grocerygap.original

Transcript

1 One Penn Center, Suite 900 Headquarters: 1617 John F. Kennedy Blvd. 1438 Webster Street Philadelphia, PA 19103 Suite 303 t 215 575-0444 Oakland, CA 94612 f 215 575-0466 t 510 663-2333 f 510 663-9684 www.thefoodtrust.org Communications: 55 West 39th Street 11th Floor New York, NY 10018 t 212 629-9570 f 212 629-7328 www.policylink.org ©2010 by PolicyLink All rights reserved.

2 PolicyLink is a national research and action institute advancing economic and social equity by Lifting Up What Works®. The Food Trust, founded in 1992, is a nonpro t organization working to ensure that everyone has access to affordable, nutritious food. Design by: Leslie Yang COVER PHOTOS COURTESY OF (from left to right, top to bottom): Zejica; Lorie Slater; image100 Photography; Richard Beebe. PHOTOS COURTESY OF: p.4: David Gomez Photography; p.6: Lorie Slater; p.10: Victor Melniciuc; p.12: Bart Sadowski; p.24: Plush Studios/Blend.

3 The Food Trust PolicyLink Sarah Treuhaft PolicyLink Allison Karpyn The Food Trust

4 The Food Trust PolicyLink Acknowledgments PolicyLink and The Food Trust are grateful to the 5 funders who supported the development and publication of this report, including the Convergence Partnership and the Kresge Foundation. 7 The research for this study was conducted with indispensable assistance from Diana Fischmann (former intern, The Food Trust), who initially 11 collected, reviewed, and summarized many of the studies, and Allison Hagey (PolicyLink) who adeptly assisted with the data analysis and 13 manuscript development. Many thanks to Jennefer Keller, Jon Jeter, and Leslie Yang (PolicyLink), and Lance Loethen (The Reinvestment Fund) for their 21 assistance. Our gratitude also extends to Judith Bell and Rebecca Flournoy (PolicyLink), John Weidman (The Food Trust), and Ira Goldstein (The 23 Reinvestment Fund) who provided helpful guidance and feedback throughout the research process. 25 32 2

5 The Food Trust PolicyLink Contents 5 Preface 5 7 Summary 7 Executive 11 11 Introduction 13 13 Findings 21 Policy for 21 Implications 23 23 Methods 25 References 25 32 Notes 32 3

6 The Food Trust PolicyLink The FodrustPPliiscFsyltLcynskFFSsdists P dcdPtLsPFheFrlrcsFkstrstulrStscFsafdLSs trslAfdctaLlstrSsifictdrtaLlskFFSsiniclhKs 4

7 The Food Trust PolicyLink Preface For decades, low-income communities of color have Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, adult suffered as grocery stores and fresh, affordable obesity rates are 51 percent higher for African Americans than whites, and 21 percent higher food disappeared from their neighborhoods. for Latinos. Black and Latino children are more Advocates have long drawn attention to this critical likely to become obese than white children. The issue and crafted policy solutions, but access to lack of healthy food retail also hinders community healthy food is just now entering the national policy debate. While the problem is obvious to impacted economic development in neighborhoods that need private investment, activity hubs, and jobs. communities, good policy must also be based on solid data about the issue and its consequences. Thankfully, the tide is beginning to turn. Researchers and policymakers are coming to consensus that Unfortunately, it often takes years for the research this is a critical issue. And they are recognizing that to catch up with pressing needs in historically communities have developed innovative, sustainable underserved communities. Sometimes information is solutions that can work in other locales and at larger not available. Other times, evidence is accumulating but it is buried in journals not widely read by scales. In December 2009, 39 members of Congress from both political parties issued a resolution in the policymakers. Or it is produced by practitioners and House of Representatives recognizing the need for advocates for local action campaigns and not accepted national policy to address limited access to healthy by researchers or shared with policymakers or the food in underserved communities. The President’s broader field. Too often, research focusing on low- 2011 budget calls for more than $400 million to income people and communities of color, informed establish a national Healthy Food Financing Initiative, by their experiences, or conducted in partnership with them, is perceived as a political strategy, and this initiative is a key component of the First rather than as a legitimate search to understand Lady’s Let’s Move campaign to reduce childhood problems and inform strategies for change. obesity. Legislation to create a Healthy Food Financing Initiative is expected to be introduced in both the House and the Senate in Spring 2010. PolicyLink and The Food Trust conducted this inquiry to summarize the existing evidence base, carefully reviewing more than 132 studies. We This report presents powerful data. It confirms found that a large and consistent body of evidence that as a nation we must answer the appeals of supports what residents have long observed: many community activists seeking access to healthy food low-income communities, communities of color, for their families and their neighborhoods. We and sparsely populated rural areas do not have hope that it provides policymakers, advocates, sufficient opportunities to buy healthy, affordable philanthropists, and others with information, food. The consequences are also clear: decreased evidence, and analysis that can inform their efforts to eliminate “food deserts” from neighborhoods access to healthy food means people in low-income communities suffer more from diet-related diseases and communities across the country. like obesity and diabetes than those in higher- income neighborhoods with easy access to healthy food, particularly fresh fruits and vegetables. Inequitable access to healthy food is a major Angela Glover Blackwell Yael Lehmann contributor to health disparities. According to the Founder and CEO Executive Director PolicyLink The Food Trust 5

8 The Food Trust PolicyLink The FhodrouestehrPl isd ssoue cydsuueL reysFhLdnkehFLdPLPsFuke cttsdociSrkechoe Pl eaFcSPLne tssoePuesFLestedrcy e f AcdLPyFScdSneSsKpPhysgre hrPl isd ssoukeysggFhPLPrue steysSsdkechoedFdcSecdrcuG 6

9 The Food Trust PolicyLink Summary Executive the past 20 years. This bibliography incorporates a An apple a day? total of 132 studies: Sixty-one published in peer- reviewed journals and primarily conducted by or millions of Americans—especially people university-based researchers and 71 conducted F living in low-income communities of color— by practitioners or policy researchers, sometimes finding a fresh apple is not so easy. Full-service in collaboration with academic researchers, and grocery stores, farmers’ markets, and other vendors self-published (also known as “grey literature”). that sell fresh fruits, vegetables, and other healthy The studies include three nationwide analyses foods cannot be found in their neighborhoods. of food store availability and neighborhood, What can be found, often in great abundance, city, county, regional, statewide, and multistate are convenience stores and fast food restaurants analyses covering 22 states across the country. that mainly sell cheap, high-fat, high-sugar, processed foods and offer few healthy options. Findings Without access to healthy foods, a nutritious diet and good health are out of reach. And without grocery stores and other fresh Accessing healthy food is a challenge 1. food retailers, communities are missing the for many Americans—particularly those commercial hubs that make neighborhoods living in low-income neighborhoods, livable, and help local economies thrive. communities of color, and rural areas. In hundreds of neighborhoods across the country, For decades, community activists have organized nutritious, affordable, and high quality food around the lack of access to healthy foods as is largely missing. Studies that measure food an economic, health, and social justice issue. As store availability and availability of healthy foods concerns grow over healthcare and the country’s in nearby stores find major disparities in food — ar eas worsening obesity epidemic, “food deserts” access by race and income and for low-density, where there is little or no access to healthy and rural areas. affordable food—have catapulted to the forefront of public policy discussions. Policymakers at Lack of supermarkets. A 2009 study by • the local, state, and national level have begun the U.S. Department of Agriculture found recognizing the role that access to healthy food that 23.5 million people lack access to a plays in promoting healthy local economies, supermarket within a mile of their home. healthy neighborhoods, and healthy people. A recent multistate study found that low- income census tracts had half as many This report, a summary of our current knowledge supermarkets as wealthy tracts. Another about food deserts and their impacts on multistate study found that eight percent communities, provides evidence to inform this of African Americans live in a tract with a policymaking. supermarket, compared to 31 percent of whites. And a nationwide analysis found To assess the current evidence base in this there are 418 rural “food desert” counties dynamic and fast-growing field of research, we where all residents live more than 10 miles compiled the most comprehensive bibliography from a supermarket or supercenter— to date of studies examining food access and its this is 20 percent of rural counties. implications conducted in the United States over 7

10 The Food Trust PolicyLink • of quality foods • Lack In rural Mississippi, adults living in “food healthy, high stores. in nearby In Detroit and food desert” counties lacking large supermarkets e 23 percent less likely to consume the New Haven, produce quality is lower ar recommended fruits and vegetables than in low-income communities of color compared to more affluent or racially those in counties that have supermarkets, mixed neighborhoods. In Albany, New controlling for age, sex, race, and education. York, 80 percent of nonwhite residents cannot find low-fat milk or high-fiber bread in their neighborhoods. And in 3. Access to healthy food is associated Baltimore, 46 percent of lower-income with lower risk for obesity and other neighborhoods have limited access to Researchers diet-related chronic diseases. healthy food (based on a healthy food find that residents who live near supermarkets availability survey) compared to 13 percent or in areas where food markets selling of higher-income neighborhoods. fresh produce (supermarkets, grocery stores, farmers’ markets, etc.) outnumber food stores • Predominance of convenience/corner/ that generally do not (such as corner stores) liquor stores. Nationally, low-income zip have lower rates of diet-related diseases than codes have 30 percent more convenience their counterparts in neighborhoods lacking stores, which tend to lack healthy food access. items, than middle-income zip codes. A multistate study found that people • of transportation access to stores. • Lack with access to only supermarkets or Residents in many urban areas (including to supermarkets and gr ocery stores Seattle, Central and South Los Angeles, and have the lowest rates of obesity and East Austin, Texas) have few transportation overweight and those without access to options to reach supermarkets. Inadequate supermarkets have the highest rates. transportation can be a major challenge for nia and New York City, residents • In Califor rural residents, given the long distances to living in areas with higher densities of fresh stores. In Mississippi—which has the highest food markets, compared to convenience obesity rate of any state—over 70 percent stores and fast food restaurants, have of food stamp eligible households travel lower rates of obesity. In California, more than 30 miles to reach a supermarket. obesity and diabetes rates are 20 percent higher for those living in the least healthy 2. Better access corresponds with “food environments,” controlling for healthier eating. Studies find that residents household income, race/ethnicity, age, with greater access to supermarkets or a greater gender, and physical activity levels. abundance of healthy foods in neighborhood food stores consume more fresh produce and Using statistical modeling techniques that • other healthful items. contr ol for a variety of factors, researchers • For every additional supermarket in estimate that adding a new grocery store to oduce consumption a census tract, pr a high poverty neighborhood in Indianapolis increases 32 percent for African would lead to a three pound weight Americans and 11 percent for whites, decrease among residents, while eliminating according to a multistate study. a fast food restaurant in a neighborhood with a high density of fast food would oduce availability in New • A survey of pr lead to a one pound weight decrease. Orleans’ small neighborhood stores found that for each additional meter of shelf In Chicago and Detr oit, residents who • space devoted to fresh vegetables, residents live farther from grocery stores than eat an additional 0.35 servings per day. from convenience stores and fast food 8

11 The Food Trust PolicyLink supported agriculture programs, and restaurants have significantly higher rates of premature death from diabetes. mobile vendors (and ensuring public benefits can be used at these venues); New and improved healthy food retail 4. Incr easing the stock of fruits, vegetables, • in underserved communities creates and other healthy foods at neighborhood jobs and helps to revitalize low-income corner stores or small groceries; Though the economic neighborhoods. impacts of food retailers are understudied, • Gr owing food locally through backyard we know that grocery stores contribute to and community gardens and larger- community economic development. Analysis scale urban agriculture; and of a successful statewide public-private Impr • oving transportation to grocery initiative to bring new or revitalized grocery stores and farmers’ markets. stores to underserved neighborhoods in Pennsylvania provides positive evidence that Improving access to healthy food is a critical fresh food markets can create jobs, bolster local component of an agenda to build an equitable economies, and revitalize neighborhoods. The and sustainable food system. It is time for effort has created or retained 4,860 jobs in a nationwide focus to ensure that healthy 78 underserved urban and rural communities food choices are available to all, building throughout the state. Analyses of stores on these local efforts and innovations. supported by the effort find they lead to increased economic activity in surrounding Smart public policies and programs should support communities. communities in their efforts to develop, implement, and test strategies that increase healthy food access. Government agencies at the local, state, for Policy Implications and federal level should prioritize the issue of inequitable food access in low-income, underserved The evidence is clear that many communities— areas. Programs and policies that are working predominantly low-income, urban communities should be expanded and new programs should of color and rural areas—lack adequate access to be developed to bring more grocery stores and healthy food, and the evidence also suggests that other fresh food retail outlets to neighborhoods the lack of access negatively impacts the health without access to healthy foods. Transportation of residents and neighborhoods. These findings barriers to fresh food outlets should be addressed. indicate that policy interventions to increase Whenever possible, policies to address food access to healthy food in “food deserts” will deserts should link with comprehensive efforts to help people eat a healthy diet, while contributing build strong regional food and farm systems. to community economic development. Residents of low-income communities and For many years, impacted communities and communities of color in urban and rural areas their advocates have been implementing have suffered for too long from a lack of a variety of strategies to increase access to access to healthy food. With local and state fresh, wholesome foods, including: programs showing enormous promise, now is the time for policymakers to enact policies that • ocery Attracting or developing gr will catalyze the replication of local and state stores and supermarkets; innovations and bring them to a national scale. etail outlets such Developing other r • as farmers’ markets, public markets, cooperatives, farmstands, community- 9

12 The Food Trust PolicyLink The Foederue st dPsoed dellirc heylPhLn yttsokySle tssk ayfed iP FsddiSle Ps eyP AKpe y kyLg yrk usrdGae y heylPhtGl kiePv 10

13 The Food Trust PolicyLink Introduction n hundreds of neighborhoods across the country, and in need of new or revitalized neighborhood- I nutritious, affordable, and high quality food serving retailers and job opportunities. Grocery is out of reach. Residents of many urban low- stores and supermarkets are also economic income communities of color walk outside their anchors in a neighborhood—supplying local jobs doors to find no grocery stores, farmers’ markets, and creating foot traffic for additional businesses. or other sources of fresh food. Instead they are Smaller food retailers and farmers’ markets can bombarded by fast food and convenience stores also bolster the local economy and contribute to a healthy neighborhood business environment. selling high-fat, high-sugar, processed foods. Rural residents often face a different type of Although the lack of access to healthy foods challenge—a lack of any nearby food options. has preoccupied residents of low-income urban This has been a persistent problem for communities. neighborhoods and rural areas for decades, and Beginning in the 1960s and 1970s, white, middle- many advocates have fought long and hard to bring in or develop new fresh food retailers, until recently class families left urban centers for homes in the issue was largely confined to the occasional the suburbs, and supermarkets fled with them. local win or news story. But that is all changing. Once they left the city, grocers adapted their “Food deserts”—areas with low access to healthy operations to suit their new environs, building foods—have become a major topic of interest ever-larger stores and developing chain-wide among public health advocates and the media, as contracts with large suppliers and distributors to stock the stores with foods demanded by a well as a dynamic and fast-growing field of research. With the recognition of the obesity (and childhood fairly homogeneous suburban population. Over obesity) crises and the increasing understanding the past several decades, the structure of the of how the neighborhood environment influences grocery industry has changed dramatically, with significant consolidation and growth in discount health, solving the food desert problem is now stores and supercenters and specialty/natural food rising to the forefront of policy discussions. 1 At the same time, alternative sources retailers. of fresh foods such as farmers’ markets, produce This report provides data to inform that debate. Across the country, dozens of studies have stands, and community-supported agriculture programs have proliferated, though predominantly examined the availability of nutritious, affordable foods in communities and/or the relationship in middle-class or affluent communities. between food access and health. These include studies authored by university-based researchers, While some continue to be well-served, many health departments, community groups, and have been left out. Without fresh food retailers, nonprofit policy and research organizations. A these communities miss out on the economic and large number of studies, particularly local studies health benefits they bring to neighborhoods. The about geographic access to healthy food, are presence of stores selling healthy, affordable food conducted by practitioners who seek to understand makes it possible to eat “five a day” and consume the situation locally in order to take action. This a healthful diet. This is particularly important for “grey literature” often provides important data low-income people of color given the vast disparities but is rarely included in academic reviews. in health that exist in areas including obesity, diabetes, and other diet-related diseases. The same communities are often economically distressed 11

14 The Food Trust PolicyLink To assess the current evidence base, we gathered statewide, and multistate analyses covering 22 the studies conducted in the United States over the states throughout the country. The bibliography 3, 4, 5 also includes three review studies. past 20 years to create the most comprehensive Sixty-one 2 We found of the studies were published in peer-reviewed bibliography on this topic to date. journals and generally conducted by academic a total of 132 studies that examined access to researchers, and 71 were self-published and healthy food and its impacts. They include three generally conducted by practitioners. (See pages nationwide analyses of food store availability and neighborhood, city, county, regional, 23-24 for a full description of our methodology.) Studies find that residents with greater access to supermarkets or a greater abundance of healthy foods in neighborhood food stores consume more fresh produce and other healthful items. 12

15 The Food Trust PolicyLink Findings of food outlets such as convenience stores and 1. Accessing healthy food is a smaller grocery stores. Several of these studies look challenge for many Americans— at the distribution of different types of food stores, particularly those living in such as supermarkets, smaller grocery stores, and “fringe retailers” such as convenience and corner low-income neighborhoods, stores across different community types. They find communities of color, and that lower-income communities and communities of rural areas color have fewer supermarkets, more convenience stores, and smaller grocery stores than wealthier and predominantly white communities. Researchers have measured geographic access to healthy foods in many different ways, and Eighty-nine national and local studies document at nearly every imaginable scale: from national uneven geographic access to supermarkets samples to detailed assessments of specific in urban areas according to income, race, or neighborhoods. Only one study has sought to 88-96 7-87 both and nine had mixed results. calculate the extent of the problem nationally. The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s 2009 “food Nationwide study findings include: desert” study examined access to supermarkets and determined that 23.5 million people cannot access • Low-income zip codes have 25 per cent a supermarket within one mile of their home. fewer chain supermarkets and 1.3 times as many convenience stores Most studies (a total of 113) examine whether compared to middle-income zip codes. supermarkets or healthy foods are equitably Predominantly black zip codes have about distributed across communities according to half the number of chain supermarkets socioeconomic status, racial composition, or 6 compared to predominantly white level of urbanization (population density). zip codes, and predominantly Latino Their findings are remarkably consistent: people 46 areas have only a third as many. living in low-income neighborhoods, minority neighborhoods, and rural communities face • Low-income neighborhoods have half much greater challenges finding healthy food, as many supermarkets as the wealthiest especially those who lack good transportation neighborhoods and four times as many options to reach full-service grocery stores. smaller gr ocery stores, according to an Ninety-seven of these studies found inequitable assessment of 685 urban and rural census access to healthy foods, 14 had some mixed The same study tracts in three states. results, and two studies did not find inequities. found four times as many supermarkets in predominantly white neighborhoods Disparities in supermarket access in 38 compared to predominantly black ones. urban areas by race and income Another multistate study found that eight percent of African Americans Many researchers use supermarkets as a proxy for live in a tract with a supermarket they provide the most reliable food access because 42 compared to 31 percent of whites. access to a wide variety of nutritious and affordable produce and other foods compared to other types 13

16 The Food Trust PolicyLink Local studies demonstrate similar trends: healthy Disparities access in to food in stores neighborhood at e are 2.3 times as many In Los Angeles ther • urban areas by income and race supermarkets per household in low-poverty areas compared to high-poverty areas. Other studies gather much more detailed data, Predominantly white areas have 3.2 times conducting in-store surveys to assess the availability, as many supermarkets as black areas and variety, quality, and price of particular healthy items 49 1.7 times as many as Latino areas. or grocery “market baskets.” Such surveys offer a more precise look at healthy food availability in • Among af fluent neighborhoods in neighborhoods, but they are labor-intensive so Atlanta, those that are predominantly generally focus on smaller geographic areas. white have better grocery store access than those that are predominantly Among these studies, 21 found that food stores black, indicating that race may be a in lower-income neighborhoods and communities 30 factor independent of income. of color are less likely to stock healthy foods, offer lower quality items, and have higher In W • est Louisville, Kentucky, a low-income prices compared to stores in higher-income or African American community that suffers 13, 15, 17, 18, 20-23, predominantly white communities, from high rates of diabetes, there is one 28, 31, 33, 35, 52, 68, 69, 96-99, 103, 105, 106 and seven found supermarket for every 25,000 residents, mixed results (for example, lower quality but compared to the county average of one 9, 81, 88, 89, 100, 102 17 similar prices and selection) or no supermarket for every 12,500 residents. 101 difference. In addition, a study based on focus • ashington, DC, the city’s lowest- In W groups with residents in East Baltimore (a low- income wards (Wards 7 and 8) have one income community of color) found that they were supermarket for every 70,000 people reliant on small neighborhood stores that charged while two of the three highest-income extremely high prices and lacked a good variety 103 wards (Wards 2 and 3) have one for and selection of healthy foods. Findings include: 20 One in five of every 11,881 people. the city’s food stamp recipients lives in a es carrying fruits and vegetables are Stor • 37 neighborhood without a grocery store. unevenly distributed among different types of communities in upstate New York: a nia and in New York City, low- • In Califor minority neighborhood in Albany has income neighborhoods have fewer the least access (4.6 stores per 10,000 purveyors of healthy foods (supermarkets, residents), followed by a rural community produce stands) compared to outlets that (7.8), a small town (9.8), and a racially 32 primarily sell unhealthy foods (convenience mixed neighborhood in Albany (11.4). 14, 47 stores, fast food restaurants). Low- The same researchers find that eight in income neighborhoods in California 10 of Albany’s nonwhite residents live have 20 percent fewer healthy food in a neighborhood that lacks any stores 14 33 sources than higher-income ones. selling low-fat milk or high-fiber bread. • In unincorporated communities ( colonias ) es located in low-income and very • Stor located along the U.S.-Mexico border low-income zip codes in Los Angeles in Texas, residents in neighborhoods and Sacramento are less likely to stock with higher levels of deprivation healthy foods than stores in higher-income 34 (measured by income, transportation, Three in 10 food stores in a high- areas. lack of infrastructure, etc.) travel farther poverty, predominantly African American to reach the nearest supermarket or community in Los Angeles lacked fruits and grocery store and have lower access vegetables while nearly all of the stores in 51 to a variety of food stores. a contrast area that was low poverty and 52 predominantly white sold fresh produce. 14

17 The Food Trust PolicyLink Food, Healthy of Availability Low Share with Stores Food Neighborhood Baltimore of and Race Neighborhood by 2006 Income, around schools because of the link between access oduce quality is lower in a predominantly • Pr 121 to convenience stores and adolescent health. black, low-income community in Detroit Two compared to an adjacent suburban studies looked at convenience stores in proximity community that is racially mixed and to schools and found that schools with more low- 81 104 income or nonwhite students or in urban areas, Produce quality is middle-income. and schools located in low-income neighborhoods also lower in New Haven, Connecticut’s 107 are more likely to or communities of color low-income communities compared 9 to more affluent neighborhoods. have at least one convenience store nearby. In Baltimor • e (see chart above), a healthy deserts Rural food food availability survey of 226 supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience stores, and While the majority of food desert studies focus behind-glass stores in 106 census tracts on urban communities, 21 studies examined rural found that 43 percent of predominantly communities. Twenty of them found significant black neighborhoods and 46 percent of 21, food access challenges in rural communities lower-income neighborhoods were in the 29, 32, 33, 36, 43, 46, 50, 51, 70, 75, 95, 108-114, 116 and one (that bottom third of availability, compared to looked at Springfield, Oregon) did not find urban- four percent of predominantly white and 13 54 The major issues in rural areas rural disparities. percent of higher-income neighborhoods. are different than those in urban areas given the The supermarkets in predominantly black low population density, longer distances between and lower-income neighborhoods scored retailers, and rapid rise of supercenters and their 23 lower for healthy food availability as well. impact on other food retailers. Key findings include: Disparities store access around in food • olling for population density, rural Contr income and race by schools areas have fewer food retailers of any type compared to urban areas, and only 14 46 In addition to the residential environment, researchers percent the number of chain supermarkets. are beginning to examine the “food environment” (See chart, next page) Another nationwide 15

18 The Food Trust PolicyLink 2000 Type, Store by Areas Rural in Stores Food of Availability analysis found that there are 418 2. Better access to healthy food rural “food desert” counties where all corresponds with healthier eating residents live 10 miles or more from the nearest supermarket or supercenter—20 43 Consistent with the conclusions of a recent review percent of all rural counties. 4 we found strong and consistent evidence study, cent • In the Mississippi Delta, over 70 per indicating a positive relationship between access of households eligible to receive Without to healthy food and eating behaviors. food stamp benefits needed to travel nearby access to healthy ingredients, families more than 30 miles to reach a large have a harder time meeting recommended dietary 36 grocery store or supermarket. guidelines for good health such as eating fruits and vegetables and lowering fat intake. In a esidents have • In New Mexico, rural r survey of diabetic adults in New York’s East Harlem access to fewer grocery stores than urban neighborhood, 40 percent said that they did residents, pay more for comparable items, not follow the recommended dietary guidelines and have less selection. The same market because the necessary foods were less available and basket of groceries costs $85 for rural 31 more expensive in their neighborhood stores. 113 residents and $55 for urban residents. Of 14 studies that examine food access and access Transportation consumption of healthy foods, all but one of them found a correlation between greater access and Lack of transportation to supermarkets is a major All of the studies in this better eating behaviors. 115 barrier for residents in many communities. category were conducted by academic researchers 118 Assessments of Lexington (KY), Seattle (WA), Central and published in peer-reviewed journals. and South Los Angeles (CA), East Austin (TX), and Trinity County (CA) highlighted transportation Access supermarkets to 11, 12, 22, 69, 116 challenges. Rural residents have higher vehicle ownership generally, but those who lack Eight studies analyzed access to nearby super- reliable access to personal vehicles are particularly markets or large grocery stores that sell a wide isolated given the longer distances to stores and variety of healthy foods in relation to consumption 12, 51, 114, 116, 117 lack of public transportation options. of fruits and vegetables, specific healthy foods (such as low-fat milk or high-fiber bread), or a healthy diet (measured by an index of diet quality). Almost all 16

19 The Food Trust PolicyLink Race, by Vegetables and Fruits of Consumption and Supermarkets to Access 2002 likely to have a healthy diet than those of these studies control for individual characteristics with the most supermarkets near their such as race and income and still find a relationship homes, according to a study that used between access and healthy eating. Six of the studies found associations between supermarket data from North Carolina, Baltimore, and 42, 79, 91, New York City. A healthy diet was defined access and healthy eating among adults 109, 119, 120 78 and one had mixed results. using two different measures: the Alternate Only one study examined access to food stores and eating Healthy Eating Index, which measures consumption of foods related to low risk of behaviors of adolescents (specifically, boys aged chronic disease, and a measure looking at 10 to 14); this study did not find a relationship 91 between supermarket access and fruit and consumption of fats and processed meats. vegetable consumption but did find that proximity • Pr oximity to a supermarket is associated of convenience stores (where young people who with increased fruit consumption among do not drive are more likely to shop) was associated 121 food stamp recipients (based on a with reduced fruit and vegetable intake. nationally representative sample). Similar patterns were also seen with vegetable Some of the findings include: consumption, though associations 119 were not statistically significant. African Americans living in a census tract • with a supermarket ar e more likely to meet • In rural Mississippi, adults living in “food dietary guidelines for fruits and vegetables, desert” counties (defined as those lacking and for every additional supermarket large supermarkets) ar e 23 percent less in a tract, produce consumption rose likely to consume the recommended 32 percent. Among whites, each fruits and vegetables than those in additional supermarket corresponded 109 counties that are not food deserts. with an 11 percent increase in produce 42 consumption (see chart above). This oit’s East Side neighborhood, African In Detr • study used a large sample: 10,230 American women with lower incomes are adults living in 208 urban, suburban, less likely to shop at supermarkets (which and rural census tracts in four states. are all located outside the neighborhood) and eat fruits and vegetables than • Adults with no supermarkets within a mile 79 those with higher incomes. e 25 to 46 percent less of their homes ar 17

20 The Food Trust PolicyLink fresh produce and other to Access Access to healthy food is 3. in stores foods nearby healthful associated with diet-related disease Several recent studies go beyond using supermarkets as proxies for healthy food access and conduct in-store surveys to more accurately In addition to making it possible—and even more likely—for residents to eat healthy diets, measure the availability of healthy food items in 13, 21, 91, 122, 123 Others use resident nearby stores. the availability of healthy food in communities surveys to measure access to nutritious and is related to a host of diet-related diseases 5, 124 including obesity and overweight, diabetes, and Of the six quality foods and eating behaviors. cardiovascular disease. Seventeen studies examined studies in this category, all of them found that the relationship between healthy food access increased availability of produce or of specific healthy foods (such as low-fat milk as a percentage and diet-related health outcomes; approximately of all milk) is associated with the increased half were conducted by academics and half were consumption of those foods. Findings include: conducted by policy researchers. Twelve found 14, 24, 25, 27, 34, 45, 47, 72, 73, 125, a positive relationship, 126, 128 127, 129, 145 In New Orleans, pr three studies had mixed results, oximity to stores • 78, 104 and two studies had contrary findings. stocking more fresh produce is associated with higher vegetable consumption. Each additional meter of Access supermarkets to shelf space devoted to fresh vegetables is associated with an additional 0.35 Five studies found that proximity to supermarkets 13 servings of vegetables per day. corresponds with a lower body mass index (BMI), or rates of obesity, diabetes, or diet-related death • For participants in a community- 27, 71-73, 125 and one found the same among adults, omotion program in based health pr 45 Only two studies correlation among adolescents. Colorado, greater shelf space allocated focused on children. One found that supermarket to fresh produce corresponded access was associated with lower BMI among with greater increases in fruit and children in lower-density counties in Indianapolis 122 vegetable consumption. 127 (but not in higher-density ones). The other tracked kindergarteners over four years and found that, The pr • oportion of low-fat milk in stores controlling for individual characteristics, higher is positively and directly related to its fruit and vegetable prices in their city or metro consumption according to a New York corresponded with weight gain, but the density of 21 and a study that examined state study restaurants, convenience stores, or grocery stores 123 areas of California and Hawaii. 145 around their schools did not make a difference. esidents to rank • One study asked r Adults living in neighborhoods with • their access to healthy food and then supermarkets or with supermarkets and examined their rankings in relation to ocery stores have the lowest rates of gr their diets. Residents living in areas ranked obesity (21 percent) and overweight by themselves or others as having the (60–62 percent) and those living in worst food environments were 22 to neighborhoods with no supermarkets 35 percent less likely to eat a healthy and access to only convenience stores, diet than those living in areas ranked as 91 smaller grocery stores, or both had the having the best food environments. highest rates (32–40 percent obesity; 73–78 percent overweight), according to 125 a study of more than 10,000 adults. • The lack of supermarket access corr esponds with higher rates of diet- 27 related death in Philadelphia. 18

21 The Food Trust PolicyLink The Economic Impacts Retailers Food Fresh of Indirect Economic Impacts: Impacts: Economic Direct Revitalized • opportunities Job • markets housing neighborhood revenues for Asset-building • low-income homeowners (via appreciating real estate tax Local • assets) • Workforce training and development • New businesses surrounding the store store in spending Additional • local economy generated it jobs new the and the the by effect”) “multiplier (the creates In Los Angeles, a longer distance fast food dense neighborhood (six or more • traveled to r each a grocery store was fast food restaurants per square kilometer) 126 translates into a one pound decrease. associated with higher BMI. Those who traveled more than 1.75 miles to s food deserts A 2009 study of Chicago’ • a supermarket weighed 0.8 BMI units 34 found that as the distance to the nearest more (4.8 pounds for a 5’5” person). grocer increases relative to the distance to • the nearest fringe food outlet, the Years of A national study of mor e than 70,000 Potential Life Loss (YPLL) due to diseases teens also found that increased availability of chain supermarkets was associated such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, 45 with lower rates of overweight. diabetes, and liver disease increases. This relationship is significant in African outlet mix Food American communities, but less clear for 25 white and Hispanic communities. 14, 24, 25, 47, 126 Several studies have found that the mix of food stores available to residents is associated with diet-related health outcomes: New and improved healthy 4. food retail in underserved nians and New Yorkers living in • Califor communities creates jobs and areas with higher densities of fresh food markets compared to convenience stores helps to revitalize low-income and fast food restaurants have lower neighborhoods rates of obesity. In California, obesity and diabetes rates were 20 percent higher Beyond the benefits to individual health described for those living in the least healthy “food above, fresh food markets contribute to the overall environments,” controlling for individual 14 health of neighborhoods and communities. factors. In New York City, increasing “BMI-healthy” food stores in New York Grocery stores are known by economic development neighborhoods corresponded with practitioners to be high-volume “anchors” that lower obesity rates (though decreasing 47 generate foot traffic and attract complementary “BMI-unhealthy” stores did not). stores and services like banks, pharmacies, video 131 espond In Indianapolis, BMI values corr • Yet compared to the rentals, and restaurants. with access to supermarkets and fast study of food access and its health impacts, the food restaurants. Researchers estimate study of economic impacts related to food retail that adding a new grocery store to a development is an area of relatively limited research. high-poverty neighborhood translates into a three pound weight decrease, and Several methods have been developed to estimate eliminating a fast food restaurant from a the demand for food retail in underserved 19

22 The Food Trust PolicyLink The Pennsylvania Fresh Food Financing Initiative has helped develop supermarkets and other fresh food outlets in 78 underserved urban and rural areas, increasing access to healthy food for nearly 500,000 residents and creating or retaining 4,860 jobs. Studies of the Pennsylvania Fresh Food Financing communities. Studies that use local data sources find that these neighborhoods have the Initiative (FFFI), a statewide public-private effort potential to support thousands of square feet that has helped develop 78 supermarkets and 56-67, 134 in additional grocery retail space. One other fresh food outlets in underserved urban and rural areas, also demonstrate the positive study estimated $8.7 billion dollars in annual 135 grocery leakage in inner-city neighborhoods. impacts of healthy food retailing. In addition to increasing access to healthy food for nearly 500,000 residents, the effort resulted in: Some have also investigated the impact of new supermarkets on nearby real estate values. When new food retailers enter areas that were previously The initiative created or eation. Job cr • under-retailed, they can bring viability to urban retained 4,860 jobs throughout the state. A recent case study of selected supermarkets neighborhoods’ commercial real estate markets, and can change perceptions that economically in the Philadelphia region found that the distressed urban areas are undesirable places to vast majority of jobs created through the 133 initiative (75 percent) were filled by local operate businesses. An assessment of the impact residents living within three miles of their of new supermarkets on neighborhood housing 138 workplace. A new store assisted by values in Philadelphia found that the values of the initiative that is part of the regional homes located within one-quarter to one-half ShopRite chain created 258 jobs and more mile of the new supermarkets increase by four to 139 than half were filled by local residents. seven percent (an average of $1,500) after the When you add in the additional jobs that stores open, mitigating the downward trend in real are created through a new store’s multiplier estate values. In addition, the effect was larger in 130 neighborhoods with weaker housing markets. effect, the total number of jobs becomes much higher: one grocery store that the Recent analyses of efforts to bring new grocery effort helped launch is estimated to have 140 created 660 jobs directly and indirectly. stores into underserved communities find that these businesses are viable (even thriving), offer a good New and Economic development. • selection of nutritious and affordable foods, and improved grocery stores can catalyze contribute greatly to local economic development. commercial revitalization in a community. An examination of the first full-service supermarket An analysis of the economic impacts of five to locate in New York City’s Harlem neighborhood new stores that opened with FFFI assistance (thanks in part to a $2.5 million loan from the city found that, for four of the stores, total to cover construction costs), four years after its employment surrounding the supermarket opening, found that the store allocated the same increased at a faster rate than citywide amount of space to a similar variety of fresh fruits trends. This suggests a positive effect on and vegetables, fish, and meat as typical suburban 136 overall economic activity resulting from the supermarkets, at similar prices. The store has been 138 introduction of a new supermarket. credited with catalyzing the revitalization of the 137 neighborhood. 20

23 The Food Trust PolicyLink for Policy Implications xisting research provides clear evidence that Communities are using a variety of strategies to E food deserts exist in numerous low-income increase access to healthy foods, and their communities and communities of color across the efforts provide several lessons for policymakers 143 country, and that they have significant negative at the local, state, and federal level. impacts on health, social equity, and local economic development. The balance of the research strongly Until more systemic solutions are instituted, suggests that making affordable, healthy foods transportation barriers to fresh food markets need to be removed. Community groups and planners more available to underserved residents will lead to their making healthier choices about what to eat should evaluate existing transportation routes and and, ultimately, better health, while contributing improve coordination of bus routes, bus stops, and schedules or add vanpools or shuttles to maximize to economic and neighborhood revitalization. transit access to grocery stores and farmers’ markets. While there is general agreement in the Longer-term transportation and land use planning literature about the lack of access to healthy should promote the co-location of food retail, foods and increasing evidence about its transit access, and affordable homes. Communities consequences, fewer researchers have focused and retailers can launch programs such as mobile on the question of what are the most effective markets, grocery shuttles, and grocery van- delivery to improve access to healthy food. solutions. This search has largely been taken up by impacted communities and their advocates and supporters. Across the country, they are: Community groups, residents, researchers, and government agencies should work together to ocery identify areas that lack access to healthy food and to • Attracting or developing gr understand local economic conditions and regional stores and supermarkets; food systems. Areas lacking access should be • etail outlets such Developing other r prioritized, strategies for action need to identified, as farmers’ markets, public markets, and then advocates need to demand the resources, cooperatives, farmstands, community- programs, and policies to solve the access problem. supported agriculture programs, and Once underway, efforts should be monitored to mobile vendors (and ensuring public examine progress over time, and advocates should benefits can be used at these venues); seek the expansion of successful approaches. Incr • easing the stock of fruits, vegetables, Cities have many policy tools they can use to and other healthy foods at neighborhood incentivize and promote healthy food retail corner stores or small groceries; including land use planning, zoning, economic development and redevelopment, and nutrition Gr owing food locally through backyard • assistance. A recent analysis of retailers’ location and community gardens and larger- decisions found that the land availability, market scale urban agriculture; and demand (and data demonstrating that demand), construction and operations costs, and approval/ Impr oving transportation to grocery • zoning requirements all pose barriers to locating stores and farmers’ markets. 141 Cities can help in underserved urban areas. 21

24 The Food Trust PolicyLink Will of Food Access What Type Make a Difference? in gap” “grocery only One question the research begins to address is whether supermarkets are the solution to the low-income communities. than more The majority of studies use supermarkets or (typically defined by a sales volume of more than $2 million sense makes This foods. healthy to access for proxy a as employees) 50 their of bulk the do Americans most because 142 increasingly consistently grocery shopping at these stores (and more at larger supercenters) and supermarkets 44 36, to compared foods nutritious and affordable retailers. food of types other offer a good variety and selection of surveys more and more studies are using in-store to But examine the availability of particular healthy items or healthy the find studies These relationship between access and diet as studies “market baskets” and their consumption. same supermarkets. at look that suggests This strategies. access food different many through improved be could health that overcome these barriers by providing publicly the development, renovation, and expansion owned land for food retailers, helping with land of retail outlets offering fresh healthy food assembly, and identifying and marketing sites for (such as grocery stores, farmers’ markets, and 144 The success grocery store development. Several cities have cooperatives) should be developed. of the Pennsylvania Fresh Food Financing Initiative conducted internal assessments to understand demonstrates that public investments can leverage how their agencies and departments can foster healthy food retail in underserved neighborhoods. significant private investment and dramatically improve healthy food access. Policy replication efforts have been successful in Illinois, New York, In New York City, the departments of health, and New Orleans, and numerous replication planning, housing, economic development, and efforts are underway in states across the country. the Mayor’s office all played a role in developing Given the national scope of the problem, this and implementing several innovative programs successful state policy should be brought to including: Green Carts, to help produce vendors a national scale so this innovative financing locate in underserved neighborhoods with high rates of obesity and diabetes; Healthy Bodegas, to mechanism can be available to all communities. improve healthy offerings in corner stores; Health Successful policies and programs need to be Bucks, to promote produce purchasing at farmers’ markets; and FRESH, to provide zoning and financial replicated and brought to a greater scale to increase healthy food access. A problem with incentives to promote grocery store development, upgrading, and expansion in underserved areas. such broad and negative impacts on health, economy, and equity warrants a focus at all At the state and national level, fresh food levels—community, state, and national. Now is financing initiatives—based on Pennsylvania’s the time for bold, nationwide efforts to ensure successful program (described on page 20)—that that healthy food choices are available to all. create public-private partnerships to support 22

25 The Food Trust PolicyLink Methods etween May and July 2009, PolicyLink and In order to be included, each study needed to meet the following criteria: B The Food Trust created a comprehensive bibliography of studies related to food access • ectly or indirectly to identifying Related dir and/or food access and health across the United States. Unlike previous review studies, disparities in access to food retailers or healthy food, and the relationship which typically only include published work, we sought to include “grey literature,” or studies, between food retail and health; reports, and analyses that are not published in • Either included original r esearch on peer-reviewed journals. Public health agencies, these topics or reviewed other studies; community-based organizations, and policy groups frequently conduct primary data analyses • Conducted in the United States (while ther e of retail food access to inform their activities, have been studies conducted outside of but generally do not take the additional steps to the United States, the persistent trend of submit their studies to journals for publication. residential segregation by race/ethnicity and income in this country makes extrapolation We used the following search methods from these studies of limited value); and to compile the bibliography: Published during or after 1995 (although • Sent r equests for information to relevant • we included a few important studies that listservs, e.g., COMFOOD, the National wer e conducted between 1990 and 1994). Neighborhood Indicators Partnership (NNIP), American Evaluation Association One hundred and thirty-two studies were ultimately (EVALTALK), and agency email lists; included in the database, of 168 articles initially gathered through the search methods above. We W • rote to 80 food policy councils across included studies that use random and nonrandom the country that are listed on the North sampling methods and quantitative and qualitative American Food Policy Council website techniques (such as resident interviews). We also and the Community Food Security included studies that examine single communities of Coalition Food Policy Council Database; interest (alone or in comparison to other areas). We excluded newsletters, policy statements, and studies • Contacted several foundations and that focused on methods and measurements. In leaders working in the food access field; one case we found two policy papers, one shorter than the other, based on the same study and data; • Sear ched PubMed and other library they were counted as one study in the database. databases related to the fields of planning, community development, and Of the studies selected for the database, 61 were geography to identify formally published published in peer-reviewed journals, and 71 fell work related to urban and rural food into the grey literature category. We did not access and health implications; and systematically review the evidence quality (e.g., • Reviewed r eference lists of included studies. sample size, strength of methods used) of each 23

26 The Food Trust PolicyLink study for this review, but note that to date, the studies that examine the health impacts of access to healthy food have primarily used cross-sectional research designs (examining survey data) and there have been few longitudinal or intervention studies. We also noted some systematic differences between the content of the peer-reviewed studies compared to those conducted by practitioners. None of the practitioner studies examined the relationship between food access and eating behaviors, likely due to the difficulty of accessing data on eating behaviors for small geographies or individuals. Only one of the peer-reviewed studies examined the economic impacts of grocery stores. 24

27 The Food Trust PolicyLink References of Small Food Stores in an Urban Environment.” Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles 11 (2008): 413-420. Public Health Nutrition Alwitt, L., and Donley, T. “Retail Stores in Caldwell E., Kobayashi, M., DuBow, Journal of Poor Urban Neighborhoods.” W., and Wytinck, S. “Perceived Access Consumer Affairs 31 (1997): 139–164. to Fruits and Vegetables Associated with Increased Consumption.” Public Andrews, M., Kantor, L., Lino, M., and (2008): 1743-50. Health Nutrition Ripplinger, D. “Using USDA’s Thrifty Food Plan to Assess Food Availability and Affordability.” Cheadle A., Psaty, B., Curry, S., Wagner, E., Diehr, Food Access 24, no.2 (2001): 45-53. P., Koepsell, T., and Kristal, A. “Community- Level Comparisons Between Grocery Store Andreyeva, T., Blumenthal, D., Schwartz, M., Environment and Individual Dietary Practices.” Long, M., and Brownell, K. “Availability and Prices 20, no.2 (1991): 250-61. Preventive Medicine of Foods Across Stores And Neighborhoods: Health The Case Of New Haven, Connecticut.” Clifton, K. “Mobility Strategies and Food Affairs 27, no.5 (2008): 1381–1388. Shopping for Low-Income Families: A Case Study.” Journal of Planning Education Auchincloss, A., Diez-Roux, A., Brown, D., and Research 23 (2004): 402-413. Erdmann, C., Bertoni, A. “Neighborhood Resources for Physical Activity and Healthy Foods Cotterill, R., and Franklin, A. “The Urban and Their Association with Insulin Resistance.” Grocery Store Gap.” Food Marketing Policy Epidemiology , 19 (2008):146–157. Center, University of Connecticut. Food Marketing Policy Issue Paper 8 (1995). Baker, E., Schootman, M., Barnidge, E., and Kelly, C. “The Role of Race and Poverty in Access Fisher, B., and Strogatz, D. “Community Measures to Foods that Enable Individuals to Adhere to of Low-Fat Milk Consumption: Comparing Store Preventing Chronic Disease: Dietary Guidelines.” Shelves with Households.” American Journal 3, Public Health Research, Practice and Policy of Public Health 89, no.2 (1999): 235–237. no. 3 (2006): 1-11. Available at http://www. Franco, M., Roux, A., Glass, T., Caballero, B., cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2006/jul/05_0217.htm. and Brancati, F. “Neighborhood Characteristics Beaulac, J., Kristjansson, E., and Cummins, S. and Availability of Healthy Foods in “A Systematic Review of Food Deserts, 1966- American Journal of Preventive Baltimore.” Preventing Chronic Disease: Public 2007.” Medicine 35, no.6 (2008): 561–567. Health Research, Practice and Policy 6, no. Galvez, M., Morland, K., Raines, C., et 3 (2009): 1-10. Available at http://www.cdc. al. “Race and Food Store Availability in gov/pcd/issues/2009/Jul/08_0163.htm. an Inner-City Neighbourhood.” Public Block, D., and Kouba, J. “A Comparison of the Health Nutrition 11 (2007): 624–631. Availability and Affordability of a Market Basket Giang, T., Karpyn, A., Laurison, H., Hillier, A., in Two Communities in the Chicago Area.” Public Burton, M., and Perry, D. “Closing the Grocery 9, no.7 (2006): 837–845. Health Nutrition Gap in Underserved Communities: The Creation Bodor, J. N., Rose, D., Farley, T. A., Swalm, of the Pennsylvania Fresh Food Financing C., and Scott, S.K. “Neighbourhood Fruit and Initiative.” Journal of Public Health Management Vegetable Availability and Consumption: The Role and Practice 14, no.3 (2008): 272-279. 25

28 The Food Trust PolicyLink Gittelsohn, J., Franceschini, M., Rasooly, I., Ries, A., 19–26. Available at http://www.ers.usda.gov/ Ho, L., Pavlovich, W., Santos, V., Jennings, S., and publications/rdp/rdp1098/rdp1098c.pdf. Frick, K. “Understanding the Food Environment Laraia, B., Siega-Riz, A., Kaufman, J. and Jones, S. in a Low-Income Urban Setting: Implications for “Proximity of Supermarkets Is Positively Associated Food Store Interventions.” Journal of Hunger & with Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy.” American 2, no.2 (2008): 33-50. Environmental Nutrition Journal of Preventive Medicine 39 (2004): 869–875. Glanz, K., Sallis, J., Saelens, B., and Frank, Larson, N., Story, M., and Nelson, M. L. “Nutrition Environment Measures Survey “Neighborhood Environments Disparities in Access in Stores (NEMS-S) Development and American Journal of to Healthy Foods in the U.S.” American Journal of Preventive Evaluation.” 36, no.1 (2009): 74-81. Preventative Medicine Medicine 32, no.4 (2007): 282-289. Lavin, M. “Supermarket Access and Consumer Helling, A., and Sawicki, D. “Race and Residential Well-Being: The Case of Pathmark in Harlem.” Accessibility to Shopping and Services.” Housing International Journal of Retail and Distribution 14, no.1 (2003): 69-101. Policy Debate 33, no.5 (2005): 388-398. Management Horowitz, C., Colson, K., Hebert, P., and Liese, A., Weis, K., Pluto, D., Smith, E., and Lawson, Lancaster K. “Barriers to Buying Healthy A. “Food Store Types, Availability, and Cost of Foods Foods for People with Diabetes: Evidence of Journal of the American in a Rural Environment.” American Journal Environmental Disparities.” 107 (2007): 1916–1923. Dietetic Association 94 (2004): 1549–1554. of Public Health Liu, G., Wilson, J., Qi, R., and Ying, J. “Green Hosler, A., Rajulu, D., Fredrick, B., and Ronsani, Neighborhoods, Food Retail and Childhood A. “Assessing Retail Fruit and Vegetable Overweight: Differences by Population Availability in Urban and Rural Underserved Density.” American Journal of Health Communities.” Preventing Chronic Disease 21, no.4 (2007): 317-325. Promotion 5, no.4 (2008): 1-9. Available at http://www. Moore, L., and Roux, A. “Associations of cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2008/oct/07_0169.htm. Neighborhood Characteristics with the Location Hosler, A., Varadarajulu, D., Ronsani, A., Fredrick, and Type of Food Stores.” American Journal B., and Fisher, B. “Low-Fat Milk and High-Fiber of Public Health 96 (2006): 325–331. Bread Availability in Food Stores in Urban and Moore, L., Roux, A., and Brines, S. “Comparing Rural Communities.” Journal of Public Health Perception-Based and Geographic Information 12 (2006): 556–562. Management Practice System (GIS)-Based Characterizations of Inagami, S., Cohen, D., Finch K. B., and Asch, S. the Local Food Environment.” Journal of “You are Where You Shop: Grocery Store Locations, Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Weight, and Neighborhoods.” American Journal 85, no.2 (2008). Academy of Medicine 31, no.1 (2006): 10-17. of Preventive Medicine Moore, L., Roux, A., Nettleton, J., and Jago, R., Baranowski, T., Baranowski, J., Jacobs, D. “Associations of the Local Food Cullen, K., and Thompson, D. “Distance to Environment with Diet Quality—A Comparison of Food Stores and Adolescent Male Fruit and Assessments Based on Surveys and Geographic Vegetable Consumption: Mediation Effects.” Information Systems: The Multi-Ethnic Study International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition of Atherosclerosis.” American Journal of 4 (2007): 4-35. Available and Physical Activity 167 (2008): 917–924. Epidemiology at http://www.ijbnpa.org/content/4/1/35. Morland, K., and Filomena, S. “Disparities in the Jetter, K., and Cassady, D. “The Availability and Availability of Fruits and Vegetables Between American Cost of Healthier Food Alternatives.” Racially Segregated Urban Neighbourhoods.” Public 30 (2006): 38–44. Journal of Preventive Medicine 10, no.12 (2007): 1481-1489. Health Nutrition Kaufman, P. “Rural Poor Have Less Access Morland, K., Roux, A., and Wing, S. “Supermarkets, to Supermarkets, Large Grocery Stores.” Other Food Stores, and Obesity: The Atherosclerosis Rural Development Perspectives 13 (1998): 26

29 The Food Trust PolicyLink American Journal of Risk in Communities Study.” Sekhobo, J., and Berney, B. “The Relation of Preventive Medicine 30, no.4 (2006): 333-339. Community Occupational Structure and Prevalence of Obesity in New York City Neighborhoods— Morland, K., and Evenson, K. “Obesity Journal of Hunger & An Ecological Analysis.” Prevalence and the Local Food Environment.” Environmental Nutrition 3, no.1 (2008): 76-83. 15, no.2 (2009): 491-495. Health & Place Sharkey J., and Horel, S. “Neighborhood Morland, K., Wing, S., Roux, A., and Poole, Socioeconomic Deprivation and Minority C. “Neighborhood Characteristics Associated Composition are Associated with Better with the Location of Food Stores and Potential Spatial Access to the Ground-Truthed American Journal of Food Service Places.” Food Environment in a Large Rural Area.” The 22 (2002): 23–29. Preventive Medicine 138 (2008): 620–627. Journal of Nutrition Morland, K., Wing, S., and Roux, A. “The Sharkey, J., Scott, H., Daikwon, H., and Huber, Contextual Effect of the Local Food Environment J. “Association Between Neighborhood on Residents’ Diets: The Atherosclerosis Risk Need and Spatial Access to Food Stores and in Communities Study.” American Journal of Fast Food Restaurants in Neighborhoods of Public Health 92, no.11 (2002): 1761-67. International Journal of Health Colonias.” Morton, L., and Blanchard, T. “Starved for 8, no.9 (2009): 1-17. Geographics Access: Life in Rural America’s Food Deserts.” Short, A., Guthman, J., and Raskin, S. “Food 1, no.4 (2007). Available at www. Rural Realities Deserts, Oases, or Mirages? Small Markets ruralsociology.org/pubs/ruralrealities/issue4.html. and Community Food Security in the San Nayga, M., and Weinberg, Z. “Supermarket Journal of Planning Francisco Bay Area.” Access in the Inner Cities.” Journal of Retailing 26 (2007): 352. Education and Research 6, no.3 (1999): 141-145. and Consumer Services Sloane, D., Diamount, A., Lewis, L, et al. Powell, L., Auld, C., Chaloupka, F., O’Malley, “Improving the Nutritional Resource Environment P. M., and Johnston, L. D. “Associations for Healthy Living Through Community-Based Between Access to Food Stores and Adolescent Participatory Research.” The Journal of General American Journal of Body Mass Index,” Internal Medicine 18 (2003): 568–575. Preventive Medicine 33, no.4 (2007). Small, M. L., and McDermott, M. “The Powell, L., Slater, S., Mirtcheva, D., Bao, Y., Presence of Organizational Resources in and Chaloupka, F. “Food Store Availability Poor Urban Neighborhoods: An Analysis and Neighborhood Characteristics in of Average and Contextual effects.” the United States.” American Journal of 84 (2006): 1697-1724. Social Forces Preventive Medicine 44 (2007): 189–195. Sturm, R. “Disparities in the Food Raja, S., Ma, C., and Yadav, P. “Beyond Environment Surrounding U.S. Middle Food Deserts: Measuring and Mapping and High Schools.” American Journal of Racial Disparities in Neighborhood Food Public Health 122 (2008): 681–690. Environments.” Journal of Planning Education Sturm, R., and Datar, A. “Body Mass Index in 27 (2008): 469-482. and Research Elementary School Children, Metropolitan Area Rose, D., and Richards, R. “Food Store Access Food Prices and Food Outlet Density.” Journal and Household Fruit and Vegetable Use among of Public Health 119 (2005): 1059–1068. Public Participants in the US Food Stamp Program.” Wang, M., Kim, S., Gonzalez, A., MacLeod, 7, no. 8 (2004): 1081-1088. Health Nutrition K., and Winkleby, M. “Socioeconomic and Rundle, A., Neckerman, K., Freeman, L., Food-Related Physical Characteristics of the Lovasi, G., Purciel, M., Quinn, J., Richards, Neighborhood Environment are Associated with C., Sircar, N., and Weiss, C. “Neighborhood Journal of Epidemiology Body Mass Index.” Food Environment and Walkability Predict 61 (2007): 491–498. and Community Health Environmental Obesity in New York City.” Zenk, S., and Powell, L. “U.S. Secondary Schools and Health Perspectives 117 (2009): 442–447. Food Outlets.” Health & Place , 14 (2008): 336–346. 27

30 The Food Trust PolicyLink Zenk, S. H., Schulz, A., Hollis-Neely, T., Campbell, R. Development Center, 2006. Available at http:// srdc.msstate.edu/measuring/blanchard.pdf. T., Watkins, G., Nwankwo, R., and Odoms-Yound, A. “Fruit and Vegetable Intake in African Americans Blanchard, T., and Lyson, T. “Food Availability & American Income and Store Characteristics.” Food Deserts in the Nonmetropolitan South.” Journal of Preventive Medicine 20, no.1 (2005). Mississippi, MS: Southern Rural Development Center, 2006. Available at http://srdc.msstate. Zenk, S., Schulz, A., Israel, B., James, S., Bao, S., and Wilson, M. “Neighborhood Racial Composition, edu/focusareas/health/fa/fa_12_blanchard.pdf. Neighborhood Poverty, and the Spatial Accessibility Blanchard, T., and Lyson, T. “Retail Concentration, American of Supermarkets in Metropolitan Detroit.” Food Deserts, and Food Disadvantaged Journal of Public Health 95 (2005): 660–667. Communities in Rural America.” Mississippi, Zenk, S., Schulz, A., Israel, B., Sherman, J., Bao, MS: Southern Rural Development Center, S., and Wilson, M. “Fruit and Vegetable Access 2009. Available at http://srdc.msstate.edu/ Differs by Community Racial Composition and focusareas/health/fa/blanchard02_final.pdf. Socioeconomic Position in Detroit, Michigan.” California Center for Public Health Advocacy. 16 (2006): 75-280. Ethnicity & Disease Searching for Healthy Food: The Food Landscape in California Cities and Counties . Davis, CA: California Center for Public Health Advocacy, 2007. Grey Literature California Center for Public Health Advocacy, PolicyLink, and the UCLA Center for Health Alameda Point Collaborative, Alameda Point Policy Research. Designed for Disease: The Link Collaborative Food Security Findings and Between Local Food Environments and Obesity and Recommendations . Alameda, CA: Alameda Point . Davis, CA: California Center for Public Diabetes Collaborative, 2006. Available at http://www. Health Advocacy, 2008. Available at http://www. apcollaborative.org/images/APC_GrowingYouth.pdf. policylink.org/documents/DesignedforDisease.pdf. Alberti, P., Hadi, E., Cespedes, A., Grimshaw, Chen, S., Raymond, F., and Snyder, S. “Obesity in Farmers’ Markets—Bringing V., and Bedell, J. Urban Food Markets: Evidence from Georeferenced . Fresh, Nutritious Food to the South Bronx Micro Data.” West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University, New York, NY: New York City Department of 2009. Available at http://www.npc.umich.edu/ Health and Mental Hygiene, 2008. Available at news/events/food-access/chen_et_al_revised.pdf. http://www.ci.nyc.ny.us/html/doh/downloads/ City Harvest. Mount Hope Community Food pdf/dpho/dpho-farmersmarket.pdf. . New York, NY: City Harvest, Assessment Report Beatley, T., et al. The Charlottesville Region 2009. Available at http://www.cityharvest. . Food System: A Preliminary Assessment org/images/pdf/Mount_Hope_CFA.pdf. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia, The Melrose Community Food City Harvest. 2006. Available at http://www.virginia.edu/ien/ Assessment. New York, NY: City Harvest, docs/06FINALRept_Jun06_CvilleFood.pdf. 2009. Available at http://www.cityharvest. Birnbach, K. Food for Thought. Access and org/images/pdf/Melrose_CFA_2007.pdf. Availability of Health Food in East Austin . Austin, Bridging the Community Farm Alliance. TX: University of Texas at Austin, 2008. Divide. Growing Self-Sufficiency in Our Bjorn, A., Lee, B., Born, B., Monsivais, P., Kantor, Food Supply: Community Food Assessment. S., Sayre, R. At the Table with the AFPC. Mapping A Regional Approach for Food Systems in Food Insecurity and Access in Seattle and King Louisville KY . Frankfort, KY: Community Farm . Seattle, WA: Seattle and King County Issue Alliance, 2007. Available at http://www. County Acting Food Policy Council, 2008. communityfarmalliance.org/BridgingTheDivide.pdf. Blanchard, T., and Lyson, T. “Access to Low Community Health Councils Inc. Does Race Cost Groceries in Nonmetropolitan Counties: Define What’s in the Shopping Cart? Community Large Retailers and the Creation of Food Health and Education . Los Angeles, CA: Deserts.” Mississippi, MS: Southern Rural Community Health Councils Inc., 2008. 28

31 The Food Trust PolicyLink . Healthy Food in North and Central Brooklyn D.C. Hunger Solutions. Healthy Food, Healthy New York, NY: New York City Department Communities: An Assessment and Scorecard of Health and Mental Hygiene, 2006. of Community Food Security In the District . Washington, DC: D.C. Hunger of Columbia Hartford Food System. Connecticut’s Solutions, 2006. Available at http://www. Supermarkets: Can New Strategies Address dchunger.org/pdf/healthfoodcomm.pdf. Hartford, CT: Hartford the Geographic Gaps? Fresno Metro Ministry. Food System, 2006. Available at http://www. Fresno Fresh Access: Community Food Assessment Report. 2003- hartfordfood.org/pubs/supermarkets.pdf. 2005 . Fresno, CA: Fresno Metro Ministry, Food Access Hatfield, D., and Gunnell, A. 2005. Available at http://fresnometmin.org/ in California Today . Portland, OR: Ecotrust, fmm/pdfs/CFA_Summary_9-14-05.pdf. 2005. Available at http://www.vividpicture.net/ Trinity County Frontier Nutrition Project. documents/12_Food_Access_in_CA_Today.pdf. Food Security Assessment . Weaverville, Hrisanti, A., Chong, T., Dang, J., et al. The CA: Frontier Nutrition Project, 2001. East Baltimore Nutritional Environment: Available at http://www.foodsecurity.org/ . Formative Research with Community Leaders cfa/trinity_cty_food_assessment.pdf. Baltimore, MD: Healthy Stores Project, 2003. Available at http://www.healthystores. Fulfrost, B. Mapping the Markets: The Relative Density of Retail Food Stores in Densely Populated org/images/downloads/eastbalt.pdf. Census Blocks in the Central Coast Region of Hunger Task Force of Milwaukee. Hunger in . Santa Cruz, CA: University of California, California . Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Some Food for Thought Santa Cruz, 2006. Available at http://casfs. WI: Hunger Task Force of Milwaukee, 2002. ucsc.edu/research/MappingTheMarkets.pdf. Available at http://www.hungertaskforce.org/ userimages/publications_foodforthought_report.pdf. Gallagher, M. The Chicago Food Desert Report . Chicago, IL: Mari Gallagher Research and Consulting Kaiser, C. Healthy Food Access in Minneapolis: Group, 2009. Available at www.marigallagher.com. . Minneapolis, Initial Conversations with Residents Examining the Impact of Food MN: Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, Gallagher, M. . Chicago, Deserts on Public Health in Chicago 2009. Available at http://www.iatp.org/iatp/ publications.cfm?accountID=258&refID=104952. IL: Mari Gallagher Research and Consulting Group, 2006. Available at http://www. Food Matters: What Kaufman, L., and Karpati, A. marigallagher.com/site_media/dynamic/project_ Bushwick Families’ Food Habits Teach Us about files/1_ChicagoFoodDesertReport-Full_.pdf. Childhood Obesity . New York, NY: New York City Gallagher, M. Examining the Impact of Food Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 2007. Deserts on Public Health in Detroit . Chicago, King, R., Leibtag, E., and Behl, A. “Supermarket IL: Mari Gallagher Research and Consulting Characteristics and Operating Costs In Low- Group, 2007. Available at http://www. Income Areas,” Agricultural Economics Reports. marigallagher.com/site_media/dynamic/project_ United States Department of Washington, DC: files/1_DetroitFoodDesertReport_Full.pdf. Agriculture, Economic Research Service, 2004. Goldstein, I., Loethen, L., Kako, E., and Lopez, R. Community Food Security in Connecticut: CDFI Financing of Supermarkets Califano, C. An Evaluation and Ranking of 169 Towns . Storrs, in Underserved Communities: A Case Study . CT: Hartford Food System, 2005. Available at http:// Philadelphia, PA: The Reinvestment Fund, 2008. www.hartfordfood.org/pubs/cfs_connecticut.pdf. Available at http://www.trfund.com/resource/ Food Stamp Manjarrez, C., and Cigna, J. downloads/policypubs/CDFIStudySummary.pdf. Participation and Market Access in the District of Gordon, C., Ghai, N., Purciel, M., Talwalkar, A., and Columbia . Discussion Brief No. 3. Washington, DC: Eating Well in Harlem: How Available Goodman, A. Urban Institute, 2006. Available at http://www. New York, NY: New York City Is Healthy Food? urban.org/UploadedPDF/311343_dcfoodstamp.pdf. Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 2007. Morton, L., Oakland, J., Bitto, E., Sand, M., and Graham, R., Kaufman, L., Novoa, Z., and Karpati, Iowa Community Food Assessment Michaels, B. A. Eating In, Eating Out, Eating Well: Access to 29

32 The Food Trust PolicyLink Project Report 2001-02 . Ames, IA: Iowa State and Vegetables in a Large Rural Area.” College University Family Nutrition Program, 2002. Available Station, TX: Texas A&M Health Science Center, at http://www.soc.iastate.edu/extension/pub/tech/ 2009. Available at http://www.npc.umich. IowaCommunityFoodAssessmentReport.pdf. edu/news/events/food-access/sharkey.pdf. Food Deserts in the Willamette: A Study Smith, D. Neckerman, K., Bader, M., Purciel, M., and , Oregon. [Master’s Yousefzadeh, P. “Measuring Food Access in Urban of Food Access in Lane County thesis]. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon, 2003. Areas.” New York, NY: Columbia University, 2009. Available at http://www.npc.umich.edu/ Social Compact Inc., Baltimore Neighborhood news/events/food-access/neckerman_et_al.pdf. Catalyzing Business . Market DrillDown . Investment in Inner-City Neighborhoods New Mexico Food and Agriculture Policy Council. Washington, DC: Social Compact Inc., 2008. Closing New Mexico’s Rural Food Gap . Santa Fe, NM: New Mexico Food and Agriculture Cincinnati Neighborhood Social Compact Inc., Policy Council, 2006. Available at http://www. Market DrillDown. Catalyzing Business farmtotablenm.org/closing_nm_food_gap_4pgs.pdf. Investment in Inner-City Neighborhoods . New York City Department of City Planning. Washington, DC: Social Compact Inc., 2007. Going to Market: New York City’s Neighborhood Social Compact Inc., Detroit Grocery Initiative Grocery Store and Supermarket Shortage . New Catalyzing Grocery Retail Investment in York, NY, 2008. Available at http://www.nyc. Washington, Inner-City Neighborhoods. gov/html/dcp/html/supermarket/index.shtml. DC: Social Compact Inc., 2008. Papavasiliou, F., Essig, C., Barlett, P., and Rolls, A. City of Fresno Neighborhood Social Compact Inc., Is Healthy Eating Possible in DeKalb County? An Catalyzing Business Market DrillDown. Assessment of Food Availability, Access, and Cost in Investment in Inner-City Neighborhoods. Two Neighborhoods . Atlanta Local Food Initiative. Washington, DC: Social Compact Inc., 2009. Decatur, GA: DeKalb County Board of Health, 2007. of Tampa Neighborhood Social Compact Inc., City Rose, D., Bodor, N., Swalm, C., Rice, J., Farley, Market DrillDown. Catalyzing Business Deserts in New Orleans? T., and Hutchinson, P. . Investment in Inner-City Neighborhoods Illustrations of Urban Food Access and Implications Washington, DC: Social Compact Inc., 2008. for Policy . Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Harlem Neighborhood Social Compact Inc., National Poverty Center/USDA Economic Research Market DrillDown. Catalyzing Business Service, 2009. Available at http://www.npc.umich. Investment in Inner-City Neighborhoods . edu/news/events/food-access/rose_et_al.pdf. Washington, DC: Social Compact Inc., 2008. Sacramento Hunger Coalition. The Avondale/Glen Houston Neighborhood Social Compact Inc., Elder Community Food Assessment. Food Security Catalyzing Business Market DrillDown . . Sacramento, in a South Sacramento Neighborhood . Investment in Inner-City Neighborhoods CA: Sacramento Hunger Coalition, 2004. Washington, DC: Social Compact Inc., 2007. San Francisco Food Alliance. 2005 San Francisco Los Angeles Neighborhood Social Compact Inc., . Collaborative Food System Assessment Market DrillDown . Catalyzing Business San Francisco, CA: San Francisco Food Investment in Inner-City Neighborhoods. Alliance, 2005. Available at http://www. Washington, DC: Social Compact Inc., 2008. sffoodsystems.org/pdf/FSA-online.pdf. Louisville Metro Social Compact Inc., Shaffer, A. The Persistence of L.A.’s Grocery Neighborhood Market DrillDown. Catalyzing Gap: The Need for a New Food Policy and . Business Investment in Inner-City Neighborhoods Approach to Market Development . Occidental, Washington, DC: Social Compact Inc., 2008. CA: Center for Food and Justice, 2002. Available at www.departments.oxy.edu/uepi/ Social Compact Inc., San Francisco Neighborhood publications/the_persistence_of.htm. Market DrillDown. Catalyzing Business Investment in Inner-City Neighborhoods . Sharkey, J., and Horel, S. “Characteristics of Washington, DC: Social Compact Inc., 2008. Potential Spatial Access to a Variety of Fruits 30

33 The Food Trust PolicyLink Social Compact Inc., Southeast Fort Worth The Food Trust. The Need for More Supermarkets in Chicago Neighborhood Market DrillDown. Catalyzing . Philadelphia, PA: The Food Trust, Business Investment in Inner-City Neighborhoods . 2008. Available at http://www.thefoodtrust. Washington, DC: Social Compact Inc., 2008. org/catalog/download.php?product_id=147. The Reinvestment Fund. The Economic Social Compact Inc., Washington DC Neighborhood Market DrillDown. Catalyzing Impacts of Supermarkets on their Surrounding , Philadelphia, PA: The Reinvestment . Business Investment in Inner-City Neighborhoods Communities Fund, 2008. http://www.trfund.com/resource/ Washington, DC: Social Compact Inc., 2008. downloads/policypubs/supermarkets.pdf. Food Southeast Food Access Working Group. Thurman, S. Measuring Access to Food in Preferences in San Francisco’s Southeast Sector: A Charlottesville, VA Survey Conducted by the Southeast Food Access . Charlottesville, VA: University . San Francisco, CA: Southeast Working Group of Virginia, 2007. Available at http://www. virginia.edu/ien/docs/07FoodClassFINAL%20 Food Access Working Group, 2007. Available at http://www.sfgov.org/site/uploadedfiles/ PAPERS/AccessTransportation.pdf. shapeupsf/SEFASurveyReport-FINAL.pdf. Tsai, S. Needs Assessment: Access to Nutritious Sparks, A., Bania, N., and Leete, L. “Finding . [Master’s Foods in East Oakland and South Hayward Food Deserts: Methodology and Measurement Thesis]. Berkeley, CA: University of California at Berkeley School of Public Health and Alameda of Food Access in Portland, Oregon.” Washington, DC: National Poverty Center and County Public Health Department, 2003. USDA Economic Research Service, 2009. Unger., S., and Wooten., H. A Food Systems Access Denied. An Assessment For Oakland, CA: Toward A Sustainable Food Center. Analysis of Problems Facing East Austin Residents . [Master’s Thesis]. Berkeley, Sustainable Food Plan CA: Oakland Mayor’s Office of Sustainability in Their Attempts To Obtain Affordable, Nutritious Food and University of California, Berkeley, 2006. . Austin, TX: Sustainable Food Center, 1995. Available at http://www.sustainablefoodcenter. Urban and Environmental Policy Institute. org/library/Access_Denied.pdf. Food Access in Central and South Los Angeles: Lexington Mapping Injustice, Agenda for Action. 2007: Tanaka, K., Mooney, P., et al. . A Report on Project CAFE: Community Action Community Food Assessment: 2004-2007 Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky, 2008. on Food Environments . Los Angeles, CA: Available at http://www.uky.edu/Ag/CLD/doc/ Urban and Environmental Policy Institute CommunityFoodAssessmentReport04-07.pdf. 2007. Available at http://departments.oxy. edu/uepi/cfj/publications/project_cafe.pdf. Town-Level Assessment of Tchumtchoua, A. Storrs, CT: Community Food Security in Connecticut. Access to USDA Economic Research Service. Affordable and Nutritious Food: Measuring Food Marketing Policy Center, 2005. Available at and Understanding Food Deserts and Their http://digitalcommons.uconn.edu/cgi/viewcontent. cgi?article=1000&context=fpmc_mono. Consequences. Report to Congress . Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, The Food Trust. Stimulating Supermarket 2009. Available at http://www.ers.usda. . Development: A New Day for Philadelphia gov/Publications/AP/AP036/AP036.pdf. Philadelphia, PA: The Food Trust, 2004. Available at http://www.thefoodtrust. Williams, D. Food Security and Access . [Master’s Thesis]. Akron, in Akron Ohio org/pdf/SupermktReport_F.pdf. OH: University of Akron, 2002. The Need for More Grocery Stores in The Food Trust. . Philadelphia, PA: The Food New York. Special Report Trust, 2008. Available at http://www.thefoodtrust. org/catalog/download.php?product_id=147. 31

34 The Food Trust PolicyLink Notes 1 Martinez, S. “The U.S. Food Marketing System: Prices of Foods Across Stores and Neighborhoods: The Case Of New Haven, Connecticut.” Health Recent Developments, 1997-2006,” Washington, Affairs 27, no.5 (2008): 1381–1388. DC: United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, 2007. Available 10 Baker, E., Schootman, M., Barnidge, E., and at www.ers.usda.gov/publications/err42/. Kelly, C. “The Role of Race and Poverty in Access 2 to Foods that Enable Individuals to Adhere to Contact the authors for summaries of the Dietary Guidelines.” study findings that can be sorted by place and Preventing Chronic Disease: 3, Public Health Research, Practice and Policy subtopic (e.g. race, income, eating behaviors). no.3 (2006): 1-11. Available at http://www. 3 Beaulac, J., Kristjansson, E., and Cummins, S. cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2006/jul/05_0217.htm. “A Systematic Review of Food Deserts, 1966- 11 Birnbach, K. 2007.” Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Food for Thought. Access and Availability of Health Food in East Austin . Austin, Health Research, Practice and Policy 6, no.3 TX: University of Texas at Austin, 2008. (2009): 1-10. Available at http://www.cdc. gov/pcd/issues/2009/Jul/08_0163.htm. 12 Bjorn, A., Lee, B., Born, B., Monsivais, P., Kantor, 4 At the Table with the AFPC. S., and Sayre, R. Larson, N., Story, M., and Nelson, M. Mapping Food Insecurity and Access in Seattle “Neighborhood Environments Disparities in Access American Journal of to Healthy Foods in the U.S.” . Seattle, WA: Seattle and and King County Issue King County Acting Food Policy Council, 2008. Preventative Medicine 36, no.1 (2009): 74-81. 13 5 Bodor, J. N., Rose, D., Farley, T. A., Swalm, Nayga, M., and Weinberg, Z. “Supermarket Access in the Inner Cities.” Journal of Retailing C., and Scott, S. K. “Neighbourhood Fruit and Vegetable Availability and Consumption: The Role and Consumer Services 6, no.3 (1999): 141-145. of Small Food Stores in an Urban Environment.” 6 One study interviewed Minneapolis residents Public Health Nutrition 11 (2008): 413-420. about access to healthy food and found challenges, 14 California Center for Public Health Advocacy, but did not examine differences according to their race, income, or neighborhood of residence. PolicyLink, and the UCLA Center for Health Designed for Disease: The Link Healthy Food Access in Minneapolis: Kaiser, C. Policy Research. Initial Conversations with Residents , Minneapolis, Between Local Food Environments and Obesity and MN: Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, Diabetes . Davis, CA: California Center for Public Health Advocacy, 2008. Available at http://www. 2009. Available at http://www.iatp.org/iatp/ publications.cfm?accountID=258&refID=104952. policylink.org/documents/DesignedforDisease.pdf. 15 7 Alameda Point Collaborative. Alameda Point Chung, C., and Myers, J. “Do the Poor Pay Collaborative Food Security Findings and More for Food? An Analysis of Grocery Store Journal . Alameda, CA: Alameda Point Availability and Food Price Disparities.” Recommendations 33 (1999): 276–296. Collaborative, 2006. Available at http://www. of Consumer Affairs apcollaborative.org/images/APC_GrowingYouth.pdf. 16 Clifton, K. “Mobility Strategies and Food 8 Shopping for Low-Income Families: A Case Alwitt, L., and Donley, T. “Retail Stores in Journal of Planning Education Poor Urban Neighborhoods.” Journal of Study.” 31 (1997):139–64. Consumer Affairs and Research 23 (2004): 402-413. 9 17 Bridging the Andreyeva, T., Blumenthal, D., Schwartz, M., Community Farm Alliance. Long, M., and Brownell, K. “Availability and Divide. Growing Self-Sufficiency in our Food 32

35 The Food Trust PolicyLink 27 Giang, T., Karpyn, A., Laurison, H., Hillier, A., Supply: Community Food Assessment. A Burton, M., and Perry, D. “Closing the Grocery Regional Approach for Food Systems in Gap in Underserved Communities: The Creation Louisville KY . Frankfort, KY: Community Farm Alliance, 2007. Available at http://www. of the Pennsylvania Fresh Food Financing Journal of Public Health Management Initiative.” communityfarmalliance.org/BridgingTheDivide.pdf. 14, no.3 (2008): 272-279. and Practice 18 Does Community Health Councils Inc. 28 Race Define What’s in the Shopping Cart? Glanz, K., Sallis, J., Saelens, B., and Community Health and Education Frank, L. “Nutrition Environment Measures . Los Angeles, Survey in Stores (NEMS-S) Development and CA: Community Health Councils Inc., 2008. Evaluation.” American Journal of Preventive 19 Cotterill, R., and Franklin, A. “The Urban 32, no. 4 (2007): 282-289. Medicine Grocery Store Gap.” Food Marketing Policy 29 Center, University of Connecticut. Food Hartford Food System. Connecticut’s Marketing Policy Issue Paper 8 (1995). Supermarkets: Can New Strategies Address Hartford, CT: Hartford the Geographic Gaps? 20 D.C. Hunger Solutions. Healthy Food, Healthy Food System, 2006. Available at http://www. An Assessment and Scorecard Communities: hartfordfood.org/pubs/supermarkets.pdf. of Community Food Security In the District 30 of Columbia . Washington, DC: D.C. Hunger Helling, A., and Sawicki, D. “Race and Residential Accessibility to Shopping and Services.” Solutions, 2006. Available at http://www. Housing Policy Debate 14, no.1 (2003): 69-101. dchunger.org/pdf/healthfoodcomm.pdf. 31 21 Horowitz, C., Colson, K., Hebert, P., and Fisher, B., and Strogatz, D. “Community Measures of Low-Fat Milk Consumption: Comparing Store Lancaster, K. “Barriers to Buying Healthy Shelves with Households.” Foods for People with Diabetes: Evidence of American Journal Environmental Disparities.” American Journal of Public Health 89, no.2 (1999): 235–237. of Public Health 94 (2004): 1549–1554. 22 Food Urban and Environmental Policy Institute. 32 Access in Central and South Los Angeles: Mapping Hosler, A., Rajulu, D., Fredrick, B., and Ronsani, Injustice, Agenda for Action. A Report on Project A. “Assessing Retail Fruit and Vegetable Availability in Urban and Rural Underserved CAFE: Community Action on Food Environments . Preventing Chronic Disease Communities.” Los Angeles, CA: Urban and Environmental Policy 5, no.4 (2008): 1-9. Available at http://www. Institute, 2007. Available at http://departments. oxy.edu/uepi/cfj/publications/project_cafe.pdf. cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2008/oct/07_0169.htm. 33 23 Franco, M., Roux, A., Glass, T., Caballero, B., Hosler, A., Varadarajulu, D., Ronsani, A., Fredrick, and Brancati, F. “Neighborhood Characteristics B., and Fisher, B. “Low-Fat Milk and High-Fiber Bread Availability in Food Stores in Urban and and Availability of Healthy Foods in Rural Communities.” Journal of Public Health American Journal of Preventive Baltimore.” 12 (2006): 556–562. Medicine 35, no.6 (2008): 561–567. Management Practice 34 24 Inagami, S., Cohen, D., Finch K. B., and Asch, S. Examining the Impact of Food Gallagher, M. “You are Where you Shop: Grocery Store Locations, . Chicago, Deserts on Public Health in Chicago American Journal Weight, and Neighborhoods.” IL: Mari Gallagher Research and Consulting of Preventive Medicine 31, no.1 (2006): 10-17. Group, 2006. Available at http://www. marigallagher.com/site_media/dynamic/project_ 35 Jetter, K., and Cassady, D. “The Availability and files/1_ChicagoFoodDesertReport-Full_.pdf. American Cost of Healthier Food Alternatives.” 25 Journal of Preventive Medicine 30 (2006): 38–44. . The Chicago Food Desert Report Gallagher, M. Chicago, IL: Mari Gallagher Research and Consulting 36 Kaufman, P. “Rural Poor Have Less Access Group, 2009. Available at www.marigallagher.com. to Supermarkets, Large Grocery Stores.” 26 Rural Development Perspectives 13 (1998): Galvez, M., Morland, K., Raines, C., 19–26. Available at http://www.ers.usda.gov/ et al. “Race and Food Store Availability publications/rdp/rdp1098/rdp1098c.pdf. in an Inner-City Neighbourhood.” Public 11 (2007): 624–631. Health Nutrition 33

36 The Food Trust PolicyLink 37 47 Manjarrez, C., and Cigna, J. Food Stamp Rundle, A., Neckerman, K., Freeman, L., Lovasi, G., Purciel, M., Quinn, J., Richards, Participation and Market Access in the District of Columbia C., Sircar, N., and Weiss, C. “Neighborhood . Discussion Brief No. 3. Washington, DC: Urban Institute, 2006. Available at http://www. Food Environment and Walkability Predict Obesity in New York City.” Environmental urban.org/UploadedPDF/311343_dcfoodstamp.pdf. 117 (2009): 442–447. Health Perspectives 38 Moore, L., and Roux, A. “Associations of 48 Neighborhood Characteristics with the Location The Avondale/Glen Sacramento Hunger Coalition. and Type of Food Stores.” Elder Community Food Assessment. Food Security American Journal of Public Health in a South Sacramento Neighborhood 96 (2006): 325–331. . Sacramento, CA: Sacramento Hunger Coalition, 2004. 39 Moore, L., Roux, A., and Brines, S. “Comparing 49 The Persistence of L.A.’s Grocery Gap: Shaffer, A. Perception-Based and Geographic Information The Need for a New Food Policy and Approach to System (GIS)-Based Characterizations of . Center for Food and Justice, the Local Food Environment.” Journal of Market Development Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Urban and Environmental Policy Institute, Occidental Academy of Medicine College. 2002. Available at www.departments.oxy. 85, no.2 (2008). edu/uepi/publications/the_persistence_of.htm. 40 Morland, K., and Filomena, S. “Disparities in 50 the Availability of Fruits and Vegetables Between Sharkey, J., and Horel, S. “Neighborhood Racially Segregated Urban Neighbourhoods.” Public Socioeconomic Deprivation and Minority Composition are Associated with Better Health Nutrition 10, no.12 (2007): 1481-1489. Potential Spatial Access to the Ground-Truthed 41 Morland, K., Wing, S., Roux, A., and Food Environment in a Large Rural Area.” The Poole, C. “Neighborhood Characteristics Journal of Nutrition 138 (2008): 620–627. Associated with the Location of Food Stores 51 and Food Service Places.” Sharkey, J., Scott, H., Daikwon, H., and American Journal 22 (2002): 23–29. of Preventive Medicine Huber, J. “Association Between Neighborhood Need and Spatial Access to Food Stores and 42 Morland, K., Wing, S., and Roux, A. “The Fast Food Restaurants in Neighborhoods of Contextual Effect of the Local Food Environment Colonias.” International Journal of Health on Residents’ Diets: The Atherosclerosis Risk 8, no.9 (2009): 1-17. Geographics in Communities Study.” American Journal of 52 92, no.11 (2002): 1761-1767. Sloane, D., Diamount, A., Lewis, L., et al. Public Health “Improving the Nutritional Resource Environment 43 Morton, L., and Blanchard, T. “Starved for for Healthy Living Through Community-Based Access: Life in Rural America’s Food Deserts.” Participatory Research.” The Journal of General 1, no.4 (2007). Available at www. Rural Realities 18 (2003): 568–575. Internal Medicine ruralsociology.org/pubs/ruralrealities/issue4.html. 53 Small, M. L, and McDermott, M. “The Presence 44 Neckerman, K., Bader, M., Purciel, M., and of Organizational Resources in Poor Urban Yousefzadeh, P. Measuring Food Access in Urban Neighborhoods: An Analysis of Average and Areas . New York, NY: Columbia University, 2009. Contextual effects.” 84 (2006): Social Forces Available at http://www.npc.umich.edu/news/ 1697-1724. events/food-access/neckerman_et_al.pdf. 54 Food Deserts in the Willamette: A Study Smith, D. 45 Powell, L., Auld, C., Chaloupka, F., O’Malley, of Food Access in Lane County , Oregon. [Master’s P. M., and Johnston, L. D. “Associations thesis]. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon, 2003. Between Access to Food Stores and Adolescent 55 Body Mass Index,” Sparks, A., Bania, N., and Leete, L. “Finding American Journal of Preventive Medicine Food Deserts: Methodology and Measurement 33, no.4 (2007). of Food Access in Portland, Oregon.” Paper 46 Powell, L., Slater, S., Mirtcheva, D., Bao, Y., prepared for Institute of Medicine, Workshop and Chaloupka, F. “Food Store Availability on the Public Health Effects of Food Deserts, and Neighborhood Characteristics in January 26, 2009. Washington, DC, 2009. American Journal of the United States.” 44 (2007): 189–195. Preventive Medicine 34

37 The Food Trust PolicyLink 56 . Business Investment in Inner-City Neighborhoods Baltimore Neighborhood Social Compact Inc. Market DrillDown . Catalyzing Business Washington, DC: Social Compact Inc., 2008. . Investment in Inner-City Neighborhoods 68 Access Denied. An Sustainable Food Center. Washington, DC: Social Compact Inc., 2008. Analysis of Problems Facing East Austin Residents 57 Social Compact Inc. in Their Attempts To Obtain Affordable, Nutritious Cincinnati Neighborhood Food . Austin, TX: Sustainable Food Center, 1995. Market DrillDown. Catalyzing Business . Available at http://www.sustainablefoodcenter. Investment in Inner-City Neighborhoods Washington, DC: Social Compact Inc., 2007. org/library/Access_Denied.pdf. 58 69 Social Compact Inc. Tanaka, K., Mooney, P., et al. Lexington Detroit Grocery Initiative Catalyzing Grocery Retail Investment . Community Food Assessment: 2004-2007 Lexington, KY: Department of Community & Washington, in Inner-City Neighborhoods. DC: Social Compact Inc., 2008. Leadership Development, University of Kentucky, 2008. Available at http://www.uky.edu/Ag/CLD/ 59 City of Fresno Social Compact Inc. doc/CommunityFoodAssessmentReport04-07.pdf. Neighborhood Market DrillDown. Catalyzing 70 Tchumtchoua, A. Town-Level Assessment Business Investment in Inner-City Neighborhoods. of Community Food Security in Connecticut. Washington, DC: Social Compact Inc., 2009. Food Marketing Policy Center. University 60 Social Compact Inc. of Tampa City of Connecticut, 2005. Available at http:// Neighborhood Market DrillDown. Catalyzing digitalcommons.uconn.edu/cgi/viewcontent. Business Investment in Inner-City Neighborhoods . cgi?article=1000&context=fpmc_mono. Washington, DC: Social Compact Inc., 2008. 71 Stimulating Supermarket The Food Trust. 61 Harlem Neighborhood Social Compact Inc. . Development: A New Day for Philadelphia Market DrillDown. Catalyzing Business Philadelphia, PA: The Food Trust, 2004. Investment in Inner-City Neighborhoods . Available at http://www.thefoodtrust. Washington, DC: Social Compact Inc., 2008. org/pdf/SupermktReport_F.pdf. 62 Houston Neighborhood Social Compact Inc. 72 The Food Trust. The Need for More Catalyzing Business . Market DrillDown . Grocery Stores in New York. Special Report . Investment in Inner-City Neighborhoods Philadelphia, PA: The Food Trust, 2008. Washington, DC: Social Compact Inc., 2007. Available at http://www.thefoodtrust.org/ 63 Los Angeles Neighborhood Social Compact Inc. catalog/download.php?product_id=147. Market DrillDown . Catalyzing Business 73 The Need for More Supermarkets The Food Trust. . Investment in Inner-City Neighborhoods in Chicago . Philadelphia, PA: The Food Trust, Washington, DC: Social Compact Inc., 2008. 2008. Available at http://www.thefoodtrust. 64 Social Compact Inc. Louisville Metro org/catalog/download.php?product_id=147. Neighborhood Market DrillDown. Catalyzing 74 University of Virginia School of Architecture, . Business Investment in Inner-City Neighborhoods Department of Urban and Environmental Washington, DC: Social Compact Inc., 2008. The Charlottesville Region Food Planning. 65 San Francisco Neighborhood Social Compact Inc. [Student System: A Preliminary Assessment Market DrillDown. Catalyzing Business Report] . Charlottesville, VA: University of . Investment in Inner-City Neighborhoods Virginia School of Architecture, Department Washington, DC: Social Compact Inc., 2008. of Urban and Environmental Planning., 2006. 66 Available at http://www.virginia.edu/ien/ Southeast Fort Worth Social Compact Inc. docs/06FINALRept_Jun06_CvilleFood.pdf. Neighborhood Market DrillDown. Catalyzing 75 . Business Investment in Inner-City Neighborhoods Thurman, S. Measuring Access to Food in Washington, DC: Social Compact Inc., 2008. . Charlottesville, VA: University Charlottesville, VA 67 of Virginia, 2007. Available at http://www. Washington DC Social Compact Inc. virginia.edu/ien/docs/07FoodClassFINAL%20 Neighborhood Market DrillDown. Catalyzing PAPERS/AccessTransportation.pdf. 35

38 The Food Trust PolicyLink 85 76 Food Security and Access Tsai, S. Needs Assessment: Access to Nutritious Williams, D. [Master’s Thesis]. Akron, in Akron Ohio. Foods in East Oakland and South Hayward . [Master’s OH: University of Akron, 2002. Thesis]. Berkeley, CA: University of California at Berkeley School of Public Health and Alameda 86 San Francisco Food Alliance. 2005 San Francisco County Public Health Department, 2003. Collaborative Food System Assessment . San 77 Francisco, CA: San Francisco Food Alliance, 2005. Unger, S., and Wooten, H. A Food Systems Assessment For Oakland, CA: Toward A 87 California Center for Public Health Advocacy. Sustainable Food Plan . [Master’s Thesis]. Berkeley, Searching for Healthy Food: The Food Landscape in CA: Oakland Mayor’s Office of Sustainability . Davis, CA: California California Cities and Counties and University of California, Berkeley, 2006. Center for Public Health Advocacy, 2007. 78 Wang, M., Kim, S., Gonzalez, A., MacLeod, 88 Andrews, M., Kantor, L., Lino, M., and K., and Winkleby, M. “Socioeconomic and Ripplinger, D. “Using USDA’s Thrifty Food Plan Food-Related Physical Characteristics of the to Assess Food Availability and Affordability.” Neighborhood Environment are Associated with 24, no.2. (2001): 45-53. Food Access Body Mass Index.” Journal of Epidemiology 89 Block, D., and Kouba, J. “A Comparison of the and Community Health 61 (2007): 491–498. Availability and Affordability of a Market Basket 79 Zenk, S.H., Schulz, A. J., Hollis-Neely, T., Campbell, Public in Two Communities in the Chicago Area.” R.T., Watkins, G., Nwankwo, R., and Odoms-Yound, Health Nutrition 9, no.7 (2006): 837–845. A. “Fruit and Vegetable Intake in African Americans 90 Lopez, R. Community Food Security in American Income and Store Characteristics.” Connecticut: An Evaluation and Ranking 20, no.1 (2005). Journal of Preventive Medicine . Storrs, CT: Hartford Food of 169 Towns 80 Zenk, S., Schulz, A., Israel, B., James, S., Bao, S., System, 2005. Available at http://www. and Wilson, M. “Neighborhood Racial Composition, hartfordfood.org/pubs/cfs_connecticut.pdf. Neighborhood Poverty, and the Spatial Accessibility 91 Moore L., Roux, A., Nettleton, J., and of Supermarkets in Metropolitan Detroit.” American Jacobs, D. “Associations of the Local Food Journal of Public Health 95 (2005): 660–667. Environment with Diet Quality—A Comparison of 81 Zenk, S., Schulz, A., Israel, B., Sherman, J., Bao, Assessments Based on Surveys and Geographic S., and Wilson, M. “Fruit and Vegetable Access Information Systems: The Multi-Ethnic Study Differs by Community Racial Composition and of Atherosclerosis.” American Journal of Socioeconomic Position in Detroit, Michigan.” Epidemiology 167 (2008): 917–924. 16 (2006): 275-280. Ethnicity & Disease 92 Raja, S., Ma, C., and Yadav, P. “Beyond 82 Fresno Metro Ministry. Fresno Fresh Access: Food Deserts: Measuring and Mapping Community Food Assessment Report. 2003- Racial Disparities in Neighborhood Food 2005 . Fresno, CA: Fresno Metro Ministry, Journal of Planning Education Environments.” 2005. Available at http://fresnometmin.org/ and Research 27 (2008): 469-482. fmm/pdfs/CFA_Summary_9-14-05.pdf. 93 Rose, D., Bodor, N., Swalm, C., Rice, J., Farley, 83 Food Matters: What Kaufman, L., and Karpati, A. Deserts in New Orleans? T., and Hutchinson, P. Bushwick Families’ Food Habits Teach us about Illustrations of Urban Food Access and Implications . New York, NY: New York City Childhood Obesity . Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan for Policy Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 2007. National Poverty Center/USDA Economic Research 84 Fulfrost, B. Mapping the Markets: The Relative Service Research, 2009. Available at http://www.npc. umich.edu/news/events/food-access/rose_et_al.pdf. Density of Retail Food Stores in Densely Populated Census Blocks in the Central Coast Region of 94 Sekhobo, J., and Berney, B. “The Relation of . Santa Cruz, CA: University of California, California Community Occupational Structure and Prevalence Santa Cruz, 2006. Available at http://casfs.ucsc.edu/ of Obesity in New York City Neighborhoods— research/MappingTheMarkets.pdf. An Ecological Analysis.” Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition 3, no.1 (2008): 76-83. 36

39 The Food Trust PolicyLink 95 104 USDA Economic Research Service. Access Sturm, R. “Disparities in the Food Environment Surrounding U.S. Middle to Affordable and Nutritious Food: Measuring and High Schools.” American Journal of and Understanding Food Deserts and Their Public Health . Washington, Consequences. Report to Congress 122 (2008): 681–690. DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 105 Hunger Task Force of Milwaukee. Hunger in 2009. Available at http://www.ers.usda. Milwaukee, Some Food for Thought . Milwaukee, gov/Publications/AP/AP036/AP036.pdf. WI: Hunger Task Force of Milwaukee, 2002. 96 Available at http://www.hungertaskforce.org/ Gordon, C., Ghai, N., Purciel, M., userimages/publications_foodforthought_report.pdf. Talwalkar, A., and Goodman, A. Eating Well in Harlem: How Available Is Healthy Food? 106 Mount Hope Community Food City Harvest. New York, NY: New York City Department . New York, NY: City Harvest, Assessment Report of Health and Mental Hygiene, 2007. 2009. Available at http://www.cityharvest. 97 Graham, R., Kaufman, L., Novoa, Z., and Karpati, org/images/pdf/Mount_Hope_CFA.pdf. A. Eating In, Eating Out, Eating Well: Access to 107 Zenk, S., and Powell, L. “U.S. Secondary Schools Healthy Food in North and Central Brooklyn . and Food Outlets.” Health & Place 14 (2008): New York, NY: New York City Department 336–346. of Health and Mental Hygiene, 2006. 108 Blanchard, T., and Lyson, T. “Access to Low 98 Papavasiliou, F., Essig, C., Barlett, P., and Cost Groceries in Nonmetropolitan Counties: Is Healthy Eating Possible in DeKalb Rolls, A. Large Retailers and the Creation of Food County? An Assessment of Food Availability, Deserts.” Mississippi, MS: Southern Rural . Access, and Cost in Two Neighborhoods Development Center, 2006. Available at http:// Decatur, GA: Atlanta Local Food Initiative, srdc.msstate.edu/measuring/blanchard.pdf. DeKalb County Board of Health, 2007. 109 Blanchard, T., and Lyson, T. “Food Availability 99 Gittelsohn, J., Franceschini, M., Rasooly, I., Ries, & Food Deserts in the Nonmetropolitan South.” A., Ho, L., Pavlovich, W., Santos, V., Jennings, S., Mississippi, MS: Southern Rural Development and Frick, K. “Understanding the Food Environment Center, 2006. Available at http://srdc.msstate. in a Low-Income Urban Setting: Implications for edu/focusareas/health/fa/fa_12_blanchard.pdf. Food Store Interventions.” Journal of Hunger & 110 Blanchard, T., and Lyson, T. “Retail Concentration, 2, no.2 (2008): 33-50. Environmental Nutrition Food Deserts, and Food Disadvantaged 100 Short, A., Guthman, J., and Raskin, S. Communities in Rural America.” Mississippi, “Food Deserts, Oases, or Mirages? Small MS: Southern Rural Development Center, Markets and Community Food Security in the 2009. Available at http://srdc.msstate.edu/ San Francisco Bay Area.” Journal of Planning focusareas/health/fa/blanchard02_final.pdf. Education and Research 26 (2007):352. 111 Food Access Hatfield, D., and Gunnell, A. 101 The Melrose Community Food City Harvest. in California Today . Portland, OR: Ecotrust, New York, NY: City Harvest, Assessment. 2005. Available at http://www.vividpicture.net/ 2009. Available at http://www.cityharvest. documents/12_Food_Access_in_CA_Today.pdf. org/images/pdf/Melrose_CFA_2007.pdf. 112 Liese, A., Weis, K., Pluto, D., Smith, 102 King, R., Leibtag, E., and Behl, A. “Supermarket E., and Lawson, A. “Food Store Types, Characteristics and Operating Costs In Low- Availability, and Cost of Foods in a Rural Income Areas,” Agricultural Economics Reports. Journal of the American Dietetic Environment.” United States Department of Washington, DC: 107 (2007): 1916–1923. Association Agriculture, Economic Research Service, 2004. 113 New Mexico Food and Agriculture Policy 103 Hrisanti, A., Chong, T., Dang, J., et al. Council. Closing New Mexico’s Rural Food Gap . The East Baltimore Nutritional Environment: Santa Fe, NM: New Mexico Food and Agriculture . Formative Research with Community Leaders Policy Council, 2006. Available at http://www. Baltimore, MD: Healthy Stores Project, 2003. farmtotablenm.org/closing_nm_food_gap_4pgs.pdf. Available at http://www.healthystores. org/images/downloads/eastbalt.pdf. 37

40 The Food Trust PolicyLink 124 114 Sharkey, J., and Horel, S. “Characteristics of Alberti, P., Hadi, E., Cespedes, A., Grimshaw, Potential Spatial Access to a Variety of Fruits and Farmers’ Markets—Bringing V., and Bedell, J. . Fresh, Nutritious Food to the South Bronx Vegetables in a Large Rural Area.” School of New York, NY: New York City Department of Rural Public Health, Texas A&M Health Science Center, 2009. Available at http://www.npc.umich. Health and Mental Hygiene, 2008. Available at edu/news/events/food-access/sharkey.pdf. http://www.ci.nyc.ny.us/html/doh/downloads/ pdf/dpho/dpho-farmersmarket.pdf. 115 Vallianatos, M., Shaffer, A., and Gottlieb, R. 125 “Transportation and Food: The Importance of Morland, K., Diex Roux, A., and Wing, S. Access.” Los Angeles, CA: Center for Food and “Supermarkets, Other Food Stores, and Obesity: The Justice, Urban and Environmental Policy Institute, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.” 2002. Available at http://www.uepi.oxy.edu. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 30, no.4 116 Frontier Nutrition Project. Trinity County Food (2006): 333-339. Security Assessment . Weaverville, CA: Frontier 126 Chen, S., Raymond, F., and Snyder, S. “Obesity in Nutrition Project, 2001. Available at http://www. Urban Food Markets: Evidence from Georeferenced foodsecurity.org/cfa/trinity_cty_food_assessment.pdf. Micro Data.” West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University, 117 Morton., L., Oakland, J., Bitto, E., Sand, M., and 2009. Available at http://www.npc.umich.edu/ Michaels, B. Iowa Community Food Assessment news/events/food-access/chen_et_al_revised.pdf. . Des Moines, IA: Iowa State Project Report, 2001-02 127 Liu, G., Wilson, J., Qi, R., and Ying, J. “Green University Family Nutrition Program, 2002. Available Neighborhoods, Food Retail and Childhood at http://www.soc.iastate.edu/extension/pub/tech/ Overweight: Differences by Population Density.” IowaCommunityFoodAssessmentReport.pdf. 21, no.4 American Journal of Health Promotion 118 The lack of community-based studies on this topic (2007): 317-325. is likely due to the difficulty of accessing data on 128 Auchincloss, A., Diez-Roux, A., Brown, D., . eating behaviors for small geographies or individuals Erdmann, C., and Bertoni, A. “Neighborhood 119 Rose, D., and Richards, R. “Food Store Access Resources for Physical Activity and Healthy Foods and Household Fruit and Vegetable Use among and Their Association with Insulin Resistance.” Public Participants in the US Food Stamp Program.” Epidemiology , 19 (2008):146–157. Health Nutrition 7, no.8 (2004):1081-1088. 129 Morland, K., and Evenson, K. “Obesity 120 Laraia, B., Siega-Riz, A., Kaufman, J. and Jones, S. Prevalence and the Local Food Environment.” “Proximity of Supermarkets is Positively Associated 15, no.2 (2009): 491-495. Health & Place with Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy.” American 130 Goldstein, I., Loethen, L., Kako, E., and Journal of 39 (2004): 869–875. Preventive Medicine CDFI Financing of Supermarkets Califano, C. 121 Jago, R., Baranowski, T., Baranowski, J., Cullen, . in Underserved Communities: A Case Study K., and Thompson, D. “Distance to Food Stores Philadelphia, PA: The Reinvestment Fund, 2008. and Adolescent Male Fruit and Vegetable Available at http://www.trfund.com/resource/ International Consumption: Mediation Effects.” downloads/policypubs/CDFIStudySummary.pdf. Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 131 Anchor effects are commonly recognized 4 (2007): 4-35. Available at http://www. by practitioners and assumed in economic ijbnpa.org/content/4/1/35. impacts studies, but there are few empirical 122 Caldwell E., Kobayashi, M., DuBow, W., and studies of their scale or scope. Wytinck, S. “Perceived Access to Fruits and 132 Gallagher, M. Examining the Impact of Vegetables Associated with Increased Food Deserts on Public Health in Detroit . Consumption.” Public Health Nutrition , Chicago, IL: Mari Gallagher Research and 12, no.10 (2008): 1743-50. Consulting Group, 2007. Available at http:// 123 Cheadle A., Psaty, B., Curry, S., Wagner, E., www.marigallagher.com/site_media/dynamic/ Diehr, P., Koepsell, T., and Kristal, A. “Community- project_files/1_DetroitFoodDesertReport_Full.pdf. Level Comparisons Between Grocery Store 133 Several analyses have described how the lack Environment and Individual Dietary Practices.” of market activity in distressed urban communities 20, no.2 (1991): 250-261. Preventive Medicine 38

41 The Food Trust PolicyLink 140 serves as a barrier to business development. See This study did not account for the probable Using Information to Drive Change Peri Sabety, displacement effects associated with transferring , sales from one store to another. The Reinvestment Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 2004. Fund. The Economic Impacts of Supermarkets Available at http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/ Files/rc/reports/2004/07metropolitanpolicy_sabety/ on their Surrounding Communities , Philadelphia, framingpaper.pdf. Also, Robert Weissbourd, The PA: The Reinvestment Fund, 2008. Market Potential of Inner-City Neighborhoods: Filling 141 Social Compact Inc., Inside Site Selection: the Information Gap (Attracting Business Investment Retailers’ Search for Strategic Business . Washington, DC: The to Neighborhood Markets) Locations . Washington, DC: Social Compact Brookings Institution, 2004. Available at http:// Inc., 2008. Available at http://www.icsc.org/ www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports/2004 srch/government/briefs/200805_insidesite.pdf /07metropolitanpolicy_sabety/framingpaper.pdf. 142 Economic Research Service, Food CPI 134 Office of Housing and Urban Development. and Expenditures: Table 14, http://www.ers. New Markets: The Untapped Retail Buying Power usda.gov/Briefing/CPIFoodAndExpenditures/ . Washington, DC: The in America’s Inner Cities Data/Expenditures_tables/table14.htm. Office of Housing and Urban Development,1999. 143 For a more detailed discussion of strategies 135 Porter, M. “The Competitive Advantage of the to address the lack of access to healthy foods Inner City,” Harvard Business Review, Healthy Food, see: Flournoy, R. and Treuhaft, S. 73, no.3 (1995): 55-71. Healthy Communities: Improving Access and Opportunities through Food Retailing, Oakland, CA: 136 Lavin, M. “Supermarket Access and Consumer PolicyLink, 2009. Available at www.policylink.org. Well-Being: The Case of Pathmark in Harlem.” 144 International Journal of Retail and Distribution In 2004, child health and nutrition advocates 33, no.5 (2005): 388-398. Management and Representative Dwight Evans successfully campaigned for an initial infusion of $10 million 137 Pristin, T. “Harlem’s Pathmark Anchors a in state funds to launch Pennsylvania Fresh Food Commercial Revival on 125th Street,” The New Financing Initiative (FFFI), a public-private partnership York Times , November 13, 1999. Available at: which provides low-cost loans and grants to support http://www.nytimes.com/1999/11/13/nyregion/ retail projects in underserved communities. (An harlem-s-pathmark-anchors-a-commercial- additional $20 million followed.) An independent revival-on-125th-street.html?pagewanted=1. Community Development Financial Institution 138 The majority of supermarket jobs are part-time (The Reinvestment Fund) leveraged these public (84 percent of jobs analyzed in the study). The funds with private capital, tax credits, and other The Economic Impacts of Reinvestment Fund. mechanisms to create a $165 million fund. Supermarkets on their Surrounding Communities , 145 Sturm, R., and Datar, A. “Body Mass Index in Philadelphia, PA: The Reinvestment Fund, 2008. Elementary School Children, Metropolitan Area 139 The Food Trust. “The Pennsylvania Fresh Food Food Prices and Food Outlet Density.” Journal Financing Initiative Providing Healthy Food Choices of Public Health 119 (2005):1059–1068. to Pennsylvania’s Communities.” Philadelphia, PA: The Food Trust. Available at http://www. thefoodtrust.org/pdf/FFFI%20Brief.pdf. 39

42

43 PolicyLink is a national research and action institute advancing economic and social equity by Lifting Up What Works®. The Food Trust, founded in 1992, is a nonpro t organization working to ensure that everyone has access to affordable, nutritious food. Design by: Leslie Yang COVER PHOTOS COURTESY OF (from left to right, top to bottom): Zejica; Lorie Slater; image100 Photography; Richard Beebe. PHOTOS COURTESY OF: p.4: David Gomez Photography; p.6: Lorie Slater; p.10: Victor Melniciuc; p.12: Bart Sadowski; p.24: Plush Studios/Blend.

44 One Penn Center, Suite 900 Headquarters: 1617 John F. Kennedy Blvd. 1438 Webster Street Philadelphia, PA 19103 Suite 303 t 215 575-0444 Oakland, CA 94612 f 215 575-0466 t 510 663-2333 f 510 663-9684 www.thefoodtrust.org Communications: 55 West 39th Street 11th Floor New York, NY 10018 t 212 629-9570 f 212 629-7328 www.policylink.org ©2010 by PolicyLink All rights reserved.

Related documents

ForRefOnly.pdf

ForRefOnly.pdf

SUSTAINABLE DC PLAN

More info »
catalog 2019

catalog 2019

2019 ® HARLEY-DAVIDSON GENUINE MOTOR PARTS & ACCESSORIES

More info »
CalCOFI Atlas 33

CalCOFI Atlas 33

THE EARLY STAGES IN OF THE FISHES CALIFORNIA CURRENT REGION CALIFORNIA FISHERIES COOPERATIVE OCEANIC INVESTIGATIONS ATLAS NO. 33 BY THE SPONSORED STATES OF COMMERCE DEPARTMENT UNITED OCEANIC AND ATMOS...

More info »
Final rule: Home Mortgage Disclosure (Regulation C)

Final rule: Home Mortgage Disclosure (Regulation C)

BILLING CODE: 4810- -P AM BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 1003 12 CFR Part Docket No. CFPB -0019 -2014 RIN 3170- AA10 Home Mortgage Disclosure (Regulation C) AGENCY: Consumer Financial Protect...

More info »
Microsoft Word   Annex 3 D. Product Specific Rules of Origin

Microsoft Word Annex 3 D. Product Specific Rules of Origin

ANNEX 3-D PRODUCT-SPECIFIC RULES OF ORIGIN Section A: General Interpretative Notes 1. ic rules of origin set out For the purposes of interpreting the product-specif in this Annex, the following defini...

More info »
435 441 458 467r e

435 441 458 467r e

WT/DS435/R, WT/DS441/R WT/DS458/R, WT/DS467/R 28 June 2018 Page: (18 - 1/884 4061 ) Original: English AUSTRALIA CERTAIN MEASURES CON CERNING TRADEMARKS, – PACKAGING IONS AND OTHER PLAIN GEOGRAPHICAL I...

More info »
Computer Vision: Algorithms and Applications

Computer Vision: Algorithms and Applications

Computer Vision: Algorithms and Applications Richard Szeliski September 3, 2010 draft c © 2010 Springer This electronic draft is for non-commercial personal use only, and may not be posted or re-distr...

More info »
CCHP 50 State Report Fall 2018

CCHP 50 State Report Fall 2018

FALL 2018 STATE TELEHEALTH LAWS & REIMBURSEMENT POLICIES A COMPREHENSIVE SCAN OF THE 50 STATES & THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA © 2018 Public Health Institute / Center for Connected Health Policy

More info »
An Introduction to Computer Networks

An Introduction to Computer Networks

An Introduction to Computer Networks Release 1.9.18 Peter L Dordal Mar 31, 2019

More info »
2018guide

2018guide

TO A GUIDE HMDA Reporting Getting It Right! Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council Welcome to the 2018 HMDA filing, HMDA Filer CREATED Submission is created but not started Ficus Bank A su...

More info »
Pro Tools Reference Guide

Pro Tools Reference Guide

® Pro Tools Reference Guide Version 9.0

More info »
Motor Vehicle Title Manual

Motor Vehicle Title Manual

M OTOR V EHICLE T ITLE M ANUAL TxDMV April 2019

More info »
AndersBehringBreivikManifesto

AndersBehringBreivikManifesto

2011 , London – By Andrew Berwick

More info »
Compendium II: Compendium of Copyright Office Practices

Compendium II: Compendium of Copyright Office Practices

COMPENDIUM II L COMPENDIUM OF OFFICE PRACTICES COPYRIGHT the Copyright Under Which Law Became Fully Effective on January 1, 1978, Including Title of the United States 17 Code and Amendments Thereto CO...

More info »
Implementation Handbook For The Convention On The Rights Of The Child

Implementation Handbook For The Convention On The Rights Of The Child

IMPLEMENTATION HANDBOOK FOR THE CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD FULLY REVISED THIRD EDITION IMPLEMENTATION HANDBOOK IMPLEMENTATION HANDBOOK FOR THE CONVENTION ON THE FOR THE CONVENTION ON THE RI...

More info »
Numerical Recipes

Numerical Recipes

Sample page from NUMERICAL RECIPES IN C: THE ART OF SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING (ISBN 0-521-43108-5) Permission is granted for internet users to make one paper copy for their own personal use. Further reprod...

More info »
Conjugial Love

Conjugial Love

The Delights of Wisdom Pertaining to Conjugial Love After which follow the pleasures of insanity pertaining to promiscuous love EMANUEL SWEDENBORG Translated from the Original Latin by Samuel M. Warre...

More info »
Researching Country of Origin Information   Training Manual, 2013 edition

Researching Country of Origin Information Training Manual, 2013 edition

RESEARCHING COUNTRY OF ORIGIN INFORMATION Training Manual | 2013 edition COUNTRY OF ORIGIN INFORMATION RESEARCHING http://accord.redcross.at

More info »