Water and Conflict Toolkit


1 WATER & CONFLICT A TOOLKIT FOR PROGRAMMING Key Issues Lessons Learned Program Options Rapid Appraisal Guide


3 ompetition over natural resources, including water, is often viewed as a driver of conflict and has emerged as a key component in many current and past conflicts. However, disputes over C water, whether scarce or abundant, do not always result in violence. In fact, the management of water often brings parties together and encourages cooperation; it can be an integral factor in conflict prevention, peacebuilding, and reconciliation processes. Since fresh water is irreplaceable and indispensable to life, it is a valuable and contested resource that requires careful, conflict-sensitive management to ensure that it will continue to fulfill its purposes over the long term. This toolkit is intended to help USAID and our partners understand the opportunities and challenges inherent to development programming in conflicts where water is an important issue. This document (1) explores the relationship between water, conflict, and cooperation, (2) highlights lessons learned from relevant development and peacebuilding programs, (3) discusses options for programming based on past USAID and development community experiences, and (4) provides a Rapid Appraisal FROM THE DIRECTOR Guide to support officers in identifying and evaluating the conflict risk and peacebuilding potential of water programs. Together, the elements of this toolkit are designed to help raise awareness about the linkages between water resource management and conflict as well as opportunities for peacebuilding and integrating a conflict perspective into development programming. As Director of CMM, I am pleased to introduce The Water and Conflict Toolkit and congratulate all those involved in its production. The Office of Conflict Management and Mitigation (CMM) in the Bureau for Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance (DCHA) of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) was established to provide technical leadership on conflict-related issues to USAID Missions and our Washington based regional and pillar bureaus. It is through your feedback and dialogue that we can ensure our toolkits remain thoughtful, innovative, and useful. We welcome your comments and observations to help us improve future toolkits in this series. Melissa G. Brown Director Office of Conflict Management and Mitigation Bureau for Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance United States Agency for International Development

4 INTRODUCTION 1 Water is an essential ingredient for human security and sustainable devel- opment. From growing food and supporting economic growth to ensuring disease is kept at bay, water is a fundamental and irreplaceable resource in all societies. Given its centrality to human life, it is not surprising that water man - agement is complex and that water-related interests are frequently contested. Access to water in sufficient quantity and quality can drive competition where interests are perceived as incompatible. It can also foment cooperation where mutual interest can be found. There is a pressing need to better understand water as it relates to all levels - of conflict. From the arid pastoralist areas in the Horn of Africa to communi 4 KEY ISSUES geoning bur ties affected by melting glaciers in Andean South America to the potential for hydropower fueled economies in South Asia, the banner of 14 LESSONS LEARNED “water and conflict” is very broad. It includes scenarios as diverse as the peaceful resolution of an inter-communal dispute over access to a particu- lar water source to mitigating the effects of armed conflict on water quality, PR 22 OGRAM OPTIONS infrastructure, and institutions in urban environments. Even when water is not directly connected to the proximate causes of conflict, it is essential to consider the many ways that water insecurity, which is most often derived RAPID APPRAISAL 36 from water resource management configurations, could be interacting with GUIDE affected situations. the social and institutional dynamics in fragile or conflict- With that complexity in mind, this toolkit is designed to raise awareness about 2 and the linkages between water resource management, conflict and fragility, - peacebuilding. It also explicitly supports the integration of a conflict perspec tive into development programming. This toolkit is part of a series that explores how development assistance can address key risk factors associated with conflict and fragility. By exploring water- related issues in depth, this toolkit and others in the series serve as companion pieces to conflict assessments. Conflict assessments provide a broad overview - of destabilizing patterns and trends in a society. While they provide recommen dations about how to make development and humanitarian assistance more responsive to conflict dynamics, they do not provide detailed guidance on how to design specific activities. The toolkits in this series fill that gap by moving from a diagnosis of the problem to a detailed discussion of potential interventions. Together, the USAID Conflict Assessment Framework (CAF 2.0) and toolkits are designed to help USAID officers and other develop s gain a ment practitioner deeper understanding of the forces driving violence and instability and to assist in developing more strategic and focused development interventions. The authors have attempted to inspire creative thinking and encourage action to manage or prevent water-related conflicts as well as capture long-term peacebuilding and resilience-strengthening opportunities. 1. The notion of human security emphasizes security for the individual, not the state. 2 . Fr agility refers to the relationship between the state and society, especially the extent to which the engagement between the state and society fails to produce outcomes that are considered effective and legitimate. Fragility exists when the relationship between state and society is strained, if not contentious, producing results that members of society deem to be ineffective, illegitimate, or both. Accordingly, 2 WATER & CONFLICT, 2014 fragility is meant to convey more than the set of characteristics of states or governments.

5 This toolkit is divided into the following four parts: PAR T 1: KEY ISSUES —explores the relationship between water, conflict, • and cooperation; highlights lessons learned from PAR T 2: LESSONS LEARNED — • water-related development and peacebuilding programs; PAR T 3: PROGRAM OPTIONS — discusses potential program options, • real-world examples of relevant development interventions, and monitoring and evaluation; and provides guidance to help identify PAR T 4: RAPID APPRAISAL GUIDE — • and evaluate the conflict risk and peacebuilding potential of water programs. The Water and Conflict Toolkit emerged from collaboration with the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (WWICS). It was authored by Sandra Ruckstuhl (Group W Inc), Emily Gallagher (Group W Inc), Geoff Dabelko (Ohio University), Russell Sticklor (WWICS), Lauren Herzer Risi (WWICS), Cynthia Brady (USAID/CMM), Kirby Reiling (USAID/CMM), and Mary Ackley (USAID/CMM). Substantial input was provided by USAID officers, other U.S. Government agencies, donor agencies, academia, and the NGO community. This toolkit builds on earlier drafts prepared by a team of experts, in addition to those named above, including: Alexander Carius (adelphi), Annika Kramer (adelphi), A young girl sits beside a polluted canal that flows Doris Capistrano (CIFOR), and Jay Singh (USAID). Comments, questions, and through her village in requests for additional inf ormation should be directed to USAID’s Office of Cambodia. (Photo by AECOM International Development) Conflict Management and Mitigation. WATER & CONFLICT, 2014 3

6 PART 1: KEY ISSUES A South Sudanese boy carries Water management is a complex issue with far-reaching a box of water bottles at the and often contentious effects. Water-related tensions Tongping United Nations Mission emerge on different geographic scales but it is the (UNMISS) base in Juba on January 17, 2014. (Photo by interplay of these tensions with a number of political, Phil Moore, AFP ImageForum) socioeconomic, environmental, and cultural factors that determine whether violent conflict will result. The next section will elaborate on the complex links among water resources, their management, the risk of conflict, and opportunities for peacebuilding. - “Conflict” simply refers to a real or per UNDERSTANDING ceived set of incompatible interests and CONFLICT goals among two or more parties. It is not necessarily violent. Conflict is a natu - As a starting point, it is helpful to have ral part of public life and the process of a common understanding of conflict. 4 WATER & CONFLICT, 2014

7 peacefully resolving competing interests also open opportunities for construc- through negotiation and deliber ation can tive change. Frequently, peacebuilding often contribute to outcomes that are - is a necessary, if too often unacknow better for all involved. Conflict, however, m sustain- ledged, element of long-ter can also be destabilizing and intensely able water resource management. destructive when it leads to mass mobi- lization, violence, or outright war. SOCIOECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC Even when water is not directly con- ISSUES nected to the proximate causes of - conflict, water security could be inter POPULATION GROWTH acting with the social and institutional The bulk of the world’s population dynamics of fragile or conflict-affected growth in recent decades has taken - situations in many ways. Water qual place in developing countries. Over ity, quantity, and access each affect the next few decades rapid population individual and collective water security. growth is expected to continue in parts Perceptions of security can be as im- of Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, portant to a conflict context as objec - and Asia. This kind of growth poses tive reality. Water insecurity, whether Water insecurity, - significant challenges to governing insti real or perceived, can contribute to tutions and infrastructure in developing whether real or patterns of grievance or fragility that countries already experiencing popu- could make armed conflict more likely perceived, can lation-induced strains on their natural or more intractable. contribute to patterns resources. As demand grows and per When water-related disputes arise capita freshwater availability decreases, of grievance or fragility within a context of ineffective or il- competition will likely increase if not that could make armed legitimate governance, it can stoke the effectively addressed. Demand and flames of discontent (grievance) or be quality management will become some conflict more likely or - the match that lights the fire (trig of the most significant and scalable more intractable. ger). For example, poor water service approaches practitioners can use to delivery could undermine people’s address conflict risks. confidence and trust in the state. A specific event, such as a new law that POPULATION MOVEMENT changes water pricing or the failure Migration, displacement, and resettle- of a dam, can spur people’s decisions ment are sometimes driven by re- to join a protest, insurgency, or armed source competition and often result group. Additionally, disputes between in resource-based conflicts. Population communities or individuals over access movements, regardless of cause, or usage rights could easily turn violent increase the demand for water in the in the absence of strong, legitimate location where groups settle. Where governing institutions where the rule of resources, institutions, and infrastruc- law extends clearly over water rights. ture do not adequately satisfy increased demand, competition between old Water can also be used as a tactic of residents and new arrivals can result. If war, such as, when a group deprives its and when displaced persons return to adversaries of water access by con- their original homes, they may come taminating it or blockading delivery. into conflict with populations who did And, conflict itself can compromise not move or who settled while origi- water resources when insecurity nal inhabitants were away. Grievances weakens regulation, infrastructure may also be heightened when return- operations, or maintenance. ing individuals change their standards and practices while in their temporary Within this complex web of interac- location. Pastoralist migration, rural tions, water disputes and challenges can WATER & CONFLICT, 2014 5

8 to urban migration, and refugee or to compensate for declining supplies, internally displaced person movements possibl y further compromising water are most concerning for water manage- supplies for more vulnerable popula- ment and supply because of associated tions and generating inter-class griev- shifts in demand. ance. For example, effluent from fac - e extractiv tories and wastewater from industries can pose serious threats AGRICULTURE AND to human and environmental health. FOOD SECURITY Associated water quality degradation Agriculture is the largest source of can cause disputes between the parties water consumption in the world, that cause it and the groups affected by y 70 percent of accounting for roughl it. In other cases, multipurpose water the world’s total (WWAP 2013). The infrastructure, such as dams, can cause competition arising from this intense controversy. Dams and reservoirs can agricultural demand for water at vari- necessitate population resettlement ous scales is a primary aspect of water and changes in livelihoods, which can conflict around the world. Demand for mobilize grievances against the au- increased agricultural output to meet thority and interests that supported the food security needs of growing or orchestrated the infrastructure populations can also adversely affect - development. The operation of irriga water quality, as run-off from crop- tion canals and dam spillways can also growth aids such as fertilizers and lead to friction between upstream and pesticides contaminate groundwater downstream users, within or between supplies or adjacent bodies of surface nations, as the quantity and timing of water. At the same time, inadequate release will impact multiple water users. water access among small-scale Additionally, water quantity and water A farmer in Ghana waters his farmers can hamper local food secu- corn crop during the dry season. - flow patterns are crucial for maintain rity and also cause those parties to (Photo by Louis Stippel, USAID) ing ecosystems and agricultural sys- turn against one another or against tems, especially those that depend on industrial-scale agricultural interests or seasonal flooding. As technology and state water managers in competition infrastructure affect hydrological flows for what little water is available. In sum, and water consumption patterns, many agriculture is characterized by multiple interests can be impacted and result- party interests associated with broad ing perceptions of water insecurity can health, economic, and social benefits. contribute to patterns of fragility and This can drive intense resource use, even direct confrontation. heighten concerns about insecurity and, consequently, contribute to com- petition and conflict. INSTITUTIONAL 1 ISSUES INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT AND DATA AND INFORMATION MODERNIZATION AGEMENT MAN Industrial development can cause sig- - Water information influences eco nificant environmental stress, including nomic behavior, population movement, overconsumption and pollution. On a and politics, with resultant impacts on local level, access to drilling and pump security perceptions. Development technology can lead to increased in- strategies require sound hydrological stallation of shallow wells and ground- water over-extraction. Wealthier and 1. “formal rules, written laws, Institutions are the more powerful parties often have organizations, informal norms of behavior, and better access and can more easily shared beliefs — and the organizational forms afford new and advanced technology that exist to implement and enforce these norms...” (World Bank 2011) 6 WATER & CONFLICT, 2014

9 The stabilization pond of a is available and uncontested it may not and socioeconomic data in order to wastewater treatment plant in - be accessible to all parties. For ex plan adequate water management and Luxor, Egypt. (Photo by Noha ample, it may be poorly organized or infrastructure to meet demand, ensure El Maraghy) publicized so that certain users are un- sustainability, and to improve users’ aware it exists or are unable to access resilience to future changes in water it (e.g., due to language or internet - resources and supply. In addition, im access). Also, a variety of accurate data proved information sharing and trans- sets may exist but there can be com- parent data collection regarding water plications in comparing them across supply fluctuations or water safety is - time and space. Even high quality data sues can reduce mistrust and suspicion may generate significant uncertainties, - among and between groups. Yet, reli as in the case of downscaling climate - able water data is often difficult to ob models to regional or local scales or tain because of technical requirements projecting future precipitation patterns in measurement. In conflict-affected under different climate scenarios. countries data is often not collected or may be lost due to physical insecu- Sharing information becomes both rity, infrastructure damage, and com- more important and increasingly dif- peting demands on government time ficult as a water management unit’s and resources. Furthermore, when scope grows or the number of parties that data is captured, in some contexts sharing water increases. In the midst of parties that hold the data may modify these realities, effectively sharing water or suppress it to protect their interests information during emergencies, such (political or otherwise), thus limiting as floods or severe contamination, its application and availability to users. is crucial for protecting human and Water data can be highly contested by environmental health and managing water-using parties, and its accuracy perceptions of insecurity in tense and can be the subject of significant dis - tenuous circumstances. putes. Even when reliable water data WATER & CONFLICT, 2014 7

10 WEAK, NON-INCLUSIVE, Children sharing water in INSTITUTIONAL EFFICACY Gambella, Ethiopia. Gambella OR CORRUPT GOVERNANCE Low technical competence and lack of is affected by inter-communal One of the most pressing and com- political will of government and other conflict associated with competition over land and water. plicated issues influencing effective water-management institutions can (Photo by Cynthia Brady, USAID) and equitable water management is result in inequitable or ineffective water corruption. This issue is intertwined management. This can be an indicator with water information management, or consequence of fragile state-society as a lack of transparency and public relations. Lack of technical water knowledge about water management - expertise, insufficient technical train (e.g., allocation of water rights, private ing of water managers and engineers, sector contracts) can mask inequitable absence of water-dispute settlement benefits and preferential treatment mechanisms, and inadequate funding of within a weak or corrupt governance water programs and infrastructure hin- system. Perceptions of preferential der capacity to build social and institu - access to limited water resources are tional resilience to internal and external often a source of grievance. Moreover, water-related challenges. preferential treatment, which benefits A common challenge to institutional parties of economic, social, or political efficacy is duplicative or overlapping influence, weakens regulatory regimes responsibilities among multiple formal and sustainable water management and traditional water institutions. For and can contribute to imbalanced example, decisions made by entities economic opportunity. Corruption can responsible for agriculture, fisheries, increase marginalization and exploita- water supply, regional development, tion of disadvantaged and vulnerable tourism, transportation, conservation, populations. Political corruption can and environment can produce divergent generate significant social unrest at management approaches that serve the local level by exacerbating water- contradictory or competing objec- related economic and health issues tives toward the same water resources. among already vulnerable groups. These decisions lead to confusion and competing claims from different sectors 8 WATER & CONFLICT, 2014

11 BOX 1: Women, Water, and Conflict Men and women use water differently according to their gender-specific roles. Women tend to have greater water needs due to their domestic responsibilities like washing family clothes, bathing children, and preparing meals. Even basic hygiene, like hand washing to reduce the transmission of disease, increases water needs at the household level. Menstruating women have additional demands such as washing clothing and bathing when men are not present. If the only water source is in a public or highly frequented location, they may wait until dark or travel to remote areas for privacy. Women produce half of the world’s food supply. They are often responsible for feeding their families. As small farmers who are depen - dent on sources beyond rainfall, women and their dependents are at risk of food insecurity when alternative water sources are not available. Yet, water is hard to access in many parts of the world. When water is far from home, women and girls generally shoulder the burden of transporting it. They may be at risk of harm during travel to obtain it. These patterns make females highly vulnerable to violence in conflict environments. Water access becomes more difficult as previously safe routes become dangerous territory. Household responsibilities may increase such as caring for the sick and wounded or meeting family A young woman collects water in Sri Lanka. members’ nutritional needs. Taking care of personal hygiene by dark or (Photo by USAID/Sri Lanka) in isolated places increases the risk of direct or indirect violence. The humanitarian discussion of water access and violence generally focuses on women as victims. However, water resources are part of a system that aff ects and is affected by its entire population. In some contexts, men and boys access water for their households and face the same risks as females. Women and men may travel far for water in rural areas, or walk long distances from refugee settlements or slums, and thus be more vulnerable to attack. For example, there is er water access and the “water widows” who have survived them. Both anecdotal evidence of Somali men killed ov women and men are affected by poor water access and the complications of a fragile or conflict-affected context. The experiences of men and women are also not consistent across time and culture. There is variation across gender experience based on social and community tradition, class structure, ethnic relations, urban vs. rural environments, livelihoods practices, and more. Due to their different roles in the community, women and men may have different information and perspectives about the causes and consequences of water-related problems. In addition, gender roles - themselves often change as a consequence of conflict and fragility. Water practitioners will therefore find it construc tive to move their analysis beyond the limited focus on female vulnerabilities and to consider gender dynamics within the system as a whole. How can field staff better understand gender and water access issues? Seeking gender- and age-specific data, these e as a starting point to examine how water access connects to wider conflict dynamics: questions serv • Who is at risk of har m when accessing water? ates the harm? What means do they use, and what are their objectives? Who perpetr • • Does the conflict inv olve water supply and resources? Directly or indirectly? Are there opportunities to mitigate the conflict by addressing water access? ver time? How do gender roles associated with water access change o • Adapted from S. Ruckstuhl 2011.

12 and interest groups, which can contrib- In some locations, traditional institu- ute to disputes in locations lacking a tions and formal government bodies clear system of water allocation and en- compete for authority, and they may forcement and unsupported by effective not collaborate frequently or effec- and legitimate institutions. Furthermore, tively. Traditional mechanisms that fail if a state or local water-management to consider technical aspects of the body is not delivering on core public hydrologic regime can contribute to services like household provision of unsustainable water use or, as the potable water or effective management environmental conditions or technology of large infrastructure, that failure can access change, they may be ill-equipped quickly be perceived as a sign of govern- to adapt and manage associated ment ineffectiveness or illegitimacy. conflict risks. In addition, when formal institutions make water management However, because water is crucial to decisions without sufficient stakeholder myriad different sectors and disparate participation, effective or locally valued users, it is not feasible to consider all traditional practices may be overlooked of these in one institution or decision- or ignored. As a result, controversy can making process, and it is not possible erupt and concerned parties may reject to optimize across all areas at once. For new water policies and infrastructure. example, a dam cannot be managed to simultaneously optimize both flood and EXTERNAL drought protection. Consequently, there INFLUENCES - are trade-offs between contending inter ests and objectives, and choices made at HYDROPOLITICS one time at one scale in one sector will (WATER POLITICS) inevitably conflict with choices made at There are 276 transboundary river other times and other places. basins in the world and 256 (or 92.7 percent) of them are shared by two TRADITION AND to four countries (UN-Water 2013). PRA CTICES CUSTOMARY Within that realm of shared water Localized disputes Custom and traditional norms are sig- there are extensive opportunities for - nificant components of water manage between users and potential disputes within, between, and ment regimes and can strongly influence among states and water-users. In terms domestic water interests user preferences and affect institutional of understanding the risk of large-scale contexts. For example, a formal state often influence violent conflict over these resources, body may legally hold decision-making reviews of historical evidence show politicians and policy authority while users defer to custom- that armed interstate “water wars” are ary authorities regarding secondary and decisions, which fuels exceedingly rare. However, as demand tertiary rights unrecognized by the law. grows and global freshwater resources international political These practices can dictate user rights, become ever more stressed, practitio- agendas and informs seasonal allocations, wastewater reuse ners must be aware of changing risks conventions, operation and maintenance relations between - and opportunities and adapt their inter practices, and conservation methods. - ventions accordingly. This includes care countries. As another example, it may be tradition ful consideration of the ways in which in some societies for women to collect water may be a dimension of political water, which can have social and institu- conflict at international, national, and tional implications for physical safety and local levels as well as the relationships participation in education and livelihoods between those dynamics. Localized (see Box 1). Further, water plays a key disputes between users and domestic role in many religious rituals, making it a water interests often influence politi - focal point of community activities and cians and policy decisions, which fuels giving it significant emotional importance international political agendas and (e.g., the holy river Ganges in India). 10 WATER & CONFLICT, 2014

13 Mayors, municipal representatives, informs relations between countries. sourced, processed, or manufactured. and youth from Israel, Palestine, Conversely, interstate water politics and This dynamic might mean that local and Jordan join hands in the Lower tensions can have ripple effects that producers will choose to grow more Jordan River to call upon their governments to rehabilitate the affect the ability of national institutions profitable crops for export at the river. (Photo by Friends of the and local users to effectively manage expense of local food production, for Earth Middle East) water for domestic needs. Technical, po - example. While this may be beneficial litical, local, and international concerns for a few, it can come at the expense of are often inseperable, for good and for others’ livelihoods and their access to ill. Therefore, it is important that both water, productive land, and affordable diplomatic and development interven- - food. In the short term this can contrib tions, at all scales, consider dimensions ute to perceptions of water insecurity of hydropolitics in order to manage and fuel grievances against groups that and prevent conflict escalation while are benefiting from the export market. harnessing opportunities for collabora- In the long term, these economic inter- tion and peacebuilding. ests can deplete water resources and directly contribute to water insecurity for other users. INTERNATIONAL DEMAND FOR ECO NOMIC PRODUCTS Agricultural products, minerals, and PHYSICAL AND manufactured goods all require water GEOGRAPHIC ISSUES for production. High demand for these items on the international market, UPSTREAM AND which can be extremely difficult for DOWNSTREAM FLOWS developing economies to regulate, Every water resource has upstream especially those affected by fragility and and downstream riparians and associ- conflict, can drive up water consump - disadvantages ated advantages and tion in locations where the goods are often accrue depending on where WATER & CONFLICT, 2014 11

14 they are physically located. For ex - and enforcement, it is also a particularly ample, upstream diversions of water complicated factor in transboundary for agriculture or hydropower can treaties and agreements. have downstream impacts on local users, including effects on livelihoods POLLUTION and health. Downstream activities can Pollution and contamination from also impact upstream riparians, such as, agricultural run-off, human and animal when a port downstream engages in waste, extractive industries, and manu- activities that increase traffic upstream. facturing, as well as naturally occurring In other cases, cities may overdraw a sources affect surface and groundwater region’s limited water supply to meet water quality and can pose significant urban municipal and industrial water health risks as well as degrade liveli- needs, which can contribute to water hoods. While flooding may often be insecurity in rural areas that share the responsible for temporary discharges resource. Riparian disputes often reflect of untreated waste into public water In developing nations, the distribution of power among insti- supplies, the problem transcends tem- 90 percent of tutions along a waterway. Without mu - porary wastewater-treatment issues tually acceptable mediation mechanisms spurred by disasters. In developing wastewater is released in place, failure of those institutions to nations, 90 percent of wastewater is into the natural protect perceived user interests can released into the natural environment result in violent disputes. Upstream without treatment (Corcoran 2010). environment without and downstream riparian relations are This can cause significant damage to treatment. critical to consider in both local and ecosystems and watersheds, placing international contexts. water supplies at risk, endangering food supplies by threatening the health of GROUNDWATER crops and fresh-water fisheries, and The most readily available resource of also damaging economically lucrative freshwater on the planet is groundwa- ecotourism industries. During ac - ter (UNEP 2008). In the developing tive conflict, contamination of water world and elsewhere, groundwater is resources can be especially common. an essential resource—1.2 to 1.5 billion Regulatory agencies and manage- rural households in the poorer regions ment mechanisms may collapse, or of Africa and Asia alone depend on groups may intentionally damage water groundwater for their livelihoods and resources in an attempt to harm one food security (United Nations World another. Less knowledgeable groups liv - Water Development Report 4 2012). ing in close proximity to contaminated Subterranean water resources pose water are the most vulnerable to its ef- particularly acute governance chal- fects, and while knowledge can reduce lenges. They require sophisticated tech - vulnerability it can also fuel grievances nology and significant knowledge to be toward unaffected water users, pollut- sustainably managed. By contrast, even ers, and regulatory institutions. when surface water is not systemati- cally measured it can, at a minimum, be CLIMATE CHANGE - visually monitored. As a result, ground Climate change impacts water avail- water resources are at heightened risk ability, quality, and access in a number of unsustainable consumption, pollution, of ways: shifting precipitation patterns, and uninformed perceptions with re- desertification, saltwater intrusion, gard to quantity and quality of avail- and changes in storm frequency and able resource. This can result in acute intensity, to name a few. In particular, - competition and conflict as ground changes in the timing and duration of water users engage in a “race to the rainfall can threaten food security, es- bottom.” In terms of both monitoring pecially when crop growth or livestock 12 WATER & CONFLICT, 2014

15 NATURAL DISASTERS migration is dependent on seasonal Disasters such as cyclones, tsunamis, precipitation. Changes in precipitation earthquakes, floods, and droughts can patterns can further challenge tradi- create shocks to the water supply and tional and formal systems for collect- can render unprepared communities ing and using water for any number vulnerable to health risks and economic of purposes (water storage, energy disruptions, potentially leading to social production, sanitation systems, drainage unrest in the transitional process from systems, etc). Climatic change and the crisis to recovery. Additionally, weak associated impacts on the hydrologic institutional infrastructure for managing regime are likely to affect the way water availability and access in the wake people live in the developing world, of a natural disaster can heighten public shifting and testing the adaptation and perceptions of institutional ineffective- coping mechanisms of communities ness or illegitimacy. The risks of public and institutions. These changes present discontent and mobilization are intensi- many conflict risks where there is weak fied in densely populated areas, espe - institutional capacity to constructively cially in communities where there is adapt to changes in water variability inadequate capacity for crisis response. or to respond to extreme events like A lack of disaster-preparedness at the floods and droughts. At the same time, national and sub-national levels within a these challenges can highlight positive country can significantly lower resil - examples of existing social and institu- ience to environmental shocks. A low tional resilience and reveal the strength threshold for handling environmental of coping mechanisms and adaptation disruptions can negatively impact other systems that continue to work well in areas of society by reducing economic the face of change, giving development productivity and triggering high unem- practitioners a practical foundation on ployment, damaging public perceptions which to build peace. of governing institutions’ competence, and raising tensions between various water users over access. WATER & CONFLICT, 2014 13

16 PART 2: LESSONS LEARNED Refugees from South Sudan fetch A review of water-related development programming water at the Dzaipi Refugee throughout the developing world and across multiple Transit Centre in Adjumani, agencies and organizations reveals a range of success Uganda, on January 24, 2014. (Photo by Isaac Kasamani, stories as well as cautionary examples. When these lessons AFP ImageForum) are aggregated, they can be conceived of as principles of good practice and applied to improve the conflict sensitivity of water-related development interventions. 14 WATER & CONFLICT, 2014

17 for government institutions, donors, CONSIDER ALL and field implementers to coordinate WATER ISSUES AS sectoral assessments so that water PART OF COMPLEX, resource management and peacebuild- DYNAMIC CROSS- ing investments are more integrated. It BOUNDARY SYSTEMS is also critical to monitor and evaluate progress on a continual basis so that Water management is dynamic. The programs can be responsive to poten- resource can cross physical, social, and tially changing points of influence and economic boundaries. Transforming unforeseen impacts. zero-sum competition for the resource into win-win management outcomes is a ENHANCE necessary objective of conflict-sensitive INFORMATION water management. Accordingly, mapping and understanding stakeholder relation- MANAGEMENT AND ships is important. Stakeholder interests PUBLIC AWARENESS can cut across many identities and boundaries as a result of management Water data and public awareness can and use decisions, for example, among be sparse in fragile and conflict-affected ethnic groups across administrative countries where records may not have Transforming boundaries or between industrial users - been kept, were destroyed during fight zero-sum competition - such as energy and agriculture. This com ing or as a tactic of war, or where there plexity calls for sound, well-integrated has been limited capacity to collect and for water into win-win Conflict Assessments and Environmental disseminate information. Nevertheless, management outcomes and Social Impact Assessments that accurate water data—including hydro - include cross-boundary issues during astructure, policy, logical modeling, infr is a necessary objective project design and implementation. and user behavior—is integral to of conflict-sensitive ensuring that development activities are There must always be a systemic view water management. designed to support sustainable and of the hydrology and the social and integrated water resource management institutional dimensions of conflict that (IWRM) activities and, in turn, help to water may affect. Integrated assess - - manage and prevent conflict. For ex ments help practitioners understand ample, capacity to generate and analyze the physical, social, and political dimen- water data enables water resource sions of the system in which they are management institutions to formulate intervening and gauge the anticipated and implement conflict-sensitive water points of influence within that system resource management plans, while con- and across various types of boundar - textually grounded technical infrastruc- ies. For example, in many areas growing ture design and implementation can tensions persist between urban water aid in conflict prevention by equitably users and residents of surrounding distributing costs and benefits. rural areas. Urban populations typically consume large amounts of water some- Sound water data and public awareness times at the expense of adjacent rural allow for prudent responses to water users, and yet urban areas tend to come disruptions that could otherwise fuel out on top of any water-dispute litiga- grievance and social conflict. Where in - tion because local, regional, and national formation is lacking, unsustainable water political power tends to be concen- use or ineffective water management trated in urban centers (ECC 2010). may persist and raise the risk of social - crisis. In Yemen, for example, water scar Given the multifaceted, and potentially city is an increasingly prevalent source - fluid nature of water-related boundar of discontent and a trigger for violence. ies—from international divisions to Some hydrologists project that the cultural uses—it is especially valuable WATER & CONFLICT, 2014 15

18 A U.S. Navy commander meets capital, Sana’a, will run out of water by Third-party data collection, whether by with the head of Ethiopia’s Mines 2025 (Chellaney 2013). Yet even where NGOs, academic institutions, or others, and Energy Department and a there is political will to change that may also help bridge the data gap be- water engineer for preliminary research on expanding the area’s trajectory, water officials in the country tween divided parties. Transparency of water treatment capabilities. face critical challenges implementing joint decision-making can facilitate more (Photo by U.S. Navy) water reforms because the population informed decisions by all sides and is not well-informed about the the im- often builds trust among water-sharing pending water crisis and how it relates parties. At the same time, it is important to water user behavior. Good data and to be mindful that there is a corre- better public information, along with sponding risk with increasing access to improved capacity of responsible insti- data and information. While the intent tutions and appropriate mechanisms to of increased transparency is to reveal allow all interested stakeholders access helpful realities about supply as well as to the data and information, could water governance, in a context of poor facilitate a tipping point for change in institutional performance or high social Yemeni water usage, forestalling a water grievance these revelations risk conflict crisis and improving water management escalation if they inflame public opinion outcomes for Yemeni stakeholders. and reinforce perceptions of elitism, exclusion, and corruption. Therefore, Hydrological modeling and databases development activities focused on can be costly and laborious to estab- improving water-related transparency lish and maintain; such investments are should also take into consideration the often of low priority in conflict-affected capacity of the responsible institutions or post-conflict countries. In the to manage and respond to grievances absence of comprehensive databases, that may emerge. shared data generated or sanctioned jointly by all stakeholders can facilitate more sustainable water resource man- agement decisions. 16 WATER & CONFLICT, 2014

19 on that local context (including both BUILD FORMAL intended and unintended consequences). AND INFORMAL Understanding the context, including INSTITUTIONAL both key actors’ and stakeholders’ needs, CAPACITY FOR capacities, motives, and respective posi- COLLABORATIVE tions in the political or socioeconomic GOVERNANCE hierarchy is crucial to ensuring conflict- sensitive programming and to identifying Institutions that govern collaboratively and responding to any real or perceived can prevent and manage conflict by: imbalances in public participation, issues of institutional performance, and social Striving f engagement by or effective • grievances. In some cases, it may be key stakeholders; necessary to work with alternative insti- tutions or other stakeholders who hold Considering diff erent interests in • influence over water institutions and order to reveal new management their efficacy. To ensure effective stake - options and alternatives to zero-sum holder representation in water resource solutions; management processes — especially when power is unevenly distributed — Improving cooper ation between • less experienced, less knowledgeable, traditional and formal governance or less empowered parties (whether bodies; and individuals, collectives, or institutions) may • Making management decisions better require special attention, for example in accepted by all stak eholders, even if the form of coaching, skill building, and consensus cannot be reached. awareness raising. It is generally prudent for develop- Recognizing the important nexus of Understanding the ment practitioners to engage with conflict resolution capacity and tech - context, including established traditional and formal water nical water resource management resource managment institutions in both key actors’ capacity, USAID’s Fostering Resolution order to bolster capacity, ensure local of Water Resource Disputes project and stakeholders’ sensibility, and improve sustainable (FORWARD), for example, targeted - outcomes. However, established institu needs, capacities, capacity building in the conflict- tions (whether formal or informal) management “know-how” of water motives, and with responsibility for water resource resource management institutions, local respective positions managment may not be technically non-governmental organizations, water - equipped to manage conflict and ag user associations, and religious groups in the political grieved water users may not perceive to help mitigate water-related conflicts or socioeconomic them as effective or legitimate media- in Asia and the Middle East. tors. At the same time, there may be hierarchy is crucial preference or bias, depending on the STRENGTHEN to ensuring conflict- audience, toward certain institutions EQUITABLE AND based on perceptions of effectiveness sensitive programming. AFFORDABLE WATER and legitimacy. Therefore, in addition to ACCESS understanding the institutional con- struct for water resource managment Grievances can easily develop over in a country or basin, practitioners must infrastructure coverage and efficiency seek to understand the social and insti- as water users become aware of tutional context in which those entities imbalances in access as compared to are functioning. other groups and other locations. These imbalances may be the product of Practitioners must also consider the likely providers’ preferences toward certain influence of a development intervention WATER & CONFLICT, 2014 17

20 constituents or due to their concern an avenue for conveying a wider set about operating in insecure or violent of grievances against authorities. In locations. Inefficiencies can also be the the late 1990s, water privatization in result of war and violence that have Cochabamba, Bolivia sent water rates damaged supply systems and led tech- soaring by 35 percent. In a city where nical talent to move to a new location many residents’ monthly income was (e.g., to an urban area or outside the - roughly US$70, water became a prohib country). Consequently, some locations itively expensive commodity at US$20 may have poorer physical infrastructure per month. The resulting protests in and less operations and maintenance early 2000 triggered violence and the capacity. These conditions can strain declaration of a state of emergency relationships between water users or (Gehrig and Rogers 2009). However, with the institutions responsible for ser- the lesson of Cochabamba is not that vice provision, sometimes creating new privatization is inherently conflictive grievances or inflaming existing ones. or even that higher rates are conflic - Practitioners need to be cognizant tive. Violence was fueled by the lack of and, through assessment and monitor- transparency in the process, combined ing activities, remain knowledgeable with unrealistic expectations by the of how development investments can public and lack of political sensitivity by Practitioners contribute to inequitable coverage and the government. incorporating the associated grievances so that programs can make appropriate adjustments if private sector into COORDINATE any issues emerge. WATER-RELATED AID their programs on any AND INVESTMENT - Affordability is another major deter level...need to closely minant of water access. Private sector monitor and manage In order to avoid duplication, leverage participation can be an appropriate and programmatic synergies, and ensure effective avenue for improving water affordability and the that shared water resources are man- services coverage and water safety. At differential impacts of aged effectively, communication between the same time, privatization can also development actors is critical. However, pricing on vulnerable cause controversy due to pricing and in conflict-affected environments where - payment policies. Practitioners incorpo groups and populations aggrieved or displaced populations are rating the private sector into their pro- already mobilized and security conditions at risk of engaging in grams on any level — for infrastructure are precarious, integrated water manage- development, utility management, water conflict. ment can be elusive and the consequent trucking, or other purposes — need to risks of failure multiplied. Poorly coordi - closely monitor and manage affordabil- nated or non-conflict sensitive interven - ity and the differential impacts of pricing tions could generate competing priorities, on vulnerable groups and populations unintentionally reinforce power dynamics at risk of engaging in conflict. or entrench the status quo, empower or - disempower certain groups, or exacer Dialogue, transparency, and consensus- bate a critical source of pre-existing griev- building are essential when introducing ances (e.g., corruption, environmental new water schemes that affect cost and damage, private sector predation). availability, whether they are managed publicly or privately. In some cases, The Ad Hoc Liaison Committee water privatization efforts have esca- (AHLC), a donor coordination group lated social tensions and led to protests established for the West Bank and that adversely affected development Gaza following the signing of the programming. Sudden tariff increases interim peace agreement between that can accompany privatization can Israel and the Palestinians in 1993, of - quickly mobilize public opposition fers an example of how development and, in some instances, have become 18 WATER & CONFLICT, 2014

21 A boy demonstrates the water It is also essential for development partners can assist in the establish- flow of a USAID-built electric practitioners to look beyond sector ment of a new and sustainable IWRM tube well used for irrigation in the labels when they consider the rele- regime during political transition. The Terai region of Nepal. (Photo by Patrick D. Smith, USAID) vance of water issues to their activities. interim agreement included provisions In health, water is often a necessary for cross- border water gov ernance. component of interventions on sanita- Under these circumstances the AHLC tion, hygiene, and disease transmission. had the unique challenge of support- In agriculture, water is linked to food ing water service and infrastructure security and access to rural markets. improvements and supporting the For energy and industry, water is set-up of new Palestinian water in- required for production. In education, stitutions. Working groups were latrines with water can be a cultural established under the AHLC for each requirement for girls’ attendance at sector, including water, and these were schools. In peacebuilding, access to co-chaired by one staff person from irrigated water may be a prerequisite a donor agency and one from the for the successful transition to agricul- Palestinian Authority. Group members tural livelihoods for former combat- shared studies and analyses, investment ants. Unfortunately, when the role of plans, project data, field site experi - water is not acknowledged explicitly ences, and information on govern- in sectoral programs water issues may ment, stakeholders, and local expertise. not be adequately considered or tech- Due to limited time and resources no nically addressed — possibly leading coordination group can be flawless to ineff ectiveness, unsustainability, but the AHLC helped to inform water or competition between users (e.g., project implementation during quickly agriculture vs. public health or energy changing political circumstances marked vs. environment). Integrated water by evolving administrative rules, and it resource governance is an important facilitated more strategic coordination tool for sustainable development and between the donors and the riparians. WATER & CONFLICT, 2014 19

22 sometimes for peacebuilding, so prac- basic human need for an irreplaceable titioners must take care not to allow resource such as water can also drive administrative labels to limit their own cooperation and peacebuilding within creativity and innovation in coordi- and between parties — whether indi- nated programming. vidual water users or institutions. When designed with a good understanding of the conflict context, projects can ENSURE CONFLICT- proactively serve to manage or resolve SENSITIVE DESIGN conflict related to water and associated AND CAPITALIZE issues (e.g., livelihoods, energy demand) ON PEACEBUILDING while achieving sectoral water goals as OPPORTUNITIES - well. Furthermore, water resource man agement may be an acceptable subject Water-related programs must take into around which to convene parties even account impacts beyond water sector in the midst of high political tension or objectives (e.g., increased access to open violence. When used strategically potable water or implementation of di- to bring parties in conflict together, saster risk reduction plans). Secondary whether to specifically deal with water- effects of programming, intended or related conflict or even when water is unintended, may have direct and sig- not the point of direct contention, water nificant impacts on other development projects can serve as opportunities to objectives. At a minimum, the design strengthen governance, enhance trust and implementation of water-related among affected parties and institutions, activities need to be conflict sensitive and create mechanisms for dialogue and (see Box 2). Policies and programs dispute resolution. When practitioners should include consultations with the working in conflict-affected or fragile local population, respond to the needs situations take the time to understand of the people, take account of power the role of water issues within the distribution and social order, and avoid conflict system, collaboration around pitting groups against each other. water management can take on added - meaning beyond sectoral water objec While competition between vari- tives; it can be harnessed as a catalyst for ous parties to maintain water security positive change. can serve as a polarizing force, the 20 WATER & CONFLICT, 2014

23 BOX 2: Conflict Sensitivity and “Do No Harm” Together, “conflict sensitivity” and the “Do No Harm” approach require a practitioner to: Understand the context in which s/he is operating. In particular, to a. under stand intergroup tensions and the “divisive” issues with a potential or conflict, as well as the “connecting” issues with the potential to mitigate f conflict and strengthen social cohesion; Understand the inter action between the intervention and the context; and b. in order to avoid unintentionally feeding into Act upon that understanding, c. further division and to maximize the potential contribution to strengthen social cohesion and peace. Why is conflict sensitivity important? Conflict sensitivity is fundamentally about making foreign assistance more sustain - able, effective, and ethical. Organizations operating in a country context become part of that context. They interact with the conflict dynamics whether they intend to or not, creating new risks and opportunities for USAID, its partners, and the communities where they work. The idea behind conflict sensitive practice A boy in the Democratic Republic is to make practitioners more aware of the context, more self-aware and deliber- of Congo carries a bucket of water ate in their actions, and more strategic and responsible in the risks taken. in the early morning. (Photo by Ken Wiegand, USAID/DRC) STEP 1: Understand the conflict context. A systematic conflict assessment and rolling conflict analysis should help donors, implementers, and stakeholders understand the conflict dynamics: patterns of grievance and resilience, how key actors mobilize groups for peace or conflict, and which likely events could trigger violence or create openings to build peace. At a minimum, conflict analysis - for conflict sensitivity requires basic knowledge about the dividing and connecting issues in a society as well as impor tant actors pursuing conflict or peace. Where possible, analysis should be done in conjunction with local partners and updated during project implementation. STEP 2: Understand interactions between the project and the conflict context. What is the interaction between the identified key elements of conflict and fragility and key elements of the intervention - itself? The three fields of observation include: (1) the project, (2) the partners and stakeholders, and (3) the organiza tional setup. Identify relevant factors in each of these categories which are either creating tensions or positively affecting the conflict context. This should include consideration of sequencing and how the intervention fits with other assistance activities (e.g., connecting humanitarian assistance and development interventions thoughtfully). STEP 3: Adapt and make strategic choices. There are always options and opportunities to be more conflict sensitive. Project, program, and management decisions - should be taken on the basis of conflict analysis. Be prepared to admit mistakes and make changes—donors and bene e. Remember that conflict sensitivity is as much about HOW you work as WHAT you do; it is ficiaries will be appreciativ possible to modify a project while keeping the goals the same. Making reflective, strategic adaptations in operations and implementation should become part of the program management cycle. Adapted from Swiss Peace: KOFF conflict sensitivity factsheet and CDA Collaborative “Do No Harm” Program Resources and Fact Sheet

24 PART 3: PROGRAM OPTIONS A new water plant Water-related development activities can most opens in Eritrea in 2003. effectively contribute to conflict management and (Photo by USAID) prevention as well as foster cooperation through three primary categories of intervention: (1) strengthened planning and governance, (2) enhanced citizen knowledge and user behavior, and (3) water as a tool for peacebuilding. Section (4) addresses monitoring and evaluation approaches in conflict-affected and fragile contexts. As a reminder, it is essential that all conflict- water programs designed and implemented in af fected or fragile situations heed the principles of conflict-sensitivity even when the program’s goals remain sectoral. 22 WATER & CONFLICT, 2014

25 IMPROVE INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHEN CAPA CITY FOR DATA PLANNING AND 1 MANAGEMENT GOVERNANCE The Southern African Regional Environmental Program (SAREP) BUILD UPSTREAM- worked with the Okavango River DOWNSTREAM Basin Water Commission (OKACOM) TRANSBOUNDARY in Angola, Namibia, and Botswana RELATIONSHIPS to improve regional collaboration From 2004 to 2009 the Nile Basin mechanisms for mitigating local con- Initiative (NBI) implemented the Nile flicts over shared water resources. Transboundary Environmental Action One component of the project was a Project (NTEAP) under their Shared database called the Land Use Conflict Vision Program (SVP) to foster coop- Information System (LUCIS), which eration among the ten states that share used geographic information system the Nile River. With a history of internal modeling and spatial data analysis conflict over competing water demands to flag locations at risk of resource within the majority of the Nile Basin conflict. This early warning mechanism countries, the project was designed to included water provision and water foster collaborative governance efforts quality data to enable the resolution between the countries in ways that of local, national, and transboundary would better manage the transboundary water- and land-related conflicts. For environment and reduce water-related example, the purpose of the data was conflicts both within and between states. to reduce resource conflicts by identify - ing at-risk areas where SAREP should NTEAP sought to strengthen the implement local livelihood diversifica - relationship between stakeholders tion and conservation projects. SAREP through collective efforts on 347 launched LUCIS in Botswana, followed community-level projects and capacity by the same national effort in Namibia. USAID’s regional environmental building with adherence to IWRM program in the Okavango River Later these programs were merged Basin of southern Africa focuses principles in each of the NBI countries. into a region-wide database. SAREP on improving the management of The project achieved this by supporting this shared river basin. (Photo by was funded by USAID from 2009 to Chris Schaan, USAID) the establishment of regional and 2013 (OKACOM 2012). national working groups to manage wetlands in the region, distributing IMPROVE CITIZEN DIALOGUE 234 environmental and community- WITH POLICYMAKERS based micro grants, training over 250 The Jordan River is a source of politi- professionals in environmental risk cal tension between Jordanians, Israelis, management, and creating a water quality Palestinians, Lebanese, and Syrians as the monitoring system with sampling stations countries struggle for control of a shared in each of the basin countries. The water source that is being depleted at project helped build momentum for the an unsustainable rate. Large agricultural, 2008 Nile Basin Development Forum domestic, and industrial demand for at which seven ministers and state water among these states far surpasses representatives signed a non-binding natural supply in the basin. As a conse - declaration agreeing to cooperate and quence of domestic policies and strained preserve the Nile environment. The cross-border relations, 96 percent of initiative was impacted by major political the river flow is diverted. To combat transitions in the basin in 2011 but NBI depletion of the valley’s water resources is still held up as a global model, and its and to increase cooperation among the lessons are proactively applied in other states, EcoPeace/Friends of the Earth development projects in basins around Middle East initiated the “Rehabilitation the world (Nile Basin Initiative 2009). of the Jordan River : A Commitment of WATER & CONFLICT, 2014 23

26 Faith” project in 2013. Building on over of water conflicts reaching the court a decade of community-based coopera- system. This was attributed to more tion through the Good Water Neighbors integrated management of the basin project (see page 23), the new initiative among riparian users (WANI 2006). engages religious groups and community leaders in Israel, Jordan, and the West COMBINE INFRASTRUCTURE Bank through environmental education AND INSTITUTIONAL on the lower Jordan River. The area’s INVESTMENTS FOR influential religious groups are trained in INTEGRATED WATER effective communications to empower RESOURCE MANAGEMENT their communities to engage with local In the midst of political unrest and governments on policy reform to sup - revolution, Egyptian water delivery port restoration of the Jordan River and services were crippled by low tariffs that sustainable transboundary basin man- did not outweigh the high operational agement. In 2013, for the first time in costs of utilities, regional water scarcity, 49 years, fresh water was released from centrally controlled capital investments, the Sea of Galilee into the lower Jordan and water institutions overstaffed with River, and Israel and Jordan created a poorly trained employees. The resulting subcommittee to rehabilitate the river. institutional deficiencies caused anger The faith-based campaign is targeting among the general population. USAID religious leadership to build on these and Chemonics International partnered advances (FOEME 2013 and 2013a). on the Egypt Water and Wastewater Sector Support Program from 2008 to An oil spill in Nigeria’s Niger STRENGTHEN REGULATORY 2013 to strengthen the management of Delta pollutes a waterway near CAPABILITIES FOR WATER the water and wastewater facilities by the Escravos export terminal on March 30, 2003. The region’s oil MANAGEMENT increasing the operational performance facilities were closed down and In Nigeria’s Komadugu Yobe Basin, and investment attractiveness of sector evacuated during two weeks of upstream of Lake Chad, the threat institutions, and to provide communi - ethnic violence. (Photo by Pius Utomi Ekpei, AFP ImageForum) of conflict between water users has ties with cost-effective water delivery increased dramatically over the last 40 services. This was achieved by improving years. A lack of coordination in hydro- financial reporting, establishing subsidiar - agricultural developments combined ies in select governorates with modern with fragmented regulation of water financial management systems and long use has led to widespread environmen - - term tariff plans, creating capital invest tal degradation and caused changes ment plans and better budget alloca- in the river’s natural flow patterns. tion for improving water infrastructure, Implemented by the International Union and training staff members. Recognizing for Conservation of Nature from 1999 high water prices as a central grievance to 2006, the Water and Nature Initiative among the population, the projects sought to prevent local conflict by sought to reduce tensions between reforming the basin’s water governance water users and service providers by institutions and legal frameworks and strengthening the water management increasing stakeholder dialogue by cre- infrastructure and financial capabilities of ating IWRM committees in each state. water utilities in order to reduce water The initiative facilitated a stakeholder- delivery costs (USAID WWSS 2013). endorsed Water Audit and database of ground and surface water availability EXPAND AND IMPROVE LESS and demand, a Catchment Management WATER INTENSIVE RURAL Plan for land and water management, LIVELIHOODS and a basin-wide Water Charter to sup- After gaining independence in 1990, port these activities. By 2006, there was Namibia’s government established a 90 percent decrease in the number priority conservation as a national 24 WATER & CONFLICT, 2014

27 Women and children crowd MANAGE WATER DEMAND when it became the first African around a water point at dusk, BETWEEN OLD AND NEW country to include environmental in Mingkaman, South Sudan on RESIDENTS protection in its constitution. In the January 8, 2014. A lack of water for the thousands who have fled After the Syrian revolution broke out in developing economy, however, the to the Awerial region has left 2011, Jordan became a place of refuge primary industries of agriculture, many to collect water from the Nile River. (Photo by Nichole for over a million Syrians by 2013. As mining, and tourism competed for Sobecki, AFP ImageForum) the fourth most water deprived coun- limited land and water, which caused try in the world, tensions grew in host clashes between users and interest communities as Jordanians and Syrians groups. In 1990, World Wildlife Fund vied over limited water supply. To ad - launched a communal conservancy dress the increase in water demand, program, which sought to mitigate the 2006–2012 USAID-funded Mercy resource conflict by supporting Corps-implemented Community- sustainable resource management Based Initiatives for Water Demand through ecotourism-based livelihoods Management (CBIWDM) project was and engaging more people in that extended to a second phase in 2013. sector. The program provided business CBIWDM II scaled up operations in training to professionals interested communities throughout northern in conservancy and promoted local Jordan where many Syrian refugees investment in ecotourism to increase had settled. Through community-based employment and create new sources organizations the project micro-finances of household revenue (WWF 2013). the installation of small-scale water sup- ply technologies such as household and WATER & CONFLICT, 2014 25

28 communal rainwater catchment systems. wetlands resources. The government Renovation of municipal water distri- evicted citizens from the wetland on bution lines also reduces leakages and the basis that they continued to practice improves efficiency. To explicitly prevent illegal and environmentally damaging conflict between refugees and hosts, activities, such as tree cutting and brick Syrian and Jordanian community leaders making. The eviction angered residents receive conflict management training so because the sale of these goods was that they are equipped to identify and often their primary source of income. intervene to address water tensions be- In 2003, Livelihood Improvement fore they escalate (Mercy Corps 2013). Programme of Uganda (LIPRO), a local NGO, sought resolution between the parties by providing training, information, INVOLVE COMMUNITIES and supplies to introduce more environ- WHERE PUBLIC mentally sustainable livelihoods, such as INFRASTRUCTURE IS beekeeping and fish farming. LIPRO also BEING CONSTRUCTED worked with the local government to The economy of the Burgondu village provide native tree species to commu- in the Kadamjai region of Kyrgyzstan nity members for replanting and rehabili- depends heavily on agriculture, which - tation of degraded wetlands. Staff mem relies on a makeshift canal off of the bers from the local government assisted Soh River. In 2004, a water user associa - with the planting and preservation of tion (WUA) was created to resolve the trees and became involved in regular problems managing water shortages committee meetings for local interest - and inefficiencies in the irrigation sys groups. The project reduced tensions in tem. However, conflicts between water the long-term by improving wetlands users persisted as a result of percep- management for multiple uses, support- tions regarding the inequitable distribu- ing alternative livelihoods, and improving tion of water from a low-cost, annually- communication between communities constructed dam. The USAID Water and local government (Ruettinger and Users Association Support Program Täenzler 2011). helped build the WUA’s capacity to mitigate conflict by improving decision- DEVELOP MECHANISMS FOR making and financial transparency and DIALOGUE AND SHARED by also providing technical assistance AGEMENT RESOURCE MAN and resources for the WUA to con- From 2010 to 2011 southern and struct a permanent diversion dam. The eastern Ethiopia experienced the completed dam benefited 1,800 resi - worst drought in sixty years. The dents, with farmers increasing their rice water scarce conditions threatened yield from 25–30 tons per hectare in an increase in water-related conflicts 2007 and 2008 to 40 tons in 2009. The between pastoralists groups. Mercy increase in agricultural water helped to Corps and USAID responded to the reduce grievances by addressing liveli- - heightened conflict risk by implement hood insecurities and, in turn, reduced ing the Strengthening Institutions for conflict over water resources (Winrock Peace and Development (SIPED) International 2009). project from 2009 to 2012. The proj - ect facilitated community dialogues on ADDRESS WATER-RELATED land and water scarcity, formed peace NFLICT RISK THROUGH CO committees, and established agree- DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS IN ments between conflicting parties OTHER SECTORS to regulate use of scarce resources. In the Sheema district of Uganda, there When multiple communities were has been longstanding conflict between in conflict over the same resource, the local government and residents over 26 WATER & CONFLICT, 2014

29 In just six months, residents of national authorities, operations and resource management was discussed Nawa village in Afghanistan went maintenance service providers, regula- and negotiated and the subsequent from collecting and carrying water tors, and local water users was often agreements were outlined in com- every day to using clean, well-built communal taps near their homes. - ineffectual. As reduced water availabil munity peace accords. By November (Photo by USAID) ity contributed to food and livelihood 2011, households in communities insecurity, tensions rose between man- where SIPED was implemented agement institutions and farmers. In were reportedly half as likely to face 2013, USAID and Perini Management conflict-related barriers to water ac - - Services, Inc. launched a 5-year coun cess (Kurtz and Scarborough 2012). trywide Irrigation and Watershed Management Program to strengthen ENHANCE governance capacity at the national KNOWLEDGE 2 and local levels in order to build water AND CHANGE supply and demand management and USER BEHAVIOR decrease vulnerability and frustra- tion stemming from ineffective water governance. The program sought to BUILD CITIZEN KNOWLEDGE strengthen water user knowledge and FOR IMPROVED LOCAL practices by fielding local trainers to RESOURCE AGEMENT MAN improve community-level resource Agriculture is an important sector management, including on-farm for the Afghan economy. However, a instruction in sustainable irrigation legacy of war has degraded irrigation practices (ICMA 2013). and watershed management systems in Afghanistan. Coordination between WATER & CONFLICT, 2014 27

30 BUILD COOPERATION OLLABORATIVE PROMOTE C GEMENT OF LOCAL BETWEEN ADVERSARIES MANA INFRASTR THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL UCTURE EDUCATION AND SHARED After 22 years of civil war, South MANAGEMENT PLANS Sudan emerged in 2005 without gov - The Good Water Neighbors project ernment institutions managing water (GWN), initiated in 2001 by EcoPeace/ supply or demand and with the popu- Friends of the Earth Middle East fa- lation’s access to safe water supply at cilitates cooperative action to address a mere 14 percent. During the war, cross-border disparities in water access competition over water contributed to and pollution, as these issues have inter-community conflicts where water led to anger and frustration among users, including women and children, Jordanian, Palestinian, and Israeli com- were injured or killed to prevent them munities. Through multi-level commu - from accessing the scarce resource. nity education programs with youth, These conflicts became more frequent adults, and professionals, the Palestinian between user groups like farmers and village of Wadi Fukin and the Israeli pastoralists during the dry season community of Tzur Hadassah built a when water supply was insufficient common understanding of their shared to sustain livestock. To confront this spring system and the critical need problem the World Bank financed the to protect it. The two communities Rural Water Supply and Sanitation initiated collective activism to combat Project (RWSSP) from 2006 to 2011. environmentally harmful government The project supported the setup of policies and to implement a joint wa - rapid water supply and sanitation tershed-based land use plan. Together, service delivery in rural communities, they were able to resolve many col- developed a system for the Ministry of lective environmental issues and foster Cooperatives and Rural Development improved relations with each other. The to monitor and evaluate the national GWN project has helped attract over sector plan, trained the technical, A child fetches water at an improved water source in US$400 million of investment in GWN institutional, and financial staff of the Kimatong, Eastern Equatoria, community activities and it continues rural water and sanitation department, Southern Sudan. (Photo by Pact) to serve as an international model for and increased water data and informa- using water as a tool for peacebuilding tion management. By 2010, access to (FOEME 2013). safe water supply had increased to 34 percent of the population, directly benefiting 639,250 people. RWSSP MAXIMIZE WOMEN’S also established technical guidelines ROLES IN WATER CONFLICT and manuals for 14 Water, Sanitation RESOLUTION and Hygiene (WASH) facilities and At the conclusion of the civil war in trained 518 WASH management the Democratic Republic of Congo, committees to operate their facilities. the Swima and the Ihua communities These achievements sought to reduce both experienced the strain of water inter-community water conflicts by scarcity and consequent allocation increasing water supply and decreasing disputes between these watershed competition and to help build the gov- riparians threatened to turn violent. ernment’s capacity for managing water From 2003–2007, Tearfund worked in supplies to alleviate water access the Swima village to establish a water problems (World Bank Sudan 2011). user association, Committee for Clean Water (Kamati ya Maji Safi, or KMS), to rehabilitate and develop community water infrastructure. Since women held the primary roles in domestic water collection and management in these 28 WATER & CONFLICT, 2014

31 communities, KMS mandated 3 of the and the Borana were blamed. This 7 members of the management team helped fuel years of fighting, pastoral be local women. Female representa - banditry, and shoot-outs between the tives from Ihua and Swima collaborated - communities. In 2009, local peace com to plan the extension of a piped water mittees were established through the scheme between their villages in order CEWARN initiative and these commit- to increase water access for residents. tees adopted a resource sharing agree- After the initial women-led discussions, ment to improve stability and sustainable men were incorporated into the design peace between the conflicting parties. and implementation process to ensure The agreement concluded with the whole-community buy-in. When the water-scarce Borana people granting the extension was successfully completed Gabra community access to their grazing the women continued to collaborate in land in exchange for water from the wa- similar ways and expanded water ser- ter-abundant Gabra territory. Following vices in partnership with other nearby the agreement, there have been no villages: Abeka, Mukwezi, and Munene further reports of theft between the (Burt and Keiru 2013). communities (USAID 2009). MITIGATE RISK OF WATER AS CONFLICT THROUGH A TOOL FOR 3 IMPROVED EARLY WARNING PEACEBUILDING AND RESPONSE SYSTEMS In 2002, USAID and the IMPROVE INCLUSION Intergovernmental Authority on C THROUGH OMMUNITY Development developed the Conflict CONSULTATION AND Early Warning and Response Mechanism INFRASTRUCTURE (CEWARN) for Djibouti, Eritrea, DEVELOPMENT Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, and Violent conflicts often occur in rural Uganda. The system sought to mitigate communities in Yemen over the manage- and prevent violent conflict through ment and distribution of the country’s a collaborative conflict preparedness scarce water resources. For example, system that empowers government in the Ataq District of the Shabwa and non-government stakeholders to governorate, water distribution had respond to and share information on been a key point of tension between potential issues. CEWARN operates community members, as the old sup- at a regional level with a Committee ply network did not service migrant of Permanent Secretaries, a Technical families. To address these types of issues, Committee on Early Warning, and an Partners for Democratic Change (PDC) administrative office. At a national level, launched the Community-Based Conflict CEWARN units are placed in relevant - Mitigation Program in 2009. The pro ministries and National Research gram created 10 local commissions of Institutes. At a local level CEWARN trained community mediators who were works with local committees and field in charge of identifying and mediating monitors. This program has contributed conflicts between members of their to resolving a number of conflicts in communities. In the Ataq District, the the region. For example, violence over commission convened stakeholders to resource allocation between the Borana discuss local disputes over water and and Gabra communities in southern potential solutions. The parties proposed Ethiopia and northern Kenya escalated improving - equitability of access by re - in 2005 after new government admin structuring the water distribution system istrative units were created. The conflict and extending pipelines to include new resulted in the massacre of 75 Gabra households. As part of its objective to WATER & CONFLICT, 2014 29

32 build sustainable solutions to conflicts, y of and militaries due to the histor PDC financed the local infrastructure oppressive, interventionist, militarist plan in order to more equitably service regimes. In contrast to its neighbors, the community’s growing population Senegal stands out as an example of (Partners for Democratic Change 2012). how a civilian-military relationship can be positive in developing the country. The Armee-Nation project was created EXTEND PEACE DIVIDENDS soon after Senegal’s independence in REMOTE AREAS TO 1960 and has since served to protect When rebuilding after the second Iraq citizens through many different types of war, communities in the Iraqi marsh- collaborative development projects. The lands were faced with the challenges military’s work on water infrastructure of upstream water diversion, wetlands has promoted positive civilian-military degradation, a lack of safe water and relations and has helped communities sanitation, destroyed livelihoods, and a more effectively use scarce water sup- high level of distrust towards domes- plies. Projects include waste treatment tic and international organizations. To facilities, canals, wells, lakes, and water reverse these effects, the United Nations retention basins for agriculture. The Environment Programme (UNEP) im- consistency of these civilian-military plemented the Iraqi Marshland Project projects since Senegal’s indepen - from 2004–2008, which provided relief dence has helped not only to reduce and social services to the communi- the risk of conflict over water access ties impacted by the conflict, increased but also to manifest citizen trust and water supply with distribution pipelines respect for security forces (Partners for and common taps, and researched sus- Democratic Change n.d.). tainable tactics to re-flood and restore - dried areas of the marshlands. The proj REBUILD COMMUNITY ect reduced frustrations and anxieties ATIONSHIPS WITH REL of local communities, became a beacon GOVERNMENT AND SERVICE of good news amidst the destruction of PROVIDERS war, and helped 25,000 people in rural In 1996 the Government of the communities gain access to safe drinking Philippines and the Moro National water. Increased access included inter - Liberation Front signed a Peace nally displaced persons who, due to the Agreement to end a multi-decadal projects outcomes, gained the confi - - conflict. The Agreement included a pro dence they needed to return to their vision for development of basic eco- villages in the marshlands. In addition, nomic and social infrastructure in the collaborated with var ious the project poorest and most conflict-ridden areas Iraqi government ministries to provide of Mindanao. The World Bank’s Special an early response to the communities’ Zone for Peace and Development needs in order to restore trust between project was designed to fast-track the people and their public authorities immediate development activities. (Weinthal, Troell, and Nakayama 2013). A Social Fund was set up for quick - financing and water supply and sanita IMPROVE PUBLIC tion was designated as one of several RELATIONS WITH POLICE focus areas for the fund. Localized AND SECURITY FORCES financing helped target funding to com - In 2009 the World Bank estimated munities most in need and at risk of that in the previous 15 years the West conflict recurrence. Most importantly, African region witnessed 70 percent the community-driven development of the military coups in Africa. In the model and quick implementation in the region in general, there is a persistent most impoverished locations helped to relationship of distrust between civilians 30 WATER & CONFLICT, 2014

33 BOX 3: Want to know more? The following print publications and websites provide additional practical recommendations and ideas from real-world cases. Gehrig, Jason, and Mark M. Rogers 2009: Water and Conflict: Incorporating Peacebuilding into Water Available online at: http://www.crsprogramquality.org/storage/pubs/ Development. Catholic Relief Services. peacebuilding/waterconflict.pdf Provides conceptual information and practical guidance on the integration of water and peacebuilding in project programming. Conflict Sensitive Water Supply: Lessons from Operations. The World Bank: Social Ruckstuhl, Sandra 2012: Development Working Papers No. 127. Available online at: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/ WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2012/05/04/000386194_20120504022133/Rendered/PDF/685090NWP00PUB 0l0development0papers.pdf Explores the lessons learned from World Bank-led water projects in conflict-affected, fragile, and violent areas. Building Peace Around Water, Land and Food: Policy and Practice for Roberts, Ellie and Lynn Finnegan 2013: Quaker United Nations Office. Available online at: http://www.quno.org/geneva/pdf/ Preventing Conflict. economic/QUNO%20peace%20water%20land%20and%20food%202013-1.pdf Reviews policy and legal mechanisms, including five case studies, for preventing and resolving conflict related to natural resource governance. Weinthal, Erika, Jessica J. Troell and Mikiyasu Nakama (eds.) 2014: Water and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding. Routledge. Contains nineteen case studies exemplifying the role water can play in a post-conflict situation to facilitate or undermine peacebuilding. Information available online at: http://www.globalwaters.net/ USAID Global Water for Sustainability Program. Summarizes information on a consortium of water supply, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services, water management, and building local capacity projects financed by USAID. UNESCO International Hydrological Programme “From Potential Conflict to Cooperation Potential.” Information available online at: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/environment/water/ihp/ ihp-programmes/pccp/ Presents examples of projects focused in multi-level and interdisciplinary dialogues that promote cooperation rather than conflict over the management of shared water sources. United Nations Development Programme—United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office. “Peace Dividends and Beyond: Contributions of Administrative and Social Services to Peacebuilding.” Information available online at: http://www.un.org/en/peacebuilding/pbso/pdf/peace_dividends.pdf Presents evidence in support of including administrative and social services amongst the menu of choices available to directly support peacebuilding in any given context. United Nations Environment Programme—Disasters and Conflict Sub-Programme. Information available online at: http://www.unep.org/disastersandconflicts/ Demonstrates methods to alleviate potential environmental harm in disaster and conflict situations with research publications, general information, and program options. Natural Resource Management and Development Portal. Information available online at: http://rmportal.net/ Collection of resources to be distributed among natural resource networks to foster open communication on available information, projects, media, etc.

34 USAID and The Mountain rebuild communities’ trust in govern- the water system allowed residents of Institute survey changes in ment and their development partners the city to rely on the same system for highland pastures to better (World Bank 2003). the first time since the war concluded, understand the risk of conflict in the Ancash region of Peru. receive the same services, and pay the With the loss of one-third of the same water tariff. As a unique peace - glaciers of the Cordillera Blanca, INTEGRATE SERVICES FOR and as highland temperatures building mechanism, the reintegration of C ONFLICTING PARTIES increase and precipitation the utility acted as a preliminary step in Prior to the Bosnian War, the city of becomes more erratic, the reducing division between the eastern ecosystem upon which people Mostar was serviced by a single utility, depend is increasingly endangered. and western parts of the city and built Mostar Water Supply and Sewerage (Photo by Cynthia Brady, USAID) momentum for reintegration in other Utility. After the war, extensive water sectors of the economy and governance infra structure damage and ethnic divi - systems (World Bank 2005). sion led to the establishment of two separate water service providers — one BUILD RELATIONSHIPS for the western Croat portion of the THROUGH TECHNICAL city and one for the eastern Bosniak INNOVATION - side. International agencies helped in In 1981, the USAID-Middle East crease the supply of water after the war Regional Cooperation Program began but the challenge for recovery and long- - funding collaborative scientific innova term development was larger : reintegra- tion to promote a less hostile relation- tion. The World Bank’s Mostar Water ship between Israel and its neighbors Supply and Sanitation project (2000– in the region: Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, 2004) assisted with the reintegration of Morocco, Tunisia, and the West Bank. the utility through institutional capacity One successful initiative under the building and rehabilitation of distribu- Program involved scientists from Israel, tion and sewerage networks. Uniting 32 WATER & CONFLICT, 2014

35 Jordan, and the West Bank. This group before initiating regional cooperation of innovators developed safe and effec- helped to ensure that capacity was in tive protocols for reclaimed wastewater place and thus improve the program’s olive irrigation systems, which helped peacebuilding potential. By the end of reduce the agricultural burden on the program, there was marked im- scarce water resources while allowing provement in cross-boundary dialogue farmers to produce this important cash on shared water resources manage- - crop. This endeavor sought to encour ment (Vardanyan and Volk 2013). age constructive relationships between technical specialists with the long-term MONITORING objective of establishing more efficient AND EVALUATION 4 water usage and less water-intensive IN CONFLICT- livelihoods in the area (USAID 2012b). AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTS BUILD RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN COUNTRIES Peacebuilding evaluation practice has THROUGH RIPARIAN grown considerably in recent years. DATA SHARING Today, a number of excellent resources Ethnic disputes underlie tensions in the exist on the topic, with significantly Caucasus region, as seen in the ter- more rigorous evaluations being ritorial conflict between Armenia and conducted and with greater interna- Azerbaijan over the Kura-Araks Basin in tional consensus on best practice in the Nagorno-Karabakh region. Specific peacebuilding evaluation than was the disagreements over water between 1 In 2012, for case even a decade ago. countries in the basin grew more example, the Organization for Economic prevalent as a result of ineffective water Cooperation and Development’s data and information management, Development Assistance Committee which contributed to the inequitable Evaluating (OECD-DAC) released distribution of water between countries Peacebuilding Activities in Settings of and increased pollution of shared water , which provides Conflict and Fragility resources. From 2001–2008 USAID step-by-step guidance on evaluation, as launched the Water Management in well as some basic principles of program the South Caucasus and the South design and management. Practitioners Caucasus Water programs. These designing or managing evaluations for programs sought to strengthen national projects that relate to water and conflict and transboundary water manage- should consult this guide in tandem with ment capacities through improved data the USAID Evaluation Policy (2011). In management, water quality monitoring, addition to emerging norms and learn- and technical staff training for water ing around peacebuilding practice and management institutions. rigorous performance evaluation, there Due to the Armenian government’s commitment to water sector develop- ces Gaarder, Marie See among other resour 1. and Jeannie Annan 2013: “Impact Evaluation ment, the project began with a focus of Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding on building water management capac- Interventions,” World Bank Policy Research ity among national authorities. In 2005 Working Paper 6496, Washington, DC: The World Bank. Blum, Andrew 2011: “Improving the project expanded to include two Peacebuilding Evaluation: A Whole-of-Field sub-basins — the Alazani Basin and Approach,” Special Report, U.S. Institute of Peace, Washington, DC; Blum, Andrew and Melanie the Khrami-Debed Basin — where Kawano-Chiu 2012: “Proof of Concept: Learning overall tensions were less acute, in from Nine Examples of Peacebuilding Evaluation,” - order to boost the countries’ confi U.S. Institute of Peace & Alliance for Peacebuilding, Washington, DC; Learning Portal for Design, dence in cooperating with one another. Monitoring, and Evaluation of Peacebuilding. Strengthening Armenia’s institutions Available at http://dmeforpeace.org/. WATER & CONFLICT, 2014 33

36 A man operates pipe is also increased attention to and use of A second step is to identify and collect infrastructure in Iraq. impact evaluations, including randomized data on conflict-specific indicators that (Photo by UDAID/Iraq) control trials as well as other quantita- will help project managers understand tive and mixed methods approaches. the changing conflict dynamics. This may , which context indicators take the form of There is not enough space in this tool- are indicators that do not directly cor - kit to adequately address this topic but respond to any expected inputs, outputs, the following highlights may be useful or outcomes from the project but could to consider. affect its implementation in some way. The third step is to understand how MONITORING the project interacts with those conflict Project monitoring is first and foremost dynamics, which may require custom- a management tool. If a project could izing other project indicators linked to be affected by conflict dynamics or water access, quality, or quantity. For vice versa then conflict dynamics are a example, if a goal of the project is to concern of management. Most water increase the number of people with projects occurring in conflict-affected access to water, do we know the iden- and fragile states (and situations) tity of those people in the terms that should be monitoring for conflict at relate to the conflict, such as ethnicity, - some level. This monitoring is gener religion, political affiliation, or gender? ally accomplished through collection of In a country like Iraq, for instance, a data linked to specific indicators. A first water project where 80 percent of the step, therefore, is to conduct a conflict beneficiaries are Sunni Arabs living in assessment or conflict analysis tied to rural areas has a different relationship the water project. to conflict dynamics than one that is 34 WATER & CONFLICT, 2014

37 more evenly divided by Sunnis, Shias, erence to the taken with ref under be and Kurds. A final step, appropriate in - USAID Evaluation Policy. Both perfor cases where peacebuilding or conflict mance evaluations and impact evalu- sensitivity are explicit components of ations can be useful but they serve the project design, is to design and different functions and imply different - collect data on conflict-specific per logistical and timing considerations. In formance indicators . These might be some cases, a mixed methods approach measures of grievance or social cohe- may be suitable, and in other cases it sion, cooperation, dispute resolution, may be necessary to account for com- violence, or some other focus area that plex causal logics in the evaluation itself. the project aims to influence through Security concerns linked to the proj - water-related activities. ect, communities, and evaluators must also be carefully considered. Security constraints may have major impacts EVALUATION on logistics, budgets, and ultimately, the The OECD-DAC identifies a number feasibility of different approaches. In of key steps in preparing an evaluation, deciding how to manage the evaluation, beginning with defining its purpose. one practical step that USAID missions Accountability and learning are two of can take is to create a structure for the most common criteria, although cross-sector design and management there can be others as well. Challenges of the evaluation involving both conflict in peacebuilding evaluation often stem and water specialists. from issues in the design of a project— for example, lack of clarity around the Evaluating Peacebuilding Activities OECD-DAC Sources: See http://www.oecd. in Settings of Conflict and Fragility. theory of change or confusion between - org/dac/evaluation/evaluatingconflictpreventionand conflict-sensitivity and peacebuilding. peacebuilding.htm for this and other resources. Also Determining the scope of evaluation, see Saferworld: Conflict-sensitive approaches to develop- ment, humanitarian assistance and peacebuilding: Tools for deciding on evaluation criteria, and available at http:// peace and conflict impact assessment, outlining key evaluation questions are www.saferworld.org.uk/downloads/pubdocs/chap- ter_3_module_3_conflict_sensitive_monitoring__414. - all critical steps. Selecting an appropri pdf. See also the USAID Evaluation Policy (2011) and ate evaluation approach and method - other materials from the USAID Office of Learning, ology is also important and should Evaluation, and Research (PPL/LER). WATER & CONFLICT, 2014 35

38 PART 4: RAPID APPRAISAL GUIDE Residents in Rajasthan, India, This Rapid Appraisal Guide has been designed to assist fill up at a harvesting structure, development practitioners as they seek to identify factors which has made water that could trigger or escalate conflict and to determine readily available for drinking, agriculture, and sanitation peacebuilding and resilience-strengthening opportunities during the dry season. (Photo by associated with water programs. To help inform all Jal Bhagirathi Foundation) phases of the program cycle, the guide is divided into two sections: a list of general considerations and a set of more specific lines of inquiry. 1. CHECKLIST OF GENERAL in-depth inquiry or analysis and to orga- CONSIDERATIONS - nize information collected through inter This section outlines a series of basic views, assessments, or literature reviews. - factors to frame a conflict-sensitive ap proach to water programming. These 2. GUIDING QUESTIONS considerations may help practitioners This section lists key questions that identify specific areas that require further 36 WATER & CONFLICT, 2014

39 evaluate the risk of conflict related to or organization(s) chosen to lead and water. These questions should help participate in an intervention can be practitioners effectively integrate water critical to gaining or losing political and management and conflict prevention community buy-in and sustainability. and mitigation into their programs. Not all questions will be relevant to each TIMING AND case or region due to natural, historical, SEQUENCING sociopolitical, and cultural differences. First, determine whether any urgent The questions are organized around issues must be addressed immediately several themes, which are not meant to in order to prevent imminent violence be exhaustive but are illustrative based and conflict. Then, medium and long- on broader guidance contained in this term needs should be identified—and toolkit as well as the CAF 2.0. the two timescales of intervention Successful should be connected. Often, short- term interventions can strategically CHECKLIST programmatic address immediate problems while OF GENERAL 1 interventions from building the knowledge and political CONSIDERATIONS: buy-in required for longer-term change. other countries can At the same time, practitioners should CONTEXT-SPECIFIC be informative and be mindful of the longer-term implica- INTERVENTIONS tions of any short-term interventions. helpful in designing It is imperative to understand the local For example, is the program resistant specificities of the relationship between new program options to the impacts of climate change? Will water and conflict, particularly with but can seldom it be supported if there is a change in respect to socioeconomic, cultural, government? Addressing structural and historical, and political dynamics in a be copied directly systemic water issues that can precipi- given country or location. Successful from one context to tate violence will often require a long- programmatic interventions from other term commitment of assistance. another. The design countries can be informative and help- ful in designing new program options of programmatic Be aware that unmet expectations or but can seldom be copied directly from initiating or terminating water interven- interventions must one context to another. The design of tions at an inappropriate moment can programmatic interventions must flow flow from local actually trigger conflict. Furthermore, from local realities and dynamics. reforms or interventions attempted realities and dynamics. out-of-sequence and lacking an enabling POLITICALLY STRATEGIC environment may also fuel conflict. INTERVENTIONS When used to support a peacebuild- Historically, water issues have primarily ing process, water-related initiatives can been approached as technical or legal serve to address known grievances or problems. However, the complexity build confidence and trust between and sensitivity of water issues demands key parties, such as, when supply is well-designed programmatic interven- improved at critical times or when tions that can operate successfully cooperative relationships are fostered within relevant cultural, political, and between adversaries. economic settings. Political buy-in from national and local government and INDICATORS OF CONFLICT other key stakeholders is often essen- OR COLLABORATION tial. Accordingly, the processes relevant Practitioners should be on the lookout to designing and implementing water for signals that water-related tensions interventions are often as important as are growing or changing. Crucial early the sectoral outcomes (e.g., the “how” warning indicators may include: increases can matter more than the “what” in a in illegal pumping or water supply conflict setting). Moreover, the people WATER & CONFLICT, 2014 37

40 GOVERNMENT diversion, increases in the number of BUY-IN water disputes, increased reporting of Government buy-in is essential for most environmental degradation, unregulated programmatic interventions, especially (or unenforced regulations on) individu- those affecting law, policy, or government alized water use, unwillingness or inabil- - agencies. As programs are being de ity to invest in water use or monitoring signed it is useful to consider if the nec- infrastructure, small-scale violence at essary political will exists, at which levels water points and destruction of water and within which institutions it might - infrastructure, or increased inflamma exist, and if and how political will can be tory rhetoric about water-related issues appropriate generated or sustained at within political discourse. On the other levels. Are there ways to take smaller ini - hand, indicators of collaborative ripe- tial steps to build confidence and buy-in ness and water-related peacebuilding from key government actors while laying potential include: stakeholder interest in the foundations for longer-term and exercising good practice in integrated broader reaching interventions? When water resource management, water considering the potential impact of gov- users’ willingness to collaborate with ernment buy-in, practitioners could also each other in the context of broader survey public perceptions of institutional conflict, and public support and posi - effectiveness and legitimacy. tive press for policy reform that would change the status quo, for example water demand management. KEY ACTORS AND STAKEHOLDERS Practitioners should consider the critical LEVEL OF actors or stakeholders other than gov- INTERVENTION ernment (and neighboring governments Armed conflict is a complex system in the case of transboundary systems) that generally has deep historical roots who have an interest in the water and effects that continue to reverberate resource that is implicated in the project. long after the signing of a peace accord. Ignoring the interest of key stakeholders, The long-term process of peacebuilding informal authorities, and power brokers is dependent upon achieving meaning- Armed conflict is a runs the risk of generating conflict, un - ful and complementary changes at both - dermining sectoral development objec the national and the local levels, and at complex system that tives, and blocking or inhibiting construc- both the personal and institutional lev- generally has deep tive developments in the future. els. Meanwhile, water-related interven - tions occur within this system, and no historical roots and single project is able to address every - LOCAL effects that continue thing. Project designers and managers CAPACITIES to reverberate long must therefore make strategic decisions Practitioners should consider whether in order to leverage the impact of their there is sufficient local capacity to after the signing of a results. Should the activities focus on support the proposed development peace accord. the national or local levels? Should they interventions. Human resources, techni - target responsible water management cal and administrative skills, and infra- institutions or the behavior of users? If structure support or equipment are both, in what sequence or with what often lacking in key areas such as legal presumed theory of change? And with services, engineering, or water resource what relationship to the activities of mapping. This can inhibit project success other projects and international actors? and potentially fuel social grievances, Answering these questions helps prac- - particularly in cases where citizens per titioners measure impact and plan for ceive the state as incapable of effectively results more strategically. and legitimately supporting develop- ment interventions. Identify capacity and 38 WATER & CONFLICT, 2014

41 Water floods the road after an logistical limitations early, before they GUIDING air strike by pro-government become unexpected constraints or lead QUESTIONS: forces hit a water pipeline in 2 to unmet expectations and so they can the Syrian city of Aleppo on November 28, 2013. (Photo be rectified through the project. Five basic questions address the likeli- by Mohammed Al-Khatieb, hood of water-related conflict: AFP ImageForum) DONOR • ties hold Do two or more par COORDINATION competing claims on a water In many countries, multiple donors resource? Does an unequal power support water-related interventions relationship exist between the parties? through various development tracks (from health to agriculture to energy), ing parties belong • Do water-shar making organizational coordination a to different groups of society? Do ity. Close coordination among and prior tensions unrelated to water exist between development actors and the between these groups? host government as well as key water resource management institutions • Are water management (inside or outside of government) is ective, enforced, mechanisms eff also essential to ensuring integrated and and perceived as fair? sustainable resource management as flooding, or water • Is lack of water, well as conflict-sensitive implementation. resources development impacting Uncoordinated planning can result in health, depriving people of their biased, ineffective, or counter-productive livelihood, or forcing them to migrate? infusions of resources and technical support that complicate the resolution • Do water management institutions of conflict dynamics. Connecting with and relevant populations ha ve the water-coordination groups or a water capacity to adapt to situations of water focal point is a good starting point for variability (scarcity and abundance)? gathering relevant information. WATER & CONFLICT, 2014 39

42 IDENTIFYING SOCIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL PATTERNS OF GRIEVANCE AND RESILIENCE User Access Who has secure and reliable access to water? Is any party directly or indirectly denied access to water in sufficient quality and quantity? If so, do affected social groups perceive this limitation to be a deliberate manifestation of a discriminatory policy? What is the relationship between groups with differential water access? Are one party’s changes in water quality, quantity, or flow inhibiting water use by another party? Has man-made water scarcity or degraded water quality decreased water availability and increased the impact on the environment or human health? Are water users highly dependent on the particular water resource in question or can their needs be fulfilled by other means? ve water access or quality (e.g., drills, pumps, irrigation Who has access to equipment or treatment options that help impro equipment, filters, disinfectants)? Who has access to water infrastructure (e.g., dams, canals, cisterns) for domestic purposes and for income purposes? Who does not have these types of access and why not? What are the consequences of different levels of access on the different user groups? Who has access to data and information about water resources, infrastructure, and regulations? How do they get the information? Is it trusted? Water Governance Are water allocation mechanisms and systems of water permits enforced? Are they perceived as fair and transparent? What are the formal and informal institutions that manage water? What are their respective roles technically and in terms of conflict management? How do they collaborate or conflict? Are the services they deliver considered effective and by whom? Do institutions equitably mediate competing claims for water access, social and environmental impacts, and benefit sharing? Are there international mechanisms to enhance governance of transboundary water resources? Are such mechanisms adopted, implemented, and enforced? If so, at what levels? Do national and local water management institutions have sufficient human and technical capacity to develop and enforce comprehensive water management plans? Does a reliable database exist and, if so, is it accepted by all water-sharing parties? Is information shared among water-using parties? Are contradictory decisions in water-related issues made by different institutions (agriculture, fishery, regional development, etc.) or on different levels (local to regional)? Have all groups (including local communities and indigenous groups) with legitimate interests, facing serious impacts, or holding formal and informal access rights, been identified and recognized? Are these groups able to participate in management and development policy? Has the negotiation capacity of weaker groups been strengthened? Are water resources perceived to be allocated according to political motivations or patronage? Do benefits from water-related development accrue to a particular identity group, economic class, or region? Have stakeholders been appropriately consulted and compensated? 40 WATER & CONFLICT, 2014

43 Conflict Damages and Recovery Have water resources, infrastructure, or institutions been targeted and damaged or obstructed by anyone? intentionally By whom? Why? When? Who was impacted? What were the consequences? Have water resources, infrastructure, or institutions been damaged by anyone during a conflict (e.g., collateral unintentionally damage during armed violence) or as the result of protest? How? By whom? Who was impacted? What were the consequences? Have water resources, infrastructure, or institutions contributed to reconciliation or peacebuilding activities in a post- conflict context? How and why? Who were the key stakeholders and what were their roles during the conflict? Have water resource governance mechanisms, such as user groups or emergency flood management plans, functioned effectively despite a context of conflict or violence? How did they resist or manage the effects of conflict? Which institutions and identity groups were relevant? ACCOUNTING FOR EMERGING ISSUES AND TRENDS Considering population growth and population movements, is there adequate water infrastructure and supply for all users? Which locations will have an infrastructure or service gap? Who will be most impacted by the gap? What is currently being done to bridge that gap? Considering the potential for natural disasters, how could water availability, quality, and access be affected by future events? Which groups are most vulnerable to those impacts and which groups are best prepared to cope with the risks? Which institution(s) is responsible for risk reduction and what are the public perceptions of its effectiveness and legitimacy? How does current climate variability impact water resources? What are the anticipated impacts from climate change on water resources? Who will be impacted by this? How are people, governance institutions, and infrastructure responding to these changes? How could they adapt better to reduce insecurity and risk of conflict? Who are the riparians to the water resources that are outside of local or domestic jurisdiction, including international? What impact have they had on water availability and quality within the specified jurisdiction? How has this contributed to tensions, conflict, or peacebuilding at various levels (if at all)? Which exported economic products require a significant amount of water for production? Who earns income in this market? How does that production impact water access for other users who share the water resource? Who makes decisions about water allocation? What are riparian perceptions of those decisions? UNDERSTANDING KEY ACTORS Considering the potential sources of grievance discussed above, who could mobilize groups to express discontent related to water issues? Who could mobilize groups to collaborate peacefully around water resource management? How would they mobilize people (unifying the groups, organizing activities, financing initiatives)? What would their motivations be for mobilizing people? Who would that mobilization affect? Are the motives of the mobilizers the same as those of the recruits? What are those motives? WATER & CONFLICT, 2014 41

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