Early Childhood Standards of Quality for Prekindergarten

Transcript

1 Early Childhood Quality of Standards for Prekindergarten Michigan State Board of Education Initially approved March 8, 2005 Revised March 12, 2013 powered by the ® Collaboratives Michigan’s Great Start and a EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

2 © 2005 Michigan State Board of Education. Following State Board approval, this document may be freely reproduced without permission for non-profit educational purposes. Use of, or reference to, this document should cite: Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing, MI. (2005). Early Childhood Standards of Quality for Prekindergarten.

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 . Alignment with Related Documents 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction 11 . . . . Early Learning Expectations for Three- and Four-Year Old Children Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Approaches to Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Creative Arts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Language and Early Literacy Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 . Dual Language Learning 39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technology Literacy-Early Learning and Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Social, Emotional and Physical Health and Development . . . . . . . . . . 52 Early Learning in Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Early Learning in Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Early Learning in Social Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Quality Program Standards for Prekindergarten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 The Program’s Statement of Philosophy 88 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Community Collaboration and Financial Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Physical and Mental Health, Nutrition and Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 . Staffing and Administrative Support and Professional Development . . . . 100 The Partnership with Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 The Learning Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Relationships and Climate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Teaching Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Facilities, Materials, and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Child Assessment and Program Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 . Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Resources . 149 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

4 Acknowledgments Early Childhood Standards of Quality Ad Hoc Advisory Committee 2006 Patricia E. Barnard, Ph.D. Blanche Deren Michigan Department of Education Macomb County Community Services Mary Donegan, Ph.D. University of Michigan – Dearborn Ann Belleau Inter-Tribal Council of Michigan JoAnn Dunker Godwin Heights Public Schools Cynthia Bewick, Ph.D. Tri-County Head Start Harriet Egertson, Ph.D. Susan Bigelow Consultant/Technical Writer Parent Representative Winifred Findley Michigan Council of Teachers of Deanna Birdyshaw University of Michigan Mathematics Michigan Reading Association Linda Forward Michigan Department of Education Joan Blough Michigan Department of Community Larry Foster Health Michigan Association of Administrators of Special Education Deborah Bodrick Detroit Public Schools Denise Gasper Newaygo Public Schools Lindy Buch, Ph.D. Michigan Department of Education Linda George Branch Intermediate School District Kim Cairy Michigan Art Education Association Michigan Association of Intermediate School Administrators Roselyn Chaffin Ruth Goorhouse Michigan 4C Association Inter-Tribal Council of Michigan Patricia A. Chen Parent Representative Judy Goth-Owens Lansing Community College Carolyn L. Curtin American Associate Degree Early Childhood Educators (ACCESS) Michigan State Board of Education Todd Greenbaum Kris Deckett Wolf Trap Coordinator Tawas Area School District Michigan Association for the Brenda DeKuiper Education of Young Children Parent Representative Cheryl Hall Reneé DeMars-Johnson Michigan Department of Education Michigan Department of Education MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 2

5 Lee Harrier Mischele McManus Michigan Department of Education Telamon Corporation/Michigan Migrant Head Start Anna Miller Becky Harrison Wayne State University Parent Participant Cecelia L. Mobley Sandra Howe, Ed.D. Wayne County Head Start Project Coordinator Ginny Muller, Ph.D. Carl Ill Saginaw Valley State University Allegan Intermediate School District Michigan Early Childhood Education Consortium Judy Kelly Keith Myers, Ed.D. Grade Level Content Expectations Revision Committee Michigan Association for the Education of Young Children Joanne Kelty Regena Nelson, Ph.D. Grand Rapids Public Schools Western Michigan University Michigan Middle Cities Association Michigan Association of Early Childhood Teacher Educators Maria Kingsley Michigan Department of Education Susan B. Neuman, Ed.D. Mark Larson, Ph.D. University of Michigan Wayne State University Laurie Nickson David Larwa Michigan Early Childhood Michigan Science Teachers Professionals Consortium Association Johanna Ostwald Joan Lessen-Firestone, Ph.D. Dickinson-Iron Intermediate School Oakland Schools District Karen Menke Paciorek, Ph.D. Judy Levine Michigan Department of Education Eastern Michigan University Michigan Association of School Boards Shannon Lockhart High/Scope Educational Research Foundation Lucian Parshall, Ed.D. Michigan Council for Exceptional Children Richard Lower Michigan Head Start Association Judy Paxton Michigan Association for Computer Mary Mackrain Users and Learning Michigan Child Care Expulsion Prevention Initiative Nancy Peeler Michigan Department of Community Kristen McDonald-Stone Family Independence Agency Health Kathi Pioszak Michael McGraw Michigan Department of Education Family Independence Agency 3 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

6 Theresia Prince Dianne Stephenson City of Detroit, Department of Human Early Childhood Consultant Services Faith Stevens Michigan Department of Education Anne Ramsby Michigan Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Eileen Storer Smith, Ph.D. Region V Head Start Technical Dance Assistance Specialist Connie Robinson Elizabeth Sulzby, Ph.D. Michigan Department of Education University of Michigan Barbara Roth Sara Tackett YMCA of the USA Michigan Library Association Rosemary Rowland Lorraine Thoreson Quality Time Child Care Michigan Department of Education James Sandy Michigan Business Leaders for Rhonda Tyree Facilitator Education Excellence Lisa Brewer Walraven Karen Shirer Michigan State University Extension Michigan 4C Association Michigan Child Care Task Force Melody Sievert Family Independence Agency Reneé Webster Perry Public Schools Kathryn Sims Kim White Michigan Association for Infant Mental Everyone in Education Health Nancy Willyard James Sinnamon Head Start State Collaboration Family Independence Agency Project Pat Soreson Vanessa Winborne Michigan’s Children Michigan Department of Education Kelly Spangler Parent Participant Jacqueline Wood Michigan Department of Education Tracy Spring Jackson Public Schools Mara Stein Capital Area Community Services, Inc. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 4

7 Early Childhood Standards of Quality for Prekindergarten Review Committee 2011-13 Susan Andersen Harriet Egertson Technical Writer Technical Writer Patricia E. Barnard, Ph.D. Dr. Ann S. Epstein Macomb County Community HighScope Educational Services Research Foundation Ann Belleau Winifred Findley Michigan Council of Mathematics Inter-Tribal Council of Michigan Content Expert Dawn Bentley Joan Firestone, Ph.D. Michigan Association of Administrators of Special Education Oakland Schools Robin Bozek Rosemary Fournier Michigan Department of Community Michigan Head Start Association Health Fetal Infant Mortality Review Lisa Brewer-Walraven Office of Great Start Linda George Michigan Department of Education Branch Intermediate School District Susan Broman Lonias Gilmore Office of Great Start Michigan Department of Education Michigan Department of Community Health Kim Cairy Nutrition and Physical Activity/ Michigan Art Education Childhood Obesity Content Expert Judy Goth-Owens Lansing Community College Gretechen Couraud Michigan Library Association ACCESS Lee Harrier Linda Dann Telamon Corporation Michigan Department of Community Michigan Migrant Head Start Health Project LAUNCH Patricia Heiler Michigan Department of Reneé DeMars-Johnson Community Health Office of Great Start Nutrition and Physical Activity/ Michigan Department of Education Childhood Obesity Blanche Deren Mina Hong Office of Great Start Michigan Department of Education Michigan’s Children Stuart Jones Greg Dionne Office of Education, Improvement, and Muskegon Intermediate School District Innovation Michigan Department of Education Joanne Kelty Grand Rapids Public Schools Michelle Donovan Michigan Head Start Association 5 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

8 Debbie Kitson Laurie Nickson University of Michigan Michigan Association for the Michigan Reading Association Education of Young Children Jan Lampman Alan Olman Washtenaw Intermediate School Everyone in Education District Mark Larson, Ph.D. Wayne State University Nancy Peeler Michigan Department of Community Laurie Linscott Health IMH Michigan State University Karen Lishinski Jeremy Reuter Michigan Department of Community Office of Great Start Michigan Department of Education Health Childhood Lead/Healthy Homes Nurse Pat Sargent Office of Great Start Michigan Department of Education Richard Lower Office of Great Start Michigan Department of Education James Sinnamon Child Care Licensing Michigan Department of Human Mischele McManus Services Office of Great Start Michigan Department of Education Stacy Ann Sipes Mary Mackrain Office of Great Start Michigan Department of Education Michigan Department of Community Health Elizabeth Sulzby, Ph.D. Mental Health University of Michigan Karen Menje Paciorek, Ph.D. Wilma Taylor-Costen Eastern Michigan University Detroit Public Schools Anna Miller Wayne State University Rich VanTol Saginaw Intermediate School District Cecelia Mobley Wayne County Head Start Lisa Wasacz Office of Great Start Michigan Department of Education Keith Myers, Ed.D Michigan Association for the Education of Young Children Deb Weatherston Michigan Association of Infant Mental Regena Nelson, PH.D. Health Western Michigan University Alicia Williams Early Childhood Investment Susan B. Neuman, Ed.D Corporation University of Michigan Kellye Wood Michelle Nicholson Ingham Intermediate School District Kalamazoo Public Schools MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 6

9 Early Childhood Standards of Quality for Prekindergarten Introduction his document stands on the shoulders of earlier efforts by the Michigan State T Board of Education and its agency and organizational partners to define quality programs for young children and the learning that might be expected of children at certain ages and stages. Several documents and initiatives were the direct “parents” of this new document. • As early as 1971, the State Board of Education approved Preprimary Objectives to describe the learning and development expected for preschool and kindergarten-age children. The objectives were divided into three domains: affective, psychomotor, and cognitive. These objectives were used as Michigan pioneered implementation of programs for preschool children with special needs in the early 1970s, before federal law mandated such programs. • On November 5, 1986, the State Board of Education approved the document, Standards of Quality and Curriculum Guidelines for Preschool The purpose of that document was to Programs for Four Year Olds. provide the framework for the design and implementation of a high-quality preschool program targeted to four year olds at-risk of school failure. • Recognizing the value and need for quality early childhood education programs for children four through eight years old, the Michigan State Board of Education appointed another committee to develop Early Childhood Standards of Quality for Prekindergarten through Second Grade, and adopted those standards on December 15, 1992. Although used broadly, many of the recommendations were most applicable to public school districts because of the wide age range covered. • At about the same time, procedural safeguards and other rules were adopted for Early Childhood Special Education (formerly Pre-Primary Impaired, PPI) classrooms. • In August 2002, the Michigan State Board of Education adopted the report of its Task Force on Ensuring Early Childhood Literacy. The report directed the Department of Education to develop a single document, including expectations for young children’s development and learning, and quality standards defining programs that would allow them to reach those expectations. It had become apparent that a document was needed that focused on children ages three and four, and the programs that serve them. Additionally, varying program standards were making inclusion of targeted groups of children (e.g., children with disabilities) in some programs difficult. Further, emerging federal requirements for early childhood opportunities • for states also supported the need for a revision of the current documents in 2005. 7 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

10 • Once this document was completed, it was clear that Michigan needed a Early Childhood Standards of similar document for younger children, and Quality for Infant and Toddler Programs was adopted by the State Board of Education on December 12, 2006. • Early Learning Advisory Council funds provided the opportunity to revise both Early Childhood Standards of Quality for Infant and Toddler Programs and Early Childhood Standards of Quality for Prekindergarten from 2011-13. This revision reflects current initiatives to show continuity of development and programming from birth through age eight. The 2005 document included alignment with kindergarten standards and with Head Start national frameworks. Alignment with Michigan’s adopted standards for kindergarten to third grade is linked to this document, as extensive alignment work has occurred. This required revisions to the Prekindergarten expectations as well as adoption of new expectations in some domains to span the prekindergarten to third grade years. In January 2003, Michigan embarked on a journey to develop a comprehensive early childhood system, culminating in 2011 with an Executive Order creating the Office of Great Start to enable Michigan to achieve these Prenatal to Age 8 outcomes: • Children born healthy; • Children healthy, thriving, and developmentally on track from birth to third grade ; • Children developmentally ready to succeed in school at the time of school entry; and Children prepared to succeed in fourth grade and beyond • by reading proficiently by the end of third grade. The Great Start effort begins with a philosophic underpinning that every child in Michigan is entitled to early childhood experiences and settings that will prepare him/her for success. As the systems work unfolded, it became clear that expectations for young children’s learning and quality program standards beyond minimum child care licensing rules were a critical foundation for all of the system. This system of early childhood education and care standards will ultimately address standards for infants and toddlers, preschoolers, and primary grade children, including both early learning expectations and program quality standards for classroom-based programs and family child care settings. Standards for parenting education programs and for professional development are also needed. Standards for out-of-school time programs (before- and after-school programs, and summer programs) for school-agers have likewise been developed. This system of high quality standards sets the stage for the development of a comprehensive and coordinated system of services. Individual programs and funding opportunities will further define accomplishment of the standards through their own operating procedures and implementation manuals. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 8

11 Michigan’s Great Start to Quality Tiered Quality Rating and Improvement System ties programs together. It is based on the found in Quality Program Standards each age level document. Young children’s development and learning are highly dependent upon Early Childhood Standards of Quality for their relationships and environments. Prekindergarten is meant to provide guidance to all early care and education programs for providing all three- and four-year-old children with opportunities to reach essential developmental and educational goals. Carefully developed early learning expectations linked to K-12 expectations can contribute to a more Early Childhood cohesive, unified approach to young children’s education. Standards of Quality for Prekindergarten includes both Quality Program Standards for Prekindergarten Programs and Early Learning Expectations for Three- and Four-Year-Old Children . Clear research-based expectations for the content and desired results of early learning experiences can help focus curriculum and instruction. By defining the content and outcomes of young children’s early education, the early learning expectations will lead to greater opportunities for preschoolers’ positive development. Early Learning Expectations does not mean Definition of a single set of that every three- or four-year old’s development and learning will be the same as every other child’s development and learning. Learning and development in the early years is characterized by variability, dependent on experience, and connected across domains. Similarly, definition of a single set of Quality Program Standards does not imply that every preschool/prekindergarten classroom in Michigan will or should look the same. A variety of curricula, methodology, and program implementation strategies are required to meet the needs of the diversity of children and to provide choices to meet families’ goals and preferences. The wide framework of the standards, based on research, and the range of opportunities for programs to meet those standards, will ensure a continuum of services to support Michigan’s young children. Continuity is important so that expectations of children at a certain age are consistent. Equally important, expectations must build so that children’s learning is supported systematically over time. is When Early Childhood Standards of Quality for Prekindergarten implemented and utilized as a complete document, the State Board of Education believes that Michigan will improve its early childhood settings to reach even higher quality, that our children will achieve the expectations we have set for them, and that we will achieve our vision of a Great Start for them all. 9 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

12 Alignment with Related Standards Documents ichigan’s Early Childhood Standards of Quality for Prekindergarten (ECSQ- M PK) is intended to help early childhood programs provide high-quality classroom settings and to respond to the diversity of children and families. The ECSQ-PK builds on the minimum regulations detailed in the Licensing Rules for Child Care Centers and incorporates the essential elements of the program and child outcome standards required for various other early childhood programs. In addition, they are aligned with the Michigan’s expectations for children’s learning in kindergarten and the primary grades in all domains and content areas. Alignment with Related Program Standards Licensing Rules for Child Care Centers — Since the ECSQ-PK makes the presumption that preschool programs in centers are already in compliance with the Licensing Rules for Child Care Centers, these minimum regulations have not been duplicated in the ECSQ-PK. Users should also reference the Definitions in the licensing rules to supplement the Glossary in this document. Head Start Performance Standards [45 CFR 1301-1311] — Head Start is a comprehensive child and family development program. The Performance Standards detail requirements for all aspects of program operation, many of which extend beyond the range of services covered by the ECSQ-PK. Many portions of the HSPS are substantially the same as the standards in ECSQ-PK. Alignment with Related Early Learning Expectations Head Start Development and Early Learning Framework — This framework is used by Head Start programs serving three to five-year-old children to shape curriculum and to guide the creation of child assessments. Extensive longitudinal alignment tables between the Early Learning Expectations and content and domain expectations by grade level from kindergarten through grade 3 are found on the Office of Great Start website at www.michigan.gov/greatstart Alignment with Related Documents — This Michigan State Vision and Principles of Universal Education, 2005 Board of Education document outlines the belief that each person deserves and needs a concerned, accepting educational community that values diversity and provides a comprehensive system of individual supports from birth to adulthood. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 10

13 Early Learning Expectations for Early Learning Expectations for Three- and Four-Year-Old Children Three- and Four-Year-Old Children INTRODUCTION ven as early as 1971, Michigan began to define what it is that is reasonable to expect for all young children to accomplish, E and Michigan emphasized the need to attend to all the domains of development. In the 1992 document, Early Childhood Standards of Quality for Prekindergarten through Second Grade, Michigan attempted to define what young children ages four to eight might reasonably be expected to know and be able to do and what they should be learning in high quality programs and settings. In 1992, student expectations were set mostly for the end of elementary school, the end of middle school, and the end of high school, so it seemed important to indicate what children should be learning in the preschool and primary years. The developers wanted to make sure that children would have the opportunity to learn content and acquire appropriate skills within a wide developmental period. Now that children’s achievement is measured yearly beginning in third grade, it has become necessary to define the expectations for student achievement on an annual basis beginning in kindergarten, and by extension, to isolate the learning and development expectations for children before they enter formal schooling. These expectations are meant to emphasize significant 11 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

14 content appropriate for preschoolers at this very special time in their lives, and from the to protect them from an underestimation of their potential pressure of academic work meant for older children. These expectations are not meant to prevent children from enrolling in age- appropriate learning experiences or to exclude them from needed services and supports. High quality preschool and prekindergarten settings, in centers, homes, and throughout the community, provide children experiences and opportunities that allow them to meet these expectations. This section of Early Childhood Standards of Quality for Prekindergarten is meant to apply to all three- and four-year-old children in Michigan, both those whose development is typical and those who are of differing abilities and backgrounds. It recognizes that young children’s growth, development, and learning are highly idiosyncratic. Young children learn at different rates in the various domains of their development and not all children master skills and content within a domain in the same order, although there are patterns to their development. All domains of child development are important to the success of early learners; the domains and learning and development within them are interrelated, and dissected here only to be able to discuss them. The sections that follow are organized with a brief introduction to the domain and content area, followed by statements about children’s learning. Each “early learning expectation” is illustrated by several items indicating how children typically exhibit their progress toward meeting that expectation. These items are not meant to be exhaustive; children will demonstrate their progress in many ways. At the end of each domain are examples of what children experience in order to make progress toward the expectations in that domain. Approaches to Learning The Approaches to Learning Domain was extensively revised to be applicable rd grade. The Approaches to Learning Expectations to Prekindergarten to 3 were developed as a part of the 2012-13 Michigan ECSQ–Birth through Grade 3 Alignment Project to create a link around important areas of development and learning between the Preschool and Kindergarten/Primary years. The Approaches to Learning Domain is about the dynamics of learning how to learn on one’s own and in the company of others. It encompasses the domains of Intellectual Development and Approaches to Learning formerly found in the 2005 edition of ECSQ-PK and is deeply linked to the revision of the Social, Emotional and Physical Health and Development domain in the 2012-13 revision of the Early Learning Expectations (2013 ECSQ-PK) and the Social and Emotional Health in the Health subdomain of the K-3 Grade Level Content Expectations. Approaches to Learning Domain demonstrates the relationship between The thinking, learning and acting. It is the interaction between learners and their Habits of Mind are traits that environment and is comprised of two subdomains: MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 12

15 become skillful individual approaches to learning, acting, thinking, creating and/ or problem solving; are a cluster of selected positive behaviors Social Dispositions that have value in society and allow children to participate and interact more effectively with others. Expectations in the Approaches to Learning Domain are expressions of positive attitudes, skills and learning processes that (combined with wide-ranging content knowledge) build foundations for lifelong learning and responsible living in a continuously changing world. An important focus of the Expectations in Approaches to Learning is the attribute of being literate and educated and using those skills for the betterment of self, eventually living as a positive member of society. Connections to Multiple Domains Expectations in the Approaches to Learning Domain intersect with content knowledge and skills in other PK-3 ECSQ Domains and with the Head Start Early Learning and Development Framework. The Approaches to Learning Domain contains new strategies that focus attention on the outcomes of sustained approaches in varying contexts. The Approaches to Learning Domain is formed at the intersection of knowledge and skills with behaviors or attitudes in social contexts, and when children are provided with opportunities to learn, create, or resolve problems. The Approaches to Learning Domain is based on these assumptions: • Learning is social. Habits of mind and social dispositions are formed by interactions with others — teachers, families and peers. • The traits identified are those that we hope to foster in children and that continue to develop over time. The traits identified in the Approaches to Learning Domain are learned both • from intentional instruction and modeling, and when integrated with other meaningful learning experiences that cross multiple domains of learning. Critical Role of Teachers Preschool teachers play an active role in providing children with opportunities to learn, create, or resolve problems so that they can further develop the knowledge, behaviors and dispositions included in the Approaches to Learning Domain: Learning is facilitated by the intentional arrangement of the environment, • throughout the daily routine, during large and small group times, intentional instruction, active child participation and peer interactions. • Teacher-child interactions are positive and responsive. Teachers are alert and attentive to children’s interests, developmental levels, and progress, and adapt to stretch children’s learning and understanding. • Teachers build communities of learners where these habits of mind and social dispositions are valued, practiced and nurtured daily. Social and emotional development is recognized as vital to successful • learning, both in personal and interpersonal development. 13 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

16 ELE: APPROACHES TO LEARNING  Approaches to Learning Subdomain: Habits of Mind 1. Early Learning Expectation: Creativity-Imagination-Visualization. Children demonstrate a growing ability to use originality or vision when approaching learning; use imagination, show ability to visualize a solution or new concept. Emerging Indicators: 1. Can be playful with peers and adults. Make connections with situations or events, people or stories. 2. 3. Create new images or express ideas. Propose or explore possibilities to suggest what an object or idea might 4. be ‘otherwise.’ Expand current knowledge onto a new solution, new thinking or new 5. concept. 6. Approach tasks and activities with increased flexibility, imagination, inventiveness, and confidence. Grow in eagerness to learn about and discuss a growing range of topics, 7. ideas, and tasks. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 14

17 ELE: APPROACHES TO LEARNING Early Learning Expectation: Initiative-Engagement-Persistence- 2.  Attentiveness. Children demonstrate the quality of showing interest in learning; pursue learning independently. Emerging Indicators: Initiate ‘shared thinking’ with peers and adults. 1. 2. Grow in abilities to persist in and complete a variety of tasks, activities, projects and experiences. 3. Demonstrate increasing ability to set goals and to develop and follow through on plans. 4. Show growing capacity to maintain concentration in spite of distractions and interruptions. 5. Explore, experiment and ask questions freely. 3. Early Learning Expectation: Curiosity–Inquiry-Questioning- Tinkering-Risk Taking. Children demonstrate an interest and eagerness in seeking information (e.g., be able to see things from a different perspective, fiddling with something to figure it out or attempting a reasonable solution). Emerging Indicators: 1. Express a ‘sense of wonder.’ 2. Choose to take opportunities to explore, investigate or question in any domain. Re-conceptualize or re-design (block structures, shapes, art materials, 3. digital images, simple graphs). Early Learning Expectation: Resilience-Optimism-Confidence. 4. Children demonstrate the capacity to cope with change, persist, move ahead with spirit, vitality and a growing belief in one’s ability to realize a goal. Emerging Indicators: 1. Manage reasonable frustration. 2. Meet new and varied tasks with energy, creativity and interest. 3. Explore and ask questions. 4. Begin to organize projects or play; make and carryout plans. 5. Use stories and literature to pretend, play, act or take on characters to help establish their situation or reality. 6. Begin to set aside fear of failure when self-initiating new tasks. 15 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

18 ELE: APPROACHES TO LEARNING 5. Early Learning Expectation: Reasoning-Problem Solving-Reflection.  Children demonstrate a growing capacity to make meaning, using one’s habits of mind to find a solution or figure something out. Emerging Indicators: 1. Begin to hypothesize or make inferences. Show an increasing ability to ask questions appropriate to the 2. circumstance. Show an increasing ability to predict outcomes by checking out and 3. evaluating their predictions. Attempt a variety of ways of solving problems. 4. 5. enjoyment in solving problems. Demonstrate 6. Gather information and learn new concepts through experimentation and discovery, making connections to what they already know. 7. through words or actions the acquisition of increasingly Share complex concepts. 8. Show an increasing ability to observe detail and attributes of objects, activities, and processes. Subdomain: Social Dispositions 6. Early Learning Expectation: Participation-Cooperation-Play- Networking-Contribution. Demonstrate increasing ability to be together with others, in play or intellectual learning opportunities and/or making positive efforts for the good of all; join a community of learners in person and digitally as appropriate. Emerging Indicators: Learn from and through relationships and interactions. 1. 2. Show an increasing ability to initiate and sustain age-appropriate play and interactions with peers and adults. 3. Begin to develop and practice the use of problem-solving and conflict resolution skills. Recognize respectfully the similarities and differences in people (gender, 4. family, race, culture, language). 5. Show an increasing capacity to consider or take into account another’s perspective. 6. Can join a community of learners in person and digitally as appropriate; enjoy mutual engagement. 7. Contribute individual strengths, imagination or interests to a group. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 16

19 ELE: APPROACHES TO LEARNING Successfully develop and keep friendships. 8.  9. Participate successfully as group members. 10. Demonstrate an increasing sense of belonging and awareness of their roles as members of families, classrooms and communities. 7. Early Learning Expectation: Respect for Self and Others — Mental and Behavioral Health. Children exhibit a growing regard for one’s mind and capacity to learn; demonstrate the capacity of consideration for others; show a growing capacity to self-regulate and demonstrate self-efficacy. Emerging Indicators: 1. Show increasing respect for the rights of others. 2. Extend offers (gestures, words) of help to peers or adults, to help them feel that they belong to the group. 3. Cope with stress in a reasonable and age appropriate way. Grow in their capacity to avoid harming themselves, others, or things around them when expressing feelings, needs and opinions. 4. Use positive communication and behaviors (do not mock, belittle, or exclude others). 5. Resolve (or attempt to resolve) conflicts respectfully. 6. Increasingly develop greater self-awareness; identify their own interests and strengths. Can be comfortable choosing to be alone. 7. Demonstrate the ability to care. Can respond with sensitivity or sincerity, later empathy. 8. Can resist and effectively respond to inappropriate peer pressure (as age appropriate). Demonstrate positive feelings about their own gender, family, race, culture 9. and language. 10. Exhibit a growing capacity to self-regulate, demonstrate self-efficacy and know acceptable boundaries. 11. Demonstrate a reasonable self-perception of confidence, can make choices and explain discoveries. 17 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

20 ELE: APPROACHES TO LEARNING 8. Early Learning Expectation: Responsibility-Ethical Actions.  Children are becoming accountable or reliable for their actions to self and others. Emerging Indicators: 1. Contribute to the community (classroom, school, neighborhood) as age appropriate. Grow in understanding of the need for rules and boundaries in their 2. learning and social environments. 3. Show an increasing ability to follow simple, clear and consistent directions and rules. 4. Begin to take action to fix their mistakes, solve problems with materials . and resolve conflicts with others; do not blame others inappropriately 5. Take initiative to do something positive to contribute to their community (family, classroom, school, neighborhood) as age appropriate. 6. Increase understanding of the relationship between people and their environment and begin to recognize the importance of taking care of the resources in their environment. 7. Use materials purposefully, safely and respectfully more of the time. 8. Respect the property of others and that of the community. Examples of Children’s Experiences and Teaching Practices to Support Learning Expectations in the Approaches to Learning Domain These examples and questions for teachers are intended to: 1) assist teachers in reflecting on their own practice in the classroom; 2) help consider the experiences and prior learning of the children in their classrooms; and, 3) visualize representative experiences and practices that lead toward reaching the Michigan Early Learning Expectations across the PK-3 age/grade levels. The Examples provided in the Preschool ECSQ correspond to those found in the full PK-Grade 3 age/grade range as age and developmentally appropriate. See Examples connected to the Approaches to Learning Domain in related Expectations across other domains that offer rich opportunities for integrated learning across the curriculum. Examples of What Children Experience: Habits of Mind • Opportunities to explain their thinking process and to receive respectful feedback about how they reached a decision or created an object. • Encouragement for their natural curiosity. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 18

21 ELE: APPROACHES TO LEARNING Many opportunities to learn problem solving skills with teacher support, •  coaching and modeling of the thinking processes. • The opportunity to come back to favorite activities or to reengage in a project. • Activities that encourage their unique strengths, abilities and natural motivation. • Opportunities to take the time to persevere, be engaged and use their curiosity through a long-term project or investigation. • Time to reflect on their learning, actions, choices and reasoning. • Participation on teams and collaborative projects that cross age, gender , ability and language capacities or approaches. • Opportunities within the learning setting that build confidence and optimism (not ego). Social Dispositions • A responsive teacher. • A feeling of belonging in this classroom. • A place where they know the boundaries and the expectations. • A feeling of being affirmed as an individual. • Opportunities to discuss their understanding of their rights and responsibilities and those of others. • Games and activities that are engaging to play with and alongside others. • Time to discuss things that are both intriguing and troubling to them. Many opportunities to learn to solve problems with teacher support, • coaching and modeling of the process. • Appropriate responses (physical, verbal, social) in both positive and challenging situations. • A positive environment where children are kind to each other in actions and words. An environment where no child is mocked, belittled, bullied or ignored. • • Daily opportunities to use good manners and receive appropriate feedback. • Reinforcement to believe that the small things they do can make a difference in their classroom, at home, and in the larger community. • Support to learn how to negotiate, participate and communicate in a variety of situations. 19 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

22 ELE: APPROACHES TO LEARNING What Teachers and Other Adults Do:  Habits of Mind Ensure that every child feels as if he or she belongs to this classroom of • learners? • Establish (with children) and enforce the rules of what is fair and acceptable behavior and communication in the classroom. Strive to become culturally competent in their teaching. • Recognize and model respect for linguistic diversity. • • Establish a positive classroom climate. • Build a learning environment where children feel physically, verbally and intellectually safe. • Recognize that learning is a social encounter. • Encourage children to follow their interests, curiosity, passion or talents; help children to discover what they want to learn more about and things they find fascinating. • Celebrate learning and build confidence and resourcefulness. • Balance digital learning with human interaction. • Read biographies and autobiographies of people with accomplishment in the arts or sciences that demonstrate creativity, curiosity, passion and perseverance. • Design cross-disciplinary collaborations that are age appropriate yet meaningful. Social Dispositions Model pro-social behaviors. • Honor the need for children to play. • • Use high quality literature that allows children to see others in similar ‘stressful’ situations to open doors for conversation and problem solving; e.g., divorce, military deployment, new baby, moving. • Regularly initiate positive communications and positive interpersonal interactions with peers and children. • Validate children’s feelings, recognizing that each child responds to stress or joy differently and that these responses are influenced by culture and family experiences; seek assistance from professional sources when needed. • Model and teach the ability to trust children and peers. • Act ethically and model (as appropriate) the choice to do the right thing. • Make it very clear that children are not allowed to be bullied or excluded. • Ensure that every child feels as if he or she belongs to this classroom of learners. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 20

23 ELE: APPROACHES TO LEARNING • Foster empathy and understanding by reading or telling stories about  other people. • Establish a community of learners where all children, regardless of gender, ability, ethnicity, language or background, have rights and responsibilities. Introduce, model and coach children in new social skills and development • of the ability to state their own opinion or idea appropriately. • Plan an environment that minimizes conflict by providing enough materials, space and equipment and by setting clear expectations. 21 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

24 ELE: CREATIVE DEVELOPMENT  Creative Arts (CA) The creative arts include the visual arts (drawing, painting, ceramics, sculpture, printmaking, fiber, and multimedia), instrumental and vocal music, creative movement, and dramatic play (puppetry, storytelling, mime, and role playing). Support for children’s creative development is essential to foster their appreciation of the arts and their competence, self-reliance, and success. Children’s learning in all domains is enhanced by the integration of the creative arts with other areas of the curriculum. Teachers who encourage creativity nurture self-esteem and mutual respect. Children whose questions, individuality, and originality are honored see themselves as valued persons who can succeed in school and life. Early Learning Expectation: Visual Arts. Children show how 1. they feel, what they think, and what they are learning through experiences in the visual arts. Emerging Indicators: 1. Use their own ideas to draw, paint, mold, and build with a variety of art materials (e.g., paint, clay, wood, materials from nature such as leaves). 2. Begin to plan and carry out projects and activities with increasing persistence. 3. Begin to show growing awareness and use of artistic elements (e.g., line, shape, color, texture, form). 4. Create representations that contain increasing detail. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 22

25 ELE: CREATIVE DEVELOPMENT 2. Early Learning Expectation: Instrumental and Vocal Music. Children show how they feel, what they think, and what they are learning through listening, participating in, and creating  instrumental and vocal music experiences. Emerging Indicators: 1. Participate in musical activities (e.g., listening, singing, finger plays, singing games, and simple performances) with others. 2. Begin to understand that music comes in a variety of musical styles. 3. Begin to understand and demonstrate the components of music (e.g., tone, pitch, beat, rhythm, melody). 4. Become more familiar with and experiment with a variety of musical instruments. 3. Early Learning Expectation: Movement and Dance. Children show how they feel, what they think, and what they are learning through movement and dance experiences. Emerging Indicators: 1. Can respond to selected varieties of music, literature, or vocal tones to express their feelings and ideas through creative movement. 2. Begin to show awareness of contrast through use of dance elements (e.g., time: fast/slow; space: high/middle/low; energy: hard/soft). 3. Begin to identify and create movement in place and through space. 4. Early Learning Expectation: Dramatic Play. Children show how they feel, what they think, and what they are learning through dramatic play. Emerging Indicators: 1. Grow in the ability to pretend and to use objects as symbols for other things. 2. Use dramatic play to represent concepts, understand adult roles, characters, and feelings. 3. Begin to understand components of dramatic play (e.g., setting, prop, costume, voice). 4. Contribute ideas and offer suggestions to build the dramatic play theme. 5. Begin to differentiate between fantasy and reality. 23 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

26 ELE: CREATIVE DEVELOPMENT 5. Early Learning Expectation: Aesthetic Appreciation. Children develop rich and rewarding aesthetic lives.  Emerging Indicators: 1. Develop healthy self-concepts through creative arts experiences. 2. Show eagerness and pleasure when approaching learning through the creative arts. 3. Show growing satisfaction with their own creative work and growing respect for the creative work of others. 4. Can use alternative forms of art to express themselves depending on the avenues available to them (e.g., through the visual arts, if hearing impaired; through listening to music, if physically impaired). 5. Are comfortable sharing their ideas and work with others. 6. Use the creative arts to express their view of the world. 7. Begin to develop their own preferences for stories, poems, illustrations, forms of music, and other works of art. 8. Begin to appreciate their artistic heritage and that of other cultures. 9. Can talk about their creations with peers and adults. 10. Begin to develop creative arts vocabulary. Examples of Children’s Experiences and Teaching Practices to Support Learning Expectations in Creative Arts These examples and questions for teachers are intended to: 1) assist teachers in reflecting on their own practice in the classroom; 2) to help consider the experiences and prior learning of the children in their classrooms; and, 3) to visualize representative experiences and practices that lead toward reaching the Michigan Early Learning Expectations across the PK-3 age/grade levels. The Examples provided in the Preschool ECSQ correspond to those found in the full PK-Grade 3 age/grade range as age and developmentally appropriate. See connected Examples in the Approaches to Learning Domain and related expectations in other domains that offer rich opportunities for integrated learning across the curriculum. Examples of What Children Experience: In the Visual Arts: • Multiple opportunities to use a variety of art materials to create and explore the mediums, the results and the same concept using a variety of art materials. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 24

27 ELE: CREATIVE DEVELOPMENT Time outside in the natural environment to observe and respect the visual • beauty of nature; to draw and to connect the mathematical and scientific phenomena together as appropriate.  • Encouragement to develop confidence in their own creative expression largely through self-selected, process-oriented experiences. • Explanations and demonstrations of how art tools and materials can be used and should be properly cared for and used safely, • Opportunities to take the responsibility of caring for various art materials respectfully. • Opportunities to use natural materials to design create or build both inside and outdoors. • An environment with displays (at the child’s eye level) of their art work, that of their peers and works by various local and professional artists with representations of various cultures. Displays that they have constructed themselves to show growth, to share with their parents. • Encouragement to revise or add to their projects or documentations when they have new discoveries. • Support for dual language learners in learning new ‘art’ processes or creative and descriptive vocabulary from both teachers and peers. • Daily experiences that provide opportunities for exploration of the relationship of space and objects as well as color, balance, texture and design both indoors and outside. • A sense of respect as they explain their personal works of art with a teacher, classmate, or parent, and describe how they were made. Through Music: • Pleasure when approaching learning through the creative arts, pleasure from listening to and making music. • Growing satisfaction and a healthy self-concept about their own creative work with music and growing respect for the creativity of others. • Adaptations and alternative forms of art so they can express ideas about music depending on the avenues available to them; e.g., through the visual arts, if hearing impaired; through listening to music, if physically impaired. • Daily opportunities to make music alone and/or with others and opportunities to make choices about the music they like to listen to or move to. • Time to express or interpret their reactions or feelings to a diverse range of music and dance from different cultures, musical genres and/or styles. • The sights and sounds of the natural environment as a learning experience with musical undertones. 25 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

28 ELE: CREATIVE DEVELOPMENT • A beginning appreciation of their musical heritage and that of other cultures.  Through Movement and Dance: An environment that contains materials and equipment for children to • practice developing skills in movement, rhythm and dance; including games and activities that involve balance and body coordination. Opportunities to participate in both structured and unstructured movement • activities; encouragement to make up their own dance movements or use dance to interpret or imitate feelings or other situations. A rich vocabulary of expressions to describe movement; e.g., gallop, twist, • stretch, creep, waltz, tap, swinging, swaying, etc. • Opportunities to experience performances of dance; e.g., performances by community, school groups, intergenerational groups or professionals. • Encouragements to tap into their undiscovered talents, enliven their day , and use their imagination. • Opportunities to view and participate in movement experiences from a variety of cultures, especially those represented by families of the children in the class. Through Dramatic Play and Theater: • The opportunity to role play and/or pantomime characters from familiar and culturally relevant songs, stories and nursery rhymes in person or through puppet shows they create. • Opportunities where children can role play familiar roles or situations, practice positive interactions, or use their imaginations. • Time to create various forms of props, puppets, or costumes for their dramatic play; or to create group-constructed murals or sets inside or outdoors for use with their play and presentations. • A flexible environment that stimulates the imagination with appropriate and varied props, furniture, materials and enough space and time for children to become fully engaged. • Opportunities to observe plays or dramatic presentations of peers, older students or community groups that are age appropriate and add to the cultural experiences of young children. • Scaffolding from teachers to provide just the “right” amount of support to help them notice and elaborate upon what is happening while they are involved in dramatic play. • Encouragement from adults to see themselves as actors, creators, designers through their projects; acknowledgement through verbal recognition and/or digital recordings of their efforts. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 26

29 ELE: CREATIVE DEVELOPMENT Examples of What Teachers and Other Adults Do: In the Visual Arts:  • Point out various forms of the visual arts found in books, photographs/ prints, digital representations and in a wide variety of settings. Use the names of primary and secondary colors including black and white • as they use various art materials; e.g., tempera, finger paint, watercolors, crayons, markers, chalks; provide opportunities for children to create “new” colors. • Work with family members and community partners to arrange opportunities for children to observe various artists who use different techniques and art media, assuring that artists from a variety of cultures are represented. • Provide opportunities for children to observe that physical and intellectual disabilities are not barriers to expressing through the creative arts. • Make specific comments about the qualities of children’s work to support their creativity and encourage their own sense of style. • Provide new and unusual materials and ways to use them to create. Maintain adequate space for art experiences and explorations. • Arrange the classroom schedule so that children can participate in individual and group art activities. • Assure that opportunities to create and explore the visual arts ensure or accommodates the participation of children with special needs. • Use children’s work as a springboard to explore and discuss art forms independently and in small groups; e.g., extend children’s understanding of balance, as an element in creating sculpture, to balancing one’s body in different ways. Display and respect art from different cultures and artistic traditions; i.e. • museum postcards and prints, calendar art, internet web sites, videos, or sculpture. • Intentionally incorporate the visual arts across the curriculum. • Document child progress in exploration and experimentation by collecting work samples, taking photographs, and making notes that reflect child growth in the arts. In Music: • Model how children can make music with instruments; use appropriate musical terminology and descriptive language when talking about music experiences. • Maintain a supportive atmosphere in which all forms of creative expression are encouraged, accepted and valued; make music a joyful experience. 27 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

30 ELE: CREATIVE DEVELOPMENT • Adapt materials and experiences so children with disabilities can fully engage in various forms of music and other creative arts.  Incorporate music into multiple areas of the curriculum, preferably on a • daily basis; making connections, scaffolding learning, reinforcing creativity and the arts whenever possible. Participate in movement and dance activities with the children; model • movement and support children’s developing skills. Plan opportunities for children to sing and make music in many ways; • e.g., singing songs with clear, easy melodies, singing finger plays; singing independently, listening to and singing many nursery rhymes, lullabies, and songs from around the world; sing or play nonsense songs or call- and-response songs. • Arrange for children to make sounds by exploring those made by various rhythm instruments, e.g., wood blocks, sand blocks, notched rhythm sticks, rain sticks; and by melody instruments, e.g., tone bar, xylophone, hand bells, piano. In Movement and Dance: • Recognize and help students understand that dance and movement is innate, a form of cultural expression and that all cultures organize movement into one or more forms of dance. • Provide age and developmentally appropriate creative movement opportunities for children to use their imagination, creativity and build self- confidence. • Plan indoor and outdoor activities involving balancing, running, jumping and other vigorous movements to increase children’s understanding of movement. Balance both child- and adult-led movement activities so that children • experience kinesthetic learning by doing. • Use movement experiences to prompt new vocabulary, social interaction, cooperation, language and conceptual development across multiple domains. • Ensure that dancing is a joyful and accepted experience for all children. • Adapt movement activities to assure the participation of children with physical, mental or learning disabilities. In Dramatic Play and Theater: • Utilize drama and the arts to fully engage children in learning. • Encourage role play and problem-solving of classroom situations or reinforcing positive social skills. Help children identify emotions or problems that are surfacing in the classroom or on the playground in their dramatic play or drama work. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 28

31 ELE: CREATIVE DEVELOPMENT • Build an environment that offers props of varying realism to meet the needs of both inexperienced and capable players, including realistic props (e.g., cash registers, stethoscopes, dolls, coins, a variety of dress-up  clothes, objects from different cultures, story books, puppets, digital tools, safe objects from various parental work environments) and open-ended objects; (e.g., cardboard tubes, unit blocks, or pieces of cloth, masks) to encourage the imagination. • Assume a role and join in, express a range of voices or characters to show children that pretend play is important and to introduce new ideas they might want to use in their play. • Dramatize stories from children’s home cultures and ask families to share traditional stories from their cultures; provide or gather materials representing everyday life in cultures of the children in the classroom to incorporate in their dramatic play/theater activities. • Encourage children to tell and act out stories, stressing beginnings and endings to introduce sequencing and other literacy skills. • Take advantage of the potential that dramatic play and teacher-guided drama have to support development and learning across all domains. 29 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

32 ELE: LANGUAGE AND EARLY LITERACY DEVELOPMENT  Language and Early Literacy Development (LL) Children begin to communicate at birth. During the preschool years they are emerging as language users and developing competence as listeners, speakers, readers, writers and viewers. Each of these language arts is strengthened by integrated literacy experiences in print-rich active learning environments in homes, neighborhoods, outdoor play spaces, and in all formal and informal early learning settings. Having knowledge of the major characteristics of children’s language development in the three- and four-year old age range enables parents, teachers and caregivers to provide support and strengthen children’s emerging competence. Intentional learning experiences which support the early learning expectations outlined below will help young children become motivated and fectively for efficient communicators who listen, speak, read, write, and view ef meaningful purposes and for the pure joy of being literate. Early Learning Expectation: Emergent Reading. Children begin 1. to understand written language read to them from a variety of meaningful materials, use reading-like behaviors, and make progress towards becoming conventional readers. Emerging Indicators: A. In comprehension strategies: 1. Retell a few important events and ideas they have heard from written materials (e.g., in stories and in books about things and events). 2. Enlarge their vocabularies both with words from conversation and instructional materials and activities. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 30

33 ELE: LANGUAGE AND EARLY LITERACY DEVELOPMENT Use different strategies for understanding written materials (e.g., making 3. predictions using what they already know, using the structure of texts, linking themselves and their experiences to the written materials, asking relevant questions).  Demonstrate reading-like behaviors with familiar written materials [i.e., 4. moving from labeling pictures to creating connected stories using book language (e.g., “Once upon a time ... ”); using patterns and vocabulary that occur in printed material to making use of printed text (e.g., trying out what one is learning about words and sounds)]. 5. Talk about preferences for favorite authors, kinds of books, and topics and question the content and author’s choices (critical literacy). B. In print and alphabetic knowledge: 1. Show progress in identifying and associating letters with their names and sounds. 2. Recognize a few personally meaningful words including their own name, “mom,” “dad,” signs, and other print in their environment. 3. Participate in play activities with sounds (e.g., rhyming games, finger plays). C. In concepts about reading: 1. Understand that ideas can be written and then read by others. 2. Understand print and book handling concepts including directionality, title, etc. 3. Understand that people read for many purposes (e.g., enjoyment, information, to understand directions). 4. Understand that printed materials have various forms and functions (e.g., signs, labels, notes, letters, types). 5. Develop an understanding of the roles of authors and illustrators. 2. Early Learning Expectation: Writing Skills. Children begin to develop writing skills to communicate and express themselves effectively for a variety of purposes. Emerging Indicators: 1. Begin to understand that their ideas can be written and then read by themselves or others. 2. Use a variety of forms of early writing (e.g., scribbling, drawing, use of letter strings, copied environmental print) and move toward the beginning of phonetic and/or conventional spelling. 31 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

34 ELE: LANGUAGE AND EARLY LITERACY DEVELOPMENT Begin to develop an understanding of purposes for writing (e.g., lists, 3. directions, stories, invitations, labels). 4. Represent their own or imaginary experiences through writing (with/ without illustrations).  5. Begin to write familiar words such as their own name. 6. Attempt to read or pretend to read what they have written to friends, family members, and others. 7. Show beginnings of a sense of the need to look over and modify their writings and drawings (e.g., adding to picture or writing). Develop greater control over the physical skills needed to write letters and 8. numbers. 3. Early Learning Expectation: Spoken Language: Expressive. Children develop abilities to express themselves clearly and communicate ideas to others. Emerging Indicators: 1. Use spoken language for a variety of purposes (e.g., to express feelings, to ask questions, to talk about their experiences, to ask for what they need, to respond to others). 2. Show increasing comfort and confidence when speaking. 3. Experiment and play with sounds (e.g., rhyming, alliteration, playing with sounds, and other aspects of phonological awareness). 4. Continue to develop vocabulary by using words learned from stories and other sources in conversations. Speak in increasingly more complex combinations of words and in 5. sentences. 6. Understand the roles of the participants in conversation (e.g., taking turns in conversation and relating their own comments to what is being talked about; asking relevant questions). 7. Take part in different kinds of roles as a speaker (e.g., part of a group discussion, role playing, fantasy play, storytelling and retelling). Use nonverbal expressions and gestures to match and reinforce spoken 8. expression. 9. Show progress in speaking both their home language and English (if non- English-speaking children). 10. If appropriate, show progress in learning alternative communication strategies such as sign language. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 32

35 ELE: LANGUAGE AND EARLY LITERACY DEVELOPMENT Early Learning Expectation: Spoken Language: Receptive. 4. Children grow in their capacity to use effective listening skills and understand what is said to them.  Emerging Indicators: Gain information from listening (e.g., to conversations, stories, songs, 1. poems). 2. Show progress in listening to and following spoken directions. 3. Show progress in listening attentively , avoiding interrupting others, learning to be respectful. Respond with understanding to speech directed at them. 4. 5. Understand the concept and role of an audience (e.g., being part of an audience, being quiet, being considerate, looking at the speaker). 6. Understand and respond appropriately to non-verbal expressions and gestures. 7. Show progress in listening to and understanding both their home language and English (if non-English-speaking children). Early Learning Expectation: 5. Viewing Images and Other Media Materials. Children begin to develop strategies that assist them in viewing a variety of images and multimedia materials effectively and critically. Emerging Indicators: 1. V iew images and other media materials for a variety of purposes (e.g., to gain information, for pleasure, to add to their understanding of written materials, for visual cues or creative purposes). Use dif ferent strategies for understanding various media (e.g., making 2. predictions using what they already know, using the structure of the image or media, linking themselves and their experiences to the content, asking relevant questions). 3. Begin to compare information across sources and discriminate between fantasy and reality. 6. Early Learning Expectation: Positive Attitudes about Literacy . Children develop positive attitudes about themselves as literate beings — as readers, writers, speakers, viewers, and listeners. Emerging Indicators: 1. Choose to read, write, listen, speak, and view for enjoyment and information, and to expand their curiosity. 33 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

36 ELE: LANGUAGE AND EARLY LITERACY DEVELOPMENT Demonstrate emotion from literacy experiences (e.g. laughter , concern, 2. curiosity). 3. Make connections with situations or events, people or stories. 4. Approach tasks and activities with increased flexibility , imagination,  inventiveness, and confidence. 5. Show growth in eagerness to learn about and discuss a growing range of topics, ideas, and tasks. Early Learning Expectation: Diversity of Communication. Children 7. begin to understand that communication is diverse and that people communicate in a variety of ways. Emerging Indicators: 1. Understand that some people communicate in dif ferent languages and other forms of English. 2. Become aware of the value of the language used in their homes. 3. Become aware of alternate and various forms of communication (e.g., Braille, sign language, lip reading, digital communication tablets). 4. Begin to understand the value and enjoyment of being able to communicate in more than one language or form of communication. Examples of Children’s Experiences and Teaching Practices to Support Learning Expectations in the Language and Early Literacy Development Domain These examples and questions for teachers are intended to: 1) assist teachers in reflecting on their own practice in the classroom; 2) to help consider the experiences and prior learning of the children in their classrooms; and, 3) to visualize representative experiences and practices that lead toward reaching the Michigan Early Learning Expectations across the PK-3 age/grade levels. These Examples correspond to those developed for the PK-3 Alignment Project as they are age and developmentally appropriate. Rich opportunities for integrated learning across the curriculum may also be found in the Examples developed for other domains. Examples of What Children Experience: Opportunities in Emergent Reading: • Wide access to a variety of digital, print, and recorded forms of books, used in balance and as age appropriate; many books are readily available in their individual classroom. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34

37 ELE: LANGUAGE AND EARLY LITERACY DEVELOPMENT T ime daily to experience books being read to them and reading alone, • with partners and in small groups. • Participation in a rich and responsive language and literacy environment using English and the home language of the child as often as possible.  • Playful opportunities to sing songs, rhymes, participate in joint book reading and saying chants that repeat, use alliteration or allow for call and response; having engaging books read aloud to them. • An environment that reflects enthusiasm about literacy; time to read, write, and talk about preferences for their favorite authors, kinds of books, topics or writing styles. • Adults reading fiction and non-fiction books to and with them on a daily basis, at home and at school. • Opportunities to have rich conversation with classmates about books they have heard read or are reading. • Use of environmental print to draw connections, build visual discrimination skill and print awareness; e.g., through visits to local shops or neighborhood walks to emphasize print in the context of everyday life. • Books and literacy opportunities that make connections across domains and that relate to learning projects. Adults who take care to use digital resources sparingly and in • developmentally appropriate ways. Opportunities to Develop Writing Skills: • Access to materials for writing; e.g., papers, writing tools, picture dictionaries, computers, small whiteboards, clipboards, book-making supplies. Models of handwriting in view as reminders of letter formation and the • difference between upper and lowercase letters. • Encouragement to use emergent writing for many purposes (e.g. lists, messages, letters to family or friends, labels, journals); teachers who model these behaviors and talk through the writing process. An age appropriate mix of independent writing and guided writing • experiences that build small motor skills, visual acuity, and incorporate reading-writing experiences. • Being engaged in writing everyday with support to move from early writing and drawing to incorporating more spelling, mechanics, revision, editing and publishing their own works. • A place in the room where their writing is saved or displayed (journals, folder, class authors’ library). 35 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

38 ELE: LANGUAGE AND EARLY LITERACY DEVELOPMENT Expressive and Receptive Spoken Language Learning Opportunities: • Many opportunities to communicate collaboratively with adults and other children, to play language-based games, and to encounter a widening range of books, songs, poems, stories and chants.  • eachers who talk to them a lot, make comments, extend conversation T and ask meaningful questions to encourage vocabulary and conversation skills. • Encouragement to ask the meanings of and to use new words as they play and interact with others; e.g., in project work, a word wall. • Activities that provide opportunities to explain simple processes to other children; verbally respond to music or art and express their thoughts and feelings. • A language rich environment, where conversations occur, stories are told, digital recordings take place. • The language of their home culture as well as the primary spoken and written language of the classroom. • Opportunities to respect the sound and rhythm of other languages by hearing songs and languages other than their own; exposure to other communication forms (Braille, sign language). Opportunities to View Multimedia Materials (See Examples in Early Learning in Technology Domain) Opportunities to Develop Positive Attitudes about Literacy (Examples are included throughout the topic areas above) A Diversity of Communication (Examples are included throughout the topic areas above and are found in related Domains) Teachers and Other Adults: In Emergent Reading: • Become aware of the child’ s literacy background, experiences, first language and family support. Build on the child’ • s interests to expand book reading, vocabulary, word meanings, concepts and content in non-fiction books and make connections to the child’s world. • Use age appropriate forms of higher-level questioning and discussions about the meaning of text and ideas presented in books. • Build children’ s sense of responsibility for becoming a competent, independent reader; e.g., explicitly teach strategies such as re-reading, predicting, connecting text to personal experience. • Use age appropriate fiction and non-fiction books, signs/posters, and MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 36

39 ELE: LANGUAGE AND EARLY LITERACY DEVELOPMENT technology, to model research and to enlarge and enrich vocabulary for informal as well as content knowledge terminology. • Support a balanced literacy approach with reading and writing across the curriculum; increasingly select more complex texts in keeping the  students’ skills and experience. • Balance instruction in both decoding skills and comprehension depending upon the child’s skills. • T ake opportunities to build upon children’s comprehension skills by listening, responding, and asking questions; model re-reading for understanding. • Intentionally teach the dif ference between fiction and non-fiction books. • Intentionally communicate with and encourage parents’ engagement with children’s literacy interests and development, including the parents’ use of reading, writing and communicating in their daily lives and work. • Model important reading practices; e.g., point out the title page, talk about the ‘beginning’ and ‘end,’ authors, illustrators, meaning, print marks on a page, re-reading. • Demonstrate the pleasure of reading. In Written Language and Skills Development: • , across all subject domains. Make writing opportunities a part of every day Build reading–writing connections. • Read books that demonstrate the use of interesting vocabulary . Make it possible for children to create labels, lists, cards, letters and • captions for pictures, journals, class stories and individual stories. • Display children’ s writing to save what they have written either for their own enjoyment or as a way to assess progress over time. • W rite to model, to communicate with children and to demonstrate the conventions of written language. Accept emergent/invented spelling; take opportunities to provide explicit • instruction on alphabetic principle, sound relationships and environmental print, as appropriate. • Provide extra support for children with minimal prior language or literacy experience; reach out to families with family literacy strategies and guidance. • Use technology to post student writing or projects both to demonstrate class accomplishments and for parent engagement; e.g., an audio class newsletter, class web page or wiki. 37 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

40 ELE: LANGUAGE AND EARLY LITERACY DEVELOPMENT In Expressive and Receptive Spoken Language Development: • Help children communicate feelings and ideas in a variety of ways; e.g., signed, spoken, acted out; provide appropriate vocabulary to help express feelings.  • Plan for rich classroom discussion using question and answer games, socio-dramatic play, oral reading, read books rich in vocabulary and ideas to generate conversation. • Help extend children’s verbal communication ability by accepting and supporting words, phrases, and sentences in their first language, modeling new words and phrases, and encouraging peer support for dual language. • Use divergent or open-ended questions and comments. • Model and intentionally teach listening, (not just in relation to obedience) use of memory, following directions and comprehension skills. • Encourage children to initiate conversation, take turns, repeat, expand or rephrase their comments and provide them time to respond and expand their conversation. • Model increasingly complex language in both direct and indirect way throughout the day. • Use everyday activities to describe, name things, explain or predict. • Model appropriate social behaviors of conversation, listening and responding. • Assist parents in understanding the significance of having a conversation vs. one-word responses with their children to develop vocabulary and social skills. V iewing Multimedia Materials echnology Literacy (See Examples in T Domain) Developing Positive Attitudes about Literacy (Examples are included throughout the topic areas above) Experiencing a Diversity of Communication (Examples are included throughout the topic areas above and in related Domains) MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 38

41 ELE: DUAL LANGUAGE LEARNING (DLL) Dual  Language Learning (DLL) The new preschool Dual Language Learning Expectations were developed as part of the 2012-13 MI-ECSQ–Birth through Grade 3 Alignment Project. This new domain addresses the learning needs of the growing population of young children whose first language is not English or those who speak a language other than English at home. A similar domain is also found in the revised 2011 Head Start Child Development and Early Learning Framework: English Language Development. Reference to children learning dual languages deliberately interspersed across the ECSQ-PK in the initial developmental phase were left in place. As a result of the multiple influences on young Dual Language Learners, defining ‘progress’ cannot necessarily be determined by age or specific grade level alone. Therefore, the DLL Expectations for preschool children apply to the age range from PK through Grade 3. The full grade range of Prekindergarten through Grade 3 Expectations 2012-13 Alignment Document: Language and Literacy and is found in the Dual Language Learning. Several critical understandings are unique to this subdomain, including the following: Commonly Used Definitions Dual Language Learners: • Children whose first language is not English; including those learning English for the first time as well as those who may or may not have various levels of English proficiency . The term “Dual Language Learners” encompasses other terms frequently used, such as limited English proficient (LEP), bilingual, English language learners (ELL), English as a second language learners (ESL), and children who 39 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

42 ELE: DUAL LANGUAGE LEARNING (DLL) speak a language other than English (LOTE). [Source: Office of Head Start website]. • First Language: The home language of the child; may also be referred to as the native language of the child. • Extent of Culturally Responsive Teaching: Demonstrating an  awareness and respect for the customs, heritage and values of the families and children. Demonstrating and responding with a positive attitude for learning about various cultures and languages. Approaches The best entry into literacy is a child’ s first language. Literacy in a child’s • first language establishes a knowledge, concept and skills base that transfers from first language reading to reading in a second language. • Learning opportunities should be integrated into all content areas using strategies that support Dual Language Learning. • Bilingualism is a benefit to future learning and achievement. Degrees of Bilingualism Particularly with very young children, traits associated with bilingualism are not fixed capacities and a group of preschool children may be comprised of children who speak several languages and who represent different language and literacy capacities. Bilingualism encompasses children who: • Have acquired language skills in their first language and then begin to learn a second language. Are not yet comfortable and capable in their first language, thus are • learning two languages simultaneously. Influences on Progress in Dual Language Learning Children make progress in learning more than one language through: Both maturation and the trajectory of second language acquisition; • • Age of entry into an ‘English’ speaking environment; • Extent of first language acquisition; • Extent of support from the learning environment/program/classroom; and, • The extent of culturally responsive teaching. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 40

43 ELE: DUAL LANGUAGE LEARNING (DLL) Early Learning Expectation: Receptive English Language 1. Skills. Children demonstrate an increasing ability to comprehend or understand the English language at an appropriate developmental level.  Emerging Indicators: Observe peers and adults with increasing attention to understand 1. language and intent. 2. Respond with non-verbal actions and basic English words or phrases to communicate. 3. Demonstrate increased understanding of simple words and phrases used in daily routines or content studies. Increase understanding of multiple meanings of words. 4. 5. Exhibit a growing vocabulary of basic and high-frequency words. 6. Demonstrate a beginning of phonological awareness and phonics. 2. Early Learning Expectation: Expressive English Language Skills. Children demonstrate an increasing ability to speak or use English at an appropriate developmental level. Emerging Indicators: 1. Express basic needs using common words or phrases in English. 2. Participate with peers and adults in simple exchanges in English. 3. As age appropriate, attempt to use longer sentences or phrases in English. Continue to use and build home language as needed to build 4. understanding of words and concepts in second language. 3. Early Learning Expectation: Engagement in English Literacy Activities. Children demonstrate increased understanding and response to books, storytelling, and songs presented in English and increased participation in English literacy activities. Emerging Indicators: 1. Demonstrate increasing attention to stories and book reading. 2. Name or recall characters in stories. 3. Use both verbal and nonverbal methods to demonstrate understanding as early literacy skills also increase. 4. Begin to talk about books, stories, make predictions or take a guess about the book. 41 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

44 ELE: DUAL LANGUAGE LEARNING (DLL) Early Learning Expectation: Engagement in W riting. Children 4. demonstrate an increasing ability to write words or engage in early stages of writing in English. Emerging Indicators:  Alphabet 1. Engage in early drawing or emergent writing attempts. 2. Copy letters of the English alphabet as age appropriate. Words W rite or copying important words (name, friends, and family). 3. 4. W rite name using a capital letter at the beginning. 5. Copy words or labels from integrated learning (math, science, arts) experiences. 6. . Use drawing and emergent writing together 5. Early Learning Expectation: Social Interaction. Children interact with peers in play, classroom and social situations using English with increasing ability and comfort; use first language when appropriate and share home culture. Emerging Indicators: 1. Demonstrate and also accept positive verbal and non-verbal interactions from peers. In English: 2. Engage with the teacher and others in a positive manner . 3. Communicate emotions appropriately and beginning to label feelings. 4. Show both verbal and non-verbal attempts to participate with peers. In the First Language: 5. W rite, draw and talk about family and cultural traditions (songs, food, celebrations, etc.). 6. Demonstrate pride and recognition of first language. 7. Build skills in first language. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 42

45 ELE: DUAL LANGUAGE LEARNING (DLL) Examples of Children’s Experiences and Teaching Practices to Support Learning Expectations in the Dual Language Learning Domain These examples and questions for teachers are intended to: 1) assist teachers in reflecting on their own practice in the classroom; 2) to help consider the experiences and prior learning of the children in their classrooms; and, 3) to  visualize representative experiences and practices that lead toward reaching the Michigan Early Learning Expectations across the PK-3 age/grade levels. The Examples provided in the Preschool ECSQ correspond to those found in the full PK-Grade 3 age/grade range as age and developmentally appropriate. See connected Examples in the Language and Literacy Domain, the Learning in Technology Domain and the Approaches to Learning Domain and related Expectations in other domains that offer rich opportunities for integrated learning across the curriculum. Examples of What Children Experience: Receptive English Language Experiences: Culturally responsive adults. • • Emotional support in a new environment. • A daily routine that supports language acquisition and understanding of common words and phrases. • A respectful environment where positive behaviors are mutually exchanged and expected. • Adults who express a genuine interest in them. • Clear demonstrations to assist in understanding words. • Many opportunities to exchange language with peers and adults. Expressive English Language Experiences: Encouragement to verbally express thoughts and questions in both first • and second language. • Helpful demonstrations and explanations, as appropriate, to build concept understanding in English and their first language. • Peers who help to explain words or routines or paraphrase. • A high level of positive emotional interaction. • Labels and visual clues to learn words in conversations or routines as well as ‘academic’ language from all domains of learning. • Many opportunities for play that highlights language and participation. 43 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

46 ELE: DUAL LANGUAGE LEARNING (DLL) Engagement in English Literacy Activities: • Many opportunities to practice language in both organized groups and free play with peers. • Many opportunities to play and interact with peers in culturally relevant literacy activities and shared book experiences.  • A cooperative classroom routine. • Repeated exposure to singing, rhyming games, word games, poems and puppets with peers and teachers. • A well-stocked classroom library with high interest books to help learn concepts of print; and that can be extended to develop vocabulary . Engagement in Writing: • Many opportunities to practice drawing and emergent writing. • Opportunities to write and draw about self and share these examples. • Acceptance and encouragement to use emergent writing for longer periods of time than English speakers. • Patience from teachers when explaining attempts at writing words. • Assistance when trying to write words, or put words in order. • Opportunities to draw and write on signs and cards or story murals or charts that have purpose and meaning in the classroom. • A print rich environment where children can find useful words in print around the room. • Help breaking apart word sounds to encourage writing. Encouragement to include home language in their writing. • Social Interaction: • Support and active involvement from teachers to understand the English speaking environment. • Interest in the child’s culture and experiences prior to this classroom. These prior experiences are utilized to make connections and build self- confidence. • Routines and expectations are consistent. • Opportunities to have appropriate responsibilities in their classroom. • Opportunities to plan and carry out activities in the classroom. • A sense of belonging to the classroom community. • Activities that build motivation to learn a new language. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 44

47 ELE: DUAL LANGUAGE LEARNING (DLL) What Teachers and Other Adults Do: For Receptive English Language Skills: • Whenever possible, provide instruction in the child’s first language. • Pair bilingual and monolingual staff if possible. • Speak clearly, distinctly and at a reasonable rate for learners to grasp  initial understanding. • Use demonstrations to supplement understanding when possible. • Demonstrate active listening, observation and encouragement to the child’s expressions, questions, and attempts at language. Use actual names of objects and people in the classroom (rather than • pronouns). Later build sentences with the addition of verbs. • Extend and connect language learning opportunities across all domains: physical, social, cognitive and creative. • Extend vocabulary to show additional use when appropriate. • Provide some structured opportunities for interactions with English and non-English speaking children, as well as unstructured time. For Expressive English Language Skills: • Establish many opportunities for children from various cultures and backgrounds to play and learn together in both structured and free play time. Talk with families about their home/first language and expectations for • their children. • Partner bilingual children of varying skill levels to complete tasks or classroom jobs as a team, play together and solve problems using the skills of both. Extend and connect language learning opportunities across all domains: • physical, social, cognitive and creative. • Remember that oral language development in either language supports literacy development in both languages. Hold high yet reasonable and age appropriate expectations. • • Accept ‘code switching’ or language mixing for young learners. • Encourage children to use all the languages they know. • Continually evaluate and adapt teaching as fluency in English increases in individual children. Engagement in English Literacy Activities: • Design and implement meaningful literacy activities. • Provide appropriate literacy materials in English as well as language examples of other cultures. 45 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

48 ELE: DUAL LANGUAGE LEARNING (DLL) • Express and support positive expectations for all children. • Provide high interest books that are culturally appropriate. • Plan learning activities that actively involve children in book reading and activities that will relate to and reinforce ideas and vocabulary of the book. • Plan for small groups of children to provide more individualized strategic  literacy activities. • Create role-playing situations to model and build vocabulary an d social confidence. Engagement in Writing: • Become familiar with the child’ s previous life experiences and use these to make connections in English and develop reading and writing activities. Build an integrated instructional program that includes numerous • opportunities to develop writing skills. • Encourage drawing pictures prior to writing. • Invite children to describe their drawing and writing attempts (tell me more about...). • Provide wait time for children to explain their writing. • Understand that writing can be very challenging for dual language children. • Use writing in social activities, demonstrations and daily routines. Model writing, explaining their own thoughts about words (vocabulary and spelling, beginning and endings). Social Interaction: • Actively engage and build rapport with all children. • Reinforce the rules and expectations of the classroom to build respect and cooperation. Make accommodations or adaptations for cultural and linguistic diversity . • Ensure safety indoors and outdoors with bilingual signs, photos and labels. • • Accept both first language and English when children are describing their home and life outside of school. • Share samples of children’ s work with their families and provide encouragement as emergent skills are evident. Model, interact, redirect and rephrase to help children maintain • experiences with peers. • Build and utilize home-school partnerships with translators, friends, neighbors and resource organizations. • Use technology wisely to enhance and improve teaching and connecting with linguistically diverse children and families (e.g., translation software, digital photos, voice recorders). • Assure that no child is verbally or socially ignored or left out. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 46

49 ELE: TECHNOLOGY LITERACY-EARLY LEARNING IN TECHNOLOGY (TL) Technology Literacy-  Early Learning in Technology (TL) Digital technology plays an increasing role in the lives of young children in preschool programs and beyond. The array of such tools continues to expand as does understanding of both their potentials and cautions. Research supports young children’s age-appropriate use of technology to support and to extend learning and development under the guidance of adults who understand how to use it appropriately. However, technology should never dominate the early learning environment and the daily schedule, nor replace the opportunity for children to have direct experience with peers, adults, and/or concrete materials and the natural world. These new preschool technology learning expectations are derived from the 2009 Michigan Educational Technology Standards for Students, Grades PK-2*. They replace PK Early Learning Expectations originally adopted in 2005. Early Learning Expectation: Creativity and Innovation. Children 1. use a variety of developmentally appropriate digital tools to learn and create. Emerging Indicators: 1. Can describe and creatively use a variety of technological tools independently or with peer or adult help. 2. . Understand that technology tools can be used throughout the day ferent technology tools have different uses, including Understand that dif 3. communicating feelings and ideas. 47 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

50 ELE: TECHNOLOGY LITERACY-EARLY LEARNING IN TECHNOLOGY (TL) Early Learning Expectation: Communication and Collaboration. 2. Children work together when using developmentally appropriate digital tools. Emerging Indicators: 1. Respond to other children’s technology products vocally or within the technology tool.  2. Work with one or more other children to plan and create a product with a technology tool. 3. Early Learning Expectation: Research and Information Literacy. With adult support and supervision, children interact with developmentally appropriate Internet based resources. With adult support, children use developmentally appropriate digital resources to locate and use information relating to a topic under study. Emerging Indicators: 1. Begin to be able to navigate developmentally appropriate websites. 2. Understand that the internet can be used to locate information as well as for entertainment. 3. Respond to information found on the internet in developmentally appropriate ways (e.g., tell what they learned, draw a picture, use the information to accomplish a task). 4. Early Learning Expectation: Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making. Children can explain some ways that technology can be used to solve problems. Emerging Indicators: 1. Talk, ask questions, solve problems and share ideas with peers and adults, when using computers and other technology tools. 2. When faced with a problem, suggest the use of technology tool to solve the problem (e.g., take a picture of a block creation to show parents, find out the size of a dinosaur). MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 48

51 ELE: TECHNOLOGY LITERACY-EARLY LEARNING IN TECHNOLOGY (TL) Early Learning Expectation: Digital Citizenship. Children begin 5. to understand how technology can be used appropriately or inappropriately. Emerging Indicators: 1. Begin to state and follow rules for safe use of the computer and other technology tools.  2. Begin to understand how technology can be used inappropriately (e.g., using another’s cell phone without permission, using the Internet without supervision). 3. Identify the Michigan Cyber Safety Initiative’ s three rules (Keep Safe, Keep Away, Keep Telling). 4. Identify personal information that should not be shared on the Internet or the phone (e.g., name, address, phone). 5. Know to use the computer only when an adult is supervising and to inform a trusted adult if anything on the Internet creates discomfort. 6. echnology Operations and Concepts. Early Learning Expectation: T Children begin to learn to use and talk about technology tools appropriately. Emerging Indicators: 1. Can follow simple directions to use common technology tools. 2. Recognize and name the major parts of a computer and other devices. 3. Understand the need for and demonstrate basic care for technology equipment. 4. Use adaptive devices to operate a software program as necessary . *Source: 2009 Michigan Educational Technology Standards for Students, Grades PK-2, http://techplan.edzone.net/METS/METS2009PK2.pdf Examples of Children’s Experiences and Teaching Practices to Support Learning Expectations in the Early Learning in Technology Domain These examples and questions for teachers are intended to: 1) assist teachers in reflecting on their own practice in the classroom; 2) to help consider the experiences and prior learning of the children in their classrooms; and, 3) to visualize representative experiences and practices that lead toward reaching the Michigan Early Learning Expectations across the PK-3 age/grade levels. 49 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

52 ELE: TECHNOLOGY LITERACY-EARLY LEARNING IN TECHNOLOGY (TL) These Examples correspond to those developed for the PK-3 Alignment as age and developmentally appropriate. Rich opportunities for integrated learning across the curriculum may also be found in the Examples developed for other domains. Examples of What Children Experience:  • Using technology tools connected to ongoing learning experiences in multiple areas of the curriculum. • Adults willing to learn alongside them as they learn how to use and benefit from a variety of digital technologies. • Have the opportunity to use technology in cooperative settings: e.g., having a peer act as a helper, doing research for a class project, digital exchanges with other classrooms. • Learning opportunities that encourage peers with diverse abilities and languages to work together using digital tools. • Opportunities to use digital tools that can respond and adapt to their individual learning needs. • A balanced, yet on-going access to digital tools; e.g., there is not “computer time” as a part of the daily schedule, children are not taken to another room to use computers. • Opportunities to help make rules for sharing and waiting; e.g., signing up to take a turn; finding other activities while waiting. • Having their work documented with various methods of technology to share with parents and make a record of learning progress; e.g., photos of structures they build, video files, early written stories read and recorded, representations of science experiences, digital books and audio files. • Access to language translation software for those who are learning another language. • Age-appropriate interactive digital games used as one way to explore and learn new content in a variety of areas of the curriculum. Teachers and Other Adults: • Use technology integrated into the classroom in ways that enhance, but never replace the opportunity for young children to have direct experience with peers, adults, and/or real materials. • Organize the classroom so that children can use digital technology with multiple areas of the curriculum; e.g., a camera in the science area, a computer or tablet in the writing area, an interactive whiteboard to expand understanding of math concepts. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 50

53 ELE: TECHNOLOGY LITERACY-EARLY LEARNING IN TECHNOLOGY (TL) Take advantage of non-profit sites that rate programs/software; e.g., for • their suitability for various ages, degree of accessibility, the quality of the content, when acquiring/ordering software. • Select programs and digital content that emphasize concrete representations of objects and representations based in reality. • Help parents to understand safe and appropriate uses of technology for their children and provide opportunities for family members to observe  and learn from seeing their children using technology appropriately. • Assist parents in locating places to attain free access to the Internet if such is not available in their homes, including digital learning opportunities for themselves; e.g., within the school, at local libraries, through businesses. • Take advantage of technology that supports children who are learning two languages. • Take advantage of technology that supports children who have special learning needs. Use technology as an enriching tool that keeps students actively • engaged, avoiding the use of computers as digital workbooks. • Model and talk about positive behavior, Internet safety and social implications with all types of technology; e.g., considerate use of cellphones; maintenance of a blog that uses “good” writing and serves as a way to record classroom events, always providing the source of information found on the Internet. • Make intentional plans to access and use digital technology to take advantage of how it can help children analyze, learn, and explore areas of high interest in ways that are appropriate for their ages. • Stay informed about the increasing role of digital technology in all aspects of children’s lives. Use technology tools to build children’s visual literacy; e.g., increasing • use of digital tools to understand maps, diagrams, tables, graphs, dimension or perspective. • Use technology tools to maintain a diverse picture of children’s learning progress; e.g., audio recordings, handhelds for quick assessments; photos of artwork, scans of writing efforts. *Source: 2009 Michigan Educational Technology Standards for Students, Grades PK-2 http://techplan.edzone.net/METS/METS2009PK2.pdf 51 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

54 ELE: SOCIAL, EMOTIONAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT (SEP) Social, Emotional and Physical  Health and Development (SEP) During the preschool years, children increase self-understanding, cooperative and social interaction skills, improve movement skills, and develop greater knowledge about the importance of physical activity, exercise and good nutrition to their overall health. They learn more about how they can play an age appropriate role in their own social and emotional health and physical well- being. They begin to learn that their behavior affects their health and safety and recognize that they or their peers may participate in activities in a variety of ways, some with the help of adaptations. Good social and emotional health, physical well-being and healthy nutrition practices all contribute to improved learning. Social and Emotional Development and Health To develop socially and emotionally, children need to develop the capacity to experience, express, and gain self-control over their emotions and social interactions. Children learn and thrive when they feel emotionally secure with and socially connected to adults who provide nurturing relationships and positive early learning experiences and with other children. When children feel emotionally secure and physically safe, they feel more confident to explore their environment and to learn. An environment that is responsive to each child and that is predictable and consistent strengthens a child’s confidence in approaching new challenges and enhances the development of trusting and healthy relationships. In the preschool years children grow in the ability to participate in the larger world beyond the family-–to serve as a resource, to negotiate, to lead and follow, and to be actively involved in their relationships with others. The Expectations in Social Emotional Development and Health are closely related to the Approaches to Learning Domain. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 52

55 ELE: SOCIAL, EMOTIONAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT (SEP) Physical Development Physical development (fine and gross/large motor) is important to the achievement of general health. Gross motor development enhances body awareness, understanding of spatial relationships, and cognitive growth. Fine motor development fosters dexterity as well as coordination of the hand and eye when using the small muscles of the fingers and hands in a variety of activities. Children participate in physical activity for the sheer joy of it and also learn how many forms of vigorous physical activity contribute to their overall health.  Physical Health, Safety and Nutrition The preschool years offer many opportunities for children to learn how all aspects of their physical health and well-being are related, how to keep themselves safe in their physical and social environments and how good food choices help them grow to be strong and healthy. Children learn to care for and respect their bodies and, with adult support, contribute to keeping themselves healthy and safe. During meal and snack times, adults help them learn more healthy food choices, about their own food preferences more about the role of food in their own cultural celebrations and those of their peers. Social and Emotional Development and Health 1. Early Learning Expectation: Understanding of Self. Children develop and exhibit a healthy sense of self. Emerging Indicators: Show an emerging sense of self-awareness. 1. 2. Continue to develop personal preferences. 3. Demonstrate growing confidence in expressing their feelings, needs and opinions. 4. Become increasingly more independent. 5. Recognize and have positive feelings about their own gender , family, race, culture and language. 6. Identify a variety of feelings and moods (in themselves and others). 2. Early Learning Expectation: Expressing Emotions. Children show increasing ability to regulate how they express their emotions. Emerging Indicators: 1. Grow in their capacity to avoid harming themselves, others, or things around them when expressing feelings, needs and opinions. 53 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

56 ELE: SOCIAL, EMOTIONAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT (SEP) Grow in their ability to follow simple, clear , and consistent directions 2. and rules. 3. Use materials purposefully , safely, and respectfully more and more of the time. 4. Begin to know when and how to seek help from an adult or peer . 5. Manage transitions and follow routines most of the time. 6. ferent environments. Can adapt to dif  Early Learning Expectation: Relationships with Others. Children 3. develop healthy relationships with other children and adults. Emerging Indicators: 1. Increase their ability to initiate and sustain age-appropriate interactions with peers and adults. 2. Begin to develop and practice the use of problem-solving and conflict resolution skills. 3. Recognize similarities and dif ferences in people (gender, family, race, culture, language). 4. ’s perspective. Increase their capacity to take another 5. Show increasing respect for the rights of others. 6. Show progress in developing and keeping friendships. 7. Participate successfully as a group member . Demonstrate an increasing sense of belonging and awareness of their 8. role as a member of a family, classroom, and community. Physical Development 4. Early Learning Expectation: Body Control and Activity. Children increase their ability to understand and control their bodies and learn that regular physical activity can enhance their overall physical, social, and mental health. Emerging Indicators: 1. Begin to recognize and learn the names of body parts. 2. Begin to understand spatial awareness for themselves, others, and their environment. 3. Participate actively and on a regular basis, in games, outdoor play , and other forms of vigorous exercise that enhance physical fitness. 4. Increasingly develops greater self-awareness; identifies his or her own interest and strengths. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 54

57 ELE: SOCIAL, EMOTIONAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT (SEP) Early Learning Expectation: Gross Motor Development. Children 5. experience growth in gross motor development and use large muscles to improve a variety of gross motor skills in a variety of both structured and unstructured and planned and spontaneous settings. Emerging Indicators: 1. Begin or continue to develop traveling movements such as walking,  climbing, running, jumping, hopping, skipping, marching, and galloping. 2. Show their ability to use dif ferent body parts in a rhythmic pattern. 3. Show increasing abilities to coordinate movements (e.g., throwing, catching, kicking, bouncing balls, using the slide and swing) in order to build strength, flexibility, balance, and stamina. 4. Exhibit a growing capacity to self-regulate, demonstrate self-efficacy and know acceptable boundaries (e.g., riding a tricycle or bike, using their bodies in helpful vs. hurtful ways, being a ‘leader’ in a game). 6. Early Learning Expectation: Fine Motor Development. Children experience growth in fine motor development and use small muscles to improve a variety of fine motor skills both in structured and unstructured settings. Emerging Indicators: Develop and refine motor control and coordination, eye-hand 1. coordination, finger/thumb and whole-hand strength coordination and endurance using a variety of age-appropriate tools (e.g., scissors, pencils, markers, crayons, blocks, putting together puzzles, using a variety of technology). Use fine motor skills they are learning in daily activities (e.g., dressing 2. themselves). 7. Early Learning Expectation: Positive Activity. Children participate in activities that encourage self-motivation, emphasize cooperation, and minimize competition. Emerging Indicators: 1. Learn to cooperate with others through games and other activities and actions that show a growing knowledge of the rights of others. 2. T ake pride in their own abilities and increase self-motivation. 3. Begin to develop an appreciation and respect for the varying physical abilities and capabilities of others. 55 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

58 ELE: SOCIAL, EMOTIONAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT (SEP) Demonstrate increasing ability to be together with others, in play or 4. intellectual learning opportunities and/or making positive efforts for the good of all. Health, Safety and Nutrition 8. Early Learning Expectation: Healthy Eating. Children become aware of and begin to develop nutritional habits that contribute to  good health. Emerging Indicators: 1. Grow in their understanding of the importance of eating nutritious meals and snacks at regular intervals, and how this relates to good health. Begin to listen to body signals of hunger and fullness, learn to choose 2. how much to eat at meals and snacks, and are able to convey their needs for food to adults. 3. Use age/developmentally-appropriate eating utensils safely and correctly . 4. Become aware of foods that cause allergic reactions for some children and/or other dietary needs or restrictions. Early Learning Expectation: Healthy Choices. Children begin to 9. have knowledge about and make age-appropriate healthy choices in daily life. Emerging Indicators: 1. Show growing independence in keeping themselves clean, personal care when eating, dressing, washing hands, brushing teeth, use of tissues for nose-blowing (and their disposal), and toileting. Grow in understanding of the importance of good health and its 2. relationship to physical activity. T alk about ways to prevent spreading germs and diseases to other 3. people. Develop an understanding of basic oral hygiene. 4. 5. Begin to be able to recognize activities that contribute to the spread of communicable diseases (e.g., sharing of cups, eating utensils, hats, clothing, foods). 6. Can begin to recognize some symptoms of disease or health issues (e.g., a sore throat is not a “sore neck”) and common instruments used in diagnosing disease (e.g., thermometer, x-ray machines). MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 56

59 ELE: SOCIAL, EMOTIONAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT (SEP) Begin to become aware of activities, substances, and situations that may 7. pose potential hazards to health [e.g., smoking, poisonous materials, edible, non-edible items (e.g., plants/berries), medications (appropriate use of)]. 10. Early Learning Expectation: Personal Safety . Children recognize that they have a role in preventing accidents or potential emergencies.  Emerging Indicators: 1. Begin to learn appropriate safety procedures (e.g., in the home, at school, as a pedestrian, outdoors, on the playground, with vehicles, with bicycles, around bodies of water). 2. Identify persons to whom they can turn for help in an emergency situation. 3. Begin to know important facts about themselves (e.g., address, phone number, parent’s name). Become aware of issues relative to personal safety (e.g., inappropriate 4. touching, good and bad secrets, learning how to say ‘No’ to inappropriate touching by any other person, recognizing when to tell an adult about an uncomfortable situation). 5. Begin to learn the correct procedure for self-protection in emergency situations (e.g., tornados, fire, storms, gun fire, chemical spills, avoidance of other’s blood and vomit). Begin to try new activities with ‘just manageable’ risk (e.g., riding a 6. tricycle, climbing safely, jumping, exploring). 7. Exhibit a growing capacity to self-regulate, demonstrate self-efficacy and know acceptable boundaries. Examples of Children’s Experiences and Teaching Practices to Support Learning Expectations in Social, Emotional and Physical Health and Development These examples and questions for teachers are intended to: 1) assist teachers in reflecting on their own practice in the classroom; 2) to help consider the experiences and prior learning of the children in their classrooms; and, 3) to visualize representative experiences and practices that lead toward reaching the Michigan Early Learning Expectations across the PK-3 age/grade levels. The Examples provided in the Preschool ECSQ correspond to those found in the full PK-Grade 3 age/grade range as age and developmentally appropriate. See connected Examples in related Expectations in other domains that offer 57 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

60 ELE: SOCIAL, EMOTIONAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT (SEP) rich opportunities for integrated learning across the curriculum. The Examples in Approaches to Learning are deeply connected to the Examples in the area of Social and Emotional Development. Examples of What Children Experience: In Social and Emotional Development: • A consistently positive, safe environment each day; a place where they  can develop and keep friendships. • Personal greetings, appropriate encouragement, and sufficient support to feel a sense of belonging each day with special care to include children who are Dual Language Learners or new to the community. • An environment where they feel safe expressing their feelings; e.g., likes, fears, excitement. • Opportunity to learn multiple verbal and nonverbal strategies to appropriately express their emotions; e.g., “I don’t like it when you hit me.” • Intentional teaching of social skills; e.g., how to greet peers, how to take turns, how to wait for something they want, how to demonstrate care and sympathy. • Examples of their work displayed somewhere in the classroom. • Seeing their parents treated with respect; hearing positive comments and examples of positive social gestures and behavior to all adults. • Opportunities to be involved in the care and routines of their classroom, to fix their mistakes, solve problems and develop confidence and responsibility. Opportunities to learn ways to be physically and emotional calm. • • Adults who involve them in developing rules for the classroom and outside and to see their rules posted with labels and visuals; labels and visuals are reflective of children and their languages; e.g. photographs reflect the range of ethnicities and special needs, including spoken and signed language. In Physical Development: • A classroom schedule that allows for time for both group activity and times of quiet or rest, as well as time to be alone. • With modeling and support from peers and teachers, time to learn and practice prerequisite skills prior to engaging in the activity for which those skills are required. • Opportunities to engage in exploration of materials or physical movement, games or concepts, both indoors and out, with which they have had little prior experience. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 58

61 ELE: SOCIAL, EMOTIONAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT (SEP) Opportunities to learn decision-making skills and build self-confidence • and self-control through challenging activities; e.g., walking a balance beam, climbing a net, hiking a trail, navigating a creek bed. In Health, Safety and Nutrition: • Support through positive guidance techniques to further development of self-control, responsibility, and respect for self, others and property. • Activities that encourage the use of all of the senses.  • A health-oriented environment with positive role models, visual exposure and prompts to eat healthy foods and to respect their body; e.g. books, posters, fruit bowls, healthy snacks, small gardens. • A safe place to talk about health and safety problems or express their fear or concern without repercussions. • Realistic expectations and rules for hand-washing, self-help skills and keeping their classroom environment clean, safe and healthy • Stories and books that demonstrate coping skills and reassurance about common childhood diseases and illnesses. • Active engagement with the natural world. An indoor classroom that reflects many aspects and benefits of nature. • Examples of What Teachers and Other Adults Do: In Social and Emotional Development: Model sensitivity , sincerity and empathy with children and other adults. • • Respond respectfully and positively — verbally , visually, and physically to all children. Model and engage children in conversations about management of their • emotions; e.g., “I was so frustrated that we couldn’t play outside today .” or “I need to take a deep breath.” Share and expand ideas for strengthening social skills; e.g., suggesting a • new way to play, another way to contribute or help. T each and encourage problem solving and the use of conflict resolution • skills, when conflicts arise by helping children learn socially appropriate ways to express their wants and needs and to respond to others; e.g., through talking, role playing, songs, finger plays. • Help children learn how friends act toward each other through books, stories, intentional activities, reinforcement and recognition of positive efforts and role models. • Model and plan opportunities that help children learn to share; e.g., using puppets, stories, task assignments. 59 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

62 ELE: SOCIAL, EMOTIONAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT (SEP) Recognize children’s ef forts to manage strong feelings. • • Demonstrate professionalism by not discussing sensitive subjects or negative behaviors when children are present. • Consistently demonstrate consideration for others, regardless of differences in people (gender, family, race, culture, language). • Involve children in the care of their indoor and outdoor materials, equipment and outdoor space; model respect for the property of others.  In Physical Development: • Model the kind of socially appropriate behaviors they would expect and value in young children. Ensure that no child is ignored or mocked. • • View physical education as an enjoyable and healthy activity rather than competition. • Organize the classroom environment and the outdoor play spaces for optimum safety and encourage children to participate in keeping the environment safe and beautiful. • Ask children open-ended questions about safety practices to better know children’s understanding and misconceptions about certain issues. • Respond with support when children need help and encouragement. • Read and research the full benefits of spending time out of doors. • Develop instructional strategies and plans to spend time outdoors. • Frequently incorporate other domains of learning. • Find multiple ways to link the value of physical activity with good health; place particular emphasis on movement as a component of weight control. In Health: • Enhance each child’s individual social-emotional health and well-being; regularly assess and review goals and children’s progress. Enhance each child’s individual rate of physical health and well-being; • regularly assess and review goals and children’s progress. • Establish a warm, engaging and multi-sensory environment filled with developmentally appropriate materials and model appropriate health and physical behaviors. • Promote a climate of acceptance and inclusion of children of varying cultural, ethnic, linguistic, and racial backgrounds as well as those with a range of abilities and disabilities. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 60

63 ELE: SOCIAL, EMOTIONAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT (SEP) • Respects varying aspects of family preferences. • Use positive guidance techniques in individual and in group physical activities, which further children’s development of self-control, responsibility, and respect for self, others and property. • Provide play opportunities for children individually and in groups both indoors and outdoors and plan ahead to enable children to be outdoors daily in all reasonable types of weather. • Apply a limitation on screen time, including time using computers; convey  this message to families. • Encourage children to explore new foods through projects in the classroom, trips to local markets or restaurants and through family involvement. • Use the child’ s first language, as well as the primary spoken and written language of the program, especially to communicate a dangerous situation or an immediate need; e.g., “Be careful!” “Hot!” ”Stop!” • Support children’ s mental health by incorporating and reinforcing positive social dispositions. 61 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

64 ELE: EARLY LEARNING IN MATHEMATICS (M) Early Learning in Mathematics (M)  Young children’s early understandings of mathematics are broad in scope and extend well beyond numbers and counting. Problem solving is the central focus of the mathematics curriculum from the early years onward. How children’s early understandings are supported and extended by their parents and caregivers/teachers enable them to use and expand their knowledge. Mathematical experiences involving interactions with the environment, materials, peers and supportive adults give children opportunities to build, modify, and integrate simple mathematical concepts—primarily ideas about whole numbers, shapes and space. For Kindergarten and beyond, Michigan has adopted the College and Career Ready Standards (CCRS), and Expectations for K-3 based on those new standards are a part of the 2012 Birth through Grade 3 Alignment Project. The CCRS emphasizes that the focus of experiences in early mathematics should be on understanding whole numbers with some emphasis on shapes and space (e.g., Expectations related to fractions do not appear until Grade 3). All of the Expectations expressed here at the preschool level support and lead into the learning expectations in later schooling. They may be organized and titled somewhat differently than in the CCRS, but they all help children develop the attitudes, skills, and knowledge necessary for later proficiency in mathematics. At the preschool level, they are expressed to reflect developmentally appropriate expectations for three- and four-year-old children. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 62

65 ELE: EARLY LEARNING IN MATHEMATICS (M) Of critical importance is the support of teachers in helping children adopt these attitudes and practices in their early exploration of mathematics in their daily lives and in their early learning programs: • Making sense of problems and persevering in solving them. • Reasoning abstractly and quantitatively . • Constructing viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. • Modeling with mathematics. • . Using appropriate tools strategically  Attending to precision. • • Looking for and making use of structure. • Looking for and expressing regularity in repeated reasoning. 1. Early Learning Expectation: Math Practices. Children begin to develop processes and strategies for solving mathematical problems. Emerging Indicators: 1. ry to solve problems in their daily lives using mathematics (e.g., how T many napkins are needed). 2. Generate new problems from every day mathematical situations and use current knowledge and experience to solve them (e.g., distribute crackers). 3. Begin to develop and use various approaches to problem solving based upon their trial and error experiences. 4. Begin to talk about the processes and procedures they used to solve concrete and simple mathematical situations. 5. Begin to generate problems that involve predicting, collecting, and analyzing information and using simple estimation. 2. Early Learning Expectation: Mathematical Literacy . Children begin to use the language of mathematics by applying emerging skills in representing, discussing, reading, writing, and listening (e.g., by translating a problem or activity into a new form; a picture, diagram, model, symbol, or words). Emerging Indicators: 1. Participate regularly in informal conversations about mathematical concepts and number relationships. 63 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

66 ELE: EARLY LEARNING IN MATHEMATICS (M) Begin to record their work with numbers in a variety of simple concrete 2. and pictorial formats, moving toward some use of number and other mathematical symbols. 3. Begin to use symbols to represent real objects and quantities. 4. Make progress from matching and recognizing number symbols to reading and writing numerals. alk about their own mathematical explorations and discoveries using 5. T simple mathematical language and quantity-related words. 6. Begin to recognize that information comes in many forms and can be  organized and displayed in different ways. 7. Begin to describe comparative relationships (e.g., more/less/same number of objects or quantities). 3. Early Learning Expectation: Classification and Patterns. Childre n begin to develop skills of recognizing, comparing and classifying objects, relationships, events and patterns in their environment and in everyday life. Emerging Indicators: 1. , extend, and create simple patterns with real Recognize, describe, copy objects and through pictures. 2. Identify patterns in their environment. 3. Investigate patterns and describe relationships. Recognize patterns in various formats (e.g., things that can be seen, 4. heard, felt). Early Learning Expectation: Counting and Cardinality . Children 4. extend their understanding of numbers and their relationship to one another and things in the environment. Emerging Indicators: 1. Develop an increasing interest and awareness of numbers and counting as a means for determining quantity and solving problems. 2. Match, build, compare, and label amounts of objects and events (e.g., birthdays in the week) in their daily lives. 3. Make progress in moving beyond rote counting to an understanding of conceptual counting (e.g., one-to-one correspondence). 4. Recognize and match number symbols for small amounts with the appropriate amounts (e.g., subitizing). MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 64

67 ELE: EARLY LEARNING IN MATHEMATICS (M) Show progress in linking number concepts, vocabulary , quantities and 5. written numerals in meaningful ways. 6. Show growth in understanding that number words and numerals represent quantities. 7. Use cardinal (e.g., one, two) and ordinal (e.g., first, second) numbers in daily home and classroom life. 8. Understand how numbers can be used to label various aspects of their lives (e.g., house number, phone number, ages of classmates). 9. Develop an increasing ability to count in sequence up to ten and beyond,  typically referred to as “counting on.” Note: Expectations relating to place value (tens and ones) begin with Kindergarten 5. Early Learning Expectation: Simple Operations and Beginning Algebraic Thinking. Children begin to develop skills of sorting and organizing information, seeing patterns, and using information to make predictions and solve new problems. Emerging Indicators: 1. Begin to develop the ability to solve problems involving joining, separating, combining, and comparing amounts when using small quantities of concrete materials. 2. Can generate problems that involve predicting, collecting, and analyzing information. 3. Use simple estimation to make better guesses. ferences. 4. Identify likenesses and dif Can place objects or events in order 5. , according to a given criterion (e.g., color, shape, size, time). 6. Recognize that the same group can be sorted and classified in more than one way and describe why they would group or sequence in a particular way. 7. Begin to understand that simple concrete and representational graphs are ways of collecting, organizing, recording, and describing information. 6. Early Learning Expectation: Measuring. Children explore and discover simple ways to measure. Emerging Indicators: 1. Show awareness that things in their environment can be measured. 2. Begin to understand concepts of weight. 65 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

68 ELE: EARLY LEARNING IN MATHEMATICS (M) Show an awareness of the concept of time, beginning with the recognition 3. of time as a sequence of events and how time plays a role in their daily life (e.g., breakfast, snack, lunch, dinner). 4. Show an awareness of temperature as it affects their daily lives. 5. Use beginning skills of estimation in solving everyday measurement problems (e.g., about how many cookies are needed for a small group of children). Begin to use non-standard measures (e.g., length of hand) for length and 6. area of objects.  7. Begin to understand that tools (e.g., rulers, scales, counters) can be used to measure properties of objects and amounts. 7. Early Learning Expectation: Geometry. Children build their visual thinking skills through explorations with shape and the spaces in their classrooms and neighborhoods. Emerging Indicators: 1. Can make models, draw, name, and/or classify common shapes and verbally describe them in simple terms. 2. Investigate and begin to predict the results of combining, subdividing, and changing shapes. Begin to recognize and appreciate geometric shapes in their environment. 3. 4. Begin to build an understanding of directionality, order , and positions of objects through the use of words (e.g., up, down, over, under, top, bottom, inside, outside, in front of, behind). Identify patterns in their environment. 5. 6. Recognize, describe, copy, extend and create simple patterns with real objects and through pictures. 7. Investigate patterns and describe relationships. 8. Recognize patterns in various formats (e.g., things that can be seen, heard, felt). Examples of Children’s Experiences and Teaching Practices to Support Learning Expectations in the Early Learning in Mathematics Domain These examples and questions for teachers are intended to: 1) assist teachers in reflecting on their own practice in the classroom; 2) to help consider the experiences and prior learning of the children in their classrooms; and, 3) to visualize representative experiences and practices that lead toward reaching the Michigan Early Learning Expectations across the PK-3 age/grade levels. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 66

69 ELE: EARLY LEARNING IN MATHEMATICS (M) The Examples provided in the 2013 Preschool ECSQ correspond to those found in the full PK-Grade 3 Age/Grade range as age and developmentally appropriate. Teachers will also find connected Examples in the Ecology of Learning Domain, the Science Domain, the Technology Learning Domain and related Expectations in other domains that offer rich opportunities for integrated learning across the curriculum. At the K-3 levels, many similar Examples are organized to reflect the organizational structure of the s tandards adopted tate s by Michigan. They are Expectations. titled and organized to reflect the PK Early Learning  Examples of What Children Experience: Math Practices: • Time to talk through their ideas and solutions with others and time to demonstrate their problem solving skills. • Opportunities to solve challenging problems irrespective of the child’ s gender, abilities, race/ethnicity. • Repeated opportunities to learn a sequence of steps for problem solving in mathematics and other areas of the curriculum. • Access to and the opportunity to learn key words orally and in print from لكشم their first language and English; e.g., problem/problema/vãn dê / ietnamese/Arabic). (English/Spanish/V Mathematical Literacy: Teachers who use the language of mathematics or ‘math talk’. • Access to many fiction and non-fiction books with mathematical concepts • as part of the stories, text, and pictures. • Encouragement to use the language of mathematics and to have access to materials that can be named and described mathematically; e.g., geometric shapes, measuring tools, opportunities to describe the positions of people or objects; opportunities to compare the sizes and shapes of unit blocks; opportunities to talk about events in time such as before, after today , yesterday, before my last birthday. • A classroom library containing books that show positive examples of diverse people; e.g., diverse ages, gender, abilities, race/ethnicity whose work has connections to math and science, problem solving, or invention. Classification and Patterns: • Opportunities daily to sort and re-sort items that are interesting and engaging and/or significant to classroom life. 67 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

70 ELE: EARLY LEARNING IN MATHEMATICS (M) T ime to create, extend or describe a wide variety of patterns, in varied • materials (stamps, counting, stringing beads); and those evident in music, art and physical activities. • Patterns in their routine, in their outdoor environment and evident in their classroom. Counting and Cardinality: • Frequent opportunities both inside and outside to link number concepts through their play and classroom activities.  Opportunity to use counting in the daily life of the classroom; e.g. “How • many are at school today?”; “How many are absent?” • Opportunities to talk about and explain about their own mathematical explorations and discoveries using simple mathematical language and quantity-related words. • Growing understanding that number words and numerals represent quantities; e.g., have opportunities to use symbols to represent real objects and quantities, and as they grow older, to experience and represent greater quantities. Progress in moving beyond rote counting to an understanding of • conceptual counting (one-to-one correspondence); e.g., quantifying by counting or by subitizing (knowing just by looking). Opportunities to use cardinal (e.g., one, two) and ordinal (e.g., first, • second) numbers in daily classroom life and to see that counting can be used at home. Opportunities to understand how numbers can be used to label various • aspects of their lives (e.g., house number, phone number, ages of classmates/family members). • Respect for their interests and how those relate to numbers and counting; e.g., they can count and order dogs, shoes, cars that go by, items they may be collecting. Simple Operations and Beginning Algebraic Thinking: • In preschool and kindergarten, repeated experiences to solve problems involving joining, separating, combining, and comparing amounts when using small quantities of concrete materials. • A classroom stocked with individual and cooperative math games of varying difficulty; time to use such materials as a regular part of the daily/ weekly schedule. • Access to simple computer simulations to experience concepts previously introduced via concrete materials. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 68

71 ELE: EARLY LEARNING IN MATHEMATICS (M) Measuring: • A daily routine that incorporates concepts about measurement across the learning domains; e.g., through songs, movement, in literacy. • Regular opportunities to organize their materials and information; gather confidence in their ability to use math meaningfully. • Experiences that demonstrate that information comes in many forms and can be organized and displayed in different ways. • Increasingly complex opportunities to collect, organize, record, and describe information related to their work with numbers in a variety of  simple concrete and pictorial formats, moving toward the use of number symbols in later primary. • Challenges of problem solving that include collecting and analyzing data. Geometry: • Opportunities to make models, draw , name and /or classify common shapes and verbally describe them. • Activities which lead to investigations and predictions from the results of combining, subdividing, and changing shapes. • Opportunities to recognize and appreciate geometric shapes in both the indoor and outdoor environments. T ime in the natural environment to identify the shapes and symmetry of • natural elements (leaves, branches, petals). • Opportunities to make and use maps, or participate in orienteering; give directions, talk about their location, explain distance, or navigation, such as: left, right, front, over, behind. Teachers and Other Adults: Mathematics Practices: • Deliberately use problem-solving vocabulary in their conversations with children in the classroom and outdoors; e.g., asking “Can we predict ... , change ... , observe ... ”, etc. • Engage children in conversations about quantity , properties of objects, use of measurement tools as children interact with materials in learning centers or class activities across all areas of the curriculum. • Deliberately model the process of solving everyday problems; e.g., asking “Let’s decide what to do?”; “How many children want to go on a walk? • Help families understand that problem-solving can be a positive experience and not always a crisis and help them identify such opportunities in everyday family life. 69 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

72 ELE: EARLY LEARNING IN MATHEMATICS (M) Give families examples of how to extend children’ s thinking by asking • relevant questions and being supportive of inquiry. • Recognize that children are developing the ability to solve math problems and talk with them non-judgmentally and with encouragement as they experience correct and incorrect responses; e.g., guide them as they analyze “errors” and develop alternative processes for solving problems. • Pace and organize the classroom to encourage problem solving across the curriculum. Assure that children with dif • fering learning styles and abilities are given  opportunities to solve problems of increasing complexity. • Draw attention to new situations and problem solving opportunities in the daily working of the classroom. • Establish practices to encourage children to view objects and ideas from multiple perspectives and across learning domains. Mathematical Literacy: • Emphasize verbalization of thinking and concepts and encourage children follow the example. • Make liberal use of concrete materials to help children understand mathematical language, especially children learning English and children with special learning needs. • Establish the practice of reflection to better understand concepts. • Observe children and listen to their conversations to better understand their progress in mathematical understanding. • Use visual examples to assist children in understanding concepts; e.g., objects of all kinds, especially items from the natural world (seed pods, small rocks, fallen leaves), charts, number lines. Counting and Cardinality: • Through the provision of many activities in math and in linking math across the curriculum, take advantage of children’s natural interest in number concepts by engaging them with mathematical ideas and exploring ideas about numbers. • Create circumstances to engage children in counting and using numbers and practice using number words or finger patterns. Build on children’ s prior number knowledge by building on experience • and knowledge related to their family, linguistic, cultural, and community backgrounds. • Help children use their natural interest in mathematics and their disposition to use it to make sense of their physical and social worlds. • Create a classroom learning environment that is safe for trial and error and help families to understand the importance of such an approach. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 70

73 ELE: EARLY LEARNING IN MATHEMATICS (M) Find ways to make sure children see both female and male role models • routinely engaged in solving problems. Simple Operations and Beginning Algebraic Thinking: • Model frequently , especially for children learning English. • Promote social interactions in the classroom, learning from peers, small group play and time for discussing their understandings. • Ask questions to understand children’ s thinking, observe their actions  and listen to their explanations; observe their approach when using the computer to understand their thinking. • Design activities and math concepts to children’ s interests and daily activities. • Emphasize math concepts outside of the math context; in music notations, board games, puzzles, clapping rhythms. Measuring: • Use descriptive language regarding measurement, size, comparisons and attributes in children’s first language and in English; e.g., much longer; barely red. • Involve and inform families about the classroom activities and learning related to measurement and collecting data that can be extended at home. • Provide many activities that help children move from non-standard to standards units of measure; e.g., from as long as my foot to a 12-inch measurement tool, from how much juice fits in my glass to how much in a cup measure. • Identify experiences to relate measurement to additive and subt ractive concepts; e.g., “How many children had milk for lunch every day this week?” Geometry: • Assure that children have opportunities to explore both two and three dimensional objects. • V ary the size of all geometric shapes with representation of fat, skinny, long, small, etc. • Describe increasingly complex shapes and how those shapes are represented in the environment of the classroom and beyond. Demonstrate how shapes can be combined to create new forms. • • Use digital tools only after children have had many opportuniti es to internalize concepts of space and shape through direct and concrete experience. • Help children develop a sense of spatial understanding; e.g., location, direction, distance. • Encourage families to help children explore math in their everyday environments and experiences. 71 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

74 ELE: EARLY LEARNING IN SCIENCE (S) Early Learning in Science  (S) Early learning in science builds on young children’s natural sense of wonder and curiosity. It provides them with better understanding of the world around them and how it works. Early learning expectations for science model the nature of scientific inquiry which has at its core the opportunity to ask and answer questions and develop problem-solving skills. Children bring their emerging skills in mathematics to their experiences and use their growing abilities in representing ideas through language and the creative arts to portray their scientific knowledge. Early science opportunities use active hands-on experiences to foster positive attitudes toward science and form the basis for later and more sophisticated understandings. This requires adults to model the same attitudes and sense of wonder about the world around them. . Children Early Learning Expectation: Observation and Inquiry 1. develop positive attitudes and gain knowledge about science through observation and active play. Emerging Indicators: 1. Demonstrate curiosity about and interest in their natural environment that leads them to confidently engage in activities related to science. Ask questions related to their own interest and observations. 2. alk about their own predictions, explanations and generalizations based 3. T on past and current experiences. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 72

75 ELE: EARLY LEARNING IN SCIENCE (S) Expand their observational skills (e.g., extending the time they 4. observe, being able to describe and confirm their observations by using a variety of resources). 5. Begin to participate in simple investigations (e.g., asking questions manipulating materials; anticipating what might happen next; testing their observations to determine why things happen). 2. Early Learning Expectation: Living and Non-living Things. Children show a beginning awareness of scientific knowledge related to living and non-living things.  Emerging Indicators: 1. Demonstrate a growing ability to collect, talk about, and record information about living and non-living things (e.g., through discussions, drawings). 2. Begin to categorize living and non-living things in their environment based on characteristics they can observe (e.g., texture, color, size, shape, temperature, usefulness, weight). 3. Use observation skills to build awareness of plants and animals, their life cycles (e.g., birth, aging, death) and basic needs (e.g., air, food, light, rest). 4. Begin to describe relationships among familiar plants and animals (e.g., caterpillars eat leaves). 5. Begin to describe the places in which familiar plants and animals in their neighborhood live (e.g., city, drainage ponds, parks, fields, forests). 6. Demonstrate greater knowledge and respect for their bodies (e.g., describe visible parts of the human body and their functions). Observe, describe and compare the motions of common 7. objects in terms of speed and direction (e.g., faster, slowest, up, down). Early Learning Expectation: Knowledge about the Earth. Children 3. show a beginning awareness of scientific knowledge related to the earth. Emerging Indicators: 1. Can talk about observable characteristics of dif ferent seasons. 2. Can talk about the observable properties of earth materials (sand, rocks, soil, water) and living organisms. 3. Can talk about major features of the earth’ s surface (streams, hills, beaches) when found in the children’s neighborhood and neighborhoods that they visit. 73 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

76 ELE: EARLY LEARNING IN SCIENCE (S) Begin to describe weather and its changing conditions (e.g., wind, rain, 4. snow, clouds). 5. T alk about ways to be safe during bad weather and in outdoor explorations. Examples of Children’s Experiences and Teaching Practices to Support Learning Expectations in Science These examples and questions for teachers are intended to: 1) assist  teachers in reflecting on their own practice in the classroom; 2) to help consider the experiences and prior learning of the children in their classrooms; and, 3) to visualize representative experiences and practices that lead toward reaching the Michigan Early Learning Expectations across the PK-3 age/grade levels. The Examples provided in the Preschool ECSQ correspond to those found in the full PK-Grade 3 age/grade range as age and developmentally appropriate. See connected Examples in the Approaches to Learning Domain, the Dual Language Learning Domain, the Early Learning in Technology Domain and related Expectations in other domains that offer rich opportunities for integrated learning across the curriculum Especially for children at this age, learning opportunities in the Science domain are closely related to one another; the Expectations in the Processes subdomain apply across all the Science subdomains and have relevance across all the other domains. Science Expectations offer multiple opportunities to connect to other content Domains, such as Social Studies and the Creative Arts and offer rich opportunities to practice skills in the Literacies and Mathematics. Examples of What Children Experience: Observation and Inquiry: Enthusiastic teachers who enjoy scientific investigation and discovery with • children. • Many opportunities to focus on processes which help them describe, question, think about and talk with peers and teachers about what they are investigating, examining and discovering. • T ime to engage, process their own thinking, problem solve and observe by collecting data, drawing and writing in a science journal or class log; time to share final products with peers or family. • A variety of appropriate science related materials found throughout the room where they have access, opportunities and choices with which to utilize their developing inquiry skills. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 74

77 ELE: EARLY LEARNING IN SCIENCE (S) Access to many nonfiction books and pictures about aspects of their • everyday world; books that show diversity of race, culture, gender and physical abilities and accommodations in science-related occupations. • Support in documenting the discoveries and questions that they have regarding various topics; continuous displays (photo, posters, stories, video) of both class and individual content learning that can be seen by families and peers, both in the room and available via Internet. • An environment with rich content vocabulary and support to understand age appropriate scientific language for both native English speakers and dual language learners.  Living and Nonliving Things: • Safe opportunities to change and observe change in things; e.g., taking apart old machines, tinkering with nuts and bolts, mixing colors, cooking, growing plants, weighing things. • Opportunities to explore, describe, predict, and document their investigations on their own and cooperating with peers; e.g., ways shapes and objects fit together, things to push and pull, light and shadow tables, magnets. • A variety of appropriate well-maintained science materials throughout the room to utilize inquiry skills, reasoning and investigation; e.g., scales, magnifiers, blocks, magnets. Models and examples of accomplishment, collaboration and learni • ng in classroom science projects, discoveries, charts of data collection, science notebooks. Social interaction with peers and time to contribute and partic ipate on • projects around the big ideas or themes of science, such as: force or motion. A sense of joy and discovery in the classroom where all children are • actively engaged in their learning. • Multiple examples and discussions to understand the dif ference between living and non-living entities; encouragement to name and describe living and non-living things in their environment; on-going opportunities to document their understanding. • Opportunities to safely observe and help take care of plants or animals both inside and out of doors. • A significant amount of time to investigate and process the discoveries they make out of doors; to explore the place where they live; to learn from place- based situations; e.g., measuring the snow melt, observing the way the water flows down the land, the plants and animals in a local river or park. • Social, literacy and creative opportunities integrated with scientific learning; e.g., sharing a field trip with peers, documenting an observation, drawings of plants observed in a study of the neighborhood. 75 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

78 ELE: EARLY LEARNING IN SCIENCE (S) Time to develop empathy with and appreciation for living things in the • natural world. Knowledge about the Earth: • Their own cultural and ethnic backgrounds represented in the activities, stories, symbols or pictures found in the room as they relate to prior knowledge and experiences living in different environments. • Time spent outdoors daily, actually in touch with the environment with sustained time to investigate and process the discoveries they make and to deepen their understanding of phenomena.  • Adults talking with them as they become observant of their environment and elements of the earth; teachers listening to questions, and answering or posing additional questions, about why things happen; e.g., weather phenomena, darkness and light. • Opportunities for integrated learning experiences between math, literacy or creative projects that occur both in and out of doors. • Time outside their classroom with opportunities to explore the place where they live; learning that includes place-based situations and, in later primary discussing how where they live affects phenomena they see around them; e.g., measuring the rain fall, observing the way the seasons change, planting a garden, noting the beach and shoreline changes. • Opportunities to build special places outside, make maps, and discover the nature of their own communities and neighborhoods; e.g., they play , dig, climb, plant, hike. What Teachers and Other Adults Do: Observation and Inquiry: • Teach science through inquiry and active explorations; understand the importance of curiosity in children’s exploration; and support children’s questioning, experimenting and meaning making. • Provide an engaging environment and make changes to respond to children’s shifting interests, developing skills and emergent language. Demonstrate their sense of wonder and appreciation of the processes of • discovery, investigation, curiosity and observation. Utilize science skills, concepts and vocabulary as a part of integrated • learning across all domains. • Provide additional time to make accommodations, explain or expand new science content words in English to dual language learners. • Talk with children in ways that promote children’s thinking, predicting and reasoning; and provide them with accurate information and vocabulary about scientific ideas. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 76

79 ELE: EARLY LEARNING IN SCIENCE (S) Regularly pose open-ended questions about science and the child’ s • thinking and reasoning process. • Provide time for reflection, tinkering with objects and sustained engagement. Living and Nonliving Things: • Pose questions to children that encourage them to try new strategies, organize their approaches to investigations, become attentive, predict and to problem solve; e.g., what causes motion, what would it take to pull an object.  Utilize math and physical science concepts, practices and content • vocabulary across the curriculum; e.g., connections to ideas about force and motion, energy, properties of matter, changes in matter, graphing results of properties. • Provide non-fiction/ informational text of varying levels to use for visualization and for finding information. • Encourage children to show and tell what they are thinking to build their view of themselves as scientists, investigators and capable learners. • Model their individual sense of curiosity, respect and appreciation for the natural world. • Describe and demonstrate how all of the senses help in making science observations and investigations. • Provide appropriate working equipment and interesting materials arranged to extend children’s understanding of concepts; e.g. classification or characteristics of living and non-living things. Utilize non-fiction books that include diversity of race, gender and place • as examples of discoveries, explorations and the people who made/make these discoveries. • Use technology to post children’s learning, investigations or projects both to demonstrate class accomplishments and for parent engagement; e.g., an audio class newsletter, class web page or wiki. • Help children become scientifically literate by providing age appropriate guided opportunities for in-depth exploration and links to meaningful learning; e.g., a project about things that melt or what attracts a magnet. Knowledge about the Earth: • Provide access to high interest subject matter about earth science; i.e., an evening study of the moon, with the families. • Use a variety of presentation models to help children understand concepts. 77 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

80 ELE: EARLY LEARNING IN SCIENCE (S) • Share information about scientific contributions of individuals from all ethnic origins as important and valuable. Ensure that children’s cultural and ethnic backgrounds are represented in the activities, stories, and symbols/pictures found in the room as they relate to prior knowledge and experiences; i.e., cold/hot climates; water/desert environments. • Make themselves available to children to support and extend their conversations about natural phenomena in the outdoors and build real world connections. Provide the materials necessary to help children record their observations • about natural phenomena; e.g., clipboards, paper, camera, journals and tools for making drawings and recording observations.  • Help children with the big ideas of earth science focused primarily on processes rather than discrete skills; with sustained time on a topic to expand understanding. • Establish teaching practices that reflect children’s immersion into the natural world and prepare themselves to teach the topic. • Incorporate Math and Science skills to make connections to a real world project; e.g., how much and what kinds of junk mail are there, how could we measure it, where does it come from, how does it get here, what happens to it. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 78

81 ELE: EARLY LEARNING IN THE SOCIAL STUDIES (SS) Early Learning in the Social Studies  (SS) Children study their social world from the moment of birth. By the time they are three- and four-years-old, children are becoming increasingly sophisticated in observing and understanding their social world (Chard, 1998). The preschool classroom is a perfect laboratory for children to further learn the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to live in a diverse democratic society and to be able to understand our growing global interdependence as adults. The balance of age appropriate content and the use of inquiry to learn more about the people in their families and neighborhoods, the earth they live on, the people who live on the earth and learning more about their histories, will give young children the skills they will need as citizens of a democracy. At this age, learning in the social studies is closely related to children’s social and emotional development and to what they experience in the community of their classroom. Learning experiences in the PK-3 age/grade range cross the discipline-based areas of the social studies such as history, civics and economics that are more appropriate in later elementary school and beyond. The climate of acceptance and zest for learning set by the adults is an important part of social studies for preschool children. Early Learning Expectation: Relationship in Place. Children begin 1. to understand and interpret their relationship and place within their own environment. Emerging Indicators: Explore the environment, experiment and play with natural materials, 1. explore the texture, sound and smells of nature. 79 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

82 ELE: EARLY LEARNING IN THE SOCIAL STUDIES (SS) Extend information gained from books and stories or projects to learning 2. in the outdoor setting in which they live and play. 3. Develop a sense of connectedness through the exploration of the natural environment and materials, caring for animals or plants. 4. Engage in conversations that reflect experiences in and observations of the environment. 5. Demonstrate a developing sense of respect for nature and its components. Use and understand words for location and direction. 6. Early Learning Expectation: How People Are Influenced. Children 2.  begin to recognize that many different influences shape people’s thinking and behavior. Emerging Indicators: 1. Can talk about personal information (e.g., name; family members; and, by four, knowledge of personal traits, address, telephone number). 2. Begin to recognize themselves as unique individuals and become aware of the uniqueness of others. 3. Show an understanding of family and how families are alike and dif ferent. 4. alk about ways members of a family can work together to help one T another. Begin to recognize that people celebrate events in a variety of ways. 5. 6. Grow in understanding of and respect for dif ferences among cultural groups, as well as their contributions to society. Exhibit a growing capacity to self-regulate, demonstrate self-efficacy and 7. know acceptable boundaries. 8. Participate in creating their own classroom celebrations. Early Learning Expectation: Understanding T 3. ime. Children show growth in their understanding of the concept of time and begin to realize that they are a part of a history, which includes people, places, events, and stories about the present and the past. Emerging Indicators: 1. Use words to describe time (e.g., yesterday , today, tomorrow). 2. Can talk about recent and past events. 3. Show interest in nature and asks questions about what is seen and what has changed (e.g., temperature, trees, sunlight) over time. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 80

83 ELE: EARLY LEARNING IN THE SOCIAL STUDIES (SS) Gather information and learn new concepts through experimentation and 4. discovery, making connections what they already know. 5. Demonstrate an increasing sense of belonging and awareness of their roles as members of families, classrooms, and communities. 6. Contribute to their community (classroom, school, neighborhood) as age appropriate. Early Learning Expectation: Why W 4. e Have Rules and Laws. Children begin to learn about the reasons for rules and laws, the importance of a democratic process, and the responsibilities of being a member of a classroom, a family, and a community.  Emerging Indicators: 1. Grow in their understanding of the need for rules and boundaries in their learning and social environment. 2. Begin to understand consequences of following and breaking (disobeying) rules. 3. Can identify people (e.g., parents, teachers, bus drivers, lunchroom helpers) who have authority in their home and early learning programs (e.g., who helps them make rules, who tells them when they are breaking a rule, who helps enforce rules). 4. Show increasing respect for the rights of others. 5. Early Learning Expectation: Basic Ideas about Economics. Children increase their understanding about how basic economic concepts relate to their lives. Emerging Indicators: 1. Can talk about some of the workers and services in their community . 2. Can talk about some of the ways people earn a living. 3. Begin to understand that people pay for things with a representation of money (e.g., currency, checks, debit cards, credit cards). 4. Make simple choices about how to spend money . 81 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

84 ELE: EARLY LEARNING IN THE SOCIAL STUDIES (SS) Early Learning Expectation: People and Their Environment. 6. Children increase their understanding of the relationship between people and their environment and begin to recognize the importance of taking care of the resources in their environment. Emerging Indicators: 1. Begin to identify what families need to thrive (e.g., food, shelter, clothing, love). 2. Can participate in improving their environment (e.g., pick up litter, recycle, plant trees and flowers, conserve lights, water and paper). 3. Engages in activities that promote a sense of contribution.  4. Responds and recognizes naturally occurring events that reinforce the ideas of change and the connections to care giving of living things. Examples of Children’s Experiences and Teaching Practices to Support Learning Expectations in Early Learning in the Social Studies Domain These examples and questions for teachers are intended to: 1) assist teachers in reflecting on their own practice in the classroom; 2) to help consider the experiences and prior learning of the children in their classrooms; and, 3) to visualize representative experiences and practices that lead toward reaching the Michigan Early Learning Expectations across the PK-3 age/grade levels. While opportunities for integration of learning exist across all domains, these Examples are particularly related to those in the Approaches to Learning and Science domains. The Examples provided in the Preschool ECSQ correspond to those found in the full PK-Grade 3 age/grade range Examples as age and developmentally appropriate. Connected Examples in other domains offer rich opportunities for integrated learning across the curriculum. Examples of What Children Experience: A indoor environment rich with visuals of the local area; e.g., maps with • simple labels, signs, globes and puzzles; in later primary, opportunities to “map” the passage of time through the construction of time lines of events of significance to them, their communities and early earlier times in Michigan. • Access to high quality literature, both fiction and non-fiction, that helps them learn more about their place in their neighborhood and their expanding ‘community,’ both the structures as well as the outdoor play spaces and the plants and surrounding lands, forests, streams and bodies of water. • Opportunities to participate in community projects that are collaborative and help to establish a sense of place. • Time to hear from community members as storytellers or historians for the various cultures and development of the area or region. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 82

85 ELE: EARLY LEARNING IN THE SOCIAL STUDIES (SS) Celebrations that reflect the history of their classroom peers and community • accomplishments or events of significance representing all groups. • Classroom projects that incorporate individual family stories or photographs of elders or family traditions. • Daily time in the outdoors, actually in touch with the environment in which they live. • Opportunities to be involved in simple map making, planning and discussing their neighborhood; noting their daily surroundings, changes in their environment and creating a simple map. • Adults talking with them as they become observant of their environment. They introduce vocabulary that is descriptive and extends their ability to also verbalize what they notice but may not yet be able to articulate or  may not yet have noticed. • Learning experiences that allow them to begin to see themselves as ‘explorers’ –competent, confident learners who ask questions and make discoveries about their human and non-human environment. • Encouragement to develop and express their own working theories for making sense of the natural, social, physical and material worlds; opportunities to discuss these ideas with small groups of their classmates. • A classroom with many types of manipulatives that demonstrate different attributes; labels are displayed and discussed to increase children’ s vocabulary relevant to building a descriptive language base. • A sense of community in their classroom; confidence that it is a safe place to learn and to interact with classmates. • A chance to be heard, to respectfully express their own voices, to participate, to learn how rules apply to themselves; a developing sense of what it means to be a democratic community of learners. • Respectful behaviors from peers and other adults; adults who provide coaching or guidance to be respectful and tolerant themselves. • Evidence of their personal culture represented respectfully on a continuous basis through song, language, fiction and non-fiction literature, pictures, playthings, and dance. • Multiple opportunities to learn about differences and similarities among their classmates and in the larger neighborhood and community without judgmental comparisons. • Acknowledgement of their own preferences, uniqueness, strengths and ability to contribute in a positive manner. • Learning experiences to help them learn basic safety and health rules that they use daily. • Support to learn appropriate social dispositions: e.g., being a friend, acting like a friend, learning negotiation skills, paying attention to others. 83 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

86 ELE: EARLY LEARNING IN THE SOCIAL STUDIES (SS) Encouragement to practice problem solving, self-regulation and • consideration across all classroom and outdoor experiences. • Play experiences that allow for ‘buying, selling, trading’ goods or services; or saving by various means as a classroom project to reach a goal. Teachers and Other Adults: • Arrange multiple opportunities for children to explore the neighborhood and the various cultures within their community. • Begin a classroom collection of artifacts with local significance and that grows with contributions of the class during the school year. • Arrange the environments — indoors and outside — to support and encourage self-motivated exploration.  • Visibly connect the curriculum to the families and cultures represented in the classroom; communicate regularly with families and invite multi- generational participation. • Frequently model descriptive words that help understand sequences of events; provide key words in first languages and in English. • Recognize and respect historical concepts that vary across cultures (i.e. personal space, touch, time concepts, mealtime); take such mores into consideration when working with families. • Integrate historically-related terms that are also associated with math and science; e.g., before/after, now/later, when/where/with whom. Guide children toward developing a sense of responsibility for the living • and the non-living environment. • Establish regular, frequent opportunities for children to observe, identity and describe plants and animals and the environment over time; prominently display documentation that allows children to review and recall these experiences and changes. • Utilize outdoor experiences to incorporate math, science, literacy and physical skills; e.g., graph types of animals or birds, document natural events over time, read stories about the area or significant people from the area, listen and move to music from the region, or visit local artists. • Ask open ended questions to support meaning making and discovery by children. • Regularly spend time outdoors and model both active and calming activities. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 84

87 Quality Program Standards for Preschool Quality Program Standards for Preschool and Prekindergarten Programs and Prekindergarten Programs INTRODUCTION he 1986 blue-covered document, Standards of Quality and Curriculum Guidelines for Preschool Programs for Four Year Olds, was adopted T as Michigan began its first targeted state prekindergarten program for four- year-old children at-risk of school failure. The “blue standards” included a set of critical elements and components thought to predict results for children and used at that time to determine quality in early childhood programs. The standards articulated what the State Board of Education considered necessary for preschool programs to be successful, and have been used continuously as the prekindergarten program grew into the Michigan School Readiness Program (currently the Great Start Readiness Program). Monitoring instruments and self-assessment protocols, leading to a continuous improvement planning process, were also developed and implemented based on the “blue standards”. Although the State Board of Education and the Department of Education distributed the “blue standards” and supporting documents widely, they were never required for programs other than the Michigan School Readiness Program (Great Start Readiness Program). 85 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

88 In 1992, the orange-covered document, Early Childhood Standards of Quality for Prekindergarten through Second Grade, including voluntary standards for classrooms designed for children ages four through eight, was adopted by the State Board of Education. Although intended to apply to many of the state’s early childhood programs, much of the language was specific to public school districts because of the wide age range covered. The “orange standards” were required for a few grant programs, and many school districts had great success in implementing programs based on the document. At about the same time, procedural safeguards and special education regulations were developed for Early Childhood Special Education (formerly Pre- Primary Impaired, PPI) classrooms for children ages 3-5, funded through Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Confusion in the early childhood world about which set of State Board of Education program standards applied to which program, or should apply, soon became apparent. Inconsistent program standards made inclusion of children with differing needs difficult. Simultaneously, efforts in state government to improve quality in all programs, beyond the minimums required by early childhood/child care licensing, brought together a large group to redefine high quality program standards. The vision of high quality for all is actualized in Great Start to Quality, Michigan’s tiered rating and improvement system for programs, with minimal licensing standards as the foundation and a staircase of graduated improvements in quality to reach these high standards at the top. As programs are supported to move up the stairway, the foundational minimums can be gradually increased so that many more programs provide more quality to more children. It is clear that programs cannot improve in quality unless professional development and other program supports are available to them. The standards in this section of the document are meant to define quality in all center-based classroom programs for three- and four-year old children, regardless of sponsorship or funding. Each program standard is followed by a list of statements that illustrate a variety of ways that a quality program may demonstrate that it meets the standard. A particular program will meet some, but probably not all, of the items that demonstrate each standard. Funding stipulations may require programs to meet particular standards in specific ways. Programs funded for targeted populations (e.g., children with disabilities, children learning English) may have required components to meet the standards. Most children can be successfully served in programs that are open to all children of a particular age; however, this is not possible in some cases because of funding restrictions or the needs of the children themselves for specialized services that cannot be provided with sufficient intensity in an inclusive program. For example, programs for children with specific disabilities will find that the program standards themselves are still applicable, but that they need to be met in particular ways to meet the needs of the children enrolled. Implementation documents, operating manuals, applications, and the like provide additional guidance to such targeted programs. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 86

89 These quality standards are meant to apply to center-based classroom preschool/prekindergarten programs that provide all children with experiences and opportunities that allow them to meet the Early Learning Expectations for Three- and Four-Year-Old Children. Companion documents address quality program standards for programs for other age groups and settings. EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN 87

90 PROGRAM’S STATEMENT OF PHILOSOPHY The Program’s Statement of Philosophy  A quality early childhood program begins with an underlying theory or statement of fundamental beliefs—beliefs about why it exists, what it will accomplish, and how it will serve all the children and their families involved in the program. The philosophy establishes a framework for program decisions and provides direction for goal- setting and program implementation, the foundation upon which all interactions and activities are based. The philosophy statement guides decisions about how the program: • Promotes a climate of acceptance and inclusion by enrolling children of varying cultural, ethnic, linguistic, and racial backgrounds who have a range of abilities and special needs. • Nurtures a partnership between families and the program. • Provides qualified and nurturing staff members who use developmentally appropriate practices and who develop warm, responsive relationships with each child and family. • Enhances each child’s social, emotional and physical health and well- being through the assignment to a consistent teaching team. • Establishes a warm, stimulating, and multi-sensory environment filled with culturally, linguistically and developmentally appropriate materials and activities. • Provides for on-going staff development reflective of the most current information about young children’s development and early learning. • Maintains a continuous assessment and evaluation system that regularly monitors individual children’s development and the important aspects of the program’s quality to support children’s continued development and learning. • Fosters collaboration with the community and ensures appropriate referrals. Program leaders use current research about how children grow, develop, and learn in combination with national standards (e.g., National Association for the Education of Young Children Accreditation Criteria, Head Start Performance Standards) to inform the development of its philosophy statement. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 88

91 PROGRAM’S STATEMENT OF PHILOSOPHY 1. Program Standard: A written philosophy statement for the early  childhood care and education program is developed and utilized as the basis for making program decisions and establishing program goals and objectives. A Quality Program: a. Develops a philosophy statement that incorporates suggestions from the program’s staff (teachers, administrators, and support staff), governing board, families, and community representatives. Uses input from staff, the governing board, families, and community b. representatives; new legislation; research findings, and/or other significant factors which impact early childhood education to inform the annual review and revision of the philosophy statement. c. If applicable, recommends adoption and annual reaffirmation of the philosophy statement by the governing or advisory board of the program. Reviews the philosophy statement at least every five years. d. Program Standard: The philosophy statement includes the rationale for 2. the program. A Quality Program: a. Uses the philosophy statement to define the purpose and nature of the program. b. Aligns the philosophy statement with state and local goals, standards, legislation and guidelines for early childhood education programs. c. Aligns the philosophy statement with the values of high quality early childhood education and care programs. d. Uses the philosophy statement to honor and address the social, economic, cultural, linguistic, and familial needs of the community. e. Bases the philosophy on evidence-based information (e.g., references about the importance of early relationship development; significant influences on early brain development; the value of play) and includes a bibliography of research findings as a part of the statement. 3. Program Standard: The program promotes broad knowledge about its philosophy . A Quality Program: a. Assures that the philosophy is visible in the program’s operational plan (e.g., policies, activities, and experiences, nature of the family partnership, caregiver practices) and its implementation. 89 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

92 PROGRAM’S STATEMENT OF PHILOSOPHY b. When operating as a part of a program serving a broader age range of  children, uses the philosophy statement to demonstrate understanding of the specific and unique nature and needs of three- and four-year-old children as distinct from younger and older children in the early childhood (birth through eight) age range. Views the philosophy statement as a living document consulted c. frequently in daily decision making. d. Disseminates copies of the philosophy statement to program staff, governing board members, families, and other interested persons. e. Includes discussion of how the philosophy affects the operation of the program in staff development and information sessions for families, other agencies, and community members. 4. Program Standard: The program uses the philosophy statement in making decisions about every aspect of the program. A Quality Program: a. Uses its philosophy to identify the program’s goals and objectives. b. Assures that the philosophy is visible in the program plan (e.g., policies, curriculum, family collaboration, and classroom practices), development, and implementation. c. Applies the philosophy in the evaluation and revision of the program. d. Uses the philosophy statement in the development of staff job descriptions, personnel evaluations, and development activities. e. Uses the philosophy statement to resolve potential conflicts about program practices. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 90

93 COMMUNITY COLLABORATION AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT Community Collaboration and Financial Support  Development and learning are enhanced when early childhood education and care programs work collaboratively and cooperatively with community programs, institutions, organizations, and agencies to meet and advocate for the broader needs of children and their families through direct services or referrals. Although the sponsorship and location of programs may vary (e.g., be single owner, agency-sponsored, center- based), all benefit from locating and using community resources and supports to enhance services and strengthen program quality. Financial support for early childhood programs also varies widely. Many programs depend entirely on parent fees; others receive the majority of their support from public sources. Regardless of the source of the program’s resources, the components of high-quality early childhood programs are well established (e.g., well-qualified staff; evidence-based practices; include a major emphasis on relationships between children and adults in the program; maintain strong family partnerships, reflective supervision, ongoing professional development) and do not differ based on the program’s sources of support. 1. Program Standard: The program shows evidence of participation in collaborative efforts within the community and has membership on the s early childhood collaborative council. community’ Quality Program: A Participates in the on-going development of a common community a. philosophy of early childhood expectations. Shares information on available community services and eligibility b. requirements for services with administrators, families, and all early childhood teachers/caregivers. c. Is informed about state and national efforts regarding the well-being of young children and brings such information to the attention of community collaborators. d. Plans with other community programs/agencies for coordination of a comprehensive, seamless system of services for all children and families in the community. e. Explores and, to the extent possible, employs joint funding (e.g., funding from public, private, family sources) of the program. 91 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

94 COMMUNITY COLLABORATION AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT f. Encourages and participates in joint and/or cooperative professional development opportunities.  Promotes outreach efforts (in a variety of digital, print, translated, or g. personal contacts) in the community to develop and extend knowledge about young children as part of ongoing public relations. h. Links to a community early childhood collaborative council or networking group, when available. 2. Program Standard: The program works cooperatively and collaboratively with other early childhood programs in the community in order to facilitate children’s transition into and out of programs and from one program to another. A Quality Program: a. Collaborates to ensure a smooth transition for children and families into preschool and from preschool to elementary school. b. Promotes an awareness of all early childhood programs in the community and an identification of commonalities. c. Facilitates transition by sharing appropriate printed materials and activities for families and children. d. Maintains a process on confidentiality and participates in the establishment and implementation of a system for safely and responsibly sharing information about specific children between and among programs, agencies, and schools. e. Cooperates with the special education personnel from school districts in the area to address the transition needs of children with disabilities. f. Participates in joint funding and professional development opportunities for staff regarding transitions for children and families. g. Collaborates with translation or interpretation services for language diverse families. 3. Program Standard: The program works with public and private community agencies and educational institutions to meet the comprehensive needs of children and families, to assist one another in the delivery of services, increase resources, and to strengthen advocacy efforts. A Quality Program: a. Streamlines the process for making and receiving referrals. b. Reduces barriers by working with collaborating entities to expand existing support services for young children [e.g., child care, literacy (including dual-language) initiatives, nature activities or summer food programs]. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 92

95 COMMUNITY COLLABORATION AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT c. Shares available community resources to achieve specific objectives with the entire early childhood community (e.g., health screenings, counseling,  parenting sessions, before- and after-school child care, and care for sick children). Has knowledge of various culturally diverse community programs and d. their eligibility requirements. e. Shares physical space whenever possible (e.g., space for a well-baby clinic, mental health counselors on site, a food pantry, a clothing bank). Encourages professional organizations and local districts to share f. information about training, conferences, and other professional development opportunities with all early care and education programs in the community. g. Participates in the preparation and implementation of contracts or memoranda of agreement between/among participating agencies. Advocates on behalf of children and their families and supports the further h. development of high-quality early childhood education and care programs in the community. 4. Program Standard: The program works with community volunteer groups, agencies, and the business community (e.g., senior citizen groups, libraries, United Way agencies, volunteer groups, faith-based groups, service organizations, and business organizations). A Quality Program: a. Invites members from community groups/agencies to participate in the program (e.g., be tutors, companions, presenters, translators, mentors, etc., for children, volunteers for the program). Invites members from community groups/organizations (e.g., senior b. citizen, volunteer, and service groups; business organizations; faith-based communities; charitable organizations; libraries; parks and recreation, museums) to support the program. c. Encourages families and members from community groups/agencies to become involved in the work of the early childhood collaborative council or networking group, if applicable. d. Provides opportunities for sponsorship and co-sponsorship of community programs for families (e.g., reading aloud to children, military family support, family nature clubs, child development classes at the workplace, at a community facility). e. Identifies strategies for community partnership and reciprocation. 93 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

96 COMMUNITY COLLABORATION AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT 5. Program Standard: Funds are identified and used to purchase resources (e.g., staffing, space, equipment, materials) to provi de an  effective, accessible program. A Quality Program: Designates and utilizes funds for program space and maintenance. a. b. Designates and utilizes funds for instructional materials and supplies which contribute to teaching and learning. Designates and utilizes funds for the purchase and maintenance of c. equipment which contribute to teaching and learning. d. Designates and utilizes funds for materials and supplies to implement all program components and accomplish all program objectives. e. Designates and utilizes funds for the assurance of health, accommodations and safety regulations. f. Designates and utilizes funds for employment of support staff to assist program implementation. g. Designates and utilizes funds for developing and revising curricular and instructional materials. h. Designates and utilizes funds to implement, evaluate, and improve all program components and accomplish the program’s objectives. 6. Program Standard: The program has funds necessary to employ qualified staff and provide staff development activities. A Quality Program: a. Designates and utilizes funds for salaries/wages, and benefits (e.g., health insurance, retirement, sick leave, vacation) for all staff (e.g., teachers, administrators, and support staff). b. Designates and utilizes funds for the number of staff necessary to conduct and administer the program. c. Designates and utilizes funds for additional pay, compensatory time, or released time for all staff to participate in professional development activities. d. Designates and utilizes funds for salaries of substitute staff when regular staff members participate in authorized professional development activities. e. Designates and utilizes funds for staff for authorized expenses and activities, including transportation and per diem expenses, according to federal, state and local guidelines. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 94

97 COMMUNITY COLLABORATION AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT 7. Program Standard: The program has funds necessary for parent involvement and education programs and family-oriented activities.  A Quality Program: a. Designates and utilizes funds for on-site child care services during parent workshops and group meetings. b. Facilitates family participation in special events and other meetings through financial support (e.g., stipends, meals). c. Designates and utilizes funds for resource materials for training and group meetings for family members. 95 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

98 PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH, NUTRITION AND SAFETY Physical and Mental Health, Nutrition and Safety  Children’s physical, mental (emotional and behavioral), and oral health; good nutrition, optimum vision and hearing; and safety are essential to their development and learning. A quality early care and education program addresses these needs, in partnership with families, by establishing opportunities for information exchange and by providing services directly or creating linkages with agencies that do provide such services to build and maintain overall health and wellness. Michigan’s licensing rules for family and group homes and child care centers address many areas of physical and mental health, safety and nutrition. The standards included in this document supplement, but do not reiterate licensing requirements and describe services provided in a high-quality program. Particular licensing rules, such as those related to sun safety, and many others, are assumed. In addition, provisions of other Michigan and federal rules and laws must also be followed [e.g., Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements, pest control management policies, the confidentiality requirements of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), and the Michigan Child Care Organizations Act 116 of 1973]. Federal law requires that all programs adhere to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) provisions. Quality programs welcome children with disabilities and support their learning and development alongside more typically developing peers. 1. Program Standard: Programs address the need for continuous accessible health care (mental, oral, physical health, and fitness) for children. A Quality Program: a. Provides for information and referral for parents of children to health care partners for preventive and primary health care needs and coverage. b. Periodically reviews and updates health records (including immunization records) to ensure that children receive recommended treatment and preventive services. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 96

99 PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH, NUTRITION AND SAFETY Establishes and implements a written policy (translation or interpretation) c. to address basic health care and health care emergencies. W orks with parents and community partners to support an agreed-upon d.  plan of action for goals related to the overall health and wellness of a child, such as the IEP and IFSP (with translation or interpretation, as needed). W orks with parents to obtain information on their child’s health, and share e. observations and concerns in order to build a supportive and nurturing environment that is also culturally and linguistically beneficial. T rains and supports staff in securing or providing referrals for needed f. services; documents all follow up actions and results. g. Partners with the community to make decisions about spaces: both indoors and outdoors, the development of spaces and accommodations for fitness and wellness opportunities for preschool children of all abilities. 2. Program Standard: The program addresses the nutritional health of children. A Quality Program: a. Provides for information and referral of children to nutritional health partners for preventive and primary needs and coverage. b. Ensures that nutritional services contribute to the wellness, healthy development and socialization of children by encouraging adults to interact with children during mealtime and eat the same food served to children. c. Makes a variety of food available that follow nutritional guidelines recommended by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. d. Provides sufficient time for each child to eat. e. Integrate gardening or exposure to gardens (e.g., intergenerational, school, window, community) to build healthy nutritional attitudes and behaviors. f. Fully accommodates medically-based diets or other dietary requirements. g. Provides food service and nutrition education in support of obesity prevention and reduction. h. Follows rules and regulations applicable to federal and state food safety and sanitation laws. 97 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

100 PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH, NUTRITION AND SAFETY 3. Program Standard: The program’s policies and practices support the inclusion of children with special health care needs unless participation is deemed a risk to the safety or health of the child or others, or fundamentally alters the nature of the program.  A Quality Program: a. Ensures that the program has adequate health policies and protocols, staff training and monitoring, supplies and equipment to perform necessary health procedures and reasonable accommodations. b. Implements plans to accommodate a child’s health or safety needs before services to a child begins or as soon as possible after the need is identified. c. Protects the privacy of the involved child and her or his family. Promotes understanding to children and to parents of other children; of d. the involved child’s special health care needs, without embarrassing or drawing attention to the child. Ensures that parents and health care or other providers supply clear, e. thorough instructions on how best to care for the involved child, in order to protect the child’s health and safety, as well as the health and safety of other children and staff. f. Makes reasonable adaptations to the physical environment (both inside and outdoors) to accommodate children with special needs (e.g., accommodates children who need assistance with feeding or toileting, diapering). g. Obtains assistance from local agencies or organizations (e.g., hospitals, schools, intermediate school districts and local health departments) for ways to accommodate children with special needs in the program. Makes all personnel familiar with the provisions of the ADA, and h. establishes policies that support the inclusion of children or parents with disabilities (e.g., toileting/diapering). i. Develops partnerships with parents, program staff, and other professionals to plan and design ways to make the physical setting and program accessible and beneficial. j. Provides services to each child with special needs that are equal to and as effective as services for all other children, in the same rooms or activity areas as all other children. k. Assesses and removes barriers affecting the accessibility of the facility (e.g., accessible parking; firm, smooth non-slip floor surfaces; clear pathways; ramps; handrails in restrooms). l. Makes reasonable, individualized, developmentally appropriate adaptations to daily activities to include children, parents, and others with disabilities. m. Makes use of assistive technology as appropriate. n. Fully accommodates medically-based diets or other dietary restrictions. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 98

101 PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH, NUTRITION AND SAFETY 4. Program Standard: Programs address requirements for continuous safe environments for children. A Quality Program:  a. Implements and, at a minimum, annually reviews written policies and procedures for staff and parents regarding safety and the environment. Annually updates the background check for all personnel relating to b. felony convictions involving harm or threatened harm to an individual and relating to involvement in substantiated child abuse and neglect. Conducts a daily assessment of the safety and suitability of the physical c. environment. d. Is in a physical location that is free of environmental risks (e.g., lead, mercury, asbestos, indoor air pollutants). e. Monitors outdoor air pollutants and responds appropriately (e.g., Ozone Action Days, heat warnings, exposure to sun). f. Implements an Individual Pest Management Plan in accordance with the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture’s regulations on pesticides. Provides information and referral to parents and children about creating g. and maintaining inside spaces; and about the benefits and safe practices while spending time outside. h. Provides professional development to all staff working with children regarding safe environments, healthy, outdoor natural environments and regulatory requirements. i. Establishes a routine and regular inspection of the inside and outside physical environments; reports and repairs all findings in a timely manner . 99 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

102 STAFFING AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Staffing and Administrative Support and Professional Development Early childhood programs are staffed  by individuals with differing levels of education and experience as required by the program’s administering agency. All instructional staff, support staff, and non- paid personnel (e.g., parents, volunteers) should have training, experience, and access to staff development activities commensurate with their responsibilities. Strong and knowledgeable administrative leadership is a key component of an effective early childhood program that employs well-trained and skillful staff. 1. Program Standard: T eachers are qualified to develop and implement a program consistent with the program philosophy and appropriate to the developmental and learning needs of the children and families being served, including the development of a continuing parent education and family involvement component. A Quality Program: a. Employs teachers with bachelor ’s degrees in early childhood education, or child development, including coursework with supervised field experience such as: • An elementary teaching certificate with an early childhood endorsement from an institution approved by the State Board of Education based on the National Association for the Education of Young Children and/or other national standards for teacher preparation institutions, or • The equivalent teacher certification from another state, or • A program specifically focused on preschool teaching. 2. Program Standard: Paraprofessionals (i.e., those staff who work with children under the supervision of a teacher) are trained to implement program activities and assist in the care and education of the children. A Quality Program: a. Employs paraprofessionals with associate’ s degrees in early childhood education/preschool education, child development, child care or hold Child Development Associate (CDA) credentials or equivalent continuing education experience, as approved by a college or the State Board of Education. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 100

103 STAFFING AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT b. Employs paraprofessionals who have had directed training programs, supervised work, or field experiences implementing educational activities for young children.  Program Standard: Support staff and non-paid personnel are assigned to 3. roles that enhance the program’s goals and increase the adult/child ratio. A Quality Program: a. Provides background screens for support staf f and volunteers in order to protect the physical and emotional safety of the children in the program. Provides orientation on program goals and objectives as well as basic b. methods of positive interaction with children. c. Assigns tasks and responsibilities that complement their skill levels, native languages and areas of strength. d. Of fers professional development and advancement opportunities. Through restructured staf f assignments and configurations, uses support e. staff and volunteers to improve the adult/child ratio. 4. Program Standard: The staff participates in a variety of ongoing professional development activities (e.g., in-service training, professional workshops, courses at institutions of higher learning, teacher exchanges, observations, coaching). A Quality Program: Assures that program specific requirements for maintaining and a. continuing teacher certification or other credentials are met. b. Assures that staf f members participate each year in early childhood professional development activities (e.g., college courses, in-service activities, workshops, seminars, or job-embedded learning). c. Assures that professional development activities are based upon program and individual needs assessments. Program Standard: Staff professional/career development efforts are 5. assisted and supported by administrative policies, practices, and appropriate resources. A Quality Program: a. Requires administrators and supervisors to support the provision of and staff participation in staff development and job-embedded learning that address individual staff needs. 101 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

104 STAFFING AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Conducts supportive staf f evaluations in accordance with guidelines and b. program policies. Keeps professional development resources updated and includes c. information about early childhood research, teaching methods, techniques for classroom management, developmentally appropriate practices,  technology, and child development/learning theories. d. Requires program administrators to encourage and support staf f in their choices to affiliate with local, state, or national professional organizations and organizations that advocate for young children and families. Program Standard: T o achieve optimum educational outcomes for the 6. children, the program applies staffing patterns and practices that allow for maximum staff/child interaction, program implementation, and consistency of staff. A Quality Program: a. Maintains a recommended range for enrollment of no more than eighteen children per group or the number of children specified in applicable regulations/laws. b. Assigns a paraprofessional in preschool classes enrolling more than eight children or the number of children specified in applicable regulations/laws. c. Assigns staf f as appropriate to support the IEP or IFSP requirements of a child with a disability. d. Hires staf f that reflect the primary language of the children in the classroom or dual language speakers to create high functioning classrooms. Assures that the preschool classes are under the direction of e. administrative/supervisory personnel in consultation with a specialist in early childhood education. f. Provides staf f with paid time for planning with colleagues and specialists. g. Enhances staf f retention as well as greater continuity and consistency for children by providing supervision and mentoring of staff. h. Implements policies that support and promote staf f retention and longevity. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 102

105 STAFFING AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT 7. Program Standard: The program administrator is or the program employs an early childhood specialist who is qualified to administer or collaborate in the administration of the program, including supervision and management, program and staff evaluation, and program and staff development.  A Quality Program: a. Has an administrator or employs an early childhood specialist who has a graduate degree in early childhood or child development. b. Has an administrator with experience in planning, developing, implementing and evaluating curriculum for a variety of diverse child populations. c. Has an administrator with experience in the supervision and evaluation of personnel. 8. Program Standard: The program employs an administrator who is qualified to implement, evaluate, and manage the program, the budget, and serve as a link between the program, the community, and the appropriate local, state, and federal agencies. A Quality Program: a. Employs a program administrator with educational preparation in developmentally appropriate early childhood education. b. Employs a program administrator with educational preparation and experience in the fiscal supervision, management, and evaluation of personnel, facilities, and program budget. c. Employs a program administrator with educational preparation and experience for the fiscal opportunities and implication of coordination of the program with other local, state, and federal agencies. d. Assigns the program administrator the responsibility for obtaining the fiscal resources necessary to fund the program. Assigns the program administrator the responsibility for the fiscal e. collaborative efforts of the program. 9. Program Standard: The early childhood specialist and/or the program administrator has/have the responsibility for directing the evaluation activities of the program and instructional personnel. A Quality Program: , under the direction of the early childhood specialist and/ Arranges for a. or the program administrator and in conjunction with teachers, staff, and parents, the annual evaluation of the early childhood education program 103 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

106 STAFFING AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT utilizing local, state, and national standards or criteria for quality, effective early childhood education. b. Arranges for the early childhood specialist and/or the program administrator to annually evaluate staff performance according to local, state, and national standards and/or criteria using a variety of techniques  (e.g., observation, self-evaluation). c. Requires the early childhood specialist and/or program administrator to utilize the results of staff performance evaluations to plan activities for program improvement, staff development, and training. d. Arranges for , under the direction of the early childhood specialist and/ or the program administrator and in conjunction with teachers, staff, and parents, the methods used for the appropriate evaluation practices of child progress. 10. Program Standard: The early childhood specialist and/or program administrator participates in continuing education/professional development activities. A Quality Program: a. Provides funding and time for the early childhood specialist and/or program administrator to actively associate with at least one professional organization concerning young children (e.g., Michigan Association for the Education of Young Children, Council for Exceptional Children Division of Early Childhood). b. Acknowledges that the responsibilities of the administrative position include utilizing paid time to become informed by reading professional publications, participating in electronic professional development opportunities, sharing and discussing these ideas with staff and colleagues. c. Requires the early childhood specialist and/or program administrator to disseminate information regarding early childhood research and staff development opportunities to staff. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 104

107 PARTNERSHIP WITH FAMILIES The Partnership with Families Early childhood programs value, respect, and celebrate families. The staff and administration understand the family’s role as the first and most important teachers, and  honor the right and responsibility of each family to be active partners in their child’s education. They foster positive partnerships with all family members to support learning, including mothers, fathers, non-custodial parents, guardians or foster parents, grandparents, and others closely involved in the child’s life. The employees of a high quality program use a range of strategies to connect with family members including those who may be reluctant to become engaged in the program. They accomplish this through not only program structure and activities but also through the establishment of a caring atmosphere that is viewed by families as welcoming, respectful, and nurturing, and a setting in which staff and administration are responsive to the diversity of their needs and concerns, their culture and language. Effective and enduring programs also welcome the involvement and opinions of families in planning for continuous quality improvement of the program. 1. Program Standard: Families have multiple opportunities for regular involvement with the program and its staff including placement, planning for individualization and evaluation related specifically to their child. A Quality Program: a. Enables the family to take part in the decision making process related to the child’s participation in the program, so program goals and expectations and goals for their child and family can be met. b. Holds formal and informal parent-teacher conferences (with translation or language supports, if necessary) in which families are encouraged to share strengths, concerns, goals, and expectations; staff uses this knowledge to follow-up and build rapport appropriately. c. Employs methods of regular written, digital and verbal communication using an appropriate literacy level and the home language when possible. Makes two visits available to each family annually outside of the program d. setting, with at least one in the child’s home. e. Responds to family members in a timely , respectful and culturally appropriate manner. 105 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

108 PARTNERSHIP WITH FAMILIES Provides scheduled progress reports for each child. f. Adopts policies to address information sharing with non-custodial parents. g. Arranges for staf f members to initiate other means of communication h. with parents who do not attend conferences/meetings or do not respond to teacher-initiated communications or need language translation or assistance.  Requires program staf f to collaborate with parents/family members in the i. design of appropriate assessment and/or intervention plans at an early stage when a child is having difficulty with behavior, social interactions, transitioning and/or with developmental/learning progress. Is designed and arranged so that families feel welcome and respected j. including practices and materials that reflect the diversity of the families served. k. Uses signs to clearly welcome parents and communicate schedules and daily routines and child activities (i.e. welcoming entrance signs, directional signs to classrooms, posters/pictures of the daily schedule, bilingual information). l. Maintains confidentiality in accordance with program and state requirements. m. Clearly communicates the process of disclosure of family information prior to seeking permission to make such disclosures. Program Standard: Families have multiple opportunities to participate 2. in the child’s classroom program as they prefer and are able to do so. A Quality Program: a. Provides family members the opportunity to become familiar with the program and the staff of the child’s particular classroom prior to the start of the child’s participation in the program. Arranges opportunities for family members to share their culture, family b. traditions, and special skills and interests with other adults and with children. c. Makes opportunities available to participate in a variety of classroom activities and observations (e.g., interact with or observe children in the classroom; assist in planning and implementing field trips, visitations, and classroom activities; assist with the preparation of learning materials for daily activities). MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 106

109 PARTNERSHIP WITH FAMILIES Program Standard: Families are provided a range of opportunities 3. outside of the classroom for participation, education, and enrichment as part of their child’s program as they prefer and are able to do so. A Quality Program: a. Provides for family participation and support keeping in mind the  requirements of the sponsoring agency or legislation. b. Arranges for family members to have access to family education, enrichment, or family support group programs and activities provided by the program or through referral to community agencies. c. Assures that family education opportunities include all domains of development (e.g., how to support children’s learning, support for positive guidance techniques, wellness, good health and nutrition practices, including physical fitness and obesity reduction). d. Provides or has access to a family resource space that includes a lending library of educational toys, games, and materials for children and families and materials, information, and resources designed to improve the quality of family life and/or support children’s learning and development in the home setting. 4. Program Standard: The program’ s policies and practices promote support and respect for the home language, culture, and family composition of each child in ways that support the child’s health, learning, and social-emotional well-being. A Quality Program: Supports staf f in learning key words from the child’s home language and a. their English equivalents. b. Provides books and materials that reflect families’ home languages and culture, as well as that of others in the community. c. Communicates with the family in their preferred language or mode of communication and seeks translation/ translators as needed. 5. Program Standard: Family members and members selected from the community participate in the program’s advisory council; the council has responsibility for recommending direction in the planning, development, implementation, and evaluation of the program. A Quality Program: a. Operates the advisory council with parent membership under the guidelines and requirements of the sponsoring agency or legislation and within the framework of policies and practices as established by the council and the program’s governing body. 107 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

110 PARTNERSHIP WITH FAMILIES Provides equal opportunity to all parents to serve on the advisory council b. based on the program’s policies. This may include orientation, training and support for their participation. Arranges for the advisory council to provide informed recommendations c. regarding all components of the program based upon the most recent data and research in early childhood education.  Assures that, as much as possible, the advisory council reflects the d. composition and characteristics of the families enrolled in the program and the people who make up the broader community (e.g., a balance of males and females, racial/ethnic groups, persons with disabilities, representatives from businesses and private and nonprofit agencies). Communicates (newsletter e. , website, social media, meetings) the activities of the advisory council to all families and staff and provides information about how to contact the council members. f. Encourages family members to participate in community-wide parent advisory groups and coalitions. 6. All families are provided with opportunities to Program Standard: assist in evaluation of the program. A Quality Program: a. Provides each family with the opportunity to review and provide input on program requirements, practices, policies, procedures, activities, communication and events in order to determine the program’s responsiveness to families and their needs. b. Provides each family with the opportunity to of fer perceptions about the benefits of the child development program offered in the classroom and of any special services provided for their children. c. Invites each family to assess the continuum and benefits of family- involvement activities (e.g., the nature, quality, and quantity of the various participation opportunities afforded to them; unmet needs or areas of interest; the extent to which participation opportunities were scheduled and offered in ways which were responsive to employment schedules and child care needs). MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 108

111 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT The Learning Environment Just as a quality program views children’s development and learning as an integrated process encompassing all domains, so are the components of the program’s learning environment intertwined. The leaders of an effective program understand that the program’s structure, how relationships  are nurtured, the physical environment, and the activities and experiences offered to children are interdependent and must be considered together in planning and carrying out the program. Similarly to a high quality infant and toddler program, the interpersonal and physical environment in a high- quality preschool program is designed to enable children to experience: well-being; a sense of belonging; confidence in their capacities to explore and learn; growing skill in communication and their habits of mind; and the opportunity to build healthy social dispositions that contribute to the life of the classroom. Curriculum The curriculum in a quality early childhood program is thoughtfully planned based on an evidence-based framework consistent with the goals of the program and with standards established by the program’s governing body and any applicable legislative requirements. It honors children as active learners. It is consistent with and supports reasonable expectations for young children’s development and learning including those with special needs and is culturally and linguistically responsive. An effective curriculum provides a coherent and intentional set of experiences and activities that include the natural environment, build on the child’s natural sense of inquiry and which support multiple goals and children’s development across all domains. The curriculum is designed to connect with and support developmentally appropriate expectations for children’s development and learning in the years beyond the preschool program. Well- designed, comprehensive curriculum models are available for adoption by high-quality programs. Any curriculum model chosen should meet the program standards described below. Any specific content area supplemental curriculum materials utilized must be carefully chosen to integrate with and support the comprehensive curriculum model chosen. 1. Program Standard: The curriculum is based on the predictable sequences of growth and development of three- and four-year-old children. A Quality Program: a. Implements learning experiences and activities in all areas of development and learning (i.e., social, emotional, intellectual, language, creative, and physical development) keeping with individual children’s levels of functioning and comprehension. 109 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

112 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Maintains developmentally appropriate expectations of behavior, social b. dispositions and interactions for children, and promotes the development of self-regulation. c. Provides a range of opportunities and materials for play (e.g., child- initiated, child-directed, natural materials, outdoor experiences, complex materials, teacher-supported, and teacher-initiated). d. Uses a variety of teaching strategies in implementing the curriculum (e.g.,  teacher-initiated, teacher-facilitated, and child-initiated with opportunities for free choice, team work). 2. Program Standard: The curriculum is designed to address all aspects of children’ s development and to further their learning with emphasis on the unique needs of the young child. A Quality Program: a. Relates each experience, activity, routine, and transition to curricular goals. b. Incorporates spontaneous learning experiences into the daily schedule as a means to further children’s habits of inquiry, problem solving, ability to cope with change and creativity. c. Establishes two-way communication between homes and school so that home events are considered in planning a child’s day and school experiences are communicated and connected to family situations or occasions. Assures that children have ample opportunities for playing, cooperating, d. investigating, creating with others. e. Handles the separation process from home to school with sensitivity and respect for the children’s individual needs. f. Continually works to build positive social dispositions and behaviors with all children, recognizing similarities and differences in their background experiences. g. Assures that adults in the program recognize and respect that children think and reason differently from more mature learners. h. Designs activities, transitions, responses and routines that reflect the wide range of individual characteristics and needs of each child. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 110

113 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Program Standard: The curriculum is designed to include experiences 3. related to children’s social, emotional, intellectual, language, creative, and physical development. A Quality Program: a. Assures that children have experiences to enhance their social development, including acquisition of positive dispositions of cooperation, interpersonal skills, responsibility, self-discipline, engagement, caring, and  respect for self and others. b. Assures that children have experiences to enhance their emotional development, including the development of basic attitudes of trust, resilience, autonomy, and initiative, as well as a positive self-concept. c. Assures that children have experiences to enhance their intellectual development, including knowledge of the physical world, habits of mind that enhance their individual approaches to learning, acting, thinking, creating or problem solving, and appropriate social dispositions that have value in society. d. Assures that children have experiences to enhance their language and early literacy development, including listening and speaking skills and emergent skills in writing and reading and appropriate experiences with technology. e. Assures that children have experiences to enhance their creative development including the development of imagination, as well as awareness, appreciation and enjoyment of art, music, drama, poetry, prose, and the wonders and beauty of the natural world. f. Assures that children have experiences to enhance their physical development, including small and large muscle development, as well as body awareness, self-regulation, self-efficacy and sensory development. Program Standard: The curriculum fosters the integration of the 4. content areas to support children’s development in all domains. A Quality Program: a. Integrates content areas around concept-based projects and themes. b. Reflects children’ s interests, inquiry and curiosity in project topics, themes, outdoor experiences and learning centers. Presents content in an integrated fashion, rather than through isolated c. bits of knowledge and activities. d. Uses strategies to make connections between prior learning and new experiences or attentiveness and subsequent knowledge. e. Uses learning experiences in a variety of areas as an opportunity to enhance children’s language and early literacy development. 111 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

114 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT When instructional specialists are available, requires them to work f. in collaboration with the classroom staff and within the classroom to support and extend classroom projects or themes and reduce time lost in transitions from place to place. V iews collaboration, participation, networking among teachers, parents, g. administrators, and community members as essential to enhancing the integration of the curriculum; and as positive role-models for children.  Program Standard: The curriculum is developmentally and 5. linguistically appropriate and takes into account children’s individual rates of development as well as individual interests, personalities, temperaments, languages, cultural and family backgrounds, and learning styles. A Quality Program: Adapts the program to individual patterns and uniqueness and for the a. timing of children’s growth within the available program resources. b. Presents learning objectives in a sequence and rate that is in keeping with children’s individual needs, rather than based on a predetermined schedule. c. Monitors, adapts, and adjusts activities and experiences in response to children’s demonstrated levels of functioning and competence at all ability, interest and skill levels. d. Is responsive to various learning styles (e.g., kinesthetic, visual and auditory). e. Provides continuous opportunities for children of all ages and abilities to experience success, build confidence, resilience and optimism. Demonstrates respect, consideration, and care for others with positive f. behaviors, language and actions. g. Assures that no child is ignored or allowed to become isolated. 6. Program Standard: The curriculum is designed to provide a developmentally and linguistically appropriate environment and adult guidance to enable the participation of children with special needs. A Quality Program: a. Supports all children in achieving a sense of belonging, contribution and membership in their classroom. b. Adapts activities, makes accommodations, and uses other social strategies that integrate children socially and enables them to participate in activities, regardless of abilities. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 112

115 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Adapts materials and equipment so that all children can share in c. activities, contribute to the group, engage, develop and keep friendships. d. Provides and arranges space to make play equipment and materials accessible to all children, both inside and out of doors. e. Assists children, if necessary , in playing with and using materials, communicating their discoveries, solving problems or engaging for longer periods of time.  f. Increases the complexity and challenge of activities, materials, play or learning opportunities, as children develop and find greater self- confidence. g. Observes children carefully to identify their preferred ways of interacting with the environment, taking into account their skills in handling objects and materials, frequency of conversations, interest in listening to stories and songs, and choices to work alone or engage with others. Provides multiple avenues for children to learn and to express h. themselves with others, alone, or through technology (e.g. children with disabilities have access to creative and physical experiences that enable participation in alternative ways). i. Requires each adult to be responsible for each child in the program so that every adult can support every child to meet their learning expectations. j. Discusses with parents and with relevant staf f parental expectations for their children. 7. Program Standard: The curriculum is designed so that activities are carefully and developmentally sequenced in keeping with individual children’s levels of functioning and comprehension. A Quality Program: Expects the teaching staf f to articulate developmentally appropriate a. expectations for children’s behavior and performance. Expects the teaching staf f to be aware of each child’s level of functioning b. and comprehension in relation to their aesthetic, sensory, social and emotional, intellectual, language, and physical development. c. Expects teaching staf f to be able to articulate to others the ultimate goal toward which a particular activity or material is related. Expects the teaching staf f to introduce alternate strategies, modeling or d. materials which makes the task more manageable, builds problem-solving skills or persistence when a child experiences difficulty. e. Plans experiences, activities and introduces materials that over time reflect a sequence from simple to complex skills, from concrete to abstract concepts, and which enable children to make progress toward the next step in their learning. 113 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

116 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Provides many varied opportunities, materials, interactions and f. equipment for children to observe, explore, and experiment with their environments inside and out of doors on a continuing basis. g. Presents skills, concepts, and information for children to learn, only after children have had ample opportunity for exploration, investigation, or play. h. Ensures that, as appropriate, many activities use natural materials and take place in the out of doors.  i. Uses intentional teaching strategies to help children learn skills, habits of mind, or information they cannot discover on their own. Program Standard: The curriculum is designed to promote 8. individualized teaching and learning rather than requiring children to move in a group from one learning activity to the next. Quality Program: A Teachers are responsive and plan for a range of activities and interactions a. to address the varying abilities of children in the group. b. Presents learning activities in a meaningful context, on multiple occasions and in a variety of ways. c. Assures that teachers can articulate a developmentally appropriate range of objectives for each activity they plan. d. Assesses children on the basis of individual accomplishments and not by comparison to the accomplishments or development of other children. e. Assures that children’s lack of accomplishment is never purposely brought to the attention of the group; positive, encouraging language and behaviors are demonstrated by adults and children. Never penalizes children in any way for lagging behind their classmates f. in any area of development. 9. Program Standard: The curriculum is designed to include experiences related to multicultural awareness. Quality Program: A a. Provides opportunities for children to interact with adult members of their own and of other cultural groups. Provides classroom activities which include books, pictures, props, music, b. foods, materials, field trips, and clothing representing a wide range of cultural groups as they are represented in present day and historic settings. c. Assures that children receive positive, accurate information about a variety of cultural groups. d. Integrates multicultural activities into the daily routines of the program rather than reserving them only for holidays or special occasions. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 114

117 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Supports learning cultural competence among staff that is carried into all e. aspects of the program. f. Reflects the culture of the children in each classroom. g. Recognizes models and supports respect for language diversity. h. Provides a learning environment where no child is mocked, belittled, bullied or ignored.  10. Program Standard: The curriculum is designed to enable children to learn or discover those things that are important or of high interest to them. A Quality Program: a. Encourages teachers to plan themes and areas of investigation based on the interests of the children rather than planning an entire year’s themes at the beginning of the year. Encourages spontaneous, as well as planned, investigation of those b. occurrences which arouse a child’s curiosity and interest. Designs curriculum in such a way that children’s ideas, interests and c. concerns are acknowledged, respected and supported. d. Provides for children’s questions to be answered promptly and accurately . e. Addresses home and community events important to children in a timely manner and uses them as an opportunity for learning, building social skills or problem solving. f. Makes available materials children request frequently, as appropriate. 11. Program Standard: The curriculum is designed around all children’s abilities to make sense of the world and acquire competence as lifelong learners. A Quality Program: a. Assures that children’s successful experiences, confidence, engagement and persistence are extended and enhanced by the curriculum. b. Presents concepts in the curriculum through learning activities and materials that are interesting, real and relevant to the lives of children, and that move from the concrete to the abstract. c. Develops skills (e.g., in literacy, math, physical development) in a meaningful context, and that makes connections. d. Honors children as active learners and considers children’s play , curiosity, and tinkering with objects as an appropriate and important way of learning. e. Builds positive social dispositions for relationship and interactions. 115 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

118 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Relationships and Climate Nurturing and supportive relationships in a positive classroom climate are essential for young children’s healthy development. A high-quality preschool program is individualized to meet each child’s needs and promote positive relationships between and among  children, adults and families. The quality of the nurturing relationships and positive climate children experience form the basis of much of their overall development. Emerging knowledge about development confirms the central role strong and positive relationships play in cognitive and social-emotional development. Quality programs embrace these assumptions: • Learning is social. Habits of mind and social dispositions are formed by interactions with others — teachers, families and peers. • Many positive traits of children (identified in the Approaches to Learning Domain) are learned both from intentional instruction, modeling, the building of relationships, and when integrated with other meaningful learning experiences that cross multiple domains of learning. • Teachers build a positive community of learners where these habits of mind and social dispositions are valued, practiced and nurtured daily. Quality programs support relationships among adults. In order to implement positive climate and relationships, the program must provide opportunities for and encourage positive relationships among teachers and other staff, program administrators, the early childhood specialists, and other consultants and resource persons. Time must be provided for staff to meet to discuss practices, beliefs, attitudes, concerns, and individual staff and child strengths and needs (e.g., weekly formal meetings, informal daily discussions). The program must employ staff members who demonstrate flexibility and cooperation through respectful, positive, supportive interactions and practices. Program administration must provide reflective, responsive supervision that encourages and supports staff involvement in all aspects of program development. The goal is to build a working/learning environment where all persons feel physically, verbally and intellectually safe. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 116

119 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Program Standard: The program is structured to enhance children’s 1. feelings of comfort, security and self-esteem and development of positive relationships with adults and other children. A Quality Program: To Support Positive Adult/Child Relationships: a. Accepts all children’s individual levels of development, interest,  temperament, cultural background, language, and learning styles and uses them as the basis for planning the program. Treats all children with warmth, respect, and caring, regardless of social, b. economic, cultural, ethnic, linguistic, religious, or family background, and regardless of gender, behavior, appearance, or any disability. c. Accepts and values children’s primary languages and uses them as a means for communication. Assures responsive staff who promptly attend to children’ s feelings and d. emotions with respect and gentleness. e. Assures that each child experiences positive adult attention during the day and has a feeling of being affirmed as an individual. f. Schedules staff to provide children with consistency of adult supervision. g. Assures that children can identity at least one teaching teach member from whom to seek help, comfort, attention, and guidance. h. Demonstrates and teaches appropriate responses (physical, verbal, social) in both positive and challenging situations. i. Builds a positive environment where children are kind to each other in actions and words. j. Assures an environment where no child is mocked, belittled, bullied or ignored. k. Builds daily opportunities to use good manners and receive appropriate feedback. l. Provides reinforcement to believe that the small things children do can make a difference in their classroom, at home, and in the larger community. To Support Positive Child/Child Relationships: a. Assures that children have ongoing opportunities to interact informally with one another. b. Assures that children have ongoing opportunities to recognize and accept similarities and differences among one another. c. Provides children with strategies and opportunities to learn specific positive social skills and dispositions to enhance their interpersonal relations. 117 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

120 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Encourages children to negotiate and resolve conflicts peacefully with d. adult intervention and guidance only when necessary. e. Provides opportunities for small and large group activities leading to expanded perspectives, cooperation, collaboration, teamwork and membership in a group. f. Assures that each child has a feeling of belonging in this classroom. g. Builds a climate where children know the boundaries and the  expectations; and no child is mocked, belittled, bullied or ignored. h. Provides opportunities for children to discuss their understanding of their rights and responsibilities and those of others. Program Standard: The program is structured to assure that children’ s 2. biological and physical needs are met. A Quality Program: a. Assures that the environment of the facility meets the needs of children according to state licensing requirements. b. Structures the program to ensure that children’ s biological needs are met (e.g., toileting available when children indicate need; opportunity to rest; snack available during each part-day time frame and meals at appropriate intervals; drinking water available all day). c. Provides sufficient time for nutritious meals and snacks to be served and eaten (e.g., family style where adults sit with and eat the same food as children; children have the opportunity to serve themselves with assistance as needed; conversation is among children and adults and is an extension of children’s interests). d. Balances daily routines based on children’ s needs (e.g., active and quiet, outdoor time, time to play alone, self-care, and rest time activities). e. Establishes and implements policies and procedures regarding children’ s health and educates staff on the individual and group health needs of children. f. Assures that staf f are trained in First Aid and CPR and that first aid/health materials are always available and accessible on site. g. Provides additional clothing for children and children are changed promptly as the need arises (e.g., smocks for messy activities, extra seasonal outdoor clothing, changes of clothing for bathroom accidents and health emergencies). MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 118

121 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Program Standard: The program’s policies and practices support 3. the enrollment and participation of all children including those with disabilities and promote an environment of acceptance that supports and respects gender, culture, language, ethnicity, individual capacities, and family composition. A Quality Program: a. Implements nondiscriminatory enrollment and personnel policies.  b. Expects staff to demonstrate, through each response, a genuine respect for each child’s family, culture and lifestyle. Provides an environment that reflects the cultures of all children in the c. program in an integrated, natural and respectful way. d. Fosters children’s primary language, while supporting the continued development of English. Avoids activities and materials that stereotype or limit children according e. to their gender, age, disability, race, ethnicity, or family composition. Expects staff to model respect and help children to demonstrate f. appreciation of others. g. Introduce, model and coach children in new social skills and development of the ability to state their own opinions and ideas appropriately. h. Plan an environment that minimizes conflict by providing enough materials, space and equipment and by setting clear expectations. 4. Program Standard: The program uses positive guidance techniques which further children’s development of self-control, responsibility, and respect for self, others, and property. A Quality Program: Uses positive, predictable, preventive, consistent, and constructive a. guidance (discipline) techniques (e.g., modeling and encouraging expected behavior, redirecting children to more acceptable activities, and meeting with individual children to discuss concerns). b. Applies individually determined guidance practices based upon the child’s developmental level using natural and logical consequences allowing children to assume greater responsibility for their actions. c. Provides support to children in appropriately resolving their personal conflicts (e.g., negotiating, helping, cooperating, talking with the person involved). d. Helps children grow in understanding of the need for rules and boundaries in their learning and social environments. e. Has policies stating that depriving a child of snack, rest, or necessary 119 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

122 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT toilet use or using disciplinary practices that involve shaming, hitting, or spanking are forbidden. f. Provides opportunities for children to learn how to cope with stress in a reasonable and age-appropriate way; to grow in their capacity to avoid harming themselves, others, or things around them when expressing feelings, needs and opinions. g. Partners with families to encourage the use of positive, consistent  guidance techniques, and positive social behaviors at home and in the program. h. Builds experiences for children to demonstrate their own roles as members of families, classrooms and communities. 5. Program Standard: The philosophy and the program’s policies and practices support an appropriate environment and adult guidance for the participation of children with special needs and home languages other than English. A Quality Program: a. Adapts materials and provides adequate amount and type of equipment so that all children can share in activities. b. Provides and arranges space to make play equipment and materials accessible to all children. c. Assists children, if necessary, in using and playing with materials. d. Makes each adult responsible for each child in the program (e.g., every adult supports every child to meet each child’s learning expectations). Discusses with parents their expectations, contributions and goals for e. their children. f. Adapts activities, makes accommodations, and uses other strategies that integrate children socially and enable them to participate in all activities, regardless of abilities or language status. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 120

123 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Teaching Practices Teachers use what they understand about how children grow and learn and what they know about the individual children in their group to thoughtfully organize the learning environment, implement the curriculum, and to help children further engage, discover and  develop their capacities. Teaching practices encompass everything teachers do to facilitate children’s development and learning including the way space is organized and provisioned, the nature of interactions with individuals, groups of children and other staff, scheduling, the management of transitions across the day, and grouping practices. Teachers plan activities and experiences that build upon, support, and enhance children’s well-being; a sense of belonging; confidence in their capacities to explore and learn; growing skill in communication; and the opportunity to contribute to the life of the classroom. Teachers use their knowledge of child development, current evidence-based best practice, and appreciation of individual differences to plan and prepare strategies to support children’s development and learning and provide individualized age-appropriate activities for each child. They expose children to skills, concepts, or information they would not discover on their own, through the use of age-appropriate teacher-facilitated learning activities and experiences. Daily opportunities for children to explore both indoors and outdoors using all of their senses are provided. Teachers facilitate and encourage children’s investigations and discoveries by supporting and responding to their cues, ideas, questions, and conversations. Each child is provided with opportunities and supports to develop and practice skills and acquire new knowledge across the developmental and learning domains. Daily routines are used as ‘teachable’ moments to further children’s curiosity, engagement, growth and development. Health, nutrition, physical activity, and safety considerations are noted throughout the written program plans for structured activities in the curriculum. Activities and materials are available for extended periods of time so children can repeat and expand on their previous experiences. Teaching staff continuously assess and modify the environment to enhance and expand children’s skills and knowledge across all domains. Screen technology and interactive media in programs for preschool children are limited to those that appropriately support responsive interactions between adults and children and only in limited, intentional and developmentally- appropriate ways to support children’s learning and development. Activities and experiences are culturally relevant and designed to enable the participation of all children, including those with special needs. Programs are 121 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

124 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT designed to support all children in achieving a sense of belonging to the group. Environments are created that reflect the culture and language of the children. All children are integrated socially into the group, and adults assist and enable them to participate in activities regardless of abilities. Teaching staff observe children carefully to identify their preferred ways of interacting with the environment (e.g., skills in handling objects and materials, frequency of communication, interest in listening to stories and songs, preferences in playing/working alone or with others). The staff design activities and experiences in such a way that  children’s ideas, interests, and concerns are acknowledged, respected, and promoted, utilizing a variety of approaches to enable children with special needs to learn and express themselves. Teachers provide experiences and activities in a sequence and at a rate that reflects individual special needs rather than a predetermined schedule. In ensuring that each child demonstrates respect for others, no child is ignored or isolated. Activities are designed to help children exhibit a growing capacity to self-regulate, demonstrate self-efficacy and know acceptable boundaries. The program is a learning environment where children feel physically, verbally and intellectually safe. 1. Program Standard: The value of play is demonstrated throughout all aspects of the program and children have opportunities to use play to translate experience into understanding. A Quality Program: Recognizes play as the primary mode of learning for preschool children. a. b. Ensures that the contribution and importance of play to children’s development, learning, and overall well-being is reflected in the program’ s philosophy statement and daily experiences and activities. c. Ensures that program administrators and caregivers can articulate to parents and others the value of play and how skills and knowledge acquired through play support development and extend learning across the domains. Provides a variety of play opportunities throughout the day for children, d. individually and in groups, both indoors and outdoors as weather permits, and as appropriate to their age and development. e. Provides a daily schedule that includes extended blocks of time designated for child choice, play, and exploration. 2. Program Standard: Activities are designed to help children learn concepts and skills through active manipulation of a wide variety of materials and equipment. A Quality Program: Provides access to a variety of well-maintained, high-quality materials a. and technology for social, emotional, dramatic play, creative, music, MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 122

125 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT movement, fine motor, large motor, mathematics, science and social studies experiences. b. Provides a large variety of age-appropriate books and other worthwhile language and literacy related materials throughout the classroom. c. Facilitates a child’s exploration of writing/drawing/labeling/designing in all areas of the classroom. d. Includes access to materials that are natural as well as produced, that  foster engagement, tinkering, and re-conceptualizing. 3. Program Standard: The program is planned and implemented to permit children to learn from exploration, acquisition of skills and knowledge, practice, and application. A Quality Program: Provides opportunities for children to engage in exploration of materials or a. concepts with which they have had little prior experience. b. Provides opportunities for children to learn and practice prerequisite skills prior to engaging in the activity for which those skills are required. c. Provides opportunities for teachers and children to be role models, partners, organizers, negotiators in the learning process. d. After prior knowledge has been established, provides children support to investigate, revisit, engage and discover new knowledge. e. Provides opportunities for teachers to be guides in facilitating children’s involvement; enriching their learning experiences by affirming and extending their ideas; responding to their questions; engaging them in conversations; and, respectfully challenging them in their thinking. Provides opportunities for teachers to encourage and capitalize on f. unplanned learning opportunities to build confidence, coping skills, problem-solving, and observation skills. g. Exposes children to skills, concepts, or information they cannot discover on their own, through the use of teacher-initiated learning activities. Provides continuous opportunities for all children to experience success, h. grow in ability to meet their own goals, make friends and build a self- perception of confidence. i. Designs cross-domain collaborations that are age-appropriate yet meaningful. 123 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

126 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Program Standard: Activities are designed so that concepts and skills 4. are appropriately presented using a variety of methods and techniques. A Quality Program: Designs activities for children that use the greatest number of senses. a. b. Presents concepts to children using self correcting hands-on materials rather than through paper-pencil exercises or patterned activities.  c. Presents concepts multiple times using various materials and methods of instruction. Makes activities and materials available for extended periods of time so d. children can repeat and expand on their previous experience and so that children’s desire to repeat experiences can be encouraged by adults. Makes additions to learning environments throughout time in order to e. enhance and expand concept development. Incorporates language experiences which include repetition into children’ f. s daily activities. g. Arranges for children to use technology materials and centers in a similar manner as other materials and centers (e.g., there is no special computer time). h. Observes children carefully to identify their preferred ways of interacting with the environment, taking into account their skills and abilities and encouraging the use of new words or growing capacity to make meaning. , physical activity that is vigorous (gets i. Provides children with daily children “breathless” or breathing deeper and faster than during typical activities) for short doses of time. Program Standard: T 5. echnology tools are used to support the teaching practices. A Quality Program: a. Provides digital and other technology tools for teachers to make instructional materials. b. Incorporates the use of technology tools during ongoing child observation and assessment to keep records and to create reports about children and/ or classroom activities. c. Enables teachers to communicate with parents and other professionals via email and other technologies. d. Provides technology tools for teachers and children to develop and produce a variety of products: websites, news blogs, or classroom projects using Internet resources. e. Locates, provides, and uses assistive technology resources. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 124

127 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Carefully researches and then incorporates new technology opportunities f. that will enhance children’s learning and development in developmentally appropriate ways. g. Balances digital learning with human interaction. h. Preserves social interaction, unstructured play and child engagement as the primary learning source for children.  6. Program Standard: Formal and informal grouping practices are used to strengthen children’s learning. A Quality Program: T akes children’s interests, friendships, and common needs into account a. when groups are formed. b. Groups children primarily heterogeneously , using homogeneous subgroups on a limited and temporary basis and changing readily to accommodate varying rates of growth. c. Provides children with opportunities to work and play in large groups, small groups, and individually; to join in and contribute. d. Maintains child-adult ratios in accordance with the requirements of the particular program. e. Provides each child with opportunities to become accountable or reliable to self and others. f. Ensures that all children are involved, no child is left out, bullied or mocked. Program Standard: Child-child interactions are encouraged through 7. the use of learning experiences that include cooperative play, conflict resolution, and large, small, interest-based, and multi-age groupings. A Quality Program: a. Structures environments to promote small groups of children working and playing cooperatively in self-selected and teacher-initiated activities. b. Assures that the composition of groups is flexible and temporary depending on needs and the type of activity. Groups children according to interests rather than ability whenever c. possible. d. V iews all children as valued group members, as having strengths. e. Structures the environment so that adults move among groups and individuals, facilitating, modeling and monitoring children’s involvement with activities and with one another. 125 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

128 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Teaches children to demonstrate (in age-appropriate manners) the f. capacity of consideration for others, develop and practice problem-solving and conflict-resolution skills g. Provides opportunities for children to grow in their understanding of the need for rules and boundaries in their learning and social environment. 8. Program Standard: The daily routine/schedule is predictable,  yet flexible. A Quality Program: Develops schedules that include predictability and repetition, responds to a. a child’s natural timetable, and takes advantage of teachable moments. b. Schedules extended blocks of time so that children can become engaged, persevere and are absorbed in learning experiences without interruption. As a means of supporting health habits, limits the amount of time children c. are seated in a teacher-directed activity or screen time to no more than fifteen minutes at a time, except during meal or naps. d. Includes the creative arts, physical development (gross and fine motor), and literacy activities as regular components during the day. e. Provides for cooperative groups, teacher-initiated, and child-initiated/ choice activities. f. Provides for active, quiet, large group, small group, paired, individual, independent, and guided activities. g. Carefully plans, appropriately paces, and monitors learning activities. h. Provides the physical space and time in the schedule for children to have private time, learning to feel comfortable being alone. i. Allows children to choose not to participate in group activities and to engage in another safe, appropriate activity. 9. Program Standard: Routines and transitions between activities are smooth and kept to a minimum. A Quality Program: a. Allows enough time so that routines and transitions are unhurried and purposeful. b. Supports and plans for children who find transitions difficult. c. Prepares for transitions and limits wait times. d. Provides children with opportunities to develop responsibility, contribute to the community of the classroom, and participate in daily routines such as picking up toys. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 126

129 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Minimizes or eliminates pull out programs and activities that take children e. away from the classroom to another location. f. Appropriately prepares children and families for transitions to new or different programs/classrooms. g. Gives all children notice to prepare for change, and explain to them what is happening and what will happen next, to increase their ability to cope with change, deal with stress and manage frustration.  h. Minimizes idle time in group settings. 10. Program Standard: Adults use language and strategies which enhance children’ s language and critical thinking. A Quality Program: Expects teaching staff to talk with children individually and in small groups a. and to take advantage of spontaneous events to talk with each child individually, respectfully and with a sense of engagement. b. Expects teaching staff to ask children a variety of questions designed to stimulate extended response (e.g., minimizing “yes” or “no” response questions, increasing “why” and “how” questions). c. Expects teaching staff to talk to children about the children’s emotions and the emotions of others and about how to understand the perspective of another person. d. Expects teaching staff to involve children in making choices and evaluating the consequences of the choices they have made. e. Provides opportunities for children to contribute their ideas to class decisions and to help make class rules. f. Involves children in planning, implementing, and evaluating some class activities. Encourage children to follow their interests, curiosity, passion or talents; g. help children to discover what they want to learn more about and things they find fascinating. h. Requires staff to model pro-social language and behavior. 127 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

130 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT 11. Program Standard: Teachers are enthusiastic models of life-long learning by providing children with many opportunities to explore, manipulate, investigate, and discover. A Quality Program: a. Initially presents concepts to children via concrete, hands-on materials. b. Makes concrete materials available on an on-going basis as needed to  reinforce concepts. c. Presents concepts several times throughout the year, using various methods and materials. d. Presents simple skills prior to more complex skills. e. Encourages children to take risks and use trial and error as a valuable way of learning. f. Regularly initiates positive communications and interactions with peers, parents and children. g. Celebrates learning and builds confidence and resourcefulness. h. Establishes a community of learners where all children, regardless of gender, ability, ethnicity, language or background, have rights and responsibilities. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 128

131 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Facilities, Materials, and Equipment Early childhood programs assure that the learning environment, materials, and equipment promote the nature of young children, an interesting curriculum, children’s well-being, and program quality. To a much greater degree than in programs for older children, the learning  environment is a physical representation of the curriculum and should reflect the opportunities available for child curiosity, engagement and participation. Since so much of young children’s development and learning take place through their senses and as a result of direct interaction with materials of all kinds, the kind and quality of the toys and other learning materials play a critical role in advancing their development. Items must be available, adequate in quantity, well- maintained, and appropriate to children’s age, developmental levels, and relate to what they are learning, investigating, exploring, and creating. 1. Program Standard: The facility is safe and secure and complies with the legal requirements of the local, state, and/or federal licensing or accrediting agency having jurisdiction over the program. A Quality Program: a. Has a current child care center license, unless legally exempt. b. Complies with all facility requirements of the sponsoring agency or legislation. c. Makes provisions for all children, including those with disabilities, to ensure their safety, comfort, and participation both indoor and outside. d. Assures that staf f and parents are knowledgeable of all safety policies and procedures that apply to the program. e. Establishes a community of learners where all children, regardless of gender, ability, ethnicity, language or background, have rights, responsibilities and feel safe. 2. Program Standard: The indoor physical space is organized into functional learning centers that can be recognized by the children and that allow for individual activities and social interactions. A Quality Program: a. Provides at least 50 square feet per child of usable space in classrooms. 129 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

132 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Organizes the classroom space into learning centers using child-sized b. furniture and equipment, age-appropriate shelving, low walls, and/or other items to separate the areas. Organizes the classroom space to include areas where a child can be c. away from the group and able to be observed by staff. d. Provides space for each child to store personal belongings and projects. e Addresses dif ferent curricular/developmental domains (e.g., aesthetic,  emotional, language, cognitive, sensory, social, physical) and instructional strategies at each learning center. Allows children to move from one area to another without obstructions. f. s g. Organizes and maintains natural and produced materials for children’ easy access, inquiry and exploration. Prominently displays individual and project work of the children in the h. classroom. i. Prominently displays, at the child’ s level, children’s creations, multicultural photos of children and families, and other items of interest to the children. j. Provides visual exposure and prompts to eat healthy foods and be more active (e.g. books, posters, fruit bowls, gardens). k. Provides space for storage of personal belongings for each child. l. Uses signs and translations, as needed, to clearly welcome parents and communicate schedules and daily routines, rules and expected behaviors of the program. Provides a parent resource area that addresses a variety of family needs, m. stresses, family relationships or compositions and well-being. Provides dedicated space for staf n. f to take breaks and securely store personal belongings. 3. Program Standard: The outdoor physical space is safe and allows for individual activities and social interactions. A Quality Program: a. Provides at least 75 square feet per child of usable, well-maintained outdoor play space, which includes a variety of safe surfaces and elevations (e.g., soil, grass, sand, hard, flat, elevated). b. Keeps children protected from unsafe areas and environmental hazards (e.g., streets, parking lots, driveways, swimming pools). c. Provides well-maintained playground equipment of suitable size for the age of the children and accessible to children with disabilities. d. Provides materials and equipment suitable for use both indoors and outdoors. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 130

133 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Provides outdoor play equipment and materials, accessible to each child e. and of suitable design and size for three-and four-year-old children. f. Arranges the outdoor space to support social interactions among the children and with adults. g. Extends principles of responsive teaching from the indoor to the outdoor environment (e.g., adults are engaged with the children rather than simply “watching” them).  h. Capitalizes on the opportunities the outdoor environment presents for learning about and from the natural world, exploration, language, literacy creativity, solitude (e.g., an area to observe food plants growing). Teaches children to increase their awareness, build confidence, and learn i. to take manageable risks (e.g., walking or balancing on a log). 4. Program Standard: Equipment, toys, materials, and furniture reflect the curriculum, are age appropriate, safe, and supportive of the abilities and developmental level of each child served. A Quality Program: a. Provides well-maintained materials (both natural and produced), equipment and activities that reflect children’s culture, diversity, developmental abilities, individual learning styles, and home language. Provides instructional adjustments and adaptive devices for children with b. disabilities to ensure their learning, comfort and participation. Provides safe, interesting, appropriate and sufficient equipment, toys, c. materials and furniture that support the learning expectations and encourage each child to experiment and explore. d. Plans an environment that minimizes conflict by providing enough materials, space, and equipment and by setting clear expectations for their use. e Locates computers and other technology tools within classrooms and integrated into learning areas (e.g., children do not travel to another location to have access to computers). f. Assures that screen technology tools are age and appropriately sized for preschool-aged children (e.g., screens are placed at children’s eye level). 131 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

134 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Program Standard: Computer software used in the program is 5. developmentally appropriate for young children and reflects the s curriculum; technology tools are integrated into the program’ learning environment. A Quality Program: a. Assures that availability of digital technology, associated software applications; and Internet usage conform to recommendations for appropriate use. b. Provides software that reflects items in the classroom or in nature with an emphasis on representations of real materials. Selects developmentally appropriate software and applications related to c. activities in learning centers and ongoing projects. d. Selects and encourages the use of technology tools that help children document their learning (e.g., camera to photograph experiments, structures; a video of a group singing or acting out a story). e. Selects and uses software and applications that can support children who are learning English. f. Assures that software and application images and content are reflective of the cultures and languages of children in the program. g. Assures that software and applications avoid stereotypical images of any kind. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 132

135 CHILD ASSESSMENT AND PROGRAM EVALUATION Child Assessment and Program Evaluation Young children present special challenges for assessment. During the early years of life, children’s growth and development is most rapid and is typically uneven and greatly influenced by their interpersonal and physical environments. Very young children have limited ways of responding to their  interpersonal and physical environments. An unexpected response may indicate a problem different from the ability or understanding being examined. And most importantly, young children do not understand testing in the same way older children do. For the youngest children, it is essential to recognize the imprecision and limitations of many widely used assessment instruments. The younger the children, the more difficult it is to obtain reliable and valid assessment data. Children may be harmed if information from the wrong instruments is used in the wrong way; teaching staff may be placed in less than optimal situations; families are also harmed when inaccurate information negatively influences their understandings of their children’s capabilities. Such inappropriate practices often result in the use of faulty information to make program placements or to alter children’s learning opportunities. Such decisions can, and have been demonstrated to alter the course of children’s lives. Options for gathering and reporting information are numerous; however , it is critical that the methods selected are sensitive to variations of culture, race, class, gender, language, and ability among young children and their families. Any time children are assessed, it is important to keep in mind the normal individual variation in growth and development and factors which can affect performance (e.g., time of day, fatigue, hunger, comfort and/or familiarity with the assessor). Four purposes for assessing the developmental and learning progress of young children are widely recognized (NEGP, 1998): • To support children’s development and learning; • To identify children who may need health and special services; • To evaluate programs and monitor trends; and • For high-stakes accountability (although rarely appropriate in prekindergarten programs). Understanding all four purposes is important for staff in early childhood programs; each of these purposes must be considered very carefully in designing an assessment, evaluation and accountability system. Understanding how these purposes apply is of particular importance in programs serving three- and four- 133 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

136 CHILD ASSESSMENT AND PROGRAM EVALUATION year-old children. Likewise, all staff members deserve to be appropriately trained in the selection, use and interpretation of any and all assessment instruments and their results. Assessment to Support Development and Learning The first and most important use of child assessment data is to support children’s development and learning. In most cases, observations of a child in a naturally occurring setting, with family or familiar teachers, provide rich information about the child’s development. This information learned from ongoing observations by parents and teachers is of utmost importance because it can immediately  inform practice. Assessment in order to plan activities for young children’s daily experiences and to report to parents should always include multiple sources of information, multiple components, and occur at multiple points in time. Because growth and change are so rapid in the early childhood years, parents and teachers must have opportunities for the exchange of information on a daily basis. Assessment to Identify Children for Special Services Assessment to identify young children who may need specialized health services or other particular therapies is also critical when children are very young. Screening tools and procedures can be used to identify children who may need additional diagnostic assessment. Screening alone should never be used to offer a diagnosis of child’s development, but only to refer the child for more in- depth assessment. Accurate assessment of sensory (hearing, vision) or health problems in young children can only be accomplished by trained professionals with specialized assessments and equipment. A complete in-depth evaluation or developmental assessment should also be provided by a team of professionals. Program Evaluation Knowing how children are doing as a result of participating in a program or set of services is of critical importance to teachers, parents, program leaders and local, state and federal agencies having responsibilities for the programs. Each of these stakeholders may have different reasons for needing the information well-designed child assessment can bring, but in the end, the most important stakeholder is the child (Council of Chief State School Officers, 2003). For older children, aggregated gain scores or actual average scores on assessments may be used to determine program effectiveness and to plan for program improvements. In preschool programs, it may be possible to aggregate the percentage of children making progress in a particular developmental domain, but these data should never be used as the sole measure of program effectiveness. In all cases, data must be aggregated in such a way as to prevent individual identification and protect child and family privacy. Data should not be aggregated when numbers of participating children are small because of the danger of personal identification. Large scale accountability programs should include all of the safeguards for privacy typically included in professional research protocols. In most early childhood settings and programs, it is preferable to use direct measures of teacher characteristics (e.g., teacher qualifications, participation MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 134

137 CHILD ASSESSMENT AND PROGRAM EVALUATION in professional development) and of program quality (e.g., tools that assess the physical and interpersonal environment). Direct program evaluation can accurately document program quality and be used for program improvement purposes. High Stakes Accountability High stakes accountability involves using test results to remove funding from a program and/or to judge teacher effectiveness. Because of the small numbers of participants in most programs for young children, and the large margins of error in assessments, child assessment for the purpose of high-stakes accountability in preschool programs is rarely appropriate.  1. Program Standard: The program uses information gained from a variety of child assessment measures to plan learning experiences for individual children and groups. A Quality Program: a. Uses information from both formal child assessment measures and continuous family input, child observation, and a variety of other sources to address individual needs as well as to plan individual and group experiences. Uses sound developmental and learning theory to plan and conduct child b. assessment. c. Attends to each child’ s development in all domains (e.g., social, emotional, cognitive, communication, language and early literacy, self- help, creative, and physical). d. Uses valid and reliable assessment tools and processes that are continuous, ongoing, cumulative, and in the language that the child understands. s involvement in daily, ordinary classroom e. Primarily uses children’ activities and social interactions, not artificially contrived tests, to gauge children’s growth. f. Uses a variety of valid and reliable instruments and processes to document children’s growth, development, and learning over time (e.g., observation and anecdotal reports; teacher questions; parent, provider , and child interviews; products and samples of children’s work; teacher- constructed or standardized checklists; children’s self-appraisals). g. Arranges and conducts assessment so that it does not bring added stress for children or teachers. Uses assessment results from a variety of sources as a guide for h. curriculum and teaching decisions and the need for intervention for individuals and classrooms. i. Uses results from more than one valid and reliable assessment method to determine the need for and plan of intervention. 135 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

138 CHILD ASSESSMENT AND PROGRAM EVALUATION Program Standard: The program uses information from child 2. s progress with assessments to effectively communicate children’ their parents. A Quality Program: a. Makes inquiry from parents and utilizes essential information from them about their children’s growth, interests and development that can help staff work effectively with their children. b. Frequently shares information with parents on both a formal and an  informal basis about reasonable expectations for children’s growth, development, social dispositions and habits of learning. c. Uses a combination of methods to share information about children’s progress and challenges at formal and informal parent/teacher conferences (e.g., work samples, anecdotal records, photos, narrative reports), with appropriate translation or interpretation, as needed. d. Arranges to share information about children’s progress with approved non-custodial parents; or with the child’s next teacher in a transition. e. Uses newsletters, Web pages, and other social media to convey information about the program’s activities and projects that support children’s learning and growth (e.g., descriptions of assessments used). 3. Program Standard: The program uses appropriate assessment tools to help identify children who may require additional specialized programs and interventions. A Quality Program: Uses valid and reliable screening tools and procedures to determine a. whether children require further evaluation. Seeks approval from and informs parents of the types and purposes b. of the screening in advance of the screening, the results of those screenings, and the purposes and results of subsequent evaluations. c. Uses specialists to evaluate and diagnose children whose growth and development falls outside age-appropriate guidelines as determined by screening processes. d. Gives parents the opportunity to review their child’s records in a timely manner, ask questions, receive assistance in the interpretation of information and secures written consent if additional evaluation is proposed. e. Uses reliable and valid standardized assessment tools for meeting requirements for federal funding accountability or other purposes; seeks to minimize intrusion and excess use of learning time to give assessments. f. Uses teacher observations and parent feedback to supplement data collected by standardized instruments. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 136

139 CHILD ASSESSMENT AND PROGRAM EVALUATION Program Standard: The program implements program evaluation 4. processes to learn how the program can be improved and be accountable. A Quality Program: Participates in community, statewide, and national ration, improvement, a. accreditation, and other accountability systems as available. b. Bases program evaluation processes on the program’s current philosophy, goals and objectives.  c. Involves families, staff, the program’s early childhood specialists (when not regular staff members), and a variety of community members in an annual review of all program components and uses the resulting information to inform all parties, develop and implement an annual plan for improvement. Uses instruments that directly measure program quality and other data d. to evaluate how well the program is meeting its goals. In programs that serve younger and older children as well as preschoolers, assessment of the quality of the preschool experiences should be considered as a distinct aspect of the total program. e. Utilizes information about children’s growth while attending the program and tracking of children’s adjustment and learning trajectories after leaving the program to modify and improve program practices. f. Evaluates teaching staff and program administrators with methods that reflect the program’s philosophy and curriculum, uses the results for reflective practice and develops professional goals based on these evaluations. Regularly reviews the program’s improvement plan, assesses progress g. throughout the year and provides this information to all relevant stakeholders. h. Invites families exiting the program to provide input to the program during an exit interview or survey; input from families is, however, welcomed at any time during the year. i. Is accountable to funding and administrative agencies by providing required data. j. Uses accepted safeguards for child and family privacy when providing data for research studies or accountability purposes. k. Actively avoids, insofar as possible, participation in assessment and evaluation processes that result in use of child outcome data for high- stakes purposes. 137 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

140 CHILD ASSESSMENT AND PROGRAM EVALUATION 5. Program Standard: Assessment tools used for any purpose are those best suited for the purpose, which meet professional standards, and which are used in an appropriate manner. A Quality Program: a. Assures that teaching and administrative staff have expertise related to the administering and using the most appropriate assessment measures and procedures needed for the particular assessment. b. Uses instruments that respect and perform adequately when assessing  children’s developmental, cultural, and linguistic diversity and that of their families. c. Seeks assistance from knowledgeable professionals when selecting and using assessment tools. Uses instruments only for the purpose(s) intended (e.g., does not use d. screening tools to make decisions about placement or to assess progress). e. Uses the least intrusive tools needed for the specific purpose of the assessment (e.g., avoids using standardized tests for decisions about curriculum and teaching or to convey information about children’s progress to their parents). f. Responsibly and respectfully uses information. g. Provides staff training on data collection, use and interpretation of data for relevant program, curricular and staffing decisions. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 138

141 Glossary for Early Learning and Development The Early Learning and Development Glossary is a component of the 2013 Early Childhood Standards of Quality (ECSQ) Project. This initiative has multiple components, including: Alignment of 2013 Preschool ECSQ through Grade 3 Learning • Expectations in all domains; • Alignment of Head Start Child Development and Early Learning Framework (HSF) 2011 with the Michigan ECSQ Preschool Early Learning Expectations (2013); Examples representative of positive, engaging child experiences in • learning environments including PK through Grade 3 for all learning domains. Examples of intentional and responsive early learning practices for all • adults involved in the education and care of young children in PK through Grade 3; • Additional program standard indicators to assure alignment with expectations; and • Early Childhood Standards of Quality for Infant and Toddler Programs This Glossary is intended to supplement terms defined in the licensing regulations for child care centers and family and group child care homes and preschool settings. It contains terms applicable across the entire birth through grade 3 age ranges. However, some terms are applicable only to infants and toddlers and those who provide care for them. Likewise, other terms are more relevant to the preschool age child and environment or those in kindergarten or early primary through third grade, as age and grade level appropriate. 139 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

142 Age Appropriate: As used in Accessible/Accessibility: Learning opportunities, the ECSQ documents, these terms relate experiences, a physical learning environment, equipment, materials and to either: 1) attention to materials and interactions with that match a child’s age adaptations in the physical environment, so that children with special needs have and/or stage of growth and development. equitable opportunities to learn, including adaptations that are required to be in American Sign Language (ASL): compliance with federal and state laws A language of signs, gestures, and expressions, with its own grammatical whether regarding accessibility; and 2) structure, that is used by many in the deaf quality and appropriate programs are community; it is typically the deaf person’s available to families (e.g., geographically primary language while written English is accessible, affordable, have needed hours routinely the secondary language (making of operation). ASL users bilingual). In an infant/toddler Activity Areas: A term covering setting, activity areas include spaces set Approaches to Learning: up and provisioned to enable attention a range of attitudes, habits, and learning to children’s needs across all domains styles addressed in this Domain for (social, emotional, intellectual, language, PK-Grade 3. It reflects the dynamics of learning how to learn on one’s own and in creative, and physical) and include or may be referred to as areas for feeding, the company of others. It is the relationship sleeping, learning/playing, and diapering. between thinking, learning and acting; and it is the interaction between the learner and In preschool and early primary, activity their environment. It includes the following areas (often called centers or work areas) two subdomains: are designated by age appropriate labels (e.g., Art, Science, Books, Building). A cluster of traits reflect • Habits of Mind: thoughtful, individual approaches to Acute Illness: A disease with an abrupt learning, acting, creating, and problem onset and usually of short duration (e.g., a solving. cold, the flu). Social Dispositions: • A cluster of selected positive behaviors that have value in Administrative/Supervisory Personnel: society and allow children to participate Program leaders at the program and/or and interact more effectively with others. administering agency level (e.g., program directors, specialists, and school district A systematic procedure for Assessment: level or building principals/administrators/ obtaining information from observation, supervisors) who are responsible for interviews, portfolios, projects, tests, administering, supervising, and leading and other sources that can be used to program services, activities, and make judgments about characteristics of instructional and caregiving staff. children or their programs. Advisory Council: A group convened Assistant caregiver: Term used in family to advise program leaders regarding or group home serving children from birth planning, development, implementation, to age 5 to denote a person who works and evaluation of the program. The under the supervision of a caregiver. advisory council is typically comprised This person may also be referred to as an of parents and interested community ‘Associate’ or ‘Para-Professional’ or ‘Aide’ members. Advisory councils may be in public or private group settings. established as a requirement of the sponsoring agency or legislation and Assistive technology: Any item, piece within the framework of policies and of equipment, product or system, whether practices as established by the council acquired commercially off the shelf, and the program’s governing body. modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 140

143 eventually committing themselves as capabilities and promote participation and learning of anyone with disabilities. much to the common goal as to the interests of participating agencies. The Personnel who are Auxiliary staff: relationship includes a commitment to mutual relationships and goals; a responsible for delivering support services jointly developed structure and shared offered by the program and/or required by responsibility; mutual authority and federal or state regulations (e.g., nurses, accountability for success; and sharing of Title 1 staff, special education consultants, speech/language therapists, school resources and rewards. psychologists, nutrition specialists or For children, this means the age- • social workers). appropriate social disposition of working together to reach a goal, design a Bilingualism: The degrees of dual project, complete a task or get along in language competency including: 1) their behavior toward others. children who have acquired language An organized skills in their first language and then begin Community Collaborative: group representative of the community, to learn a second language, or 2) children who are not yet comfortable and capable school or state and its early childhood or school based family- and child-serving in their first language, thus are learning programs. Such a council typically serves two languages simultaneously as a communication link among parents, Caregiver: In a family or group child or programs and provides direction in planning, developing, implementing, and care program, the person who provides the direct care, supervision, guidance, reviewing the early childhood education and protection of children within the early initiatives. These ‘Councils’ may also be referred to as an ‘Early Learning Council’, childhood setting. ‘Early Childhood Advisory Council’, Child Development Associate Credential ‘Parent Advisory Council’ or a community designated initiative. (CDA): Nationally recognized performance- based credential awarded through the The term is used in multiple Continuity: Council for Professional Recognition, an contexts: independent subsidiary of the National Association for the Education of Young Of Teaching Staff: A practice closely Children. A CDA credential is awarded related to the assignment of a primary following documentation and demonstration teacher to a child or group; intended to of knowledge and competence in working create a consistent personal relationship with children birth to five years of age. between a child and an adult. Of Primary Teacher: Each child Experiences which offer Child-Initiated: is assigned to a primary teacher or children choices among a wide range of assistant teacher so that children opportunities for play and learning so that can remain with the same teacher or they can directly experience and manipulate assistant teacher during a significant new ideas and objects (e.g., choosing from part, if not all, of their learning a variety of activities throughout much experience. This may be evident during of the day; creating their own ideas with the day; during a two-year preschool art materials, block constructions, dance experience; or in early primary, as improvisations, or natural materials which looping the children with the same encourage children to question, experiment, teacher for multiple years. observe or pretend). Of Care: In this approach to staff A mutually beneficial Collaboration: assignment, transitions between and well-defined relationship entered teachers and individuals or small groups into by two or more organizations to of children are minimized because these achieve common goals. The result changes are seen as being stressful for is a shared endeavor with members the child and family. 141 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

144 An intentional responsive to inevitable child variation; and Of Program: programmatic practice that establishes a • Knowledge of the social, cultural and consistent primary teacher for the child language contexts in which children live or group of children. In this approach, to ensure that learning experiences are transitions between multiple teachers meaningful, relevant, and respectful for are minimized to the benefit of the the participating children and families. young child and the child’s family. In developmentally appropriate settings Continuity of care enables children for all ages, effective teachers combine to develop and enhance a secure, knowledge about the typical growth attached relationship with an adult. patterns of all children with careful study Additionally, it supports the development of the characteristics of each child in of a sense of trust in others, a particular group. The most effective independence, enhanced learning, and learning takes place in that zone of the ability to form early friendships and children’s development which is just bonds throughout life. beyond what a child can currently do with comfort, but is not so challenging Culturally Responsive Teaching: that frustration and failure are the likely Demonstrating an awareness and results. Based on continuous assessment, respect for the customs, heritage teachers make instructional decisions that and values of families and children; lead to the greatest possible growth in each demonstrating and responding with child’s knowledge and skills that support a positive attitude for learning about positive dispositions toward learning various cultures and languages. Digital citizenship Digital Citizenship: The Development and Learning: refers to the need for adults and children process of change in which the child to be responsible digital citizens through comes to master more and more complex an understanding of the use, abuse, levels of moving, thinking, feeling and and misuse of technology as well as interacting with people and objects in the norms of appropriate, responsible, the environment. Development involves and ethical behaviors related to online both a gradual unfolding of biologically rights, roles, identity, safety, security, and determined characteristics and the communication. learning process. Learning is the process of acquiring knowledge, skills, habits and Digital Literacy: The ability to use, values through relationships, experience understand and explore both technology and experimentation, observation, and various types of interactive media. reflection, and/or instruction. Neither takes place in isolation. Domains: Term used to describe various aspects of children’s learning and/or Developmentally Appropriate Practice: development. Individual domains are All aspects of the program that address closely interrelated and development in children’s development and learning based one domain influences and is influenced on three important kinds of information: by development in other domains and • Knowledge about age-related human terms used to describe them may vary. characteristics that permits general The 2013 ECSQ-IT organizes predictions within an age range about development and learning domains into what activities, materials, interactions, five Strands: or experiences will be safe, healthy, W ell-Being, Belonging, Exploration, • interesting, achievable, and also Communication, and Contribution. challenging to children; The 2013 ECSQ-PK uses these What is known about the strengths, • descriptive terms: interests and needs of each individual Approaches to Learning-AL • child so the adults can adapt for and be Arts-CA Creative • MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 142

145 Language and Early Literacy Early Childhood (ZA or ZS) Endorsement: • Development-LL Endorsement on an elementary teaching certificate recommended by Michigan • Dual Language Learning-DLL colleges and universities upon completion Early Learning and T • echnology-TL of an early childhood education program; • Social, Emotional and Physical may be required by the Michigan Health and Development-SEP Department of Education or other funders Early Learning in Mathematics-M • for particular infant/toddler and preschool/ Early Learning in Science-S • prekindergarten programs. • Early Learning in the Social Studies-SS Early Childhood Investment In K-3 these domain names are used: Corporation (ECIC): The Early Childhood • Approaches to Learning-AL Investment Corporation was founded in • Creative Arts-CA 2005 and charged with implementing a • Language and Literacies-LL Great Start system for Michigan both at the Dual Language Learning-DLL • state level as well as one community at a Technology-TL • time. As part of that effort, The Investment Corporation also was given responsibility for Social, Emotional and Physical • leading the state’s federal child care quality Health and Development-SEP efforts. The Early Childhood Investment Mathematics-M • Corporation was created to be the state’s Science-S • focal point for information and investment in • Social Studies-SS early childhood in Michigan so that children can arrive at the kindergarten door, safe, Children, of any Dual Language Learners: healthy and eager for learning and life. age, whose first language is not English; including those learning English for the first A Early Childhood Specialist: time as well as those who may or may not qualified person who has responsibility have various levels of English proficiency. for the evaluation of the program and The term “dual language learners” instructional staff, and provides coaching, encompasses other terms frequently used, mentoring, and training. such as Limited English Proficient (LEP), bilingual, English language learners (ELL), Early Learning Expectations (ELEs): English as a second language learners Outcome statements that describe (ESL), and children who speak a language age appropriate skills, knowledge and other than English (LOTE). dispositions across the development and learning domains; in ECSQ-IT and Early Childhood Education and Care: ECSQ-PK the ELEs are intended to reflect Provision of purposeful public or private, young children’s capacities following their programs and services aimed at guiding participation in a high quality setting. and enhancing development and learning across the age span of young children ® : Michigan’s comprehensive Early On from birth through age eight. statewide program of early intervention services for infants and toddlers with Early Childhood Special Education: special needs, from birth through age two, Federally- and state-mandated services and their families (Part C of IDEA). for children with verified disabilities. These services may be provided in a self- The measurement, comparison, Evaluation: contained classroom operated through a and judgment of the value, quality or local school district or intermediate agency condition of children’s accomplishments and/ or in an inclusive setting at the local or of their programs, schools, caregivers, district or community level. teachers, or a specific educational program based upon valid evidence gathered through assessment. 143 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

146 the entire richness of a curriculum, but Evidence-Based Practice: Designing do highlight that which is essential for all program practices based on the findings of students to know and be able to do. The current best evidence from well-designed 2013 ECSQ Project includes the alignment and respected research and evaluation of the Early Learning Expectations for (e.g., better understanding of preschool Preschool (ELEs) with the K-3 GLCEs. children’s mathematics capabilities as a function of recent research). The Vision of the Great Start Great Start: People related to each other A Great Start for every child initiative is: Family: by blood, marriage, adoption, or legal in Michigan; safe, healthy and eager to succeed in school and in life. guardianship. Family members include biological parents (custodial and non- The purpose of Great The Mission: custodial), adoptive parents, foster parents, Start is to assure a coordinated system step-parents, grandparents and other of community resources and supports to relatives of significance to the child, and assist all Michigan families in providing all siblings (half, step, full). In addition, any a great start for their children from birth individual that the family defines as a part through age five. of their family, who has extensive contact The System: The Great Start system with the child, and/or is a significant person envisions a single, interconnected and in the child’s life, could be included. intertwined network of public and private services and supports working together Family Collaboration/Partnership: in a community to accomplish better Refers to respecting family members results for young children and families. as equal partners in all phases of the As with any system, there are both key child’s experiences in the class/program. programmatic components, and also Families are integrated into the class/ infrastructure elements that ensure program through opportunities to plan The coordination and sustainability. and participate in all stages of their child’s Office of Great Start is administered learning, development and program/class through the Michigan Department of implementation. Supportive opportunities Education. www.michigan.gov/greatstart encourage family members to expand their knowledge of child development, Great Start Readiness Program: increase parenting skills, family literacy, Michigan’s publicly-funded prekindergarten extend children’s learning at home, and program targeted to four-year-old children utilize community resources. who may be “at risk” of school failure. To participate a child must meet income Multigenerational Family Literacy: eligibility requirements or be over-income Programs which serve the entire family with risk factors. No more than 10% and which involve parents and children of children over-income. All programs in interactive literacy activities typically must provide strong family involvement/ including training for parents regarding parent education components as well as how to be the primary teacher for their comprehensive preschool education. children; parent literacy; and an early childhood program. A cluster of traits reflect Habits of Mind: thoughtful, individual approaches to learning, The home language of First Language: acting, creating, and problem solving. the child; may also be referred to as the native language of the child. Head Start Child Development and Early Learning Framework (2011): Grade Level Content Expectations A framework of outcome statements Statements of essential (GLCEs): which applies to the federal Head Start knowledge and skills for K-12 developed program and is intended to be reflective in response to federal and state of what children should know or be able requirements. GLCEs do not represent MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 144

147 to do by the end of Head Start or upon IDEA — Individuals with Disabilities entry into kindergarten. The Revised Education Act: A federal law that 2011 Framework [HSF] provides Head provides funding and guidance to states Start and other early childhood programs to support the planning of service systems and the delivery of services, including with a description of the developmental evaluation and assessment, for young building blocks that are most important for children who have or are at risk of a child’s school and long-term success. Head Start children, 3 to 5 years old, developmental delays/disabilities. Funds are expected to progress in all the areas are provided through the Infants and of child development and early learning Toddlers Program [known as Part C of IDEA (Early On® in Michigan)] for services outlined by the Framework. Head Start to children birth through two years of programs also are expected to develop and implement a program that ensures age, and through the Preschool Program (known as Part B-Section 619 of IDEA) for such progress is made. The Framework services to children ages three to five. is not appropriate for programs serving infants and toddlers. Infant and/or Toddler: A child from birth to age three. Head Start Program Performance Quality program standards Standards: A qualified Infant/Toddler Specialist: which apply to the federal Head Start person who provides coaching, mentoring, program and which address all aspects and training and who may have of early childhood development and responsibility for the evaluation of the health services, family and community program and the caregiving staff. partnerships, and program design and management. Instructional Specialist: Professional staff who work collaboratively with the The principle of enabling Inclusion: classroom teacher (and preferably in the all children, regardless of their diverse regular classroom setting) in areas such abilities, to grow and learn through active as visual arts, music, physical education, participation in natural settings within their library-media, and technology. communities. Natural settings include the home and local early childhood programs. Digital and analog Interactive media: materials, including software programs, Individualized Education Program applications, broadcast and streaming A written education plan for a child (IEP): media, some children’s television with special needs developed by a team programming, e-books, the Internet, and of professionals and the child’s parent(s); other forms of content designed to facilitate it is reviewed and updated yearly and active and creative use by young children describes how the child is presently doing, and to encourage social engagement with what the child’s learning needs are, and other children and adults. what services the child will need. Children’s learning Integrated Approach: Individualized Family Service Plan activities, experiences and projects that Refers both to a process and (IFSP): involve multiple domain areas of the a written document required to plan curriculum, instead of constant isolated appropriate activities and interventions study of content areas; and facilitated that will help a child with special needs through the organization and provision (birth through age two) and his or her of space, (e.g., preschool children learn family progress toward desired outcomes. concepts through their play or in an activity It is reviewed and updated yearly and like a project; early primary children work describes how the child is presently doing, as a team on a project that includes what the child’s learning needs are, and literacy, math and science or the arts). what services the child will need. 145 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

148 The physical Learning Environment: needs assessments, participation as representation of the curriculum that classroom volunteers, and flexible includes: relationships, human and social scheduling of meetings and events. climate, teaching practices, and the space, Each child materials, and equipment. Ideally, this Primary Caregiver or Teacher: is assigned to a primary teacher or assistant includes both indoor and outdoor space. teacher so that children can remain with Literacy: the same teacher or assistant teacher Traditionally described for during a significant part, if not all, of their children as the ability to read and write or use language proficiently. Expanded learning experience. Such continuity with definitions of literacy have added: their primary teacher or caregiver is critically important in the infant and toddler years, but multimedia literacy, technology literacy, visual representation, listening or speaking. continues to benefit children throughout the early childhood years. The developing capacities This continuity of staffing may be evident Mental Health: during the day; during a two-year preschool of young children to experience, regulate, and express emotions; to form close and experience; or in early primary, as looping the children with the same teacher for secure interpersonal relationships; and to explore the environment and learn. These multiple years. Such continuity with primary capacities are considered alongside caregivers and teachers enables children and within the context of family, learning (particularly infants and toddlers) to and care environments, community, develop and enhance a secure, attached relationship. This supports the development and cultural expectations. Child mental of a sense of trust in others, independence, health is synonymous with healthy social, emotional development, behavioral and enhanced learning, and the ability to form early friendships and bonds throughout life. social dispositions of child well-being. Primary group: MiAIMH: The Michigan Association The group of children under the care of the primary caregiver or for Infant Mental Health (MiAIMH) is teacher. To the maximum extent possible, an organization of individuals who are the child’s primary group is made up of the devoted to nurturing and strengthening relationships between infants and their same children over an extended period of time to enhance stable relationships, caregivers. MiAIMH has developed and administers a four-level endorsement promote pro-social behavior, and enable positive interactions and early friendships. process for infant and family service providers who work in a variety of ways Professional Development: with infants, toddlers, caregivers and Refers to opportunities for program staff to families. (See: http://mi-aimh.msu.edu/ receive ongoing training to increase their aboutus/index.htm.) preparation and skills to educate and Non-paid staff: A term used for care for children. These include in-service training, workshops, college courses and volunteers, including parents. degree programs, teacher exchanges, observations, coaching, seminars, A program Parent Involvement: mentoring, and credentialing programs. component which recognizes the central role of parents in their children’s (See development and learning, and establishes Program Administrator: Administrative/Supervisory personnel) a working partnership with each parent through daily interactions, written Program Health Plan: information or translation, orientation to the Addresses program, home visits, and through regular children’s preventive and primary physical, mental, oral, and nutritional health care needs opportunities for dialogue via parent through direct service and/or the provision of conferences, participation in decision- making roles on advisory committees, information and referral to their parents. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 146

149 Program Standard: Widely-accepted materials and activities that are appropriate expectations for the characteristics for the age, grade or developmental stage of each child. In addition, the teacher or of quality in early childhood settings caregiver should continually observe each in homes, centers and schools. Such characteristics typically include the ratio child to discover what skills he or she is of adults to children; the qualifications and ready to explore and eventually master. stability of the staff; characteristics of adult- child relationships; the program philosophy Response to Intervention (RTI or RtI): and curriculum model; the nature of A method of academic intervention used to provide early, systematic assistance to relationships with families; the quality and quantity of equipment and materials; the children who are having difficulty learning. RTI seeks to prevent academic failure quality and quantity of space per child; and through early intervention, frequent progress safety and health provisions. measurement, and increasingly intensive research-based instructional interventions Provider: In family and group home child care this term is sometimes used to refer for children who continue to have difficulty. to the caregiver(s). School Readiness Goals: The expectations of children’s status and Public Act 116: Licensing rules for child care centers promulgated by the authority progress across domains of language and literacy development, cognition of Section 2, of Act Number 116 of Public Act of 1973 to the Michigan Department and general knowledge, approaches to of Social Services, which set forth the learning, physical well-being and motor development, and social and emotional minimum standards for the care, and development that will improve their protection of children. The rules apply to readiness for kindergarten. agencies, centers, or public and private schools providing child care services (Head Start, preschool full-day child care, before- Screening: The use of a brief procedure and after-school, less than 24 hours) to or instrument designed to identify, from children aged 2 ½ weeks to 13 years. within a large population of children, those who may need further assessment to verify developmental and/or health risks. Reflective Supervision: A set of supervisory practices characterized by Self-Help Skills: Adaptive skills that active listening and thoughtful questioning by both staff and supervisors with the enable children to take care of themselves and move toward independence in goal of assuring that staff’s work is of the highest possible quality, and that activities related to eating, dressing, program outcomes are met. These goals toileting, washing hands, etc. are reached through the development of a Social Dispositions: supervisory relationship that is supportive A cluster of selected positive behaviors that have value in and collaborative, and one that allows society and allow children to participate everyone in the program the opportunity to learn from their work with families and with and interact more effectively with others. one another. Reflective supervision can Staff: Any person who has a role in the take various forms including individual, operation of the program. Staff may be group or peer supervision. paid or unpaid. (See definitions for support staff and non-paid staff.) Responsive Care/Teaching: Being ‘responsive’ includes knowing each child, Standardized Assessment Tool: A responding to cues from the child, knowing when to expand on the child’s initiative, testing instrument that is administered, scored, and interpreted in a standard when to guide, when to teach and when to intervene. A responsive teacher has manner. It may be either norm-referenced or criterion-referenced. an overall plan for each day, including 147 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

150 One or more questions, problems, In PK-3, a subgroup of Early Strand: Test: Learning Expectations which designate and/or tasks designed to estimate a child’s knowledge, understanding, ability, skill a smaller thread within a Domain or and/or attitudes in a consistent fashion Subdomain. In the ECSQ-IT, Strand is used quite differently to frame holistic groupings across individuals. Information from a test or tests contributes to judgments made as of reasonable outcomes for the learning a part of an assessment process. and development of very young children. Persons, whether paid or Transition: (1) Procedures and activities Support staff: that support the family and facilitate volunteer, employed by the program in such positions as food service, clerical, the child’s introduction to new learning custodial, and transportation. environments (e.g., home to home- or center-based care setting, from preschool to kindergarten, from one school to The qualified person assigned Teacher: another, from one grade to another, and the primary responsibility for planning and from one country to another). (2) Within carrying out the program within an early childhood classroom. The teacher may the program’s daily schedule, transition work in partnership with other teachers or also refers to the process of changing from one activity or place to another. with paraprofessionals and has primary responsibility for planning, organizing and managing all aspects of the classroom Universal Design for Learning (UDL): A set of principles is intended to assist learning environment; the assessment, educators and others to design flexible diagnosis and reporting of the individual learning and developmental needs of learning opportunities that provide children the children; and the establishment of with: (1) multiple means of representation; (2) multiple means of expression; and, cooperative relationships with families and colleagues. (3) multiple means of engagement. Such curricula reduce barriers to learning and provide learning supports to meet Technology Literacy: Technology Literacy the needs of all learners. Educational is the ability to responsibly use appropriate technology to communicate, solve technologies can be valuable resources in addressing these principles. These problems, and access, manage, integrate, principles are typically applied in K-12 evaluate, and create information to improve settings, but have implications for programs learning in all areas of learning and to serving younger children. (www.cast.org). acquire lifelong knowledge and skills in the 21st century. (See also, Digital Citizenship) MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 148

151 Digital Resources General Informative for Multiple Domains of Early Learning and Development Children & Nature Network Project Approach http://www.childrenandnature.org/ http://www.projectapproach.org/project_ approach.php Division of Early Childhood: Council for Exceptional Children Teaching Diverse Learners (TDL) http://www.dec-sped.org/ http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/ Early Childhood Building Blocks: Best The TEC Center at Erikson Institute: Practices in Early Childhood TEC Center empowers early childhood Ohio Resource Center http:// Education. thoughtfully and appropriately educators to rec.ohiorc.org/ResearchReference/ use technology in the classroom and other Briefs.aspx early childhood settings. http://teccenter.erikson.edu Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century. National Approaches to Learning (AL) Research Council Character Education Partnership http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_ .org/ http://www.character id=13398 Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Edutopia. George Lucas Educational Emotional Learning Foundation http://casel.org http://www.edutopia.org/ Morningside Center for Teaching From Neurons to Neighborhoods. A national leader Social Responsibility: National Research Council in the field of social and emotional http://www.nap.edu/openbook. learning (SEL), Morningside Center has php?record_id=9824 a range of research-based developed programs that improve students’ social iEARN: The International Education and emotional intelligence — and their and Resource Network academic performance. iEARN is the world’s largest non-profit http://www.morningsidecenter.org/ global network that enables teachers and youth to use the Internet and other A widely Responsive Classroom: technologies to collaborate on projects research- and evidence-based used, that enhance learning and make a approach to elementary education difference in the world. that increases academic achievement, http://www..iearn.org/about decreases problem behaviors, improves social skills, and leads to more high- PBS LearningMedia™ Instant access to quality instruction. tens of thousands of classroom-ready, www.responsiveclassroom.org digital resources including videos, games, audio clips, photos, lesson plans. School Climate. Our goal is to promote http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/ positive and sustained school climate: a safe, supportive environment that nurtures social and emotional, ethical, and academic skills. http://www.schoolclimate.org/ 149 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

152 Dialogic Reading Practices. Connect: S hysical ocial, Emotional and P The Center to Mobilize Early Childhood SEP) Health and Development ( Knowledge at FPG American Academy of Pediatrics, .fpg.unc.edu/ http://community American Public Health Association, connect-modules/resources/results/ and National Resource Center for taxonomy%3A39 Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education. Preventing Childhood Early Literacy: Policy and Practice in the Obesity in Early Care and Education. Preschool Years http://nrckids.org/CFOC3/PDFVersion/ http://nieer.org/resources/policybriefs/10.pdf preventing_obesity.pdf International Reading Association American Alliance for Health, Physical http://www.reading.org/ Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) Literacy: Head Start Training and http://wwwa.ahperd.org/ Technical Assistance http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta- Best Practices for Healthy Eating: A system/teaching/eecd/Domains%20of%20 Guide to Help Children Grow Up Healthy Child%20Development/Literacy http://www.nemours.org/content/dam/ lebox/service/preventive/ nemours/www/fi Literacy K-5. Ohio Resource Center nhps/heguide.pdf http://www.ohiorc.org/literacy_k5/ Children and Nature Network National Clearinghouse for English http://www.childrenandnature.org Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs Collaborative for Academic, Social, and (NCELA) http://casel.org Emotional Learning http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/ Early Childhood Inclusion: A Joint National Council of Teachers of English Position Statement of the Division for http://www.ncte.org/ Early Childhood (DEC) and the National Young Association for the Education of National Writing Project Children (NAEYC) http://www.nwp.org http://npdci.fpg.uncedu/resources/articles/ Early_Childhood_Inclusion Teaching Diverse Learners http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/ Let’s Move! Child Care Website http://healthykidshealthyfuture.org Dual Language Learners (DLL) See additional resources under the Assessment Considerations for Young Domain: Approaches to Learning English Language Learners Across Different Levels of Accountability http://www.first5la.org/files/ Language and Early Literacy AssessmentConsiderations Development (LL) EnglishLearners.pdf Developing Early Literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel http:// Center for Applied Linguistics- English lincs.ed.gov/publications/pdf/ Language Learners NELPReport09.pdf http://www.cal.org/topics/ell/ Center for Early Care and Education Research — Dual Language Learners (CECER-DLL) http://cecerdll.fpg.unc.edu/ 150 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

153 Challenging Common Myths about Technology Literacy-Early Young English Language Learners. Learning in Technology (TL) Foundation for Child Development CAST: Education through Universal http://fcd-us.org/sites/default/files/ http://www.cast.org/ Design for Learning MythsOfTeachingELLsEspinosa.pdf index.html Colorín Colorado: A Bilingual Site for Common Sense Media: Media and Families and Educators of English Technology Resources for Educators Language Learners http://www.commonsensemedia.org/ http://www.colorincolorado.org/web_ educators resources/by_topic/early_childhood_ education_early_literacy/ Fred Rogers Center for Early Learning and Children’s Media http://www. Cultural and Linguistic Responsiveness fredrogerscenter.org/ http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta- system/cultural-linguistic International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) http://www.iste. National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language The Joan Ganz Cooney Center: The Instruction Educational Programs mission of the Cooney Center is to advance (NCELA) children’s learning through digital media. http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/ http://www.joanganzcooneycenter.org/ Position Statements on Linguistic and Michigan Educational Technology Cultural Diversity Standards for Students, Grades PK-2. http://www.naeyc.org/positionstatements/ (2009) http://techplan.edzone.net/METS/ linguistic METS2009PK2.pdf Starting Early With English Language NAEYC Technology and Young Children Learners First Lessons from Illinois Interest Forum: Tech Tools for Educators http://newamerica.net/publications/policy/ http://www.techandyoungchildren.org/ starting_early_with_english_language_ index.html learners TEC Center at Erikson Institute Teaching Diverse Learners (TDL). Web http://teccenter.erikson.edu/ site dedicated to enhancing the capacity of teachers to work effectively and equitably Technology and Interactive Media as with English language learners. Tools in Early Childhood Programs http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/ Serving Children from Birth through Age 8 http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/ What Early Childhood Educators file/positions/PS_technology_WEB2.pdf Need to Know: Developing Effective Programs for Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Children and Creative Arts (CA) Families http://www.naeyc.org/files/tyc/file/ The Arts and the Creation of Mind, WhatECENeedToKnow.pdf What the Arts Teach and How It Shows. http://www.arteducators.org/advocacy/10- lessons-the-arts-teach 151 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

154 Artsonia-Museum of children’s Mathematics Learning in Early artwork online . Childhood: Paths Toward Excellence http://www.artsonia.com/museum/ and Equity http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_ id=12519 American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) National Council of Teachers of http://www.aahperd.org/ Mathematics: Elementary http://www.nctm.org/resources/elementary. Arts Education Partnership aspx http://www.aep-arts.org Position statement on Early Childhood Children’s Music Portal Mathematics: Promoting Good http://www.childrens-music.org Beginnings http://www.naeyc.org/positionstatements/ mathematics Michigan Council for Arts and Cultural Affairs Teaching Math in the Primary Grades: http://www.michiganadvantage.org/Arts/ The Learning Trajectories Approach http://www.naeyc.org/files/yc/file/Primary_ Michigan Humanities Council http://www.michiganhumanities.org/about/ Interest_BTJ.pdf National Art Education Association http://www.arteducators.org/ Early Learning in Science (S) BirdSleuthK-12 Feathered Friends Teacher Practice and Student Lessons. The Cornell Lab of Outcomes in Arts-Integrated Learning Ornithology Settings: A Review of Literature http://www.birdsleuth.org/pennington/#. http://www.wolftrap.org/Education/ UZPRhLXVCSo Institute_for_Early_Learning_Through_ the_Arts/~/media/8DB86A897DBB4 Children and Nature Network D228943E0E3CEA04AEB.ashx http://www.childrenandnature.org/ Very Special Arts Michigan Let the Children Play http://www.vsami.org/ http://www.letthechildrenplay.net/ Young Children and the Arts: Making National Science Teachers Association: Creative Connections Elementary School http://www.uww.edu/youngauditorium/ http://www.nsta.org/elementaryschool/ common/docs/YoungChildren.pdf National Wildlife Federation. Eco- Schools Early Learning in Mathematics (M) http://www.nwf.org/Eco-Schools-USA/ Math at Play: A multimedia resource Student-Resources.aspx for people who work with children from NatureBridge. Provides hands-on birth to age five. http://www.mathatplay.org/resources_v.html environmental field science education for children and teens in some of the most magnificent classrooms—our national parks. Mathematics Bookshelf: Ohio Resource Center http://www.naturebridge.org http://www.ohiorc.org/for/math/bookshelf/ default.aspx MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 152

155 Character Education Partnership A learning community PlantingScience. where scientists provide online mentorship http://www.character.org/ to student teams as they design and think Family Diversity Projects through their own inquiry projects. http://www.plantingscience.org/ http://familydiv.org/books/ [email protected] SMITHSONIAN Kids.gov http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/ http://kids.usa.gov/social-studies/ scientist/index.html Money As You Grow: 20 Things Kids Scitable: A Collaborative Learning Need to Know to Live Financially Smart Space for Science Lives http://www.nature.com/scitable http://moneyasyougrow.org/ U.S. Department of Education. National Council for the Social Studies http://www.socialstudies.org/ My Child’s Academic Success Helping Your Child Learn Science. http:// The National Stepfamily Resource www2.ed.gov/parents/academic/help/ Center science/index.html http://www.stepfamilies.info/about.php Understanding Science School Climate http://undsci.berkeley.edu/teaching/k2.php http://www.schoolclimate.org/ Early Learning in Teaching Tolerance Social Studies (SS) www.teachingtolerance.org/ ADL: Anti-Defamation League: Strategies and Resources for Families and Educators http://www.adl.org/education-outreach/ 153 EARLY CHILDHOOD STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR PREKINDERGARTEN

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