Tapping the Potential: Retaining and Developing High Quality New Teachers


1 Every Child A Graduate Tapping the Potential Retaining and Developing High-Quality New Teachers

2 Tapping the Potential Retaining and Developing High-Quality New Teachers

3 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION About the Alliance for Excellent Education The Alliance for Excellent Education is a national policy and r esearch organization that works to help make every child a graduate—to prepare them for college, to have success in life, and to be contributing members of society. It focuses on the needs of the millions of secondary school students (those in the lowest achievement quartile) who are most likely to leave school without a diploma or to gra duate unprepared for a productive future. ents, teachers and Based in Washington, D.C., the Alliance’s audience includes par principals, and students, as well as the federal, state, and lo cal policy communities, education organizations, the media, and a concerned public. To inform the national debate about education policies and opti ons, we produce reports and other materials, make presentations at meetings and conferences, brief policymakers and the press, and provide timely information to a wide audience via our rg. biweekly newsletter and regularly updated website, www.all4ed.o ii

4 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS Foreword Recent thinking in the educational research community has refoc used attention on aders have always known the critical value of instruction. Well-informed educational le that excellent teachers place emphasis on the growth of student learning. Nevertheless, persuasive research demonstrating the relative im portance of instruction for student achievement—as against other contextual factors—has brought about a 1 dramatic emphasis in recent years on the quality of teaching. Federal support for elementary and secondary education historic ally has been mod- est. As it strengthened in the late twentieth century, it was d irected largely toward assis- tance for the nation’s neediest children. Only in the last deca de has there been a per- ceptible shift in federal policy, focusing specifically on teac her quality. A promising s support for novice avenue for productive investment in improving teacher quality i ly called induction. teachers in their first years in the classroom, a period common (ESEA) in 1965, Until the passage of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act llege land grants and the federal reach into school matters was limited largely to co financial supports for federally impacted areas. Educational im provement, particularly 2 The at the elementary and secondary level, was regarded as strictly the states’ domain. sing teacher supply, federal government did play a historic role, however, in increa 3 through support for postsecondary education. The Morrill Act in 1862, the 1917 4 Smith-Hughes Act, and the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (also known as the GI sions for promoting the Bill) in 1944 were all federal initiatives that contained provi 5 education of teachers. s caught by a major In the mid-1960s, the nation’s attention regarding education wa study undertaken by James Coleman, then at Johns Hopkins Univer sity, who led a team of eminent researchers on a project for the federal government to look at teachers, schools, and students. The team’s findings on the question of e ducational opportunity 6 were published in two large volumes in 1966, and presented a complex, nuanced pic- pupil achievement ture. Coleman’s interpretation of the data he analyzed was that could not be significantly elevated until conditions governed b y race, class, and income inequality were rearranged to strengthen the positive role of h ealthy families. A broad consensus rapidly formed around this idea, and in 1972, Coleman’s basic findings were confirmed by sociologist Christopher Jencks in a highly influential book published at Harvard. Jencks’s summary was supremely confident in its forcefulness: “The character of a school’s output depends largely on a single input, namely the char- 7 acteristics of the entering children.” Despite the implicit, seemingly logical, conclusion of the anal ysis put forth by Coleman and Jencks—that when it comes to student achievement, t eaching doesn’t matter very much—Americans were nevertheless concerned about at tracting new teachers into the profession and keeping them in it. In the ear ly 1970s, many schools began to investigate how to help the beginning teacher enter the teaching profession better prepared for its challenges. During the mid-1 970s, education experts debated different ways to smooth out the induction of n ew teachers into programs to five school systems. Some suggested extending preservice preparation iii

5 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION years or requiring extensive internships; others established in duction programs for the first one to three years of teaching. Programs expanded enough that, in 1979, the Educational Testing Service (ETS) commissioned a survey of the history and evaluation of orientat ion programs for novice teachers. Many types were listed in the ETS report, alon g with reasons for their establishment. Most programs were small, incomplete, and locall y designed and fund- that was unique ed. The report describes, for example, a New Hampshire program arning yet provided a because it did not collaborate with an institution of higher le teacher’s sole route to recertification, and several special-pu rpose induction programs 8 in seven states, such as those designed especially for rural te achers. In the 1980s many state legislatures, including Connecticut and California, began to mandate induction programs. A few states went so far as to s pecify program con- tent and design the delivery system. As the research on inducti on was still relatively weak, however, most of these programs were neither comprehensiv e nor based on solid research. Meanwhile, the 1983 publication of A Nation at Risk drew widespread national atten- tion to the state of American schools. The electrifying rhetori c of this report resulted in the emergence of a powerful consensus to reform American edu cation. Politicians, business leaders, educators, and ordinary citizens all joined t ogether to push for a quality education for all students. Among other things, A Nation at Risk claimed that American teachers were ill-prepared. Teachers were roundly crit icized for their inabili- ty to teach higher-level thinking, particularly in the subjects of math and science. The publication of gave rise to a series of “educational excellence” A Nation at Risk reforms designed to change the nature of schools, students, and teachers. Teacher esearchers examined a retention quickly became a source of major concern. At first, r ely ignoring induction, host of factors influencing the retention of new teachers. Larg or variations in teacher quality, researchers focused on teache r salaries and school 9 quality to help explain and correct for teacher attrition. was followed by A Nation at Risk , a 1986 report that called for a A Nation Prepared national board to “establish high standards for what teachers n eed to know and be 10 able to do, and to certify teachers who meet that standard.” Of course, this recom- mendation was realized in the establishment of the National Boa rd for Professional Teaching Standards. Anticipating many of the features of what a re now understood as positive features of induction, the report recommended creating decisionmaking struc- tures in which “lead teachers” would play important roles and t eachers would direct their own support staffs. By the mid-1980s, some school administrators and teacher educat ors concluded that inexperience accounted for many of the problems facing new teac hers. The only preparation that most beginning teachers had was the semester-l ong student-teacher experience. This was not sufficient. Student teachers had not s urvived a series of instructional failures, experienced students’ boredom, discover ed a wall of student learning resistance, or felt the isolation of “teaching forever .” Student teachers did not characteristically experience the demands of meetings, red tape , extracurricular activi- 11 ties, and student/parent conferences. iv

6 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS clinical practice that Clearly, to be successful, novice teachers needed education in went well beyond student teaching. Researchers soon discovered that the most effec- te changes in the tive induction programs were those flexible enough to accommoda classroom and school setting. Excellent induction programs did more than show teachers how to teach at a certain school; they helped teachers improve the quality of their teaching. Education leaders called for mentoring programs designed to accu- rately determine new teachers’ needs as they changed across tim e. Induction pro- grams were designed to guide new teachers from day-to-day survi val to more analytic 12 and flexible thinking. By the early 1990s, it became evident that induction was even m ore vital than school officials had previously believed. Researchers found retention more positively related cademic performance or to the quality of the first teaching experience than to prior a 13 the adequacy of teacher education. In 1996, the National Commission on Teaching be structured like a and America’s Future suggested that the first years of teaching ularly communicate medical residency. New teachers in residency programs would reg with expert teachers on instructional practices and classroom s upervision. They would 14 also get feedback on and receive formal evaluations of their pe rformance. By the first decade of the twenty-first century, compelling new research linking the performance of individual students with specific teachers led m any analysts to the clear conclusion that the quality of the teacher was the most importa nt factor in producing student achievement gain. The resultant focus on teacher qualit y brought an increase in schools implementing the kinds of reforms that education res earchers had been teachers (79 percent) calling for since the 1970s. Thus, in 2003, the majority of new 15 reported participating in some form of teacher induction. This represents a consid- erable increase when compared to previous years. Only 56 percen t of new teachers in 1993 participated in a formal induction program during their fi rst year; 44 percent of 1989’s new teachers underwent induction; and just 17 percent of 1974’s new teachers 16 reported an induction experience. Now, in 2004, more than thirty states have initiat- tes currently require, ed induction programs for their beginning teachers. Fifteen sta 17 rs. and in some measure fund, induction programs for all new teache Since the passage of the ESEA in 1965, schools and their teache rs have found a per- manent place on the national agenda. In the past decade, the sp ecific emphasis in pol- icy and practice has increasingly been on the quality of instru ction. Many states and districts have raised academic standards, mandated that every c hild have a quality teacher, and insisted that teachers have opportunities for cont inued growth and profes- 18 sional development once in the classroom. The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2002 attempts to help children reach high academic standards by requiring that every class be taught by a “highly qualified teacher.” NCLB requires academic achievement of every student in every school. As teacher quality is now und erstood to be the great- est predictor of academic success, and induction improves teach er quality, the need to continue the education of novice teachers in the first years of clinical practice in the 19 classroom through well-designed programs of induction could not be greater. No Child Left Behind crucially changed the way the nation think s about education highly qualified,” the fed- policy. By requiring that every teacher in every classroom be “ v

7 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION rthy of federal eral government has made teacher quality a national priority wo resources. The kind of education, support, and evaluation that comes with a program of comprehensive induction is one sure way to improve the quali ty of the teaching workforce. It is the kind of reform for which thoughtful educat ional leaders have been advocating for more than thirty years. When Carnegie Corporation of New York was designing its ambitio us teacher edu- cation reform initiative, Teachers for a New Era, induction was a central element with- in the design principle of conceptualizing teaching as an acade mically taught clinical practice profession. Eleven colleges and universities are now r ecipients of support on this challenge, and each of them will construct a means of prov iding a formal pro- two years of full-time gram of support for their teacher graduates during their first professional teaching. ers. Without them, Every child deserves effective, high-quality professional teach children will have difficulty reaching the high standards we ex pect them to achieve, and too many of them will fail. Historically, the federal gover nment has worked to ensure that all children have equal access to a quality educati on, no matter where they live or what level of resources are available to their local sc hools. More recently, this attention to equity has expanded to include efforts to improve teacher quality. A logi- cal next step for the federal government is to encourage and fu nd well-designed pro- grams of induction for all new teachers—a straightforward and r eliable way to produce rapid improvement in the quality of the nation’s teaching workf orce. Daniel Fallon Chair, Education Division Carnegie Corporation of New York vi

8 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS Acknowledgments Tapping the Potential: Retaining and Developing High-Quality Ne w Teachers was produced iance for Excellent with the help and support of a number of people to whom the All Education owes sincere appreciation. Their expertise, thoughtf ul advice, and com- ments have combined to strengthen the report and its recommenda tions. The Alliance is particularly grateful to the staff members with out whose vision and dedication this report would not have been possible: Dr. Susan F. Lusi, Robin Gelinas, production include and Jeremy Ayers. Others who contributed significantly to its Pelzman. Susan Frost, Iris Bond, Daniel Luzer, Cynthia Sadler, and Sarah uality Advisory We owe sincere thanks to the Alliance’s Teacher and Principal Q edback: Group members, who reviewed the report and provided valuable fe • Kevin Carey, Senior Policy Analyst, The Education Trust d America’s Future • Dr. Tom Carroll, President, National Commission on Teaching an orporation of New York • Dr. Daniel Fallon, Chair of the Education Division, Carnegie C • Gaynor McCown, Executive Director, The Teaching Commission • Ellen Moir, Executive Director, New Teacher Center at the Univ ersity of California at Santa Cruz n, Assessment, and Support, • Dr. Catherine Fisk Natale, Bureau of Preparation, Certificatio Connecticut State Department of Education The authors of the case studies featured in the report spent lo ng hours to assure featured in it, and we that readers would get a comprehensive picture of the programs are grateful to them: • Amy Bach, University of Pennsylvania cation • Dr. Catherine Fisk Natale, Connecticut State Department of Edu at Santa Cruz • Judy Walsh, New Teacher Center at the University of California • John Weathers, University of Pennsylvania We are also indebted to the case study participants who gave th eir time to assure that the case studies were accurate and presented a full pictur e of what is happening “on the ground”: • Craig Cotner, Toledo Public School District • Karen Ellis, Tangipahoa Parish, Louisiana • MaryAnn Harmon, Louisiana Department of Education • Dal Lawrence, Toledo Federation of Teachers • Joanna Newman, Louisiana Department of Education And finally, our thanks to other individuals who reviewed this report and/or advised us in our research, conceptualization, and writing: • Karen Abercrombie, National Commission on Teaching and America ’s Future • Amy Alvarado, University of Virginia • Joan Baratz-Snowden, American Federation of Teachers • Dr. David Berliner, Arizona State University • Dr. Sharon Feiman-Nemser, Brandeis University vii

9 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION • Kathleen Fulton, National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future • Aminda Gentile, The United Federation of Teachers’ Teacher Cen ter • Janet Gless, New Teacher Center at the University of Californi a at Santa Cruz • David Gordon, Superintendent of Elk Grove Unified School Distr ict • Dr. Willis Hawley, University of Maryland (retired) • Dr. Richard Ingersoll, University of Pennsylvania • Dr. Arthur Levine, Columbia Teachers College at Harvard University • Dr. Edward Liu, The Project on the Next Generation of Teachers • Dr. Victor Luftig, University of Virginia • Dr. Judith Warren Little, University of California at Berkeley • Dr. Omar Lopez, Corporation for Public School Education K–16 • Jonathan Luczak, Stanford University • Melissa McCabe, Education Week • Dr. Kathy Meeks, South Carolina Department of Education • Kana Peters, The Teaching Commission • Christina Rowland, The New York Teacher Center, Christopher Co lumbus High School • Dr. Jonathan Supovitz, Consortium for Policy Research in Educa tion • Dr. Adam Urbanski, Rochester Teachers Association rnia at Santa Cruz • Anthony Villar, New Teacher Center at the University of Califo • Dr. Andrew Wayne, SRI International • Ross Wiener, The Education Trust viii

10 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD ... iii ... ... ... 1 ... EXECUTIVE SUMMARY THE PROBLEM WE FACE: HOW TO RETAIN TEACHERS AND DEVELOP THEM INTO HIGH-QUALITY PROFESSIONALS ... 6 Leaky Buckets Can’t Hold Water: New Teacher Attrition ... ... 7 Leaky Buckets Are Not Cheap: The Cost of Attrition ... ... 7 The Bigger Picture: Lack of Support and Assessment ... ... 8 The Short End of the Stick: Once Again, Poor Schools Suffer Most ... ... 9 THE SOLUTION: COMPREHENSIVE INDUCTION ... FOR EVERY BEGINNING TEACHER ... 11 ... 11 Solving New Teacher Attrition: More than Mentoring... ... 12 The Benefits of Comprehensive Induction... THE INDUCTION ENGINE: COMPONENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INDUCTION ... ... 13 Stand By Me: High-Quality Mentoring ... ... 13 It Takes a Village: Common Planning Time and Collaboration ... ... 15 Ongoing Professional Development ... ... 16 Participation in an External Network of Teachers ... ... 18 Final Decision: Standards-Based Evaluation ... ... 19 INDUCTION AT THE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL ... ... 20 DRIVING INDUCTION: MAKING INDUCTION WORK ... 22 Principal Leadership ... ... 22 ... 23 High-Quality Providers ... Support for Teachers with Little Preparation ... ... 24 ... 25 Incentives for Participation ... ... 26 Alignment with Classroom Needs and Professional Goals ... Adequate and Stable Funding ... ... 27 THE ROLE OF FEDERAL POLICY ... ... 28 Recommendations ... ... 29 APPENDIX A: CASE STUDIES ... 30 ... Connecticut ... ... ... 30 The New Teacher Center ... ... 36 Tangipahoa Parish, Louisiana ... ... 42 Toledo, Ohio ... ... ... 48 APPENDIX B: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ... ... 54 ... 64 ENDNOTES ... ... ix

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12 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY here is growing consensus that the single most important factor in determining f the national goal T student performance is the quality of the teacher. Therefore, i If the national goal of ion is to be met, it is of providing an equitable education to children across this nat providing an equitable ng high-quality teachers critical that efforts be concentrated on developing and retaini in every community and at every grade level. education to children s across the nation However, when the final bell rings this school year and student across this nation is to be head out the door for summer vacation, too many of their teache rs will also be leaving the classroom—permanently. About 207,000 teachers, nearly 6 per cent of the teaching met, it is critical that efforts workforce, will not return to teaching next fall. he rate of attrition is Teachers in all schools are moving out of the profession, but t be concentrated on 20 And teachers new to roughly 50 percent higher in poor schools than in wealthier one s. developing and retaining the profession are far more likely to leave it than are their m ore seasoned counterparts. Experts debate the severity of teacher attrition compared to ot her industries, but high-quality teachers in n schools spend more they cannot dispute the cost. Estimated conservatively, America every community and at than $2.6 billion annually replacing teachers who have dropped out of the profes- 21 ointing out that sion. Many analysts believe that the price is actually much larger, p every grade level. the loss in teacher quality and student achievement must be add ed to the bill. Why are so many teachers, most of whom chose to enter the profe ssion because of a real desire to make a positive difference in the lives of chi ldren, leaving their jobs? A lack of support and poor working conditions are cited by teac hers as among the primary factors. e more likely to be Beginning teachers are particularly vulnerable, because they ar About 207,000 teachers, d colleagues. Despite assigned low-performing students than are their more experience the added challenges that come with teaching children and adole scents with higher nearly 6 percent of the needs, most beginners are given no professional support, feedba ck, or demonstration teaching workforce, will not of what it takes to help their students succeed. The result is that new teachers are most at risk of leaving the teaching profession. In fact, return to teaching next fall. • 14 percent of new teachers leave by the end of their first y ear; • 33 percent leave within three years; and 22 • almost 50 percent leave in five years. 1

13 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION This means that one out of every two new teachers hired will qu it in five years. y highly qualified, the If every child is to have equal access to teachers who are trul he profession long odds must be dramatically improved that teachers will stay in t enough to become fully competent professionals. Luckily, a solu tion to the problem of keeping good teachers in the classroom does exist: comprehen sive induction need for success. designed to provide new teachers with the practical skills they onal develop- Comprehensive induction is a combination of mentoring, professi ment and support, and formal assessments for new teachers durin g at least their first two years of teaching. Research demonstrates that compreh ensive induction cuts attrition rates in half. In addition, comprehensive induct ion helps to develop Research demonstrates that dent achievement. novice teachers into high-quality professionals who improve stu comprehensive induction 23 or every $1 invested. What is more, induction has shown to create a payoff of $1.37 f Many schools and districts have some form of induction or mento ring program cuts attrition rates in half. for new teachers. Unfortunately, only 1 percent of beginning te achers currently ehensive induction receive the ongoing training and support that constitutes compr 24 when they enter the teaching profession. Placing new teachers in the most challenging classrooms without comprehensive rs—is like put- induction—and expecting them to perform like experienced teache ost researchers and ting newly licensed drivers in the top heat of a NASCAR race. M m three to seven education experts agree that, in general, new teachers need fro 25 years in the field to reach proficiency and maximize their stud ents’ performance. Comprehensive induction can minimize the time it takes for new teachers to per- Induction has shown to 26 form at the same level as an experienced teacher. Comprehensive induction programs include a number of components : create a payoff of $1.37 for • This is defined as structured mentoring from a carefully High-quality mentoring. every $1 invested. ect as the new selected teacher or teachers who work in the same field or subj e the quality of teacher, are trained to coach new teachers, and can help improv e teachers by teachers’ practice. Mentors guide and support the work of novic trating effective observing them in the classroom, offering them feedback, demons teaching methods, assisting with lesson plans, and helping teac hers analyze stu- dent work and achievement data to improve their instruction. Common planning time. Regularly scheduled common planning time helps teachers • connect what and how they teach to improving student achievemen t in a collabora- tive culture. These strategies may include how to develop lesso n plans, use student assessment data, and employ collaborative models to increase st udent achievement. These activities include regular seminars and • Ongoing professional development. rning. Professional meetings that improve a teacher’s skill to increase student lea development should meet teachers’ needs to expand content knowl edge, teach verse learning literacy and numeracy at the secondary school level, address di needs, and manage student behavior. Participation in a network of educators outside of An external network of teachers. • es within which to the local school provides teachers with a community of colleagu ated. collaborate and receive support, keeping them from feeling isol 2

14 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS Standards-based evaluation. • Some new teachers may not be ideally suited for teaching. Standards-based evaluation of all beginning teachers provides a mechanism for deter- mining whether or not new teachers should move forward in the p rofession. To retain teachers and improve their overall quality, comprehen sive induction should be accompanied by the following essential elements that create high-functioning learn- ing communities within schools: • strong principal leadership; • high-quality providers of the induction program with dedicat ed staff resources; • additional support for new teachers with little preparation; • incentives for teachers to participate in induction activiti es; • alignment between induction, classroom needs, and profession al standards; and • an adequate and stable source of funding. ction in different ways. States, districts, and local schools all view and practice indu Therefore, it is important to distinguish what is and is not me ant in this report by the term “induction.” What Comprehensive Induction Is Not • Induction is not a crash course in teaching. Teachers must be prepared with content knowledge and teaching skills when they enter the classroom. Bu t just as induction is not a substitute for quality preparation, neither is prepara tion a substitute for quality induction. • Induction is not an orientation session in which administrators tell teachers where the copy machine and refrigerator are located. Induction incorporat es teachers into the teaching profession. • Induction is not a stand-alone mentoring program, however rigorous it may be. Induction ove their instruc- does include time for new teachers to work with mentors to impr effectively retain tion. But induction also must include additional components to 27 and develop teachers. Induction is not a string of disconnected one-day workshops. To be effective, induction • d district with the must be embedded in the professional culture of every school an 28 strong support of school leaders. • Induction is not a top-down, unidirectional approach to teacher learning where new teach- ers are expected to be only passive recipients. Beginners also have knowledge and skills to offer existing teachers, mentors, administrators, and principals, and the exchange of information benefits everyone. • Induction is not just of benefit to beginning teachers. High-quality veteran teachers also can improve their skills by participating in induction through common planning 29 leaders. time with inductees and by serving as mentors and instructional • Induction is not a way to help teachers cope with dysfunctional schools that leaves the root causes of poor working conditions untouched. Induction can facilitate posi- tive, systemic change in the local school environment and, ulti mately, in the teaching profession. 3

15 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION What Comprehensive Induction Does • Induction keeps quality teachers in the profession. Research by Richard Ingersoll and Thomas Smith found that induction retains teachers, even when o ther factors such Induction retains teachers, acher are taken as salary, school conditions, and personal background of the te even when other factors 30 into account. Induction weeds poor teachers out. • Some new teachers should not stay in the profession. such as salary, school Comprehensive induction uses assessments aligned with establish ed teaching stan- 31 conditions, and personal dards to identify and remove individuals who are not well suite d for teaching. Induction teaches beginning teachers clinical, practical skills . Academic preparation, even • background of the teacher can only partly when accompanied by hands-on experiences like student teaching, eed “clinical” training cultivate the teaching skills of a beginning teacher. Novices n are taken into account. in full-time classroom situations to develop the kind of practi cal, professional skills 32 necessary to consistently improve student achievement. • Induction builds a community of teachers who are learners. Induction brings beginning collaborative settings teachers, experienced teachers, and school leaders together in to create a professional culture of ongoing learning, which can lead to positive change in the school climate. Induction introduces teachers to the type Induction orients teachers into their local school. • 33 of students their school serves and how best to meet their stud ents’ particular needs. • Induction orients teachers into the efficacy and worth of their profession. Any successful iefs that what they induction program must focus on the importance of teachers’ bel gardless of race, family do matters, and that all students can achieve at high levels re 34 Equally, teachers must master the skills income, or other factors outside of school. that lead to student learning, including continually developing content knowledge, e learners. improving teaching methods, and adjusting instruction to divers Induction at Work Comprehensive induction can be delivered in a variety of forms. This report fea- Comprehensive induction ed in Appendix A. tures four case studies of effective induction programs, detail can be delivered in a Connecticut Beginning Educator Support and T raining (BEST) d, three years, when New teachers in this program are inducted over two or, if neede variety of forms. they present portfolios documenting their teaching as a basis f or the award of a provi- sional license to continue teaching. Teachers are supported wit h well-trained mentors, content-specific seminars, and, in some districts, “senior advi sors” who are released to five new teachers. from their normal teaching duties to work intensely with three Santa Cruz New T eacher Project (SCNTP) The New Teacher Center provides induction services to every beg inning teacher t Santa Cruz. The in the Santa Cruz region through the University of California a on. SCNTP rigorous- program has expanded to include other districts across the nati ly selects and trains mentors to support new teachers during th eir first two years in the Santa Cruz school district. Mentors also administer assessm ents to new teachers to evaluate their work. 4

16 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS Tangipahoa FIRST Every new teacher in Louisiana is assigned a mentor who guides them through their first years of teaching and prepares them to be assessed by the state. This program is called LaTAAP (Louisiana Teacher Assistance and Assessment Prog ram). A separate induction program, Louisiana FIRST (Framework for Inducting, Re taining, and There is no question that chers in school districts Supporting Teachers), provides a variety of supports to new tea the implementation of who apply for and receive state grant money. This case study lo oks at Tangipahoa ks in remote areas Parish, a rural district in Louisiana, to see how induction wor effective, comprehensive through both LaTAAP and LaFIRST. induction can make a The T oledo Plan edo school district The Toledo (Ohio) Plan is a cooperative project between the Tol critical difference in our red interns, and are and the Toledo Federation of Teachers. New teachers are conside supported by mentors and reviewed as to their effectiveness at the end of their first schools’ ability to attract year. A Board of Review, composed of administrators and teacher leaders, examines and retain high-quality the progress of each teacher and decides whether or not to rene w their contracts. The Toledo Plan also identifies poorly performing veteran teachers and provides them teachers. mentored support. Recommendations rehensive induction There is no question that the implementation of effective, comp can make a critical difference in our schools’ ability to attra ct and retain high-quality , find it difficult to allo- teachers. But many districts, facing increasingly tight budgets n comprehensive cate the necessary resources to develop, implement, and maintai ends that states and induction programs. The Alliance for Excellent Education recomm school districts use funds from Title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act uction to beginning (now the No Child Left Behind Act) to provide comprehensive ind teachers during at least their first two years of teaching. Congress should provide Furthermore, the Alliance urges the U.S. Congress, as it consid ers the reauthoriza- at law. Currently, Title tion of the Higher Education Act (HEA), to amend Title II of th additional funding to rships of postsec- II of HEA provides Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants to partne ondary institutions and high-need school districts for improvin g the recruitment and ensure that every new uld require recipients preparation of K–12 teachers. All future partnership grants sho teacher in our nation’s iteria outlined above. to provide comprehensive induction that includes the quality cr Moreover, Congress should provide additional funding to ensure that every new high-need schools receives teacher in our nation’s high-need schools receives comprehensiv e induction. These comprehensive induction. teachers are most at risk of leaving the profession. 5

17 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION THE PROBLEM WE FACE: HOW TO RETAIN TEACHERS AND DEVELOP THEM INTO HIGH-QUALITY PROFESSIONALS levels that colleges expect from their enter- he high school graduation rate in Being prepared for life ing freshmen. But too few high school the United States is an abysmal 68 T 35 requires the same skills as graduates possess such skills. Sixty percent percent. Every school day approximate- of employers question whether or not the ly 3,000 adolescents drop out of second- being prepared for college. high school diploma means that students ary school; 540,000 students fail to gradu- 40 36 have mastered even basic skills. ate each year. Only one out of two stu- Currently, employers have to spend mil- dents of color will earn a high school lions of dollars remediating their employ- diploma, and that rate plunges even lower 37 ees. Businesses and institutions of higher in many urban districts. learning in the state of Michigan alone, Merely remaining in school is no using a conservative estimate, spend $601 guarantee that students will acquire million per year teaching young adults basic skills. One in four high school sen- basic skills they should have learned in iors cannot identify the main idea in a 41 high school. sentence or understand informational Many educators think they can do lit- passages. One in four cannot demon- 38 tle to overcome the barriers to learning It is little won- strate basic math skills. that students bring with them to school. der that, according to a Manhattan Recent research, however, tells us that Institute report, 68 percent of students the quality of teachers has an enormous leave high school without the skills nec- The quality of teachers has 39 impact on student learning and achieve- essary to succeed in college. an enormous impact on 42 Even low-performing students ment. These young people will also have diffi- facing barriers to learning can achieve culty competing in the workplace. student learning and high standards if they are taught by Increasingly, being prepared for life achievement. high-quality professional teachers. In requires the same skills as being prepared 1991, Ronald Ferguson reported that for college. In 2004, the American teacher expertise was the largest factor Diploma Project highlighted the expecta- explaining the gap between black and tion of employers that their employees white student achievement—40 percent with high school diplomas will have high 43 of the variation. levels of literacy and math skills—the same 6

18 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS The bottom line is this: All students, • within three years, 33 percent will All students, especially especially those at risk of failure, need a leave; and those at risk of failure, • after five years—the average time it high-quality teacher in order to achieve high standards and to graduate with the takes for teachers to maximize their stu- need a high-quality dents’ learning—half of all new teach- skills needed to succeed in college or the 46 teacher in order to achieve ers will have exited the profession. workforce. The economic and social suc- cess of our country depends on it. High rates of attrition like these mean that high standards and to for every two new teachers a school district Leaky Buckets Can’t Hold Water: hires, one of them will completely drop out of graduate with the skills New Teacher Attrition the profession in five years—just at the time needed to succeed in they are able to consistently improve student Over the past decade, education experts achievement. have focused on a perceived teacher short- college or the workforce. age. The shortage has been attributed to Leaky Buckets Are Not Cheap: The economic and social large numbers of baby boomers retiring, The Cost of Attrition increased student enrollment, and states success of our country 44 While experts debate the severity of Common sense tells reducing class sizes. depends on it. teacher attrition compared to other indus- educators they have a problem because they constantly need to hire new teachers tries, they cannot dispute the cost: and cannot find suitable candidates. • Every year American schools spend approximately $2.6 billion on teacher But the problem is not a teacher shortage per se. Schools do not generally attrition. Using the most conservative lack newly credentialed candidates to industry model approved by the choose from; instead, they are rapidly Department of Labor, the cost of losing the newly hired teachers they recruiting, hiring, and training a new already have. In other words, schools are teacher is approximately 30 percent of leaky buckets losing existing teachers the exiting teacher’s salary—a cost that 47 is not recoverable. faster than they can take in new ones. Using the most Indeed, the market has more candidates recent national data from the National Commission on Teaching and America’s to fill open positions than it has posi- Future, this report estimates that for tions themselves. Over the past ten years, Every year American the number of new teachers entering the every teacher who leaves, the school dis- 45 trict spends approximately $12,500. workforce has rapidly increased. schools spend Other researchers price attrition from The real crisis is created by the large $13,000 to $50,000 per teacher when number of beginning teachers who leave approximately $2.6 billion accounting for losses in teacher quality the profession—teacher attrition—before on teacher attrition. 48 and student achievement. they can become the kind of high-quality teachers who consistently improve student • When beginners leave before they learning. Currently, the rate of attrition become high-quality veterans, any among beginning teachers is astronomical. investment in teacher professional Research by education researcher Richard development is lost. Taxpayers wind up Ingersoll shows that paying more than they would if quality • 14 percent of first-time teachers quit in teachers remained in the profession in the first year; the first place. 7

19 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION feedback, or demonstration of what it • Schools with high rates of attrition can- Current research holds takes to help their students achieve. not develop a strong nucleus of stable that new teachers require Step into the shoes of Rachel, a first-year faculty to teach their students to high standards or mentor their new teachers middle school teacher in New England: three to seven years to to high quality. This loss also creates a Doing student teaching as part of my become effective teachers. lack of coherent community within the Master of Arts in Teaching program, I had a supervisor and could ask any school, which is crucial for successful question I needed to ask. Now I feel very interaction and collaboration among the teaching staff. Morale and the work uncomfortable asking for help. It feels like a sign of weakness. I was given a environment take a downturn because key and my room at the beginning of the hard-to-staff schools become known as places to leave, not places in which to year. There was no orientation at all. I stay. And administrators spend inordi- feel like they think I should know every- Beginning teachers are nate amounts of time staffing vacancies. thing and be able to handle it myself. On • The most critical cost associated with the one hand, I am flattered that they routinely assigned the attrition is poorer teacher quality that feel they can treat me like a veteran most difficult classrooms, negatively impacts student achievement. teacher, but I wish they would remember As experienced teachers leave teaching, now and then that I am new and give full of low-performing 50 they take with them the knowledge and me a little support. students at risk of falling Rachel’s experience is like that of experience needed to consistently countless other beginning teachers across improve student learning. Consequently, behind or dropping out. high teacher attrition can have negative the country. Even with a graduate degree, she is not yet a seasoned, effective teacher effects on student achievement. Current and still needs support once she is on the research holds that new teachers job—she needs, in other words, induction. require three to seven years to become 49 With almost 50 per- Placing new teachers in the most chal- effective teachers. lenging classrooms with little, if any, sup- cent of new teachers retiring within port—and expecting them to perform their first five years of teaching, schools Placing new teachers in struggle to develop a strong core of like pros—is like putting a newly licensed teenager in a NASCAR race. They may teachers who can positively impact stu- the most challenging have the basic skills, but they are not dent achievement. classrooms with little, if ready to be in the Daytona 500—not on The Bigger Picture: Lack of the first day, or even in the first year. any, support—and Support and Assessment Doctors serve internships and residen- cies. Military recruits go through basic expecting them to perform Attrition is the result of a much larger training. Many businesses provide employ- problem faced by new teachers. In like pros—is like putting a ees with extensive on-the-job training pro- America, teachers are expected to be grams. American teachers, too, need for- experts ready to tackle the biggest chal- newly licensed teenager in mal on-the-job training and evaluation. lenges on the first day they enter a school. a NASCAR race. Comprehensive induction integrates Beginning teachers are routinely assigned beginners into the profession by guiding the most difficult classrooms, full of low- their work, further developing their skills, performing students at risk of falling and evaluating their performance during behind or dropping out. Often they are the first few years of teaching. given little if any professional support, 8

20 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS fied, poorly educated, and under-per- On this point there is broad, even inter- Comprehensive induction forming. Many of those teachers demon- national, agreement: Once on the job, all integrates beginners into strate most or all those unfortunate qual- beginners must learn to teach to established 55 ities at the same time. standards, evaluate the effects of their the profession by guiding There are several reasons why high- instruction on student performance, use their work, further poverty districts rarely get quality teachers student achievement data for planning and and often lose the ones they have. The curriculum, tailor instruction to address developing their skills, and most obvious factor is a lack of funds to specific learning needs, and learn how to 51 pay teachers the competitive wages they thrive in the culture of their school. This evaluating their can find in wealthier schools. A 2003 kind of learning can only happen with performance during the report by Levin and Quinn of the New strong support and assessment—that is, Teacher Project revealed that urban with comprehensive induction. first few years of teaching. schools often lose their brightest candi- The Short End of the Stick: Once dates, who actually want to teach there, Again, Poor Schools Suffer Most during a lengthy, bureaucratic hiring 56 process. Poor schools often have the A major result of teacher attrition and most challenging working conditions, inadequate induction is that poor, urban, prompting many teachers to move to and minority children are taught by less other schools or leave teaching altogeth- experienced, less qualified teachers who er. In 2002, Hanushek, Kain, and Rivkin do not stay long enough to become the argued in a National Bureau of Economic expert, high-quality teachers their stu- Research report that hard-to-staff schools dents desperately need. High-poverty struggle to recruit and keep high-quality schools have proportionally greater num- teachers precisely because those districts bers of teachers with less than three years fail to provide effective training, valuable 52 of experience than affluent schools. induction programs, and a generally sup- High-poverty schools with high percent- 57 portive teaching environment. ages of students of color are more likely In a 2004 report by the Harvard to employ teachers who are on emer- Project on the Next Generation of gency waivers and who are not certified in Teachers, researchers found that new 53 the subject they teach. At the turn of teachers’ decisions to transfer out of low- New teachers’ decisions to the millennium, urban and poor children income schools rested on the extent to in the United States had only a 50 per- transfer out of low-income which those schools supported them with cent likelihood of being taught math and well-matched mentors, guidance in using science by a teacher with a college major schools rested on the curriculum, and positive hiring processes. 54 in those subjects. “Given the many challenges of working in extent to which those In the words of the Education Trust: low-income schools,” the report con- No matter which study you examine, schools supported them cludes, “teachers need to have broad, sub- no matter which measure of teacher qual- stantive support from a range of experi- with well-matched ities you use, the pattern is always the enced colleagues. At a minimum, new same—poor students, low-performing mentors, guidance in using teachers in these schools need substan- students, and students of color are far tive, structured, regular interactions with more likely than other students to have curriculum, and positive 58 expert, veteran colleagues.” Because teachers who are inexperienced, uncerti- teachers in poor schools receive so little hiring processes. 9

21 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION support, the implementation of compre- hensive induction is even more important for those teachers working in the most challenging environments. Given the demands of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act for high student achievement, this disturbing question continues to nag policymakers, practition- ers, and parents alike: How will our chil- dren with the greatest need for quality teachers get them and keep them long enough to meet the high standards we set for all students? 10

22 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS THE SOLUTION: COMPREHENSIVE INDUCTION FOR EVERY BEGINNING TEACHER network of other teachers • participation in a ddressing attrition and the lack of “Comprehensive induction” outside the local school; and induction requires a much more A is defined as a package of • a standards-based assessment and evaluation comprehensive and systematic solution of every beginning teacher to determine than currently exists in most states and supports, development, whether he or she should move forward districts. All beginning teachers need and standards-based in the teaching profession. comprehensive induction if we are to retain them and help them develop into assessments provided to Solving New Teacher Attrition: high-quality professionals. More Than Mentoring “Comprehensive induction” is defined as beginning teachers during a package of supports, development, and Since the early 1980s, increasing num- at least their first two years standards-based assessments provided to bers of states and districts have tried to beginning teachers during at least their first retain and develop their teachers by of full-time professional two years of full-time professional teaching. adopting some form of induction. In teaching. High-quality, comprehensive induction that most districts and for many states, induc- retains and develops new teachers includes tion is equated with mentoring. the following components: Mentoring is a formal or informal rela- from carefully select- • structured mentoring tionship that offers new teachers coach- ed teachers who work in the same sub- ing, support, and feedback from more ject area, are trained to coach new experienced teachers. The popularity of teachers, and can help improve the mentoring is clear. In the 1999–00 school teacher’s practice; year, 79 percent of new teachers in the common planning time • for new teachers to United States participated in some type of collaborate with their mentors, other “formal” induction program; two-thirds of teachers, and school leaders across all 59 them were given mentors. levels of experience; While mentoring is the most widely intensive professional development activi- • Mentoring by itself is not practiced component of induction, men- ties for new teachers that result in toring by itself is not enough to retain enough to retain and improved teaching that leads to stu- and develop teachers. Mentoring pro- dent achievement; grams vary widely, and many do little develop teachers. 11

23 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION Reduced attrition. more than ask mentors to check in with Induction cuts attri- 61 tion rates in half. new teachers a few times per semester to And teachers who chat. Some mentors meet with new teach- experience all the components of com- prehensive induction are more likely to ers regularly for encouragement but never observe or evaluate them in the remain in teaching than those who only 62 By reducing attrition, classroom. Emotional support is impor- receive mentors. tant for growing professionals, but it is a school districts can make the dollars pale substitute for rigorous guidance spent on recruiting, hiring, and develop- about how to teach. Even in an ideal ing teachers more effective and provide world, where new teachers are matched their students with teachers who have with excellent mentors, beginning teach- growing expertise. In his report, ers need the additional opportunities— Improved teacher quality. Villar found that comprehensive induc- such as networking with other teachers outside the school or receiving standards- tion more rapidly develops teachers, mov- ing the skill level of a new teacher to that based assessment—that come with com- of a fourth-year teacher within the span of prehensive induction. one year. In addition, all teachers, not just The Benefits of Comprehensive novices, benefit from induction. Induction Experienced educators who serve as induction leaders, mentors, or coaches Comprehensive induction requires a Comprehensive induction build leadership skills and refine their substantial investment of time, money, requires a substantial own practice as they help other teachers. and resources. The cost of comprehensive They also gain a sense of job satisfaction. induction varies in terms of release time investment of time, By improving satisfaction, leadership and compensation for mentors. Using among teachers, and teaching quality, money, and resources. models from California and Connecticut, induction can vastly improve the climate the approximate average cost of induc- The good news is that the of schools and help retain its veteran tion is $4,000 per teacher, per year. teachers as well as its new ones. The good news is that the investment investment pays off. Improved student achievement. pays off. Using a two-year program in Furthermore, because inducted teachers California as a model, Anthony Villar of “move more quickly beyond issues of the New Teacher Center, University of classroom management to focus on California, Santa Cruz, found that com- instruction,” they use practices that prehensive induction pays $1.37 for 63 improve student achievement. Inducted 60 every $1 invested. teachers motivate diverse students to Historically, the benefits of comprehen- engage in productive learning activities, sive induction have been hard to evaluate, and they better assess their students’ leaving few studies and little evidence on 64 learning needs. Inducted teachers also the true value of induction. However, develop better teaching practices because Villar’s work identifies and quantifies they think about how their teaching influ- three major benefits of induction: 65 ences student learning. • reduced attrition; • improved teacher quality; and • improved student achievement. 12

24 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS THE INDUCTION ENGINE: COMPONENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INDUCTION teachers in the classroom, offering them uality induction proven to retain Knowing the components feedback, demonstrating effective teach- and develop new teachers is a bun- Q of induction can guide ing methods, assisting with lesson plans, dle of several types of supports and assess- and helping teachers analyze student work ments. What follows is a rigorous descrip- decisionmakers at the and achievement data. Quality mentors tion of the essential components of com- federal, state, and local also assess novice teachers to determine prehensive induction. Without them, how their practice should improve in induction is a car without an engine. levels about what to order to raise student achievement and Because induction programs vary so meet teaching standards. widely, educators and policymakers need require, expect, and fund. The process of selecting and assign- to understand the common components ing mentors is crucial to induction’s suc- that make up comprehensive induction so cess. The mere presence of a guide does they can recognize good induction when 66 not improve teaching. “If mentors sim- they see it. Knowing the components of The process of selecting ply pass on their own teaching practices, induction can guide decisionmakers at the and assigning mentors is regardless of whether they are effective federal, state, and local levels about what or not,” researchers Richard Ingersoll to require, expect, and fund. Articulating crucial to induction’s and Jeffrey Kralik warn, “programs quality criteria is also an important step might tend to stifle innovation or the toward equity, ensuring that every begin- success. implementation of new approaches on ning teacher has the opportunity to devel- 67 the part of beginning teachers.” op into a high-quality professional. Mentors need to be selected using the Stand By Me: High-Quality following characteristics: Mentoring Quality mentors are good teachers of stu- • The best mentors have strong dents. Comprehensive induction programs content knowledge of the subject they match new teachers with one or more teach, a proven ability to raise student experienced and trained teachers who achievement, and success working mentor new teachers. Mentors support with linguistically and ethnically and coach novice teachers in several ways. 68 diverse students. They spend regular time observing new 13

25 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION 71 Quality mentors are good teachers of teach- reach professional standards. Formative • ers. assessments are regular, guided reflec- Besides exemplary teaching, the tions that evaluate how well teaching best mentors have the ability to learn a 69 practices lead to student learning. new set of skills: teaching teachers. to teach as Mentors communicate how For example, a mentor might review much as what to teach. They must be student achievement data on midyear able to model successful teaching in a tests with a new teacher to see how his or way that makes it possible for other her daily homework assignments do or do teachers to learn from them. not lead to student progress. In a series of dialogues, mentor and teacher would Quality mentors are matched with teachers • identify particular struggling students, in the same subject area. Ideally, mentors work in the same subject (e.g., math) reflect on the teacher’s work with those students, and strategize how to tailor or field (e.g., special education) as future homework assignments to get bet- their novice teachers. Research con- ter outcomes. In the future, for example, firms what common sense knows: men- tors maximize their skill base when they the teacher might plan to assign a group coach teachers who do similar work, project instead of book reports, or especially at the high school level, require shorter essays instead of a longer research paper. where teachers specialize in specific dis- ciplines such as geometry or literature. For their induction work, which is often done in addition to regular class- Currently, however, less than half of For their induction work, beginning teachers are mentored by room teaching, mentors need recogni- which is often done in 70 teachers from the same subject area. tion and support. Some induction pro- grams pay mentors stipends and offer But even great teachers will not men- addition to regular tor successfully without additional train- them extra professional development classroom teaching, money. Others identify mentors as master ing. Training prepares mentors to use formative assessments—to identify new teachers and give them greater responsi- mentors need recognition bility, with larger salaries. Incentives like teachers’ needs, assess their practice, and increased pay and promotion reward as help them plan improvement in order to and support. The New Teacher Center Formative Assessment System The New Teacher Center Formative Assessment System (NTC FAS) is a series of “collaborative processes” that focus on how new tea chers can rs collaborate with beginning teachers to assess their practice improve student learning. During the first month of school, mento , set goals their teachers arning plan to reach those goals. Mentors observe and meet with aligned with state teaching standards, and form an individual le lyze student work and teacher work (e.g., lesson plans and journ al entries) weekly to discuss growth, pinpoint areas for improvement, and ana eachers assemble a class profile that identifies their students to track the teacher’s progress. Early in the year, mentors and t ’ needs and plans progress ey also select one student as a case study to follow her or his how the teacher can place them in groups to promote learning. Th set up throughout the year. During the school year, teachers and mentors regularly analyze student data, plan their lessons accordingly, rents. By the end of the year, teachers and their mentors have co professional development activities, and prepare to work with pa nsistently 72 it has led to improved student learning. and systematically reflected on their teaching and measured how For more information about NTC FAS and the New Teacher Center, a t the University of California at Santa Cruz, see Appendix A. 14

26 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS well as encourage higher-quality teach- and leaders across all experience levels so ing. In this way, mentoring becomes a all teachers can learn from one another. Common planning time is not an extra type of career ladder that promotes pro- faculty meeting or a forum to discuss cur- fessional growth. rent events; it should be structured collab- Still other induction programs release Common planning time is their mentors from some or all of their oration that helps teachers connect what not an extra faculty normal workload to observe and assess and how they teach to student achieve- teachers, making some mentors full-time ment. Every teacher, particularly a begin- meeting or a forum to 73 coaches. Arguably, release time is essen- ning one, needs time with other teachers discuss current events; it to examine how her or his own teaching tial to successful induction because it gives mentors time and space to support leads to student learning. should be structured and assess novice teachers. By itself, time set aside for planning will not improve student performance. Through mentoring, comprehensive collaboration that helps Time must be accompanied by strategies induction builds the teaching capacity of teachers connect what existing teachers, who then become leaders and supports that help teachers reflect on in the profession. It should be no surprise their practice. Thus, collaboration is as and how they teach to that mentors report using practices that much a change in school culture as a way student achievement. to organize meetings. improve student achievement, and that Groups of teachers collectively focused they experience greater job satisfaction. on improving instruction can improve It Takes a Village: Common student achievement. Researchers looking Planning Time and Collaboration at Cincinnati schools found that, after controlling for personal background, stu- If it takes a village to raise children, it dents taught by teachers who were part of follows that a community of teachers can structured common planning sessions— more effectively instruct them than isolat- where school leaders provided them time 74 ed individuals. Teachers who plan and strategies to reflect on teaching and together stay in teaching longer, and they 76 student achievement—learned more. become a community of professionals, all The difference in student outcomes was of whom are responsible for student the difference in teacher collaboration. learning. As Joellen Killion at the Collaborative strategies that improve National Staff Development Council puts instruction may include: it, “When opportunities for collaboration Developing lesson plans and curriculum. • are present in a school’s culture, teachers Because new teachers are less experi- are typically more satisfied with their enced they need more time to devel- work, more actively involved in the op lesson plans and classroom cur- schools, and work more productively riculum. David Kauffman, in a 2002 75 toward school goals.” report for the Harvard Project on the Collaboration offsets the isolation Next Generation of Teachers, found many teachers feel early in their careers, that many beginning teachers feel and it fosters a collegial work environ- “lost at sea” and “overwhelmed by the ment so that teaching becomes a culture responsibility and demands of design- of cooperation and continuous learning. ing curriculum and planning daily les- The best collaboration includes teachers sons.” New teachers need help deter- 15

27 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION mining what to teach and how to Ongoing Professional teach it. As the report concludes, Development “They entered the classroom expect- Induction recognizes that effective ing to find a curriculum with which teaching is developed over time. they would struggle. Instead, they Beginning teachers need professional 77 struggled to find a curriculum.” development because they are building • Using student assessment data. The teaching skills that will shape the rest of requirements of the No Child Left their careers. Behind Act have forced schools to col- However, few teachers receive rigorous lect a wealth of achievement data. But professional development. The typical teachers need help interpreting this teacher spends a day or less per year in data and using it to evaluate and professional development on any one 78 improve their teaching. A 2003 study content area. Many teachers participate in by Supovitz and Klein at the one-day, garden-variety lecture workshops Consortium for Policy Research in that lack continuity, do not teach adults Education found that innovative, suc- the way they learn best, and do not cessful schools used student achieve- change the way they practice. In 2000, ment data in three ways. First, teachers only 12 to 27 percent of teachers who used data as a basis for identifying les- received professional development report- son objectives. Second, teachers and 80 ed that it improved their teaching. administrators used student perform- In contrast, quality professional devel- Quality professional ance data to guide the grouping of stu- opment is a sustained, intensive effort to dents for focused instruction. And development is a improve teaching and learning. To third, teachers used data to align their improve instruction, professional devel- 79 sustained, intensive effort lessons with established standards. opment must be collaborative, long Using collaborative models. • Several pro- to improve teaching and term, and content driven. It requires grams exist that can help teachers link teachers to be active learners, not passive their teaching to student learning such learning. recipients. And it is a coherent part of as National Board for Professional other well-planned professional develop- Teaching Standards (NBPTS) study 81 ment activities. groups or the Standards in Practice Professional development can be struc- (SIP) model, developed by the tured in a variety of ways as long as it Education Trust in 1995. actively engages participants. Networks, Standards in Practice (SIP) d high- strengthen their assignments and instruction in order to deman The SIP model gathers teams of teachers to discuss how they can ments and student work at common meetings with other teachers. I n a six- er achievement from their students. Teachers review their assign th academic standards and how to help students reach those stan dards. step process, teachers discuss how to align their assignments wi y external to the school facilitates them. SIP has raised studen Principals organize and attend common meetings, but a third part t achievement 82 in Colorado, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Florida. For more information about the SIP model, see http://www2.edtrus t.org/EdTrust/SIP+Professional+Development. 16

28 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS and solve problems at low levels to study groups, seminars, and online activi- ties are all ways to organize teachers’ ensure that they receive the intensive ongoing learning. Providers may be lead- intervention they need. Educators have ers in the local school, district or state per- long thought that adolescents master lit- sonnel, nearby university faculty, or third- eracy and numeracy well before the party experts. However, all professional middle grades, and few secondary development should meet the needs of teachers are prepared to teach such new and experienced teachers to: skills. However, roughly one in four Expand content knowledge. • Content knowl- high school seniors cannot read or solve 83 problems at the most basic levels. edge is not completed in college. • Address diverse learning needs. High-quality Teachers continually need to enhance their knowledge of the subjects or fields teachers understand that different stu- dents learn and perform differently in they teach. All teachers need to regular- the classroom. Diversity exists in learning ly update their expertise, because their disciplines, and how to teach those dis- styles, learning disabilities, acquiring English as a second language, and in cul- ciplines, change over time. Teach literacy and numeracy across the cur- • ture and community. Beginning teachers Middle and high school teach- must learn how to use this knowledge to riculum. ers need to reinforce literacy and adapt their teaching to individual learn- numeracy for all their students, since ing needs and help students use their 84 strengths as the basis for growth. adolescents are still developing reading, Every new teacher writing, and computation skills in later • Manage student behavior. grades. Teachers also need to be able to must learn how to manage students dur- ing his or her first years on the job. New diagnose students who continue to read The United Federation of Teachers (UFT) Teacher Center at Christopher Columbus High School her-led professional development to new and existing teachers. T he New The state of New York funds 126 Teacher Centers to provide teac York City UFT Teacher Center works in 300 schools, including Chr istopher Columbus High School, a large, comprehensive high school of 3,300 students. The Teacher Center at Christopher Columbus serves all teachers, but particularly reaches out to new teachers through a range of serv- ices including semester-long seminars and study groups. Generall y, the center holds a fall seminar to examine basic teaching met hods and strategies, and a spring study group on classroom management. In study groups, teachers meet for an hour once a week. Sessions are low-key, opening with a reflection on the classroom experien ces of gies that were applied. The group then moves to reading and disc ussing a the preceding week and the successes and failures of the strate common text. Finally, participants make personal decisions on one nt in their strategy or practice from their reading that they will impleme classrooms for the coming week. Their implementation experiences will become the basis for the opening discussion at the follow ing meet- ing. Study groups are led by a trained staff facilitator who enc ourages new teachers to share ideas, learn from other teachers’ e xperiences, and identify, through practice, what works with their individual stud y the Teacher ents. These sessions may be supplemented with in-class support b Center staff. Professional development at the school is a collaborative effor t, and the UFT Teacher Center works closely with a teacher consu ltant from 85 the New York City Writing Project and a math consultant to prov ide additional support for new teachers in literacy and numerac y strategies. ww.ufttc.org/modelnetwks.html. For more information about the UFT Teacher Centers, see http://w 17

29 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION Columbia Teachers College describes the teachers regularly say their greatest chal- New teachers regularly say problem: “Classroom teaching has devel- lenges are classroom management, moti- their greatest challenges are vating students, and dealing with differ- oped as a ‘what works for me’ profession 86 An independent ences among students. that has all but paralyzed the spread of classroom management, evaluation of South Carolina’s state ‘best practice.’ Captive to their daylong motivating students, and induction and professional development responsibility to supervise children in program examined why teachers were individual classrooms, teachers have had dealing with differences 88 no access to the experiences of others.” removed from their classrooms. The By contrast, networks draw teachers study found that while the teachers could among students. out of isolation into a community, formal- plan instruction well they could not man- age their classrooms, establish and main- ly changing teaching into a collaborative profession. Networks form connections tain high expectations, or monitor and enhance learning. In other words, teach- between teachers, classroom work, and ers were skilled at planning their teach- the larger profession. The byproduct of these connections is energy—the kind of ing, but they could not interact produc- 87 tively with their students. energy that can fuel school improvement. Networks draw teachers By networking with their peers, begin- Participation in an External ning teachers reflect on their work, out of isolation into a Network of Teachers receive personal support from colleagues, community, formally and learn from the successes and failures While professional development 89 Reflection is crucial of other beginners. improves teaching skills, networks build a changing teaching into a because new teachers are developing a teacher’s professional identity, allowing collaborative profession. public identity—what it means to be a him or her to reflect on practice while teacher in their school and in the wider creating a community of colleagues. profession. Networks form beginners into The practice of placing individual . members of the teaching profession teachers in separate classrooms has creat- One prime value of networks is their ed an isolating, private profession that flexibility. Professional networking does hampers large-scale school improvement. not have to be local and can happen Even if teachers want to learn from other across schools, districts, and states. For teachers or school leaders, they do not rural teachers, networks are often best have time or opportunities to connect organized online, providing them with with them. The New Teacher Academy at Louisiana Framework for Inducting, Retaining, and Supporting Teachers (LaFIRST) in Tangipahoa Parish o participate in the FIRST induction program. During professiona All teachers new to Tangipahoa Parish (district) are required t l develop- ment activities, induction coordinators systematically place tea chers in groups according to their grade level and subject area . Through these s, will build a network of emotional and social support that the groups, Tangipahoa Parish hopes that teachers, especially new one y can rely on throughout the school year to discuss their classroom work and share ideas for improvement. In addition, Louisiana connects teac hers across ion forum, FIRSTTech. While teachers in all parts of Louisiana us e FIRSTTech, the the state at all levels of experience through an online discuss emote parishes like Tangipahoa. online network is particularly useful to teachers in rural or r dix A. For more information on LaFIRST and Tangipahoa Parish, see Appen 18

30 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS more options than they would have oth- tance and assessment, induction readies erwise. Online networks can also be rela- beginning teachers to demonstrate that tively inexpensive. they have become high-quality, fully compe- tent professionals. To be fair and efficient, Ideally, networks are organized by third parties so that novice teachers can voice assessment should be tied to established teacher-quality standards. From the very frustrations or share ideas for school beginning, teachers should know what skills improvement without worrying about their employment status. This is especially they need to acquire and, through induc- Teachers should know true for district-based induction pro- tion, be given the support needed to what skills they need to acquire them. grams, because they are almost always managed by a teacher’s superiors and col- Teacher groups like the American acquire and, through Federation of Teachers support the use of leagues. Teachers not performing well— induction, be given the evaluations. Since 2001, AFT policy has those who need help the most—will be much more likely to discuss their needs maintained that “Successful completion of support needed to acquire with confidential, outside staff who do not induction, including a positive summative influence personnel decisions. review, should be a licensure require- them. 90 Similarly, induction programs like ment.” Final Decision: Standards-Based the Toledo Plan in Toledo, Ohio—a pro- Evaluation gram negotiated between the school district and the Toledo Federation of Teachers— Induction helps to guard the quality of require that teachers demonstrate stan- new teachers by determining whether or dards-based teaching skills in order to not novice teachers should continue teach- renew their contracts. ing. Some teachers are not ideally suited for The state of Connecticut requires all of the teaching profession, and their first years its beginning teachers to participate in in the classroom make that clear. Some induction programs that end in a summa- need assistance to improve their skills. tive evaluation. In Connecticut, standards- Others need to transition into different based evaluation is a culmination of the careers. However, some less-than-ideal can- induction process. Evaluation shows that didates continue to teach despite the fact beginners have successfully crossed over that they are not effective in the classroom. from novices to professionals. Comprehensive induction evaluates, as well as supports, new teachers during their first years on the job. By providing assis- Connecticut BEST The state of Connecticut offers support and assessment to every beginning teacher through comprehensive induction. The Beginnin g Educator Support and Training (BEST ) Program requires new teachers to su bmit a portfolio of work in May of the second year of teaching. Portfolios include videotapes of classroom teaching, lesson plans, student work, and reviews of the teacher by school administrators. Expert teachers across the state are trained to score these portfolios, and their evaluation determin es whether or not a beginner is further licensed to teach in th e state. Every beginning teacher is assigned a mentor, attends regular seminars, and netwo rks with other teachers in preparation for a successful portfol io assessment. Teachers 91 who do not score well are given an additional year to demonstra te competency, and they are provided intensive mentored support during that time. For more information about Connecticut BEST, see Appendix A. 19

31 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION INDUCTION AT THE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL intervention strategies for those stu- ery few educators or researchers have dents who still struggle to master basic V focused on what induction for high skills. Students continue to develop school teachers looks like, even though reading, writing, and numeracy skills certain aspects of induction are unique to Certain aspects of over their lifetime. Of all secondary stu- high schools. The result is that teachers, induction are unique to dents, approximately one in four has principals, and induction providers have not mastered basic reading and math very few resources to draw from when they high schools. skills. But even students who are profi- structure their secondary school induction cient in the early grades need to learn programs. Clearly, more research is need- more advanced skills to succeed in rig- ed, and practitioners should explore how orous high school courses. their work in high schools can build the • Training in English-language instruction. knowledge in this area. High-quality induction trains mentors Induction experts and the small body and new teachers at the high school of existing research identify the following level to work effectively with English-lan- characteristics as essential to address at guage learners. Large numbers of ado- the high school level: lescents are still developing English-lan- Mentors in the same subject area. High • guage skills in their high school years. school teachers, in particular, need men- The best induction helps new teachers tors from the same subject area or field incorporate language-acquisition activi- in order to learn how to better teach ties into classroom work and adapt their content expertise. Compared to Induction for secondary teaching methods to students with dif- teachers in lower grades, high school teachers must include ferent levels of English proficiency. teachers need to be able to teach their • Adequate time for induction activities. High subjects in a more in-depth manner. strategies for incorporating schools often have schedules that pre- • Ongoing literacy and numeracy strategies. literacy and numeracy vent teachers from meeting together Induction for secondary teachers must on a regular basis. Therefore, princi- include strategies for incorporating lit- across the curriculum for pals, department chairs, and induction eracy and numeracy across the curricu- leaders must ensure that teachers are lum for all of their students, as well as all of their students. 20

32 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS given regular, structured time for Principals, department induction activities like common plan- chairs, and induction ning and collaboration. Principals or administrators in charge of scheduling leaders must ensure that must also provide mentors and their teachers are given regular, novices sufficient release time for observation and assessment. structured time for • Special assistance for teachers with nontra- For hard-to-staff ditional preparation. induction activities. subjects like math, science, and special education, increasing numbers of sec- ondary teachers come from nontradi- tional certification programs. Induction at the secondary level must address the needs of these new teachers, who some- times have substantial knowledge of the subjects they teach but little or no training in how to teach it. A positive working environment and realis- • tic workload. High-quality induction must be accompanied by positive work- ing conditions that allow teachers time and space to participate. New teachers in high schools are regularly assigned the most difficult classes without any support. Many times they do not even have an actual classroom of their own. Novice high school teachers are also likely to have a large number of prepa- rations—the number of different cours- es a teacher must teach and prepare for. Induction at the high school level must work under and improve such cir- cumstances so that new teachers have a regular time, space, and culture that leads them to improve their practice. 21

33 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION DRIVING INDUCTION: WHAT MAKES INDUCTION WORK then it must be the priority of the o retain teachers and improve their If induction is to develop instructional leader. overall quality, comprehensive induc- T teachers into high-quality At the school level, teachers follow the tion must be accompanied by other essen- lead of their principals. Induction works tial elements that create high-functioning professionals who improve best when it is systematically embedded in learning communities within schools. The student learning, then it the culture of a school. A principal, more following additional elements make than any other school leader, can make induction run smoothly and efficiently: must be the priority of the induction an integral part of the school cul- • strong principal leadership; ture and an expectation for every teacher. • high-quality providers of the induction instructional leader. Strong principals also maintain the program with dedicated staff resources; quality of induction by ensuring that • additional support for new teachers mentors and novices are well matched, with little preparation; have enough release time to work togeth- • incentives for teachers to participate in er, and direct their work toward improv- induction activities; Principal leaders who ing student learning. Principals are also • alignment between induction, classroom essential for successful collaboration and needs, and professional standards; and foster positive, supportive common planning time. They can create • an adequate and stable source of environments and allow incentives and structures that bring funding. teachers together and ensure that teach- teachers greater Principal Leadership ers use that time well. Principals provide numerous professional development decisionmaking roles Researchers, school officials, and prac- opportunities and reward teachers for titioners have increasingly insisted that through induction can 92 participating in them. the principal’s work should center on Knowledgeable principals work closely improving instruction—that is, providing better hold on to new with experienced teachers to ensure that instructional leadership—more than teachers and help them mentors are properly selected, trained, building maintenance or human and matched with beginning teachers resource management. If induction is to become high-quality using the quality criteria listed above. develop teachers into high-quality profes- However, not all principals know how to professionals. sionals who improve student learning, 22

34 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS 93 support new teachers or identify quality Too often, teach- quality professionals. mentors. Principals need training in these ers report poor support from administra- areas if they are to succeed. tors and lack of decisionmaking as rea- 94 sons for leaving the profession. Unfortunately, principals often use poor criteria to select teacher leaders, such as High-Quality Providers how well they manage noise in their classrooms or how well they handle con- Induction can be run by multiple types flicts with parents. of providers as long as they make the Principal leaders who foster positive, quality components available to every supportive environments and allow teach- beginning teacher. Schools have different ers greater decisionmaking roles through needs that create demand for different induction can better hold on to new providers. A range of providers could teachers and help them become high- include institutions of higher education, Cynthia Foster, Principal Ponchatoula High School tion pro- ouisiana’s Tangipahoa Parish. To work well, both the parish induc Cynthia Foster is the principal of Ponchatoula High School in L ing Teachers—FIRST ) and the statewide induction program (Louisi ana gram ( Tangipahoa Framework for Inducting, Recruiting, and Sustain Teacher Assistance and Assessment Program—LaTAAP) require stron g principal leadership. Although state legislation specifies tha t mentors d that common planning time be established, the implementation o for new teachers be from the same discipline and grade level an f these a, Foster closely monitors the number and training of mentors so guidelines is left up to the individual principal. At Ponchatoul the school has enough mentors, in each subject area, to work with new teachers. S he ensures that mentors have a substitute teacher to cover thei r classes she regularly while they conduct observations and meet with mentees. Foster is aware of available local and state training opportunities, and ther teachers. encourages qualified teachers to take advantage of them. Afterwa rd, she asks newly trained teachers to share their skills with o Importantly, Foster recognizes her own limitations in inducting new teachers. She meets regularly with mentors to track their pr ogress and suggests ideas and resources to improve their work and the work ce of support of new teachers. Foster also promises to be a confidential sour for new teachers, who are encouraged to come to her with problem s or concerns. For more information about Tangipahoa FIRST and LaTAAP, see Appe ndix A. Teachers for a New Era One example of how to provide comprehensive induction is the cl inical residency model used by the Carnegie Corporation of New Yo r k ’s Teachers for a New Era ( TNE). Begun in 2002, Teachers for a New E ra aims to standardize university teacher education programs in the United . “At the conclusion of the project,” Carnegie forecasts, “the sel ected institu- States by enhancing eleven top-tier programs across the country tions should be regarded by the nation as administering the bes t programs possible for the standard route to employment as a b eginning pro- 95 After completing coursework, graduates at TNE sites participate in two-year clinical residencies housed in local schools fessional teacher.” run by a partnership of university faculty and school district ssrooms in prac- personnel. Residencies develop new teachers’ skills in actual cla tice-based settings. Residents are supported by university facul ty and practicing teachers from the district. To make teacher ed ucation more responsive to local need, district teachers serve as clinical fa culty at the participating university. At the same time, universi ties provide outside professional support to TNE graduates. For more information about Teachers for a New Era, see http://ca rnegie.org/sub/program/teachers.html. 23

35 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION school districts, state departments of Support for Teachers with Little education, teacher unions, nonprofit Preparation and for-profit organizations, or a combi- Ideally, all teachers are well prepared nation of these. before their first day in the classroom, Because induction is a complex system and then they participate in comprehen- with many components, it must be sive induction to develop their practice planned, implemented, and evaluated The relationship between further. Unfortunately, many teachers do well. Therefore, the best providers set not enter the classroom with adequate induction providers and aside several people to coordinate induc- preparation. New teachers, especially in tion in each district and, if possible, in school staff is more schools serving the neediest students, each school. Staff coordinators are dedi- begin teaching with widely different levels important than who cated resources who can respond to of preparation and experience. teachers’ questions, identify and train manages the induction In the 2002–03 school year, 42 percent mentors, run networks, and provide pro- of California’s first- and second-year fessional development or additional men- program. teachers were not fully credentialed. toring when needed. These teachers were disproportionately between relationship Ultimately, the concentrated in schools serving poor, induction providers and school staff is minority, and low-performing students. more important than who manages the Unfortunately, teachers without full cre- induction program. For teachers and dentials were not eligible to participate in schools to embrace induction, it must be a Comprehensive induction California’s statewide comprehensive partnership between providers and schools. 96 induction program. must take into account the Induction is a shared process rather than a In order to be effective, comprehensive top-down approach to teacher learning. different degrees of induction must take into account the dif- Schools and districts know their needs and ferent degrees of preparation and various preparation and various skill can better orient teachers to their local cul- skill levels that entering teachers bring to tures. At the same time, outside agencies levels that entering teachers their work. Induction cannot substitute can help induct teachers into the entire for preparation. But it can help offset the profession as well as the local school. bring to their work. The Santa Cruz New Teacher Project The Santa Cruz New Teacher Project (SCNTP) is a comprehensive i nduction program administered by the New Teacher Center at the es teachers who are not fully credentialed or do not have adequ University of California at Santa Cruz. The SCNTP program provid ate prepara- the school year sful in their classrooms. Teachers hired before the beginning of tion with more intensive support to ensure that they are succes t exposes them to basic teaching methods. The course is taught b y experienced participate in a forty-hour “Foundations in Teaching” course tha so given videos, test preparation materials, and personal support mentors and SCNTP staff. New teachers with no credentials are al to get into ir subject area. ’s multisubject exam that licenses new teachers to teach in the a state credentialing program and, eventually, to pass California for underpre- Often, New Teacher Center staff will facilitate special group ac tivities during monthly professional development seminars just adapt their pared teachers. As is the case for all SCNTP mentors, experienced teachers who mentor teachers with poor preparation tailor and teacher. support and assessment to the individual needs of their novice For more information about SCNTP, see Appendix A. 24

36 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS dramatic inequality in high-need schools port several new teachers in addition to by making a concentrated effort to devel- teaching their own students. Compensating op every beginning teacher into a high- them with stipends or extra professional quality professional. development funds recognizes and encour- ages higher levels of professional commit- Incentives for Participation ment. Financial incentives increase the like- lihood that veteran teachers will participate In order to make induction part of the in induction. New teachers in voluntary school culture rather than just an extra programs may also need compensation, program, quality providers offer incentives Incentives like especially if they are asked to attend events for teachers and school leaders to partici- outside the paid workday. pate in induction activities. Some compo- compensation, career Using veteran teachers as induction nents of induction, like mentor training leaders—mentors, coaches, program advancement, or or professional development seminars, officers, observers, and evaluators—cre- may be voluntary, require extra work certification requirements ates opportunities to advance in the pro- before the year begins, or extend beyond fession that teachers have traditionally the regular paid workday. Incentives like can boost attendance for not had. These are what many call compensation, career advancement, or voluntary programs and “career ladders” or “differentiated certification requirements can boost atten- roles,” and they encourage teachers to dance for voluntary programs and ease ease the burden of develop their skills to greater degrees, the burden of weekend work. especially when financial incentives, weekend work. Mentors and teacher leaders often sup- Arkansas’s Pathwise Model to be in a e valid for one to three years, during which they are considered Beginning Arkansas teachers are given an initial teacher licens time of induction. Through induction the state supports the prac tice and professional growth of new teachers. When novices, with their men- tors, decide that their teaching meets set requirements, a Praxis eduled. The III assessment, the capstone of the induction experience, is sch m settings. The gned to assess the skills of new teachers in their own classroo Praxis III, developed by the Educational Testing Service, is desi ter, direct observation of classroom practice by a trained and c exam includes written descriptions of the class and subject mat ertified asses- sor, and interviews structured around the observation. Upon succe ssful completion of the performance assessment, Arkansas issues a standard 97 license to the newly inducted teacher for continued teaching in the state. /arkedu.state.ar.us/pdf/ADE%20HANDBOOK.pdf. For more information about Arkansas’s Pathwise Model, see http:/ The Career in Teaching Plan The Career in Teaching (CIT ) Plan in Rochester, New York, illustr ates how induction enables veteran teachers to take on leadersh ip roles and teacher, and lead advance in the profession. Rochester’s program includes four sta ges in a teacher’s career: intern, resident teacher, professional teacher. Lead teachers primarily serve as supervisory mentors fo r new teachers, and they are compensated with larger salaries. Ne gotiated in 1987 98 between the Rochester Teachers Association and the Rochester Ci ty School District, CIT has successfully shown to improve and re tain its teachers. For more information about the Career in Teaching Plan, see http ://www.rochesterteachers.com/contract/52cit.htm. 25

37 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION reduced workloads, or certification teachers supports that prepare them to requirements are attached to them. pass a final licensing evaluation. At the Researchers at Harvard University have end of induction, beginning teachers must pass a performance-based exam in order found that veteran teachers in schools to continue licensed teaching in the state. with well-developed induction programs value their new roles. Career ladders rec- Alignment with Classroom ognize their work, improve their teaching At its best, induction Needs and Professional Goals practice, stimulate them intellectually, and ward off boredom and burnout. addresses the specific, Regardless of incentives and licensure Schools with differentiated roles also ben- requirements, teachers will not fully own practical concerns of efit by identifying and nurturing strong the induction process if they cannot put teacher leaders who can readily support what they learn to use in their own class- classroom teachers, such 99 struggling teachers. rooms. At its best, induction addresses the as how to adapt teaching Finally, certification or licensure specific, practical concerns of classroom requirements are strong, though blunt, teachers, such as how to adapt teaching methods for English- incentives to participate in induction. methods for English-language learners, Licensure incentives work best when language learners, how to how to ensure that students meet achieve- induction pairs assessment and support ment benchmarks, and how to overcome ensure that students meet together to improve teacher quality. For students’ barriers to learning. example, several states now use Comprehensive induction also aligns its achievement benchmarks, Performance-Based Licensing (PBL) or components with teachers’ professional and how to overcome two-tiered licensing measures. In PBL pro- goals, like learning to work effectively with grams, states issue novice teachers a provi- parents. Through induction, teachers students’ barriers to sional license to teach in the induction form a vision of good teaching by continu- period. During induction states provide learning. ally reflecting on how their practice fits The University of Virginia Through a grant from the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the U niversity of Virginia (UVA) has pledged to induct every beginni ng teacher in the two school districts surrounding its campus, regardless o f where they were trained. During three days of summer training, staff from UVA and the two districts will prepare mentors to align their induc tion work with the Virginia Standards of Teaching and basic cla ssroom needs. Because districts have further tailored state standards to thei as well. The pri- r own needs, mentors will be prepared to address those standards t leads to decisions in the classroom using data to decide what works—wha mary goal of mentors’ work is that new teachers will always make rict standards. student improvement and what helps teachers meet state and dist Using formative assessments based on the New Teacher Center at the University of California at Santa Cruz model, mentors will b egin their dent behavior, since these concerns are often foremost on the mi nd of new work with new teachers focusing on classroom management and stu g with state standards, to assess a teacher’s instructional and assessment prac- teachers. Eventually mentors will use formative assessments, alon t teaching tice and make plans for improvement. For example, every Virginia teacher must know their individual students and be able to adap entify different methods to students with different abilities. Using the state st andard as a goal, a mentor would then help the novice teacher id udents’ needs. how the novice can better adapt his or her teaching to those st types of students, look at their achievement data, and determine For more information about the University of Virginia initiativ e, see http://www.virginia.edu/provost/tneuva/. 26

38 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS Without steady funding, the financial into the context of the community where responsibility for induction shifts to local they work and how it embodies profession- al teaching standards. Effective induction school districts, forcing poor districts to cre- ate and finance their own programs. Some tailors its quality components to local homegrown programs are successful. Some experiences as well as professional stan- are not. The unfortunate and inequitable dards so that teachers become high-quality reality is that high-poverty schools, which educators well suited to practice in their local community, district, and state. need induction the most, are usually too poor, too small, or too understaffed to ade- Adequate and Stable Funding quately support their teachers. The result is High-poverty schools, that chance decides the fate of teachers in Comprehensive induction requires a which need induction the high-poverty schools. significant and steady financial commit- ment to keep it running. With their dol- most, are usually too poor, lars, policymakers determine what kind of too small, or too induction teachers will receive. In the 2003–04 school year, only fifteen states understaffed to adequately required and funded mentoring-based 100 support their teachers. induction programs. Several states fac- ing budget crises zeroed out funding for induction or did not require beginning teachers to be inducted for that year. 101 04 States That Required and Funded Mentoring or Induction in 2003– State Program Pathwise Model Arkansas A) Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment Program (BTS California T) Connecticut Beginning Educator Support and Training Program (BES Delaware New Teacher Mentoring Program Delaware Beginning Teacher Induction Program (BTIP)* Indiana Beginning Teacher Mentoring and Induction Program Iowa Kentucky Teacher Internship Program (KTIP) Kentucky Louisiana Louisiana Teacher Assistance and Assessment Program (L aTAAP) New Jersey Teachers must complete a two-year mentoring program three years Teachers must complete a mentoring program of one to New Mexico North Carolina North Carolina Initial Licensure Program Ohio Entry Year Program South Carolina Teaching (ADEPT ) Assisting Developing and Evaluating Professional Virginia Teachers must complete a one-year mentoring program West Virginia Beginning Teacher Internships *Beginning in 2006, the newly crafted Beginning Teacher Assessme nt Program will replace BTIP. 27

39 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION THE ROLE OF FEDERAL POLICY K–12 teachers. In the 108th Congress, istorically, the federal government several senators introduced bills that H has worked to ensure that every would strengthen the definition of induc- child has equal access to a quality educa- tion, making it a more prominent allow- tion, no matter where they live or how able activity. wealthy their school may be. More recent- Every federal effort to improve teacher ly, this attention to equity has expanded Every federal effort to quality and the availability of induction is to include efforts to improve teacher improve teacher quality one more step toward providing high- quality. The next logical step in the feder- quality, comprehensive induction for every al government’s teacher-quality role is to and the availability of beginning teacher. However, at present, call for the provision of high-quality induction is one more step no efforts have been made to ensure that induction for every teacher and to fund induction is comprehensive. Nor have fed- its provision in high-need schools. toward providing high- eral policymakers ensured that new teach- Federal policymakers have recently ers serving in high-need schools partici- paid a great deal of attention to the quali- quality, comprehensive pate in comprehensive induction. ty of our nation’s teaching force. induction for every Without induction, federal efforts to Recognizing the impact of teacher quality improve teaching are weakened and may on student achievement, the No Child beginning teacher. ultimately make little lasting improve- Left Behind Act requires schools to fill ment. Federal policymakers currently every classroom with a “highly qualified” allocate large sums of money for recruit- teacher and to provide “high-quality” pro- ing teachers into high-need schools, and fessional development to all teachers. they expend a great deal of energy In 2004, federal legislators began to ensuring that every classroom has a address the need for teacher induction as “highly qualified” teacher. But policy- they prepared to reauthorize the Higher makers provide very little money or ener- Education Act (HEA). Title II of HEA gy to keep those highly qualified teach- provides Teacher Quality Enhancement ers in the classroom long enough to Grants to partnerships of postsecondary become professionals who consistently institutions and high-need school districts improve student achievement. for the recruitment and preparation of 28

40 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS Recommendations Therefore, the Alliance for Excellent Education recommends that the U.S. Congress provide new funding to ensure that every new teacher in our nation’s highest-need schools receives comprehen- sive induction. These teachers are most at risk of leaving the profession, with a rate of attrition almost 50 percent higher than teachers in wealthier schools. Furthermore, the Alliance urges Congress in its reauthorization of the Higher Education Act (HEA) to amend Title II of the law to make comprehen- sive induction a required activity for partnership grants. The Alliance also recommends that states and districts use funds from Title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), now the No Child Left Behind Act, to provide comprehensive induction to every beginning teacher dur- ing at least their first two years of teaching. Educators and policymakers alike should use this report’s quality criteria to define and evaluate comprehensive induction. While federal legislators should not mandate the structure or program design If America is to attract, of comprehensive induction, they can and should require states and districts who retain, and fully develop receive Title II money to provide the quali- ty components of induction. In addition, our teaching force into federal policymakers should require states, high-quality professionals districts, and partnerships to evaluate the impact of their induction programs. who teach every child to If America is to attract, retain, and fully high standards, then we develop our teaching force into high-quali- ty professionals who teach every child to must make comprehensive high standards, then we must make com- prehensive induction a priority for every induction a priority for teacher in every school. every teacher in every school. 29

41 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION APPENDIX A: CASE STUDIES Connecticut’s Commitment to Excellence in Teaching: The Beginning Educator Support and Training (BEST) Program Catherine Fisk Natale, Ph.D. Overview and History of Program standards for teach- Since the mid-1980s, the state of Connecticut has promoted high ers as well as students. Improving the quality of Connecticut’s teachers has been viewed as essential to improving student achievement. Central to Conne cticut’s teacher-improve- ment initiatives is the Beginning Educator Support and Training (BEST) Program, run jointly by the state and local school districts. The BEST Progr am was first implemented in 1989 as a one-year program of mentoring support and a classr oom-observation-based assessment. Starting in 1994, Connecticut expanded its mentorin g support into a two- year comprehensive induction program. Currently, BEST requires all new classroom teachers to participate in a statewide beginning teacher suppor t and assessment pro- gram, the successful completion of which is required for ongoin g certification. Quality Components Mentoring school- or dis- The BEST Program provides support to beginning teachers through trict-based mentors or support teams who support new teachers a s a group. In order to provide consistency of support throughout the state, BEST requi res through statute and regulation the following minimum quality standards for scho ol-based mentoring: • selection of mentors through a district selection committee consisting of teachers and administrators in the district; • assignment of a mentor or mentor team for a minimum period o f one year with reg- ular meetings required between the beginning teacher and mentor /s; • provision of release time for beginning teachers to observe or be observed by their mentors or members of the support team; and • a minimum of twenty hours of required initial mentor trainin g in Connecticut’s teaching standards, the portfolio assessment process, and coach ing strategies. 30

42 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS loring teaching strate- Typically, mentors spend time with their beginning teachers exp es, identifying effective teach- gies that address diversity in students and their learning styl ing strategies that conform to state standards, and reflecting on the progress of the new teacher’s students. Local school districts must release beginni ng teachers on at least eight team members. occasions to observe or be observed by their mentors or support toring course at Accomplished teachers appointed as mentors must enroll in a men one of the regional educational service centers. The course pro vides teachers with strategies and real-life situational discussions to develop the ir coaching skills. As a posi- tive byproduct, the mentoring course creates a network of peers for mentors to sup- port one another during their work with new teachers. Mentor tr aining also includes an overview of the portfolio assessment process and strategies to assist teachers in demonstrating their mastery of Connecticut’s teaching standards . Common Planning Time and Collaboration New teachers are expected to make thirty hours of significant c ontact during the school year with their mentor, support team, other teachers in their content area, the principal, and/or the district facilitator. During this time, n ew teachers work with other colleagues to examine multiple sources of data about teaching, including lesson plans, student work, use of assessments, and teacher reflection about teaching and learning. Ongoing Professional Development New teachers participate in state-sponsored training activities such as content-specific ources, and portfolio beginning teacher seminars, online professional development res assessment conferences. Professional development seminars allow beginning teachers to uirements through deepen their understanding of state standards and portfolio req structured collaborations with peers and seminar leaders. State guidelines for teacher evaluation and professional develo pment require dis- ng local policies with tricts to develop Teacher Induction Support plans for integrati state guidelines for mentorship. In addition, most districts al so provide district-based Many districts feel workshops on classroom management and the teaching of literacy. eracy strategies, espe- that new teachers have inadequate preservice preparation in lit cially for secondary teachers, who are not typically well train ed to teach literacy across the curriculum. External Network The BEST Program has used “E-BEST communications” as a means to create a statewide network of beginning teachers by content area. Projec t leaders and teach- ers-in-residence use this listserv to regularly communicate wit h beginning teachers about teaching resources, professional development, and critica l issues around the BEST portfolio. In addition, beginning teacher seminars are off ered regionally several times a year to provide teachers opportunities to meet and lear n from other teachers across the state. Assessment and Evaluation In order to receive the next level of certification, beginning teachers must demon- strate mastery of essential teaching skills. BEST teachers are assessed through a con- tent-specific teaching portfolio submitted during the second ye ar of teaching, in which f lessons that illustrate beginning teachers document a unit of instruction or a series o 31

43 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION their planning, teaching, assessment of student learning, and r eflection on teaching teaching, examples of and learning. The portfolio includes lesson logs, videotapes of the portfolio and student work, and teacher commentaries. Trained assessors score must demonstrate that they can apply judgment in a prescribed a nd consistent manner through meeting standards of “proficiency.” Teachers who do not successfully complete the portfolio assessm ent in year two are given an additional year of mentored support and required to su bmit another portfo- lio in their third year of teaching. If they are unsuccessful a second time, teachers can- not move forward in the profession. Making Induction Work Principal Leadership Principal leadership has been perceived as a critical component of Connecticut’s induction program since its inception. These efforts have been strengthened by the adoption of State School Leader Standards, which emphasize the role of the principal as instructional leader and facilitator of the induction of new teachers. The BEST Program offers training to principals in the portfolio assessme nt process and encour- ages principals to review the beginning teacher’s portfolio pri or to submission. Many districts also incorporate the portfolio into the district’s lo cal evaluation process of new teachers, thereby strengthening the link between state and dist rict expectations for teacher competency. High-Quality Providers istricts. The state The BEST Program is a partnership between the state and local d provides leadership and funding for the statewide administratio n of the program; sup- sional development port and technical assistance to districts; training and profes he scoring of portfolios. resources for mentors, assessors, and beginning teachers; and t School districts are required to appoint a district facilitator for the program, recruit experienced educators to be mentors and assessors, provide a di strict- or school-based program of orientation and support to new teachers, and provide release time for men- tors and beginning teachers to meet and observe one another’s c lassrooms. Payment of stipends or reduction of teacher workloads is at the discretion of the district. Regional Educational Service Centers provide technical assistance to BES T Program district facili- tators and regionally based training to mentors and beginning t eachers. Support for Teachers with Little Preparation se support as reg- Teachers with little preparation receive the same or more inten ular participants. Incentives for Participation Certification requirements are the primary incentive for BEST. In Connecticut, all beginning teachers employed in a public school, or an approved private special educa- tion facility, are required to participate in induction. BEST a lso includes part-time teachers and those hired as long-term substitutes. Alignment with Teacher Goals and Standards: Promoting Standards -Based Instruction The tasks of the portfolio are designed to promote teaching tha t builds the skills he Connecticut and competencies that students are expected to demonstrate on t 32

44 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS t (CAPT). For Mastery Test (CMT) and the Connecticut Academic Performance Tes how they develop stu- example, the science portfolio requires teachers to demonstrate dents’ content knowledge, inquiry, and application of science k nowledge as assessed on the tenth-grade CAPT. The elementary education portfolio req uires teachers to demonstrate how they develop understandings of important litera cy and numeracy concepts assessed in the CMT language arts and mathematics asse ssment. BEST Program seminars, mentor training, and portfolio assessor training focus on understanding the elements of effective instruction as represen ted by the Connecticut Common Core of Teaching (CCT). The CCT competencies place an em phasis on teacher content knowledge, the teaching of a specific disciplin e, and the impact of teaching on student learning. Adequate and Stable Funding Since the inception of BEST in 1989, state funding has dramatic ally changed because of state budget shortfalls. Funding for the program dec lined from $10 million in 1991 to $3 million in 1992. The state provided only modest i ncreases over the next decade, despite larger numbers of teachers participating in the program. Consequently, funding for BEST is significantly lower in less-a ffluent districts than in affluent ones. BEST statutes currently prohibit mandatory colle ctive bargaining over f districts have used provisions of the BEST Program; however, an increasing number o the permissive provisions of the law to negotiate mentor stipen ds or provisions for release time. The state and local districts share the costs of BEST, which ca n be broken down as follows: State share Direct costs (program administration, training of mentors and portfolio scorers, beginning teacher seminars and workshops, scoring of portfolios) $600/teacher Indirect costs (state staffing for program administration, development and program evaluation) $160/teache r Subtotal state share $760/teacher District share (local or federal Title II funding) Beginning teacher professional development $500/teacher Release time (cost of substitutes) $300/teacher Mentor stipends (payment at discretion of local district) $100–2,000/teacher Subtotal district share $900–2,800/teacher Total cost $1,660–3,560/teacher Effectiveness Quantitative Benefits of BEST • Reduced attrition in the early years. A recent study of beginning teacher attrition indi- cates that approximately 6–7 percent leave the profession in Co nnecticut annually 102 versus average national estimates of 10 percent or higher. When factoring in a 33

45 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION longitudinal definition of attrition that excludes returning te achers, the figure is 5.7 contribute to higher percent per year. The report suggests that several factors may t supports retention, including a comprehensive induction program—BEST—tha new teachers when they enter the classroom. Qualitative Benefits of BEST Training beginning teachers to be reflective practitioners. A recent study asked beginning • io on their professional science teachers to describe the effect of developing a portfol 103 growth. One teacher commented, “The science portfolio forced me to do s ome- thing that is not instinctive for me at this point in my teachi ng career. The portfolio forced me to immediately reflect on how the day’s lesson was pe rceived by my stu- dents. Furthermore, the portfolio allowed me to identify certai n strengths and weak- nesses in my teaching.” • Impacting the practice of experienced educators . More than 40 percent of the current teacher and administrator workforce has trained to serve as men tors or portfolio assessors. An additional 25 percent participated in the BEST Pr ogram during their early years. This means that a significant percentage of educat ors have participated in standards-based professional development and share a common language in dis- cussing what constitutes effective teacher practice. A survey o f special educators who were trained as mentors and portfolio scorers showed that 83 pe rcent of participants made at least moderate changes in their classroom practices as a result of the train- 104 ing. remind- One teacher commented, “Going through the portfolio process has ed me to include conscious reflection on lessons to target what worked and what needs to change.” • Promoting teachers as leaders . BEST involves teachers and other educators in its design and implementation. Over the last fifteen years, nearly eighty teachers-in-residence have worked with state department staff in designing the BEST p ortfolio assessment system and training for mentors, assessors, and beginning teach ers. Each summer, more than 600 exemplary teachers (and administrators) meet to s core the portfolios and to decide whether the mentee teachers are qualified to cont inue in the profes- sion. Summary A major strength of Connecticut’s teacher induction system is t hat it focuses on ced teacher through improving the effectiveness of both the novice and the experien structured mentorship, extensive training for mentors and portf olio scorers, and a standards-based assessment. The portfolio assessment is content -specific and designed to promote teaching practices closely linked to expect ations for student Academic performance on the Connecticut Mastery Test and the Connecticut Performance Test. A weakness of this system is that there is inadequate participa tion of Connecticut teacher preparation programs in the induction process and a nee d to further strengthen accountability for Connecticut teacher preparation p rograms for the per- formance of their graduates. In addition, BEST needs to more sy stematically and ncludes state finan- equitably acknowledge the work of mentors and assessors. This i 34

46 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS cial support to districts to provide stipends to mentors, highe r levels of compensa- tion for portfolio scorers, and the creation of career paths th at recognize the expert- ise of the teacher leaders trained through the BEST Program. For more information Dr. Catherine Fisk Natale Bureau of Preparation, Certification, Assessment and Support Connecticut State Department of Education 165 Capitol Avenue Hartford, CT 06106 Email: [email protected] Phone: (860) 713-6831 35

47 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION The New Teacher Center at the University of California at Santa Cruz Santa Cruz New Teacher Project (SCNTP) Judy Walsh Overview and History of Program In 1988, the California Department of Education and the Commiss ion on Teacher ur-year pilot program Credentialing launched the California New Teacher Project, a fo g induction programs for designed to reverse high rates of teacher attrition by providin beginning teachers. Ellen Moir, then director of teacher educat ion at the University of California at Santa Cruz (UCSC), established the Santa Cruz New Teacher Project as part of this effort. The SCNTP pilot offered comprehensive prof essional development provided by exemplary veteran teachers released full-time from the classroom to men- tor. In 1992, California legislated funding for Beginning Teach er Support and Assessment (BTSA) programs, after an evaluation study of the Ca lifornia New Teacher Project showed that the induction programs had dramatically imp roved teacher reten- tion. The SCNTP played a key role in developing BTSA program st andards and train- ings. The SCNTP, which has expanded to include fourteen Silicon Valley districts, has supported the professional development of 14,000 new teachers i n California. The SCNTP program design is based on the conviction, supported by a growing cal to raising student body of research, that developing outstanding teachers is criti achievement. The SCNTP model has five interconnected components : lective learning; • a vision of teacher development as a lifelong process of ref leaders; • institutional support for induction from district and school • reliance on exemplary veteran teachers trained to share thei r professional expertise; s; and • induction support grounded in professional teaching standard oviding equitable • a classroom-based teacher-learning environment focused on pr learning experiences for all students. The SCNTP is now one of 150 California BTSA programs. In 2003–0 4, the project provided induction for thirty school districts in the Santa Cru z region and in the Silicon Valley, serving 700 new teachers. Quality Components Mentoring The SCNTP’s key intervention has been not only to tap the exper ience of exem- plary veteran teachers, but also to provide them with ongoing t raining. The SCNTP leadership and district personnel work together to select mento rs. An outstanding record as a classroom teacher and a clear understanding of cont ent standards, cur- riculum, and assessment techniques are essential, but successfu l mentors also must understand adult learning theory. They need excellent interpers onal skills, and benefit from prior experience facilitating groups. Since so man y new teachers work on is important. with English-language learners, expertise in language acquisiti 36

48 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS husiastic, and must Successful mentors are insightful, patient, empathetic, and ent be themselves willing to collaborate and learn. At the heart of the SCNTP induction program is the New Teacher Center Formative Assessment System (NTC FAS), a new teacher professional develop ment system grounded in the SCNTP Developmental Continuum of Teacher Abilit ies. NTC FAS provides mentors with tools to move beginning teacher practice forward: classroom profiles, collaborative logs, individual learning plans, self-a ssessment summaries, proto- cols for collection and analysis of student work, and pre- and post-observation tools. One-sixth of California BTSA programs use NTC FAS, and it is al so used by school dis- tricts outside California. New SCNTP mentors receive intensive training focused on using t he NTC FAS prior to the opening of school. They learn to use protocols to observe new teachers, collect student data, and analyze student work to help new teac hers plan standards- based instruction. Advanced training in effective coaching skil ls accompanies this training. During the academic year, mentors attend weekly half- day Mentor Forums, the cornerstone for building mentor skills and abilities. Forum s provide additional professional development in topics such as literacy, mentoring for equity, and content- based mentoring. They are the venue for mentors to network, sha re successes and dilemmas, support each other’s practice, and ensure that the SC NTP model continues to evolve to meet current classroom needs. Mentors use the same process of data col- esent to new teachers to lection, self-assessment, and revision of practice that they pr improve their own practice. Common Planning Time and Collaboration rs attend a day- Before the start of the new school year, SCNTP beginning teache typically arrange to long orientation, where they first meet their mentors. Mentors meet twice with beginning teachers prior to the beginning of sc hool to help them set up classrooms and procedures, and thereafter meet weekly, one-o n-one, before, dur- P mentors work full- ing, and after class throughout the academic year. Because SCNT two-hour time blocks time supporting fifteen new teachers, they are able to work in that include pre- and post-observation conferences. Ongoing Professional Development The SCNTP provides mentors with systematic protocol for new tea cher develop- ment, but allows them to adapt support to new teachers’ specifi c needs and classroom contexts. Although mentors provide emotional support and help w ith classroom man- agement, their goal is always to focus beginning teachers on im proving instruction. They work to build a teaching profession aimed at meeting stude nt needs by continu- ously reflecting on and improving the practice in collaboration with other teachers. Even for first-year teachers, mentors concentrate on lesson pla nning, analyzing student work, collecting and analyzing classroom data, and revising ins truction. They coteach, provide demonstration lessons, arrange for observation of exemp lary teachers, facili- tate relationships with principals, and provide access to distr ict and community resources. Mentors and beginning teachers create a portfolio th at documents annual progress toward instructional goals. For second-year teachers, mentor support places ng instruction. greater emphasis on content-specific pedagogy and differentiati 37

49 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION External Network ers through work- Beginning teachers participate in a larger network of new teach guage learners, differ- shops on specialized topics, including working with English-lan entiating instruction, equitable education, and working with sp ecial population stu- dents. During the spring they attend a series of three content- specific workshops. Beginning teachers are also invited to attend social events suc h as a welcome dinner at the San Jose Children’s Museum. Assessment and Evaluation The SCNTP model focuses on a formative assessment system. Begin ning teachers, guided by their mentors, self-assess their practice at the begi nning of the year, during a formal midyear review of their Individual Learning Plan, and at an end-of-year confer- ence. Since the formative assessment system is framed by the NT C Continuum of Teacher Development, and linked to California teaching standard s, it provides teachers with a pedagogical vocabulary that allows for a deep conversati on with administrators about their teaching practice and concrete progress in reaching district instructional goals. The NTC model does not include summative evaluation, as its goal is to build a collaborative and trusting relationship between mentors and tea chers. Decisions regard- ing continued employment are made through the local evaluation system. Making Induction Work Principal Leadership The SCNTP recognizes that school leaders establish the professi onal environment hers. Mentors there- that can either support or undermine the experience of new teac fore work to build principal understanding of the developmental needs of new teach- for principals to dis- ers. The SCNTP hosts an annual informational breakfast meeting P Steering cuss project components and goals. Principals convene with SCNT Committee members at district-level meetings throughout the aca demic year. Mentors meet formally with principals every six weeks to talk about wha t beginning teachers are doing and how mentors are supporting their development. Several principals have found the beginning-teacher development system so effective tha t they have extended the NTC formative assessment model to other school-site profess ional development and evaluation efforts. Principals also join SCNTP leadership i n presentations to school board members to advocate for new teacher support. High-Quality Providers Although led by University of California at Santa Cruz, the SCN TP is administered as a partnership with the Santa Cruz County Office of Education an d thirty school dis- tricts. Districts sign a memorandum of understanding defining p artners’ responsibili- ties. A steering committee comprised of district assistant supe rintendents, human resources and curriculum directors, union representatives, SCNT P and NTC leadership, and university directors of teacher education guides the SCNTP. The committee aligns program goals and practices with district goals and professiona l development plans. Although the SCNTP serves all new teachers in participating dis tricts, regardless of where they were trained, the SCNTP model has been developed coo peratively with the r in education UCSC Department of Education. UCSC offers an undergraduate mino 38

50 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS ulminating in a program and a teacher education program for graduate students c and the SCNTP Master of Arts in education degree. The UC Education Department therefore constitute a long-standing preservice/in-service teac her development pro- gram that offers UCSC undergraduates, UCSC credential candidate s, and UCSC- trained new teachers working locally a consistent support and a ssessment system throughout their college education and into the first two years of teaching. Support for Teachers with Little Preparation Teachers enter the SCNTP from a variety of preservice programs. The program’s formative assessment system is individualized, so that mentorin g is tailored to the teacher’s developmental level regardless of prior preparation. The SCNTP provides special support for teachers preparing for credentialing tests. It offers an online course on classroom management and training in working with English-la nguage learners and special population students. Incentives for Participation Recent legislation (SB2042) has made participation in BTSA part of the state cre- dentialing process. As of 2004–05, successful completion of a t wo-year BTSA program is a prerequisite for obtaining full certification, so all Cali fornia first- and second-year teachers will be required to participate. Alignment with Teacher Goals and Standards The SCNTP Developmental Continuum articulates the benchmarks th at define progress from emerging to innovative teacher practice. Mentorin g is designed to move signed to link directly the practice of new teachers along this continuum, which was de to the state teaching standards: engaging and supporting all st udents in learning; cre- ning; planning instruc- ating and maintaining an effective environment for student lear tion and designing learning experiences for all students; asses sing student learning; and developing as a professional educator. The continuum descri bes five levels of development relating to specific elements of each of the six st andards. Adequate and Stable Funding llion in state California BTSA programs were supported by approximately $80 mi funds in 2003–04, $3,443 a year for each first- and second-year teacher. SCNTP districts contributed an additional $2,500 per first- and second-year tea cher. Effectiveness Quantitative Benefits The New Teacher Center research staff has developed an online i nduction program survey for administrators, mentors, and beginning teachers that provides comprehen- sive data on participants’ assessment of program effectiveness and suggestions for pro- gram improvement. Administered annually in the SCNTP, the surve y contains both scaled and open-ended questions regarding program components. T he SCNTP leader- ship uses online survey results for annual program revision. NTC researchers are studying the effects of SCNTP support on ne w teacher reten- tion and on student achievement. A study of the 1992–93 new tea cher cohort docu- ments that after six years, 94 percent were still in the field of education, and 89 percent 105 Results for the 1997–98 cohort are similar. A recent study of t hree were still teaching. 39

51 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION years of achievement gains for students of new teachers support ed by the SCNTP in a ts made gains similar to local district serving 19,000 students showed that these studen 106 These gains are especially strong evidence of the pos- experienced teachers’ students. itive effect of NTC new teacher support on student achievement, given that the new age learners. teachers were more likely to be assigned to teach English-langu induction programs. NTC researchers are also interested in cost/benefit analysis of Based on SCNTP data, they estimate that increases in beginning- teacher effectiveness and reductions in teacher attrition lead to a return on investm ent of $1.37 per $1, in 107 current dollars, after five years. Qualitative Benefits The SCNTP is widely acknowledged as the “gold standard” for ind uction programs. SCNTP district leaders have consistently noted that the SCNTP a ccelerates teacher learning, making first-year teachers look like third-year teach ers. Surveys of beginning teachers, mentors, and principals reflect high satisfaction lev els with program compo- nents and outcomes. Veteran teachers serving as mentors report that their new role as a teacher of teachers brings them renewed appreciation for the complexity of teach- ing. Principals and district leaders note that the SCNTP is oft en a catalyst for renewed interest in improving instruction throughout school sites. The SCNTP has steadily grown over the past sixteen years, with all district partners remaining in the program. In 1998, its long-term success led se veral private founda- tions to fund the establishment of the New Teacher Center at UC SC as a national resource for new teacher development. The NTC’s thirty-four sta ff members now d new administrator develop, research, and advocate for high-quality new teacher an es implement induction induction programs. The NTC is helping districts in thirty stat programs based on the SCNTP model. More than twenty private fou ndations have sup- ported the NTC’s work. receive: “Having Beginning teachers recognize the importance of the support they is supporting my an experienced teacher to turn to and one whose number one job needs during this highly stressful and exciting time is crucial .” “My teacher preparation program gave me a roadmap for where I wanted to be. My mentor s howed me how to take a direct route, rather than losing my way in blind alleys. ” Mentors are equally con- vinced of the value of intensive support. As one mentor comment ed, “We want to instill the idea that learning about teaching is a task that is truly lifelong . . . that every student presents us with another challenge to continually impro ving practice.” Summary The NTC’s Santa Cruz New Teacher Project is one of the programs that has informed the growing national consensus about the key elements of effective teacher induction programs. It provides new teachers with an intensive, two-year support pro- gram that is systematic and standards-based, includes support f rom trained mentors employing a systematic formative assessment system, and links b oth mentors and beginning teachers to a network of peers. Several research stud ies of the SCNTP doc- ent and retention. ument positive effects on student learning and teacher developm 40

52 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS For more information Ellen Moir Executive Director New Teacher Center at the University of California, Santa Cruz 725 Front Street, Suite 400 Santa Cruz, CA 95060 Phone: (831) 459-4323 Fax: (831) 459-3822 41

53 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION Tangipahoa Parish, Louisiana Tangipahoa Framework for Induction, Retaining, and Supporting Teachers John Weathers Overview and History of Program Two statewide programs administered by the Louisiana Department of Education provide a systematic approach to supporting and developing new teachers: the Louisiana Teacher Assistance and Assessment Program (LaTAAP), a nd the Louisiana Framework for Inducting, Retaining, and Supporting Teachers (La FIRST). The compo- nents of LaTAAP are broad, and they provide much of the assista nce new teachers need. But LaTAAP does not provide everything they need. In an a ttempt to fill in some of the gaps, the state provides funding, training, and guidance through LaFIRST for local parishes (districts) to develop their own induction progr ams. One rural Louisiana parish, Tangipahoa, fills these gaps particularly well. Tangipa hoa successfully combines state and local programs to retain new teachers and ensure thei r competence. From its inception in 1994, LaTAAP has required both mentor sup port and assess- ment for new teachers. In its current form, all new teachers mu st participate in LaTAAP. An experienced and state-trained mentor teacher from th e same school, who teaches in a similar subject area and grade level, provides two years of mentoring. Mentors facilitate observations and give critical feedback. The y also help teachers cre- ate a professional development plan to improve their skills in order to meet state teaching standards—the Components of Effective Teaching. In the second year of LaTAAP, teachers undergo formal observations and submit portfol ios of their work to be assessed by their principal and an external assessor. LaFIRST began in 2001 and is derived from the highly praised La Fourche Parish induction model. LaFIRST provides local parishes additional tra ining, guidance, and financial support to assist in the development of new teachers. One of its primary tools rs and mentor train- has been a summer institute to prepare volunteer teams of mento aining and provide fol- ers from all parishes in how to develop preservice induction tr 108 low-up support for new teachers. Through a mini-grant program, LaFIRST has also provided forty-two of sixty-six parishes with financial assista nce to implement the induction practices that the state outlines as best practice. LaFIRST activities are voluntary, and the mini-grants do not al ways cover the costs of local programs. This leaves individual parishes to develop and fund a more compre- hensive approach to induction. LaFIRST trainings and seed money have helped to inspire a number of districts develop their own support and tra ining for new teachers. Tangipahoa Parish is one school district that has successfully taken on this challenge, despite the typical barriers that come with being a low-income rural district. The new teacher support and development provided through Tangip ahoa FIRST augments but does not replace LaTAAP. Building on the LaFIRST m odel, it includes: used on the first days four highly structured days of induction during the summer, foc 42

54 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS fective teaching, of school; seminars about classroom management, planning and ef and local policies and procedures; and follow-up professional d evelopment sessions for sh, regardless of experi- a new teacher’s first three years. All teachers new to the pari ence, participate in the program. Late hires are placed in a pr eservice program in January. In addition, Tangipahoa FIRST employs full-time mentor s to supplement the work of LaTAAP mentors. Tangipahoa has received LaFIRST grant m oney for the past and to fund profes- two years, which they have used to purchase classroom materials sional development sessions for new teachers. Quality Components Mentoring t all mentors partici- LaTAAP specifies the qualifications of mentors and requires tha activities include holding pate in training with a local state-trained instructor. Mentor ing. LaTAAP men- weekly meetings with new teachers and observing classroom teach ote enough assistance to tors are limited to supporting two novices so that they can dev each. The majority of new teachers spend an average of one to t wo hours per week with their mentor. To ensure quality mentoring, LaTAAP legislat ion requires principals to schedule time for mentors to work with teachers and monitor their activities. Tangipahoa FIRST supplements the work of the LaTAAP mentors wit h four full-time and four half-time mentors who were hired in 2003–04 and traine d to assist new teach- ers, including special education teachers. These mentors receiv e the LaTAAP Assessor and Mentor Trainings, Tangipahoa FIRST mentor training, and mon thly follow-up training by the program coordinator. Common Planning Time and Collaboration ion between LaTAAP legislation requires common planning time and collaborat ide in many schools. In mentors and new teachers, but release time is difficult to prov Tangipahoa, elementary teachers did not have common planning ti me during the 2003–04 school year. Ongoing Professional Development As previously noted, Tangipahoa FIRST provides preservice and o ngoing profession- al development for new teachers in years one, two, and three wi th day-long training sessions on topics determined by the new teachers. To attend th ese sessions, new teach- ers are granted release time, and their classes are covered by substitute teachers. External Network In all Tangipahoa FIRST training sessions, teachers are grouped together by grade and subject level to encourage ongoing interaction. As some par ticipants have noted, this practice has helped them establish a network and support s ystem with other teach- ers. Through a program called FIRSTTech, Louisiana maintains a Blackboard website where it posts training materials and links to teacher resource s. New teachers can use the site to participate in online discussions about teaching. W hile some teachers use the online network, the state is working to boost the number of tea chers on FIRSTTech. Assessment and Evaluation Tangipahoa, like all parishes in Louisiana, assesses its teache rs through LaTAAP. All gnee and an outside new teachers in Louisiana are evaluated by their principal/desi 43

55 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION evaluator on their ability to meet the state’s Components of Ef fective Teaching during d a portfolio component observations in their third semester. In 2003–04 the state adde to this assessment. Making Induction Work Principal Leadership , and monitoring of Principals are responsible for the implementation, coordination the LaTAAP program in their school, although the state can sanc tion schools that fail to meet specifications. Principals are charged with making sure schools have enough trained mentors in all subject areas and with providing release time to mentors and novice teachers. In addition to school-level management, strong district-level l eadership makes Tangipahoa FIRST work. The former superintendent ensured that t he program admin- istrator had the time and resources to develop a superior progr am through research, attending trainings, and visiting other school systems. Because Tangipahoa is rural and poor, its parish leaders face the challenge of making induction a priority. To run induction well, they must continually allocate resources for me ntors, professional development, and program staff. High-Quality Providers Tangipahoa employs two full-time program coordinators, who have additional sup- port staff, to administer LaTAAP and Tangipahoa/LaFIRST. These administrators and their support staff manage activities, develop curricula, and t each preservice and fol- low-up training sessions. Support for Teachers with Little Preparation Tangipahoa requires all teachers new to the district, regardles s of their preparation RST is flexible enough that or certification level, to participate in its FIRST program. FI burdened teachers. mentors can provide additional support to underprepared or over For example, Tangipahoa hired one teacher in November for a cla ssroom in which eek in the classroom two previous teachers had already quit. FIRST mentors spent a w that she not only developing the new teacher’s skills and personal commitment so stayed at the school but actually looked forward to returning t he next year. Since Tangipahoa FIRST mentors do not have classes of their own, they can help over- whelmed teachers grade papers, develop lesson plans, research a ctivities, gather materi- als, and, as one teacher put it, “help new teachers go above an d beyond just surviving.” Incentives for Participation In Tangipahoa, induction is mandatory. State licensure requirem ents are the incen- tive for participating in LaTAAP. Alignment with Teacher Goals and Standards Each year, Tangipahoa asks its new teachers to assess the FIRST program and make suggestions for improvement. The following year, induction coor dinators use those assess- ments to align follow-up training sessions with the needs of te achers. Also, Tangipahoa mentors are encouraged to tailor their work to the individual n eeds of their mentees. The LaTAAP program, in concert with the Louisiana Components of Effective ified research-based Teaching, provides a well-developed means of using clearly spec 44

56 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS A Bird’s-Eye View of Tangipahoa: and practice knowledge about best teaching practices as the sta ndard for assessing a Induction from the Perspective new teacher’s work. These components are correlated with the wi dely accepted nation- of a New Teacher be part of this two- al teaching standards. The requirement that an outside assessor member assessment team adds to its thoroughness and objectivity . A new teacher in Tangipahoa Adequate and Stable Funding participates in an intensive four- The costs of new teacher induction in Tangipahoa are greatest f or first-year teachers day training in August. In is because first-year and decline somewhat for second- and third-year teachers. This September, the principal assigns teachers receive some training prior to the start of the school year, as well as four pro- the new teacher a LaTAAP mentor, fessional development sessions during the school year. Second- and third-year teachers and they begin meeting weekly. A receive professional development only during the school year, w ith second-year teach- couple of times during the semes- ers receiving three sessions, and third-year teachers receiving two. In addition, the ter, the teacher is observed by the LaTAAP program is two years in length, so this cost is not incu rred for third-year teach- LaTAAP mentor, who talks with ers. The costs detailed below are for first-year teachers in th e Tangipahoa program dur- them about their ability to meet ing the 2003–04 school year. The costs for second-year and thir d-year teachers during state teaching standards. The the same academic year were $3,465 and $2,421, respectively. Ta ngipahoa funds its teacher is also assigned a induction program by integrating federal, state and local fundi ng sources. Tangipahoa FIRST mentor. Through the help of LaTAAP or Costs for the 2003–04 school year, first-year teachers: Tangipahoa FIRST mentors, some $1,030/teacher LaTAAP mentors and evaluators new teachers observe other $213/teacher Pre-service induction training for new teachers teachers. Tangipahoa FIRST men- Teachers in year 1 follow-up tors visit the new teacher once $298/teacher professional development (4 sessions) every two to three weeks, offer Full-time mentors and Tangipahoa individualized assistance with FIRST administrator salaries/benefits problems, and help with daily for teachers with less than 3 years experience $2,066/teacher tasks like grading papers or devel- Total cost $3,607/teacher oping lessons. Three times during their first year, new teachers Evaluation of the Induction Program attend day-long Tangipahoa FIRST The Louisiana Department of Education collects evaluations twic e a year from training sessions on topics they parishes who receive LaFIRST grants on their preservice and ong oing induction train- have selected. ing. Tangipahoa FIRST regularly gathers and reviews data about all aspects of its pro- gram from all participants. Effectiveness Quantitative Benefits Louisiana’s most recent evaluation of LaFIRST (2002–03) contain s useful informa- tion to judge the effectiveness of induction. Using data from t wenty-eight of the sixty- dministrators, mentor six Louisiana parishes, both tables show responses from grant a wed the effectiveness teachers, and new teachers. Table 1 displays how each group vie of their programs for new teachers. f teachers in Table 2 displays how each group compared the student outcomes o LaFIRST to those who were not in the program. Overall, the data demonstrate that LaFIRST is successful at imp roving the effective- ness of new teachers, especially in terms of classroom manageme nt. The story differs, 45

57 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION A Bird’s-Eye View of Tangipahoa: Table 1: New Teacher Effectiveness Induction from the Perspective Mentor New LaFIRST was effective in Grant of a Mentor improving new teachers’: Administrators Teachers Teachers LaTAAP mentors are required to 5.3 Teaching 4.5 4.9 meet with each of their one or two Comfort in the classroom 5.4 5.0 4.7 mentees for a total of thirty hours 4.7 5.0 Adjustment to the school/school system 5.4 per year. On average, they meet 4.8 5.4 Professional growth 5.0 each week for an hour to give NA NA 4.0 Retention advice, assist with problems, and, 5.1 4.6 Ability to facilitate student learning 4.9 when matched by subject area, 5.2 4.9 Preparation for assessment 5.3 help with lesson plans. As often as they can, LaTAAP mentors conduct Average scores (Range 1=Not Effective; 6=Very Effective) focused observations. They often arrange for the new teacher to ipants Table 2. Differences Between LaFIRST New Teachers and Nonpartic observe their own or other class- rooms, and they formally observe Differences between new the new teacher one time in the Grant New Mentor teachers in LaFIRST and second semester. The observation Teachers Teachers Administrators new teachers who were is preceded and followed by con- yes yes not in LaFIRST were seen by: yes versations about the lesson in Higher test scores 58% 67% 93% order to meet state requirements. 64% 58% Higher classroom grades 79% Though principals are required to Fewer classroom-management problems 83% 81% 100% release mentors for observations, 24% Increased participation from parents 35% 57% many have to make extra time to Higher homework completion 42% 34% 54% meet with new teachers. Better attendance 38% 31% 61% Tangipahoa FIRST mentors are released from their duties to be full-time mentors because they though, according to the person being asked. In general, progra m administrators are are responsible for around eight- more positive about the benefits of the program. een new teachers. Generally, FIRST n rates. Tangipahoa The report also asked LaFIRST parishes to report their retentio mentors meet with two teachers Parish had a 100 percent retention rate for certified teachers in 2002–03. A full 85 per- per day, but they sometimes cent of all recipients reported rates of 80 percent or higher. For 2001–02, the average spend up to a week with strug- retention rate of second-year teachers was 88 percent. gling teachers. During meetings, Qualitative Benefits mentors assist teachers with les- Tangipahoa FIRST and its local administration of LaTAAP are con sistently praised by son planning, grading, gathering cus group conducted new teachers, LaTAAP mentors, and principals alike. During a fo resources and materials, and principals praised for this report, a representative mix of teachers, mentors, and whatever else the teacher needs. Tangipahoa’s induction. Three teachers claimed that full-time m entors had saved them When not working with teachers, from quitting, built their confidence and teaching ability, and facilitated such a turn- mentors prepare and lead training returning the next year. around in their classrooms that they actually looked forward to sessions for new teachers. One high school teacher commented, “Having a mentor teacher has been the most help- ful learning experience for me as a teacher. At all times, I wa s able to ask questions, see models, and hear related experiences. This has helped me to dev elop my teaching skill and grow as a professional.” 46

58 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS aching skills. One Mentors also praised induction as a way to improve their own te h what’s new in the mentor explained that, “Being a mentor has kept me in touch wit field and has kept me fresh and motivated. I have been able to help the teachers that I work with, but they have also benefited me.” Sentiments like th ese are echoed through- out teacher evaluations of the Tangipahoa FIRST program. Summary shes using only Some potential problems with induction exist in Louisiana. Pari preservice training, lit- LaTAAP may have gaps in their activities, such as limited or no tle or no ongoing professional development, or limited contact between novice and mentors, who may be too busy with their own responsibilities. P oor local leadership can mean that some teachers receive less support than others. A nd, while LaFIRST grants help start the funding and training of district staff—as they have in th the costs of Tangipahoa—the program does not provide funding commensurate wi induction, and its principals do not receive training to lead t he program. P serves every new Overall, however, induction in Louisiana is quite strong. LaTAA teacher, is linked to high-quality teaching standards, and supp orts teachers with well- ll-time mentors and trained mentors. Tangipahoa FIRST provides new teachers with fu comprehensive preservice and ongoing training tailored to their needs, and models effective classroom teaching that they can then apply in their For more information Karen Ellis Tangipahoa FIRST Program Administrator C. M. Fagan Service Center 4739 North Oak Street Hammond, LA 70401 Phone: (985) 345-1584 Mary Ann Harmon Louisiana Department of Education PO Box 94064 Baton Rouge, LA 70804 Phone: (877) 453-2721 47

59 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION Toledo Public School District and the Toledo Federation of Teac hers The Toledo Plan Amy Bach Overview and History of Program Adopted by the Toledo public school district in 1981 during con tract negotiations with the Toledo Federation of Teachers (TFT) union, the Toledo Plan is a coopera- tive union/management induction program focused on teacher ment oring and evalu- ation. Designed to improve teacher performance by outlining a s et of four perform- ance standards (detailed below) to which all teachers are held, the Toledo Plan also establishes a support system for teachers in order to ensure th at they achieve those standards. The Toledo Plan focuses on improving teacher perform ance by pairing teachers with more experienced peers/mentors. ledo Plan was Dal Lawrence, the president of the TFT union at the time the To adopted, developed the idea for a local induction program in 19 69. The Toledo Plan was rooted in growing concern over the quality of teachers and the ability of teacher training programs to adequately prepare students to become teac hers. TFT members overwhelmingly voted in favor of the program. Many teachers bel ieved this program was a way to increased professionalism. By establishing and enf orcing specific stan- dards, teachers themselves—like other professionals—would ensur e that all teachers have the skills necessary for quality teaching. in contract negoti- However, the Toledo principals’ union rejected the Toledo Plan ations because principals were uncomfortable relinquishing the power to evaluate valuate other teachers. new teachers. They also questioned the ability of teachers to e program under one con- In the early 1980s, the principals’ union finally agreed to the dition: that struggling veteran teachers also receive guidance from a mentor. With in 1981, becoming agreement in place, the Toledo Plan was adopted by the district the nation’s first peer review program. Because the Toledo Plan is a district-wide program, all first-y ear teachers and teachers who are teaching their first year in the Toledo public schools are required to participate. This part of the Toledo Plan is referred to as the intern component, and new teachers are called interns. Interns receive guidance f rom mentors, called intern consultants. Struggling veteran teachers who are recomme nded for mentor- ing by their principal or their union building committee member are required to participate in the intervention component of the Toledo Plan. U nlike the intern component, which lasts two semesters, the intervention componen t has no set end- ing period. As long as the veteran teacher is making progress i n the areas identified by the intern consultant, veteran teachers are mentored until t hey are deemed ready to continue teaching without support, or they are deemed ill-suited for teach- ing and released from their contracts. Substitute teachers placed in long-term substitute positions in the district are also they are not evaluated, inducted. Long-term substitutes are not considered interns, so 48

60 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS itutes are hired for a but they do receive mentoring from intern consultants. If subst mentored and evaluat- contract position, they reenter the program as interns and are ed for another year. Quality Components Mentoring In the Toledo Plan, mentoring rests heavily on classroom observ ations and individual conferences. While intern consultants are released full-time fr om classroom responsibili- ties, interns and veteran teachers being mentored receive no re duced workload. Consultants are required to spend approximately twenty hours pe r semester mentoring and evaluating ten to twelve interns. Intern consultants observ e new teachers in the class- room two to three times a month, and they meet with interns aft er each observation to discuss strengths and areas for improvement. Observations focus on improving instruc- tion and classroom management. Toledo selects and trains only the most qualified people for in tern consultants. To be a mentor, intern consultants must be licensed in their subject area, and most have more than five years of experience. Interested candidates fill out a n application; obtain letters of reference from their school principal; agree to two unannoun ced observations of their classroom teaching; submit a writing sample; and complete an interview. Based on all the collected information, the Board of Review then decides whether or not to hire observing and working the applicant. New intern consultants are trained to mentor by with veteran intern consultants. New consultants also participa te in a summer training workshop that lasts from two to three days. Intern consultants mentor and evaluate for a three-year period, after which they return to their classrooms to teach. The aim of the Toledo Plan is to make sure quali- ty teachers return to the classroom where they are also needed and not create a hier- archy among teachers. Common Planning Time and Collaboration ime and collabora- The Toledo Plan does not specifically provide common planning t tion with other classroom teachers. But teachers do interact wi th one another during professional development activities. On a regular basis, intern consultants read and com- ment on each other’s evaluations of interns. Ongoing Professional Development At the beginning of the school year, new teachers are paid to a ttend a five-day New Teacher Academy. The mandatory academy orients new teachers to teaching resources and policies in the district, and new teachers are introduced t o their intern consultants. Intern consultants provide much of the training during the acad emy. In addition to the New Teacher Academy, interns across the district are required t o take a semester-long professional development course on effective teaching. External Network The Toledo Plan does not directly organize new teachers into ex ternal networks, but many teachers informally network during professional developmen t activities. Intern consultants are housed in the same office so they receive suppo rt and guidance from one another throughout the school year. 49

61 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION Assessment and Evaluation seven formal evalua- Intern consultants evaluate interns frequently, writing six or ants write a narrative tions per intern, per semester. After each observation, consult evaluation highlighting strengths, areas for further growth, an d suggestions for : teaching proce- improvement. The Toledo Plan outlines four performance criteria emic preparation; dures; classroom management; knowledge of subject area and acad and personal characteristics and professional responsibility. After working with interns or veteran teachers, intern consulta nts recommend to the Intern Board of Review whether the teachers should be rehir ed or released from their contract the following year. If interns show improvement but have not yet met standards, they are given an additional semester to show compet ency. Interns may appeal to the Intern Board of Review if they are not satisfied with the decision. In the Toledo Plan, intern consultants play the role of both me ntor and evaluator. Other programs and experts argue that support and assessment sh ould be aligned but conducted by separate people, but the Toledo Plan argues that t he person who spends the largest amount of time working with individual teachers—and therefore has the best understanding of their abilities—is most qualified to eval uate them. Making Induction Work Principal Leadership Since its adoption, the Toledo Plan has earned solid support no t only from dis- trict officials, but also from school administrators and teache rs throughout the dis- trict. Of all the key players in the Toledo Plan, principals pl ay a limited role. Intern progress of their consultants meet regularly with school principals regarding the te a short summary teachers, but consultants evaluate new teachers. Principals wri each semester regarding a new teacher’s professionalism, attend ance, ability to turn in work on time, and mindfulness of building policies. The prin cipal’s summary then becomes part of the intern consultants’ longer written rep ort to the Intern Board of Review. Only after interns successfully complete two s emesters in the intern program do school principals assume the responsibility o f evaluating them. Although their role is smaller than in other programs, principa ls in Toledo appreci- ate the lightened workload and the specialized support that int ern consultants pro- vide in mentoring and evaluating new teachers. High-Quality Providers The Toledo Plan is overseen by the Intern Board of Review, a gr oup made up of five appointed union representatives and four appointed managem ent representa- tives. Board members are not released from their jobs to govern its activities. Leadership of the board is balanced between union officials and administrators, and chairmanship rotates annually between the president of the TFT union and a district assistant superintendent, usually from the Office of H uman Services. In the 2003–04 school year, the district hired a clerical administrato r to oversee the hiring decisions made by the Intern Board of Review. 50

62 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS Support for Teachers with Little Preparation Because the Toledo Plan functions primarily through one-on-one interaction between experienced mentors and mentees, teachers who have limi ted teacher train- ing require and receive more attention and focused time with th eir intern consult- n teachers may require ants. Intern consultants also understand that struggling vetera g relatively recently. more help than teachers who have received their teacher trainin These veteran teachers also receive more time and energy from i ntern consultants. Incentives for Participation The requirements of labor contracts are the chief incentive to participate in the Toledo Plan. However, there are also indirect benefits that act as incentives. First-year teachers often have a difficult time adjusting to their new cla ssrooms. Induction can soften this difficult period. One intern commented on the overa ll benefit of the Toledo Plan, “Being a fresh graduate, I was so confused and ove rwhelmed [my first year of teaching]. There is no doubt in my mind that if I was n ot assigned an intern consultant, I would have never made it.” Another indirect incen tive is increased pro- fessionalism. Induction has formed Toledo teachers into a commu nity of learners over the years. According to Dal Lawrence, The Toledo Plan began to change the way in which teachers think about their practice and each other’s practice, as well as their accountability and resp onsibility for overall competence and excellence. We didn’t see that happening when we started ou t, but it definitely exists now. mselves and their Creating a culture of educators who take responsibility for the colleagues is no small feat. Participation in a culture such as this makes it possible for teachers to grow and thrive. Alignment with Teacher Goals and Standards within their par- Because the Toledo Plan is focused on helping specific teachers ticular classroom settings, the observations and evaluations in tern consultants make are very much tailored to the specific student population of th e intern’s classroom. Intern consultants and interns work closely together to establi sh goals specific to each intern’s classroom. Adequate and Stable Funding The Toledo school district pays for the costs of the Toledo Pla n. Although the state of Ohio does contribute state funds to the district, none of these funds are specifically earmarked for Toledo induction. The cost of implem enting the Toledo Plan varies from year to year, depending on the number of new t eachers hired and the number of intern consultants needed. In the 2003–04 school year, six intern consultants were chosen to induct approximately seventy-five ne w teachers and seven veteran teachers. Evaluation of the Induction Program At the end of a three-year cycle, all TFT members complete an e valuation of the structure of the Toledo Plan itself. Interns who have participa ted in the program are also asked to comment on the intern consultants who mentored th em. Using the eval- uations, the Intern Board of Review goes over suggestions for i mprovement to modify the program. In addition, the board uses evaluations to identif y and investigate poorly ir positions. performing intern consultants, who may then be removed from the 51

63 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION Approximate Cost per Teacher for the 2003–04 School Year: Participants: 6 Intern Consultants and 82 Teachers (75 Interns and 7 Veteran Teachers) = $30,000 x 6 consultants = $180,000 Cost of substitute to replace intern consultant in classroom Cost of additional stipend = $5,800 x 6 consultants = $34,800 to intern consultant = $30,000/190 school days = = $59,250 Cost of New Teacher $158/day per teacher Academy (5 days of a new teacher’s average salary) = ($158/day x 5 days for train- ing) x 75 teachers Cost of intern consultant = $50,000/190 school days = = $4,734 workshop (2–3 days of a $263/day per teacher consultant’s average = ($263/day x 3 days maxi- salary) mum) x 6 consultants 1 clerical position = $20,000 = $20,000 Total cost = $ 298,784 = $3,395 per teacher Total cost per teacher = $ 298,784/88 total teachers Effectiveness Quantitative Benefits tiveness of the According to district officials, they do not evaluate the effec Toledo Plan in terms of retaining or developing teachers. While district personnel would know the number of new and veteran teachers released from their contracts te them with the qual- each year, the district makes no systematic attempts to correla ity of Toledo’s induction program. Qualitative Benefits Since 1981, more than 400 teachers have been released from thei r teaching con- tracts, compared with only one teacher in the five preceding ye ars. This leads to an added benefit of the program: terminating a tenured teacher is an enormous expense for a school district and involves a lengthy process. A ccording to Craig Cotner, the chief academic officer of the Toledo school distric t, the cost of releasing underperforming veteran teachers from their contracts far excee ds the overall cost of implementing the Toledo Plan. Thus, not only is this program cost-effective, but it also contributes to building a community of well-trained, ta lented teachers. Summary The Toledo Plan has some limitations. The intern component of t he Toledo Plan consultants find it may be stronger than the intervention component because intern 52

64 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS harder to evaluate experienced peers who are not new to the pro fession. In addition, Dal Lawrence acknowledges that a program like Toledo’s might be more difficult to roll out in larger or smaller districts. An induction program f or hundreds of new teach- ers in a large district may be very difficult to manage, especi ally in the beginning years. Similarly, administrators could find it very difficult to termi nate the contracts of strug- gling veteran teachers in small communities where teachers, sch ool personnel, and community members are more likely to be well acquainted. Overall, the Toledo Plan has several strengths. The district re cognizes teaching as a learning process and allows new teachers time to develop their skills and techniques labor and manage- with the support of a trained professional. Cooperation between ment is also a major factor in the program’s success. Because o f the cooperation between the two—often opposing—groups, induction is an essentia l part of the teach- ing culture. Toledo’s comprehensive induction not only builds a n individual teacher’s skills but also contributes to the development of a community o f teachers who are learners themselves. In the end, induction creates teachers who work in cooperation toward two common goals: the establishment and maintenance of h igh-quality educa- tors and the success of the students they teach. For more information Dal Lawrence Toledo Federation of Teachers Phone: (419) 535-3013 Craig Cotner Chief Academic Officer Toledo Public School District Phone: (419) 729-8422 53

65 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION APPENDIX B: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Achinstein, Betty. “Politics of the Mentoring Process for Novic es: Negotiating Journal of Educational Professional Relationships and New Teacher Learning.” , forthcoming. Change per addresses the Drawing on cases from an induction study in California, this pa tered teaching associat- implications for new teacher learning and fostering learner-cen ed with differing mentoring relationships. It explores the inte ractions between begin- er dynamics, and con- ning teachers and mentors to understand professional roles, pow versational exchanges that influence teacher learning. The Essential American Federation of Teachers. “Beginning Teacher Induction: eration of Bridge.” Policy brief number 13. Washington, D.C.: American Fed Teachers, 2001. This brief provides the underlying research-based rationale for AFT’s policy on then focuses on state beginning teacher induction—that is, why induction matters. It statutes and regulations on induction, outlining the attributes of effective statutes and reporting on the results of a fifty-state AFT analysis of induc tion policies. The brief ends with a set of recommendations. chers’ for Hard-to- Berry, Barnett. “Recruiting and Retaining ‘Highly Qualified Tea 87:638 (March 2004). Staff Schools.” NASSP Bulletin ining teachers for The author asserts that what is known about recruiting and reta ndergirding the hard-to-staff schools runs counter to many of the assumptions u dence regarding incen- teacher-quality provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act. Evi tives, recruitment pathways, new teacher induction programs, an d alternative routes sheds considerable light on what needs to be done to ensure a “ highly qualified” ators can play an teacher for every student. Armed with the right knowledge, educ important role in getting both the funding and the politics in place to create and sup- port the policies and programs that promote teacher quality. With respect to induction, the author argues that comprehensive induction pro- grams offer support to new teachers that can lower teacher attr ition and improve the 54

66 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS uthor reports that few odds that schools can close the achievement gap. However, the a as common plan- new teachers have access to such high-end induction components ning time and access to helpful mentors, despite the fact that states and districts can use federal teacher-quality dollars to do so. Assessing and Berry, Barnett, Peggy Hopkins-Thompson, and Mandy Hoke. the Southeast. Chapel Hill, NC: Southeast Supporting New Teachers: Lessons from Center for Teaching Quality, 2002. This report examines the key elements of effective new teacher assessment and sup- port, reviews the progress of southeastern states in developing quality induction pro- grams, and offers a set of recommendations for action, includin g the call for a regional New Teacher Summit. New T eacher Induction: How to Tr ain, Support, Breaux, Annette, and Harry Wong. and Retain New Teachers. Mountain View, CA: Harry K. Wong Publications, Inc., 2003. This book, written for school and district administrators, prin cipals, school board members, and other school decisionmakers, demonstrates how to p lan and implement a comprehensive induction program. To persuade the reader that induction retains and develops new teachers, the authors present research finding s along with practical examples of successful induction. Over thirty induction program s are featured with their contact information, and the reference section contains s chedules and handouts from three comprehensive induction programs. ehensive Britton, Edward, Lynn Paine, David Pimm, and Senta Raizen. Compr Teacher Induction: Systems for Early Car eer Learning. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. Based on a three-year study, this book centers around the quest ion, What does it take to meet the wide-ranging needs of beginning teachers? The autho rs answer the ques- tion by describing how comprehensive teacher induction systems not only provide or the past ten to twen- teacher support but also promote learning about how to teach. F ew Zealand, and ty-five years, induction programs in Shanghai, France, Japan, N Switzerland have provided well-funded support that reaches all beginning teachers, incorporates multiple sources of support, typically lasts two o r more years, and goes beyond survival skills to promoting learning about teaching. Wi th National Science Foundation funding and under the auspices of WestEd’s National Center for Improving Science Education and Michigan State University, researchers co nducted in-depth case studies of induction programs. They particularly focused on nov ice mathematics and science teachers. This book analyzes those case studies, and ca lls for rethinking what teacher induction is about, whom it should serve, what the curr iculum of induction should be, and which policies, programs, and practices are need ed to deliver it. Carey, Kevin. The Real Value of T eachers: Using New Information About T eacher Effectiveness to Close the Achievement Gap. Washington, D.C.: Education Trust, 2004. The author examines how value-added assessment data can be used to evaluate teacher effectiveness. The report begins with a brief review of literature demonstrating nt. Using this research, that the quality of teachers directly impacts student achieveme 55

67 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION the author makes recommendations for using value-added data to assess teachers and to g how states, districts, improve teacher quality overall. The report concludes by showin y goals: increasing the and schools are using this information to accomplish two primar overall number of effective teachers—which includes improving t he effectiveness of teachers currently in the classroom—and getting more effective teachers into the class- rooms of low-income children, who must rely on them the most fo r their learning. Claycomb, Carla, and Willis Hawley. Recruiting and Retaining Ef fective Teachers for Urban Schools: Developing a Strategic Plan for Action. Washington, D.C.: National Partnership for Excellence and Accountability in Teach ing, 2000. The report, initiated by the Policy Board of the former Nationa l Partnership for Excellence and Accountability in Teaching (NPEAT), analyzes way s to address the per- sistent and increasingly difficult challenge of ensuring that s tudents who attend urban schools are taught by highly effective teachers. The authors co nclude that an unmet demand for qualified teachers in high-need fields and localitie s occurs when the costs of becoming and being a teacher exceed the benefits of teaching . The report then offers four comprehensive goals to recruit and retain new teach ers in urban schools. Their aims are to increase the quantity and quality of people e ntering and returning to teaching; shape the content of preparation programs to encourag e candidates to pur- sue positions where they are most needed; improve recruitment p rocesses; and improve beginning teachers’ professional experiences and capabi lities. The fourth goal is accomplished by providing beginning teachers with high-quali ty induction programs, as defined by eleven characteristics the authors set forth. Feiman-Nemser, Sharon. “What New Teachers Need to Learn.” Educational Leadership 60:8 (2003). In this brief article, the author argues that addressing the le arning needs of new quality of the teaching teachers can improve both the rate of teacher retention and the profession. The author examines what skills beginning teachers need to develop on ts of teaching. Quality the job that they cannot learn in advance or outside the contex standards, provides induction, including mentoring and the use of rigorous teaching new teachers the opportunity to develop these skills through th eir work with real stu- dents in real school situations. The author warns, however, tha t even the best induc- tion programs cannot totally counteract an unhealthy school cli mate, competitive teacher culture, or inappropriate teaching assignment. nd Why Money Ferguson, Ronald, and Helen Ladd. “Additional Evidence on How a Matters.” In Helen Ladd, ed., Holding Schools Accountable: Performance-Based Reform in Education. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1996. The conventional wisdom among many economists is that the link between addition- al spending on K–12 education and the achievement of students i s weak. This article challenges that view, using data on student achievement in Alab ama at the district level and the level of the individual student. District-level analysi s confirms earlier work by Ferguson for Texas that “money matters,” especially when spent on smaller class sizes degrees. and higher-quality teachers, as measured by teacher test scores or master’s 56

68 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS Learning the Ropes: Urban T Fideler, Elizabeth, and David Haselkorn. eacher Induction Pr ograms and Practices in the United States. Belmont, MA: Recruiting New Teachers, Inc., 1999. nduction programs This extensive report summarizes research on national teacher i vided in detail on how in urban areas. Through its findings, broad suggestions are pro to establish induction practices within schools and school dist ricts. The study examines ways that policymakers and educational leaders in the United St ates have sought to improve teacher quality through new teacher induction programs. The report also contains information on program contacts, participants, and fun ding opportunities. Fletcher, Stephen, Michael Strong, and Anthony Villar. eacher An Investigation of T Experience and T eacher Prepar edness on the Performance of Latino Students in California. Santa Cruz, CA: New Teacher Center, 2003. Although research on the outcomes of induction has looked at ch anges in teacher satisfaction and retention, it has not looked at changes in stu dent achievement. Using California’s induction policy as a framework, this study compar es the performance in new teacher classes across three districts, and then looks at s tudent achievement in terms of teacher experience within one district. The report fin ds that the relationship between teachers’ participation in induction programs and the c hanges in achieve- induction program (e.g., ment of their classes may vary with the characteristics of the the opportunity for mentors and novices to meet). The report al so finds that classes ght by more experi- taught by new teachers can have comparable gains to classes tau enced teachers. More specifically, this study seeks to determine if an intensiv e induction program would be beneficial in helping new teachers learn quickly the s kills necessary to be rity students and effective in the classroom, particularly when working with mino t districts indicates that English-language learners. Analysis of data from three differen • classes taught by new teachers working with full-release men tors for two years are more likely to have positive gains, regardless of the pre-class score; and • the assignment of new teachers (e.g., to above-average-achie vement classes or low- achieving classes) does not determine the percentage of classes having positive gains. Analysis of data from a district implementing an intensive indu ction program indicates that • new teachers and veteran teachers are assigned different cla sses in terms of the per- centage of English-language learners and pre-class student achi evement; and • classes taught by new teachers have comparable growth on the SAT/9 Total Reading score to classes taught by veteran teachers. Goldhaber, Dan, and Dominic Brewer. “Evaluating the Effect of T eacher Degree Level on Educational Performance.” In National Center for Educa tion Statistics, Developments in School Finance, 1996. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 1996. Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 ( NELS: 88), which estimate the impact of allow students to be linked to particular teachers, are used to 57

69 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION teacher degrees on student performance in the subject areas of mathematics, science, ive survey of about English, and history. The NELS: 88 was a nationally representat e surveyed again in 24,000 eighth graders in 1988, approximately 18,000 of whom wer 1990. It was found that several teacher characteristics do appe ar to make a difference hose with bachelor’s in student performance. Teachers certified in mathematics and t or master’s degrees in mathematics and science were associated with higher student performance scores. Mathematics and science degrees were not fo und to influence stu- dent outcomes in English and history, suggesting that it is the subject-specific training rather than general teaching ability that results in improved p erformance. This finding suggests that student achievement in technical subjects can be improved by requiring in-subject teaching. ls Lose Hanushek, Eric, John Kain, and Steven Rivkin. “Why Public Schoo Teachers.” National Bureau of Economic Research , Working Paper no. W8599 (2001). Many school districts experience difficulties attracting and re taining teachers, and the impending retirement of a substantial fraction of public sc hool teachers raises the specter of severe shortages in some public schools. Schools in urban areas serving eco- nomically disadvantaged and minority students appear particular ly vulnerable. This paper investigates the factors that affect the probability that teachers switch schools or exit the public schools entirely. The authors make use of match ed student/teacher panel data on Texas public elementary schools to gain a better understanding of the ns. effects of salary and other school factors on teacher transitio The results show that teacher transitions are much more strongl y related to particu- ls serving large numbers of lar student characteristics than to salary differentials. Schoo lose a substantial frac- academically disadvantaged, black, or Hispanic students tend to tion of teachers each year both to other districts and out of t he Texas public schools entirely. An implication is that the supply curve faced by thes e districts differs marked- s, in which a far lower ly from that faced by middle- and upper-middle-class communitie ment by switching to proportion of teachers seek to improve their employment arrange another public school. Hinds, Michael. Teaching as a Clinical Prof ession. New York: Carnegie Corporation of New York, 2002. This is an analysis of the teaching profession in terms of teac her preparation and practice in the first years of teaching. The report recommends that teaching become a clinical practice profession like that of medicine, including t he use of “clinical residen- cies” that function as highly structured induction programs fac ilitated by institutions of higher education. This report details the rationale behind the Carnegie Corporation’s Teachers for a New Era initiative. Ingersoll, Richard. Is There Really a Teacher Shortage? Seattle: Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy, 2003. Richard Ingersoll builds on his hypothesis that school staffing problems are not pri- marily due to teacher shortages, in the sense of an insufficien t supply of qualified primarily due to a “revolv- teachers. Rather, the data indicate that staffing problems are 58

70 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS ir jobs for reasons ing door,” where large numbers of qualified teachers depart the o argue that concern other than retirement. He also addresses criticisms of those wh over teacher turnover is exaggerated. The report concludes that teacher recruitment programs will not solve the staffing problems of schools if the y do not also address the organizational sources of low teacher retention. The Impact of Mentoring on T eacher Retention: Ingersoll, Richard, and Jeffrey Kralik. What the Research Says. Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States, 2004. This report reviews ten quantitative and evaluative studies wit h the primary objective of providing policymakers, educators, and researchers with a re liable assessment of what is known and not known about the effectiveness of teacher induction programs. In particular, this review focuses on the impact of induction a nd mentoring programs on teacher retention. While the impact of induction and mentori ng differed signifi- cantly among the ten studies reviewed, collectively the studies do provide empirical support for the claim that assistance for new teachers and, in particular, mentoring programs have a positive impact on teachers and their retention . At the same time, while the studies point to the likely value o f some induction and mentoring programs in decreasing the attrition of new teachers, a number of ques- tions remain concerning mentoring and induction that require mo re controlled and systematic research than currently exists: toring programs? 1. What kinds of teachers are helped most by induction and men 2. Which elements, supports, and kinds of assistance make indu ction and mentoring g new teachers programs most helpful in addressing the various weaknesses amon with differing backgrounds? 3. Which aspects of induction and mentoring programs contribut e most to the increased retention of new teachers? Do these differ from the f actors that con- tribute most to teachers’ enhanced classroom effectiveness? 4. Do the selection, preparation, training, assignment, and co mpensation of mentors make a difference? 5. Is it possible to document links between teacher participat ion in mentoring and gains in student outcomes? Developing carefully controlled studies to answer these key que stions will be crucial to allow policymakers and educators make informed decisions reg arding mentoring and induction policies and programs for their schools. r: What Are the Ingersoll, Richard, and Thomas Smith. “Reducing Teacher Turnove Components of Effective Induction?” Paper presented to the Amer ican Educational Research Association annual meeting, April 2003. This study examines whether support, guidance, and orientation programs—collec- tively known as induction—have a positive effect on the retenti on of beginning teach- ers. Using data from the nationally representative 1999–00 Scho ols and Staffing Survey (SASS), the report focuses on a number of different types and c omponents of induc- tion, including mentoring programs, group induction activities, and the provision of extra resources and reduced workloads. The results indicate tha t beginning teachers who participated in who were provided with mentors from the same subject field and 59

71 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION collective induction activities, such as planning and collabora tion with other teachers, ing occupation after their were less likely to move to other schools or to leave the teach first year of teaching. Johnson, Susan Moore. Finders and Keepers: Helping New T eachers Survive and San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 2004. Thrive in Our Schools. This book, based on a longitudinal study of fifty new teachers during their first years in the classroom, highlights the cases of ten teachers who illu strate the experiences of new teachers in public schools. The author documents why they e ntered teaching, what they encountered in their schools, and how they decided wh ether to stay or move on to other schools or other lines of work. By tracking the ten teachers’ eventual career decisions, the book reveals what matters most to new tea chers as they enter the teaching profession. The book uncovers the importance of the sc hool site and the cru- cial role that principals and experienced teachers play in the effective hiring and induction of the next generation of teachers. The author conclu des that induction programs must be comprehensive—that is, provide multiple source s of support—to be most effective. Kardos, Susan. “New Teachers’ Experience of Mentoring, Classroo m Observations, and Teacher Mentoring: Toward an Understanding of Professional Culture.” Paper presented to the American Educational Research Association annu al meeting, 2002. A qualitative analysis of a quantitative survey of Massachusett s and New Jersey teach- ers that examines the relationship between professional culture and new teachers’ sat- isfaction with their school and teaching. Kardos finds that for mal structures of induc- be most effective. The tion programs must be imbedded in the culture of the school to satisfaction and thus, author also concludes that embedded programs contribute to job possibly, to increased teacher retention. Moir, Ellen. “Launching the Next Generation of Teachers Through Quality ing and America’s Induction.” Paper prepared for the National Commission on Teach 2003. Future 2003 Annual Commissioners and Partner States’ Symposium, The report details how one mentor-based induction program in Ca lifornia has had success in breaking the cycle of teacher attrition. The author explores the responsibili- ties, training, and selection of high-quality mentors in the Sa nta Clara New Teacher Project (SCNTP). This model, also implemented in North Carolina , New York City, and Maryland, includes mechanism for accountability and assessm ent. The author explains how the components of the SCNTP program are cost-effec tive and retain teachers at high rates. The paper concludes with recommendation s on the role of mentors in induction programs, based on qualitative research. National Center for Education Statistics. Teacher Quality: A Report on the Preparation and Qualifications of Public School T eachers. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 1999. The results of this national profile of teacher quality, the fi rst in a series of biennial reports, specifically focus on teachers’ learning (both preserv ice and continued) and rmation regarding the environments in which they work. Included is important info 60

72 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS ssional development, col- teachers’ education, certification, teaching assignments, profe risons by instruction- laboration, and supportive work environment. In addition, compa al level and poverty level of the school provide information ab out the distribution of teacher quality. This information provides a context for unders tanding teachers’ ir classrooms. reports of preparedness to meet the challenges they face in the rogress Through the T eacher Pipeline: National Center for Education Statistics. P 1992–93 College Graduates and Elementary/Secondary School T eaching as of 1997. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 2000. This report is the second in a series that follows 1992–93 coll ege graduates’ progress through the teacher pipeline using data from the Second Follow- up of the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:93/97). This r eport focuses on the academic characteristics and preparation for teaching of those who took various steps toward teaching and is organized by a conceptual “teacher pipel ine” that represents a teacher’s career. The pipeline includes preparatory activities— considering teaching, stu- dent teaching as an undergraduate, becoming certified to teach, and applying for teaching jobs—as well as teaching experiences and plans for tea ching in the future. National Center for Education Statistics. Attrition of New Teachers Among Recent College Graduates: Comparing Occupational Stability Among 1992– 93 College Graduates Who Taught and Those Who Worked in Other Occupations. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 2001. degree recipients This research examines the occupational stability of bachelor’s during the first four years after receiving their degrees. The analyses address the ques- ely than those in other tion, were graduates who were teaching in 1994 more or less lik occupations to leave the workforce or work in a different occup ation in 1997? This report aptly details the teacher attrition problem. National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future. No Dream Denied: A Children. Washington, D.C.: National Commission on Teaching Pledge to America’s and America’s Future, 2003. Building on their 1996 report What Matters Most, NCTAF examines the quality of America’s teaching profession through the lens of recruiting an d retaining excellent teachers for every child. To ensure that “highly qualified” beg inning teachers meet the high standards anticipated by the No Child Left Behind Act, the commission makes recommendations about teacher preparation, the characteristics of schools to support teacher learning, and hiring and support practices, including i nduction programs, to provide benchmarks for overall teacher professional development . Public Education Network. The V oice of the New Teacher. Washington, D.C.: Public Education Network, 2003. This report contains research into the perspectives of new teac hers on the quality of teacher preparation, the first years of teaching, and supports provided by districts and schools during early years in the profession. Conducted in four communities— Chattanooga, Tennessee; New York, New York; Seattle, Washington ; and Washington, made several rec- D.C.—the research surveyed more than 200 teachers. New teachers 61

73 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION ommendations regarding new teacher induction, including more su pport in learning d LEP students). how to teach high-risk students (including special education an Cumulative and Residual Ef fects of T eachers on Sanders, William, and June Rivers. Future Student Academic Achievement. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Value- Added Research and Assessment, 1996. ers who had been The study by statistician William Sanders finds that fifth grad taught for the previous three years by very effective teachers gained fifty percentile points more on a state’s assessment than those who had been tau ght by ineffective teachers. Students whose initial achievement levels are compara ble have different aca- demic outcomes as a result of the sequence of teachers to which they are assigned. Serpell, Zewelanji, and Leslie Bozeman. Report on Beginning Teacher Induction: A Beginning T eacher Ef fectiveness and Retention. Washington, D.C.: National Partnership for Excellence and Accountability in Teaching, 1999 . This report discusses the effectiveness of induction programs a nd resulting out- comes for beginning teacher retention, beginning teacher effect iveness, and mentor participation. The various components of induction programs are provided, with in- depth discussion of: the role of the mentor; characteristics of effective mentorship and of successful induction programs; release time; and program eva luation and assess- ators, mentors, and ment. Included are aspects of induction programs that administr inductees identify as essential to a program’s success. Indicat ors of increased teacher ho, Montana, North effectiveness as they resulted from programs in California, Ida ng high retention rates Carolina, Wisconsin, and Toronto are detailed. Statistics showi for inducted teachers are given for Texas, California, Montana, and Wisconsin. A Study of New T eacher Retention: The Ef Strong, Michael. fects of Mentoring for Beginning Teachers. Santa Cruz, CA: University of California, New Teacher Center Report, 2001. This study examines sixty-three teachers eight or nine years af ter they were enrolled in an induction support program that provided them with veteran teachers released full-time as mentors. A control sample of twenty-five teachers from neighboring dis- tricts not involved with a full-release mentoring program was a lso studied. Texas Center for Educational Research. The Cost of T eacher T urnover. Austin, TX: Texas Center for Educational Research, 2000. This is an analysis of teacher shortage and teacher turnover in the state of Texas. The study uses industry model estimates to gauge the cost of te acher turnover, includ- ing separation costs, hiring costs, and costs for training and supporting new employees. Using the most conservative model—25 percent of the leaving tea cher’s salary—the report determines that Texas loses $329 million a year to turno ver. Using other indus- try model estimates based on Texas teacher turnover rates, the state loses as much as $2.1 billion annually. 62

74 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS Villar, Anthony. “Measuring the Benefits and Costs of Mentor-Ba sed Induction: A Value-Added Assessment of New Teacher Effectiveness Linked to S tudent Achievement.” Paper prepared for the American Educational Resea rch Association Annual Conference, 2004. Most analyses of induction benefits and costs focus on the savi ngs from reduced range of benefit streams turnover to justify program investments. By measuring the full accruing to induction, this study shows that induction returns extend far beyond mere retention questions. The influence on new teacher practice is b y far the most impor- tant benefit, and potentially extends farther if school leaders and policymakers consid- er the benefits to children assigned to effective teachers over the course of their K–12 careers. Assuming that turnover costs represent 50 percent of a new teacher’s salary, dollar for dollar, the study shows that an investment in an int ensive model of new teacher induc- tion in one district pays $1.37 for every $1 invested. 63

75 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION 10 Commission on Teaching and America’s “Transforming a Nation at Risk into a Endnotes Future, the Alliance for Excellent Nation Prepared,” Carnegie Results 1:3 1 Kevin Carey, The Real Value of Teachers Education estimates that each teacher leav- (2003). (Washington, D.C.: Education Trust, 2004). ing a school costs the district $12,546. 11 Gary A. Griffin, “Teacher Induction: (Average teacher salary in 1999–00 = 2 Frederick Hess, Andrew Rotherham, and Journal of Teacher Research Issues,” $41,820 x .30 = $12,546.) In the 1999–00 A Qualified Teacher in Every Kate Walsh, eds., 36:1 (1985). Education school year, approximately 207,370 teach- Classroom? Appraising Old Answers and New 12 ers left the profession, not including Sandra Odell, Mentor Teacher Programs Ideas (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University retirees. Thus, the number of leaving (Washington, D.C.: National Education Press, 2004). teachers (207,370) multiplied by the aver- Association, 1990). 3 The Morrill Act encouraged all states to age cost of attrition ($12,546) yields the 13 Sandra Odell and Douglas Ferraro, establish land-grant universities. More than total cost of attrition at $2.6 billion “Teacher Mentoring and Teacher seventy land-grant colleges were established, ($2,601,664,020). Retention,” Journal of Teacher Education 43:3 with Vermont and New York among the first 22 Ingersoll, Is There Really a Teacher Shortage? (1992). states to do so. A second act in 1890, specifi- cally addressing the needs of African 23 14 Anthony Villar, Measuring the Benefits and What Matters Most: Teaching for America’s Americans, said that no state could receive Costs of Mentor-Based Induction: A Value- Future (New York: National Commission on funds if it denied access to college on the Added Assessment of New Teacher Effectiveness Teaching and America’s Future, 1996). basis of race, unless a state also established (Santa Cruz, Linked to Student Achievement 15 “separate but equal” facilities for excluded Richard Ingersoll and Thomas Smith, CA: New Center, 2004). races. Seventeen southern states thus estab- “Do Teacher Induction and Mentoring 24 Thomas Smith and Richard Ingersoll, lished black land-grant colleges. Matter?,” paper presented at the Annual “What Are the Effects of Induction and Meeting of the American Educational 4 The Smith-Hughes National Vocational Mentoring on Beginning Teacher Research Association Annual Meeting, Educational Act of 1917 promoted vocation- American Educational Research Turnover?” Chicago, 21–25 April 2003. al agriculture and provided federal funds for 41:2 (Summer 2004). Journal 16 that purpose; to receive funds, states were Schools and Staffing in the United States 25 David Berliner, “A Personal Response to required to establish a plan that included (Washington, D.C.: U.S. 1993–94 Those Who Bash Teacher Education,” “plans for the training of teachers.” Department of Education, National Center 51:5 Journal of Teacher Education for Education Statistics, 1996). 5 Hess, Rotherham, and Walsh, A Qualified (November/December 2000). Omar 17 Teacher in Every Classroom? Quality Counts 2004: Count Me In Lopez, “Classroom Diversification: An (Bethesda, MD: Editorial Projects in Alternative Paradigm for Research in 6 James Coleman, Equality of Educational Education, 2004). Educational Productivity,” Ph.D. diss., (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. Opportunity University of Texas at Austin, 1995. Carla 18 of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office Chester Finn Jr., “A Nation Still at Risk,” Claycomb and Willis D. Hawley, Recruiting of Education, 1966). (May 1989). Commentary and Retaining Effective Teachers for Urban 7 19 Inequality: A Christopher Jencks, Julian E. Barnes, “Now the Focus Shifts Schools (National Partnership for Reassessment of the Effect of Family and from Integration to Achievement for All,” Excellence and Accountability in Teaching, (San Francisco: Basic Schooling in America , March 22–29, U.S. News & World Report March 2000). Books, 1972). 2004. 26 Anthony Villar, Measuring the Benefits and 8 20 A Marisol Definao and James Hoffman, Is There Really a Richard Ingersoll, Costs of Mentor-Based Induction . Status Report and Content Analysis of State (Seattle: Center for the Teacher Shortage? 27 Smith and Ingersoll, “What Are the Mandated Teacher Induction Programs Study of Teaching and Policy, 2003) with Effects of Induction and Mentoring on (Austin, TX: Texas University Research and analysis by the Alliance for Excellent Beginning Teacher Turnover?” Development Center for Teacher Education. Education, 1984). 28 Beyond Islands of Excellence: What Districts 21 The Department of Labor estimates that Can Do to Improve Instruction and Achievement 9 Barbara Heyns, “Educational Defectors: A attrition costs an employer 30 percent of (Washington, D.C.: Learning in All Schools First Look at Teacher Attrition in the NLS- the leaving employee’s salary. Using First Alliance, 2003). Susan Kardos, “New 17:3 (1988). Educational Researcher 72,” national data from the National Teachers’ Experiences of Mentoring, 64

76 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS 38 49 Classroom Observations, and Teacher Berliner, “A Personal Response to Those (Washington, NAEP 2002 Year-at-a-Glance D.C.: National Assessment of Educational Who Bash Teacher Education.” Lopez, Meetings: Toward an Understanding of “Classroom Diversification.” Claycomb and Progress, 2003). Professional Culture,” paper delivered at the 2002 annual meeting of the American Hawley, R ecruiting and Retaining Effective 39 Greene and Forster, Public High School Educational Research Association, New Teachers for Urban Schools. Graduation and College Readiness Rates in the Orleans, 1–5 April 2002. 50 Elizabeth Fideler and David Haselkorn, United States. 29 Beginning Teacher Induction: The Essential Learning the Ropes: Urban Teacher Induction 40 Ready or Not: Creating a High School (Washington, D.C.: American Bridge Programs and Practices in the United States (Washington, D.C.: Diploma That Counts Federation of Teachers, 2001). Zewelanji (Belmont, MA: Recruiting New Teachers, American Diploma Project, 2004). Serpell and Leslie Bozeman, Beginning Inc., 1999). 41 Teacher Induction: A Report on Beginning (Midland, The Cost of Remedial Education 51 Comprehensive Edward Britton et al., eds., Teacher Effectiveness and Retention MI: Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Teacher Induction: Systems for Early Career (Washington, D.C.: National Partnership 2000). (Boston: Kluwer Academic Learning for Excellence and Accountability in 42 Publishers, 2003). Sharon Feiman-Nemser, Haycock, “Good Teaching Matters.” Teaching, 1999). “What New Teachers Need to Learn,” Ronald Ferguson and Helen Ladd, 30 Educational Leadership 60:8 (May 2003). Smith and Ingersoll, “What Are the “Additional Evidence on How and Why Effects of Induction and Mentoring on Money Matters,” in Helen Ladd, ed., 52 Barnet Berry, “Recruiting and Retaining Beginning Teacher Turnover?” Holding Schools Accountable (Washington, ‘Highly Qualified Teachers’ for Hard-to- D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1996). Linda 31 Staff Schools,” NASSP Bulletin 87:638 Teacher organizations such as the Darling-Hammond and Peter Youngs, (March 2004). American Federation of Teachers support “Defining ‘Highly Qualified Teachers’: the use of such measures because they 53 What Does Scientifically-Based Research Kevin Carey, The Real Value of Teachers improve the quality of the teachers they Actually Tell Us?” Educational Researcher (Washington, D.C.: Education Trust, 2004). represent. See American Federation of 31:9 (2002). 54 Beginning Teacher Induction. Teachers, Richard Ingersoll, “The Problem of 43 Underqualified Teachers in American Ronald Ferguson, “Paying for Public 32 Michael de Courcy Hinds, Teaching as a Secondary Schools,” Educational Researcher Education: New Evidence on How and Clinical Profession: A New Challenge for 28 (1999). Why Money Matters,” Harvard Journal on Education (New York: Carnegie Corporation Legislation 28:2 (Summer 1991). 55 of New York, 2002). Carey, The Real Value of Teachers. 44 The Supply and Demand of Said Yasin, 33 56 Finders and Keepers Susan Moore Johnson, Jessica Levin and Meredith Quinn, Elementary and Secondary School Teachers in (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2004). Missed Opportunities: How We Keep High- the United States (Washington, D.C.: ERIC Quality Teachers Out of Urban Classrooms 34 Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Kati Haycock, “Good Teaching Matters . . . (New York: New Teacher Project, 2003). Education, 2000). A Lot,” Thinking K–16 3:2 (Summer 1998). 57 Eric Hanushek, John Kain, and Steven 35 45 No Dream Denied: A Pledge to America’s Gary Orfield, Daniel Losen, Johanna Rivkin, Why Public Schools Lose Teachers (Washington, D.C.: National Losing Wald, and Christopher B. Swanson, Children (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Our Future: How Minority Youth Are Being Left Commission on Teaching and America’s Economic Research, 2001). Behind by the Graduation Rate Crisis Future, 2003). 58 (Cambridge, MA: Civil Rights Project at Susan Moore Johnson et al. “The Support 46 Ingersoll, Is There Really a Teacher Shortage? Harvard University, 2004). Gap: New Teachers’ Early Experiences in 47 High-Income and Low-Income Schools,” The Cost of Teacher Turnover (Austin, TX: 36 Dropout Rates in the United States: 2000 article prepared for the 2004 Annual Texas Center for Education Research, 2000). (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Meeting of the American Educational 48 Education, 2001). Tom Carroll, President, National Research Association (San Diego, CA, 1–5 Commission on Teaching and America’s 37 April 2004). Public Jay P. Greene and Greg Forster, Future, correspondence with Jeremy Ayers, High School Graduation and College Readiness 59 June 4, 2004. See also Harry Wong, “Save Smith and Ingersoll, “What Are the (New York: Rates in the United States Millions—Train and Support New Effects of Induction and Mentoring on Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, School Business Affairs Teachers,” Beginning Teacher Turnover?” 2003). (November 2003). 65

77 ALLIANCE FOR EXCELLENT EDUCATION 71 60 81 Ellen Moir, “Fostering Leadership Villar, Michael Garet, “What Makes Measuring the Benefits and Costs of Through Mentoring,” Mentor-Based Induction. Educational Professional Development Effective?” American Educational Research Journal 60:8 (May 2003). Leadership 61 Ingersoll, Is There Really a Teacher (Winter 2001). “Principles for Professional 72 Shortage? Progress Through the Teacher Ellen Moir, correspondence with Development” (Washington, D.C.: Pipeline: 1992–93 College Graduates and Jeremy Ayers, 4 May 2004. American Federation of Teachers, 2002). Elementary/Secondary School Teaching as of 73 Moir, “Fostering Leadership Through 82 1997 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department (Washington, D.C.: Standards in Practice Mentoring.” Barnett Berry, Peggy of Education, National Center for Education Trust, 2004), as seen at Hopkins-Thompson, and Mandy Hoke, Education Statistics, 2000). http://www2.edtrust.org/EdTrust/SIP+Pro Assessing and Supporting New Teachers: fessional+Development/. 62 (Chapel Hill, NC: Lessons from the Southeast Smith and Ingersoll, “What Are the 83 Southeast Center for Teaching Quality, Effects of Induction and Mentoring on Adolescents and Literacy: Michael Kamil, 2002). Beginning Teacher Turnover?” (Washington, Reading for the 21st Century D.C.: Alliance for Excellent Education, 74 63 Developing Supovitz and Christman, American Federation of Teachers, The Urban 2003). Anne Grosso de León, Beginning Teacher Induction. Communities of Instructional Practice. High School’s Challenge: Ensuring Literacy for 64 75 Every Child (New York: Carnegie What Works in the High Serpell and Bozeman, Beginning Teacher Joellen Killion, Corporation of New York, 2002). Finders and Keepers. School Grades: Results-Based Staff Johnson, Induction. Development (Oxford, OH: National Staff 84 65 Feiman-Nemser, “What New Teachers Recruiting and Claycomb and Hawley, Development Council, 2002). Need to Learn.” Retaining Effective Teachers for Urban Schools. 76 Jonathan Supovitz and Jolley Bruce Supovitz and Christman, “Developing 85 Bill Manolios, Christine Rowland, and Developing Communities of Christman, Communities of Instructional Practice.” Patsy Wooters, “From Study Groups to a Instructional Practice: Lessons from Cincinnati 77 Schoolwide Initiative,” UFT Teacher Center David Kauffman et al., “Lost at Sea”: New (Philadelphia: Consortium and Philadelphia Special Edition (2004). Teachers’ Experiences with Curriculum and for Policy Research in Education, 2003). Assessment (Cambridge, MA: Harvard 86 Kendall Stansbury and Joy 66 Project on the Next Generation of D. Kyle, G. Moore, and J. Sanders, “The Zimmerman, “Smart Induction Programs Teachers, 2002). Role of the Mentor Teacher: Insights, Become Lifelines for the Beginning Peabody Challenges, and Implications,” 78 23:4 Journal of Staff Development Teacher,” Beyond Islands of Excellence. Model 74:3–4 (1999). C. Journal of Education (Fall 2002). Standards for Beginning Teacher Licensing, Evertson and M. Smithey, “Mentoring Assessment, and Development: A Resource for 87 Effects on Protégés’ Classroom Practice: Loren Anderson, An External Review of State Dialogue (Washington, D.C.: Council Journal of An Experimental Field Study,” South Carolina’s Assisting, Developing, and of Chief State School Officers, 1992). 9:5 (2000). Educational Research Evaluating Professional Teaching (ADEPT) 79 Program (Columbia, SC: Anderson Jonathan Supovitz and Valerie Klein, 67 The Richard Ingersoll and Jeffrey Kralik, Research Group, 2003). Mapping a Course for Improved Student Impact of Mentoring on Teacher Retention: Learning: How Innovative Schools 88 (Denver, CO: What the Research Says Teachers College Innovations: Professional Systematically Use Student Performance Data Education Commission of the States, 2004). Development That Makes a Lasting Difference to Guide Improvement (Philadelphia, PA: (New York: Columbia Teachers College, 68 Consortium for Policy Research in (Santa Cruz, CA: Mentor Teacher Selection 2003). Education, 2003). New Teacher Center, 2004). 89 From Dwight Rogers and Leslie Babinski, 69 80 Ellen Moir, Teacher Preparation and Professional Launching the Next Isolation to Conversation: Supporting New Generation of Teachers Through Quality Development 2000 (Washington: D.C.: U.S. Teachers’ Development (Albany: State (Washington, D.C.: National Induction Department of Education, National Center University of New York Press, 2002). Harry for Education Statistics, 2001). Judith Commission on Teaching and America’s K. Wong, “Collaborating with Colleagues to Teachers’ Professional Development in a Future, 2003). Little, Improve Student Learning,” ENC Focus Climate of Education Reform (Washington, 70 11:6 (2003). Smith and Ingersoll, “What Are the D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, Effects of Induction and Mentoring on 90 1994). American Federation of Teachers, Beginning Teacher Turnover?” Beginning Teacher Induction. 66

78 TAPPING THE POTENTIAL: RETAINING AND DEVELOPING HIGH-QUALITY NE W TEACHERS 91 103 Michael Lomask et al., “ESI-SGER A Guide to the BEST Program for Beginning Study: Exploring Potential Research Uses Teachers 2003–2004 (Hartford, CT: of Connecticut Beginning Teacher Connecticut State Department of Portfolios in Mathematics and Science,” Education, Bureau of Educator Assessment report to the National Science Foundation, 2003). Arlington, VA, 14 March 2001. 92 Council of Chief State School Officers, 104 Susan Carroll and David Carroll, Beyond Islands of Excellence. SERC/BEST Leadership Academy Report of 93 “How Do Teachers Learn to Teach Findings (Torrington, CT: Words & Effectively? Quality Indicators from Quality Numbers Research, Inc., 2004). Schools,” Teaching Quality in the Southeast: 105 Best Practices & Policies 2:7 (January 2003). Michael Strong and Linda St. John, “A Study of the Effects of a Full-Release 94 Ingersoll, Is There Really a Teacher Shortage? Mentoring Program on Long-Term 95 Teacher Commitment to the Educational Teachers for a New Era (New York: Profession,” paper delivered at the 2002 Carnegie Corporation of New York, 2001). Annual Meeting of the American 96 The Status of the Patrick Shields et al., Educational Research Association, New Teaching Profession 2003 (Santa Cruz, CA: Orleans, 1–5 April 2002. Center for the Future of Teaching and 106 Michael Strong, Stephen Fletcher, and Learning, 2003). Anthony Villar, “An Investigation of the 97 Licensure & Induction for Public School Effects of Teacher Experience and Teacher Teachers and Administrators: A Reference Preparedness on the Performance of Handbook (Little Rock, AR: Arkansas Latino Students in California,” paper deliv- Department of Education), as seen at ered at the 16th Annual UC LMRI http://arkedu.state.ar.us/pdf/ADE%20H Conference, San Diego, CA, May 2003. ANDBOOK.pdf, April 2004. 107 Measuring the Benefits and Costs of Villar, 98 J. Koppich, C. Asher, and C. Kerchner, Mentor-Based Induction. Developing Careers, Building a Profession: The 108 Preservice in this article refers to train- Rochester Career in Teaching Plan ing offered by the district in the summer (Washington, D.C.: National Commission prior to the first school year. In-service, or on Teaching & America’s Future, 2002). follow-up training, refers to training during More information on CIT can be found at the school year after a teacher has begun http://www.rochesterteachers.com/cit.html. teaching full-time. 99 Johnson, Finders and Keepers. 100 Quality Counts 2004: Count Me In (Bethesda, MD: Editorial Projects in Education, 2004). 101 with additional Quality Counts 2004, information provided by Melissa McCabe. 102 Catherine W. Fisk, Peter M. Prowda, and Barbara Q. Beaudin, “Are We Keeping the BEST and the Brightest? A Study of Beginning Teacher Attrition in Connecticut,” paper delivered at the 2001 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Seattle, WA, 10–14 April 2001. 67


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