... Guamanian. plural). Guatemala ... Guatemalan. Burundi ... Burundian. Guernsey ... Channel Islander. Cambodia ... Cambodian. Guinea ... Guinean. Cameroon ... Cameroonian. Guinea-Bissau ... Guinean. Canada ... Canadian. Guyana ... Guyanese (singular and Cape Verde ... Cape Verdean. plural). Cayman Islands ... Caymanian. Haiti ... Haitian. Central African Republic... Central African. Honduras ... Honduran. Chad... Chadian. Hong Kong ... Chinese/Hong Konger. Chile ... Chilean. Hungary ... Hungarian. China ... Chinese (singular and Iceland ... Icelander. plural). India ... Indian. Christmas Island ... Christmas Islander. Indonesia ... Indonesian. Cocos (Keeling) Islands ... Cocos Islander. Iran... Iranian. Colombia ... Colombian. Iraq ... Iraqi. Comoros ... Comoran. Ireland ... Irishman (men), Congolese (singular and Congo, Democratic Irishwoman plural). Republic of the. (women), Irish Congo, Republic of the ... Congolese (singular and (col lec t ive plu ra l). plural). Israel ... Israeli. Cook Islands ... Cook Islander. c h a p 11/13/08 3:19:07 PM e r 1 7 . i n d d 3 3 2 chapter17.indd 332 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 0 7 P M t

347 Useful Tables 333 Demonyms: Names of Nationalities—Continued [Demonym is a name given to a people or inhabitants of a place.] Country Demonym* Country Demonym* Netherlands... Dutchman (men), Italy ... Italian. Dutchwoman Jamaica ... Jamaican. (women), Dutch Japan ... Japanese (singular and (col lec t ive). plural). Netherlands Antilles ... Dutch Antillean. Jersey... Channel Islander. New Caledonia ... New Caledonian. Jordan ... Jordanian. New Zealand ... New Zealander. Kazakhstan ... Kazakhstani. Nicaragua ... Nicaraguan. Kenya ... Kenyan. Niger ... Nigerien. Kiribati ... I-Kiribati (singular and Nigeria ... Nigerian. plural). Niue ... Niuean. Korea, North ... Korean. Norfolk Island ... Norfolk Islander. Korea, South ... Korean. Norway ... Norwegian. Kosovo ... Kosovar (Albanian), Oman ... Omani. Kosovac (Serbian). Pakistan ... Pakistani. Kuwait ... Kuwaiti. Palau ... Palauan. Kyrgyzstan ... Kyrgyzstani. Panama ... Panamanian. Laos ... Lao or Laotian. Papua New Guinea ... Papua New Guinean. Latvia ... Latvian. Paraguay ... Paraguayan. Lebanon ... Lebanese (singular and Peru ... Peruvian. plural). Philippines ... Filipino. Lesotho ... Mosotho (singular), Pitcairn Islands ... Pitcairn Islander. Basotho (plural). Poland ... Pole. Liberia ... Liberian. Portugal ... Portuguese (singular Libya ... Libyan. and plural). Liechtenstein... Liechtensteiner. Qatar ... Qatari. Lithuania ... Lithuanian. Romania ... Romanian. Luxembourg ... Luxembourger. Russia... Russian. Macau ... Chinese (singular and Rwanda ... Rwandan. plural). Saint Helena ... Saint Helenian. Macedonia ... Macedonian. Saint Kitts and Nevis ... Kittian and Nevisian. Madagascar ... Malagasy (singular and Saint Lucia ... Saint Lucian. plural). Saint Pierre and Miquelon ... Frenchman (men), Malawi ... Malawian. Frenchwoman Malaysia ... Malaysian. (women). Maldives... Maldivian. Saint Vincentian or Saint Vincent and the Mali ... Malian. Vincentian. Grenadines. Malta ... Maltese (singular and Samoa ... Samoan. plural). San Marino ... Sammarinese (singular Marshall Islands ... Marshallese (singular and plural). and plural). Sao Tome and Principe ... Sao Tomean. Mauritania ... Mauritanian. Saudi Arabia... Saudi. Mauritius ... Mauritian. Senegal ... Senegalese (singular Mayotte ... Mahorais (singular and and plural). plural). Serbia ... Serb. Mexico ... Mexican. Seychelles ... Seychellois (singular Micronesian. Micronesia, Federated and plural). States of. Sierra Leone ... Sierra Leonean. Moldova ... Moldovan. Singapore ... Singaporean. Monaco ... Monegasque or Slovakia ... Slovak. Monacan. Slovenia ... Slovene. Mongolia ... Mongolian. Solomon Islands ... Solomon Islander. Montenegro... Montenegrin. Somalia... Somali. Montserrat ... Montserratian. South Africa ... South African. Morocco ... Moroccan. Spain ... Spaniard. Mozambique ... Mozambican. Sri Lanka ... Sri Lankan. Namibian. Namibia ... Sudan ... Sudanese (singular and Nauru ... Nauruan. plural). Nepal ... Nepalese (singular and Suriname ... Surinamer. plural). c h a p t 11/13/08 3:19:07 PM r 1 7 . i n d d 3 3 3 chapter17.indd 333 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 0 7 P M e

348 334 Chapter 17 Demonyms: Names of Nationalities—Continued [Demonym is a name given to a people or inhabitants of a place.] Demonym* Demonym* Country Country Turkmenistan ... Turkmen. Swaziland... Swazi. Tuvalu ... Tuvaluan. Sweden ... Swede. Uganda ... Ugandan. Switzerland ... Swiss (singular and Ukraine ... Ukrainian. plural). United Arab Emirates... Emirati. Syria ... Syrian. United Kingdom ... Briton or British Taiwan ... Taiwan (singular and (col lec t ive plu ra l). plural). United States ... American. Tajikistan ... Tajikistani. Uruguay ... Uruguayan. Tanzania ... Tanzanian. Uzbekistan ... Uzbekistani. ailand ... Th Th ai (singular and Vanuatu ... Ni-Vanuatu (singular plural). and plural). Timor-Leste ... Timorese (singular and Venezuela ... Venezuelan. plural). Vietnam ... Vietnamese (singular Togo ... Togolese (singular and and plural). plural). Virgin Islands ... Virgin Islander. Tokelau ... Tokelauan. Wallis and Futuna ... Wallisian, Futunan. Tonga ... Tongan. Western Sahara ... Sahrawi, Sahraoui. Trinidad and Tobago ... Trinidadian, (singular Yemen ... Yemeni. To b a g o n i a n . Zambia ... Zambian. Tunisia ... Tunisian. Zimbabwe ... Zimbabwean. Turkey ... Turk. 1 Since 1989 the military authorities in Burma have promoted the name Myanmar as a conventional name for their state; this decision was not approved by any sitting legislature in Burma, and the U.S. Government did not adopt the name, which is a derivative of the Burmese short-form name Myanma Naingngandaw. — Plural references add s unless otherwise indicated. *Note. Source: Information courtesy of World Factbook as of July 24, 2008; for more information see library/publications/the-world-factbook/fi elds/ m l. Currency [As of July 2008] ISO 4217 Country Currency code* Afghani ... ... AFA Afghanistan ... Euro ... Akrotiri ... ... EUR Lek ... ... ALL Albania ... Algerian dinar ... Algeria ... ... DZD U.S. dollar ... ... USD American Samoa ... Andorra ... ... EUR Euro ... Angola ... Kwanza ... ... AOA Anguilla ... East Caribbean dollar ... ... XCD Antigua and Barbuda ... East Caribbean dollar ... ... XCD Argentine peso ... ... ARS Argentina ... ... AMD Armenia ... Dram ... Aruban guilder/fl orin ... AWG Aruba ... ... AUD Australia ... Australian dollar... ... EUR Euro ... Austria ... Azerbaijan ... Azerbaijani manat ... ... AZN Bahamian dollar ... Bahamas ... ... BSD Bahrain ... ... BHD Bahraini dinar ... Taka ... Bangladesh ... ... BDT Barbados ... Barbadian dollar ... ... BBD Belarusian ruble ... Belarus ... ... BYR Belgium ... Euro ... ... EUR Belize ... Belizean dollar... ... BZD 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc ... Benin ... ... XOF Bermuda ... Bermudian dollar ... ... BMD c h a p t e r 1 7 . i n d d 3 11/13/08 3:19:07 PM 4 chapter17.indd 334 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 0 7 P M 3

349 Useful Tables 335 Currency—Continued [As of July 2008] ISO 4217 Country Currency code* Bhutan ... Ngultrum and Indian rupee ... ... BTN/INR Bolivia ... ... BOB Boliviano ... Bosnia and Herzegovina ... Convertible mark ... ... BAM Botswana ... Pula ... ... BWP ... BRL Brazil ... Real ... British Indian Ocean Territory ... British Pound and U.S. Dollar ... . GBP/USD British Virgin Islands ... U.S. dollar ... ... USD ... BND Brunei ... Bruneian dollar ... ... BGL Bulgaria ... Lev ... 1 ... XOF Burkina Faso ... Communaute Financiere Africaine franc ... 3 Burma (Myanmar ) ... Kyat ... ... MMK ... BIF Burundi ... Burundi franc ... ... KHR Cambodia ... Riel ... 2 Cameroon ... Communaute Financiere Africaine franc ... ... XAF Canada ... Canadian dollar ... ... CAD Cape Verdean escudo ... ... CVE Cape Verde ... Caymanian dollar ... Cayman Islands ... ... KYD 2 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc ... Central African Republic... XAF 2 ... XAF Communaute Financiere Africaine franc ... Chad... Chile ... Chilean peso ... ... CLP China ... Renminbi, also called yuan ... ... RMB/CNY ... AUD Christmas Island ... Australian dollar... ... AUD Australian dollar... Cocos (Keeling) Islands ... Colombia ... Colombian peso ... ... COP Comoros ... Comoran franc ... ... KMF Congolese franc ... Congo, Democratic Republic of the ... ... CDF 2 XAF Congo, Republic of the ... Communaute Financiere Africaine franc ... NZ dollar ... ... NZD Cook Islands ... Costa Rica ... Costa Rican colon ... ... CRC 1 XOF Cote d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast) ... Communaute Financiere Africaine franc ... Kuna ... ... HRK Croatia ... Cuban peso and convertible peso ... Cuba ... ... CUP/CUC Cyprus ... Euro ... ... EUR Czech Republic ... Czech koruna... ... CZK Denmark ... Danish krone ... ... DKK Dhekelia ... Euro ... ... EUR Djiboutian franc ... ... DJF Djibouti ... ... XCD East Caribbean dollar ... Dominica ... Dominican peso ... ... DOP Dominican Republic ... Ecuador ... U.S. dollar ... ... USD Egyptian pound ... ... EGP Egypt ... ... USD El Salvador... U.S. dollar ... 2 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc ... X AF Equatorial Guinea ... Eritrea ... Nakfa ... ... ERN Estonian kroon ... Estonia ... ... EEK Ethiopia ... ... ETB Birr ... Falkland pound ... Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) ... ... FKP Faroe Islands ... Danish krone ... ... DKK Fiji ... Fijian dollar ... ... FJD Euro ... ... EUR Finland ... Euro ... France ... ... EUR Comptoirs Francais du Pacifi que franc ... French Polynesia ... XPF 2 Gabon ... Communaute Financiere Africaine franc ... ... XAF Gambia, Th e ... Dalasi ... ... GMD Gaza Strip ... New Israeli shekel ... ... ILS Lari ... Georgia ... ... GEL Euro ... ... EUR Germany ... Ghana ... ... GHC Ghana cedi ... Gibraltar ... Gibraltar pound ... ... GIP c h a p t e r 1 7 . i n d d 11/13/08 3:19:07 PM 3 3 5 chapter17.indd 335 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 0 7 P M

350 336 Chapter 17 Currency—Continued [As of July 2008] ISO 4217 Country Currency code* Greece ... Euro ... ... EUR Greenland ... ... DKK Danish krone ... Grenada... East Caribbean dollar ... ... XCD Guam ... U.S. dollar ... ... USD ... GTQ/USD Guatemala ... Quetzal and U.S. dollar ... Guernsey ... Guernsey pound and British pound... ... **/GBP Guinea ... Guinean franc ... ... GNF 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc ... . XOF Guinea-Bissau ... ... GYD Guyanese dollar ... Guyana ... Gourde ... ... HTG Haiti ... Holy See (Vatican City) ... Euro ... ... EUR Lempira ... ... HNL Honduras ... Hong Kong ... Hong Kong dollar ... ... HKD Forint ... ... HUF Hungary ... Iceland ... Icelandic krona ... ... ISK India ... Indian rupee ... ... INR Indonesia ... ... IDR Indonesian rupiah ... Iran... Iranian rial ... ... IRR New Iraqi dinar ... ... NID Iraq ... ... EUR Ireland ... Euro ... Isle of Man pound also called manx ... ... IMP Isle of Man ... Israel ... New Israeli shekel ... ... ILS ... EUR Italy ... Euro ... ... JMD Jamaican dollar ... Jamaica ... Japan ... Yen... ... JPY Jersey... Jersey pound and British pound ... ... **/GBP Jordanian dinar ... Jordan ... ... JOD Kazakhstan ... ... KZT Tenge... Kenyan shilling ... Kenya ... ... KES Kiribati ... Australian dollar... ... AUD Korea, North ... North Korean won ... ... KPW South Korean won ... Korea, South ... ... KRW Kosovo ... Euro and Serbian Dinar ... ... EUR/RSD Kuwait ... Kuwaiti dinar ... ... KWD Kyrgyzstan ... Som ... ... KGS Laos ... Kip ... ... LAK Latvia ... Latvian lat ... ... LVL Lebanese pound ... ... LBP Lebanon ... ... LSL/ZAR Lesotho ... Loti and South African rand ... Liberian dollar ... ... LRD Liberia ... Libya ... Libyan dinar ... ... LYD Liechtenstein... Swiss franc ... ... CHF ... LTL Lithuania ... Litas ... Luxembourg ... Euro ... ... EUR Macau ... Pataca ... ... MOP Macedonian denar ... ... NKD Macedonia ... Ariary ... Madagascar ... ... MGA Malawian kwacha ... ... MWK Malawi ... Malaysia ... Ringgit ... ... MYR Maldives... Rufi yaa ... MVR 1 ... XOF Communaute Financiere Africaine franc ... Mali ... Euro ... ... EUR Malta ... Marshall Islands ... ... USD U.S. dollar ... Mauritania ... Ouguiya ... ... MRO Mauritius ... Mauritian rupee ... ... MUR Mayotte ... Euro ... ... EUR Mexican peso ... ... MXN Mexico ... Micronesia, Federated States of ... ... USD U.S. dollar ... Moldova ... Moldovan leu ... ... MDL c h a p t e r 1 7 . i n d d 11/13/08 3:19:07 PM 3 3 6 chapter17.indd 336 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 0 7 P M

351 Useful Tables 337 Currency—Continued [As of July 2008] ISO 4217 Country Currency code* Euro ... ... EUR Monaco ... Mongolia ... ... MNT Togrog/tugrik ... ... EUR Montenegro... Euro ... East Caribbean dollar ... ... XCD Montserrat ... Morocco ... ... MAD Moroccan dirham ... ... MZM Metical ... Mozambique ... Namibia ... Namibian dollar and South African rand ... ... NAD/ZAR ... AUD Nauru ... Australian dollar... ... NPR Nepalese rupee ... Nepal ... Netherlands... Euro ... ... EUR Netherlands Antilles ... ... ANG Netherlands Antillean guilder ... New Caledonia ... Comptoirs Francais du Pacifi que franc ... XPF ... NZD New Zealand ... New Zealand dollar ... ... NIO Nicaragua ... Gold cordoba ... 1 Niger ... Communaute Financiere Africaine franc ... ... XOF Nigeria ... Naira ... ... NGN Niue ... ... NZD New Zealand dollar ... Norfolk Island ... ... AUD Australian dollar... U.S. dollar ... ... USD Northern Mariana Islands ... ... NOK Norway ... Norwegian krone ... Omani rial ... ... OMR Oman ... Pakistan ... Pakistani rupee ... ... PKR ... USD Palau ... U.S. dollar ... ... PAB/USD Balboa and U.S. dollar ... Panama ... Papua New Guinea ... Kina ... ... PGK Paraguay ... Guarani ... ... PYG Nuevo sol ... Peru ... ... PEN Philippines ... ... PHP Philippine peso ... New Zealand dollar ... Pitcairn Islands ... ... NZD Poland ... Zloty ... ... PLN Portugal ... Euro ... ... EUR U.S. dollar ... Puerto Rico ... ... USD Qatar ... Qatari rial ... ... QAR Romania ... Romanian leu ... ... RON Russia... Russian ruble ... ... RUB Rwanda ... Rwandan franc ... ... RWF Saint Barthelemy ... Euro ... ... EUR Saint Helenian pound ... ... SHP Saint Helena ... ... XCD Saint Kitts and Nevis ... East Caribbean dollar ... East Caribbean dollar ... ... XCD Saint Lucia ... Saint Martin ... Euro ... ... EUR ... EUR Saint Pierre and Miquelon ... Euro ... ... XCD East Caribbean dollar ... Saint Vincent and the Grenadines ... Samoa ... Tala ... ... SAT San Marino ... Euro ... ... EUR Dobra ... ... STD Sao Tome and Principe ... Saudi riyal ... Saudi Arabia... ... SAR 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc ... Senegal ... ... XOF Serbia ... Serbian dinar ... ... RSD Seychelles ... Seychelles rupee ... ... SCR Leone ... Sierra Leone ... ... SLL Singapore ... Singapore dollar ... ... SGD Slovakia ... Slovak koruna ... ... SKK Slovenia ... Euro ... ... EUR Solomon Islands ... Solomon Islands dollar ... ... SBD Somalia... Somali shilling ... ... SOS Rand ... ... ZAR South Africa ... Spain ... ... EUR Euro ... Sri Lanka ... Sri Lankan rupee ... ... LKR c h a p t e r 1 7 . i n d d 11/13/08 3:19:07 PM 3 3 7 chapter17.indd 337 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 0 7 P M

352 338 Chapter 17 Currency—Continued [As of July 2008] ISO 4217 Country Currency code* Sudan ... Sudanese pound ... ... SDG Suriname ... ... SRD Surinam dollar ... Norwegian krone ... Svalbard ... ... NOK ... SZL Swaziland... Lilangeni ... Sweden ... Swedish krona ... ... SEK Swiss franc ... Switzerland ... ... CHF ... SYP Syrian pound ... Syria ... Taiwan ... ... TWD New Taiwan dollar ... Tajikistan ... Somoni ... ... TJS Tanzania ... ... TZS Tanzanian shilling ... Th ailand ... Baht ... ... THB U.S. dollar ... ... USD Timor-Leste ... 1 te Financiere Africaine franc ... Togo ... ... XOF Communau Tokelau ... New Zealand dollar ... ... NZD Pa’anga ... ... TOP Tonga ... Trinidad and Tobago ... ... TTD Trinidad and Tobago dollar ... Tunisia ... ... TND Tunisian dinar ... Turkish lira ... ... TRY Turkey ... Turkmen manat ... ... TMM Turkmenistan ... Turks and Caicos Islands ... U.S. dollar ... ... USD Tuvalu ... Australian dollar... ... AUD Uganda ... Ugandan shilling ... ... UGX Hryvnia ... ... UAH Ukraine ... ... AED United Arab Emirates... Emirati dirham ... British pound ... ... GBP United Kingdom ... United States ... U.S. dollar ... ... USD Uruguayan peso ... ... UYU Uruguay ... Soum ... Uzbekistan ... ... UZS Vanuatu ... ... VUV Vatu ... Venezuela... Bolivar ... VEB Vietnam ... ... VND Dong ... U.S. dollar ... Virgin Islands ... ... USD Wallis and Futuna ... Comptoirs Francais du Pacifi que franc ... XPF West Bank ... New Israeli shekel and Jordanian dinar ... ... ILS/JOD Western Sahara ... Moroccan dirham ... MAD Yemeni rial ... ... YER Yemen ... Zambia ... Zambian kwacha ... ... ZMK Zimbabwean dollar ... ... ZWD Zimbabwe ... 1 Responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States. 2 Responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States. 3 Since 1989 the military authorities in Burma have promoted the name Myanmar as a conventional name for their state; this decision was not approved by any sitting legislature in Burma, and the U.S. Government did not adopt the name, which is a derivative of the Burmese short-form name Myanma Naingngandaw. * ISO 4217 is the international standard of 3-letter codes used to defi ne names of currencies; it is used in place of currency symbols or names. For more information see widely_used_standards_other/currency_codes/currency_codes_list-1.htm. ** Th ere is no currency code for Island monies. Guernsey and Jersey are both British crown dependencies, but not part of the United Kingdom. However, the United Kingdom Government is constitutionally responsible for their international representation. Source: World Factbook: elds/2065.html.

353 Useful Tables 339 1 Metric and U.S. Measures Length Metric unit U.S. unit (ft ). 10 millimeters ...1 centimeter. 12 inches...1 foot 10 centimeters...1 decimeter. rd. 3 feet ...1 ya 22 yards ...1 chain. 10 decimeters ...1 meter. ). rlong (660 ft 10 meters ...1 dekameter. 10 chains ...1 fu 5,280 ft ). 10 dekameters ...1 hectometer. 8 furlongs ...1 mile ( 1 nautical mile ...1.1508 mile. 10 hectometers...1 kilometer. autical miles. 1 kilometer ...1,000 meters. 1 league ...3 n Mass Weight U.S. unit Metric unit 10 milligrams (mg) ...1 centigram. 16 ounces ...1 pound. 100 pounds (lbs) ...1 hundr edweight. 10 centigrams ...1 decigram (100 mg). 20 hundredweight ...1 ton (2,00 10 decigrams ...1 gram (1,000 mg). 0 lbs). 10 grams (g) ...1 dekagram. 10 dekagrams ...1 hectogram (100 g). 10 hectograms ...1 kilogram (1,000 g). 1,000 kilograms...1 metric ton. Volume U.S. liquid capacity Metric unit espoon. 10 milliliters ...1 centiliter. 3 teaspoons ...1 tabl uid ounce (fl oz). 2 tablespoons...1 fl 10 centiliters ...1 deciliter. 1 cup ...8 fl 10 deciliters ...1 liter. oz. 1,000 liters ...1 cubic meter. 2 cups ...1 pint. 2 pints ...1 quart. 4 quarts ...1 gallon. 42 gallons ...1 petroleum barrel. 2 U.S. dry measure 2 pints ...1 quart. 4 quarts ...1 gallon. 2 gallons ...1 peck. 4 pecks ...1 bushel. 8 bushels ...1 quarter. 3 Temperature Conversion Fahrenheit Kelvin Celsius Celsius Fahrenheit Kelvin 100 ... 373.1 0 ... 32 273.1 212 122 323.1 –10 ... 14 263.1 50 ... 40 ... 104 313.1 –20 ... –4 253.1 30 ... 86 –30 ... –22 243.1 303.1 20 ... 293.1 –40 ... –40 233.1 68 10 ... 50 283.1 –50 ... –58 223.1 ... –459.7 0 –273.1 1 At this time, only three countries—Burma, Liberia, and the United States—have not adopted the International System of Units (SI, or metric system) as their offi cial system of weights and measures. 2 Dry measurements are mainly used for measuring grain or fresh produce. Do not confuse dry measure for liquid measure, as they are not the same. 3 Th e equation for converting temperatures is as follows: °C to °F: multiply by 9, then divide by 5, then add 32; °F to °C: subtract 32, then multiply by 5, then divide by 9.

354 340 Chapter 17 Common Measures and Their Metric Equivalents Metric to U.S. U.S. to metric Centimeter...0.3937 inch. Inch ... 2.54 centimeters. Meter ...3.2808 feet. Foot ... 0.3048 meter. Do ...1.0936 yards. Yard ... 0.9144 meter. Mile ... 1.6093 kilometers. Kilometer ...0.6214 mile. Do ...0.5399 nautical mile. Nautical mile ... 1.852 kilometers. Do ...0.1799 league. League ... 5.556 kilometers. Square centimeter ...0.155 square inch. Square inch ... 6.452 square centimeters. Square foot ... 0.0929 square meter. Square meter ...10.7639 square feet. Do ...1.196 square yards. Square yard ... 0.836 square meter. Acre ... 0.4047 hectare. Hectare ...2.471 acres. Square mile ... 259 hectares. Do ...0.0039 square mile. Cubic inch ... 16.39 cubic centimeters. Cubic centimeter ...0.06 cubic inch. Cubic foot ... 0.0283 cubic meter. Cubic meter ...35.3146 cubic feet. Do ...1.3079 cubic yards. Cubic yard ... 0.7646 cubic meter. Cord ... 128 cubic feet. Milliliter ...0.0338 ounce (liquid). Ounce (liquid) ... 29.574 milliliters. Pint (liquid) ... 473.176 milliliters. Quart (liquid) ... 946.35 milliliters. Liter ...1.06 quarts (liquid). Gallon (liquid) ... 3.79 liters. Do ...0.26 gallon (liquid). Pint (dry) ... 550.61 milliliters. Do ...0.91 quart (dry). Quart (dry) ... 1101 milliliters. Quart, imperial ... 1137 milliliters. Gallon (dry) ... 4.40 liters. Do ...0.23 gallon (dry). Gallon, imperial ... 4.55 liters. Do ...0.1135 peck. Peck ... 8.810 liters. Peck, imperial ... 9.092 liters. Bushel ... 35.24 liters. Do ...0.028 bushel. Bushel, imperial ... 36.37 liters. 1 ... 64.799 milligrams. Grain 2 ... 28.35 grams. Gram ...0.04 ounce. Ounce 3 ... 31.103 grams. Do ...0.032 troy ounce. Ounce, troy 2 ... 0.4536 kilogram. Kilogram ...2.20 pounds. Pound Pound, troy... 12 troy ounces. Ton, short... 907.185 kilograms. Do ... 2,000 pounds. Ton, metric ... 1,000 kilograms. Do ... 2,204.6 pounds. Ton, long ... 1,016.047 kilograms. Do ... 2,240 pounds. 1 Th e grain is used to measure in ballistics and archery; grains were originally used in medicine but have been replaced by milligrams. 2 Avoirdupois; avoirdupois is the measure of mass of everyday items. 3 Th e troy ounce is used in pricing silver, gold, platinum, and other precious metals and gemstones. c h a p t e r 1 7 . i n 11/13/08 3:19:08 PM d 3 4 0 chapter17.indd 340 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 0 8 P M d

355 Useful Tables 341 Measurement Conversion Decimal Milli- Decimal Milli- Fraction inches meters Picas Points Fraction inches meters Picas Points 0p4.5 .0625 1.587 4.5 1⁄16 ... 5p3 63 ⅞ ... .875 22.225 ... 0p9 3.175 .125 9 ⅛ 15⁄16 ... .9375 23.812 5p7.5 67.5 1p1.5 3⁄16 ... 13.5 .1875 4.762 1 ... 1 25.4 6 72 ... ¼ 1p6 18 6.35 .25 1¼ 90 7p6 31.75 1.25 ... 22.5 5⁄16 ... .3125 7.937 1p10.5 ... 1½ 108 9 38.1 1.5 9.525 27 ⅜ ... .375 2p3 10p6 1¾ ... 1.75 44.5 126 7⁄16 ... 2p7.5 31.5 .4375 11.112 144 2 ... 50.8 2 12 .5 12.7 3 36 ... ½ 63.5 2.5 ... 2½ 180 15 9⁄16 ... 3p4.5 .5625 40.5 14.287 216 18 76.2 3 3 ... 15.875 45 ... ⅝ 3p9 .625 3.5 21 ... 252 3½ 88.9 17.462 .6875 11⁄16 ... 49.5 4p1.5 4 100.6 24 288 4 ... ¾ 54 ... .75 19.05 4p6 127 5 ... 360 30 5 58.5 .8125 13⁄16 ... 4p10.5 20.637 432 152.4 6 6 ... 36 c h a p t e r 1 7 . i n d d 3 4 11/13/08 3:19:08 PM chapter17.indd 341 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 0 8 P M 1


357 18. Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions Geologic terms For capitalization, compounding, and use of quotations in geologic terms, copy is to be followed. Geologic terms quoted verbatim from published ma- as the original author used them; however, it should be terial should be left made clear that the usage is that of the original author. Formal geologic terms are capitalized: Proterozoic Eon, Cambrian Period. are capitalized when pre- Structural terms such as arch, anticline, or uplift ceded by a name: Cincinnati Arch, Cedar Creek Anticline, Ozark Uplift . See Chapter 4 geographic terms for more information. Divisions of Geologic Time [Most recent to oldest] Period Eon Era Phanerozoic ... Cenozoic ... Quarternary. Tertiary (Neogene, Paleogene). Mesozoic... Cretaceous. Jurassic. Triassic. Paleozoic ... Permian. Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian, Mississippian). Devonian. Silurian. Ordovician. Cambrian. Proterozoic ... Neoproterozoic ... Ediacaran. Cryogenian. Tonian. Mesoproterozoic ... Stenian. Ectasian. Calymmian. Paleoproterozoic ... Statherian. Orosirian. Rhyacian. Siderian. Archean ... Neoarchean. Mesoarchean. Paleoarchean. Eoarchean. Hadean. Source: Information courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey; for graphic see fs2007-3015.pdf. 343 1 c a p t e r 1 8 . i n d d 3 4 3 chapter18.indd 343 h 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 3 P M 11/13/08 3:19:23 PM

358 344 Chapter 18 Physiographic regions Physiographic regions are based on terrain texture, rock type, and geologic structure and history. Th e classifi cation system has three tiers: divisions, which are broken into provinces, and some provinces break further into sec- tions. All names are capitalized, not the class; for graphic see http://tapestry. Physiographic Regions of the Lower 48 United States Division Province Section Laurentian Upland ... Superior Upland. Atlantic Plain ... Continental Shelf. Coastal Plain ... Embayed. Sea Island. Floridian. East Gulf Coastal Plain. Mississippi Alluvial Plain. West Gulf Coastal Plain. Appalachian Highlands ... Piedmont ... Piedmont Upland. Piedmont Lowlands. Blue Ridge ... Northern. Southern. Valley and Ridge ... Tennessee. Middle. Hudson Valley. St. Lawrence Valley ... Champlain. Northern. Appalachian Plateaus ... Mohawk. Catskill. Southern New York. Allegheny Mountain. Kanawha. Cumberland Plateau. Cumberland Mountain. New England ... Seaboard Lowland. New England Upland. White Mountain. Green Mountain. Taconic. Adirondack. Interior Plains ... Interior Low Plateaus ... Highland Rim. Lexington Plain. Nashville Basin. Central Lowland ... Eastern Lake. Western Lake. Wisconsin Drift less. Till Plains. Dissected Till Plains. Osage Plains. c h a p t e r 1 8 . i n d d 11/13/08 3:19:23 PM 3 4 4 chapter18.indd 344 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 3 P M

359 Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 345 Province Section Division Great Plains ... Missouri Plateau, glaciated. Missouri Plateau, unglaciated. Black Hills. High Plains. Plains Border. Colorado Piedmont. Raton. Pecos Valley. Edwards Plateau. Central Texas. Interior Highlands ... Ozark Plateaus... Springfi eld-Salem Plateaus. Boston “Mountains.” Ouachita ... Arkansas Valley. Ouachita Mountains. Rocky Mountain System ... Southern Rocky Mountains. Wyoming Basin. Middle Rocky Mountains. Northern Rocky Mountains. Intermontane Plateaus ... Columbia Plateau ... Walla Walla Plateau. Blue Mountain. Payette. Snake River Plain. Harney. Colorado Plateaus ... High Plateaus of Utah. Uinta Basin. Canyon Lands. Navajo. Grand Canyon. Datil. Basin and Range ... Great Basin. Sonoran Desert. Salton Trough. Mexican Highland. Sacramento. Pacifi c Mountain System ... Cascade-Sierra Mountains ... Northern Cascade Mountains. Middle Cascade Mountains. Southern Cascade Mountains. Sierra Nevada. Pacifi c Border ... Puget Trough. Olympic Mountains. Oregon Coast Range. Klamath Mountains. California Trough. California Coast Ranges. Los Angeles Ranges. Lower California. Source: Information courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey. c h a p t e r 1 8 . i n d d 11/13/08 3:19:23 PM 4 5 chapter18.indd 345 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 3 P M 3

360 346 Chapter 18 Geographic divisions Th e Public Land Survey System has a hierarchy of lines. Principal merid- ians and base lines and their related townships, sections, and subdivisions of sections are incorporated in the description of land conveyed by the Federal Government and others. 1 The Principal Meridians and Base Lines of the United States New Mexico Principal Meridian and Base Black Hills Meridian and Base Line. Line. (New Mexico-Colorado) (South Dakota) Boise Meridian and Base Line. (Idaho) Point of Beginning and Geographer’s Line. (Ohio) Chickasaw Meridian and Base Line. (Mississippi-Tennessee) Principal Meridian and Base Line. (Montana) Choctaw Meridian and Base Line. (Mississippi) Salt Lake Meridian and Base Line. (Utah) Cimarron Meridian and Base Line. (Oklahoma) San Bernardino Meridian and Base Line. (California-Nevada) Copper River Meridian and Base Line. (Alaska) Second Principal Meridian and Base Line. Fairbanks Meridian and Base Line. (Alaska) (Illinois-Indiana) Fift h Principal Meridian and Base Line. Seward Principal Meridian and Base Line. (Arkansas-Iowa-Minnesota-Missouri- (Alaska) North Dakota-South Dakota) Sixth Principal Meridian and Base Line. First Principal Meridian and Base Line. (Colorado-Kansas-Nebraska-South (Ohio-Indiana) Dakota-Wyoming) Fourth Principal Meridian and Base Line. St. Helena Meridian and Base Line. (Illinois) (Louisiana) Fourth Principal Meridian and Base Line St. Stephens Meridian and Base Line. Wisconsin. (Minnesota-Wisconsin) (Alabama-Mississippi) Gila and Salt River Meridian and Base Line. Tallahassee Meridian and Base Line. (Arizona) (Florida) Humboldt Meridian and Base Line. Th ird Principal Meridian and Base Line. (California) (Illinois) Huntsville Meridian and Base Line. Uintah Special Meridian and Base Line. (Alabama-Mississippi) (Utah) Indian Meridian and Base Line. (Oklahoma) Umiat Principal Meridian and Base Line. Kateel River Principal Meridian and Base (Alaska) Line. (Alaska) Ute Principal Meridian and Base Line. Louisiana Meridian and Base Line. (Colorado) (Louisiana-Texas) Washington Meridian and Base Line. Michigan Meridian and Base Line. (Mississippi) (Michigan-Ohio) Willamette Meridian and Base Line. Mount Diablo Meridian and Base Line. (Oregon-Washington) (California-Nevada) Wind River Meridian and Base Line. Navajo Meridian and Base Line. (Arizona- (Wyoming) New Mexico) 1 Information courtesy of the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management.

361 Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 347 Public Land Surveys Having No Initial Point as an Origin 1 for Both Township and Range Numbers Scioto River Base. (Ohio) Between the Miamis, north of Symmes Purchase. Twelve-Mile-Square Reserve. (Ohio) (Ohio) Muskingum River Survey. (Ohio) United States Military Survey. (Ohio) Ohio River Base. (Indiana) West of the Great Miami. (Ohio) Ohio River Survey. (Ohio) 1 Information courtesy of the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. Sources: Manual of Instructions for the Survey of the Public Lands of the United States, Bureau of Land Management, GPO; Initial Points of the Rectangular Survey System, C. Albert White, 1996. See for more information on prinicipal meridians and base lines. Major Rivers of the World Length Length (in miles) River (in miles) River 4,160 2,635 Nile (Africa) ... MacKenzie (Canada) ... Amazon (S. America) ... 4,000 Mekong (Vietnam) ... 2,600 3,964 Yangtze (China) ... 2,590 Niger (Africa) ... Yellow (China) ... Yenisey (Russia) ... 2,543 3,395 3,362 Missouri (U.S.) ... Ob-Irtysh (Russia) ... 2,540 Parana (S. America) ... 2,485 2,744 Amur (Asia) ... 2,734 Mississippi (U.S.) ... 2,340 Lena (Russia) ... 2,718 Murray-Darling (Australia) ... 2,310 Congo (Africa) ... erent lengths for Note.—Information compiled from numerous public domain Web sites; references cite diff the same river depending on origin. Major Rivers of the United States Length Length River (in miles) River (in miles) Missouri ... 2,540 Ohio ... ... 1,310 Mississippi ... 2,340 Red ... ... 1,290 Yukon ... 1,980 ... 1,280 Brazos ... 1,900 1, 240 Rio Grande ... Columbia ... St. Lawrence ... 1,900 Snake ... .. 1,040 1,460 Platte ... ... Arkansas ... 990 Colorado ... Pecos ... ... 926 1,450 Atchafalaya ... Canadian ... 906 1,420 Source: Information courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey; see c h a p t e r 11/13/08 3:19:23 PM 8 . i n d d 3 4 7 chapter18.indd 347 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 3 P M 1

362 348 Chapter 18 States, capitals, and counties Th e following includes parishes, boroughs, census divisions, districts, islands, municipalities, and “municipios” of the 50 States, U.S. possessions, a nd territories. Cou nt y tota ls i nclude cit y cou nt ies as defi ned by the National Association of Counties. See for more information. ALABAMA (AL) (67 counties) Capital: Montgomery Russell Lowndes Fayette Cleburne Autauga St. Clair Macon Franklin Coff ee Baldwin Shelby Madison Geneva Colbert Barbour Sumter Marengo Greene Conecuh Bibb Ta l ladega Marion Hale Coosa Blount Tallapoosa Marshall Henry Covington Bullock Tu s c a l o o s a Mobile Houston Crenshaw Butler Wa l ker Monroe Jackson Cullman Calhoun Wa sh i ng ton Montgomery Jeff erson Dale Chambers Wilcox Morgan Lamar Dallas Cherokee Winston Perry Lauderdale De Kalb Chilton Pickens Lawrence Elmore Choctaw Pike Lee Escambia Clarke Randolph Limestone Etowah Clay * 11 census areas) ALASKA (AK) (27 entities: 16 boroughs, Capital: Juneau Wade Ha mpton North Slope* Juneau* Aleutians East* Wra ngel l- Northwest Arctic* Kenai Peninsula* Aleutians West Petersburg Prince of Wales- Ketchikan Anchorage* Ya k ut at * Outer Ketchikan Gateway* Bethel Yukon-Koyukuk Sitka* Kodiak Island* Bristol Bay* Skagway-Hoonah- Lake and Denali* Angoon Peninsula* Dillingham Southeast Matanuska- Fairbanks Fairbanks Susitna* North Star* Va ld e z- C ordov a Nome Haines* AMERICAN SAMOA (AS) (5 entities: 2 islands, * 3 districts) Capital: Pago Pago Eastern Manu’a Rose* Swains* Western

363 Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 349 ARIZONA (AZ) (15 counties) Capital: Phoenix Santa Cruz Navajo La Paz Gila Apache Yav ap a i Pima Maricopa Graham Cochise Yu ma Pinal Mohave Greenlee Coconino ARKANSAS (AR) (75 counties) Capital: Little Rock Randolph Miller Howard Craighead Arkansas St. Francis Mississippi Independence Crawford Ashley Saline Monroe Izard Crittenden Baxter Scott Montgomery Jackson Cross Benton Searcy Nevada erson Jeff Dallas Boone Sebastian Newton Johnson Desha Bradley Sevier Ouachita Lafayette Drew Calhoun Sharp Perry Lawrence Faulkner Carroll Stone Phillips Lee Franklin Chicot Union Pike Lincoln Fulton Clark Va n Bu ren Poinsett Little River Garland Clay Wa sh i ng ton Polk Logan Grant Cleburne White Pope Lonoke Greene Cleveland Wood r u ff Prairie Madison Hempstead Columbia Ye l l Pulaski Marion Hot Spring Conway CALIFORNIA (CA) (58 counties) Capital: Sacramento Solano San Diego Modoc Imperial Alameda Sonoma San Francisco Mono Inyo Alpine Stanislaus San Joaquin Monterey Kern Amador Sutter San Luis Napa Kings Butte Obispo Tehama Nevada Lake Calaveras San Mateo Trinit y Orange Lassen Colusa Santa Barbara Tu l a r e Placer Los Angeles Contra Costa Santa Clara Tu o l u m n e Plumas Madera Del Norte Santa Cruz Ve nt u r a Riverside Marin El Dorado Shasta Yo l o Sacramento Mariposa Fresno Sierra Yuba San Benito Mendocino Glenn Siskiyou San Bernardino Merced Humboldt c h a p t e r 1 8 . i n d d 3 4 11/13/08 3:19:24 PM chapter18.indd 349 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 4 P M 9

364 350 Chapter 18 COLORADO (CO) (64 counties) Capital: Denver Rio Blanco Mesa Gunnison Crowley Adams Rio Grande Mineral Hinsdale Custer Alamosa Routt at Moff Huerfano Delta Arapahoe Saguache Montezuma Jackson Denver Archuleta San Juan Montrose erson Jeff Dolores Baca San Miguel Morgan Kiowa Douglas Bent Sedgwick Otero Kit Carson Eagle Boulder Summit Ouray La Plata El Paso Broomfi eld Te l l e r Park Lake Elbert Chaff ee Wa sh i ng ton Phillips Larimer Fremont Cheyenne Weld Pitkin Las Animas eld Garfi Clear Creek Yu ma Prowers Lincoln Gilpin Conejos Pueblo Logan Grand Costilla CONNECTICUT (CT) (8 counties) Capital: Hartford New Haven eld Litchfi Fairfi To l l a n d eld Hartford New London Middlesex Windham DELAWARE (DE) (3 counties) Capital: Dover Kent New Castle Sussex DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA (DC) (single entity) FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA (FM) (4 States) Capital: Palikir Kosrae Pohnpei Yap Chuuk FLORIDA (FL) (67 counties) Capital: Tallahassee Hendry Gadsden De Sota Calhoun Alachua Hernando Gilchrist Dixie Charlotte Baker Highlands Glades Duval Citrus Bay Hillsborough Gulf Escambia Clay Bradford Holmes Hamilton Flagler Collier Brevard Indian River Hardee Franklin Columbia Broward 11/13/08 3:19:24 PM h a p t e r 1 8 . i n d d 3 5 0 chapter18.indd 350 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 4 P M c

365 Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 351 Suwannee Putnam Okeechobee Madison Jackson Tay lor St. Johns Orange Manatee Jeff erson Union St. Lucie Osceola Marion Lafayette Vo lu s i a Santa Rosa Palm Beach Martin Lake Wa k u l la Sarasota Pasco Miami-Dade Lee Wa lton Seminole Pinellas Monroe Leon Wa sh i ng ton Sumter Polk Nassau Levy Okaloosa Liberty GEORGIA (GA) (159 counties) Capital: Atlanta Sumter e McDuffi Grady Cobb Appling Ta lbot McIntosh Greene ee Coff Atkinson Ta l ia fer ro Meriwether Gwinnett Colquitt Bacon Tat t na l l Miller Habersham Columbia Baker Tay lor Mitchell Hall Cook Baldwin Te l f a i r Monroe Hancock Coweta Banks Te r r e l l Montgomery Haralson Crawford Barrow omas Th Morgan Harris Crisp Bartow Tift Murray Hart Dade Ben Hill To o m b s Muscogee Heard Dawson Berrien To w n s Newton Henry Decatur Bibb Treut len Oconee Houston De Kalb Bleckley Troup Oglethorpe Irwin Dodge Brantley Tu r n e r Paulding Jackson Dooly Brooks Tw i g g s Peach Jasper Dougherty Bryan Union Pickens Davis Jeff Douglas Bulloch Upson Pierce Jeff erson Early Burke Wa l ker Pike Jenkins Echols Butts Wa lton Polk Johnson Effi ngham Calhoun Wa re Pulaski Jones Elbert Camden Wa r ren Putnam Lamar Emanuel Candler Wa sh i ng ton Quitman Lanier Evans Carroll Way ne Rabun Laurens Fannin Catoosa Webster Randolph Lee Fayette Charlton Wheeler Richmond Liberty Floyd Chatham White Rockdale Lincoln Forsyth Chattahoochee Whitfi eld Schley Long Franklin Chattooga Wilcox Screven Lowndes Fulton Cherokee Wilkes Seminole Lumpkin Gilmer Clarke Wilkinson Spalding Macon Glascock Clay Wor t h Stephens Madison Glynn Clayton Stewart Marion Gordon Clinch c h a p t e r 11/13/08 3:19:24 PM 8 . i n d d 3 5 1 chapter18.indd 351 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 4 P M 1

366 352 Chapter 18 GUAM (GU) (single entity) Capital: Agana HAWAII (HI) (4 counties) Capital: Honolulu Kauai Honolulu Maui Hawaii IDAHO (ID) (44 counties) Capital: Boise Owyhee Kootenai Custer Bonneville Ada Payette Latah Elmore Boundary Adams Power Lemhi Franklin Butte Bannock Shoshone Lewis Fremont Camas Bear Lake Te t o n Lincoln Gem Canyon Benewah Tw i n F a l l s Madison Gooding Caribou Bingham Va l le y Minidoka Idaho Cassia Blaine Wa sh i ng ton Nez Perce Jeff erson Clark Boise Oneida Jerome Clearwater Bonner ILLINOIS (IL) (102 counties) Capital: Springfi eld Saline McHenry Jo Daviess DuPage Adams Sangamon McLean Johnson Edgar Alexander Schuyler Menard Kane Edwards Bond Scott Mercer Kankakee Effi ngham Boone Shelby Monroe Kendall Fayette Brown Stark Montgomery Knox Ford Bureau Stephenson Morgan La Salle Franklin Calhoun Ta z ewel l Moultrie Lake Fulton Carroll Union Ogle Lawrence Gallatin Cass Ve r m i l i o n Peoria Lee Greene Champaign Waba sh Perry Livingston Grundy Christian Wa r ren Piatt Logan Hamilton Clark Wa sh i ng ton Pike Macon Hancock Clay Way ne Pope Macoupin Hardin Clinton White Pulaski Madison Henderson Coles Whiteside Putnam Marion Henry Cook Will Randolph Marshall Iroquois Crawford Williamson Richland Mason Jackson Cumberland Winnebago Rock Island Massac Jasper De Kalb Wood ford St. Clair McDonough Jeff erson De Witt Jersey Douglas c h a p t e 11/13/08 3:19:24 PM 1 8 . i n d d 3 5 2 chapter18.indd 352 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 4 P M r

367 Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 353 INDIANA (IN) (92 counties) Capital: Indianapolis Starke Noble erson Jeff Elkhart Adams Steuben Ohio Jennings Fayette Allen Sullivan Orange Johnson Floyd Bartholomew Switzerland Owen Knox Fountain Benton Tippecanoe Parke Kosciusko Franklin Blackford Tipton Perry La Porte Fulton Boone Union Pike LaGrange Gibson Brown Va nd er bu r g h Porter Lake Grant Carroll Ve r m i l l i o n Posey Lawrence Greene Cass Vigo Pulaski Madison Hamilton Clark Waba sh Putnam Marion Hancock Clay Wa r ren Randolph Marshall Harrison Clinton Wa r r ick Ripley Martin Hendricks Crawford Wa sh i ng ton Rush Miami Henry Daviess Way ne St. Joseph Monroe Howard De Kalb Wel ls Scott Montgomery Huntington Dearborn White Shelby Morgan Jackson Decatur Whitley Spencer Newton Jasper Delaware Jay Dubois IOWA (IA) (99 counties) Capital: Des Moines Montgomery Johnson Franklin Cherokee Adair Muscatine Jones Fremont Chickasaw Adams O’Brien Keokuk Greene Clarke Allamakee Osceola Kossuth Grundy Clay Appanoose Page Lee Guthrie Clayton Audubon Palo Alto Linn Hamilton Clinton Benton Plymouth Louisa Hancock Crawford Black Hawk Pocahontas Lucas Hardin Dallas Boone Polk Lyon Harrison Davis Bremer Pottawattamie Madison Henry Decatur Buchanan Poweshiek Mahaska Howard Delaware Buena Vista Ringgold Marion Humboldt Des Moines Butler Sac Marshall Ida Dickinson Calhoun Scott Mills Iowa Dubuque Carroll Shelby Mitchell Jackson Emmet Cass Sioux Monona Jasper Fayette Cedar Story Monroe Jeff erson Floyd Cerro Gordo c h a p t e r 1 8 . i n d d 3 11/13/08 3:19:24 PM 3 chapter18.indd 353 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 4 P M 5

368 354 Chapter 18 Wor t h Winnebago Wa sh i ng ton Va n Bu ren Ta ma Wright Winneshiek Way ne Wapel lo Tay lor Woodbu r y Webster Wa r ren Union KANSAS (KS) (105 counties) Capital: Topeka Saline Morris Jackson Doniphan Allen Scott Morton Jeff erson Douglas Anderson Sedgwick Nemaha Jewell Edwards Atchison Seward Neosho Johnson Elk Barber Shawnee Ness Kearny Ellis Barton Sheridan Norton Kingman Ellsworth Bourbon Sherman Osage Kiowa Finney Brown Smith Osborne Labette Ford Butler Staff ord Ottawa Lane Franklin Chase Stanton Pawnee Leavenworth Geary Chautauqua Stevens Phillips Lincoln Gove Cherokee Sumner Pottawatomie Linn Graham Cheyenne Th omas Pratt Logan Grant Clark Trego Rawlins Lyon Gray Clay Wabau nsee Reno Marion Greeley Cloud Wa l lace Republic Marshall Greenwood Coff ey Wa sh i ng ton Rice McPherson Hamilton Comanche Wichita Riley Meade Harper Cowley Wilson Rooks Miami Harvey Crawford Wood son Rush Mitchell Haskell Decatur Wyandotte Russell Montgomery Hodgeman Dickinson KENTUCKY (KY) (120 counties) Capital: Frankfort Franklin Crittenden Campbell Boyd Adair Fulton Cumberland Carlisle Boyle Allen Gallatin Daviess Carroll Bracken Anderson Garrard Edmonson Carter Breathitt Ballard Grant Elliott Casey Breckinridge Barren Graves Estill Christian Bullitt Bath Grayson Fayette Clark Butler Bell Green Fleming Clay Caldwell Boone Greenup Floyd Clinton Calloway Bourbon c h a p t e r 1 8 . i n d d 3 5 11/13/08 3:19:24 PM chapter18.indd 354 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 4 P M 4

369 Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 355 Shelby Nicholas Marshall Knox Hancock Simpson Ohio Martin Larue Hardin Spencer Oldham Mason Laurel Harlan Tay lor Owen McCracken Lawrence Harrison To d d Owsley McCreary Lee Hart Trigg Pendleton McLean Leslie Henderson Trimble Perry Meade Letcher Henry Union Pike Menifee Lewis Hickman Wa r ren Powell Mercer Lincoln Hopkins Wa sh i ng ton Pulaski Metcalfe Livingston Jackson Way ne Robertson Monroe Logan erson Jeff Webster Rockcastle Montgomery Lyon Jessamine Whitley Rowan Morgan Madison Johnson Wol fe Russell Muhlenberg Magoffi n Kenton Wood ford Scott Nelson Marion Knott LOUISIANA (LA) (64 parishes) Capital: Baton Rouge Ta ng ipa hoa Red River La Salle Concordia Acadia Te n s a s Richland Lafayette De Soto Allen Te r r e b o n n e Sabine Lafourche East Baton Ascension Rouge Union St. Bernard Lincoln Assumption East Carroll Ve r m i l i o n St. Charles Livingston Avoyel les East Feliciana Ve r n o n St. Helena Madison Beauregard Evangeline Wa sh i ng ton St. James Morehouse Bienville Franklin Webster St. John the Natchitoches Bossier Baptist Grant We st Baton Orleans Caddo Rouge St. Landry Iberia Ouachita Calcasieu We st C a r rol l St. Martin Iberville Plaquemines Caldwell We st Fel icia na St. Mary Jackson Pointe Coupee Cameron Winn St. Tammany erson Jeff Rapides Catahoula Jeff erson Davis Claiborne MAINE (ME) (16 counties) Capital: Augusta Wa ldo Piscataquis Lincoln Hancock Androscoggin Wa sh i ng ton Sagadahoc Oxford Kennebec Aroostook Yo r k Somerset Penobscot Knox Cumberland Franklin c h a p t e r 1 8 . i n d 11/13/08 3:19:25 PM 3 5 5 chapter18.indd 355 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 5 P M d

370 356 Chapter 18 MARSHALL ISLANDS (MH) (33 municipalities) Capital: Majuro To k e Mejit Kili Bokak Ailinginae Ujae Mili Kwaja lein Ebon Ailinglaplap Ujelang Namorik Lae Enewetak Ailuk Utirik Namu Lib Erikub Arno Wot ho Rongelap Likiep Jabat Aur Wot je Rongrik Majuro Jaluit Bikar Maloelap Jemo Bikini MARYLAND (MD) (24 counties) Capital: Annapolis Ta lbot Montgomery Frederick Caroline Allegany Wa sh i ng ton Prince George’s Garrett Carroll Anne Arundel Wicomico Queen Anne’s Harford Cecil Baltimore Worce ster St. Mary’s Howard Charles Baltimore City Somerset Kent Dorchester Calvert MASSACHUSETTS (MA) (14 counties) Capital: Boston Suff olk Nantucket Hampden Dukes Barnstable Worce ster Norfolk Hampshire Essex Berkshire Plymouth Middlesex Franklin Bristol MICHIGAN (MI) (83 counties) Capital: Lansing Marquette Kalamazoo Gogebic Cass Alcona Mason Kalkaska Grand Charlevoix Alger Traverse Mecosta Kent Cheboygan Allegan Gratiot Menominee Keweenaw Chippewa Alpena Hillsdale Midland Lake Clare Antrim Houghton Missaukee Lapeer Clinton Arenac Huron Monroe Leelanau Crawford Baraga Ingham Montcalm Lenawee Delta Barry Ionia Montmorency Livingston Dickinson Bay Iosco Muskegon Luce Eaton Benzie Iron Newaygo Mackinac Emmet Berrien Isabella Oakland Macomb Genesee Branch Jackson Oceana Manistee Gladwin Calhoun c h a p t e r 11/13/08 3:19:25 PM 8 . i n d d 3 5 6 chapter18.indd 356 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 5 P M 1

371 Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 357 Wa shtenaw Schoolcraft Saginaw Otsego Ogemaw Way ne Shiawassee St. Clair Ottawa Ontonagon Wex ford Tu s c o l a St. Joseph Presque Isle Osceola Va n Bu ren Sanilac Roscommon Oscoda MINNESOTA (MN) (87 counties) Capital: St. Paul Sibley Norman Lac qui Parle Dakota Aitkin Stearns Olmsted Lake Dodge Anoka Steele Otter Tail Lake of the Douglas Becker Wood s Stevens Pennington Faribault Beltrami Le Sueur Swift Pine Fillmore Benton Lincoln To d d Pipestone Freeborn Big Stone Lyon Traverse Polk Goodhue Blue Earth Mahnomen Waba sha Pope Grant Brown Marshall Wadena Ramsey Hennepin Carlton Martin Wa sec a Red Lake Houston Carver McLeod Wa sh i ng ton Redwood Hubbard Cass Meeker Watonwa n Renville Isanti Chippewa Mille Lacs Wilkin Rice Itasca Chisago Morrison Winona Rock Jackson Clay Mower Wright Roseau Kanabec Clearwater Murray Ye l l ow St. Louis Kandiyohi Cook Medicine Nicollet Scott Kittson Cottonwood Nobles Sherburne Koochiching Crow Wing MISSISSIPPI (MS) (82 counties) Capital: Jackson Montgomery Lamar Hinds Clay Adams Neshoba Lauderdale Holmes Coahoma Alcorn Newton Lawrence Humphreys Copiah Amite Noxubee Leake Issaquena Covington Attala Oktibbeha Lee Itawamba DeSoto Benton Panola ore Lefl Jackson Forrest Bolivar Pearl River Lincoln Jasper Franklin Calhoun Perry Lowndes erson Jeff George Carroll Pike Madison Jeff erson Davis Greene Chickasaw Pontotoc Marion Jones Grenada Choctaw Prentiss Marshall Kemper Hancock Claiborne Quitman Monroe Lafayette Harrison Clarke c h a p t e r 1 8 . i n d d 3 5 11/13/08 3:19:25 PM chapter18.indd 357 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 5 P M 7

372 358 Chapter 18 Wilkinson Wa r ren Tishomingo Stone Rankin Winston Wa sh i ng ton Tu n i c a ower Sunfl Scott Ya lobu s h a Way ne Union Ta l la hatch ie Sharkey Ya z o o Webster Wa lt ha l l Tate Simpson Tippah Smith MISSOURI (MO) (115 counties) Capital: Jefferson City St. Clair Montgomery Iron Clay Adair St. Francois Morgan Jackson Clinton Andrew St. Louis New Madrid Jasper Cole Atchison St. Louis City Newton Jeff erson Cooper Audrain Ste. Genevieve Nodaway Johnson Crawford Barry Saline Oregon Knox Dade Barton Schuyler Osage Laclede Dallas Bates Scotland Ozark Lafayette Daviess Benton Scott Pemiscot Lawrence DeKalb Bollinger Shannon Perry Lewis Dent Boone Shelby Pettis Lincoln Douglas Buchanan Stoddard Phelps Linn Dunklin Butler Stone Pike Livingston Franklin Caldwell Sullivan Platte Macon Gasconade Callaway Ta ne y Polk Madison Gentry Camden Te x a s Pulaski Maries Greene Cape Girardeau Ve r n o n Putnam Marion Grundy Carroll Wa r ren Ralls McDonald Harrison Carter Wa sh i ng ton Randolph Mercer Henry Cass Way ne Ray Miller Hickory Cedar Webster Reynolds Mississippi Holt Chariton Wor t h Ripley Moniteau Howard Christian Wright St. Charles Monroe Howell Clark MONTANA (MT) (56 counties) Capital: Helena Fallon Daniels Cascade Broadwater Beaverhead Fergus Dawson Chouteau Carbon Big Horn Flathead Deer Lodge Custer Carter Blaine c h a p t e r 1 8 . i n 11/13/08 3:19:25 PM d 3 5 8 chapter18.indd 358 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 5 P M d

373 Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 359 Sweet Grass Ravalli Musselshell Lewis and Clark Gallatin Te t o n Richland Park Liberty eld Garfi To o l e Roosevelt Petroleum Lincoln Glacier Treasure Rosebud Phillips Madison Golden Valley Va l le y Sanders Pondera McCone Granite Wheatland Sheridan Powder River Meagher Hill Wibaux Silver Bow Powell Mineral Jeff erson Ye l l ow s t o n e Stillwater Prairie Missoula Judith Basin Lake NEBRASKA (NE) (93 counties) Capital: Lincoln Sarpy Loup Greeley Cuming Adams Saunders Madison Hall Custer Antelope Scotts Bluff McPherson Hamilton Dakota Arthur Seward Merrick Harlan Dawes Banner Sheridan Morrill Hayes Dawson Blaine Sherman Nance Hitchcock Deuel Boone Sioux Nemaha Holt Dixon Box Butte Stanton Nuckolls Hooker Dodge Boyd ayer Th Otoe Howard Douglas Brown Th omas Pawnee Jeff erson Dundy alo Buff Th urston Perkins Johnson Fillmore Burt Va l le y Phelps Kearney Franklin Butler Wa sh i ng ton Pierce Keith Frontier Cass Way ne Platte Keya Paha Furnas Cedar Webster Polk Kimball Gage Chase Wheeler Red Willow Knox Garden Cherry Yo r k Richardson Lancaster eld Garfi Cheyenne Rock Lincoln Gosper Clay Saline Logan Grant Colfax NEVADA (NV) (17 counties) Capital: Carson City Storey Mineral Lander Elko Carson City Wa shoe Nye Lincoln Esmeralda Churchill White Pine Pershing Lyon Eureka Clark Humboldt Douglas c h a p t e 11/13/08 3:19:25 PM 1 8 . i n d d 3 5 9 chapter18.indd 359 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 5 P M r

374 360 Chapter 18 NEW HAMPSHIRE (NH) (10 counties) Capital: Concord Merrimack Belknap Straff ord on Graft Cheshire Coos Carroll Rockingham Hillsborough Sullivan NEW JERSEY (NJ) (21 counties) Capital: Trenton Somerset Morris Hunterdon Cumberland Atlantic Sussex Ocean Mercer Essex Bergen Union Passaic Middlesex Gloucester Burlington Wa r ren Salem Monmouth Hudson Camden Cape May NEW MEXICO (NM) (33 counties) Capital: Santa Fe Sierra Rio Arriba Lincoln Dona Ana Bernalillo Socorro Roosevelt Los Alamos Eddy Catron Taos San Juan Luna Grant Chaves To r r a n c e San Miguel McKinley Guadalupe Cibola Union Sandoval Mora Harding Colfax Va lenc i a Santa Fe Otero Hidalgo Curry Quay Lea De Baca NEW YORK (NY) (62 counties) Capital: Albany Steuben Otsego Madison Dutchess Albany olk Suff Putnam Monroe Erie Allegany Sullivan Queens Montgomery Essex Bronx Tioga Rensselaer Nassau Franklin Broome To m p k i n s Richmond New York Fulton Cattaraugus Ulster Rockland Niagara Genesee Cayuga Wa r ren St. Lawrence Oneida Greene Chautauqua Wa sh i ng ton Saratoga Onondaga Hamilton Chemung Way ne Schenectady Ontario Herkimer Chenango We stche ster Schoharie Orange Jeff erson Clinton Wyoming Schuyler Orleans Kings Columbia Yat e s Seneca Oswego Lewis Cortland Livingston Delaware c h a p 11/13/08 3:19:26 PM e r 1 8 . i n d d 3 6 0 chapter18.indd 360 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 6 P M t

375 Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 361 NORTH CAROLINA (NC) (100 counties) Capital: Raleigh Rutherford Mitchell Guilford Chowan Alamance Sampson Montgomery Halifax Clay Alexander Scotland Moore Harnett Cleveland Alleghany Stanly Nash Haywood Columbus Anson Stokes New Hanover Henderson Craven Ashe Surry Northampton Hertford Cumberland Aver y Swain Onslow Hoke Currituck Beaufort Transylvania Orange Hyde Dare Bertie Ty r r e l l Pamlico Iredell Davidson Bladen Union Pasquotank Jackson Davie Brunswick Va nc e Pender Johnston Duplin Buncombe Wa ke Perquimans Jones Durham Burke Wa r ren Person Lee Edgecombe Cabarrus Wa sh i ng ton Pitt Lenoir Forsyth Caldwell Wat auga Polk Lincoln Franklin Camden Way ne Randolph Macon Gaston Carteret Wilkes Richmond Madison Gates Caswell Wilson Robeson Martin Graham Catawba Ya d k i n Rockingham McDowell Granville Chatham Ya nc e y Rowan Mecklenburg Greene Cherokee NORTH DAKOTA (ND) (53 counties) Capital: Bismarck Stark Pembina LaMoure Divide Adams Steele Pierce Logan Dunn Barnes Stutsman Ramsey McHenry Eddy Benson To w n e r Ransom McIntosh Emmons Billings Tra i l l Renville McKenzie Foster Bottineau Wa lsh Richland McLean Golden Valley Bowman Wa rd Rolette Mercer Grand Forks Burke Wel ls Sargent Morton Grant Burleigh Williams Sheridan Mountrail Griggs Cass Sioux Nelson Hettinger Cavalier Slope Oliver Kidder Dickey NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS (MP) (4 municipalities) Capital: Saipan Northern Islands Rota Saipan Tinian c h a p t e r 11/13/08 3:19:26 PM 8 . i n d d 3 6 1 chapter18.indd 361 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 6 P M 1

376 362 Chapter 18 OHIO (OH) (88 counties) Capital: Columbus Sandusky Miami Hocking Darke Adams Scioto Monroe Holmes Defi ance Allen Seneca Montgomery Huron Delaware Ashland Shelby Morgan Jackson Erie Ashtabula Stark Morrow Jeff erson eld Fairfi Athens Summit Muskingum Knox Fayette Auglaize Tr u mbu l l Noble Lake Franklin Belmont Tu s c a r a w a s Ottawa Lawrence Fulton Brown Union Paulding Licking Gallia Butler Va n Wer t Perry Logan Geauga Carroll Vinton Pickaway Lorain Greene Champaign Wa r ren Pike Lucas Guernsey Clark Wa sh i ng ton Portage Madison Hamilton Clermont Way ne Preble Mahoning Hancock Clinton Williams Putnam Marion Hardin Columbiana Wood Richland Medina Harrison Coshocton Wyandot Ross Meigs Henry Crawford Mercer Highland Cuyahoga OKLAHOMA (OK) (77 counties) Capital: Oklahoma City Osage Love Harmon Coal Adair Ottawa Major Harper Comanche Alfalfa Pawnee Marshall Haskell Cotton Atoka Payne Mayes Hughes Craig Beaver Pittsburg McClain Jackson Creek Beckham Pontotoc McCurtain Jeff erson Custer Blaine Pottawatomie McIntosh Johnston Delaware Bryan Pushmataha Murray Kay Dewey Caddo Roger Mills Muskogee sher Kingfi Ellis Canadian Rogers Noble Kiowa eld Garfi Carter Seminole Nowata Latimer Garvin Cherokee Sequoyah Okfuskee Le Flore Grady Choctaw Stephens Oklahoma Lincoln Grant Cimarron Te x a s Okmulgee Logan Greer Cleveland c h a p t e r 1 8 . i n d d 3 11/13/08 3:19:26 PM 2 chapter18.indd 362 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 6 P M 6

377 Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 363 Woodwa rd Tillman Wa goner Wa sh it a Wood s Tu l s a Wa sh i ng ton OREGON (OR) (36 counties) Capital: Salem Umatilla Malheur Jeff erson Deschutes Baker Union Marion Josephine Douglas Benton Wa l lowa Morrow Klamath Gilliam Clackamas Wa sco Multnomah Lake Grant Clatsop Wa sh i ng ton Polk Lane Harney Columbia Wheeler Sherman Lincoln Hood River Coos Ya m h i l l Tillamook Linn Jackson Crook Curry PALAU (PW) (16 States) Capital: Melekeok Ngiwal Ngatpang Ngaraard Kayangel Aimeliik Peleliu Ngchesar Ngarchelong Koror Airai Sonsorol Ngeremlengui Ngardmau Melekeok Angaur Hatohobei PENNSYLVANIA (PA) (67 counties) Capital: Harrisburg Snyder McKean Fulton Chester Adams Somerset Mercer Greene Clarion Allegheny Sullivan Miffl in Huntingdon eld Clearfi Armstrong Susquehanna Monroe Indiana Clinton Beaver Tioga Montgomery Jeff erson Columbia Bedford Union Montour Juniata Crawford Berks Ve n a n g o Northampton Lackawanna Cumberland Blair Wa r ren Northumberland Lancaster Dauphin Bradford Wa sh i ng ton Perry Lawrence Delaware Bucks Way ne Philadelphia Lebanon Elk Butler We st morela nd Pike Lehigh Erie Cambria Wyoming Potter Luzerne Fayette Cameron Yo r k Schuylkill Lycoming Forest Carbon Franklin Centre c h a p t e r 1 8 . i n d d 11/13/08 3:19:26 PM 3 6 3 chapter18.indd 363 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 6 P M

378 364 Chapter 18 PUERTO RICO (PR) (78 municipios) Capital: San Juan San Germán Maunabo Gurabo Cataño Adjuntas San Juan Mayagüez Hatillo Cayey Aguada San Lorenzo Moca Hormigueros Ceiba Aguadilla San Sebastián Morovis Humacao Ciales Aguas Buenas Santa Isabel Naguabo Isabela Cidra Aibonito To a A l t a Naranjito Jayuya Coamo Añasco To a B a j a Orocovis Juana Díaz Comerío Arecibo Tr uji l lo A lto Patillas Juncos Corozal Arroyo Utuado Peñuelas Lajas Culebra Barceloneta Ve g a A l t a Ponce Lares Dorado Barranquitas Ve g a B a j a Quebradillas Las Marías Fajardo Bayamón Vieques Rincón Las Piedras Florida Cabo Rojo Villalba Río Grande Loíza Guánica Caguas Ya buc o a Sabana Grande Luquillo Guayama Camuy Yauc o Salinas Manatí Guayanilla Canóvanas Maricao Guaynabo Carolina RHODE ISLAND (RI) (5 counties) Capital: Providence Newport Washington Kent Providence Bristol SOUTH CAROLINA (SC) (46 counties) Capital: Columbia Orangeburg Lancaster eld Fairfi Cherokee Abbeville Pickens Laurens Florence Chester Aiken Richland Lee Georgetown Chesterfi eld Allendale Saluda Lexington Greenville Clarendon Anderson Spartanburg Marion Greenwood Colleton Bamberg Sumter Marlboro Hampton Darlington Barnwell Union McCormick Horry Dillon Beaufort Williamsburg Newberry Jasper Dorchester Berkeley Yo r k Oconee Kershaw Edgefi eld Calhoun Charleston SOUTH DAKOTA (SD) (66 counties) Capital: Pierre Aurora Brookings Bennett Brule Butte alo Buff Campbell Bon Homme Beadle Brown c h a p t e r 1 8 . i 11/13/08 3:19:26 PM d d 3 6 4 chapter18.indd 364 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 6 P M n

379 Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 365 Shannon McPherson Hyde Fall River Charles Mix Spink Meade Jackson Faulk Clark Stanley Mellette Jerauld Grant Clay Sully Miner Jones Gregory Codington To d d Minnehaha Kingsbury Haakon Corson Tripp Moody Lake Hamlin Custer Tu r n e r Pennington Lawrence Hand Davison Union Perkins Lincoln Hanson Day Wa lwor t h Potter Lyman Harding Deuel Ya n k ton Roberts Marshall Hughes Dewey Ziebach Sanborn McCook Hutchinson Douglas Edmunds TENNESSEE (TN) (95 counties) Capital: Nashville Sequatchie Maury Henderson Decatur Anderson Sevier McMinn Henry DeKalb Bedford Shelby McNairy Hickman Dickson Benton Smith Meigs Houston Dyer Bledsoe Stewart Monroe Humphreys Fayette Blount Sullivan Montgomery Jackson Fentress Bradley Sumner Moore erson Jeff Franklin Campbell Tipton Morgan Johnson Gibson Cannon Trousda le Obion Knox Giles Carroll Unicoi Overton Lake Grainger Carter Union Perry Lauderdale Greene Cheatham Va n Bu ren Pickett Lawrence Grundy Chester Wa r ren Polk Lewis Hamblen Claiborne Wa sh i ng ton Putnam Lincoln Hamilton Clay Way ne Rhea Loudon Hancock Cocke Wea k le y Roane Macon Hardeman Coff ee White Robertson Madison Hardin Crockett Williamson Rutherford Marion Hawkins Cumberland Wilson Scott Marshall Haywood Davidson TEXAS (TX) (254 counties) Capital: Austin Borden Bee Bailey Archer Anderson Bosque Bell Bandera Armstrong Andrews Bowie Bexar Bastrop Atascosa Angelina Brazoria Blanco Baylor Austin Aransas c h a p t e r 1 8 . i n d d 3 6 5 11/13/08 3:19:27 PM 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 7 P M chapter18.indd 365

380 366 Chapter 18 Real Llano Henderson Dimmit Brazos Red River Loving Hidalgo Donley Brewster Reeves Lubbock Hill Duval Briscoe Refugio Lynn Hockley Eastland Brooks Roberts Madison Hood Ector Brown Robertson Marion Hopkins Edwards Burleson Rockwall Martin Houston El Paso Burnet Runnels Mason Howard Ellis Caldwell Rusk Matagorda Hudspeth Erath Calhoun Sabine Maverick Hunt Falls Callahan San Augustine McCulloch Hutchinson Fannin Cameron San Jacinto McLennan Irion Fayette Camp San Patricio McMullen Jack Fisher Carson San Saba Medina Jackson Floyd Cass Schleicher Menard Jasper Foard Castro Scurry Midland Jeff Davis Fort Bend Chambers Shackelford Milam erson Jeff Franklin Cherokee Shelby Mills Jim Hogg Freestone Childress Sherman Mitchell Jim Wells Frio Clay Smith Montague Johnson Gaines Cochran Somervell Montgomery Jones Galveston Coke Starr Moore Karnes Garza Coleman Stephens Morris Kaufman Gillespie Collin Sterling Motley Kendall Glasscock Collingsworth Stonewall Nacogdoches Kenedy Goliad Colorado Sutton Navarro Kent Gonzales Comal Swisher Newton Kerr Gray Comanche Ta r r a nt Nolan Kimble Grayson Concho Tay lor Nueces King Gregg Cooke Te r r e l l Ochiltree Kinney Grimes Coryell Te r r y Oldham Kleberg Guadalupe Cottle Th rockmorton Orange Knox Hale Crane Titus Palo Pinto La Salle Hall Crockett To m G r e e n Panola Lamar Hamilton Crosby Trav is Parker Lamb Hansford Culberson Trinit y Parmer Lampasas Hardeman Dallam Ty l e r Pecos Lavaca Hardin Dallas Upshur Polk Lee Harris Dawson Upton Potter Leon Harrison Deaf Smith Uvalde Presidio Liberty Hartley Delta Va l Verd e Rains Limestone Haskell Denton Va n Z a ndt Randall Lipscomb Hays DeWitt Victoria Reagan Live Oak Hemphill Dickens c h a p t e r 1 8 . i n d d 3 6 6 11/13/08 3:19:27 PM 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 7 P M chapter18.indd 366

381 Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 367 Yo u n g Winkler Wilbarger Webb Wa l ker Zapata Wise Willacy Wharton Wa l ler Zavala Wood Williamson Wheeler Wa rd Yo a k u m Wilson Wichita Wa sh i ng ton UTAH (UT) (29 counties) Capital: Salt Lake City Utah San Juan Kane Duchesne Beaver Wa satch Sanpete Millard Emery Box Elder Wa sh i ng ton Sevier Morgan Garfi eld Cache Way ne Summit Piute Grand Carbon Weber Tooele Rich Iron Daggett Uintah Salt Lake Juab Davis VERMONT (VT) (14 counties) Capital: Montpelier Windham Orleans Grand Isle Chittenden Addison Windsor Rutland Lamoille Essex Bennington Wa sh i ng ton Orange Franklin Caledonia VIRGIN ISLANDS (VI) (3 islands) Capital: Charlotte Amalie St. John St. Th omas St. Croix VIRGINIA (VA) (95 counties) Capital: Richmond Mathews Henrico Fairfax Buckingham Accomack Mecklenburg Henry Fauquier Campbell Albemarle Middlesex Highland Floyd Caroline Alleghany Montgomery Isle of Wight Fluvanna Carroll Amelia Nelson James City Franklin Charles City Amherst New Kent King and Queen Frederick Charlotte Appomattox Northampton King George Giles Chesterfi eld Arlington Northumberland King William Gloucester Clarke Augusta Nottoway Lancaster Goochland Craig Bath Orange Lee Grayson Culpeper Bedford Page Loudoun Greene Cumberland Bland Patrick Louisa Greensville Dickenson Botetourt Pittsylvania Lunenburg Halifax Dinwiddie Brunswick Powhatan Madison Hanover Essex Buchanan c h a p t e r 1 8 . i n d d 11/13/08 3:19:27 PM 6 7 chapter18.indd 367 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 7 P M 3

382 368 Chapter 18 Wa sh i ng ton ord Staff Scott Richmond Prince Edward We st morela nd Surry Shenandoah Roanoke Prince George Wise Sussex Smyth Rockbridge Prince William Wythe Ta z ewel l Southampton Rockingham Pulaski Yo r k Wa r ren Spotsylvania Russell Rappahannock WASHINGTON (WA) (39 counties) Capital: Olympia Stevens c Pacifi King Douglas Adams Th urston Pend Oreille Kitsap Ferry Asotin Wa h k ia k u m Pierce Kittitas Franklin Benton Wa l la Wa l la San Juan Klickitat eld Garfi Chelan Whatcom Skagit Lewis Grant Clallam Whitman Skamania Lincoln Grays Harbor Clark Ya k i m a Snohomish Mason Island Columbia Spokane Okanogan erson Jeff Cowlitz WEST VIRGINIA (WV) (55 counties) Capital: Charleston Summers Nicholas Logan Grant Barbour Tay lor Ohio Marion Greenbrier Berkeley Tu c k e r Pendleton Marshall Hampshire Boone Ty l e r Pleasants Mason Hancock Braxton Upshur Pocahontas McDowell Hardy Brooke Way ne Preston Mercer Harrison Cabell Webster Putnam Mineral Jackson Calhoun Wet z el Raleigh Mingo erson Jeff Clay Wirt Randolph Monongalia Kanawha Doddridge Wood Ritchie Monroe Lewis Fayette Wyoming Roane Morgan Lincoln Gilmer WISCONSIN (WI) (72 counties) Capital: Madison Lafayette Iowa Dunn Chippewa Adams Langlade Iron Eau Claire Clark Ashland Lincoln Jackson Florence Columbia Barron Manitowoc erson Jeff Fond du Lac Crawford Bayfi eld Marathon Juneau Forest Dane Brown Marinette Kenosha Grant Dodge Buff alo Marquette Kewaunee Green Door Burnett Menominee La Crosse Green Lake Douglas Calumet c h a p t e r 1 8 . i n d d 11/13/08 3:19:27 PM 6 8 chapter18.indd 368 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 7 P M 3

383 Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions 369 Wa sh i ng ton Tay lor Rusk Pierce Milwaukee Wau kesha Trempea leau St. Croix Polk Monroe Waupac a Ve r n o n Sauk Portage Oconto Wau sha r a Vilas Sawyer Price Oneida Winnebago Wa lwor t h Shawano Racine Outagamie Wood Wa shbu r n Sheboygan Richland Ozaukee Rock Pepin WYOMING (WY) (23 counties) Capital: Cheyenne Te t o n Platte Laramie Crook Albany Uinta Sheridan Lincoln Fremont Big Horn Wa sha k ie Sublette Natrona Goshen Campbell We ston Sweetwater Niobrara Hot Springs Carbon Park Johnson Converse Common misspellings Geographers and cartographers omit the possessive apostrophe in place- names; however, apostrophes appearing in legally constituted names of counties should not be changed. Th e names of the following counties are oft en misspelled and/or confused: Burnett in Wisconsin Allegany in Maryland and New York Cheboygan in Michigan Alleghany in North Carolina and Virginia Sheboygan in Wisconsin Allegheny in Pennsylvania Clarke in Alabama, Georgia, Iowa, Andrew in Missouri Mississippi, and Virginia Andrews in Texas Clark in all other States Aransas in Texas ee in Alabama, Georgia, and Coff Arkansas in Arkansas Tennessee Barber in Kansas ey in Kansas Coff Barbour in Alabama and West Virginia Coal in Oklahoma Brevard in Florida Cole in Missouri Broward in Florida Coles in Illinois Brooke in West Virginia Cook in Illinois and Minnesota Brooks in Georgia and Texas Cooke in Texas Bulloch in Georgia Davidson in North Carolina and Bullock in Alabama Tennessee Burnet in Texas c h a p t e r 1 8 . 11/13/08 3:19:27 PM n d d 3 6 9 chapter18.indd 369 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 7 P M i

384 370 Chapter 18 Morton in Kansas Davie in North Carolina Norton in Kansas Daviess in Indiana, Kentucky, and Missouri Muscogee in Georgia Davis in Iowa and Utah Muskogee in Oklahoma Davison in South Dakota Park in Colorado and Montana De Kalb in Alabama, Georgia, Parke in Indiana Illinois, and Indiana Pottawatomie in Kansas and DeKalb in Tennessee and Missouri Oklahoma Dickenson in Virginia Pottawattamie in Iowa Dickinson in Iowa, Kansas, and Prince George in Virginia Michigan Prince George’s in Maryland Dickson in Tennessee Sanders in Montana Forrest in Mississippi Saunders in Nebraska Forest in all other States Smyth in Virginia Glascock in Georgia Smith in all other States Glasscock in Texas Staff ord in Virginia Green in Kentucky and Wisconsin Straff ord in New Hampshire Greene in all other States Stanley in South Dakota Harford in Maryland Stanly in North Carolina Hartford in Connecticut Stark in Illinois, North Dakota, Huntingdon in Pennsylvania and Ohio Huntington in Indiana Starke in Indiana Johnston in North Carolina and Stephens in Georgia, Oklahoma, Oklahoma and Texas Johnson in all other States Stevens in Kansas, Minnesota, and Washington Kanabec in Minnesota Storey in Nevada Kennebec in Maine Story in Iowa Kearney in Nebraska Terrell in Georgia and Texas Kearny in Kansas Tyrrell in North Carolina Kenedy in Texas Tooele in Utah Linn in Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Oregon Toole in Montana Lynn in Texas Ve r m i l l i o n i n I n d i a n a Loudon in Tennessee Vermilion in all other States Loudoun in Virginia Woods in Oklahoma Manatee in Florida Wood in all other States Manistee in Michigan Wyandot in Ohio Merced in California Wyandotte in Kansas Mercer in all other States c h a p 11/13/08 3:19:28 PM e r 1 8 . i n d d 3 7 0 chapter18.indd 370 1 1 / 1 3 / 0 8 3 : 1 9 : 2 8 P M t

385 19. Congressional Record Code of laws of the United States and rules for publication of the Congressional Record Title 44, Section 901. Congressional Record: Arrangement, style, e Joint Committee on Printing shall control contents, and indexes.—Th the arrangement and style of the Congressional Record, and while providing that it shall be substantially a verbatim report of proceedings, shall take all needed action for the reduction of unnecessary bulk. It shall provide for the publication of an index of the Congressional Record semimonthly during and at the close of sessions of Congress. Title 44, Section 904. Congressional Record: Maps, diagrams, illustrations.—Maps, diagrams, or illustrations may not be inserted in the Record without the approval of the Joint Committee on Printing. General rules Th e rules governing document work (FIC & punc.) apply to the Congres- sional Record, except as may be noted herein. Th e same general style should be followed in the permanent (bound) Record as is used in the daily Record. It is important to be familiar with the exceptions and the forms peculiar to the Record. Much of the data printed in the Congressional Record is forwarded to the GPO via fi ber optic transmission using the captured keystrokes of the fl oor reporters. Element identifi er codes are programmatically inserted, and galley output is accomplished without manual intervention. It is not cost-eff ective to prepare the accompanying manuscript as per the GPO Style Manual, and it is too time-consuming to update and change the data once it is al- ready in type form. Th erefore, the Record is to be FIC & punc. Because of its volume, it is not necessary to stamp the manuscript FIC & punc. However, Record style will be followed, as stated in the following rules: Daily and permanent Record texts are set in 8-point type on a 9-point body. Extracts are set in 7-point type on an 8-point body. An F-dash will be used preceding 8-point cap lines in the proceedings of the Senate and House. 371

386 372 Chapter 19 All 7-point extracts and poetry will carry 2 points of space above and below unless heads appear, which generate their own space. All extracts are set 7 point unless otherwise ordered by the Joint Committee on Printing. Except as noted below, all communications from the President must be set in 8 point, but if such communications contain extracts, etc., the extracts are set in 7 point. An address of the President delivered outside of Congress or referred to as an extract is set in 7 point. A letter from the President to the Senate is set in 7 point when any form of treaty is enclosed that is to be printed in the Record in connection therewith. Th e letter is set in 7 point whether the treaty follows or precedes it or is sepa- rated from it by intervening matter. In all quoted amendments and excerpts of bills and in reprinting bills, the style and manuscript as printed in the bill will be followed. Except where otherwise directed, profanity, obscene wording, or extreme vulgarisms are to be deleted and a 3-em dash substituted. All manuscript submitted in a foreign language will not be printed. It will be returned for translation and resubmitted for printing in the next Record. Extreme caution must be used in making corrections in manuscript, and no important change will be made without proper authorization. Observe the lists of names of Senators, Representatives, and Delegates, com- mittees of both Houses, and duplicate names. Changes caused by death, resignation, or otherwise must be noted. Th ere is no excuse for error in the spelling of names of Senators, Representatives, or department offi cials. In case of doubt, the Congressional Directory will be the authority. Datelines should be followed on Extensions of Remarks. If any question arises as to the proper date to be used, a supervisor must be consulted. Indented matter in leaderwork will be 1 em only. Do not write queries on proofs.

387 Congressional Record 373 Capitalization (See also Chapter 3 “Capitalization Rules”) If the name of the Congressional Record is mentioned, it must be set in caps and small caps and never abbreviated, even when appearing in citations, except in extract matter, then cap/lowercase. Th e name of a Senator or a Representative preceding his or her direct re- marks is set in caps and is followed by a period with equal spacing to be used. Th e name of a Senator or a Representative used in connection with a bill or other paper—that is, in an adjectival sense—is lowercased, as the Hawkins bill, the Fish amendment, etc.; but Fish’s amendment, etc. Th e names of Members and Members-elect of both Houses of the Congress, including those of the Vice President and Speaker, will be printed in caps and small caps if mention is made of them, except in extract matter. Deceased Members’ names will be set in caps and small caps in eulogies only on the fi rst day the House or Senate is in session following the death of a Member, in a speech carrying date when the Member was eulogized, or on memorial day in the Senate and House. Eulogy day in one House will be treated the same in the other. cates of Senators-elect of a succeeding Congress are usually presented Certifi to the current Congress, and in such cases the names of the Senators-elect must be in caps and small caps. Names of Members of Congress must be set in caps and lowercase in votes, in lists set in columns, in the list of standing and select committees, in con- tested-election cases, in lists of pairs, and in all parts of tabular matter (head, body, and footnotes). Observe that the names of all persons not certifi ed Members of Congress are to be set in caps and lowercase; that is, names of secretaries, clerks, mes- sengers, and others. Names of proposed Federal boards, commissions, services, etc., are capitalized. chapter19.indd 373 chapter19.indd 373 2/4/09 3:40:53 PM 2/4/09 3:40:53 PM

388 374 Chapter 19 Capitalize principal words and quote aft er each of the following terms: Address, article, book, caption, chapter heading, editorial, essay, heading, headline, motion picture play (including TV or radio program), paper, or poem, report, song, subheading, subject, theme, etc. Also, following the word , except with reference to bill titles which are treated as follows: “A entitled bill (or an act) transferring certain functions of the Price Administrator to the Petroleum Administrator for War,’’ etc. Figures Follow the manuscript as to the use of numerals. Dollar amounts in Record manuscript are to be followed. Figures appearing in manuscript as “20 billion 428 million 125 thousand dollars’’ should be followed. Tabular matter and leaderwork Record tables may be set either one or three columns in width, as follows: One-column table: 14 picas (168 points). Th ree-column table: 43½ picas (522 points). Footnote(s) will be set 43½ picas. All short footnotes should be run in with 2 ems between each. Italic Italic, boldface, caps, or small caps shall not be used for emphasis; nor shall unusual indentions be used. Th is does not apply to literally reproduced cial documents. If italic other than quotations from historical, legal, or offi restricted herein is desired, the words should be underscored and “Fol. ital.’’ written on each folio. Do not construe this to apply to “Provided,’’ “Provided further,’’ “Ordered,’’ “Resolved,’’ “Be it enacted,’’ etc. Names of vessels must be set in italic, except in headings, where they will be quoted. Th e prayer delivered in either House must be set in 8-point roman. If pref- aced or followed by a quotation from the Bible, such quotation must be set in 8-point italic. Extracts from the Bible or other literature contained in the body of the prayer will be set in 8-point roman and quoted. chapter19.indd 374 chapter19.indd 374 2/4/09 3:40:53 PM 2/4/09 3:40:53 PM

389 Congressional Record 375 When general or passing mention is made of a case in 8 point, the title is set in roman, as Smith Bros. case. When a specifi c citation is indicated and ref- case (172 App. Div. 149). erence follows, use italic for title, as Smith Bros. In 8 point manuscript, titles of cases are always set in italic if followed by references. In 7 point, manuscript is followed. In 8-point matter, when only the title of a case is given, set in roman, as United States versus 12 Diamond Rings. When versus is used in other than legal phrases and for the purposes of showing contrast, it is not abbreviated or set in italic, as “airplanes versus battleships.’’ Miscellaneous Do not quote any communication carrying date and signature. However, a letter (or other communication) bearing both date and signature that ap- pears within a letter shall be quoted. Do not put quotation marks on centerheads in 7-point extracts unless cen- terheads belong to original matter. In newspaper extracts, insert place and date at beginning of paragraph. Use caps and small caps for name of place and roman lowercase for spelled-out date. Connect date and extract by a period and an em dash. If date and place are credited in a bracket line above extract, they need not be used again at the beginning of the paragraph. Each Whereas in a preamble must begin a new paragraph. Th e Th erefore be it Whereas. Be it must be preceded by a colon and be run in with the last will run in with the word Th erefore , but it must not be supplied when not in manuscript. Note the following: Whereas it has been deemed advisable Resolved , Th at the committee, etc. to, etc.: Th erefore be it In the titles of legal cases, manuscript is followed as to spelling, abbrevia- tions, and use of fi gures. Use single punctuation in citations of cases and statutes: United States v. 12 Diamond Rings (124 U.S. 329; R.S. p. 310, sec. 1748).

390 376 Chapter 19 Indent asterisk lines 2 ems on each side. Use fi ve asterisks. If a title is used as part of the name of an organization, vessel, etc., spell; thus, General Ulysses S. Grant Post No. 76, Grand Army of the Republic. Th e order of subdivision of the Constitution of the United States is as fol- lows: article I, section 2, clause 3. is set in 7-point If an exhibit appears at the end of a speech, the head Exhibit caps and small caps. In extracts containing votes the names must be run in, as Mr. Smith of Texas, AuCoin, and Clay, etc. In a Senator’s or a Representative’s remarks, when amendments, sections, etc., are referred to by number, follow the manuscript. In text references to Senate and House reports and in executive and miscel- laneous documents, follow the manuscript. In headings and text references to resolutions and memorials, follow the manuscript. In gross or en gros When a bill comes to fi nal action, in the presentment of amendments col- in gross en lectively for a vote, either the term “ ’’ or the French equivalent “ ’’ may be used. gros Examples of Congressional Record USE OF CAPS AND SMALL CAPS [Note the use of parentheses and brackets ’s amendment was THERIDGE Mr. E in the following examples. Each will be used adopted. as submitted, as long as they are consistent Mr. HARE. Madam Speaker, I yield throughout.] . to Mr. H OYER Mr. WEBB. (Name all caps when a Mr. HOYER said: If not paired, I Member or visitor addresses Senate would vote “no” on this bill. or House.) . And debate it afterward. A M EMBER , it EBB On motion by [or of] Mr. W S ENATORS . I object. S EVERAL was, etc. But: Several Senators addressed The VICE PRESIDENT resumed the Chair. the chair. Mr. KENNEDY, Mr. WEBB (and oth- The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. ers). Let it be read. EVIN L ). Is there objection? The A S CTING . In line 11, ECRETARY The SPEAKER called the House to after the word “ Provided ”, it is pro- order. posed, etc. chapter19.indd 376 chapter19.indd 376 2/4/09 3:40:53 PM 2/4/09 3:40:53 PM

391 Congressional Record Congressional Record 377 377 , for 1 hour, on Wednesday, Mrs. CAPPS was recognized, and OYER Mr. H February 2. yielded her time to Mr. C ARDOZA . Mr. E (at the request of Mr. NGEL [When two Members from the same State OYER H ), for 1 hour, on February 2. have the same surname, full name is used.] (The following Members (at the re- of INDA ÁNCHEZ On motion of Ms. L T. S ALL of New York) and to quest of Mr. H California . . . revise and extend their remarks and of ANCHEZ ORETTA S On motion of Ms. L include therein extraneous matter:) California . . . , for 5 minutes, ACHMANN Mrs. B Mr. LINCOLN DIAZ-BALART today. of Florida and Mr. MARIO DIAZ- Mr. H , for 5 minutes, today. OLDEN BALART of Florida rose to a point of Mr. I NSLEE , for 60 minutes, today. order. The CHAIRMAN appointed Mr. [Note the following double action:] C NSLEE of California and Mr. I AMPBELL (Mr. HOYER asked and was given as conferees. permission to extend his remarks at this point in the R ECORD [Extracts that consist of colloquies will and to include use caps and small caps for names of persons extraneous matter.) speaking, as shown below:] (Mr. HOYER addressed the House. . I think this bill is so well E F AZIO Mr. D His remarks will appear hereafter in understood that no time will be required the Extensions of Remarks.) for its discussion. ORTON . Does this bill come from the Ms. N Committee on Armed Services? PEAKER . It does. The S The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under a previous order of the House, the - gentleman from Nebraska (Mr. F OR SPECIAL ORDERS GRANTED TEN BERRY ) is recognized for 5 minutes. By unanimous consent, permis- (Mr. FORTENBERRY addressed the sion to address the House, following House. His remarks will appear here- the legislative and any special orders after in the Extensions of Remarks.) heretofore entered, was granted to: PUNCTUATION The title was amended so as to Mr. REID. Mr. President, I call up read: “A bill for the relief of Maude S. ed as my amendment which is identifi Burman.’’ “unprinted amendment No. 1296,’’ and ask that it be stated. A motion to reconsider was laid on the table. [House.] The bill was reported to the Senate as amended, and the amendment was [Use this form when title of bill is not concurred in. given:] The bill was reported to the Senate The bill was ordered to be engrossed without amendment, ordered to be and read a third time, was read the engrossed for a third reading, read third time, and passed, and a motion the third time, and passed. to reconsider was laid on the table. The bill was ordered to be engrossed [House.] for a third reading, read the third ——— time, and passed. The bill was ordered to be engrossed [Use this form when title of bill is given:] and read a third time, and passed. The amendments were ordered to The bill was ordered to be engrossed be engrossed and the bill to be read a and read the third time, was read the third time. third time, and passed. chapter19.indd 377 chapter19.indd 377 2/4/09 3:40:54 PM 2/4/09 3:40:54 PM

392 378 Chapter 19 taxpayers’ investment in our highway in- The amendment was agreed to, and frastructure; and the bill as amended was ordered to be Whereas, The General Assembly of the engrossed and read a third time; and State of Rhode Island and Providence being engrossed, it was accordingly Plantations resolved jointly to urge the Congress of the United States to . . . read the third time and passed. , That this House of Repre sen- Resolved There was no objection, and, by tatives of the State of Rhode Island and unanimous consent, the Senate pro- Providence Plantations hereby reaffi rms ceeded . . . its opposition to proposals, at all lev- els of government, that would authorize The question was taken, and the increases in the size and weight of com- motion was agreed to. mercial motor vehicles because of the The question being taken, the mo- impact that these increases would have tion was agreed to. on highway infrastructure, especially bridges; and be it further Ordered to lie on the table and to be Resolved , That the Secretary of State be printed. and he hereby is authorized and directed to Ms. EDWARDS of Maryland. Mr. ed copies of this reso- transmit duly certifi Chairman, I move to strike the requi- lution to the President and Vice President of the United States, the Speaker of the site number of words. United States House of Representatives, (Ms. EDWARDS of Maryland asked the Majority Leader of the United States and was given permission to revise Senate and the Rhode Island Delegation to and extend her remarks.) the Congress of the United States. [Note use of interrogation mark in the [Note use of italic in title of cases:] following:] . . . This is the occasion America did Mr. KERRY. Mr. President, what not h av e t o c o n s id e r wh at ot h e r op t io n s does this mean?— might guarantee maternal safety We have never received a dollar of this while protecting the unborn. This is amount. our national opportunity to recon- POM–376. A resolution adopted by the v. Wade sider , 410 U.S. 113 (1973). Roe House of Representatives of the State of Roe against Wade and its companion Rhode Island expressing its opposition to federal proposals to authorize increases Bolton v. Doe case, , 410 U.S. 179 (1973), in the size or weight of commercial motor granted abortion the elevated status vehicles; to the Committee on Commerce, of a fundamental constitutional right Science, and Transportation. and invalidated almost all effective OUSE . 8296 O N ESOLUTION R H restrictions on abortion throughout Whereas, The State of Rhode Island is committed to protecting the safety of mo- the 9 months of pregnancy . . . . torists on its highways and to protecting PARENTHESES AND BRACKETS [The use of parentheses and brackets will be Mr. BACA. Madam Speaker, I now followed as submitted for acronyms, symbols, yield 5 minutes to the gentleman or abbreviations.] ILL ). from Indiana (Mr. H (Mr. BUTTERFIELD asked and was This legislation would exempt cer- given permission to revise and extend tain defi ned Central Intelligence his remarks in the Record.) les from Agency [CIA] operational fi the search and review process of Ms. HARMAN. There is no “may not’’ about it. Here is the form in the Freedom of Information Act which they are printed. [FOIA], thus permitting the Agency to re spond much more quickly to Mr. DOYLE. I am in hopes we shall be able to secure a vote on the bill those FOIA requests which are at tonight. all likely to result in the release of [ “ Vot e ! Vot e ! ’’] information. chapter19.indd 378 chapter19.indd 378 2/4/09 3:40:54 PM 2/4/09 3:40:54 PM

393 Congressional Record 379 Mr. YOUNG. The Chair rather gets marks will appear hereafter in the me on that question. [Laughter.] I did Extensions of Remarks.) not rise. [Cries of “Vote! Vote!’’] [Names of Senators or Representatives Mrs. CAPPS [one of the tellers]. I do appearing in remarks of other Members of Con- gress should be enclosed in brackets, except in not desire to press the point that no listing of tellers or when some title other than quorum has voted. Mr. “ is used, as in the following examples:] ” The CHAIRMAN [after a pause]. Mr. LIEBERMAN. Mr. President, oor, the If no gentleman claims the fl I thank my friend from Rhode Clerk will proceed with the reading of ] for HITEHOUSE Island [Senator W the bill. cent exchange of cor- that magnifi Mr. HALL of Texas. Then he is en- respondence between the Hebrew deavoring to restrict the liberty of congregation of Newport, RI, and the individual in the disbursement President Washington. of his own money. [Applause on the HITEHOUSE May I say that Senator W , Republican side.] in his own bearing and substance, Mr. KENNEDY. Mr. Speaker, I de- lives out the promise of religious sire to ask unanimous consent that freedom that our fi rst President gave the time of the gentleman——[Cries to all Americans. of “Regular Order!”] Perhaps I should say I say that as [Laughter.] one of the descendants of the Stock The SPEAKER. Is there objection of Abraham who is privileged to be a to the consideration of this bill at Member of the Senate today. I thank this time? [After a pause.] There is no Senator W . I thank Senator HITEHOUSE objection. . OBURN C The CHAIRMAN [rapping with his I am going to take the liberty, gavel]. Debate is exhausted. if I may, to speak for a few min- Mr. MORAN of Virginia. Patrick utes while we are waiting for either Henry said URKOWSKI or EBB , Senators W Senator M Ceasar had his Brutus, Charles I his , who are going to read docu- ARTINEZ M Cromwell, and George III—— ments before I conclude. [here he was interrupted by cries of “Treason, Treason”] [In Senate manuscript a Senator is referred t by their ex- and George III may profi to as “ the Senator f rom —— [M r. ——] . ” Do not ample. If this be treason, let us make the supply name and brackets if name does not ap- most of it! pear in manuscript.] (Mr. MILLER of Florida addressed [Note that brackets are used only when Mr. , the Committee [or House]. His re- etc., appears in manuscript.] [See also use of Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms. in expla- nation of votes under “Pairs.”] VOTING IN THE HOUSE AND IN COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE [Note that a dash is used only when a comma So (no further count being called is necessary to separate the ayes and noes. If for) the amendment of Mr. M ORAN of only the ayes or the noes are given, no punc- Virginia was not agreed to. and tuation is to be used. If the word is used So (two-thirds having voted in favor to connect the ayes and noes, as ayes 52 and 52 ayes and 65 noes, noes 65, or the dash is thereof) the rules were suspended, or omitted after the word .] were being and the bill was passed. So (two-thirds not having voted in fa- On the question of ordering the yeas vor thereof) the motion was rejected. and nays there were 18 ayes and 88 The CHAIRMAN. The gentleman noes. raises the point of no quorum. The The House divided; and there were— Chair will count. [After counting.] ayes 52, noes 65. chapter19.indd 379 chapter19.indd 379 2/4/09 3:40:54 PM 2/4/09 3:40:54 PM

394 380 Chapter 19 Two hundred and seventeen present, Pursuant to rule XXIII, clause 2, fur- ther proceedings under the call shall a quorum. The noes have it, and the be considered as vacated. amendment is rejected. The Committee will resume its The question being taken on the mo- business. tion of Mr. H OYER to suspend the rules The pending business is the demand and pass the bill, it was agreed to of the gentleman from Minnesota (two-thirds voting in favor thereof). [Mr. O ] for a recorded vote. rmative not being one- BERSTAR So (the affi A recorded vote was refused. fi fth of the whole vote) the yeas and nays were not ordered. So the amendment to the amend- ment offered as a substitute for the The question was taken by a viva amendment was rejected. voice vote, and the Speaker an- nounced that two-thirds appeared The CHAIRMAN. The question is on rmative the amendment offered by the gentle- to have voted in the affi NGLISH and [after a pause] that the bill was man from Pennsylvania [Mr. E ] passed. as a substitute for the amendment of- The yeas and nays were ordered, fered by the gentlewoman from South S ERSETH rmative, there being 43 in the affi ]. ANDLIN Dakota [Ms. H The question was taken; and the more than one-fi fth of the last vote. The question being taken on Mr. Chairman announced that the noes K ENNEDY ’s motion, there were—ayes appeared to have it. VOTE 18, noes 35. RECORDED Mr. ENGLISH. Mr. Chairman, I de- The question being taken on con- mand a recorded vote. curring in the amendments of the Senate, there were—ayes 101, noes 5. A recorded vote was ordered. The question was taken; and on a di- The vote was taken by electronic device, and there were—ayes 228, noes OYER ] there vision [demanded by Mr. H 188, answered “present” 1, not voting were—ayes 17, noes 29. 47, as follows Mr. HOYER. Mr. Chairman, I de- [Roll No. 509] mand a recorded vote, and pending that, I make the point of order that a AY ES —2 2 8 Berman Baird Abercrombie quorum is not present. Berry Baldwin Ackerman The CHAIRMAN. Evidently a quo- Bishop (GA) Barrow Allen rum is not present. Bishop (NY) Bean Altmire The Chair announces that pursuant Blumenauer Becerra Arcuri Boren Berkley Baca to clause 2, rule XXIII, he will vacate proceedings under the call when a NOES —188 quorum of the Committee appears. Blackburn Bartlett (MD) Aderholt Members will record their presence Blunt Barton (TX) Akin by electronic device. Boehner Biggert Alexander Bonner Bilbray Bachmann The call was taken by electronic Bono Mack Bilirakis Bachus device. Boozman Bishop (UT) Barrett (SC) □ 1715 ANSWERED “PRESENT”—1 [The above box followed by a four-digit num- Andrews oor time in the House (5:15 ber indicates fl p.m.)] NOT VOTING —17 QUORUM VA C AT E D CALL Inslee Frank (MA) Boswell The CHAIRMAN. One hundred Mem- Lucas Gilchrest Cooper bers have appeared. A quorum of the Miller, Gary Herger Cubin Paul Hunter Doolittle Committee of the Whole is present. chapter19.indd 380 chapter19.indd 380 2/4/09 3:40:55 PM 2/4/09 3:40:55 PM

395 Congressional Record 381 Congressional Record 381 [If the Speaker votes, his name is not used, □ 1311 yeas ” nays, “ or ” “ but at the end of the accord- Mr. RYAN of Wisconsin changed his ing to his vote, insert: “ The Speaker. ” vote from “aye” to “no.” So the amendment offered as a sub- Ms. WASSERMAN SCHULTZ, Ms. stitute for the amendment was agreed HOOLEY, and Ms. ROS-LEHTINEN to. changed their vote from “no” to “aye.” The result of the vote was an- [The Speaker’s vote is recorded only in the nounced as above recorded. Ayes ” or “ Noes. ” “ not It is never recorded as “ voting. ” ] VOTING BY YEAS AND NAYS Senate ) Senator from Montana (Mr. T ESTER QUORUM CALL are necessarily absent. The clerk will call the roll. Mr. KYL. The following Senators The assistant legislative clerk are necessarily absent: the Senator ), the proceeded to call the roll, and the fol- OLEMAN from Minnesota (Mr. C NSIGN ), lowing Senators entered the Chamber Senator from Nevada (Mr. E and answered to their names: the Senator from South Carolina RAHAM [Quorum No. 42] ), the Senator from New (Mr. G Brownback Bennett Hampshire (Mr. G REGG Akaka ), the Senator Bunning Biden Alexander C C from Arizona (Mr. M AIN ), the Burr Bingaman Allard ), S e n at o r f r o m A l a s k a ( M s . M URKOWSKI Byrd Bond Barrasso the Senator from South Dakota (Mr. Cantwell Boxer Bacus Cardin Brown Bayh T ), the Senator from Louisiana HUNE (Mr. V ), and the Senator from ITTER The PRESIDING OFFICER [Mr. ICKER ). Mississippi (Mr. W W EBB ]. A quorum is not present. Further, if present and voting, Mr. REID. Mr. President, I move the Senator from Minnesota (Mr. that the Sergeant at Arms be in- OLEMAN C ) would have voted “yea.” structed to require the attendance The result was announced—yeas 76, of absent Senators, and I ask for the nays 10, as follows: yeas and nays on the motion. [Rollcall Vote No. 163 Leg.] THE PRESIDING OFFICER. Is YEAS—76 there a suffi cient second? There is a Kohl Conrad Akaka cient second. suffi Landrieu Corker Alexander The yeas and nays were ordered. Lautenberg Craig Allard The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Leahy Dodd Baucus Levin Dole Bayh question is on agreeing to the motion Lieberman Domenici Bennett of the Senator from Nevada. On this Lincoln Dorgan Biden question the yeas and nays have been Lugar Durbin Bingaman ordered, and the clerk will call the Martinez Feingold Bond McCaskill Feinstein Boxer roll. McConnell Grassley Brownback The Assistant legislative clerk Menendez Hagel Byrd called the roll. Mikulski Harkin Cantwell Mr. DURBIN. I announce that Murray Hatch Cardin Nelson (FL) Hutchison Carper ), the Senator from Ohio (Mr. B ROWN Nelson (NE) Inouye Casey the Senator from Massachusetts Reed Isakson Chambliss (Mr. K ), the Senator from ENNEDY Reid Johnson Clinton BAMA ), the Senator Illinois (Mr. O Roberts Kerry Cochran Rockefeller Klobuchar Collins from Arkansas (Mr. P RYOR ), and the chapter19.indd 381 chapter19.indd 381 2/4/09 3:40:55 PM 2/4/09 3:40:55 PM

396 382 Chapter 19 Voi nov ic h Snowe Salazar NOT VOTING —14 Wa r ner Specter Sanders Tester Brown Kennedy Webb Stabenow Schumer Thune Coleman McCain Whitehouse Stevens Sessions Vitter Ensign Murkowski Wyden Sununu Smith Wicker Graham Obama Gregg Pryor NAYS —10 Inhofe Cornyn Barrasso So the motion was agreed to. Kyl Crapo Bunning DeMint Burr Enzi Coburn PA I R S with [The word The result of the vote was an- must a lways be used i n pa i rs i n the House, not and ; and manuscript must be al- nounced as above recorded. tered to conform thereto, as Mr. Smith with Mr. A motion to reconsider was laid on not Mr. Smith and Mr. Jones. Note use of Jones— the table. lowercase for names in list of pairs in House.] Mr. BACA. Mr. Speaker, I voted, The Clerk announced the following but, being paired with the gentlelady pairs: , I from Minnesota, Mrs. B ACHMANN On this vote: withdraw my vote. Mr. Abercrombie for, with Mr. Aderholt Mr. ARTUR DAVIS of Alabama. Mr. against. Speaker, I have a pair with the gentle- Until further notice: D INCOLN man from Florida, Mr. L IAZ Mr. Baca with Mrs. Bachmann. of Florida, who, if present, ALART B Mrs. Capps with Mr. Calvert. would have voted “yea.” I voted “nay.” I Mr. Artur Davis of Alabama with withdraw my vote and vote “present.” Mr. Lincoln Diaz-Balart of Florida. Mr. Ackerman with Mr. Young of [In House pairs do not use brackets when members are referred to by name. In Senate Alaska. pairs observe the following use of brackets:] Mr. HALL of New York, Mrs. Mr. DOMENICI (when his name DRAKE, Messrs. FOSTER, HILL, and was called). I am paired on this ques- ISRAEL changed their votes from tion with the senior Senator from “nay” to “yea.” ENNEDY Massachusetts [Mr. K ]. If he So the bill was passed. were here, I should vote “yea.” CALL OF THE HOUSE [Roll No. 41] Mr. MURTHA. Ms. Speaker, I move Berman Baird Abercrombie a call of the House. Berry Baldwin Ackerman A call of the House was ordered. Bishop (GA) Barrow Allen The call was taken by electronic Bishop (NY) Bean Altmire device and the following Members re- Blumenauer Becerra Arcuri Boren Berkley Baca sponded to their names: [No reference will be made of the names of those not voting.] FORMS OF TITLES [Always in roman lowercase, fl the public 2 per centum bonds or ush and hang 1 em, if more than two lines.] cates, etc. certifi H.J. R . 2 ES Resolved by the Senate and House of Rep- Joint resolution authorizing the Sec- resentatives of the United States of America retary of the Treasury to issue to in Congress assembled, That the . . . chapter19.indd 382 chapter19.indd 382 2/4/09 3:40:55 PM 2/4/09 3:40:55 PM

397 Congressional Record 383 America in Congress assembled, That it H.R. 4487 shall be lawful for the Rock Island and A bill to authorize the Rock Island Southwestern Railway Company, a cor- and Southwestern Railway Com- poration organized under the general pany to construct a bridge, etc. incorporation, etc. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of ADDRESSES AND SIGNATURES M PEAKER : Having changed my [No line spacing, street addresses, or ZIP . S R EAR D □ Code numbers are to be used in communica- politics from Republican to Democrat, etc. tions in the Record.] With my best wishes. □ OF THE ECRETARY The Honorable the S □□□ Sincerely, . N □□ AV Y ELLAY INCENT J. D □ . V EAR ECRETARY R : This is in response M . S □ D —— to your letter, etc. U.S. S ENATE , □□□□□ □□□ Very sincerely yours, TEMPORE PRO RESIDENT □□□ ILL C LINTON . □ , P B —— □ Washington, DC, March 17, 2008. C □□□ , MO, OLUMBIA To the Senate: . □ January 17, 2008 Being temporarily absent from the □ S KELTON , KE Hon. I , a AUCUS AX B Senate, I appoint Hon. M ce Building, Cannon House Offi Senator from the State of Montana, to Washington, DC. perform the duties of the Chair during my □ The President’s farm message of today absence. . . . farmers and prevent the spread of this OBERT C. B YRD , □□□ R depression to every part of our country. President pro tempore □ . ARMERS F ISSOURI M , SSOCIATION A EINKEL President . , F.V. H DESIGNATION OF SPEAKER PRO —— TEMPORE 20, 2008. J ANUARY □ □ The SPEAKER pro tempore laid before OHN B. C ONNALLY , Jr., Hon. J the House the following communication The Secretary of the Treasury, Department from the Speaker: of the Treasury, Washington, DC. □□ ASHINGTON , DC, □□□ W . S R : Mindful of the tre- ECRETARY EAR M □ D □ June 17, 2008. mendous workload, etc. ICK I hereby appoint the Honorable R □ I would appreciate your comment on the ARSEN to act as Speaker pro tempore on L foregoing proposal. this day. Your proposal seems to be in the best in- , ANCY ELOSI □□□ P N terest of all concerned. Speaker of the House of Representatives . □ Sincerely yours, □□□ —— OHN P. S □□□ , ARBANES J I HE T □□ U NTERNATIONAL NION OF U NITED □□□ Member of Congress . □ , C EREAL , S OFT □□□ REWERY , F LOUR B □□□ —— ORKERS ISTILLERY & D RINKS □□□ OF W □□□ D □□□ , MN, LEXANDRIA A , MERICA □□□ A November 10, 2008. □ □ Cincinnati, OH, March 25, 2007. MY , LOBUCHAR K Hon. A To the Senate of the United States. Senate Offi ce Building, To the United States House of Representa- Washington, DC. □□ tives. We oppose the nomination of Joh n Smith □ : April 7, 2007, being the IRS S ONORABLE H □ for Secretary of Agriculture because he re- 60th anniversary of the modifi cation, etc. sists family farms. AY MON D W AGNER . □ R [Two to eight independent signatures, with RANDON , MN. B □ or without titles, are aligned on the left.] —— To the Honorable Senate and House of ANUARY 17, 1972. J □ Representatives of the United States of □□ Re resignation from committee. □□ America Now Assembled at Washington, , LBERT A ARL Hon. C □□ DC: The Speaker, U.S. House of Representa- □ The undersigned, offi cers of the Navy of tives, U.S. Capitol, Washington, DC. □□ the United States, respectfully show unto chapter19.indd 383 chapter19.indd 383 2/4/09 3:40:56 PM 2/4/09 3:40:56 PM

398 384 Chapter 19 your honorable bodies the following infor- thia Asplund, James Pedersen, mation, etc. George Doty, Thomas St. Martin; AMES . REEN G. G J Joan O’Neill; Lloyd Moosebrugger; OUTHERLAND . W.H. S Sam Kaplan; Ronald Nemer; Dean ARRISON . H HOMAS T LETCHER . F. F. F Potter; Philip Archer; Thomas . W OBERT HELAN R McDonough; Mrs. Lloyd Moosebrug- . ILSON C.C. W ger; Minnesota Young Democratic —— Civil Rights Committee. Respectfully submitted, □ F. F ARL , ELLER K —— □ International President. , OHN S □□□□□ MITH J R HOMAS , USCH T □□□ Lieutenant Governor □ Director of Organization. □ (For the Governor of Maine). RTHUR G ILDEA , A —— □ Secretary-Treasurer. T EXTILE T EXARKANA , RADY OSEPH E. B J & ERCHANTS M □ Director of Legislation. ANUFACTURERS ’ M [More than eight signatures, with or with- SSOCIATION , A out titles, are set full measure, caps and OHN L. J ONES , J lowercase, run in, indented 2 and 3 ems, as Secretary. follows:] Gene H. Rosenblum, Cochairman; Paul H. Ray, Cochairman; Cyn- CREDITS [From the Wall Street Journal, Since the program became public in 2006, Oct. 31, 2007] Congress has been asserting appropriate oversight. Few of those who learned the S URVEILLANCE ANITY S details of the program have criticized its (By Benjamin Civiletti, Dick Thornburgh necessity. Instead, critics argued that if and William Webster) the president found FISA inadequate, he Following the terrorist attacks of Sept. should have gone to Congress and gotten 11, 2001, President Bush authorized the the changes necessary to allow the pro- National Security Agency to target al gram to proceed under court orders. That Qaeda communications into and out of process is now underway. The administra- the country. Mr. Bush concluded that this tion has brought the program under FISA, was essential for protecting the coun- and the Senate Intelligence Committee try, that using the Foreign Intelligence recently reported out a bill with a strong Surveillance Act would not permit the bipartisan majority of 13–2, that would necessary speed and agility, and that he make the changes to FISA needed for had the constitutional power to authorize the program to continue. This bill is now such surveillance without court orders to being considered by the Senate Judiciary defend the country. Committee. POETRY [If poetry is quoted, each stanza should start rst, and And then when Cooney died at fi with quotation marks, but only the last stanza Barrows did the same, should end with them. The lines of the poem A pall-like silence fell upon the patrons of should align on the left, those that rhyme tak- the game. ush left; ing the same indention. Poems are fl A straggling few got up to go in deep overs 3 ems; 2 points of space between stan- despair. zas, and 2 points of space above and below.] The rest clung to that hope which springs AT B THE ASEY AT C eternal in the human breast; They thought, if only Casey could get but a The outlook wasn’t brilliant for the whack at that— Mudville nine that day: We’d put up even money now, with Casey at The score stood four to two, with but one the bat. inning more to play. chapter19.indd 384 chapter19.indd 384 2/4/09 3:40:56 PM 2/4/09 3:40:56 PM

399 385 Congressional Record But Flynn preceded Casey, as did also Close by the sturdy batsman the ball Jimmy Blake, unheeded sped— And the former was a hoodoo and the latter “That ain’t my style,” said Casey. “Strike was a cake; one,” the umpire said. So upon that stricken multitude grim mel- From the benches, black with people, there ancholy sat, went up a muffl ed roar, For there seemed but little chance of Like the beating of the storm-waves on a Casey’s getting to the bat. stern and distant shore. But Flynn let drive a single, to the wonder- “Kill him! Kill the umpire!” shouted some- ment of all, one on the stand; And Blake, the much despised, tore the And it’s likely they’d a-killed him had not cover off the ball; Casey raised his hand. And when the dust had lifted, and the men With a smile of Christian charity great saw what had occurred, Casey’s visage shone; There was Jimmy safe at second and Flynn He stilled the rising tumult; he bade the a-hugging third. game go on; ve thousand throats and more Then from fi He signaled to the pitcher, and once more there rose a lusty yell; the dun sphere fl ew; It rumbled through the valley, it rattled in But Casey still ignored it, and the umpire the dell; said, “Strike two.” It pounded on the mountain and recoiled “Fraud!” cried the maddened thousands, upon the fl at, and echo answered fraud; For Casey, mighty Casey, was advancing But one scornful look from Casey and the to the bat. audience was awed. There was ease in Casey’s manner as he They saw his face grow stern and cold, they stepped into his place; saw his muscles strain, There was pride in Casey’s bearing and a And they knew that Casey wouldn’t let smile lit Casey’s face. that ball go by again. And when, responding to the cheers, he The sneer is gone from Casey’s lip, his teeth lightly doffed his hat, are clenched in hate; No stranger in the crowd could doubt ’twas He pounds with cruel violence his bat upon Casey at the bat. the plate. Ten thousand eyes were on him as he And now the pitcher holds the ball, and rubbed his hands with dirt; now he lets it go, Five thousand tongues applauded when he And now the air is shattered by the force of wiped them on his shirt. Casey’s blow. Then while the writhing pitcher ground Oh, somewhere in this favored land the sun the ball into his hip, is shining bright; Defi ance gleamed in Casey’s eye, a sneer The band is playing somewhere, and some- curled Casey’s lip. where hearts are light, And now the leather-covered sphere came And somewhere men are laughing, and hurtling through the air, somewhere children shout; And Casey stood a-watching it in haughty But there is no joy in Mudville—mighty grandeur there. Casey has struck out. —Ernest Lawrence Thayer. EXTRACTS [Extracts must be set in 7 point unless or- We have been extremely open and trans- parent. We have had a very thorough review dered otherwise by the Joint Committee on of what we’re doing. We’ve got it nailed. Printing. This does not refer to a casual quo- tation of a few words or a quotation that would A week later, she told the House not make more than 3 lines of 7-point type. on Subcommittee Ap pro priations The beginning of the 7-point extract must Defense: start with a true paragraph; 8-point type fol- lowing is always a paragraph.] The Air Force followed a carefully structured source selection process,— On February 29, Sue Payton, who is the Air Force’s Assistant Secretary They what? for Acquisition, said at a DOD news designed to provide transparency, main tain integrity, and ensure a fair competition. ng: briefi chapter19.indd 385 chapter19.indd 385 2/4/09 3:40:57 PM 2/4/09 3:40:57 PM

400 386 Chapter 19 [Note, as above, that following an excerpt, And throughout the last 4 months, the 8 point must begin with a paragraph.] Air Force offi cials have insisted that [An address of the President delivered out- they selected the cheapest plane that side of Congress or referred to as an extract best met their criteria and that they will be set in 7 point.] made no mistakes. SCHEME OF TEXT HEADINGS [In 8-point, heads are 8-point caps. After the cap head, all sub heads are 7-point small HEADS USED IN EXTENSIONS OF caps, regardless of any perceived hierarchy. REMARKS [In 7-point, the progression is as follows (in descending order): 7-point caps and small caps. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 7-point small caps. AUTHORIZATION ACT, 2000 7-point italic lowercase. 7-point roman caps and lowercase. ——— 7-point roman lowercase.] OF SPEECH HON. JOHN CONYERS, JR. USE OF DOUBLE HEADS MICHIGAN OF THE This is something which has been IN HOUSE REPRESENTATIVES OF entirely overlooked by the . . . Wednesday, February 3, 1999 PROVISIONS OF THE ANALYSIS OF SPECIFIC The House in Committee of the Whole COMMITTEE BILL House on the State of the Union had under INTERSTATE CHANGING THE AMENDMENTS consideration the bill (H.R. 1401) to autho- PROVISIONS ACE COMMERCE OF THE scal year 2000 for rize appropriations for fi the Armed Forces . . . As the law stands today, it applies “ Speech of [The words are to be used only ” only to an employee who . . . when on manuscript and is an indication that that particular Extension of Remarks is to be inserted in the proceedings of the bound EXECUTIVE PROGRAM Record of the date used in the heading.] ——— ESTATE TA X CONVENTION W ITH MISSING CHILDREN CANADA ——— HON. ORRIN G. HATCH AMENDMENTS SUBMITTED UTAH OF ——— IN STATES OF THE SENATE UNITED THE RECIPROCAL TRADE Wednesday, February 3, 1999 AGREEMENTS Mr. HATCH. Mr. President, I rise before this ——— distinguished assembly to focus additional SPECTER AMENDMENT NO. 1194 attention on the tragedy of missing chil- dren. The Department of Health and Human Services has estimated that approximately 1.3 million children disappear each year. A signifi cant number do not leave of their own accord . . . . chapter19.indd 386 chapter19.indd 386 2/4/09 3:40:57 PM 2/4/09 3:40:57 PM

401 Congressional Record 387 CONGRESSIONAL PROCEEDINGS SENATE T UESDAY , J ULY 15, 2008 1 (Legislative day of Monday, July 14, 2008) I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the The Senate met at 9:30 a.m., on United States of America, and to the the expiration of the recess, and Republic for which it stands, one nation was called to order by the Honorable under God, indivisible, with liberty and S W HITEHOUSE , a Senator from HELDON justice for all. the State of Rhode Island. [Above line to be used only when Senate had APPOINTMENT OF ACTING been in recess.] PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE The Senate met at 9:30 a.m., and was called to order by the Honorable The PRESIDING OFFICER. The ARDIN ENJAMIN L. C , a Senator from clerk will please read a communica- B the State of Maryland. tion to the Senate from the President pro tempore (Mr. B YRD ). [Note.—Entire prayer set in 8 point.] The legislative clerk read the fol- ——— lowing letter: PRAYER , ENATE U.S. S The Chaplain, Dr. Barry C. Black, RESIDENT PRO , TEMPORE P offered the following prayer: Washington, DC, June 11, 2008. Let us pray. To the Senate: Under the provisions of rule I, section 3, of Our Father in heaven, we thank You the Standing Rules of the Senate, I hereby for the beautiful differences in the ENJAMIN L. C ARDIN , appoint the Honorable B human family, for its varied shapes a Senator from the State of Maryland, to and sizes, its features and colors, its perform the duties of the Chair. , C. B OBERT YRD R abilities and talents. Deliver us from President pro tempore. the forces that would destroy our Mr. CARDIN thereupon assumed unity by eliminating our diversity. the chair as Acting President pro Bless the Members of this body. Help tempore. them in their debates to distinguish between substance and semantics, between rhetoric and reality. Free RECOGNITION OF THE MAJORITY them from personal and partisan pre- LEADER occupations that would defeat their The ACTING PRESIDENT pro aspirations and deprive Americans of tempore. The majority leader is just and equitable solutions. May our recognized. lawmakers avoid the works of dark- ness and put on Your armor of light. We pray in Your holy Name. Amen. SCHEDULE Mr. REID. Mr. President, follow- ing my remarks and those of Senator PLEDGE OF ALLEGIANCE M C C ONNELL , there will be a period of The Honorable B led ENJAMIN L. C ARDIN morning business for 1 hour, with the Pledge of Allegiance, as follows: Senators permitted to speak therein 1 for up to 10 minutes each. The major- To be used only when the Senate had rst 30 minutes; ity will control the fi been in recess. chapter19.indd 387 chapter19.indd 387 2/4/09 3:40:57 PM 2/4/09 3:40:57 PM

402 388 Chapter 19 the Republicans will control the sec- The PRESIDING OFFICER. Morn- ond 30 minutes. ing business is now closed. Following morning business, the Senate will resume consideration of CONSUMER-FIRST ENERGY ACT the motion to proceed to S. 3044, the OF 2008 —MOTION TO PROCEED Consumer-First Energy Act. The The PRESIDING OFFICER. Under fi rst 4 hours of debate will be equally the previous order, the Senate will divided and controlled in 30-minute resume consideration of the motion alternating blocks of time, with the to proceed to S. 3044, which the clerk rst 30 min- majority controlling the fi will report. utes and Republicans controlling the The legislative clerk read as next 30 minutes. follows: Upon conclusion of the controlled Motion to proceed to S. 3044, a bill to time, Senators will be permitted to provide energy price relief and hold oil speak for up to 10 minutes each. companies and other entities accountable As a reminder, yesterday, I fi led for their actions with regard to high en- cloture on the motion to proceed to ergy prices, and for other purposes. S. 3101, the Medicare Improvements The PRESIDING OFFICER. The for Patients and Providers Act. That Senator from Maryland is recog- cloture vote will occur tomorrow nized. morning. Mr. CARDIN. Mr. President, I take this time on behalf of Marylanders who are worried. They are worried RESERVATION OF LEADER TIME because of the high cost of energy. The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- They . . . pore. Under the previous order, the leadership time is reserved. CONSUMER-FIRST ENERGY ACT OF 2008—MOTION TO PROCEED— MORNING BUSINESS Continued The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem- [Note the use of bullets signifying that pore. Under the previous order, the which was not spoken on the fl oor.] Senate will proceed to a period of morning business for up to 1 hour, with Senators permitted to speak therein ADDITIONAL STATEMENTS for up to 10 minutes each, with the ——— time equally divided and controlled CONGRATULATING MS. BAILEE between the two leaders or their CARROLL MAYFIELD designees, with the majority control- Mr. BUNNING. Mr. President, ● rst half and the Republicans ling the fi today I congratulate Ms. Bailee controlling the fi nal half. eld on receiving the Carroll Mayfi American Veterans, AMVETS, schol- Mr. CARDIN. Mr. President, I ask arship award. The AMVETS National unanimous consent that the order for Scholarship Committee has awarded the quorum call be rescinded. eld a $4,000 scholarship Ms. Mayfi The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- after competing successfully against out objection, it is so ordered. nearly 200 applicants. AMVETS eld as an has recognized Ms. Mayfi outstanding high school senior exhib- CONCLUSION OF MORNING iting academic excellence, promise BUSINESS and merit. chapter19.indd 388 chapter19.indd 388 2/4/09 3:40:58 PM 2/4/09 3:40:58 PM

403 389 Congressional Record The AMVETS organization awards ing report; which was referred to the only six scholarships per year. Each Committee on Banking, Housing, and scholarship is awarded to a high Urban Affairs: school senior who is the child or To the Congress of the United States: grandchild of a United States vet- Pursuant to the International eran, and is seeking a postsecondary Emergency Economic Powers Act, eld plans to education. Ms. Mayfi .) as amended (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq utilize her scholarship at Eastern (IEEPA), I hereby report that I have Kentucky University to pursue a ca- issued an Executive Order continu- reer in psychology. ing certain restrictions on North eld has proven herself to Ms. Mayfi Korea and North Korean nationals be an exemplary student, rightfully imposed pursuant to the exercise of receiving the AMVETS Scholarship authorities under the Trading With Award. She is an inspiration to the et seq .) the Enemy Act (50 U.S.C. App. 1 citizens of Kentucky and to students (TWEA). . . . everywhere. I look forward to seeing I am enclosing a copy of the all that she will accomplish in the Executive Order and proclamation I ● future. have issued. . USH W. B EORGE G HITE W HE T H . June 26, 2008 , OUSE MESSAGES FROM THE [The above to be 8 point.] PRESIDENT [When communications from the President Messages from the President of the contain extracts, etc., such extracts must be United States were communicated to in 7 point.] the Senate by Mr. Thomas, one of his secretaries. MESSAGES FROM THE HOUSE At 12:49 p.m., a message from the EXECUTIVE MESSAGES House of Representatives, deliv- REFERRED ered by Mrs. Cole, one of its reading As in executive session the clerks, announced that the House has Presiding Offi cer laid before the agreed to the following concurrent Senate messages from the President resolution, in which it requests the of the United States submitting sun- concurrence of the Senate: dry nominations which were referred H. Con. Res. 377. Concurrent resolution to the appropriate committees. authorizing the use of the rotunda of the (The nominations received today Capitol for a ceremony commemorating the 60th Anniversary of the beginning are printed at the end of the Senate of the integration of the United States proceedings.) Armed Forces. REPORT ON THE ISSUANCE OF AN ENROLLED BILLS SIGNED EXECUTIVE ORDER CONTINU- At 1:09 p.m., a message from the ING CERTAIN RESTRICTIONS House of Representatives, delivered ON NORTH KOREA AND NORTH by Mrs. Cole, one of its reading clerks, KOREAN NATIONALS IMPOSED announced that the Speaker has UNDER THE TRADING WITH THE signed the following enrolled bills: ENEMY ACT—PM 55 H.R. 6040. An act to amend the Water The PRESIDING OFFICER laid Resources Development Act of 2007 to clarify the authority of the Secretary of before the Senate the following mes- the Army to provide reimbursement for sage from the President of the United travel expenses incurred by members of States, together with an accompany- the Committee on Levee Safety. chapter19.indd 389 chapter19.indd 389 2/4/09 3:40:58 PM 2/4/09 3:40:58 PM

404 390 Chapter 19 H.R. 6327. An act to amend the Internal H.R. 3546. An act to authorize the Edward Byrne Memorial Justice Assistance Grant Revenue Code of 1986 to extend the funding Program at fi scal year 2006 levels through and expenditure authority of the Airport 2012. and Airway Trust Fund, and for other purposes. The enrolled bills were subsequently MEASURES READ THE FIRST signed by the President pro tempore TIME ). YRD (Mr. B The following bills were read the —— fi rst time: At 8:19 p.m., a message from the H.R. 3195. An act to restore the intent House of Representatives, delivered and protections of the Americans with by Ms. Niland, one of its reading Disabilities Act of 1990. clerks, announced that the House has S. 3202. A bill to address record high gas passed the following bill, in which prices at the pump, and for other purposes. it requests the concurrence of the Senate: ENROLLED BILL PRESENTED H.R. 6377. An act to direct the Commodity The Secretary of the Senate re- Futures Trading Commission to utilize all its authority, including its emergency ported that on today, June 26, 2008, powers, to curb immediately the role of she had presented to the President of excessive speculation in any contract the United States the following en- market within the jurisdiction and con- rolled bill: trol of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, on or through which en- S. 3180. An act to temporarily extend the ergy futures or swaps are traded, and to programs under the Higher Education Act eliminate excessive speculation, price of 1965. uctu- distortion, sudden or unreasonable fl ations or unwarranted changes in prices, or other unlawful activity that is causing EXECUTIVE AND OTHER major market disturbances that prevent COMMUNICATIONS ecting the the market from accurately refl forces of supply and demand for energy The following communications commodities. were laid before the Senate, together with accompanying papers, reports, and documents, and were referred as MEASURES REFERRED indicated: The following bills were read EC – 6746. A communication from the the fi rst and the second times by Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, unanimous consent, and referred as Technology and Logistics), transmitting, indicated: pursuant to law, an annual report relative to the conduct of the Defense Acquisition H.R. 6275. An act to amend the Internal Challenge Program for fi scal year 2007; to Revenue Code of 1986 to provide individu- the Committee on Armed Services. als temporary relief from the alternative minimum tax, and for other purposes; to the Committee on Finance. REPORT ON CLASSIFIED H.R. 6358. An act to require certain standards and enforcement provisions to INFORMATION (S. DOC. NO. 107) prevent child abuse and neglect in resi- Mr. WARNER. Mr. President, the dential programs, and for other purposes; Committee on Armed Services of to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. the Senate has recently requested the Offi ce of Public Relations of the Department of the Navy to submit MEASURES PLACED ON THE to it a report on classifi ed informa- CALENDAR tion. The Department of the Navy has The following bill was read the fi rst complied with the request, and I now and second times by unanimous con- present the report and ask that it be sent, and placed on the calendar: published as a Senate document. chapter19.indd 390 chapter19.indd 390 2/4/09 3:40:59 PM 2/4/09 3:40:59 PM

405 Congressional Record 391 Commission only those lands situated on The VICE PRESIDENT. Without the island of Molokaki, etc. objection, the report will be printed The Amendment was agreed to. as a document as requested by the The bill was ordered to be engrossed Senator from Virginia. for a third reading, read the third [Note the insertion of S. Doc. No. — in cases time, and passed. where papers are ordered to be printed as a Forms of amendments d o c u m e n t . To b e i n s e r t e d o n l y w h e n o r d e r e d t o be printed or its equivalent is in manuscript.] The joint resolution (S.J. Res. 4) re- questing the President to negotiate a treaty or treaties for the protec- Third reading and passage of a bill. tion of salmon in retrain parts of the MISSOURI RIVER BRIDGE NEAR c Ocean was announced as next Pacifi ST. CHARLES, MO in order. The bill (S. 4174) to extend the times Mr. INOUYE. Mr. President, I have for commencing and completing the just had an opportunity to exam- construction of a bridge across the ine this joint resolution. I offer this Missouri River at or near St. Charles, amendment. MO, was considered, ordered to be en- The PRESIDING OFFICER. The grossed for a third reading, read the Secretary will state the amendment third time, and passed, as follows: offered by the Senator from Arizona. S. 4174 EADING C LERK . O n p a g e 1, l i n e 1 1, The R Be it enacted by the Senate and House it is proposed to strike out the words of Representatives of the United States of “both within and”, so as to make the America in Congress assembled, That the joint resolution read: times for commencing and completing the construction of the bridge across the Missouri Resolved by the Senate and House of River, etc. Representatives of the United States of , That the America in Congress assembled President of the United States be, and he is GOVERNMENT OF THE hereby, requested to negotiate on behalf of the United States, as promptly as is prac- TERRITORY OF HAWAII ticable, etc. The Senate proceeded to consider Mr. REID. Mr. President, I observe in the bill (S. 1881) to amend an act enti- the report of the bill by the chairman tled “An act to provide a government of the Foreign Relations Committee for the Territory of Hawaii,” approved that it is reported as a Senate joint April 30, 1900, as amended, to estab- cation of resolution. I ask for a modifi lish a Hawaiian Homes Commission, it s o t h at it w i l l b e a S en at e r e s olut ion and for other purposes, which had instead of a Senate joint resolution. been reported from the Committee C The L EGISLATIVE LERK . It is proposed on Interior and Insular Affairs with to strike out “S.J. Res. 4” and insert amendments. “S. Res. 85”. rst amendment was, on page 4 The fi The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is line 22, to strike out “Keaaupaha” and there objection to the modifi cation? insert “Keaaukaha”. The Chair hears one and it will be so The amendment was agreed to. modifi ed. The next amendment was, on page 6, Mr. INOUYE. Would it not be neces- gure “(1)”, to insert line 19, after the fi sary to change the resolving clause “by further authorization of Congress also? The resolving clause reads: and”, so as to make the paragraph Resolved by the Senate and House of read: Representatives of the United States of (1) by further authorization of Congress America in Congress assembled, and for a period of fi ve years after the The amendment was agreed to. fi rst meeting of the Hawaiian Homes chapter19.indd 391 chapter19.indd 391 2/4/09 3:40:59 PM 2/4/09 3:40:59 PM

406 392 Chapter 19 [Note use of words, fi gures, and punctuation States, together with accompany- in the following example. Follow manuscript.] ing report; which was referred to the The next amendment was, on Committee on the Judiciary. page 34, in line 9, under the head- To the Congress of the United States: ing “Employees’ Compensation I am pleased to transmit the 2003 National Drug Control Strategy, con- Com mission”, before the word “as- ce of National Drug sistent with the Offi sistants”, to strike out “fi ve” and Control Policy Reauthorization Act of 1998 insert “three”; in line 10, after the (12 U.S.C. 1705). word “clerks” and before the words “of A critical component of our Strategy is to teach young people . . . class 3”, to strike out “seven” and in- USH . W. B □ EORGE G ve”; in line 11, before the words sert “fi HE , HITE W H OUSE February 12, 2003. T “of class 2”, to strike out “twelve” and ——— insert “nine”; in the same line, before the words “of class 1”, to strike out To the Senate of the United States: To the end that I may receive the advice “twenty-seven” and insert “twenty”; and consent of the Senate to ratifi cation, I in line 12, before the words “at $1.000 transmit herewith a treaty of arbitration each”, to strike out “three” and in- and conciliation between the United States sert “two”; and in line 18, to str ike out and Switzerland, signed at Washington on March 17, 1952. “$124,940” and insert “$102,590”, so as . □ RUMAN ARRY S. T H to read: OUSE HITE H March 17, 1952 . HE W , T EMPLOYEE ’ S COMPENSATION COMMISSION [A letter from the President to the Senate Salaries: Three Commissioners at $4,000 is set in 7-point type when any form of treaty each; secretary, $ 2,750; attorney, $4,000; is encloses that is to be printed in the Record chief statistician, $ 3,000; chief of ac- in connection therewith. The letter is set in counts, $ 2,500; accountant, $ 2,250; claim 7-point type whether the treaty follows or examiners—chief $ 2,250, assistant $ 2,000, precedes it or separated from it by interven- assistant $1,800, three assistants at $1,600 ing matter.] each; special agents—two at $1,800 each, ve of class 3, two at $1,600 each; clerks—fi nine of class 2, twenty of class 1, two at $1,000 each; in all $102,590. RECESS UNTIL TOMORROW AT Mr. BAYH submitted an amendment 10:30 A.M. intended to be proposed by him to the Mr. REID. Mr. President, I know of sundry civil appropriation bill, which no further business to come before was ordered to lie on the table and to the Senate. I move, in accordance be printed, as follows: with the order previously entered, “That Add a new section, as follows: that the Senate stand in recess until the President of the Senate appoint three the hour of 10:30 a.m. tomorrow. Members of the Senate; and the Speaker of The motion was agreed to and, at the House three Members of the House.” 7:34 p.m., the Senate recessed until The Senate resumed the consider- Wednesday, June 18, 2008, at 10:30 ation of the bill (H.R. 4075) to limit a.m. the immigration of aliens into the United States. [After the recess or adjournment the follow- ing may appear:] [An executive session usually being open, the following precedes the recess or adjourn- NOMINATIONS ment heading:] Executive Nominations received by NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL the Senate. STRATEGY FOR 2003 —PM 15 [Under the heads Nominations, Con- The PRESIDING OFFICER laid , Rejection and fi rmations, Withdrawal, before the Senate the following mes- the following scheme for subheads is to be sage from the President of the United followed: chapter19.indd 392 chapter19.indd 392 2/4/09 3:40:59 PM 2/4/09 3:40:59 PM

407 393 Congressional Record [Heads indicating service, or branch or DEPARTMENT OF LABOR BRENT R. OLSON, JR. OF VIRGINIA, TO BE AN ASSIS- department of Government and subheads indi- TANT SECRETARY OF LABOR, VICE EMILY STOVER cating subdivision or type of service—7-point DEROCCO. small caps.] ARMY THE IN [Subheads indicating new rank of appoin- THE FOLLOWING NAMED OFFICERS FOR APPOINT- tee—7-point italic initial cap. MENT TO THE GRADE INDICATED IN THE RESERVE OF [Text is set in 5 point caps. THE ARMY UNDER TITLE 10, U.S.C., SECTION 12203: [Note: Nominations will be set fi rst name, To be colonel middle name (or fi rst middle initial), and KENNETH L. BEALE, JR. last name throughout followed by period. THOMAS H. NROUILLARD Asterisks, if any, precede names as in execu- tive nominations.] Executive nominations received by CONFIRMATIONS the Senate: AND NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES STATE DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION SCIENCE RICHARD G OLSON, JR., OF NEW MEXICO, A CAREER MEMBER OF THE SENIOR FOREIGN SERVICE, CLASS OF HAROLD C. CROTTY, OF MICHIGAN, TO BE A MEMBER OF THE NATIONAL COMMISSION. COUNSELOR, TO BE AMBASSADOR EXTRAORDINARY AND PLENIPOTENTIARY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA TO THE UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC. chapter19.indd 393 chapter19.indd 393 2/4/09 3:41:00 PM 2/4/09 3:41:00 PM

408 394 Chapter 19 HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 9, 2008 EPTEMBER , S UESDAY T [When the Speaker is in the Chair, follow DESIGNATION OF SPEAKER PRO this style.] TEMPORE The House met at 9:30 a.m. The SPEAKER pro tempore laid The Chaplain, the Reverend Daniel before the House the following com- P. Coughlin, offered the following munication from the Speaker: prayer: ASHINGTON W , DC, Water, not only the essential plan- June 17, 2008. ICK etary element, O Lord, water itself I hereby appoint the Honorable R ARSEN to act as Speaker pro tempore on L ushers in new human life. For Your this day. people of covenant, both old and new, P , ANCY ELOSI N the symbol of water is complex, never Speaker of the House of Representatives. stable, always fresh and beautiful, sometimes fearful and tragic. 1 PRAYER As the Spring of Salvation, we call upon Your Holy Name to calm the The Chaplain, the Reverend Daniel waters of anxiety in mid-America. P. Coughlin, offered the following Enable Your people to cross these prayer: present waters of disaster and bring O God, who rules all the world from them to Your promised land of fruit- everlasting to everlasting, during the ful plenty. time given them, help this Congress In the book of Joshua, water upon to set a great agenda for this Nation the fl eece is Joshua’s own test of and its future. Grasping a sense of the Your presence in the midst of trou- urgent needs of Your people, may this ble; later the way his people take week provide a sense of priorities. water unto themselves becomes their May the desires of the common good measurement. overshadow particular concerns and End this waterboarding of America’s personal preferences. fi elds and rural towns even if we can Inspire each Member to draw upon ne torture ourselves. By no longer defi his or her best instinct and highest the wellspring of Your Spirit, mix all ideal so true goodness overcomes our human endeavors with our natu- every evil and determined work whit- ral resources in such an outstanding tles away at every problem, until this victory that believers and unbeliev- great Nation becomes Your living ers alike will be touched again as in glory for all the world to see. Joshua’s day and acclaim: “Their Show us the way, fi ll us with life, hearts melted and became as water!” and let truth reign, both now and for- This is our prayer now and forever. ever. Amen. Amen. [When the Speaker is not in the Chair, fol- THE JOURNAL low this style.] The SPEAKER pro tempore. The The House met at 12:30 and was Chair has examined the Journal of called to order by the Speaker pro the last day’s proceedings and an- tempore (Mr. L ARSEN of Washington). nounces to the House his approval thereof. 1 Pursuant to clause 1, rule I, the Head is not used when the Speaker is in Journal stands approved. the chair. See preceding example. chapter19.indd 394 chapter19.indd 394 2/4/09 3:41:00 PM 2/4/09 3:41:00 PM

409 Congressional Record 395 WELCOMING THE HONORABLE PLEDGE OF ALLEGIANCE DONNA EDWARDS TO THE HOUSE The SPEAKER pro tempore. Will the OF REPRESENTATIVES ) OSWELL gentleman from Iowa (Mr. B come forward and lead the House in [Welcoming speeches follow.] the Pledge of Allegiance. [Initial speech of new Representa- Mr. BOSWELL led the Pledge of tive follows.] Allegiance as follows: I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the ANNOUNCEMENT BY THE United States of America, and to the SPEAKER Republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and The SPEAKER. Under clause 5(d) justice for all. of rule XX, the Chair announces to the House that, in light of the admin- istration of the oath of offi ce to the SWEARING IN OF THE HONOR- gentlewoman from Maryland (Mrs. ABLE DONNA EDWARDS, OF E DWARDS ), the whole number of the MARYLAND, AS A MEMBER OF House is 435. THE HOUSE Mr. HOYER. Madam Speaker, I ask OATH OF OFFICE OF MEMBERS unanimous consent that the gentle- woman from Maryland, the Honorable ce required by the The oath of offi DWARDS ONNA D E , be permitted to take sixth article of the Constitution of the oath of offi ce today. the United States, and as provided Her certifi cate of election has not by section 2 of the act of May 13, 1884 arrived, but there is no contest and no (23 Stat. 22), to be administered to question has been raised with regard Members, Resident Commissioner, to her election. and Delegates or the House of The SPEAKER. Is there objection Representatives, the text of which is to the request of the gentleman from carried in 5 U.S.C. 3331: Maryland? “I, AB, do solemnly swear (or There was no objection. rm) that I will support and de- affi The SPEAKER. Will Representa- fend the Constitution of the united and the members DWARDS tive-elect E States against all enemies, for- of the Maryland delegation present eign and domestic; that you will themselves in the well. bear true faith and allegiance to Ms. E of Maryland appeared DWARDS the same; that you take this obli- at the bar of the house and took the gation freely, without and mental oath of offi ce, as follows: reservation or purpose of evasion; rm that you Do you solemnly swear or affi and that you will well and faith- will support and defend the Constitution fully discharge the duties of the of the United States against all enemies, offi ce on which you are about to foreign and domestic; that you will bear enter, so help you God. true faith and allegiance to the same; that you take this obligation freely, without has been subscribed to in person and and mental reservation or purpose of eva- fi led in duplicate with the Clerk of the sion; and that you will well and faithfully House of Representatives by the fol- ce on which discharge the duties of the offi you are about to enter, so help you God. lowing Member of the 110th Congress, pursuant to Public Law 412 of the 80th The SPEAKER. Congratulations. Congress entitled “An act to amend You are now a Member of the 110th section 30 of the Revised Statues of Congress. chapter19.indd 395 chapter19.indd 395 2/4/09 3:41:00 PM 2/4/09 3:41:00 PM

410 396 Chapter 19 H.R. 4140. An act to designate the Port the United States’’ (2 U.S.C. 25, ap- Angeles Federal Building in Port Angeles, proved February 18, 1948: Washington, as the “Richard B. Anderson ONNA D , 4th District of DWARDS F. E Federal Building”. Maryland H. Con. Res. 32. Concurrent resolution honoring the members of the United States Air Force who were killed in the June 25, 1996, terrorist bombing of the Khobar MESSAGE FROM THE SENATE Towers United States military housing A message from the Senate by compound near Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Ms. Curtis, one of its clerks, an- The message also announced that nounced that the Senate concurs in the Senate has passed bills of the the amendment of the House to the following titles in which the concur- bill (S. 2146) “An Act to authorize the rence of the House is requested: Administrator of the Environmental S. 2403. An act to designate the new Protection Agency to accept, as part Federal Courthouse, located in the 700 of a settlement, diesel emission reduc- block of East Broad Street, Richmond, Virginia, as the “Spottswood W. Robinson tion Supplemental Environmental III and Robert R. Merhige, Jr. Federal Projects, and for other purposes.” Courthouse”. [Above usage occurs when there is only one S. 2837. An act to designate the United bill referenced. For more than one bill, use the States courthouse located at 225 Cadman following style.] Plaza East, Brooklyn, New York, as the “Theodore Roosevelt United States Courthouse”. S. 3009. An act to designate the Federal MESSAGE FROM THE SENATE Bureau of Investigation building under A message from the Senate by Ms. construction in Omaha, Nebraska, as the “J. James Exon Federal Bureau of Curtis, one of its clerks, announced Investigation Building”. that the Senate has passed without S. 3145. An act to designate a portion amendment bills and a concurrent of United States Route 20A, located in resolution of the House of the follow- Orchard Park, New York, as the “Timothy J. Russert Highway”. ing titles: H.R. 430. An act to designate the United [Observe that bills from the Senate to the States bankruptcy courthouse located at House read . If the manuscript should An act 271 Cadman Plaza East in Brooklyn, New read A bill , change to An act in conformity York, as the “Conrad B. Duberstein United with this rule, and place number fi rst. Note States Bankruptcy Courthouse”. also the following forms:] H.R. 781. An act to redesignate Lock and Dam No. 5 of the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System near Redfi eld, FOOD, CONSERVATION, AND Arkansas, authorized by the Rivers and ENERGY ACT OF 2008 —VETO MES- Harbors Act approved July 24, 1946, as the SAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT OF “Colonel Charles D. Maynard Lock and Dam”. THE UNITED STATES (H. DOC. H.R. 1019. An act to designate the United NO. 110 –125) States customhouse building located at 31 Gonzalez Clemente Avenue in Mayagüez, The SPEAKER pro tempore laid Puerto Rico, as the “Rafael Martínez Nadal before the House the following veto United States Customhouse Building”. message from the President of the H.R. 2728. An act to designate the station United States: of the United States Border Patrol located at 25762 Madison Avenue in Murrieta, To the House of Representatives: California, as the “Theodore L. Newton, I am returning herewith without Jr. and George F. Azrak Border Patrol my approval H.R. 6124, the “Food, Station”. H.R. 3712. An act to designate the Conservation, and Energy Act of United States courthouse located at 1716 2008.” Spielbusch Avenue in Toledo, Ohio, as the The bill that I vetoed on May 21, 2008, “James M. Ashley and Thomas W.L. Ashley H.R. 2419, which became Public Law United States Courthouse”. chapter19.indd 396 chapter19.indd 396 2/4/09 3:41:00 PM 2/4/09 3:41:00 PM

411 397 Congressional Record 110 –234, did not include the title III 1 minute and to revise and extend his provisions that are in this bill. . . . remarks.) Mr. BOSWELL. Mr. Speaker, today For similar reasons, I am vetoing the bill before me today. I come to share with you that Iowa is in a lot of trouble. We have had exten- G W. B EORGE . USH oods, etc. sive fl H . T HE W HITE OUSE , June 18, 2008 The SPEAKER pro tempore. The objections of the President will be MRS. VIRGINIA THRIFT spread at large upon the Journal, and Mr. GOSS. Ms. Speaker, by direc- the veto message and the bill will be tion of the Committee on House printed as a House document. Administration, I offer a privileged The question is, Will the House, on resolution (H. Res. 321) and ask for its reconsideration, pass the bill, the immediate consideration. objections of the President to the con- The Clerk read as follows: trary notwithstanding? . 321 ES H. R The gentleman from Minnesota (Mr. Resolved , That there shall be paid out ETERSON P ) is recognized for 1 hour. of the contingent fund of the House to [Debate and vote follow.] Mrs. Virginia Thrift, widow of Chester R. Thrift, late an employee of the House, an amount equal to six months' salary com- pensation at the rate he was receiving at MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT the time of his death, and an additional A message in writing from the a m o u nt n ot t o e x c e e d $ 2 5 0 t o d e f r a y f u n e r a l expenses of the said Chester R. Thrift. President of the United States was The Resolution was agreed to. communicated to the House by Mr. A motion to reconsider was laid on Leomar, one of his secretaries, who also informed the House that on the the table. following dates the President ap- proved and signed bills and a joint BILLS PRESENTED TO THE resolution of the House of the follow- PRESIDENT ing titles: Ms. MATSUI, from the Committee On June 2, 1971: on Rules, reported that that com- H.R. 4209. An act to amend the Revised Organic Act of the Virgin Islands. mittee did on this day present to the On June 4, 1971: President, for his approval, bills of H.R. 5765, An act to extend for 6 months the House of the following titles: the time for fi ling the comprehen- H.R. 3331. An act for the relief of Harry sive report of the Commission on the L. Smith; and Organization of the Government of the H.R. 3366. An act to amend section 409 of District of Columbia; and the Interstate Commerce Act, relating to H.J. Res. 583. Joint resolution desig- joint rates of freight forwarders and com- nating the last full week in July of 1971 mon carriers by motor vehicle. as “National Star Route Mail Carriers Week.” [Observe that bills coming from the Presi- ENROLLED BILLS SIGNED . This rule must dent take the form of An act be followed invariably, even if the manuscript Ms. Lorraine C. Miller, Clerk of A bill reads .] the House, reported and found truly enrolled bills of the House of the fol- lowing titles, which were thereupon IOWANS UNITED IN TIME OF signed by the Speaker: TROUBLE H.R. 430. An act to designate the United (Mr. BOSWELL asked and was given States bankruptcy courthouse located at permission to address the House for 271 Cadman Plaza East in Brooklyn, New chapter19.indd 397 chapter19.indd 397 2/4/09 3:41:00 PM 2/4/09 3:41:00 PM

412 398 Chapter 19 York, as the “Conrad B. Duberstein United The amendment was agreed to. States Bankruptcy Courthouse”. On motion of Mr. S , a motion TEARNS H.R. 781. An act to redesignate Lock and to reconsider the vote by which the Dam No. 5 of the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas not bill was passed was laid on the [ eld, River Navigation System near Redfi Arkansas, authorized by the Rivers and upon] the table. Harbors Act approved July 24, 1946, as the “Colonel Charles D. Maynard Lock and Dam”. SENATE BILLS REFERRED H.R. 1019. An act to designate the United Bills of the Senate of the following States customhouse building located at 31 Gonzalez Clemente Avenue in Mayagüez, titles were taken from the Speaker's Puerto Rico, as the “Rafael Martinez Nadal table and, under the rule, referred as United States Customhouse Building”. follows: S. 2403. An act to designate the new Federal Courthouse, located in the 700 THE COMMON CALENDAR block of East Broad Street, Richmond, The SPEAKER. The Clerk will call Virginia, as the “Spottswood W. Robinson rst bill on the Private Calendar. the fi III and Robert R. Merhige, Jr. Federal Courthouse”; to the Committee on Trans- portation and Infrastructure. S. 2837. An act to designate the United JOHN SIMS States courthouse located at 225 Cadman The Clerk called the fi rst bill on the Plaza East, Brooklyn, New York, as Private Calendar, H.R. 399, for the re- the “Theodore Roosevelt United States Courthouse”; to the Committee on lief of John Sims. Transportation and Infrastructure. H.R. 399 S. 3009. An act to designate the Federal Be it enacted by the Senate and House Bureau of Investigation building under of Representatives of the United States of construction in Omaha, Nebraska, as America in Congress assembled, That the the “J. James Exon Federal Bureau of Secretary of the Treasury is authorized Investigation Building”; to the Committee and directed to pay to John Sims, Mobile, on Transportation and Infrastructure. Alabama, the sum of $ 5,000. S. 3145. An act to designate a portion of United States Route 20A, located in The SPEAKER. The gentleman Orchard Park, New York, as the “Timothy from Florida offers an amendment, J. Russert Highway”; to the Committee on which the Clerk will report. Transportation and Infrastructure. The Clerk read as follows: [In the reference of Senate acts to House : In line 4, TEARNS Amendment by Mr. S committees the name of the committee will after the word “pay”, add a comma and the be repeated after the act, though there may be following words: “out of any money in the several acts referred to the same committee.] Treasury not otherwise appropriated”. The SPEAKER. The question is on agreeing to the amendment. COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE HOUSE ON THE STATE OF THE UNION □ SAVING ENERGY THROUGH PUB- 140 8 LIC TRANSPORTATION ACT OF THE OF COMMITTEE THE IN WHOLE 2008 Accordingly, the House resolved it- self into the Committee of the Whole The SPEAKER pro tempore. Pursu- House on the State of the Union for the ant to House Resolution 1304 and rule consideration of the bill (H.R. 6052) to XVIII, the Chair declares the House promote increased public transporta- in the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union for the con- tion use, to promote increased use of sideration of the bill, H.R. 6052. alternative fuels in providing public chapter19.indd 398 chapter19.indd 398 2/4/09 3:41:00 PM 2/4/09 3:41:00 PM

413 Congressional Record 399 by the proponent and an opponent, transportation, and for other pur- shall not be subject to amendment, poses, with Ms. D G ETTE in the chair. E and shall not be subject to a demand The Clerk read the title of the bill. for division of the question. The CHAIRMAN. Pursuant to the rule, the bill is considered read the 1 . OBERSTAR AMENDMENT OFFERED NO BY MR . fi rst time. The CHAIRMAN. It is now in order The gentleman from Minnesota to consider amendment No. 1 printed ) and the gentleman (Mr. O BERSTAR in House Report 110 –734. ) each will con- ICA from Florida (Mr. M Mr. OBERSTAR. Madam Chairman, trol 30 minutes. I have an amendment at the desk. The Chair recognizes the gentle- The CHAIRMAN. The Clerk will man from Minnesota. designate the amendment. Mr. OBERSTAR. Madam Chairman, The text of the amendment is as I rise in support of H.R. 6052, the follows: Saving Energy Through Public Amendment No. 1 offered by Mr. O - BER Transportation Act of 2008. . . . : STAR Mr. MICA. Madam Chairman, I Page 3, after line 23, insert the fol- rise today in strong support of H.R. lowing: 6052, the “Saving Energy Through (9) Public transportation stakeholders should engage and involve local commu- Public Transportation Act of 2008”. nities in the education and promotion This bill promotes energy savings of the importance of utilizing public for all Americans by increasing pub- transportation. . . . lic transportation use in the United The CHAIRMAN. Pursuant to States. . . . House Resolution 1304, the gentleman The CHAIRMAN. All time for gen- BERSTAR from Minnesota (Mr. O ) and a eral debate has expired. Member opposed each will control 5 Pursuant to the rule, the bill shall minutes. be considered read for amendment The Chair recognizes the gentle- under the 5-minute rule. man from Minnesota. The text of the bill is as follows: Mr. OBERSTAR. I yield myself such H.R. 6052 time as I may consume. . . . Be it enacted by the Senate and House I yield back the balance of my time. of Representatives of the United States of Mr. OBERSTAR. I have no further America in Congress assembled, speakers on this amendment, and I SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE. yield back the balance of my time. This Act may be cited as the “Saving The CHAIRMAN. The question is on Energy Through Public Transportation Act of 2008”. the amendment offered by the gentle- SEC. 2. FINDINGS. ). man from Minnesota (Mr. O BERSTAR nds the following: Congress fi The amendment was agreed to. (1) In 2007, people in the United States The CHAIRMAN. There being no took more than 10.3 billion trips using pub- other amendments, under the rule, lic transportation, the highest level in 50 the Committee rises. years. . . . The CHAIRMAN. No amendment to Accordingly, the Committee rose; the bill shall be in order except those and the Speaker pro tempore (Mr. printed in House Report 110–734. Each ) having assumed the chair, Ms. OSS R G ETTE , Chairman of the Committee amendment may be offered only in D E of the Whole House on the State of the the order printed in the report, by Union, reported that that Committee, a Member designated in the report, shall be considered read, shall be de- having had under consideration the bill (H.R. 6052) to promote increased batable for the time specifi ed in the p ubl ic t r a n s p or t at ion u s e, t o p r omot e report, equally divided and controlled chapter19.indd 399 chapter19.indd 399 2/4/09 3:41:01 PM 2/4/09 3:41:01 PM

414 400 Chapter 19 increased use of alternative fuels in question is on the engrossment and providing public transportation, and third reading of the bill. for other purposes, pursuant to House The bill was ordered to be engrossed Resolution 1304, she reported the bill and read a third time, and was read back to the House with sundry amend- the third time. ments adopted by the Committee of The SPEAKER pro tempore. The question is on the passage of the bill. the Whole. The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under The question was taken; and the the rule, the previous question is Speaker pro tempore announced that the ayes appeared to have it. ordered. Is a separate vote demanded on (Voting occurs) any amendment reported from the So the bill was passed. The result of the vote was an- Committee of the Whole? If not, the nounced as above recorded. Chair will put them en gros. The amendments were agreed to. A motion to reconsider was laid on The SPEAKER pro tempore. The the table. CONFERENCE REPORT AND STATEMENT Conference reports and statements to be set in 7 point. er conference report and statement. Use 3-point space before and aft In the House the names of Members are to be fi rst. Amendments Follow manuscript literally in the report. Observe the form and, when the amendment is to make an independent numbered 1, 2, 3, etc., And the Senate [or House ] paragraph, the phrase will be a agree to the same paragraph by itself; otherwise it will be run in aft er the amendment with a semicolon. Examples of each are given in the report following. In the statement change numbered to No. , as amendment No. 1 , but do not supply amendment or No. if omitted in manuscript; otherwise regular style will prevail. R EPORT ONFERENCE EPT . 97–747) C (H. R numbered 20, 23, 25, 26, 28, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 46, 48, 54, 61, 678, 70, 77, 78, 79, 87, 99, 101, 14, The committee of conference on the dis- 10 5, 10 6, 110, 111, 12 5, 127, 134, 13 6, 13 9, 156, 157, agreeing votes of the two Houses on the 16 5, 167, 16 8, 170, 174, 175, a nd 176, a nd ag ree amendments of the Senate to the bill (H.R. to the same. 6863) making supplemental appropriations Amendment numbered 16: for the fi scal year ending September 30, That the House recede from its disagree- 1982, and for other purposes, having met, ment to the amendment of the Senate after full and free conference, have agreed numbered 16, and agree to the same with to recommend and do recommend to their an amendment, as follows: respective Houses as follows: In lieu of the sum proposed by said That the Senate recede from its amend- amendment insert $4,400,000 ; and the ments numbered 7, 9, 14, 31, 38, 39, 40, 52, 53, Senate agree to the same. 56, 75, 76, 80, 81, 94, 102, 109, 116, 118, 129, 133, Amendment numbered 27: 141, 142, 148, 152, 154, 155, 162 163, 164, 171, 173, That the House recede from its disagree- 179, and 181. ment to the amendment of the Senate That the House recede from its disagree- numbered 27, and agree to the same with ment to the amendments of the Senate an amendment, as follows:

415 Congressional Record 401 Committee on Agriculture: Solely for In lieu of the sum proposed by said consideration of title I of the House bill $53,700,000 ; and the amendment insert and title I of the Senate amendment: Senate agree to the same. G LA , OHN T. M YERS DE ARZA E J (except amendments 54 and , OLEY S. F HOMAS T R. B AV I D OWEN , 177), D RED , E. M ICHMOND ILLER R LARENCE , F C OUGHLIN C AW R E NC E W ILL , AMPLER , L B H. H TENY F INDLEY OYER , AU L S P EORGE M. O’B RIEN , (on all matters except G Managers on the Part of the House. as listed below), UMPERS B ALE , OM H AGEDORN T D NOUYE (on all matters except ANIEL K. I , D RNEST F. H , OLLINGS as listed below), E , ARKIN H OM T ICHARD H. B , RYAN R ENNETT J OHNSON , J. B Amendments , ON W YDEN R [As fi gures are used in bills to express sums , EAHY J. L ATRICK P of money, dates, paragraph numbers, etc., , EINSTEIN F IANNE D amendments involving such expressions must Managers on the Part of the Senate. be set in fi gures thus: Strike out “$840” and insert “$1,000”, etc. for other enumerations, J OINT THE OF E TATEMENT S XPLANATORY etc., follow the manuscript as the data is OMMITTEE OF C ONFERENCE C picked up from the bill and used for the Record The managers on the part of the House and then picked up from the Record and used and the Senate at the conference on the for the report.] disagreeing votes of the two Houses on the amendments of the Senate to the bill (H.R. 6863), making supplemental appropria- tions for the fi scal year 1982, rescinding EMANUEL F. LENKERSDORF certain budget authority, and for other The Clerk called the bill (H.R. purposes, submit the following joint 2520) for the relief of Emanuel F. statement to the House and the Senate in explanation of the effect of the action Lenkersdorf. agreed upon by the managers and recom- There being no objection, the Clerk mended in the accompanying conference read the bill as follows: report: H.R. 2520 TITLE I Be it enacted by the Senate and House CHAPTER I—DEPARTMENT OF of Representatives of the United States of AGRICULTURE , That for America in Congress assembled C S OIL ERVICE ONSERVATION S the purposes of the Immigration and OPERATIONS CONSERVATION Nationality Act, Emanuel F. Lenkersdorf Amendment No. 1: Reported in techni- shall be held and considered to have been cal disagreement. The managers on the lawfully admitted to the United States for part of the House will offer a motion to re- permanent residence as of the date of the cede and concur in the amendment of the enactment of this Act, upon payment of Senate which allows the Soil Conservation the required visa fee. Upon the granting Service to exchange a parcel of land in of permanent residence to such alien as Bellingham, Washington, for other land. provided for in this Act, the Secretary of In lieu of the matter inserted by said State shall instruct the proper offi cer to amendment, insert the following: deduct one number from the total number of immigrant visas and conditional en- UTRITION N AND OOD S ERVICE F tries which are made available to natives PROGRAMS NUTRITION CHILD of the country of the alien’s birth under If the funds available for Nutrition Educa- paragraphs (1) through (8) of section 203(a) tion and Training grants authorized under of the Immigration and Nationality Act. section 19 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966, With the following committee as amended, require a ratable reduction in amend ment: those grants, the minimum grand for each On page 2, strike lines 4 through 6 and State shall be $ 50,000. insert in lieu thereof: “which are made The managers on the part of the Senate available to natives of the country of the will move to concur in the amendment alien’s birth under section 203(a) of the of the House to the amendment of the Immigration and Nationality Act or, if Senate. chapter19.indd 401 chapter19.indd 401 2/4/09 3:41:01 PM 2/4/09 3:41:01 PM

416 402 Chapter 19 applicable, from the total number of such the legislative program and any spe- visas which are made available to such na- cial orders heretofore entered, was tives under section 202 (3) of such Act.”. granted to: The committee amendment was (The following Members (at the re- agreed to. quest of Ms. W OOLSEY ) to revise and The bill was ordered to be engrossed extend their remarks and include ex- and read a third time, was read the traneous material:) third time, and passed, and a motion , for 5 minutes, today. OOLSEY Ms. W to reconsider was laid on the table. F AZIO E , for 5 minutes, today. Mr. D , for 5 minutes, today. APTUR Ms. K , for 5 minutes, today. PRATT Mr. S CONTESTED ELECTION, CARTER (The following Members (at the re- E AGAINST L COMPTE—MESSAGE quest of Mr. S of Nebraska) to MITH FROM THE CLERK OF THE HOUSE revise and extend their remarks and OF REPRESENTATIVES (H. DOC. include extraneous material:) NO. 235) , for 5 minutes, June 20, 23 Mr. P OE The SPEAKER laid before the and 24. House the following message from of North Carolina, for 5 ONES Mr. J the Clerk of the House of Rep- minutes, June 20, 23 and 24. resentatives, which was read and, ISHOP Mr. B of Utah, for 5 minutes, with the accompanying papers, re- today and June 18. ferred to the Committee on House C Mr. M , for 5 minutes, June C OTTER Administration: 19. J ULY 29, 2008. PEAKER , The Honorable the S House of Representatives. ADJOURNMENT IR I have the honor to lay before the : S Mr. FORBES. Mr. Speaker, I move House of Representatives the contest for a seat in the House of Representatives from the that the House do now adjourn. Fourth Congressional District of the State The motion was agreed to; accord- of Iowa, Steven V. Carter against Karl M. ingly (at 9 o’clock and 56 minutes led in LeCompte, notice of which has been fi p.m.), under its previous order, the the offi ce of the Clerk of the House; and also transmit herewith original testimony, pa- House adjourned until tomorrow, pers, and documents relating thereto. Wednesday, June 18, 2008, at 9:30 a.m. LEAVE OF ABSENCE RECESS By unanimous consent, leave of ab- The SPEAKER pro tempore. sence was granted to: Pursuant to clause 12(a) of rule I, the (at the request of Mr. ONYERS Mr. C Chair declares the House in recess ) for today on account of per- OYER H until 2 p.m. today. sonal business. Accordingly (at 12 o’clock and 50 NGEL (at the request of Mr. Mr. E minutes p.m.), the House stood in re- ) for today on account of a codel OYER H cess until 2 p.m. fl ight delay. Mr. G of Texas (at the REEN G ENE OYER request of Mr. H ) for today on ac- □ 140 0 count of a doctor’s appointment. AFTER RECESS The recess having expired, the SPECIAL ORDERS GRANTED House was called to order by the By unanimous consent, permis- of ARSEN Speaker pro tempore (Mr. L Washington) at 2 p.m. sion to address the House, following chapter19.indd 402 chapter19.indd 402 2/4/09 3:41:01 PM 2/4/09 3:41:01 PM

417 Congressional Record 403 [Follow manuscript as to expressing time of 2008, pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A); to the Committee on Agriculture. adjournment as 6 o’clock and 25 minutes p.m., 7145. A letter from the Director, or 6:25 p.m.] Reg ulatory Management Division, En vironmental Protection Agency, trans mitting the Agency nal rule— s fi ’ MOTION TO DISCHARGE Bifenthrin; Pesticide Tolerances COMMITTEE [EPA–HQ–OPP–2007–0535; FRL–8366–4] received June 9, 2008, pursuant to 5 M ARCH 17, 2008. U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A); to the Committee on OF LERK C THE O T - EPRESEN R OF OUSE H THE Agriculture. : TATI VES 7146. A letter from the Director, Regulatory Management Division, P u r s u a n t t o c l a u s e 4 o f r u l e X X V I I , I , Environ mental Protection Agency, J. P P ERCY RIEST , move to discharge the nal rule— trans mitting the Agency’s fi Committee on Banking and Currency 1,3-Dichloropropene and metabolites; from the consideration of the bill Pesticide Tolerance [EPA–HQ –OPP–2007– 0637; FRL – 8345 –1] received April 30, 2008, (H.R. 2887) entitled “A bill transfer- pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A); to the ring certain functions of the Price Committee on Agriculture. Administrator, with respect to petro- [Use the following form if only one commu- leum and petroleum products, to the nication is submitted—8 point:] petroleum Administrator for War,” 7147. Under clause 8 of rule which was referred to said committee XII, a letter from the Director, March 7, 2008, in support of which mo- Regulatory Management Division, tion the undersigned Members of the Environmental Protection Agency, House of Representatives affi x their transmitting the Agency s fi nal ’ signatures, to wit: rule—(Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctade- 1. Percy J. Priest. cane (Disparlure); Exemption from 2. Oren Harris. . . . the Requirement of a Tolerance 217. William E. Hess. [EPA–HQ–OPP–2007–0596; FRL–8367– 218. James G. Polk. 7] received June 9, 2008, pursuant to This motion was entered upon the 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A), was taken from ONGRESSIOAL Journal, entered in the C the Speaker ’ s table, referred to the R ECORD with signatures thereto, and Committee on Agriculture, and or- referred to the Calendar of Motions dered to be printed. To Discharge Committees, February 29, 2008. REPORTS OF COMMITTEES ON House briefs PUBLIC BILLS AND RESOLUTIONS [The briefs follow at end of day’s proceed- ings, heads and dashes to be used as shown Under clause 2 of rule XIII, reports here. This data is supplied from the House and of committees were delivered to the is printed as submitted.] Clerk for printing and reference to the proper calendar, as follows: Mr. WAXMAN: Committee on Oversight EXECUTIVE COMMUNICATIONS, and Government Reform. Supplemental ETC. report on H.R. 5781. A bill to provide that 8 of the 12 weeks of parental leave made Under clause 8 of rule XII, executive available to a Federal employee shall be communications were taken from paid leave, and for other purposes. (Rept. the Speaker ’ s table and referred as 110 – 624 Pt. 2). follows: 7144. A letter from the Congressional REPORTS OF COMMITTEES ON Review Coordinator, Department of Agri- culture, transmitting the Department ’ s PUBLIC BILLS AND RESOLUTIONS fi nal rule—Consolidation of the Fruit Fly Under clause 2 of rule XIII, reports Regulations [Docket No. APHIS–2007– of committees were delivered to the 0084] (RIN: 0579 –AC57) received June 9, chapter19.indd 403 chapter19.indd 403 2/4/09 3:41:01 PM 2/4/09 3:41:01 PM

418 404 Chapter 19 determined by the Speaker, in each case Clerk for printing and reference to for consideration of such provisions as fall the proper calendar, as follows: within the jurisdiction of the committee Mr. RAHALL: Committee on Natural concerned. Resources. H.R. 2964. A bill to amend By Mr. RANGEL (for himself, Mr. the Lacey Act Amendments of 1981 to EWIS , Mr. L ERMOTT of Georgia, C D M treat nonhuman primates as prohibited EAL of Massachusetts, Mr. Mr. N wildlife species under that Act, to make of Ohio, Mr. ONES , Mrs. J OMEROY P corrections in the provisions relating to , Mr. , Ms. B LUMENAUER ERKLEY B captive wildlife offenses under that Act, H OLLEN , Mr. M EEK ROWLEY , Mr. V AN C and for other purposes, with an amend- , and Mr. EVIN of Florida, Mr. L ment (Rept. 110–712). Referred to the of Connecticut): ARSON L Committee of the Whole House on the H.R. 6275. A bill to amend the Internal State of the Union. Revenue Code of 1986 to provide individu- Mr. RAHALL: Committee on Natural als temporary relief from the alternative Resources. H.R. 3702. A bill to direct the minimum tax, and for other purposes; to Secretary of Agriculture to convey cer- the Committee on Ways and Means. tain land in the Beaverhead-Deerlodge [Use the following form when only one bill National Forest, Montana, to Jefferson or resolution is submitted:] County, Montana, for use as a cemetery (Rept. 110 –713). Referred to the Committee Under clause 2 of rule XII: of the Whole House on the State of the Mr. CAZAYOUX (for himself, Mr. Union. of HOMPSON , Mr. T ATERS , Ms. W HILDERS C Mr. RAHALL: Committee on Natural RANK of Massachusetts, Mississippi, Mr. F Resources. H.R. 5511. A bill to direct the UELLAR , and Mrs. C APITO ) introduced Mr. C Secretary of the Interior, acting through a bill (H.R. 6276) to repeal section 9 (k) of the Bureau of Reclamation, to remedy the United States Housing Act of 1937; to problems caused by a collapsed drain- the Committee on Financial Services. age tunnel in Leadville, Colorado, and for other purposes (Rept. 110 –715). Referred to the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union. MEMORIALS Mr. THOMPSON of Mississippi: Com- Under clause 3 of rule XII, memo- mittee on Homeland Security. House rials were presented and referred as Resolution 1150. Resolution expressing the sense of the House of Representatives follows: that the Transportation Security Admin- [Use the following form when submitted istration should, in accordance with the is not in By the Speaker by the Speaker if congressional mandate provided for in manuscript:] the Implementing Recommendations of the 9 /11 Commission Act of 2007, enhance 327. By the SPEAKER: Memorial of the security against terrorist attack and Legislature of the State of Louisiana, ’ other security threats to our Nation s rail relative to Senate Concurrent Resolution and mass transit lines, with amendments No. 76 memorializing the Congress of the (Rept. 110 –716). Referred to the House United States to take such actions as are Calendar. necessary to expedite the reopening of the Arabi branch of the United States Postal [Use above form also when only one report Service located in St. Bernard Parish; is submitted.] to the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform. 328. Also, a memorial of the Legislature PUBLIC BILLS AND RESOLUTIONS of the State of Idaho, relative to Senate Under clause 2 of rule XII, public Joint Memorial No. 114 expressing opposi- tion to S. 40 and H.R. 3200; jointly to the bills and resolutions were introduced Committees on Financial Services and and severally referred, as follows: the Judiciary. By Mr. SHADEGG: H.R. 6274. A bill to provide an equivalent to habeas corpus protection for persons MEMORIALS held under military authority under that part of Cuba leased to the United States; Under clause 3 of rule XII, to the Committee on the Judiciary, and [Use the following form when only one me- in addition to the Committee on Armed morial is submitted:] Services, for a period to be subsequently chapter19.indd 404 chapter19.indd 404 2/4/09 3:41:01 PM 2/4/09 3:41:01 PM

419 Congressional Record 405 Petition 11, June 24, 2008, by Mr. THOMAS 326. The SPEAKER presented a memo- G. TANCREDO on House Resolution 1240, rial of the Legislature of the State of was signed by the following Members: Louisiana, relative to Senate Concurrent Thomas G. Tancredo and Jean Schmidt. Resolution No. 51 memorializing the Congress of the United States to estab- lish a grant program to assist the seafood industry in St. Tammany, St. Bernard, DISCHARGE PETITIONS— Orleans, and Plaque-mines parishes; to ADDITIONS OR DELETIONS the Committee on Financial Services. The following Members added their names to the following discharge PRIVATE BILLS AND petitions: RESOLUTIONS Petition 3 by Mr. PENCE on House Resolution 694: Timothy V. Johnson. Under clause 1 of rule XXII, private Petition 4 by Mr. ADERHOLT on H.R. bills and resolutions were introduced 3584: Trent Franks. and severally referred as follows: Petition 5 by Mrs. DRAKE on H.R. 4088: Timothy V. Johnson. By Mr. ATKINSON: H.R. 6583. A bill for the relief of Mohamed Tejpar and Nargis Tejpar; to the PETITIONS, ETC. Committee on the Judiciary. U COIN: By Mr. A Under clause 3 of rule XII, petitions H.R. 6584. A bill for the relief of Celia ’ and papers were laid on the clerk s Maarit Halle; to the Committee of the desk and referred as follows: Judiciary. 283. The SPEAKER presented a petition [Use the following form when only one bill of the City Council of Compton, CA, rela- or resolution is submitted:] tive to Resolution No. 22,564 supporting Under clause 1 of rule XXII, the Homeowners and Bank Protection Act Mr. LANTOS introduced a bill (H.R. 6766) of 2007; to the Committee on Financial for the relief of Shanna Teresa Millich; Services. which was referred to the Committee on 284. Also, a petition of the California the Judiciary. State Lands Commission, relative to a Resolution regarding the taking of ma- rine mammals and sea turtles incidental to power plant operations of once-through ADDITIONAL SPONSORS cooling power plants in California; to the Under clause 7 of rule XII, sponsors Committee on Natural Resources. were added to public bills and resolu- [Use the following form when only one peti- tions as follows: tion is submitted:] ARRETT H.R. 78: Mr. G of New Jersey. Under clause 1 of rule XXII, ANGEL . H.R. 96: Mr. R 139. The SPEAKER presented a peti- , OWNS , Mr. F RELINGHUYSEN H.R. 154: Mr. T tion of the Council of the District of PAC E , Mr. S OYLE ARSON of , and Mr. L Mr. D Columbia, relative to the Council-adopted Connecticut. resolution entitled, “National Park Service-Georgetown Branch Rail Right- of-Way Acquisition Resolution of 1990”; [Note.—Set sponsors caps and Members which was referred to the Committee on caps and lower case.] the District of Columbia. DISCHARGE PETITIONS Under clause 2 of rule XV, the fol- AMENDMENTS lowing discharge petitions were fi led: Under clause 8 of rule XVIII, pro- Petition 10, June 24, 2008, by Mr. JOHN posed amendments were submitted R. “RANDY” KUHL, Jr. on H.R. 5656, was signed by the following Members: John as follows: R. “Randy” Kuhl Jr., Doug Lamborn, H.R. 1328 David Davis, Robert E. Latta, Joseph R. FFERED OF O KLAHOMA . C OLE R : M Y B O Pitts, Charles W. Boustany, Jr., Ron Paul, O N MENDMENT A . 4: Page 341, line 11, after Michael T. McCaul, John Kline, Randy “title.” insert the following: “The Federal Neugebauer, Lynn A. Westmoreland, and Government shall not withhold funding.”. Wally Her ger. chapter19.indd 405 chapter19.indd 405 2/4/09 3:41:01 PM 2/4/09 3:41:01 PM

420 19 406 Chapter CONGRESSIONAL RECORD INDEX General instructions Set in 7 point on 8 point, Record measure (168 points, 14 picas). ush left Cap lines or italic lines are set fl . Entries are indented 1 em, with overs 2 ems. ed as to sponsor or cosponsor. Bill introductions are to be identifi Bullet following page number in index identifi es unspoken material. Pages are identifi ed as S (Senate), H (House), and E (Extensions). Pages in bound Record index are entered numerically, without S, H, or E xes. prefi Abbreviations and acronyms— (for use on notation of content line) Abbreviations Streets: St.; Ave.; Ct.; Dr.; Blvd.; Rd.; Sq.; Ter. Names: Jr.; Sr.; II (etc.) Businesses: Co.; Corp. (includes all Federal corporations); Inc.; Ltd.; Bros. States: See rule 9.13. Dept. of Agriculture ... Sec. of Agriculture. Dept. of Commerce ... Sec. of Commerce. Dept. of Defense ... Sec. of Defense. Dept. of Education ... Sec. of Education. Dept. of Energy ... Sec. of Energy. Dept. of Health and Human Services ... Sec. of Health and . . . Dept. of Homeland Security ... Sec. of Homeland Security Dept. of Housing and Urban Development ... Sec. of Housing and . . . Dept. of the Interior ... Sec. of the Interior. Dept. of Justice ... Attorney General. Dept. of Labor ... Sec. of Labor. Dept. of State ... Sec. of State. Sec. of Transportation. Dept. of Transportation ... Dept. of the Treasury ... Sec. of the Treasury. Dept. of Veterans Aff airs ... Sec. of Veterans Aff airs.

421 Congressional Record 407 Acronyms Agency for International Develop ment ... AID Acquired Immunodefi ciency Syn drome ... AIDS American Association of Retired Per sons ... AARP American Bar Association ... ABA American Civil Liberties Union ... ACLU American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organiza tions ... AFL–CIO American Medical Association ... AMA British Broadcasting Corp ... BBC Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives ... ATF airs ... BIA Bureau of Indian Aff Bureau of Land Management ... BLM Bureau of Labor Statistics ... BLS Cable News Network ... CNN Cable Satellite Public Aff airs Net work ... C–SPAN Central Intelligence Agency ... CIA Civil Service Retirement System ... CSRS Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services ... CHAMPUS Commodity Credit Corp ... CCC Commodity Futures Trading Commis sion ... CFTC Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act ... CERCLA Congressional Budget Offi ce ... CBO Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconcili ation Act ... COBRA Consumer Product Safety Commis sion ... CPSC Daughters of the American Revolu tion ... DAR Deoxyribonucleic acid ... DNA Disabled American Veterans ... DAV Drug Enforcement Administration ... DEA Employee Retirement Income Security Act ... ERISA Environmental Protection Agency... EPA Equal Employment Opportunity Com mission ... EEOC Export-Import Bank ... Eximb ank Federal Aviation Administration ... FAA Federal Bureau of Investigation ... FBI Federal Communications Commis sion ... FCC Federal Crop Insurance Corp. ... FCIC Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. ... FDIC Federal Election Commission ... FEC Federal Emergency Management Agency ... FEMA Federal Employee Retirement Sys tem ... FERS chapter19.indd 407 chapter19.indd 407 2/4/09 3:41:02 PM 2/4/09 3:41:02 PM

422 408 Chapter 19 Federal Energy Regulatory Commis sion ... FERC Federal Housing Administration ... FHA Federal Insurance Contribution Act ... FICA Federal National Mortgage Association ... Fannie Mae Federal Reserve System ... FRS Federal Trade Commission ... FTC Food and Drug Administration... FDA General Agreement on Tariff s and Trade ... GATT General Services Administra tion ... GSA ce ... GAO Government Accountability Offi Government Printing Offi ce ... GPO Gross national product ... GNP Health maintenance organiza tion(s) ... HMO(s) Human immunodefi ciency virus ... HIV Internal Revenue Service ... IRS International Business Machines Corp. ... IBM International Monetary Fund ... IMF International Trade Commission ... ITC C Legal Services Corp. ... LS Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Pro gram ... LIHEAP Missing in action ... .MIA(s) National Aeronautics and Space Admini stration ... NASA National Association for the Advancement of Colored People ... NAACP National Broadcasting Co. ... NBC National Collegiate Athletic Associ ation ... NCAA National Institute of Standards and Technology ... NIST National Institutes of Health ... NIH National Labor Relations Board ... NLRB National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ... NOAA National Railroad Passenger Corp. ... Amtrak National Rifl e Association ... NRA National Security Council... NSC National Science Foundation ... NSF National Transportation Safety Board ... NTSB North American Free Trade Agree ment ... NAFTA North Atlantic Treaty Organiza tion ... NATO Nuclear Regulatory Commis sion ... NRC Occupational Safety and Health Admini stration ... OSHA ce of Management and Budget ... OMB Offi ce of Personnel Manage ment ... OPM Offi ce of Th rift Supervision ... OTS Offi Organization of American States ... OAS Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries ... OPEC chapter19.indd 408 chapter19.indd 408 2/4/09 3:41:02 PM 2/4/09 3:41:02 PM

423 409 Congressional Record Overseas Private Investment Corp. ... OPIC Palestine Liberation Organiza tion ... PLO Parent-Teachers Association ... PTA .. POW Prisoner of war ... Public Broadcasting Service ... PBS uenced Corrupt Organization Act ... RICO Racketeer Infl cers’ Training Corps... ROTC Reserve Offi Securities Exchange Commission ... SEC Small Business Administration ... SBA Social Security Administration ... SSA Supplemental security income ... SSI Tennessee Valley Authority ... TVA United Auto Workers ... UAW .U.N. United Nations ... United Nations Children’s Fund ... UNICEF c and Cultural Organization ... UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientifi Veterans of Foreign Wars ... VFW Voice of America ... VOA Women, Infants, and Children Pro gram ... WIC World Health Organization ... WHO Young Men’s Christian Associ ation ... YMCA Young Women’s Christian Associ ation ... YWCA Spacing Biweekly Record index folioed in upper right and left corner; no extra spacing. Bound Record index folioed in upper right and left corner; no extra spacing. History of Bills folioed in upper right and left corner using H.B. numbers; no extra spacing. corner, fi rst folio Bound History of Bills folioed in lower right and left numerically higher than the last folio of index; no extra spacing. Capitalization Capitalize principal words aft er these formats: Book reviews Addresses Booklets Analyses Brochures Appendices Conference reports Articles and editorials Descriptions Biographies chapter19.indd 409 chapter19.indd 409 2/4/09 3:41:02 PM 2/4/09 3:41:02 PM

424 410 Chapter 19 Prayers by visitors Documents Prefaces Essays Press releases Essays: Voice of Democracy Proclamations Eulogies Reports Explanations Report fi led Factsheets Resolutions of ratifi cation Forewords Résumés Histories Sermons Homilies Sngs Hymns Statements Memorandums Studies Messages Summaries ce Oaths of offi Surveys Pamphlets Synopses Papers Te s t i m o n i e s Platforms Tra nscripts Poems Treat ies Prayers Lowercase aft er these formats: Commentaries Advertisements Comments davits Affi Communications from Agenda Communiques Agreements Comparisons Amendments Cost estimates Announcements Court decisions Appointments Court documents Awa rds Declarations Bills and resolutions Dedications Bills and resolutions cosponsored nitions Defi Bills and resolutions introduced Descriptions Bills and resolutions relative to Designated acting Presidents pro tempore Briefs Designated acting Speaker pro tempore Briefi ngs Digests Broadcasts Dispatches Bulletins Examples cates of election Certifi Excerpts Chronologies Executive orders Citations Financial statements Civilian Granted Cloture motions Granted in the House Colloquies chapter19.indd 410 chapter19.indd 410 2/4/09 3:41:02 PM 2/4/09 3:41:02 PM

425 Congressional Record 411 Questions Granted in the Senate Questions and answers Guidelines Quotations Hearings Recorded Inscriptions Regulations Interviews Remarks Introductions Remarks in House Invocations Remarks in House relative to Journals Remarks in Senate Letters Remarks in Senate relative to Lists Resignations Meetings Resolutions by organizations Military Results Motions Reviews Newsletters Rollcalls Notices Rosters Obituaries Rules Opinion polls Rulings of the chair Orders Schedules Outlines Subpoena notices Petitions Subpoenas Petitions and memorials Table s Press conferences Te s t s Privilege of the fl oor Te x t s o f Programs Tra nsmit ta ls Projects Tributes Proposals Vo t i n g r e c o r d Questionnaires Punctuation Comma precedes folio fi gures. If numbers of several bills are given, use this form: (see S. 24, 25); (see H.R. 217, 218), etc.; that is, do not repeat S. or H.R. with each number. rst with In consecutive numbers (more than two) use an en dash to connect fi last: S46–S48, 518–520. Quotes are used for book titles. A 3-em dash is used as a ditto for word or words leading up to colon: Taxation: capital gains rates ——— earned income tax credit ——— r a t e s chapter19.indd 411 chapter19.indd 411 2/4/09 3:41:02 PM 2/4/09 3:41:02 PM

426 412 Chapter 19 Roman and italic Use italic for Members of Congress descriptive data: CARDIN, BENJAMIN L. ; (a Senator from Maryland) EMANUEL, RAHM (a Representative from Illinois) . Names of vessels in italic: Brooklyn (U.S.S.); Savannah (vessel); Columbia (space shut t le). Flush cap lines All cap lines are separate entries. Th ey are set fl ush with overs indented 2 ems: CARDIN, BENJAMIN (a Senator f rom Mar yland) EMANUEL, RAHM (a Representative from Illinois) PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES (George W. Bush) VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES (Richard B. Cheney) COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS (House) COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS (Senate) FA R M ER S see Agriculture SENATE related term(s) Committees of the Senate; Legislative Branch of the Government; Members of Congress; Votes in Senate DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land related term(s) Management, Bureau of Reclamation PRESIDENTIAL APPOINTMENTS VOTES IN HOUSE VOTES IN SENATE chapter19.indd 412 chapter19.indd 412 2/4/09 3:41:02 PM 2/4/09 3:41:02 PM

427 Congressional Record 413 AARP ( ORGANIZATION ) natural gas vehicles and provide tax incentives for Letters natural gas vehicle infrastructure (see H.R. 6570), Evaluate and extend the basic pilot program for H7630 [30JY] employment eligibility confi rmation and ensure Palladio, Andrea: anniversary of birth (see H. Con. ciaries, H7592 protection of Social Security benefi Res. 407), H7788 [31JY] [30JY] Power resources: open Outer Continental shelf areas Press releases to oil and gas leasing, curb excessive energy spec- Medicare Trigger Ignores Real Problem-Skyrocketing ulation, and require Strategic Petroleum Reserve Health Care Costs, H7125 [24JY] sale and acquisitions of certain fuels (see H.R. ABERCROMBIE, NEIL ( a Representative from 6670), H7628 [30JY] Hawaii ) ———provide a comprehensive plan for greater en- Bills and resolutions cosponsored ergy independence (see H.R. 6709), H7785 [31JY] Armed Forces: tribute to the 28th Infantry Division U.S. Public Service Academy: establish (see H.R. (see H. Con. Res. 390), H7308 [29JY] 1671), H7789 [31JY] Bulgaria: independence anniversary (see H. Res. Yunus, Muhammad: award Congressional Gold 1383), H7630 [30JY] Medal (see H.R. 1801), H7629 [30JY] Bureau of Prisons: provide stab-resistant personal Remarks body armor to all correctional offi cers and require Pearl Harbor, HI: anniversary of the Pearl Harbor such offi cers to wear such ar mor while on duty (see Naval Shipyard (H. Res. 1139), H6773, H6774 H.R. 6462), H6734 [21JY] [22JY] Diseases: improve and enhance research and pro- ABORTION grams on cancer survivorship (see H.R. 4450), H7308 [29JY] Remarks in House Education: strengthen communities through English China, People’s Republic of: mandatory abortion and literacy, civic education, and immigrant integra- sterilization policies, H7344, H7345 [30JY] tion programs (see H.R. 6617), H7164 [24JY] Supreme Court: anniversary of Roe v. Wade deci- Medicare: ensure more timely access to home health sion, H7283 [29JY], H7611 [30JY], H7776 [31JY], ciaries (see H.R. 6826), H7808 services for benefi E1545 [23JY], E1701 [1AU] [1AU] U.S. Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, t with a re- ———replace the prescription drug benefi and Malaria Act: prohibit use of funds for any ed program for all benefi ciaries vised and simplifi organization or program which supports or partici- (see H.R. 6800), H7807 [1AU] pates in the management of coerced abortions or Motor vehicles: encourage increased production of involuntary sterilization, H7116 [24JY] chapter19.indd 413 chapter19.indd 413 2/4/09 3:41:02 PM 2/4/09 3:41:02 PM

428 414 Chapter 19 National Directory of New Hires in enforcing sex Remarks in Senate offender registration laws (see H.R. 6539), H7165 Dept. of H HS: proposed reg ulation to change the defi - [24JY] nition of abortion, S7141 [23JY] Dept. of the Interior: establish oil and gas leasing pro- ACCESS, COMPARISON, CARE, AND ETHICS gram for public lands within the Coastal Plain of FOR SERIOUSLY ILL PATIENTS (ACCESS) Alaska (see H.R. 6758), H7787 [31JY] ACT House of Representatives: prohibit adjournment until Remarks in Senate approval of a bill to establish a comprehensive na- Enact (S. 3046), S7620 [29JY], S8021 [1AU] tional energy plan addressing energy conservation ACCESS FOR ALL AMERICA ACT and expansion of renewable and conventional en- Bills and resolutions ergy sources (see H. Res. 1391), H7629 [30JY] Enact (see S. 3412, 3413), S7905 [31JY] National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month: support Remarks in Senate goals and ideals (see H. Res. 672), H7790 [31JY] Enact (S. 3413), S7971–S7973 [31JY] Power resources: expedite exploration and develop- ACHIEVING OUR IDEA ACT ment of oil and gas from Federal lands (see H.R. Remarks in House 6379), H7629 [30JY] Enact (H.R. 1896), E1701 [1AU] ———promote alternative and renewable fuels, domestic energy production, conservation, and ACKERMAN, GARY L. ( a Representative from New ciency, and increase energy independence (see effi ) York H.R. 6566), H6824 [22JY] Bills and resolutions cosponsored ———provide a comprehensive plan for greater en- Bangladesh: elections (see H. Res. 1402), H7788 ergy independence (see H.R. 6709), H7809 [1AU] [31JY] Schools: withhold Federal funds from schools that China, People’s Republic of: call for end to human permit or require the recitation of the Pledge of rights abuses of citizens, cease repression of Allegiance or the National Anthem in a language Tibetan and Uyghur people, and end support for other than English (see H.R. 6783), H7806 [1AU] Governments of Sudan and Burma (see H. Res. Social Security: extend funding for the State 1370), H7309 [29JY] Children’s Health Insurance Program (see H.R. Dept. of the Treasury: establish a commemorative 6788), H7806 [1AU] quarter dollar coin program emblematic of promi- nent civil rights leaders and important events Bills and resolutions introduced advancing civil rights (see H.R. 6701), H7809 Power resources: enhance energy independence [1AU] through the usage of existing resources and tech- Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Water nology (see H. Con. Res. 401), H7787 [31JY] Resources Compact: grant congressional consent see ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE, U.S. COURTS and approval (see H.R. 6577), H7165 [24JY] OURTS C Human rights: defeat campaign by some members OMESTIC R D ELATIONS AMILIES F see ADOPTION AND of the Organization of the Islamic Conference to ADRIAN, MI divert the U.N. Durban Review Conference from Remarks in House a review of problems in their own and other coun- Sand Creek Telephone Co.: anniversary, E1703 tries (see H. Res. 1361), H7059 [23JY] [1AU] Immigration: modify certain requirements with re- spect to H–1B nonimmigrants (see H.R. 5630), ADVANCING AMERICA’S PRIORITIES ACT H7629 [30JY] Bills and resolutions New York, NY: extend and improve protections and Enact (see S. 3297), S7030 [22JY] services to individuals directly impacted by the Cloture motions terrorist attack (see H.R. 6594), H7630 [30JY] Enact (S. 3297): motion to proceed, S7509 [26JY], Palladio, Andrea: anniversary of birth (see H. Con. S7551 [28JY] Res. 407), H7809 [1AU] Letters Religion: support spirit of peace and desire for unity Provisions: Lynne Zeitlin Hale, Nature Conservancy displayed in the letter from leading Muslim schol- (organization), S7548 [28JY] ars, and in the Pope Benedict XVI response (see H. ———Molly McCammon, National Federation of Con. Res. 374), H7165 [24JY] Regional Associations for Coastal and Ocean Bills and resolutions introduced Observing, S7547 [28JY] Syria: express concern regarding continued viola- ———Peter R. Orszag, CBO, S7510 [26JY], S7543 tions of political, civil, and human rights and call [28JY] for release of prisoners of conscience and other po- ———several ocean and coastal research, education, litical prisoners (see H. Res. 1398), H7788 [31JY] and conservation organizations, S7547 [28JY] Motions ADAMS, MICHAEL F. Enact (S. 3297), S7509 [26JY] Letters Higher Education Opportunity Act, S7854 [31JY] Remarks in Senate Appalachian Regional Development Act: reauthorize ADERHOLT, ROBERT B. (a Representative from and improve, S7545 [28JY], S7888 [31JY] Alabama) Chesapeake Bay Initiative Act: provide for continuing Bills and resolutions cosponsored authorization of the Chesapeake Bay Gateways. Crime: provide for the use of information in the chapter19.indd 414 chapter19.indd 414 2/4/09 3:41:05 PM 2/4/09 3:41:05 PM

429 415 Congressional Record In history of bills, sequence is: Senate bills, Senate joint resolutions, Senate concurrent resolutions, and Senate resolutions; then House bills, House joint resolutions, House concurrent resolutions, and House resolutions: S. 14, S.J. Res. 7, S. Con. Res. 26, S. Res. 5, H. 980, H.J. Res. 9, H. Con. Res. 16, and H. Res. 50. Commission with respect to broadcast media own- SENATE BILLS ership; to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. S. 11 —A bill to provide liability protection to volun- By Mr. DORGAN (for himself, Ms. Snowe, Mr. t organizations that fl teer pilot nonprofi y for public Kerry, Ms. Collins, Mr. Dodd, Mr. Obama, Mr. benefi t and to the pilots and staff of such nonprofi t Harkin, Mrs. Clinton, Ms. Cantwell, Mr. Biden, organizations, and for other purposes; to the Mr. Reed, Mrs. Feinstein, Mr. Sanders, Mr. Tester, Committee on the Judiciary. and Mr. Stevens), S1597 [5MR] Cosponsors added, S4621 [21MY] Cosponsors added, S1704 [6MR], S1878 [11MR], S2136 [13MR], S2233 [31MR], S2348 [2AP], —A bill to amend the Native American Housing S. 2062 S2947 [10AP], S3081 [16AP], S3700 [1MY] Assistance and Self-Determination Act of 1996 to Reported (S. Rept. 110–334), S3975 [8MY] reauthorize that Act, and for other purposes; to the Passed Senate amended, S4267 [15MY] Committee on Indian Affairs. Text, S4270 [15MY] Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Message from the Senate, H4065 [19MY] discharged, S814 [8FE] Held at the desk, H4065 [19MY] Amendments, S850 [11FE], S4836, S4839, S4844 [22MY] Passed Senate amended, S4839 [22MY] SENATE CONCURRENT RESOLUTIONS SENATE JOINT RESOLUTIONS S. Con. Res. 82 —A concurrent resolution supporting S.J. Res. 17 —A joint resolution directing the United the Local Radio Freedom Act; to the Committee on States to initiate international discussions and take Commerce, Science, and Transportation. necessary steps with other Nations to negotiate By Mrs. LINCOLN (for herself, Mr. Wicker, Mr. an agreement for managing migratory and trans- Brownback, Mr. Allard, Mr. Nelson of Nebraska, sh stocks in the Arctic Ocean; to the boundary fi Ms. Murkowski, and Mr. Webb), S4029 [12MY] Committee on Foreign Relations. —A concurrent resolution authorizing S. Con. Res. 85 Debated, H4067 [19MY] the use of the rotunda of the Capitol to honor Frank Text, H4067 [19MY] W. Buckles, the last surviving United States vet- Rules suspended. Passed House, H4402 [21MY] eran of the First World War. Message from the House, S4790 [22MY] By Mr. SPECTER (for himself, Mr. Byrd, Mrs. Dole, S.J. Res. 28 —A joint resolution disapproving the Mr. McCain, Mr. Warner, Mr. Lieberman, Mr. rule submitted by the Federal Communications Rockefeller, and Mr. Burr), S4793 [22MY] chapter19.indd 415 chapter19.indd 415 2/4/09 3:41:05 PM 2/4/09 3:41:05 PM

430 416 Chapter 19 —Continued S. Con. Res. 85 Mr. LaTourette, Mr. Larson of Connecticut, Mr. Text, S4810, S4848 [22MY] Israel, Ms. Woolsey, Mr. Brown of South Carolina, Agreed to in the Senate, S4848 [22MY] Ms. Eddie Bernice Johnson of Texas, Mr. Moore of Kansas, Mr. Moran of Virginia, Mr. McNulty, Mrs. Maloney of New York, Mr. Inslee, Mr. Wolf, Ms. SENATE RESOLUTIONS Carson, Mr. Weiner, Mr. Ruppersberger, Mr. Smith of New Jersey, and Mr. Linder), H670 [17JA] Cosponsors added, H1055 [30JA], H1153 [31JA], S. Res. 496 —A resolution honoring the 60th anniver- H1565 [13FE], H1668 [14FE], H1896 [16FE], sary of the commencement of the carving of the H2165 [5MR], H2621 [15MR], H2821 [21MR], Crazy Horse Memorial; to the Committee on the H3279 [28MR], H3363 [29MR], H3476 [17AP], Judiciary. H3724 [20AP], H4553 [7MY], H5054 [15MY], By Mr. THUNE (for himself and Mr. Johnson), H5927 [24MY], H6181 [7JN], H6439, H6476 S2346 [2AP] [14JN], H6828 [20JN], H7202 [26JN], H8121 Text, S2362 [2AP], S4427 [20MY] [18JY], H8821 [27JY], H9656 [2AU], H10696 Committee discharged. Agreed to in the Senate, [20SE], H11028 [27SE] S4427 [20MY] rm the H.R. 4841 —A bill to approve, ratify, and confi S. Res. 562 —A resolution honoring Concerns of Police settlement agreement entered into to resolve claims Survivors as the organization begins its 25th year by the Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians relating to of service to family members of law enforcement alleged interences with the water resources of the cers killed in the line of duty. offi Tribe, to authorize and direct the Secretary of the By Ms. MURKOWSKI (for herself, Mr. Biden, Mr. Interior to execute and perform the Settlement Brown, Mr. Menendez, Ms. Mikulski, Mr. Craig, Agreement and related waivers, and for other pur- Mr. Whitehouse, Mr. Baucus, Mr. Dodd, Mrs. poses; to the Committee on Natural Resources. Feinstein, Mr. Inouye, Mr. Lautenberg, Mrs. Cosponsors added, H390 [22JA], H480 [28JA], H558 Lincoln, Mr. Nelson of Florida, Mr. Pryor, Mr. [29JA] Smith, Ms. Stabenow, Mr. Stevens, Mr. Tester, and Reported with amendment (H. Rept. 110–649), Mr. Thune), S4106 [13MY] H4059 [15MY] Text, S4114, S4121 [13MY] Debated, H4075 [19MY] Agreed to in the Senate, S4120 [13MY] Text, H4075 [19MY] Rules suspended. Passed House amended, H4401 [21MY] HOUSE BILLS Message from the House, S4790 [22MY] Passed Senate, S7197 [23JY] H.R. 158 —A bill to direct the Secretar y of the Treasu r y —A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code H.R. 6081 elds to mint coins in commemoration of the battlefi ts for military personnel, of 1986 to provide benefi of the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, and and for other purposes; to the Committee on Ways for other purposes; to the Committee on Financial and Means. Services. By Mr. RANGEL (for himself, Mr. Stark, Mr. Cosponsors added, H3108 [6MY], H4061 [15MY] McDermott, Mr. Lewis of Georgia, Mr. Neal of Massachusetts, Mr. Pomeroy, Mrs. Jones of Ohio, —A bill to amend the Horse Protection Act H.R. 503 Mr. Larson of Connecticut, Mr. Emanuel, Mr. to prohibit the shipping, transporting, moving, Blumenauer, Mr. Kind, Ms. Berkley, Mr. Crowley, delivering, receiving, possessing, purchasing, Mr. Van Hollen, Mr. Meek of Florida, Mr. Altmire, selling, or donation of horses and other equines Mrs. Boyda of Kansas, Mr. Cohen, Ms. DeLauro, to be slaughtered for human consumption, and for Mr. Ellsworth, Mr. Loebsack, Ms. Tsongas, Mr. other purposes; to the Committees on Energy and Welch of Vermont, Mr. Walz of Minnesota, Mr. Commerce; Agriculture. Arcuri, Ms. Shea-Porter, Mr. Becerra, Mrs. Davis By Ms. SCHAKOWSKY (for herself, Mr. Whitfi eld, of California, and Mr. Doggett), H4064 [16MY] Mr. Rahall, Mr. Spratt, Mr. Gallegly, Mr. Markey, Cosponsors added, H4151 [19MY] Mr. Pallone, Mr. Nadler, Mr. Van Hollen, Ms. Debated, H4160 [20MY] McCollum of Minnesota, Ms. Bordallo, Ms. Text, H4160 [20MY] Schwartz, Mr. Ackerman, Mr. Doyle, Ms. Lee, Rules suspended. Passed House amended, H4187 Mr. Cleaver, Mr. Serrano, Ms. Berkley, Mr. Shays, [20MY] Mr. Jones of North Carolina, Mr. McCotter, Mr. Message from the House, S4617 [21MY] Cummings, Ms. DeLauro, Mr. George Miller of Passed Senate, S4772 [22MY] California, Mr. Grijalva, Mrs. Capps, Ms. Bean, Message from the Senate, H4821 [22MY] Ms. Matsui, Mr. King of New York, Mr. Burton of Indiana, Mr. Kildee, Ms. Kaptur, Mr. Dicks, H.R. 6166 —A bill to impose certain limitations on the Mr. Berman, Ms. Hirono, Mr. Chandler, Mr. receipt of out-of-State municipal solid waste, and Gerlach, Mr. Tierney, Mr. Bishop of New York, for other purposes; to the Committee on Energy Mr. Frank of Massachusetts, Mr. Lynch, Mr. Kirk, and Commerce. Mr. Campbell of California, Mr. Wilson of South By Mr. WITTMAN of Virginia (for himself, Mr. Carolina, Ms. Jackson-Lee of Texas, Mr. Sherman, Wolf, Mr. Moran of Virginia, and Mr. Donnelly), chapter19.indd 416 chapter19.indd 416 2/4/09 3:41:07 PM 2/4/09 3:41:07 PM

431 20. Reports and Hearings Th erent e data for these publications arrives at GPO from many diff members are responsible for gather- sources. Congressional committee staff ing the information printed in these publications. Report language is compiled and submitted along with the bill language to the clerks of the respective Houses. Th e clerks assign the report numbers, etc., and forward this information to GPO for typesetting and printing. In many instances the reports are camera-ready copy, needing only insertion of the assigned report number. Likewise, hearings are also compiled by committee staff e members. Th data or captured keystrokes as submitted by the various reporting services are forwarded to GPO where the element identifi er codes are programmati- cally inserted and galley or page output is accomplished without manual inter vention. It is not cost eff ective to prepare the manuscript as per the GPO Style Manual as it is too time-consuming to update and change the data once it is already in type form. Th erefore, these publications are to be FIC & punc., unless specifi cally requested otherwise by the committee. It is not necessary to stamp the copy. However, style as stated in the following rules will be followed. Style and format of congressional reports Below are rules that should be followed for the makeup of congres- sional numbered reports. In either Senate or House reports, follow bill style in extracts from bills. Report numbers run consecutively from fi rst to sec- ond session: 1. All excerpts to be set in 10-point type, cut in 2 ems on each side, except as noted in paragraph 3 below. For ellipses in cut-in matter, lines of fi ve stars are used. 2. Contempt proceedings to be considered as excerpts. 3. Th e following are to be set in 10-point type, but not cut in: (a) Letters that are readily identifi ed as such by salutation and signature. (b) Appendixes and/or exhibits that have a heading readily iden- tifying them as such; and 417

432 418 Chapter 20 1 (c) Matter printed in compliance with the Ramseyer rule. 4. All leaderwork and lists of more than six items to be set in 8-point type. 5. All tabular work to be set in 7-point gothic type. 6. An amendment in the nature of a substitute to be set in 8-point type, but quotations from such amendment later in the report to be treated as excerpts, but set full measure (see paragraph 10 below). 7. Any committee print having a report head indicated on original copy to be set in report type and style. 8. Committee prints not having a report head indicated on original copy to be set in committee print style; that is, excerpts to be set in 8 point, full measure. 9. If a committee print set as indicated in paragraph 8 is later submitted as a report or included in a report, and the type is available for pickup, such type shall be picked up and used as is in the report. 10. On matter that is cut in on the left only for purposes of breakdown, no space is used above and below, but on all matter that is cut in on both sides, 4 points are used above and below. Because of the indentions and the ers, do not squeeze bills that are submit- limited number of element identifi ted as excerpts. 11. In reports of immigration cases, set memorandums in full measure unless preceded or followed directly by committee language. Memorandums are indented on both sides if followed by such language. Preparers should in- dicate the proper indention on copy. 12. Order of printing (Senate reports only): (1) Report, (2) minority or ad- 2 (4) appendix (if any). ditional views, (3) the Cordon rule, 1 R a mseyer r u le.—House: If repor t has “Cha nges i n E x ist i ng L aw” use caps a nd sma l l caps for heads, except for breakdown within a cap and small cap head. 2 Cordon rule.—Senate: If report has “Changes in Existing Law” use small cap heads, except for breakdown within a cap and small cap head.

433 Reports and Hearings 419 13. Minority or additional views will begin a new page with 10-point cap heading. In Senate reports, “Changes in Existing Law” begins a new page if following “views.” In conference reports, “Joint Explanatory Statement” begins a new odd page. 14. Minority or additional views are printed only if they have been signed by the authoring congressperson. [Sample of excerpt] Palmer v. Mass., decided in 1939, which involved the reorganization of In the New Haven Railroad, the Supreme Court said: The judicial processes in bankruptcy proceedings under sec- tion 77 are, as it were, brigaded with the administrative processes of the Commission. [Sample of an excerpt with an added excerpt] The Interstate Commerce Commission in its report dated February 29, 1956, which is attached hereto and made a part hereof, states that it has no objection to the enactment of S. 3025, and states, in part, as follows: The proposed amendment, however, should be considered to- gether with the provisions of section 959(b), title 28, United States Code, which reads as follows: “A trustee, receiver, or manager appointed in any cause pending in any court of the United States,” etc. [Sample of amendment] On page 6, line 3, strike the words “and the service”, strike all of lines 4, 5, and 6, and insert in lieu thereof the following: and, notwithstanding any other provision of law, the service credit authorized by this clause 3 of rule XIII of the Rule of the House of Representatives, change shall not—

434 420 Chapter 20 (A) be included in establishing eligibility for voluntary or in- voluntary retirement or separation from the service, under any provision of law; [Sample of amendment] The amendments are indicated in the bill as reported and are as follows: On page 2, line 15, change the period to a colon and add the following: Provided, That such approaches shall include only those neces- sary portions of streets, avenues, and boulevards, etc. On page 3, line 12, after “operated”, insert “free of tolls”. [Sample of amendment in the nature of a substitute] The amendment is as follows: Strike all after the enacting clause and insert the following: That the second paragraph under the heading “National Park Service” in the Act of July 31, 1953 (67 Stat. 261, 271), is amended to read as follows: “The Secretary of the Interior shall hereafter report in detail all proposed awards of concessions leases and contracts involving a gross annual business of ve years in duration, including renewals $100,000 or more, or of more than fi thereof, sixty days before such awards are made, to the President of the Senate and Speaker of the House of Representatives for transmission to the appropriate committees.” [Sample of letter inserted in report] The Department of Defense recommends enactment of the proposed leg- islation and the Offi ce of Management and Budget interposes no objection as indicated by the following attached letter, which is hereby made a part of this report: c h a p t e r 11/18/08 2:30:02 PM 0 . i n d d 4 2 0 chapter20.indd 420 1 1 / 1 8 / 0 8 2 : 3 0 : 0 2 P M 2

435 Reports and Hearings 421 ARCH 21, 2008. M Hon. N P , ELOSI ANCY Speaker of the House of Representatives, Washington, DC. D EAR M ADAM S PEAKER : There is forwarded herewith a draft of legisla- Y M tion to amend section 303 of the Career Compensation Act. ******* Sincerely yours, OUGLAS □□□□□ ROOK , A. B D □□□ Assistant Secretary of the Navy □ (Financial Management). [Sample of cut-in for purposes of breakdown; no spacing above or below] Under uniform regulations prescribed by the Secretaries concerned, a member of the uniformed services who— (1) is retired for physical disability or placed upon the tem- porary disability retired list; or (2) is retired with pay for any other reason, or is discharged with severance pay, immediately following at least eight years of con- tinuous active duty (no single break therein of more than ninety days); may select his home for the purposes of the travel and transportation allow- ances payable under this subsection, etc. [Sample of leaderwork] Among the 73 vessels mentioned above, 42 are classifi ed as major combat- ant ships (aircraft carriers through escort vessels), in the following types: Forrestal -class aircraft carriers... 4 Destroyers ... 10 * * * * * * * Guided-missile submarine ... 1 Total ... 42 c h a p t e r 2 0 . i n d d 4 11/18/08 2:30:03 PM 1 chapter20.indd 421 1 1 / 1 8 / 0 8 2 : 3 0 : 0 3 P M 2

436 422 Chapter 20 [Sample of sectional analysis] ANALYSIS SECTIONAL Section 1. Increase of 1 year in constructive service for promotion purposes The principal purpose of the various subsections of section 1 is to provide cers in * * * a 1-year increase for medical and dental offi ******* Subsection 101(a) is in effect a restatement of the existing law This subsection authorizes the President to make regular appointments rst lieutenant through * * * in the grade of fi ******* [Sample of amendment under Ramseyer rule] HANGES IN E XISTING C AW L In compliance with clause 3 of rule XII of the Rules of the House of Representatives, changes in existing law made by the bill, as introduced, are shown as follows (existing law proposed to be omitted is enclosed in black brackets, new matter is printed in italic, existing law in which no change is proposed is shown in roman): XPORT C ONTROL A E OF 1949 CT ******* TERMINATION DATE S EC . 12. The authority granted herein shall terminate on June 30, [ 1956 ] 1959 , or upon any prior date which the Congress by concurrent resolution or the President may designate. c h a p t e r 2 0 . i n d d 4 2 2 11/18/08 2:30:03 PM 1 1 / 1 8 / 0 8 2 : 3 0 : 0 3 P M chapter20.indd 422

437 Reports and Hearings 423 c h a p t e r 2 0 . i n d d 4 2 3 11/18/08 2:30:03 PM 1 1 / 1 8 / 0 8 2 : 3 0 : 0 3 P M chapter20.indd 423

438 424 Chapter 20 11/18/08 2:30:04 PM h a p t e r 2 0 . i n d d 4 2 4 chapter20.indd 424 c 1 / 1 8 / 0 8 2 : 3 0 : 0 4 P M 1

439 Reports and Hearings 425 c h a p t e r 2 0 . i n d d 4 2 5 11/18/08 2:30:05 PM 1 1 / 1 8 / 0 8 2 : 3 0 : 0 5 P M chapter20.indd 425

440 426 Chapter 20 11/18/08 2:30:07 PM h a p t e r 2 0 . i n d d 4 2 6 chapter20.indd 426 c 1 / 1 8 / 0 8 2 : 3 0 : 0 7 P M 1

441 Reports and Hearings 427 c h a p t e r 2 0 . i n d d 4 2 7 11/18/08 2:30:08 PM 1 1 / 1 8 / 0 8 2 : 3 0 : 0 8 P M chapter20.indd 427

442 428 Chapter 20 11/18/08 2:30:09 PM h a p t e r 2 0 . i n d d 4 2 8 chapter20.indd 428 c 1 / 1 8 / 0 8 2 : 3 0 : 0 9 P M 1

443 Reports and Hearings 429 c h a p t e r 2 0 . i n d d 4 2 9 11/18/08 2:30:11 PM 1 1 / 1 8 / 0 8 2 : 3 0 : 1 1 P M chapter20.indd 429

444 430 Chapter 20 11/18/08 2:30:12 PM h a p t e r 2 0 . i n d d 4 3 0 chapter20.indd 430 c 1 / 1 8 / 0 8 2 : 3 0 : 1 2 P M 1

445 Reports and Hearings 431 c h a p t e r 2 0 . i n d d 4 3 1 11/18/08 2:30:13 PM 1 1 / 1 8 / 0 8 2 : 3 0 : 1 3 P M chapter20.indd 431

446 432 Chapter 20 11/18/08 2:30:14 PM h a p t e r 2 0 . i n d d 4 3 2 chapter20.indd 432 c 1 / 1 8 / 0 8 2 : 3 0 : 1 4 P M 1

447 Index indicates chapter heading] bold [Numbers in parentheses refer to rules; Parts of publications (9.38–9.40, 13.10), A 231–232, 281 Abbreviations and Letter Symbols Period used (8.103–8.114), 211–213 (9.1–9.6 4), 221–258 Not used (8.115–8.123), 213–214 Addresses: Preparing copy (2.43), 15 Correspondence (16.3, 16.9–16.16), Provinces, etc. (9.13, 9.15), 223, 224 309, 311–313 Senator, Representative (9.30), 230 Ordinals (12.10), 274 States (9.12–9.13), 223–224 Signatures, lists of names (9.37, 16.3), 231, 309 Tabular work (13.4–13.13), 281–282 Street (9.16–9.19, 13.6), 224–225, 281 Technology (9.64), 255–258 Article, section (9.39), 232 Territories and possessions (9.12–9.14), 223–224 Calendar divisions (9.44–9.46, 13.5), 233, 281 Time zones (9.47), 234 Closed up, with periods (9.7), 222 Titles, civil and military (9.29), 226–230 College degrees (9.32, 9.35–9.36), 230, U.S.: 231 Before Government or Government er (8.39), 200 Comma before and aft organization (9.9, 13.7), 222–223, 281 Company, etc. (9.25), 225–226 As adjective (9.10, 13.7), 223, 281 Not abbreviated (9.26), 226 Vessels (9.27, 11.6–11.7), 226, 265–266 Congressional terms (9.30, 9.41–9.43, 13.11), 230, 232–233, 282 -able, words ending in (5.11, 6.30), 89–91, 103 Dates (9.44–9.46, 13.5), 233, 281 is Manual, v About Th Et al., etc. (3.53, 8.59), 41, 204 Accents: Figure, not abbreviated (9.40), 232 Anglicized and foreign words (5.3–5.4), Foreign countries (9.11), 223 85–86 Geographic terms (9.9–9.15), 222–224 Geographic names (5.20–5.21), 93 Grammatical (7.14), 110 List (10.18), 262 Information technology (9.64), 255 Acronyms and coined words (9.48, 9.61, Land descriptions (9.20–9.22, 13.9), 225, 9.64), 234–235, 238–247, 255–258 281 Plurals (8.11, 8.13), 195, 196 Latin (9.63, 11.3), 251–255, 265 Act, 43 Lists (9.61–9.64), 238–258 Compounding): see also Adjectives ( Measures, weights, etc. (9.5, 9.50–9.59), Capitalization (3.5–3.6), 27–28 221, 235–237 Modifi er (7.7), 109 Metric (9.56–9.57), 236–237 Nationalities (demonyms), 93, 332–334 Military titles, U.S. (9.29), 226–230 Administration, 43 Money (9.60, 12.9k), 238, 273 Adverbs ending in -ly (6.20), 100 Foreign, 334–338 Advice to Authors and Editors (1.1–1. 22), Numerals used with (9.5, 9.51, 13.4), 221, 1–5 235, 281 Organized bodies (9.8), 222 Air Force, 44, 227–230 433 Index.indd 433 Index.indd 433 1/27/09 10:02:24 AM 1/27/09 10:02:24 AM

448 434 Index Allmark (2.103–2.104, 2.112, 2.117), 22, 23, Astronomical: 24 Bodies, capitalization (3.30), 35 American National Standards Institute Time (12.9b), 271 (ANSI), 7–9 Astrophysical abbreviations (9.59), 237 American Samoa (9.12, 9.13), 223, 224, 348 Atomic numbers (10.16), 261 Ampersand (&): B Comma omitted before (8.56), 203 Firm names (9.25), 225–226 Backstrips, run down (2.20), 12 Index entries (15.27), 306 Base lines and meridians, 346–347 Anglicized foreign words (5.3–5.4), 85–86 Basin, 47, 60 ANSI (American National Standards B.C. (9.61, 12.9c), 239, 271 Institute) (2.2), 7–9, 255 Bible, etc. (3.33), 36–37 Anyone, any one (6.12), 98 Bibliography: Apostrophes and possessives (8.3–8.18), Footnote numbering (15.2), 303 193–197 Part of book (2.3l), 10 Abbreviations (8.11–8.12), 195–196 References (2.130, 8.29, 8.58, 8.71), Authentic form in names to be followed 25–26, 199, 203, 205 (8.6), 194 Bill style (2.41), 15 Coined plurals (8.11), 195–196 Blank pages, avoid more than two (1.15), 2 Contractions (8.11), 195–196 Board on Geographic Names (5.20, 5.21), 93 Possessive (8.3–8.8, 8.10), 193–194 Boldface: Pronouns (8.8–8.9), 194, 195 Page numbers, contents (15.30), 307 Spelled-out words (8.13), 196 Punctuation (8.150), 219 Appendix: Braces, equations (10.14), 260 Abbreviation (9.38), 231 Brackets (8.19–8.22), 197–198 Footnote numbering (15.2), 303 Dates abbreviated in (9.45), 233 Part of book (2.3m), 10 Emphasis added, etc. (8.19), 197 Plural form (5.10), 88–89 Equations (8.21, 10.14), 198, 260 Area: Headnotes (13.88–13.89), 292 Abbreviations (9.56, 9.58), 236, 237 More than one paragraph (8.22), 198 Metric equivalents, 339–341 Ty p e (8 .15 0), 219 Army, 45–46, 227–230 Bylines in parentheses (8.101), 211 Article: C Abbreviation (9.38, 9.39), 231, 232 Capitalization (3.11–3.12, 3.49), 29–30, 40 Calendar divisions: Caps and small caps (9.39), 232 Abbreviations (9.44–9.46, 13.5), 233, 281 Assembly: Capitalization (3.23), 34, 48 Legislative, 63 Called, so-called (8.128), 215 United Nations (3.17), 30–32, 75 Capacity: Association (9.25), 225–226 Abbreviations (9.56, 9.58), 236, 237 Asterisk(s): Metric equivalents, 339, 340 Ellipses (8.76–8.82), 207–208 Capitalization Rules (3.1–3.57), 27– 42 Addresses, salutations, and signatures Footnote reference (13.68–13.69, (3.55, 16.2), 42 , 309 15.13–15.14, 15.17), 290, 304, 305 Index.indd 434 Index.indd 434 1/27/09 10:02:25 AM 1/27/09 10:02:25 AM

449 Index 435 nite (3.11–3.12), 29, 30 Articles, defi Note (13.75), 288 Calendar divisions (3.23), 34 Quotation marks in (11.10), 267 Common nouns and adjectives (3.5–3.9), Use of in hearings (8.19), 197–198, 372, 27–28 375, 384, 391, 416 Continued (13.37), 286 Vessel names (11.6–11.7), 265–266 Countries, domains (3.19–3.20), 32–33 -cede, -ceed, -sede (5.13), 91 Firm names, 58 Celsius (9.53, 9.62), 235, 247 First words (3.42–3.45), 39–40 see Centerheads ( Heads, center and side). Heads, center and side (3.46–3.54), Chair (3.32), 36, 49 40–42 Chairman (3.35), 37–38, 49 Historic and documentary work (3.57), Chapter: 42 Abbreviation (9.38), 231 Historic events (3.31), 36 Alignment, in contents (15.28), 306 Holidays, etc. (3.24), 34 Capitalization (3.9), 28 Interjections (3.56), 42 Chemical: Organized bodies (3.17–3.18), 30–32 Elements: Particles (3.13–3.16), 30 Atomic numbers (10.16), 261 Proper names (3.2), 27 Compounding (6.43), 106 Derivatives (3.3, 3.4), 27 Numera ls (6.43, 10.16), 106, 261 Religious terms (3.33), 36–37 Symbols (10.16), 261 Scientifi c names (3.26–3.30), 35 Formulas (6.44, 11.12, 12.15), 106, 267, Soil orders (3.29), 35, 72 275 Titles: Symbols: Persons (3.34–3.37), 37–38 Preparing copy (2.33–2.34), 14 Publications, etc. (3.38–3.41), 38–39 Set in roman (10.16), 261 Trade names and trademarks (3.25), 35, Church (3.33), 36–37 74 And state (3.19), 32, 50 Capitalization Examples (Chapter 4), Ciphers: 43–77 Leaderwork (14.7–14.8), 300 Capitals, foreign, 325–331 Numerals (12.9d), 271 Capitals, U.S., 322–324, 348–369 Tabular work (13.29–13.36), 285–286 Capitol, 49 Citations: Caps and small caps: Abbreviations (9.42, 9.43, 9.45), 232, 233 Abbreviation (1.22), 4–5, 239 Biblical, etc. (8.28), 199 Article, section (9.39), 232 Italic (11.3, 11.8), 265, 266 Capitalization, in heads (3.46–3.49, Punctuation (8.96, 8.97), 210 3.51–3.54), 40–41, 41–42 Cities, U.S., 322–324 Congressional work, 418 Civil and military titles: Datelines, addresses, and signatures Abbreviations (9.29–9.37), 226–231 (9.37, 16.3), 231, 309 Capitalization (3.34–3.37), 37–38 Figure (2.71, 8.112), 18, 213 Plurals (5.8), 87–88 cation Heads spaced with regular justifi Coast (3.22), 34 spaces (2.50), 16 Coast Guard, 50, 227–230 Names, surnames (3.47–3.48), 40 Index.indd 435 Index.indd 435 1/27/09 10:02:25 AM 1/27/09 10:02:25 AM

450 436 Index xes, and combining forms xes, suffi Prefi Code (3.38), 38–39 (6.29– 6.35), 102–104 Colon (8.23–8.33), 198–200 Short prefi xes (6.7), 96 ecting use of numerals (12.8), 270 Aff Scientifi c and technical terms (6.42– Aft er salutations (8.25, 16.15), 199, 312 6.45), 106 Biblical and bibliographic citations (8.28, Solid compounds (6.8–6.14), 96–98 8.29, 12.7), 199, 270 Unit modifi ers (6.15–6.28), 98–102 Capitalization following (3.42, 3.44, 8.23, 8.24), 39, 40, 198–199 Units of measurement (6.45), 106 Ratio (8.32, 8.33), 199, 200 Congressional: Subentries (8.27, 14.15), 199, 301 Abbreviations (9.41–9.43, 13.11), 232–233, 282 Colony (3.19), 32 Capitalization (3.17), 30–32 Combining forms (6.29–6.35), 102–104 Ordinals (12.10–12.11), 274–275 Comma (8.34–8.49), 200–202 Congressional Record (Chapter 19), Chemical formulas (6.44), 106 371–416 Compound sentences (8.43), 201 Addresses and signatures, 383–384 Omitted (8.50–8.59), 202–204 Call of the House, 382 Semicolon, used with (8.145), 218 Capitalization, 373–374 Commandant (9.30), 230 Caps and small caps, 376–377 Commander in Chief (3.35), 37–38 Committee of the Whole House on the Compounding (6.40), 105 State of the Union, 398–400 Plural (5.8), 87–88 Conference report and statement, Commission (3.17), 30–32 400–401 Committee, 51–52 Credits, 384 Company: Extensions of Remarks, 386 Abbreviation (9.25–9.26), 225–226 Extracts, 385–386 Ampersand with (9.25), 225–226 Figures, 374 List, 52 Forms of titles, 382–383 Compass directions: General rules, 371–372 Abbreviations (9.50), 235 In gross or en gros, 376 Capitalization (3.22), 33–34 Italic, 374–375 Compound words (6.14), 98 Miscellaneous, 375–376 Land description (9.20–9.21), 225 Parentheses and brackets, 378–379 (7.1–7.14), Compounding Examples Poetry, 384–385 109–191 Proceedings: Compounding Rules (6.1– 6.52), 95–107 House, 394–398 Chemical terms (6.42–6.44), 106 Senate, 387–393 Civil and military titles (6.40–6.41), 105 Punctuation, 377–378 Fractions (6.38, 12.26–12.28), 105, 279 Samples, 376–405 General rules (6.4–6.7), 95–96 Speech heads, 386 Improvised compounds (6.46–6.52), Tabular matter and leaderwork, 374 106 –107 Text headings, 386 Numerical compounds (6.36–6.39, 12.9o), 104–105, 274 Title 44, U.S.C., IV, 371 Index.indd 436 Index.indd 436 1/27/09 10:02:25 AM 1/27/09 10:02:25 AM

451 Index 437 Paper stock (1.16), 2, 3 Vo t i n g : House and Committee of the Whole, Paragraph, begin with (1.4), 1 379–381 Proofreader’s marks (1.22), 4–5 Pairs, 382 Proper names, signatures, etc., plainly Yeas and nays, 381–382 marked (1.5), 1 Congressional Record Index, 406–416 Reprint, in duplicate (1.3), 1 Abbreviations and acronyms, 406–409 Style sheets furnished (1.11), 2 Capitalization, 409–411 Trim size (1.11, 1.17), 2 Flush cap lines, 412 Typewritten, one side only (1.3), 1 General instructions, 406 Corrections: Punctuation, 411 Author’s (1.19–1.20), 2 Roman and italic, 412 Proofreading (2.79–2.80), 19 Samples, 413–416 Counties and geographic divisions, 348–369 Spacing, 409 Common misspellings, 369–370 Congressional work: Cover: Back title, 428, 430 Kind to be indicated (1.13, 2.5), 2, 10 Cover and title pages, 423–426, 429, 431–432 Report sample, 8 Joint explanatory statement, 427 Crown (3.35), 37–38, 54 Reports and hearings (2.39), 15, 417–432 Money), 334–338 also Currency ( see Consonants: D A, an, before (5.16–5.19), 92 Dagger (13.68–13.69, 15.14), 290, 304 Doubled (5.14, 5.15), 92 Hyphen, to avoid tripling (6.7), 96 Dash (8.60–8.75), 204–206 Contents (15.20–15.30), 305–307 Em dash (8.60–8.70), 204–205 Part of book (2.3i, 2.12), 10, 11 En dash (8.72–8.75), 206 Type (15.28–15.30), 306–307 Figures, letters (8.72–8.73, 9.12, 12.7), 206, 223, 270 Contractions, apostrophe to indicate (8.11, 8.12), 195, 196 Not to be used for and (8.75), 206 Preparing copy): see also Copy ( to Not to be used for (8.74, 13.111), 206, 295 Blank pages, avoid more than two (1.15), 2 Proportion (8.32), 199 Corrections marked (1.19–1.20), 2 Tabu la r work). see Date columns ( Covers to be indicated (1.13), 2 Datelines, Addresses, and Signatures (16 .1–16 . 2 8), 3 0 9 –319 Fold-ins, avoid use of (1.14), 2 Dates: Folioing looseleaf or perforated work (1.12), 2 Abbreviations (9.44–9.46, 13.5), 233, 281 Footnote references (1.7), 1 A.D., B.C. (8.52, 12.9c), 203, 271 Illustrations: Commas with (8.49, 8.52, 12.9c), 202, 203, 271 Instructions (1.8), 1 En dash (8.73–8.75, 12.9c), 206, 271 Position (1.8), 1 Ordinals in (12.10), 274 Separate sheets (1.8), 1 Roman numerals (12.29), 280 Legible (1.2), 1 Tabular work (13.5), 281 Numbering (1.3), 1 Index.indd 437 Index.indd 437 1/27/09 10:02:25 AM 1/27/09 10:02:25 AM

452 438 Index E Days: Abbreviations (9.46), 233 Earth (3.30), 35 Holidays, etc. (3.24), 34 Editorial marks (illustration) (1.22), 4–5 Decimal inches, converted to, 341 Editors and authors, suggestions (1.1–1.22), Decimals: 1–5 Alignment (2.27, 13.31), 13, 285 E.g., 252 Ciphers with (13.29–13.33), 285 Ellipses (8.76–8.82), 207–208 Comma omitted (8.54), 203 Email, email (11.16), 57, 268 Used with numerals (12.9d), 271 Emphasis, italic not used (11.2), 265 Decorations, medals, etc., 54 Emphasis added, etc. (11.4), 265 Decree: Equations (10.8–10.15), 260 Executive, 57 Esq., abbreviation (9.32, 9.33, 9.37), 230, 231 Royal (3.38), 38–39, 54 Et al., 252 Degree mark: Et cetera, etc. (2.28), 13, 252 Repeated (10.6), 259 Et seq. (11.3), 252, 265 Spacing (12.9f), 272 Even space aft er sentences (2.49), 16 With fi gures (9.50–9.51, 9.53, 10.6, 12.9f ), Everyone, every one (6.12), 98 235, 259, 272 Ex- (6.34), 103 Degrees (scholastic, etc): Exclamation point (8.83–8.85), 208 Abbreviations (9.32, 9.33, 9.35–9.36), 230, Extracts: 231 Footnotes (15.8), 303–304 Closed up (9.7), 222 Quotation marks omitted (2.24), 12 Capitalization (9.36), 231 Sequence of (9.35), 231 F Deity, words denoting (3.33), 36–37, 55 Fahrenheit (9.53), 235, 339 Demonyms (nationalities) (5.22), 93, False title (2.3b), 9 332–334 Federated States of Micronesia (9.12, 9.13), Derivatives: 223, 224, 350 Compounds (6.6), 96 FIC & punc. (2.28, 2.38, 2.41), 13, 14–15 Proper names (3.3–3.4), 27, 55 Figure (2.71, 3.9), 18, 28 Scientifi c names (3.26–3.29), 35 Not abbreviated (9.40), 232 Devil, etc. (3.33), 36–37 Period not used at end (8.112), 213 Diseases and related terms, 55 Numerals). see Figures ( Do. (ditto): Firm names ( Company), 58 also see Leaderwork (14.4, 14.6), 299–300 First words capitalized (3.42–3.45), 39–40 Tabular work (13.41–13.50), 286–287 Flush heads ( Heads, center and side). see Dollar: Fol. lit. (2.38), 14–15 Abbreviation (9.60), 238 Fold-ins, oversize, avoided (1.14), 2 Leaderwork (14.7–14.8), 300 Footnotes, Indexes, Contents, and Mark (9.60, 12.9k), 238, 273 Outlines (15.1–15.31), 303–308 Repeated (10.6), 259 Footnotes and reference marks (15.1– Tabular work (13.51–13.56), 288 15.19), 301–305 Dr. (9.29, 9.33), 226, 230 Comma not used (8.50, 15.19), 202, 305 Not used with other titles (9.33), 230 Index.indd 438 Index.indd 438 1/27/09 10:02:25 AM 1/27/09 10:02:25 AM

453 Index 439 G Follow punctuation (15.18), 305 Footnote added (2.97), 21 General Instructions (2.1–2.130), 7–26 Footnote eliminated (2.96g), 21 Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions (Chapter 18), 343–370 Run across (1.7, 13.71), 1, 290 Geographic divisions, 346–347 Sequence (15.14), 304 Geographic terms, 60 Superior fi gures (13.67, 15.12), 290, 304 Geologic terms, 343 in space (15.12), 304 Th Germany, West, etc. (3.22), 33–34 Indexes and tables of contents (15.20– Gospel, etc. (3.33), 36, 60 15.30), 305–307 Government(s) (3.8, 3.20), 28, 32–33, 60 Leaderwork (14.11–14.13), 301 Departments, capitalization (3.17), 30–32 Outlines (15.31), 307–308 Foreign, 325–331 Tabular work (13.66–13.85), 289–291 Governor (3.35), 37–38 Text (15.1–15.19), 303–305 GPO’s Online Initiatives, ix Foreign: Gravity terms (9.53), 235 Countries: Guam (9.12, 9.13), 223, 224, 352 Abbreviations (9.11), 223 H Capital cities, 325–331 Currency, 334–338 Halft itle: Heads of state, 325–331 Imprint (2.118), 24 Part of book (2.3j), 10 Money, abbreviations (9.60), 238 H-bomb, H-hour (6.51), 61, 107 Nationalities (demonyms), 332–334 Heads, center and side: Rivers, 347 Capitalization (2.30, 3.46–3.54), 13, Word s: 40–42 Accents (5.3, 5.4), 85, 86 Tabular work (13.25–13.27), 284 Compounding (6.24), 101 Heads of state, foreign, 325–331 Italic (11.2), 265 Hearings ( see Reports and Hearings). Foreword (2.3f ), 10 Holidays, etc. (3.24), 34 Fort, 59 Holy Scriptures, etc. (3.33), 36, 62 Not abbreviated (9.19), 225 Honorable, etc. (9.31), 230 State name with (9.12), 223 House, 62 Fractions (12.26–12.28), 279 see also Hyphen ( Compounding Rules): Comma omitted (8.54, 12.9e, 12.27), 203, Chemical formulas (6.43, 6.44), 106 272, 279 Civil and military titles (5.8, 6.40–6.41), 87–88, 105 Hyphen in (6.38–6.39), 105 Compass directions (6.14), 98 Land descriptions (9.20–9.22), 225 Division at end of line (8.87), 209 Spelled out (6.38, 12.26), 105, 279 Fractions (12.26, 12.28), 279 Tabular work (13.86–13.87), 291–292 Numerical compounds (6.36–6.39, Alignment (13.63), 289 12.9o), 104–105, 274 Franking privilege (2.129), 25 Prefi xes, suffi xes, and combining forms Frontispiece (2.3a), 9 (6.7, 6.29–6.35, 7.10–7.11), 96, 102–104, -ful, words ending in (5.9, 6.30), 88, 103 110 Index.indd 439 Index.indd 439 1/27/09 10:02:25 AM 1/27/09 10:02:25 AM

454 440 Index Information technology acronyms (9.64), c terms (6.42–6.44), 106 Scientifi 255 State abbreviations (8.72, 9.12), 206, 223 Infra: ers (6.15–6.28), 98–102 Unit modifi Italic (11.3), 265 Not used when meaning is clear (6.16), Not abbreviated (9.49), 235 99 Integral sign (10.14), 260 I Interjections: Ibid, id. (11.3), 252, 265 Capitalization (3.56), 42 -ible, words ending in (5.11, 6.30), 89–91, Exclamation point (8.83–8.85), 208 103 Introduction (2.3f), 10 i.e., 252 -ise, -ize, -yze (5.12), 91 Illustrations: (11.1–11.16), 265–268 Italic Makeup (2.3i, 2.12, 2.18), 10, 11, 12 (11. 6), 2 65 –2 6 6 Aircraft Separate sheets (1.8), 1 Ante, post (11.3), 265 Imprints (2.115–2.120), 24 Continued from (11.11), 267 Signature marks (2.101–2.112), 22–23 Credit line (8.66), 205 Improvised compounds (6.46–6.52), Datelines, addresses, and signatures 106 –107 (16 . 5 –16 . 2 6), 3 0 9 –319 Inches, picas converted to, 341 Emphasis (11.2), 265 see Indentions ( Overruns) (2.60–2.66), also Equations (10.7–10.8, 11.12–11.13), 260, 17–18 267–268 Datelines, addresses, and signatures Fol. lit., etc. (2.38), 14–15 (16 . 5 –16 . 2 8), 3 0 9 –319 Foreign words, etc. (11.2–11.3), 265 Do. (13.41–13.50), 286–287 Inferior letters (10.8, 11.12), 260, 267 Extracts (2.24), 12 Infra, supra (11.3), 265 Footnote tables (13.84), 291 Italic supplied, etc. (11.4), 268 Hanging (2.62–2.63), 17 Legal cases (11.8), 266 Heads (2.65–2.66), 18 Legends (2.73, 11.14), 18, 268 Paragraphs (2.60–2.61), 17 Nth degree (11.12), 267 Index (15.20–15.30), 305–307 Paragraphs and sections, indicating Entries (15.27), 306 (11.15), 2 6 8 Part of book (2.3n), 10 Provided, Resolved, etc. (3.45, 11.11), 40, 267 Plural form (5.10), 88–89 To be followed (11.5), 265 Roman numerals (15.22), 305 Publications, titles of (11.2), 265 See, see also (11.11, 15.20), 267, 305 Salutations (8.25, 16.14), 199, 312 gures and letters: Inferior fi c names (11.9–11.10), 267 Scientifi Chemical elements (6.43), 106 See, see also (11.11, 15.20), 267, 305 Chemical formulas (10.16, 11.12, 12.15), 261, 267, 275 Symbols (2.73, 11.12–11.14), 18, 267–268 Equations (10.8), 260 Tabular work (13.95–13.96), 293 Italic (10.8, 11.12), 260, 267 Units of quantity (13.123, 14.14), 298, 301 v. (11.8), 26 6 Precede superiors (10.15), 260 Vessels (11.6–11.7, 13.95), 265–266, 293 Preparing (2.33), 14 Index.indd 440 Index.indd 440 1/27/09 10:02:26 AM 1/27/09 10:02:26 AM

455 Index 441 X dollars (11.12), 267 Footnotes (14.11–14.13), 301 -ize, -ise, -yze (5.12), 91 Units of quantity (14.14–14.20), 301–302 Leading and spacing (2.48–2.59), 16–17 J Leading: Journals (2.2), 7–9 Datelines, addresses, and signatures Jr., Sr.: (16 .4), 3 0 9 Abbreviation (9.32, 9.34), 230 Extracts (2.54–2.57), 17 Index entries (15.27), 306 Footnotes (2.58), 17 Punctuation (8.39, 9.34), 200, 230 Legends (2.59), 17 Type (9.37, 16.3), 231, 309 Line of stars (8.79), 207 Page, section, etc., over fi gure columns K (15. 21), 3 05 King (3.34), 37 Tabular work, boxheads (13.18), 282 Known as (8.128), 215 Tabular work, centerheads (13.25), 284 Tabular work, footnotes (13.66), 289 L Spacing: Land area abbreviations (9.56), 236–237 Abbreviations with points (9.6), 221 Land descriptions (9.20–9.22, 12.9f ), 225, Ampersand (9.7), 222 272 Article, section (9.39), 232 Latin abbreviations (9.63, 11.3), 251–255, Citations (8.28), 199 265 Clock time (8.26, 12.9b), 199, 271 Latitude, longitude: Colon (8.23–8.33), 198–200 Abbreviated (9.51, 13.9), 235, 281 Datelines, addresses, and signatures Division at end of line (9.52), 235 (16 .4), 3 0 9 Spaces omitted (9.51, 12.9f ), 235, 272 Degrees, academic (9.7, 9.32–9.33, Law (3.40), 39 9.35–9.36), 222, 230, 231 Leaders: Ellipses (8.76), 207–208 Abbreviation before (8.123, 13.13), 214, Footnote references (8.50, 15.12, 282 15,19), 202, 304, 305 Leaderwork (14.1), 299 Footnote symbols (13.69, 15.12), 290, Tabular work (13.97–13.101), 293–294 304 Leaderwork (14 .1–14 . 2 0) ( see also Tabu la r Footnotes, two or more (2.19), 12 Work), 299–302 Heads, center, side (2.50), 16 Bearoff (14 . 2), 29 9 Initials, personal name (9.7), 222 Clears (14.9), 300 gures in parentheses (2.40, Letters or fi Columns (14.3–14.4), 299–300 8.94), 15, 209 Continued heads (14.5), 300 Mathematical signs (10.3), 259 nition (14.1), 299 Defi Names, space aft er in small cap heads (3.13–3.16, 3.47–3.48), 30, 40 Do. (14.6), 300 Particles (3.48), 40–41 Dollar mark and ciphers (14.7–14.8), 300 Question mark (8.124–8.126), 214–215 Double up (14.19), 302 Quotation marks (8.127–8.144), Examples (14.15–14.20), 301–302 215–218 Flush items and subheads (14.9–14.10), Section mark (10.6), 259 300 Index.indd 441 Index.indd 441 1/27/09 10:02:26 AM 1/27/09 10:02:26 AM

456 442 Index Market grades (3.25), 35 Stars (8.79), 207 Symbols with fi gures (10.6), 259 Marshall Islands (9.12, 9.13), 223, 224, 356 Legal cases: Mathematical equations (10.8–10.15), 260 Capitalization (3.11), 29 Signs (10.2, 10.3, 10.18), 259, 262, 264 Italic (11.8), 266 Measurement: Legends (2.67–2.73), 18 Abbreviations (9.56–9.58), 236–237 Italic symbols (2.73, 11.14), 18, 268 Conversion table, 341 Leading (2.59), 17 Metric equivalents, 339–341 Makeup (2.68, 2.72, 2.96f ), 18, 21 Numerals (12.9j), 272–273 Punctuation (2.70, 8.112), 18, 213 Symbols (9.62), 247–251 Ty p e (2 . 6 9), 18 Decorations). see Medals ( Legislative bodies, foreign, 325–331 Meridians and base lines, 346–347 Letter of transmittal (2.3e), 10 Messrs. (9.29), 226 Looseleaf work, “blue” folios marked (1.12), Meteorology signs/symbols (10.18), 2 262–264 -ly, words ending in (6.20), 100 Metric: Abbreviations (9.56–9.57), 236–237 M Equivalents, 339, 340 M., Mlle., etc. (9.29), 226 Military: Magnifi cation symbol (10.3), 259 Dates (8.52, 12.9c), 203, 271 Magnitudes (9.59), 237 Installations, State name with (9.12), 223 Makeup (2.3–2.19), 9–12 Time (12.9b, 12.14), 271, 275 Backstrips, run down (2.20), 12 Titles: Facing pages (2.7), 11 Abbreviations (9.29), 226–230 Fold-ins to be avoided (1.14), 2 Capitalization (3.35), 37–38 Footnotes: Enlisted rank, 228–230 Leaderwork (14.11–14.13), 301 cer rank, 226–228 Offi Tabular references repeated (2.13, Units, ordinals used (12.10), 274 13.70), 11, 290 Millimeters, converted to, 341 Tabular sample, 301 Million, etc.: Tabular work (2.98), 21 Roman numerals (12.29), 280 Text (15.9–15.11), 304 gures with (12.24), 278–279 Use of fi Illustrations (2.67–2.73), 18 Minute: Parts of book (2.3), 9–10 Abbreviation (9.58), 237 Roman numerals (2.4), 10 Running heads and folios (2.10–2.11), 11 Latitude, longitude (9.51–9.52, 12.9f ), 235, 272 Signature marks, imprints, etc. (2.101– 2.112, 2.115–2.128), 22–23, 24–25 Time (12.9b, 12.9n), 271, 273 Signatures, jobs over 4 pages (1.15), 2 Astronomical (9.59, 12.9b), 237, 271 Avoid over 2 blank pages (1.15), 2 Money: Sink (2.8), 11 Abbreviations and symbols (9.60, 12.9k), 238, 273, 334–338 Title pages (2.5), 10 Decimals (12.9k), 273 Widow lines (2.6), 10 Marine Corps, 64, 227–230 Fractions (12.26–12.28), 279 Index.indd 442 Index.indd 442 1/27/09 10:02:26 AM 1/27/09 10:02:26 AM

457 Index 443 Mark (#) (10.6, 10.18, 15.15), 259, Months: 262–264, 304 Abbreviations (9.44–9.45, 13.5), 233, 281 (12 .1–12 . 29), 2 69 –2 8 0 Numerals mo (9.58), 237 Age (12.9a), 270 Punctuation (8.52, 8.74, 8.75, 12.9c), 203, 206, 271 Beginning a sentence (12.16), 276 Moon (3.30), 35 Related numerals (12.25), 279 Signs (10.18), 262–264 Chemical elements (6.43, 10.16), 106, 261 Mount, not abbreviated (9.19), 225 Chemical formulas (6.44, 12.15), 106, 275 Mr., Mrs.: Clock time (9.54, 12.9b), 236, 271 Abbreviation, when used (9.29), 226 ecting use (12.8), 270 Colon aff Type (9.37, 16.3), 231, 309 Compound (6.36 – 6.39), 104–105 With other abbreviations (9.33), 230 see Dates ( Dates). Mr. Chairman, etc. (3.37), 38 Decimals (12.9d), 271 Degrees (12.9f), 272 N Equations (10.8–10.15), 260 Names ( Personal names, Natives). see gures (12.4–12.15), Expressed in fi Nation, etc. (3.19, 3.20), 32, 33 269–275 see Demonyms). Nationalities ( Formal writing (12.19), 277 Natives: Fractions ( Fractions). see Foreign countries, 332–334 Game scores (12.9g), 272 States, U.S. (5.23–5.24), 93–94 Hearings, etc. (12.17), 276 Nature (3.32), 36 nite expressions (12.22), 277–278 Indefi Navy, Naval, etc. (3.17), 30–32, 66, 227–230 Land descriptions (9.21), 225 Near East (3.21), 33 Large numbers (12.20, 12.24), 277, 278–279 Newspapers: Market quotations (12.9h), 272 Capitalization (3.38), 38–39 Mathematical expressions (12.9i), 272 Datelines (16.8), 311 Measurement and time (12.9a–12.9o), Italic not used (11.2), 265 270–274 No., Nos. (9.38), 231 gures (12.6), 270 In relation to other fi Not abbreviated (13.22), 283 Money (9.60, 12.9k), 238, 273 Northern Mariana Islands (9.12, 9.13), 223, Ordinals ( see Ordinals). 224, 361 Percentage (12.9l), 273 Note (8.107, 13.53, 13.75), 5, 211–212, 288, 290, 334, 347 Proportion or ratio (12.9m), 273 Nouns: Punctuation (8.48, 8.109–8.110, 12.14), 202, 212, 275 Capitalization (3.5–3.10, 3.49), 27–29, 40 see Roman numerals). Roman ( Compounding (6.8–6.11), 96–97 Serial (12.7), 270 Nationalities, foreign, 332–334 Single: Plural forms (5.5–5.10), 86–89 10 or more (12.4), 269 States, natives of (5.23), 93 Under 10 (12.23), 278 Nth degree (11.12), 267 Unit of measurement, etc. (12.6), 270 Number: Spelled out (12.16–12.25), 276–279 No.). see Abbreviation ( Tabular work (13.102), 294 Chemical elements (10.16), 261 Index.indd 443 Index.indd 443 1/27/09 10:02:26 AM 1/27/09 10:02:26 AM

458 444 Index Abbreviation (9.38), 231 Time (12.9n), 273 Unit modifi ers (6.23, 6.36–6.37, 6.39, Numbers (2.4, 15.22, 15.30), 10, 305, 307 12.9o), 101, 104, 105, 274 Palau (9.12, 9.13), 223, 224, 363 Vitamins (12.9p), 274 Paper stock (1.16), 2, 3 With abbreviations (9.5, 13.4), 221, 281 Paragraph (3.9), 28 Abbreviation (9.38), 231 O Mark (¶) (10.6), 259 O, Oh: Paragraphs: Capitalization (3.56), 42 Brackets, more than one paragraph Exclamation point (8.84, 8.85), 208 (8.22), 198 -o, words ending in (5.5), 86 Indention (2.60–2.61), 17 Occident, etc. (3.21, 3.22), 33–34 Overruns (2.62–2.63), 17 O’clock (9.55, 12.9b), 236, 271 Italic letters indicating (11.15), 268 Offi ce (3.17), 30–32, 66–67 Numbering sequence (8.108), 212 Op. cit. (11.3), 254, 265 Parentheses (8.91–8.102), 209–211 Order (3.38), 38–39 Abbreviations in (9.2), 221 Ordered (3.45, 11.11), 40, 267 Citations or references (9.45), 233 Ordinals (12.10–12.13, 13.102), 274–275, 294 Congressional (9.41–9.43), 232–233 Beginning with 10th (12.10), 274 Latitude, longitude (9.51), 235 In relation to other ordinals or numerals Parts of publications (9.38), 231 (12.11), 274–275 Steamships, railroads (9.27), 226 Leaderwork (12.13), 275 Alignment in tables (13.59, 13.63), 289 Military units (12.10), 274 Byline (8.101), 211 Street address (12.13, 13.6), 275, 281 Chemical formulas (6.44), 106 Tabular work (12.13, 13.102), 275, 294 Clauses (8.92), 209 Orient, etc. (3.21, 3.22), 33–34 Closed up (2.40, 8.94, 8.98), 15, 209, 210 Outlines: Column numbers or letters (13.23), 283 Indentions (15.31), 307–308 Enclose letters or fi gures (8.94), 209 Numbering sequence (15.31), 307–308 Equations (10.14), 260 see Overruns ( Indentions): also Explanatory word (8.93), 209 Addresses, datelines, and signatures More than one paragraph (8.102), 211 (16. 5, 16.26), 309 –310, 316 –319 Not part of main statement (8.91), 209 Center, side heads (2.65–2.66), 18 Paragraph sequence (8.108), 212 Hanging indentions (2.62–2.63), 17 Ty p e (8 .15 0), 219 Indexes (15.23–15.25), 305–306 Verifying numbers (8.95, 12.18), 210, 276 Leaderwork (14.4), 299–300 With punctuation (8.96–8.102), 210–211 Paragraphs (2.60–2.66), 17 Part (3.9), 28 Tabular work (13.90–13.94), 292–293 Abbreviation (9.38), 231 Total, mean, and average lines Particles (3.13–3.16), 30 (13.92–13.94), 292–293 Parts of books: P Abbreviations (9.38–9.40), 231–232 Capitalization (3.9, 3.38, 3.39), 28, 38–39 Pact (3.38), 38–39 Makeup (2.3), 9–10 Page (3.9), 28 Index.indd 444 Index.indd 444 1/27/09 10:02:26 AM 1/27/09 10:02:26 AM

459 Index 445 Particles (3.13–3.16), 30 Quotation marks (8.129), 215–216 Variations (8.119, 9.23–9.24), 214, 225 Percent (5.2), 79 cation (3.32), 36 Personifi Mark (10.18, 15.15), 262–264, 304 Use of fi gures (12.9l), 273 Physics, signs and symbols (10.18), 262–264 Period (8.103–8.123), 211–214 Physiographic regions, 344–345 Abbreviations (8.111, 9.6–9.7), 213, Pica conversion table, 341 221–222 Pickup matter (2.31), 13 er article, section, etc. (8.113), 213 Aft Correcting (2.45), 16 Boxheads (8.115), 213 Place: Decimals (8.109, 12.9d, 13.29–13.32), 212, Abbreviation (9.16, 13.6), 224, 281 271, 285 Ordinals (12.13, 13.6), 275, 281 Declarative sentence (8.103), 211 Planets (3.30), 35 Ellipses (8.76, 8.78), 207 Plate (3.9), 28 Explanatory matter within parentheses Abbreviation (9.38), 231 (8.122), 214 Numbers aligned (15.28), 306 Indirect question (8.104), 211 Plurals: In lieu of parentheses (8.105), 211 Apostrophe (8.7, 8.11), 194, 195–196 Inside-outside quotation marks (8.141– Coined (8.11), 195–196 8.142), 217 Common noun as part of proper name Legends (2.70, 8.112), 18, 213 (3.8), 28 Letters used as names (8.117), 213–214 Compound words (5.6–5.8), 87–88 Metric abbreviations (9.56–9.57), Irregular (5.10), 88–89 236–237 Latin names (3.28), 35 Middle initial not abbreviation (8.118), gures (8.11), 195–196 Letters and fi 214 Nouns ending in -ful (5.9), 88 Multiplication (8.114), 213 Nouns ending in -o (5.5), 86 Omitted (8.115–8.123, 9.3, 13.13, 15.23), 213–214, 221, 282, 305–306 Of words (8.13), 196 Overruns, in indexes (15.23), 305–306 Poetry: Roman numerals (8.120), 214 Alignment and indention (8.134), 216–217 Run-in sideheads (8.107), 211–212 Capitalization of titles (3.39), 39 Short name not abbreviation (8.119, 9.23), 214, 225 Congressional Record, 382–383 Symbols (8.115), 213 Credit line (8.66), 205 To indicate thousands (8.110), 212 Quotation marks (3.39, 8.129, 8.134), 39, 215–217 Words and incomplete statements (8.121), 214 Point, not abbreviated (9.19), 225 Periodicals, titles of: Points, converted to, 341 Capitalization (3.38–3.39, 3.41), 38–39 Political parties (3.17), 30–32, 68 Italic not used (11.2), 265 Adherents (3.18), 32, 68 Makeup (2.2, 2.3), 7–10 Port, not abbreviated (9.19), 225 Personal names: Possessions, U.S. (9.12–9.14), 223–224, 348–367 Abbreviations followed (8.119, 9.23– 9.24), 214, 225 Possessives and apostrophes ( see Apostrophes and possessives). Initials set without space (9.7), 222 Index.indd 445 Index.indd 445 1/27/09 10:02:26 AM 1/27/09 10:02:26 AM

460 446 Index Presidents and Vice Presidents, U.S., Post (11.3), 265 321–322 Post Offi ce, 68 Pronouns: Box, as part of address, 68 Compounding (6.12, 6.13), 98 Directory of Post Offi ces (5.20), 93 Possessive (8.8–8.9), 194, 195 ZIP Code numbers (8.51, 16.1), 203, 309 Proofreader’s marks (1.22), 4–5 see Money, Number). Pound mark ( Proofreading (2.74–2.87), 18–20 Preface (2.3g, 2.12), 10, 11 Proofs: xes (6.7, 6.29–6.35), 96, 102–104 Prefi Clean (2.46, 2.96a), 16, 21 Metric (9.56), 236–237 Department (1.18–1.20), 2 Preliminary pages (2.3–2.4), 9–10 Proportion (8.32, 12.9m), 199, 273 Roman numerals for (2.4), 10 Provided, etc.: Preparing copy: Capitalization following (3.45), 40 Abbreviations spelled out (2.43), 15 Italic (3.45, 11.11), 40, 267 Bill style (2.41), 15 Province (3.19), 32 Capitalization (2.25, 2.35), 12, 14 Not abbreviated (9.15), 224 Copy kept clean (2.46), 16 Public Law, etc. (3.38), 38–39 Cut-in notes (2.32), 14 Not abbreviated (9.41, 9.43), 232, 233 Datelines, addresses, and signatures (2.26), 13 Publications ( see Periodicals). Addresses (16.9–16.16), 311–313 GPO (1.21), 3 Datelines (16.5–16.8), 309–311 Puerto Rico (9.12, 9.13), 223, 224, 364 Signatures (16.17–16.26), 313–319 (8.1–8.150), 193–219 Punctuation Decimals (2.27), 13 Abbreviations: Et cetera, etc. (2.28), 13 Omitted (8.123, 9.3, 13.13), 214, 221, 282 Extracts (2.24), 12 When used (8.39, 9.6), 200, 221 FIC & punc., Fol. lit. (2.38–2.42), 14–15 Apostrophe (8.3–8.18), 193–197 Figures (2.38, 2.40), 15 Brackets (8.19–8.22), 197–198 Folioing and stamping (2.29), 13 Colon (8.23–8.33), 198–200 Footnotes and reference marks: Comma (8.34–8.59), 200–204 Tabular work (13.66–13.85), 289–291 er abbreviations (8.39), Before and aft Text (15.1–15.19), 303–305 200 Heads (2.30, 3.46–3.54), 13, 40–42 Omitted (8.50–8.59), 202–204 Instructions to be followed (2.42, 11.5), Used (8.34–8.49), 200–202 15, 177 Dash (em) (8.60–8.70), 204–205 Italic (2.26, 2.38), 13, 14 Not used (8.69–8.70), 205 Pickup (2.31), 13 Used (8.60–8.68), 204–205 Plurals (2.36, 8.13), 14, 196 Dash (en) (8.72–8.75), 206 Punctuation followed (2.38–2.42), 14–15 Not used (8.74–8.75), 206 Sidenotes (2.32), 14 Used (8.72–8.73), 206 Signs, symbols, etc. (2.33–2.34), 14 Ellipses (8.76–8.82), 207–208 Type to indicate shape (2.35–2.37), 14 Prepositions (3.49), 40 Exclamation point (8.83–8.84), 208 In compound nouns (6.47), 107 Function (8.1, 8.2), 193 Index.indd 446 Index.indd 446 1/27/09 10:02:26 AM 1/27/09 10:02:26 AM

461 Index 447 Hyphen (8.86–8.90), 208–209 Misnomers, slang, etc. (8.132), 216 Compounding (6.1–6.52), 95–107 More than one paragraph (8.130), 216 Legends (2.70, 8.112), 18, 213 Poetry, alignment (8.134), 216–217 Numerals (12.14), 275 Precede footnote references (8.143), 217 Parentheses (8.91–8.102), 209–211 Punctuation with (8.47, 8.141, 8.142), 202, 217 Period (8.103–8.123), 211–214 c names (11.10), 267 Scientifi Omitted (8.115–8.123), 213–214 Spacing (8.133, 8.144), 216, 218 Used (8.103–8.114), 211–213 Tabular work (13.124), 298 Question mark (8.124–8.126), 214–215 Th in space (8.133), 216 Quotation marks (8.127–8.144), 215–218 Ve s s e l s (11. 7, 11. 8), 2 6 6 Not used (8.134–8.144), 216–218 Used (8.127–8.133), 215–216 Quotations: Semicolon (8.145–8.148), 218 Capitalization (3.42, 3.43), 39 Sentence (2.49), 16 Comma before (8.35), 200 Single (8.124, 8.149), 214, 219 Ellipses (8.76–8.82), 207–208 Q R Quantity ( see Units of quantity). Railroads, abbreviated (9.27, 13.8), 226, 281 Quart (9.58), 237 Footnotes and see Reference marks ( references). Metric equivalent, 339, 340 Reference materials, GPO (1.21), 3 Quasi-, ex-, self- (6.34), 103 Region (3.9), 28 Queen (3.35), 37, 38 Queries: Ordinals (12.10), 274 Department must answer (1.20), 2 Regular, etc. (3.17), 30–32, 69 Not to be set (2.47), 16 Related numbers: Proofreading (2.75–2.78), 19 Group (12.5, 12.25), 269–270, 279 Question mark (8.124–8.126), 214–215 Ordinals (12.10–12.12), 274–275 Closed up (8.126), 215 Religious terms (3.33), 36–37, 69 Direct query (8.45, 8.124), 202, 214 Report (3.38, 3.39), 38–39, 70 Doubt (8.125, 8.126), 214–215 With quotation marks (3.39, 8.129), 39, 215–216 With quotation marks (8.141, 8.144), 217, 218 Reports and Hearings (Chapter 20), Quotation marks (8.127–8.144), 215–218 417–432 Addresses, books, etc. (8.129), 215–216 Samples, 419–432 Called, so-called, etc. (8.128), 215 Representative (3.18), 32 Direct quotations (8.127), 215 Not abbreviated (9.30), 230 Display initial with (8.140), 217 Reprint: Double, single, double (8.144), 218 “All roman (no italic)” exceptions (11.5), 265 Entitled, marked, etc. (8.128), 215 Dates (2.113–2.114), 23 Extracts, omitted (2.24, 8.138), 12, 217 Pickup (2.31), 13 Indirect quotations (8.139), 217 Signature marks (2.114), 23 Letters within a letter (8.131), 216 Complete letter (8.137), 217 Republic (3.19), 32 Index.indd 447 Index.indd 447 1/27/09 10:02:26 AM 1/27/09 10:02:26 AM

462 448 Index Reservation (3.5), 27–28 Compounding (6.42–6.45), 106 Italic (11.9–11.10, 13.95), 267, 293 State name with (9.12), 223 Quotation marks with (11.10), 267 Resolution (3.38), 38–39 Set in roman (11.9), 267 Abbreviation (9.42, 13.11), 232, 282 Scriptures, etc. (3.33), 36–37 Resolved, etc. (3.45), 40 Seaboard (3.22), 33–34 Italic (3.45, 11.11), 40, 267 Seal (16.27, 16.28), 319 Reverend, etc. (9.31), 230 Seasons (3.23), 34 Revising (2.88–2.100), 20–22 2d, 3d, etc.: Galley (2.88–2.91), 20 Comma omitted before (8.39, 8.59, 9.32), Page (2.92–2.98), 20–21 200, 204, 230 Press (2.99–2.100), 22 Ordinals (12.10–12.11), 274–275 Rivers, 347 Type (9.32, 16.3), 230, 309 Road: Secretary, etc. (3.35), 37–38, 71 Abbreviation (9.16, 13.6), 224, 281 General, 71 Ordinals (12.13, 13.6), 275, 281 No hyphen (6.40), 105 Roman numerals: Plural form (5.8), 87–88 Army corps (12.10), 274 Section (3.9), 28, 71 Figure columns: Abbreviation (9.38, 13.10), 231, 281 Indexes and contents (15.22), 305 Not abbreviated (9.39), 232 Tabular work (13.62), 289 Caps and small caps (9.39), 232 List (12.29), 280 Italic to indicate (11.15), 268 Not preferred (12.3), 269 Roman, over fi gure column (15.21), 305 Period: Section mark (§): Aligned in contents (15.28), 306 Footnote reference (15.14), 304 er (8.120), 214 Not used aft er (10.6), 259 Space aft Preliminary pages (2.4), 10 -sede, -cede, -ceed (5.13), 91 Royal titles (3.34, 3.35, 3.37), 37–38 See, see also: Rules in tables (2.23, 13.3), 12, 281 Italic (11.11, 15.20), 267, 305 Running heads: Roman (13.96), 293 Copy for, supplied (1.19), 2 See footnote, etc. (15.4), 303 Ma keup (2 .10 –2 .11), 11 Self-, ex-, quasi- (6.34), 103 Period omitted (8.115), 213 Semicolon (8.145–8.148), 218 S ce (8.148), Avoid, where comma will suffi 218 Sales notices (2.121–2.122), 24 Before summarizing matter (8.147), 218 Salutation: Clauses containing commas (8.145), 218 Capitalization (3.55, 16.15), 42, 312 Senate, 71 er (8.25, 16.15), 199, 312 Colon aft Senator, 71 Italic (8.25, 16.14), 199, 312 Not abbreviated (9.30), 230 c terms: Scientifi Serial: Abbreviations, punctuation omitted Letter, italic (11.15), 268 (9.3), 221 Parentheses (8.94), 209 Capitalization (3.26–3.29), 35 Index.indd 448 Index.indd 448 1/27/09 10:02:27 AM 1/27/09 10:02:27 AM

463 Index 449 cation (10.3), 259 ×, crossed with, magnifi Numbers: Single punctuation (8.124, 8.149), 214, 219 Comma omitted (8.54, 12.14), 203, 275 Sink (2.8), 11 Figures used (12.7), 270 Small caps: Parentheses (8.94), 209 Etc., et al. (3.53), 41 Session: Heads spaced with regular justifi cation Abbreviation (9.41, 13.11), 232, 282 spaces (2.50), 16 Ordinals (9.41, 13.11), 232, 282 Italic inferior letters (10.8), 260 Shape, letters used (2.35–2.37), 14 Proper names (3.47–3.48), 40–41 Shilling mark, in fractions (12.27), 279 Roman numerals (2.4, 15.22), 10, 305 Sign (10.18), 262–264 Seal (16.27–16.28), 319 Signature marks (2.101–2.112), 22–23 v., lowercase in legal cases (11.8), 266 Signatures: Soil orders (3.29), 35, 72 Abbreviations (9.24, 16.19), 225, 313 Someone, some one (6.12), 98 Capitalization (3.55, 16.2), 42, 309 see Spacing ( Leading and spacing). Caps and small caps (9.37), 231 (5.1–5.26), 79–94 Spelling Examples (16.17–16.26), 313–319 Anglicized and foreign words (5.3–5.4), Preceded by dash (8.66, 16.17), 205, 313 85–86 Preparation (2.26), 13 Apostrophes and possessives (8.3–8.18), Punctuation (16.23), 314 193–197 Quoted matter (16.25), 316 -cede, -ceed, -sede (5.13), 91 Signed (8.128), 215 Doubled consonants (5.14–5.15), 92 In sig nat u res (16.24), 314 –315 Geographic names (5.20–5.21), 93 Signs and Symbols (10.1–10.18), 259 –2 6 4 Idiomatic phrases (6.52), 107 Chemical: nite articles, use of (5.16–5.19), 92 Indefi Elements (6.43, 10.16), 106, 261 List (5.2), 79–85 Formulas (6.44, 10.15, 12.15), 106, 260, Nationalities (5.22–5.24), 93–94 275 Native American words (5.25), 94 Coined words and symbols (8.11, 9.48), Plural forms (5.5–5.10), 86–89 195, 234 Transliteration (5.26), 94 Degree mark (9.50–9.51, 9.53, 9.56, 10.4, Square, 72 12.9f), 235–236, 259, 272 Abbreviation (9.16, 13.6), 224, 281 Equations (10.8–10.15), 260 Ordinals (12.13, 13.6), 275, 281 Footnote references (15.12–15.19), 304–305 Ellipses). see Stars ( Sequence (15.14), 304 State, etc. (3.19), 32, 73 Foreign money (9.60), 238 Staten Island (9.14), 226 Italic letters (2.73, 10.7–10.8, 11.12–11.14), States (3.6, 3.19, 3.21), 28, 32, 33, 73 18, 260, 267–268 Abbreviations (8.72, 9.12–9.13), 206, Legends (2.73), 18 223–224 List (10.18), 262–264 Capitals, 322–324, 348–370 Mathematical signs (10.2–10.3), 259 Counties, 348–370 Natives of (5.23), 93 Preparing copy (2.33–2.34), 14 Station (3.6, 3.9), 28, 73 Standardized (10.17), 262 State abbreviation with (9.12), 223 Symbol columns (13.115–13.116), 295 Index.indd 449 Index.indd 449 1/27/09 10:02:27 AM 1/27/09 10:02:27 AM

464 450 Index Statutes, etc. (3.38), 38–39 Boxheads (13.18–13.23), 282–283 Horizontal (13.19–13.21), 282 Abbreviations (9.43, 13.11), 233, 282 ush entries, and Centerheads, fl Street, 73 subentries (13.25–13.28), 284 Abbreviation (9.16, 13.6), 224, 281 Ciphers (13.29–13.36), 285–286 Ordinals (12.13, 13.6), 275, 281 Column numbers or letters (13.23), 283 Subentries (8.27, 13.90–13.91, 13.113, 14.15), Continued heads (13.37–13.38), 286 199, 292, 295, 301 Dash instead of colon (13.26), 284 Subheads: Dashes or rules (13.39–13.40), 286 Indexes and contents (15.29), 307 To separate nonmoney groups (13.53), Leaderwork (14.10), 300 288 Suffi xes (6.30–6.31), 103 Date column (13.28), 284 Summation sign (10.14), 260 Decimals, alignment (13.29–13.36, Sun (3.30), 35, 74 13.64), 285–286, 289 Sign (10.18), 262–264 Ditto (Do.) (13.41–13.50), 286–287 gures and letters: Superior fi Closing quotes (13.41), 286 Astrophysical matter (9.59), 237 Divide tables (13.103–13.109), 294 Chemical elements (6.43), 106 Dollar mark (13.51–13.56), 288 Comma omitted (8.50), 202 Figure columns (13.57–13.65), 289 Equations (10.8), 260 Decimals (13.29–13.32, 13.63–13.64), Follow inferiors (10.15), 260 285, 289 Footnote references (13.67, 15.12, 15.17), Footnotes and references (13.66–13.85), 290, 304, 305 289–291 Italic letters (8.50, 10.8, 11.12), 202, 260, Fractions (13.86–13.87), 291–292 267 Hairline rules (2.23), 12 Preparing (2.33), 14 Headnotes (13.88–13.89, 13.104), 292, 294 Ty p e (8 .15 0), 219 Indentions and overruns (13.90–13.94), With punctuation (8.133), 216 292,–293 Supra: Subentries (13.90–13.91), 292 Italic (11.3), 265 Total, mean, and average lines (13.92–13.94), 292–293 Not abbreviated (9.49), 235 Italic (13.95–13.96), 293 Survey (3.17), 30–32 Leaders (13.97–13.101), 293–294 Signs and Symbols). see Symbols ( Leading: T Boxheads, solid in leaded tables (13. 2 0), 2 82 Table ( Useful Tables) (3.9), 28, 74 also see Notes (13.85), 291 Table of contents ( Contents). see see Makeup ( Makeup). also Tabu la r Work (13.1–13.12 4) ( see No. (13.22), 283 Leaderwork), 281–298 None (13.33, 13.35, 13.45), 285, 286, 287 Abbreviations (13.4–13.13), 281–282 Numerals (13.102), 294 Bearoff (13.14–13.17), 282 Parallel tables (13.103–13.109), 294 Leaderwork (14.2–14.4), 299–300 Quoted tables (13.124), 298 Tables without rules (13.117, 13.120), 296, 297–298 Reading columns (13.110–13.114), 295 Index.indd 450 Index.indd 450 1/27/09 10:02:27 AM 1/27/09 10:02:27 AM

465 Index 451 See, see also (13.96), 293 Title page: Subentries (13.90–13.91, 13.113), 292, 295 Back of (2.3d), 10 Symbol columns (13.115–13.116), 295 Congressional back title samples: Tables without rules ( see also Appropriations hearing, 430 Leaderwork) (13.117–13.120), 296–298 Conference report, 428 Total, mean, and average lines (13.92– Imprints, etc. (2.113–2.128), 23–25 13.94), 292–293 Makeup (2.2, 2.3), 7–10 Tracing fi gures (13.107, 13.109), 294 Part of book (2.3c), 9 Type (2.23, 13.3), 12, 281 Period omitted at ends of lines (8.115), Units of quantity (13.121–13.123), 298 213 Spacing (13.28), 284–285 U.S., not abbreviated (9.9), 222–223 Years, spacing (13.28), 284–285 Titles: Technical terms ( c terms). Scientifi see Acts (3.40), 39 Temperature, abbreviations (9.53), 235 Civil and military: Temperature conversion, 339 Abbreviations (9.25, 9.29–9.37), Te r r a c e : 225–226, 226–231 Abbreviation (9.16, 13.6), 224, 281 Compound (6.40–6.41), 105 Ordinals (12.13, 13.6), 275, 281 Plurals (5.8), 87–88 Territory, etc. (3.19), 32, 74 Common nouns (3.35), 37–38 Territories, U.S. (9.12–9.14), 223–224, Foreign books (3.41), 39 348–367 Heads of state, 325–331 Footnotes and see Te x t f o o t n o t e s ( Legal cases (3.38, 11.8), 38–39, 266 references). Persons (3.34–3.37), 37–38 Th e: Publications, papers, etc. (3.38–3.39, Part of speech (3.49), 40 8.129, 11.2), 38–39, 215–216, 265 Title, part of (3.11–3.12, 9.31), 29–30, 230 Second person (3.37), 38 Th in space: To, en dash for (8.74, 12.9c, 12.9m, 13.111), Footnotes (13.69, 15.12), 290, 304 206, 271, 273, 295 Names (3.47, 3.48), 40 To Whom It May Concern (8.25, 16.14), 199, 312 Number mark, not used with (10.6), 259 Tracing fi gures ( see Tabu la r work). Paragraph mark (10.6), 259 Trade names (3.25), 35, 75 Quotation marks (8.133), 216 Treasury, etc. (3.17), 30–32, 75 Section mark (10.6), 259 Treaty (3.9, 3.38), 28, 38–39, 75 Time: Tribu na l (3.17), 30 –32 , 75 Abbreviations (9.54, 9.55, 9.58, 9.59), 236, 237 Tu n n e l , 75 Astronomical (12.9b, 12.14), 271, 275 Ty p e : Capitalization, 74 Boldface, punctuation in (8.150), 219 Clock (12.9n), 273 Brackets (8.150), 219 Geologic, 343 Illustrating shape and form (2.35– 2.37), 14 Military (12.9b, 12.14), 271, 275 Composition: gures (9.59, 12.9b, 12.9n), 237, Use of fi 271, 273 Correcting pickup (2.45), 16 Title (3.9), 28, 75 Proofs, clean (2.46), 16 Index.indd 451 Index.indd 451 1/27/09 10:02:27 AM 1/27/09 10:02:27 AM

466 452 Index USD (9.60), 238, 338 Dash (8.150), 219 Useful Tables (Chapter 17), 321–341 Datelines, addresses, and signatures (16 . 2–16 . 3), 3 0 9 Chemical elements, 261 Extracts (2.24, 8.138), 12, 217 Currency, 334–338 Footnotes (15.5), 303 Demonyms (nationalities), 332–334 Headnotes (2.14, 13.88–13.89), 11, 292 Foreign countries, capitals, chief of state, etc., 325–331 Headings (2.30, 3.46–3.54), 13, 40–42 Geologic time, 343 Indexes and contents (15.20, 15.29– 15.30), 305, 307 Measures, metric, etc., 339–341 Italic (11.1–11.16), 265–268 Meridians and base lines, 346 Vessels (11.6–11.7), 265–266 Military titles, 226–230 Jr., Sr. (9.37, 16.3), 231, 309 Most populous U.S. cities, capitals, 322–324 Leaderwork (14.1), 299 Physiographic regions, U.S., 344–345 Legends (2.69), 18 Postal abbreviations, 224 Mr., Mrs., etc. (9.37, 16.3), 231, 309 Public land surveys, 347 Note (8.107, 13.53), 212, 288 Rivers, 347 Parentheses (8.150), 219 Roman numerals, 280 Picas converted to inches, 341 Signs and symbols, 262–264 Seal (16.27, 16.28), 319 Temperature conversion, 339 Signature marks (2.101), 22 U.S. Presidents and Vice Presidents, Special typefaces (1.11), 2 321–322 Tabular work (2.23, 13.3), 12, 281 Te x t (2 . 2 3), 12 V v.: U Italic (11.8, 13.95), 266, 293 see also Secretary), 75 Under Secretary ( Roman (11.8), 266 Union (3.19), 32, 75 Van, von (3.13, 3.14, 3.16), 30 & in name (9.25), 225–226 Ve r b s : Comma omitted between name and Adverb compounds (6.9), 96 number (8.53), 203 Capitalization (3.49), 40 Compounding). Unit modifi see ers ( nitive (3.49, 3.52), 40 Infi United Nations (3.17), 30–32, 75 Improvised (6.48), 107 Units of quantity: Ve s s e l s : Leaderwork (14.14), 301 Abbreviations (9.27), 226 Numerals (12.6, 12.9), 270–274 Italic (11.6–11.7, 13.95), 265–266, 293 Tabular work (13.120, 13.121–13.123), Quotation marks (11.7, 11.8), 266 297, 298 Virgin Islands (9.12, 9.13), 223, 224, 367 see U.S. ( Possessions, Territories): Vo lu m e (3. 9), 2 8 , 76 Abbreviation (9.9–9.10, 13.7), 222–223, Abbreviation (9.38, 9.58), 231, 237 281 Metric (9.56), 236–237 Closed up (9.7), 222 Vow e l s : Spelled out (9.9–9.10), 222–223 A, an, before (5.16–5.19), 92 Presidents and Vice Presidents (14.14), Hyphen, to avoid doubling (6.7), 96 321–322 Index.indd 452 Index.indd 452 1/27/09 10:02:27 AM 1/27/09 10:02:27 AM

467 Index 453 Word d iv ision (8. 87), 2 0 9 W Land descriptions (9.22), 225 War (3.31), 36, 76 Latitude and longitude (9.52), 235 Wa rd (3.9), 28 , 76 Spelling). see Word s ( Web site (11.16), 76, 268 Webster’s Dictionary (5.1, 7.5), 79, 109 X Y Z Weig ht s: ×, crossed with, magnifi cation (10.3), 259 Abbreviations (9.56, 9.58), 236–237, 237 Ya rd (9. 5 8), 237 Metric (9.56–9.57), 236–237 Metric equivalent, 339, 340 Metric equivalents, 339, 340 -yze, -ise, -ize (5.12), 91 Numerals (12.9j), 272–273 Your Honor, etc. (3.37), 38, 77 Widow lines (2.6), 10 ZIP Code numbers (8.51, 16.1), 77, 203, 309 Word Division, GPO publication (1.21, 5.2), 3, 79 Index.indd 453 Index.indd 453 1/27/09 10:02:27 AM 1/27/09 10:02:27 AM

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