world air quality report 2018 en

Transcript

1 2018 WORLD AIR QUALITY REPORT Region & City PM2.5 Ranking

2 Contents About 3 this report ... Executive summary ... 4 here does the data come from? ... 5 W Why PM2.5? Data presentation ... 6 WHO Air Quality Guidelines US Air Quality Index (AQI) Global overview ... 7 World country ranking World capital city ranking Overview of public monitoring status Regional Summa ries EAST ASIA ... 10 SOUTHEAST ASIA ... 11 SOUTH ASIA ... 12 MIDDLE EAST ... 13 EUROPE ... 14 NORTHERN AMERICA ... 15 LATIN AMERICA & CARIBBEAN ... 16 AFRICA ... 17 Next Steps ... 18 What can I do? Methodology ... 19 Data sources Data calculation Data availability Disclaimer FAQ ... 21 Acknowledgements ... 22 | 2

3 About this report Since 2015, the IQAir AirVisual app and website have provided a centralized platform for global and hyper-local air quality information in real-time. Through aggregating and validating real-time data from governments and monitors operated by individuals and organizations, IQAir AirVisual strives to promote access to real-time air quality information, to allow people to take actions to improve air quality and protect their health. The 2018 World Air Quality Report presents PM2.5 air quality data as aggregated through the IQAir AirVisual platform in 2018. The data included is a subset of information provided through the platform, including only PM2.5 measured from ground-based stations with high data availability. This report accompanies an extended online interactive display of the world’s most polluted cities , which allows further exploration of air quality across different regions and subregions in 2018. The real-time status of all Air Quality Map included locations, together with many more, can also be explored through the IQAir AirVisual , which brings together live air quality readings in one accessible place. | 3

4 Executive summary 1 Air pollution is the greatest environmental risk to health today, estimated to contribute to 7 million premature deaths every year. Polluted air presents the world’s 4th leading contributing cause of early deaths, and burdens the global 2 economy with an estimated annual cost of $225 billion (USD) . This report is based on 2018 air quality data from public monitoring sources, with a focus on data which has been published in real-time or near real-time. These sources include government monitoring Whilst the WHO networks, as well as validated data from air quality monito rs operated estimates that 9 out of by private individuals and organizations. 10 people worldwide are exceeded the WHO’s annual Out of the over 3000 cities included, 64 % now breathing unsafe exposure guideline for fine particulate matter, also known as PM2.5. 100% of measured cities within the Middle East and Africa exceeded polluted air, huge parts this guideline, while 99% of cities in South Asia, 95% of cities in of the world still lack Southeast Asia, and 89% of cities in East Asia also exceed this target. As many areas lack up-to-date public air quality information and are access to real-time data. for this reason not represented in this report, the total number of cities exceeding the WHO PM2.5 threshold is expected to be higher. The city ranking shows Asian locations dominating the highest 100 average PM2.5 levels during 2018, with cities in India, China, Pakistan and Bangladesh occupying the top 50 cities. Numerous cities within the Middle East region also rank highly, with Kuwait City, Dubai and Manama all exceeding the WHO guideline by over 500%. At a country level, weighted by population, Bangladesh emerges as the most polluted country on average, closely followed by Pakistan and India, with Middle Eastern countries, Afghanistan and Mongolia also within the top 10. Southeast Asia’s most polluted cities during 2018 were the capitals Jakarta and Hanoi, with a number of Thai cities also ranking highly in this Awareness of air region. Public awareness of local pollution levels in these countries has grown considerably during 2018, as well as in South Korea and Pakistan. pollution remains low Public engagement with air pollution also increased in the United States in areas where and Canada, particularly during the severe wildfires which punctuated part of the region’s generally low PM2.5 levels during August and November. real-time monitoring is limited but Real-time, public air quality information is essential not only to empower populations to respond to current conditions and protect human health, pollution levels may but also is a cornerstone in generating public awareness and driving be high. action to combat air pollution in the long-term. More monitoring is needed in large parts of the world without access to this information. 1 https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/02-05-2018-9-out-of-10-people-worldwide-breathe-polluted-air-but-more-countries-are-taking-action 2 http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2016/09/08/air-pollution-deaths-cost-global-economy-225-billion | 4

5 Where does the data come from? Data included in this report has been aggregated from a range of continuous governmental monitoring sources, as these measurements have been made public in real-time (generally on an hourly basis). In addition, data from a selection of validated outdoor IQAir AirVisual air quality monitors operated by private individuals and organizations have been included. Some locations in Europe are supported by additional PM2.5 data provided 1 by the European Environment Agency, and in some cases other governmental historical data where available. Measurements have been collected at a monitoring station level, then grouped into settlements. Whilst the sizes of these settlements vary, the majority are urban locations, and so for the purpose of this report, all settlements are hereafter referred to as cities. Why PM2.5? The report focuses on P a representative measure of air pollution. PM2.5 refers to particulate matter M2.5 as (ambient airborne particles) which measure up to 2.5 microns in size, and has a range of chemical makeups and sources. PM2.5 is widely regarded as the pollutant with the most health impact of all commonly measured air pollutants. Due to its small size PM2.5 is able to penetrate deep into the human respiratory system and from there to the entire body, causing a wide range of short- and long-term health effects. Particulate matter is also the pollutant group which affects the most people globally. It can come from a range of natural as well as man-made sources. Common sources of PM include combustion (from vehicle engines, industry, wood and coal burning), as well as through other pollutants reacting in the atmosphere. 1 Methodology, p.19. | 5

6 Data presentation the World To relate exposure to potential health impacts, this report refers to two guidelines for PM2.5 pollution: Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guideline value for PM2.5 exposure and the United States Air Quality Index (US AQI). The US AQI color scale is used, supplemented by the WHO guideline. WHO Air Quality Guideline The WHO recommends an annual mean exposure threshold of 10 μg/m³ to minimize the risk of health impacts 1 from PM2.5, whilst advising that no level of exposure has been shown to be free of health impacts . WHO PM2.5 Target: 10 μg/m³ United States Air Quality Index (US AQI) The US AQI is one of the most widely recognized AQI systems available. The US AQI converts pollutant concentrations into a color-coded scale of 0-500, to easily represent the level of associated health risk. The US AQI’s “Good” range (<12μg/m3) is slightly higher than the WHO Air Quality Guideline (<10μg/m3). Health Recommendation PM2.5 US AQI Level (for 24hr exposure) (μg/m³) Air quality is satisfactory and poses little or no risk. 0-12.0 0-50 Good Sensitive individuals should avoid outdoor activity 12.1-35.4 51-100 Moderate as they may experience respiratory symptoms. Unhealthy General public and sensitive individuals in particular are for Sensitive 101-150 35.5-55.4 at risk to experience irritation and respiratory problems. Groups Increased likelihood of adverse effects and aggravation 55.5-150.4 151-200 Unhealthy public. to the heart and lungs among general Very 150.5- General public will be noticeably affected. 201-300 Sensitive groups should restrict outdoor activities. Unhealthy 250.4 General public is at high risk to experience strong irritations and adverse health effects. Everyone 250.5+ Hazardous 301+ should avoid outdoor activities. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ambient-(outdoor)-air-quality-and-health 1 | 6

7 Global overview PM2.5 (μg/m³) 250.4 150.4 55.0 45.0 35.4 20.0 12.0 10.0 WHO guideline Global map of estimated PM2.5 exposure by country/region in 2018 This global map provides an overview of the average, estimated PM2.5 exposure by country/region in 2018. The estimation is calculated from available city data as a regional sample and then weighted by population. Countries and regions that remain grey had no or limited PM2.5 data available for 2018. World country/region ranking PM2.5 concentration (μg/m³) Sorted by estimated avera ge 1 51 Puerto Rico 26 13.7 97.1 Bangladesh Chile 24.9 13.5 Belgium Pakistan 27 52 2 74.3 South Korea 24.0 53 France 72.5 3 India 13.2 28 Serbia 23.9 Afghanistan 61.8 29 54 Germany 13.1 4 Poland 22.3 30 12.0 5 Japan Bahrain 59.8 55 Croatia 22.2 6 31 11.7 Mongolia 56 58.5 Netherlands Turkey 21.9 7 57 Kuwait 11.6 32 Switzerland 56.0 Macau 21.2 58 54.2 33 Russia 8 11.4 Nepal Mexico 20.3 Luxembourg 34 59 United Arab Emirates 11.2 49.9 9 Czech Republic 20.2 10 60 35 44.8 Nigeria 11.0 Malta Hong Kong 20.2 United Kingdom 61 42.0 Indonesia 10.8 11 36 Cambodia 20.1 Spain 62 41.2 12 China Mainland 37 10.4 Romania 18.6 10.3 13 Bosnia & Herzegovina Portugal 63 40.9 38 Israel 18.6 64 Uganda 14 40.8 Ireland 39 9.5 Taiwan 18.5 35.5 65 40 15 Macedonia 9.1 USA Slovakia 18.2 7.9 16 Uzbekistan 41 66 34.3 Canada Cyprus 17.6 32.9 67 New Zealand 17 Vietnam 7.7 42 Lithuania 17.5 43 7.6 Norway 32.0 18 68 Sri Lanka Hungary 16.8 69 7.4 Sweden 19 Kosovo 44 30.4 Brazil 16.3 45 Kazakhstan 70 Estonia 29.8 20 7.2 Austria 15.0 6.8 46 21 Peru 71 Australia 28.0 Italy 14.9 72 Finland 47 22 6.6 27.1 Ethiopia Singapore 14.8 73 26.4 48 5.0 23 Thailand Philippines 14.6 Iceland 24 Bulgaria 49 25.8 Ukraine 14.0 25 25.0 50 Iran Colombia 13.9 | 7

8 World regional capital city ranking Sorted by average yearly PM2.5 concentration (μg/m³) [Continued] 1. Delhi, India (113.5) 32. Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel (19.5) 2. Dhaka, Bangladesh (97.1) 33. Vilnius, Lithuania (18.2) 3. Kabul, Afghanistan (61.8) 34. Cyprus, Nicosia (17.4) 4. Manama, Bahrain (59.8) 35. Prague, Czech Republic (17.4) 36. Bratislava, Slovakia (17.2) 5. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia (58.5) 6. Kuwait City, Kuwait (56.0) 37. Budapest, Hungary (16.5) 7. Kathmandu, Nepal (54.4) 38. Paris, France (15.6) 8. Beijing, China Mainland (50.9) 39. Vienna, Austria (15.2) 9. Abu Dhabi, UAE (48.8) 40. Taipei, Taiwan (14.9) 41. Singapore, Singapore (14.8) 10. Jakarta, Indonesia (45.3) 42. Manila, Philippines (14.3) 11. Kampala, Uganda (40.8) 43. Brussels, Belgium (14.1) 12. Hanoi, Vietnam (40.8) 13. Islamabad, Pakistan (38.6) 44. Bogota, Colombia (13.9) 14. Sarajevo, Bosnia & Herzegovina (38.4) 45. Kyiv, Ukraine (13.8) 46. Tokyo, Japan (13.1) 15. Tashkent, Uzbekistan (34.3) 16. Skopje, Macedonia (34.0) 47. Bern, Switzerland (12.8) 48. London, UK (12.0) 17. Colombo, Sri Lanka (32.0) 18. Pristina, Kosovo (30.4) 49. Berlin, Germany (11.7) 19. Astana, Kazakhstan (29.8) 50. Lisbon, Portugal (11.7) 51. Amsterdam, Netherlands (11.5) 20. Santiago, Chile (29.4) 52. Luxembourg City, Luxembourg (11.2) 21. Sofia, Bulgaria (28.2) 22. Lima, Peru (28.0) 53. Moscow, Russia (10.1) 23. Tehran, Iran (26.1) 54. Madrid, Spain (10.0) 24. Bangkok, Thailand (25.2) 55. Dublin, Ireland (9.5) 25. Warsaw, Poland (24.2) 56. Washington DC, USA (9.2) 26. Belgrade, Serbia (23.9) 57. Oslo, Norway (8.2) 27. Seoul, South Korea (23.3) 58. Helsinki, Finland (7.2) 59. Tallinn, Estonia (7.1) 28. Bucharest, Romania (20.3) 60. Stockholm, Sweden (6.6) 29. Phnom Penh, Cambodia (20.1) 61. Ottawa, Canada (6.0) 30. Mexico City, Mexico (19.7) 62. Wellington, New Zealand (6.0) 31. Ankara, Turkey (19.6) 90 70 100 80 60 50 40 30 20 0 110 10 10 50 70 40 10 30 20 0 60 10 WHO PM2.5 Target WHO PM2.5 Target This capital city ranking compares annual mean PM2.5 values from the available regional capitals in this report’s dataset. Countries from Asia and the Middle East occupy most of the top of this regional capital city ranking, with Delhi and Dhaka’s values both 50% higher than the 3rd ranking capital, Kabul. Only 9 out of 62 regional capitals included here have an annual mean PM2.5 level within the WHO air quality guideline of 10μg/m³. | 8

9 Overview of public monitoring status Air quality monitoring varies grea tly among countries and regions. With regard to continuous monitoring stations published in real-time, China Mainland, Japan and the United States have the world’s most extensive networks. The map below shows the global distribution of PM2.5 air quality monitors which met the availability criteria for this report. Global distribution of PM2.5 air quality monitoring stations included in this report. Blue dots indicate government stations. Red dots indicate data from independently operated air monitors. As this map indicates, many populated areas still lack publicly available real-time or near real-time air quality information. Densely populated areas within developed countries tend to have access to a larger network of governmental air monitors, whilst in many developing countries, access to air quality information is limited. In countries and regions which lack governmental, real-time monitoring networks, lower cost monitoring sensors which can be set up quickly and with fewer resources provide an opportunity to accelerate access to air quality information. Data collected and published from validated IQAir AirVisual monitoring stations operated by private individuals and organizations is also included in this report. It provides the only real-time public readings for Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria and Cambodia. | 9

10 EAST ASIA Korea | Taiwan Kong | Japan | Macau | Mongolia | South China Mainland | Hong PM2.5 Country/Region Ranking (μg/m³) 1. Mongolia (58.5) 250.4 2. China Mainland (41.2) 3. South Korea (24.0) 150.4 4. Macau (21.2) 55.4 5. Hong Kong (20.2) 35.4 6. Taiwan (18.5) 12.0 10.0 7. Japan (12.0) 50 10 60 70 20 30 40 0 100 90 80 Available cities with real time monitoring in 2018 PM2.5 annual mean (μg/m³) SUMMARY In recent times, East Asia has demonstrated a strong correlation 10.9% between rapid economic development and increased air pollution. However, as the urgency of reducing air pollution Regional cities which met the has become apparent in countries such as China Mainland, WHO PM2.5 target in 2018 extensive monitoring networks and air pollution reduction policies have been put into place. In mainland China, in particular, this has led to significant improvements in year-on-year reductions 1 in PM2.5 levels . Whilst good progress is being made to 116.0 7.0 improve regional air quality, significant challenges remain, as Hotan, China Mainland Otofuke, Japan indicated by the 89% of cities here which exceeded the WHO guideline during 2018. Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups WHO target Moderate Good Good Moderate Hazardous Unhealthy Very Unhealthy Hazardous WHO target Very Unhealthy Unhealthy Coal burning remains a significant contributor to regional air pollution, with high levels of coal production and consumption Range of annual mean PM2.5 (μg/m³) across regional cities 2 in China Mainland and Mongolia in particular . Transboundary pollution is also a concern for neighbouring areas such as Hong Kong, Taiwan and South Korea, including both emissions Most Polluted Regional Cities Most Polluted Regional Cities Cleanest Regional Cities Cleanest Regional Cities from human activity as well as seasonal dust storms which 3 can affect much of the region . City Rank City 2018 AVG 2018 AVG 2018 AVG City Rank Rank 2018 AVG City Otofuke, Japan 1 1 116.0 7.0 Hotan, China Mainland 2 2 Sapporo, Japan Kashgar, China Mainland 7.3 95.7 MONITORING STATUS Ebina, Japan 3 3 7.5 Xingtai, China Mainland 76.7 All countries within the East Asia region, excluding North Korea, 4 4 Hakuba, Japan 7.6 76.7 Shijiazhuang, China Mainland support public real-time air quality monitoring. As a collective, the prevalence and quality of public PM2.5 data is among the Aksu, China Mainland Uchinada, Japan 5 5 7.7 74.1 best in the world. Handan, China Mainland 6 6 Nyingchi, China Mainland 74.0 7.8 China Mainland has the world’s most numerous and far reaching Anyang, China Mainland Wajima, Japan 7 7 7.8 72.9 monitoring network, with around 1,500 monitors managed by 8 Suzu, Japan 8 7.9 Baoding, China Mainland 70.7 - the central government and a total of over 5,000 monitors man 4 aged at a central, provincial, municipal and county level . 9 9 Minamiashigara, Japan Linfen, China Mainland 8.0 68.2 10 10 Miyakojima, Japan 8.1 67.8 Wujiaqu, China Mainland Mongolia currently has the most limited monitoring network of the region by land area, with only a handful of public stations 11 11 Toyama, Japan Xianyang, China Mainland 8.1 67.8 in Ulaanbaatar, where almost half of the country’s population 12 12 Minami, Yamanashi Japan 8.3 Jiaozuo, China Mainland 66.9 resides. 13 13 Hengshui, China Mainland 8.3 Sakata, Japan 65.7 1 http://www.greenpeace.org/eastasia/press/releases/climate-energy/2018/PM25- 14 14 Xuzhou, China Mainland Gojo, Japan 8.3 65.5 in-Beijing-down-54-nationwide-air-quality-improvements-slow-as-coal-use-increases/ https://www.worldenergy.org/data/resources/region/east-asia/coal/ 2 Cangzhou, China Mainland 15 15 8.4 Kanazawa, Japan 65.2 3 https://taqm.epa.gov.tw/taqm/en/b0301.aspx 4 http://www.gov.cn/xinwen/2018-01/31/content_5262775.htm | 10

11 SOUTHEAST ASIA Cambodia | Indonesia | Philippines | Singapore | Thailand | Vietnam PM2.5 Country/Region Ranking (μg/m³) 1. Indonesia (42.0) 250.4 2. Vietnam (32.9) 3. Thailand (26.4) 150.4 4. Cambodia (20.1) 55.4 35.4 5. Singapore (14.8) 12.0 6. Philippines (14.6) 10.0 40 10 20 30 90 100 0 50 60 70 80 PM2.5 annual mean (μg/m³) Available cities with real time monitoring in 2018 SUMMARY Sources of air pollution in Southeast Asia vary between rural 4.5% and urban areas in its various countries, with the burning of Regional cities which met the biomass, vehicular emissions and transportation as common WHO PM2.5 target in 2018 leading sources. High regional pollution spikes are often related to the seasonal agricultural practice of open burning, where land is burned in order to provide a more nutrient rich envi - 1 ronment for future crops, particularly within Indonesia . These emissions often contribute to the spread of transboundary air 9.3 45.3 2 pollution across the neighboring countries . Jakarta, Indonesia Calamba, Philippines In urban areas, transportation and industry are among the Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Moderate Hazardous Unhealthy Very Unhealthy Hazardous WHO target Very Unhealthy Unhealthy WHO target Moderate Good Good leading contributors, with high numbers of small vehicles such as motorbikes. There is strong correlation between urbanization Range of annual mean PM2.5 (μg/m³) across regional cities air pollution in this region: Jakarta and Hanoi have the and highest recorded air pollution in the region, and are also among the most populated cities. Cleanest Regional Cities Most Polluted Regional Cities City Rank 2018 AVG 2018 AVG City Rank Calamba, Philippines Jakarta, Indonesia 1 1 MONITORING STATUS 45.3 9.3 Valenzuela, Philippines 2 2 Hanoi, Vietnam 9.9 40.8 Government supported public PM2.5 monitoring is relatively Samut Sakhon, Thailand 3 3 Carmona, Philippines 10.9 39.8 sparse in Southeast Asia. Collectively, only 145 monitors Nakhon Ratchasima, Satun, Thailand 4 4 11.3 37.6 reporting real-time data across the region are included in this Thailand report. In response to limited real-time information, many local Tha bo, Thailand 5 5 12.2 37.2 Paranaque, Philippines organizations and concerned citizens have deployed their 6 Saraburi, Thailand 6 12.6 Davao City, Philippines 32.6 own lower cost air quality monitoring devices. As a result of these contributions, non-governmental measurements make 7 Meycauyan City, Philippines 7 Makati, Philippines 13.7 32.4 up approximately half of the region’s coverage here, notably 8 8 Manila, Philippines 32.2 14.3 Samut Prakan, Thailand within the Philippines, Thailand, and Indonesia. Non-govern - mental monitors also provide the only real-time data available Mandaluyong, Philippines 9 Ratchaburi, Thailand 9 14.5 32.2 in Cambodia. Singapore, Singapore Mae Sot, Thailand 10 10 32.2 14.8 Narathiwat, Thailand 11 Caloocan, Philippines 11 Whilst Malaysia has run public monitoring networks measuring 31.4 15.2 other pollutants previously, the local government has also 12 12 Si Maha Phot, Thailand 30.9 16.1 Balanga, Philippines introduced public PM2.5 monitoring during 2018. 13 Pai, Thailand 13 Quezon City, Philippines 29.4 17.5 Chon Buri, Thailand 14 14 27.3 17.6 Nan, Thailand 1 https://www.unenvironment.org/resources/report/south-east-asia-air-quality- regional-report 15 15 Las Pinas, Philippines 26.9 Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam 17.9 - http://www.ccacoalition.org/en/resources/air-pollution-asia-and-pacific-sci 2 ence-based-solutions | 11

12 SOUTH ASIA Afghanistan | Bangladesh | India | Iran | Nepal | Pakistan | Sri Lanka PM2.5 Country/Region Ranking (μg/m³) 1. Bangladesh (97.1) 250.4 2. Pakistan (74.3) 3. India (72.5) 150.4 4. Afghanistan (61.8) 55.4 5. Nepal (54.2) 35.4 6. Sri Lanka (32.0) 12.0 10.0 7. Iran (25.0) 80 90 60 0 10 20 100 70 50 30 40 Available cities with real time monitoring in 2018 PM2.5 annual mean (μg/m³) SUMMARY Of the countries and regions with available data for this report 1.2% during 2018, four of the five most polluted in the world were Regional cities which met the located in South Asia. Of the 84 cities monitored in this area, WHO PM2.5 target in 2018 99% failed to meet the WHO annual guideline for PM2.5. As a ³ whole, cities here average a PM2.5 concentration of 60 μg/m , 6 times the recommended limit of 10 μg/m . ³ 135.8 7.8 Sources of PM2.5 pollution in this region vary by region and Gurugram, India Qorveh, Iran city, but common contributors include vehicle exhaust, open crop and biomass burning, industrial emissions and coal 1 combustion . Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups WHO target Very Unhealthy Unhealthy WHO target Moderate Good Good Moderate Hazardous Unhealthy Very Unhealthy Hazardous Range of annual mean PM2.5 (μg/m³) across regional cities Of the cities included in South Asia, it is interesting to note that, although Delhi typically receives most media coverage as one of the world’s “pollution capitals”, the Indian capital “only” ranks 10th for annual PM2.5 concentration. Other cities Most Polluted Regional Cities Cleanest Regional Cities across Northern India and Pakistan have a higher recorded 2018 AVG City Rank Rank City 2018 AVG annual PM2.5 level, with nearby Gurugram narrowly resulting in the highest annual concentration of any global city recorded Gurugram, India 1 7.8 1 Qorveh, Iran 135.8 here during 2018. Tabriz, Iran 12.2 2 Ghaziabad, India 2 135.2 12.5 Sanandaj, Iran Faisalabad, Pakistan 3 3 130.4 MONITORING STATUS 16.1 Nahavand, Iran 4 4 Faridabad, India 129.1 Zanjan, Iran 18.6 Bhiwadi, India 5 5 125.4 Real-time air quality data coverage is most numerous within Meybod, Iran 21.1 Noida, India 6 6 123.6 India and Iran, and the highest number of public monitors in any city here is in Delhi. The majority of South Asia, meanwhile, 21.2 Abdanan, Iran 7 Patna, India 7 119.7 including Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, Hashtgerd, Iran 22.1 8 Lucknow, India 115.7 8 lack government supported real-time public stations. All mea - surements representing these countries and regions are from Karaj, Iran 22.2 9 Lahore, Pakistan 114.9 9 U.S. State department monitors and citizen-led monitoring Sejzi, Iran 22.3 2 Delhi, India 10 10 113.5 networks, the most extensive of which is in Pakistan , covering 17 locations in 2018. 113.4 11 Jodhpur, India 11 Isfahan, Iran 23.8 Mobarakeh, Iran 12 110.3 12 Muzaffarpur, India 24.1 Kerman, Iran 13 Varanasi, India 105.3 13 24.4 1 - https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311901640_Fine_particu Moradabad, India 14 104.9 14 Tehran, Iran 26.1 - lates_over_South_Asia_Review_and_meta-analysis_of_PM25_source_apportion ment_through_receptor_model 104.8 15 15 Agra, India 27.6 Esfahan, Iran https://www.airvisual.com/blog/revealing-the-invisible-airvisual-communi - 2 ty-activism-ignites-action-to-fight-smog-in-pakistan | 12

13 MIDDLE EAST Emirates Bahrain | Cyprus | Israel | Kuwait | Turkey | United Arab PM2.5 Country/Region Ranking * (μg/m³) 250.4 1. Bahrain (59.8) 2. Kuwait (56.0) 3. United Arab Emirates (49.9) 150.4 4. Turkey (21.9) 55.4 5. Israel (18.6) 35.4 6. Cyprus (17.6) 12.0 10.0 70 10 20 30 40 50 60 90 0 100 80 PM2.5 annual mean (μg/m³) Available cities with real time monitoring in 2018 SUMMARY 0% The primary contributor to air pollution in the Middle East is natural, from windblown dust storms. However, human activity Regional cities which met the also significantly contributes to local air pollution, including * WHO PM2.5 target in 2018 industrial emissions from oil refineries, fossil fueled power plants, combustion-based transportation and high usage of 1 private vehicles, and open waste burning . 12.4 59.8 The Middle East region includes some of the cities and countries Manama, Bahrain Nesher, Israel with the highest PM2.5 levels from this 2018 dataset, with Manama, Kuwait City and Dubai all exceeding the WHO annual guideline by more than 5 times. Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Very Unhealthy Hazardous WHO target Very Unhealthy Unhealthy WHO target Moderate Good Good Moderate Hazardous Unhealthy Range of annual mean PM2.5 (μg/m³) across regional cities * * Cleanest Regional Cities Most Polluted Regional Cities MONITORING STATUS 2018 AVG City Rank Rank City 2018 AVG 1 1 Manama, Bahrain 12.4 Nesher, Israel 59.8 Current levels of governmental air monitoring in this region are low. Cyprus, Israel and Turkey are the only countries with 2 2 Kuwait City, Kuwait Ayia Marina, Cyprus 12.9 56.0 domestic governmental monitors contributing real-time air Arnavutköy, Turkey 55.3 3 Dubai, UAE 3 13.8 quality readings. Israel and Turkey have the highest number of monitoring stations included in this region. 4 Abu Dhabi, UAE 4 48.8 14.0 Giresun, Turkey Zygi, Cyprus 42.7 Kazimkarabekir, Turkey 14.3 5 5 ) The remaining countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates have their real-time air quality data reported here through con - 6 6 38.3 Kesan, Turkey Edirne, Turkey 15.0 tributions from the US State Department’s overseas air moni - Be’er Sheva, Israel 16.1 7 7 Sharjah, UAE 37.6 toring program, along with IQAir AirVisual monitoring stations 16.4 Artvin, Turkey Amasya, Turkey 34.0 8 8 operated by individuals and NGOs. Barkai, Israel 30.7 9 9 Sde Yoav, Israel 16.6 10 10 Pinarhisar, Turkey 30.0 Haifa, Israel 16.7 11 11 28.9 Erzincan, Turkey Acre, Israel 17.2 12 12 28.4 Ein Tamar, Israel 17.4 Nicosia, Cyprus 13 13 Şarkikaraağaç, Turkey Bursa, Turkey 28.4 17.4 Nir Yisrael, Israel 17.5 14 14 26.8 Pardes Hanna-Karkur, Israel Gvar’am, Israel 17.6 Corum, Turkey 24.8 15 15 https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/ 1 20255/NorthAf - ricaMiddleEast_report.pdf * Based on available data. | 13

14 EUROPE Austria | Belgium | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Bulgaria | Croatia | Czech Republic | Estonia | Finland | France | Germany Hungary | Iceland | Ireland | Italy | Kosovo | Lithuania | Luxembourg | Macedonia | Malta | Netherlands | Norway Poland | Portugal | Romania | Russia | Serbia | Slovakia | Spain | Sweden | Switzerland | Ukraine | United Kingdom PM2.5 Country/Region Ranking (μg/m³) 1. Bosnia & Herzegovina (40.9) 2. Macedonia (35.5) 3. Kosovo (30.4) 4. Bulgaria (25.8) 250.4 5. Serbia (23.9) 6. Poland (22.3) 7. Croatia (22.2) 8. Czech Republic (20.2) 9. Romania (18.6) 10. Slovakia (18.2) 11. Lithuania (17.5) 12. Hungary (16.8) 13. Austria (15.0) 14. Italy (14.9) 150.4 15. Ukraine (14.0) 16. Belgium (13.5) 17. France (13.2) 18. Germany (13.1) 19. Netherlands (11.7) 55.4 20. Switzerland (11.6) 21. Russia (11.4) 22. Luxembourg (11.2) 23. Malta (11.0) 35.4 24. United Kingdom (10.8) 25. Spain (10.4) 26. Portugal (10.3) 27. Ireland (9.5) 28. Norway (7.6) 29. Sweden (7.4) 12.0 30. Estonia (7.2) 10.0 31. Finland (6.6) 32. Iceland (5.0) 20 40 100 90 0 10 70 30 60 50 80 PM2.5 annual mean (μg/m³) Available cities with real time monitoring in 2018 SUMMARY Within Europe, Eastern and Southern European locations reported the 27.3% highest air pollution levels during 2018. Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as Macedonia have the highest reported annual levels of PM2.5, Regional cities which met the whilst Poland, the Czech Republic, Romania and Bulgaria, joined by WHO PM2.5 target in 2018 Italy and Kosovo are home of the rest of the 30 most polluted cities. iderable variation between European countries’ and cit There is cons - ies’ main sources of particulate matter. Transportation, agricultural - emissions which travel distances to impact cities, and industrial emis 55.6 3.0 sions are all common contributors across different areas. Residential Lukavac, Bosnia & Herzegovina Bredkalen, Sweden heating is an important factor in Eastern European countries as well 1 2 as parts of Italy and the UK . Poland’s relatively high pollution level Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups WHO target Hazardous WHO target Unhealthy Unhealthy Very Unhealthy Very Unhealthy Moderate Good Good Hazardous Moderate in particular, may be partly attributed to its high consumption of coal and wood, commonly burned for household energy and in industry. Range of annual mean PM2.5 (μg/m³) across regional cities n is a concern for this closely grouped set Transboundary air pollutio of countries. Transnational policy such as the United Nations Eco - nomic Commission for Europe’s (UNECE) Gothenburg protocol is one Most Polluted Regional Cities Cleanest Regional Cities . example of policy measures to manage transboundary emissions 2018 AVG City Rank City 2018 AVG Rank Lukavac, Bosnia & 3.0 1 1 Bredkalen, Sweden 55.6 Herzegovina MONITORING STATUS Zivinice, Bo snia & 2 2 3.1 Husavik, Iceland 54.0 Herzegovina untries wi thin the EU have a fairly robust system of Whilst most co Santana, Portugal 3 3 Tetovo, Macedonia 3.4 44.6 - public air monitoring and reporting in place, not all monitoring sta Grundartangi, Iceland 4 4 3.7 Tuzla, Bosnia & Herzegovina 43.1 tions measure PM2.5 pollution and some areas do not report their Kuopio, Finland data in real-time. Italy is one example where data is published a day 3.9 5 Jaworzno, Poland 5 38.9 later, thus calling into question its usefulness when it comes to guid - Sarajevo, Bosnia & Salao, Portugal 4.3 6 6 38.4 Herzegovina ing people’s decisions to implement personal protection measures or 4.3 Vaasa, Finland Kumanovo, Macedonia 7 7 37.2 prevent activities that contribute to air pollution. Hafnarfjoerdur, Iceland 4.3 Bitola, Macedonia 8 8 36.3 Some other Europea n countries outside the EU have modest public governmental monitoring networks. Russia only had public PM2.5 Alacant, Spain 4.4 9 9 Dolni Lutyne, Czech Republic 35.8 monitoring available within Moscow for this report, while citizens Saint-Pierre, France 4.6 10 10 Skopje, Macedonia 34.0 have contributed additional IQAir AirVisual monitor networks in other Narvik, Norway parts of Russia, notably in Krasnoyarsk region, as well as in Ukraine. 11 11 4.6 Sassuolo, Italy 31.2 Kosovo’s readings are supplied by the US State Department and these Albalat dels Tarongers, 4.7 12 12 Pristina, Kosovo 30.4 Spain privately operated monitors. 4.9 Umeå, Sweden 13 13 Katowice, Poland 30.4 - 1 https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/news/air-quality-atlas-europe-mapping-sourc 14 14 5.0 Norr Malma, Sweden 30.3 Torbole Casaglia, Italy es-fine-particulate-matter La Granja de San 2 https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/clean-air-strategy-2019/ 15 15 5.0 30.2 Otwock, Poland IIdefonso, Spain clean-air-strategy-2019-executive-summary#chapter-6-action-to-reduce-emis - sions-at-homeShow 14 |

15 NORTHERN AMERICA United States | Canada PM2.5 Country/Region Ranking (μg/m³) 250.4 1. United States (9.0) 150.4 55.4 2. Canada (7.9) 35.4 12.0 10.0 90 50 60 70 80 10 20 30 100 0 40 PM2.5 annual mean (μg/m³) Available cities with real time monitoring in 2018 SUMMARY Northern America is one of the regions with lowest PM2.5 81.7% levels represented in this report, although 18% of cities still Regional cities which met the exceeded the WHO annual target in 2018. The region includes WHO PM2.5 target in 2018 one of the world’s pioneering air quality monitoring systems within the USA. Notable sources of air pollution in Northern America include 3.0 27.8 transport emissions, demand for energy production through Anderson, Oak Harbor, fossil fuels, household energy consumption, and wildfires USA USA as a prominent natural cause. 2018 saw a series of severe wildfires particularly in the California and Oregon areas during Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Very Unhealthy Unhealthy WHO target Moderate Good Good Moderate Hazardous Unhealthy Very Unhealthy Hazardous WHO target August and November, as well as in Canada’s British Columbia with the fumes spreading heavily over nearby Alberta during Range of annual mean PM2.5 (μg/m³) across regional cities 1 August . These events constituted some of the most severe wildfires in recent years in both areas, temporarily raising pollution levels far above typical local ranges. Most Polluted Regional Cities Cleanest Regional Cities 16 out of the 20 most polluted cities in Northern America 2018 AVG Rank City 2018 AVG City Rank were in California. All of the top 40 most polluted cities in 1 1 Oak Harbor, USA 3.0 27.8 Anderson, USA the region are in the Pacific West, where wildfires severely 2 2 3.4 Medford, USA 22.0 Wellington, Canada impacted typical monthly averages. Los Angeles, known for its historic struggles with air pollution and traffic congestion, Kapolei, USA 3 3 3.5 20.8 Three Rivers, USA ranks 31st in the region. PM2.5 adds to the well documented 4 20.4 4 Perry, USA 3.6 Yosemite Valley, USA 2 ozone haze . 20.4 Portola, USA 5 5 3.7 Wilmington, NY, USA 18.9 6 6 Santa Fe, USA 3.7 Klamath Falls, USA MONITORING STATUS Kahului, USA 7 7 18.2 3.7 Yuba City, USA The Unit ed States has one of the world’s most numerous air 8 Reubens, USA 8 3.8 17.9 Paradise, USA monitoring networks with 914 PM2.5 stations nationwide 9 9 Moncton, Canada 3.8 17.7 Stockton, USA included in this report. In addition, the US State Department’s overseas air monitoring program brings valuable air quality 10 Chico, USA 10 Mount Vernon, USA 17.6 3.8 readings to numerous cities and countries otherwise lacking 11 11 Visalia, USA 3.8 17.6 Southampton, Canada this information. Turlock, USA 12 12 17.3 Honolulu, USA 3.9 13 13 Gridley, USA Peterborough, USA 4.1 16.9 14 Porterville, USA 14 Hot Springs, USA 4.1 16.8 15 Twisp, USA 15 4.1 Bar Harbor, USA 16.6 https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-45250919 1 https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50472 2 | 15

16 LATIN AMERICA & CARIBBEAN Rico Brazil | Chile | Colombia | Mexico | Peru | Puerto PM2.5 Country/Region Ranking (μg/m³) 1. Peru (28.0) 250.4 2. Chile (24.9) 3. Mexico (20.3) 150.4 4. Brazil (16.3) 55.4 35.4 5. Colombia (13.9) 6. Puerto Rico (13.7) 12.0 10.0 100 80 90 20 30 40 50 60 70 10 0 Available cities with real time monitoring in 2018 PM2.5 annual mean (μg/m³) SUMMARY Chile has the highest recorded PM2.5 pollution levels in this 4.8% region, providing the top 5 most polluted cities here. Major Regional cities which met the regional emission sources contributing to air pollution in all WHO PM2.5 target in 2018 countries include agriculture, transportation with inefficient vehicle and fuel standards, as well as biomass fuel burning for household and commercial heating and cooking. 4.5 43.3 Chile in particular suffers from high levels of particulate pol - 1 Punta Arenas, Chile Padre las Casas, Chile lution as a result of wood burning for heating , which govern - ment policies are aiming to tackle by promoting access to cleaner heating technologies. Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Moderate Hazardous Unhealthy Very Unhealthy Hazardous WHO target Very Unhealthy Unhealthy WHO target Moderate Good Good Range of annual mean PM2.5 (μg/m³) across regional cities MONITORING STATUS Most Polluted Regional Cities Cleanest Regional Cities Real-time air monitoring coverage in this region remains moderately low, with Chile and Mexico supplying the largest 2018 AVG City Rank City Rank 2018 AVG number of measurement points. Brazil’s real-time PM2.5 data Padre las Casas, Chile 1 1 Punta Arenas, Chile 4.5 43.3 is limited to a network of stations located within Sao Paulo 2 Osorno, Chile 2 Guanajuato, Mexico state, whilst the US State Department program provides air 9.0 38.2 quality readings for Colombia and Puerto Rico. Antofagasta, Chile 3 3 Coyhaique, Chile 9.1 34.2 Valdivia, Chile 4 4 Alto Hospicio, Chile 10.5 33.3 Ribeirao Preto, Brazil 30.4 5 Temuco, Chile 5 11.3 Mexicali, Mexico 6 6 Taubate, Brazil 11.4 30.2 Huasco, Chile 7 29.4 7 Santiago, Chile 11.5 Vina del Mar, Chile 8 8 Lima, Peru 11.9 28.0 9 9 Toluca, Mexico Arica, Chile 12.5 26.4 10 10 Linares, Chile Catano, Puerto Rico 12.8 25.5 Ecatepec de Morelos, 11 11 Coquimbo, Chile 12.8 24.9 Mexico Tlalnepan tla de Baz, 12 12 Abasolo, Mexico 23.7 13.0 Mexico Rancagua, Chile 13 13 22.9 Pachuca de Soto, Mexico 13.3 14 14 Nezahualcóyotl, Mexico Valparaiso, Chile 22.8 13.4 Puerto Montt, Chile 15 15 Piracicaba, Brazil 13.6 22.6 1 https://www.unenvironment.org/news-and-stories/story/chile-takes-action- air-pollution | 16

17 AFRICA Ethiopia | Nigeria | Uganda PM2.5 Country/Region Ranking * (μg/m³) 250.4 1. Nigeria (44.8) 150.4 2. Uganda (40.8) 55.4 3. Ethiopia (27.1) 35.4 12.0 10.0 70 90 80 100 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 PM2.5 annual mean (μg/m³) Available cities with real time monitoring in 2018 SUMMARY The African continent has the most notable lack of accessible 0% - air quality monitoring data, whilst facing numerous challeng Regional cities which met the es related to regional air quality. Africa has one of the fastest * WHO PM2.5 target in 2018 rates of urbanization of any region, with increasing numbers of the population moving to large cities, where air pollution levels tend to be higher. Significant pollution emission sources include fuels such as coal, wood and kerosene for cooking, made more challenging to tackle in rural areas due to limited 27.1 53.4 infrastructure or accessibility of alternative energy sources. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Kano, Nigeria Waste and agricultural burning and inefficient transportation 1 also contribute to high PM2.5 levels . Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups WHO target Moderate Good Moderate Good Unhealthy Very Unhealthy Hazardous WHO target Very Unhealthy Unhealthy Hazardous Range of annual mean PM2.5 (μg/m³) across regional cities MONITORING STATUS * * Most Polluted Regional Cities Cleanest Regional Cities m South Africa where there is a deployment of a Apart fro 2018 AVG Rank City Rank City 2018 AVG 2 substantial network of air quality monitors , overall, Africa 1 Kano, Nigeria 1 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 53.4 27.1 suffers from a serious lack of air quality monitoring data, 2 Kampala, Uganda 2 Port Harcourt, Nigeria leaving more than a billion people without adequate air pol - 32.7 40.8 lution exposure information. Available real-time data included Kampala, Uganda 3 3 Port Harcourt, Nigeria 40.8 32.7 in this report is supplied by US State department monitors in 4 4 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Kano, Nigeria 27.1 53.4 addition to privately operated IQAir AirVisual monitors. This lack of data results in low regional levels of awareness about 5 5 air pollution, limiting people’s capacity to protect their health. 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 https://www.unenvironment.org/news-and-stories/story/air-pollution-af 1 - ricas-invisible-silent-killer-1 15 15 2 The aggregated real-time data from the South African monitoring network is not included here since it did not meet the availability criteria for this report. * Based on availability of real-time monitoring stations. In Africa (2018), this was limited to 4 cities. 17 |

18 Next Steps As this report illustrates, while some regions have made considerable progress in providing real-time air quality monitoring data, many cities and regions remain underrepresented. The scale of the health hazard now posed by global air pollution stresses the urgent need for more access to timely air quality data that allows citizens and communities to take informed decisions and actions to protect their health. In addition to increasing the number of high-cost governmental reference stations, generating more public data through low-cost sensors is one solution for cities and communities to accelerate access to localized air quality Making real-time information. air quality data Making air quality data accessible is one of the most effective ways to accessible is one improve air quality. Public readings generate public awareness, which drives of the most demand for action. The advances made in air pollution control and reduction since China’s implementation of national air quality monitoring, is just one effective ways to example of how access to real-time air quality information can positively catalyze change. Today, impact a country’s approach to air quality policy and management. programs China has one of the most comprehensive air quality monitoring and is leading the way in improving air quality in its major cities. What can I do? Reducing personal exposure to air pollution can be achieved through simple Reducing personal actions. These can include reducing outdoor activities when pollution levels are high, protecting indoor spaces by closing windows during outdoor air exposure to air pollution episodes, and where possible, implementing indoor air purification pollution can be and/or personal outdoor respiratory protection. achieved through The free IQAir AirVisual Air Quality App provides real-time air quality information , simple actions air quality forecasts and actionable health recommendations that allow individuals and organizations to reduce their exposure to air pollutants. Personal choices can also have a significant impact on reducing pollution emissions. Choosing clean modes of transport (cycling, walking, public transport where available), lowering household energy usage and personal waste output, and supporting local air quality initiatives can all positively impact the air quality in our communities and on our planet. in your neighbourhood is also one way to accelerate access to real-time Deploying an air quality monitor 1 information . , and raise awareness of local conditions within your community https://www.airvisual.com/air-pollution-information/blog/join-the-movement-for-a-cleaner-planet-become-a-public-air-pollution-data-contributor-today 1 | 18

19 Methodology Data sources The air quality data included in this report is generated from ground-based monitoring stations that report PM2.5 concentrations. The majority of data presented here has been aggregated in real-time (on an hourly basis) from data made publicly available by various governmental agencies. The real-time aggregated data from government sources within Europe has been combined with historical data records made available by the European Environment Agency (EEA) for 2018, to provide a fuller dataset where there may have been delays in some areas’ real-time reporting. Historical data has also been added from some local government sources not available from the EEA at the time of creating this report, including from Turkey, Hungary and Romania. Further PM2.5 data is also included from a selection of validated outdoor IQAir AirVisual PM2.5 monitoring stations operated by private individuals and organizations, many of which provide the only available, real-time air quality information for their area. Data calculation Data is collected from individual monitoring stations and then grouped under a city. For cities with more than one monitoring station, city data is averaged by calculating the hourly median between stations in the same city. These hourly median values are then used to calculate both the city’s monthly and annual mean values, 1 respectively . European data records were combined between the available real-time aggregated history from various public sources, and the EEA historical record on a city-by-city basis. For any city with a data record provided both by the real-time aggregated history and the EEA historical data, the record which offers primarily the highest level of data availability over the year, and secondarily the highest number of stations providing measurements, was selected to represent that city. The country/region average values (p.7) are the estimation of the population’s average exposure based on data sampling. This is calculated using the country or region’s available city data as a sample, weighted by population . The level of air quality data granularity may vary between country and region, therefore it must be noted that this ranking is based on data sampling, and while imperfect, it is an attempt to provide a broad global overview and context between countries and regions. The calculation used to estimate a country/region’s average PM2.5 exposure based on available data and weighted by population is: Σ Regional city mean PM2.5 (μg/m³) x City population Total regional population covered by available city dat a 1 Given this calculation method, the annual average may not always be equal to an average of the year’s monthly average values, if some months do not have a complete record of hourly measurements. | 19

20 Data availability Data availability was measured in 2 ways: • “Calendar availability”: a percentage of days of the year (/365) when the location had at least one reading from at least one station. • “Daily average availability”: a me an percentage of hours of the day (/24) which have measurements available, from those days which have at least one reading from at least one station. The availability criteria for data included in this report is, that a city has >50% calendar availability during 2018. - In addition, from the cities with >50% calendar availability, any city with <41% daily average availability (equiva lent to a mean availability of <10 hours readings per day), was removed from the dataset. For reference, a summary of this dataset’s cities’ data availability for 2018: Daily avg. availability Calendar availability (day/365) (hours/24) 3 % > 95% > 95% 11% 14% 8% 90 - 95% 90 - 95% 9% 19% 64% 72% 75 - 90% 75 - 90% 41 - 75% 50 - 75% Disclaimer This report summarizes available PM2.5 data from global locations during 2018, based primarily on public air quality data aggregated by the IQAir AirVisual information platform and supplemented with additional historical datasets from government sources where available. - The information presented lays no claim on completeness. Data sources for real-time aggregated data are dis played on the IQAir AirVisual website. We invite suggestions and discussion of the information provided. IQAir is politically independent and any illustrations or content included in this report are not intended to indicate 1 . any political stance. Regional map images have been generated using OpenStreetMap https://www.openstreetmap.org/ 1 | 20

21 FAQ Why is my area (city / country / region) not listed in this ranking? The area lacks available data from governmental or privately operated air quality monitoring stations. • • The area has data from air monitoring stations (such as PM10, Ozone, SO2, etc), but does not include PM2.5 data. This report only includes stations and cities where PM2.5 data is measured. The accessible measurements for the city had insufficient availability over the year 2018 to be • 1 . representative Why is there a difference between the information in this report and the information provided by my government? • There are different ways to calculate a yearly, monthly, daily and hourly PM2.5 average. This report aggregates city-level data in cities with multiple stations, by calculating the hourly median value across stations. Some outlier values may affect the average calculated in a different way. • Governments may have data from more monitoring stations that are either not published or that IQAir AirVisual did not collect. Alternatively, IQAir AirVisual may be referencing more stations within a city or country for its average than a government. • in Different governments may use a different Air Quality Index system to represent air quality readings a local context. To make direct comparisons, it is important to compare PM2.5 concentration in μg/m³. Why are some locations available on the AirVisual website, not included in this report? • It is possible that newer data sources have recently been added to the IQAir AirVisual reporting platform, whilst they may not have been aggregated for long enough to meet this report’s availability criteria to be representative of 2018. • Some locations may report other pollutants via the AirVisual website, but not PM2.5, which is a requirement to be included in this report. For some locations which lack real-time PM2.5 information, AirVisual provides an estimated PM2.5 • 2 value, which is marked with an asterisk (*) . Only measured PM2.5, not estimations, have been included in this report. I would like to view the whole city ranking, where can I find it? You can browse through the full interactive air quality data set of the world’s most polluted cities presented on the IQAir AirVisual website, which also provides monthly mean values for each location, so that seasonal trends may also be seen. further questions, you can contact IQAir AirVisual directly. If you have How precise is the ranking? The rankings are based on real world monitoring data from a variety of sources. All monitoring methods have a degree of error. The rankings presented here represent annual average concentrations taken from multiple monitoring sites, and data is checked and validated. However, even after this process the data may have some uncertainty. Where cities and countries in the ranking have similar PM2.5 concentrations, the ranking may be affected by measurement error and the ranking position should be considered to be indicative rather than absolute. 1 See Methodology, “Data availability”, p.20. http://support.airvisual.com/knowledgebase/articles/1885072-what-does-the-asterisk-mean-on-some-locations 2 | 21

22 Acknowledgements This report is made possible through the efforts of numerous governmental agencies, whose work in publishing real-time air quality data is invaluable to empower people to protect their health and take steps to improve air quality. This report is also made possible through the efforts of countless individuals and NGO data contributors who operate their own air quality monitors and make this data publicly available. About IQAir AirVisual IQAir AirVisual is a global air quality information platform operated by the IQAir Group. By aggregating and validating air quality data from governments, private individuals and non-governmental organizations, IQAir Air - Visual aims to provide global and hyper-local air quality information that allows individuals, organizations and governments to take steps that improve air quality in communities, cities and countries all over the world. Report V1.1. Recent updates are reflected in the Changelog .

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Economic Report of the President Together with The Annual Report of the Council of Economic Advisers M a rc h 2019

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625137

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