Time of Day and Demographic Perspective of Fatal Alcohol Impaired Driving Crashes

Transcript

1 AFETY F ACTS S RAFFIC T Research Note DOT HS 811 523 August 2011 Time of Day and Demographic Perspective Of Fatal Alcohol-Impaired-Driving Crashes Al cohol-impaired driving continues to be one of the - has changed little over the years. In 2008, it was 31 per major problems on our Nation’s highways. Drivers are nt of all fatalities, and 32 percent in 2009. ce considered to be alcohol-impaired when their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is .08 grams per deciliter Time of Day (g/dL) or higher. Thus, any crash involving a driver with - Overall, about one-third of all fatal crashes involve alco a BAC of .08 or higher is considered to be an alcohol- hol-impaired drivers. However, during certain hours impaired-driving crash, and fatalities occurring in those of the day, these crashes occur more frequently (see crashes are considered to be alcohol-impaired-driving Table 1). In 2009, from midnight to 3 a.m., two-thirds fatalities. This research note reviews characteristics of of fatal crashes involved an alcohol-impaired driver— fatal alcohol-impaired-driving crashes using data from twice the overall average. Two-thirds of all motor the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). vehicle fatalities between the hours of midnight and 3 The of overall motor vehicle crash fatalities has number a.m. occurred in alcohol-impaired-driving crashes, and decreased over the past several years. From 2008 to 2009, more than half (55%) of drivers involved in fatal crashes there was a 9.7 percent decrease in fatalities, from 37,423 at those hours, were alcohol-impaired. Other times to 33,808. In the same year, alcohol-impaired-driving of day with especially high percentages of alcohol- fatalities decreased from 11,711 to 10,839, a decrease of impaired-driving were 6 p.m. to midnight, and 3 a.m. of motor vehicle crash fatali - 7.4 percent. The percentage to 6 a.m. The numbers and percents across fatal crashes, ties that are alcohol-impaired driving related, however, fatalities, and drivers involved are relatively consistent. Table 1 Fatal Crashes, Fatalities and Drivers Involved in Alcohol-Impaired-Driving (AID) Crashes by Time of Day, 2009 Fatal Crashes Fatalities Drivers Involved Time of Day % AID Total AID % AID Total AID % AID Total AID 9% 254 5% 9 a.m. to Noon 2,934 253 9% 3,236 294 4,797 Noon to 3 p.m. 452 11% 4,404 506 11% 6,526 458 7% 3,981 3 p.m. to 6 p.m. 4,944 957 19% 5,468 1,047 19% 7,963 977 12% 1,786 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. 1,629 33% 5,420 4,988 33% 7,229 1,672 23% 4,767 9 p.m. to Midnight 4,359 2,024 46% 5,849 2,227 47% 2,088 36% Midnight to 3 a.m. 2,599 66% 4,378 2,896 66% 4,920 2,706 55% 3,957 3 a.m. to 6 a.m. 2,587 1,345 52% 2,824 1,487 53% 3,315 1,388 42% 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. 2,798 429 15% 3,041 463 15% 4,339 434 10% 10,102 22% 45,230 Total* 30,797 9,813 32% 33,808 10,839 32% Source: FARS 2009 Annual Report File (ARF) *Total includes fatalities during unknown time of day. 200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590 1 NHTSA’s National Center for Statistics and Analysis

2 2 the next highest time frame. Recall for comparison that Overall, an average of one alcohol-impaired-driving overall, 22 percent of drivers involved in fatal crashes fatality occurred every 48 minutes in 2009. However, were alcohol-impaired. Since the primary interest is on these fatalities did not occur evenly throughout the impaired driving, the remainder of this research note day. Table 2 shows, for each three-hour increment of will focus primarily on the drivers involved. the day, the total number of traffic fatalities, the number - of alcohol-impaired-driving fatalities, and the percent Figure 1 age of fatalities that were in alcohol-impaired crashes. Percentage of Impaired Drivers Involved in Fatal Motor Table 2 also shows the average number of total and Vehicle Traffic Crashes by Time of Day, 2009 alcohol-impaired-driving traffic fatalities per hour for each timeframe. During midnight to 3 a.m., there was 60% 55% an average of four fatalities per hour, with three of those 50% occurring in alcohol-impaired-driving crashes. From 3 42% 40% 36% p.m. to 6 p.m., on the other hand, there were more traf - fic fatalities—an average of five per hour—but only one 30% 23% involved in an alcohol-impaired-driving crash. Table 2 20% also shows that, from midnight to 3 a.m., there was an 12% 10% 7% average of one traffic fatality every 15 minutes, while 10% 5% from 3 p.m. to 6 p.m. there was an average of one every 0% 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. Midnight to 3 a.m. 3 p.m. to 6 p.m. 3 a.m. to 6 a.m. 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. 9 p.m. to Midnight 9 a.m. to Noon Noon to 3 p.m. - 12 minutes. This result was simply due to a larger num ber of fatalities during the latter time frame. Looking only at alcohol-impaired-driving fatalities, however, there was an average of one every 23 minutes (nearly 3 per hour) from midnight to 3 a.m., compared to one Source: FARS 2009 (ARF) every 63 minutes (less than 1 per hour) from 3 p.m. to 6 p.m. Table 3 exhibits this information for the last 10 years. The The percentage of alcohol-impaired drivers involved same data is shown graphically in Figure 2, illustrating in fatal crashes by time of day also remains consistent - the hours most likely to involve alcohol-impaired driv from year to year. Figure 1 shows the percentage of ing, as well as the consistency from year to year. While alcohol-impaired drivers by time of day within 3-hour the number ving of fatalities in alcohol-impaired- dri groupings. Midnight to 3 a.m. has, by far, the highest crashes decreased by nearly 20 percent over these 10 percentage of alcohol-impaired drivers involved in fatal years, from 13,324 in 2000 to 10,839 in 2009, the percent - crashes, more than 10 percentage points higher than ages by time of day changed very little. Table 2 Average Fatalities per Hour in Fatal and AID Fatal Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes, by Time of Day in 3-Hour Periods, 2009 Fatalities **One Fatality Every ___ Minutes **Fatalities/Hour Time of Day AID Total AID Total AID Total % AID 3,236 294 9% 3 < 1 20 223 9 a.m. to noon Noon to 3 p.m. 4,404 11% 4 < 1 15 130 506 3 p.m. to 6 p.m. 1,047 19% 5 1 12 63 5,468 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. 5,420 1,786 33% 5 2 12 37 9 p.m. to midnight 4,767 47% 4 2 14 30 2,227 Midnight to 3 a.m. 2,896 66% 4 3 15 23 4,378 3 a.m. to 6 a.m. 2,824 1,487 53% 3 1 23 44 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. 463 15% 3 < 1 22 142 3,041 Total* 33,808 10,839 32% 4 1 16 48 Source: FARS 2009 (ARF) *Total includes fatalities during unknown time of day. **Fatalities per hour and by number of minutes have been rounded to the nearest whole number.

3 3 Table 3 Percentage of Alcohol-Impaired Drivers (BAC .08+) Involved in Fatal Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes, by Year and Time of Day 2006 2001 2003 2004 Time of Day 2002 2007 2008 2009 2000 2005 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 6% 5% 5% 9 a.m. to noon 5% Noon to 3 p.m. 7% 7% 6% 6% 7% 7% 7% 6% 7% 7% 12% 12% 12% 11% 11% 12% 12% 11% 12% 12% 3 p.m. to 6 p.m. 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. 24% 24% 23% 23% 22% 23% 23% 22% 22% 23% 9 p.m. to midnight 37% 35% 35% 34% 35% 35% 34% 35% 36% 35% 53% Midnight to 3 a.m. 53% 54% 53% 54% 52% 54% 54% 55% 54% 3 a.m. to 6 a.m. 39% 42% 41% 38% 40% 38% 40% 40% 38% 42% 8% 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. 8% 7% 8% 8% 8% 9% 9% 10% 8% 43% 58% 54% 57% 51% 52% 52% 50% 51% 45% Unknown 22% 22% 21% 22% Total 21% 21% 22% 21% 21% 21% Source: FARS 2000 to 2008 (Final) and 2009 (ARF) Figure 2 Weekends and nighttime present much higher per - Percentage of Alcohol-Impaired Drivers in Fatal Crashes, centages of alcohol-impaired drivers involved in fatal By Time of Day, 2000-2009 crashes than do weekdays. The rate of alcohol-impaired drivers involved in fatal crashes in 2009 was four times 60% higher at nighttime (37%), defined as 6 p.m. to 5:59 a.m., than during the day (9%) in 2009. Drivers involved in 50% fatal crashes were twice as likely to be alcohol-impaired 40% on weekends (31%), defined as Friday 6 p.m. to Monday 5:59 a.m., than during the week (16%). 30% 20% Driver Demographics 10% Fatal crash data has consistently shown that drivers 21 0% to 24 years old have the highest level of involvement in 2005 2004 2001 2000 2003 2006 2002 2007 2008 2009 alcohol-impaired fatal crashes, compared to drivers of other age groups (see Table 4). In 2009, more than one- 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. 3 a.m. to 6 a.m. Midnight to 3 a.m. third (35%) of 21- to 24-year-old drivers involved in fatal 3 p.m. to 6 p.m. Noon to 3 p.m. 9 a.m. to Noon crashes were alcohol-impaired. In contrast, less than 9 p.m. to Midnight 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. one-fourth (22%) of the total drivers involved in fatal crashes were alcohol-impaired (Table 1). While drivers 21 to 24 constituted 10 percent of all drivers involved Source: FARS 2009 (ARF) Table 4 Percentage of Alcohol-Impaired Drivers (BAC .08+) Involved in Fatal Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes, by Age Group and Year 15-20 21-24 25-29 Year 35-44 44-54 55-64 65-74 75+ 30-34 13% 2005 17% 33% 30% 4% 7% 27% 19% 24% 19% 33% 30% 28% 25% 19% 13% 8% 5% 2006 4% 18% 34% 30% 27% 25% 20% 12% 7% 2007 34% 2008 25% 20% 12% 6% 4% 17% 32% 28% 26% 22% 13% 7% 3% 2009 19% 35% 33% 29% Source: FARS 2005 to 2008 (Final) and 2009 (ARF) 00 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590 12 NHTSA’s National Center for Statistics and Analysis

4 4 alcohol-impaired van drivers (12%) involved in fatal in fatal crashes in 2009, they constituted 16 percent of crashes continued to be substantially lower than that of all alcohol-impaired drivers involved in fatal crashes, other passenger vehicle drivers. making them the most over-involved age group for alcohol-impaired drivers. Although minimum-age Regardless of time of day, drivers involved in single-vehi - drinking laws exist in all 50 States, the District of cle fatal crashes are more likely to be alcohol impaired Columbia, and Puerto Rico, nearly 20 percent of driv - than are those drivers involved in multiple-vehicle ers in the under-21 age group involved in fatal crashes crashes. Overall, 37 percent of drivers in single-vehicle had BACs of .08 or more. crashes in 2009 were alcohol impaired, compared to 12 percent of those in multiple-vehicle crashes. Looking Table 5 looks at the data subdivided by gender. Note only at the hours from midnight to 3 a.m., 66 percent of that across age groups, male drivers involved in fatal - drivers in single-vehicle crashes, and 37 percent of driv crashes were far more likely to have been alcohol- ers in multiple-vehicle crashes, were alcohol-impaired. impaired than were female drivers. In addition, this pattern shows very little variation across the years. The most frequently recorded BAC level among drivers in fatal crashes with positive BACs was .17, more than Motorcycle riders had the highest rate of alcohol impair - twice the per se limit in all States, DC, and Puerto Rico. ment (29% in 2009) among drivers of all vehicle types. Of the 12,012 drivers with BACs of .01 or higher who Large-truck drivers (2%) had by far the lowest rates of were involved in fatal crashes in 2009: alcohol impairment. From 2000 to 2009, the percent of alcohol-impaired passenger vehicle (passenger cars, 10,102 (84%) had BAC levels at or above .08; and ■ ■ pickups, vans and Sport Utility Vehicles [SUVs]) drivers involved in fatal crashes was about 23%, and remained ■ 6,685 (56%) had BAC levels at or above .15. ■ virtually unchanged among each of the vehicle types. Data for 2009 by State, for drivers involved in fatal Pickup truck drivers continued to have the highest crashes, by BAC and age groups, are shown in Table 6. percentage (27% in 2009) of alcohol impairment com - The percentage of those that were alcohol-impaired is pared to other passenger vehicle drivers. Passenger car given for each age group within the State. State totals and SUV drivers each had a rate of 23 percent alcohol for all ages are presented in the last section of the table. impairment in fatal crashes in 2009. The percentage of Table 5 Percentage of Alcohol-Impaired (BAC .08+) Drivers Involved in Fatal Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes, by Age Group, Gender and Year 15-20 21-24 25-34 35-44 44-54 55-64 65-74 Year *All Drivers 75+ Male 20% 37% 32% 26% 2005 14% 8% 5% 24% 21% 2006 21% 36% 32% 27% 21% 15% 9% 6% 24% 2007 21% 33% 27% 22% 14% 9% 4% 24% 39% 20% 35% 28% 23% 15% 8% 5% 25% 2008 38% 22% 38% 36% 29% 25% 2009 8% 4% 25% 15% Female 10% 19% 19% 18% 2005 7% 4% 2% 13% 14% 2006 12% 22% 20% 21% 13% 8% 5% 3% 15% 2007 20% 18% 17% 14% 6% 4% 2% 13% 10% 2008 10% 22% 17% 18% 13% 5% 2% 1% 13% 7% 2009 23% 20% 16% 14% 12% 3% 2% 14% Source: FARS 2005 to 2008 (Final) and 2009 (ARF) *Total includes drivers under age 15 and those of unknown age.

5 5 Table 6 Drivers Involved in Fatal Crashes by Driver’s BAC, Age Group, and State 15–20 21–24 25–34 Total BAC ≥ .08 Total BAC ≤ .07 BAC ≥ .08 Total BAC ≥ .08 BAC ≤ .07 BAC ≤ .07 # % # # % # % # # % # % # % # State 135 87 136 75 69 33 31 108 13 66 69 34 203 119 Alabama 17 70 3 30 10 6 86 1 14 7 17 77 5 23 22 Alaska 7 80 86 14 93 62 67 31 33 93 150 74 53 26 203 Arizona 13 62 71 16 84 44 72 18 28 13 120 74 41 26 161 Arkansas 84 344 80 83 20 427 333 66 170 34 California 592 70 250 30 842 503 Colorado 83 11 17 63 37 54 32 46 69 80 67 40 34 120 52 23 73 27 31 21 58 16 42 37 46 61 29 39 75 Connecticut 8 15 19 18 23 8 55 7 45 4 24 82 5 18 29 Delaware 82 1 50 1 50 2 3 100 0 Dist of Columbia 3 10 74 3 26 13 0 Florida 85 53 15 355 269 71 111 29 380 466 72 184 28 650 302 27 126 19 13 145 135 73 49 87 184 261 71 104 29 365 Georgia Hawaii 7 42 9 58 16 13 56 10 44 23 13 46 15 54 28 Idaho 31 7 19 38 13 62 8 38 21 35 74 12 26 47 81 94 79 21 119 75 57 56 43 131 194 69 89 31 283 Illinois 25 94 101 12 115 67 71 27 29 14 115 66 59 34 174 Indiana 88 53 85 9 15 62 29 75 10 Iowa 39 70 75 24 25 94 25 Kansas 70 21 30 69 29 58 21 42 50 60 62 37 38 97 48 20 116 14 11 130 84 80 21 89 105 153 72 60 28 213 Kentucky Louisiana 102 78 29 22 131 75 65 40 35 115 161 73 58 27 219 Maine 15 5 25 20 16 69 7 31 23 34 72 13 28 47 76 74 32 17 18 91 46 68 22 Maryland 68 107 70 46 30 153 82 34 Massachusetts 6 13 48 42 66 22 87 64 56 69 26 31 82 42 Michigan 132 88 18 12 150 66 71 27 29 93 155 69 69 31 224 26 Minnesota 9 13 69 31 74 11 87 42 58 66 29 34 87 60 174 93 78 26 22 119 45 64 25 36 70 121 70 53 30 Mississippi 34 64 60 188 Missouri 109 76 34 24 143 70 66 48 40 118 124 Montana 32 21 40 17 63 10 37 27 27 61 17 39 44 79 9 87 27 13 51 15 56 12 44 45 49 75 16 25 65 Nebraska 6 38 31 15 37 27 70 12 30 6 37 74 13 26 50 Nevada 85 11 66 5 34 16 12 85 2 15 14 8 59 5 41 13 New Hampshire 71 70 13 81 47 65 25 35 11 99 73 37 27 135 87 New Jersey 36 65 19 35 55 30 62 19 38 49 65 75 22 25 87 New Mexico New York 149 85 26 15 175 110 67 54 33 164 195 69 87 31 282 North Carolina 176 26 13 202 123 65 66 35 189 249 74 86 26 335 87 29 North Dakota 8 40 20 13 71 5 60 18 15 49 15 51 30 12 Ohio 152 87 23 13 175 70 67 35 33 105 155 66 79 34 234 36 Oklahoma 18 16 112 60 64 34 84 93 112 69 50 31 162 94 90 36 77 10 23 46 32 66 17 34 49 64 71 26 29 Oregon 276 Pennsylvania 169 85 30 15 199 111 67 55 33 166 181 65 95 35 11 5 15 Rhode Island 6 54 5 46 50 8 49 5 51 10 8 50 South Carolina 92 33 26 125 57 55 48 45 105 127 56 101 44 228 74 11 46 8 42 19 8 54 7 South Dakota 15 18 65 9 35 27 58 35 Tennessee 26 17 147 86 65 45 83 131 178 69 78 31 256 121 Texas 398 76 124 24 522 277 62 173 38 450 541 61 347 39 888 11 Utah 4 7 49 30 89 4 93 34 52 89 7 11 59 45 7 8 80 2 20 10 2 32 4 68 6 4 57 3 43 Vermont 111 Virginia 88 79 23 21 67 59 47 41 114 125 68 60 32 185 Washington 68 22 24 90 38 54 33 46 71 83 64 47 36 130 76 34 West Virginia 15 27 53 29 66 15 73 44 56 68 27 32 83 39 Wisconsin 63 73 24 27 87 37 50 37 50 74 76 66 39 34 115 38 Wyoming 8 32 26 10 62 6 68 16 11 50 10 50 21 18 8,610 4,190 81 958 19 5,148 3,009 65 1,588 35 4,597 5,888 68 2,722 32 National 28 35 124 Puerto Rico 44 91 4 9 48 48 70 21 30 69 90 72 Source: FARS 2009 (ARF). National totals do not include Puerto Rico. 00 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590 12 NHTSA’s National Center for Statistics and Analysis

6 6 Table 6 (cont.) Drivers Involved in Fatal Crashes by Driver’s BAC, Age Group, and State 35–44 45–54 55–64 Total BAC ≥ .08 Total BAC ≤ .07 BAC ≥ .08 Total BAC ≥ .08 BAC ≤ .07 BAC ≤ .07 # % # # % # % # # % # % # % # State 70 63 209 151 78 43 22 194 116 85 20 15 136 Alabama 146 30 89 2 14 78 4 22 18 8 14 1 11 9 83 17 Alaska 12 41 26 161 121 80 30 20 151 Arizona 90 11 10 107 120 74 96 78 22 143 112 76 34 24 32 73 90 9 10 81 111 Arkansas 146 79 148 21 709 605 84 115 16 720 411 88 55 12 466 California 561 74 124 26 121 100 80 24 20 90 69 87 10 13 79 Colorado 31 66 Connecticut 46 26 57 20 43 46 31 85 5 15 36 16 30 34 10 64 32 13 55 10 45 23 36 86 2 14 11 20 Delaware 12 60 3 40 8 5 100 0 0 Dist of Columbia 1 100 0 0 1 5 5 438 140 24 577 421 76 131 24 552 354 87 54 13 408 Florida 76 277 80 20 320 232 84 45 16 63 194 88 26 12 220 Georgia 257 22 86 4 14 25 11 64 6 36 Hawaii 16 84 3 16 19 17 Idaho 71 14 29 48 42 81 10 19 52 29 92 2 8 31 34 170 75 25 227 169 80 43 20 212 129 92 12 8 141 Illinois 57 102 74 188 143 81 34 19 177 26 88 13 12 115 140 Indiana 48 74 22 26 86 75 82 17 18 92 47 88 7 12 54 Iowa 64 47 62 38 75 61 75 20 25 81 38 74 13 26 51 Kansas 28 184 149 24 195 155 84 29 16 46 128 94 8 6 136 Kentucky 76 125 67 60 33 185 126 75 43 25 169 66 76 21 24 87 Louisiana Maine 30 8 21 38 35 79 10 21 45 27 91 3 9 30 79 96 85 15 112 129 82 29 18 157 73 87 11 13 84 Maryland 17 65 46 30 66 50 78 15 22 20 40 85 7 15 47 Massachusetts 70 156 78 43 22 199 174 78 50 Michigan 224 128 92 11 8 139 22 Minnesota 77 20 23 89 85 81 20 19 105 67 91 6 9 73 69 27 113 46 29 158 103 73 37 71 140 73 80 19 20 92 Mississippi Missouri 133 70 58 30 191 151 77 44 23 195 126 89 15 11 141 Montana 34 18 35 52 29 69 13 31 42 24 85 4 15 28 65 44 83 17 53 44 79 12 21 56 28 87 4 13 32 Nebraska 9 35 75 61 59 89 7 11 66 25 82 8 18 43 46 Nevada 15 87 3 13 20 33 84 6 16 39 18 84 4 16 22 New Hampshire 17 125 81 19 154 120 87 18 13 138 83 92 7 8 90 New Jersey 29 64 55 30 78 51 79 13 21 23 56 94 4 6 60 New Mexico 70 207 80 51 20 258 209 83 44 17 253 141 90 15 10 156 New York North Carolina 236 63 21 299 227 78 65 22 292 203 90 23 10 226 79 14 65 35 21 20 80 5 20 25 24 82 5 18 29 North Dakota 7 263 192 30 273 212 81 51 19 81 164 91 16 9 180 Ohio 70 126 74 44 26 170 126 74 44 Oklahoma 170 85 82 18 18 103 26 Oregon 70 25 30 82 65 76 21 24 86 46 86 8 14 54 57 24 207 72 26 279 235 76 75 74 310 181 87 28 13 209 Pennsylvania Rhode Island 10 61 6 39 16 18 77 5 23 23 6 84 1 16 7 South Carolina 132 72 35 204 119 66 62 34 180 137 81 32 19 169 65 15 68 32 22 14 66 7 34 21 19 86 3 14 22 South Dakota 7 230 159 23 205 173 75 57 25 47 139 85 25 15 164 Tennessee 77 537 70 231 30 767 478 72 183 Texas 661 373 85 67 15 440 28 Utah 84 11 16 67 50 85 9 15 59 36 93 3 7 39 56 20 10 7 41 17 21 80 5 59 26 14 93 1 7 15 Vermont Virginia 100 71 41 29 141 125 77 37 23 162 101 86 16 14 117 Washington 58 37 39 95 65 67 32 33 97 75 91 7 9 82 61 51 22 22 30 73 50 78 14 West Virginia 64 60 83 12 17 72 70 26 Wisconsin 39 37 107 101 74 35 63 135 89 85 15 15 104 68 Wyoming 15 71 6 29 21 20 66 11 34 31 19 97 1 3 19 22 National 2,006 26 7,757 5,970 78 1,694 74 7,664 4,607 87 669 13 5,276 5,751 Puerto Rico 60 81 14 19 74 40 80 10 20 50 30 80 7 20 37 Source: FARS 2009 (ARF). National totals do not include Puerto Rico.

7 7 Table 6 (cont.) Drivers Involved in Fatal Crashes by Driver’s BAC, Age Group, and State 65–74 75 + Total* Total Drivers Total BAC ≥ .08 Total BAC ≤ .07 BAC ≥ .08 Involved BAC ≥ .08 BAC ≤ .07 BAC ≤ .07 # % # # % # % # # % # % # % # State 878 90 73 60 97 2 3 62 10 77 259 23 1,137 66 Alabama 7 100 0 0 5 3 100 0 0 3 72 81 17 19 88 Alaska 5 61 92 8 66 52 96 2 4 54 779 79 202 21 981 Arizona 5 27 58 2 59 25 91 3 9 1 619 80 151 20 770 Arkansas 98 204 94 12 6 216 179 97 6 3 California 3,313 79 868 21 4,180 185 Colorado 91 3 9 36 37 99 0 1 37 500 77 153 23 653 33 13 98 2 13 14 100 0 0 14 206 69 94 31 300 Connecticut 0 11 9 3 9 10 94 1 6 0 113 73 41 27 154 Delaware 97 0 0 0 0 0 1 100 0 Dist of Columbia 1 28 75 9 25 37 0 Florida 92 20 8 252 211 97 6 3 217 2,772 80 715 20 3,487 233 4 118 3 2 121 79 96 4 98 83 1,424 82 318 18 1,741 Georgia Hawaii 5 100 0 0 5 2 100 0 0 2 91 65 49 35 139 Idaho 27 0 0 27 16 98 0 3 16 232 81 55 19 287 100 65 95 5 68 86 99 1 1 87 1,004 77 292 23 1,296 Illinois 3 50 65 4 68 50 99 0 1 3 790 80 201 20 991 Indiana 96 32 91 3 9 35 38 99 0 Iowa 38 411 82 92 18 503 1 Kansas 84 6 16 36 34 94 2 6 36 347 70 151 30 498 30 1 75 5 7 80 62 99 0 93 62 926 83 183 17 1,110 Kentucky Louisiana 49 84 9 16 58 47 96 2 4 49 765 74 267 26 1,032 Maine 15 0 0 15 17 93 1 7 18 189 80 47 20 236 100 53 5 4 8 57 39 95 2 Maryland 41 626 81 151 19 776 92 7 Massachusetts 2 6 30 29 93 2 94 31 337 77 100 23 437 28 Michigan 70 95 4 5 74 103 98 2 2 105 1,010 82 229 18 1,239 3 Minnesota 0 0 40 41 97 1 100 42 454 82 98 18 551 40 857 44 89 6 11 49 41 93 3 7 44 640 75 217 25 Mississippi 274 68 1,141 24 Missouri 74 95 4 5 78 76 95 4 5 72 867 Montana 18 14 21 16 99 0 1 16 197 73 74 27 271 86 3 92 22 8 14 22 100 0 0 13 265 81 62 19 327 Nebraska 1 12 21 8 23 12 99 0 1 2 271 81 64 19 335 Nevada 92 9 82 2 18 11 9 100 0 0 9 117 81 27 19 144 New Hampshire 72 58 9 63 69 96 3 4 5 685 83 139 17 824 91 New Jersey 28 97 1 3 29 27 100 0 0 27 350 77 104 23 454 New Mexico New York 80 91 8 9 87 95 96 4 4 99 1,212 80 302 20 1,514 North Carolina 104 4 4 108 91 97 3 3 94 1,429 81 343 19 1,772 96 1 North Dakota 0 1 8 16 99 0 99 16 122 72 46 28 168 8 Ohio 88 91 8 9 96 81 99 1 1 82 1,127 79 296 21 1,423 3 Oklahoma 5 6 72 46 97 1 94 47 726 77 216 23 942 67 487 35 99 0 1 35 36 97 1 3 37 378 78 109 22 Oregon 1,722 Pennsylvania 114 93 9 7 123 145 98 3 2 148 1,354 79 368 21 8 7 99 Rhode Island 7 89 1 11 32 32 99 0 1 7 67 68 South Carolina 67 5 8 72 57 94 4 6 61 794 69 357 31 1,151 93 8 3 0 0 8 8 98 0 South Dakota 8 100 70 43 30 143 100 4 Tennessee 7 8 85 74 96 3 92 77 1,015 78 290 22 1,305 78 Texas 188 90 20 10 208 132 93 10 7 142 2,984 72 1,179 28 4,163 1 Utah 0 1 20 16 99 0 99 16 308 89 37 11 345 20 97 7 88 1 13 8 8 99 0 1 8 74 76 23 24 Vermont 68 Virginia 63 93 5 7 59 99 1 1 60 735 76 230 24 965 Washington 30 5 13 35 24 89 3 11 27 445 70 189 30 634 87 0 West Virginia 1 4 31 27 100 0 96 27 343 76 106 24 449 30 Wisconsin 50 90 5 10 55 43 94 3 6 45 531 73 196 27 727 0 Wyoming 0 0 10 4 100 0 100 4 106 72 42 28 148 10 45,230 2,669 93 199 7 2,868 2,465 97 85 3 2,550 35,128 78 10,102 22 National 23 106 472 Puerto Rico 18 82 4 18 22 12 95 1 5 13 366 77 *Total includes drivers under 15 and of unknown age. Source: FARS 2009 (ARF). National totals do not include Puerto Rico. 00 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590 12 NHTSA’s National Center for Statistics and Analysis

8 8 vehicle drivers, while van drivers (12%) continued to Summary be lower than that of other passenger vehicle drivers. The demographics of alcohol-impaired drivers involved in fatal crashes have remained consistent over the years. ■ Across all age groups, male drivers in fatal crashes ■ Based on 2009 FARS data: were more likely than females to have been alcohol- impaired. Overall, 25 percent of male drivers and 14 ■ ■ Midnight to 3 a.m. is the time with the highest per - percent of female drivers were alcohol-impaired. centage of alcohol-impaired drivers in fatal crashes, ■ ■ The rate of alcohol-impaired drivers involved in fatal 55 percent. crashes was four times higher at nighttime (36%), ■ ■ More than one-third (35%) of drivers age 21 to 24 than during the day (9%). involved in fatal crashes were alcohol-impaired, the ■ Drivers involved in fatal crashes were twice as likely ■ highest of all age groups. - to be alcohol-impaired on weekends (31%), than dur ing the week (16%). Motorcycle riders had the highest rate of alcohol ■ ■ impairment (29%), and large-truck drivers (2%) the Estimates of alcohol-impaired driving are generated lowest rates of alcohol impairment. using BAC values reported to FARS and imputed - BAC values when they are not reported. For ques Passenger vehicle drivers involved in fatal crashes ■ ■ tions regarding the above reported data, contact were alcohol-impaired 23 percent of the time. Pickup Marie Walz, [email protected] , or Lorenzo Daniels, truck drivers continued to have the highest percent - [email protected] . age (27%) of alcohol impairment among passenger This research note and other general information on highway traffic safety may be accessed by Internet users at: www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/CATS/index.aspx NHTSA’s National Center for Statistics and Analysis 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590

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This publication contains: VOLUME I: SOURCES SOURCES AND EFFECTS Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation to the General Assembly OF IONIZING RADIATION Scie...

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daily rates

daily rates

® 2019 UP S Rate and Service Guide Daily Rates Effective April 29, 2019

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FedEx Service Guide

FedEx Service Guide

SERVICE GUIDE fedex.com/serviceguide January 7, 2019 Updated April 29, 2019 SERVICES R AT ES TERMS INDEX

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