a i4787e

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1 2015 ISSN 2412-5474 nimal genetic resource diversity underpins the supply livestock products and A services across a wide range of production environments. It promotes resilience and serves as a basis for adapting livestock management to changing condi- tions. It is vital to livelihoods of many of the world’s poor people. It can contribute to the delivery of ecosystem services such as landscape management and the maintenance of wildlife habitats. However, it is often undervalued, underused and under threat. This report updates the global assessment provided in the first report on The State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, published in 2007. It focuses particularly on changes that have occurred during the period since the first report was published. It serves as a basis for a review, and potential update, of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources, which since 2007 has provided an agreed international framework for the management of livestock biodiversity. Drawing on 129 country reports, it presents an analysis of the state of livestock diversity, the influence of livestock-sector trends on the management of animal genetic resources, the state of capacity to manage animal genetic resources, including legal and policy frameworks, and the state of the art in tools and methods for characterization, ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’s valuation, use, development and conservation. THE SECOND REPORT THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’s ISSN 2412-5474 ISBN 978-92-5-108820-3 FAO COMMISSION ON GENETIC RESOURCES FOR FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 9 789251 088203 • ASSESSMENTS 2015 I4787E1/07.15

2 FAO COMMISSION ON GENETIC RESOURCES FOR FOOD AND AGRICULTURE • ASSESSMENTS 2015 THE SECOND REPORT ON THE STATE OF THE WORLD’s COMMISSION ON GENETIC RESOURCES FOR FOOD AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS Rome, 2015

3 Recommended citation: The Second Report on the State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and FAO. 2015. , edited by B.D. Scherf & D. Pilling. FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture Agriculture Assessments. Rome (available at http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4787e/index.html). The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. The designations employed and the presentation of material in the map(s) do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers. ISBN 978-92-5-108820-3 © FAO, 2015 FAO encourages the use, reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product. Except where otherwise indicated, material may be copied, downloaded and printed for private study, research and teaching purposes, or for use in non-commercial products or services, provided that appropriate acknowledgement of FAO as the source and copyright holder is given and that FAO’s endorsement of users’ views, products or services is not implied in any way. All requests for translation and adaptation rights, and for resale and other commercial use rights should be made via www.fao.org/contact-us/licence-request or addressed to [email protected] FAO information products are available on the FAO website (www.fao.org/publications) and can be purchased through publications-[email protected] ii

4 Contents Foreword xxi xiii Acknowledgements xxvii Abbreviations and Acronyms xxix About this publication xxxvii Summary Part 1 The state of livestock diversity Introduction Or I g IN AN d h ISTO ry O f l I v SECTION A: k d I v E r SIT y 5 ESTOC 5 1 Introduction The domestication process 2 5 Dispersal of domesticated animals 10 3 4 12 Introgression from related species 5 Adaptation of livestock following domestication 12 The recent history of livestock diversity 13 6 Conclusions 7 15 16 References S TAT u S AN d T SECTION B: EN d S O f ANI m A l g ENETIC r r ur CES 25 ESO Introduction 25 1 2 The state of reporting 25 3 26 Species diversity and distribution Breed diversity and distribution 30 4 Conclusions 41 5 References 42 f l O w S O f ANI m A l g ENETIC r ESO ur CES 43 SECTION C: 43 1 Introduction 45 Status and trends of global gene flows 2 3 Drivers of gene flow in the twenty-first century 57 Ef 60 fects of gene flows 4 5 Conclusions 62 62 References SECTION d : rO l ES , u SES AN d v A lu ES O f ANI m A l g ENETIC ESO ur CES 65 r Introduction 65 1 2 Contributions to food production, livelihoods and economic output 66 3 Sociocultural roles 72 iii

5 4 Ecological roles – the provision of regulating 73 and habitat ecosystem services Roles in poverty alleviation and livelihood development 7 5 5 6 Conclusions and research priorities 78 79 References A NI m A l g ENETIC r SECTION E: ur CES AN d A d APTATION 83 ESO 83 1 Introduction Global information on adaptations 2 83 Adaptation to non-disease stressors 85 3 Disease resistance and tolerance 89 4 100 Conclusions and research priorities 5 References 101 Thr EATS TO l I v ESTOC k g ENETIC d I v E r SIT y 109 SECTION f: 109 Introduction 1 2 Livestock sector trends 110 Disasters and emergencies 126 3 133 4 Animal disease epidemics Conclusions 135 5 References 137 SECTION g: lI ESTOC k d I v E r SIT y AN d hum AN N u T r ITION 143 v 143 1 Introduction Growing interest in food biodiversity 143 2 145 3 Filling the knowledge gap Potential significance for human nutrition 146 4 Research priorities 149 5 References 150 Part 2 l ivestock sector trends Introduction SECTION A : d r I v E r S O f C h AN g E IN T h E l I v ESTOC k SECTO r 157 1 157 Introduction 157 Changes in demand 2 3 Changes in trade and retailing 162 Changing natural environment 166 4 5 Advances in technology 170 6 Policy environment 171 174 References iv

6 SECTION B Th E l I v ESTOC k SECTO r’ S r ESPONSE 179 : Landless industrialized production systems 180 1 Small-scale landless systems 184 2 Grassland-based systems 185 3 Mixed farming systems 187 4 189 References C : Eff ECTS O f C h AN g ES IN T h E l I v ESTOC k SECTION r SECTO ANI m A l g ENETIC r ESO ur CES ON ENT T EI r m ANA g E m d 193 AN h Overview and regional analysis 193 1 Specific ef fects on animal genetic resources 2 199 management – examples at country level References 205 lI v ESTOC k SECTO r T r EN d S AN d ANI m A l g ENETIC SECTION d: ANA ESO ur CES m g r E m ENT – CONC lu SIONS 207 References 208 The state of capacities Part 3 Introduction : I NSTIT u TIONS AN SECTION STA k E h O ld E r S 213 A d Introduction 213 1 2 214 Institutional capacities at country level Institutional frameworks at subregional 3 226 and regional levels Institutional frameworks and stakeholders 4 228 at international level 230 5 Changes since 2005 Conclusions and priorities 235 6 References 235 IN SECTION Ch A r ACTE r I z ATION , : v ENTO ry B AN d m ONITO r IN g 237 1 Introduction 237 2 Development of national breed inventories 237 Baseline surveys and monitoring of population sizes 238 3 4 Phenotypic and molecular genetic characterization 240 Constraints to characterization, surveying 5 and monitoring 246 6 Conclusions and priorities 249 250 References v

7 SECTION C Br EE d IN g P r O gr A mm ES 251 : Introduction 1 251 Global overview 251 2 3 Stakeholder involvement 253 257 Educational, research and organizational capacities 4 Breeding methods and activities 259 5 6 Breeding policies 265 Regional overviews 265 7 Changes since 2005 274 8 9 Conclusions and priorities 274 References 276 277 ONSE rv A TION P r O gr A mm ES C SECTION d: 277 1 Introduction 277 2 Global overview 281 In situ conservation programmes – elements 3 conservation programmes – the roles of the In situ 4 public and private sectors 291 Ex situ in vitro conservation programmes 295 5 Regional overviews 297 6 Changes since 2007 306 7 8 Conclusions and priorities 307 References 307 AN E rEP r O du CTI v E d m O l EC ul A r SECTION : h NO l O g IES 309 BIOTEC 1 309 Introduction 310 2 Global overview 3 Stakeholders involved in service provision 316 and research Regional overviews 317 4 5 Changes since 2005 326 6 Conclusions and priorities 327 References 328 y fr g A l AN d PO SECTION f: IC lE A m E w O rk S 329 l 1 Introduction 329 2 International frameworks 329 Regional frameworks 340 3 4 National frameworks 355 Changes since 2005 403 5 6 Gaps and needs 404 405 References vi

8 Part 4 The state of the art Introduction IN ry r ACTE r I z ATION , v ENTO Ch A SECTION A: ONITO r IN g 415 d m AN Introduction 415 1 Characterization as the basis for decision-making 2 416 T 3 419 ools for characterization, surveying and monitoring 423 Information systems 4 5 426 Changes since 2005 Conclusions and research priorities 427 6 429 References r EC ul A r TOO l S f O l E x P l O r IN g mO SECTION B: ENETIC d I v E r SIT y 431 g 1 431 Introduction Developments in the use of DNA markers 433 2 Characterization of within-population diversity 435 3 Characterization of between-population diversity 436 4 Molecular tools for targeting functional variation 5 437 440 The role of bioinformatics 6 441 7 Conclusions and research priorities References 442 Br EE d IN g ST r ATE g IES AN d P r SECTION C: gr A mm ES 451 O 1 Introduction 451 452 2 Scientific and technological advances The elements of a breeding programme 3 457 4 Breeding programmes in high-input systems 459 474 Breeding programmes in low-input systems 5 6 Conclusions and research priorities 482 References 485 d : C ONSE SECTION A TION 497 rv 1 Introduction 497 501 Planning a conservation strategy 2 Identifying breeds at risk 3 501 4 Determining the conservation value of a breed 503 504 In vivo conservation 5 511 Cryoconservation 6 Conclusions and research priorities 522 7 523 References vii

9 SECTION E: CONO m ICS O f ANI m A l g ENETIC r ESO ur CES E AN d CONSE rv A TION 529 u SE Introduction 529 1 Developments in animal genetic resources economics 531 2 3 Challenges and opportunities 539 541 References Part 5 Needs and challenges Introduction A : Ch A ll EN g ES POSE d B y l I v ESTOC k SECTION r T r EN d S 553 SECTO z Ch A r ACTE r I ATION SECTION B: AN d m ONITO r IN g 555 OP ENT STAINAB l E u SE AN d d E v E l m Su SECTION C: 557 A 559 ONSE SECTION : rv d TION C SECTION E: P O l ICIES , INSTIT u TIONS AN d CAPACIT y- B u I ld IN g 561 and on the web at http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4787e/index.html) Annexes - r O m d (on C Country reports Survey responses – national legal and policy frameworks Reports from regional focal points and networks Reports from international organizations Thematic studies Supplementary tables for Part 3 List of references reviewed for Part 4 Section E – Economics of animal genetic resources use and conservation filiations List of authors, reviewers and their af viii

10 BO x ES The first report on 1 The State of the World’s Animal Genetic xxix Resources for Food and Agriculture (2007) xxx The Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture 2 P r T 1 A How the history of livestock is reconstructed: archaeology and DNA 6 1A1 Livestock diversity as revealed by molecular studies 15 1A2 Developments since the publication of the first report on 1B1 The State 26 of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture 1B2 Glossary: populations, breeds, breed classification systems and regions 27 1B3 34 Glossary: risk-status classification 1C1 T rends in gene flows into and out of Kenya 50 50 Gene flows into and out of Thailand 1C2 1C3 Gene flows into Senegal 51 Gene flows into and out of South Africa 52 1C4 1C5 54 Gene flows between Uganda and other developing countries s role as an exporter of genetic resources 1C6 55 Brazil’ Influence of policies on gene flows into Cameroon 58 1C7 1C8 Ef fect of a disease outbreak on inward gene flow – an example from the Republic of Korea 59 1 Categories of ecosystem services 74 d 1 2 d The use of livestock in the provision of ecosystem services – examples 1 from the United States of America 7 5 d 3 A special sheep breed helps to preserve centuries-old grassland in the Alps 76 1 d The use of livestock in the provision of ecosystem services – examples 4 1 7 from Poland 7 Y 88 akutian cattle – a breed well adapted to subarctic climatic conditions 1E1 1 Production system changes as threats to animal genetic resources – 1 f 112 a view from Africa f 2 The potential impact of climate change on breed distribution – an 1 114 example from Kenya 1 Animal genetic resources and access to grazing land – an example 3 f from India 115 f 4 Indiscriminate cross-breeding as a threat to animal genetic 1 resources in Egypt 116 1 Lessons from history? Breed extinctions and near extinctions during f 5 the nineteenth century 118 ix

11 1 f The near extinction of the Cleveland Bay horse of the United Kingdom 119 6 7 119 1 f The near extinction of the Lleyn sheep of the United Kingdom 8 Threats to animal genetic resources in Ethiopia 120 f 1 9 Threats to animal genetic resources in Mozambique 123 1 f 10 f Shifting consumer demand as a threat to animal genetic 1 123 resources – examples from around the world 11 f 1 Threats to animal genetic resources in the United States of America 124 f 12 Threats to animal genetic resources in Peru 124 1 f 13 Threats to animal genetic resources in Botswana 125 1 14 fects of predation on sheep production in Norway f 125 Ef 1 15 Projections for the risk of climatic disasters 130 f 1 f 16 The European Livestock Breeds Ark and Rescue Net 135 1 A T 2 r P Demand for animal-source foods from minority species and breeds 165 2A1 Development of the poultry sector in Thailand 2A2 167 2C1 Ef ficiency and multifunctionality in extensive livestock systems 197 2C2 Shift of livestock species as a result of climate change: an example from Ethiopia 197 Animal genetic resources management in Iceland: will exotic 2C3 200 breeds substitute locally adapted breeds? The potential influence of genomics on the utilization of at-risk breeds 204 2C4 A r T 3 P 3A1 Strategic Priority Area 4 of the Global Plan of Action for Animal 213 Genetic Resources 3A2 Elements of the recommended national institutional framework for the management of animal genetic resources 214 3A3 The role of the National Coordinator for the Management of 215 Animal Genetic Resources 3A4 Facilitating the establishment of institutional frameworks for 229 animal genetic resources management – lessons from a project in Bulgaria AO’s role in the management of animal genetic resources 230 3A5 F The Domestic Animal Diversity Network (DAD-Net) 231 3A6 3A7 Livestock Keepers’ Rights 233 3B1 Characterization – definitions of terms 238 China’ 247 3B2 s second national animal genetic resources survey 3B3 BushaLive – a collaborative project to characterize the Busha cattle of the Balkans 248 3C1 Sheep breeding in T 267 unisia 269 3C2 Kazakhstan’ s plan for the development of the beef-cattle industry x

12 Using exotic genetics in the dairy sector – experiences from Poland 3C3 270 3C4 272 Beef cattle breeding in Brazil 273 3C5 Sheep breeding in Jordan d 1 3 290 Implementing a conservation programme – experiences from China 2 Dyeing sheep wool naturally in 35 colours: indigenous production d 3 systems and associated traditional knowledge – a case from Argentina 291 3 The conservation network for the Finnish Landrace chicken 292 3 d Iberian pigs in Spain – sustained through product labelling 293 3 4 d d 5 301 Reconstituting a research pig line 3 d 6 3 Conservation of the Gembrong goat of Bali (Indonesia): a breed 302 brought close to extinction by nylon fishing line s virtual national gene bank – building on the work of 7 d 3 Switzerland’ the commercial sector 303 8 d Development of the European Gene Bank Network for Animal 3 305 Genetic Resources Glossary: biotechnologies 309 3E1 314 3E2 Glossary: production systems 3E3 The use of reproductive technologies in South Africa 321 The use of reproductive technologies in Botswana 321 3E4 Artificial insemination in sheep and goats – an Indian experience 323 3E5 Biotechnologies for livestock production in Brazil – use and research 325 3E6 3E7 Use of biotechnologies in livestock production in the United States 326 of America 1 f Findings of a patent landscape report on animal genetic resources 338 3 f s legal framework for animal genetic resources management 2 Viet Nam’ 364 3 f 365 Albania’ s Law No. 9426 on Livestock Breeding 3 3 f 4 366 3 The Punjab Livestock Breeding Act 2014 (Pakistan) f 5 urkey’s animal genetic resources management The legal basis for T 3 programme 367 3 ficial recognition of livestock breeds in Brazil f 6 Of 371 f 7 Registration of livestock breeds in Indonesia 372 3 8 f 376 The legal and policy framework for breeding programmes in Bhutan 3 f 9 The legal framework for the use of reproductive biotechnologies in Brazil 3 377 10 f The legal basis for animal genetic resources conservation in Poland 381 3 f 11 3 The regulatory framework for the use of genetically modified 385 organisms in Australia 98 f 12 s National Livestock Policy Animal genetic resources management in Kenya’ 3 3 xi

13 A P r T 4 4A1 416 Phenotypic and molecular characterization 417 Elements of a country-based early warning and response system 4A2 Surveying and monitoring methods – a toolbox 421 4A3 4A4 A digital enumeration method for collecting phenotypic data for genome association 424 4A5 426 Biogeoinformatics for the management of animal genetic resources Rumen microbes: small but significant 428 4A6 432 From DNA to phenotype 4B1 Glossary: genetic markers 434 4B2 How genetic tools helped to solve the mystery of the origin 4B3 438 of the Booroola gene What are the promises of the post-genomic era? 4B4 441 442 The reality and promises of epigenetics for animal production 4B5 Reduction of genetic variability and its consequences in cattle breeds 452 4C1 Genetically modified animals in agriculture 4C2 456 4C3 Adoption of genomic selection in French dairy sheep breeds 465 Improving the system of sheep breeding in Ireland 466 4C4 GENECOC – the breeding programme for meat goats and sheep in Brazil 4C5 478 Establishing a cross-breeding scheme for dairy goats in the United 4C6 479 Republic of T anzania 4C7 Community-driven breeding programmes for locally adapted pig breeds in Viet Nam 480 Genetic selection for reduced methane production – a future tool 4C8 484 for climate change mitigation 4 Glossary: in vivo d in vitro conservation 497 1 and Analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats 2 4 d 500 (SWOT analysis) of Groningen White Headed cattle in the Netherlands 506 4 Biocultural community protocols 3 d Identifying keys to success in breed conservation and development 4 d 4 in France: the V 510 ARAPE project Indigenous people and scientists team up to conserve Pantaneiro 4 d 5 cattle in Brazil 512 A study of the comparative costs of 4 in vivo and cryoconservation 6 d 519 programmes for chickens 4 Use of induced pluripotent stem cells in 7 d in vitro conservation 520 Bilateral agreement on sanitary issues in germplasm exchange – an 8 d 4 example 521 Biodiversity valuation, ecosystem services and animal genetic resources 533 4E1 534 4E2 Environmental valuation methods xii

14 TAB l ES 1 xxxiii Regi onal overview of country reporting xxxiii List of countr y reports 2 1 A r P T 8 1A1 Domestication, disperal and sources of introgresssion Examples of genes or loci involved in selected traits 14 1A2 Status of information recorded in the Global Databank for Animal 1B1 27 Genetic Resources 1B2 32 Number of reported mammalian local breeds 32 1B3 Number of reported avian local breeds Number of reported mammalian transboundary breeds 33 1B4 Number of reported avian transboundary breeds 33 1B5 Number of extinct mammalian breeds reported 1B6 40 40 1B7 Number of extinct avian breeds reported Breed extinction over time 41 1B8 Regional shares of germplasm exports and imports in the 1C1 48 twenty-first century 1 d Global output of animal-source foods (2004 and 2012) 67 1 84 1E1 Adaptations in cattle breeds as recorded in DAD-IS 1E2 Adaptations in sheep breeds as recorded in DAD-IS 84 Adaptations in equine breeds as recorded in DAD-IS 85 1E3 ferences in resistance, Examples of studies indicating breed dif 1E4 91 tolerance or immune response to specific diseases Number of mammalian breed populations recorded in DAD-IS as 1E5 92 having resistance or tolerance to specific diseases or parasites 1E6 Breeds recorded in DAD-IS as showing resistance or tolerance to 93 trypanosomosis 1E7 Breeds recorded in DAD-IS as showing resistance or tolerance to 94 tick burden Breeds recorded in DAD-IS as showing resistance or tolerance to 1E8 tick-borne diseases 94 Breeds recorded in DAD-IS as showing resistance or tolerance to 1E9 internal parasites 95 Cattle breeds recorded in DAD-IS as showing resistance or tolerance 1E10 to leukosis 96 1E11 Breeds recorded in DAD-IS as showing resistance or tolerance to foot rot 97 99 1E12 A vian breeds recorded in DAD-IS as showing resistance to diseases xiii

15 1 f Estimates of ef fective population size in transboundary breeds 1 111 based on genealogical or molecular data 122 f Factors reported in the country reports as causes of genetic erosion 2 1 g 1 1 Nutrient composition of selected animal-source foods 144 2 Selected nutrient composition ranges for milk from buf falo, horse g 1 147 and dromedary breeds g 3 Selected nutrient composition ranges for beef (longissimus muscle) 1 ferent cattle breeds 148 from dif g 4 1 Mineral content of milk from various species in relation to 149 recommended nutrient intake r T 2 P A Previous and projected trends in meat consumption 158 2A1 Previous and projected trends in milk consumption 159 2A2 160 2A3 Growth in per capita demand for livestock products from 2000 to 2030 Direct and indirect ef fects of climate change on livestock 2A4 production systems 168 2A5 Change in area of arable and pasture land (2000 to 2010) 169 2A6 173 A policy framework for inclusive growth of the livestock sector Livestock production systems classification 179 2B1 2C1 Drivers of change explored in the country-report questionnaire 194 Past and predicted future impacts of livestock sector trends and 2C2 198 drivers on animal genetic resources and their management A T 3 r P 3A1 Reported extent of collaboration in the management of the 225 various subsectors of genetic resources for food and agriculture Organizations supporting animal genetic resources management at 3A2 232 regional and international levels 3A3 234 Institutions and stakeholders – changes 2005 to 2014 Coverage of baseline surveys and monitoring programmes 3B1 for the big five species 239 Coverage of baseline surveys and monitoring programmes for cattle 3B2 241 Coverage of baseline surveys and monitoring programmes for 3B3 sheep, goats, pigs and chickens 242 245 Characterization activities for the big five species – average scores 3B4 3C1 Proportion of countries reporting the existence of breeding programmes – regional breakdown 252 xiv

16 Proportion of countries reporting the existence of breeding 3C2 253 programmes – species breakdown ferent stakeholder groups as operators 3C3 Extent of involvement of dif 254 of breeding programmes 3C4 Level of organization of livestock keepers with respect to animal 261 breeding activities Level of implementation of breeding-programme elements and 3C5 262 techniques – regional breakdown Level of implementation of breeding-programme elements and 3C6 263 techniques – species breakdown Proportion of breeds reported to be subject to breeding 3C7 264 programmes applying straight/pure-breeding and cross-breeding 1 d Proportion of countries reporting conservation activities 278 3 d 2 Breed coverage in conservation activities for the big five species – 3 281 average scores 3 Proportion of countries reporting d conservation programmes 282 in situ 3 d 4 Proportion of countries reporting ex situ in vivo conservation programmes 2 83 3 2 d Proportion of countries reporting ex situ in vitro conservation programmes 84 5 3 d 6 3 Level of breed coverage in conservation programmes 285 for “minor” species in situ d 7 Proportion of countries reporting the use of elements of 3 conservation – species breakdown 287 in situ d 8 Proportion of countries reporting the use of elements of 3 conservation – regional breakdown 288 9 Proportion of countries reporting the presence of in vitro gene d 3 banks, the storage of different types of genetic material, and plans for international collaboration in gene banking 296 d 10 Breed coverage of the big five species in gene banks 298 3 d 11 Breed coverage of “minor” species in gene banks 299 3 3 d 12 Characteristics and functions of national gene banks 300 Use of reproductive and molecular biotechnologies – 3E1 regional breakdown 310 Use of advanced reproductive and molecular biotechnologies – 3E2 311 regional breakdown Level of availability of reproductive and molecular technologies for 3E3 312 use in livestock production – big five species Level of use of artificial insemination and sources of semen 315 3E4 16 Use of reproductive and molecular technologies – selected “minor” species 3 3E5 3E6 Stakeholder involvement in the provision of artificial insemination 318 and embryo transfer services Proportion of countries reporting research on reproductive 3E7 319 biotechnologies 3E8 Proportion of countries reporting research on molecular biotechnologies 320 327 Changes in the level of use of reproductive biotechnologies since 2005 3E9 xv

17 3 f Priority levels of implementation of the strategic priorities of the 1 331 Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources Indicator scores for the implementation of the strategic priority f 2 3 332 areas of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources 3 Progress in the development of legal and policy frameworks 3 f 404 A T 4 P r Usefulness of dif 4A1 ferent surveying and monitoring tools to address different survey questions 423 Examples of non-disease phenotypes specific to one or more 4B1 livestock breeds 439 Selection criteria in dairy cattle 461 4C1 Selection criteria in beef cattle 461 4C2 Recessive haplotypes tracked in the genomic evaluation system 4C3 462 in the United States of America 464 Selection criteria in sheep 4C4 4C5 Selection criteria in goats 466 4C6 Selection criteria in pigs 468 4C7 Cross-breeding scheme and relative numbers in a typical broiler 469 breeding programme 4C8 Selection criteria in poultry 471 Selection criteria in rabbits 473 4C9 4C10 eristics of conventional and community-based livestock Charact 477 breeding programmes Selected 477 4C11 community-based breeding programmes 4 d 1 Conservation methods and their potential to contribute to various objectives 4 99 4 2 Risk categories for species with high reproductive capacity 502 d Risk categories for species with low reproductive capacity 502 3 4 d 4 Relative importance of population management objectives 4 d 503 according to risk status 4E1 Overview of livestock breed and trait valuation studies by region 535 (2006 to 2014) xvi

18 f I gur ES Assi 1 xxxv gnment of countries to regions and subregions in this report T r A P 1 1A1 Three pathways of domestication 7 Major centres of livestock domestication as inferred from 1A2 10 archaeological and molecular genetic evidence Proportion of national breed populations for which population 1B1 28 figures have been reported 29 1B2 Regional distribution of livestock species in 2012 1B3 31 Number of local and transboundary breeds at global level Number of local and transboundary breeds at regional level 31 1B4 s breeds by risk status category 1B5 35 Proportion of the world’ s mammalian breeds in June 2014 – species breakdown 6 1B6 3 Risk status of the world’ s avian breeds in June 2014 – species breakdown 1B7 7 3 Risk status of the world’ s mammalian breeds in June 2014 – regional breakdown 8 Risk status of the world’ 3 1B8 1B9 s avian breeds June 2014 – regional breakdown 39 Risk status of the world’ 1B10 Changes in breed risk status between 2006 and 2014 41 rends in the value of global exports of live animals and bovine semen 1C1 45 T Do gene flows into and out of your country correspond to the 1C2 46 pattern of North–North and/or North–South exchanges? rade in pig and bovine genetic resources between OECD 1C3 T and non-OECD countries (2005 to 2012) 47 Net exporters and importers of bovine semen (2006 to 2012) 1C4 49 56 s trade in live pure-bred cattle and bovine semen South Africa’ 1C5 1C6 Brazil’ s trade in live pure-bred cattle and bovine semen 57 P A r T 2 2A1 162 Demand growth for poultry meat in China and India (2000 to 2030) Net meat trade of major importer and exporter country groups 163 2A2 2B1 Distribution of livestock production systems 180 2B2 Production from the main livestock production systems 181 Meat production trends in developing and developed countries 2B3 (1981 to 2050) 182 183 Proportion of pigs and poultry raised in intensive systems in 2005 2B4 2B5 Agricultural land available per person economically active in agriculture 188 Past and predicted future impacts of the drivers of change on 2C1 195 animal genetic resources and their management xvii

19 P A 3 r T Submission of country reports and nomination of National 3A1 Coordinators for the Management of Animal Genetic Resources 216 filiations of National Coordinators for the Employment af 3A2 217 Management of Animal Genetic Resources 217 3A3 Status of National Advisory Committees for Animal Genetic Resources 18 2 3A4 Overview of the state of institutions in animal genetic resources management 3A5 State of institutions in animal genetic resources management – Africa 219 3A6 State of institutions in animal genetic resources management – Asia 219 State of institutions in animal genetic resources management – 3A7 220 Latin America and the Caribbean Indicators for the implementation of Strategic Priority Area 4 of 3A8 220 the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources State of infrastructure and stakeholder participation 221 3A9 221 State of education, research and knowledge 3A10 3A11 222 State of policy development 240 Progress in the establishment of national breed inventories 3B1 Characterization activities for the big five species – frequency of responses 2 43 3B2 Characterization activities for “minor” species 244 3B3 3C1 Stakeholder involvement in breeding-related activities in ruminants and monogastrics – global averages 256 Involvement of breeders’ associations in breeding programmes and 3C2 257 elements of breeding programmes State of training in the field of animal breeding 3C3 258 3C4 State of implementation of training and technical support programmes for the breeding activities of livestock-keeping communities 259 State of research in the field of animal breeding 260 3C5 3C6 Proportion of countries reporting breeding programmes and policies supporting breeding programmes 266 Implementation of breeding tools in cattle (2005 and 2014) 275 3C7 d 1 in situ conservation programmes for the big five Coverage of 3 livestock species 279 2 d Breed coverage in conservation activities for the big five species – 3 frequency of responses 280 d 3 Involvement of public and private institutions in the 3 in situ conservation programme elements implementation of 294 97 d 4 in vitro gene banks for animal genetic resources State of development of 2 3 3 d 5 State of conservation programmes and policies at country level and progress since 2007 306 xviii

20 3E1 313 Level of availability of reproductive technologies 1 The status of national strategy and action plans for animal genetic f 3 360 resources 2 State of development of legal and policy instruments 362 3 f f 3 T ypes of conservation targeted by legal and policy instruments 379 3 f Inclusion of animal genetic resources issues in national biodiversity 4 3 400 strategies and action plans A r T 4 P 4A1 Management of breed populations – flow chart of decisions 418 4A2 419 Descriptor system for production environments Change in cost per genome sequenced in humans 4B1 431 4C1 Structure of the poultry breeding industry 470 d 1 4 Interactions among the potential stakeholders of a community- based conservation programme 505 conservation programme involving d 2 A decentralized ex situ 4 institutional herds and private breeders 507 4E1 Breed production functions, public-good values and replacement 532 opportunity costs xix

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22 Foreword omesticated animals contribute directly to the livelihoods of millions of people, including an estimated 70 percent of the world’s rural poor. In 2007, through the adoption of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources, the D international community recognized the vital importance of the world’s livestock bio- diversity for agriculture, rural development and food and nutrition security. Eight years later, the conservation and sustainable management of animal genetic resources remains a vital and challenging task. The global livestock sector is continu- ously evolving, with new centres of growth emerging and rapid technological devel- opments. The challenges posed by population growth and climate change are ever more present. The Second Report on the State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture – another milestone in the work of FAO’s Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture – provides a comprehensive and updated assess- ment of current livestock biodiversity. It draws on information provided by 129 coun- tries, 15 international organizations, 4 networks and regional focal points and inputs from 150 authors and reviewers. The preparation of The Second Report on the State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture offered an opportunity to review progress made in the implementation of the Global Plan of Action. It was a chance to re-evaluate the opportunities and challenges facing national authorities, livestock keepers, breeders and scientists and to identify future priorities for action. Many countries have made progress in the establishment of the policies, pro- grammes and institutional frameworks needed to promote the sustainable manage- ment of livestock diversity. Many weaknesses still need to be addressed, particularly in developing countries. Smallholder and pastoralist production systems that are home to much of the world’s livestock diversity continue to be under a range of pressures. A substantial proportion of the world’s livestock breeds remain at risk of extinc- tion. The characteristics of many of them have not been adequately studied, and this genetic wealth could be lost before it can be used for helping farmers, pastoralists and animal breeders to meet current and future production challenges. Knowledge gaps are still a major concern. Monitoring of trends in the size and structure of breed populations is often inadequate, which impedes the estimation of risk status. Threats have been broadly identified, but the detailed information that could be used to prioritize and plan action at the national level is often lacking. The priorities set out in the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources remain broadly relevant today. Many countries have prepared national strategies and action plans for animal genetic resources, or are in the process of doing so, as a means to translate the provisions of the Global Plan of Action into targeted activities at country level. Nevertheless, constraints to implementation remain. The Global Plan of Action emphasizes the importance of international collaboration as a means of xxi

23 strengthening capacity in developing countries, and recognizes the need for substan- tial additional financial resources for animal genetic resource management. While there have been positive developments, both collaboration and the provision of funding still need to be strengthened. Genetic diversity is a mainstay of resilience and a prerequisite for adaptation in the face of future challenges. I trust that this report will help underpin renewed efforts to ensure that animal genetic resources are used and developed to promote global food security, and remain available for future generations. José g raziano da Silva FAO Director-General xxii

24 Acknowledgements his report could not have been prepared without the assistance of the many indi- viduals who generously contributed their time, energy and expertise, and the col- laboration and support of governments. FAO would like to take this opportunity to T acknowledge these contributions. The Second Report on the State The core of the information used in the preparation of was provided by the of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture governments that submitted country reports; the fi rst and most important acknowl- 129 edgement therefore goes to these governments and to all the individuals at country level who contributed to these reports and to the updating of breed-related data in the Domes- tic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS), in particular National Coordinators for the Management of Animal Genetic Resources and their colleagues. The African Union – Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources (AU-IBAR) was instrumental in mobilizing African National Coordinators and supported their training in the preparation of country reports. Thanks are also due to everyone who contributed to the preparation of the reports sub- mitted by international organizations and regional focal points and networks for animal genetic resources. The preparation of the report would not have been possible without the financial and in-kind support provided by the Governments of France, Germany, Norway and Spain. The report was prepared by FAO’s Animal Genetic Resources Branch, Animal Production and Health Division. The reporting process and the preparation of the report were coordinated by Beate Scherf with the assistance of Dafydd Pilling. The work was facilitated and supported by fi cers of the Branch: the Chief of Animal Genetic Resources Branch, Irene Hoffmann, and all of Roswitha Baumung, Badi Besbes, Paul Boettcher, Mateusz Wieczorek and Grégoire Leroy (sec- onded by the French Government). The work was further supported by a number of interns: Bendik Elstad (Norway), Tatiana From (Russian Federation), Katherine Hall (United Kingdom), Claire-Marie Luitaud (France) and Jessica Miller (United States of America). The database of country-report data was designed, created, loaded and pre-analysed by a team from FAOs Information Technology Division led by Gianluca Franceschini and 3 of Karl Morteo. Daniel Martin-Collado undertook much of the database analysis for Part the report. Peter Deupmann of FAO’s Legal Office provided support to the organization of the survey on legal and policy measures and related work. David Steane contributed to the reviewing of draft country reports. Oliver Mundy contributed to the communication strategy for the launch of the report. Administrative and secretarial support was provided fi a Fassi-Fihri and Umberto Ciniglio. by Ka Throughout the preparation process, support and encouragement were received from the Secretariat of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, as well as from the Director of FAO’s Animal Production and Health Division, Berhe G. Tekola. countries contributed to the preparation of the report individuals from more than 40 150 , section by section. An alphabetical list as authors or reviewers. Details are provided below of authors and reviewers and their contact details is provided in the annex to the report (on CD-ROM and at http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4787e/i4787e195.pdf). xxiii

25 1 Authors and reviewers SIT E STATE O l I v ESTOC k d I v E h f y Part 1 T r Section A: Origin and history of livestock diversity Author: Johannes Lenstra Gus Cothran, Charles Moses Liymo, Steffen Weigend, Pam Wiener Reviewers: Section B: Status and trends of animal genetic resources Roswitha Baumung, Mateusz Wieczorek Authors: Reviewer: Mary Mbole-Kariuki f lows of animal genetic resources Section C: Claire-Marie Luitaud, Dafydd Pilling Authors: Arthur Da Silva Mariante, Keith Ramsay Reviewers: Section : r oles, uses and values of animal genetic resources d Author: Dafydd Pilling Ilse Köhler-Rollefson, Chanda Bonbehari Nimbkar Reviewers: Section E: Animal genetic resources and adaptation Paul Boettcher, Aynalem Haile, Katherine Hall, Jessica Louise Miller, Tadele Authors: Mirkena, Beate Scherf, Maria Wurzinger Reviewers (Subsection 4): Donagh Berry, Stephen Bishop, Larry Kuehn, Marie-Hélène Pinard-van der Laan f : Threats to livestock genetic diversity Section Author: Dafydd Pilling Reviewers: Kefyalew Alemayehu, Siboniso Moyo Section g l ivestock diversity and human nutrition : Doris Rittenschober Author: Ruth Charrondiere, Dominique Gruf fat, Jean-François Hocquette, Ramani Reviewers: Wijesinha-Bettoni l I v ESTOC Part 2 SECTO r T r EN d S k Section A: d rivers of change in the livestock sector Authors: Claire-Marie Luitaud, Anni McLeod Section B: The livestock sector’s response Authors: Claire-Marie Luitaud, Anni McLeod Section C: Effects of changes in the livestock sector on animal genetic resources and their management Authors: Grégoire Leroy, Claire-Marie Luitaud, Dafydd Pilling d : l ivestock sector trends and animal genetic resources management – conclusions Section Author: Dafydd Pilling Reviewers of Part 2: Alejandro Acosta, Harinder Makkar Part 3 T h E STATE O f CAPACITIES Section A: Institutions and stakeholders Authors: Katherine Hall, Dafydd Pilling Reviewers: Vera Matlova, Joseph L.N. Sikosana 1 der within each section. Listed in alphabetical or xxiv

26 Section B: Characterization, inventory and monitoring Author: Daniel Martin-Collado, Dafydd Pilling Workneh Ayalew, Kathiravan Periasamy, Michèle Tixier-Boichard Reviewers: Section C: Breeding programmes Author: Daniel Martin-Collado Reviewers: Vlatka Cubric Curik, Olaf Thieme Section d : Conservation programmes Author: Daniel Martin-Collado Reviewer: Kor Oldenbroek eproductive and molecular biotechnologies r Section E: Author: Daniel Martin-Collado Reviewer: Oswin Perera f : Section egal and policy frameworks l Authors: Dafydd Pilling, with contributions from Bendik Elstad, Dan Leskien, Irene Kitsara, ż Brittney Martin and El bieta Martyniuk Reviewers: Harvey Blackburn, Olivier Diana, Dan Leskien, Oliver Lewis, Sipke Joost Hiemstra, Gigi Manicad, Arthur da Silva Mariante, Sergio Pavon h E STATE O f Part 4 T h E A r T T Section A: Surveying, monitoring and characterization Paul Boettcher, Beate Scherf, Authors: Reviewers: Workneh Ayalew, Xavier Rognon Section B: m olecular tools for exploring genetic diversity Mike Bruford, Grégoire Leroy, Pablo Orozco-terWengel, Andrea Rau, Henner Authors: Simianer Reviewers: Bertrand Bed’Hom, Christine Flury, Catarina Ginja, Johannes Lenstra, Michael Stear Section C: Breeding strategies and programmes Authors: Peter Amer, Daniel Allain, Santiago Avendano, Manuel Baselga, Paul Boettcher, João Dürr, Hervé Garreau, Elisha Gootwine, Gustavo Gutierrez, Pieter Knap, Eduardo Manfredi, Victor Olori, Rudolf Preisinger, Juan Manuel Serradilla, Miriam Piles, Bruno Santos, Kenneth Stalder Hélène Larroque, Tadele Mirkena, Joaquin Pablo Mueller, Julie M.F. Ojango, Reviewers: Mauricio Valencia Posadas Section d : Conservation Authors: Harvey Blackburn, Paul Boettcher, Kor Oldenbroek Reviewers: Andréa Alves do Egito, Jesús Fernández Martín, Sipke Joost Hiemstra, Samuel Rezende Paiva, Geoff Simm Section E: Economics of animal genetic resources use and conservation Workneh Ayalew, Adam Drucker, Kerstin Zander Authors: Reviewer: Giovanni Signorello Part 5 NEE d S AN d C h A ll EN g ES Author: Beate Scherf The manuscript was further reviewed by Stuart Barker (Parts 1 and 2), David Notter (Parts 1, an der Zijpp (Parts 1, 2 and 5). All the officers of FAO’s 2, 4 and 5), David Steane, Akke J. V Animal Genetic Resources Branch also contributed to the reviewing process. xxv

27 Text boxes were prepared by Aron Batubara, Harvey Blackburn, Elli Broxham, Tobias Bühlmann, Adrian Cookson, Christèle Couzy, Yvette De Haas, Sebastián de la Rosa, Solange Duruz, Gemma Henderson, Sipke Joost Hiemstra, Erika Hiltbrunner, Mervi Honkatukia, Heather J. Huson, Peter Janssen, Stéphane Joost, Talgat Karymsakov, Bill Kelly, Sajjad Khan, Jason K. Kinser, Eirini Kitsara, Ilse Köhler-Rollefson, Christian Körner, Kristaq Kume, Sinead Leahy, Johannes Lenstra, I Made Londra, Catherine Marguerat, Arthur Da Silva Mar - ż iante, Lucie Markey, El bieta Martyniuk, Evelyn Mathias, Yakobo Msanga, Philipp Muth, Chanda Bonbehari Nimbkar, Raimundo Nonato Braga Lôbo, Cleopas Okore, Bertrand Pain, Boulbaba Rekik, Fred Silversides, Tad S. Sonstegard, Johann (Hans) Sölkner, Sylvie Stucki, Thi Thuy Le, Bess Tiesnamurti, Sergio Ulhoa Dani, Anne Valle Zárate, Curtis P. Van Tassell, Iosif I. Vaisman, Marcus Vinicius de Oliveira, Klaus Wimmers, Jennifer Woodward-Greene, Hongjie Yang and Tobias Zehnder. The thematic study Ecosystem services provided by livestock species and breeds with special consideration to the contributions of small-scale livestock keepers and pastoralists Patent land- was prepared by Irene Hoffmann, Tatiana From and David Boerma. The study scape report on animal genetic resources was prepared by Paul Oldham, Stephen Hall and Colin Barnes, with contributions from Irene Hoffmann and Paul Boettcher. The draft report was made available for review by members and observers of the Com- mission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Comments, submitted by the respective National Coordinators for the Management of Animal Genetic Resources, were received from the Governments of Brazil, Indonesia, Mongolia, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Turkey and the United States of America and from a review group established by the Euro- pean Regional Focal Point for Animal Genetic Resources. The layout was designed by Simona Capocaccia and implemented by Enrico Masci under the supervision of Claudia Ciarlantini. Listing every person by name is not easy and carries with it the risk that someone may be overlooked. Apologies are conveyed to anyone who provided assistance but whose name has been omitted. xxvi

28 Abbreviations and Acronyms artificial insemination AI An gr animal genetic resources for food and agriculture P best linear unbiased prediction lu B CB Convention on Biological Diversity ( https://www.cbd.int) d g IA r Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research ( http://www.cgiar.org) C grf A Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture C (http://www.fao.org/nr/cgrfa) d http://www.fao.org/dad-is) A -IS Domestic Animal Diversity Information System ( d deoxyribonucleic acid d NA v estimated breeding value EB u European Union ( http://europa.eu) E EB v genomic estimated breeding value g International Committee for Animal Recording ( r ICA http://www.icar.org) m AS marker-assisted selection OET multiple ovulation and embryo transfer m orld Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Epizooties) OIE W (http://www.oie.int) l quantitative trait locus QT SNP single nucleotide polymorphism TE v total economic value w IPO W orld Intellectual Property Organization (http://www.wipo.int) w W orld Trade Organization (http://www.wto.org) TO f irst So w -An gr (first report on) The State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture Second So w -An gr The Second Report on the State of the W orld’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture xxvii

29

30 About this publication Background This report serves as an update of the first report on The State of the World’s Animal Genetic 1 1), Resources for Food and Agriculture published in 2007, (first SoW-AnGR) (see Box which provided the basis for the development of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic 2 Resources, - adopted in 2007 as the first internationally agreed framework specifically tar geting the management of livestock biodiversity. Box 1 The State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and The first report on Agriculture (2007) international organizations and thematic studies, The State of the World’s Animal Genetic 1 Resources for Food and Agriculture, along with subregional and regional reports the on animal genetic resources, were provided on first comprehensive global assessment of the CD-ROM that accompanied the report. This livestock biodiversity and its management, material is also all available on the web site of was published by FAO in 2007. The report 4 FAO’s Animal Production and Health Division. was the outcome of an extensive reporting and preparatory process initiated by the The report was published in seven languages Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and an “in brief” version in more than ten and Agriculture in 1999. In March 2001, languages. The report was launched at the first FAO invited 188 countries to submit country International Technical Conference on Animal 5 reports on their animal genetic resources. The Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, intention was that the preparation of these held in Interlaken, Switzerland, in September reports (in addition to providing the basis for 2007. The conference also adopted the Global a global assessment) would help countries to Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources identify national priorities for action in the and the Interlaken Declaration on Animal sustainable use, development and conservation Genetic Resources. of animal genetic resources. While countries were provided with guidelines and a proposed structure for their reports, the process was not based on a standardized questionnaire. 1 FAO. 2007a. The State of the World’s Animal Genetic Between 2002 and 2005, FAO received 169 Resources for Food and Agriculture , edited by B. Rischkowsky & D. Pilling. Rome (available at www.fao.org/3/a-a1250e.pdf). country reports. These were complemented by 2 ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/a1250e/annexes/Reports from 2 9 reports from international organizations and International Organizations/IntOrganisationReports.pdf 3 12 thematic studies commissioned to address 3 ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/a1250e/annexes/Thematic Studies/ThematicStudies.pdf specific aspects of animal genetic resources 4 http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/programmes/en/genetics/ management. More than 90 authors and first_state.html reviewers were involved in the preparation of the 5 http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/programmes/en/genetics/ angrvent2007.html main report. The country reports, reports from 1 F AO. 2007a. The State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture , edited by B. Rischkowsky & D. Pilling. Rome (available at www.fao.org/3/a-a1250e.pdf). 2 F AO. 2007b. The Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources and the Interlaken Declaration . Rome (available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a1404e/a1404e00.htm). xxix

31 Box 2 enetic g The Commission on r esources for f ood and Agriculture the implementation of policies and supporting With its 178 member countries, the Commission initiatives that raise awareness and seek to solve on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture emerging problems. It guides the preparation offers an intergovernmental forum where global of periodic global assessments of the status and consensus can be reached on policies relevant trends of genetic diversity, the threats facing to biodiversity for food and agriculture. The genetic diversity and the measures being taken main objective of the Commission is to ensure to promote its conservation and sustainable use. the conservation and sustainable use of genetic The Commission also negotiates global action resources for food and agriculture and the fair plans, codes of conduct and other instruments and equitable sharing of benefits derived from relevant to the conservation and sustainable use their use, for present and future generations. of genetic resources for food and agriculture. Its work focuses on developing and overseeing FAO’s reports on the state of the world’s genetic resources are prepared under the guidance 3 of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture To date, in addi- 2). (see Box tion to the first SoW-AnGR, two reports have been published on plant genetic resources for 5 4 food and agriculture (1998 and 2010) and one on forest genetic resources (2014). Scope and contents of the report This report addresses the sustainable use, development and conservation of animal genetic resources for food and agriculture (AnGR) worldwide. The term AnGR here refers to the genetic resources of mammalian and avian species used or potentially used for food and agriculture. The report consists of the following five parts. provides a broad overview of livestock diversity, including the origins and history Part 1 of AnGR, the status and trends of AnGR (the state of genetic diversity as indicated by the risk status of breed populations), the state of gene flows (movements of AnGR around the world), the uses, roles and values of AnGR, the adaptedness of AnGR to environmental stressors, threats to AnGR, and the influence of genetic diversity on the composition of animal-source food products. Part 2 discusses livestock-sector trends and how they are affecting AnGR and their man- agement. Part 3 discusses the state of capacity to manage AnGR, including institutional frame- works, programmes for inventory, characterization and monitoring, breeding strategies and programmes, conservation programmes, the use of reproductive and molecular bio- technologies, and legal and policy frameworks. Part 4 discusses the “state of the art” in the management of AnGR, including methods, tools and strategies used in inventory, characterization and monitoring, breeding pro- grammes, conservation programmes and economic valuation of AnGR. draws on the material presented in the other parts of the report to provide an Part 5 assessment of gaps and needs in the management of AnGR and how they can be addressed. 3 http://www .fao.org/nr/cgrfa/en/ 4 Rome (http://www.fao.org/ F AO. 1998. The State of the World’s Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. agriculture/crops/core-themes/theme/seeds-pgr/sow/en/); FAO. 2010. The Second Report on the State of the World’s Rome (http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1500e/i1500e00.htm). Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. 5 The State of the World’s Forest Genetic Resources. AO 2014. F Rome (available at http://www.fao.org/forestry/ fgr/64582/en/). xxx

32 The report serves as basis for a review and potential update of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources. The reporting and preparatory process In April 2013, the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture requested FAO to coordinate the preparation of The Second Report on the State of the World’s Animal (second SoW-AnGR), focusing particularly on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture 6 changes that had occurred since the preparation of the first SoW-AnGR. The first draft of the report was prepared between January and October 2014. In November 2014, it was submitted to the Eighth Session of the Intergovernmental Technical Working Group on Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (a subsidiary body of the Commission charged with addressing issues relevant to the management of animal 7 genetic resources) for review. The first draft included Parts 1, 2, 3 and 5 of the report. At the request of the Fifteenth Regular Session of the Commission (January 2015), a revised draft, including all five parts, was made available for comments by members and observers of the Commission in May 2015. The report was finalized, taking comments received into account. Inputs to the report The main sources used to prepare the second SoW-AnGR were as follows: Country reports In August 2013, FAO invited its 191 member nations, as well as non-member nations, to submit country reports on the management of their AnGR, using a standardized electronic 8 9 questionnaire that had been endorsed by the Commission and finalized by the Bureau of the Intergovernmental Technical Working Group on Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Government-appointed National Coordinators for the Management of Animal Genetic Resources led the preparation of the reports in their respective countries. 10 The country-report questionnaire consisted of four sections: I. Executive summary Data for updating the parts and sections of II. The State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture • Flows of animal genetic resources • Livestock sector trends Overview of animal genetic resources • Characterization • • Institutions and stakeholders • Breeding programmes • Conservation • Reproductive and molecular biotechnologies 6 CGRFA-14/13/Report, paragraph 71 (http://www.fao.org/docrep/meeting/028/mg538e.pdf). 7 http://www .fao.org/ag/againfo/programmes/en/genetics/angrvent-1st-docs.html 8 http://www .fao.org/Ag/AGAInfo/programmes/en/genetics/Second_state.html 9 http://www .fao.org/Ag/AGAInfo/programmes/en/genetics/angrvent-bureau.html 10 http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/programmes/en/genetics/documents/SoW2_CR_E.pdf xxxi

33 III. The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food Data contributing to the preparation of 11 and Agriculture • Integration of the management of animal genetic resources with the management of plant, forest and aquatic genetic resources Animal genetic resources management and the provision of regulating and sup- • porting ecosystem services Progress report on the implementation of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic IV. 12 Resources – 2007 to 2013 • Strategic Priority Area 1: Characterization, Inventory and Monitoring of Trends and Associated Risks Strategic Priority Area 2: Sustainable Use and Development • • Strategic Priority Area 3: Conservation Strategic Priority Area 4: Policies, Institutions and Capacity-building • Implementation and financing of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic • Resources Country reports were received between 31 January 2014 and 22 May 2014. Comments on the completeness and internal consistency of the reports were provided to National Coordi- nators. Based on these comments, final versions of the country reports were submitted. The data provided in the country reports were loaded into a database for analysis. 13 One hundred and twenty-eight country reports were received in the standardized format – 29 from OECD countries (85 percent of OECD countries) and 99 from non-OECD countries (62 percent of non-OECD countries). The regional breakdown of the reporting is summarized in the Table 1. The full list of reporting countries is shown in Table 2. Survey responses on policy and legal frameworks Detailed questions on national-level legal and policy frameworks affecting the management of AnGR were not included in the country-report questionnaire. In order to enable the respec- tive section of the report (Part 3 Section F) to be updated, F AO conducted a separate survey on this issue. In September 2013, National Coordinators for the Management of Animal Genetic 14 Resources were requested to complete an electronic questionnaire on the legal and policy frameworks in their respective countries. The following 46 countries provided responses: Australia, Austria, Bhutan, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burundi, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Guatemala, Hungary, Iraq, Italy, Jordan, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Mauritius, Montenegro, Namibia, Nepal, the Netherlands, Norway, the Republic of Korea, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Republic of Tanzania, 15 Thailand, the United States of America, Uruguay, Viet Nam and Zimbabwe. 11 In 2013, the Commission r equested FAO to prepare The State of the World’s Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture , a report focusing on interactions between the different subsectors of genetic resources for food and agriculture and on cross-sectoral matters (CGRFA-14/13/Report) (http://www.fao.org/docrep/meeting/028/mg538e.pdf). 12 In 2009, the Commission agreed to a timetable and format for reporting on progress made in the implementation of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources at national level (CGRFA-12/09/Report) (ftp://ftp.fao. org/docrep/fao/meeting/017/k6536e.pdf). The first round of reporting took place in 2012 (CGRFA/WG-AnGR-7/12/ Inf.3) (http://www.fao.org/docrep/meeting/026/me636e.pdf). A second round of reporting was incorporated into the country-reporting process for the second SoW-AnGR. 13 http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4787e/i4787e01.htm 14 http://www .fao.org/Ag/AGAInfo/programmes/en/genetics/Second_state.html 15 http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4787e/i4787e02.htm xxxii

34 T A 1 BLE egional overview of country reporting r Coverage Number of country Number of country egion Number of r -An w (second So gr ) reports reports countries in the (%) (first So w -An gr ) w -An ) (second So gr r egion* 52 41 49 79 Africa 31 20 26 65 Asia Europe and the 35 41 71 49 Caucasus Latin America 18 30 55 33 and the Caribbean 14 7 9 50 Near and Middle East North America 2 1 2 50 Southwest Pacific 15 12 47 7 otal 129 169 66 196 T *The number of countries refers to the number of countries in 2014. Between 2005 (when the country reporting for the first SoW-AnGR was completed) and 2014, Montenegro and Serbia and South Sudan and Sudan became separate countries. For the purposes of the first SoW-AnGR, Sudan was part of the Near and Middle East region. For the purposes of the second SoW-AnGR, Sudan is part of the Near and Middle East region and South Sudan is part of the Africa region. ABLE T 2 l ist of country reports 1 egion r Countries Algeria, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Comoros, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Africa (41) 2 Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Swaziland, Togo, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Asia (20) Tajikistan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Viet Nam Albania, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Europe and the Caucasus (35) Luxembourg, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom Argentina, Barbados, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Latin America and the Caribbean (18) Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay Near and Middle East (7) Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Sudan North America (1) United States of America Southwest Pacific (7) Cook Islands, Kiribati, New Zealand, Niue, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga 1 Note that these regions do not correspond to the usual FAO regions; see below for further explanation. 2 The country report was not prepared in the standardized format and thus could not be included in the quantitative analysis. xxxiii

35 Reports from regional focal points and networks In February 2014, regional focal points and networks for the management of AnGR were 16 invited to provide reports (based on a standardized electronic questionnaire) on activities related to the implementation of the Global Plan of Action in their respective regions. In accordance with the reporting framework agreed by the Commission, the regional focal points and networks were requested to highlight collaborative efforts at regional level and indicate regional priorities for capacity-building in relation to the implementation of the Global Plan of Action, rather than to provide a summary of national-level activities in 17 the region. Reports were received from the following regional focal points and networks: the European Regional Focal Point for Animal Genetic Resources; 1. the Regional Focal Point for Latin America and the Caribbean; 2. the Animal Genetic Resources Network – Southwest Pacific; and 3. the Asian Animal Genetic Resources Network. 4. Reports from international organizations In February 2014, 209 international organizations were invited to report (based on a stand - 18 ardized electronic questionnaire) on their contributions to the implementation of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources, in particular on any activities, pro- 19 grammes or projects undertaken or supported by the respective organization. Reports were received from the following fifteen organizations: the Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry Lands (ACSAD); the African Union – Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources (AU-IBAR); Bioversity International; the Secretariat of the Convention on Bio- - logical Diversity (CBD); the European Federation of Animal Science (EAAP); Heifer Inter national; the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); the International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR); the International Center for Agriculture Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA); the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI); the League for Pas- toral Peoples and Endogenous Livestock Development (LPP); the Nordic Genetic Resource Centre (NordGen); Rare Breeds International (RBI); Safeguard for Agricultural Varieties in Europe (SAVE Foundation); and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). Thematic studies Two thematic studies providing in-depth analysis of specific topics relevant to the manage- ment of AnGR were prepared as part of the second SoW-AnGR reporting process: • Ecosystem services provided by livestock species and breeds, with special consideration 20 ; to the contributions of small-scale livestock keepers and pastoralists 21 • The patent landscape for animal genetic resources . Other sources In addition to the sources mentioned above, the second SoW-AnGR draws on a range of literature and data sources. The latter include the Domestic Animal Diversity Information 22 24 23 System (DAD-IS), FAO’s statistical database FAOSTAT, FAO’s legal database FAOLEX, the 16 http://www.fao.org/Ag/AGAInfo/programmes/en/genetics/Second_state.html 17 http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4787e/i4787e03.htm 18 http://www.fao.org/Ag/AGAInfo/programmes/en/genetics/Second_state.html 19 http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4787e/i4787e03.htm 20 http://www .fao.org/3/a-at598e.pdf 21 .wipo.int/edocs/pubdocs/en/wipo_pub_947_3.pdf http://www 22 http://fao.org/dad-is 23 http://faolex.fao.org/ 24 http://faostat.fao.org/ xxxiv

36 F IGURE 1 gnment of countries to regions and subregions in this report Assi Southwest Pacific Caribbean Central Asia Near & Middle East Europe & North America North & West Africa the Caucasus Southern Africa South America South Asia East Asia Central America East Africa Southeast Asia 25 FAO/INFOODS Food Composition Database for Biodiversity (BioFoodComp) and the UN 26 Comtrade Database. The analysis of DAD-IS data for Part 1 Section B of the report (Status and trends of AnGR) was carried out in July 2014. r egional classification of countries The assignment of countries to regions and subregions for the purposes of the second SoW- 1). This assignment was AnGR follows the assignment used in the first SoW-AnGR (see Figure based on a number of considerations, including production environments, cultural factors and the distribution of shared AnGR. Because of these various considerations, the regional groupings do not correspond exactly to the standard FAO regions used in FAO statistics and for FAO election purposes (although for most countries the assignment does not differ from the standard classification). Seven regions are distinguished, three of which are further subdivided into subregions: • Africa (East Africa, North and West Africa, Southern Africa); • Asia (Central Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia); • Europe and the Caucasus; • Latin America and the Caribbean (Caribbean, Central America, South America); • the Near and Middle East; • North America; and • the Southwest Pacific. 25 http://www .fao.org/infoods/infoods/tables-and-databases/faoinfoods-databases/en/ 26 http://comtrade.un.org xxxv

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38 Summary About this report The Second Report on the State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture provides a comprehensive assessment of the state of livestock biodiversity and its management. It sets out the latest available information on the origin and history of animal genetic resources (AnGR), trends in the status of AnGR, the uses, roles and values of AnGR, the adaptive characteristics of AnGR and threats to AnGR diversity. It presents an overview of livestock-sector trends and their effects on AnGR and their management. It describes the state of capacity to manage AnGR and the state of the art in methods and strategies for their management. It reviews progress made in the implementation of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources, adopted in 2007 as the first interna- tionally agreed framework for the management of livestock biodiversity. It ends with an assessment of gaps and needs in AnGR management. country reports, 15 - reports from inter The report draws on information provided in 129 reports from regional focal points and networks for AnGR man national organizations, 4 - authors and reviewers. It is intended to serve as an update agement and inputs from 150 of the first report on The State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture , published in 2007, and focuses particularly on developments since the first report was prepared. k ey findings Livestock diversity facilitates the adaptation of production systems to future challenges and is a source of resilience in the face of greater climatic variability Livestock production systems face many challenges. The precise demands that will be placed on the livestock of the future are difficult to predict. However, coping with climate change, new disease challenges, restrictions on the availability of natural resources and changing market demands will require a diverse range of AnGR. Adaptedness to harsh conditions and resilience in the face of extreme climatic events and other shocks are likely to be important. Potential synergies in efforts to promote sustainable AnGR management, improve livelihoods and achieve environmental objectives need to be exploited. Appro- priate management strategies require better knowledge of the roles, uses and values of AnGR, particularly in the livelihoods of poor people, and better knowledge of the effects of livestock on ecosystem functions. The roles and values of animal genetic resources remain diverse, particularly in the livelihoods of poor people While livestock’s roles in the provision of some products and services are gradually being replaced as alternative sources become more widely available, the use of livestock remains very diverse. There is a need to understand these diverse roles and how they are changing. This will help ensure that AnGR are well matched to the needs of livestock keepers and society. It will also help identify potential threats to AnGR diversity arising because par - ticular breeds are no longer valued for their former functions and may therefore face an increased risk of extinction. Livestock’s roles in the provision of ecosystem services related to the regulation of ecological functions, landscape management and the provision of wildlife habitats remain under-researched and undervalued. Interest in the connection between genetic diversity and the nutritional contents of animal-source foods for human consumption is increasing, but this field has not yet received much research attention. xxxvii

39 The adaptations of specific species and breeds to specific environmental challenges need to be better understood The adaptive characteristics of individual breeds (e.g. ability to cope well with extremes of temperature, restricted water supply, poor-quality feed, rough terrain, high elevations and other challenging aspects of the production environment) have generally not been studied in great depth. Some progress has been made over recent years in terms of expanding our understanding of the genetics of disease resistance and tolerance, including the relative susceptibilities of specific breeds to specific diseases. However, many reported instances of resistance or tolerance remain anecdotal (i.e. have not been evaluated in scientific studies). Lack of information remains the major constraint to the integration of genetic approaches into disease-control strategies. The world’s livestock diversity remains at risk The proportion of livestock breeds classified as being at risk of extinction increased from 15 percent to 17 percent between 2005 and 2014. A further 58 percent of breeds are classi - fied as being of unknown risk status because no recent population data (from the last ten years) have been reported to FAO. The number of breeds at risk is therefore likely to be underestimated. Monitoring of population trends is a prerequisite for prompt and effec- tive action to protect breeds from extinction. Erosion of within-breed diversity can be a problem even in breeds whose total population size remains very large. The assessment of threats to animal genetic resources needs to be improved Action to prevent the loss of livestock diversity will be more effective if the factors that drive genetic erosion and extinction risk are well understood. While there is considerable agree- ment among stakeholders regarding the range of factors that can be considered poten- tial threats to AnGR diversity, the magnitude of these threats and the ways in which they combine to affect particular breeds in particular circumstances are often unclear. Informa- tion provided in the country reports suggests that indiscriminate cross-breeding, economic drivers and changing market demands, weaknesses in AnGR management programmes, policies and institutions, degradation of natural resources (or problems with access to such resources), climate change and disease epidemics are major threats. Institutional frameworks for the management of AnGR need to be strengthened While progress has been made in terms of improving the basic prerequisites for effective AnGR management at national level (adequate physical infrastructure, effective mechanisms for stakeholder participation, high-quality education and research programmes, good knowledge and awareness of AnGR-related issues, and appropriate legal and policy frameworks and capacity to implement them) many weaknesses remain, particularly in developing countries. While a number of examples of international cooperation in research and other aspects of AnGR management are described in the country reports, international collaboration remains a relatively underdeveloped element of the implementation of the Global Plan of Action. Establishing and sustaining effective livestock breeding programmes remains challenging in many countries, particularly in the low-input production systems of the developing world Implementing a livestock breeding programme is a challenging task that involves a number of different elements. Over recent years, a number of countries have made progress in terms of putting some of these elements in place (e.g. the establishment of animal identification and registration schemes). However, the country reports indicate that, in developing regions xxxviii

40 in particular, these elements do not always form part of coherent genetic improvement programmes for the breeds concerned. Even where programmes exist, they are often of a rudimentary nature and operate on a limited scale. A lack of adequate organizational structures for the involvement of livestock keepers and breeders in the planning and implementation of breeding schemes often inhibits the establishment of more effective programmes. Conservation programmes for animal genetic resources have become more widespread, but their coverage remains patchy Most countries that participated in the reporting process indicate that they now have at least some AnGR conservation activities in place. In vitro gene banks have been established countries and a further 41 countries are planning to do so. Many of these gene banks by 64 are in the early stages of development and the collections often have many gaps in their coverage of relevant breeds and populations. The coverage of in situ conservation activities (actions that support the maintenance of livestock populations in their usual production envi- ronments) is also incomplete. However, a diverse range of different activities are reported. For example, countries increasingly report the development of niche markets for speciality products as a means of increasing the profitability of potentially threatened breeds. Emerging technologies are creating new opportunities and challenges in animal genetic resources management Substantial advances have been made in genomic technologies over recent years. These technologies have improved understanding of the genetic basis of heritable traits and have increased the efficacy of some breeding programmes. However, in global terms, the impact of these technologies has been largely limited to certain international transboundary breeds kept in high-input systems. Although various circumstances influence the applicability of these tools, a primary facilitating factor is the availability of phenotypic and pedigree data. Increasing the collection of these data is of critical importance, not only for the effective use of genomics, but for any type of genetic improvement or conservation programme. The impact of many livestock sector trends on animal genetic resources and their management is increasing The major changes that have affected the global livestock sector over recent decades – including the rapid expansion of large-scale high-input production systems in parts of the developing world, growing pressures on natural resources, the partial replacement of some of livestock’s roles as alternative sources of provision become available, and changes in the livelihood and lifestyle opportunities available to rural people – have had a substantial impact on AnGR and their management. Countries generally report that they expect such effects to be even greater in the coming years than they have been in the recent past. Growth in demand for animal-source food continues to create major challenges for the sustainable use of AnGR. South Asia and Africa are projected to become the main centres of growth in meat and milk consumption. These are very resource-constrained regions that are home to many small-scale livestock keepers and pastoralists and to a diverse range of AnGR. Other drivers of change predicted to have a major effect on AnGR management in the coming years include climate change, technological developments and policy factors. Keeping track of trends of this kind and identifying their potential effects on demand for particular species and breeds and on capacity to maintain a diverse portfolio of livestock diversity is an important part of planning the long-term sustainable management of AnGR, both at national level and globally. xxxix

41 Livestock diversity and the sustainable management of animal genetic resources are acquiring a greater foothold on policy agendas countries submitted country Despite the limited amount of time available for reporting, 129 countries had nominated reports for use in the preparation of this report. As of May 2015, 177 report that they have prepared, National Coordinators for the Management of AnGR and 112 are in the process of preparing or are planning to prepare national strategies and action plans - for AnGR. Many countries report that they have developed legal instruments or policies tar geting improvements to the management of AnGR. At international level, the importance of genetic resources for food and agriculture, including AnGR, has been highlighted in several major initiatives and agreements (e.g. the Convention on Biological Diversity’s Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 and Aichi Targets, and the draft post-2015 development goals). hat needs to be done? w Strategic priorities for action in the management of AnGR are set out in the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources. The analysis presented in this report suggests that these strategic priorities remain relevant. Efforts still need to be made to strengthen the main elements of sustainable AnGR man- agement. Priorities include: • improving knowledge of the characteristics of different types of AnGR, the production systems in which they are kept and the trends affecting these production systems; • developing stronger institutional frameworks for AnGR management, including mech- anisms that allow for better communications among stakeholders and facilitate the participation of livestock keepers in the planning and implementation of AnGR-related policies and programmes; • improving awareness, education, training and research in all areas of AnGR manage- ment, including in the emerging fields of access and benefit sharing, ecosystem ser - vices and climate change adaptation and mitigation; • strengthening breeding strategies and programmes so as to enable full advantage to be taken of available genetic diversity and ensure that AnGR are well matched to their production environments and to societal needs; and • expanding and diversifying conservation programmes, where possible combining approaches that provide for ongoing use of livestock breeds in their usual production environments with those that provide for backup storage of genetic material. National strategies and action plans for AnGR provide a means of translating the provisions of the Global Plan of Action into well-targeted activities that meet specific needs at country level. Countries that have not yet developed a national strategy and action plan should con- sider doing so. Countries that have already developed such instruments should ensure that they are implemented. In many cases, improving AnGR management at national level will also require strengthening National Focal Points for the Management of Animal Genetic Resources. In addition to individual strategic priorities, the Global Plan of Action also addresses the ques- tion of implementation and funding, emphasizing the need for long-term commitment and the need to devote substantial and additional financial resources to improving the sustainable man- agement of AnGR. Many country reports stress that lack of funding is a major constraint to the improvement of many aspects of AnGR management. These funding gaps need to be addressed. The Global Plan of Action also emphasizes the importance of international cooperation in AnGR management. There is a need to strengthen global- and regional-level activities related both to the management of shared resources (transboundary breeds) and to the transfer of technologies and knowledge that facilitate the sustainable use, development and conservation of AnGR. xl

42 Part 1 THE STATE OF LIVESTOCK DIVERSITY

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44 Part 1 Introduction Part 1 of the report begins by describing advances in research on the origin of the diver- sity of today’s animal genetic resources for food and agriculture (AnGR) – the domesti- cation and history of livestock species. This is followed by a description of the current status and trends of AnGR diversity and the extent to which this diversity is threatened by genetic erosion. The next section describes patterns of international exchange of AnGR. The roles and values of AnGR, including their direct and indirect contributions to live- lihoods and economic output, are then described. This is followed by a discussion of the various adaptive characteristics, including genetic resistance and tolerance to specific diseases and parasites, that enable livestock breeds to survive and produce in a range of different production environments. The next section addresses threats to the diversity of fi nal section of Part 1, livestock diversity is discussed in relation the world’s AnGR. In the to human nutrition. All sections highlight, in particular, changes that have occurred since The State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agri- the first report on 1 (first SoW-AnGR) (FAO, 2007) culture was prepared. AnGR are here taken to include those animal species that are used, or may be used, for 2 food production and agriculture, and the populations within each. Distinct populations 3 within species are usually referred to as breeds. FAO (1999) defines a breed as: “either a subspecific group of domestic livestock with definable and identifiable external characteristics that enable it to be separated by visual appraisal from other similarly defined groups within the same species or a group for which geographical and/or cultural separation from phenotypically similar groups has led to acceptance of its separate identity.” The broad definition of the term “breed” is a reflection of the difficulties involved in establishing a strict definition of the term. Further information on the development of 4 the breed concept is provided in the first SoW-AnGR. 1 r a O. 2007. The State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture F ischkowsky , edited by B. & D. Pilling. r ome (available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a1250e/a1250e00.htm). 2 Fish ar e excluded as management requirements and breeding techniques are very different. 3 r F a O. 1999. The Global Strategy for the Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources . Executive brief. ome (available at http://dad.fao.org/cgi-bin/getblob.cgi?sid=-1,50006152). 4 F a O, 2007, pages 339–340.

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46 Section A Origin and history of livestock diversity 2 ocess oduction Intr The domestication pr 1 Theories about the process of livestock domestica- Genetic diversity provides the raw material for breed improvement and for the adaptation of tion have continued to develop since the time the first SoW-AnGR was prepared (Larson and Burger, livestock populations to changing environments and changing demands. Information on the 2013; Larson and Fuller, 2014). Animals can be origin and history of animal genetic resources considered domesticated if they are bred in cap- (AnGR) is essential to the design of strategies for tivity and (after several generations) have become their sustainable management (Ajmone-Marsan adapted to being kept by humans. Once animals et al. , 2010; Felius et al. , 2014). The first report have been domesticated, their reproduction is con- trolled by their human keepers, who provide them on The State of the World’s Animal Genetic with shelter and feed and protect them against Resources for Food and Agriculture (first SoW- AnGR) (FAO, 2007) provided a review of the et predators (Diamond, 2002; Mignon-Grasteau out of 148 al. non-carnivore terre- state of knowledge of the domestication of , 2005). Only 15 strial mammalian species weighing more than livestock species and their subsequent dispersal 1 around the world. 45 kg have been domesticated (Table 1A1). From Since the time the first SoW- the 10 000 avian species, only very few (chicken, AnGR was prepared, a considerable amount turkey, pheasant, guinea fowl, duck, Muscovy duck, of research work has been undertaken in this goose, pigeon, quail and ostrich) have been domes- field. In particular, further development of ticated as a source of food. According to Diamond genomic tools (see Box 1A1) has allowed the (2002), successful domestication depends on the use of genome-wide information in the investi- presence of several traits in the target species: gation of various aspects of the history of live- behavioural traits that facilitate manage- • stock species. This section provides an updated ment by humans (e.g. a lack of aggression overview of the state of knowledge in this towards humans, a tendency not to panic field, focusing particularly on recent advances. when disturbed and strong social instincts); It describes, in turn, the initial domestication 2 • reproductive traits, such as the ability to process, subsequent introgression of wild breed in captivity, short intervals between species into domesticated species, adaptations births and (preferably) large litter sizes; and that occurred after domestication and, finally, • physiological traits, such as rapid growth and relatively recent breed formation. a non-carnivorous diet. Domestication may have been triggered by clim- atic changes at the end of the Pleistocene (12000 that led to localized expansion of BP) to 14000 1 – a O, 2007, Part 1 F Section a (pages 5 22). human populations and the emergence of crop 2 from one a r eproductive contacts that have left traces of DN farming (Larson and Burger, 2013). Domestication population in another population. tHE S C OND r E E Or t ON P 5 S OD r F O F S E C r U O S E r C tI E N E E a M I aN O ' D L r O HE W F t O E t a t S tHE aND a G r I C U LtU r L G

47 CK DIVE Y at E O F LIVES t O t r S I t E S H t Part 1 1 a Box 1 econstructed: archaeology and DNA How the history of livestock is r Archaeologists use various means to distinguish the haplogroup distributions tend to be stable, skeletal remains of domestic animals from those mitochondrial DNA often tells us about the earliest , 2013; et al. of wild animals, including studying morphological migrations (Cieslak et al. , 2010; Miao changes to the teeth, cranium and skeleton to et al. Lenstra , 2014). In the case of cattle, these estimate body size and shape and determine growth migrations have been shown to have involved severe population bottlenecks (Lenstra patterns (Zeder , 2006a). The age of organic , 2014). et al. et al. material can be determined by radiocarbon dating. • Mammalian Y-chromosomal variation is Isotope analysis of organic residues on pottery may transmitted via the paternal line and is a identify milk fatty acids (Evershed , 2008). et al. powerful tool for tracing gene flow by male introgression, whether in the distant past or Nitrogen isotope ratios in the teeth of calves may et al. more recently (Edwards reveal early weaning and thus the use of cattle for , 2011). Autosomal variation is transmitted via both • dairying (Balasse and Tresset, 2002). Different categories of polymorphic DNA markers parents. Microsatellite markers have been reveal different aspects of the history of livestock (see widely used for analysing autosomal variation Part 4 Section B for further information on different and are still useful (FAO, 2011). However, they are being replaced by high-density SNP (single types of markers). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is transmitted • , et al. nucleotide polymorphism) analysis (Kijas , 2013; Petersen 2012; Goedbloed et al. , maternally and has been instrumental in et al. identifying ancestor species, estimating the 2013a; Decker et al. , 2014) or whole-genome number of female founders (Bollongino et sequencing (Groenen et al. , 2012). Autosomal , 2012), identifying the geographic regions loci are commonly used for population diversity al. , 2008) and et al. of domestication (Naderi estimations, detection of the subdivision and differentiation of populations, calculation of reconstructing migration routes (Groeneveld et al. genetic distances and quantification of genetic et al. , 2010; Lenstra , 2012). Most mtDNA studies target the hypervariable control region admixture. of the mitochondrial genome, but complete An important recent development is the use of Bayesian computations for the analysis of large mtDNA genomes are needed to establish relations 1 between major mtDNA types (the haplogroups datasets, which allows detailed reconstruction of ) et al. , 2012; prehistoric genetic events (Bollongino et al. (Achilli , 2009). It is no longer believed that , 2014). et al. Larson and Burger, 2013; Gerbault the presence of a given number of different haplogroups always indicates the equivalent 1 number of separate domestication events; a single A haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share one or more mutations indicative of descent from a common ancestor. Haplogroups ancestral wild population may harbour more than most commonly pertain to mitochondrial and Y-chromosome DNA. et al. , 2008; Cieslak et al. , one haplogroup (Naderi Haplotype is the combination of alleles from two or more polymorphic sites in a mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal or autosomal DNA segment. 2010; Bollongino , 2012). Because regional et al. involved animals being attracted to human settle- scenarios remain uncertain. However, it is clear that ments and then becoming captive as a source of they varied from species to species. Three plausible 3 food. The second involved the capture of artiodactyl pathways –“commensal”, “prey” and “directed”– have recently been proposed (Larson and Burger, 3 1A1). The first of these pathways 2013) (see Figure Even-toed hoofed animals (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, camels, etc.). PO E SECOND r ON t r H E t 6 E ES FOr FOOD r SOU E r a I t ENE L G a IM N a D'S L r E WO H t OF C at t S E H E N D a G r I CUL t U r C t

48 C OrIGIN aND HISt F L IVESt O O K DIVErSItY r Y O a r E 1 a 1 F IGU ee pathways of domestication Thr Intensity of human–animal relation Commensal Commensalism and Habituation Anthropophily partnership Prey Herd management and Game Captive animal control Commercial Prey Wild extensive breeding management and intensive breeding breeds and pets Directed Pig?, dog, cat, rat, mouse, Pig?, sheep, goat, llama, Horse, donkey, camel, buffalo, ferret, alpaca, reindeer, cattle, yak, hamster, rabbit, turtle, mink, chinchilla, guinea pig, chicken, pigeon, water buffalo duck, turkey gerbil, ostrich, emu, parrot, goldfish Commensal Prey Directed Note: The figure includes some species not included in the scope of the SoW-AnGR. Larson and Burger, 2013, with permission from Elsevier. Source: gression (Larson and Burger, 2013). Views on the prey animals as a means of securing a supply of meat. location of domestication centres have evolved Once domesticated, these species also provided other since the time the first SoW-AnGR was prepared products, such as milk, wool and leather. Later, some et al. (Larson , 2014). For example, evidence were also used for ploughing. The third pathway, indicating pig domestication in Europe and in which came into play later in history, involved delib- Indonesia is now considered to be a result of erate efforts to exploit the specific capabilities of the introgression. Similarly, it is now accepted that target species (e.g. their potential as pack, riding or Africa was not a centre of cattle domestication draught animals). and that the river buffalo originated in India There is now consensus about which wild rather than in Mesopotamia (although the evi- species were the ancestors of the various domest- dence for the latter conclusion is not abundant). 1A1). Livestock icated livestock species (Table Recent studies have indicated an African origin domestication is thought to have occurred in for the donkey and distinct origins for Chinese areas of the world (Figure 1A2). at least 15 and European geese. Inferences regarding the dates of domestica- (2014) proposed, as et al. Recently, Wilkins 1A1) remain approximations. tion events (Table a general mechanism of domestication, that Skeletal remains identified as belonging to selection for tameness induced a mild neural domesticated species on the basis of their morph- crest cell deficit during embryonic development, ology are never as old as the first domest- which attenuated behaviour and also modified icates. Close genetic relationships between several morphological and physiological traits domestic and wild populations in other parts of related to domestication (e.g. smaller brain and the world (i.e. outside the recognized domesti- depigmentation). cation centres) are considered to indicate intro- O N t r D rEP N O SEC tHE O 7 LD O O F CES r U O rES GENEtIC L a M aNI S ' r r WO tHE F E O D aND aGrIC U L t U r F tHE StatE O

49 O t E S t at E O F LIVES t H CK DIVE r S I t Y 1 Part et (Cont.) , 2014 , 2003 , 2014 et al. et al. , 2010; Decker et al. et al. , 2006; Decker , 2001 , 2001 ford-Gonzalez, 2013; , 2004; Pott, 2004 , 2013 , 2003 , 2014; , 2007 , 2008 , 2014 , 2012 References et al. et al. et al. et al. et al. et al. et al. et al. et al. et al. et al. , 2014; Lenstra , 2014 jmone-Marsan al. Freeman Decker et al. Stock and Gif a Mason, 1984; Lenstra Kadwell Naderi Larson Mason, 1984; Nijman Wiener Mason, 1984 Kumar Spassov Demirci Kadwell Zhang 3 nal lineage in nearly all frican Sanga a sian zebus and taurindicines Sources of introgression a eeds frican aurochs bulls aurine mater lpaca rgali and urial ewes non- t br Banteng cows in Indonesian zebu a iver buffalo in China and Bangladesh - Banteng in southern China - Yak cows in Nepal and Qinghai, China - - Zebu in - - 2-way taurindicine hybrids in China - European aurochs bulls? China) - Zebu cows in Dulong cattle (Yunnan, a Zebu in Malaysia a r Possibly other goat species Bactrian males Llama sia, a ustralia ustralia a ndes ndes a ustralia a a frica, a a sia, ibetan Plateau, a sian highlands t a Domestic range om Black Sea to Manchuria ustralia Subtropical and tropical Global India–Myanmar border region Egypt, India, Brazil, North and East Quinghai– Global a Indonesia, Malaysia, feral in Philippines, Brazil, adjacent Italy, Balkans, Southwest Northern Eurasia Global Central–southern Southwest Central–southern South China, Indochina, Fr ndes ndes a a 2 sia sia sia ibetan 2 a a a t rabia? Domestication site urkmenistan, Iran Indonesia North Siberia Quinghai- Central–southern Southwest Indus Valley Central–southern Southwest India Southwest Plateau Southern China t a Date 6000 BP 5000 BP 2500 BP 5500 BP 8000 BP 9750 BP 5000 BP 5000 BP 9750 BP 5500 BP 4500 BP 6000 BP? 10250 BP 1 b f f a a a d f b b d c d d Wild ancestor urochs urochs siatic mouflon eindeer Bos primigenius a Bos mutus Wild yak Banteng Bos primigenius Bos javanicus a Rangifer tarandus Vicuna Wild dromedary Wild water buffalo Lama guanicoe Ovis orientalis Guanaco Vicugna vicugna Bos gaurus Bubalus arnee Gaur C. bactrianus ferus Wild water buffalo Bubalus arnee Wild Bactrian camel Capra aegagrus Bezoar a r 1 a 1 Domestic species BLE lpaca iver buffalo eindeer aurine cattle a Zebu cattle Bos indicus Bos grunniens Ya k t Bali cattle Bos javanicus Bos taurus Rangifer tarandus Bubalus bubalis Vicugna pacos r r a Sheep Ovis aries Bos frontalis Mithun Lama glama Dromedary Camelus dromedarius Llama Capra hircus Goat Swamp buffalo Camelus bactrianus Bactrian camel B. bubalis carabensis t Domestication, disperal and sources of introgresssion r SECOND PO E t ON H t E r 8 E ES FOr FOOD r SOU E r C I t ENE L G a a N a D'S L r E WO H t OF C at t S E H E N D a G r I CUL t U r IM t

50 Y r O C K DIVErSItY F L O IVESt OrIGIN aND HISt O a , 2011 , 2015 et al. , 2012; , 2012 , 2014 , 2012 , 2014 , 2005; , 2014 References , 2010 et al. , 2006 , 2006 et al. et al. et al. , 2006; et al. et al. et al. et al. et al. et al. et al. -Boichard et al. osenbom ixier hornton Shi Wang Stahl Warmuth Cieslak Fang Carneiro Larson Larson Larson r t t ) , 2011). et al. Gallus sonneratii Sources of introgression Wild populations, permanently Grey jungle fowl ( in India boar populations; Chinese pigs in horses Wild mares during dispersal, Iberian Wild population, permanently Wild population, permanently Europe in nineteenth century Males and females from several wild (2014). et al. merica) a Domestic range Global Global (relatively rare in Global Global Global Global Global Global Global Europe and North Global sia a merica a frica Domestication site Southern China Kazakhstan Mexico Southwest China Southern France Indochina South Sudan India a , 2009); role of male introgression and of the Mediterrean aurochs unclear (Lari et al. Year 2000 BP 1000 BP 5500 BP 8500 BP 1400 BP 4500 BP 2000 BP 5500 BP 8000 BP 4000 BP 10000 BP e f 1 f f f , 2008; Stock f b f f a et al. f Wild ancestor frican wild ass ed jungle fowl Anser cygnoides Swan goose Wild boar Sus scrofa Gallus gallus Mexican turkey Meleagris gallopavo Anser anser Greylag goose Oryctolagus cuniculus Wild horse Wild rabbit Equus africanus Anas platyrhynchos Cairina moschata Mallard Muscovy duck Equus ferus Helmeted guinea fowl Numida meleagris a r (Cont.) 1 a 1 Domestic species BLE abbit urkey a Sus scrofa Pig Meleagris gallopavo Oryctolagus cuniculus r t Goose Cairina moschata Gallus domesticus Chicken Equus asinus Donkey Domestic duck Anas platyrhynchos Equus caballus Horse Muscovy duck Anser anser Chinese goose Guinea fowl Numida meleagris Superscipt letters next to the species names indicate their risk status according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (http://www.iucnredlist.org) as of October 2014: a = Extinct; Taurine and zebu cattle are commonly considered to have been domesticated separately. Alternatively, zebus may have emerged as a result of wild male and female introgression in Female introgression rare (Achilli taurine cattle introduced from the west (Larson and Burger, 2013). In addition to the references cited in the table, see Mason (1984), Mignon-Grasteau et al. (2005) and Larson t 2 3 1 Domestication, disperal and sources of introgresssion b = Critically endangered; c = Endangered; d = Vulnerable; e = Near threatened; f = Least concern. t tHE N O SEC r O D rEP N O 9 r O F CES r U O rES GENEtIC L r M aNI E S ' LD r WO tHE F U t L U aGrIC aND D O O F a tHE StatE O

51 CK DIVE t E S t at E O F LIVES t O r S I t Y H Part 1 F IGU r E a 2 1 es of livestock domestication as inferred from archaeological and molecular genetic evidence Major centr (1) turkey; (2) guinea pig, llama, alpaca, Muscovy duck; (3) rabbit; (4) donkey; (5) taurine cattle, pig, goat, sheep; (6) dromedary, (7) Note: zebu cattle, river buffalo; (8) Bactrian camel; (9) horse; (10) reindeer; (11) yak; (12) pig; (13) chicken; (14) swamp buffalo; (15) Bali cattle. , 2014; references in Table , 2005; Larson et al. Mignon-Grasteau Sources: 1A1. et al. 8500 BP. Domesticated livestock followed 3 Dispersal of domesticated two major routes into Europe, the first along animals the Mediterranean coast and the second along the Danube, arriving in the British Knowledge of the dispersal of livestock species BP (Gkiasta , 2003). A Isles around 6500 et al. from their centres of domestication during the detailed archaeological study in Anatolia that prehistoric period is based on a synergic combi- reconstructed the westward movements of nation of archaeology and molecular genetics. sheep, goats, cattle and pigs (Arbuckle and For later periods, written and pictorial docu- Makarewicz, 2009) suggested that these species mentation is also available. More information is migrated independently of each other. The available on cattle (followed by sheep) than on occurrence of the T1 mitochondrial haplotype other livestock species, and migrations within from African cattle in Spain indicates that gene Europe are better documented than those in flow also occurred across the Strait of Gibraltar other regions. Zebu cattle and water buffalo only (Bonfiglio et al. , 2012). Short-horn cattle migrated within tropical and subtropical climate emerged around 5000 BP in southwest Asia zones, while the distributions of dromedaries, and gradually replaced the original long-horn Bactrian camels, llamas, alpacas, reindeer, yaks, cattle in most parts of Europe (Mason, 1984). Bali cattle and mithun are even more restricted. The introduction of the horse was associated Since the first SoW-AnGR was prepared, molecu- with the spread of the Indo-European language lar studies have filled several gaps in our knowl- around 4500 BP and was probably accompanied edge of the dispersal of livestock species. by migrations of people and other livestock In Europe, the introduction of crops and live- (Balter and Gibbons, 2015). stock from Southwest Asia occurred around r t E PO SECOND ON E r H t 10 a E t CUL I r G a D N a ES FOr FOOD C r SOU E r C I t ENE L G U IM N a D'S L r E WO H t OF E at t S E H r t

52 C O F L IVESt O Y K DIVErSItY r O OrIGIN aND HISt a BP (Payne and Hodges, 1997). At the around 1500 During the Roman Era, cattle and sheep end of the nineteenth century, a rinderpest epi- were exported from Italy to other parts of the demic led to the spread of zebu cattle with little Empire. From the fourth to the eighth century, taurine ancestry in East and West Africa. the Germanic migrations also led to large-scale Domestic chickens appeared around 8000 BP movements of livestock. Presumably, these migra- in Southeast Asia and were introduced around tions preceded the paternal founder effects that 4500 BP into India and Oceania, around 3000 BP are believed to have led to the north−south BP into Africa. It is into Europe and around 2300 contrast detected in the Y-chromosomal varia- thought that Polynesians had already brought tion of cattle in Europe (Edwards , 2011). A et al. chickens to South America via the Pacific before Y-chromosomal haplotype in sheep of British or 1492 (Storey et al. , 2012). et al. Nordic origin (Niemi , 2013) and the fixation The European colonization of America after of a goat Y-chromosomal haplogroup in central introduced cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, 1492 and northern Europe (Lenstra, 2005) indicate donkeys and chickens. South and Central America similar paternal founder effects. and the southern part of North America initially In Asia, sheep, goats and taurine cattle migrated received Iberian livestock, including horses, which to China before 4500 BP (Jing et al. , 2008). Cattle transformed the sedentary indigenous societies BP (Minezawa, 2003). arrived in Japan around 2500 of the prairies. Further to the north, English- Further to the south, zebu cattle were introduced speaking settlers imported northwest-European around 3000 BP (Payne and Hodges, 1997). The livestock. In the nineteenth century, cattle of introduction of the domestic swamp buffalo, which Iberian descent were largely replaced by, or cross- is more suitable than cattle for ploughing rice bred with, zebus from South Asia. paddies, followed the spread of wet rice cultivation As well as accompanying human migrations in China, Indochina, the Philippines and Indonesia. into new areas, the dispersal of livestock popula- The river buffalo, domesticated in India, arrived tions was also stimulated by the need to import to 1000 around 900 AD in Egypt, the Balkans and animals from neighbouring regions following southern Italy. major losses caused by epidemics, famines or Taurine cattle and other livestock species plundering. Gene flow was further stimulated by arrived in Africa around 7000 BP from south- trading, the use of horses and dromedaries for west Asia (Brass, 2012). As in Europe, the original transport, the nomadic lifestyles of cattle-herding long-horn cattle were replaced by short-horns, peoples and the seasonal transhumant move- although long-horns still exist in some parts ments of cattle and sheep in several parts of the of Africa. There are pictures of zebus in Egypt Old World. dating from around 4000 BP, but substantial The wide dispersal of the major livestock zebu populations were not established at that species had the following effects: time (Payne and Hodges, 1997). Import of zebu • genetic “isolation by distance”, which led bulls into Africa was probably stimulated by the to the development of many regional types, Arabian invasions after 700 AD. Cross-breeding many of which already existed in the eight- to taurine cattle generated taurindicine popula- eenth century, when livestock diversity tions, such as the sanga, which remained mainly started to be documented; taurine and 500 years ago was the dominant • a decrease in molecular genetic diversity cor - type of cattle in central and eastern Africa. Gene relating with distance from centres of origin, flow into western African taurine populations caused by founder effects; this effect has been was stimulated by nomadic Fulani pastoralists. observed in European goats (Canon et al. , The Bantu expansion southwards from the Great 2006), African and European cattle (Cymbron Lakes region led to the introduction of sheep into , 2005; Freeman et al. , 2006), the mtDNA et al. BP and sanga cattle southern Africa around 2000 t SEC N D rEP O tHE O O N r 11 LD F O F CES r U O rES GENEtIC O L a M aNI S ' r r WO tHE F E O D aND aGrIC U L t U r tHE StatE O

53 t t E S t at E O F LIVES H O CK DIVE r S I t Y 1 Part , 2014) et al. geographical ranges of their wild ancestors. of cattle worldwide (Lenstra However, possible introgression from other sheep , 2013); et al. and Arabian horses (Khansour however, founder effects were often counter- and goat species has not been investigated. The acted by cross-breeding with wild or other European mouflon is a feral descendant of the first domestic immigrants and has been shown to and domestic populations (see Subsections 4 6 below); among sheep, the spread of the breed with domestic sheep in Sardinia (Ciani et Merino breed from the the sixteenth century , 2014). al. onwards anticipated the spread of other suc- In Europe, the first domestic pigs were immi- cessful livestock breeds in the nineteenth and grants from southwest Asia. As a result of con- twentieth centuries; tinuous introgression, these populations came so-called “diversity enhancing gene flow” • to be closely related to the European wild boar (Larson and Burger, 2013). In the case of horses, (FAO, 2007), the development of additional diversity as a result of adaptations to diverse it has been also proposed that the first domesti- environments (see Subsection 5 below). cates were crossed with wild animals, but the rel- ative homogeneity of the horse Y-chromosome suggests that only wild females were added to the domestic population (Warmuth , 2012). et al. Intr 4 ogression from related A similar scenario has been suggested for chick- species ens, in which mtDNA patterns suggest post- domestication introgression from various Asian The genetics of several livestock populations , 2013). et al. red jungle fowl populations (Miao were enriched after the initial split from the wild Introgression from the grey jungle fowl of India - ancestral species (Table 1A1). Plausible scenar gene variant, which confers introduced a BCDO2 ios include capture of wild animals to replenish yellow skin colour and has reached a high fre- domestic populations and introgression from et al. quency in domestic chicken (Eriksson , wild males. 2008). Taurine and zebu cattle descend from different aurochs populations. A major contribution from African aurochs bulls is plausible (Decker et al. , 2014). However, it is not clear whether there was 5 Adaptation of livestock substantial input from European wild bulls (Beja- following domestication Pereira et al. , 2006; Lari et al. , 2011). Local popu- lations in Asia have received maternal input from After domestication, livestock species adapted et al. species (Lenstra Bos other , 2014). In several to being kept by humans via changes to their tropical and subtropical regions, taurine and behaviour, morphology, appearance, physio- zebu cattle introduced during different periods et al. logy and performance (Mignon-Grasteau , along different routes formed taurindicine pop- 2005). Species that spread beyond their centres of ulations when brought into contact. Chinese domestication also had to adapt to new physical yellow cattle populations harbour both taurine environments (new climates, feeds, diseases, etc.). and zebu Y-chromosomes and mtDNA and the An obvious, if superficial, difference between African sanga combines both Y-chromosomal most domestic species and their wild ances- types with taurine mtDNA (Hanotte et al. , 2000; Li tors is in the colour of their coats, plumage or et al. , 2013). Other taurindicine cattle carry a zebu skins. Driven by human aesthetic sense rather Y-chromosome and taurine mtDNA (Ajmone- than the need for camouflage or signal display, et al. , 2010). Marsan several colours and patterns emerged in dom- The origins of domestic sheep and goats are estic animals that are not observed in wild relatively uncomplicated because of the narrow species (Ludwig , 2009; Linderholm and et al. PO E ON t r SECOND t E H r 12 ES FOr FOOD C r SOU E r C I t ENE L G a IM N a D'S r r E WO H t OF E at t S E H E U t CUL I r G a D N a L t

54 O O O F L IVESt Y C K DIVErSItY OrIGIN aND HISt r a 6 The r ecent history of livestock Larson, 2013). In several species, domestication was accompanied by a reduction in size, which diversity et made the animals easier to handle (Zeder al. , 2006b). In addition, sexual dimorphism in The last 250 years have seen changes on a scale bovine species was greatly reduced, because unprecedented in the history of livestock diver - males no longer had to fight for dominance. sity. From the earliest times, livestock keepers had In Europe, taurine cattle gradually decreased influenced the characteristics of their animals in size between the Neolithic and the end of through selective breeding. However, develop- the Middle Ages, with a temporary preference ments in England during the late eighteenth for large animals in the Roman Empire (Lenstra century marked the beginning of a new era and et al. et al. , 2011). In the post- , 2014; Felius had major consequences for the future of live- Medieval period, a shift from subsistence farming stock diversity throughout the world. Systematic to market production, together with improve- performance recording, identification of animals ments in animal husbandry, led to larger cattle and pedigree recording, managed by breeders’ again being preferred. Similar changes occurred associations and documented in herd books, in goats, sheep and pigs. Another aspect of the led to the development of more homogenous adaptation of cattle, sheep and goats to the breeds. Explicit breeding objectives accentuated domestic environment was a reduction in horn the existing differences between geographically length. A step further, the complete loss of horns, separated populations. This led not only to the occurred in several breeds of cattle and sheep fixation of breed-specific traits, with coat colour (Medugorac , 2012). et al. being the easiest target (Linderholm and Larson, In several livestock species, adaptation led, at 2013), but also to an increase in production. an early stage, to the development of different Within half a century, the new breeding practices conformational types: had been widely adopted in Europe and North • the humpless taurine and humped indicine America. The degree of genetic isolation varied cattle ecotypes, resulting from independent from one breed to another. Island and fancy domestications (see Subsection 2); breeds were often isolated and became inbred, the thin-tailed, fat-tailed and fat-rumped • but most breeds continued to interact with others sheep ecotypes, the latter two adapted to as a result of upgrading, intentional cross-breed- , 2014); and desert environments (Wang et al. ing or unintended introgression. Not all newly • warmblood, coldblood and pony horses. formed breeds were equally successful. Even Molecular genetic studies, especially genome- before the end of the nineteenth century several wide association studies and whole-genome had been absorbed by other populations (Felius sequencing, allow adaptive traits to be linked , 2014; 2015). et al. to genomic regions, genes or even mutations. Other developments also had a major effect Several examples are listed in Table 1A2. Several - on the geographic distribution of livestock diver traits have been subject to selection within sity. In the nineteenth century, railways increased B), but breeds (see Table 4B1 in Part 4, Section mobility and facilitated the long-distance trans- the corresponding mutation may have predated portation of livestock. Steamships enabled the breed formation. For instance, the breed dis- transportation of large numbers of animals across allele in cattle, DGAT1 tribution of the derived the oceans. These developments initiated what is which was identified as a result of efforts to referred to in the first SoW-AnGR as the “second localize milk quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in the phase of global gene flow”, which lasted from Holstein, reveals an old origin and an early role the nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century and , et al. in the development of dairy cattle (Kaupe saw a large expansion in the geographical distri- 2004). bution of several successful breeds (Valle Zárate t SEC N O tHE r O D rEP N O 13 F r O F CES r U O rES GENEtIC r a M aNI S ' LD r WO tHE F E U t L U aGrIC aND D O O L tHE StatE O

55 I t E S t at E O F LIVES t O CK DIVE r S t Y H Part 1 2 a 1 BLE a t Examples of genes or loci involved in selected traits Reference Locus, gene Trait Most mammalian livestock Several genes et al. , 2009; Linderholm and Larson, 2013; Switonski et al. , 2013 Coat colour Ludwig Cattle Bovine HapMap Consortium, 2009; Druet et al. , 2013; Qanbari et al. , Multiple loci Production traits et al. andhawa r 2014; , 2014; Xu et al. , 2015 Eberlein NCAPG Prenatal growth , 2009 et al. a et al. Intergenic deletions, llais-Bonnet et al. , 2013; r othammer et al. , 2014; Wiedemar BTA1 , 2014 Polledness Slick-hair coat for thermoregulation SLICK locus Huson et al. , 2014 t rypanotolerance in a , 2012 et al. Dayo Multiple loci frican cattle Fat content of milk DGAT1 , multiple loci Kaupe et al. , 2004; Stella et al. , 2010 Sheep et al. , 2014; et al. Production traits Kijas Multiple loci , 2012; Fariello r andhawa et al. , 2014 , 2013 Horn size RLXN1 Johnston et al. Milk traits et al. Gutierrez-Gil Multiple loci , 2014 Pig r r et al. , et al. , 2014; Herrero-Medrano ubin amos-Onsin et al. , 2012; Multiple loci Domestication, production traits , 2014 2014; Yang et al. a a Multiple loci daptation i et al. , 2015 r ubin et al. , 2012 Back elongation NR6A1, PLAG1, LCORL Meat quality Galve et al. , 2013 PRKAG3 AHR, ESR1, PRM1, PRM2, , 2015 et al. Bosse Fecundity , 2014; Wang et al. TNP2, GPR149, JMJD1C Horse Domestication Multiple loci Schubert et al. , 2014 Petersen et al. , 2013b; Metzger et al. , 2014 Multiple loci Performance NCAPG/LCORL, HMGA2, ZFAT, a dult size Makvandi-Nejad et al. , 2012 LASP1 a DMRT3 et al. ndersson Gait , 2012; Petersen et al. , 2013b; Promerova et al. , 2014 Rabbit Domestication, behaviour Multiple loci Carneiro et al. , 2014 Chicken Comb form HAO1, BMP2 et al. , 2012 Johnsson r ubin et al. , 2010 Domestication Multiple loci Yellow skin colour BCDO2 Eriksson et al. , 2008 r Fecundity TSRH ubin et al. , 2010 For further information see Braunschweig (2010) and Nicholas and Hobbs (2012) in addition to the references cited in the table. Note: Also note that Table 4B1 in Part 4, Section B lists several traits and associated genes/loci that have been identified as being specific to one or more breeds. PO E ON t r SECOND t E H r 14 ES FOr FOOD C r SOU E r C I t ENE L G a IM N a D'S r r E WO H t OF E at t S E H E U t CUL I r G a D N a L t

56 O r F L IVESt O C K DIVErSItY Y O OrIGIN aND HISt a et al. , 2006; Felius, 2015). Most of these breeds 2 a Box 1 were of European origin, but (as noted above) Livestock diversity as r evealed by molecular Indian zebus were exported to the Americas and studies Chinese pigs were crossed with European pig populations (Bosse, 2014; Felius, 2015). • Individual breeds carry a substantial part (typi- During the period following the Second World cally 80 percent) of the total molecular variation War, artificial insemination became common in of the respective livestock species; only a small cattle and pig breeding. This helped to break part of the total diversity is accounted for by down genetic isolation by distance, and catalysed variation among breeds. 4 the “third phase of global gene flow”, Breeds vary in their molecular genetic diversity • , which is with the lowest diversity generally being found still continuing. As a result of these developments, in breeds that are isolated by geography or a limited number of transboundary breeds (see management and the highest diversity in breeds Part 1 Sections B and C) have become very wide- located near sites of domestication, panmictic spread and increasingly dominate livestock produc- populations (those in which there is random tion throughout the world. This has tended to lead mating) and cross-bred populations (Groeneveld to the decline of locally adapted breeds (see Part 1 et al. , 2010; Herrero-Medrano et al. , 2014). Sections B and F). At the same time, crossing of Well-defined breeds with unique and appre • breeds from different parts of the world has added - to the breed repertoire, for instance, through the ciated traits tend to be inbred and have low development of synthetic taurine and taurindicine molecular genetic diversity , while non-descript cattle breeds in the United States of America and local populations tend to have high molecular Australia (Felius, 2015) and the Assaf sheep in Israel. genetic diversity (Groeneveld et al. , 2010). The genetic diversity harboured in today’s Breeds from the same region, or from nearby • breeds is being actively researched (FAO, 2011), regions, tend to be closely related. to date mainly using neutral markers (i.e. markers that have no known effect on the phenotype) , 2010). As described above (see et al. (Groeneveld helped in the identification of a growing list of in particular Box 1A1), diversity studies are instru- genes involved in adaptation. Four sources of the mental to the reconstruction of genetic events that genetic diversity present in today’s livestock pop- have shaped the present diversity patterns of live- ulations can be distinguished: stock species, including ancestry, prehistoric and his- - sequestration of part of the genetic reper 1. torical migrations, admixture and genetic isolation. toire of the wild ancestral species; Some general conclusions about the current state acquisition of additional diversity as a result 2. of livestock diversity drawn from molecular studies of contact with other populations or related are summarized in Box 1A2. See Part 4 Section B for species during the dispersal of domesticated a detailed discussion of the use of molecular tools species; in the characterization of livestock diversity. selection of gene variants conferring adapta- 3. tion to a variety of environments and capa- city to serve a variety of different purposes; and Conclusions 7 breed formation and systematic breeding, 4. ferences between which accentuated dif Over recent years, the latest molecular tools populations and increased productivity have contributed to a better understanding of while decreasing overall molecular genetic the genetic basis of domestication and have diversity. 4 O, 2007, pages 53–55. F a O N O t r tHE D rEP N O SEC 15 LD r O F CES r U O rES GENEtIC L a M aNI S ' r r WO tHE F U F O O D aND aGrIC U L t E tHE StatE O

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66 Section B Status and trends of animal genetic resources that have been introduced for the second SoW- 1 Intr oduction AnGR process. The section begins by describing the state of reporting on AnGR and the progress The monitoring system for the implementation made in this respect during the period between of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic January 2006 and June 2014. A description of the Resources (FAO, 2007a) consists of two elements. current regional distribution of livestock species One line of reporting focuses on the process of and breeds is then presented, followed by an implementing the Global Plan of Action (see Part 3 overview of the risk status of the world’s livestock and FAO, 2014a). The other focuses on animal breeds. Trends in risk status are then described. genetic resources (AnGR) themselves, as the state of these resources constitutes a measurable indicator of the success of the Global Plan of Action (FAO, 2013a). Data for monitoring the status and trends The state of r 2 eporting of AnGR on a world scale are drawn from the Global Databank for Animal Genetic Resources, a As breed population data are provided by indi- database of breed-related data that FAO began vidual countries, the basic unit from which an to build up in the early 1990s. Since 1995, the analysis of global status and trends has to be built Global Databank has formed the backbone of the is the national breed population. The number of Domestic Animal Diversity Information System national breed populations recorded in the Global (DAD-IS). Data from the Global Databank were Databank for Animal Genetic Resources increased used to prepare three editions of the World from 2 719 in 1993 to 5 330 in 1999 and 14 017 Watch List for Domestic Animal Diversity (FAO, in 2006 when the first SoW-AnGR was drafted. 1993; 1995; 2000), as well as The State of the By June 2014, the total number of entries had World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and risen to 14 869 (Table 1B1). While the number of (first SoW-AnGR) (FAO, 2007b). They Agriculture national breed populations recorded rose sharply have subsequently been used to prepare biennial during the period preceding the preparation of reports on the status and trends of AnGR (FAO, the first SoW-AnGR, the percentage for which 2009; 2011; 2013b; 2014b). any population data had been recorded declined. This section presents a global overview of the These figures have improved since 2006 as a result diversity and status of AnGR. The analysis is based of population data being added to the records in on DAD-IS data made available by countries by the Global Databank (Table 1B1). However, as June 2014. It serves as an update of the analysis 1B1, many gaps remain. More- shown in Figure presented in the first SoW-AnGR, which was based over, even where some population data have 1 on data from 2006. been reported, many have not been recently Box 1B1 outlines changes updated (see further discussion below). It should in the approach to reporting and data analysis also not be assumed that the national breed 1 inventories recorded in DAD-IS are complete. As AO, 2007a, Part 1 Section B (pages 23–49). F OnD r E P E t On tHE S C Or 25 S O S E C r U O S E r r F O OD C tI E E E L G A M I An F ' D L r O HE W F t O E t A t S tHE AnD A G r I C U LtU r n

67 CK DIVE Y t H E S t A t E O F LIVES t O t r S I 1 t r A P Box 1B1 Developments since the publication of the first report on The State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture of status and trends was performed, this allocation The State of the World’s Following the publication of procedure had not been completed. A provisional Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture indicator set, based on a provisional categorization of (first SoW-AnGR) and the adoption of the Global breeds, is presented in the status and trends report for Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources in 2007, 2014 (FAO, 2014b). the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Also in 2013, the Commission agreed to additional Agriculture, in 2009, agreed a schedule and a format changes to the reporting framework, with the aim for reporting on the status and trends of animal of providing a more realistic picture of the state of genetic resources (AnGR). It was agreed that a report reporting and eliminating some confounding factors that would be prepared every two years, based on a made it difficult to interpret trends in risk status. First, template derived from the structure of relevant section in order to address the potentially misleading effects of (Part 1 Section B) of the first SoW-AnGR. It was agreed including breeds for which no recent population data are that the status and trends reports should include the recorded in DAD-IS in the analysis of risk-status trends, a Convention on Biological Diversity’s headline indicator decision was taken to introduce a ten-year cut-off point for “trends in genetic diversity of domesticated animal after which a breed is re-assigned to the “unknown” risk- species of major socio-economic importance”, once this status category (see Box 1B3) if its population data are indicator had been developed (a task which fell to FAO not updated. Second, it was agreed that trends in breed under the auspices of the Commission). risk status should be calculated based on the most up- In 2013, the Commission agreed to the use of the to-date current and historical data available in DAD-IS at following set of indicators: the time of calculation, rather than by comparing current the number of locally adapted breeds; • data to those presented in older reports. Historical the proportion of the total population • population data recorded in DAD-IS can be updated accounted for by locally adapted and exotic at any time, as can countries’ breed inventories (breed breeds; and records can be added or deleted). The new calculation the number of breeds classified as at risk, not at • method allows any recent updates of this kind to be risk and unknown. taken into account. The revised calculation methods were To allow the indicators to be calculated, the used in the preparation of the 2014 status and trends Commission agreed to the use of a new breed report and in the preparation of the second SoW-AnGR. classification system, distinguishing “locally adapted” One consequence is that, compared to the first SoW- breeds from “exotic” breeds (see Box 1B2). DAD-IS AnGR (and previous status and trends reports), a higher was then adapted so as to allow countries to allocate proportion of breeds are currently classified as being of their breed records to the appropriate classes (exotic unknown risk status. or locally adapted). In June 2014, when the analysis discussed in Part 3 Section B, many countries con- Species diversity and 3 sider that they have not yet established compre- distribution hensive breed inventories at national level, and it is also likely that not all identified breeds have DAD-IS records breed-related information on 19 been entered into DAD-IS, particularly in the case mammalian species, 17 avian species and two fertile of species that are not regarded as priorities in interspecies crosses (Bactrian camel × dromedary the respective countries. and duck × Muscovy duck). As was the case when r SECO E PO t O H n r D t n E 26 t E C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L SOU E WO H t OF E t A r S E H E r C ES FOr FOOD A n D A G r I CUL t U r r t

68 S AnD trEnD OF AnIMAL GEnEtIC rE S O UrCE S StAtU S B Box 1B2 Glossary: populations, breeds, breed classification systems and regions Breed classification related to adaptedness Classification of populations as domesticated, wild Locally adapted breeds: breeds that have been in or feral the country for a sufficient time to be genetically Domestic(ated) animals: animals whose breeding and adapted to one or more of the traditional production husbandry are controlled by human communities to systems or environments in the country. The phrase obtain benefits or services from them. The process “sufficient time” refers to time present in one or of domestication may take many generations of the more of the country’s traditional production systems species to be completed. or environments. Taking cultural, social and genetic Wild populations: wild relatives of domesticated aspects into account, a period of 40 years and six livestock, wild populations that are used for food and generations of the respective species might be agriculture, or populations undergoing domestication. considered as a guiding value for “sufficient time”, Feral populations: populations whose ancestors subject to specific national circumstances. Indigenous were domesticated, but which now live independently breeds, also termed autochthonous or native breeds of humans; for example, dromedaries in Australia. form a subset of locally adapted breeds. Exotic breeds: breeds that are not locally adapted. Breed classification related to geographic distribution Exotic breeds comprise both recently introduced Local breeds: breeds that occur only in one country. breeds and continually imported breeds. Transboundary breeds: breeds that occur in more than one country. SoW-AnGR regions Regional transboundary breeds: transboundary Seven regions were defined for the SoW-AnGR: Africa, breeds that occur only in one of the seven SoW-AnGR Asia, Europe and the Caucasus, Latin America and the regions. Caribbean, the Near and Middle East, North America and International transboundary breeds: transboundary see Figure 1 (preliminary pages). the Southwest Pacific – breeds that occur in more than one SoW-AnGR region. 1B1 tABLE ecorded in the Global Databank for Animal Genetic Resources Status of information r Countries Mammalian species Year of analysis Avian species covered % with population Number of national % with population Number of national data breed populations data breed populations - - 131 2 719 1993 53 77 1 049 63 5 330 1999 172 3 505 39 181 2006 10 512 43 60 2014 11 062 3 807 56 182 Note: As of June 2014, no breed data had been recorded in DAD-IS from Andorra, Brunei Darussalam, Liechtenstein, Marshall Islands, Micronesia (Federated States of), Monaco, Nauru, Qatar, San Marino, Singapore, South Sudan, Timor-Leste, United Arab Emirates or Western Sahara. “With population data” figures refer to breed populations for which population data are recorded for any year up to 2014. The ten-year cut-off point (see Box 1B1) is not applied to these figures. Source: DAD-IS (accessed July 2014). t COnD rEPOrt On E S E H 27 S rE GEnEtIC AnIMAL S ' rLD O W H t OF AtE t S E H AGrICULtUrE AnD FOOD r FO S UrCE O E t

69 F LIVES r Y t H E S t A t E O t t O CK DIVE I S t 1 P A r F IGU 1B1 E r Pr oportion of national breed populations for which population figures have been reported Avian 129 20 Pacific Mammalian 271 153 Southwest Avian 7 103 North Mammalian 85 223 America Avian 46 25 East Middle Mammalian 174 134 Near and Avian 354 69 Latin and the Mammalian 1 374 337 America Caribbean Avian 437 1 466 Europe and the Mammalian 740 3 907 Caucasus Avian 375 346 Asia Mammalian 749 1 200 Avian 324 106 Africa Mammalian 993 722 80% 40% 20% 0% 100% 60% Without population data With population data Note: “With population data” figures refer to breed populations for which population data are recorded for any year up to 2014. The 1B1) is not applied to these figures. ten-year cut-off point (see Box DAD-IS (accessed July 2014). Source: The world’s cattle population reached almost the first SoW-AnGR was published, five species – cattle, sheep, chickens, goats and pigs (the so-called 1.5 billion in 2012. Asia accounts for one-third of the “big five”) – are widely distributed across the world total (highest numbers in India and China, together and have particularly large global populations. The accounting for about 22 percent of the world total). first three are the most widely distributed livestock Latin America accounts for 27 percent (highest numbers in Brazil, alone accounting for 14 percent species globally, while the latter two are less evenly spread (Figure 1B2). The total global population of the global total), Africa for 17 percent (highest 2 numbers in Ethiopia and the United Republic of of each of these species increased between 2005 Tanzania), Europe and the Caucasus for 9 percent and 2012. Figures from FAO’s statistical database (highest numbers in the Russian Federation and FAOSTAT show an increase of 23 percent in the France), North America for 7 percent (highest chicken population, 12 percent in the goat popu- numbers in the United States of America), the Near lation, 10 percent in the pig population, 7 percent and Middle East for 4 percent (highest numbers in the cattle population and 4 percent in the sheep 3 in Sudan and Egypt) and the Southwest Pacific population over this period. for 3 percent (highest numbers in Australia). The pattern of regional distribution has not changed 2 t he analysis of species diversity and distribution presented in greatly since 2005. Asia and Africa have increased t was based on FAOS r the first SoW-AnG A figures for 2005. t 3 their shares of the world total, while the shares of data accessed September 2014. A t AOS Calculations based on F t SECO r E PO t O t n r D H n E 28 t E C I t E n MAL GE I SOU D'S A L r E WO H t OF E t A r S E H E r C ES FOr FOOD A n D A G r I CUL t U r n t

70 S O UrCE S S StAtU OF AnIMAL GEnEtIC rE S AnD trEnD B F E 1B2 IGU r Regional distribution of livestock species in 2012 Species and world population (millions) Cattle 1 485 Sheep 1 169 Goat 996 Pig 966 Chicken 21 867 0% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% Central Asia Caribbean Southwest Pacific North & West Africa North America Europe & Near & Middle East the Caucasus South Asia South America Southern Africa Central America East Asia East Africa Southeast Asia Source: FAOSTAT. for 7 percent (highest numbers in Brazil and Latin America and the Caribbean, North America, Argentina) and North America for 1 percent. The and Europe and the Caucasus have declined. In the most dramatic change in the regional distribu- latter two regions, the cattle population has fallen tion of the world’s sheep population since 2005 slightly in absolute terms. has been a sharp decline in the proportion of the The world’s sheep population reached almost global population accounted for by the Southwest 1.2 billion in 2012. Asia accounts for 37 percent Pacific (share of the total falling by 4 percent; pop- of the total (highest numbers in China and ulation size falling by 25 percent in absolute in India), Africa for 22 percent (highest numbers in terms). The sheep populations of North America Nigeria and Ethiopia), Europe and the Caucasus and Europe and the Caucasus have also declined, for 14 percent (highest numbers in the United both in absolute size and in terms of global share. Kingdom and Turkey), the Near and Middle East In contrast, Africa and Asia account for larger for 10 percent (highest numbers in Sudan and shares of the world sheep population than they the Syrian Arab Republic), the Southwest Pacific did in 2005, with Africa’s sheep population having for 9 percent (highest numbers in Australia and risen by 19 percent in absolute terms. New Zealand), Latin America and the Caribbean H E t E COnD rEPOrt On S 29 AtE S GEnEtIC AnIMAL O ' rLD O W E H t OF rE t S E H AGrICULtUrE UrCE S FO r FOOD AnD S t

71 E O t H E S t A t t F LIVES t O CK DIVE r S I Y A t 1 P r and Egypt). Since 2005, the chicken population has The world’s goat population reached approxi- increased in all regions except North America. Asia mately 1 billion in 2012. Goats are widely distrib- uted in developing regions, but less so in devel- has increased its share of the total world popula- tion, while the shares of Europe and the Caucasus oped regions. Asia (56 percent; highest numbers in China and India), Africa (30 percent; highest and North America have declined. numbers in Nigeria and Kenya) and the Near and Middle East (7 percent; highest numbers in Sudan and Yemen) account for the vast majority Br 4 eed diversity and of the world’s goats. There are also significant distribution populations in Latin America and the Caribbean (3 percent; highest numbers in Mexico and Brazil) This subsection discusses the geographical dis- and in Europe and the Caucasus (3 percent; tribution of breeds belonging to the local and highest numbers in Turkey and Greece). The main transboundary categories, presents a summary of change since 2005 has been a large increase in the current risk status of the world’s breeds and Africa’s goat population (share of the global total considers trends in breed risk status since the time rising by 4 percent, and population size rising by the first SoW-AnGR was prepared. 27 percent in absolute terms). The world’s pig population reached almost 4.1 Geographical distribution of local 1 billion in 2012. Asia accounts for 60 percent of eeds and transboundary br the world total, with China alone accounting for The Global Databank for Animal Genetic Resources 49 percent. Europe and the Caucasus accounts currently contains data from 182 countries and for 19 percent (highest numbers in Germany 38 species. The total number of breeds recorded in and Spain), Latin America and the Caribbean for the Global Databank increased from 7 616 in 2006 9 percent (highest numbers in Brazil and Mexico), to 8 774 in 2014. Out of this total, 7 718 are local North America for 8 percent (highest numbers breeds (i.e. breeds present in only one country – see in the United States of America) and Africa for Box 1B2); the equivalent figure in 2006 was 6 536. 4 percent (highest numbers in Nigeria). The pattern The remaining 1 056 are transboundary breeds of regional distribution has not changed greatly (i.e. breeds present in more than one country); the since 2005. Asia has increased its share. The shares equivalent figure in 2006 was 1 080. Among trans- of Europe and the Caucasus and North America boundary breeds, 510 (compared to 523 in 2006) are have fallen, with the former region experiencing regional transboundary breeds (occur in only one an absolute fall in the size of its pig population. - region) and 546 (compared to 557 in 2006) are inter From a relatively low starting point, Africa’s pig national transboundary breeds (occur in more than population has increased by 37 percent since 2005. one region). A total of 647 breeds (compared to 690 The world’s chicken population reached more in 2006) are classified as extinct. Four of these extinct than 21 billion in 2012. More than half the total breeds (compared to nine in 2006) are transbound- 4 (53 percent) is found in Asia, where the largest pro- ary breeds (three regional and one international). ducers are China and Indonesia. Latin America and Figure 1B3 shows the share of local, regional the Caribbean accounts for 15 percent of the total transboundary and international transboundary (highest numbers in Brazil and Mexico); Europe and breeds among the mammalian and avian breeds the Caucasus for 11 percent (highest numbers in the 4 Russian Federation and Turkey); North America for he 2006 figures presented in this paragraph are taken from t the first SoW-AnG r , i.e. they do not account for corrections 10 percent (highest numbers in the United States of that countries have made to their breed inventories in DAD-IS America); Africa for 7 percent (highest numbers in since 2006. For example, the apparent fall in the number Nigeria and South Africa) and the Near and Middle of extinct breeds between 2006 and 2014 is caused by East for 3 percent (highest numbers in Saudi Arabia corrections of this kind. O t PO r SECO E E t n D n r H 30 E r C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L r r H t OF E t A t S E H E U t CUL I r G D A n ES FOr FOOD A C r SOU E WO t

72 AnD trEnD OF AnIMAL GEnEtIC rE S O UrCE S S S StAtU B F 1B3 IGU F IGU r E 1B4 r E eeds at Number of local and transboundary br eeds at Number of local and transboundary br regional level global level Africa Asia World 174 224 202 385 72 517 427 4 93 67 8 2 303 79 1 246 4 772 573 80 160 Europe and Latin America and the Caucases the Caribbean 280 206 152 1 260 213 0 Mammalian species 102 International transboundary breeds 27 Regional transboundary breeds Local breeds 68 135 2 086 Avian species 445 International transboundary breeds Regional transboundary breeds Local breeds Near and North America Source: DAD-IS (accessed July 2014). Middle East 42 54 53 0 0 5 130 of the world (excluding extinct breeds). The 16 61 shares of the breed classes have remained more or less constant since 2006. Figure 1B4 presents a regional breakdown of the figures. 197 19 89 As in 2006, more than two-thirds of reported breeds belong to mammalian species. Mammalian breeds outnumber avian breeds in all regions of Southwest the world. The number of mammalian regional Pacific Mammalian species 54 transboundary breeds is similar to the number International transboundary breeds 165 0 Regional transboundary breeds of international transboundary breeds. In con- Local breeds trast, there are twice as many avian international 69 transboundary breeds as there are avian regional Avian species transboundary breeds. International transboundary breeds Regional transboundary breeds 1B2 and 1B3, respectively, show the Tables 5 Local breeds 136 number of reported local breeds of mammalian and avian species in each region of the world. The Source: DAD-IS (accessed July 2014). totals in some categories have fallen since 2006 because of corrections made by some countries to their breed inventories recorded in DAD-IS. t COnD rEPOrt On E S E H 31 S rE GEnEtIC AnIMAL S ' rLD O W H t OF AtE t S E H AGrICULtUrE AnD FOOD r FO S UrCE O E t

73 E O t H E S t A t t F LIVES O CK DIVE r S I t Y 1 A P t r 1B2 tABLE Number of r eported mammalian local breeds North World Southwest Near and Latin Europe Species Africa Asia America Pacific Middle America and the East and the Caucasus Caribbean 24 50 39 20 Asses 157 3 5 16 0 0 9 3 0 0 0 12 Bactrian camels 123 2 90 9 11 8 1 2 Buffaloes 176 43 17 369 32 1 019 141 241 Cattle 0 1 13 46 Dromedaries 85 2 0 23 Goats 576 183 218 28 34 6 11 96 4 0 0 13 Guinea pigs 0 0 17 0 Horses 138 371 84 14 22 25 694 40 60 188 214 53 Pigs 543 15 12 1 abbits 11 16 186 18 5 0 0 236 r 1 155 38 21 53 613 262 117 Sheep 51 28 Yaks 0 25 2 0 0 1 0 8 127 4 0 15 76 16 8 Others 4 772 Total 1 246 2 086 445 197 89 136 573 Note: Figures exclude extinct breeds. Figures for alpacas, American bison, deer, dogs, dromedary × Bactrian camels, guanacos, llamas and vicuñas are combined in the “others” category. Source: DAD-IS (accessed July 2014). tABL E 1B3 eported avian local breeds Number of r World Southwest North Near and Latin Africa Asia Europe Species Pacific America Middle America and the East and the Caucasus Caribbean 88 912 305 129 30 Chickens 1 514 15 35 Ducks 15 92 107 22 4 1 12 253 0 182 2 2 Geese 119 44 10 5 24 Muscovy ducks 5 9 6 1 1 0 2 Ostriches 1 12 0 0 2 6 0 3 0 12 0 2 8 2 Partridges 0 0 18 0 7 5 6 0 0 0 Pheasants Pigeons 7 12 35 7 8 1 2 72 11 t 92 5 11 3 urkeys 40 11 11 Others 27 31 12 1 14 0 124 39 Total 224 517 1 260 152 54 42 54 2 303 Figures exclude extinct breeds. Figures for cassowaries, Chilean tinamous, duck × Muscovy ducks, emus, guinea fowl, ñandus, Note: peacocks, quails and swallows are combined in the “others” category. Source: DAD-IS (accessed July 2014). O t PO r SECO E E t n D n r H 32 E r C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L r r H t OF E t A t S E H E U t CUL I r G D A n ES FOr FOOD A C r SOU E WO t

74 AnD trEnD S O UrCE S OF AnIMAL GEnEtIC rE StAtU S S B E 1B4 tABL Number of r eported mammalian transboundary breeds Species Regional transboundary International World transboundary Europe Asia Southwest Africa North Near and Latin Middle America America Pacific and the and the East Caucasus Caribbean 3 3 1 1 0 0 0 5 13 Asses 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 Bactrian camels 9 0 1 1 0 Buffaloes 0 4 15 0 Cattle 20 30 6 1 2 1 109 205 36 Deer 0 12 10 0 0 0 0 1 1 Dromedaries 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 1 Goats 16 12 14 2 86 5 1 36 0 Guinea pigs 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 7 Horses 63 0 124 4 0 4 36 10 30 59 0 2 0 5 17 2 3 Pigs 1 0 0 0 23 59 abbits 3 0 32 r 4 24 14 74 3 Sheep 6 3 99 227 South American 0 0 0 5 2 0 3 0 0 camelids 385 812 5 19 5 Total 206 72 93 27 Figures exclude extinct breeds. Note: DAD-IS (accessed July 2014). Source: tABLE 1B5 eported avian transboundary breeds Number of r Species Regional transboundary International World transboundary Europe Africa Latin Near and Southwest North Asia and the Pacific America America Middle East and the Caucasus Caribbean 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Cassowaries 0 3 0 0 0 0 106 155 42 4 Chickens 0 Ducks 12 0 26 12 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 Emus 1 1 0 0 0 0 Geese 0 7 0 0 0 0 14 23 2 0 0 0 0 0 Guinea fowl 0 5 5 0 Muscovy ducks 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 Ostriches 0 3 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Pigeons 0 Quails 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 16 23 t urkeys 0 0 7 0 0 0 otal 240 160 0 0 4 0 68 8 T Note: Figures exclude extinct breeds. DAD-IS (accessed July 2014). Source: t H E S E COnD rEPOrt On 33 AtE S GEnEtIC O AnIMAL S ' rLD O W E H t OF rE t S E H AGrICULtUrE UrCE S FO r FOOD AnD t

75 E O t H E S t A t t F LIVES t O CK DIVE r S I Y t 1 A r P 1B4 and 1B5, respectively , show the 4.2 Br eed risk status Tables number of reported regional transboundary As described in Box 1B1, since the publication of the breeds of mammalian and avian species in each first SoW-AnGR, the method for assigning breeds region of the world. The existence of significant to risk-status categories has been amended by the numbers of regional transboundary breeds has introduction of a ten-year cut-off point, beyond implications for the use and conservation of which the risk status of a breed is considered to be AnGR, and highlights the need for cooperation unknown if no population data from more recent at regional or subregional levels. For several years have been reported. The results presented mammalian species, including sheep, horses and in this subsection are therefore not directly com- pigs, Europe and the Caucasus, has the highest parable to those presented in the first SoW-AnGR . number of regional transboundary breeds. Africa Trends based on comparable figures from 2006 and has a relatively large share of regional trans- 2014 are presented below (Subsection 4.3). boundary breeds in most of the species listed A total of 1 458 breeds (17 percent of all breeds, and has more regional transboundary breeds of including those that are extinct) are classified as cattle and goats than any other region. Europe being at risk. The percentage of breeds classified and the Caucasus has by far the highest number as being of unknown risk status has increased from of regional transboundary breeds among avian 34 percent in 2012 (as calculated for that year’s species. status and trends report – FAO, 2013b) to 58 percent in 2014, mainly because of the above-mentioned new method of assigning risk status. Box 1B3 Glossary: risk-status classification Endangered: a breed in which the total number of a breed in which there are no breeding males Extinct: breeding females is greater than 100 and less than or or breeding females remaining. Genetic material that equal to 1 000 or the total number of breeding males would allow recreation of the breed may, however, is less than or equal to 20 and greater than 5; or the have been cryoconserved. In reality, extinction may overall population size is greater than 80 and less than be realized well before the loss of the last animal or 100 and increasing and the percentage of females genetic material. being bred to males of the same breed is above 80 Critical: a breed in which the total number of percent; or the overall population size is greater than breeding females is less than or equal to 100 or the 1 000 and less than or equal to 1 200 and decreasing total number of breeding males is less than or equal and the percentage of females being bred to males of to five; or the overall population size is less than or the same breed is below 80 percent; and which is not equal to 120 and decreasing and the percentage classified as extinct, critical or critical-maintained. of females being bred to males of the same breed Endangered-maintained: a breed that meets the is below 80 percent; and which is not classified as criteria for inclusion in the endangered category, extinct. but for which active conservation programmes are in Critical-maintained: a breed that meets the criteria place or populations are maintained by commercial for inclusion in the critical category, but for which companies or research institutions. active conservation programmes are in place or At risk: a breed classified as either critical, critical- populations are maintained by commercial companies maintained, endangered or endangered-maintained. or research institutions. PO O t r SECO E n E H D n t r 34 r C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L r E WO r t OF E t E A t S E H U t CUL I r G D A n ES FOr FOOD A C r SOU E H t

76 S S OF AnIMAL GEnEtIC rE S O UrCE S StAtU AnD trEnD B IGU r E 1B5 Figure 1B5 shows that the proportion of mam- F oportion of the world’s breeds by risk status Pr malian breeds classified as at risk (16 percent) category is lower than the proportion of avian breeds (19 percent). However, in absolute terms, the number of breeds at risk is higher among mammals (955 breeds) than among birds (503 breeds). All species 6% Figure 1B6 presents risk-status data for mam- 1% 7% malian species. It can be seen that horses, sheep 3% and cattle are the mammalian species with 7% the highest number of breeds at risk. Rabbits (45 percent) followed by horses (22 percent) and 58% asses (17 percent) are the species that have the 18% highest proportions of breeds at risk. Figure 1B6 also shows the large number of breeds for which no risk-status data are available. The problem is particularly significant in some species – Mammalian 93 percent for deer breeds, 66 percent for ass 6% 1% breeds and 98 percent for dromedary breeds. This 6% lack of data is a serious constraint to effective 3% prioritization and planning of breed conservation 9% measures. Cattle are the species with the highest 55% number of breeds (184) reported extinct. Large numbers of extinct breeds of sheep (160), pig (107) and horse (87) are also reported. 20% Among avian species, chickens have by far the highest number of breeds at risk (Figure 1B7). As in the case of mammals, there are a large number of Avian avian breeds for which population figures are un- 7% 0% available. Extinct breeds have mainly been reported 8% among chickens. There are also a few reported cases 4% among ducks, guinea fowl and turkeys. 3% The regions with the highest proportion of 67% their breeds classified as at risk are Europe and the 11% Caucasus (31 percent of mammalian breeds and 35 percent of avian breeds) and North America (16 percent of mammalian breeds). These are the regions that have the most highly specialized live- stock industries, in which production is dominated Extinct Critical by a small number of breeds. In absolute terms, Europe and the Caucasus has by far the highest Not at risk Critical-maintained number of at-risk breeds. Despite the apparent Unknown Endangered dominance of these two regions, problems in other Endangered-maintained regions may be obscured by the large number of breeds with unknown risk status (Figure 1B8). The new method for calculating risk status DAD-IS (accessed July 2014). Source: (based on a ten-year cut-off point – see Box 1B1) t COnD rEPOrt On H E S E 35 S rE GEnEtIC AnIMAL S ' rLD O W H t OF AtE t S E H AGrICULtUrE AnD FOOD r FO S UrCE O E t

77 E O t H E S t A t t F LIVES t O CK DIVE r S I Y t 1 A P r E 1B6 r IGU F Risk status of the world’ s mammalian breeds in June 2014 – species breakdown Percent 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Other Rabbits Sheep Yaks Total Goats Drom- Deer Buffaloes Cattle Asses Bactrian Alpacas Pigs Horses Llamas camels edaries R k STAT u S IS 8 89 768 25 115 414 479 2 396 92 Unknown 788 19 83 3 3 368 87 8 0 53 73 26 1 104 34 1 0 39 3 0 9 1 Critical 352 0 1 0 9 3 9 0 10 3 0 0 11 0 0 3 Critical- 49 maintained 0 67 388 20 1 86 54 42 0 Endangered 39 0 0 67 1 0 11 15 0 6 0 Endangered- 0 54 0 1 166 21 0 20 5 43 0 1 maintained n 403 285 8 8 1 261 26 4 ot at risk 45 2 0 157 137 3 109 68 6 184 0 4 0 1 565 0 0 Extinct 3 107 0 87 19 0 0 160 139 14 174 8 Total 6 149 121 28 1 542 298 709 6 905 681 89 27 1 408 Note: “Other” refers to Bactrian camel × dromedary crosses, guanacos, vicuñas, guinea pigs and dogs. DAD-IS (accessed July 2014). Source: O t PO r SECO E E t n D n r H 36 E r C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L r r H t OF E t A t S E H E U t CUL I r G D A n ES FOr FOOD A C r SOU E WO t

78 AnD trEnD S O UrCE S OF AnIMAL GEnEtIC rE StAtU S S B 1B7 F IGU r E s avian breeds in June 2014 – species breakdown Risk status of the world’ Percent 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Other Partridges Chickens Geese Total Muscovy Turkeys Ostriches Ducks Pheasants Pigeons Quails Guinea ducks fowl S u STAT k IS R 12 196 133 49 23 14 1 089 17 52 43 97 19 1 744 Unknown 10 18 147 191 0 2 4 10 0 0 0 0 0 Critical Critical- 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 2 1 7 0 0 0 maintained 0 197 1 3 0 10 0 147 0 1 2 16 17 Endanger ed Endangered- 67 15 19 0 0 105 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 maintained 1 10 1 296 1 3 25 32 212 0 1 9 1 n ot at risk 0 15 2 60 82 0 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 Extinct 294 1 729 2 625 22 117 56 73 18 12 15 25 56 208 Total Note: “ Other” refers to duck × Muscovy duck crosses, Chilean tinamous, cassowaries, emus, ñandus, peacocks and swallows. Source: DAD-IS (accessed July 2014). t COnD rEPOrt On E S E H 37 S rE GEnEtIC AnIMAL S ' rLD O W H t OF AtE t S E H AGrICULtUrE AnD FOOD r FO S UrCE O E t

79 r I Y t t H E S t A t E O F LIVES t O CK DIVE S A 1 t P r IGU r F 1B8 E Risk status of the world’ s mammalian breeds in June 2014 – regional breakdown Percent 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Africa Near Europe Asia International North World Latin Southwest transboundary and the America Pacific and Middle America East and the breeds Caucasus Caribbean S IS k STAT u R 986 3 368 571 Unknown 115 132 80 201 443 840 Critical 2 332 1 0 1 3 8 352 5 0 0 36 10 1 Critical- 49 0 0 2 maintained 6 ed 10 7 338 20 0 4 3 388 Endanger 166 0 0 12 0 1 7 2 Endangered- 144 maintained 1 303 602 ot at risk 21 80 9 3 242 1 261 n 6 10 5 21 446 33 Extinct 43 565 1* 6 149 386 Total 1 361 2 738 493 147 118 207 699 The figures for each region include local breeds and regional transboundary breeds. International transboundary breeds Note: (breeds present in more than one region) are listed separately. *African Aurochs, which once lived in parts of both the Africa and the Near and Middle East regions. DAD-IS (accessed July 2014). Source: O SECO E t r PO H n D E r n t 38 t r E t I C r MAL GE I n D'S A L r E WO H t OF E t A n S E H U E SOU r C ES FOr FOOD A n D A G r I CUL t E t

80 StAtU S OF AnIMAL GEnEtIC rE S O UrCE S S AnD trEnD B F IGU r E 1B9 Risk status of the world’ s avian breeds June 2014 – regional breakdown Percent 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% World North International Southwest Near Latin Africa Europe Asia Pacific America transboundary and Middle America and the breeds East and the Caucasus Caribbean IS k STAT u S R 210 42 684 151 54 Unknown 54 114 1 744 435 0 0 189 0 0 0 Critical 1 191 1 0 0 1 9 0 Critical- 0 0 0 10 maintained ed 0 0 191 4 2 197 0 0 0 Endanger 0 Endangered- 0 2 103 0 105 0 0 0 maintained 152 n ot at risk 16 82 45 1 0 0 0 296 Extinct 2 5 75 0 0 0 0 0 82 160 54 42 54 530 1 403 152 2 625 Total 230 Note: The figures for each region include local breeds and regional transboundary breeds. International transboundary breeds (breeds present in more than one region) are listed separately. Source: DAD-IS (accessed July 2014). H E t COnD rEPOrt On E S 39 AtE S GEnEtIC AnIMAL S ' rLD O W E H t OF rE t S E H AnD O UrCE S FO r FOOD AGrICULtUrE t

81 E O t H E S t A t t F LIVES t O CK DIVE r S I Y A t 1 P r 90 percent of Africa’s avian breeds and more than draws attention to the fact that during the 80 percent of Asia’s avian breeds, lack of recent ten years up to June 2014 countries from Latin population data means that no risk status can be America and the Caribbean, the Near and Middle assigned (Figure 1B9). East, North America and the Southwest Pacific Tables 1B6 and 1B7 show the number of extinct reported almost no population data for any mammalian and avian breeds, broken down by avian breeds. Almost all the avian breeds from species and region. Europe and the Caucasus has these regions are therefore classified as being reported far more extinct mammalian and avian of unknown risk status. Likewise, for more than ABLE t 1B6 Number of extinct mammalian breeds reported World International North South- Near and Latin Europe Asia Africa Species transboundary west America Middle America and the Pacific East and the Caucasus Caribbean 1 0 2 0 1 4 0 0 0 Asses Buffaloes 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 1 1 20 120 19 20 Cattle 184 16 2 1 Goats 0 0 0 0 0 19 87 Horses 6 1 71 0 0 8 1 0 0 15 90 1 0 0 1 0 107 Pigs 3 abbits 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 r 1 1 0 Sheep 6 5 160 0 2 145 Total 43 446 21 5 10 6 1 33 565 Note: The figures for each region include local breeds and regional transboundary breeds. International transboundary breeds (breeds present in more than on region) are listed separately. Source: DAD-IS (accessed July 2014). tABLE 1B7 Number of extinct avian br eeds reported World Southwest North Near and Latin Asia Europe Species Africa America Pacific Middle America and the East and the Caucasus Caribbean 0 0 0 60 5 0 Chickens 0 55 15 0 0 15 0 0 0 0 Ducks Geese 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 0 Guinea fowl 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 t 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 urkeys Total 2 5 75 0 0 0 0 82 Note: No extinct avian international transboundary breeds have been reported. DAD-IS (accessed July 2014). Source: O t PO r SECO E E t n D n r H 40 E r C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L r r H t OF E t A t S E H E U t CUL I r G D A n ES FOr FOOD A C r SOU E WO t

82 S S S O UrCE S AnD trEnD StAtU OF AnIMAL GEnEtIC rE B breeds than any other region – 7 percent of all 1B10 F IGU r E Changes in breed risk status between 2006 and 2014 breeds reported from this region are extinct. The dominance of Europe and the Caucasus in Number of breeds terms of the number of breeds reported extinct may relate, at least in part, to the relatively 9 000 8 000 advanced state of breed inventory and moni- 7 000 toring in this region. The year of extinction has 57% 58% 6 000 been reported for only 33 percent of extinct 5 000 breeds (214). Seven breeds are reported to have 4 000 become extinct before 1900, 111 between 1900 7% 7% 3 000 and 1999, 66 between 2000 and 2005, and 30 18% 21% 2 000 after 2005 (Table 1B8). 1 000 17% 15% 0 Trends 4.3 2006 2014 Previous attempts to summarize global trends in breed risk status have been affected by the con- Extinct At risk founding effects of ongoing corrections to breed Unknown Not at risk inventories. To counter this problem, the trends in breed risk status presented in this report are DAD-IS (accessed July 2014). Source: calculated based on the most up-to-date current and historical data available in DAD-IS at the time of calculation, rather than by comparing current number of breeds for which no risk status can be data to those presented in older reports (see calculated, either because of a complete lack of Box 1B1). Figure 1B10 shows trends in breed risk data on their population sizes or because no pop- status between 2006 (when the first SoW-AnGR ulation data are recorded for the preceding ten was drafted) and 2014. The proportion of breeds years, remains very high – 58 percent in 2014 com- classified as at risk increased from 15 percent to pared to 57 percent in 2006. In short, the available 17 percent; the proportion of breeds classified data indicate that genetic erosion has continued as not at risk decreased from 21 percent to 18 over the 2006 to 2014 period, with the proportion percent and the proportion of breeds reported of breeds falling into the at-risk category increas- to be extinct remained stable at 7 percent. The ing, relative both to the total number of recorded breeds and to the number for which population data are available. However, the full picture of the status and trends of breed risk remains to a ABLE 1B8 t Breed extinction over time large degree obscured by gaps in current and his- torical data on breed population sizes. Number of breeds Period % Unspecified 67 433 1 Before 1900 7 Conclusions 5 1900–1999 111 17 Since the time the first SoW-AnGR was prepared, the 10 2000–2005 66 number of national breed populations recorded in After 2005 30 5 the Global Databank for Animal Genetic Resources Total 100 647 has increased. However, breed-related information remains far from complete. For almost two-thirds of all reported breeds, risk status is unknown because DAD-IS (accessed July 2014). Source: H COnD rEPOrt On E S t E 41 AtE S GEnEtIC AnIMAL S ' rLD O W E H t OF rE t S E H AnD O UrCE S FO r FOOD AGrICULtUrE t

83 E O O H E S t A t t F LIVES t CK DIVE r S I t Y r 1 t P A - of a lack of population data. The problem is par FAO . 2011. Status and trends of animal genetic re- ticularly marked in some regions. For example, in sources – 2010. hirteenth t r egular Session of the Africa, more than 80 percent of breed populations esources r for Food and Commission on Genetic have no recorded population data for any of the r 18–22 July 2011 (CG , ome r Agriculture, FA- 13/11/ last ten years. In the Southwest Pacific, the equiva- Inf. 17). ome (available at http://www.fao.org/ r lent figure is 90 percent. docrep/meeting/022/am649e.pdf). As a result of the introduction of the ten- FAO . 2013a. Report of the Fourteenth Regular Session of year cut-off point after which breeds revert to the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and - the “unknown” risk-status category, the per FA-14/13/ r Agriculture, Rome, 15–19 April 2013. CG centage of breeds with unknown risk status has ome (available at http://www.fao.org/ r eport. r increased significantly relative to the figures docrep/meeting/028/mg538e.pdf). presented in the first SoW-AnGR. Because of this . 2013b. Status and trends of animal genet- FAO new calculation method, direct comparisons with ic resources – 2012. Fourteenth Session of the the risk-status figures presented in the first SoW- Commission on Genetic for Food and r esources AnGR are not possible. However, trends based on Agriculture, r FA-14/13/ r ome, 15–19 April 2013 (CG comparable figures – calculated using the most Inf.16 r ev.1). r ome (available at http://www.fao.org/ up to date current and historical data available docrep/meeting/027/mg046e.pdf). in the Global Databank– indicate that erosion is . 2014a. Synthesis progress report on the imple- FAO ongoing. mentation of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Missing population data remains the biggest Genetic Resources – 2014. Eighth Session of the weakness of the current monitoring system, along Intergovernmental t orking Group on echnical W with the non-coverage of cross-bred populations, Animal Genetic esources for Food and Agriculture, r which represent a large part of livestock popula- r n FA/WG- r ome, 26–28 ovember 2014 (CG tions worldwide. To arrive at a more comprehen- AnG r -8/14/Inf. 5). r ome (available at http://www. sive picture, all livestock populations, regardless of fao.org/3/a-at136e.pdf). their level of cross-breeding, need to be included FAO . 2014b. Status and trends of animal genet- within one consistent monitoring system. ic resources – 2014. Eighth Session of the Intergovernmental orking Group on echnical W t esources for Food and Agriculture, r Animal Genetic References r n ovember 2014 (CG r FA/WG- ome, 26–28 -8/14/Inf. 4). r AnG r ome (available at http://www. FAO . 2007a. The Global Plan of Action for Animal fao.org/3/a-at135e.pdf). Genetic Resources and the Interlaken Declaration . FAOSTAT . FAO statistical database (available at http:// r ome (available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/ faostat.fao.org/) (accessed in June 2014). a1404e/a1404e00.htm). FAO/UNEP World watch list for domestic animal . 1993. The State of the World’s Animal Genetic FAO . 2007b. r diversity . Loftus & B. . First edition, edited by Resources for Food and Agriculture , edited by B. ome. r Scherf. ome (available at www. r ischkowsky & D. Pilling. r FAO/UNEP . 1995. World watch list for domestic animal fao.org/3/a-a1250e.pdf). ome diversity . Second edition, edited by B. Scherf. r Status and trends of animal genetic resourc- . 2009. FAO (available at http://dad.fao.org/cgi-bin/getblob. Fifth Session of the Intergovernmental es – 2009. cgi?sid=-1,50006347). echnical W t orking Group on Animal Genetic World watch list for domestic animal FAO/UNEP . 2000. esources for Food and Agriculture, ome, 28–30 r r ome t hird edition , edited by B.D. Scherf. r diversity. r ome r -5/09/Inf. 7). r FA/WG-AnG January 2009 (CG (available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/x8750e/ (available at ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/meet- x8750e00.htm). ing/016/ak220e.pdf). r O E SECO t PO t E D r n H n 42 t E C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L r E H t OF E t A r S E H r SOU r C ES FOr FOOD A n D A G r I CUL t U E WO t

84 Section C Flows of animal genetic resources 1 gree and performance recording were established Intr oduction in Europe and North America. International gene flow occurred predominantly within these regions The term “gene flow” is used to describe the and to a lesser extent from these regions to other movement and exchange of breeding animals parts of the world. An exception to this pattern and germplasm. Gene flow in domesticated was the movement of cattle breeds from South species has been occurring for thousands of years Asia to tropical Latin America and parts of Africa. – ever since livestock populations first began to During this period, gene flows were affected by spread from their centres of domestication (see technological developments (e.g. improvements Part 1 Section A). Throughout most of history, to transportation and communication), demand gene flows occurred through the movement of for high-producing animals and the growing live animals. More recently it has become possi- commercialization of animal breeding. The third ble to move genetic material around the world phase, which began in the mid-twentieth century, in the form of frozen semen and embryos. The has seen an acceleration of gene flows as a result analysis presented below is intended to serve as of the globalization of trade, the standardization an update of material presented in the equiva- 1 of livestock production systems, and new technol- lent section The State of of the first report on ogies such as artificial insemination, embryo trans- the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food plantation and genomics. Major gene flows occur and Agriculture (first SoW-AnGR) (FAO, 2007), between the countries of the developed “North” and focuses particularly on changes that have 2 and from the North to the developing “South”. occurred since the first SoW-AnGR was prepared. These flows have been dominated by a limited - number of breeds originating from the temper The state of knowledge in 2007 1.1 ate regions of the world. Some gene flows also The first SoW-AnGR presented a description of the occur between the countries of the South. South main historical phases of gene flow. To summa- to North gene flows are limited. In addition to rize: during the first of these phases, which lasted technological developments and demand from from prehistory until the eighteenth century, gene breeders and livestock keepers for high-output flow occurred via gradual diffusion. Livestock, animals, gene flows during this phase have been including breeding animals, were moved from influenced by government policies in both import- region to region as a result of migration, warfare, ing and in exporting countries, and by zoosanitary exploration, colonization and trade. During the regulations. second phase, roughly spanning the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century, 2 e frequently used when The terms “North” and “South” ar standardized breeds, breeding organizations and discussing gene flows to refer to developed and developing genetic improvement programmes based on pedi- regions, respectively. This terminology is used below in this section. The categories do not fully correspond to geographical 1 AO, 2007, Part 1 Section C (pages 51–75). F reality. For example, Australia is part of the “North”. E THE S C OND r E P Or T ON 43 S O r F O F S E C r U O S E r C TI E N E E A M I AN OD ' D L r O HE W F T O E T A T S THE AND A G r I C U LTU r L G

85 THE STATE OF LIVESTOCK DIVE r S ITY P 1 r T A imported animals are crossed with those • In addition to discussing historical developments, from existing locally adapted breeds to the first SoW-AnGR also presented an overview produce new composite breeds; of the global distribution of livestock species and 3 • imported genetics are judiciously introduced breeds. Again summarizing briefly, many breeds as “fresh blood” into a breed population in have spread beyond their countries of origin (1053 order to maintain the vitality of the gene of these so-called transboundary breeds are now pool; and B). However, recorded in DAD-IS – see Section • - targeted transfer of genes for specific desir the number of breeds that have achieved global able characteristics into a recipient popula- or near global distribution is limited, and domi- 4 tion using marker-assisted introgression. nated by breeds originating from the North, such as Holstein-Friesian cattle and Large White pigs. However, it also noted that gene flow could For each of the main livestock species, the first also lead to the loss of diversity, for example if SoW-AnGR provided a description of the extent breeds are driven to extinction because they are to which breeds from each region of the world replaced by exotic alternatives or if indiscriminate had spread internationally and the significance cross-breeding with exotic breeds leads to genetic of their roles in livestock production outside their dilution. countries of origin. This analysis again indicated the dominance of Northern breeds, but also high- Sour 1.2 ces of information 5 lighted the significance of South Asian breeds in The country-report questionnaire did not require Latin America. It also showed that some breeds countries to provide detailed quantitative infor - originating from developing countries (e.g. Awassi mation on current gene flows or on trends over sheep and Boran cattle) have acquired consider- time. However, it requested countries to indicate able significance within their home regions and to whether their current patterns of gene flow cor- some extent beyond. Breeds with recent Southern responded to the above-described pattern in which ancestry are generally little used in the North, the exchanges are dominated by “North−North” main exceptions being certain breeds of ruminants and “North−South” gene flows – and if not, to used in grazing systems in the hotter parts of coun- provide details of the exceptions. Countries were tries such as Australia. These include breeds devel- also asked to provide information on the effects oped in the North (e.g. Brahman cattle, developed that gene flows are having on their AnGR and the in the United States of America, based on genetics management of these resources. Another question from South Asia) and those developed in the South asked countries to provide information on any (e.g. South Africa’s Africander cattle). changes in the volume, type or direction of gene The final subsection of the first SoW-AnGR’s flows during the last ten years, and to describe the chapter on gene flow discussed consequences for consequences of any such changes. the diversity of animal genetic resources (AnGR). Additional data on gene flows were obtained 6 It noted that throughout history gene flow had from the UN Comtrade Database, which covers provided the basis for the development of a wide trade in bovines (live pure-bred and semen), range of breeds adapted to local production envi- horses (live pure-bred), swine (pigs) (live pure- ronments and the needs of livestock keepers and bred, live except pure-bred weighing less than wider society. It listed the following circumstances 50 kg) and fowls (live domestic weighing less in which gene flow can enhance diversity: than 185 grams). These data are not exhaustive. • an imported population adapts to the local For example, they do not cover informal trade, environment and over time a new (locally 4 F AO, 2007, pages 73–74. adapted) breed or population develops; 5 For mor e information about the reporting process, see “About this publication” in the preliminary pages of this report. 3 6 AO, 2007, pages 55–70. http://comtrade.un.org F THE ON SECOND PO r T E r 44 D'S ANIMAL GENETIC L r r STATE THE E CULTU I r ES FOr FOOD AND AG C r SOU E r OF THE WO

86 FLOWS O F ANIMAL GENETIC rESOUrCES C genetic material covered. Between 2005 and such as that associated with transhumance, 2012, global trade in bovine semen increased by cross-border migration of human populations US$0.2 billion, to reach US$0.4 billion. Reported or unofficial markets, or confidential informa- exports of bovine semen from the United States tion from private companies. It is also not always of America exceeded US$131 million in 2012, possible to distinguish breeding animals from compared to US$58 million in 2006. The data pre- slaughter animals. sented in Figure 1C1 seem to indicate that the rate of growth in international trade accelerated 7 from about 2006 onwards. ends of global Status and tr 2 Bovine semen exports increased at a rate of 8 percent per year during gene flows the period 2000 to 2006 and by 21 percent per year during the period 2006 to 2012. While fully comprehensive data on international gene flows are not available, UN-Comtrade 7 It is possible that the tr end is distorted upwards by more figures indicate that there have been substantial complete reporting in recent years. However, the completeness recent increases in the value of global exports of figures from preceding years has also been subject to in the various categories of live animals and ongoing improvements. 1C1 E r IGU F rends in the value of global exports of live animals and bovine semen T US$ (billion) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 2012 2002 2001 2000 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2011 Bovine, semen Horses, live pure-bred Swine, live except pure-bred < 50 kg Fowls, live domestic < 185 grams Bovine, live pure-bred Swine, live pure-bred Referring to the categories of genetic material covered in the UN-Comtrade data, Hoffmann (2010) notes that “Assuming that Note: g’ refers to-day-old chicks, this category may represent grandparent or parent stocks, or, in the case of countries that 185 ‘domestic fowl < 50 do not have hatcheries to support multiplication, also production stock. The code ‘Swine live except pure-bred breeding < kg’ may include female animals (mostly F1) from hybrid programmes, in addition to F2 feeder pigs traded mostly among OECD countries or [between] West and Eastern Europe.” Figures are based on UN-Comtrade classification HS92. UN-Comtrade, 2015. Source: T SECOND rEPOrT ON E H 45 r F O F rESOUrCES GENETIC ANIMAL S ' E H T F O TATE E S H AGrICULTUrE AND OD O WOrLD T

87 THE STATE OF LIVESTOCK DIVE r S ITY P T 1 A r 2.1 North–South and North–North While most country reports do not include detailed quantitative data on gene flows, the gene flows descriptive answers indicate that many coun- Both the information provided in the country tries have experienced increased gene flows over reports and the UN Comtrade data indicate that recent years. Significant changes in the nature the North continues to dominate global exports, of gene flows over the preceding ten years are and to a lesser extent global imports, of breeding reported more frequently by countries from animals and genetic material. Almost 60 percent developing regions than by those from devel- of country reports state that imports and exports oped regions, with the most commonly men- of genetic resources include no significant excep- tioned changes being increases in the import of tions to the dominant pattern of North to North cattle and chicken genetic resources. and/or North to South exchanges (Figure 1C2). As shown in Table 1C1, UN-Comtrade figures indi- cate that between 2000 and 2012, Europe and the Caucasus, North America and the Southwest IGU r E 1C2 F Do gene flows into and out of your country corr espond to the pattern of North–North and/or North– South exchanges? Number of reporting countries Africa 40 Asia 20 Southwest Pacific 7 Europe and the Caucasus 35 Latin America and the Caribbean 18 North America 1 Near and Middle East 7 World 128 0% 20% 80% 60% 40% 100% No Yes but with some exceptions Yes Note: The exact wording of the question in the country-report questionnaire was as follows: “Studies of gene flow in animal genetic resources have generally concluded that most gene flow occurs either between developed countries or from developed countries to developing countries. Does this correspond to the pattern of gene flow into and out of your country? (yes/no/yes but with some significant exceptions)”. n = number of reporting countries. Source: Country reports, 2014. THE ON SECOND PO r T E r 46 D'S ANIMAL GENETIC L r E STATE THE r CULTU I r ES FOr FOOD AND AG C r SOU E r OF THE WO

88 FLOWS O F ANIMAL GENETIC rESOUrCES C accounted for about a third of global imports, the Pacific (together approximately representing the vast majority of which originated from the OECD. North) accounted for between 91 and 99 percent In the case of live pure-bred cattle, non-OECD of the total value of global exports, and between countries accounted, by 2012, for the majority of 60 and 99 percent of the value of imports, in global imports (67 percent). Latin America and the various categories of breeding animals and the Caribbean is the main destination of North– genetic material for which data are available. South gene flows. For example, it has accounted In 2012, the North, as represented by OECD for about a quarter of total global imports of countries, accounted for 98 percent of live pure- bovine semen since 2000 (Table 1C1). bred swine exports, 99 percent of bovine semen Most country reports do not include quantita- exports and 87 percent of live pure-bred cattle tive information on the destinations of the respec- exports (Figure 1C3). Non-OECD countries have tive country’s AnGR exports. However, Spain’s slightly increased their share of global bovine report notes a substantial recent shift towards semen imports over recent years. By 2012, they r IGU F E 1C3 rade in pig and bovine genetic resources between OECD and non-OECD countries (2005 to 2012) T 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 Live pure-bred swine 2005 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 Live pure-bred bovine 2005 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 Bovine semen 2006 2005 0% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% Non-OECD to OECD Non-OECD to non-OECD OECD to non-OECD OECD to OECD Figures are based on UN-Comtrade classification HS92. The large increase in the share of non-OECD to non-OECD trade in total Note: bovine semen trade in the years 2006 to 2009 is in large part accounted for by exports from Colombia to the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, which peaked at US$1 million in 2008. UN-Comtrade, 2015. Source: T SECOND rEPOrT ON E H 47 r F O F rESOUrCES GENETIC ANIMAL S ' E H T F O TATE E S H AGrICULTUrE AND OD O WOrLD T

89 THE STATE OF LIVESTOCK DIVE r S ITY A 1 r P T LE 1C1 A b T Regional shares of germplasm exports and imports in the twenty-first century North Near and Latin Europe Asia Southwest Africa Type of germplasm Middle America America and the Pacific East and the Caucasus Caribbean b 0 14 3 65 13 1 3 ovine live pure-bred breeding Semen bovine 0 2 33 7 57 0 0 Fowls live domestic < 185 grams 1 3 1 73 5 18 0 Exports (%) 76 6 0 1 Horses live pure-bred breeding 17 0 0 0 21 0 78 0 1 0 Swine live except pure-bred breeding < 50 kg 1 0 Swine live pure-bred breeding 0 16 3 0 79 b 5 19 0 63 6 1 5 ovine live pure-bred breeding Semen bovine 2 10 3 44 26 13 1 Fowls live domestic < 185 grams 7 0 60 13 4 2 13 Imports (%) 2 6 2 86 1 3 0 Horses live pure-bred breeding 0 0 0 76 0 23 Swine live except pure-bred breeding < 50 kg 1 0 0 Swine live pure-bred breeding 73 10 2 15 0 Note: Shading: no colour < 25%; light blue ≥ 25% and < 50%; mid-blue ≥ 50% and < 75%; dark blue ≥ 75%. The figures are averages for the years 2000 to 2012. The shares were calculated based on total exports reported by each country. They include exchanges both within and between regions. As a consequence, Europe and the Caucasus’ share is probably increased by intraregional trade. Figures are based on UN-Comtrade classification HS92. See also notes under Figure 1C1. UN-Comtrade, 2015. Source: sented by exchanges between OECD countries, exports to the South. The share of North–North accounted for 70 percent of global trade in exchanges in the country’s total export trade in pure-bred pigs. North–South flows accounted bovine semen is reported to have fallen from for 28 percent. In this sector, the share of North– 58 percent to 33 percent between 2005 and 2012. North flows has increased in recent years. This By the end of this period, South American coun- is a result of increased imports of pig genetic tries accounted for 30 percent of Spain’s exports resources into some European countries, a trend and Kenya for 8 percent. that is noted in several country reports from Figure 1C4 shows which of the world’s coun- Europe. The report from Poland, for example, tries are net exporters and which are net import- states that “enhanced import of pig breeding ers of bovine semen (based on UN-Comtrade stock and weaners for fattening operations ... data). It can be seen that the net exporters, apart contributed to the decline of the national sow from New Zealand and a very small number of stock and overall pig numbers.” In the chicken developing countries, are clustered in North sector, the UN-Comtrade figures presented in America and northwestern Europe. In interpret- Table 1C1 show that global exports are domi- ing these figures, it should be noted that the nated by Europe and the Caucasus and North main net exporters of genetic resources are often America. As noted above, the country reports also substantial importers of genetic material. from a number of developing countries describe For example, both the United Kingdom and the increases in their imports of chicken genetic United States of America are among the world’s resources. Among developed countries, the top three importers of bovine semen. country report from Japan mentions increased In the pig sector, UN-Comtrade figures again dependence on imported genetic resources in indicate the dominance of exports from the both the pig and the chicken sectors. North. In 2012, North–North flows, as repre- PO SECOND r ON THE T r E 48 SOU D'S ANIMAL GENETIC r E STATE THE r E L r C ES FOr FOOD AND AG r I CULTU r OF THE WO

90 FLOWS O F ANIMAL GENETIC rESOUrCES C IGU r E 1C4 F Net exporters and importers of bovine semen (2006 to 2012) Net exports in US$* Net imports in US$* 0 to 10 000 0 to 10 000 10 000 to 100 000 10 000 to 100 000 100 000 to 1 000 000 100 000 to 1 000 000 > 1 000 000 > 1 000 000 * Average from 2006 to 2012 Note: Figures are based on UN-Comtrade classification HS92. Data from countries’ dependent territories are treated separately in UN-Comtrade. Source: UN-Comtrade, 2015. importing North American dairy genetics, Although global-scale import and export and the selection of dairy sires from the figures are unavailable for species other than Irish Holstein Friesian population.” cattle, chickens, pigs and horses, the country Referring to dairy and multipurpose cattle, the reports provide many examples of trade involv- country report from Switzerland notes that ing the export of small ruminants and several “the general tendency observed is that “minor” livestock species from the North. While breeders and companies tend to export trends are not always clear, it appears that in more material and import less material many developing countries such imports have from foreign countries. Several breeders increased over the last decade. Examples of associations reported that, in comparison North–South trade are described in Boxes 1C1, with 10 years ago, they rely more on the 1C2, 1C3, 1C4 and 1C6. national gene pool for management of Despite the general trend towards greater their breeds and breed improvement. For international exchange of AnGR, a few devel- example, the population of Braunvieh oped countries report that in some sectors they cows has increased significantly during have become more self-sufficient in breeding the last decades. As a consequence, material. The country report from Ireland, for breeders rely much more on indigenous example, notes that material, whereas in the past there has “a key development in Ireland has been been an important influence of US genetic the huge progress in genetic evaluation material.” systems, allowing a halting of the trend in H SECOND rEPOrT ON T E 49 H rESOUrCES F O r F ANIMAL S ' WOrLD E GENETIC T F O TATE E S H O OD AND AGrICULTUrE T

91 THE STATE OF LIVESTOCK DIVE r S ITY 1 r A T P b b ox 1C2 ox 1C1 Gene flows into and out of Thailand rends in gene flows into and out of Kenya T In the last ten years (2003 to 2013) there has been a Beef cattle Thailand imports breeding animals and frozen semen significant increase in the importation of germplasm into and embryos from North America, Australia and Kenya. Use of imported dairy germplasm has increased from below 2 percent to around 30 percent. Importation Europe. Brahman cattle are imported as replacement sires and dams. The bulls are used to improve herd of goat semen has increased from zero to a substantial amount. There has been an increase in imports of cattle genetics via both natural mating and artificial insemination. Bulls of other breeds, such as Charolais genetics (Ayrshire, Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, Guernsey, Brown Swiss, Fleckvieh, Gir, Charolais, Angus, etc.) in and Angus, are imported to produce semen for use in the form of semen and embryos from Europe, Australia, artificial insemination. Frozen Brahman embryos are North America and South America. Goat genetics imported to produce breeding animals. are imported in the form of semen (Toggenburg and Breeding animals (Thai Brahman and Kampaengsan Alpine from Europe) and live animals (Saanen from cattle) are exported to Viet Nam, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Cambodia. Frozen Thai South Africa). Importation of sheep (Dorper) and rabbit Brahman semen is exported to the Lao People’s genetics from South Africa has also increased. Kenya also Democratic Republic, Cambodia and Myanmar. imports Ankole cattle from Uganda. Exports of Kenya Boran and Sahiwal cattle to other African countries (South Africa, Uganda and the Dairy cattle United Republic of Tanzania) in form of live animals, Thailand imports frozen dairy cattle semen (mostly semen and embryos have greatly increased. There Holstein-Friesian) from Australia, New Zealand, Canada, has also been a rise in exports of Galla, Alpine and Europe and the United States of America. Breeding Toggenburg goats to Uganda and Rwanda. animals are exported to Viet Nam, and frozen semen to the Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Myanmar. Source: Adapted from Kenya’s country report. Pigs Thailand imports pigs from North America and Europe for use as great grandparents in cross-breeding schemes. The main breeds involved are Large White, South–South gene flows 2.2 Landrace and Duroc. There are also minor imports of As shown in Figure 1C3, UN-Comtrade figures indi- Pietrain and Hampshire. Large White and Landrace cate that the share of South–South trade in global pigs are exported as grandparents to Viet Nam, the exchanges of AnGR remains low. Figures fluctuate Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Cambodia. considerably from year to year. In 2012, the share of South–South exchanges (as represented by Buffaloes exchanges among non-OECD countries) in the total Thailand exports swamp buffaloes for breeding to value of trade in live pure-bred bovines reached Cambodia, Viet Nam and China. 13 percent. However, figures for the preced- ing seven years remained in the 5 to 8 percent Goats range. The share of South–South exchanges in Thailand imports dairy goat and meat goat genetics in global trade in bovine semen reached almost 8 the form of breeding animals and frozen semen. 6 percent in 2008, but is usually below 2 percent. Adapted from Thailand’s country report. Source: 8 om This peak is in large part accounted for by exports fr olivarian b Colombia to the r epublic of Venezuela, which reached US$1 million in 2008. SECOND r THE PO ON T r E 50 r D'S ANIMAL GENETIC r OF THE WO STATE THE r SOU L C ES FOr FOOD AND AG r I CULTU r E E

92 ANIMAL GENETIC rESOUrCES FLOWS O F C b ox 1C3 Gene flows into Senegal Significant gene flows into Senegal include the Uses of imported genetic resources include the following (in order of importance): following: Poultry – principally meat-producing and Exotic chickens are raised in intensive farms in 1. egg-laying chickens, imported from European peri-urban areas to supply urban markets. Breeding cocks (along with improvements to management countries, Morocco and Brazil in the form of practices) have been introduced into villages by non- hatching eggs and breeding birds, along with governmental organizations and at the initiative of small quantities of duck, quail, ostrich and goose local populations. genetic resources; , Montbéliarde, Holstein Dairy animals – Jersey Imported Ladoum and Bali Bali sheep are used 2. and Normande cattle, imported from Europe to improve the meat production performance of as live animals and frozen semen; Guzérat and Senegalese breeds. This constitutes a prestige form of Girolando cattle, imported from Brazil; Saanen, livestock keeping – the animals do not contribute to Guerra, Alpine and Majora goats, imported from the national food supply to the same extent as those Spain; belonging to the Maure and Peul-Peul breeds. Cattle, sheep and dromedaries from 3. Exotic dairy cattle and goats (as well as Nelore beef neighbouring W est African countries – cattle) are raised as pure breeds in closed production principally imported from Niger (Bali Bali sheep, systems. The products of cross-breeding between these Azawak cattle), Mauritania (Maure Zebu cattle, animals and locally adapted breeds are raised in semi- Ladoum sheep, dromedaries) and Mali (Bali Bali intensive systems. sheep); Exotic horse breeds are used in the genetic Horses and ponies – English Thoroughbred, 4. improvement of horses for use in sports and other Arabian Thoroughbred, Anglo-Arabian competitions in large towns and seaside resorts. Sale Thoroughbred, Trotter, Selle français, Hafflinger of improved horses is an important source of revenue Pony, Shetland Pony and Welsh Pony, imported for rural producers. mainly from Europe; Barb and Arab Barb imported from Morocco. Source: Adapted from Senegal’s country report. from Ethiopia to Djibouti, Kenya, Somalia, South Similarly, figures for live breeding pigs reached about 8 percent in 2008, but normally lie in the Sudan and Sudan (USAID, 2013). 2 to 5 percent range. Given the overall increase A substantial proportion of country reports from all developing regions indicate that the in the volume of international trade in these cat- respective country’s gene flows include at least South egories (Figure 1C1), the volume of South– some significant exceptions to the dominant trade is probably increasing in absolute terms. It pattern of North–South exchanges (Figure 1C2). should also be recalled that official figures may South gene The region with the highest proportion of coun- represent underestimations of South– flows. It has been estimated, for example, that tries providing answers of this type is Africa (65 percent). The most commonly mentioned informal cross-border trade may account for 80 to 9 90 percent of the total exports of live animals exception is gene flow between neighbouring countries (i.e. flows roughly at subregional level). A small number of country reports specifically 9 These figur es include animals for slaughtering, production and mention a shift away from importing genetic breeding. H E SECOND rEPOrT ON T 51 H r F F rESOUrCES GENETIC O S ' WOrLD E O T F O TATE E S H AGrICULTUrE OD AND ANIMAL T

93 r THE STATE OF LIVESTOCK DIVE S ITY P T 1 A r the country’s small-ruminant sector. The country material from the North towards importing report from Bhutan notes that, whereas in the from neighbouring countries. The report from past dairy cattle genetic resources were imported Togo, for example, states that “importations of in the form of semen from developed countries, genes from European countries are increasingly they have recently been imported in the form of rare, while those originating within the region live animals from neighbouring countries. are increasing.” It mentions as an example the More countries report that they import from fact that the government is seeking to import their neighbours than that they export to them. 4 000 Djallonké (sheep) rams and 1 000 Djallonké This probably reflects a degree of concent- (goat) bucks, within the framework of its ration of subregional-level export trade. The National Investment Programme for Agriculture species most frequently involved in the reported and Food Security, to support the development of ox 1C4 b Gene flows into and out of South Africa involved may appear small, but they have contributed The largest livestock gene flows into South Africa occur to the establishment of viable populations of the three in the dairy sector, via the import of semen for use breeds. in artificial insemination (AI). Holstein and Jersey are The amount of pig semen imported into South the main breeds involved. The use of imported semen Africa is relatively low. In the commercial sector – in predominates over the use of locally produced semen line with international trends – there has been a move from the same breeds. The cost of imported semen is towards the use of hybrid semen. However, imports are below the processing cost of the local product, and irregular and needs driven. The only regular inflow of there is some concern over the effects this is having on pure-bred genes consists of Large White semen used to the local AI industry. Import figures for cattle semen broaden the local gene pool of this breed, which is still are shown in the following table. The last three rows in demand as a mother line for terminal crossing and for show data for cattle breeds that have recently been the development of hybrid sires for the local industry. introduced into South Africa. The quantities of semen South Africa’s cattle semen imports 2009 to 2013 2009 Breed 2011 2012 2013 2010 Number of doses 953 555 Holstein 1 519 367 963 118 1 432 844 1 022 045 Jersey 388 691 620 194 445 927 513 184 412 692 Ayrshire 22 524 48 230 52 912 72 250 53 400 Angus 10 421 13 335 31 365 21 450 50 195 Simmentaler 4 870 5 037 15 220 9 225 9 850 Ankole 150 0 0 0 0 50 0 295 0 0 Senepol 700 400 6 370 565 Wagyu 208 (Cont.) THE ON SECOND PO r T E r 52 D'S ANIMAL GENETIC L r r STATE THE E CULTU I r ES FOr FOOD AND AG C r SOU E r OF THE WO

94 FLOWS O F ANIMAL GENETIC rESOUrCES C (Cont.) ox 1C4 b Gene flows into and out of South Africa South Africa’s pig semen imports 2009 to 2013 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Breed Number of doses 0 320 124 0 Large White 56 0 0 Chester White × Duroc × Yorkshire 0 0 21 Large White × Landrace 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 82 0 Yorkshire × Duroc × Hampshire 0 South Africa has established itself as a significant chickens and Holstein-Friesian cattle to Malawi; dairy cattle, goats and chickens to Mauritius; Boer and exporter of animal genetic resources within Africa Kalahari Red goats to Sudan; Dorper sheep, Boer goats and to some extent beyond. In 2012, the value of the country’s exports of live cattle for breeding and and Koekoek chickens to Ethiopia; and “high-yielding bovine semen reached US$3 million and US$472 000 breeding stock” of cattle, poultry, pigs, sheep and goats respectively. According to UN-Comtrade data, 91 percent to Botswana. See Boxes 1C1 and 1C5 for examples from of South Africa’s exports of bovine live animals and Kenya and Uganda. semen between 2006 and 2012 went to other African Embryo transfer plays a significant role in the countries, but 5 percent went to Latin America and export of animal genetic resources from South Africa. derived in vivo the Caribbean, and 4 percent to the Southwest Pacific. In 2012, the country exported 981 These exports include both breeds that originated bovine embryos, 505 sheep embryos and 621 goat embryos. The figures for sheep and goats put South in South Africa and those originally imported from other parts of the world. Net importers of bovine Africa among the world’s major exporters of small- genetic resources from South Africa during the 2006 ruminant embryos, despite disruptions caused by an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in 2011. to 2012 period included (in addition to a number of African countries) Brazil and Paraguay (see Figure 1C5). Examples of imports from South Africa mentioned in Country reports of Botswana, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Malawi, South Sources: Africa and Sudan; UN-Comtrade 2015. Semen import data are official the country reports include those of Merino sheep and import statistics as quoted in the country report. Embryo transfer figures Angora goats to Lesotho; Boer goats, Black Australorp are from the International Embryo Transfer Society (Perry, 2013). flows at subregional level in East, West and exchanges between neighbouring countries are Southern Africa, South America and Southeast ruminants. This probably reflects the relative Asia. Examples from other parts of the world dominance of pig and poultry gene flows by large include buffalo and goat genetic resources commercial companies from developed regions. flowing from India to Nepal; imports of Black While in most cases the reported subregional- and White cattle into Tajikistan from the Islamic level exchanges involve locally adapted breeds Republic of Iran (newly commenced in 2013); from the respective subregion, some countries imports of Fayoumi chickens from Egypt into mention that they import or export exotic breeds Ethiopia; exports of Jamaica Hope and Jamaica (i.e. whose origins lie outside the subregion) to or Red Poll cattle from Jamaica to Central American from their neighbours. and Caribbean countries and Jamaica Black to 1C1, 1C2, The gene flows described in Boxes Panama; and imports of Barbados Blackbelly 1C3, 1C4, 1C5 and 1C6 include examples of gene E T SECOND rEPOrT ON H 53 H r F F rESOUrCES GENETIC ANIMAL S ' WOrLD E O T F O TATE E S H AND OD AGrICULTUrE O T

95 S THE STATE OF LIVESTOCK DIVE r ITY A T 1 P r b ox 1C5 Gene flows between Uganda and other developing countries Uganda imports genetic resources from the North, but and hatching eggs began in 2010. By early 2014, about 270 000 day-old chicks had been distributed to is also involved in exchanges with other developing farmers. The breed has proved to be popular because counties. The main Ugandan genetic resources involved have been Ankole cattle. Exports have gone of its suitability for scavenging production and its relatively fast growth and high egg production. mainly to neighbouring countries (Kenya, Rwanda, Cattle breeds have been imported from Kenya South Sudan and the United Republic of Tanzania), but interest has been expressed from as far away as the (Friesian, Ayrshire, Guernsey, Jersey, Sahiwal, United States of America. Cross-bred animals (mainly Brahman, Boran and Charolais) and South Africa Ankole × Friesian) have been exported to Burundi, (Friesian, Ayrshire, Guernsey, Jersey, Brown Swiss, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda. Brahman and Romagnola). Goat breeds (Boer and Among the 180 000 dairy cattle imported into Rwanda Savanah) have been imported from South Africa. during the last eight years for the “One Cow per Poor From 2006 onwards, Camborough pigs have been Family” programme, 30 percent were procured from imported, both for pure-breeding and for cross- Uganda. breeding with the Ugandan pig. Breeds imported into Uganda from other developing countries have included the Kuroiler scavenging backyard chicken breed from India. Importation of this breed in the form of day-old chicks Adapted from Uganda’s country report. Source: Another breed from India that has gained popu- sheep from Barbados to Jamaica (information larity in some developing countries in recent years from the country reports of Ethiopia, Nepal, is the dual-purpose Kuroiler chicken (see Box 1C5). Tajikistan and Jamaica). A smaller number of country reports from devel- oping countries mention significant longer distance 2.3 South–North gene flows South–South gene flows, i.e. imports from devel- As described above (Subsection 2.1), exports from oping countries in different subregions or regions. the South account for a very small proportion of Some examples are noted in Boxes 1C1, 1C4, 1C5 recorded international gene flows. Exports from and 1C6. However, the number of developing the South to the North are even more limited in countries that have become substantial exporters scale. Exports from non-OECD to OECD countries of genetic material beyond their own subregions account for less than 1 percent of global trade in is small. Exceptions include South Africa (Box 1C4) 1C3). pig and bovine genetic resources (see Figure and Brazil (Box 1C6). There are also some notable Even within this, the majority of flows come from inter-regional South–South gene flows originat- non-OECD European countries, such as Bulgaria, ing in India. As described above (Subsection 1.1), Latvia, Lithuania and Romania, rather than from breeds from South Asia have long played a major the developing regions of the world. As shown role in cattle production in Latin America. Gene in Figures 1C5 and 1C6, even countries such as flows between the two regions were for many Brazil and South Africa that have established years blocked by zoosanitary concerns. However, a presence in international markets for AnGR following agreements reached between Brazil remain net importers of cattle genetic resources and India, recent years have seen exchanges re- from all their major trade partners in developed commence (Mariante and Raymond, 2010). regions. Four percent of South Africa’s exports of PO SECOND r ON THE T r E 54 SOU D'S ANIMAL GENETIC r E STATE THE r E L r C ES FOr FOOD AND AG r I CULTU r OF THE WO

96 F FLOWS O ANIMAL GENETIC rESOUrCES C ox 1C6 b s role as an exporter of genetic resources Brazil’ While Brazil is heavily dependent on imported (all figures from UN-Comtrade). A number of country reports from these regions mention imports from Brazil, commercial lines of pigs and poultry and is a major net importer of bovine genetic resources from several including Senegal (cattle – see Box 1C3), the Philippines countries (see Figure 1C6), it has acquired a significant (buffaloes) and Sudan (Gir, Girolando and Nelore cattle, role as an exporter of genetic resources, both to Santa Ines sheep). The Santa Ines sheep is reported (Brazil’s country report) to be attracting interest from a neighbouring countries and further afield. number of countries in Africa and Latin American and According to figures from UN-Comtrade, in 2012, the Caribbean because of its heat tolerance. the value of Brazil’s exports of live cattle for breeding As illustrated by the above figures for the value was US$16 million. Exports of bovine semen were of bovine genetic resources exports, much of the worth US$1.5 million. Exports of live horses for gene flow from Brazil occurs in the form of live breeding were worth US$1.6 million. animal exports. However, the country has also built While 59 percent of the country’s exports of bovine up its production of bovine semen and embryos. The live animals and semen between 2006 and 2012 went to other countries in Latin America and the quantities and destinations of bovine semen exports Caribbean, 38 percent went to Africa and 5 percent reported by the Brazilian Artificial Insemination to Asia (percentages refer to the total value of the Organization for 2013 are shown in the table. two categories combined). In the latter two regions, significant net importers of Brazilian cattle genetic Sources: Country reports of Brazil, the Philippines, Senegal and Sudan; resources during this period included Angola, the ASBIA, 2013; UN-Comtrade, 2015. Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Philippines Bovine semen exports from Brazil Cabo Verde United Arab Argentina Ecuador Panama Paraguay Sri Lanka Uruguay Total Emirates Colombia Breed Angola Canada Number of doses 40 2 786 onsmara b 2 726 20 100 b 11 899 850 1 030 3 670 4 249 rahman 2 000 b rangus 3 000 1 000 4 000 36 535 100 Nelore 6 066 2 301 28 068 11 115 r 2 000 500 8 615 ed Angus r ed b rangus 4 390 4 390 1 350 4 000 10 297 Senepol 2 706 1 943 298 420 Others 1 400 9 005 1 260 1 705 1 420 100 2 700 2 760 14 404 1 400 90 027 14 321 8 235 Total meat sector 200 41 958 5 549 64 116 6 300 45 469 12 147 Gir 200 Girolando 400 1 000 24 581 500 1 465 18 866 300 2 000 2 079 1 179 900 Guzera dairy Jersey 250 400 650 300 8 300 600 400 1 000 91 426 Total dairy sector 750 14 512 65 514 T SECOND rEPOrT ON E H 55 r F O F rESOUrCES GENETIC ANIMAL S ' E H T F O TATE E S H AGrICULTUrE AND OD O WOrLD T

97 THE STATE OF LIVESTOCK DIVE r S ITY P T 1 A r IGU r E 1C5 F South Africa’ s trade in live pure-bred cattle and bovine semen Net exports in US$* Net imports in US$* 0 to 10 000 0 to 10 000 South Africa 10 000 to 100 000 10 000 to 100 000 100 000 to 1 000 000 100 000 to 1 000 000 > 1 000 000 > 1 000 000 * Average from 2006 to 2012 Note: Figures are based on UN-Comtrade classification HS92. They are based on import and export figures reported by Sauth Africa and may not correspond to the figures reported by the respective trade partner. Data from countries’ dependent territories are treated separately in UN-Comtrade. UN-Comtrade, 2015 Source: established a presence in extensive grazing systems bovine genetic resources in recent years went to in the North (e.g. Boran, Africander and Tuli cattle, the Southwest Pacific, but a large majority went Boer goats and Dorper sheep), the country reports to other African countries (Box 1C4). Develop- provide little indication of any major recent South– ing regions have accounted for almost all Brazil’s North gene flows involving breeds in this category. exports of bovine genetic resources in recent years The country report from Switzerland notes that (Box 1C6), although figures from the Brazilian Arti- imports of Boer goat genetics from South Africa ficial Insemination Association show that Canada have almost completely ceased because the gene imported 28 916 doses bovine semen from Brazil pool in Switzerland is now sufficient for the repro- in 2013, accounting for 16 percent of the total duction of the breed. Australia’s country report number of doses exported from Brazil (see table 10 (2012), in Box 1C6). however, mentions recent importations of Few South–North gene flows are mentioned in Boer and Kalahari Red goat genetics, undertaken the country reports, particularly among the main with the aim of improving the carcass composition, food-producing livestock species. Where South– shape and overall quality of existing populations. North flows are mentioned, they consist largely 10 eport was prepared in 2012 at the initiative of the This r of relatively specialized resources such as camelids Australian Government. The format does not correspond to the and certain horse breeds. While, as noted above, questionnaire-based country reports prepared at FAO’s request certain breeds originating from the South have in 2013/2014. SECOND PO r ON THE r T E 56 r D'S ANIMAL GENETIC r OF THE WO STATE THE r SOU L C ES FOr FOOD AND AG r I CULTU r E E

98 FLOWS O F ANIMAL GENETIC rESOUrCES C IGU r E 1C6 F Brazil’ s trade in live pure-bred cattle and bovine semen Net exports in US$* Net imports in US$* 0 to 10 000 0 to 10 000 Brazil 10 000 to 100 000 10 000 to 100 000 100 000 to 1 000 000 100 000 to 1 000 000 > 1 000 000 * Average from 2006 to 2012 > 1 000 000 Figures are based on UN-Comtrade classification HS92. They are based on import and export figures reported by Brazil and may Note: not correspond to the figures reported by the respective trade partner. Data from countries’ dependent territories are treated separately in UN-Comtrade. Source: UN-Comtrade, 2015. ments and fluctuations in currency exchange 3 Drivers of gene flow in the rates. Flows between some countries continue to twenty-first century be inhibited by zoosanitary concerns or by lack of infrastructure and technical capacity in the use As has been the case for several decades, the of reproductive biotechnologies. In some species, growth of North–South gene flows continues technical problems related to the use of frozen to be driven by large differentials in production genetic material continue to hamper exchanges. potential between many Northern and Southern Where commercial operations with the where- AnGR, and the ongoing spread of production withal to access international markets have systems that enable the effective use of high- emerged, a large proportion of gene flows gen- output animals. Similar factors also drive some erally occur via private transactions between South–South and North–North exchanges. Indi- suppliers and purchasers (Gollin , 2008). et al. vidual gene flows are driven by particular require- Nonetheless, the country reports indicate that ments associated with the state of demand for in a number of countries, government policies livestock products and services, the characteristics directly or indirectly promote inward gene flows. of production environments and the exigencies Reported examples of direct government inter - of individual breeding programmes. Patterns of ventions to support the import of genetic materi- exchange are also influenced by broader eco- als include a project implemented by Bangladesh’s nomic and political factors such as trade agree- T SECOND rEPOrT ON E H 57 O F rESOUrCES GENETIC ANIMAL AGrICULTUrE S ' E H T F O TATE E S H AND OD O r F WOrLD T

99 S THE STATE OF LIVESTOCK DIVE r ITY 1 r T P A potential of these animals to speed up the devel- b ox 1C7 opment of the Russian breeding sector via both Influence of policies on gene flows into pure-breeding and cross-breeding schemes. oon Camer Some countries have put policies or legal measures in place that may restrict inward flows of genetic resources. For instance, importation Two policy developments have significantly affected of new exotic breeds into South Africa is only gene flows into Cameroon in recent years. First, as permitted after an impact assessment study a result of the avian influenza scare that occurred has been undertaken. These studies involve in 2006 and subsequent years, the government assembling information on the candidate decided to revamp the national poultry sector. breeds’ characteristics (phenotype, usual pro- Imports of frozen chicken were banned and the local duction environments, management systems, poultry industry, heavily if not entirely dependent etc.), as well as on their potential impacts on on imported breeding stocks, was subsidized. This South Africa’s production environments and caused a significant rise in poultry gene flow into indigenous breeds; on-site evaluation may be the country from the United States of America and required (Government of South Africa, 2003; Europe. Second, the implementation of Cameroon’s Pilling, 2007). Several breeds were reported to Growth and Employment Strategy, and particularly be undergoing impact assessments at the time its Livestock Sector Strategy, which prioritizes the of the preparation of South Africa’s country promotion of short-cycle livestock-keeping activities, report: among beef cattle, the Afrigus (a locally saw a significant rise in the importation of high- developed breed – Afrikaner × Angus), the yielding small ruminants, poultry and pigs from Afrisim (Afrikaner × Simmental), the Ankole Europe and the United States of America, as well as and the Pinzyl (Pinzgauer × Nguni); among non-conventional livestock (e.g. cane rats) from some dairy cattle, the Swedish Red; among horses, the African countries (e.g. Benin and Togo). Standardbred and the French Trotter; and among sheep, the South African Milking Sheep (a local Source: Adapted from Cameroon’s country report. composite breed). Few countries have made breed-level assessments of potential imports compulsory. However, many countries have put legal measures in place to regulate the quality of Department of Livestock Services in 2009 that imported germplasm (see Part 3 Section F). involved the importation of Brahman cattle Imports and exports of AnGR are potentially semen from the United States of America for use affected by laws related to access and benefit- in producing cross-bred animals (mentioned in sharing. A growing number of countries are enact- Bangladesh’s country report). The Brahman was ing legislation in this field (see Part 3 Section F), chosen because of its ability to thrive in harsh but practical impacts on the exchange of most environments and its resistance to parasites. The types of AnGR appear to have been limited to influence of government policies on gene flows date. The country report from Peru, however, into Cameroon is described in Box 1C7. A devel- notes that the export of alpacas and llamas is oped-country example is provided in the country subject to government quotas, implemented report from the Russian Federation, which notes with the aim of avoiding the loss of high-quality that between 2006 and 2008 the implementa- breeding animals. The problem of illegal exports tion of the country’s National Priority Project for of camelids is mentioned in the country reports of Development of Agro-Industrial Complex led to both Peru and the Plurinational State of Bolivia. the government-supported importation of sub- Zoosanitary restrictions create major problems stantial numbers of high-quality pedigree cattle, for the international exchange of AnGR. They sheep and pigs, with the aim of using the genetic PO SECOND r ON THE T r E 58 SOU D'S ANIMAL GENETIC r E STATE THE r E L r C ES FOr FOOD AND AG r I CULTU r OF THE WO

100 F ANIMAL GENETIC rESOUrCES FLOWS O C demand for specific genetic resources and that it are particularly problematic where there is a sig- is anticipated that within-breed selection will be nificant disparity between the disease statuses sufficient to respond to climate change-related of the importing and exporting countries. This challenges. Given growing recognition of the tends to disfavour developing-country export- importance of climate-related adaptations, it is ers. However, exports from developed countries possible that concerns about climate change may are also affected. For instance, the outbreak of - to some extent dampen demand for the impor Schmallenberg virus in Europe in 2012 led to tation of non-adapted breeds into tropical and additional restrictions on bovine germplasm subtropical countries. imports from the European Union into the Loss of large numbers of animals as a result of United States of America (APHIS USDA, 2014). A disease outbreaks or other disastrous events can disease outbreak can devastate export trade and precipitate increased gene flows. The country affected countries may have problems regaining report from Burundi, for example, notes that lost markets. On the importing side, breeders in recent years many cattle, particularly Friesian may have difficulty acquiring the genetic mate- crosses, have been imported from other countries rial they need. As described above, transfers of in the subregion as part of restocking efforts. An cattle genetic resources from South Asia to Latin example of the effects of a disease outbreak is America have long been problematic. The country 1C8. presented in Box reports from Australia and New Zealand note that their strict zoosanitary controls on imports place some restrictions on access to AnGR, particularly in the case of breeding material whose commer - cial value is low relative to quarantine expenses. Climate change is sometimes noted as a poten- b ox 1C8 tial driver of increased gene flows, possibly includ- fect of a disease outbreak on Ef ing increased flows from the South as a result inward gene flow – an example from of growing demand for animals that are well- the Republic of Korea adapted to climatic extremes or climate-related et al. disease challenges (Hiemstra , 2006; FAO, The foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in the Republic 2009). Shifts in species and breed distributions as of Korea in 2010/2011 led to a sharp temporary a result of climate change are already reported increase in the importation of pig breeding stocks. to have taken place, on a relatively local scale, in Pig populations that had been subject to long periods parts of Africa (FAO, 2011). There is, however, little of genetic improvement disappeared, leading to evidence in the country reports that the search increased dependence on imported breeding pigs. for climate-adapted genetic resources has influ- The large scale of the required imports also led to enced international gene flows to any significant concerns about the quality of the imported animals. extent or that countries expect this to change A shortage of breeding pigs led to problems such as in the near future. Many country reports recog- difficulties in managing the rate of inbreeding. These nize climate change as a driver of change in live- problems could have been resolved by exchanging stock production systems and in AnGR manage- genes between farms, but this was made more , where countries note 2). However ment (see Part difficult by differences in hygiene levels between changes, or potential changes, in demand for farms. It appears that these events have led to a AnGR, they generally mention growing demand lasting increase in the local pig sector’s dependence for their own locally adapted breeds rather than on imported genetics. demand for climate-adapted imports. The country report from the United States of America states Country report of the Republic of Korea. Source: that climate change has not caused any shifts in T H E SECOND rEPOrT ON 59 H r F F rESOUrCES GENETIC ANIMAL S ' AGrICULTUrE E O T F O TATE E S H O OD AND WOrLD T

101 THE STATE OF LIVESTOCK DIVE r S ITY P 1 r A T Ef 4 use, development and conservation (see Part 3 fects of gene flows Section D and Part D). The country report 4 Section from Cameroon, for example, notes that while This subsection reviews the effects of gene flows “various cattle, pigs and poultry breeds have been both on the diversity of genetic resources and on imported, and due to persistent unregulated and livestock productivity. uncontrolled cross-breeding targeting high yields there has been a marked increase in genetic dilu- Impacts on diversity 4.1 tion and erosion of local indigenous AnGR,” the As noted in the introduction to this section, gene situation has been slightly improved by compul- flow can have a number of different effects on sory organization of the recipients of imported the between- and within-breed diversity of live- genetic material into “common initiative groups” stock populations. The country reports mention and the establishment of specialized cooperatives a range of different impacts. The most commonly for the conservation of threatened breeds. reported effect of gene flows is that they con- 3, capacity Unfortunately, as discussed in Part tribute to the erosion of AnGR, often via indis- to manage AnGR is weak in many countries. In criminate cross-breeding between imported and 11 these circumstances, there is a danger that a kind locally adapted breeds. Concern about the of vicious circle will develop: lack of management effect of gene flows on diversity appears to be capacity leads to a lack of progress in developing particularly widespread in Latin America and the locally adapted AnGR; this in turn leads countries Caribbean and in Africa, and to a lesser extent in - to favour the apparently easy solution of import Europe and the Caucasus and in Asia. The country ing high-output exotic breeds; the same lack of reports provide little information about how capacity driving the process then makes it difficult serious this effect is (several mention that the use to manage the inward gene flow effectively. of imported AnGR is inadequately monitored). Several country reports note that inward gene However, its significance seems to be underlined flows have contributed to increasing the diversity by the fact that indiscriminate cross-breeding of national AnGR. In some cases, this has simply (not necessarily linked to international gene been a matter of expanding the range of estab- flows) and replacement by exotic breeds are the lished breeds available to the country’s livestock two factors most commonly mentioned in the keepers and breeders. In others, new breeds have country reports as causes of genetic erosion (see been developed by combining imported genetics Part 1 Section F). with those of locally adapted breeds. Examples While large-scale importation of exotic breeds mentioned in the country reports include the may create challenges for the sustainable man- Méré breed of cattle (Guinea) and the Dapaong agement of locally adapted genetic resources, pig (Togo). The former, a breed valued for its abil- significant negative effects on diversity are not ities as a draught animal, was developed by cross- inevitable. Where indiscriminate cross-breeding ing N’Dama cattle with zebu cattle originating is concerned, the problem is not with gene flow from Mali. The latter is a composite developed by per se , but with badly managed gene flow. For crossing Large White and local-breed pigs. example, well-planned cross-breeding with exotic A few country reports from developed coun- animals can be a means of keeping pure-bred tries mention the role of international gene flows locally adapted populations in use. Moreover, even in the sustainable management of transboundary if locally adapted breeds are increasingly being breed populations or the introduction of “fresh replaced by imported alternatives, various strate- blood” from related breeds. For example, the gies can be adopted to promote their sustainable report from Austria states that “gene flow within the region broadens 11 r esponses to an open-ended question about the effects of the genetic basis of commercial breeds and and their management. r gene flows on AnG SECOND r THE ON PO E r T 60 r D'S ANIMAL GENETIC r OF THE WO STATE THE E SOU L C ES FOr FOOD AND AG r I CULTU r E r

102 F ANIMAL GENETIC rESOUrCES FLOWS O C of exotic animals has been limited to large-scale increases breeding progress. In traditional systems or that additional management inputs breeds with transboundary populations, have been required. The report from Mauritius, gene flow occurs between Austria and for example, mentions that only large-scale pro- neighbouring countries, to stabilize and ducers have been able to introduce the improved conserve the populations.” feeding, health care and housing needed in order In some circumstances, gene flows out of a to successfully raise exotic cattle. The report country can contribute indirectly to the mainten- from the Plurinational State of Bolivia notes that ance of diversity by providing economic incen- increased milk output associated with the intro- tives to continue raising locally adapted breeds. duction of exotic and cross-bred cattle has only The country report from Kenya, for example, been achieved by adopting improved manage- notes that ment measures and modifying the production “demand for Kenyan animal genetic environment so as to allow these animals to resources in the African region has led to express their genetic potential. The report from increased stud registration and to farmers the Philippines states that production based on have joining breed societies. Exports exotic poultry and pig genetics now involves encouraged breeding, multiplication and highly controlled production environments (e.g. conservation of Kenyan breeds such as the use of tunnel ventilation). It also mentions Kenyan Boran and Sahiwal cattle.” that the introduction of animals from non- The report from Spain mentions that the breed- traditional sources (e.g. buffaloes from Brazil and ers of locally adapted breeds have recently been Italy) has been made possible by improvements to targeting the development of export markets. the country’s animal health status. , an agree- inter alia These efforts have involved, Several country reports mention the chal- ment between the Ministries of Agriculture of lenges involved in introducing exotic breeds, Spain and Brazil regarding a study on the suita- particularly into small-scale or remote production bility of Spanish Retinta cattle for use in Brazilian systems. The report from Mali, for example, notes production environments, both in pure-bred that cross-bred animals with exotic blood have form and crossed with Brazilian breeds. Related higher demands in terms of feed, health care and points are made in the reports from Norway housing, and that their management requires and the United Kingdom. The former notes that new skills and additional resources. Such animals the export of breeding material is an important are reported to be restricted to peri-urban zones. source of funding for breeding organizations Similarly, the report from Eritrea mentions that and helps to cover the costs of running breeding the management of imported buffaloes has been programmes in Norway. The latter mentions that a problem because of their high susceptibility to exports help to fund research and development tick-borne diseases, particularly heartwater. The activities that contribute both to the sustainable report from Botswana notes that farmers who management of “mainstream” breeds and to the have acquired imported dairy cattle have had conservation of breeds at risk. to resort to buying supplementary feed, mainly imported from neighbouring countries, in order Impacts on livestock pr oductivity 4.2 to supplement the animals’ diets. For further A number of country reports, both from devel- discussion of the role of cross-breeding in low- oped and developing regions, note that inward 4 Section C. input systems, see Part gene flows have contributed to increasing levels of production or productivity in their livestock populations. The circumstances in which these improvements have occurred are not always clear. Some country reports mention that the use T H E SECOND rEPOrT ON 61 T O rESOUrCES GENETIC ANIMAL r F ' WOrLD E H F F O TATE E S H AGrICULTUrE O OD AND S T

103 THE STATE OF LIVESTOCK DIVE r S ITY T 1 P r A 5 References Conclusions International flows have continued to expand APHIS USDA. 2014. Schmallenberg virus informa- over recent years. The rate of growth appears to tion Website of the United States Department of . have increased since the time the first SoW-AnGR Agriculture – Animal and Plant Health Inspection was prepared. The main drivers of gene flow con- Service (http://tinyurl.com/n56euwc) (accessed tinue to be demand for higher-output animals and September 2014). ongoing developments in livestock management b rasileira de 2013. Website of the Associação ASBIA. and reproductive biotechnologies. Exchanges are b razilian Assocation for Inseminação Artificial ( still dominated by North–North and North–South Artificial Insemination) (http://tinyurl.com/oygpd56) exchanges, with importers taking advantage of (accessed June 2014). the genetic improvements achieved in the world’s 2014. Available at http://www.fao. Country reports. most advanced breeding programmes. The share org/3/a-i4787e/i4787e01.htm. of global imports accounted for by imports into FAO. 2007. The State of the World’s Animal Genetic Southern countries has increased in some sub- Resources for Food and Agriculture , edited by . b sectors. This represents a large increase in gene ischkowsky & D. Pilling. r ome (available at www. r flows of high-output international transbound- fao.org/3/a-a1250e.pdf). ary breeds from the North to the South. For many 2009. FAO. The use and exchange of animal genetic countries, South–South gene flows are also sig- Commission . resources for food and agriculture nificant. These exchanges often occur between on Genetic r esources for Food and Agriculture neighbouring countries, but a small number of b ome (available at r ackground Study Paper No. 43. Southern countries have become suppliers of ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/meeting/017/ak222e.pdf) genetic resources on a wider scale. The country FAO. Climate change and animal genetic resourc- 2011. reports provide little indication that interest in es for food and agriculture: state of knowledge, importing genetic resources from the South is risks and opportunities . Commission on Genetic increasing in Northern countries. r b esources for Food and Agriculture ackground The country reports indicate that many coun- r ome (available at http://tinyurl. Study Paper No. 53. tries are concerned about the effects of inter- com/khdcegu). national gene flows on the diversity of their live- Gollin, D., Van Dusen, E. & Blackburn, H. 2008. stock populations. Moreover, while international Animal genetic resource trade flows: Economic gene flows have contributed to increasing the , 120: 248–255. assessment. Livestock Science output of livestock products, the establishment Guidelines for Government of South Africa. 2003. of exotic breeds in new countries and production a biological impact study. Possible introduction systems can be problematic in terms of the addi- . Department of of a new breed of farm animal tional resources and management skills required Agriculture, Pretoria. and the vulnerability of the animals to diseases, Hiemstra, S.J., Drucker, A.G., Tvedt, M.W., Louwaars, feed shortages and so on. Effective manage- N., Oldenbroek, J.K., Awgichew, K., Abegaz ment of gene flow and effective use of imported Kebede, S., Bhat, P.N. & da Silva Mariante, A. genetics involve all the main elements of AnGR Exchange use and conservation of animal 2006. management: characterization of breeds and . genetic resources. Policy and regulatory options production environments to ensure that they are Wageningnen, the Netherlands, Centre for Genetic well matched; well-planned breeding strategies; r esources, the Netherlands (CGN), Wageningen monitoring of outcomes in terms of productivity esearch Centre (available at http:// r University and and genetic diversity; and measures to promote tinyurl.com/nkltlwf). the sustainable use and conservation of breeds that Hoffmann, I. 2010. International flows of animal genetic may be threatened by the effects of gene flows. resources – historical perspective, current status THE ON SECOND PO r T E r 62 D'S ANIMAL GENETIC L r r STATE THE E CULTU I r ES FOr FOOD AND AG C r SOU E r OF THE WO

104 ANIMAL GENETIC rESOUrCES F FLOWS O C and future expectations . Paper presented at the Pilling, D. 2007. Genetic impact assessments – summary International Technical Expert Workshop: Exploring of a debate. Animal Genetic Resources Information , S of AnG b r , the Need for Specific Measures for A 41: 101–107 (available at ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/ Wageningen, the Netherlands, 7–10 December fao/010/a1206t/a1206t06.pdf). 2010 (available at http://tinyurl.com/mkra2re). United Nations Comtrade 2015. UN-Comtrade. Mariante, A. da S. & Raymond, A.K. An over- 2010. Database (available at http://comtrade.un.org) view and analysis of issues and current practices (accessed May 2015). in the international exchange of animal genetic 2013. USAID. Agricultural Growth Program – Livestock resources . Paper presented at the International Market Development. End market analysis for meat/ Technical Expert Workshop: Exploring the Need for live animals, leather and leather products, dairy S of AnG r , Wageningen, b Specific Measures for A products value chains. Expanding livestock markets the Netherlands, 7–10 December 2010 (available at for the small-holder producers . Washington D.C., http://tinyurl.com/kn6v2tb). United States Agency for International Development 2013. 2012 statistics of embryo collection Perry, G. (available at http://tinyurl.com/lwm7xmz). . International and transfer in domestic farm animal Embryo Transfer Society Statistics and Data eport. Champaign, IL, USA, r etrieval Committee r International Embryo Transfer Society (available at http://tinyurl.com/oht7u78). H T SECOND rEPOrT ON E 63 OD O r F O F rESOUrCES S ' WOrLD E H T F O TATE E S H GENETIC AGrICULTUrE AND ANIMAL T

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106 Section D Roles, uses and values of animal genetic resources oduction Intr management, both of which are important. The 1 word “use” draws attention to one of the most important general characteristics of AnGR, the “In recognition of the essential roles and fact that they were developed for use by humans values of animal genetic resources for and are subject to ongoing active management by food and agriculture, in particular, their 2 humans in pursuit of specific objectives. contribution to food security for present and The fate future generations; aware of the threats of an individual breed is closely linked to its use. If to food security and to the sustainable it is no longer used, it will become extinct unless livelihoods of rural communities posed by a conservation programme is established to main- the loss and erosion of these resources ...” tain it (either as a live population or in cryocon- As these opening words of the Interlaken served form). The word “roles” has slightly broader Declaration on Animal Genetic Resources (FAO, connotations than “use” in that it implies that 2007a) suggest, one of the main justifications for the benefits derived from AnGR can include not international concern about the state of animal only those deliberately sought by the immediate genetic resources (AnGR) and their management users (i.e. the owners or managers of the animals), is the need to ensure that livestock can continue but also inadvertent benefits. These benefits may fulfilling the roles that make them so important accrue to the owners or managers themselves, to a to the lives and livelihoods of so many people wider public, or to both. Because of their inadvert- around the world, and that the value embodied ent nature, ensuring that benefits of this kind are in livestock biodiversity is not lost. Understanding supplied in an optimal manner can be challenging. these roles and values is fundamental to efforts The “values” of AnGR are generally considered to to sustainably use, develop and conserve AnGR. extend beyond those associated with their current 3 The phrases “roles and values” and “uses and use (FAO, 2007b). Particularly significant – and one values” are commonly used as catch-all terms for of the main reasons why the conservation of AnGR is the various qualities or factors that make AnGR regarded as important – are so-called option values. important. The former features in the Interlaken This term refers to the value that arises because the Declaration and in the Global Plan of Action for continued existence of a resource increases capacity Animal Genetic Resources, while the latter was to respond to unpredictable future events. In other The the title of a section of the first report on words, it is a kind of insurance value. In the case State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources of AnGR, option value arises, for example, because for Food and Agriculture (first SoW-AnGR) (FAO, maintaining a wide range of genetic diversity 1 2007b). It is interesting to note that, although 2 Feral populations and wild r elatives of domestic species are the phrases are used more or less interchangeably, exceptions, but are potentially of use in agriculture and food they emphasize slightly different aspects of AnGR production. 3 , Box See, in particular 93 (page 430) and Subsection 2 of Part 4 1 F AO, 2007b Part 1, Section D (pages 77–100). Section F (pages 442–448) of the first SoW-AnGR. E tHE S C OnD R E P OR t On 65 S O R F O F S E C R U O S E R C tI E n E E A M I An OD ' D L R O HE W F t O E t A t S tHE AnD A G R I C U LtU R L G

107 t F LIVES H E S t A t E O t O CK DIVERSI t Y t 1 AR P The importance of AnGR diversity lies not only increases the likelihood that the livestock sector will be able to respond effectively to challenges such as in underpinning the provision of a wide range of products and services, but also in enabling these the emergence of new diseases or climatic changes. Quantifying the values of AnGR is a complex task services to be provided in a wide range of circum- stances. Many harsh production environments, that involves the use of a range of economic tools. Recent developments in this field are described in such as those characterized by extreme tempera- 4 Section E. The discussion of values presented Part tures, lack of good-quality feed, high elevations, here in this section is largely descriptive. rough terrain or severe disease pressures, can only The subsections below describe a range of dif- be utilized effectively by breeds that have particu- ferent roles performed by livestock and the signifi- lar characteristics that enable them to cope with cance of genetic diversity in the fulfilment of each these challenges. Characteristics of this type are 1 Section of them. The first addresses direct contributions to E. discussed in greater detail in Part food production, livelihoods and economic output. Livestock’s capacity to produce food and other goods and services that can be sold or used at home Contributions to food 2 is generally the main reason why people choose to oduction, livelihoods and pr raise animals and why governments implement economic output policies to support livestock-sector development. The second subsection addresses sociocultural func- The first SoW-AnGR presented an overview of the tions. In many societies, livestock play important roles of livestock in the production of goods and roles in social and cultural life: religious festivals, services for sale or for home consumption and the agricultural shows, sporting activities and so on. role of AnGR diversity in the provision of these Some events and activities of this kind may provide outputs. Tables and figures provided quantitative income-generating opportunities for livestock data on the contributions of livestock to national keepers, but cultural activities are often pursued economies (proportion of gross domestic product as ends in themselves. In many cases, benefits [GDP] supplied by the livestock sector), to food accrue not just to the livestock owners, but also to production and to international trade. These the general public in the local area. The third sub- data – drawn from FAO’s FAOSTAT database and section addresses the ecological functions of AnGR: from World Bank sources – were available only at their roles in the provision of so-called “regulat- species level (or in the case of GDP, for the live- 4 ing” and “habitat” ecosystem services. stock sector as a whole). In other words, the basic Livestock data shed little light on the relative contributions provide services of this kind via the effects that they 5 of different breeds (or breed categories) have on other elements of the ecosystem as they within graze, spread their dung, trample the ground and species to the various outputs. The data did, so on. The services may arise because livestock are however, serve to illustrate the major economic deliberately managed so as to produce them or as a significance of the livestock sector. - by-product of livestock management for other pur poses. Benefits often accrue to the public at large 2.1 oduction and food security Food pr rather than just to the owners of the animals that Since 2004 (the year for which data were pre- provide the services. A further subsection considers sented in the first SoW-AnGR), global output the roles of AnGR in poverty alleviation and liveli- of food of animal origin has increased substan- hood development and their further potential to tially (Table 1D1). Production figures are not dis- contribute in these fields. aggregated below species level (i.e. by breed or by breed category). However, the contribution 4 “Pr ovisioning” and “cultural” ecosystem services are discussed 5 eeds. For example “locally adapted” or “exotic” br in the various other subsections. E SECO REPOR O t n H t n D 66 n I n E WORLD'S A H t OF RE t A t S E MAL GE H U E t I C RESOURCES FO R FOOD A n D A GRICUL t E t

108 ROLES, USES AnD VALUES OF AnIMAL GEnEtIC E R C ES R SOU D categories of breed and the signifi- All milk production was attributed to grazing and of different cance of breed diversity in underpinning current mixed farming systems. See Part 2 Section B for further information on production-system classifi- production can to some extent be inferred from the way in which production is dispersed across - cations (Table 2B1) and the contributions of differ ent systems to the output of livestock products at production systems and agroclimatic zones. 2B2). Figures presented in the first SoW-AnGR indicated regional level (Figure Because industrial systems provide highly con- that industrial production systems accounted for trolled production environments and generally 67 percent of poultry meat production, 50 percent supply markets that demand relatively uniform of egg production, 42 percent of pig meat produc- products, they make use of a narrow range of tion, 7 percent of beef production and 1 percent of 6 breeds. These breeds tend to belong to the inter - sheep and goat meat production. The remainder national transboundary category and in many of reported production was attributed to grazing cases are considered exotic rather than locally and mixed (crop–livestock) production systems. adapted to the country in which they are kept 6 he figures, calculated in 2004 t AO, 2007b, pages 156–157. F B for further information on 1 Section (see Part based on averages for the 2001 to 2003 period, were taken breed categories). In grazing and mixed systems, from an unpublished report (FAO, 2004). Updated figures are production environments – and in some cases not available. 1D1 ABLE t Global output of animal-source foods (2004 and 2012) 2012 Change 2004 Product tonnes % Cattle meat 58 093 900 63 288 600 9 36 68 003 800 Chicken meat 92 812 100 109 122 000 Pig meat 18 92 610 000 8 470 310 Sheep meat 7 836 070 8 Goat meat 21 4 382 020 5 300 340 5 609 530 5 199 850 urkey meat t 8 3 093 810 4 340 810 40 Duck meat 23 Buf 3 597 340 2 924 490 falo meat 44 Goose and guinea fowl meat 1 945 640 2 803 720 1 419 250 1 833 840 Rabbit meat 29 Horse meat 750 747 -2 765 229 Camel meat 380 947 524 390 38 Donkey meat 189 752 211 750 12 Cattle milk 529 669 000 625 754 000 18 97 417 100 27 Buffalo milk 76 872 600 14 368 000 17 846 100 24 Goat milk Sheep milk 8 817 950 10 122 500 15 Camel milk 1 997 000 2 785 380 39 Hen eggs 55 494 700 66 373 200 20 Eggs of other birds 5 546 360 4 428 600 25 FAOSTAT. Source: PO H n t O R t E R SECOnD E 67 FOR ES C R SOU E R GEnEtIC AnIMAL S ' R L R O W E H t OF tAtE E S H E CULtU I R AG AnD FOOD D t

109 t E O H E S t A t F LIVES t O CK DIVERSI t Y 1 AR P t crop–livestock production systems another major production objectives – are more diverse than in contribution to food security comes via the supply industrial systems. The output of these produc- of inputs for crop production (draught power and tion systems comes from a wider range of breeds, manure – see Subsections 2.3 and 2.4 for further some of which, as noted above, have to be able discussion). to survive and produce in very harsh conditions. Food security depends not only on the amount However, where the climate is temperate and and quality of food produced, but also on its feed and veterinary inputs are available, it is often being available on a continuous basis. For a possible, even in grazing and mixed systems, to household, this means the ability to produce, buy make use of high-output breeds that have no par - or otherwise access food through all the seasons ticularly specialized adaptive characteristics. Thus, of the year and in the face of whatever problems global production figures for mixed and grazing they may have to contend with (droughts, floods, systems cannot be attributed unambiguously outbreaks of crop and animal diseases, unem- to one or other category of breeds. They come ployment, accidents, human sickness and so on). in part from a highly diverse range of locally As discussed in more detail below (Subsection adapted breeds (often largely restricted to their 2.5), for many poor households, a flock or herd of areas of origin) and partly from a more limited animals serves as a form of “insurance” that can range of widely distributed high-output breeds. be drawn upon when problems of this kind arise. Increased production of animal-source foods In some communities, livestock-related cultural at global or national levels does not necessarily activities, as well as gifts and loans of livestock, translate into increased consumption for every- help to build and maintain social ties that people one or into health-maximizing levels of consump- can draw upon in times of trouble. tion for the majority. On the one hand, there are The most important contribution of AnGR certain health risks associated with consuming 7 diversity to current excessive quantities of animal products (WHO/ food production and food FAO, 2003). On the other, people may remain too security – both at household and national level poor to increase their consumption levels. Many – probably lies in its role in enabling livestock people continue to suffer from nutritional defi- to be raised in a wide range of production envi- ciencies that might be overcome by increasing ronments and in enabling production systems to their intakes of meat, milk or eggs (Randolph et better withstand shocks such as droughts and al. , 2007; FAO, 2014a). disease outbreaks. However, it also contributes Understanding the link between livestock pro- to the production of more nutritionally diverse duction and food security at household or indi- food products. This diversity is mainly at species vidual level requires an understanding of the role level. However, breed-level differences do exist of livestock in the livelihoods of poor people. Two and have begun to attract some research atten- facts point to the significance of this role: the tion in recent years. The FAO/INFOODS Food very large proportion of poor people that keep Composition Database for Biodiversity (FAO/ livestock (exact figures are not available, but a INFOODS, 2012), for example, includes some data percent is often quoted [e.g. F AO, figure of 70 on the nutritional composition of products from 2009]) and the multiple benefits that many of different cattle breeds. Breed-level nutritional these people derive from their animals. The most differences are discussed in greater detail in immediate ways in which livestock contribute to G. 1 Section Part the availability of food at household level are via the supply of milk, eggs, meat, etc. for direct 7 As far as futur e food security is concerned, it provides the raw consumption and via the supply of products and material for genetic improvement to increase productivity or services that can be sold for cash that can then be otherwise develop the characteristics of livestock populations used to buy food. For many households in mixed to meet whatever demands and challenges may arise. O REPOR SECO E n t D n H t 68 n MAL GE I n E WORLD'S A H t OF E U A t S E H RE t GRICUL D A n FOOD A R C RESOURCES FO I t E t t

110 ROLES, USES AnD VALUES OF AnIMAL GEnEtIC SOU R C ES R E D Fibr es, hides and skins 2.2 llamas, yaks, reindeer and dogs – even to some extent sheep and goats) remained important in In terms of the value of sales and international many countries, and that a range of specialized trade, the most important non-food livestock prod- and multipurpose breeds were involved in the ucts are fibres, hides and skins. The first SoW-AnGR provision of these services. Figures quoted from included information on production levels for a 8 an earlier FAO report (FAO, 2003) indicated a range of skin and fibre products. It also highlighted projected decline in the proportion of land culti- some examples, drawn from the country reports, of vated using animals in most regions of the world specific breeds whose distinct characteristics make during the period between 1999 and 2030, but an them especially significant for fibre, hide or skin 9 increase in sub-Saharan Africa. production. Since 2004 (the year for which data were presented in the first SoW-AnGR), total global A more recent study prepared for FAO (Starkey, wool production has continued its decline from a 2010) provides a systematic region-by-region anal- peak reached in the early 1990s. Global wool pro- ysis of the role of animal power and a discussion of duction in 2012 was almost 5 percent lower than factors affecting trends in its use. Overall, the study in 2004 (FAOSTAT). However, some major wool- shows that the use of animal power is declining producing countries, such as China, Morocco, the as mechanized power becomes more widely avail- Russian Federation and the United Kingdom, have able and more affordable. However, the increas- increased their production levels over this period. ing use of draught animals in sub-Saharan Africa is In other countries, overall declines in wool produc- again noted. In other developing regions, the use tion have been accompanied by increases in the of animals for agricultural power and transport production of fine, ultrafine and superfine wool remains persistent wherever it continues to be (Montossi , 2013). Demand for finer wool leads et al. profitable and socially acceptable and alternatives to shifts in the use of sheep genetic resources, i.e. remain inaccessible or unaffordable (ibid.). This changes in breed choice or in breeding goals (ibid.). often continues to be the case for poorer sections Recent developments in genetic improvement pro- of the population and in geographically remote grammes in the sheep sector are discussed in Part areas even in countries where industrial develop- 4 Section C. Over the 2004 to 2012 period, world ment is relatively advanced. Trends vary markedly production of hides and skins from buffaloes, cattle from country to country, with upward trends in and goats increased, but production of sheep skins the use of some species in some countries (e.g. fell (FAOSTAT). The figures roughly reflect popul- the use of donkeys in parts of Central Asia) and ation trends in these species. rapid declines elsewhere (e.g. the use of donkeys 10 in Turkey and some countries of the Near East). 2.3 T One interesting development in the relatively ransport and agricultural draught recent past was the decision taken by Cuba to power promote the use of animal power in agriculture - In many parts of the world, animals play impor in response to the fuel shortages faced by the tant roles in transport and as providers of draught country following the breakup of the “soviet power in agriculture. The first SoW-AnGR pro- bloc” in the early 1990s (ibid.). This has involved vided an overview of the significance of draught the use of animal and mechanized power in a animal power in agriculture and transport, based complementary manner, with oxen being used largely on the material provided in the country particularly for weeding – and valued for their reports. It was clear that animal power from a capacity to work in wetter conditions (Henriksson wide range of species (cattle, buffaloes, horses, donkeys, dromedaries, Bactrian camels, alpacas, 9 t AO, 2007b, F able 29 (page 88). 10 8 Starkey cites donkey population figur able 28 (page 87) (annual totals per r F AO, 2007b, es from FAOS t A t , noting t egion based A t figures for 2004). e seldom maintained if they are not used. that donkeys ar on FAOS t PO H n t O R t E R SECOnD E 69 FOR ES C R SOU E R GEnEtIC AnIMAL S ' R L R O W E H t OF tAtE E S H E CULtU I R AG AnD FOOD D t

111 t t H E S t A t E O F LIVES t O CK DIVERSI Y 1 t AR P and Lindholm, 2000). These developments, along of the threat is difficult to estimate. Stakeholders with the country’s more general need to shift responding to a global survey on threats to AnGR towards an agriculture that was less dependent (FAO, 2009) provided information on 87 equine cattle breeds. on the use of external inputs, required changes Among these, breeds and 212 in the use of AnGR, with an increase in the use “replacement of breed functions” was ranked as cattle of animals that were well adapted to local condi- the top threat in 32 equine breeds and 10 13 breeds. tions (Government of Cuba, 2003). Relatively few country reports (7 out of Reliability in the face of uncertain access to (or 93 that include responses to the relevant quest- affordability of) fuel and mechanical spare parts ion) specifically list mechanization as a major 14 is one of the major advantages of animal power. cause of genetic erosion, although the figure is However, animals are vulnerable to threats such higher in the case of Asian countries (4 out of 17) as theft, diseases and feed shortages. Locally (see Table 1F2 in Part 1 Section F). adapted breeds are often preferred because Evidence from highly developed regions such of their greater capacity to survive in local con- as western Europe suggests that when breeds ditions (Starkey, 2010). These factors also affect lose their roles as providers of transport or agri- the choice of species. One trend reported to have cultural power, their populations often plum- been occurring in parts of the world in relatively mets towards zero. National donkey populations recent years is an increase in the use of draught provide an indicator of this effect, as donkeys are donkeys – reasons include their comparatively low rarely kept in large numbers for other purposes. cost, ease of management, resistance to drought To take one example, the donkey population of and the fact that they are less prone to being percent between 1938 Italy fell by more than 50 stolen (New Agriculturist, 2003). An increase in percent and 1968, and by 2008 had declined by 97 the use of cows or female buffaloes rather than relative to the population at the time of the castrated males has also been noted (ibid.). orld War (Starkey, 2010). This decline is Second W Replacement of animal power by mechanized reflected in the risk status of Italy’s donkey breeds, power is widely recognized as a potential threat all of which, according to the figures available 11 to AnGR diversity. Many country reports, in the Domestic Animal Diversity Information from 15 System (DAD-IS) all regions except North America, note that the at the time of writing, are class- use of animal power is in decline as a result of breeds) or ified as being at risk of extinction (13 12 replacement by mechanized power. already extinct (3 breeds). The strength One factor that often speeds the decline of of the trend varies from country to country. For animal power (or slows its growth) is the percep- example, the report from Lesotho notes that tion that it is an old-fashioned technology whose stock theft is leading to draught animal power time has passed. This perception is common both being rapidly replaced by machinery. Conversely, among potential users (farmers, etc.) and among the report from Bhutan notes that although farm development workers and policy-makers. At times, mechanization is underway, the country’s steep this leads to unprofitable decisions to invest in terrains mean that AnGR and their management mechanized power and to the absence of support have been affected only minimally and that services for draught animals (Starkey, 2010). As future effects are also expected to be minor. The well as leading to missed opportunities in the short report from the Philippines states that “because of the increasing cost of oil, many farmers still rely 13 on large animals for draught.” The precise extent e chosen from a list of options. In both equines Answers wer and cattle, the most frequently mentioned category of threat 11 For mor e information on the reporting process, see “About this was “economic and market-driven threats”. 14 t his was an open-ended question. Countries were not publication” in the preliminary pages of this report. 12 In r esponse to a general question about changing breed eat. specifically asked whether mechanization is a thr 15 http://fao.org/dad-is functions. E SECO REPOR O t n H t n D 70 n I n E WORLD'S A H t OF RE t A t S E MAL GE H U E t I C RESOURCES FO R FOOD A n D A GRICUL t E t

112 E R C ES ROLES, USES AnD VALUES OF AnIMAL GEnEtIC SOU R D case of free-grazing animals – to range over the term, these attitudes are not helpful to the long- ground where the manure needs to be spread, are term conservation and development of AnGR in unlikely to be the best providers of this service. breeds and species used as sources of power. One study that did compare the level of manure Working animals are often ignored in national provision from two different breeds (strictly agricultural and rural-transport strategies and speaking, one breed and one interspecies cross) policies, and this means that they are often not compared the amount of organic matter intro- targeted by animal health interventions, research duced into fish ponds by Pekin ducks and mule programmes, extension activities and so on ducks – and found that the former provided sig- (FAO, 2014b). Their significance to people’s liveli- nificantly more (Nikolova, 2012). The difference hoods often remains unrecognized. Donkeys, for arose because of the faster growing rate of the example – a species that tends to be particularly Pekin ducks and because they spent more time in overlooked – provide vital services to many poor the water (ibid.). households, and to women in particular, by reduc- The other main use made of livestock dung is as ing the drudgery of domestic tasks such as trans- a source of fuel, either in the form of dried dung porting water and firewood and by providing a cakes or via the production of biogas. This role, source of income (Valette, 2014). Gaps in knowl- along with minor uses such as burning dung to edge on the livelihood roles of working animals ward off insects and the use of dung as a building and the extent of their economic contributions material, was noted in the first SoW-AnGR. These need to be addressed in order to enable the design functions were mentioned in a small number of of appropriate support measures and to help raise country reports, but there was no indication that awareness at policy level (FAO, 2014b; Valette, they had any significant effect on the manage- 2014). ment of AnGR aside from adding some degree of extra incentive to keep livestock and hence to 2.4 e and fuel Manur keep the respective breeds in use. Apart from draught power, the other main animal The use of dung for fuel has downsides in some -derived agricultural input discussed in the first circumstances. It can use up dung that would oth- SoW-AnGR was manure. Several examples from erwise help to keep soils fertile, and burning dried the country reports illustrated the continued (and dung in poorly ventilated homes can cause serious in some situations increasing) importance of live- human health problems (IEA, 2006). On the pos- stock as a source of manure for use in agriculture. itive side, in production systems where manure For small-scale farmers in mixed crop–livestock - management is a challenge in itself (this is par production systems, securing a supply of manure ticularly the case in so-called landless systems) the can be among the most important reasons for use of manure as a source of energy is increasingly keeping animals. For example, a study conducted being regarded as an attractive option. by Ejlertsen (2013) in the Gambia, indicated et al. that among mixed farmers with fewer than ten cattle, manure supply ranked as the second most Savings and insurance 2.5 important reason for keeping cows and third for Another function highlighted in the first SoW- keeping bulls. Among farmers with larger herds, AnGR was livestock’s role in the provision of manure supply was reported to be the most savings and insurance services, a function particu- important livestock function (ibid.). larly important in areas where livestock keepers do The capacity of livestock to serve as providers not have access to conventional financial services. of manure is normally considered at the species Where savings are concerned, a herd or flock of level rather than in terms of within-species diver - animals can serve as a kind of “bank” in which spare sity. However, breeds that struggle to survive resources (cash or physical inputs such as feed) can in the local production environment or – in the be invested. Animals can then be sold from time PO H n t O R t E R SECOnD E 71 FOR ES C R SOU E R GEnEtIC AnIMAL S ' R L R O W E H t OF tAtE E S H E CULtU I R AG AnD FOOD D t

113 E O F LIVES Y t H E S t A t t CK DIVERSI t O 1 AR P t The country report questionnaire for the to time to meet household expenses. Alternatively, second SoW-AnGR did not directly ask countries the herd or flock may be built up with the aim of to provide information on the significance of the meeting some larger expense. As noted above, cultural roles of their AnGR. However, as part of livestock can also serve as a form of “insurance”, the assessment of the effects of livestock sector in the sense that if some kind of costly misfortune trends, countries were asked to provide comments (sickness, a period of unemployment, crop failure, on the effects that changes in the cultural roles of etc.) strikes the livestock owner, animals can be sold livestock are having on AnGR and their manage- to mobilize resources to deal with the problem. For ment and to provide scores for the significance of small-scale livestock keepers in developing coun- these effects over the preceding ten years and for - tries these functions can be among the most impor the forthcoming ten years (see Part 2). The textual tant reasons for keeping livestock. For example, answers can be roughly grouped into four cate- the above-mentioned study in the Gambia found percent); gories: no clear indication of trends (61 that among poorer livestock keepers (those having indication that cultural significance is remaining fewer than ten cattle), savings and insurance was percent); at approximately the same level (20 ranked as the most important reason for keeping indication of increasing cultural significance , 2013). et al. cattle, goats and sheep (Ejlertson - percent); and indication that cultural signifi (8 In principle, any kind of animal can provide cance is decreasing (11 percent). These figures are savings and insurance services. When the time clearly only very approximate indicators of trends. comes to sell, an animal that commands a higher However, it is interesting to note that all the coun- price will obviously be preferable. However, from tries mentioning downward trends are develop- the perspective of risk management, keeping ing countries, while eight out of the ten countries animals that have a good chance of surviving in reporting upward trends are developed countries. the local production environment will be impor - Where downward trends are described, the tant. Likewise, from the perspective of accumu- reason in most cases is reported to be a decline lation, keeping animals that can reproduce well in traditional cultural roles. For example, Togo’s in the local production environment and can country report mentions that a decline in tradi- make use of low-quality (and low-cost) local feed tional beliefs has led to a loss of interest in main- resources will have advantages. taining culturally significant livestock breeds, A few country reports (e.g. Guinea-Bissau particularly breeds of chicken. Similarly, the and Mali), in response to a general question report from Bhutan notes that the rearing of about changes in livestock functions, note that animals for use as sacrifices or offerings is dying livestock’s savings and insurance functions are away. In the case of Guinea-Bissau, economic in decline. Other reports, however, specifically reasons are reported to have led to a decline in note that these functions remain important (e.g. the practice of slaughtering large numbers of Swaziland, Tajikistan, Uganda and Zimbabwe). animals at funeral ceremonies. The report from Ethiopia notes that “there is a change in the role of livestock in Sociocultural r oles 3 the pastoral area. Livestock used to serve as compensation in ... [the] cultural settlement of The country reports prepared for the first SoW- disputes, but there is an increasing tendency AnGR clearly indicated that livestock – and often to use the legal system. ... [C]ash payments are specific breeds – play important roles in many cul- replacing other cultural roles of livestock.” tural activities at both household and community The report from Uganda notes a link between levels and that in many countries native breeds changing cultural practices and the spread of and species are regarded as important elements exotic cattle: of national heritage. E SECO REPOR O t n H t n D 72 n I n E WORLD'S A H t OF RE t A t S E MAL GE H U E t I C RESOURCES FO R FOOD A n D A GRICUL t E t

114 R E ES SOU ROLES, USES AnD VALUES OF AnIMAL GEnEtIC R C D with respect to possible breed-level differences in “in ... [some] parts of the country, cultural capacity to provide services. The report, however, aspects of livestock have not changed at all, noted that the provision of ecosystem services in while in other parts the changes are marked, harsh production environments, such as moun- especially in areas where exotic [breeds] are tains and arid rangelands, requires animals that kept. For example, in Central Uganda, cattle can thrive in local conditions, and that therefore are no longer being used as bride-price, the role of locally adapted breeds was likely to whereas in the western and the north eastern be important. It also noted the possible signifi- parts of the country, this practice goes on.” cance of between-breed differences in grazing Despite these various indications of decline, it and browsing habits. should be noted that among country reports from Interest in the links between AnGR manage- developing countries comments of this type are ment and the provision of ecosystem services has outnumbered by clear statements that significant increased in recent years. For example, in 2013, cultural roles are being maintained. It should also the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food be noted that the decline of a cultural role does not and Agriculture requested FAO to work on the necessarily lead to a negative effect on AnGR diver - identification of ecosystem services provided by - sity and that an increasing role does not necessar different livestock species and breeds (FAO, 2013). ily have a positive effect. The country report from This led, inter alia , to the organization of two Ethiopia, for example, states that the reported questionnaire surveys (one targeting Europe and changes have had “no significant effect on the the other global) on the roles of livestock in the livestock genetic resources and ... [are] unlikely to provision of ecosystem services in grassland eco- have sizeable effect in the foreseeable future”. The systems. The findings of these surveys, along with country report from Samoa notes that an increase an extensive literature review, are presented in a in the use of cattle to meet cultural and social background study paper (FAO, 2014c) prepared as obligations has led to a decline in the number of part of the second SoW-AnGR reporting process. animals available for breeding purposes. Ecosystem services can be grouped into the The reported increases in cultural roles in following categories: provisioning; regulating; developed countries appear to relate mostly to a 1D1). Provisioning habitat; and cultural (see Box growing interest in the history and traditions of and cultural services are discussed above and rural areas. The country report from Slovenia, for were addressed at greater length in the first example, notes that “traditional events from the -AnGR. Where provisioning services are con- SoW past (livestock exhibitions, festivals ...) are becom- cerned, the above-mentioned background study ing more attractive to the wider public.” There is paper emphasises livestock’s capacity to convert also some indication of increasing interest in the feed sources that are not edible to humans into use of animals for therapeutic and educational meat, milk and eggs. This occurs, for example, purposes (mentioned in the country reports of when livestock graze areas that cannot be used Italy and Japan). for crop production, when they eat crop residues such as straw, when they eat the by-products of food processing and when they eat waste food 4 oles – the provision Ecological r products that are no longer edible to humans. of regulating and habitat These examples can be contrasted with cases in ecosystem services which animals are fed on feeds such as grains that could otherwise be used directly by humans. The first SoW-AnGR noted the many ways in which While the most obvious consequence of the livestock contribute to the functioning of the eco- use of human-inedible material by animals may systems within which they are kept. Information (other things being equal) be an increase in the on these roles was, however, limited – particularly n H E SECOnD t E PO R t O R 73 H FOR ES C R SOU E R GEnEtIC AnIMAL S ' E L R O W E t OF tAtE E S H R FOOD AnD AG R I CULtU D t

115 t Y H E S t A t E O F LIVES t O CK DIVERSI t 1 AR t P palm estates and that their grazing and dunging Box 1D1 reduces the need for the use of herbicides and Categories of ecosystem services fertilizers. In addition to removing unwanted plant mate- The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA, 2005) rial, livestock can sometimes also play a role in the distinguished four categories of ecosystem services: control of agricultural pests and disease vectors. • provisioning services – “the products obtained Poultry, for example, can contribute to the control from ecosystems” (e.g. food, fibre, fuel and fresh , 1997; Duffy et al. of ticks (Dreyer , 1992). et al. water); Hatfield (2011) show the potential for using et al. regulating services • – “the benefits obtained grazing sheep to control wheat stem sawfly infes- from the regulation of ecosystem processes” tations in cereal production systems in the United (e.g. air-quality regulation, climate regulation, States of America. In China, rice–duck farming (a pollination and natural-hazard regulation); traditional local system) has been reintroduced in • – “those that are necessary supporting services recent years, particularly in organic production, for the production of all other ecosystem ser - because of the benefits the ducks provide in terms vices” (e.g. soil formation, photosynthesis and , 2009). et al. of pest control (Teo, 2001; Zhang nutrient cycling); and The significance of livestock manure in crop pro- • cultural services – “non-material benefits However, 2.4). duction is noted above (Subsection people obtain from ecosystems through spiritual dunging also affects the health of grassland soils, enrichment, cognitive development, reflection, which in turn is fundamental not only to the pro- recreation, and aesthetic experiences”. ductivity of grazing systems, but also to their roles in Some services (particularly supporting and carbon sequestration and water cycling. Outcomes regulating services) are inputs to the production of depend on the particular characteristics of the eco- others (particularly provisioning services). system and on the type of grazing management The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity practised. The effects of dunging have to be consid- initiative (TEEB, 2010) subsumed supporting services ered alongside the effects of grazing and trampling. within the regulating-service category. It also Many rangelands have suffered soil compaction habitat services introduced an additional category – and erosion as a result of badly managed livestock – the intention being to highlight the importance grazing. However, appropriately managed grazing of ecosystems in the provision of habitats that, for can in some circumstances contribute to improving example, allow migratory species to complete their life et al. et al. soil health (Peco , 2012). , 2006; Aboud cycles and enable the maintenance of genetic diversity. In many countries, grazing livestock play a sig- nificant role in the creation and maintenance of Source: Adapted from FAO, 2014d. fire breaks and hence in reducing the spread of wildfires (Huntsinger, 2012; Garcia et al. , 2013). They can also contribute to reducing the risk of food supply, in some circumstances, the removal avalanches (Fabre , 2010). In addition to disas- et al. of unwanted plant material can constitute a ter-risk reduction, there are a number of different service in itself. In grazing systems, the benefits circumstances in which preventing the spread of concerned may relate to the removal of plant particular types of vegetation may be desirable, for material that creates a fire hazard or to the example in preventing the loss of wildlife habitats control of invasive species (see further discussion or particular landscape features valued for their below). In mixed systems, livestock may be used aesthetic characteristics or for recreational use. to control weeds (e.g. on fallow land) or in the The use of livestock specifically for the purpose et management of crop residues (e.g. Hatfield of creating or maintaining wildlife habitats has al. , 2011). The country report from Malaysia, for become widespread in a number of European example, notes that beef cattle are raised on oil- E SECO REPOR O t n H t n D 74 n I n E WORLD'S A H t OF RE t A t S E MAL GE H U E t I C RESOURCES FO R FOOD A n D A GRICUL t E t

116 E SOU C ES R ROLES, USES AnD VALUES OF AnIMAL GEnEtIC R D countries (FAO, 2014c). There are also a number Box 1D2 of examples in North America (Schohr, 2009). The The use of livestock in the provision of main mechanisms involved are selective grazing, ecosystem services – examples from the nutrient redistribution, treading and seed distrib- United States of America ution (Wrage et al. , 2011). While the use of livestock specifically to provide wildlife habitats is rare in the Livestock provide ecosystem services in a number developing regions of the world, the significance of ways across diverse ecosystems. In the southern of livestock has sometimes been illustrated by the plains, goats and to a lesser extent sheep are used unexpected and undesirable consequences of their to mitigate brush encroachment. Sheep and goats removal from particular ecosystems. For example, are also used to manage vegetation growth (e.g. in Keoladeo National Park, India, a ban on grazing trees and shrubs) along the paths of electrical power by buffaloes led to uncontrolled growth of a water lines in mountainous areas and thereby reduce the weed, which in turn prevented Siberian cranes, a use of herbicides. On mountainous public lands, critically endangered species, from accessing plants sheep and cattle grazing contributes to vegetation tubers, their main food source. This led to a dra- health and plant diversity. Particularly in the matic decrease in the numbers of cranes in the park Great Plains, livestock grazing can stimulate plant , 2000). (Pirot et al. vegetative processes that result in increased carbon Studies of the provision of regulating and sequestration. In the western half of the country, habitat ecosystem services by livestock have sheep are used in the biocontrol of noxious weeds. All mostly focused on species-level effects, i.e. of these roles operate at species level. They are not have not sought to determine whether there based on the use of specific breeds. are any breed-level differences in capacity to provide these services (FAO, 2014c). Given that Adapted from the country report of the United States of America. Source: many ecosystem services are provided in pro- duction environments that are, in one way or another, harsh (mountains, arid grasslands, to be more effective than others at removing etc.), it can be assumed that in some cases, only 1D3 specific weeds or invasive plants (see Box for locally adapted breeds can deliver the services example). There may also be other circumstances effectively. However, there may be a number of in which the use of particular breeds is important different breeds that are able to do so, includ- – for instance, where only lightweight breeds can ing those from outside the local area or even be used because heavier animals would damage from other countries. This is demonstrated, for 1D4 for example). fragile soils (see Box example, by the widespread use of Polish Konik - horses and Scottish Highland cattle for conser vation grazing outside their countries of origin. Roles in poverty alleviation 5 One documented case in which a breed’s specific and livelihood development adaptive characteristics enable it to provide eco- system services where other breeds would fail to The first SoW-AnGR recognized the widespread do so is that of the Chilika buffalo, whose grazing importance of livestock in the livelihoods of poor and dunging play a vital role in maintaining the people, noting in particular the role of genetic ecosystem of Chilika Lake in eastern India as a diversity in underpinning the multiple services , et al. wildlife habitat and a fishing ground (Patro provided by livestock to many poor households 2003; Dash , 2010). Evidence that breed-level et al. and the adaptations that enable animals to thrive differences in feeding habits affect the provision in harsh environments and low external input of ecosystem services is limited. However, there production systems. These observations appear are some cases where specific breeds are reported still to be valid (see Subsection 2). PO H n t O R t E R SECOnD E 75 FOR ES C R SOU E R GEnEtIC AnIMAL S ' R L R O W E H t OF tAtE E S H E CULtU I R AG AnD FOOD D t

117 t Y H E S t A t E O F LIVES t O CK DIVERSI t P AR 1 t It advocated policies and interventions to FAO’s 2009 report The State of Food and on support all three groups. , which focused on the livestock sector, Agriculture Livelihood strategies with different objectives noted opportunities for poverty reduction pre- and that involve keeping animals in different sented by the rapid growth of the livestock sector production environments are likely to require had been missed because of various institutional different types of AnGR and any interventions and policy failures. The report classified poor or aiming to support small-scale livestock keepers small-scale livestock keepers into three groups: or pastoralists need to take this into account. those that have the potential to compete as 1. While the tendency to assume that the approp- commercial producers; riate objective in all circumstances is to intro- 2. those for whom livestock continue to play an duce “improved” exotic AnGR remains prevalent, important role as a livelihood “safety net”; awareness of the significance of adaptedness to and local conditions is probably increasing, perhaps those who are in the process of moving out 3. driven in part by growing concerns about climate of the livestock sector . Box 1D3 A special sheep breed helps to preserve centuries-old grassland in the Alps a realistic management option given the enormous labour costs involved and the green alder’s rapid “hydra-like” resprouting from its root stock. In former decades, goats browsed buds and young shoots and thus prevented the spread of the green alder. In some regions, people also used the shrubs for fuel wood. Today, goats are a marginal livestock species in the Alps and sheep are the main grazers. However, the most abundant sheep breeds feed on grass and ignore woody plants. Once the green alder bushes are fully established Photo credit: Tobias Zehnder. – 2 to 3 metres tall and formed into dense, impenetrable thickets – specialist browsers that Reduction in land use and complete land peel the bark are needed. An old, traditional, abandonment are widespread in the mountainous sheep breed known as the Engadine sheep, which regions of Europe. Shrubs and trees are expanding was almost extinct in the 1980s (mainly because into montane and subalpine grassland in the Alps. of its low slaughtering weight), does exactly this. In particular, the nitrogen-fixing shrub Alnus viridis Although it also feeds on grass, the breed appears (green alder) is currently spreading very rapidly. to be addicted to young tree stems, green alder The shrub’s ability to symbiotically fix nitrogen in particular. It excessively removes the bark from from the atmosphere leads to massive nitrogen branches and stems, which inhibits the allocation enrichment, reduces biodiversity and suppresses of sugars from shoots to roots, creates open and species succession towards coniferous forests. It deep wounds that are rapidly infested by diseases A. is nearly impossible to fight the expansion of and ultimately causes the death of the shrubs, with viridis shrubs into centuries-old pastures and hay almost no resprouting. meadows that are hotspots of biodiversity and part (Cont.) of the region’s cultural heritage. Clear-cutting is not REPOR O SECO E t n D n H t 76 MAL GE I n RE E WORLD'S A H t OF U t A t S E H t GRICUL D A n FOOD A R C RESOURCES FO I t E n E t

118 E R C ES ROLES, USES AnD VALUES OF AnIMAL GEnEtIC SOU R D (Cont.) Box 1D3 A special sheep breed helps to preserve centuries-old grassland in the Alps partially encroached pastures, with shrub coverage ranging from 25 to 55 percent (within defined paddocks), for the duration of one summer. In the following year, mortality of A. viridis branches (not individual shrubs) was on average 46 percent, with a maximum of 76 percent in lightly encroached pastures. A second browsing treatment increased the damage – in other words the success of the browsing treatment – even in very dense shrubland. With a total of more than 420 000 sheep in Switzerland, even a minor replacement of common breeds by the Engadine would have great potential for fighting shrub and tree expansion into high mountain grassland, while at the same time helping to conserve a traditional livestock breed. As an additional advantage, the Engadine is very healthy and fertile, even under harsh grazing conditions. Its meat is not fatty, but the accumulated fat is rich in unsaturated Photo credit: Tobias Zehnder. fatty acids. In a controlled browsing/grazing experiment, the Engadine proved to be a very efficient land-cover Provided by Tobias Zehnder, Erika Hiltbrunner, Tobias Bühlmann and engineer: a flock of ewes and lambs grazed several Christian Körner. Box 1D4 The use of livestock in the provision of ecosystem services – examples from Poland There are some cases in which the provision of specific environmental services requires the use of specific species or even breeds. One example is the utilization of Polish Konik horses in vegetation control in the Biebrza National Park. It is impossible to use other species such as sheep to perform this service because of the presence of wolves. Only horses adapted to free-range grazing manage to do well in these circumstances. Another example is the Swiniarka sheep, a breed that is used to graze xerothermic grasslands in the south of Poland. These very fragile Photo credit: Jacek Łojek. grasslands can be only grazed by animals that have a light body weight and require very little care. Adapted from the country report of Poland. Source: n R PO E R t O SECOnD E H t 77 AnIMAL E CULtU I R AnD FOOD FOR ES C R SOU E R GEnEtIC R S ' D L R O W E H t OF tAtE E S H AG t

119 t F LIVES Y t t H E S t A CK DIVERSI E O O t t 1 AR P change (FAO, 2011; HPLE, 2012). Breeding strat- livelihoods of women livestock keepers. The role of women as guardians of AnGR and the role of egies and programmes, including those target- locally adapted breeds in women’s livelihoods was ing low-input production systems, are discussed C and Part 3 Section in greater detail in Part addressed in more detail in the FAO publication 4 Section Invisible guardians – women manage livestock C. Another feature of AnGR diversity that has diversity (FAO, 2012). From the livelihoods perspec- attracted increasing attention in recent years is its tive, two main characteristics of locally adapted potential as a basis for the development of niche- breeds are highlighted as being particularly market products. The role of niche marketing in relevant to women livestock keepers. First, locally adapted breeds tend to be easier to care for than the conservation and sustainable use of at-risk 4 Section , D. However exotic breeds. Keeping these breeds can there- breeds is discussed in Part it clearly also has potential implications for fore more easily be combined with household livestock keepers’ livelihoods. Niche markets and child-rearing tasks. Second, locally adapted normally emerge in more affluent countries, breeds are normally better able than exotic breeds and targeting them effectively normally requires to access and utilize common property resources a relatively high level of organization among (because of their ability to negotiate the local producers, a reliable marketing chain, well- terrain and make use of local feeds). This capac- organized marketing campaigns and, for some ity tends to be particularly important for women types of product, an effective legal framework. because of the major gender inequalities that exist Their significance in developing countries in terms of land ownership and hence women’s has therefore been limited. Marketing many greater reliance on common grazing land. livestock products involves particular problems because of their perishable nature and in many cases because of zoosanitary restrictions on 6 Conclusions and r esearch their export to developed countries. Despite priorities these constraints, a few examples of successful niche-market development involving small-scale The first SoW-AnGR concluded that while various livestock keepers and pastoralists keeping locally livestock functions are gradually being replaced adapted breeds have been documented. Several by alternative sources of provision, the use of Adding value to are reported in the publication livestock remained very diverse. It also noted that livestock diversity – marketing to promote local knowledge of these roles is often inadequate and , 2010). et al. (LPP breeds and improve livelihoods that this hampers the development of approp- In addition to initiatives of this kind that target riate management strategies. These conclusions markets more or less external to the local area, remain relevant. Trends in the use of livestock it is quite common for local consumers to have products and services were not investigated in long-standing preferences for food products detail as part of the country-reporting process for supplied by the traditional breeds of the local the second SoW-AnGR. However, many country area and to be willing to pay a premium price reports indicate that changes are taking place. for these products. Where this is the case, the The most frequently mentioned change of this breeds in question provide their keepers with type is a decline in the use of animal power in relatively high-value products to sell (in addition agriculture and transport. This implies the need to contributing to the local culinary culture). to monitor trends in the population sizes of The country reports prepared for the first SoW- breeds used for these purposes. AnGR included several references to the role of As far as knowledge gaps are concerned, an particular species and breeds of livestock in the important priority is to improve our understanding O REPOR SECO E n t D n H t 78 n MAL GE I n E WORLD'S A H t OF E U A t S E H RE t GRICUL D A n FOOD A R C RESOURCES FO I t E t t

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124 Section E Animal genetic resources and adaptation Intr oduction 1 tries to enter textual descriptions of their breeds’ particular adaptations. To date, information of this kind has been provided only for a small The State of the World’s The first report on number of the recorded breeds. This subsection Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agri- provides an overview of the information on adap- (first Sow-AnGR) (FAO, 2007) included a culture tations recorded in DAD-IS as of June 2014. discussion of genetic resistance to, and tolerance of, diseases and parasites and the potential role 1 of genetic diversity in disease control strategies. 2.1 Adaptations at species and br eed This section updates the discussion presented level in the first report, but also considers a broader range of adaptations important to the survival Bovines and productivity of animals in various production A total of 139 breeds of buffalo are recorded in environments. The section is structured as follows: DAD-IS. Descriptions of their adaptations gen- Subsection 2 summarizes the information on erally focus on their hardiness and adaptedness breed-specific (non-disease related) adaptations, to high temperatures. The Anadolu Mandası of recorded in the Domestic Animal Diversity Infor - Turkey is known for its strong herd and maternal 2 mation System (DAD-IS); instincts and for protecting all the calves in the Subsection 3 provides herd. The Chilika buffalo of India is known for its a discussion of non-disease related adaptations, adaptedness to saline conditions. based on the scientific literature; Subsection 4 Yaks have only a limited area of distribution provides an updated discussion of disease resist- – extending from the southern slopes of the ance and tolerance; and Subsection 5 presents Himalayas in the south to the Altai in the north some conclusions and research priorities. and from the Pamir in the west to the Minshan Mountains in the east. They are found in cold, subhumid alpine and subalpine zones at eleva- Global information on 2 metres. In addition 000 000 and 5 tions between 2 adaptations to its adaptedness to high elevations and cold climate, the species is recognized for its docility As described in Part 1 Section B, in the early 1990s , the records in DAD-IS and hardiness. However FAO began to build up the Global Databank for provide little information about the specific Animal Genetic Resources, which now forms the adaptive characteristics of individual yak breeds. backbone of DAD-IS. Along with data on popula- Cattle have spread throughout the world and are tion sizes, morphology, etc., DAD-IS allows coun- found in almost all climatic zones, but not at high elevations. The most commonly reported breed- 1 1 Section E (pages 101–112). AO, 2007, Part F 2 specific adaptations in this species are hardiness and http://fao.org/DAD-IS C OnD r E E Or t On tHE S P 83 S O O F S E C r U OD O S E r C tI E n E L G A M I An r F ' D L r O HE W F t O E t A t S tHE AnD A G r I C U LtU r E

125 O t H E S t A t E O F LIVES t t CK DIVE r S I Y 1 P t A r addition, 30 goat breeds were reported to be heat adaptedness to heat and mountainous terrain (see tolerant, 7 tolerant of humidity, 14 cold tolerant, 1E1). Table 11 adapted to extreme diets, 20 adapted to water scarcity and 20 adapted to dry environments. Small ruminants Like goats, sheep are frequently well adapted From a total of 681 reported goat breeds, 62 are , 1E2). However to harsh environments (see Table reported to display adaptations to mountainous the only two sheep breeds recorded in DAD-IS terrain. In general, this includes jumping ability, as being well adapted to humid environments flexible hooves and tolerance of poor nutrition. In 1E1 LE b A t Adaptations in cattle breeds as recorded in DAD-IS Extr eme Mountainous Water Dry General Region Number Heat Humidity Cold environment hardiness diet scarcity terrain of breeds* 2 8 1 7 0 32 212 Africa 51 20 Asia 40 12 2 12 4 22 6 24 261 2 Southwest Pacific 0 0 0 8 0 0 1 399 Europe and the 79 2 13 2 17 28 147 94 9 Caucasus Latin America 44 12 3 0 3 2 9 8 11 and the Caribbean orth America 19 2 0 2 0 1 n 0 1 0 2 3 1 5 0 1 0 3 33 n ear and Middle East 113 World 125 32 12 29 24 1 115 47 185 Note: *Excluding extinct and international transboundary breeds. DAD-IS accessed in March 2014. Source: b tA 1E2 LE eeds as recorded in DAD-IS Adaptations in sheep br Heat Humidity Extr Number Cold Region Docility eme Water Mountainous Dry of breeds* diet environment scarcity terrain 1 3 141 9 5 Africa 0 10 3 17 25 35 4 4 1 13 36 276 Asia 7 0 687 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 Southwest Pacific Europe and the 54 0 22 15 3 108 16 34 23 Caucasus Latin America 2 57 2 1 0 1 0 3 1 and the Caribbean 0 n orth America 27 2 1 0 0 0 2 0 n 7 41 11 0 0 1 4 1 7 ear and Middle East World 1 283 83 57 2 21 21 151 55 54 Note: *Excluding extinct and international transboundary breeds. DAD-IS accessed in March 2014. Source: O t PO r SECO E E t n D n r H 84 E r C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L r r H t OF E t A t S E H E U t CUL I r G D A n ES FOr FOOD A C r SOU E WO t

126 EnEtIC rESOUrCES L G n D A D A P t A t IOn AnIM A A E are the Djallonké of Guinea and the Xinjiang few breeds (e.g. the Sunico Pony of the Pluri- Finewool of China. national State of Bolivia and the Tibetan horse) are reported to be adapted to high elevations. Camelids The alpaca and the llama inhabit Andean range- Pigs lands at elevations of up to 5 000 metres above sea Of the 709 pig breeds reported worldwide, level. They thrive in a wide range of climates and 63 breeds are described as being especially hardy. on very poor pastures. Worldwide, eight breeds Special adaptedness to heat is reported for of alpaca and six breeds of llama are recorded in 27 breeds, to extreme diets for 11 breeds, to cold DAD-IS (see Part 1, Section B Figure 1B6). No par - for 6 breeds and to dry environments for 7 breeds. ticular differences in adaptedness between these China reports four pigs breeds adapted to a cold breeds are reported. Bactrian camels are described climate, the Bamei, Harbin White, Sanjiang White as hardy, tolerant to heat, dry environments and and Min. By developing layers of fat and growing water scarcity. All 14 reported breeds are described thick hair during the winter, they are able to as being well adapted to desert conditions, extreme thrive in cold environments. However, this slows temperature ranges and shortages of water and their growth rate in comparison to other breeds. food. They have the ability to rapidly gain and store large amounts of fat. Dromedaries are reported Chickens from a wide geographical area, ranging from the Chicken breeds are kept in all geographic regions. Atlas Mountains of northwestern Africa to the The most commonly reported adaptations are Australian outback. The majority of reported adap- hardiness and heat tolerance. Switzerland reports tations relate to tolerance of water scarcity or dry that the Appenzeller Barthuhn, with its charac- environments or to general hardiness. It is reported teristic beard and small rose comb, is resistant to that the Rendille camel breed of Kenya can be kept cold. A wide spectrum of behavioural traits are for up to 14 days without water. The Chameau du reported. Some breeds are known for their docil- Kanem and Gorane breeds of Chad are reported to ity and others for their fighting ability. be adapted to consumption of salt water. 3 Equines Adaptation to non-disease Equines are found in all climatic zones. Special essors str adaptations are documented only for a relatively small number of the 174 reported ass breeds and the 905 reported horse breeds (see Table 1E3). 3.1 Introduction Horses are mostly described as being hardy and One of the key features of animal genetic diver - well adapted to mountainous terrain. A very sity is that it enables livestock to be kept in a wide LE b A 1E3 t Adaptations in equine breeds as recorded in DAD-IS Extr Cold Heat Species Number General Mountainous W ater Dry eme of breeds* scarcity hardiness onment envir terrain diet 2 3 1 5 - 7 14 Ass 174 2 905 77 4 30 Horse 7 6 9 Note: *Excluding extinct and international transboundary breeds. DAD-IS accessed in March 2014. Source: t SECOnD rEPOrt On E H 85 OD O r F O F rESOUrCES GEnEtIC L A IM n A S ' G O W E H t F O E t A t E S H rICULtUrE A D n A rLD t

127 t t Y t H E S t A t E O F LIVES I O CK DIVE r S t 1 r A P should be considerably higher than that of a single range of production environments. As a result kg (metabolic large European goat weighing 100 of natural selection, livestock populations tend, 0.75 100 = weight kg over time, to acquire characteristics that facilitate 31.6 = kg). In fact the total their survival and reproduction in their respective requirements are similar (Silanikove, 2000). production environments. In other words, they Some mammals are able to maintain steady become adapted to local conditions. Because body weights even if their energy intakes are livestock are domesticated animals that are below voluntary intake levels. This may be due managed by humans, the process of adaptation is to an ability to reduce metabolism. For example, inter alia , the effects of artificial complicated by, Silanikove (2000) compared the abilities of selection, management interventions that alter non-desert Saanen goats and Bedouin goats fed production environments and the movement of on high-quality roughages to maintain steady animals or germplasm from one production envi- body weights when their consumption was ronment to another. Capacity to isolate animals restricted. The Saanen goats were able to cope from the stressors present in the local environ- percent reduction relative to their with a 20 to 30 ment – extremes of temperature, feed shortages, voluntary intakes. The Bedouin goats tolerated a diseases, etc. – has increased over the years, but reduction. The Bedouin animals percent 50 to 55 the conditions in which animals are raised con- percent lower fasting heat production had a 53 tinue to be very diverse. Particularly in small- under feed restriction. Other herbivores that holder and pastoralist systems, animals often face are annually exposed to long periods of severe harsh production conditions and have to rely on nutritional restriction in their native habitats their adaptive characteristics. (e.g. zebu cattle and llamas) also possess a similar to adjust to low energy intake by reduc- capacity ing their energy metabolism (ibid.). 3.2 Adaptation to available feed Ruminants are known for their ability to utilize r esources high-fibre feed. Goats can digest high-fibre Animals that are well adapted to coping with low-quality forages more efficiently than other periods of feed scarcity may have one or more ruminants; one of the main reasons for this is a of the following characteristics: low metabolic longer mean retention time of feed in the rumen requirements; the ability to reduce their metab- , 1991). Goat (Devendra, 1990; Tisserand et al. olism; digestive efficiency that enables them to breeds indigenous to semi-arid and arid areas utilize high-fibre feed; and the ability to deposit are able to utilize low-quality high-fibre feed a reserve of nutrients in the form of fat. et more efficiently than other goats (Silanikove Having low metabolic requirements helps an , 1993). For example, the digestive efficiency al. animal to survive if feed is in short supply or is of Black Bedouin goats fed on roughage diets of poor quality. One breed that has been found has been shown to be superior to that of Swiss to show this characteristic is the Black Bedouin Saanen goats (Silanikove , 1993; Silanikove et al. goat, a small desert breed native to the Near East 1986a; Brosh et al. , 1988). (Silanikove, 1986a; 2000). The energy requirement Ability to store energy in adipose tissues when of a mammal is normally considered to be a func- sufficient feed is available and subsequently to 0.75. tion of its body mass raised to the power of - mobilize it during periods of scarcity is an impor This implies that energy requirement per kilogram tant adaptation for animals that have to cope of body tissue is greater in small mammals than in , 1996; et al. with fluctuating feed supplies (Ball larger ones and that smaller animals will have to (2000) found that Ørskov, 1998). Negussie et al. compensate for this by eating more and/or high- in the Menz and Horro fat-tailed sheep breeds of er-quality feed. Thus, in theory, the total energy Ethiopia, tail and rump fat depots were the most kg Black Bedouin goats requirements of five 20 0.75 readily utilizable in the event of feed shortages. total metabolic weight = 20 kg x 5 = 47.3 kg) r SECO E PO t O H n r D t n E 86 t E C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L SOU E WO H t OF E t A r S E H E r C ES FOr FOOD A n D A G r I CUL t U r r t

128 t L G n D A D A P A A t IOn AnIM EnEtIC rESOUrCES A E the least well adapted. The genetic correlation (2002) reported an encouraging herit- Ermias et al. between milk production and heat tolerance in ability estimate (0.72±0.19) for the combined sheep is reported to be negative (Finocchiaro et weight of tail and rump fat in Menz sheep, indi- al., 2005), indicating that selection for increased cating opportunities for selective breeding. milk production will reduce heat tolerance. In addition to adaptations related to feed short- The adaptedness of zebu cattle to hot climates ages and the use of high-fibre forages, some breeds is related to the characteristics of their coats, of livestock have developed unique physiological hides and skins, as well as to their haematolog- abilities that enable them to survive on unusual ical characteristics and to their form, growth and feed resources. For example, the North Ronaldsay, physiology (Turner, 1980). Zebu cattle are smooth a breed of sheep native to an island off the coast coated, have better-developed sweat and seb- of Scotland, in the United Kingdom, survives on aceous glands than taurine cattle (ibid.). McManus a diet consisting mainly of the seaweed Limnaria et al. (2009b) compared parameters related to (NCR, 1993). It can cope with a diet that is very heat tolerance in seven cattle breeds (including low in copper and in which some elements (e.g. zebu and taurine breeds and breeds considered sodium) are present in excess. Other breeds found exotic and locally adapted to Brazilian condi- in Scotland, which normally feed on grass or hay, tions) and found the zebu Nelore to be the best Limnaria . would die from lack of copper if fed on adapted to heat stress and the taurine Holstein to be the least well adapted. eme 3.3 Adaptation to extr 1E1) involves a Adaptation to cold (see Box temperatures number of different mechanisms. For example, a When animals are exposed to heat stress, their long thick hair coat contributes to thermal insul- feed intakes decrease and they suffer metabolic ation. Sheep originating from and living in cold , 2007). This, in turn, disturbances (Marai et al. areas deposit more of their body fat under the skin impairs their productive and reproductive per - than those adapted to warmer areas (Kempster, formance. The effects are aggravated when heat 1980; Farid, 1991; Bhat, 1999; Negussie , et al. - stress is accompanied by high humidity. Differ 2002). In many sheep adapted , et al. 2000; Ermias ences in thermal tolerance exist between live- to arid conditions, almost all fat is deposited on stock species (ruminants are more tolerant than the rump and/or in the tail (Bhat, 1999). This helps monogastrics), between breeds and within breeds the animals avoid thermal stress, as these depos- (Berman, 2011; Caldwell, et al. , 2011; Coleman, its do not greatly impede heat loss from the body. et al. , 2012; Renaudeau et al. , 2012; Menéndez- Studies of the Horro and Menz sheep breeds of Buxadera , 2012). For example, McManus et et al. et al., 2000; Ermias et al., Ethiopia (Negussie 2002) al. (2009a) compared physiological traits (sweat- have shown that, in the former, a large proportion ing, respiratory and heart rates, rectal and skin of total body fat is deposited in the rump and tail, temperatures) and blood parameters (packed while subcutaneous and intramuscular deposits cell volume, total plasma proteins, red blood cell predominate in the latter. The production environ- - count, and haemoglobin concentration) in differ ment of the Menz is cooler than that of the Horro, ent sheep populations in Brazil: the Santa Inês which lives at a slightly lower elevation. (a hair sheep with three different coat colours – brown, black and white), the Bergamasca (a Santa Inês × Bergamasca crosses. wool sheep) and city Adaptation to water scar 3.4 The study found that there were significant dif- Breeds of ruminants native to arid lands are able ferences between animals due to breed and skin to withstand prolonged periods of water depriv- type, and concluded that the white-coloured ation and can graze rangelands where water - Santa Inês animals were the best adapted to high ing sites are 50 km or more far apart (Silanikove, temperatures and that the Bergamasca were 1994; Bayer and Feldmann, 2003). Livestock that t SECOnD rEPOrt On E H 87 OD O r F O F rESOUrCES GEnEtIC L A IM n A S ' G O W E H t F O E t A t E S H rICULtUrE A D n A rLD t

129 E O t H E S t A t t F LIVES O CK DIVE r S I t Y 1 A r t P et al. Nielsen , 1956). There are also donkey, goat, b ox 1E1 sheep and cattle breeds that can go without drink- Y akutian cattle – a breed well adapted to ing for several days (Bayer and Feldmann, 2003). subarctic climatic conditions Such animals drink large amounts of water quickly, but their overall water intake is lower than that The Yakutian cattle of the Sakha Republic in the Russian of animals that are watered daily. Reduced water Federation, a unique population of Turano-Mongolian intake reduces feed intake and metabolic rate, type Bos taurus , are believed to be the last remaining and animals can therefore survive for longer when indigenous Siberian cattle. They are dual-purpose feed is scarce. Desert goats are reported to be the animals (milk and meat) and have small but strong ruminants that have the greatest ability to with- bodies, small firm udders and short firm legs. Their stand dehydration (Silanikove, 1994). For example, bodies and teats are covered with thick hair. They are the Black Bedouin goat of the Near East and the well adapted to the extreme environment and climate Barmer goat of India often drink only once in of the subarctic region, characterized by long, dark and et al. , 1979a,b,c; Silanikove, every four days (Khan cold winters, during which the temperature can fall to 2000). Bedouin goats are also able to maintain a -60 °C. They are capable of thriving on the poor feed good level of milk production under water depriv- provided by the plants of the northern environment ation. The basis of these breeds’ ability to cope and require less body maintenance energy during with severe water shortages is their ability to with- winter than other cattle. They grow and fatten rapidly stand dehydration and to minimize water losses during the short summer. They are reported to be via urine and faeces. By the fourth day of de- resistant to tuberculosis, leucosis and brucellosis. They hydration, the water losses of Barmer and Bedouin have a long productive life, some cows living for more goats may exceed 40 percent of their body weights than 20 years and calving more than ten times. , 1979a,b; Silanikove, 2000). (Khan et al. Sources: Ovaska and Soini, 2011; Li , 2012. et al. Adaptation to interaction with 3.5 humans The process of domestication (see Part 1 Section A) involved adaptation to human management. Domesticated animals are more docile than their wild ancestors and less fearful of humans. Nonetheless, routine management procedures (e.g. shearing, castration, tail docking, de- horning, vaccination, herding and transportation) can still trigger fear and thereby negatively affect , 2005). Excessive animal welfare (Boissy et al. et al. Photo credit: Anu Osva (previously published in Granberg , 2009, fear can also reduce productivity. For instance, reproduced with permission). fear-related reactions affect sexual and mater - nal behaviours in cattle and sheep. Estimates of the heritability of fear range between 0.09 and need little water and do not have to go back to a 0.53 in dairy cattle and between 0.28 and 0.48 in watering point every day can access larger areas of sheep; a moderate heritability of 0.22 has been pasture and thus obtain more feed during periods estimated for reactions to handling in beef cattle of drought. For example, dromedaries can survive (ibid.). Thus, selection based on reduced fearful- up to 17 days of water deprivation when consum- ness could have a significant influence on the ing dry food in hot conditions or can go without welfare of ruminant livestock. drinking water for 30 to 60 days when grazing on green vegetation (Schmidt-Nielsen, 1955; Schmidt- O t PO r SECO E E t n D n r H 88 G r I CUL t U r E I n D'S A L r C H t OF E t A t S E H ES FOr FOOD A r SOU E r C I t E n MAL GE n D A E WO t

130 t A n D A D A P A A t IOn EnEtIC rESOUrCES L G AnIM E none of which alone will be sufficient to drive edators Adaptation to pr 3.6 , et al. a genetic response in the pathogen (Berry Domesticated animals express less vigorous anti- 2011). Two concepts need to be distinguished in predator behaviour than their wild counterparts, this context: “resistance” refers to the ability of probably because human protection has reduced the host to control infection by a given pathogen, selection pressure for anti-predator traits. There whereas “tolerance” refers to the ability of the is some evidence of between-breed differences host to mitigate the adverse effects of the patho- et al. in antipredator behaviour. Hansen (2001) gen once infection occurs. compared the responses of light, medium-weight Genetic management of disease can involve a and heavy sheep breeds to the presence of pred- number of different strategies, including breed ator-related stimuli (leashed dogs or stuffed wild substitution, cross-breeding and within-breed predators on trolleys) and found that the light selection. The appropriate choice of strategy will breeds displayed stronger antipredator reactions depend on the disease, the production environ- (longest flight distance, tightest flocking behav- ment and the resources available. Within-breed iour and longest recovery time). A more recent selection can be facilitated if molecular genetic study suggested that this response to predator- markers associated with the desired traits have like stimuli could explain, at least partially, the 2010). been identified (CABI , improved survivability of free-ranging lambs in Whatever strategy is chosen, genetic diversity light breeds (Steinheim et al ., 2012). in the targeted livestock populations is a neces- sary precondition. If genetic resources are eroded, potentially important means of combating disease esistance and 4 Disease r may be lost. Maintaining multiple breeds increases tolerance the options available for matching breeds to pro- duction environments, including the disease chal- lenges present in these production environments. Introduction 4.1 Maintaining within-breed diversity allows for indi- Diseases are one of the major constraints to live- vidual selection. Even where genetic strategies stock productivity and profitability worldwide. are not immediately required in order to combat A range of disease-control options exist, includ- current animal health problems, maintaining ing chemical or biological treatments, vaccin- diversity in the genes underlying resistance means ation and preventive management. Each of these maintaining an important resource for combating approaches has its strengths, weaknesses and the effects of possible future pathogen evolution. limitations. Another option is to utilize genetic Furthermore, at individual animal level, increased approaches, which can serve either to substitute genetic diversity may allow for a more robust or to complement other disease-control strategies. immune response to a wider range of pathogen Evidence of genetic influence on disease sus- strains and species. A recent study of African cattle ceptibility has been reported for many animal reported an association between genetic diversity et diseases (e.g. Bishop and Morris, 2007; Gauly (as measured by molecular heterozygosity) and al. , 2010). Advantages of genetic approaches to lower incidence, and higher survival, of infectious disease control include the long duration of the , 2013). diseases (Murray et al. effect, the possibility of broad spectrum effects This subsection serves as an update of the dis- (resistance to more than one disease) and the cussion of the genetics of disease resistance and possibility of using genetics in concert with other 3 tolerance presented in the first SoW-AnGR. approaches (FAO, 1999). In addition, genetic In changes should, theoretically, be less subject to addition to presenting the latest data available pathogen resistance, as they will often be the 3 result of relatively small effects at many genes, AO, 2007, Part F 1 Section E (pages 101–112). t SECOnD rEPOrt On E H 89 OD O r F O F rESOUrCES GEnEtIC L A IM n A S ' G O W E H t F O E t A t E S H rICULtUrE A D n A rLD t

131 F LIVES Y H E S t A t E O t t O CK DIVE r S I t P 1 A t r entific developments with respect to the main in DAD-IS on breeds’ resistance and tolerance to diseases featured in the DAD-IS data – includ- specific diseases, it briefly discusses recent scien- ing several that did not feature in the discussion tific developments in this field and their potential presented in the first SoW-AnGR – are briefly significance for disease-control strategies, focus- discussed in the following subsections. Short dis- ing particularly on research findings published cussions are also presented for some diseases for since the first SoW-AnGR was prepared. The dis- which no information on breed resistance has cussion generally emphasizes diseases for which been entered into DAD-IS, but for which informa- breed-level resistance or tolerance has been tion is available in the scientific literature. reported to DAD-IS, although research results for other diseases are also cited. Trypanosomosis esistant or tolerant Disease r Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis remains a 4.2 serious and costly disease throughout West, breeds Central and, to a lesser extent, East Africa, In theory, breeds that have been present an despite multifaceted attempts to control it. extended period of time in an area where a given - Although trypanocidal drugs can be useful, par disease is endemic may develop genetic resist- asite resistance to these drugs increases yearly. ance or tolerance to that disease. This is because Fortunately, locally adapted breeds of ruminants natural selection should favour the accumul- in areas of high tsetse fly challenge show consist- ation of alleles associated with greater survival. ent tolerance to this disease. Table 1E6 contains In the case of many common livestock diseases, a full list of breeds recorded in DAD-IS as being evidence is available in the scientific literature trypanotolerant or resistant. As was the case at that some breeds are more resistant or tolerant the time the first SoW-AnGR was prepared, the than others. A number of examples, drawn from most commonly reported trypanotolerant breeds recent (i.e. after 2006) studies are presented in are N’Dama cattle and Djallonké sheep and goats 1E4. The information entered by countries Table (also known as West African Dwarf or under other into DAD-IS includes many anecdotal reports of names, depending on the country). Since the time such adaptations. Table - 1E5 presents an over of the first SoW-AnGR, information on trypano- view of the entries in DAD-IS that report disease tolerant cattle, sheep and goats breeds has resistance or tolerance in mammalian breeds. been recorded in DAD-IS by Sudan and inform- 1E6 to 1E12 list breeds reported to be Tables ation on trypanotolerant pigs and equines by resistant or tolerant to specific diseases or disease several West and Central African countries. types. In most of these cases, the claims made for Various studies have been undertaken in specific breeds have not been subject to scientific recent years to elucidate the biological basis for investigation. trypanotolerance (e.g. O’Gorman et al. , 2009; Few new reports of breeds with resistance or , 2011). Two Stijlemans et al., 2010; Noyes et al. tolerance to specific diseases have been entered physiological mechanisms seem to be involved: 1) into DAD-IS since 2007. New examples have gen- increased control of parasitaemia; and 2) greater erally been from countries that have undertaken et al. , 2006). ability to limit anaemia (Naessens comprehensive characterization studies for the One group of scientists is currently attempting to first time. However, many more cases of general use genetic modification to create a trypanosome- disease resistance have been reported. In add- resistant strain of cattle, based on a genetic ition, a great deal of research has been undertaken mechanism present in baboons and some human to substantiate anecdotal evidence and uncover populations (Willyard, 2011). the biological mechanisms associated with dif- ferences among breeds in terms of their suscept- ibility to common livestock diseases. Recent sci- O t PO r SECO E r E t D n n H 90 E r C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L E E WO H t OF E t A t S E H r U t CUL I r G D A n ES FOr FOOD A C r SOU r t

132 AnIM L G D A P t A t IOn A A n EnEtIC rESOUrCES A D E LE tA 1E4 b eed differences in resistance, tolerance or immune response to Examples of studies indicating br specific diseases Reference Experimental Results Compared to Disease/parasite Breed(s) or conditions which breed(s) or genotype(s) genotype(s) showing the favourable phenotype Less severe clinical signs in the Sahiwal, Glass and Jensen, gene expression profile Artificial infection of Theileria annulata Sahiwal cattle Holstein 2007 of monocytes differs isolated monocytes between the two breeds n ’dama cross-breed n ’Dama × Kenya- rypanosomosis b t more trypanotolerant, Orenge et al., 2012 Field challenge oran Kenya- b oran cattle especially females Ameni et al., 2007; Zebu have fewer n atural and artificial et al., Vordermeier clinical signs and Zebu cattle culosis uber t Holstein infection 2012 decreased morbidity b uffalo have 1/5 the Fasciola gigantica b uffalo et al., number of flukes Ongole cattle Wiedosari Artificial infection 2006 Ongole cattle have Leukocyte profile differs between Rhipicephalus n guni cattle b onsmara n atural infection Marufu 2011 et al., infected guni and microplus n b onsmara Fewer ticks carried by raford, b rangus, b Rhipicephalus n Molento raford, Charolais 2013 rangus b atural infection b the et al., n microplus elore cattle elore and n Caribbean Hair sheep MacKinnon et al., have higher PCV, lower Haemonchus Caribbean hair sheep Wool sheep Artificial infection 2010 FEC, higher IgA than contortus the wool sheep ative lambs have n Haemonchus Gulf Coast n ative Pasture-based et al., 2009 more robust immune Shakya Suffolk contortus infection sheep response to infection t ype1 immune r Indonesian t hin t ail esponse makes Artificial infection Fasciola gigantica 2011 et al., Pleasance Merino Indonesian sheep ail t hin t mor e resistant Virus replication in the Porcine reproductive miniature pigs only r and respiratory Artificial infection Miniature pigs Pietrain pigs 2010 et al., einer 3.3% of that in the S) rr syndrome (P Pietrain Meishan have less Duroc, Hampshire S antigen in their rr S Meishan pigs 2014 Xing Artificial infection P et al., rr P lungs Erlang show reduced Erlang Mountain Marek’s disease clinical signs and faster Artificial infection Commercial broiler Feng et al., 2013 chickens clearance of virus t H1 immunity, Infectious bursal r et al., 2011 aj Artificial infection Commercial Aseel chickens upregulation in the disease virus Aseel esistance to infection r Fayoumi chickens 2014 et al., Artificial infection Leghorn Wang Avian influenza in the Fayoumi aked-neck shows n Frizzle- and smooth- n n b 2013 et al., aked-neck chickens Artificial infection obbo ewcastle disease lower mortality feathered chickens Note: FEC = faecal egg count; PCV = packed cell volume; IgA = immunoglobulin A; TH1 = type 1 T helper cell. t SECOnD rEPOrt On E H 91 OD O r F O F rESOUrCES GEnEtIC L A IM n A S ' G O W E H t F O E t A t E S H rICULtUrE A D n A rLD t

133 E O S H E S t A t t F LIVES t O CK DIVE r I t Y 1 P t A r A b LE 1E5 t Number of mammalian breed populations recorded in DAD-IS as having resistance or tolerance to specific diseases or parasites Number of reported resistant or tolerant breed populations* per species Disease/parasite Pigs Sheep Goats Cattle Buffalo Camelids Deer Horses Unspecified 8 74 22 27 36 1 32 t 22 18 2 3 48 rypanosomosis den ick infestation/bur 24 5 1 1 t ick-bor ne diseases (unspecified) 1 26 1 5 1 t 2 Anaplasmosis Piroplasmosis/babesiosis 1 2 Heartwater/cowdriosis 2 heileria 2 t 3 3 Internal parasites 1 1 2 16 1 1 Fascioliasis 11 1 b ovine leukosis Foot rot 1 13 African swine fever 6 culosis t uber 13 3 1 1 rucellosis 2 3 b 7 Foot-and-mouth disease 1 2 Total 16 1 54 236 36 43 3 94 * “Breed population” = a given breed within a given country. Note: DAD-IS accessed in March 2014. Source: resistant to, or tolerant of, tick infestation and/or Ticks and tick-borne diseases tick-borne diseases. Ticks continue to cause disease and production Recent findings suggest that susceptibility and loss throughout the world, most notably in trop- resistance to tick infestation may be related to ical and subtropical areas. Tick infestation causes differences in the types of immune responses blood loss and decreased milk or meat production. that occur in susceptible and resistant animals. Ticks also transmit a number of diseases, includ- et al. (2014) report that an increased Marufu ing babesiosis, anaplasmosis and cowdriosis. immune response involving basophils, monocytes Some breeds of cattle are reported to be resistant and mast cells was noted in resistant Nguni cattle, to tick infestation and tick-borne disease. There whereas in susceptible animals, neutrophils and are several potential explanations for the greater eosinophils were the primary cellular responders resistance of some breeds to tick infestation, to tick bite. Increased neutrophil concentrations including their coat characteristics, skin sensitiv- were hypothesized to facilitate the distribution ity, grooming behaviour and degree of inflam- of tick-borne pathogens within infected hosts, matory response (Mattioli , 1995; Marufu et al. as enzymes that they release compromise the et al. et al. , 2014). Tables 1E7 and , 2011; Mapholi extracellular matrix. Mast cells and basophils, 1E8 show the breeds recorded in DAD-IS as being E SECO r PO t O E D r t H n n 92 t E C SOU t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L r E WO H t OF E t A r S E H E r C ES FOr FOOD A n D A G r I CUL t U r I t

134 P AnIM A n D A D A EnEtIC rESOUrCES t A t IOn A L G E 1E6 LE b A t Breeds recorded in DAD-IS as showing resistance or tolerance to trypanosomosis Most common name of breed Species Region/subregion Number of breeds ’Dama (20), Lagune (Lagoon) (6), orgou/Ketuku (3), Somba (2), aoulé (4), b b n 15 orth and West Africa n oupouri t Muturu (2), Dahomey (Daomé), Ghana Shorthorn, Kapsiki, Kuri, amchi, n East Africa 2 Jiddu, Shekko Cattle 2 n Africa ’Dama, Dahomey (Daomé) n Souther n n ear and Middle East 1 uba Mountain orth and West Africa 2 Djallonké (West African Dwarf) (13), Vogan (2) n Sheep 3 uba Mountain Dwarf ear and Middle East Mongalla, n ilotic, n n 1 Djallonké (West African Dwarf) (20) orth and West Africa n Goats ear and Middle East 2 ilotic, Yei n n 2 West Africa Pigs Local Pig of b enin, n igerian n ative andiagara (2), Poney du Logone orth and West Africa 2 n Horses b Figures in brackets indicate the number of countries (if more than one) reporting that the breed is resistant or tolerant. Note: DAD-IS accessed in March 2014. Source: breed comparison studies have shown lower on the other hand, increased immune response faecal egg counts in Red Maasai than in Dorper in the area of the bite, in addition to promoting lambs (Baker et al., 2004). A more recent study of grooming behaviours that promote tick removal. specific quantitative trait loci in cross-bred animals Although further research is needed, greater found that all favourable alleles were associ- understanding of the immunological basis for ated with the Red Maasai (Marshall , 2013). et al. between-breed differences in resistance may Recent studies have also indicated that the Thalli facilitate the development of more effective sheep of Pakistan shows significant resistance to control strategies. Haemonchus contortus infection and lower levels of anaemia during infection than other Pakistani Internal parasites et al. breeds (Babar , 2013). Similarly, Santa Ines Helminthosis continues to cause major produc- ewes (a Brazilian breed) have been found to be tion losses throughout the world, particularly more resistant than Ile de France ewes when as parasite resistance to anthelminthic drugs , 2011). challenged with this parasite (Rocha et al. increases. This latter development places addi- Since the first SoW-AnGR was prepared, a number tional pressure on livestock keepers and govern- of within- and across-breed genomic studies have ments to rely more heavily on genetically resist- been undertaken (e.g. Riggio et al. , 2013). ant or tolerant breeds for production in para- The first SoW-AnGR noted that resistance site-infested areas. Breeds noted in DAD-IS as had been reported in Fasciola gigantica to having some resistance to internal parasites are Indonesian Thin Tail sheep. Since that time, listed in Table 1E9. Many breeds of small rumi- researchers have confirmed that this resistance is nants have been characterized as parasite resist- quite pathogen specific and does not extend to ant (González et al. , 2012). (Pleasance hepatica F. other liver flukes such as As described in the first SoW-AnGR, the Red There are indications that the resist- . et al. , 2010) Maasai sheep of Kenya is noted for its resistance ance is based on an early type 1 innate immune Haemonchus contortus. to the parasite Direct t H E SECOnD rEPOrt On 93 E OD r F O F rESOUrCES GEnEtIC L A IM n A S ' rLD O W O H t F O E t A t E S H rICULtUrE A n D A G t

135 F LIVES I Y t H E S t A t E O t t O CK DIVE r S t 1 P A r LE 1E7 tA b eeds recorded in DAD-IS as showing resistance or tolerance to tick burden Br Species Region/subregion Number Most common name of breed of breeds n uli, swana, onsmara, Kashibi, n andi, Pedi, Shangaan, Sul do Save, t guni (2), t b 10 Southern Africa V enda Southeast Asia 6 Australian Milking Zebu, Droughtmaster, Java, Local Indian Dairy Cow, Pesisir, t hai Cattle 1 Zebu of Azerbaijan Europe and the Caucasus South America 1 r omosinuano Australian Charbray, Australian Friesian Sahiwal, Australian Milking Zebu, Southwest Pacific 5 Australian Sahiwal, Javanese Zebu 3 Southern Africa Sheep guni (3), Landim, Pedi n b uffalo Southeast Asia 1 Krabue Sambar 1 Deer Southeast Asia Note: Figures in brackets indicate the number of countries (if more than one) reporting that the breed is resistant or tolerant. DAD-IS accessed in March 2014. Source: 1E8 tA LE b eeds recorded in DAD-IS as showing resistance or tolerance to tick-borne diseases Br Region/subregion Diseases Number Species Most common name of breed of breeds t ick-bor b ne (unspecified) aoulé (3), Ghana Shorthorn, Sahiwal, 3 orth and West Africa n n oire Pie de Meknès Piroplasmosis 1 t ick-bor East Africa andi ne (unspecified) 2 Sahiwal (2), n ’Dama, n guni, Sahiwal n 3 Piroplasmosis Southern Africa t heileria 1 Angoni Piroplasmosis 3 Cinisara, Modicana, Southern b eef Cinisara, Modicana Europe and the Caucasus Anaplasmosis 2 Cattle Heartwater (cowdriosis)* Creolé (2) 1 heileria 1 t Jeju b lack cattle East Asia Sahiwal (5), Local Indian Dairy Cow t ick-bor ne (unspecified) 2 South Asia Southeast Asia t ick-bor ne (unspecified) 1 Sahiwal (4) 1 Caribbean Sahiwal (2) t ne (unspecified) ick-bor t South America Creole (2), Sahiwal 1 ne (unspecified) ick-bor 1 t ick-bor ne (unspecified) Southwest Pacific Sahiwal Heartwater (cowdriosis) Sheep Southern Africa 1 Damara (2) Piroplasmosis Europe and the Caucasus Horses Pottok 1 Note: *These reports are from the French overseas territories of Guadeloupe and Martinique, i.e. not geographically from the Europe and the Caucasus region. Figures in brackets indicate the number of countries (if more than one) reporting that the breed is resistant or tolerant. Source: DAD-IS accessed in March 2014. O t PO r SECO E E t n D n r H 94 E r C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L r r H t OF E t A t S E H E U t CUL I r G D A n ES FOr FOOD A C r SOU E WO t

136 P AnIM A n D A D A EnEtIC rESOUrCES t A t IOn A L G E 1E9 LE b A t Breeds recorded in DAD-IS as showing resistance or tolerance to internal parasites Number Species Most common name of br Region/subregion eed of breeds Southern Africa 1 Cattle Madagascar Zebu Kacang Southeast Asia 1 Goats t okara 1 East Asia Souther Kumumawa 1 n Africa orthern Africa n 1 r ahmani Sheep 2 Southeast Asia Garut, Malin 1 Solognot Europe and the Caucasus n ova, Priangen 3 Latin America and the Caribbean Criollo (9), Morado b ajau, Kuda Padi Southeast Asia 2 Horse South America Peruano de Paso 1 Southeast Asia Sambar 1 Deer Note: Figures in brackets indicate the number of countries (if more than one) reporting that the breed is resistant or tolerant. DAD-IS accessed in March 2014. Source: 4 A response of this kind is hypothesized have been declared in DAD-IS to show some level response. F. to be effective only against of resistance to this disease. These reports have gigantica, which yet to be substantiated in the scientific liter- develops more rapidly than (Pleasance F. hepatica ature. et al. , 2011). In molecular and biochemical terms, gigantica and F. hepatica eli- infections with F. cited different responses in the Indonesian Thin Bovine leukosis Tail sheep. Immunological responses to F. gigan- Bovine leukosis occurs in a proportion of cattle tica also differed between Indonesian Thin Tail infected with the bovine leukosis virus (BLV). sheep and Merino sheep (a non-resistant breed). Although not all animals infected with the virus become clinically affected, the condition causes significant losses in production and increased Foot-and-mouth disease mortality. Evidence of breed-based resistance to Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious clinical leukosis is scant and primarily anecdotal. viral disease of cloven-hooved animals. A vaccine Reports of resistance are limited to breeds from exists, but the disease is also controlled by tight Central Asia and the Russian Federation (see restrictions on the movement of animals from , research on some common 1E10). However Table affected to non-affected countries and in some international transboundary dairy breeds has countries by culling programmes in the event of indicated a genetic basis for susceptibility to the an outbreak. Two buffalo and one cattle breed disease (Abdalla et al. , 2013). Research regard- ing the molecular explanation of resistance sug- 4 Immune r esponses to infectious diseases comprise types 1 gests that imbalances in certain receptors (tumor and 2. he two types differ according to the cells involved t necrosis factor alpha in particular) can contribute t helper 2 cells) and the secretions produced by ( t helper 1 vs. esponse is characterized by high these cells. t ype 1 immune r , 2005). to increased susceptibility (Konnai et al. phagocytic activity, whereas type 2 involves high levels of antibody t ype 1 immunity is generally pr otective, whereas type production. 2 usually involves resolution of cell-mediated immunity. For more information, see Spellberg and Edwards (2001). t H E SECOnD rEPOrt On 95 E OD r F O F rESOUrCES GEnEtIC A A IM n A S ' rLD O W O H t F O E t A t E S H rICULtUrE n D A G L t

137 E O Y H E S t A t t F LIVES t O CK DIVE r S I t P t 1 r A b A LE 1E10 t Cattle breeds recorded in DAD-IS as showing resistance or tolerance to leukosis Region/subregion Most common name of breed Number of breeds Central Asia 1 b estuzhevskaya Istobenskaya, Krasnaya gorbatovskaya, Southern beef, Suksunskaya skot, Sura de stepa, Europe and the Caucasus 9 Yakutskii Skot, Yaroslavskaya, Yurinskaya, Volinian beef DAD-IS accessed in March 2014. Source: ated with immune function reported some asso- Bovine tuberculosis ciations with disease prevalence in cattle (Prakash Bovine tuberculosis is a respiratory disease that et al. , 2014). In addition, Martínez et al. (2010) can be transmitted through milk and has signifi- studied brucellosis resistance in two Colombian cant negative consequences – both as a disease of cattle breeds (Blanco Orejinegro and Zebu) and livestock and as a zoonosis – particularly in devel- their crosses and observed statistically significant oping countries. Several breeds (13 cattle breeds, genetic effects according to both quantitative 3 goat breeds and 1 sheep breed) are recorded and molecular genetic models. in DAD-IS as being resistant to this disease. These breeds are primarily reported by countries from the Europe and the Caucasus region. Although it Scrapie has not been recorded in DAD-IS, a recent scien- Scrapie is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of 2012) comparing et al., tific study (Vordermeier sheep and goats that is endemic in many coun- native Zebu cattle to Holstein cattle in Ethiopia tries in Europe and North America. Although no found that the Zebu was more resistant to tuber - information on scrapie has been entered into culosis. Within-breed quantitative genetic studies DAD-IS, the disease can be considered a text- have found evidence of heritable control of sus- book case with regard to within- and between- et al. , ceptibility to this disease (e.g. Bermingham breed genetic variability in disease resistance. It 2009; Brotherstone et al. , 2010; Tsairidou et al., has been shown that variability of the so-called 2014) and genome-wide association studies have PrP locus accounts for a large proportion of the identified genomic regions with putative associa- variation in resistance to the disease (Bishop and tions with disease incidence (e.g. Bermingham et Morris, 2007). Selection for scrapie resistance , 2014). al. based on PrP genotype has been implemented et al., in various sheep breeds (Palhière 2008), et al., including some at-risk breeds (Windig Brucellosis 2007; Sartore et al., 2013). This has led to signif- Brucellosis is a zoonosis that particularly affects icant decreases in the frequency of one suscepti- cattle and goats. Transmission to humans is usually ble haplotype (VRQ), if not its elimination, and to through consumption of contaminated milk or increases in the frequency of a resistance haplo- dairy products. Reproductive failure is the main type (ARR). In many cases, it has been possible negative consequence in livestock. Anecdotal to implement efficient selection programmes to claims of brucellosis resistance have been made reduce the susceptible haplotype without having in DAD-IS for one buffalo breed, seven cattle much effect on neutral diversity (Windig et al., breeds, three goat breeds and two sheep breeds. et al. 2007; Palhière et al., 2008). However, Sartore Genetic studies have primarily concentrated on (2013) reported an increase in inbreeding in the pathogen strains rather than livestock breeds, but Italian Sambucana breed after selection started. a recent study of polymorphism in genes associ- O t PO r SECO E n E H D n t r 96 G D A n ES FOr FOOD A I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L r E WO H t r E t t S E H A C r SOU E r C E U t CUL I r OF t

138 A A D A D A P t n t IOn L G A AnIM EnEtIC rESOUrCES E first SoW-AnGR highlighted the resistance of wild These contrasting empirical results underline the 5 pigs to African swine fever. importance of considering genetic variability DAD-IS now lists six when designing selection programmes (Dawson breeds that are anecdotally reported to have 2008). et al., some degree of resistance or tolerance to this disease, including breeds from Southern Africa, Spain and Jamaica. However, no scientifically con- Foot rot firmed reports of genetic resistance are available. Dichelobacter nodosus or Fuso- Foot rot caused by Researchers in the United Kingdom have recently bacterium is a highly contagious disease of sheep, used gene-editing procedures to create domes- in particular, and can cause production losses and tic pigs with the putative genetic mechanism for 1E11 shows breeds animal welfare concerns. Table resistance found in wild pigs (Lillico et al. , 2013). recorded in DAD-IS as being resistant to foot- rot infection. Current knowledge with regard to resistant breeds is similar to that available at the Porcine reproductive and respiratory time the first SoW-AnGR was prepared. Disease syndrome control may in fact be better achieved through Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, et within-breed foot-rot lesion scoring (Conington more commonly known by the acronym PRRS, is , 2008) than through breed selection. A recent al. a viral disease caused by the Arteriviridae family. epidemiological modelling study suggests that The clinical signs of infection are manifold and can foot rot may be eradicated from a given flock by include widespread reproductive failure, including employing a combination of genetic selection, stillbirths, mummified foetuses, premature births pasture rotation and timely antibiotic administra- and weak piglets. The disease also causes a charac- et al. tion (Russell , 2014). et al. , 2013; McRae teristic thumping respiratory pattern in post-wean- ing piglets, which can lead to decreased growth and increased mortality. Containment and erad- African swine fever ication of the disease is difficult due to the ease African swine fever is a highly contagious disease with which it is spread. No breeds are recorded in that causes the rapid death of infected animals. - DAD-IS as being resistant to this disease, but differ Although recent advances have been made in ences between breeds and populations have been vaccine development, no commercial product is et al., reported in the scientific literature (Lewis available and control still relies on strict protocols for disease identification, restriction of animal 5 movements and culling of infected animals. The ox 14 (page 109). F b AO, 2007, b LE 1E11 tA Br eeds recorded in DAD-IS as showing resistance or tolerance to foot rot Most common name of breed Species Region/subregion Number of breeds 1 Cattle Sayaguesa Europe and the Caucasus n b orth and West Africa eni Ahsen 1 t ailed Han 1 East Asia Small Sheep ündner Oberländerschaf, Churra Lebrijana, Engadiner Schaf, Latxa, Leine, Montafoner b ope and the Eur 10 Caucasus Steinschaf, Owca kamieniecka, Polska owca długowełnista, Soay, Waldschaf, b Southwest Pacific roomfield Corriedale 1 DAD-IS accessed in March 2014. Source: t SECOnD rEPOrt On E H 97 OD O r F O F rESOUrCES GEnEtIC L A IM n A S ' G O W E H t F O E t A t E S H rICULtUrE A D n A rLD t

139 E O Y H E S t A t t F LIVES t O CK DIVE r S I t A 1 t P r of infection, genes related to haemoglobin are (2010) report evidence of resist- et al. 2007). Reiner highly expressed in the Fayoumi. Wang et al. ance to the virus in a population of “Wiesenauer (2014) postulate that this may aid the delivery of Miniature” pigs developed in Germany; compared - oxygen to various tissues, thus reducing the sever to animals belonging to the commercial Pietrain ity and duration of infection. Certain breeds of breed, the miniature pigs showed a 96.7 percent pigeons are known for their resistance to highly lower viral load. Research into the molecular et al. pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 (Liu , explanation of resistance would allow for better 2009). Transmission of avian influenza in chickens understanding of the mechanisms of resistance relies in large part on specific receptors in the to this viral pathogen. Such research is ongoing respiratory tract that allow the virus to attach. in a number of laboratories across the world (e.g. Analysis of these receptors in pigeons suggests 2009; Boddicker et al., Lewis 2012; 2014a,b; et al., that they are more similar to those of humans Serão 2014). et al., than those of chickens. Given that humans are also less susceptible than chickens to avian influ- Diseases of poultry enza H5N1, this could explain the pigeons’ rela- Table 1E12 lists the avian breeds that are recorded tively high levels of resistance. in DAD-IS as being resistant to specific diseases Genetic resistance to avian leucosis is recorded Some level of general or unspecified resistance in DAD-IS for two Egyptian chicken breeds. is reported for 75 other avian breeds (56 chicken, Development of genetically resistant lines and the 11 duck, 2 goose, 3 guinea fowl, 1 pigeon, 1 quail use of specific animal husbandry methods have and 3 turkey breeds). enabled successful eradication of this disease Newcastle disease is a highly destructive viral from most commercial breeding populations. infection affecting poultry and other avian species. The virus is endemic in certain areas of the world and can cause high levels of morbidity and mortal- 4.3 Opportunities to br eed for disease ity, particularly in intensive poultry management resistance systems. A study comparing the relative resist- Breed-to-breed differences in disease susceptibil- ance of three phenotypes of indigenous chickens ity provide opportunities to decrease disease inci- in Nigeria found that Naked Neck chickens were dence through cross-breeding or breed substitu- more resistant to infection than others and more tion. However, these approaches are not applicable able to tolerate infection once it occurred (Bobbo if the objective is to continue raising a given breed et al. , 2013). The Yoruba chicken of Nigeria has in pure-bred form or if relevant breed substitutions been noted to have increased immune response to or cross-breeding strategies are not feasible. There- the virus and to be better able to resist and elimi- fore, for a number of diseases, selection to take nate infection (Adeyemo , 2012). et al. advantage of within-breed variation in disease Over the last decade or so, avian influenza resistance is an important control strategy. virus has become a global threat due to its dev- Numerous examples of within-breed selection astating effects on poultry populations and the for disease resistance exist and various selection risks it poses to human health. No breeds are strategies have been applied. Within-breed selec- recorded in DAD-IS as being resistant to avian tion has been performed using both major genes influenza. However, research indicates that the and genetic markers (e.g. against scrapie in sheep) Mx gene in the Indonesian native chicken may and quantitative genetic approaches (e.g. against confer increased resistance to infection (Sartika Marek’s disease in chickens, internal parasites in et al. , 2011). Moreover, resistance to the virus has sheep and mastitis in dairy cows and sheep). been noted in the Fayoumi chicken breed, orig- Within-breed selection programmes have always inally from Egypt but now present worldwide. given emphasis to yield traits. However, consid- Molecular analysis suggests that, in the event eration of heath traits has been increasing. This O t PO r SECO E E t n D n r H 98 E r C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L r r H t OF E t A t S E H E U t CUL I r G D A n ES FOr FOOD A C r SOU E WO t

140 AnIM L G A n D A D A P t A t IOn A EnEtIC rESOUrCES E A LE 1E12 t b Avian breeds recorded in DAD-IS as showing resistance to diseases Species Disease Number Most common name of breed Region/subregion of breeds n enna b Poule De 1 ewcastle n orth and West Africa ewcastle n Southeast Asia ed Jungle Fowl 1 r Gallina criolla o de rancho, Gallina de n 2 Central America ewcastle cuello desnudo Europe and the Scots Dumpy, Hrvatica, b orky 117, Marek’s 5 Caucasus ed r hode Island r Poltavian Clay, 1 Marek’s, I Southeast Asia b D (infectious bursal disease), coccidiosis Ayam Kampong b asotho chicken Southern Africa Internal parasites 1 Chickens 1 Papua n ew Guinea n ative Internal parasites Southeast Asia anaba (also b Camarines, Paraoakan, r 3 espiratory diseases fowl pox) Mycoplasmosis avian pseudo plaque and n orth and West Africa eck n aked n 1 pasteurellosis eheri, Fayoumi b Egypt 2 Leukosis and spiroketosis aladi b n ear and Middle East D) 1 Oman b aladi r Fowl pox and chronic respiratory disease (C Penedesenca egra Eimeria necatrix 1 n Europe and the Caucasus Oncorna virus 1 Single Comb White Leghorn-Line 12 Local Duck of Gredaya and Massakory, n n 3 orth and West Africa ewcastle Local Duck of Moulkou and b ongor, Local Muscovy Duck of Karal and Massakory Ducks 1 Philippine Mallard Duck (Domestic) Duck viral enteritis and leg paralysis Southeast Asia b lack Muscovy l303 Duck and goose viral hepatitis East Asia 1 1 Itik Kampong Viral hepatitis Southeast Asia Geese “Skin venom” 1 Philippine Domestic Goose n orth and West Africa n Pallas Numida meleagris galeata ewcastle 2 Djaoule, Guinea fowl Southeast Asia “Skin venom” 1 Philippine Domestic Pigeon Pigeons b eldi n orth and West Africa n ewcastle 1 Moroccan t urkeys 1 Philippine Histomoniasis and sinusitis Southeast Asia n ative Source: DAD-IS accessed in March 2014. The most common approach to within-breed has probably occurred for three main reasons: selection for health is not based on direct meas- 1) greater awareness of the costs of disease; 2) ures of resistance to a given pathogen, but rather decreasing fitness due to antagonistic relation- aims to improve various phenotypes associated ships with selection and management for increased with disease complexes. For example, breeding yield; and 3) increasing capacity to measure and for decreased mastitis may involve giving consid- evaluate health-related traits. In some cases, prob- eration to observed mastitis incidence, concentra- lems with other approaches, including the effects tion of somatic cells (leukocytes) in milk and udder of increased resistance of pathogens to chemical conformation. Selection against foot rot may be and antibiotic treatments, have led breeders and based on animal-mobility scores. Longevity is livestock keepers to seek alternatives. t H E SECOnD rEPOrt On 99 E OD r F O F rESOUrCES A GEnEtIC L A IM n A S ' rLD O W O H t F O E t A t E S H rICULtUrE n D A G t

141 O Y t t H E S t A t E O F LIVES t I CK DIVE r S t 1 P A r , 2011). However, few of the et al. Ciappesoni often included in selection indices as a measure associations observed for individual genes show of general health and disease resistance. Some researchers have speculated that “–omics” consistency across breeds, presumably due to technologies will greatly increase the capacity of the biological complexity of parasite infection breeders to incorporate genetic selection into dis- and the immune system (resulting in a polygenic 2011; ease-reduction programmes (e.g. Berry et al., nature for parasite resistance), as well as effects 2014). The term “–omics” of recombination that cause differences among et al., Parker-Gaddis refers to a group of fields of advanced study of breeds in the linkage between genes affecting resistance and the genetic markers used in the biological systems. Examples of potential relevance et al., research studies (Kemper for the genetics of adaptation and disease resist- 2011). In theory, ance include “genomics”, the study of genes and genomic selection may be an effective means of chromosomes; “transcriptomics”, the study of tran- controlling parasite infection (see Riggio et al., scribed gene products; “proteomics”, the study of 2014). However, the cost and expertise required mean that this approach is beyond the means of proteins; and “metabolomics”, the study of metab- most sheep-breeding systems, particularly those olism. Genomics, particularly “genome-enabled” C), may 4 Section or “genomic” selection (see Part in developing countries. be particularly applicable to diseases for which measurement is difficult or expensive. In the case of internal parasites, selection for Conclusions and r 5 esearch resistance is successfully implemented in Australia priorities and New Zealand by using faecal egg count as the selection criterion. However, measuring faecal egg The information recorded in DAD-IS, while incom- count requires specific skills and equipment, which plete, provides some indication of the state of may not be available everywhere. One simpler knowledge of adaptive characteristics in breeds alternative is to make use of the FAMACHA of livestock. In many cases, the information scoring system (a method of identifying anaemic reported is anecdotal and has not been evaluated animals by evaluating the redness of mucous by scientific studies. More information is recorded membranes around the eyes) (van Wyk and Bath, for cattle and small ruminants than for other 2002) to determine which animals within a small- species. For some species that undoubtedly have ruminant flock are more resistant to parasites and specific adaptations (e.g. the yak), no information should therefore be selected for breeding (Burke on breed-level adaptedness is recorded in DAD-IS. and Miller, 2008). A recent study reported low to There is need for further research, particularly on moderate heritabilities of FAMACHA scores, indi- species and breeds adapted to low-input produc- cating the possibility of using them as a selection tion systems in developing countries or to other criterion (Riley and Van Vyk, 2009). FAMACHA production systems where environmental con- scoring is, however, only applicable in situations ditions are harsh. Anecdotal information such Haemonchus contortus where is the predominant as that provided in DAD-IS may, however, assist parasite. The parasites more commonly found in researchers in the identification of AnGR that temperate environments generally do not provoke - merit further investigation of their adaptive char anaemia and hence do not affect the colour of eye acteristics. mucous membranes. Evidence indicates that, where the production Research into genetic markers of within-breed environment is harsh, breeds whose evolution- resistance to internal parasites in Uruguay and ary roots lie in the local area tend to be better other countries suggests that there are various adapted than breeds introduced from elsewhere. molecular markers associated with resistance Thus, plans to introduce breeds into a new area that could be used in selection programmes (e.g. must give due attention to ensuring that they O t PO r SECO E E t n D n r H 100 E r C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L r r H t OF E t A t S E H E U t CUL I r G D A n ES FOr FOOD A C r SOU E WO t

142 t IOn n D A D A P A A t EnEtIC rESOUrCES AnIM L G A E are sufficiently well-matched to local conditions livestock. As noted throughout this section, many reports of breed-specific disease resistance are (taking into account temporal variations and the potential for extreme events such as droughts) anecdotal, especially in developing countries, and and that any adaptations to livestock manage- are based on observations in a single production ment practices that may be needed are feasible environment. Addressing the following research priorities would help to bridge these knowledge and sustainable. There is a need to set selection goals that are appropriate to the production gaps and enhance the utilization of genetics in the control of animal diseases: system rather than ambitious performance objec- • tives that cannot be reached under prevailing continued phenotypic characterization to confirm anecdotal observations recorded in conditions. The integration of fitness traits into breeding programmes is constrained by a number DAD-IS and elsewhere; of factors, including low heritability, measure- • genetic characterization to help under - ment problems and underlying antagonistic rela- stand the biological mechanisms underlying tionships with productive performance traits. observed disease-resistance traits; and development of simple, accurate and cost- Research priorities include improving under - • effective approaches for routine collection standing of the functional genetics and genomics of phenotypic information on disease inci- of adaptation traits and the identification and measurement of indicator traits of adaptation, dence, to support both characterization and genetic improvement. with a view to their possible incorporation into breeding goals. Better mapping of breeds’ geo- graphical distributions and better description 4 of their production environments (see Part References A) would facilitate the identification of Section breeds that are likely to be adapted to particular Abdalla, E.A., Rosa, G.J., Weigel, K.A. & Byrem, combinations of stressors. 2013. Genetic analysis of leukosis incidence T. the optimal approach will vary from Although in United States Holstein and Jersey populations. case to case, the inclusion of genetic elements Journal of Dairy Science , 96: 6022–6029. in disease-control strategies is often a prudent Adeyemo, S.A., Salako, A.E., Emikpe, B.O., Ogie, and effective approach. Documented successes . 2012. Comparative disease A.J. & Oladele, P.O have been achieved, but the use of genetics in resistance to n n igerian local ewcastle disease in disease control is still far from having reached its ecotype chickens: probable genetic influence. full potential, and continued research into the , 60: Bulletin Animal Health and Production in Africa genetics of resistance and tolerance is needed. If 359–368. breeds become extinct or within-breed diversity is Ameni, G., Aseffa, A., Engers, H., Young, D., Gordon, lost before critical knowledge is gained and uti- . 2007. High S., Hewinson, G. & Vordermeier, M lization strategies are developed, opportunities pevalence and increased severity of pathology that could greatly contribute to improving animal of bovine tuberculosis in Holsteins compared health and productivity may be lost forever. to zebu breeds under field cattle husbandry in Where the design and implementation of breed- Central Ethiopia. Clinical Vaccine Immunology, ing programmes are concerned, consideration 14: 1356–1361. should be given to incorporating productivity Babar, M.E., Hussain, T., Abdullah, M., Ali, A., and disease resistance as primary traits weighted Nadeem, A., Kamran, Z. & Ali, M.M . 2013. according to their respective economic values. Evaluation of genetic resistance to Haemonchus Lack of information is the major constraint contortus infection in Pakistani sheep breeds. with respect to fully understanding the genetic Journal of Animal and Plant Science 23: 1219–1222. mechanisms of disease resistance and tolerance in t SECOnD rEPOrt On E H 101 OD O r F O F rESOUrCES GEnEtIC L A IM n A S ' G O W E H t F O E t A t E S H rICULtUrE A D n A rLD t

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150 Section F Threats to livestock genetic diversity C and the information on manage - Part 1 Section 1 Intr oduction ment capacities presented in Part 3. 2 below discusses how the various Subsection Threats to animal genetic resources (AnGR) 2 can livestock-sector trends described in Part include a wide variety of factors, ranging from translate into threats to AnGR. Subsection 2.1 inappropriate approaches to AnGR management provides a general overview of the pressures that on a local scale to major national or global eco- trends of this kind can exert on livestock diversity. nomic, social and environmental trends (Gibson Subsection 2.2 presents some concrete examples , 2005; FAO, 2007a; FAO, 2009a; Alemayehu, et al. fected by of how specific breeds have been af 2013). They operate on a range of different time various threats, both recently and in the more and geographical scales. Some AnGR populations 2.3 presents a review distant past. Subsection are more vulnerable than others to particular of the information on current threats provided threats. Addressing threats to genetic diversity 1 the country reports. in is one of the most important challenges in AnGR Options for addressing management. It requires not only an understand- these threats are not discussed in detail in this ing of the nature and scale of the threats, but section. Effectively addressing threats associated also an understanding of where opportunities to with livestock-sector trends depends on all the address them may lie. various elements of AnGR management, from the This section aims to update the discussion of characterization of breeds and their production threats to AnGR presented in the first report environments, to the establishment of conserv- The State of the World’s Animal Genetic on ation programmes for at-risk breeds and the Resources for Food and Agriculture (first SoW- establishment of appropriate policy and institu- AnGR) (FAO, 2007a). The first SoW-AnGR dis- tional frameworks. The state of capacity in AnGR tinguished threats arising because of relatively 3 of the report management is discussed in Part gradual changes in livestock production systems and the state of the art in management methods from those associated with acute events such 4. in Part as animal disease epidemics and other kinds of 3 and 4 below update, respectively, Subsections disasters and emergencies. A similar approach is the discussions of disasters and emergencies and taken in this update. of disease epidemics presented in the first SoW- Detailed information on livestock-sector trends AnGR. 2). Of is presented elsewhere in the report (Part particular relevance to the analysis of threats is 2 Section C, which discusses the ef Part fects of live- stock-sector trends on AnGR and their manage- ment. Also relevant to the analysis of threats 1 eporting process, see “About For information on the country-r is the information on gene flows presented in this publication” in the preliminary pages of this report. E tHE S C OnD r E P Or t On 109 S O r F O F S E C r U O S E r C tI E n E E A M I An OD ' D L r O HE W F t O E t A t S tHE AnD A G r I C U LtU r L G

151 E O t H E S t A t t F LIVES O CK DIVE r S I t Y A t 1 P r breeds, while their populations may be large, are ends 2 Livestock sector tr not immune to the threat of genetic erosion. The fifth trend noted above has enabled the very wide- spread use of a limited number of popular sires. ends and their 2.1 Overview of tr The tendency is reinforced by other trends – homo- effects on diversity genization of production environments and breed- A, prior to, approx- 1 Section As discussed in Part ing goals, greater capacity to transport genetic imately, the mid-twentieth century, the world’s material and the consolidation of the breeding livestock were raised under very diverse condi- industry. The outcome has been to greatly reduced tions. Animals had to be well adapted to their the effective population size of a number of widely particular production environments if they were 1F1). Low effec- used breeds (see examples in Table to survive, reproduce and meet the requirements tive population size implies a high rate of inbreed- of their owners. Moving AnGR around the world ing and a loss of genetic diversity. It potentially leads was more difficult than it is today, both in terms to inbreeding depression and higher occurrence of transportation and in terms of establishing live- of genetic defects. For further information on the stock populations in new locations. Under these 4C1 in Part4 Section C. effects of inbreeding, see Box conditions, global AnGR diversity flourished. The outcome of these trends can be seen in Today’s livestock sector presents a different breed risk-status data from the developed regions picture. A number of trends have combined to B). Many breeds 1 Section of the world (see Part undermine the bulwarks of livestock diversity that became extinct during the twentieth century and had remained largely in place since the days when others declined to the brink of extinction. many livestock keeping first spread around the world from These developments eventually gave rise to con- the various centres of domestication where it origi- cerns about the loss of diversity and to the estab- nated. First, a range of technological developments lishment of breed conservation programmes that have increasingly enabled production environments have, with varying degrees of success, attempted to be controlled. Second – again because of techno- 3 to revive the fortunes of at-risk breeds (see Part logical developments – it has become easier to trans- Section D). 4 Section D and Part port genetic material over long distances. Third, in Given the experience of developed coun- many production systems, livestock keeping is less tries, the spread of industrialized livestock pro- multipurpose than it was in the past. Fourth, the duction into the developing world has raised livestock sector (particularly the breeding industry), concerns about the fate of the locally adapted along with the food-processing and retail sectors, breeds of developing regions, particularly those has become increasingly dominated by a limited such as East and Southeast Asia that have been number of large-scale commercial companies. Fifth greatly affected by the so-called livestock revolu- (again because of technological developments) the , 1999) – rapid expansion of et al. tion (Delgado number of offspring that can be obtained from indi- large-scale “industrial” livestock production in vidual high-quality or popular animals (particularly response to surging demand. The first SoW-AnGR, male animals) has greatly increased. for example, argued that future “hotspots” of While these trends largely emerged in industri- diversity loss were likely to be found in the global alized regions, such as Europe and North America, 2 “South”. recent decades have seen them become increasingly Describing developments in Thailand, significant in parts of the developing world, driven (2013) note that Charoensook et al. by rapidly rising demand for animal products. The “since 1981 pig breeding has steadily been result has often been to create both the opportu- industrialised ... Thus, indigenous native nity and the motivation to replace diverse locally adapted AnGR with those drawn from a narrow 2 F AO, 2007a, page 72. t he “South” in this context refers to the range of high-output breeds. The latter group of developing regions of the world. O t PO r SECO E E t n D n r H 110 E r C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L r r H t OF E t A t S E H E U t CUL I r G D A n ES FOr FOOD A C r SOU E WO t

152 t t t O CK GEnE t I C DIVErSI IVES Y t tHrEA O L S F 1F1 t ABLE Estimates of effective population size in transboundary breeds based on genealogical or molecular data estimates References Range of N Breed Species e Holstein 49–110 et al. , 2008; Leroy et al. , 2013; Lu et al. , 2012; De r oos Jersey 110–135 Cattle et al. , 2015; t homasen r r , 2013 odriguew- amilo et al. Char olais 198–958 et al. , 2012; Leroy et al. Kijas 73–835 Meat Lacaune Sheep , 2013 143–149 Alpine Brito et al. , 2015; Larroque et al. , 2014 Goat 113–120 Saanen Landrace 74–91 Uimari and t elsh et al. , 2010 Pig apio, 2012; W Yorkshire 55–113 horoughbred 77–250 Horse et al. , 2012; Lee et al. , 2014 Corbin t N Note: = effective population size. Estimates based on various methods and datasets across the world. e pigs have been increasingly mated with newly introduced breeds in terms of their produc- imported breeds ...[they] have gradually tion potential in high-input systems. Despite the significance of the changes become crossbreeds and are finally replaced associated with the livestock revolution, it should by European commercial breeds as the meat- delivering end product in the pork industry.” also be recalled that the livestock production In this context, it is important to note that systems of the developing world remain diverse and that not all countries have followed the same countries affected by the livestock revolution - 2). Many live are not simply retracing the trajectories fol- pattern of development (see Part stock continue to be kept by poor rural people lowed by their more-developed counterparts. For in more or less traditional production systems. example, as described in the first SoW-AnGR, the They supply a range of products and services development of poultry production is often “dis- D) for use within the house 1 Section - (see Part continuous”, i.e. rather than “organic” growth hold or for sale through informal channels. Even through which small poultry farmers gradually where large-scale production has taken off, it expand and intensify their production, “as soon can coexist with more traditional production in as urban markets, transport infrastructure and rural areas, as well as with small-scale production services develop, investors ... step in and establish of various types in urban and peri-urban zones large-scale industrial-type units, integrated with 3 (commercially oriented small-scale dairy produc- modern processing and marketing methods.” ers keeping a small number of cattle or buffaloes, Likewise, where genetic improvement is con- slum dwellers keeping a few poultry, goats or pigs cerned, there is a tendency to make use of the to supplement their livelihoods, and so on). genetic progress that has already been achieved in 4 Many countries face the challenge of managing high-output international transboundary breeds the use of AnGR across a range of very different rather than to establish breeding programmes for production systems, sometimes co-existing in close locally adapted breeds (Tisdell, 2003). This means proximity to each other. In these circumstances, that locally adapted breeds remain far behind the one potential threat to diversity (and to effective use of currently available resources) may be a “one 3 F AO, 2007a, page 156. size fits all” approach to the use of AnGR, i.e. the 4 eeds are breeds that are present in more than ransboundary br t increasing use of a narrow range of breeds across one country. See Part B for further discussion. 1 Section H E SECOnD rEPOr t On t 111 O r FO CES r U rESO C I t AnD L A M AnI S ' rLD FOOD W E H t OF E t A t E S H t AGrIC U L t U r E GEnE

153 E O CK DIVE H E S t A t t F LIVES t O r S I t Y t 1 r P A Production system changes feature promi- still diverse production environments. This may be nently among the threats to AnGR noted in the exacerbated by a lack of knowledge of relative report submitted by the African Union Interafrican merits of different types of AnGR under different Bureau of Animal Resources as part of the second 3 Section B, many conditions. As discussed in Part 1F1). SoW-AnGR reporting process (see Box breeds remain inadequately characterized. Heavy Among environmental trends generating promotion of exotic germplasm by breeding com- threats to livestock diversity, the first SoW-AnGR panies or development agencies may also be a recognized that global climate change was likely factor (Rege and Gibson, 2003). to present a major challenge. The report noted The speed of change associated with the live- that threats associated with climate change stock revolution may also exacerbate threats to diversity. Where livestock production is in a state of rapid flux, with new production systems emerging, traditional systems being transformed and non- Box 1F1 traditional types of AnGR becoming more acces- Production system changes as threats to sible, breeds may fall out of use so rapidly that it animal genetic resources – a view from Africa is difficult for stakeholders to react and introduce measures to promote their sustainable use and con- Changes in production systems are a major factor servation. Unfortunately, monitoring programmes leading to the elimination of indigenous animal for trends in the size and structure of breed popu- genetic resources. The switch to certain cash lations and other trends that may affect their risk crops eliminates crop residues that used to be an status (FAO, 2011b), remain inadequate in many important source of fodder. Irrigation makes two B and Part 3 Section 1 Section B). countries (see Part or three crops a year possible, eliminating the environmental conditions are harsh, Where possibility of grazing on stubble or browsing on external inputs are in short supply and animals trees in the fields. Replacement of draught power have to serve multiple purposes, replacing locally by tractors for agricultural work or transportation adapted breeds with exotic alternatives continues is a prime cause of the gradual extinction of many to be relatively difficult, so some locally adapted draught livestock breeds. The establishment of breeds may, by default, be protected to some wildlife sanctuaries, national parks and other types degree from the threat of being replaced by exotic of protected areas almost always deprives livestock alternatives. However, production systems of this keepers of pasturelands. type are not free of threats to AnGR. Rural livestock- Making a living from keeping livestock is hard keeping livelihoods can be disrupted by a range of work that ties people down day in and day out and factors, including degradation of natural resources, many young people succumb to the attractions of land-use changes or regulations that restrict access city life. Animal-handling skills are disappearing to grazing land and other resources, loss of live- very quickly, within one generation. Village-based stock-keeping labour caused by outmigration in breeding institutions, such as keeping a community search of work, emerging animal health problems bull, also deteriorate rapidly once economic returns that reduce income from livestock keeping and are not sufficient or social networks break down. the imposition of marketing restrictions associ- Once such institutions have disappeared, they are very ated with disease-control efforts. In some circum- difficult to resurrect. stances, pressures on natural resources may, rather than promoting the maintenance of well-adapted breeds that are relatively well able to deal with the Source: Adapted from the African Union Interafrican Bureau of Animal problems associated with these pressures, increase Resources’ submission to the second SoW-AnGR reporting process. The report is available at http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4787e/i4787e03.htm. the demand for alternative, apparently higher producing, breeds. PO O t r SECO E n E H D n t r 112 E r C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L r E WO H t OF E t A t S E H t CUL I r G D A n ES FOr FOOD A E U C r SOU r t

154 C DIVErSI t t O CK GEnE t I IVES t Y t tHrEA O L S F populations to the effects of climate change is could be associated with gradual changes in generally not well understood, whether in terms livestock-production systems (i.e. changes of the of their distribution in relation to geographical type described in this subsection) or in sudden areas likely to be affected by climate change, the catastrophic events (climatic disasters and disease capacity of particular AnGR to thrive in changed outbreaks – see the following subsections). The agroclimatic conditions or the capacity of rele- significance of climate change is, likewise, noted vant groups of livestock keepers to adapt their at several points in the Global Plan of Action for management practices. Box 1F2 illustrates the Animal Genetic Resources (FAO, 2007b). However, potential impact of climate change on the geo- emphasis is placed largely on the potential role graphical distribution of the production environ- of AnGR in climate change adaptation, rather ment of a Kenyan cattle breed. than on the role of climate change as a potential Livestock-sector trends that threaten AnGR threat to AnGR diversity. diversity are not necessarily simply a matter of Since 2007, concerns about climate change the sector responding to economic, social, envi- have continued to increase. In the field of genetic ronmental and technological drivers of the type resources management, this was reflected in the 2). described above (and in more detail in Part adoption, in 2013, of the Commission on Genetic . They can also be influenced by public policy Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA)’s Actions taken by national or local governments Programme of Work on Climate Change and can make it easier or more difficult to make a Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (FAO, living from particular types of production system 2013a) and in the publication of a set of CGRFA (or from livestock keeping in general). If produc- background study papers on the links between tion systems that harbour diverse livestock pop- genetic resources management and climate ulations are adversely affected, whether directly change, including one on the AnGR subsector or because of competition from other production (FAO, 2011a). systems that benefit disproportionally, public poli- Climate change affects livestock production cies can constitute a threat to AnGR. The first systems in many ways. If temperatures increase, SoW-AnGR noted, for example, that policies that heat stress in the animals themselves may become promote the introduction of high external input an increasing problem (ibid.). The availability of production systems or the use of exotic animals feed and the prevalence of diseases and parasites 5 can pose a threat to locally adapted breeds. can be affected by changes in the local ecosystem. If changes are rapid, the adaptive link between a Clearly, policies of this type cannot be dismissed breed and the production environment in which simply on the grounds that they might put breeds it has traditionally been raised may be broken. at risk. All the various pros and cons from eco- Production systems may also be affected in more nomic, social and environmental perspectives indirect ways: via the effect of climate change on need to be weighed up. From the AnGR manage- input prices and via the effect of climate change ment perspective, the objective should be to mitigation strategies (ibid.). The effects of clim- ensure that whatever developments are planned, atic disasters (floods, hurricanes, etc.) are dis- the breeds used are well matched to their produc- 3). cussed in more detail below (Subsection tion environments and that potential impacts on It remains difficult to predict the impact that genetic diversity are assessed so that conservation climate change will have on AnGR diversity. This measures can be taken if necessary. is partly because the effects of climate change are It is also possible for livestock-sector policies to generally difficult to predict, particularly effects have a positive effect on AnGR diversity. This may on complex aspects of ecosystem function, such as be an inadvertent consequence of polices that the epidemiology of diseases. However, it is also 5 true that the vulnerability of particular breeds or F AO, 2007a, pages 117–120. On t SECOnD rEPOr E H t 113 FOOD r FO CES r U rESO C I t GEnE L A M r S ' rLD O W E H t OF E t A t E S H t E U t L U AGrIC AnD AnI

155 E O r H E S t A t t F LIVES t O CK DIVE S I t Y 1 t A P r Box 1F2 The potential impact of climate change on breed distribution – an example from Kenya The current geographic distribution of Kenyan Kamba habitat loss appear in red, areas of no expected change in dark green and areas of habitat gain in light green. cattle, as recorded in DAD-IS, was used to model Analyses of this kind can potentially contribute to more the breed’s potential distribution, taking several informed decision-making on breed management in a temperature and humidity characteristics of its changing climate and hence strengthen the capacity of production environment into account. This information served to define potential current and future habitats national governments, livestock keepers and farmers for this breed. Future habitats were modelled using the to protect and enhance food security and manage their “Hadley Global Environment Model 2 – Earth System” animal genetic resources sustainably. and four scenarios (representative concentration pathways: IPPC, 2013a) were selected. Differences Source: Maps based on DAD-IS (http://fao.org/dad-is) data (as of June between potential current and future habitats were 2014) and the Hadley Global Environment Model 2 – Earth System and four scenarios or representative concentration pathways (RCP). mapped using a simple colour scale, where areas of Scenario RCP8.5 RCP6.0 RCP4.5 RCP2.6 2050 2070 holders, the absence or weakness of such policies (e.g. for livelihood-related reasons) promote the constitutes, in itself, a threat to AnGR diversity continued existence of diverse forms of livestock (FAO, 2009a). The argument has sometimes been production. Alternatively, it may be the effect taken a step further, with a lack of political will of conscious mainstreaming of AnGR-related to support AnGR management programmes or to concerns into other aspects of livestock develop- support rural communities being identified as a ment. It may also be the effect of the establish- threat (ibid.). The links between national policies ment of national strategies, plans or policies and AnGR management are discussed in more specifically intended to promote the sustainable F. 3 Section detail in Part management of AnGR. In the eyes of some stake- r t PO O SECO E n n E r H t D 114 MAL GE E U t CUL I r G D A n ES FOr FOOD A r SOU E r C I t E n r I n D'S A L r E WO H t OF E t A t S E H C t

156 I t O L IVES t O CK GEnE t t C DIVErSI t Y tHrEA S F else is willing and able to take on the role). Even Broad economic, social, environmental and if breeds do not fall out of use, loss of diversity policy drivers of change translate into a loss of can occur if they are subject to genetic erosion AnGR diversity when they mean that livestock caused by inbreeding or so-called indiscriminate keepers who maintain the various breeds and cross-breeding (see below for further discussion). populations that contribute to this diversity are As discussed above, inbreeding can be an issue no longer able or willing to do so (and if no one Box 1F3 Animal genetic resources and access to grazing land – an example from India to the Supreme Court of India, making reference to In India, as elsewhere, the survival of many locally adapted breeds is linked to continued access to Article 8j of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity the communally owned grazing land in which they (CBD), to which India is a party, to support their demand. The article commits countries to evolved and of which they are a part. The Raika are a community of herders in Rajasthan that have “... subject to national legislation, respect, preserve bred a number of livestock breeds, including various and maintain knowledge innovations and practices of strains of camel, the Marwari and Boti sheep breeds, indigenous and local communities embodying traditional lifestyles relevant for the conservation and and the Nari cattle. For centuries they freely grazed sustainable use of biological diversity.” their animals in the forest and on village commons, While the case was never concluded, India passed harvested fields and marginal lands. Because of their another piece of legislation, the “Forest Rights Act” of economic importance, they and other communities 2006, which provides rights not only to forest dwellers, were accorded grazing privileges by local rulers. However, after India’s independence in 1947, but also to seasonal forest users, if they can prove that the forest came to be managed by a specialized they have used the forest for three generations. The department. The herders’ grazing rights were curbed, Raika and several other communities have claimed the village commons were encroached upon and, due these rights, but the claims have not been processed. to irrigation, fallow land became more scarce. In order to stake their claim under the CBD, the Raikas – and a handful of other communities, such The Kumbhalgarh Protected Area in southern as the Maldhari in Kutch (Gujarat) and a group of Rajasthan has been at the centre of protracted efforts Lingayats living in the Bargur forest in Tamil Nadu by the Raika to regain their customary rights. When their grazing permits were denied in the mid 1990s, – have developed a “Biocultural Protocol”, in which they establish themselves as a local community whose the Raika, with support of a local NGO, took their case lifestyle protects biological diversity. In the protocol, they document how they do this: by preventing forest fires, guarding wildlife and by keeping locally evolved livestock breeds. The latest twist to the story is a plan to convert the Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary into a National Park. Unless provisions for the inclusion of the Raika and other communities in the co-management of the park are made, several locally adapted breeds may become extinct. Provided by Ilse Köhler-Rollefson. Photo credit: Ilse Köhler-Rollefson. For further information see LPPS, 2013. On t SECOnD rEPOr E H t 115 FOOD r FO CES r U rESO C I t GEnE L A M AnI r S ' rLD O W E H t OF E t A t E S H t E U t L U AGrIC AnD

157 O Y t I t H E S t A t E O F LIVES t S CK DIVE r t r P A 1 simply because animals are free roaming and even in breeds that remain popular and have mating is uncontrolled or because of unstruc- large population sizes. The immediate factors leading to breeds being tured attempts by individual livestock keepers to improve their herds or flocks. The problem may abandoned (i.e. no longer being used) are diverse and often act in conjunction. Examples include: be exacerbated by policies that encourage artifi- changes in demand that mean that products • cial insemination with exotic genetics but do not and services from certain types of livestock ensure that this is done in a well-planned way. As are no longer sought-after; well as being a threat to diversity, indiscriminate • cross-breeding can also lead to problems in terms competition (from other breeds, species, production systems or from outside the live- stock sector); Box 1F4 • degradation of natural resources required to Indiscriminate cross-breeding as a threat to maintain particular types of livestock (or live- animal genetic resources in Egypt stock in general) or livestock keepers’ lack of 1F3 for an access to these resources (see Box example); Although many of the breeds present in Egypt can availability of alternative livelihood options • be placed in the “not at risk” category, it has been (e.g. jobs in manufacturing, services, etc.); argued that local cattle and poultry may nonetheless • additional costs associated with livestock be undergoing alarming genetic erosion. Census keeping (or particular types of livestock figures show that the percentage of the cattle keeping); population accounted for by cross-bred animals factors that make livestock • sociocultural has been increasing, with the share of pure-bred keeping (or particular types of livestock locally adapted breeds decreasing and that of keeping) unattractive as a livelihood activity; pure-bred exotics remaining more or less constant. and The introgression of exotic genes into local cattle • other changes (e.g. to climate, disease epi- breeds is mostly indiscriminate. Surplus males from demiology or husbandry practices) that exotic breeds, as well as F1 and later generations mean that particular breeds are no longer of cross-bred males and females from planned well matched to their production environ- cross-breeding projects, are sent to market and are ments. then used for breeding. During the last ten years, Indiscriminate cross-breeding is widely recog- local buffalo genotypes have been subjected to nized as a threat to AnGR diversity. The Global progressive cross-breeding using Italian buffalo Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources semen. Given the production systems prevailing in (FAO, 2007b) notes, for example, that the poultry, and rabbit industries, the situation for “indiscriminate cross-breeding with exotic locally adapted breeds in these species could also be breeds is also rapidly compromising the alarming, but there are no figures to substantiate 6 genetic integrity of local populations.” this. In contrast, national efforts to conserve locally adapted chicken breeds, such as the Fayoumi, through It is important to note in this context utilization illustrate what can be done to support cross-breeding is not necessarily a threat. Well- the maintenance of livestock biodiversity. The use planned cross-breeding activities can help to of exotic sheep and goat breeds has not taken root keep potentially threatened breeds in use (FAO, to a degree that is likely to pose a threat to locally 2010; 2013b). The word “indiscriminate” refers adapted breeds. to a lack of attention to the choice of which animals should be mated to which. This can occur Source: Adapted from the country report of Egypt. 6 Paragraph 32. O t PO r SECO E r E t D n n H 116 E r C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L r E WO H t OF E t A t S E H CUL I r G D A n ES FOr FOOD A C r E U t SOU r t

158 t t O L IVES t O CK GEnE t I C DIVErSI t Y S tHrEA F substitute for a thorough analysis of the character of the productivity of the affected population - or its resilience to shocks (droughts, disease out- istics of the targeted breed, its production system and the trends affecting them, it is possible that breaks, etc.). The case of the Red Maasai sheep of lessons can be learned from studying how, in other East Africa was highlighted in the first SoW-AnGR as an example of a breed severely affected by in- circumstances, factors have combined to drive spec- discriminate cross-breeding (in this case with the ific breeds towards extinction. Unfortunately, in 7 Dorper breed, introduced from South Africa). many cases, the factors leading to the decline of individual breeds have not been recorded in detail. The potential risks associated with these develop- This subsection present some examples drawn from ments are illustrated in the following quotation scientific and historical literature (examples from et al. from Ojango , 2014: 2.3 the country reports can be found in Subsection “The changing climatic conditions, notably the below and in Part C). 2 Section severe droughts, have been disastrous to the Zander (2011) reports that sedentarization pastoral animal populations in general, and among the Borana pastoralists of Ethiopia and especially for pure and higher grades of Dorper Kenya has led to the uptake of new livelihood crosses. The indigenous sheep breeds have activities such as crop farming, as well as provid- however withstood such challenges much better.” ing the opportunity to purchase cattle from breeds It is, of course, possible that “upgrading” a other than the Borana. This is reported to have led population via continuous cross-breeding may be to a dwindling of the breed’s population, as well as chosen as an organized (as opposed to “indiscrim- to its dilution through cross-breeding. Interestingly, inate”) strategy. If this strategy is widely imple- the same paper reports that in Kenya the main mented it may pose a threat to the existence of threat has been associated with exotic breeds, the targeted breed and require the implementa- while in Ethiopia the main threat has been replace- tion of some kind of conservation programme if ment and dilution by other locally adapted breeds. the breed’s extinction is to be avoided. (2013), in a paper on the causes et al. Rahman of genetic erosion among “indigenous cattle” in 2.2 eats to individual breeds – Thr Mymensingh district Bangladesh, also report that examples from literature indiscriminate cross-breeding is a major problem. - The discussion presented above provides an over They also note that “using various equipment and view of how livestock-sector trends are likely to machineries in agricultural fields... seems to be exert pressures on livestock diversity. However, a major cause of the loss of indigenous draught the global livestock sector is very diverse and each animals.” individual breed faces a particular combination of The case of the Sheko cattle breed of Ethiopia, threats and opportunities and has a particular set as described by Taye (2009), provides an et al. of characteristics (strengths and weaknesses) that example of how changes to the production envi- influence the likelihood that it will continue to be ronment can interact with a breed’s particular used under changing circumstances. It is therefore characteristics to threaten its survival. Reduced difficult to predict the future of an individual breed availability of grazing land is reported to have led based merely on a general analysis of how the - to smaller herd sizes and to greater use of tether 4 livestock sector is evolving. As discussed in Part ing as opposed to free grazing. Smaller herd sizes D, conserving and promoting the sustain Section - meant that fewer farmers kept Sheko bulls, and able use and development of an at-risk or vulner - this led to a shortage of bulls for breeding and able breed requires a careful assessment of the more cross-breeding with “non-descript” local concrete circumstances facing the breed and those bulls. The Sheko is not well adapted to a tether - who keep (or potentially keep) it. While there is no ing system, because of its aggressive nature and 7 its lack of horns, which also contributed to the 95 (page 444). F AO, 2007a, Box H t E SECOnD rEPOr t On 117 O r FO CES r U rESO C I t GEnE AnD A M AnI S ' rLD FOOD W E H t OF E t A t E S H t AGrIC U L t U r E L

159 F LIVES Y H E S t A t E O t t O CK DIVE r S I t r 1 A t P Box 1F5 Lessons from history? Breed extinctions and near extinctions during the nineteenth century Horses The following quotations taken from old books and “When the railways were established the [ ] Hackney articles on the history of livestock describe some of the breed suffered a setback, being too light for use factors that drove breeds towards extinction: exclusively as a farm horse. Later a succession of bad seasons from 1875 to 1885 resulted in the sale of much Cattle good breeding stock that should have been retained. “The cross [Aberdeen Angus × Shorthorn] ... became It is said that the breed might have become extinct a craze throughout northeastern Scotland [sometime were it not for the loyalty of a few old admirers who after 1810], with the result that the Aberdeen- later reaped a rich reward for their perseverance.” Angus were nearly wiped out of existence. However, (Vaughan, 1931) during this critical period, a few breeders and one in “With the coming of the railroad and the river particular, kept faith in the Aberdeen-Angus breed.” boat, the Conestoga horses and wagons were quickly (Vaughan, 1931) displaced and no further efforts were made to breed “During the last half of the nineteenth century the heavy horses in America until about 1870. The blood Galloway country very largely gave up beef production of the Conestoga was absorbed into the common in favour of dairying and the feeding of crossbred stock of the country and the type became extinct.” to sheep. Ayrshire cattle displaced the Galloways (Vaughan, 1931) a considerable extent, and the breed would have become extinct, except for the efforts of a few Pigs persevering breeders, and as it was, the breed was “In speaking of the breeds of pigs belonging to this greatly reduced in numbers.” (Vaughan, 1931) Rudgwick county, we must not omit the now extinct “[Extinction] was to be fate of the Glamorgans ; , which ... were some of the largest hogs swine when the pastures were broken up, the cattle chosen produced in England. They fattened but slowly, and for feeding were of those modern breeds which were consequently deemed unprofitable, but yielded mature more quickly.” (H.E. in ‘The Field’, 1893). excellent meat and in considerable quantities. They “The [Irish Moiled] – Hornless cattle of Irish Maoiles have, however, passed away before the alterations the old Irish race are found here and there chiefly in produced by the general aim of the present system of the west and the north: from the level of Roscommon breeding.” (Youatt et al. , 1865) to Donegal and Antrim. Their numbers are now small, “... two breeds of pigs which had classes provided and there being no systematic attempt to breed them for them at the Royal and some other Shows have pure unless by a very few owners of small herds, their become extinct. These were the Small White and extinction seems only a matter of not very many the Small Black breeds – the sole cause of their years.” (Wilson, 1909) disappearance being the unsuitability of the pigs of the breeds to supply the present requisites of the Sheep consumer.” (Sanders, 1919) “The Ryeland , as you are doubtless aware, is one of “This breed [the ] is nearly extinct Old English Hog the oldest of British breeds of sheep, and some fifty having been crossed successively by Chinese and other years ago was the leading breed in this district. A desire good breeds ...” (Allen, 1865) for new breeds springing up, it was almost allowed to ] Cheshire “The old English breed of this name [the become extinct, but by a few good old judges refusing is virtually extinct, having been crossed upon by to part with their stock for other blood the breed has smaller and earlier maturing breeds.” (Shaw, 1900) been saved its existence.” (Wrightson, 1913) PO O t r SECO E n E H D n t r 118 E r C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L r r H t OF E t A t S E H U E t CUL I r G D A n ES FOr FOOD A C r SOU E WO t

160 tHrEA S O L IVES t O CK GEnE t I C DIVErSI t Y t t F Box 1F7 Box 1F6 The near extinction of the Cleveland Bay The near extinction of the Lleyn sheep of horse of the United Kingdom the United Kingdom Prior to the Second World War, the Lleyn sheep The Cleveland Bay horse of northern England almost was a popular breed in northwestern Wales in the became extinct twice during the nineteenth century. On the first occasion, during the early part of the United Kingdom. The war years brought a policy of century, rising grain prices led farmers to want heavier compulsory ploughing of a third to a quarter of all ploughable land on every farm, which meant that there horses for use in ploughing heavy soils converted from pasture and for carting grain to market. At the same was less land for grazing, and for sheep production in particular. Wartime demand for food led to cross- time it became fashionable to use “big upstanding” horses for carriage driving. Both factors led to the breeding with breeds such as the Southdown “to produce an early maturing lamb with plenty of fat.” cross-breeding of the Cleveland – on the one hand with “cart horses” and on the other with Thoroughbreds Moreover, farmers wanted “to keep the same number – to such an extent that it almost disappeared as a of ewes that they kept prior to the introduction of the pure breed. On the second occasion, in the 1860s, the ploughing quota. The only way was to purchase the small Welsh Mountain ewe, which could be stocked at growth of the iron trade created demand for heavy twice the density of the Lleyn and was cheaper to buy horses, well adapted for drawing heavy loads on the ... the Southdown was ideal for crossing with the Welsh roads and in the mines. Cart horses were improved and the Clevelands increasingly neglected. At this [Mountain] ewe”. The opening of a farmer-owned creamery in the area increased the attractiveness of point “foreigners came in, and bought what they could of the best, and the men who kept their mares, dairy (cattle) farming and led to some farmers moving completely out of sheep production. bred hunters from them, and crossed them out of recognition.” By the 1960s the breed was on the brink of extinction. Its subsequent recovery is described in a 1 text box in the first SoW-AnGR. Source : Adapted from Blew , 1898 et al. (direct quotations are taken from this source). Source : Adapted from Rees-Roberts (undated) (direct quotations are taken from this source). 1 FAO, 2007a, Box 96 (page 446). - decline in its use (ibid.). The Sheko is the only sur viving taurine cattle breed in that part of Africa and has numerous characteristics that are report- operation based on extension activities to improve edly appreciated by farmers (e.g. relatively high management, awareness-raising activities and the milk yield, disease tolerance, draught stamina, use of artificial insemination using Sheko semen to - less-selective feeding behaviour, attractive appear help overcome the shortage of bulls. For further ance, ability to maintaining good body condi- information on threats to the Sheko and other tion, short inter-calving period and long lactation 1F8. Ethiopian cattle breeds, see Box et al. period). Nonetheless, at the time the Taye As noted above, detailed information on the (2009) study was undertaken (2004–2005), a lack of factors currently threatening individual breeds is appreciation of the breed’s importance and a lack not widely available. On the other hand, numerous of intervention to support its sustainable manage- snippets of information can be found in more histor - ment were reported to be among the threats to ical literature about how breeds in developed coun- its survival. Ethiopia’s country report indicates that tries (when they were relatively less “developed”) the current situation is more promising in this were driven towards extinction. Breed replacement, respect, with an in situ conservation programme in H t E SECOnD rEPOr t On 119 O r FO CES r U rESO C I t AnD L A M AnI S ' rLD FOOD W E H t OF E t A t E S H t AGrIC U L t U r E GEnE

161 E O t H E S t A t t F LIVES O CK DIVE r S I t Y P t 1 r A Box 1F8 Threats to animal genetic resources in Ethiopia Overview Exotic cattle and chicken breeds, and to a limited extent sheep and goat breeds, have been introduced into the country. Lack of a breeding policy, uncontrolled use of artificial insemination in cattle and extensive distribution of exotic chickens among farming communities have posed a serious threat to indigenous cattle and chicken genetic resources. Drought, occurring as a result of climate change, has been causing significant losses of animal genetic resources. Disaster risk management measures are in Photo credit: Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute. place, and post-disaster restocking activities are meant to involve the use of breeds that are well matched Sheko cattle (the only short-horned cattle breed of to local conditions. However, implementation is Eastern Africa) used to be managed under free grazing fraught with problems and restocking usually takes in a forest area. With growth in the population and place without consideration to the type of species or expansion of crop farming, tethering management breed used. In some pastoral areas, climate change has been introduced. Because of the aggressive has resulted in shift in species use from cattle to nature of the breed (mainly the male) under tethering dromedaries and goats, and this is posing a threat to management, early castration or removal of the male cattle genetic resources. Lifestyle changes, particularly has been common. This has caused a significant threat a shift from mobile pastoralism to sedentary to the existence of this trypanotolerant breed. agriculture, has affected livestock’s livelihood roles and led to a reduction in population sizes and changes in the species used. Human population growth has affected animal genetic resources indirectly as a result of declining availability of grazing land caused by the expansion of cropland to meet the demands of the increased population. Threats to specific breeds cattle used to be kept under a livestock- Fogera dominated crop−livestock production system in a Photo credit: Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute. wetland area. In a period of less than three decades, the breeding tract of the breed has been turned into cattle are kept is being affected Boran The area where a monoculture rice cultivation area. Rice became the by climate change and there has been a significant major source of livelihood and grazing lands have change in the amount of rainfall and the frequency of been turned into rice fields, depriving the breed of drought. As a result, there has been a shift from cattle its grazing area. As a result, the size of the Fogera to dromedaries and the number of Borans kept by population has declined dramatically. Fogera animals pastoralist households has declined significantly. have been moved to other upland areas in search of feed and in these areas have been exposed to Source: Adapted from the country report of Ethiopia (the report cites interbreeding with zebu breeds. Yosef et al. , 2013 as a source of information on Boran cattle). O PO E SECO t r E n n r H t D 120 MAL GE E U t I r G D A n ES FOr FOOD A C r SOU E r C I t E n r I n D'S A L r E WO H t OF E t A t S E H CUL t

162 C DIVErSI t O L IVES t O CK GEnE t I t t Y S tHrEA F cross-breeding to the point of disappearance, high-level drivers of change, while others focused on factors operating at the level of the production replacement of breed function, poor management system, holding or herd, or on policy or institutional of breeding, among other factors, all played a 1F5). In several cases, it appears that role (see Box weaknesses. Thus, while the answers presuma- breeds were only saved by the perseverance of a bly reflect priority concerns, they probably do not small number of breeders. Driving forces of change present a comprehensive picture of all the factors contributing to genetic erosion in the respective included changing market demand and changes to countries. It should also be noted that only about the production system. However, changing fash- percent of reporting countries indicated that 35 ions and “crazes” also appear to have played a they regularly assess the factors leading to the role. Where relatively detailed accounts are avail- erosion of their AnGR, and that assessments of able, they generally indicate that a combination of this kind are far more common in Europe and the factors was involved (see Boxes 1F6 and 1F7). Caucasus and North America than in other regions. The most frequently mentioned cause of genetic eport analysis Country-r 2.3 8 erosion was indiscriminate cross-breeding. The The concluding chapter of the first SoW-AnGR prevalence of this threat (reported particularly fre- noted that the discussion of threats to AnGR quently by African countries) implies that improv- diversity had thus far tended to remain focused ing the management of breeding could contribute on changes at the level of the livestock produc- significantly to reducing genetic erosion. However, tion system. In other words (as noted above), it the implementation of such improvements is likely generally remained unclear how broadly identi- to be challenging in many countries, particularly fied threats were operating in concrete circum- given that the third most commonly mentioned stances to drive specific breeds towards extinction. factor contributing to genetic erosion was a lack It could equally have been stated that there had of, or weak, AnGR-management programmes, been little detailed analysis of which among the policies or institutions (for further discussion of various threats identified were actually creating capacity to implement breeding programmes, see the most serious challenges for stakeholders trying C). The second and the fourth most 3 Section Part to promote the sustainable management of AnGR frequently mentioned threats were replacement at national level. In an attempt to fill the latter of locally adapted breeds by exotic breeds and the knowledge gap, countries were asked, as part of lack of competitiveness or poor performance of the reporting process for the second SoW-AnGR, to some breeds (usually those in the locally adapted describe how livestock-sector trends (broadly those category). These two threats are inter-related. Lack identified as significant in the first SoW-AnGR) of competitiveness or profitability is often caused were affecting the management of their AnGR. by the presence of more competitive (often exotic) Countries were also asked to describe the factors alternatives. The decision to start using exotic leading to the erosion of their AnGR and to specify breeds is normally taken because these breeds are what breeds or species were affected. Analysis more profitable (or at least are expected to be of countries’ responses to the questions on live- so). An example of the interplay between lack of C. 2 Section stock-sector trends is presented in Part management capacity, demand for high-output The factors most frequently mentioned in coun- animals, breed replacement and uncontrolled cross- tries’ responses to the question about the causes of 1F9. breeding as threats to diversity is described in Box 1F2. The ques - genetic erosion are shown in Table In addition to the above-mentioned responses tion was open-ended, i.e. countries were asked to related to breeds’ lack of profitability , a small provide textual answers. Some chose to refer to percent or less) number of country reports (7 - mention either unspecified economic and mar 8 n Part 5 eeds and challenges in animal genetic resources ket-related factors or broad economic trends such management (FAO, 2007a, pages 483–503). t H E SECOnD rEPOr t On 121 O r FO CES r U rESO C I t GEnE L A M E S ' rLD FOOD W E H t OF E t A t E S H t AnD AGrIC U L t U r AnI

163 CK DIVE Y t H E S t A t E O F LIVES t O t r S I 1 t P A r tABLE 1F2 Factors r eported in the country reports as causes of genetic erosion North World Southwest Near and Latin Europe Asia Africa Threats Pacific America Middle America and the East and the Caucasus Caribbean n = 17 n= 23 n = 32 n = 3 n =1 n = 3 n = 14 n = 93 Percentage of countries mentioning the threat in response to open-ended question 33 100 67 29 17 41 63 (Indiscriminate) cross-breeding* 42 Introduction/increased use of exotic breeds 22 35 64 33 0 67 34 29 r Lack of/weak AnG management policies, 19 41 22 14 100 0 33 26 programmes or institutions Breeds not profitable/competitive or have 3 17 0 100 0 7 48 12 poor performance Intensification of production or decline of traditional production systems or small 0 0 12 16 29 0 0 39 farms 16 0 0 0 12 13 28 Disease/disease management 7 Loss/lack of grazing land or other elements 14 9 24 13 21 0 0 0 of the production environment Inbreeding or other problems in the 3 26 7 0 0 0 6 10 management of breeding Migration from countryside/uptake of 18 0 0 0 0 9 3 17 alternative employment Changes to consumer/retailer demand/ 12 17 0 0 100 0 8 0 habits 3 24 9 14 0 0 0 8 Mechanization Value of locally adapted breeds not 6 18 0 0 0 0 0 8 appreciated 18 0 0 9 0 0 6 Unspecified economic/market factors 3 16 6 0 0 0 0 0 6 Climate change Globalization, trade liberalization or imports 0 12 9 7 0 0 0 5 Lack of infrastructure or support for 100 0 0 4 6 3 4 0 production, processing or marketing Aging farmers or lack of interest among the 0 3 0 0 13 0 0 0 young generation Note: The cells are coloured according to a graded scale from red (100%) to green (0%). Additional factors reported by a small number of countries included theft, lack of public/policy-maker awareness, high costs of inputs (including labour), urbanization, specialization of production, species replacement, drought, unspecified natural disasters, war, marketing restrictions (due to disease), livestock being regarded as environmental problem, improved disease prophylaxis, excessive slaughter during religious events, extension activities focusing on production not sustainability, inappropriate husbandry practices, unspecified cultural issues, unspecified production system issues and unspecified social constraints. *Some countries specified that the cross-breeding causing the threat is indiscriminate. Country reports, 2014. Source: O t PO r SECO E E t n D n r H 122 E r C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L r r H t OF E t A t S E H E U t CUL I r G D A n ES FOr FOOD A C r SOU E WO t

164 tHrEA S O L IVES t O CK GEnE t I C DIVErSI t Y t t F Box 1F10 Box 1F9 Shifting consumer demand as a threat to Threats to animal genetic resources in animal genetic resources – examples from Mozambique around the world In the past, selection and cross-breeding studies were Country-report responses to a question about the causes of genetic erosion included a number of conducted, with the aim of identifying the best genetic resources for use in the production sector. However, references to specific changes in consumer demand: because of war and lack of expertise, funds and China: “The products ... from locally adapted breeds do not meet the consumption demands of infrastructure, there was no follow up to these studies, and the resulting progeny were used for indiscriminate contemporary people.” breeding and uncontrolled cross-breeding. As a “The downturn in the economy is leading Ireland: to excess production of all equines and a reduction in result, with the exception of some commercial/private farms, the animals in the current population have customer demand.” various (and unknown) levels of exotic × native blood, Portugal: “The current crisis leads consumer to choose cheaper foods rather than higher-quality and reductions in productivity have been reported. products.” Because of this reduced productivity and the need to Tajikistan: increase output in order to satisfy growing consumer “A lack of demand for Karakul skins.” demand, farmers tend to replace native breeds with United Kingdom: “Retailer-driven specifications for commodity animal products are causing rapid and exotic breeds, with all the problematic consequences substantial introgression of external genetics into of introducing temperate breeds into harsh tropical conditions. The replacement of native breeds and some breeds – notably dairy and beef cattle breeds.” uncontrolled breeding is placing these breeds at risk of United States of America: “A strong consumer shift extinction or at least genetic erosion. towards higher demand for eating quality (primarily tenderness and flavour) has resulted in a rapid decline in the population size of the Hampshire pig breed, Source : Adapted from the country report of Mozambique. which is associated with lean carcasses with low water- holding capacity, resulting in less palatable meat.” as globalization, trade liberalization or increasing Source s: Country reports of China, Ireland, Portugal, Tajikistan, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. levels of imports. A few mention specific changes in consumer demand that have led to falling demand for the products or services of particular breeds or species. The examples are quite diverse Another threat to the production systems that and include cases from both developed countries underpin AnGR diversity – loss of grazing land or 1F10). They and developing countries (see Box other components of the production environment – also include shifts both away from and towards received the same number of responses. The country -quality products. demand for higher report from Guinea, for example, notes that the After lack of profitability, the next most com- area available for pastoral grazing is being reduced percent of responses) monly mentioned threat (16 by the expansion of the agricultural frontier and the was intensification of production or decline of tradi- spread of mining operations. The country report tional or small-scale production systems. This threat from South Africa notes that mining is reducing the was more frequently mentioned in the country availability of grazing land and also affecting water percent) reports from Europe and the Caucasus (39 quality and that wildlife ranching is also encroach- than in those from other regions, although also ing on grazing land. Further examples are provided quite frequently mentioned in the reports from 2 Section C. 1F1, 1F3 and 1F8 and in Part in Boxes percent). Latin America and the Caribbean (29 t H E SECOnD rEPOr t On 123 O r FO CES r U AnD C I t GEnE L A M AnI S ' rLD FOOD W E H t OF E t A t E S H t AGrIC U L t U r E rESO

165 F LIVES E O H E S t A t t t O CK DIVE r S I t Y r 1 A t P Box 1F11 Box 1F12 Threats to animal genetic resources in Threats to animal genetic resources in Peru the United States of America Alpacas and llamas: Genetic erosion is being caused by the absorption or replacement of coloured types by Across species, consumer-demand drives the success those that produce fine white fibre. Herds producing or failure of livestock breeds. The vast majority coloured fibre or fibre that is highly variable in its of consumers demand low-cost animal products. fineness have been shrinking and in some cases have Breeds capable of supplying products at the lowest lost colours or shades. cost (usually expressed on a per animal basis) have Criollo cattle: The introduction of exotic breeds successfully captured larger shares of the market. into the country has led to a reduction in the size of However, as segments of society generate demand criollo populations. The distribution of criollos has for livestock produced locally or with lower levels of become restricted to extreme environments where production intensity, pockets of demand have been availability of forage and water is restricted. created for breeds that provide products at lower Native guinea pig: The growing market for guinea quantities per animal or with greater bio-economic pig meat has led to priority being given to the use of efficiencies. breeds genetically improved for meat production. It is For beef cattle, there are a few large breed anticipated that this will affect the numbers and the associations that generate enough revenue genetic diversity of native breeds. to maintain staff, and have breeders that can Other species: Threats to locally adapted breeds afford a full-scale programme. However, small of sheep, pigs, goats, horses, ducks, etc. are mainly breed associations struggle to maintain an office, related to the increasing use of exotic breeds. databases of registered animals, germplasm preservation, etc. The loss of the government price-support system : Adapted from the country report of Peru. Source for wool and fibre has had a detrimental impact on some sheep and goat breeds. In the goat industry, the importation of the Boer goat has resulted in extensive cross-breeding with landrace breeds, especially the Disease or disease-control measures were also Spanish goat, and this has resulted in a threat to the percent of responses. Details of mentioned in 16 survival of these breeds in pure-bred form. the mechanisms involved were not always provided. A shift towards demand for meat with higher However, in some cases the country reports indicate eating quality has resulted in a rapid decline in 1F13 for that culling measures are a threat (see Box the size of the Hampshire pig population (see Box an example). The threat posed by disease epidemics 1F10). Conversely, it has led to an expansion in is discussed in further detail below (Subsection 4). the population size of the Berkshire breed, which percent) mention A number of responses (10 has high levels of intramuscular lipid, resulting in problems related to the inappropriate manage- enhanced eating quality. A small countervailing ment of breeding programmes, particularly prac- force is the expansion of niche markets, which tices that lead to inbreeding. This answer was can be exploited by small-scale farmers delivering more common in country reports from Europe and pork products to local consumers. At-risk breeds the Caucasus than in those from other regions. are frequently utilized in these niche-production Another threat mentioned in a similar number of programmes. percent), mostly in reports from Asia responses (9 and Europe and the Caucasus, is migration from rural areas or uptake of alternative employment. For : Adapted from the country report of the United States of America. Source example, the country report from China, notes that O r SECO PO t E n r E D H t n 124 t n r E WO I MAL GE n E t I C r E SOU H t OF E t A L S E H E r C ES FOr FOOD A n D A G r I CUL t U r D'S A t

166 t tHrEA IVES t O CK GEnE t I C DIVErSI O L Y S t t F Box 1F14 Box 1F13 Effects of predation on sheep production in Threats to animal genetic resources in Norway Botswana Factors leading to genetic erosion in Botswana include The sheep population is decreasing due to poor indiscriminate cross-breeding with exotic breeds. profitability and conflicts with the wolf and other This occurs because most livestock in the country is predators. Most of the sheep farming in Norway is based on letting the sheep out in outlying and found in communal areas where controlled breeding mountainous areas during the grazing season is hard to practice. As such, indigenous Tswana breeds of various species (cattle, sheep, goats and (approximately four months). With the return of predators such as bears, wolves, lynx and wolverine, pigs) are at risk because most farmers want to farm with “improved” stock due to their high growth and with hunting them being prohibited, many sheep farmers cannot or will not let their flocks graze on performance and economic returns. Animal diseases outbreaks also erode the country’s outlying land without herding. The areas where the sheep used to graze are enormous, so herding is animal genetic resources, especially cattle, because of the stamping out (eradication of disease through mass difficult and expensive. This is part of the explanation slaughtering) that occurs in affected regions. for the decrease in the number of sheep and sheep farmers during the last decade (7 percent and 20 percent, respectively). The number of sheep farmers in Adapted from the country report of Peru. Source: 2013 was 14 000. Source : Adapted from the country report of Norway. “thousands of families in rural areas have quit animal rearing ... The accelerated withdrawal of backyard farmers will country. This in turn has led to degradation of inevitably lead to reduction or even natural resources, conflicts over resource use and extinction of local genetic resources.” indiscriminate cross-breeding between breeds A related factor mentioned in a smaller number from the north of the country and those from percent – all from Europe and the of responses (3 the south. The potential for climate change to Caucasus) is ageing of the faming population and increase risks associated with meteorological dis- a lack of interest in livestock keeping among the 3). asters is further discussed below (Subsection younger generation. A range of other threats were mentioned by Mechanization of agriculture and transport a limited number of countries. One issue that is leading to the decline of breeds used for draught causing some concern in parts of Europe is the percent of responses overall, was mentioned in 7 threat from predator animals, the populations but considerably more frequently among those of some of which are expanding in some areas percent). from Asian countries (24 Climate change, 9 1F14). because of restrictions on hunting (see Box in contrast, was mentioned most frequently in percent, as responses from African countries (16 The threat to livestock has been exacerbated by compared to 6 percent for the world as a whole). changes in management – larger flocks per shep- Species replacement as a result of climate change herd – that have increased animals’ vulnerabil- is noted, for example, in the country report from ity. Elsewhere in the world, the country report 1F8). The report from Mali Ethiopia (see Box notes that climatic changes have led to changes 9 edation was not mentioned in response to the question in Pr in transhumance patterns, with pastoralist herds the country-report questionnaire directly referring to the causes remaining for longer in the southern part of the t able 1F2. of genetic erosion and therefore does not feature in SECOnD rEPOr t H t On E 125 O CES FO r FOOD r U rESO C I t GEnE L A M AnI S ' rLD W E H t OF E t A t E S H t AnD AGrIC U L t U r E

167 F LIVES Y H E S t A t E O t t O CK DIVE r S I t P t 1 A r “acute” and “chronic” emergencies. The former from South Africa notes that predation, along correspond to the above-described pattern: a with theft, remains a major challenge and some major inciting event that occurs in a short, dis- farmers have moved from conventional livestock crete, period of time is followed by a longer, but keeping to wildlife ranching as a result. It further finite, period of disruption. A chronic emergency, notes that an in-depth scientific evaluation of in contrast, involves an ongoing state of disrup- predation is being undertaken with the aim of - tion caused by continuing, or periodically recur developing more acceptable control methods. ring, problems (e.g. intermittent droughts, inter - mittent military conflicts or the effects of human- health problems such as HIV/AIDS). Chronic emer - Disasters and emergencies 3 gencies, while they may not involve such devas- tating impacts in terms of livestock mortality, can As noted in the introduction to this section, the have a significant effect on AnGR diversity, both first SoW-AnGR distinguished threats associated because of disruptions to livestock-keeping liveli- with gradual changes to productions systems hoods and because of associated livestock-related from those associated with acute events such as development interventions, such as projects that climatic disasters. These two different types of introduce exotic animals. threat present quite distinct challenges in terms In addition to the direct effects that they can of AnGR management and it is therefore useful have in terms of livestock deaths and disruptions to to discuss them separately. In reality, however, livelihoods, disasters can also disrupt the delivery there are many connections between the two. A of livestock-related services and the operation of gradual trend may make an acute disaster more management programmes, including those related likely, increase its impact or increase the vulnera- to the sustainable use and development of AnGR. bility of a given livestock population to its effects. The following quotation is taken from Liberia’s This subsection updates the discussion of disas- National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan: ters and emergencies presented in the first SoW- “Skills essential for environment AnGR. Threats of this type and efforts to manage and biodiversity management were them are not discussed in any detail elsewhere lost through death, incapacities and in the report. This subsection therefore presents migration. Records and publications a relatively detailed analysis of developments in (biodiversity information) important for this field. the conservation and sustainable use It is well recognized that a catastrophic event of biological resources were destroyed. that kills large numbers of animals can pose a The only research institution, CARI, was threat to AnGR diversity, particularly to breeds vandalized and destroyed during the or populations that are concentrated within a war, resulting in loss of crop and livestock limited geographical area. This kind of threat genetic materials. Domestic animals were was discussed in some detail in the first SoW- decimated, including pets like cats and AnGR. The report noted that impacts on AnGR dogs.”(Government of Liberia, 2004). can occur both because of the direct effects of Another potential threat is that a large-scale an “inciting event”, such as a hurricane or earth- disaster, such as a war, may create such urgent quake, and because of longer-term disruptions demand for food that animals are slaughtered associated with a “state of emergency” brought indiscriminately without sufficient attention being about by an event of this kind. It also recognized paid to the need to retain high-quality breeding that actions taken to deal with an emergency animals. This effect is reported to have threatened situation, particularly the restocking of livestock the survival of several British pig breeds during the populations, can have a significant effect on First World War (Wiseman, 2000). AnGR diversity. A distinction was drawn between PO O t r SECO E n E H D n t r 126 E r C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L r r H t OF E t A t S E H U t CUL I E r G D A n ES FOr FOOD A C r SOU E WO t

168 tHrEA t t O L IVES t O CK GEnE t I C DIVErSI t Y S F as droughts or severe winter weather, and con- Disasters and emergencies did not feature prominently among responses to the country- tingency plans for the provision of feed, water report question on causes of genetic erosion and veterinary services in the event of a disaster. (Table - Disaster early-warning systems may help to give 1F2). A few countries mentioned mili tary conflicts, and this threat was also noted in people the time needed to implement measures to protect their animals. Further information on the reports submitted by both AU-IBAR and the livestock-related emergency preparedness meas- Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry Lands (ACSAD) as part of the second SoW-AnGR ures can be found in the Livestock and emergency 10 guidelines (LEGS, 2009) published by the Livestock reporting process. As noted above, several coun- and Emergency Guidelines and Standards Project. tries mentioned climate change as a threat, but In some cases, preparedness measures may generally these responses did not refer explicitly include the establishment of facilities that can to disaster risk. Several countries (e.g. Ethiopia, be used to physically protect animals from the the Islamic Republic of Iran and Kenya), noted immediate effects of a disaster. For example, in drought as a significant threat. million cattle Bangladesh, where more than 1 In terms what can be done to protect AnGR were killed by Cyclone Sidr in 2007, the Swiss from the effects of disasters and emergen- Agency for Development and Cooperation has cies, the first SoW-AnGR recognized that at the constructed a number of multipurpose cyclone height of major acute emergency, interventions can house both people and animals shelters that to protect animals would rarely be a priority. The (IRIN, 2012). Another measure taken in some importance of taking precautions in advance was parts of Bangladesh is to construct elevated earth therefore emphasized. If possible, breeds or pop- , upon which livestock killas structures, known as ulations that are vulnerable to the effects of dis- can be kept during cyclones (Choudhury, 1993; conservation asters should be included in ex situ Floreani and Gattolin, 2011). Where naturally programmes under which cryoconserved material safer ground is accessible, specialized construc- and/or live animals are kept at a location (or prefer - tions may be unnecessary. For example, in the ably more than one location) outside the disaster- wake of Hurricane Isodore, which struck Mexico prone area. In the case of emergencies that have in 2002, local municipalities in Yucatan purchased a slower onset or are less severe in terms of their areas of land a few kilometres away from the effects on the human population, the first SoW- coast and promoted the relocation of animals AnGR noted that there might be more scope from vulnerable coastal areas (UNISDR, 2013). for taking action to protect at-risk breed popu- In Indonesia, when the Mount Merapi volcano lations from destruction. However, it also recog- erupted in 2010, local authorities provided live- nized that this would generally require a degree stock feed and shelter in safe areas so that animals of advanced planning and good knowledge of did not have to be left in villages threatened by where threatened populations are located. The et al. , 2010). the eruptions (Husein need to improve knowledge of breeds’ geograph- Measures taken to protect animals from the phys- ical distribution was one of the main recommend- ical effects of a disaster need to be well adapted ations of the first SoW-AnGR with respect to the to local circumstances and feasible in terms of the threats posed by disasters and emergencies. resources available. Taking Bangladesh again as an ex situ In addition to establishing conservation example, the current number of cyclone shelters is schemes, disaster preparedness can also include insufficient to protect the whole human popula- practical steps to mitigate the effects of disasters. tion in cyclone-affected zones, and therefore con- Examples include the creation of fodder banks struction of relatively elaborate combined human– in areas that are prone to climatic disasters such animal shelters may not always be regarded as a 10 Killas priority (IRIN, 2012). , on the other hand, are r eports from international organizations are available at http:// www .fao.org/3/a-i4787e/i4787e03.htm. H t SECOnD rEPOr t On E 127 O r FO CES r U rESO C I t GEnE L AnD M AnI S ' rLD FOOD W E H t OF E t A t E S H t AGrIC U L t U r E A

169 E O r H E S t A t t F LIVES t O CK DIVE S I t Y A t 1 r P taken once the disruptions of the immediate simple constructions, but tend to fall into disrepair aftermath have subsided), the “standard” AnGR- when not in use. People may also be unwilling to related advice applies (see for example FAO, take their animals to killas if they are located far 2010): any breeds or crosses that are introduced away from human shelters. It has been argued must be appropriate for the local production that some kind of combination of a shelter for the environment and the needs of the local livestock for the animals is the preferable people and a killa keepers; potential impacts on the AnGR of the option in these circumstances (Choudhury, 1994; local area should be assessed and, if necessary, Floreani and Gattolin, 2011). conservation measures (FAO, 2013b) should be Preparedness measures, if taken at all, will implemented. generally focus on protecting livestock in general While, given the destructive power of many dis- rather than on protecting AnGR diversity per se . asters and the geographical concentration of some However, increasing the proportion of the live- breed populations, the existence of a potential stock population protected will, by default, tend threat to AnGR diversity appears to be quite clear to increase the probability that particularly signif- – and is widely recognized among those involved icant subpopulations (e.g. breeds that are rare or in AnGR management – the first SoW-AnGR noted have unique features) will be protected. If such that the scale of this threat was unclear. In fact, populations have been identified and their loca- it was difficult to find any documented examples tions are known, it may be possible to take steps in which the risk status of specific breed popula- to ensure that they are covered by whatever pre- tions had been significantly worsened by a disas- paredness measures are in place in the local area, ter or emergency. The main exception to this was or even to prioritize them. a case study on the effects that the 1992 to 1995 In the case of post-disaster restocking, choos- war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (and subsequent ing appropriate breeds or species is an important efforts to rehabilitate the country’s livestock part of the planning process. It may be tempting sector) had had on AnGR, particularly the Busha to use the restocking exercise as an opportunity breed of cattle, whose population reportedly to “improve” the local livestock population. 000 in 1991 to below 100 in declined from over 80 However, given the difficult conditions that are 11 2003. likely to prevail in a post-disaster situation, intro- This kind of “before versus after” analysis ducing animals that require higher levels of care is, clearly, reliant on the existence of reasonably and inputs may be a risky strategy. Even at the precise and up-to-date figures for the size of the best of times, introducing a new breed requires respective breed population in the run up to the careful planning to ensure that the animals and emergency and on there being sufficient capac- the production system are well matched (FAO, ity to assess the post-emergency situation (i.e. to 2010). Using locally adapted rather than exotic carry out some type of population survey). Breed- breeds for restocking is likely to reduce the poten- specific data on the number of animals killed by tial for negative consequences for AnGR diversity. acute disasters are, not surprisingly, rarely availa- However, even in these circumstances, it is possi- ble – and no such examples were presented in the ble that restocking may have negative effects on first SoW-AnGR. specific breeds. The ability to identify any such potential threats is, again, likely to depend on 11 In 2011, “BushaLive”, a r egional project (Albania, Bosnia and the availability of good knowledge of the char - he t Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia and acteristics, distribution and demographics of local r Former Yugoslav epublic of Macedonia) aiming to promote the conservation of the Busha, was chosen to receive funding livestock populations. under the Funding Strategy for the Implementation of the Where interventions that aim to address Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic r esources (for more more chronic emergencies or longer-term post- details, see http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/programmes/en/ disaster development are concerned (i.e. actions genetics/first_call.html). O t PO r SECO E E t n D n r H 128 E r C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L r r H t OF E t A t S E H E U t CUL I r G D A n ES FOr FOOD A C r SOU E WO t

170 Y t IVES t O CK GEnE t I C DIVErSI t O L tHrEA t S F The advice on disasters and emergencies pre- The first SoW-AnGR cited sources (IFRC, 2004; 12 EM-DAT database) sented in the first SoW-AnGR was, in broad indicating that the frequency terms, taken up in the Global Plan of Action for of many types of disaster had been increasing over 13 Animal Genetic Resources (FAO, 2007b), which the preceding years and decades. Recent data calls for the establishment of “integrated support indicate that, while at global scale there may be a arrangements to protect breeds and populations downward trend in human mortality rates associ- at risk from emergency or other disaster scen- ated with hydrometeoroligical disasters, overall eco- arios, and to enable restocking after emergen- nomic and livelihood losses associated with disasters 15 cies, in line with the national policy.” are increasing rapidly (UNISDR, 2013; Lavall and It also calls Maskrey, 2013). In very broad terms, it seems that - for the establishment of backup ex situ conser improved early warning systems, along with better vation systems for “protection against the risk 16 developed infrastructure, health care systems, etc. of emergency or disaster scenarios.” According 14 have often allowed more human lives to be saved, to the country reports, 30 percent of countries have put arrangements in place to protect breeds while little progress has been made in terms of the and populations that are at risk from natural or land use planning and environmental-management human-induced disasters (FAO, 2014). However, measures that might reduce exposure to certain the scope of these measures is in some cases types of disaster (UNISDR, 2013). Disaster trends limited to measures such as the provision of com- also vary greatly from one region to another. For pensation to livestock keepers affected by natural example, in contrast to the general trend, flood disasters or the implementation of broad disas- mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa have been ter-management strategies. increasing consistently in recent decades. Increases Another field in which there have been signif- in the hazard exposure of “produced capital” have icant developments since the publication of the been particularly marked in areas where economic first SoW-AnGR is the assessment of geographi- growth has been rapid (e.g. in parts of Asia) (ibid.). cal distribution as a factor affecting breeds’ risk Disaster risk is also probably being affected by statuses. The significance of geographical con- climate change. The Intergovernmental Panel on centration was, for example, highlighted in a Climate Change, in its special report on managing paper by Carson et al. (2009), which showed that extreme events and disasters (IPCC, 2013b), con- British sheep breeds assessed, 10 had out of 12 cluded that, at global scale, climate change can be 95 percent of their population numbers concen - expected to increase the frequency and/or sever - km or less (in some trated within a radius of 65 ity of several types of extreme weather events km). Geographical concen - cases less than 30 and other potentially disastrous phenomena (e.g. tration was subsequently incorporated into the slope instabilities and lake outburst floods caused United Kingdom’s breed risk classification system by glacial retreat or permafrost degradation) in et al. (Alderson, 2009). In another study, Bahmani 1F15). Certain other the coming decades (see Box (2011) analysed the distribution of the Markhoz , predicted types of extreme event are, however goat in the Islamic Republic of Iran and discov- to become less frequent. There are also expected - percent of its population was con ered that 77 to be shifts in the geographical distribution of centrated within a circle with a radius of 7 km. certain types of event. In this case, natural disasters such as droughts are reported to have already contributed to the 12 http://www.emdat.be 13 s population (ibid.). decline of the breed’ AO, 2007a, Figure 36 (pages 120–121). F 14 Mortality rates in the event of an earthquake ar e closely correlated to building collapse. In contrast to mortality rates associated with hydrometeorological disasters, human 15 F AO, 2007b, Strategic Priority 10, Action 2. earthquake mortality rates have been increasing globally in 16 F AO, 2007b, Strategic Priority 23, Action 3. recent years. t H E SECOnD rEPOr t On 129 O r FO CES r U rESO C I t GEnE L A M E S ' rLD FOOD W E H t OF E t A t E S H t AnD AGrIC U L t U r AnI

171 E O S H E S t A t t F LIVES t O CK DIVE r I t Y A r t 1 P Box 1F15 Projections for the risk of climatic disasters southern Europe and the Mediterranean region, The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Managing the risks of extreme events special report central Europe, central North America, Central and disasters to advance climate change adaptation, America and Mexico, northeast Brazil, and southern published in 2013, includes a number of projections of Africa. Elsewhere there is overall low confidence future trends in the occurrence and severity of extreme because of inconsistent projections of drought changes (dependent both on model and dryness index) ...” climatic events. The main predictions are summarized “Projected precipitation and temperature changes in the following quotations. imply possible changes in floods, although overall “Models project substantial warming in there is low confidence temperature extremes by the end of the 21st century. in projections of changes It is virtually certain in fluvial floods. Confidence is low due to limited that increases in the frequency and because the causes of regional changes evidence and magnitude of warm daily temperature extremes and decreases in cold extremes will occur in the 21st are complex, although there are exceptions to this (based on century at the global scale. It is that the medium confidence very likely statement. There is length, frequency, and/or intensity of warm spells or physical reasoning) that projected increases in heavy rainfall would contribute to increases in local flooding heat waves will increase over most land areas ...” that the frequency of heavy in some catchments or regions.” “It is likely “It is precipitation or the proportion of total rainfall from very likely that mean sea level rise will heavy falls will increase in the 21st century over many contribute to upward trends in extreme coastal high water levels in the future. For example, the areas of the globe. This is particularly the case in the very high latitudes and tropical regions, and in winter in contribution of mean sea level rise to increased likely extreme coastal high water levels, coupled with the the northern mid-latitudes. Heavy rainfalls associated to increase with likely increase in tropical cyclone maximum wind likely with tropical cyclones are continued warming. There is speed, is a specific issue for tropical small island medium confidence that, in some regions, increases in heavy precipitation will states.” high confidence occur despite projected decreases in total precipitation that changes in heat “There is in those regions ...” waves, glacial retreat, and/or permafrost degradation will affect high mountain phenomena such as slope “Average tropical cyclone maximum wind speed is instabilities, movements of mass, and glacial lake likely to increase, although increases may not occur in high confidence likely all ocean basins. It is that outburst floods. There is also that the global frequency changes in heavy precipitation will affect landslides in of tropical cyclones will either decrease or remain some regions.” essentially unchanged.” “There is “There is in projections of changes low confidence that there will medium confidence be a reduction in the number of extratropical in large-scale patterns of natural climate variability. For example, confidence is low in projections of changes cyclones averaged over each hemisphere. While in the detailed geographical in monsoons (rainfall, circulation) because there is low confidence there is little consensus in climate models regarding the sign of projections of extratropical cyclone activity, there is medium confidence in a projected poleward shift of future change in the monsoons ...” extratropical storm tracks ...” “There is medium confidence that droughts will intensify in the 21st century in some seasons and areas, due to reduced precipitation and/or increased evapotranspiration. This applies to regions including Source : IPCC, 2013b. O t PO r SECO E E t n D n r H 130 E r C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L r r H t OF E t A t S E H E U t CUL I r G D A n ES FOr FOOD A C r SOU E WO t

172 I S IVES t O CK GEnE t O L C DIVErSI t Y t tHrEA t F More generally, access to data on breed distrib- also noted that while post-disaster rehabilitation ution will be improved by the development of the activities often involve livestock-related inter- production environment descriptors (PEDS) module ventions, the literature on the subject included of the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System little mention of AnGR issues. 17 As noted above, since the publication of the first (DAD-IS), which will allow National Coordinators SoW-AnGR, the literature on general livestock- for the Management of Animal Genetic Resources related interventions to assist people affected by to record the distribution of their countries’ breeds humanitarian crises has been augmented by the on electronic maps. The importance of collecting work of the Livestock Emergency Guidelines and data on the distribution of breed populations is Standards (LEGS) Project. The LEGS Handbook emphasized in FAO’s guideline publications on sur - (LEGS, 2009) recommends that animals used for veying and monitoring of AnGR and on phenotypic restocking should be from locally adapted breeds, characterization (FAO, 2011b; FAO, 2012a). both because of their good capacity to thrive in Once breed distribution data are available, a local conditions and because local people will potential next step is to relate these data to the 18 know how to manage them. However, it offers geographical distribution of disaster risk. This no guidance on how to address threats to spe- might, for example, help provide an indication cific AnGR that may arise because of a disaster or of the scale of the potential threat and draw emergency or because of response measures. This attention to areas where risk-reduction activi- pattern – recognition of the importance of using ties for AnGR are particularly needed. It should, appropriate locally adapted animals for restock- however, be borne in mind that sophisticated ing, but no more specific AnGR-related advice – risk-mapping exercises are not necessarily a pre- reflects much of the earlier literature on the topic requisite for action. As some of the examples pre- (e.g. Heath et al. , 1999; Simpkin, 2005; Nyariki sented above suggest, basic knowledge of how et al. , 2005). It is unclear whether awareness of risk is geographically distributed on a local scale AnGR-related issues among practitioners involved can provide a basis for preparedness measures to in restocking projects or in implementing other protect livestock (and potentially to protect spe- disaster-related interventions has increased in cific breed populations). recent years. Practical implementation seems to To what extent has awareness of AnGR man- remain a problem, at least in some countries (see agement issues spread beyond the “AnGR com- 1F8 for example). Box munity” and into the consciousness of a wider At national level, many countries have plans layer of stakeholders involved in the manage- 19 or strategies ment of disasters and emergencies? The first – and in some cases also legis- 20 SoW-AnGR noted that disaster-preparedness lation – related to the management of disasters and risk-management activities had, in general, and emergencies. As part of a survey on legal and tended to include few specific recommendations policy frameworks affecting AnGR management for the livestock sector, although some efforts F for 3 Section conducted by FAO in 2013 (see Part were being made by some international agen- details), countries were asked whether they more cies to address these deficiencies. The report had any legal or policy instruments related to 19 Many national strategy documents can be accessed via the 17 http://fao.org/dad-is eventionWeb website (http://www.preventionweb.net/ Pr 18 he global electronic disaster-risk maps produced by the t ations n english/professional/policies/) operated by the United Global isk Data Platform (http://preview.grid.unep.ch/) might r ISD r ). Office for Disaster r isk r eduction (U n 20 egulations on disaster management can Many laws and r be useful in this respect. Data on disaster-related livestock be accessed via the Disaster Law Database operated by the deaths recorded in DesInventar (http://www.desinventar.org/) International Federation of r ed Cross and r ed Crescent databases are can also be displayed on maps at the level of Societies (http://www.ifrc.org/en/publications-and-reports/idrl- within-country administrative areas. About 30 countries, mostly database/). in Latin America and the Caribbean, are covered. t H E SECOnD rEPOr t On 131 O r FO CES r U rESO C I t GEnE L A M E S ' rLD FOOD W E H t OF E t A t E S H t AnD AGrIC U L t U r AnI

173 E O t H E S t A t t F LIVES t O CK DIVE r S I Y t 1 A P r disasters and emergencies and whether these had Several of the survey responses mention that any impact on AnGR management. The results national disaster prevention policies include pro- visions related to the protection of livestock or indicate that 76 responding percent of the 48 that this task falls within the mandate of disaster- countries have legislation on disaster prevention protection agencies. However, few details are pro- measures either in place or under development percent) have policies in vided. Several responses note the need to intro- and almost as many (74 place or under development. A number of coun - duce AnGR-specific measures into disaster-related tries reported that these instruments include pro- policies. The protection of livestock in general is visions related to the protection of livestock and mentioned, for example, in Bulgaria’s Disaster 23 in several cases also specifically to the protect- Protection Act (2006), which refers to “tempo- ion of AnGR. In some cases, however, it appears rary evacuation of persons, domestic animals or that these measures relate only to the control livestock” and “providing food and temporary of animal disease epidemics and in others that shelter to victims of disaster, domestic animals the only measures taken are precautionary gene and livestock” and Viet Nam’s Law on Natural 24 banking. Disaster Prevention and Control (2013), under One of the few reported laws that specifically which basic provisions for dealing with droughts addresses the protection of AnGR from a range of and seawater intrusions include “adjusting the natural and human-induced disasters is Slovenia’s structures of plants, animals and crops based on 21 Livestock Breeding Act (2002), forecasts, warnings and developments of drought which states that and seawater intrusion” and for disasters associ- “if due to the state of emergency or state ated with cold weather include “ensuring suffi- of war, or due to natural or other disasters cient feed for livestock.” the preservation of the breeding materials Looking beyond the survey results, most national necessary to ensure, to a minimum extent, policies on disasters and emergencies make no the reproduction of domestic animals is specific references to the protection of animals endangered, or if the biological diversity from the effects of disasters. Exceptions include of domestic animals in the Republic of Uganda’s National Policy for Disaster Preparedness Slovenia is endangered to a larger extent, and Management, which includes measures the Minister may assign to breeding related to the provision of emergency feed supplies organizations and breeders, as well during droughts, as well as to the control of cattle as to other recognized and approved 25 rustling and disease epidemics. organizations hereunder special technical Nepal’s National and other tasks in order to prevent such Strategy for Disaster Risk Management includes endangering.” among its priorities for action the establish- Another example is Viet Nam’s Ordinance on ment of a monitoring system for crops and live- 22 Livestock Breeds (2004), stock in high-risk areas and improvements to which refers to “the restoration of livestock breeds in cases where natural disasters or enemy sabotages cause 23 Закон за защита при бедствия (available in Bulgarian at http:// serious consequences.” www.mi.government.bg/library/index/download/lang/bg/fileId/304 n .pdf). and in English at http://www.ifrc.org/docs/idrl/867E 24 LUẬT PHÒNG, CHỐNG THIÊN TAI (Luật số: 33/2013/QH13 ) (available in Vietnamese at http://tinyurl.com/oyl48me and in 21 Zakon o Živinoreji (ZŽiv) (available in Slovenian at English at http://tinyurl.com/kapdwca). 25 eat animal disease epidemics A number of national policies tr http://tinyurl.com/o6o4pbw and in English at http://tinyurl.com/ as a class of disaster in their own right. Plans for dealing with n2thv8c). 22 PLỆNH GIỐNG VẬT NUÔI (Số: 16/2004/PL-UBTVQH11) PHÁ epidemics are, of necessity, oriented towards the livestock (available in Vietnamese at http://www.moj.gov.vn/vbpq/Lists/ sector. However, this does not necessarily mean that the sector Vn%20bn%20php%20lut/View_Detail.aspx?ItemID=19426 receives any particular attention in the respective country’s and in English at http://tinyurl.com/k6t74qu). plans for dealing with other kinds of disaster. O t PO r SECO E E t n D n r H 132 E r C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L r r H t OF E t A t S E H E U t CUL I r G D A n ES FOr FOOD A C r SOU E WO t

174 t t O L IVES t O CK GEnE t I C DIVErSI t Y S tHrEA F because of the effects of the disease or because animal feed storage systems and animal shelters of a culling programme implemented to control (Government of Nepal, 2009). India’s Standard the disease. Operating Procedure for Responding to Natural Other things being equal, large epidemics Disasters refers to the need to “devise appropri- (affecting a large number of animals and a wide ate measures to protect animals and find means to geographical area) pose a greater threat to AnGR shelter and feed them during disasters and their than smaller epidemics. Likewise, epidemics that aftermath” (Government of India, 2010). India has produce a high mortality rate in the affected areas taken a number of initiatives in this field in recent pose a greater threat. Culling campaigns can be years. In 2013, the country’s National Disaster particularly problematic in this respect because, Management Authority co-organized an event percent if carried out thoroughly, they kill 100 entitled “National Conference on Animal Disaster of the animals of the relevant species in the area Management – Animals Matter in Disasters” with designated for the cull. However , certain diseases, the World Society for the Protection of Animals African swine fever, for example, produce very (NDMA, 2013). A model district disaster manage- high mortality rates even if there is no culling. ment plan developed for the Madhubani district While the effects of large-scale epidemics are of Bihar, and published in 2013, includes detailed likely to be the most serious, the potential threat plans for action by the Animal and Fisheries from epidemics that are relatively limited in terms Department and by local livestock management of the size of the area they affect and the mortal- committees, covering emergency actions such as ity rates they produce should not be overlooked. rescue and evacuation of animals and the pro- For an at-risk breed or a breed that is close to vision of veterinary care, fodder and water, as falling into an at-risk category, the death of a few well as livestock-related risk-reduction activities thousand, a few hundred or even a few tens of (DDMA, 2013). animals can be devastating. During the decade preceding the publication of the first SoW-AnGR there were a number of Animal disease epidemics 4 extremely serious epidemics in various parts of the world, several of which resulted in the deaths of This subsection updates the discussion on animal 26 millions or hundreds of thousands of animals. disease epidemics as threats to AnGR diversity In presented in the first SoW-AnGR. Epidemics share many cases, the number of culled animals was far some of the features of other kinds of disaster larger than the number of deaths caused by the 3). They have the and emergency (see Subsection disease itself. During the period since 2007, while potential to kill large numbers of animals in a there have been no incidents on quite the same short period of time. They are a particular threat scale in terms of livestock deaths as the United populations that are concentrated to breed Kingdom foot-and-mouth disease epidemic of within a limited geographical area. They often 2001 or the avian influenza outbreaks that struck trigger a burst of activity on the part of national parts of Southeast Asia in 2003/2004, disease epi- authorities and these responses can in themselves demics have continued to inflict enormous losses sometimes be a threat to AnGR. However, unlike on the livestock sector. In terms of shifts in the many other kinds of disaster and emergency, in distribution of major epidemic diseases with the - the case of an epidemic, livestock are not mar potential to devastate livestock populations, one ginal to response efforts. They are the main focus of the most worrying recent developments has of attention. Concretely, the acute threat associ- been the spread of African swine fever into the ated with disease epidemics is that large numbers Caucasus and the Russian Federation (FAO, 2012b). of animals, potentially a large proportion of a 26 given breed population, will die, either directly able t AO, 2007a, F 40 (page 128). On t SECOnD rEPOr E H t 133 FOOD r FO CES r U rESO C I t GEnE L A M r S ' rLD O W E H t OF E t A t E S H t E U t L U AGrIC AnD AnI

175 E O CK DIVE H E S t A t t F LIVES t O r S I t Y A t 1 r P Latvian White breed. The report from Botswana The effect of climate change on the distribu- includes the following comment on the effects of tion of animal diseases is an area of study that post-epidemic restocking: is receiving increasing attention. Vector-borne “Disease outbreaks in certain zones have and waterborne diseases are the most likely to led to mass slaughter of animals ... This be affected (World Bank, 2014). Given the high reduces population size and also affects mortality rates associated with some of these dis- ... diversity since restocking has to be eases, it is possible that shifts in disease distrib- done using animals from other zones. ution driven by climate change could pose a Furthermore, ... the restocking exercise threat to AnGR. However, because of the poten- brings in improved animals not indigenous tial for complex interactions between the climate ones which are adaptable to the local and pathogens, vectors, host animals and other production environment. This ... was ... ecosystem components, in addition to the effects 000 evident in North East District where 25 of a range of human activities that may increase sheep and goats (mostly indigenous) were or decrease the likelihood that a disease will replaced by crossbreds and exotic breeds.” spread to a new area, it is generally difficult to More general effects on AnGR management predict how severe such effects are likely to be are noted in the country report from Mauritius: an (FAO, 2011a; 2013c). Nonetheless, some attempts African swine fever epidemic in 2007 is reported have been made to predict outlooks for specific s pig percent of the country’ to have wiped out 70 diseases in the context of climate change (World population. A relaunch programme based on the Bank, 2014). It is argued that conducting studies importation of exotic breeds reportedly led to of this kind is “important when building long- indiscriminate cross-breeding and the production term disease mitigation plans as it provides a of poor-quality piglets. Further action on the part framework for governments to invest in research of the government was then required in order to in order to reduce uncertainties and to develop rectify the problem. disease mitigation efforts” (ibid.). Early warning The first SoW-AnGR noted that there had systems for individual outbreaks of climate- been some recognition of the potential need sensitive diseases are likely to become increas- to protect rare or valuable breed populations ingly necessary and a number of such systems are from the effects of compulsory culling meas- reported to be under development (ibid.). One ures, for example in some European Union disease that is causing some concern as a poten- legislation. However, it also noted that the success tial threat to AnGR in Europe is bluetongue, of any attempts to “rescue” breed populations which appeared in northern Europe for the first in affected areas once an epidemic had begun time in 2006 (European Commission, 2013). were likely to depend heavily on a high level of As discussed above, diseases and disease man- advanced planning. While there have been some agement featured prominently among the factors initiatives in this field over recent years (see for reported by countries as causes of genetic erosion, 1F16), the evidence provided in example Box particularly in the case of African countries (see the country reports, the responses to the survey 1F2). In many cases, it is not clear whether Table on legal and policy measures conducted by FAO these reports refer to the acute effects of epidemics F) and the reports 3 Section in 2013 (see Part or to the more general effects of disease problems 27 received from international organizations as constraints to livestock-keeping livelihoods. Few countries provide examples of specific breed popu- suggest that, overall, progress has been limited. As lations that have been severely affected by disease in the case of other types of disaster, the establish- outbreaks. However, the report from Latvia notes ment of back-up ex situ conservation measures is that an outbreak of swine brucellosis led to the 27 death of more than half the sows belonging to the eliminary pages. For details, see “About this publication” in the pr O t PO r SECO E E t n D n r H 134 E r C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L r r H t OF E t A t S E H E U t CUL I r G D A n ES FOr FOOD A C r SOU E WO t

176 t tHrEA O L IVES t O CK GEnE t I C DIVErSI t Y t S F Box 1F16 The European Livestock Breeds Ark and Rescue Net The European Livestock Breeds Ark and Rescue Net threatened breeds, so that they are able to identify (ELBARN) was envisioned as a network of stakeholders important breeds and set a rescue action in motion if the breeds are threatened by an epidemic. and farms that would perform two main functions: rescuing animals belonging to rare breeds if they • It is clear that rescue can only be successful with prior planning. Both animals and holdings need to are threatened by a crisis; and creating an online guide to places where indige be recorded and registered, and contingency plans • - need to be prepared. Any person serving in a decision- nous livestock breeds can be seen by the public. making capacity during an animal disease epidemic A third objective was to develop and promote a should have received training about threatened concept for protecting indigenous livestock breeds breeds. Countries developing new regulations from culling during disease epidemics. concerning disease control should consider including ELBARN began in 2007 with a three-year project provisions related to the protection rare breeds. funded by the European Commission. The most It would also be a positive development if such sustainable part of the project has been the online provisions were included in the Terrestrial Animal .arca-net.info), which now (June 2014) has guide (www Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal 623 entries from 46 European countries. Every year, Health (OIE). members are invited to update their information, so The lessons learnt from ELBARN are that, without that Arca-Net is kept up to date. adequate funding, ideas cannot be implemented, The “rescue” aspects are more difficult to even if they are supported by all stakeholders. The implement without adequate financial support. The long-term goal is still to anchor the protection of principles of rescue were discussed at an international indigenous breeds in national and international workshop in 2008. It was concluded that rescue is regulations. However, the austerity measures put in a temporary act: animals must be moved back into place following the global economic crisis of 2008 farming systems as soon as possible. Rescue must be have led to a focus on self-sustaining measures such as done professionally, and a network of experts needs Arca-Net. to be put in place to accomplish the task. Emergency funds need to be available so that action can be taken quickly. Veterinarians should be educated about Provided by Elli Broxham, SAVE Foundation. regarding the relative significance of different an important means of reducing the risk of total threats, particularly given that in most cases extinction as a result of a disease outbreak. a range of interacting factors are likely to be involved. It is also difficult to determine whether particular threats have become more or less 5 Conclusions prominent during the period since the first SoW- AnGR was prepared. Country-reporting exercises Information on threats to AnGR diversity during the intervening years (the second SoW- remains far from complete. As discussed in Part 1 AnGR reporting process and the 2012 assessment Section B, the risk status of the majority of breeds of progress in implementing the Global Plan is classified as “unknown” and even where popu- of Action) have highlighted the role of indis- lation trends are monitored detailed assessments criminate cross-breeding as a major problem, of threats to specific breeds are not common. particularly in developing countries. Many It is therefore difficult to draw firm conclusions H t E SECOnD rEPOr t On 135 O r FO CES r U rESO C I t GEnE AnD L A M AnI S ' rLD FOOD W E H t OF E t A t E S H t AGrIC U L t U r E

177 E O Y H E S t A t t F LIVES t O CK DIVE r S I t t 1 r P A extends beyond the immediate field of AnGR man- countries consider that the weakness of their agement. Balancing different objectives is unlikely AnGR management programmes, policies and to be easy. However, there may be scope for syn- institutions constitutes a threat in its own right. ergies in efforts to promote AnGR-management, As described in Part 3 of this report, there is ample livelihood and environmental objectives. scope for improvements in these fields, and in Concerns about climate change have increased many countries strengthening institutions and yet further since the time the first SoW-AnGR was improving breeding policies and strategies are prepared. Some countries report that they have likely to be prerequisites for tackling the problem already experienced climate-driven changes in of indiscriminate cross-breeding. AnGR management, including species substitu- Economic and market-related factors are also tions. However, it remains difficult to predict how frequently highlighted by stakeholders as threats climate change will affect the future of livestock to AnGR. The most direct threat to the survival production and what the consequences will be of many breeds is that they can no longer be for AnGR diversity. The uncertainty of climatic raised profitably because of some shift in market projections is a major constraint, but on the AnGR demand or increase in the level of compe- side there is also frequently a lack of adequate tition from other breeds, species or non-livestock data on breeds’ characteristics, their distributions sources. Shifts of this kind are an inevitable part and their production environments. of social and economic change and thus there are Similarly, while it is expected that climate always likely to be some breeds that are at risk of change will increase the frequency of extreme declining towards extinction if no action is taken. weather events, the extent that this poses an In some cases, it may be necessary either to inter - additional threat to AnGR is difficult to esti- in vene directly to maintain the breed through mate. In general, information about the level of situ or ex situ conservation measures or to accept threat posed to AnGR by disasters and emerg- that it may become extinct. However, there may encies remains limited. Lack of information on also be measures that can be taken to reduce eco- breed distributions is again a constraint. In some nomic threats either by “valorizing” individual countries, there appears to be increasing interest at-risk breeds via marketing initiatives, genetic in disaster-management strategies for the live- improvement or the identification of new roles, stock sector. As noted in the first SoW-AnGR, if or by more general policy interventions such as anything is to be done to protect specific breed eliminating support measures that create eco- populations (e.g. at-risk breeds), it will require nomic incentives for breed replacement. advanced planning and good knowledge of Given the major roles of small-scale livestock where the relevant herds and flocks are located. keepers and pastoralists in maintaining AnGR Given that in many disaster situations organiz- diversity, factors that undermine the sustainability ing rescue efforts for animals will be impractical, of smallholder and pastoralist production systems efforts should be made to establish appropriate constitute significant threats to AnGR. These ex situ conservation measures for any breeds that threats include both market-related factors and are identified as being under serious threat from problems related the degradation of (or lack of disastrous events. access to) natural resources. Given the importance The extent of the threat posed to AnGR by of livestock keeping to the livelihoods of many of animal disease epidemics is, likewise, difficult the world’s poorest people and the major signifi- to estimate accurately. Disease and disease- cance of livestock keeping areas (e.g. grasslands) management measures, however, featured relatively in the provision of ecosystem services (carbon prominently among causes of genetic erosion sequestration, water cycling, provision of wildlife reported in the country reports, particularly habitats, etc.), the sustainable development of among reports from African countries. These these production systems is clearly a challenge that PO O t r SECO E n E H D n t r 136 E r C I t E n MAL GE I n D'S A L r r H t OF E t A t S E H U t CUL I r G E D A n ES FOr FOOD A C r SOU E WO t

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182 t t O L IVES t O CK GEnE t I C DIVErSI t Y S tHrEA F 2014. World Bank. Reducing climate sensitive disease Yosef, T., Mengistu, U., Solomon, A., Mohammed, . Agriculture and Environmental Services risks Y.K. & Kefelegn, K. 2013. Camel and cattle eport n umber r Discussion Paper 07. World Bank population dynamics and livelihood diversification 84956-GLB. Washington DC (available at http:// as a response to climate change in pastoral areas of tinyurl.com/knmj6ww). Ethiopia. Livestock Research for Rural Development, Wrightson, J. 1913. Sheep breeds and management. http://www.lrrd.org/ 25: Article 166 (available at London, Vinton & Company Ltd. (available at http:// lrrd25/9/yose25166.htm). tinyurl.com/pb7mavk). 2011. Attitudes of livestock keepers to Zander, K.K. 1855. Youatt, W. Martin, W.C.L. & Stevens, A. The breeding strategies – threats and opportunities for hog: a treatise on the breeds, management, feed- on-farm conservation of the Borana cattle breed. ing, and medical treatment of swine: with directions , 3(2): 3–12. Journal of Agricultural Science ew for salting pork and curing bacon and hams. n York, USA, Orange Judd (available at http://tinyurl. com/nt6vjlx). On t SECOnD rEPOr E H t 141 L E U t L U AGrIC AnD r FO CES r U rESO C I t GEnE r A M AnI S ' rLD O W E H t OF E t A t E S H t FOOD

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184 Section G Livestock diversity and human nutrition the potential significance for human nutrition oduction Intr 1 of genetic influence on the composition of ani- mal-source foods. The final subsection identifies Genetics has a major influence on the composi- some research priorities in this field. tion of animal-source foods (primary foods, such as meat, offal, milk and eggs, and products such as cheese and sausages). Foods obtained from dif- ferent animal species differ, to varying degrees, owing interest in food Gr 2 in both their macronutrient and their micro- biodiversity nutrient compositions. Nutrient composition is also affected by processing methods and, in the While nutritional differences between foods case of meat, is affected by the particular cut or obtained from the most widely used livestock part of the animal from which it comes. Meat from species (cattle, pigs, chickens, sheep and goats) one species can contain more than twice as much have been relatively well documented, less atten- fat as the equivalent cut from another species. For tion has been paid to foods obtained from other example, pork loin (taking the lean part of the species and to differences between products cut into consideration) contains 2.2 g of fat/100 g obtained from different breeds within species. edible portion on a fresh weight basis (EP), while - Recent years have, however, seen growing inter the equivalent figure for beef loin is 5.1 g/100 g est in food biodiversity. For example, in 2006, EP. The iron content of pork liver is 23.3 mg/100 g the Convention on Biological Diversity adopted EP, while that of beef liver is less than 5 mg/100 g. a framework for a cross-cutting initiative on bio- Further examples are shown in Table 1G1. diversity for food and nutrition (CBD, 2006). In This section focuses on the influence of genet- 2007, the Commission on Genetic Resources for ics on the nutritional contents of raw primary Food and Agriculture decided to integrate work animal-source foods. The first subsection below on biodiversity and nutrition into its Multi-Year discusses the increasing interest in food bio- Programme of Work (FAO, 2007b). Food bio- diversity witnessed in recent years and the degree diversity in this context is defined as “food identi- to which this trend has extended into the live- fied at the taxonomic level below the species level, 1 stock sector. and underutilized or wild species” (FAO, 2013a). This is followed by a look at efforts While work on food biodiversity is less advanced that have been made to assemble and dissem- in animals than it is in plants, some studies have inate information on the topic and then by an looked at nutritional differences between cattle overview of the state of knowledge regarding milk and milk from “underutilized” species. For 1 The inclusion of this section devoted to livestock diversity and example, horse milk has been shown to be lower human nutrition, for which ther e was no equivalent in the first in fat than cattle milk. Moreover, the fatty-acid report on The State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources profile of milk from these two species is different, (first SoW-AnGR) (FAO, 2007a), is an for Food and Agriculture with horse milk being higher in total n-3 fatty acids. indication of this growing interest. THE S C OnD R E E OR T On P 143 S OD R F O F S E C R U O S E R C TI E n E E A M I An O ' D L R O HE W F T O E T A T S THE AnD A G R I C U LTU R L G

185 THE STATE OF LIVESTOCK DIVERSITY P 1 ART - 5 B12 3.7 0.6 0.5 0.2 1.1 3.0 0.9 0.5 (μg) 26.0 59.3 Vitamin 2 0 7 6 0 45 45 46 160 6*** 6502 4968 RAE (μg) Vitamin A, Zinc (mg) 3.37 3.45 1.34 3.70 3.50 0.68 1.89 1.28 5.76 1.29 0.37 4.00 , 2012 (food item ID 07_046); 2.4 2.5 1.8 2.4 2.48 0.98 0.37 0.73 0.03 1.75 4.90 Iron (mg) et al. 23.30 5 8 5 8 9 5 14 11 65 11 56 (mg) 113 Stadlmayr c Calcium - - (g) 0.38 0.80 0.26 0.42 0.30 0.37 1.91 0.20 0.87 0.47 PUFA - - (g) 1.80 2.30 0.26 0.79 0.69 6.40 0.52 0.81 3.66 0.48 MUFA - - (g) SFA 1.71 0.56 0.29 0.70 2.90 8.30 1.87 1.17 3.13 1.23 , 1999 (food item ID 7_4317); et al. 1.1 2.0 1.1 1.4 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.6 0.7 1.1 1.4 1.3 (g) Ash Sayed b 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (g) 4.8 0.7 2.4 3.9 carbo- Available hydrates** 5.1 9.5 3.7 2.6 2.2 3.3 6.0 1.5 3.6 (g) Fat 11.7 10.6 17.0 3.2 (g) 22.2 23.7 20.1 17.5 12.6 21.0 18.7 12.2 22.5 21.4 20.4 (g) 73.0 88.1 73.9 71.1 74.9 71.9 68.0 75.1 62.7 76.2 76.0 70.8 256 (61) 318 (76) kJ (kcal) Energy* Moisture Protein 566 (135) 640 (154) 479 (114) 947 (228) 577 (139) 457 (108) 436 (103) 690 (165) 564 (134) 542 (129) 546 (130) a a a b d a d a c a a a , 2008 (food item ID 0053, 0054). c et al. 1G1 All nutrient values are expressed per 100 g edible portion on fresh weight basis (EP); SFA = saturated fatty acids; MUFA = monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFA = polyunsaturated fatty Animals-source foods LE b eef, liver, raw eef, tenderloin steak, lean, raw Pork, tenderloin, lean, raw Egg, ostrich, whole, raw Mutton, shoulder, raw Mutton, round, raw Goat, meat, raw Milk, goat Egg, chicken, whole, raw Turkey, breast, raw Chicken, breast, raw b Pork, liver, raw b 3.25% milkfat Milk, cattle, whole, A Saxholt USDA–ARS, 2013 (food item ID 23374, 10060, 13325, 10110, 05062, 05219, 01123, 01211); T Nutrient composition of selected animal-source foods Note: a d ** Calculated as 100 - (moisture + protein + fat + dietary fibre + ash), or assumed zero for flesh meat. *** In this case, vitamin A contents were expressed in retinol equivalents (RE). * Calculated using the following factors: 1 g fat = 37 kJ (9 kcal); 1 g carbohydrates = 17 kJ (4 kcal); 1 g protein = 17 kJ (4 kcal). acids; RAE = retinol activity equivalents. Slaughter weight and degree of maturity at slaughter weight will influence the compositions. O REPORT SECO THE n D n 144 n THE STATE OF THE WORLD'S A n I MAL GE TIC RESOURCES FO R FOOD A n D A GRICULTURE E

186 LIVESTOCK DIVERSITY AnD HUMAn nUTRITIOn G content of muscles and the fatty-acid compos- For human populations that have no access to ition of this fat also have nutritional implications essential n-3 fatty acids from fish (e.g. those in , 2014; Scollan landlocked areas such as Mongolia), horse milk (Sevane , 2014; Scollan et al. et al. , 2006). Studies in various species, in both et al. can potentially make an important contribution developed and developing countries, have shown to meeting nutritional requirements. Horse milk the effect of breed on meat quality, both in terms has also been found to be more similar than cattle milk to human milk in terms of protein and - of instrumental measurements (colour, water lactose content, fatty-acid and protein profiles, holding capacity, collagen content, shear values, and mineral content (which is fairly low); it can etc.) and in terms of sensorial attributes (tender- et al., potentially therefore be regarded as a better food ness, flavour, juiciness, etc.) (Chambaz et al., for human infants than cattle milk (Iacono , et al. 2010; Jelenikova 2003; Dyubele et al., 2008; et al., 2008; Sanudo Li et 2013; Muchenje et al., 1992; Malacarne et al. , 2002, cited in Wijesinha- Bettoni and Burlingame, 2013). 1997). al., Because of the confounding effects of factors Studies of potential breed-level differences such as management practices, it is more difficult in nutrient composition have often targeted the most widespread transboundary breeds. to assess the influence of breed on the nutritional However, a few comparative studies have evalu- composition of animal-source foods than it is in ated locally adapted breeds (Jayansan the case of plant-source foods. The feed given to et al. , 2013; animals strongly influences meat, milk and egg et al. , 2012). Breed-level , 2013; Xie Pavloski et al composition, especially their fatty-acid composi- data on mineral and vitamin content are scarce. tion (Woods and Fearon, 2009). Production system Hardly any review papers or meta-analyses that provide breed-level compositional data or analyse and the animal’s sex and its age and weight at slaughter also affect meat composition. Milk com- possible differences in nutrient values have been position is affected both by the feed eaten by published. the animal and by its stage of lactation. It is also affected by the number of times the animal has given birth (parity), seasonal variation and the 3 Filling the knowledge gap - animal’s age and health. This shows that compar ing findings from different studies is not straight- FAO has contributed to filling the knowledge gap forward, and this may be part of the reason why on biodiversity and nutrition by developing the far fewer studies on breed-level effects on the FAO/INFOODS Food Composition Database for nutrient composition of animal-source foods are Biodiversity (BioFoodComp) (FAO, 2013b). The available in the scientific literature than studies on database includes data on several animal-source effects at the cultivar and variety level in plants. foods: milk from buffalo breeds and minor dairy Most research on breed-level differences species (273 food records, representing a total of addresses economically significant production et al. 92 breeds) (Medhammar , 2012); and beef outcomes such as milk or meat yield, carcass com- (213 food records, 49 breeds) (Barnes et al. , 2012). position and product quality, rather than differ - Data on pork (253 food records, 110 breeds/geno- ences in nutritional composition. However, some et al., types) (Kerns 2015; FAO, 2015) will be added of the attributes investigated in such studies may to the next version of the database. BioFoodComp be closely linked to compositional character- has become the most comprehensive global reposit- istics that are relevant to human nutrition. For ory of nutrient values of foods described at breed example, intramuscular fat in meat cuts is posi- level and foods from underutilized species. tively associated with sensory properties such as As discussed above, multiple factors influence juiciness, flavour and tenderness as perceived the composition of animal-source foods and it , 2010). The fat by consumers (Hocquette et al. is therefore difficult to compare compositional THE SECOnD REPORT On 145 AnD OD O R F O F RESOURCES GEnETIC L T S ' D L R O W THE F O URE L AGRICU AnIMA THE STATE

187 THE STATE OF LIVESTOCK DIVERSITY 1 ART P data from the various studies used to populate Data on beef and pork show between-breed differences in nutrient values for the same raw the BioFoodComp database. The protein content in milk is very stable with respect to changes in meat cut. Barnes et al. (2012) studied compos- itional data on beef from more than 30 differ animal nutrition and feeding practices; however, - the fat content and fatty-acid composition of ent breeds published in BioFoodComp. Recorded fat values for the longissimus muscle range from et al. milk are strongly affected (Walker , 2004; 0.6 g to 16.0 g/100 g EP, with the lowest values Jenkins and McGuire, 2006; Laben, 1963), which reported for a Hereford–Friesian cross and highest complicates the interpretation of data related to these nutrients. Stage of lactation greatly influ- for the Hanwoo. Value ranges for a selection of other nutrients are presented in Table 1G3. In ences both fat and protein content. An inverse pork, recorded fat content ranges from 0.7 g to trend to the lactation curve can generally be 18.2 g fat per 100 g EP, the lowest value being observed in most species, i.e. fat and protein con- from the Landrace and the highest from the tents are higher in early and late lactation and Mangalitsa (Kerns 2015; FAO, 2015). These lower in mid lactation. Where beef is concerned, et al., variations affect the saturated and mono- and factors such as nutrition and genetics have less influence on protein content and amino acid polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of the meat, profile, but it is recognized that micronutrient as well as its cholesterol content. Hardly any data content, fat content and fatty-acid composi- on mineral and vitamin composition are available for beef or pork. et al. , 2006; 2014). tion may be altered (Scollan - Genetic factors generally produce smaller differ ences in the fatty-acid composition of meat than , 2004; Shingfield, dietary factors (De Smet et al. 4 Potential significance for Bonnet and Scollan, 2013). human nutrition While potential confounding effects need to be borne in mind, it is interesting to note the breed- Animal-source foods are energy dense and are a rich level differences in nutritional content recorded source of protein, minerals, vitamins and essential et al. (2012) report in BioFoodComp. Medhammar fatty acids. The protein in these foods is considered differences in milk composition for different to be of the highest quality because of its favoura- buffalo, yak, horse and dromedary breeds. Fat ble amino-acid composition. Iron, zinc and vitamin and protein contents vary significantly between A are the main micronutrients available in meat; breeds, with differences of approximately 4 g fat calcium, vitamin B12 and riboflavin are provided and 2 g protein per 100 g milk between the highest in abundance by milk, which is however very low and lowest values. Protein values for buffalo milk in iron. Compared to foods derived from plants, range from 2.7 g to 4.6 g/100 g, meaning a differ - the bioavailability of these nutrients in animal- ence of more than 41 percent between the breeds source foods is high, because of the presence of - with the highest and the lowest values. Large var haeme-protein and the absence of phytates and iations are also reported for mineral and vitamin fibre (Neumann , 2002). et al. contents. For example, calcium content is reported The roles of animal-source foods in human nutri- to differ by 73 mg/100 g between the breed with tion have been widely discussed, including their roles the lowest value, the Kuttanad Dwarf buffalo, and in alleviating undernutrition and deficiencies that the breed with the highest value, the Egyptian lead to poor growth, impaired mental development buffalo. Differences between breeds, albeit smaller, and ill health (e.g. Dror and Allen, 2011; Neumann et are also recorded for horse milk (48 mg/100 g) and , 2002; Neumann , 2010) and their beneficial al. et al. dromedary milk (15 mg/100 g). Table 1G2 presents and potential negative roles with respect to diet- a selection of milk-nutrient composition ranges for related non-communicable diseases (e.g. Weaver et buffaloes, horses and dromedaries. al. , 2010). et al. , 2013; Givens, 2010; McAfee O REPORT SECO THE n D n 146 n OF THE WORLD'S A D A THE GRICULTURE n FOOD A R TIC RESOURCES FO E n MAL GE I STATE

188 LIVESTOCK DIVERSITY AnD HUMAn nUTRITIOn G A b LE 1G2 T Selected nutrient composition ranges for milk from buffalo, horse and dromedary breeds Average ± SD Range Breed with highest value Breed with lowest value Buffalo-milk composition (values per 100 g milk) 4.0 ± 0.5 Protein (g) 2.7–4.6 n on-descript hill buffalo (Kumaon region, India) Mediterranean n = 42 7.4 ± 0.9 b b Fat (g) ulgaria) b ulgarian x Murrah breed ( 5.3–9.0 hadawari n = 75 4.4 ± 0.6 b ulgarian Murrah Kuttanad Dwarf (Kerala, India) Lactose (g) 3.2–4.9 n = 23 191 ± 38 Egyptian Kuttanad Dwarf (Kerala, India) Calcium (mg) 147–220 n = 9 ombay, India; 12 ± 5 Murrah ( b Kuttanad Dwarf (Kerala, India) 2–16 Magnesium (g) France) n = 6 Horse-milk composition (values per 100 g milk) 2.0 ± 0.4 Protein (g) Sana, “mtsyri” 1.4–3.2 Palomino n = 33 1.6 ± 0.7 Fat (g) 0.5–4.2 Lusitano Saddle pony n = 45 6.6 ± 0.4 Lactose (g) Trotters 5.6–7.2 b uryat n = 31 95 ± 19 76–124 Thoroughbred Palomino Calcium (mg) n = 26 7 ± 2 Magnesium (mg) Palomino 4-12 Lusitano n = 18 0.2 ± 0.1 Italian saddle horse Shetland Zinc (mg) 0.2-0.3 n = 8 4.3 ± 3.3 1.7–8.1 Saddle pony Palomino Vitamin C (mg) n = 6 Dromedary-milk composition (values per 100 g milk) 3.1 ± 0.5 Wadah Protein (g) 2.4–4.2 Kachchhi n = 12 3.2 ± 1.1 Fat (g) Arvana 2.0–6.0 Kachchhi n = 23 4.3 ± 0.4 Lactose (g) 3.5-4.9 Arvana Hamra n = 15 114 ± 6 Calcium (mg) 105–120 Arvana Majaheem n = 5 13 ± 1 ajdi n Magnesium (mg) Hamra 12-14 n = 4 0.6 ± 0.1 ajdi Majaheem Zinc (mg) n 0.4-0.6 n = 4 6.7 ± 7 Vitamin C (mg) 2.5–18.4 Majaheem Arvana n = 5 Locations, where listed, indicate the places of origin of the animals from which milk samples were taken for analysis. Note: n = number of total data points (where data for the same dairy breed were available from more than one study, the mean value for the breed was calculated and used; n represents the number of data points before averaging for breed). Composition is affected by management factors as well as by genetics (see main text for further discussion). , 2012. et al. Adapted from Medhammar Source: THE SECOnD REPORT On 147 AnD OD O R F O F RESOURCES GEnETIC L T S ' D L R O W THE F O URE L AGRICU AnIMA THE STATE

189 THE STATE OF LIVESTOCK DIVERSITY ART 1 P b A 1G3 LE T Selected nutrient composition ranges for beef (longissimus muscle) from different cattle breeds Nutrients Average Range Breed with lowest value Breed with highest value ± SD 21.8 ± 1.1 18.6–25.7 b rown Swiss (Spain) Criollo Argentino (Argentina) Protein (g) n = 64 3.2 ± 2.7 ew Zealand) Hanwoo (Republic of Korea) 0.6–16 Hereford–Friesian cross ( n Fat (g) n = 123 48 ± 9 36–68 b Cholesterol (mg) Aberdeen Angus (Czech Republic) onsmara (South Africa) n = 22 1.54 ± 1.69 Hanwoo (Republic of Korea) Austriana Valles (Spain) 0.14–8.39 SFA (g) n = 63 1.36 ± 1.27 0.10–5.92 MUFA (g) Hanwoo (Republic of Korea) Austriana Valles (Spain) n = 62 0.26 ± 0.23 Charolais × Angus (Argentina) 0.08–1.46 Criollo Argentino (Argentina) PUFA (g) n = 58 0.08 ± 0.01 FA C14:0 (g) Austriana Valles (Spain) 0.01–0.60 Hanwoo (Republic of Korea) n = 86 0.13 ± 0.10 FA C18:2 n-6 (LA) (g) b 0.02–0.43 onsmara (South Africa) Aberdeen Angus (Czech Republic) n = 47 0.01 ± 0.01 arrosa (Portugal) b Tudanca (Spain) <0.01–0.04 FA C20:5 n-3 (EPA) (g) n = 46 Values per 100 g edible portion on fresh weight basis; n = number of total data points (nutrient values of same breeds have not Note: been averaged); FA = fatty acid; SFA = saturated fatty acids; MUFA = monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFA = polyunsaturated fatty acids; LA = linoleic acid; EPA = eicosapentaenoic acid. Locations indicate the places of origin of the animals from which meat samples were taken for analysis. Composition is affected by management factors as well as by genetics (see main text for further discussion). et al. : Barnes Sources , 2012; FAO, 2013b. is low (less than 20 percent) (Culioli et al. , 2003), Dietary fat receives a lot of attention with identifying breeds whose products have beneficial regard to its roles in the epidemiology of non- fatty-acid profiles has the potential to contribute communicable diseases such as cardiovascular , 2014). A com- to healthier diets (e.g. Sevane et al. pathologies, cancer and type-2 diabetes (e.g. et al. parison of beef from three breeds (Cuvelier , WHO/FAO, 2003; FAO, 2010). These diseases are 2006) showed large between-breed differences in becoming more common in both developed and SFA content: Belgian Blue, Limousin and Aberdeen developing countries (WHO/FAO, 2003). Emphasis Angus, respectively, provided 2.2 percent, has been placed on reducing the intake of total 6.2 percent and 9.2 percent of the recommended fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA – considered to be SFA intake. Large differences in n-3 PUFA content associated with increased LDL-cholesterol) and between these breeds were also reported. increasing the intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty In low-input systems, cross-breeding with exotic acids (PUFA – recognized to be protective against breeds can potentially lead to lower nutrient densi- cardiovascular diseases and to play a beneficial role ties in milk, with potential consequences for human in terms of promoting general health). Dietary rec- nutrition. Mapekula et al. (2011) report an instance ommendations have been published for fatty-acid of this effect in dairy cattle grazed on rangeland classes as well as for specific fatty acids (FAO, 2010). in South Africa and note that it may be related to Meat plays an important role in the diet of the cross-bred animals having a lower capacity to many populations, and although the general con- convert poor-quality feed into milk protein. tribution of meat to fat supply in the human diet THE SECO REPORT O n D n 148 n n GRICULTURE THE I MAL GE OF THE WORLD'S A E TIC RESOURCES FO R FOOD A n D A STATE

190 LIVESTOCK DIVERSITY AnD HUMAn nUTRITIOn G dromedary milk is recognized as being important Micronutrient malnutrition (i.e. vitamin and mineral nutritional deficiency) is very prevalent in desert areas, where vegetables and fruits are scarce (Barłowska in developing countries. Milk is considered to be et al. , 2011). Cattle milk, in con- an important source of zinc for children at risk of trast, is reported to be low in vitamin C. micronutrient deficiencies (Neumann et al. , 2002). Two cups (500 ml) of milk per day provide 24 to 72 percent of the recommended nutrient intake 5 ch priorities Resear (RNI) of zinc for children in the one-year to three- year age group, depending on the species of the The composition of animal-source foods is influ- - dairy animal (Table 1G4). Between-breed differ enced by a number of different factors. Some ences can be almost as large as those between comparative studies that assess the effect of breed species. For example, according to the figures pre- per se and identify nutritional differences by con- sented in Table 1G2, two cups of milk from the Najdi trolling for other factors have been undertaken. breed of dromedary provide less than 50 percent of However, high-quality studies are lacking, i.e. the zinc RNI per day for children in this age group, studies that include all the necessary information while the equivalent amount from the Majaheem on confounding factors and analytical methods breed provides more than 70 percent. used and, preferably, have a control group for Findings on the vitamin C content of horse comparison. Meta-analyses that enable sound and dromedary milk are also interesting: while conclusions to be drawn from results obtained two cups of milk from the breeds whose milk in different studies are needed. There is also a has the lowest reported vitamin C content supply need to expand the range of species and breeds less than 50 percent of the RNI for children aged targeted by nutritional composition studies. one to three years, the equivalent amount of Studies often focus on a narrow range of nutrients milk from the breeds whose milk has the highest that influence product quality. Research needs to vitamin C content exceeds the RNI, with milk from target a wider range of nutrients of public-health the Palomino horse supplying 132 percent of the concern, including studies on amino-acid composi- RNI and milk from the Arvana dromedary supply- tion and protein digestibility. Data on vitamin and ing 301 percent. The large amount of vitamin C in mineral contents are particularly needed. A b LE 1G4 T Mineral content of milk from various species in relation to recommended nutrient intake Cattle Dromedary Horse Buffalo RNI Minerals for children Average Breed Breed Breed Breed Breed Breed aged 1–3 value with with with with with with years highest lowest highest lowest highest lowest Breed with value value value value value value lowest value Calcium (mg) 500        60 Magnesium (mg)      Zinc (mg) 4.1 n/a n/a  30 Vitamin C (mg) n/a n/a   Note: RNI = recommended nutrient intake values for children aged 1-3 years (FAO, 2002).  = 100% of RNI supplied by 2 cups (500 ml) of milk;  = 70–99% of RNI supplied by 2 cups (500 ml) of milk; empty cells = less than 70% of RNI supplied by 2 cups (500 ml) of milk; n/a = data unavailable. Sources: RNI supply for buffalo, horse and dromedary milk is calculated using the nutrient values presented in Table 1G2. Cattle data are from USDA–ARS, 2013. THE SECOnD REPORT On 149 AnD OD O R F O F RESOURCES GEnETIC L T S ' D L R O W THE F O URE L AGRICU AnIMA THE STATE

191 THE STATE OF LIVESTOCK DIVERSITY 1 ART P Given that there is evidence that breed influences 2003. Muscles Culioli, J., Berri, C. & Mourot, J. the composition of animal-source foods, there is Sciences des foods: consumption and composition. a need to: , 23: 13–34. Aliments obtain data on different breeds and their pro- • Cuvelier, C., Clinquart, A., Hocquette, J.F., Cabaraux, duction environments, so as to be able to dis- 2006. J.F., Dufrasne, I., Istasse, L. & Hornick, J.L. entangle genetic and environmental factors; Comparison of composition and quality traits of generate, compile and disseminate more • b elgian meat from young finishing bulls from compositional data on animal-source foods Meat b lue, Limousin and Aberdeen Angus breeds. from different breeds, especially locally Science , 74: 522–531. adapted breeds; 2004. Meat fatty De Smet, S., Raes, K. & Demeyer, D. • further investigate evidence for the signif- acid composition as affected by fatness and genetic icance of species- and breed-level differ - factors: a review. , 53: 81–98. Animal Research ences to human health by developing meta- Dror, D.K. & Allen, L.H. 2011. The importance of analysis approaches and strategies for avoid- milk and other animal-source foods for children in ing confounding effects (such as differences , Food and Nutrition Bulletin low-income countries. in nutritional habits other than consumption 32(3): 227–243. of meat and dairy products); and Dyubele N.L., Muchenje V, Nkukwana T.T., & Chimonyo • take information on the composition of M. 2010. Consumer sensory characteristics of broiler animal-source foods into account in nutrition and indigenous chicken meat: a South African exam- and agricultural policies and programmes. Food Quality and Preference ple. , 21: 815–819. . FAO. Human vitamin and mineral requirements 2002. Report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation. References FAO/WHO non-series publication. Rome (available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/y2809e/y2809e00. Barłowska, J., Szwajkowska, M., Litwiñczuk, Z. & htm). Król, J. n utritional value and technological 2011. The state of the World’s Animal Genetic 2007a. FAO. suitability of milk from various animal species used Resources for Food and Agriculture , edited by b . for dairy production. Comprehensive Reviews in Rischkowsky & D. Pilling. Rome (available at http:// Food Science and Food Safety , 10: 291–302. www.fao.org/docrep/010/a1250e/a1250e00.htm). Barnes, K., Collins, T., Dion, S., Reynolds, H., Riess, S., FAO. 2007b. Report of the Eleventh Regular Session of Stanzyk, A., Wolfe, A., Lonergan, S., Boettcher P., the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Charrondiere, U.R. & Stadlmayr, B. 2012. Importance CGRFA-11/07/ Agriculture. Rome, 11–15 June 2007. of cattle biodiversity and its influence on the nutrient Report. Rome (available at ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/ composition of beef. Animal Frontiers , 2: 54–60. fao/meeting/014/k0385e.pdf). Decision adopted by the Conference of the CBD. 2006. Fats and fatty acids in human nutrition. 2010. FAO. Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity at FAO Food and Report of an expert consultation. its Eighth Meeting VIII/23. Agricultural biodiversity . n o. 91. Rome (available at http:// utrition Paper. n Conference of the Parties to the Convention on www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1953e/i1953e00.pdf). razil, b iological Diversity, Eighth meeting Curitiba, b 2013a. FAO. Review of key issues on biodiversity and 20–31 March 2006. Montreal, Canada (available at . Working Document. Fourteenth Regular nutrition http://www.cbd.int/doc/decisions/cop-08/cop-08- Session of the Commission on Genetic Resources dec-23-en.pdf). for Food and Agriculture, Rome, 15–19 April 2013 Chambaz, A., Scheeder, M.R.L., Kreuzer, M. & Dufey, (CGRFA-14/13/8). Rome (available at http://www. 2003. Meat quality of Angus, Simmental, P.A. fao.org/docrep/meeting/027/mf917e.pdf). Charolais and Limousin steers compared at the same FAO . 2013b. FAO/INFOODS Food Composition Database Meat Science intramuscular fat content. , 63: 491–500. . Rome for Biodiversity Version 2.1 –BioFoodComp2.1 O REPORT SECO THE n D n 150 n OF THE WORLD'S A D A THE GRICULTURE n FOOD A R TIC RESOURCES FO E n MAL GE I STATE

192 LIVESTOCK DIVERSITY AnD HUMAn nUTRITIOn G (available at http://www.fao.org/infoods/infoods/ composition of milk from n guni and local crossbred food-biodiversity/en/). cows in South Africa. Journal of Food Composition FAO . 2015. FAO/INFOODS Food Composition Database , 24: 529–536. and Analysis . for Biodiversity Version 3.0 - BioFoodComp3.0 McAfee, A.J., McSorley, E.M., Cuskelly, G.J., Moss, Rome (available at http://www.fao.org/infoods/ B.W., Wallace, J.M.W., Bonham, M.P. & Fearon, infoods/food-biodiversity/en/). . 2010. Red meat consumption: An overview of A.M 2010. Milk and meat in our diet good or Givens, D.I. , 84: 1–13. the risks and benefits. Meat Science bad for health? , 4: 1941–1952. Animal Medhammar, E., Wijesinha-Bettoni, R., Stadlmayr, 2014. Social and Higenyi J., Kabasa J.D., & Muyanja C. B., Nilsson, E., Charrondiere, U.R. & Burlingame, quality attributes influencing consumption of native B. 2012. Composition of milk from minor dairy Animal and Veterinary poultry in eastern Uganda. animals and buffalo breeds: a biodiversity perspec- , 2(2): 42–48. Sciences , Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture tive. Hocquette, J.F., Gondret, F., Baéza, E., Médale, F., 92(3), 445–474. Jurie, C. & Pethick, D.W. 2010. Intramuscular fat Neumann, C.G., Bwibo, N.O., Gewa, C.A. & content in meat-producing animals: development, 2010. Animal-source foods as a Drorbaugh, N. genetic and nutritional control, and identification of food-based approach to address nutrient deficiencies , 4: 303–319. Animal putative markers. and functional outcomes: A study among Kenyan Jayasena, D.D., Jung, S., Kim, H.J., Bae, Y.S., . Thompson & L. Amoroso, eds. b In schoolchildren. 2013. Yong, H.I., Lee, J.H., Kim, J.G. & Jo., C. Combating micronutrient deficiencies: food-based Comparison of quality traits of meat from Korean . Rome, FAO, CA approaches International (avail- b native chickens and broilers used in two different able at http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/am027e/ traditional Korean cuisines. Asian Australian Journal am027e.pdf). of Animal Science , 26: 1038–1046. 2002. Neumann, C.G., Harris, D.M. & Rogers, L.M. 2008. The Jelenikova J., Pipek P. & Miyahara M. Contribution of animal source foods in improving effects of breed, sex, intramuscular fat and ultimate diet quality and function in children in the develop- European Food Research pH on pork tenderness. Nutrition Research ing world. , 22: 193–220. , 227(4): 989–994. and Technology Pavolski, Z., Skrbic, Z., Stanisic, N., Lilic, S., Hengl, Jenkins, T.C. & McGuire, A. 2006. Major advances in B., Lukic, M. & Petricevic, V. 2013. Differences Journal of nutrition: impact on milk composition. in fatty acid composition of meat between naked Dairy Science , 89(4): 1302–1310. neck and two commercial broiler chicken breeds. Kerns, M., Rossman, B., Liewer, S., Powell, M., Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry , 29(3): Herr, S., Taylor, S., Colletti, J., Lonergan, 467–476. 2015. S.M., Boettcher, P. & Charrondiere, R. Sanudo, C., Alfons, M., Sanchez, A., Delfa, R., & Documentation of factors that contribute to the 2000. Carcass and meat quality in light Teixeira, A. variation of pork nutrient composition. Journal of lambs from different fat classes in the EU carcass , 93 (Suppl. 2): 72. Animal Science , 56: 89–94. Meat Science classidication system. Laben, R.C. 1963. Factors responsible for variation in Sayed, N., Frans, Y. & Schönfeldt, H.C. 1999. milk composition. , 85(1): Journal of Dairy Science Composition of South African foods: milk and milk 190–197. products, eggs, meat and meat products: supple- Li, Y.X, Cabling, M.M., Sang, H.S., Kim, T.S., Yeom, . ment to the MRC food composition of tables 1991 S.C., Sohn, Y.G., Kim, S.H., Nam, K.C. & Seo, K.S. Parow, South Africa, Medical Research Council. 2013. Comparison and correlation analysis of different Saxholt, E., Christensen, A.T., Møller, A., Hartkopp, swine breeds meat quality. Asian-Australasian Journal H.B., Hess Yigil, K. & Hels, O.H. 2008 . Danish food , 26(7): 905–910. of Animal Sciences composition databank, revision 7.01 . Department of Mapekula M., Chimonyo, M., Mapiye, C. & Dzama, n utrition, n ational Food Institute, Technical University K. 2011. Fatty acids, amino acids and mineral of Denmark (available at www.foodcomp.dk/). THE SECOnD REPORT On 151 AnD OD O R F O F RESOURCES GEnETIC L T S ' D L R O W THE F O URE L AGRICU AnIMA THE STATE

193 THE STATE OF LIVESTOCK DIVERSITY P ART 1 Scollan, N.D., Dannenberger, D., Nuernberg, K., Walker, G.P., Dunshea F.R. & Doyle, P.T. 2004. Effects Richardson, I., MacKintosh, S., Hocquette, J.-F. & of nutrition and management on the production 2014. Enhancing the nutritional and Moloney A.P. and composition of milk fat and protein: a review. health value of beef lipids and their relationship with , 55: Australian Journal of Agricultural Research Meat Science meat quality. , 97: 384–394. 1009–1028. Scollan, N., Hocquette, J-F., Nuernberg, K., Weaver, C., Wijesinha-Bettoni, R., McMahon, D. Dannenberger, D., Richardson, I. & Moloney, A. 2013. Milk and dairy products as & Spence, L. 2006. Innovations in beef production systems that b ennett & D. E. Muehlhoff, A. In part of the diet. enhance the nutritional and health value of beef McMahon, eds. Milk and dairy products in human lipids and their relationship with meat quality. Meat . Rome, FAO (available at http://www.fao. nutrition Science , 74: 17–33. org/docrep/018/i3396e/i3396e.pdf). Sevane, N., Nute, G., Sañudo, C., Cortes, O., Cañon, 2003. WHO/FAO. Report of a joint WHO/FAO expert J., Williams, J.L., Dunner, S. & the GemQual consultation on diet, nutrition and the prevention of Consortium . 2014. Muscle lipid composition in . WHO Technical Report Series 916. chronic diseases , bulls from 15 European breeds. Livestock Science Geneva (available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/ 160: 1–11. ac911e/ac911e00.htm#Contents). 2013. Shingfield, K.J., Bonnet, M. & Scollan, N.D. Wijesinha-Bettoni, R. & Burlingame, B. 2013. Milk Recent developments in altering the fatty acid com- E. Muehlhoff, A. and dairy product composition. In position of ruminant-derived foods. Animal , 7(s1): b ennett & D. McMahon, eds. Milk and dairy prod- 132–162. ucts in human nutrition . Rome, FAO (available at Stadlmayr, B., Charrondiere, U.R., Enujiugha, V.N., http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3396e/i3396e.pdf). Bayili, R.G., Fagbohoun, E.G., Samb, B., Addy, P., 2009. Dietary sources of Woods, V.B. & Fearon, A.M. Barikmo, I., Ouattara, F., Oshaug, A., Akinyele, unsaturated fatty acids for animals and their transfer I., Annor, G.A., Bomfeh, K., Ene-Obong, H., Livestock into meat, milk, and eggs: A review. Smith, I.F., Thiam, I. & Burlingame, B. West 2012. Science , 126: 1–20. African Food Composition Table / Table de compo- 2012. Effect Xie, X., Meng, Q., Cui, Z. & Ren, L. . Rome, FAO sition des aliments d’Afrique de l’Ouest of cattle breed on meat quality, muscle charac- (available at http://www.fao.org/infoods/infoods/ teristics, lipid oxidation and fatty acids in China. tables-and-databases/africa/en/). Asian Australian Journal of Animal Science , 25(6): USDA–ARS. 2013. USDA National Nutrient Database 824-831. for Standard Reference, Release 26 . n utrient Data Laboratory, utrition Research b eltsville Human n Center, Agriculture Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture (retrieved from http:// www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl). SECO REPORT THE O n D n 152 n n STATE THE I MAL GE OF THE WORLD'S A TIC RESOURCES FO R FOOD A n D A GRICULTURE E

194 Part 2 LIVESTOCK SECTOR TRENDS

195

196 Part 2 Introduction Livestock production systems are the context in which animal genetic resources (AnGR) are used and developed. As production systems change, new demands are placed upon AnGR, threats may arise and new opportunities for sustainable use may emerge. This part of the report reviews production system trends and their influence on AnGR The State of the management. It serves as an update of Part 2 of the first report on World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and focuses particularly on recent developments. Section A discusses the major drivers of change in the global livestock sector. Section B considers how these trends are affecting different production systems. Section C, drawing 1 mainly on the material provided in the country reports, looks at how AnGR manage- ment is being affected by production system trends and how this may change during the coming years. Section D offers some conclusions based on the analysis presented in the other sections. 1 For further information on the r eporting process, see “ a bout this publication” in the preliminary pages of this report.

197

198 Section A Drivers of change in the livestock sector By 2005, it was already evident that live- 1 oduction Intr stock-sector growth was slowing. Consumption growth was projected to slow (FAO, 2006), while The description of livestock-sector trends pre- rising energy costs and increasingly limited land sented in the first report on The State of the and water resources meant that production World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and growth was becoming ever more dependent on (first SoW-AnGR) (FAO, 2007a) focused Agriculture higher productivity from each unit of resources on the period between 1980 and 2005, a time used. These challenges still exist. In addition, the when the livestock sector was expanding, inten- supply-side advantage of cheap feed has disap- sifying and scaling-up, as a result of drivers from peared as grain prices have risen and become both the demand and the supply sides. Demand- more volatile. A global economic recession has side drivers were particularly strong in develop- affected consumption patterns among both poor ing countries, where consumption of animal- and middle-class consumers. Concerns about live- source food grew fastest. Consumption of meat, stock’s contribution to climate change through milk and eggs rose steadily in a number of devel- et al. greenhouse gas emissions (Steinfeld , 2006) oping countries as a result of growth in the are having an ever-increasing influence on live- human population and rising purchasing power. stock-sector policies and industry strategies. Growth rates were highest for poultry meat and Epidemics of major livestock diseases have been percent per percent and 2.6 pork, averaging 4.7 a feature of the sector for decades and cause year, respectively, between 1981 and 2007 (Alex- periodic disruption to the international trade andratos and Bruinsma, 2012), with consumption on which the sector increasingly depends. All growth in China making an important contrib- of these issues are explored in this section as it ution. Growing urban populations, together reviews the way that the drivers of change in the with changes in consumer preference, resulted livestock sector have evolved in the eight or so in greater demand for assured food safety and years since the first SoW-AnGR was written. quality, and this led to additional certification requirements and costs. These developments favoured large-scale production and processing units. On the supply side, low and stable feed 2 Changes in demand costs made it possible to expand intensive live- stock production, while breeding technology Demand for animal-source products continues to produced animals that had high output poten- grow, driven by growth in the human population tial and were adapted to intensive production. and dietary changes associated with urbanization. The period was also characterized by a growing Purchasing power was affected by the food-price volume and value of international trade in live- crisis of 2007-2008, but is recovering. Projections stock products and feed, and the emerging indicate that the consumption of poultry meat dominance of large retailers. and dairy products in particular will continue to E tHE S C OND r E P Or t ON 157 S O r F O F S E C r U O S E r C tI E N E E a M I aN OD ' D L r O HE W F t O E t a t S tHE aND a G r I C U LtU r L G

199 tr CK SEC t O r O E NDS t LIVES 2 Part sumption is projected to decrease over time, increase. Each of these drivers is discussed in more reflecting economic trends, although still to detail in the following subsections. remain higher than in industrial and transitional economies. In South Asia, meat consumption ends Consumption tr 2.1 is predicted to grow faster than before, pre- Projections published in 2012 (Alexandratos and dominantly through increased consumption of Bruinsma, 2012) suggest that global meat and milk chicken meat in India. Sub-Saharan Africa, which consumption will continue increasing until 2030 has previously experienced slower growth than and beyond, although growth rates are expected other parts of the world, may become a new to be slower than those in the past (Tables 2A1 centre of consumption growth, with annual and 2A2). Global growth of meat and milk con- increases in meat consumption predicted to sumption is projected to be 1.6 and 1.3 percent remain steady until 2050. However, given their per year, respectively, in the 2007–2030 period, dependence on trends in the gross national down from 2.5 and 1.6 percent in 1991–2007. incomes of the region’s countries, consumption There will be regional differences in these trends, trends for Africa are difficult to predict pre- with growth coming mainly from developing cisely. Estimates by Acosta (2014) suggest that countries. Industrialized countries, which already there is likely to be particularly high demand in have high levels of consumption of animal-source Africa for milk, poultry meat and beef, although foods and where population growth is slow, are with some potential for cross-elasticity between likely to see much slower growth in demand poultry meat and beef, meaning that a strong than developing countries, although their per demand for poultry may suppress growth in capita consumption is expected to remain higher demand for beef. (Tables 2A1 to 2A3). The poultry sector has been the most buoyant Meat consumption boomed between 1981 part of the livestock sector in the past few and 2007, but in most parts of the world growth decades and this is likely to continue. Poultry in demand is slowing. In Latin America and East are efficient feed converters (of grains) and and Southeast Asia, annual growth in meat con- LE t a 1 ab 2 Previous and projected trends in meat consumption 1981–2007 1991–2007 2005/2007–2030 2005/2007–2050 2005/2007 Region % change % change % change % change 1 000 tonnes per annum per annum per annum per annum per annum Sub-Saharan 3.0 3.2 3.4 2.7 7 334 frica a Near East / North a frica 10 292 3.1 3.7 2.7 2.3 1.3 a 1.7 merica and the Caribbean 34 557 3.9 3.6 Latin 2.0 - excluding b razil 19 995 3.1 3.4 1.6 4.5 South a sia 6 685 2.1 1.2 4.2 6.4 4.7 1.9 1.4 East a sia 86 806 - excluding China 18 967 4.6 3.7 2.4 2.0 2.2 1.8 4.1 Developing countries 146 797 4.9 0.4 Developed countries 109 382 0.7 0.7 0.6 World 1.3 2.5 2.6 1.6 256 179 Source: Alexandratos and Bruinsma, 2012. PO E ON t r SECOND t E H r 158 ES FOr FOOD C r SOU E r C I t ENE L G a IM N a D'S r r E WO H t OF E at t S E H E U t CUL I r G a D N a L t

200 DrIVErS OF CHaNGE IN tHE LIVEStOCK SECtOr a LE 2 a 2 t ab Previous and projected trends in milk consumption 2005/2007–2050 2005/2007–2030 1991–2007 1981–2007 2005/2007 Region % change % change % change % change million per annum per annum per annum per annum tonnes 2.3 Sub-Saharan a frica 24 2.3 3.5 2.5 1.6 1.9 2.8 2.0 41 frica a Near East / North 1.5 2.6 72 merica and the Caribbean a 2.6 1.1 Latin South sia 135 4.3 4.1 2.0 a 2.3 sia 50 6.7 7.9 2.2 1.5 East a 1.8 2.3 - excluding China 14 4.0 3.0 1.7 324 3.6 3.9 2.1 Developing countries -0.1 0.5 Developed countries 333 -0.4 0.3 1.3 World 1.6 1.1 657 1.1 Alexandratos and Bruinsma, 2012. ource: S tion grew by 1.6 percent per year (Table 2A2), hence poultry meat tends to be cheaper mainly due to a surge in demand for milk in China than other meats, whether bought or home- and India. In India, per capita demand for milk is produced. Chicken meat and other poultry expected to increase by 57 percent between 2007 products are also very widely consumed across and 2030 according to one projection (Table 2A3); regions and religious and social groups. Growth another estimate suggests that consumption of in global pork consumption, which has been fresh milk will reach 170 kg per capita in 2023 leading the growth of meat consumption jointly (2014) estimate et al. (OECD/FAO, 2014). Herrero with poultry, is heavily influenced by trends in that milk consumption is likely to triple by 2050 China, where growth in demand is predicted to in sub-Saharan Africa, mostly led by East Africa. slow (OECD/FAO, 2014). Conversely, increasing The overall effect is that global consumption of poultry consumption is a worldwide phenom- milk is projected to grow slightly faster between enon. Per capita demand for poultry meat is 2007 and 2030 than it did between 1981 and 2007 projected to increase by 271 percent in South (Table 2A2), with steady annual growth to 2050 in Asia, 116 percent in Eastern Europe and Central Africa and a decreasing rate of growth in the rest Asia, 97 percent in the Middle East and North of the world. Africa and 91 percent in East Asia and the Pacific during the 2000 to 2030 period (Table 2A3). Evolution of per capita demand for poultry in Pur 2.2 chasing power India is striking, with a predicted increase of Purchasing power is considered the main demand- 577 percent between 2000 and 2030. Poultry side driver for livestock products. Lower-and meat is also the animal-source food with the middle-income consumers have a strong influence highest demand growth in high-income coun- on consumption trends, as the effect of increased tries, where per capita demand for beef and income on diets is greatest in this group (Delgado mutton is expected to decrease. , 2002; Devine, 2003). Increasing incomes in et al. Milk consumption has grown more slowly than developing countries were an important driver of meat consumption, except in South Asia. Over the boom in consumption of livestock products, the period 1991 to 2007, global milk consump- particularly meat. tHE SECON D rEPOrt ON 159 aNI aGrIC aN D FOO r FO CES r U rESO GENEtIC L a M D S ' D rL O W tHE OF E L t U r U tHE StatE

201 r t CK SEC t O O tr E NDS LIVES 2 Part ab LE a 3 t 2 Growth in per capita demand for livestock products from 2000 to 2030 Beef Region Mutton Pork Poultry meat Eggs Milk Increase (percentage and absolute value) % kg % kg % kg % kg % kg % kg East sia and Pacific 61 3.8 55 7.6 39 a 61 6.3 91 7.7 48 2.8 0.2 37 10.1 113 4.3 103 China 35 11.5 94 9.1 17 2.8 0.8 15 36 n Europe and Central a sia 25 10.7 20 26.2 3.8 0.5 28 2.0 116 11.4 Easter Latin 27 2.5 34 0.1 8 24.7 2.6 17.2 16 merica and the Caribbean a 45 13.7 73 20.9 49 a frica 42 5.5 31 Middle East and North 31 1.6 12 0.0 97 11.2 2.6 a sia 24 4.2 32 South 45 1.0 78 0.2 271 4.1 134 1.9 20.7 India 0.2 57 37.6 33 0.2 86 0.5 577 6.0 173 2.6 8 a 0.7 25 5.3 17 6.1 30 Sub-Saharan 47 0.6 73 2.6 66 0.9 frica 11 -1 3 6.1 -10 -0.7 -21.0 2.0 36 9.3 9 0.9 High-income countries Source: FAO, 2011a. often cheaper than other livestock products and Poultry and dairy products have been found to are also the most likely to be produced for home have higher income elasticities of demand than consumption by smallholder farmers. other animal-source foods, meaning that con- sumption levels are more responsive to income; this effect is particularly strong in low-income 2.3 Demographic changes and populations (OECD/FAO, 2014; Gerosa and urbanization Skoet, 2012). At a fixed income, the prices of The world population is predicted to reach livestock products affect consumption levels. 9.6 billion by 2050, i.e. 2.5 billion more than in The lower price of poultry meat relative to 2013 (United Nations, 2014). While population beef has led to a shift from beef to poultry con- growth is expected to decelerate in many regions, sumption in Latin America and the Caribbean, strong growth is expected in sub-Saharan Africa. and generally in the world (CEPAL, FAO and Currently accounting for 13 percent of the total world IICA, 2014). The food-price crisis of 2007-2008 population, this region is anticipated to account had a significant impact on demand for dairy for 23 percent in 2050. As discussed above (Sub- products, but consumption is recovering due section 2.1), per capita consumption of poultry prod- to increasing incomes and changing lifestyles ucts is expected to increase in this region, reversing (Gerosa and Skoet, 2012). Prices of other sources a decline in previous decades (FAO, 2009a). of animal protein also affect demand for live- Urbanization was noted in the first SoW-AnGR stock products. For instance, future demand for as the second main factor, after purchasing meat could be affected by more competitive fish power, influencing per capita consumption of prices (FAO, 2011b). animal products. It also affects consumer prefer - It is hardly surprising that consumption of ences for particular types of animal products (see poultry meat and dairy products is projected further discussion below). Since 2007, the world’s to continue growing. As well as being the most urban population has surpassed the rural popu- income-elastic animal-source foods, they are lation. It is expected to increase from 54 percent E SECOND r PO t ON E r H t 160 E ES FOr FOOD r SOU E r C I t ENE L G a IM N a D'S L r E WO H t OF C at t S E H E a N D a G r I CUL t U r t

202 DrIVErS OF CHaNGE IN tHE LIVEStOCK SECtOr a most dependable way of ensuring the safety and of the world total in 2013 to 66 percent in 2050 quality of the meat. Preferences are not static (United Nations, 2014). Urbanization leads to and are affected by demographic change. Many a shift from cereal-based diets to energy-dense developing-country consumers prefer the taste diets that include a higher proportion of ani- of meat from traditional breeds kept extensively, mal-source food. Diets can be expected to change but tastes are changing as middle-class urban substantially in Africa and Asia, where urban- households increasingly opt for the convenience ization is fastest. In India, a country undergoing of supermarket-purchased meat from intensive strong urbanization, per capita consumption of production systems. dairy products was estimated to be 20 percent Meat and milk consumption in developed higher in urban areas than in rural areas in countries is increasingly affected by concerns 2009-2010 (Ahuja, 2013). Urban dwellers who about healthy diets, the environmental impacts can afford it are likely to eat a wider variety of of livestock production and animal-welfare foods than people in rural areas, and to eat more issues. These concerns drive both trends and processed food and fast food. These tend to be shocks in consumption and may sometimes pull sourced from large-scale producers where possi- in opposite directions. For example, the shift ble, because it is easier for food retail companies from red meat to poultry meat in high-income to manage supply and quality from fewer, larger countries is partly explained by health con- farms. Urbanization also leads to improvements cerns, as poultry is perceived to be low in fat in infrastructure and cold chains, meaning that (OECD/FAO, 2014); yet during the highly path- perishable goods, such as fresh milk, can be trans- ogenic avian influenza crisis of 2003 to 2006, ported further (Thornton, 2010). demand for poultry meat experienced a short, While urban populations are on average richer sharp drop in Italy when consumers feared they than those in rural areas, there are still very large might be infected (McLeod, 2008; Beach , et al. numbers of low-income urban families who are 2008). Concerns about animal welfare led to a vulnerable to economic recession. During the European Union (EU)-wide ban on conventional food-price crisis of 2007-2008, when world prices battery cages for laying hens in 2012, which of cereal staples rose by three to five times, the resulted in an increase in the number of free- poor in many large cities cut back on food con- range birds in some countries. sumption and ate less animal-source food (FAO, Concerns about health issues and food quality 2011b). Current projections for consumption are increasing in developing countries due to growth will be affected by any future volatility in higher purchasing power and changing lifestyles the global economy. , 2010) and this is already changing (Jabbar et al. the livestock industry, with more standards and eference 2.4 Consumer taste and pr norms applied to production and processing Consumption preferences are affected by a variety , 2014). Thornton (2010) notes et al. (Hoffmann of cultural factors and life choices. Cultural factors that animal welfare is becoming a global concern influence decisions as to whether to eat meat or because of globalization and international trade. whether to eat meat from particular species; one In 2013, concerns about animal welfare led the of the reasons for the boom in poultry consump- Australian livestock industry to suspend live tion may be that it is acceptable in almost every exports to Egypt. In 2014, exports resumed under society that eats meat. Cultural norms can also be the Exporter Supply Chain Assurance System related to food safety. Many consumers in devel- (ESCAS), which places responsibility on export- oping countries prefer to eat meat from animals ers to guarantee animal welfare throughout bought live at the market and slaughtered on the the entire supply chain (Australian Government, day of consumption, as where there is no relia- Department of Agriculture, 2014). ble refrigeration or obligatory labelling this is the tHE SECON D rEPOrt ON 161 aNI aGrIC aN D FOO r FO CES r U rESO GENEtIC E L a M D S ' D rL O W tHE OF r U L t U tHE StatE

203 LIVES CK SEC t O r O tr E NDS t 2 Part E r IGU F Population growth alone may not significantly a 2 1 owth for poultry meat in China and Demand gr change the structure of the livestock sector, pro- India (2000 to 2030) vided that the ratio of producers to consumers does not change. In contrast, changes in consump- tion patterns are likely to affect sector structure. China FAO (2011a) analysed the relative impacts of popu- 1.6 lation growth and changing consumption patterns 1.4 11% 11% on total consumption and predicted, for example, 1.2 percent of demand growth for poultry that 78 1.0 percent in India would meat in China and 68 come from increased consumption per capita 0.8 (Figure 2A1). It is expected that India will respond 78% 0.6 to growth in demand for poultry by increasing Population (billions) 0.4 domestic production from large farms, and this 0.2 implies restructuring of the poultry industry. 0 0 14 8 10 12 6 2 16 18 2 0 4 3 Changes in trade and r etailing Per capita consumption (kg/person/year) As demand for animal-source food has increased worldwide and advances in technology have made India 1.6 their transport easier, international trade and the 1.4 role of large retailers have increased, creating a situ- ation in which an increasing number of livestock pro- 27% 5% 1.2 ducers face global competition. Some developing- 1.0 country producers face high production costs 0.8 because they have to import feed, and this reduces 0.6 their competitiveness. Likewise, some proces- 68% sors are unable to invest on the scale needed to 0.4 Population (billions) be competitive. Many smallholders and pastoral- 0.2 ists face particular problems because they cannot 0 meet the standards and norms required in order 2 16 18 12 14 10 20 8 6 4 0 to sell their products to large retailers and inter- Per capita consumption (kg/person/year) national markets, and yet they face competition from imported products on their domestic markets. Demand in 2000 Vertical integration in the market chains controlled by large companies limits the access of smallholders Growth to 2030 to growing urban and export markets. Demand growth attributable to population growth Demand growth attributable to changing Flows of livestock and their 3.1 consumption patterns pr oducts Demand growth as a function of both Animal products and live animals for slaughter - FAO, 2011a. Source: ing or breeding are traded on international and domestic markets. Domestic trade accounts for almost 90 percent of recorded trade by volume – and probably a larger percentage of total trade, PO r SECOND ON t E r E t H 162 E ES FOr FOOD r SOU E r C I t ENE L G a IM N a D'S L r E WO H t OF C at t S E H E N D a G r I CUL t U r a t

204 DrIVErS OF CHaNGE IN tHE LIVEStOCK SECtOr a Flow patterns of live animals and animal prod- given that many local transactions in developing ucts are evolving. Live-animal exports are con- countries are unrecorded. However, international strained by animal-health regulations, even more trade is expanding: from 4 percent of trade by so than trade in livestock products, and by high volume in the early 1980s to around 10 percent transport costs. The most internationally traded , et al. in 2007 and 12 percent in 2013 (Guyomard live animals are day-old chicks, sent between 2013). Large companies dominate market chains large producers all over the world, and ruminants, in developed countries and are becoming increas- exported from Australia and the Horn of Africa ingly important in developing countries in terms of to the Middle East for halal slaughter. The latter both international trade and inward investment. may be restricted in the future because of animal International trade in live animals and livestock welfare concerns. High-value breeding animals products is expected to keep growing (Figure 2A2). and their semen are also traded internationally Trade in dairy products is expected to increase, (for further information see Part 1 Section C). In while the proportion of meat traded is anticipated Africa and Southeast Asia, animals travel across to remain at around 10 percent of production national borders for slaughter in adjacent coun- (OECD/FAO, 2014). Bovine meat, which has the tries, not all of them officially recorded. However, highest value, is the most traded meat, with about this trade can be abruptly disrupted by livestock 15.8 percent of production being traded (ibid.). E 2 a 2 F IGU r Net meat trade of major importer and exporter country gr oups Thousand tonnes 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 -5000 -10000 -15000 -20000 -25000 2050 2030 1992/1994 2005/2007 Developed excluding Japan and the Russian Federation Major developing exporters Japan and the Russian Federation Major developing importers Other developing importers Note: Country groups defined in source. Historical data go back only to 1992, because of the unavailability of data for the Russian Federation for years prior to 1992. Source: Alexandratos and Bruinsma, 2012. SECON tHE D rEPOrt ON 163 aNI aGrIC aN D FOO U FO CES r U rESO GENEtIC L a M D S ' D rL O W tHE OF E L t U r r tHE StatE

205 r LIVES O CK SEC t O t tr E NDS Part 2 the development of their livestock sectors. Export disease outbreaks and changes in animal-health 1 is a costly process, with average bound tariffs regulations. Dairy exports are still dominated by a few for meat varying from 82 to 106 percent in OECD developed countries, namely Australia, European countries and from 68 to 75 percent in non-OECD Union (EU) countries, New Zealand and the United countries (Steinfeld et al. , 2010). Exporters there- States of America. However, Argentina, Belarus, fore aim to sell their highest-quality products to Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Ukraine export premium markets in developed countries, or if significant amounts of cheese to neighbour - that is not possible, to target regional markets ing countries, and India is expected to increase with high demand, such as South Africa and its skim milk powder exports. In Latin America China. Developed countries place strict animal- and the Caribbean, dairy exports may remain health requirements on imports and the main limited; for example, exports from Argentina are regional markets are also becoming increasingly projected to decrease by 9 percent in the next ten demanding in this respect. Premium markets also years (CEPAL, FAO and IICA, 2014). tend to have strict requirements for quality and Meat exports from developing countries are certification. If export is prioritized in national expected to gain market share relative to those strategies, this tends to accelerate concentration 2A2). A few from developed countries (Figure and scaling-up and to exclude smallholders. This large countries have the largest market shares. effect is particularly marked in the poultry-meat Brazil and Argentina dominate beef and veal sector (see Box 2A2 for example). Exclusion can exports jointly with Australia, New Zealand and also occur if a disease-free zone created for export the United States of America. Brazil and the restricts the access of smallholders’ animals to United States of America account for around seasonal grazing or local markets. Where imports 70 percent of global exports of poultry meat are concerned, a strategy of inward investment , 2013). India is consolidating et al. (Guyomard by large retailers, often in response to demand its buffalo-meat exports, with a highly compet- in growing cities, can also prove to be exclusion- itive sector (OECD/FAO, 2014). The EU’s position ary. Supermarkets and fast-food businesses source as a meat exporter has weakened in recent years their food products from a combination of inter - because of high production costs and a strong national and domestic markets, but may impose euro and may weaken further (ibid.). requirements that make it hard for smallholders A wider range of countries have become to supply them. Importation of livestock products importers of livestock products, and with con- can also, and separately, introduce competition sumption remaining higher than production in when large exporting countries sell the prod- many developing countries imports are expected ucts that are less preferred in premium markets to grow. Between 2005/2007 and 2050, meat cheaply into developing-country markets. This imports to Africa are predicted to increase from may not necessarily affect smallholders; it is more 0.9 million tonnes to around 5 million tonnes likely to be detrimental to small- and medium- and milk imports from 5.7 million tonnes to sized commercial producers. tonnes (World Bank, 2014). The pro- 10.2 million While exchanges of livestock products and live portion of consumption in Africa accounted for by animals are growing, trade is becoming more imports is anticipated to reach around 15 percent challenging. One of the consequences of globali- for beef and 21 percent for poultry meat by 2030 zation has been a large number of protectionist (ibid.). policies. While in recent years there has been a An important feature of international trade is general tendency towards liberalization of world that many developing countries are, or have the potential to be, both importers and exporters of 1 t ound” tariffs are rates of duty agreed by the World b “ rade livestock products – and both types of trade affect Organization. PO E ON t r SECOND t E H r 164 ES FOr FOOD C r SOU E r C I t ENE L G a IM N a D'S r r E WO H t OF E at t S E H E U t CUL I r G a D N a L t

206 DrIVErS OF CHaNGE IN tHE LIVEStOCK SECtOr a b ox 2 a 1 ce foods from minority species and breeds Demand for animal-sour buffaloes, dromedaries and Bactrian camels and other The main global trends in demand for animal-source camelids has increased by a small amount since 1980. foods are assessed using data on the production and Equally important to genetic diversity, but harder consumption of “majority” products, namely beef, pork, to assess from published statistics, are breed-related chicken meat and milk. These are important in providing changes in consumption. For the most part, these a broad picture, but in order to assess implications for can only be surmised by observing general trends. animal genetic resources and their management it is also For example, free-range egg production has recently important to look at the finer detail: to review trends increased in developed countries and this may result in for products from minority species and breeds. changes to the genetic make-up of chicken populations. The production of milk from species other than However, the chickens used in large-scale commercial cattle and meat from species other than cattle, pigs free-range systems are not those used in scavenging and chickens has become more important in the past backyard flocks; they have been bred to grow quickly 30 years. FAOSTAT data show that milk production under conditions of good care and feeding. Smallholder from buffaloes, sheep, goats, dromedaries and Bactrian chicken producers – in India or Africa, for example – who camels has been increasing as a proportion of total wish to make a higher income than can be obtained production. Other locally important milk-producing from traditional scavenging flocks may adopt specially species, such as reindeer, yaks and horses, are not bred birds such as the “Kuroiler” and supplement their included in these statistics. The proportion of meat scavenging diets with concentrate feed. production contributed by meat from sheep, goats, Changes in the proportion of milk and meat production provided by minor species 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% 2005 1985 2000 1990 1995 1980 2010 Non-cow milk as percentage of total milk produced (by weight) Meat produced from species other than cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and chickens as percentage of total meat produced (by weight) (Cont.) tHE rEPOrt ON D SECON 165 aGrIC D aN D FOO r FO CES r U rESO GENEtIC r a M aNI S ' D rL O W tHE OF E U t L U L tHE StatE

207 tr LIVES O CK SEC t O r t E NDS 2 Part b ox 2 a 1 (Cont.) ce foods from minority species and breeds Demand for animal-sour Urbanization can result in a series of changes commercial production systems. Over time, however, some consumers begin to demand specialist foods: to consumption patterns. As cities expand, the first locally-sourced; from traditional breeds; from systems effect observed is that people consume more animal- source foods, which they may buy from a variety of perceived to be sustainable; harvested from the wild; or from “exotic” species. Although these demands are sources, including live-animal and fresh-food markets. Rural consumers and those that are recent incomers never likely to affect the main global statistics, they to urban areas tend to prefer meat from traditional provide a livelihood for a limited number of small-scale breeds and production systems. As supermarkets entrepreneurs and opportunities to raise traditional breeds profitably. and fast-food outlets are established and live-animal markets are moved beyond city limits, purchasing patterns change and more food is bought from large Sources: FAOSTAT; Ahuja et al. , 2008; FAO, 2011b; Cawthorn and retailers, much of it originating from large-scale Hoffman, 2014. trade, restrictive measures continue to be applied costs. The private sector is increasingly investing in et al. livestock production systems (Gerber to animal products (WTO, 2011; 2014). As a con- , 2010). Meeting quality and sanitary demands is challeng- sequence, bilateral and multilateral agreements ing, especially for smallholders in developing coun- between countries are increasingly being used. These agreements aim to preserve sanitary stand- tries. Concerns about the exclusion of smallholders in Africa are rising, as supermarkets require fre- ards while reducing tariff barriers. For instance, quent supplies and demand quality standards that in December 2013, Australia and the Republic of small-scale producers may not be able to meet Korea announced a free-trade agreement includ- , 2010). However, it is possible to et al. ing elimination of high tariffs on Australian agri- (Tschirley cultural exports such as dairy products and meat involve smallholders in changing markets, particu- (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 2013). larly in the case of dairy products. Development projects and large retailers have invested in engag- In the same year, the EU and Canada signed an ing small-scale producers in dairy-product market agreement aimed at promoting trade in bovine and pig meat (Government of Canada, 2013). chains, providing advice on animal health, feeding - practices, breeding and in some cases quality assur Such arrangements have the potential to further ance (Gerber 2010; FAO, 2013d). In Bangladesh, a distance smallholders from export markets. well-organized contract-farming system involves large numbers of small-scale farmers in commer - 3.2 The rise of large r etailers and cial poultry production (FAO, 2013a). vertical coordination along the food chain As discussed in the first SoW-AnGR, supermarkets have spread all over the world. In the developing 4 onment Changing natural envir world, this has mainly occurred since the early 1990s. Supermarkets and large food companies In the context of increasing demand for food have established vertically integrated produc- and ever greater competition for land and other tion and marketing chains involving contracts resources, there are growing concerns about the with farmers who meet their quality and sanitary sustainability of livestock production systems and standards. This enables them to reduce transaction their impacts on the environment. t r E PO SECOND ON r E H t 166 E L G ENE t I C r E SOU r C a IM N a D'S L r E WO H t OF r at t S E H U ES FOr FOOD a N D a G r I CUL t E t

208 DrIVErS OF CHaNGE IN tHE LIVEStOCK SECtOr a 2 a ox 2 b Development of the poultry sector in Thailand welfare standards demanded by export markets. By 2003, The Thai poultry industry was on a fast growth trajectory until the 2004 outbreak of highly Thailand was the world’s fifth-largest exporter of poultry meat by value. The trend to integration was accelerated pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). In the 1960s, the industry consisted of a network of small-scale farmers, after the HPAI outbreaks that occurred between May live-bird traders and wholesalers who brought chickens 2004 and August 2006. Loss of 64 million birds, mostly from rural areas to the cities. During the 1970s and through culling, and loss of the export market, dealt the sector a devastating blow. In order to regain and protect 1980s, the Charoen Pokphand company, in partnership with the American firm Arbor Acres, imported exotic the export market, new regulations were established by chickens from the United States of America and the Department of Livestock Development, as well as by the United Kingdom and used them to develop a the European Union and Japan, both major markets for nationally based breeding programme. Contract Thai exports. Under these regulations, companies had growers raising an average of 10 000 birds were more incentive to vertically integrate in order to meet the required standards at every stage of production. It is important to the company and were given the security now common for medium- to large-scale companies to of price-guaranteed contracts. Although commercial production was expanding and scaling-up during own feed mills and for large integrated farms to include this period, backyard production continued to be feed-processing plants. The standards do not apply to small farmers operating within local/informal supply important; in 1985, 99.7 percent of chicken producers kept backyard flocks. chains, but raising poultry and fish in integrated systems, previously common in the delta areas of the country, has During the 1990s, the sector scaled-up and concentrated. By 1996, twelve companies, including been prohibited in most areas. After the HPAI outbreaks, the Charoen Pokphand company, controlled about 80 many farmers ceased raising native chickens for sale. The domestic market now takes approximately percent of broiler production in Thailand, with large mechanized production units providing economies 65 percent of national production and export takes of scale. Contract farming continued, but vertically 35 percent. Both markets are expected to grow. integrated production was beginning to expand. The Five companies supply 70–75 percent of the export average size of farms continued to increase and new market. Japan is the main export destination, but the market is diversifying as more developed countries technology was used to cut production costs. The Asian allow Thai poultry products back into their markets. financial crisis of the mid-1990s, preceded by a slump On the domestic market, chicken meat is the most in poultry exports, further concentrated the sector. The consumed meat, partly because it is the cheapest. The main broiler companies came together to form the Broiler Breeding Stock Centre in order to control the market shares of ready-to-cook meat and fast food supply of breeding stock. The poultry sector survived are growing. It is estimated that Thailand’s broilers and layers consume 8 million tonnes of feed per year, the economic crisis by shifting towards value-added, processed products. Devaluation of the local currency including 4.8 million tonnes of maize and 2.2 million tonnes of soybeans, of which 4.6 and 0.96 million (the baht) was advantageous for exporters, but small and medium-sized farms, relying on a domestic market tonnes, respectively, are produced locally. in which poultry meat consumption had declined by 20 percent, were more affected by the crisis. From 2000 onwards, vertical integration became more common, because of the need to meet health and et al. Heft-Neal Sources: , 2010; IPSOS Business Consulting, 2013. tHE rEPOrt ON D SECON 167 aGrIC D aN D FOO r FO CES r U rESO GENEtIC r a M aNI S ' D rL O W tHE OF E U t L U L tHE StatE

209 NDS LIVES O CK SEC t O r tr E t Part 2 500 million hectares used for feed-crop produc- 4.1 Climate change tion, 1.4 billion hectares of relatively highly pro- Concerns about climate change, already preva- ductive pastures and 2 billion hectares of rela- lent at the time the first SoW-AnGR was prepared, tively unproductive extensive pastures (Steinfeld have deepened still further over recent years (FAO, , 2010). The evolution of land use varies from et al. et al. , 2010; IPCC, 2014). Livestock 2009b; Nardone region to region. Between 1961 and 2001, both production systems are experiencing the effects of arable lands and pastures expanded in Asia, North changes in precipitation, temperature and increas- Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean, ing frequency of extreme weather events. Changes while arable lands replaced pastures in Oceania of this kind can affect livestock production both and sub-Saharan Africa. In the Baltic states and directly and indirectly (e.g. by affecting feed pro- the Commonwealth of Independent States, lands 2A4). The potential impacts of heat duction) (Table dedicated to pastures expanded, while croplands stress on livestock include temperature-related decreased; in western and eastern Europe and illness and death, as well as declines in production in North America, both pasture and arable land and reproductive ability (Nardone , 2010). et al. decreased (Steinfeld et al. , 2010). In some parts Extreme weather events threaten rangelands, as of the world, notably Africa, land degradation as well as feed production for non-grazing systems. a result of overgrazing added to pressures on the They can pose a direct threat to the survival of land resource. Between 2000 and 2010, the area livestock populations caught in their paths (see under pasture grew at the expense of arable land Part 1 Section F for further discussion). They can in North America, whereas it decreased in the also have significant effects on livestock markets Southwest Pacific and in Asia (Table 2A5). (OECD/FAO, 2014). Water and fossil fuels are also finite and in high demand. Competition for these resources, Pr essure on land and other natural 4.2 a concern for the past decade, is anticipated to resources get stronger in the future. Developments of this There is increasing pressure on land and other kind lead to high prices for feed and energy and natural resources as a result of developments raise the costs of livestock production. A recent in agricultural production systems as well as response to fossil-fuel scarcity has been the intro- urbanization and industrial development. These duction of government incentives for the devel- pressures are being exacerbated by climate opment of biofuel production. This may affect change. The livestock sector accounts for approx- the livestock sector, as crops used for feed have imately 3.9 billion hectares of land, divided into LE 2 4 a t ab Direct and indirect effects of climate change on livestock production systems Non-grazing systems Grazing systems • Increased frequency of extreme weather events Increased frequency and magnitude of drought and floods • • Change in water availability (may increase or decrease, • Productivity losses (physiological stress) due to depending on the region) Direct impacts temperature increase • Increased frequency of extreme weather events (impact • Change in water availability (may increase or decrease, less acute than for extensive systems) depending on the region) gro-ecological changes and ecosystem shifts leading to: a • alteration of fodder quantity and quality Increased resource prices ( e.g. feed, water and energy) • • changes in host–pathogen interactions resulting in an Disease epidemics • Indirect impacts increased incidence of emerging diseases • Increased cost of animal housing (e.g. cooling systems) disease epidemics • Source: FAO, 2009a. PO E ON t r SECOND t E H r 168 ES FOr FOOD C r SOU E r C I t ENE L G a IM N a D'S r r E WO H t OF E at t S E H E U t CUL I r G a D N a L t

210 DrIVErS OF CHaNGE IN tHE LIVEStOCK SECtOr a LE 2 5 ab t a Change in area of arable and pasture land (2000 to 2010) Permanent meadows and pastures Arable land Regions and subregions % Africa 11.5 1.2 a frica 31.2 -0.1 East North and W est a frica 6.0 2.5 Southern a frica 11.5 0.4 Asia -1.6 -4.0 -5.8 Central a sia 8.5 East -3.2 a sia -9.2 South -2.7 -2.6 a sia a sia 8.9 2.4 Southeast Southwest Pacific -11.7 -13.1 Europe and the Caucasus -5.3 0.0 Latin America and the Caribbean 16.1 1.3 Caribbean -0.4 -5.9 Central a merica 1.5 -0.3 South a merica 20.9 1.7 -9.9 5.1 North America 4.5 0.6 Near and Middle East World -0.4 -1.7 FAOSTAT. Source: 4.3 begun to be used for biofuel production. For Distribution of livestock diseases instance, policies in the United States of America and parasites have led to a surge in the use of maize, one of The distribution of diseases and parasites and the main livestock feeds, for bioethanol produc- the emergence of new diseases are expected to tion (Miljkovic et al. , 2012). The availability of continue evolving, influenced by high livestock by-products from the bioethanol industry and densities, international trade, human travel and shifts towards new feeds may, however, diminish climate change. It has been argued that these the negative effects of biofuel production on the drivers have led to a “booming era of emerging livestock sector (FAO, 2012a). 2014). Precise et al., infectious disease” (Bouley Feed availability and price volatility are becom- developments are difficult to predict. Climate ing major issues. In Asia, the amount of feed change, for example, has the potential to affect protein required by the poultry and pig sectors all the components of disease systems, i.e. path- is anticipated to double between 2009 and 2020 ogens, hosts and vectors. However, it is diffi- (Ahuja, 2013). This represents a major challenge, cult to clearly distinguish the effects of climate especially given that Asia already experiences change from those of other drivers (FAO, 2013b). chronic shortages of feed (ibid.). Problems related to emerging diseases and the SECON tHE D rEPOrt ON 169 aNI aGrIC aN D FOO r FO CES r U rESO GENEtIC L a M D S ' D rL O W tHE OF E U L t r U tHE StatE

211 tr t O r CK SEC E NDS O t LIVES Part 2 2013) and other unconventional feed resources spread of diseases and parasites into new areas such as moringa and mulberry leaves. A variety of are potentially exacerbated by the spread of anti- different insect larvae may be suitable for process- biotic resistance and resistance to treatments ing into animal feed, and could potentially replace used against parasites and disease vectors. 25 to 100 percent of the soymeal or fishmeal in the diet – depending on the animal species – with some supplementation with methionine, lysine Advances in technology 5 and calcium (Makkar , 2014). et al. To promote more efficient use of available Advances in technology (e.g. those related to feed resources, greater emphasis is now being feeding, breeding, housing, transportation and placed on resource assessments and characteriz- marketing) have been major drivers of change ing feeding systems at national level (Makkar and in the livestock sector in recent decades. Feeding Ankers, 2014). Other strategies include greater use and breeding have been crucial, particularly in the of precision or balanced feeding, identification poultry, pig and dairy industries. However, these and use of smart feeding options (Makkar, 2013) developments have mainly been undertaken by and efforts to decrease feed wastage by using den- the private sector and aimed at (relatively large- sified complete crop residue based feed blocks or scale) commercial producers; they are therefore rel- pellets and total mixed rations instead of feeding atively less available to – and applicable for use by individual feed components (FAO, 2012c). – smallholders than the technologies that led to the “green revolution” in the crop sector (FAO, 2009a). 5.2 Genetics and r eproductive Feed technology 5.1 biotechnologies Feed-use efficiencies have substantially improved Reproductive technologies, such as artificial in the pig, poultry and dairy industries. Moreo- insemination, embryo transfer and more recently sex-sorted semen, have been extensively used in ver, low feed prices, resulting mainly from inten- sification of croplands and advances in feed pro- the poultry, pig and dairy industries in developed duction and genetics, have contributed to the countries (see Part 3 Section E). Molecular and rapid growth of the livestock sector. However, - quantitative genetics have provided new oppor feed prices – including the prices of cereals, oil- tunities in animal breeding (see Part 4 Section C). seeds and meat and fish meals – have increased Conversely, cloning and the use of genetically modified animals have been limited due to social sharply since 2008, and are expected to remain high because of increasing demand, land com- and ethical concerns and problems with the effi- petition, water scarcity, high energy prices and ciency of the procedures. Genetically modified climate change. Increases in feed prices particu- livestock are used in research and in the produc- larly affect developing countries, as they are defi- tion of proteins for medical purposes. cient in feed resources and their livestock sectors Use of genetics to improve productivity has been particularly prominent in the poultry indus- are generally dependent on feed imports. This, try, where high reproductive rates and short along with decreasing availability of arable land and increasing food–feed competition, has led to generation intervals have allowed rapid improve- ments in feed efficiency and growth rates using a reassessment of feeding practices and search for classical animal-breeding methods based on new protein- and energy-rich feed resources that quantitative genetics (FAO, 2009a). In dairy cattle, do not compete with human food (FAO, 2012b). the use of artificial insemination has allowed the Potential options include insects (FAO, 2013c; wide diffusion of semen from a limited number of Makkar et al. , 2014), co-products of the biofuel bulls with accurately estimated breeding values industry, including algae (FAO, 2012a), ensiled vegetable and fruit wastes (Wadhwa and Bakshi, and has resulted in significant genetic progress. PO E ON t r SECOND t E H r 170 ES FOr FOOD C r SOU E r C I t ENE L G a IM N a D'S r r E WO H t OF E at t S E H E U t CUL I r G a D N a L t

212 DrIVErS OF CHaNGE IN tHE LIVEStOCK SECtOr a While the main focus of genetic improvement surveillance in the livestock sector is needed; the latest World Health Organization report on this programmes has been on increasing production, issue (WHO, 2014) notes the existence of significant increasing emphasis is now being given to func- gaps in data on antibiotic resistance in bacteria tional traits influencing the costs of production. carried by livestock and in the food chain. In the future, selection goals are likely to take other traits, such as disease resistance and envi- ronmental impact, including greenhouse gas 5.4 Futur e technologies emissions, increasingly into account. meat, also referred to as artificial meat, In vitro Newly developed biotechnologies offer many is currently under development and may be a opportunities to improve selection, but have the contributor to the meat supply in the future, potential to create certain risks (e.g. compro- although its use will probably be limited to pro- mised food safety and animal welfare) and thus cessed products. It has not yet been produced need to be regulated by adequate institutional in a form suitable for commercial use and is - frameworks. Some relevant national and inter very expensive (FAO, 2011b). Another tech- national legal and policy frameworks have been nology that may affect the livestock sector in the established (see Part 3 Section F), but adequate future is nanotechnology (Thornton, 2010). This provisions are not in place in all countries. technology can be applied in animal health (e.g. drug delivery), feeding and waste management. However, as with many technologies, risks need 5.3 Animal-health technology to be assessed and addressed via appropriate Animal-health technologies such as vaccines, anti- legal and policy frameworks. biotics and diagnostic tools have supported the growth of the livestock sector by reducing the burden of diseases. However, livestock diseases continue to be a problem for both small-scale and Policy envir onment 6 large-scale producers. Effective control of exist- ing diseases and emerging problems will require The first SoW-AnGR described public policies as better and more accessible diagnostic tests “forces that add to the drivers described above (Thornton, 2010) and continued development of and influence changes in the sector with the aim vaccines and drugs, as well as packaging and dis- of achieving a particular set of societal objec- tribution networks that make technologies more tives.” Public policies aim to expose, contain and accessible to farmers. Technology alone will not mitigate the hidden costs of an expanding live- be sufficient to deal with future animal-health stock sector, including those associated with envi- problems; continued investment in the infra- ronmental degradation, livelihood disruption and structure and human capacity of animal-health threats to veterinary and human public health. systems in developing countries is also needed. Veterinary and public health concerns have Moreover, the need to respond to crises has been strongly regulated internationally since the meant that chronic and endemic diseases have sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) agreement of been neglected, particularly in smallholder and the World Trade Organization was established pastoralist livestock systems in developing coun- in 1995, and this high level of regulation can be tries (FAO, 2013b). The critical need for smallhold- expected to continue in the future. The agreement ers and pastoralists is not new technology, but was developed, by negotiation between the main animal and public health systems that are more trading nations at the time, to protect national embedded in communities. livestock and human populations from the most In developed countries, the potential effects of infectious livestock, zoonotic and foodborne dis- antimicrobial resistance on public health are causing eases. It has been argued that SPS standards act increasing concern (Rushton et al. , 2014). Improved as a barrier to export from developing countries. tHE rEPOrt ON D SECON 171 aGrIC D aN D FOO r FO CES r U rESO GENEtIC r a M aNI S ' D rL O W tHE OF E U t L U L tHE StatE

213 tr t CK SEC t O r E NDS LIVES O 2 Part discussion fora are now playing an important role They have certainly been influential in shaping the in shaping international norms and agreements, livestock sector and its trade flows; for example, including the Global Agenda for Sustainable in 2009, almost 70 percent of world trade in 2 Livestock, animals and meat from species susceptible to foot- spearheaded by FAO. Issues being and-mouth disease came from a small number of explored include the management of grazing countries that were officially recognized as free of livestock to provide environmental services, the disease by the World Organisation for Animal including the improvement of carbon markets so Health (OIE) or historically recognized to be disease that individual livestock keepers can more easily free (OECD/FAO, 2009). benefit from them. Additional areas of interest Regulations are evolving in ways that may be are the management of animal manure for full beneficial for developing countries. Historically, it recovery of nutrients and improving the efficiency was only possible to export to premium markets of production in developing-country livestock from countries or geographical zones that were systems, both of which will require a combin- free of disease. All producers living within dis- ation of technological, policy and voluntary ease-free countries or zones had to adhere to action. There is also a growing body of research the same regulations, even if they did not intend publications on “sustainable intensification” to export. Within the past ten years, two new (Garnett and Godfray, 2012; The Montpellier concepts have been introduced into the OIE’s et al. , 2014). Panel, 2013; Van Buren Terrestrial Animal Health Code (OIE, undated). Nationally, land ownership has been an “Compartmentalization” in essence permits important driver in shaping production systems. export from a certified value chain. “Commodity- Assured access to land and water is important based trade”, more recently introduced into for livestock production, whether through legal international guidelines, permits products ownership or customary land rights, and this assessed as being of minimum risk to be exported, will become increasingly urgent as grazing land even if they come from countries where disease is lost to crop production and climate change is present. Both concepts introduce the potential affects marginal areas where many indigenous for export trade to be developed in parallel with animals are kept. A report by IFAD (2009) con- the provision of support to smallholder farming cluded that increased control by indigenous and pastoralism, although no impact assessments people over access to grazing land, water rights based on practical experience have yet been pub- and land-tenure laws were all important means lished. of preventing land degradation and ensuring International policies and regulations on the sustainable land use. environment are a more recent phenomenon for Emerging policy issues in the livestock sector the livestock sector and less clear-cut than the include animal welfare and the regulation of bio- SPS agreement. An international agreement on technology (see Part 3 Section F for further dis- conservation and management of marine fish cussion). There are also a number of policy areas stocks has been in place since 1995, but moves that affect the sector indirectly. For instance, as towards the development of international agree- noted above, incentives for biofuel production ments on sustainable livestock production began have already affected feed prices and created only relatively recently. The Global Plan of Action competition for land and water. A notable trend for Animal Genetic Resources was adopted in in the past ten years has been the growth of co- 2007 (FAO, 2007b) and concerns about the links alitions, such as the Global Agenda for Sustainable between livestock and climate change are stim- Livestock (see above) and the Global Roundtable ulating further interest in international envi- ronmental agreements addressing the livestock 2 sector. An increasing number of public and private .livestockdialogue.org http://www PO E ON t r SECOND t E H r 172 ES FOr FOOD C r SOU E r C I t ENE L G a IM N a D'S r r E WO H t OF E at t S E H E U t CUL I r G a D N a L t

214 DrIVErS OF CHaNGE IN tHE LIVEStOCK SECtOr a LE 2 a 6 t ab A policy framework for inclusive growth of the livestock sector Examples of policy instruments Rationale Policy goal Creating a conducive Macroeconomic policies and institutional Sound macroeconomic fundamentals and high-quality reforms institutions are positively associated with economic macroenvironment and social indicators of well-being. Context for livestock policies Securing access to land, feed State-driven land and agrarian reform Livestock producers need adequate and secure access Market-driven land reform to land (and associated feed and water resources). and water egulation of land rental markets r Land titling ecognition of customary tenure r Land co-management Providing insurance and risk- Livestock insurance Variable returns prevent livestock keepers from Early-warning systems coping mechanisms making efficient use of their resources and lead to Contingency plans adoption of conservative investment decisions. Emergency feeding Managing the basics for livestock production Grazing reserves Destocking r estocking Decentralization Securing access to livestock/ Livestock keepers are often poor, poorly educated, animal-health services Cost recovery dispersed, and unable to demand public and private Joint human–animal health systems livestock services effectively. Subcontracting “Smart” subsidies for private service providers Community animal-health workers Membership-based organizations “Smart” subsidies for livestock keepers Portfolio diversification Securing access to credit and Imperfect and asymmetric information and high other inputs Livestock as collateral for loans transaction costs limit access to credit and other Warehouse receipt systems production inputs, as private agents are rarely willing Enhancing livestock Mobile banking to serve poor and dispersed livestock producers. ranchless banking b productivity and competitiveness Member-based financial institutions Credit bureaus and scoring Promoting access to national/ Livestock-keepers’/traders’ associations Markets’ capacities to indicate how livestock Livestock brokers international markets producers should allocate their productive resources Periodic markets inter alia are constrained, , by poor communication Contract farming and transport infrastructure, lack of or limited Market information systems information, and unequal bargaining power among Commodity exchanges contracting parties. Sanitary and phytosanitary standards Disease-free export zones Commodity-based trade t e rade-enhancing infrastructur Quarantine zones Private research centres are willing to invest in Promoting the provision of Decentralization profitable breeds/technologies, but poor livestock public goods: research Matching research grants keepers rarely constitute an attractive market for the Levy-funded research private sector. Competitive research funds Strengthened intellectual property rights Sustaining livestock Participatory livestock research olled grazing Contr Livestock production systems may be associated with Promoting the provision of productivity and competitiveness Co-management of common pastures negative externalities, which need to be dealt with public goods: food safety, Livestock zoning and environmental protection through collective actions. Discharge quotas Payments for environmental services Marketing of environmental goods Environmental taxes Education from school to university level FAO, 2010; FAO, 2012b. Sources: tHE rEPOrt ON D SECON 173 aGrIC D aN D FOO r FO CES r U rESO GENEtIC r a M aNI S ' D rL O W tHE OF E U t L U L tHE StatE

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218 DrIVErS OF CHaNGE IN tHE LIVEStOCK SECtOr a and organized irresponsibility: challenges for (available at http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstre governing the sustainable intensification of chicken am/10665/112642/1/9789241564748_eng.pdf). meat production current opinion. Environmental Business and livelihoods in African 2014. World Bank. 1–14 (available at http://dx.doi. , 8: Sustainability livestock: investments to overcome information org/10.1016/j.cosust.2014.06.002). gaps . Washington, DC (available at http://www.fao. Wadhwa, M. & Bakshi, M.P.S. 2013. Utilization of fruit org/docrep/019/i3724e/i3724e.pdf). and vegetable wastes as livestock feed and as sub- 2011. Report on G20 trade measures (Mid- WTO. , strates for generation of other value-added products Geneva, Switzerland October 2010 to April 2011) a O (available at r ome, F edited by H.P.S. Makkar. (available at http://tinyurl.com/q744p4r). http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3273e/i3273e.pdf). WTO. Report on G20 trade measures (Mid-May 2014. WHO. 2014. Antimicrobial resistance: global re- 2014 to mid-October 2014) Geneva, Switzerland . Geneva, Switzerland port on surveillance (available at http://tinyurl.com/nmdns7d). tHE rEPOrt ON D SECON 177 aGrIC D aN D FOO r FO CES r U rESO GENEtIC r a M aNI S ' D rL O W tHE OF E U t L U L tHE StatE

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220 Section B The livestock sector’s response systems. Mixed farming (rainfed and irrigated) The drivers of change discussed in Section A and grassland-based systems are subdivided by induce various responses from the livestock sector. agro-ecological zone. The first SoW-AnGR described these responses for A recent mapping by ILRI and FAO illustrates each of the main livestock production systems the spatial distribution of production systems defined by Seré and Steinfeld (1996) (Table 2B1). around the world (Figure 2B1). Grassland-based For consistency, the present report follows the systems are estimated to account for 26 percent same structure. The classification defines systems of the ice-free land surface of the world (Steinfeld based on the proportion of feed dry matter that , 2006). However, mixed farming and inten- et al. comes from crops, the proportion of non-livestock sive landless systems account for the majority of farming activities in the total value of farm pro- et al. production (Steinfeld , et al. , 2006; Steinfeld duction and the stocking rate. It differentiates , 2014). 2010; Herrero et al. grassland-based, mixed farming and landless 1 b Table 2 Livestock production systems classification Second breakdown The eleven systems First system breakdown l GT) Temperate and tropical highlands ( l G): Grassland-based systems ( <10% of dry matter fed to animals comes fr om crops; and Humid/subhumid tropics and subtropics ( GH) l annual average stocking production rates are <10 livestock 1 agricultural land units ha G a rid/semi-arid tropics and subtropics ( l ) a Temperate and tropical highlands (MRT) Mixed-rainfed systems (MR): Humid/subhumid tropics and subtropics > 90% of the value of crops comes (MRH) from rainfed land use Mixed farming systems (M): a rid/semi-arid tropics and subtropics (MR a ) >10% of the dry matter fed to animals comes from crop by-products and stubble or >10% of the total value of Temperate and tropical highlands (MIT) production comes from non-livestock farming activities Mixed-irrigated (MI): > 10% of the value of crops comes Humid/subhumid tropics and subtropics (MIH) from irrigated land a ) a rid/semi-arid tropics and subtropics (MI andless ( ll ): l ll M) andless monogastric systems ( l <10% of dry matter fed to animals is produced on the farm; and average stocking production rates are >10 livestock units l andless ruminant systems ( R) ll 1 agricultural land ha Seré and Steinfeld, 1996. Source: e THe S C OND R e P OR T ON 179 S O R F O F S e C R U O S e R C TI e N e e a M I aN OD ' D l R O He W F T O e T a T S THe aND a G R I C U lTU R l G

221 DS I V e S l TOCK S e C TOR TR e N Pa 2 T R b e 2 F 1 IGUR oduction systems Distribution of livestock pr Rangeland-based Mixed rainfed Mixed irrigated Urban areas Hyperarid MRY MIY LGY Arid/semi-arid MIA LGA MRA Other Humid/subhumid No data MRH LGH MIH Temperate/tropical higlands LGT MRT MIT Note: For explanation of the abbreviations, see Table 2B1. In this figure, hyper-arid systems (denoted with a “Y”) are distinguished from arid and semi-arid systems. Source: FAO/ILRI, 2011. ical concentration of specialized production and The geographical distribution of cattle, sheep, processing units) has been a response to increas- goats, pigs and chickens has also been mapped ing demand for animal products. It began in the (Robinson , 2014). Ruminants are widely dis- et al. 1960s in developed countries and in the 1980s in tributed, although goats are mainly found in Africa, developing countries. Not all landless production Asia and the Near and Middle East. High cattle dens- is industrialized, but industrialized systems are a ities are found predominantly in mixed-rainfed substantial and growing part of landless systems. and mixed-irrigated systems, but can be also found The trend to industrialization has accelerated in grassland-based systems. (FAO, 2013a). Chicken since the 1990s in developing countries, but has and pig densities follow human population densi- plateaued in the rest of the world. Systems of ties (for further discussion of the geographical dis- this type are particularly dominant in the pig and tribution of livestock species, see Part 1 Section B). poultry sectors. By the early 2000s, they already accounted for 72 percent of poultry-meat pro- duction, 55 percent of pig-meat production and 1 Landless industrialized 61 percent of egg production globally (de Haan oduction systems pr et al. , 2010), although with great variation from region to region (Figure 2B2). Large-scale landless production systems are Overview 1.1 economically competitive where demand is rel- “Industrialization” of production systems (result- atively high and where large retailers are well ing from intensification, scaling-up and geograph- ON S ORT OND TH R e C e P e 180 T R T IC R e N e G l a IM N a 'S D l WOR e F TH e O e a ST e TH S OURC e S F e UR T l RICU G a D N a FOOD O

222 THe lIVeS O T O R’S ReSPONS e T CK SeC b F e 2 b 2 IGUR Pr oduction from the main livestock production systems 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% a si OECD Nations OECD Nations OECD Nations OECD Nations Sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa Near East/North Africa Near East/North Africa Near East/North Africa Near East/North Africa South and Southeast Asia South and Southeast Asia South and Southeast A South and Southeast Asia Latin America and the Caribbean Latin America and the Caribbean Latin America and the Caribbean Latin America and the Caribbean Pig and poultry meat Milk Eggs Ruminant meat Mixed Landless intensive Land-based extensive Note: Land-based extensive = grassland-based. et al. Graphic prepared using figures for 2004 published in Costales Source: , 2010. trend that is expected to continue until 2050, espe- established. These systems have benefited from et al. (2014) cially in the developing world. Herrero technological advances and have advantages over estimated that, in 2000, 78 percent of monogas- small-scale production with respect to econo- 1 tric production came from industrial systems. mies of scale and the ability to provide large and In regular supplies to retailers. Large producers also 2050, between 85 and 95 percent of production find it easier to manage quality and sanitary stand- is likely to come from these systems. In contrast, ards. Food chains and large retailers have generally growth in ruminant industrialized systems has preferred contracting with industrial production been somewhat stagnant. Large-scale beef feed- systems and have stimulated the development of lots have been a feature of production systems these systems. This is particularly true for poultry in Australia and North America (Galyean et al. , meat, egg and pork production. 2011), but national herd sizes in these areas have declined in recent years as a result of drought. The systems are also not fully landless, as animals do ends 1.2 Major tr . Expanding production to meet growing demand 1 For monogastric pr oduction, Herrero (2014) differentiated et al. Expansion has been particularly marked in mono- industrial systems from smallholder systems. Ruminant gastric systems, which since the 1980s have expe- production systems were classified as in the Seré and Steinfeld rienced faster growth than ruminant systems, a (1996) classification. T SeCOND RePOR e H T ON 181 S aND a OD O R F O F CeS R U ReSO G C I T Ne e G l a M aNI ' RlD O W e H F T O e T a T e S H T R IC U l T U R e

223 C I V e S l TOCK S e TOR TR e N DS 2 R T Pa production in developing countries. In Africa, the not enter the feedlot until they are one to two establishment of intensive poultry farms near years old. The use of feedlots in the Brazilian beef cities is becoming more widespread (FAO, 2011a). industry has expanded in recent years, accounting Industrialization of the dairy sector in developing for 13 percent of the country’s beef production countries is very slow (Gerosa and Skoet, 2012). in 2012 (Millen and Arrigoni, 2013). Dairy cattle Two factors contribute to this effect. In some loca- and small ruminants are much less susceptible to tions, including the periphery of many large cities industrialization than monogastrics; although and more generally in South and Southeast Asia, industrial systems exist, the majority of production farm sizes and herds are small, making it hard still comes from mixed farms and grassland-based to achieve economies of scale. Elsewhere, land systems (FAO, IDF and IFCN, 2014). holdings and herd sizes are larger, but grazing Moving the production base from developed makes an important contribution to the animals’ to developing countries . This trend began in diets (FAO, IDF and IFCN, 2014). Exceptions to this the 1980s and is still evident. Monogastric pro- pattern are North Africa and the Near East, where duction, which has historically accounted for an arid climate limits the availability of grazing much of the output of landless systems and lends and dairy feedlots are common. itself to industrialization, is growing particularly China, India and Brazil have been major 2B3). In sharply in developing countries (Figure contributors to industrialization. In China, for 1980, industrial systems accounted for more than instance, 90 percent of poultry and 74 percent 90 percent of monogastric production in Europe of pigs were raised in industrial systems in 2005, and Latin America and only 33 percent in Africa higher proportions than in high-income countries and the Middle East. By 2050, industrial produc- (Figure 2B4). tion systems may account for 80 percent of the b 3 IGUR F e 2 oduction trends in developing and developed countries (1981 to 2050) Meat pr Million tonnes 200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 1981 1991 2006 2030 2050 1981 1991 2006 2030 2050 Developing countries Developed countries Monogastrics Ruminants Source: Alexandratos and Bruinsma, 2012. TH ON ORT S R OND C e e P e 182 S e IC R T e N e G l a IM N UR 'S D l WOR e F TH e O T a ST e TH e T l RICU G a D N a FOOD R O S F e OURC a

224 T O T O R’S ReSPONS e THe lIVeS CK SeC b IGUR e 2 b 4 F oportion of pigs and poultry raised in intensive systems in 2005 Pr 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% East Asia and China South Asia Eastern Europe Latin America Middle East and Sub-Saharan High-income North Africa Pacific Africa and Central countries and Caribbean Asia Pigs Poultry Source: Robinson et al. , 2011. of cereal feed in developing countries over the . Major devel- Investment against future shocks 2005/2007 to 2050 period. oping-country producers are taking advantage of Changing practices in response to societal developments in technology and animal-health . Recent years have seen animal welfare concerns policy to protect themselves against future shocks issues entering the international policy agenda from disease outbreaks. Large poultry companies, and affecting livestock-industry practice to a such as Cobb in Brazil and Aviagen in India, are greater degree than they have in the past. Since developing certified disease-free compartments, 2005, the World Assembly of OIE Delegates has while Chile and South Africa have both intro- adopted ten animal welfare standards for inclu- duced compartmentalization schemes for pigs. sion in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code, includ- In Thailand, one of the top-ten poultry exporters ing standards for the transport of animals by before 2003, the largest poultry companies have land, sea and air, slaughter of animals, killing of invested heavily in processing technology, as pro- animals for disease-control purposes, and animal cessed meat is less susceptible to trade bans. welfare in beef cattle and broiler chicken produc- However, it is hard for producers to prepare tion. While these standards apply to all livestock for shocks caused by price volatility. Prospects for production systems, they are most closely scrutin- industrialized systems in developing countries ized in industrialized systems. As noted above, will be affected by the price and price volatility concerns about animal welfare led to an EU-wide of livestock feeds, as many developing countries ban on traditional battery cages for hens in are (or will be) feed importers (Guyomard et al. , 2012, with producers switching to “enriched” 2013). Alexandratos and Bruinsma (2012) esti- cages, barn production or free-range systems. mated a 2 percent annual growth rate in the use ON T SeCOND RePOR e H T 183 aND OD O R F O F CeS R U ReSO C I T Ne e G l R M aNI S ' RlD e O W e H F T O e T a T e S H T U T l U IC R G a a

225 TOCK S DS I V e S l e C TOR TR e N Pa 2 R T chased feeds. Small-scale landless production does Pig producers in Australia are voluntarily phasing not fall neatly into widely used production system out sow gestation stalls, and several large produc- classifications, and its contribution to global ers in North America and Europe have made small output is difficult to estimate, as is the number of changes to improve welfare in their value chains. people practising this kind of production. Industrialized systems have also begun to Small-scale landless producers often use locally respond to concerns about environmental issues. adapted breeds, as they tend to be well adapted to These systems require large quantities of land, scavenging, produce efficiently in backyard condi- fossil fuels and water to produce feed. They have tions and are able to cope relatively well with some also been associated with spillages of manure, diseases and parasites. The main exception to this is which can contaminate soil and water (FAO, in small-scale dairying, where cross-bred cows are 2009). Contamination of pastures and croplands often preferred because – provided they receive with heavy metals (added as supplements to live- sufficient feed and appropriate management – they stock diets and excreted in manure) are particu- give higher milk yields. Other exotic animals are larly hazardous for food-chain safety. Industrial sometimes raised if they can be accessed easily and intensive systems affect biodiversity through the production conditions are not too extreme. destruction and pollution of habitats and their Small-scale landless livestock keepers are mostly expansion can contribute to the erosion of animal found in urban and peri-urban areas, close to genetic resources (see Section C below and Part 1 demand centres. However, they can also be found Sections B and F). Advances in technology and in rural areas dominated by mixed farming systems improvements to management may mitigate where the population density is high and/or land some of these impacts. While practices have not ownership is unequally distributed. Many small- yet changed a great deal, research is being carried scale landless producers face significant constraints out on the recovery of nutrients and production of in terms of their ability to access or afford feed and biogas from manure (Cuéllar and Webber, 2008), animal-health services. As a consequence, their level genetic improvements to improve feed-conversion of production is low. In rural areas, small-scale land- efficiency and use of alternative feed sources (FAO less production is quite peripheral to livestock-sec- 2012; 2013b). Some large companies also contrib- tor policies and mostly ignored by government ute to discussion fora such as the Global Agenda services. The exception is control of major disease for Sustainable Livestock (see Section A above). outbreaks by culling, which can temporarily dec- imate livestock populations. In urban areas, small- scale landless production may be targeted by public Small-scale landless systems 2 health and environmental policies. Livestock in cities are a public health concern, as they may trans- mit zoonotic diseases and parasites. They also cause 2.1 Overview environmental problems if waste management In the developing world, many millions of land- systems cannot cope with the disposal of manure. less people (i.e. rural or urban people that do not own cropland or pastures and do not have access to large communal grazing areas) keep livestock ends 2.1 Major tr (Birthal , 2006). Animals kept in systems of et al. Although the contribution of small-scale landless this kind can provide their keepers with food and systems to global production is small, the number of other products for sale or home use and play a producers is expected to rise in the future. In some role in waste management (FAO, 2011). Various countries, access to rural land is becoming increas- feed resources are used, including limited commu- ingly difficult and landless livestock ownership may nal grazing, scavenged feed (from streets, yards, increase. As authorities often try to exclude live- etc.), wastes (from kitchens, markets, etc.) and pur - stock keeping from urban areas because of public TH ON ORT S R OND C e e P e 184 S e IC R T e N e G l a IM N UR 'S D l WOR e F TH e O T a ST e TH e T l RICU G a D N a FOOD R O S F e OURC a

226 O O R’S ReSPONS e THe lIVeS T T CK SeC b Grassland-based livestock systems face various health and environmental concerns FAO, 2011), pressures. They have to deal with the extreme urbanization might be expected to reduce the weather events and new disease threats brought numbers of landless livestock keepers. However, about by climate change with very limited techno- when rural people migrate to cities to seek new logical options. Pastoralist systems are particu- work opportunities they often bring small livestock larly vulnerable to livestock disease outbreaks, as with them. Urban poverty is still very high and live- they often have limited access to animal-health stock owning provides poor people with a source services. They also often have to cope with the of income and food. Peri-urban dairy cattle and effects of civil unrest and various kinds of social poultry keeping is also important in the provision and political disruption. In addition to continuing of food supplies to growing cities. The first SoW- competition from the expansion of croplands and AnGR suggested that the presence of small-scale land-use changes associated with the expansion intensive systems might prove to be a transitional of cities, grassland-based livestock systems face phase that would be superseded once large-scale competition from other potential land uses. For production took off. At present, however, “new example, grasslands can be managed to provide and old” poultry systems are coexisting in China ecosystem services such as regulating water and small-scale dairy systems remain important in flow in rivers, recharging underground water India. It seems likely that this will continue to be sources, conservation of wild biodiversity and the case, at least in the near future. carbon sequestration, or as sites for wind turb- ines. In some instances these can be complemen- tary activities to livestock raising, provided that Grassland-based systems 3 appropriate livestock management is practised. Notwithstanding these challenges, the current consensus is that grazing systems will maintain Overview 3.1 their current land area until at least 2030 (see Grassland-based systems are found all over the next subsection for further discussion). world, predominantly in areas that are unsuit- able or geographically inconvenient for crop pro- duction. As these systems are highly dependent Major tr ends 3.2 on the natural environment, livestock breeds . Letourneau et al. (2012) esti- Maintaining land area 2 are generally well adapted to local water avail- mated that between 2000 and 2030 2.8 million km ability, forage and climate. Pastoralist and ranch- of pastoral areas will be replaced with rainfed crop- ing systems are an important source of protein, land systems. However, the total land area under converting human-inedible forage into meat grazing systems is expected to remain approxi- and milk (FAO, 2011). Pastoralists, estimated mately constant to 2030 because of an expansion 2 at around 120 million people (FAO, 2011), have of 2.7 million km into forested areas. It is likely that developed breeds and management strategies replacement of forest by pasture is almost over in that are well adapted to specific production envi- Latin America and the Caribbean and declining in ronments (Watershed Organisation Trust, 2013; South, Southeast and East Asia (FAO, 2013b). Con- FAO, 2013a). In temperate areas, grazing systems versely, pastoral systems in sub-Saharan Africa are are frequently rather intensive and use advanced expected to continue replacing forest areas during technologies and specialized breeds (i.e. the coming decade (ibid). high-output breeds specializing in the produc- Increasing importance of arid and semi-arid tion of single products). In terms of global output grassland-based systems . Some of the world’s of animal products, grassland-based systems are most fragile and sensitive grassland ecosystems, of greatest importance in the cattle and small- such as the Brazilian and Argentinean cerrados ruminant sectors (Figure 2B2). and the savanna areas of certain parts of East ON T SeCOND RePOR e H T 185 a aND OD O R F O F CeS R U ReSO C I T Ne e G l R M aNI S ' RlD O W e H F T O e T a T e S H T e U T l U IC R G a

227 TOCK S I V e S l e C TOR TR e N DS 2 T R Pa 70 percent of rangelands are degraded (Gerber Africa, are under pressure as a result of climate et al. , 2010). Preventing pasture degradation change and the expansion of croplands (IPCC where institutions for resource management are 2014, citing Lambin and Meyfroidt, 2011). Despite lacking is difficult (FAO, 2011). However, policies these challenges, projections suggest that arid are increasingly targeting pasture restoration and semi-arid grassland-based livestock systems and the mitigation of rangeland degradation. in sub-Saharan Africa will increase their output In China, for example, the Loess Plateau and of small-ruminant meat and milk and, to a lesser the grasslands of Inner Mongolia are especially extent, beef and cattle milk (Herrero et al. , 2014). vulnerable to land degradation (Gerber et al. , Diversification within pastoralist systems . The 2010). Recent policies have aimed to apply partial various pressures affecting pastoralist systems or complete grazing bans, progressively, over are leading to changes in the lifestyles and live- 70 million hectares in Inner Mongolia (Kemp et lihoods of livestock keepers, including a trend al. , 2013). Overall, China is spending US$2 billion towards sedenterization (FAO, 2011). Economic a year on grassland management and related circumstances have created a growing gap poverty-alleviation programmes (ibid.). between richer and poorer pastoralists in the Deforestation caused by the expansion of Horn of Africa, with some becoming contract rangeland systems into forested areas leads to herders, while others become more substantial biodiversity loss and greenhouse gas emissions. livestock owners and traders (Aklilu and Catley, It has been estimated that 13 million hectares 2010; FAO, 2011). As the human population in were deforested for pasture establishment in Mongolia grows, it appears that herders with Latin America between 1990 and 2006 (Opio et smaller numbers of animals are being gradually , 2013). Around one-third of greenhouse gas al. forced out of herding, while among those who emissions from beef production in Latin America remain as herding households, many are acutely and the Caribbean during this period have been vulnerable to poor climatic conditions and are attributed to pasture expansion (ibid). At the time, likely to face periodic food insecurity (FAO, 2011). Brazil and Costa Rica’s policies included incen- Historically, policies have generally not been tives and subsidies/credits to establish pastures on helpful to pastoralists, but some changes aimed , 2010). However, et al. deforested land (Gerber at providing appropriate rights and services to as noted above, deforestation for grazing-land pastoralist populations are occurring, for instance expansion in Latin America is likely to be coming , 2010). in China and Senegal (Steinfeld et al. , 2012; FAO, 2013a). et al. to an end (Letourneau Changes in ranch systems . Ranch systems in Latin For example, in Costa Rica, policies have recently America and the Caribbean have faced changes as addressed forest protection and recovery through a result of pressure from expanding croplands and the establishment of national parks and protected mixed systems. This has recently led to changes in areas accounting for more than 35 percent of the Brazilian beef production systems, with increasing , 2010). et al. total forest cover in 2005 (Gerber use of feedlots (Millen and Arrigoni, 2013). Deforestation remains an issue in Asia and Africa, Limited progress in mitigating rangeland deg- although it appears to be declining in Asia. . Rangeland degra- radation and deforestation Potential for diversification of livelihoods from dation is a major issue in grazing systems and . There is growing acknowledgment of grasslands may be exacerbated by climate change, land - the importance of preserving vital ecosystem ser competition and increasing grazing intensities. vices, including the provision of habitat for plant Over the 2000 to 2050 period, grazing intens- and animal biodiversity, pollination, climate regul- ities are expected to increase by 70 percent in ation and the supply of potable water (Noble et Latin America and the Caribbean (Robinson et al. , 2014). In some areas it may be possible for al. , 2011). It has been estimated that in Burkina grassland-based livestock to co-exist with the Faso, Mali, Niger, Nigeria and Senegal, around ON S ORT OND TH R e P C e e 186 T S IC R T e N e G l a IM N e 'S D l WOR e F TH e O e a ST e TH OURC e S F O R FOOD a N D a G RICU l T UR a

228 T O R’S ReSPONS e THe lIVeS T O CK SeC b inantly subsistence or semi-subsistence oriented, provision of carbon sequestration services, conserv- with weak integration into the market. The breeds ation of grassland to improve water flow in rivers kept in these systems are mainly locally adapted, or generation of electricity from wind turbines and multipurpose livestock production (meat and (Antle and Stoorvogel, 2011; de Jode and Hesse, milk, meat and traction, etc.) remains important. 2011; Grassland Foundation, 2005; Neely and De Leeuw, 2011; World Bank, 2009). Co-use of land may require livestock to be kept at lower stocking ends Main tr 4.2 rates, but could potentially generate higher eco- . Projections Stagnation in developed countries nomic returns from grassland than livestock alone. suggest that most of the future growth in devel- It requires careful management and function- oped-country livestock output will be in poultry and ing markets for non-livestock outputs. pig production (OECD/FAO, 2014), which is concen- trated mostly in landless systems. It is likely that, due to scarcity and costs of water and feed, mixed farming systems will intensify without changing Mixed farming systems 4 into landless systems. These resource constraints will result in stagnation or even a decrease in the output of livestock products from these systems. Overview 4.1 There are indications of long-term trends towards Mixed farming involves the integration of live- larger farm sizes and ageing farming populations stock and crop production into one system. Live- in developed countries. However, the impact of stock provide manure to fertilize the soil and these trends is not yet clear. There are also some (in some cases) draught power for agricultural important nuances – including, in some countries, work. Crops provide feed for the animals. Mixed- persistence of small and larger farms while medi- rainfed systems are found particularly in tem- um-sized farms slowly disappear, and shifts in the perate areas of Europe and North America, in social groups entering and leaving farming – that humid and subhumid areas of Latin America and may affect livestock production and productivity the Caribbean and Africa, in semi-arid areas of in unexpected ways (Australian Bureau of Statis- Africa and in South Asia. Mixed-irrigated systems - tics, 2012; DEFRA, 2012; Mulet-Marquis and Fair are predominantly found in East and South Asia. weather, 2008; USDA, 2014). Mixed farming systems account for a large share of Persistence of smallholders in developing coun- global livestock production, making a particularly . The prevalence of small-scale production tries significant contribution to milk and ruminant- in both intensive and extensive mixed farming 2B2). meat production (Figure systems in developing countries is expected to In the developed regions of the world, mixed persist, as a result of continuing fragmentation of farms are mainly intensive and production tends land (Steinfeld et al. , 2010). Agricultural land area to be specialized. A narrow range of breeds with per person economically active in agriculture has high production potential are increasingly used. decreased over recent decades in all developing There has been a trend towards landless pro- regions except Latin America and the Caribbean, duction, especially for monogastric animals. In reaching 0.6 ha in South and Southeast Asia, where developing countries, both intensive and exten- farms are smallest (Figure 2B5). Farm sizes in Latin sive mixed farming systems are dominated by America and the Caribbean are expected to grow. small-scale production. Intensive mixed systems In small mixed farms, livestock are an important are generally market oriented. Depending on the source of income; it has been estimated that they circumstances, they may use either locally adapted typically contribute 5 to 20 percent of total house- breeds or cross-breeds (exotic × locally adapted). hold income in mixed-rainfed systems and 25 to Extensive mixed farms, particularly those in mar - 35 percent in mixed-irrigated systems (Steinfeld et ginal areas of developing countries, are predom- ON T SeCOND RePOR e H T 187 a aND OD O R F O F CeS R U ReSO C I T Ne e G R a M aNI S ' RlD O W e H F T O e T a T e S H T U T l e U IC R G l

229 TOCK S I V e S l e C TOR TR e N DS Pa 2 T R e 2 F IGUR b 5 Agricultural land available per person economically active in agricultur e Agricultural land (ha) per person economically active in agriculture 20 15 10 5 0 East Asia Caribbean East Africa South Asia Central Asia Southeast Asia South America Southern Africa Central America North America (x10) Near and Middle East North and West Africa Southwest Pacific (x100) Europe and the Caucasus Africa Latin America and Asia the Caribbean 2000 2010 1990 FAOSTAT. Source: Sahel, arid and semi-arid grazing systems in East , 2010). Smallholder mixed farming systems are al. Africa and mixed and grazing systems in the Great predicted to remain the main producers of rumi- Lakes Region may be severely affected by climate , 2014). et al. nants until 2050 (Herrero change (Thornton, 2014). Notwithstanding these Increasing pressure on intensive mixed systems various pressures, mixed systems are expected in developing countries . Although consumption to survive, and in extensive systems productivity growth, integration into markets and new life et al. gains may be possible (Herrero , 2012). opportunities encourage intensification and com- Environmental impacts . Well-managed mixed mercialization, intensive systems in developing farming systems are recognized as being relatively countries are coming under increasing pressure benign in environmental terms. However, intensi- from land fragmentation, limited resources and fication, with increasing inputs and stocking rates, increasing input costs (feed and drugs). Increasing can lead to more severe impacts on the environ- concentration of animal populations also makes ment, particularly through increased demand for disease control more challenging. It is expected concentrate feeds. Over the 2000 to 2030 period, that during the period to 2030 growth in crop rainfed croplands are predicted to expand by productivity will drastically slow or even end 2 4.3 million km et al. , 2012). Climate change is a major (Herrero et al. (Letourneau , 2012), with part challenge to sustainability and even irrigated of this expansion resulting from a growing need systems are facing problems of water shortage. for livestock feed. The first SoW-AnGR identified In Africa, semi-arid mixed-rainfed systems in the several environmental problems associated with ORT OND R TH ON S e C P e e 188 T D IC R e e N e G l a IM N a 'S D l WOR e F TH e O T a ST e TH S OURC e S F O R FOOD a e UR T l RICU G a N

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234 Section C Effects of changes in the livestock sector on animal genetic resources and their management - With the aim of obtaining more detailed infor egional analysis Overview and r 1 mation on how these broad trends are playing out at national level, the country-report ques- As described above in Sections A and B, the live- 1 tionnaire for the second SoW-AnGR - stock sector in many parts of the world is under included going rapid transformation, driven by both questions on the main drivers of change iden- demand-side and supply-side factors. This section tified in the first SoW-AnGR (see Table 2C1). aims to describe the effects that these changes are Countries were asked both to describe the effects having on animal genetic resources (AnGR) and of the drivers and to provide scores for the extent their management. The first SoW-AnGR noted, in of their impacts on AnGR and their management particular, that the intensification of the livestock during the preceding ten years and for predicted sector was having a major influence on AnGR impacts for the next ten years. management and leading to the more wide- The quantitative responses are summarized spread use of a narrow range of international in Figure 2C1. With regard to impacts over the transboundary breeds, often exotic to the coun- last ten years, six of the 15 drivers – changes tries where they were being used. It noted that in demand (quantity and quality), changes in locally adapted breeds retained an important role imports, factors affecting the popularity of in more traditional production systems, but that livestock keeping, policy factors and changes the sustainable use of AnGR in these systems was in state of grazing lands – received an average being disrupted by a number of factors, including score of more than 1.5 (midway between “low” inappropriate policies, climate change and deg- and “medium”). Most of the other drivers radation of natural resources or problems with scored between 1 and 1.5. The exceptions were access to these resources. On the more positive changes in livestock’s cultural roles and the side from the perspective of maintaining AnGR replacement of livestock functions. The low diversity, it noted that cultural roles, demand for scores for these two drivers may reflect the fact environmental services and the emergence of that in a number of countries these changes had new niche markets were to some extent stimu- largely played out more than ten years ago. The lating the use of locally adapted breeds and that high score for quantitative changes in demand there was potential scope for expanding these coincides with the conclusion drawn in the uses. It also noted the potential future signifi- first SoW-AnGR that this major driver of live- cance of locally adapted AnGR in the context of stock-sector trends is having a substantial effect climate change and other threats to the sustain- ability of high external input systems and the use 1 eporting process, see “About For further information on the r of high-output breeds. this publication” in the preliminary pages of this report. E tHE S C OND r E P Or t ON 193 S O r F O F S E C r U O S E r C tI E N E E A M I AN OD ' D L r O HE W F t O E t A t S tHE AND A G r I C U LtU r L G

235 t tr t O CK SEC LIVES O r E NDS 2 A t P r A b LE 2C1 t Drivers of change explored in the country-report questionnaire Drivers Explanatory notes provided in the questionnaire Changes in the quantity of product demanded by the market. For example, population growth, urbanization Changing demand for and higher incomes may have increased demand for meat, eggs and milk. Another possibility is that increasing livestock products (quantity) availability of alternative products may have reduced demand for some livestock products. Changes in the type of products demanded by consumers (e.g. greater or lower demand for convenience foods, Changing demand for healthier products, animal welfare friendly products, environmentally friendly products, traditional products or livestock products (quality) other niche-market products). Changes in marketing Changes that improve or reduce livestock keepers’ access to markets for their products (e.g. better transport, infrastructure and access better access to market information). Changes in how animal products are retailed (e.g. expansion of supermarkets). Changes in retailing Increases or decreases in the importation of animal products into the country. [ Changes in international trade espondents were reminded that r in animal products (imports) imports and exports of genetic material were covered in a separate section of the questionnaire.] Increases or decreases in the extent to which the county’s livestock sector is oriented towards production for Changes in international trade export. [ r espondents were reminded that imports and exports of genetic material were covered in a separate in animal products (exports) section of the questionnaire.] t Departures from the climatic patterns observed in preceding decades. hese might include changes in the average temperature and levels of rainfall or changes in the frequency of events such as droughts, floods and hurricanes. [ espondents were advised that they did not have to decide whether these changes are attributable to human- r Climatic changes induced climate change. For the future period, respondents were requested to base their answers on their knowledge of AnG r management in the respective country and its vulnerability to the effects of climate change as predicted by the best-available climatic models for the country.] Degradation or improvement Changes to grazing land that make it less or more suitable for grazing livestock (e.g. erosion, changes in the of grazing land species composition of the flora). Situations in which grazing lands, arable land used for fodder production or other resources such as water, are Loss of, or loss of access to, lost (e.g. because of urban or industrial development) or in which livestock keepers’ access to such resources is grazing land and other natural restricted (e.g. changes in regulations may mean that pastoralists are not permitted to use certain grazing lands). resources Economic, livelihood or t his refers, for example, to changes in the availability of alternative employment activities outside livestock lifestyle factors affecting the keeping, changes in the relative attractiveness of livestock keeping in economic terms or changes in lifestyles or popularity of livestock keeping lifestyle aspirations that make livestock keeping less or more attractive as an activity. Situations in which particular livestock functions are replaced by alternatives. For example: draught animal power r eplacement of livestock may be replaced by mechanical power; livestock’s savings and insurance functions may be replaced by banks and functions insurance companies. Changing cultural roles of Changes to the roles of livestock in cultural practices and events (e.g. ceremonies, festivals, shows and sports). livestock t echnological developments and changes in access to technologies within the livestock sector (e.g. in the fields of Changes in technology animal health, feeding, housing, r eproduction or genetics). t r espondents were directed to the relevant section of the first his refers to policies that affect the livestock sector. [ Policy factors r for further information.] SoW-AnG Outbreaks of animal diseases: these may, for example, pose a threat to at-risk breeds (either directly or because of r and their management may also be affected by other types of disruption associated culling programmes). AnG Disease epidemics with epidemics and their management (restrictions on marketing animal products, restrictions on animal movements, etc.). The relatively high score given to the effects on AnGR management, and with widespread of imports of animal products presumably concerns that economic and demand-related reflects the impact of competition on national factors pose a threat to AnGR diversity (FAO, livestock sectors. The impact of export trade is 2009a). Qualitative changes in demand scored reported to have been relatively low, but the somewhat lower, but their impact is predicted significance of this driver is predicted to rise to increase considerably in the future. PO E SECOND r ON t r H E t 194 r I t E L r E WO H t OF E t A t S C E H E SOU r C ES FOr FOOD AND AG r I CUL t U r D'S ANIMAL GENE t

236 OUrC E tS OF CHANG E S I N tH E LIV E S tOCK S E C tOr ON ANIMAL G E N E t IC r E S E S A ND tH E I r MANAG E M C N t E EFF C 2C1 E r IGU F edicted future impacts of the drivers of change on animal genetic resources and their Past and pr management Changing demand for livestock products (quantity) Changing demand for livestock products (quality) Changes in marketing infrastructure and access Changes in retailing Changes in international trade in animal products (imports) Changes in international trade in animal products (exports) Climatic changes Degradation or improvement of grazing land Loss of, or loss of access to, grazing land and other natura l resources Economic, livelihood or lifestyle factors affecting the popularity of livestock keeping Replacement of livestock functions Changing cultural roles of livestock Changes in technology Policy factors Disease epidemics 2 2.5 0.5 0 1 1.5 Score Impact over last ten years Predicated future impact (next 10 years) Each country provided a score for the level of past and predicted future impact. The scores were converted into numerical values Notes: (none = 0; low = 1; medium = 2; high = 3). Source: Country reports, 2014. regarded as “guardians” of AnGR diversity) to substantially in the future – the largest pro- move out of the sector (FAO, 2009b), the effect portional increase (40 percent) among all the of this driver on AnGR is likely to be mainly neg- drivers considered. Factors affecting the popu- ative in terms of maintaining diversity, although larity of livestock keeping as a livelihood activ- in some circumstances growth of interest in ity (lifestyle changes, alternative employment livestock keeping as a hobby or “alternative” opportunities, etc.) were not stressed particu- lifestyle may contribute to the ongoing main- larly heavily as drivers of change in the first tenance of non-mainstream AnGR. SoW-AnGR, but received the second highest The relatively high score received by policy average score in the country-report responses. factors coincides with the conclusion drawn in Given that in many countries there is a tendency the first SoW-AnGR that livestock-sector policies for small-scale livestock keepers (generally Ort ON E OND r C E E S tH P 195 E E AND FOOD r S E OUrC S E r IC t E N AGrICULtUr G ANIMAL S ' rLD O E W tH OF E StAt E FO tH

237 tr NDS LIVES t O CK SEC t O r E 2 P r t A in Africa (see Section A above); and ii) the major can have a significant effect on AnGR manage- scope for change that exists in the management A, a wide ment. As discussed above in Section of AnGR in this region. Given this background, range of policy areas and types of policy instru- the finding may not be particularly surprising. ments can affect AnGR management. Over the However, it highlights the increasingly dynamic last decade or so, discussions of general objec- nature of AnGR management in the region and – tives of livestock-sector development have given that drivers in this category are commonly increasingly emphasized the importance of regarded as threats to AnGR diversity – the need improving the efficiency of production, par - for action to ensure that changes are managed ticularly with regard to reducing the amount of sustainably. The effects of policies and techno- greenhouse gas emitted per unit of food pro- logical changes are also predicted to increase et al. , 2006; FAO, 2009b). There duced (Steinfeld substantially in this region. This might again be has been a tendency to regard smallholder interpretable as an unsurprising response to a and pastoralist systems as relatively inefficient, dynamic period of development, but given the which if translated into concrete policies could potential of both policies and the use of techno- potentially have a negative effect on livestock logy to have both positive and negative effects diversity by de-emphasizing the production on AnGR diversity, it again highlights the need to systems that tend to favour the maintenance ensure appropriate management, including mon- of a diverse range of AnGR. Recent years have, itoring programmes for trends in the size and however, seen some alternative views put structure of breed populations. Africa also gen- forward regarding the nature of “efficiency” erally has higher future scores for environment- in livestock production systems, including argu- related drivers (climatic changes, drivers related ments related to the need to take a broader to grazing land, disease) than other regions. range of livestock products and services into Some of these drivers (climatic changes and deg- account on the output side and the need to radation of grazing land) also have relatively consider a wider range of inputs and environ- large predicted increases in their effects. mental impacts (see Box 2C1). It remains to be In Asia, the predicted future impacts of seen whether arguments of this kind will have a demand- and marketing-related drivers are significant effect on future policies. mostly similar to those in Africa. The difference It is interesting to note that the effects of all between the two regions is that, in Asia, most of the drivers considered in the country reports are these drivers received similar scores for their past predicted to be greater in the future than in the and future impacts. A big jump in the impact of past. Apart from above-noted increase in the export trade is, however, predicted for Asia. significance of export trade, the drivers whose In the Southwest Pacific, drivers related to impact is expected to show the greatest increases the environment and natural resources stand are climate change (35 percent increase) (see out in terms of their predicted future increases 2C2 for an example), technological changes Box in impact. However, in absolute terms, the scores (33 percent) and changes related to marketing for these drivers are not particularly high relative access and infrastructure (32 percent increase). to other regions. From relatively low levels in There are a number of regional differences in the past, the impacts of cultural change, techno- the significance of the various drivers (Table 2C2). logical change and policy factors are predicted to For example, in Africa, there is predicted to be increase substantially. a big increase (relative to that in other regions) The situation in Europe and the Caucasus is rel- in the impact of drivers related to demand, mar - atively stable in terms of differences between past keting and retailing. This is consistent with: i) the and future impacts. The largest predicted changes predicted increase in demand for animal products E SECOND r PO t ON H r E t 196 r I t D'S ANIMAL GENE L r E WO H t E E t A t S C E H r E SOU r C ES FOr FOOD AND AG r I CUL t U OF t

238 S E tS OF CHANG E S I N tH E LIV E S tOCK S E C tOr ON ANIMAL G E N E t IC r E C OUrC E S A ND tH E I r MANAG E M E N t EFF C ox 2C1 b ficiency and multifunctionality in extensive livestock systems Ef Vigne (2014) compared the efficiency (or It is sometimes argued that extensive livestock “transformity”) of different dairy production systems production systems are relatively harmful to the in terms of gigajoules of solar energy per joule of environment because of their low efficiency in terms product and estimated that, despite lower production of transforming inputs into animal products (milk and levels, the efficiency of extensive dairy systems in Mali meat), which results in a relatively high carbon footprint. (490 GJ of solar energy/J of product) was comparable Recently, however, some studies assessing environmental to that of semi-intensive systems in western France impacts of different production systems have tried (410–500 GJ of solar energy/J of product) and much to consider other livestock functions such as manure more efficient than that of the intensive systems production, draught power and insurance and savings. studied in Réunion (1 210 GJ of solar energy/J of If multifunctionality is taken into account, the product). The same study also concluded that the environmental efficiency of extensive dairy systems inputs used in the extensive systems (consisting may appear comparable, if not superior, to that of mainly of locally available raw materials) had a higher more intensive systems. For example, Weiler et al. renewability (44 percent of total resources consumed) (2014) estimated the carbon footprint of a Kenyan than those of the semi-intensive and intensive systems smallholder dairy system to be 1.1 kg CO -e (carbon 2 studied (21 percent and 24 percent, respectively). dioxide equivalent) per kg milk if calculations include Both studies underline the necessity of incorporating the allocation of emissions to a range of livelihood multiple livestock functions into life-cycle assessments benefits. This amounts to half the carbon footprint and other methodologies for estimating the estimate obtained if emissions are allocated only environmental impact of production systems. to food products (milk and meat) and falls within the range of results for intensive systems in OECD countries (0.8–1.3 kg CO -e per kg milk). 2 ox 2C2 b Shift of livestock species as a r esult of climate change: an example from Ethiopia majority of the cattle owners interviewed stated that Pastoral areas of Ethiopia have experienced they intended to reduce the number of cattle they substantial increases in temperature in recent years. kept. One district was an exception, in that a majority Southern, southwestern and southeastern areas have reported an interest in increasing the number of undergone a decline of 15 to 20 percent in spring cattle kept by crossing their animals with breeds that et and summer rainfall since the mid-1970s. Yosef have better resistance to drought and disease. All (2013) report the findings of a survey of 200 al. interviewees indicated their desire to increase the pastoralists in the Afar, Oromiya and Somali Regions number of dromedaries in their herds. Dromedaries of Ethiopia that assessed livelihood diversification were reported to provide a better source of income and cattle and dromedary population dynamics. than cattle, sheep or goats. Based on the results of Official surveys indicate a decline of 50 to 70 percent the survey, the authors conclude that the observed in the cattle population over the last 20 years in species shift could pose a threat to indigenous cattle most of the districts covered by the study. Conversely, breeds in the near future. the dromedary population increased by between 10 and 200 percent, depending on the district. A large P tH Ort ON E S E OND r C E 197 E r IC t E N E G ANIMAL AGrICULtUr ' rLD O E W tH OF E StAt E E AND FOOD r FO S E OUrC S S tH

239 LIVES E O CK SEC t O r tr t NDS t r P A 2 Δ 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.0 2.0 1.5 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.1 1.1 2.0 1.7 1.8 1.4 1.7 2.0 2.1 2.2 World Future 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.3 0.9 0.9 1.7 1.4 1.4 1.0 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.9 Past 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Δ 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.1 -0.4 -0.6 -0.2 1 1.3 1.3 0.7 1.6 1.3 0.6 0.7 1.1 1.3 0.4 1.4 1.6 1.4 2.4 East Future 1 1 1.7 1.9 0.7 1.3 1.3 0.6 0.6 1.1 0.4 1.6 1.6 1.4 2.3 Past Near and the Middle 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Δ 3 2 2 0 2 0 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 Future North America 3 0 2 0 1 0 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 Past Δ 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.6 0.2 2 1 2 2.2 1.1 1.9 2.1 1.1 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.6 1.8 2.1 2.1 Future the Caribbean Latin America and 1.8 0.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 0.9 0.7 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.1 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.9 Past 0 Δ 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 -0.1 2 1.8 1.4 1.1 1.2 1.1 0.8 0.9 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.7 1.9 2.3 1.7 Future Caucasus Europe and the 1.7 1.1 0.9 1.1 0.7 0.9 0.7 1.9 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.7 1.6 2.1 1.6 Past 1 0 0 Δ 0.9 0.6 0.7 1.3 0.1 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.6 -0.2 2 2 2 1.6 1.3 1.6 0.7 1.7 1.6 1.4 0.9 1.3 1.9 1.7 2.1 Future 1 1 Southwest Pacific 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.7 0.6 1.6 1.3 0.9 0.4 1.3 1.9 1.1 2.3 Past 0 0 0 Δ 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.3 0.2 -0.1 2 2 2 2.1 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.6 1.5 1.9 2.1 1.8 1.8 2.1 2.4 Asia Future 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.9 1.6 1.7 1.2 1.9 1.9 1.7 2.2 Past 0 Δ 0.6 0.9 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.6 -0.1 2.1 2.1 1.7 2.1 2.3 2.2 1.4 1.2 2.2 1.9 2.1 1.5 1.7 2.1 2.5 Africa Future 1.5 1.2 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.7 0.9 0.9 1.8 1.3 1.3 0.9 1.7 1.4 1.9 Past Regions edicted future impacts of livestock sector trends and drivers on animal genetic resources and their management Country reports, 2014. 2C2 Each country provided a score for the level of past and predicted future impact. The scores were converted into numerical values (none = 0; low = 1; medium = 2; high = 3). Dark orange LE b Policy factors Changes in technology Disease epidemics and other natural resources Loss of, or loss of access to, grazing land land Degradation or improvement of grazing Climatic changes Replacement of livestock functions Changing cultural roles of livestock affecting the popularity of livestock Economic, livelihood or lifestyle factors keeping Changes in retailing and access Changes in marketing infrastructure products (exports) Changes in international trade in animal Changes in international trade in animal products (imports) Changing demand for livestock products (quality) Changing demand for livestock products (quantity) increase of less than 0.3; pale blue = decrease of less than 0.3; medium blue = decrease of 0.3 or more. = increase of 1 or more in average score from past to predicted future; light orange = increase between 0.6 and 1; dark yellow = increase between 0.3 and 0.6; light yellow = no change or Source: Note: tA Past and pr PO E r ON t SECOND r H E t 198 D'S ANIMAL GENE r L H t OF E t A t S E H E E WO t I C r SOU r C ES FOr FOOD AND AG r I CUL t U r E t

240 E r MANAG E S I N tH E LIV E S tOCK S E C tOr ON ANIMAL G E N E t IC r tS OF CHANG S OUrC E S A ND tH E I E M E N t EFF E C C range of breeds (those suitable for use in indus- are in the impacts of climatic changes, animal trial or other high-input systems) and constitute diseases (perhaps to some degree connected potential threats to the survival of other breeds to climatic change) and qualitative changes in because of replacement (see Box 2C3) or in some demand. The driver with the most impact (both cases indiscriminate cross-breeding. This analysis in the past and predicted for the future) is policy. is generally borne out by the descriptions pro- This probably reflects the significance of AnGR- vided in the country reports. The report from focused policies (i.e. policies specifically aiming to Suriname, for example, notes that producers’ promote conservation and sustainable use) in the desire for “quick” improvements in production European Union (EU) and in some other European has led to the introduction of exotic breeds with countries (see Part 3 Section F). This is the only high yield potential, even though this has created region where quantitative changes in demand problems associated with higher expenses for do not have the highest or joint highest impacts feed, housing and overall management. Despite (both past ten years and predicted future). these problems, there is reportedly “a reluctance Latin America and the Caribbean reports a or in some cases inability” to switch back to using pattern of past impacts that is roughly similar locally adapted breeds. The report from Niger to those of Asia and Africa. Predicted changes mentions that the effects of greater demand for from the past to the future indicate a moderate livestock products, driven by population growth degree of dynamism, but changes in the impacts of and urbanization, have included the emergence demand and market-related drivers are generally of a new layer of rich farmers and the impov- less dramatic than in Africa. The biggest increase erishment of thousands of small-scale livestock in impact is predicted in the policy field. Moderate keepers that raise locally adapted breeds. increases are predicted across a range of different As described above in Section A, changes in drivers, including those related to the environ- income levels and lifestyles can lead to changes ment and natural resources, exports, marketing in the types of animal-source food sought by infrastructure and qualitative changes in demand. consumers. For example, urbanization and rising In the Near and Middle East, the past and future incomes tend to lead to an increase in demand impacts of most drivers are predicted to be similar. for convenience foods, often mass-produced and The largest predicted increases are in the impacts of sold by large retailers. However, a certain level changes in marketing infrastructure and access and of affluence, and changing fashions, may lead changes in the state of grazing land. The impact of to growing interest in speciality food products, several drivers is predicted to decrease, including, potentially including those that are more tra- in sharp contrast to other developing regions, tech- ditional or perceived to be so. Social and envi- nological changes. The impact of disease epidemics ronmental concerns may start to exert greater is predicted to decline because of improvements to influence on consumers’ choice of products. veterinary provisions in some countries. The first SoW-AnGR noted that the homogen- ization of consumer demand posed a potential threat to AnGR diversity, while the emergence Specific ef fects on 2 of niche markets offered a potential means of animal genetic resources keeping “non-mainstream” breeds in use. The management - examples at establishment of “new” niche markets for animal country level products has tended to be a developed-country phenomenon. However, a number of examples As noted above (see also Part 1 Section F), it is from developing countries have been recorded generally considered that rising demand for live- et al. , 2010) (see also Part 1 Section D). (LPP stock products drives production-system changes Moreover, in many developing countries, that tend to lead to the wider use of a narrow E S E C tH OND r E P Ort ON 199 tH OUrC E r IC t E N E G ANIMAL E S ' rLD O E W S OF E StAt E AGrICULtUr E S FO r FOOD AND tH

241 t NDS t O CK SEC LIVES O r tr E P A t 2 r b ox 2C3 Animal genetic r esources management in Iceland: will exotic breeds substitute locally adapted breeds? Iceland has only one breed for most species of overall control of the Farmers Association of Iceland. livestock. The roots of these breeds can be traced back Livestock breeding programmes are subject to special to the settlement of Iceland. They are believed to have legislation that defines the rules of the programmes and provides for governmental funding to support been subject to extremely limited cross-breeding with breeding centres and pedigree and performance exotic breeds. Icelandic breeds are unique in that their diversity, in terms of traits such as colour, is greater recording. There are no signs that the genetic diversity of these stocks is anything but well maintained. than that of other livestock breeds. However, the healthy and stable state of locally adapted Icelandic breeds is threatened by recent changes in Leadersheep, national demand for livestock products. Icelandic a unique strain of the Iceland breed of sheep consumers’ demand for cheaper domestic products has been prominent in recent years, and the pressure can be expected to continue in the near future. The country’s well-organized livestock breeding industry has achieved considerable success in terms of increasing the efficiency of production in recent years and this has led to lower food prices. However, it is possible that demand for more efficient production could lead to Icelandic breeds being unable to maintain their positions in the face of competition Photo credit: Jon Eiriksson. from imported higher-performing breeds. The importation of exotic cattle breeds, a subject of discussion in recent years, would completely change The utilization and breeding of these breeds today the position of the Icelandic cattle population. appears to be stable and sustainable, and this has been the case for a long time. There is organized, ongoing breeding work in cattle, sheep and horses, under the Source: Adapted from the country report of Iceland. given to indigenous breeds. It also predicts that long-standing preferences for the taste of prod- the influence of these consumer demands on ucts from native breeds continue to influence cus- AnGR and their management will be higher in tomer choice. While these general tendencies are the next ten years than in the past. The report widely recognized, the scale and precise nature from the United States of America mentions of their effects on AnGR diversity remain unclear, that the establishment of new local or region- particularly in developing countries. ally based markets will create opportunities for The country reports provide a number of exam- product branding that support the use of at-risk ples of the influence of qualitative changes in breeds. It also notes that in the case of chick- consumer demand on AnGR management. The ens, consumer demand for “naturally” grown report from Slovenia, for example, notes that meat has affected the development of new lines, increasing demand for organic, animal-welfare enhancing diversity at commercial level, and that, friendly, environmentally friendly and traditional in some states, animal-welfare regulations may products means that more emphasis is being PO SECOND r E t ON r t H E 200 r I E D'S ANIMAL GENE L r E WO H t OF E t A t S C E H E SOU r C ES FOr FOOD AND AG r I CUL t U r t t

242 S A E tS OF CHANG E S I N tH E LIV E S tOCK S E C tOr ON ANIMAL G E N E t IC r E S OUrC E C ND tH E I r MANAG E M E N t EFF C Section D) or as a side-effect of efforts to promote lead to the development of new genetic lines for livelihood development. The country report from cage-free production. the Netherlands, for example, notes the “poten- Among developing countries, the report tial positive impact of marketing of regional from Kenya notes that indigenous chickens are products and labelled products through specific increasingly being raised for organic meat pro- supply chains.” Advances in communication tech- duction. Some other country reports – including nologies are creating new marketing opportun- those from Bhutan, Namibia and Nepal – note ities for some livestock keepers. For example, the some degree of increasing interest in speciality report from the Republic of Korea mentions that or high-quality products and a potentially posi- online marketing has created links between pro- tive effect on demand for locally adapted breeds. ducers and consumers and provides a marketing The report from Malawi mentions that increasing channel for products from native AnGR. consumer preference for products from locally Several country reports, both from developing adapted breeds is expected to have both positive and developed countries, mention that ongoing and negative effects on the sustainable use of - concentration of retailing in the hands of super AnGR. One the one hand, livestock keepers will markets is negatively affecting AnGR diversity be motivated to continue raising locally adapted because of, , demand for more uniform inter alia breeds. One the other, there may be pressure to products. However, in a number of countries there sell high-quality breeding stock for slaughter. is also reported to be increasing interest on the part With regard to homogenization of demand and of supermarkets and other retailers in labelling its effects on AnGR, the report from Suriname schemes related to geographical origin, product notes a link to international trade: importation quality, animal welfare and so on. The country of poultry-meat products has affected consumer report from South Africa, for example, mentions tastes and this has led to a strong shift towards labelling schemes for grass-fed beef, free-range the use of exotic breeds. mutton, Karoo lamb and Klein Karoo ostrich. The effects that changes to marketing infra- Some country reports note that the import structure and market access are reported to be of animal products or the demands of export having on AnGR management are also diverse. markets are influencing AnGR management. The most straightforward effect of improving The precise consequences are not always clear. market access is to expose more livestock keepers However, in some cases (e.g. Sierra Leone), com- to the influence of consumer demand in the - petition from imports is reported to be discour relevant markets. This can magnify the above- aging livestock keeping and leading to a decline described demand-related effects, either to the in animal populations and negative consequences cost or to the benefit of AnGR diversity. The for AnGR. The report from Ghana mentions the potential for negative effects on diversity as a con- negative effects of “unfair competition from sequence of locally adapted breeds increasingly imported products” on the local pig and poultry being replaced by exotic breeds as market access sectors. There is, however, some uncertainty increases is noted, for example, in the country about future trends. The report from Senegal, reports from India and Kenya. Conversely, some for example, notes the potential need to ensure reports (e.g. Bhutan and South Africa) note the that the country’s livestock sector is able to meet potentially positive effect of increasing access to increasing local demand in the event of rising speciality markets. Specific campaigns to promote import prices. On the export side, the country the marketing of speciality products or those from report from South Africa mentions that growing particular production systems (e.g. produced by emphasis on animal welfare and sustainable pro- smallholders) have the potential to benefit AnGR duction in export markets is creating opportun- diversity. This may occur as a result of a deliber - ities for marketing certified products from ate attempt to promote conservation (see Part 4 E S E C tH OND r E P Ort ON 201 tH OUrC E r IC t E N E G ANIMAL E S ' rLD O E W S OF E StAt E AGrICULtUr E S FO r FOOD AND tH

243 t r t O CK SEC LIVES O tr E NDS t 2 A r P “Occurrences of natural disasters have locally adapted breeds. The report from Lesotho become frequent, which ... [adversely notes that export demand for wool and mohair affects] AnGR through tremendous death are driving the development of breeding pro- of livestock. For instance, the harsh winter grammes for fibre-producing species. disaster of 2010 resulted in 10.2 million Production-system trends driven by environ- livestock losses, equivalent to 20 percent mental changes also potentially affect demand of the national herd ... As the pastoral for different types of AnGR. Where production livestock system is vulnerable to any systems become “harsher” as a result of climate changes, climate change ... will have change, resurgent disease problems, etc., the an adverse impact on ... [the system’s ] roles of locally adapted breeds may become AnGR through [effects on] feed and water increasingly important and demand for them may resources in the future.” increase (or decline more slowly). The country Degradation or loss of grazing land is noted report from Barbados, for example, notes that as a problem in several country reports. In some the cost of adapting production environments to cases, climate change is mentioned as a contribut- provide appropriate conditions for exotic breeds ing factor. Specific effects on AnGR management is likely to increase. The report from Brazil, states are again rarely mentioned. However, the report that climate change is likely to increase interest in from Bhutan states that the quality of pastures the use of locally adapted breeds for cross-breed- has declined over the years, with reduced carrying ing, although their low levels of production may capacity leading to further overgrazing, and that hamper the implementation of such strategies. this may require a reduction in the use of low- The report from South Africa highlights the effect producing breeds and more emphasis on high- of climate change on the incidence of diseases yielding breeds. The report from the Islamic - and parasites and the roles of resistant or toler Republic of Iran notes that the main grazing ant locally adapted breeds such as tick-tolerant area of the Systani cattle breed, wetlands in the Nguni cattle and native goats that are resistant eastern part of the country, have been affected to internal parasites and cowdriosis. Other reports by the construction of a dam in neighbouring that mention increasing interest in locally adapted 2 Afghanistan. breeds as a result of climate change include those It further notes that some Systani from Rwanda, Solomon Islands and Sudan. herds were transferred to another part of the Major environmental changes may make it country as part of efforts to conserve the breed. more difficult to raise some breeds in the geo- Adverse effects of rangeland degradation on graphical areas where they have traditionally locally adapted breeds are also noted in the been kept and may even lead to shifts in the country report from China. The report from Peru species raised in a given area. Developments notes that rangeland degradation has led many of this kind may pose a threat to some breeds. people, particularly those living at high elevations While immediate threats to specific breeds are and keeping camelids and sheep, to sell their land rarely reported (possibly because of inadequate and animals and migrate to towns and cities. monitoring programmes – see Part 3 Section B), The desire to minimize the rangeland degrada- many country reports mention the threat that tion caused by livestock keeping can also affect climate change poses to livestock production, and breed choice. For example, the country report in some cases to AnGR diversity, via the increased 2 oblems affecting this area and threatening the grazing Other pr prevalence of climatic disasters and disease out- lands of the Systani cattle are reported to include reduced breaks or via more gradual changes to production precipitation (apparently caused by climate change), expansion systems. The report from Mongolia, for example, of agricultural lands, inefficient irrigation, inappropriate states that cropping patterns, introduction of non-native aquatic plants and overexploitation of pastures (UNDP, 2014). PO E ON t r SECOND t E H r 202 r C I t D'S ANIMAL GENE L r E WO H t r E t A t S E H E U t CUL I r ES FOr FOOD AND AG C r SOU E OF t

244 ND tH E E S I N tH E LIV E S tOCK S E C tOr ON ANIMAL G E N E t IC r E S OUrC E S A tS OF CHANG E I r MANAG E M N t EFF C E C The report from Burkina Faso mentions that from South Africa mentions the case of the Nguni a decline in the savings and insurance roles of cattle breed, which is considered to be much less livestock is having a negative effect on locally harmful to degraded grazing areas than exotic adapted AnGR. However, several other countries breeds. indicate that livestock continue to play an import- In addition to the effects of pasture degrad- ant role in the provision of services of this kind. , several country reports note that loss per se ation Several country reports mention that the cultural of grazing land as a result of the expansion of roles of livestock are declining and that in some other land uses is affecting AnGR management. cases that this is having a substantial effect on For example, the report from Sri Lanka states that AnGR and their management. The report from the conversion of grazing land into human set- Sri Lanka, for example, notes that exchange of tlements, cropland and wildlife parks is limiting livestock at the time of marriages used to be a the feed resource base for livestock. Some reports widespread practice and that this helped to dis- (e.g. those from Austria, Bulgaria, India and tribute livestock and maintain their diversity, but Kenya) note that developments of this kind are a that this practice has disappeared. It also notes threat to locally adapted breeds. The report from that concerns about animal welfare have led to Peru mentions that commercially oriented quinoa some animal sports (e.g. cock fighting) being production has fuelled an expansion of cropland prohibited by law and that sacrificing animals at and changes in production methods that have religious events is in decline because of societal affected access to land for camelid husbandry. It disapproval, with the consequence that breed- also notes that water resources in the lands used ing of the types of animal used in these events by indigenous communities are often appropri- is in decline. At the same time, the cultural roles ated or contaminated by mining operations. The of livestock remain important in many countries report from the Plurinational State of Bolivia also and in some cases are being built upon as a means mentions the effect that expanding quinoa pro- of promoting the sustainable use and conserva- duction has had in terms of the loss of pasture- tion of potentially threatened breeds (see Part 4 land used by camelids and sheep. The report from Section D for examples). Ethiopia links the expansion of cropland into Some new functions are emerging that poten- grazing areas to the growth of the human popu- tially increase demand for breeds that might be lation and notes that effects on livestock include threatened with extinction if they had to continue a reduction in household herd/flock sizes, poor relying on their traditional roles. The use of livestock resistance to disease and interbreeding among in the management of landscape and wildlife habi- breeds as animals move in search of feed. tats, for example, is creating significant demand for The impact of replacement of livestock roles some locally adapted breeds in Europe (see Part 1 and functions on AnGR and their management 4 Section D for examples). Section D and Part received a relatively low score in comparison The influence of economic, livelihood or life- to some other drivers of change (Figure 2C1, style factors on the popularity of livestock keeping 2C2). However, changes of this type can Table as an activity and on the type of livestock keeping have a major effect on demand for specific practised is noted in a number of country reports. breeds and species. Among effects of this type, Consequences for AnGR management are not the decline of locally adapted breeds because of always described in detail. However, a number of the replacement of draught animal power with different effects are noted. For example, several mechanized power is by far the most commonly reports from European countries note a decline mentioned in the country reports (see also Part 1 in the number of small farms and a declining D), although little information is provided Section interest in livestock keeping, particularly among about effects on specific breeds. young people. This trend is generally regarded E E S Ort ON P tH OND r C E 203 OUrC S E r IC t E N E G ANIMAL AGrICULtUr S ' rLD O E W tH OF E StAt E E AND FOOD r FO S E tH

245 t tr t O CK SEC LIVES O r E NDS 2 A t r P that improved animal husbandry and management as a threat to AnGR diversity, as the production practices are leading to more widespread use of systems that have traditionally maintained a wide exotic breeds. Reproductive technologies, such as range of locally adapted breeds are tending to artificial insemination and embryo transfer, can disappear. Several country reports from devel- make it easier to introduce breeds into new areas oping countries note the ongoing popularity of and to cross-breed with them. The country report livestock keeping. However, a few (e.g. China and from Zambia, for example, states that more live- Eritrea) mention that changes to traditional pro- stock keepers are being trained in artificial insem- duction systems and lifestyles is threatening the ination and that this has led to increased demand survival of locally adapted breeds. The country for specialized dairy cattle. Reproductive techno- report from the Islamic Republic of Iran notes logies can play valuable roles in AnGR management, specifically that the populations of Murkhoz but if breed introductions and cross-breeding are goats and Bactrian camels in the western part badly managed, problems can be exacerbated by of the country are decreasing sharply because their use. Indiscriminate cross-breeding and breed of changes in the lifestyles of local people. The replacement are among the factors most frequently report from India offers a more general comment mentioned in the country reports as causes of on the popularity of livestock keeping: genetic erosion (see Part 1 Section F). “New generations are losing interest in Several country reports (e.g. China, Ghana, the livestock keeping because of changes Philippines and the Republic of Korea) mention the in lifestyle aspirations and alternative positive roles that new technologies play in various opportunities available in the country aspects of AnGR management, including charac- ... Livestock keeping is becoming less terization, genetic improvement and conservation. profitable. Average herd/flock size is However, the country reports provide little detailed decreasing.” information on the current or predicted future Technological advances can affect AnGR and effect of the introduction of genomic technologies their management in multiple ways. Various live- (see Part 4 Sections B and C) on the utilization of stock management technologies can help to create different types of AnGR. Potential effects of the use conditions in which exotic breeds can be introduced of these technologies on the utilization of at-risk or into areas where they would otherwise not flourish. 2C4. non-mainstream breeds are discussed in Box The country report from Kenya, for example, notes b ox 2C4 The potential influence of genomics on the utilization of at-risk br eeds utilization of the valuable characteristics these breeds Introducing genomic selection into a breeding may harbour. Genetic analysis may reveal unique programme reduces the generation interval and allows alleles or unique combinations of alleles (haplotypes) an increase in genetic progress. However, it requires a that are not present in mainstream commercial breeds. large investment and is only applied in breeds with a Moreover, the introgression of parts of chromosomes large critical mass in terms of population size. This may responsible for valuable traits identified in at-risk actually increase the gap in production performance breeds into commercial breeds is potentially greatly between at-risk breeds and the main breeds targeted facilitated by genomic selection (Odegard et al. , 2009; by commercial breeding programmes and hence et al. Amador , 2010). potentially increase the risk of breed extinctions. However, genomics may help motivate efforts to conserve at-risk breeds by facilitating the discovery and t E ON PO r SECOND t E H r 204 t D'S ANIMAL GENE L r E WO H t OF E r A t S E H E U t CUL I r ES FOr FOOD AND AG C r SOU E r C I t t

246 E S A S I N tH E LIV E S tOCK S E C tOr ON ANIMAL G E N E t IC r E S OUrC E tS OF CHANG ND tH E I r MANAG E M E N t C E EFF C Policy factors are among the drivers reported in One issue that was recognized in the first SoW- the country reports to be having the greatest effect AnGR as a potential future influence on AnGR on AnGR and their management, with a consider- management was the question of rising input able increase in their importance predicted for the prices. Although information on the effects of 2C2). coming ten years relative to the past (Table this driver was not specifically requested in the Impacts on AnGR vary greatly. On the one hand, country-report questionnaire, it was mentioned in policies directed at promoting the sustainable some responses. Rising feed costs are, for example, use, development and conservation of AnGR can noted as a factor influencing AnGR management in the country reports from Barbados and Kiribati. provide valuable support to efforts to prevent The report from Ghana notes that high production breeds from becoming extinct and to maintain diversity. On the other hand, policies can constrain costs are among the factors leading to the closure certain types of livestock production and thereby of many of the country’s pig and poultry farms. threaten the associated AnGR. Policies may also promote breed replacement, either directly or by promoting production system changes that lead References to the introduction of exotic (or other alternative) breeds. Changes in the types of breeds and cross- 2013. Amador, C., Fernández, J. & Meuwissen, T.H.E. breeds utilized is an inevitable consequence of the Advantages of using molecular coancestry in the removal evolution of the livestock sector and these changes of introgressed material. , 13 Genetics Selection Evolution are always likely to be affected by a range of poli- (available at http://www.gsejournal.org/content/45/1/13). cies that are not all favourable to AnGR diversity. Country reports. 2014. Available at http://www.fao. As with other drivers of change, there is a need org/3/a-i4787e/i4787e01.htm. to ensure that the impacts that policies have on FAO. 2009a. Threats to animal genetic resources – their diversity are monitored and that, if necessary, relevance, importance and opportunities to decrease action is taken to adjust them or to promote by their impact . Commission on Genetic esources for r other means the conservation and sustainable use Food and Agriculture. ackground Study Paper No. b of breeds that are adversely affected. ome (available at ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/ 50. r The country reports mention a range of differ - meeting/017/ak572e.pdf). ent policy-related factors affecting AnGR manage- 2009b. FAO. The State of the Food and Agriculture. ment. Several note AnGR-focused policies that . Livestock in the balance r ome (available at http:// are benefiting or are expected to benefit the www.fao.org/docrep/012/i0680e/i0680e.pdf). sustainable use, development and conservation LPP, LIFE Network, IUCN–WISP & FAO. Adding 2010. of these resources. However, some suggest that value to livestock diversity – Marketing to promote local policies focus on rapidly increasing the output breeds and improve livelihoods . FAO Animal Production of animal products lack sufficient emphasis on ome (available at http:// and Health Paper. No. 168. r longer term sustainable management. Some www.fao.org/docrep/012/i1283e/i1283e00.htm). reports mention broader livestock-sector poli- Odegard, J., Yazdi, M.H., Sonesson, A.K. & cies that are expected to influence AnGR manage- Meuwissen, T.H.E. 2009. Incorporating desirable ment: for example, those related to environmental genetic characteristics from an inferior into a supe- protection, animal welfare, rangeland manage- Genetics , rior population using genomic selection. ment not, but and disease control. However, little 181: 737–745. detailed information on the effects of these poli- Steinfeld, H., Gerber, P., Wassenaar, T., Castel, V. cies is provided. Further discussion of the state Livestock’s long 2006. Rosales, M. & de Haan, C. of national and international policies and legal r ome, shadow: environmental issues and options. frameworks on AnGR management can be found FAO (available at ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/ in Part 3 Section F. a0701e/a0701e00.pdf). E E S Ort ON P tH OND r C E 205 OUrC S E r IC t E N E G ANIMAL AGrICULtUr S ' rLD O E W tH OF E StAt E E AND FOOD r FO S E tH

247 t E t O CK SEC LIVES O r tr NDS 2 t A P r Hamoun wetlands. Current situation 2014. UNDP. of livestock in a life cycle assessment: the case of ehran, United Nations t . and the way forward smallholder dairying in Kenya Current Opinion in . ogramme in the Islamic r epublic of Development Pr 8: 29–38. . Environmental Sustainability Iran (available at http://tinyurl.com/oucualv). Yosef, T., Mengsitu, U., Solomon, A., Mohammed, Efficiency of extensive livestock systems 2014. Vigne, M. 2013. Y.K. & Kefelegn, K. Camel and cattle in harsh environments . Cirad Perspective 25. Paris, population dynamics and livelihood diversification esearch for Development (avail- r Cirad Agricultural as a response to climate change in pastoral areas of able at http://tinyurl.com/opo2ajm). Ethiopia. , Livestock Research for Rural Development Weiler, V., Udo, H.M.J., Viets, T, Crane, T.A. & De 25(9) 2013 (available at http://www.lrrd.org/ 2014. Handling multi-functionality Boer, I.J.M. lrrd25/9/yose25166.htm). r ON E PO SECOND t E H t r 206 L E U t CUL I r ES FOr FOOD AND AG r SOU E r C I t D'S ANIMAL GENE r r E WO H t OF E t A t S E H C t

248 Section D Livestock sector trends and animal genetic resources management – conclusions fore remain diverse. However, given the evolving The analysis presented in Section A indicates that (in some cases rapidly evolving) nature of livestock while growth may be slowing, global demand production systems and the fact that knowledge for animal-source foods is expected to continue of breed characteristics often remains inadequate, increasing, and indications are that much of this ensuring that breeds and crosses are well-matched demand growth will be met by production from to their production environments and to the large-scale landless systems. Meat consumption has demands placed on them is challenging. In terms expanded very quickly in Latin America, but future of breed survival, rapid change may mean that a expansion is expected to be strongest in South Asia breed’s existing role disappears rapidly and that it and Africa. The same regions are projected to be declines towards extinction before new roles for it the main centres of growth in milk consumption. can emerge or national authorities recognize the These are both very resource-constrained regions, threat and take action to promote its conservation. where there are still many small-scale livestock In addition to “demand-side” drivers, livestock keepers and pastoralists and where small-scale milk production is being affected by physical changes production has historically been strong. Growth in affecting the agro-ecosystems in which it takes demand is widely viewed as one of the main drivers place. Current changes are, on the whole, creat- of change in AnGR management, and experiences ing greater challenges for livestock-keeping live- from other regions suggest that dramatic increases lihoods. Climate change, in particular, is likely to in demand create major challenges to the sustain- create increasing problems over the coming years able use of livestock diversity. and decades. The importance of livestock biodi- Despite the spread of “industrial” and other versity as a resource with which to adapt produc- intensive production systems, the livestock sector in tion systems to future changes and as a source of most developing countries remains far from homo- resilience in the face of greater climatic variability geneous. Mixed farming and grassland production is likely to increase. Climate change, however, also - systems continue to provide a substantial propor poses threats to the sustainable management of tion of output, particularly in the case of rumi- AnGR. nants. Livestock continue to play multiple roles in Another widespread trend with important the livelihoods of many poor people. In some cir - implications for AnGR management is the move- cumstances, small-scale commercially oriented pro- ment of people out of livestock keeping as a live- ducers contribute significantly to meeting growing lihood activity and into alternative employment. demand for animal-source food. Production envi- In most countries, small-scale livestock keeping ronments remain diverse in climatic and agro- is unlikely to disappear in the short or medium ecological terms, and in many circumstances isolat- term. However, the pull of economic activities ing animals from harsh environmental conditions outside livestock keeping and of non-livestock is impractical. The demands placed on AnGR there- tHE S C OND r E E Or t ON P 207 S OD r F O F S E C r U O S E r C tI E N E E a M I aN O ' D L r O HE W F t O E t a t S tHE aND a G r I C U LtU r L G

249 E LIVES O CK SEC t O r tr t NDS Part 2 keeping lifestyles often adds to constraints at and their effects on AnGR is discussed in Part 3 production-system level in reducing the economic Section F. There are some positive developments, and social attractiveness of livestock keeping. such as the increasing number of countries devel- Where trends of this type are strong, AnGR assoc- oping national strategies and action plans for AnGR. However, weak policies and programmes iated with particular traditional types of livestock keeping or with particular communities may be are still regarded as significant drivers of genetic erosion in a number of countries (see Part 1 threatened. Section F). The future of broad livestock-sector In developed countries, industrial and other policies may be influenced by arguments regard- intensive production systems are already domi- nant and several traditional livestock functions ing the nature of efficiency in livestock systems. Policies that aim to support the sustainable have become very marginal. Many locally adapted management of AnGR require a long-term per - breeds remain at risk of extinction. However, some developments have begun to create roles spective. Understanding livestock-sector trends is for breeds that are not competitive in terms of therefore a vital element of AnGR management the supply of mass-market products. The most planning (FAO, 2009; 2010; 2013). The country- significant trends of this type are probably the reporting exercise may have helped countries to growth of niche markets for various kinds of trad- review the influence of livestock-sector trends on itional or ethically produced products and the their AnGR and to prioritize actions that need to be taken to address future demands, threats and increasing use of grazing animals in the man- opportunities within different production systems agement of wildlife habitats. Given that many developing countries have sizeable middle classes and affecting different breeds or breed catego- and that many livestock production systems in ries. In other countries, the reporting process may have highlighted gaps in knowledge that make developing countries provide important regulat- 1 ing and habitat ecosystem services, it more difficult to plan effectively. Where this is it is possible the case, efforts need to be made to collect and that developments such as niche marketing and analyse the relevant information, perhaps as payment for environmental services might have part of the process of developing or updating a an increasing influence on AnGR management in national strategy and action plan for AnGR. the future. There are, however, many constraints to the successful implementation of such schemes in developing countries. The evolution of livestock production systems References is affected not only by economic forces and the state of the physical environment, but also by Preparation of national strategies and action 2009. FAO. public policies. The country reports suggest that nimal . F a plans for animal genetic resources O a policy factors have a major effect on AnGR and r ome Production and Health Guidelines. No. 2. their management and that this effect is likely (available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/i0770e/ to increase in the future. A wide range of poli- i0770e00.htm). cies may be relevant, some focused specifically Breeding strategies for sustainable man- FAO. 2010. on AnGR management, but others targeting nimal a a O agement of animal genetic resources . F other aspects of livestock keeping, rural devel- ome Production and Health Guidelines. No. 3. r opment, consumer protection and the environ- (available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/i1103e/ ment. Many may be put in place with no thought i1103e.pdf). to their effects on AnGR diversity. The current FAO. 2013. In vivo conservation of animal genetic state of policy frameworks, their implementation a nimal Production and Health a . F resources O r ome (http://www.fao.org/ Guidelines. No. 14. 1 See Box 1D1 in Part 1 Section D for explanation of these terms. docrep/018/i3327e/i3327e00.htm). PO E ON t r SECOND t E H r 208 ES FOr FOOD C r SOU E r C I t ENE L G a IM N a D'S r r E WO H t OF E at t S E H E U t CUL I r G a D N a L t

250 Part 3 The s T a T e of capaci T ies

251

252 Part 3 Introduction This part of the report presents an analysis of capacities in the management of animal genetic resources for food and agriculture (AnGR), based on the information provided in the country reports. In contrast to the country-reporting process for the first report The State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture on (first SoW-AnGR), the country reports were prepared using a standard questionnaire. One hundred and twenty-eight reports were submitted using the questionnaire. There- fore, except where otherwise stated, the analysis is based on a self-selecting sample of countries. The country coverage, including the possibility that non-reporting coun - 128 tries may have lower levels of capacity than those that reported, needs to be borne in mind when interpreting the findings. The regions and subregions used in the analysis are those that were defined for the purpose of the first SoW-AnGR. It should be noted that in some subregions the proportion of responding countries is relatively low and thus the above-noted potential for sampling bias to affect subregional-level statistics 1 may be more marked. The analytical approach varies from section to section according to the nature of the information provided in the country reports. The rst section presents an analysis of fi the state of human and institutional capacity in AnGR management. This is followed by sections describing the state of characterization, inventory and monitoring, breed- ing programmes, conservation programmes and the use of reproductive and molecular fi nal section covers legal and policy frameworks affecting AnGR biotechnologies. The and their management. This section is divided into three major subsections, addressing frameworks at international, regional and national levels. The latter subsection draws on responses to a survey on policy and legal frameworks conducted by FAO in 2013. B, C, D and E is based on the breed concept. As Much of the analysis in Sections - discussed in the introduction to Part 1, there is no universally accepted means of deter mining whether a given livestock population should be considered a distinct breed. In the country-reporting process (as is the case with ongoing reporting of breed- 2 related data to the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System [DAD-IS] – see Part 1 Section B) each country determined for itself how to interpret the breed concept. Thus it needs to be borne in mind that the unit of analysis upon which the reported figures are based may vary from country to country. It should also be noted that – as the objec- tive is to assess national capacities – the unit of analysis for the breed-related data presented in this part of the report is the national breed population (i.e. a given breed within a given country), rather than the breed as a whole. So-called transboundary 1 Section B) have national populations in more than one country . The breeds (see Part country-report questionnaire requested respondents to indicate the number of breeds 1 For further information on the country-r eporting process and on the regional and subregional classifications, see “ a bout this publication” in the preliminary pages. 2 http://fao.org/dad-is

253 ca e state o F h P ac ities t Part 3 present in their respective countries and to indicate how many are considered “locally adapted” and how many “exotic” (see Part 1 Section B for definitions). Unless other - wise stated, figures indicating the proportion of national breed populations subject to various types of management activity are based on this sample. rt on second re he o t P 212 s ani M a L G ' netic reso U r ces F o r F o od and a G r ic U L t U r e d L r o W the F o e the state

254 a Section A Institutions and stakeholders Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources (FAO, 1 Intr oduction 2007b) – Policies, Institutions and Capacity-build- 3A1). ing (see Box The first report on The State of the World’s Animal This section describes the state of human Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (first and institutional capacities in AnGR manage- SoW-AnGR) (FAO, 2007a) concluded that in most ment at national, regional and international parts of the world the institutional framework for levels. The analysis is based largely on country animal genetic resources (AnGR) management reports, reports from regional focal points and was inadequate. Improvements in this field are networks for AnGR management and reports targeted in Strategic Priority Area 4 of the Global 1 a Box 3 Strategic Priority Ar ea 4 of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources Implementation at international level Strategic Priority Area 4: Policies, Institutions and SP 15 Establish or strengthen international information Capacity-building sharing, research and education Strengthen international cooperation to build SP 16 Implementation at national level capacities in developing countries and countries with Establish or strengthen national institutions, SP 12 economies in transition including national focal points, for planning and SP 19 Raise regional and international awareness of implementing animal genetic resources measures, for the roles and values of animal genetic resources livestock sector development Review and develop international policies and SP 21 SP 13 Establish or strengthen national educational and regulatory frameworks relevant to animal genetic research facilities resources SP 14 Strengthen national human capacity for Coordinate the Commission’s efforts on animal SP 22 characterization, inventory, and monitoring of genetic resources policy with other international trends and associated risks, for sustainable use and forums development, and for conservation Strengthen efforts to mobilize resources, SP 23 Raise national awareness of the roles and values SP 18 including financial resources, for the conservation, of animal genetic resources sustainable use and development of animal genetic Review and develop national policies and legal SP 20 resources frameworks for animal genetic resources Implementation at regional level SP 17 Establish Regional Focal Points and strengthen Note: SP = Strategic Priority; “the Commission” = the Commission on international networks Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. e the s on t or P ond r c e 213 o r F o F s e c r U o s e r c ti e n r i n a s ' d L r o he W F t o ate t s the e LtU U c i r aG d n a od MaL Ge

255 ac t e state o F ca P ities h 3 Part from international organizations whose work a Box 3 2 is relevant to the implementation of the Global ecommended national Elements of the r 1 Plan of Action. institutional framework for the management of animal genetic resources Institutional capacities at 2 National Coordinator for the Management of Animal Genetic Resources: the government-nominated person country level who coordinates the national implementation of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources and leads the development and operation of a national 2.1 Basic r ecommended institutional network of stakeholders. He or she is the contact framework for animal genetic person for communication with FAO on matters resources management relating to the implementation of the Global Plan of In adopting the Global Plan of Action for Animal Action for Animal Genetic Resources and with global Genetic Resources countries affirmed the need and regional animal genetic resources networks. for effective national institutions to support the National Focal Point for the Management of Animal sustainable management of AnGR. The Global the National Coordinator for the Genetic Resources: Plan of Action specifically calls for the estab- Management of Animal Genetic Resources and his or lishment or strengthening of National Focal her support staff within the institution responsible for Points for the Management of Animal Genetic coordinating activities concerning the management of Resources and for these bodies to be strongly animal genetic resources. linked to stakeholder networks. Recommend- a multistakeholder National Advisory Committee: ations for the development of institutional frame- body, incorporating both scientific and policy works at national level were further elaborated expertise, that provides guidance on the development in guidelines endorsed by the Commission on of the national animal genetic resources programme. Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in 2011 (FAO, 2011a). The basic elements of this Source: FAO, 2011a. recommended framework are an officially nomi- nated National Coordinator for the Management of Animal Genetic Resources, a National Focal Point (the National Coordinator and his or her support staff) and a multistakeholder National tions (Figure 3A2). National Advisory Committees 3A2 and 3A3). It Advisory Committee (see Boxes were in place in 78 countries (Figure 3A3). is also recommended that each country develop a national strategy and action plan for AnGR as Country-r eport analysis 2.2 a vehicle for implementing the Global Plan of The country-report questionnaire requested coun- Action at national level (FAO, 2009). tries to provide a score (none, low, medium or As of July 2014, officially nominated National high) for the state of their capacities and provi- countries Coordinators were in place in 173 sions in each of the following areas: 3A1), up from 144 in 2006 (F AO, 2006). A (Figure education (the state of tertiary education in • majority of National Coordinators are based within all areas of AnGR management); ministries responsible for agriculture or rural devel- research (the state of research in all areas of • opment. However a number work for research AnGR management); institutions, universities or other relevant organiza- • awareness (the extent to which all stake- holders in agriculture, rural development and environmental management are aware 1 ee “ bout this publication” in the preliminary pages of the s a of the roles and values of AnGR); r eport for more information on the reporting process. rt on second re he o P t 214 ani r r F o od and a F ces r U reso netic e L G a M o s ' d L r o W the F o U G r ic U L t e the state

256 i t i o ns and staKehoLders inst Ut a Box 3 a 3 The r ole of the National Coordinator for the Management of Animal Genetic Resources • Developing and supporting national stakeholder The recommended activities of National Coordinators include the following: networks in the animal genetic resources sector. • Policy development Communicating with FAO and with Regional Facilitating and supporting the development and Focal Points and National Focal Points in • revision of policy and legal frameworks in the other countries, and cooperating in activities field of animal genetic resources management, organized at regional and international levels. including national strategy and action plans for Education and public awareness animal genetic resources. • Raising awareness of animal genetic resources issues Contributing to the development and revision of • via conferences, exhibitions, books, brochures, other relevant policy and legal instruments such as posters, the internet, television, radio, etc. Global reporting national strategy and action plans on conservation • Updating national data in the Domestic Animal and sustainable use of biological diversity and national livestock-development strategies. Diversity Information System (DAD-IS) (or regional database if applicable) on a regular basis. Strengthening animal genetic resources management • Coordinating progress reporting on the • Coordinating the implementation of the implementation of the Global Plan of Action for National Strategy and Action Plan for Animal Animal Genetic Resources. Genetic Resources. • Coordinating and supporting the planning, Intergovernmental processes Participating in country delegations to the • implementation, monitoring and evaluation of conservation, surveying and monitoring and sessions of the Intergovernmental Technical breed development strategies. Working Group on Animal Genetic Resources Coordinating the identification of research • for Food and Agriculture, the Commission on priorities in animal genetic resources Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and management. other relevant intergovernmental bodies. Contributing to the development of country • • Coordinating the mobilization of financial and other resources to support implementation negotiating positions. • Communicating with other National of the National Strategy and Action Plan for Coordinators to develop regional positions. Animal Genetic Resources. Debriefing government officials following Communication and cooperation • • Facilitating communication on animal genetic meetings and coordinating implementation of resources management between the National actions recommended by intergovernmental bodies. Focal Point for the Management of Animal Genetic Resources and relevant ministries and other national bodies such as the National Focal Source: FAO, 2011a. 1 1 Point for the Convention on Biological Diversity. https://www.cbd.int/information/nfp.shtml stakeholder participation (the extent to • • infrastructure (the extent to which the which individual stakeholders and stake- organizational and physical infrastructure holder organizations, particularly livestock needed to deliver services related to AnGR keepers and their organizations, are involved management is in place); in and can influence collaborative AnGR the second rePort on 215 a G and od o r F o F r c i net e G L a M i an s ' rLd o W the F o ULtUre i c resoUrces the state

257 ca e state o F h P ac ities t Part 3 GU re 3 1 a Fi eports and nomination of National Coordinators for the Management of Submission of country r Animal Genetic Resources National Coordinator appointed, National Coordinator not appointed, National Coordinator appointed, country report submitted country report not submitted country report not submitted Note: Figure refers to National Coordinators appointed as of July 2014. The country report of Morocco was not prepared in the standardized format and thus could not be included in the quantitative analysis. With regard to policies and laws, the ques- management activities at local and national tionnaire recognized that the type of framework levels); required would vary from country to country, policies (the extent to which the country [i.e. • i.e. that elaborate frameworks are not neces- national or regional government] has estab- sarily required in all circumstances. In assigning lished policy initiatives, strategies, programmes their scores, countries were asked to focus on or plans that promote the sustainable use, the extent to which their legal and policy meas- development and conservation of AnGR); ures are sufficient to ensure the sustainable policy implementation (the extent to which • use, development and conservation of AnGR the country’s policy initiatives, strategies, in their particular national circumstances. The programmes or plans promoting the sustain- responses are summarized region by region in able use, development and conservation of ferences at subregional level are 3A4. Dif Figure AnGR are being successfully implemented); shown in Figures 3A5, 3A6 and 3A7. Detailed • laws (the extent to which the country has findings within each thematic area are shown in put in place a legal framework that is con- 3A9, 3A10 and 3A11. Figures ducive to the sustainable use, development 3A4 indicate that The scores shown in Figure and conservation of AnGR and that protects in almost all aspects of the institutional frame- livestock breeders/owners’ rights to manage work for AnGR management, North America AnGR as they deem appropriate); and and Europe and the Caucasus have higher levels • implementation of laws (the extent to which of capacity than other regions. Asia has medium the country’s laws conducive to the sustain- to low levels of capacity (average scores between able use, development and conservation of 1 and 2) across all the elements of institutional AnGR are being successfully implemented). he second re rt on o P t 216 ces r U reso netic od and a G r ic U L t U r e o r F o e L G d L r o W the F o a M ani s ' F the state

258 Ut i o ns and staKehoLders i inst t a re 3 2 a Fi GU Employment af filiations of National Coordinators for the Management of Animal Genetic Resources Number of National Coordinators 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 North Near and Southwest Latin America Africa Asia Europe America Pacific Middle East and the and the Caribbean Caucasus Other University Research institute Ministry Source: DAD-IS (http://fao.org/DAD-IS) (accessed September 2014). re 3 a 3 GU Fi ces Status of National Advisory Committees for Animal Genetic Resour Established No data Not established Source: Country reports, 2014. the second rePort on 217 G a and od o r F o F resoUrces c i net e c L a M i an s ' rLd o W the F o ULtUre i r G the state

259 ac F ca P e state o ities h t 3 Part capacity covered. In other developing regions, at Infrastructure and stakeholder participation least some elements of institutional capacity are at Organized AnGR-management activities that very low levels (average scores between 0 and 1). involve action at farm (or holding) level (e.g. in situ The country-report questionnaire also conservation) are dependent on the active involve- required responding countries to report on the ment of livestock keepers. They will often also progress they had made in implementing the require the participation of a range of other stake- various elements of the Global Plan of Action. holders (suppliers of livestock services, processers of These responses were used to calculate indic- livestock products, veterinary authorities, research ators for progress made at the level of strat- institutions, local government authorities, nature egic priority areas and at the level of individual conservation agencies, tourism operators and so 3F1 and Table 3A1 strategic priorities (see Box - on) (FAO, 2010; 2013). Other activities, such as sur 3 Section F) (F in Part AO, 2014). National-level veying and monitoring of population sizes, may not indicators for Strategic Priority Area 4 (Policies, require such a high level of commitment on the part Institutions and Capacity-building) are shown in of livestock keepers, but are nonetheless depend- 3A8. Figure ent on their participation. Again, they are also likely to require the cooperation of a range of different stakeholders (FAO, 2011b). While circumstances will 4 re 3 Fi GU a Overview of the state of institutions in animal genetic r esources management Score 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 Awareness Laws Policy Infrastructure Stakeholder Knowledge Implementation Policies Education Research of laws participation implementation Africa Europe and Asia Latin America and North Near and Southwest the Caucasus the Caribbean America Middle East Pacific Basic/organizational/operational level Strategic level Note: Each country provided a score for the state of institutions in each area. The scores were converted into numerical values (none = 0; low = 1; medium = 2; high = 3). Country reports, 2014. Source: rt on second re he t o P 218 G a and od o r F o F ces r U reso netic r L G a M ani s ' d L r o W the F o e U t L U ic r e the state

260 i t Ut i o ns and staKehoLders inst a GU re 3 a 5 Fi State of institutions in animal genetic r esources management – Africa Score 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 Research Education Laws Infrastructure Stakeholder Policies Implementation Policy Awareness Knowledge of laws participation implementation East Africa North and West Africa Southern Africa Basic/organizational/operational level Strategic level Note: Each country provided a score for the state of institutions in each area. The scores were converted into numerical values (none = 0; low = 1; medium = 2; high = 3). Source: Country reports, 2014. Fi GU re 3 6 a esources management – Asia State of institutions in animal genetic r Score 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 Infrastructure Stakeholder Research Knowledge Awareness Laws Education Policy Implementation Policies implementation participation of laws East Asia Southeast Asia South Asia Central Asia Strategic level Basic/organizational/operational level Note: Each country provided a score for the state of institutions in each area. The scores were converted into numerical values (none = 0; low = 1; medium = 2; high = 3). Source: Country reports, 2014. the second rePort on 219 G a and od o r F o F resoUrces c i net e c L a M i an s ' rLd o W the F o ULtUre i r G the state

261 P h e state o F ca ac ities t Part 3 GU re 3 Fi a 7 esources management – Latin America and the Caribbean State of institutions in animal genetic r Score 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 Education Research Knowledge Awareness Policies Policy Infrastructure Stakeholder Laws Implementation implementation of laws participation Caribbean Central America South America Strategic level Basic/organizational/operational level Note: Each country provided a score for the state of institutions in each area. The scores were converted into numerical values (none = 0; low = 1; medium = 2; high = 3). Country reports, 2014. Source: Fi GU a 8 re 3 ea 4 of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Indicators for the implementation of Strategic Priority Ar Genetic Resources Indicators scores 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 N/A Note: Indicator scores are divided into eight evenly distributed classes between a minimum score of 0 and a maximum score of 2. A score of 2 means that all actions covered by the indicator have been implemented fully. A score of 0 means that no action has been taken. Scores calculated based on self-assessments provided in country reports. Strategic Priority Area 4 = Policies, Institutions and Capacity-building. Source: Country reports, 2014. rt on second re he P t o 220 reso e t L U ic r G a and od o r F o F ces r U U netic e L G a M ani s ' d L r o W the F o r the state

262 i t Ut i o ns and staKehoLders inst a GU re 3 a 9 Fi State of infrastructur e and stakeholder participation Score 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 Near and World North Latin America Africa Asia Southwest Europe Middle East America and the Pacific and the Caribbean Caucasus Stakeholder participation Infrastructure Note: Each country provided a score for the state of institutions in each area. The scores were converted into numerical values (none = 0; low = 1; medium = 2; high = 3). Source: Country reports, 2014. Fi GU re 3 10 a esearch and knowledge State of education, r Score 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 Africa World Near and Asia Southwest North Europe Latin America Pacific and the Middle East America and the Caribbean Caucasus Research Knowledge Education Note: Each country provided a score for the state of institutions in each area. The scores were converted into numerical values (none = 0; low = 1; medium = 2; high = 3). Source: Country reports, 2014. the second rePort on 221 G a and od o r F o F resoUrces c i net e c L a M i an s ' rLd o W the F o ULtUre i r G the state

263 ac e state o F ca P ities h t 3 Part the Caucasus, both stakeholder involvement vary from country to country, a top-down approach and physical and organizational infrastructure in which little attention is paid to stakeholders’ remain at low to medium levels of develop- objectives and concerns – particularly those of live- 3A9). Even in developed regions, it ment (Figure stock keepers – is unlikely to be successful. appears that provisions in these fields still need to Effective stakeholder participation in AnGR be strengthened. In North America, for example, management is likely to depend on the exist- is very well developed, but the infrastructure ence of a degree of organizational infra- level of stakeholder participation is reported only structure, whether in the form of stakeholder to be medium. Many developing countries report groups such as breeders’ associations or in the form that a lack of government support and funding of mechanisms that facilitate the involvement of constrains efforts to improve stakeholder particip- individual stakeholders (consultative and partici- ation. Some examples of initiatives in this field are patory planning processes, etc.). Various elements nonetheless described in the country reports. For of AnGR management are also dependent on example, Uganda reports that livestock-keeper the availability of a certain level of physical and groups influence activities at local level and are technical infrastructure (e.g. laboratory facilities gradually acquiring national recognition. The to enable cryoconservation and transport infra- country is in the process of establishing a “Live- structure to facilitate service delivery and market- stock Genetic Platform”, via which stakeholders ing initiatives). will be able to contribute to discussions on AnGR The country reports indicate that in all regions management. apart from North America and Europe and 11 GU a Fi re 3 State of policy development Score 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 North World Near and Latin America Africa Asia Europe Southwest America Middle East and the and the Pacific Caribbean Caucasus Implementation of laws Laws Policy implementation Awareness Policies Note: Each country provided a score for the state of institutions in each area. The scores were converted into numerical values (none = 0; low = 1; medium = 2; high = 3). Country reports, 2014. Source: rt on second re he t o P 222 G a and od o r F o F ces r U reso netic r L G a M ani s ' d L r o W the F o e U t L U ic r e the state

264 i Ut i o ns and staKehoLders t inst a While a number of countries report various Many countries, particularly in Africa, note that educational courses and training activities related a lack of funding for infrastructure development to livestock production, relatively little inform- is a problem. For example, the country report ation is provided on the state of education more from the United Republic of Tanzania men- specifically related to AnGR management, i.e. tions poor road links to livestock-keeping areas. breeding (genetic improvement), conservation, While European countries generally have well- characterization, etc. Educational initiatives tar - developed infrastructure in place, some remote geting AnGR management as a distinct topic areas in this region remain poorly served by road appear to be restricted mainly to Europe and not networks. This can constrain surveying and mon- to be very widespread. The livestock production itoring activities, access to markets and the pro- study programme of University of Montenegro’s vision of veterinary services. The country report Biotechnical Faculty is reported to include a course from Albania notes that in mountainous areas in “Animal genetic resources (sustainable use infrastructural developments associated with and conservation)”. The country report from the tourism have inadvertently helped AnGR conser - Netherlands notes that in addition to university- vation to flourish. level programmes, biodiversity and genetic resources are also included in the curriculum at Education, research and knowledge primary and secondary school levels. A lack of knowledge of AnGR and their manage- AnGR-related research activities are widely ment can be a serious constraint to the sustain- reported from all regions of the world. None- able use, development and conservation of these theless, many barriers to effective research efforts resources. Some country reports note specific remain to be overcome, especially in developing constraints or problems that have arisen because countries. For example, the country report from of a lack of knowledge. Swaziland’s report, for Kyrgyzstan notes that a lack of funding and example, mentions that indigenous knowledge resources (laboratories and technical knowledge) related to livestock keeping and the maintenance and the absence of governmental support have of AnGR diversity has not been documented and reduced research capacity. A lack of young scien- that this is a constraint to the development of tists entering the field is noted as constraint to breeding programmes and other AnGR manage- research in some country reports (e.g. Barbados ment strategies. In Sri Lanka, lack of knowledge and Liberia). is reported to lead to the slaughter of valu- able breeding animals and to indiscriminate cross-breeding. Inability to distinguish between State of awareness, policies and policy breeds has reportedly led to the near extinction development, and laws and their degree of of some of the country’s breeds (e.g. the Kottuk- implementation achchiya goat). Awareness of the roles and values of AnGR The state of education, research and knowl- among policy-makers is an important prerequi- edge, as reported in the country reports, is sum- site for the development of appropriate institu- 3A10. As in most areas of AnGR marized in Figure tions for their management. Awareness among management, the highest levels of provision the general public may also help to push the and capacity are reported from the developed issue up the political agenda. Awareness among regions of the world, although levels differ mark- livestock keepers and development practitioners edly between countries even in these regions. should lead to more sustainable approaches to In most developing regions, education, research AnGR management (providing such approaches and knowledge are at medium to low levels, with are not constrained by other factors such as a lack the Southwest Pacific reporting the lowest levels of resources). Policies and laws can have a major across all categories. influence on AnGR management. However, the the second rePort on 223 G a and od o r F o F resoUrces c i net e c L a M i an s ' rLd o W the F o ULtUre i r G the state

265 P t e state o F ca h ac ities 3 Part part accounted for by a lack of laws or policies specific types of instruments and the levels of 2 to implement, intervention required will depend on the specific but in most regions the level of circumstances in the respective country. Legal implementation appears to lag behind the level and policy frameworks are discussed in detail of “on-paper” provision. 3 Section F . Country-report responses in Part A number of different awareness-raising related to the state of awareness, laws, policies, activities (exhibitions at agricultural shows, tele- implementation of laws and policy implementa- vision programmes on AnGR-related topics, etc.) 3A11. tion are summarized in Figure are mentioned in the country reports. There are The country reports indicate that in all regions some indications that these have led to positive there is a need to increase awareness of the roles outcomes in terms of AnGR management. The and values of AnGR. Awareness of the signifi- country report from South Africa, for example, cance of locally adapted breeds and the need notes that intensified awareness-raising efforts to conserve those that are at risk of extinction targeting the “developing-farmer” and comm- may in fact be even lower than suggested by the unal sectors have led to additional breeds, includ- 3A11. For example, the data presented in Figure ing the Zulu sheep, Tankwa goat and Afrikaner report from Germany notes that aware- country cattle, being characterized and conserved. ness is high only in relation to economically important breeds and that there is significantly Integration of the management of animal less awareness of issues related to the manage- genetic resources with the management of ment of breeds that are at risk of extinction. plant, forest and aquatic genetic resources Despite such concerns, a certain basic awareness In view of growing interest in managing the of the significance of sustainably managing AnGR various elements of biodiversity for food and is apparently widespread at governmental level, agriculture in a more integrated way, the country- given the very large number of countries that report questionnaire included a subsection have appointed National Coordinators for the devoted to this topic. Countries were requested to Management of Animal Genetic Resources (see provide information on the extent to which AnGR Subsection 2.1). management is integrated with the management Legal and policy frameworks are well developed of plant, forest and aquatic genetic resources for in North America and Europe and the Caucasus, food and agriculture by providing a score (none, but less so in other regions. It should be recalled limited or extensive) for the extent of collabor- (see above) that high scores do not necessarily ation in various aspects of genetic-resources man- indicate elaborate legal or policy measures in the agement. They were also requested to describe field of AnGR management. They indicate that the nature of any collaboration reported and, if existing legal and policy frameworks are appro- relevant, to describe any benefits obtained by priate to the needs of the respective country. For pursuing a collaborative approach. The results of example, the United States of America reports a 3A1. the scoring exercise are summarized in Table relatively non-interventionist approach in many - The average scores for the extent of collabor AnGR-related fields of policy and legislation (see ation between the subsectors of genetic resources 3 Section F), but indicates that this creates a Part management are rather low. However, there fective AnGR man- conducive framework for ef is a lot of variation between countries in terms agement. The state of implementation of laws of the levels of collaboration reported. While and policies is at a high level in North America percent of countries report no collaboration 20 and a medium to high level in Europe and the Caucasus. However, in other regions there seem 2 a ll reporting countries were included in the analysis of the to be major weaknesses in implementation. It is level of implementation r egardless of their reported level of possible that the low scores in this field are in “on-paper” provision. rt on second re he t o P 224 G a and od o r F o F ces r U reso netic r L G a M ani s ' d L r o W the F o e U t L U ic r e the state

266 Ut o ns and staKehoLders inst t i i a that they were referring to legal instruments), in any of the areas of management considered, percent of countries indicate an extensive level 16 there are a number of reports of “extensive” of of integration. There are also some reports integration. In the case of “joint national strat- integrated activities in fields such as marketing. egies or action plans” (some countries specified t BL a a 1 e 3 Reported extent of collaboration in the management of the various subsectors of genetic resources for food and agriculture Regions and Field of collaboration subregions Joint national strategies education Number of countries or action plans Mobilization of resources Training activities and Characterization Genetic improvement Product development and/or marketing Conservation strategies, programmes or projects Awareness-raising 0.6 40 Africa 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.7 0.3 ast 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.8 0.4 8 frica a e n 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.7 0.6 20 frica a orth and West s 0.5 a frica 12 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.4 outhern 0.5 20 0.6 0.5 0.4 1.0 0.6 0.5 0.5 Asia c 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.8 0.5 0.8 4 sia a entral 0.8 0.4 1.5 1.0 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.0 4 sia a ast e s 0.7 outh a sia 6 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.2 s 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.3 6 sia a outheast 0.4 0.4 0.3 7 Southwest Pacific 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.1 0.1 Europe and the 0.5 0.7 1.0 0.5 0.3 0.7 0.7 0.9 35 Caucasus Latin America 0.6 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.8 0.6 18 0.7 0.9 and the Caribbean c aribbean 5 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 5 0.8 entral 0.8 a merica c 1.0 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.9 1.0 8 merica a outh s 1.3 0.9 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.9 0.0 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 North America 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 Near and Middle 0.0 7 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.4 0.3 0.1 East World 128 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.5 Note: Countries provided a score (none, limited or extensive) for the level of collaboration in each category of activity. The scores were converted into numerical values (none = 0; limited = 1; extensive = 2). The figures shown in the table are average scores for the respective categories. Country reports, 2014. Source: the second rePort on 225 G a and od o r F o F resoUrces c i net e c L a M i an s ' rLd o W the F o ULtUre i r G the state

267 ac t e state o F ca P h ities 3 Part use of natural resources and the reduction of con- For example, the country report from Poland mentions the “Kurpie model”, an NGO initiative flicts related to resource use. to promote agricultural biodiversity, under which indigenous livestock breeds and plant varieties have been reintroduced and promoted for use in Institutional frameworks at 3 organic agriculture and sustainable development subr egional and regional levels in the northeastern part of the country. Plant and animal products from the scheme are jointly mar - keted in shops in the capital city. Regional focal points and 3.1 Most countries did not report specific insti- networks for the management of tutions or stakeholder bodies that coordinate animal genetic r esources activities across the various subsectors of genetic Collaboration between countries at regional level resources. Some country reports note that the can facilitate action in many areas of AnGR man- fact that different types of genetic resources are agement. The Global Plan of Action for Animal addressed by different ministries is a constraint Genetic Resources calls for the establishment of to collaboration and coordination. Nonetheless, regional focal points for the management of a number of coordinating structures or bodies AnGR and for the strengthening of international of various types are mentioned in the country 3A1). Detailed advice on the networks (see Box reports, including ministerial or interministe- establishment and operation of regional focal rial committees (e.g. Finland and Gabon), foun- points is provided in F The AO’s guidelines on dations (e.g. France), genetic resources centres development of institutional frameworks for the (e.g. Brazil, Norway and Sweden) and genetic (FAO, management of animal genetic resources resources networks (e.g. the Plurinational State 2011a). As of mid-2014, the following focal points of Bolivia). In other countries, particular stake- and networks were in operation: holders play an integrating role with regard to Asian Animal Genetic Resources Network; • specific aspects of genetic resources management • European Regional Focal Point for Animal (e.g. gene banking or research). Genetic Resources; In addition to the above-mentioned concern Regional Focal Point for Latin America and • about lack of coordination between govern- the Caribbean; ment ministries, the main constraints to integ- • Sub-Regional Focal Point for West and rated approaches to genetic resources manage- Central Africa; and ment noted in the country reports are lack of Animal Genetic Resources Network South- • funds, insufficient training of staff working in west Pacific. relevant institutions, lack of sensitization and As part of the reporting process for the second education among stakeholders and the general SoW-AnGR, regional focal points and networks public, lack of national-level strategies and were invited to report on regional-level activi- legislation, and lack of coordination between ties contributing to the implementation of the administrative and field levels. Some country Global Plan of Action. Reports were received reports suggest that relatively small-scale ini- from Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Carib- 3 tiatives, such as integrated projects and work- bean and the Southwest Pacific. The reports can shops, could be a means of fostering collabor- be accessed at http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4787e/ ation on a larger scale. i4787e03.htm. Regional focal points and net- The main potential benefits of an integrated works also participated in the previous round of approach foreseen in the country reports are: in administrative terms, savings in time and costs; 3 For information on the r eporting process, see “ a bout this and, at field level, more efficient and sustainable publication” in the preliminary pages of this report. rt on second re he t o P 226 G a and od o r F o F ces r U reso netic r L G a M ani s ' d L r o W the F o e U t L U ic r e the state

268 o ns and staKehoLders Ut inst i i t a reporting on the implementation of the Global cation between National Coordinators has been 4 Plan of Action (FAO, 2012). established. Other activities have included char - acterization and conservation projects for locally The European Regional Focal Point is the longest- adapted pigs and chickens, involving a number established and most active network. During the of countries. In 2012, the recently established period since the adoption of the Global Plan of Sub-Regional Focal Point for West and Central Action (2007), it has been active in the implemen- Africa reported a number of priorities for future tation of all four of the Plan’s strategic priority action. However, it did not participate in the 2014 areas. In the field of characterization inventory round of reporting. The Asian Animal Genetic and monitoring (Strategic Priority Area 1), actions Resources Network, established in late 2013, has have included work on the establishment of a agreed an organizational structure and intends regional information system for AnGR (the Euro- to focus on information exchange, the provision pean Farm Animal Biodiversity Information System of assistance and technical advice, and the mobil- – EFABIS) and efforts to harmonize risk-status and ization of funds. endangerment criteria. In the field of sustainable use and development (Strategic Priority Area 2), actions have included contributing to discussions 3.2 Other collaborative activities at related to the European Union’s legal framework r egional and subregional levels on access and benefit-sharing. In the field of con- The focal points and networks discussed above servation (Strategic Priority Area 3), actions have exist specifically to strengthen the implement- included organizing training activities, providing ation of the Global Plan of Action at regional level. support to a number of conservation projects However, a range of other players also contri- and, in 2014, the establishment of the European bute to this goal. The roles of regional political Gene Bank Network for Animal Genetic Resources and economic unions and communities (e.g. the 3 Section D). In the 3D8 in Part (EUGENA) (see Box European Union and the subregional economic field of policies, institutions and capacity-building communities of Africa) in the establishment of 4), actions have included (Strategic Priority Area regional-level legal and policy instruments rel- contributing to discussions on the development of evant to AnGR management are discussed in the European Union’s legal and policy frameworks 3 Section . Regional and subregional-level F Part in areas relevant to AnGR management. AnGR management activities can also be organ- The Regional Focal Point for Latin Ameri- ized or supported by non-governmental organi- can and the Caribbean was established in 2007. zations (NGOs), intergovernmental organizations Its main activity has been the organization of a (e.g. UN agencies) or research organizations (e.g. - number of regional workshops for National Coor the centres of the Consultative Group on Inter- 5 dinators. Priorities for the future are reported to national Agricultural Research – CGIAR). Coun- include seeking financial support for the organiz- tries can also enter directly into collaborative ation of training courses and for collaborative activities with their regional neighbours. activities at regional and/or bilateral levels. In the While the analysis presented in the Synthesis Southwest Pacific, an online network for discus- progress report on the implementation of the sion, dissemination of information and communi- (FAO, 2014) indicates that Global Plan of Action international collaboration is one of the elements of the Global Plan of Action in which least pro- 4 a urope, Latin merica and the r eports were received from e gress has been made, a number of countries c s outhwest Pacific, and West and c entral aribbean, the esources nimal Genetic t he a sian etwork was n a r a frica. report that they have participated in collabor- not in operation at the time. a ll regional progress reports ative activities at regional level. For example, in ’s web site: http://www.fao.org/ag/ are available on F ao againfo/programmes/en/genetics/ eporting_system_2007-11. r 5 .cgiar.org http://www html#secondo the second rePort on 227 a G and od o r F o F resoUrces c i net ULtUre G L a M i an s ' rLd o W the F o c r i e the state

269 P t e state o F ca h ac ities 3 Part 3A4) and the Danubian Countries Alliance in Box response to a specific question about regional of Genes in Animal Species (DAGENE). Research situ conservation projects, more than 40 percent organizations of active at regional level include the countries indicate that they have contributed to the development and implementation of Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry such programmes. A somewhat lower number Lands (ACSAD) (mandate covering all Arab states), percent) report that they have whose activities include inventory and character (approximately 30 - contributed to “international cooperative inven - ization studies, breeding programmes, AnGR- tory, characterization and monitoring activities related training activities and awareness-raising involving countries sharing transboundary breeds in the fields of conservation and sustainable use. and similar production systems”, many of which are likely to have been at regional level. Collabor- ation in these fields is more advanced in devel- Institutional frameworks 4 oped regions than elsewhere in the world. and stakeholders at The level of international cooperation within international level Europe is greatly increased by the above- described work of the European Regional Focal A range of different entities contribute to the Point. However, a number of examples of bi- institutional framework for the management of lateral collaboration, or collaboration involving AnGR at international level (i.e. global or span- small groups of countries, are also reported. In the ning more than one region). As at regional level, Americas, Brazil, Canada and the United States of these include intergovernmental organizations, America have cooperated in the development of NGOs and research organizations. International an information system for the management of policy and legal frameworks developed by global data related to conservation activities. The main intergovernmental bodies such as the Convention other reported initiative involving countries from on Biological Diversity (CBD), FAO and the World Latin America and the Caribbean is the REGEN- Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) are dis- SUR Platform created by the Southern Cone F. 3 Section cussed in Part Cooperative Program for Technological Develop- The international instrument most directly ment in Agri-Food and Agroindustry (PROCISUR) focused on AnGR management is, clearly, the of the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources, on Agriculture of the Organization of Ameri- which was negotiated under the auspices of FAO’s can States, which in 2010 expanded its mandate Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and to include animals and micro-organisms in add- Agriculture. The Commission is responsible for ition to plants. Collaborative work is envisaged overseeing the implementation of the Global Plan in the fields of sustainable use, conservation, of Action and FAO plays the leading role glob- policies and capacity-building, the aim being to ally in terms of both supporting and monitoring reinforce the implementation of national strate- implementation. FAO’s activities are described in gies and action plans for AnGR in the countries of 3A5 and 3A6. The Commission provides an Boxes the Southern Cone of South America. Regional- intergovernmental forum for ongoing discussion level initiatives in Africa have mostly been of issues relevant to the management of AnGR implemented under the auspices of the African and other biodiversity for food and agriculture. Union Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources The ongoing work of both WIPO and the Sec- (AU-IBAR). retariat of the CBD also supports the implement- AnGR-focused NGOs working at regional or ation of the Global Plan of Action in various subregional levels are reported mainly from ways. Both bodies submitted reports on their Europe. Examples include Safeguard for Agricul- activities as part of the second SoW-AnGR report- tural Varieties in Europe (SAVE Foundation) (see ing process. WIPO’s report notes, in particular, rt on second re he t o P 228 G a and od o r F o F ces r U reso netic r L G a M ani s ' d L r o W the F o e U t L U ic r e the state

270 inst t Ut i o ns and staKehoLders i a a 4 Box 3 Facilitating the establishment of institutional frameworks for animal genetic r esources management – lessons from a project in Bulgaria As part of the Swiss Agency for Cooperation-funded • the need for thematic workshops that help ensure that all stakeholders have the same level programme Linking Nature Protection and Sustainable 1 Rural Development, of knowledge; and Safeguard for Agricultural the need to revise subsidy programmes on the • Varieties in Europe (SAVE) Foundation was invited to basis of recommendations from the European help address the institutional framework for animal Regional Focal Point for Animal Genetic genetic resources management in Bulgaria. Resources and the results of genotyping studies. In 2014, SAVE undertook two missions to Bulgaria: Stakeholders from all levels, government to farmers, the first to meet stakeholders and gain an overview attended the meetings and participated actively in the of the state of conservation measures for indigenous discussions. SAVE’s role in this context was to make breeds at risk, both at policy level and on the ground; recommendations based on the discussions, with and the second to facilitate stakeholder meetings. implementation then taking place at national level. These meetings addressed both technical matters Experiences from this project and from SAVE’s previous related to the genotyping of livestock populations work in similar capacities show that the involvement of and matters related to the development of effective all stakeholders in discussions of institutional frameworks institutions and policies. Among the latter, the helps to create a transparent approach that allows following topics received particular attention: everyone to participate in the planning of future activities • the need to improve communication among and adds sustainability to the process. stakeholders; the need to unify scattered animal genetic • resources-related policy and regulatory Provided by Elli Broxham, SAVE Foundation. provisions, so that the overall strategy is clarified 1 .swiss-contribution.admin.ch/bulgaria/en/Home/Projects/ http://www Project_Detail?projectinfoID=214077 and any contradictions can be addressed; As discussed in Part 3 Section F, the Secretariats of its Patent landscape report on animal genetic the CBD and the Commission have agreed a joint resources (WIPO, 2014) and ongoing negoti- work plan with the aim of promoting synergies ations taking place in the Intergovernmental in efforts to implement the CBD’s Strategic Plan Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic 6 Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore. for Biodiversity 2011–2020 and the Commission’s Multi-Year Progamme of Work. inter The report from the CBD Secretariat notes, Another UN body that contributes to the alia , work taking place under the Global Taxon- 7 implementation of the Global Plan of Action, omy Initiative, efforts to promote the ecosystem and submitted a report on its activities, is the approach, work related to the Nagoya Protocol International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), on Access and Benefit Sharing, work related to which assists countries through the transfer of the Convention’s Article 8(j) (Traditional Knowl- nuclear-related technologies and complementary edge, Innovations and Practices) and the periodic 8 tools. AnGR-related technologies that feature in Global Biodiversity Outlook. publication of the IAEA’s work include molecular genetic testing, hormone monitoring and artificial insemination. 6 .wipo.int/tk/en/igc http://www The main international research organizations 7 .cbd.int/gti/ https://www 8 with mandates relevant to the management https://www .cbd.int/gbo/ the second rePort on 229 a G and od o r F o F resoUrces c r net e G L a M i an s ' rLd o W the F o ULtUre i c i the state

271 ac h F ca P e state o ities t 3 Part development. Bioversity’s AnGR-related work Box 3 a 5 focuses mainly on economic valuation (see Part 4 F AO’s role in the management of animal Section E). All three organizations submitted genetic resources reports on their activities as part of the second SoW-AnGR reporting process. FAO’s role in animal genetic resources (AnGR) The number of international NGOs actively sup- management focuses on supporting countries in their porting the implementation of the Global Plan of implementation of the Global Plan of Action for Action is limited. Only a few organizations in this Animal Genetic Resources, particularly by: category submitted reports as part of the second • raising awareness and promoting AnGR-related Sow-AnGR reporting process: Heifer International; issues; the International Committee for Animal Record- • collaborating with international bodies ing; the League for Pastoral Peoples; and Rare and organizations addressing sectoral and Breeds International. The missions of these organ- cross-sectoral issues of relevance to AnGR izations (along with those of other relevant inter - management; national and regional organizations) are shown in developing and maintaining a global • 3A2. Table information and communication structure A number of NGOS and civil society organiza- for AnGR – the Domestic Animal Diversity tions have also taken on a campaigning role at Information System (DAD-IS) and the Domestic international level. The emergence of the concept Animal Diversity Network (DAD-Net); of “Livestock Keepers’ Rights”, for example, was supporting the establishment of National and • 9 discussed in the first SoW-AnGR Regional Focal Points; (recent develop- coordinating inter-regional activity; • 3A7). Another issue ments are described in Box • monitoring the implementation of the Global that has become increasingly prominent in the Plan of Action; work of civil society organizations in recent years overseeing the preparation of policy and • is the development of so-called biocultural com- technical guidelines; munity protocols in livestock-keeping commun- • assisting countries with the development of 4 Section D – particularly Box 4D3). ities (see Part national capacity in AnGR management; developing project and programme proposals; • and Changes since 2005 5 • mobilizing donor resources. compares the scores for the state of 3A3 Table capacity and provision presented above in Sub- For further information see: http://www.fao.org/ag/angr.html 2 to the equivalent figures from the first section 10 -AnGR process, SoW taking into account the countries that participated in both report - 109 ing processes. It is important to note that the figures are not directly comparable. Aside from of AnGR are Bioversity International, the Inter- the inevitable element of subjectivity involved national Center for Agricultural Research in the in such scoring exercises, the scores used in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) and the International Livestock first SoW-AnGR were allocated on the basis of Research Institute (ILRI). The latter two organiz- the textual descriptions presented in the country ations undertake a range of activities relevant to reports rather than being directly assigned by the the implementation of the Global Plan of Action, including characterization studies, work on the establishment of community-based breeding 9 F ao , 2007a, page 291. 10 programmes and provision of support to policy able t 44 to 46 and 58 (pages 205–213). F ao , 2007a, Figures rt on second re he t o P 230 G a and od o r F o F ces r U reso netic t L G a M ani s ' d L r o W the F o L U r e U ic r e the state

272 t i Ut i o ns and staKehoLders inst a Box 3 6 a The Domestic Animal Diversity Network (DAD-Net) governmental organizations. Topics discussed include Established in 2005 by FAO’s Animal Production and Health Division, DAD-Net is a moderated global training and education opportunities, research and electronic discussion forum where information and technological developments and technology transfer. experiences on issues relevant to the management of As of October 2014, the DAD-Net had 2 500 members, from 185 countries. Regional subgroups have been animal genetic resources can be discussed informally. Membership is open to anybody interested in animal established for Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and genetic resources management and is particularly Caribbean, East Africa, North Africa, West and Central relevant to National Coordinators for the Management Africa, and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. of Animal Genetic Resources and their stakeholder For further information see https://dgroups.org/fao/dad-net\ networks, decision-makers, academics and non- 11 Many examples of improvements to institutional countries themselves. While the figures there- fore have to be interpreted with some caution, frameworks are reported. However, relative to the global trends over the 2005 to 2014 period the amount of work that remains to be done in have been positive (scores increased) or neutral order to establish effective institutional frame- works in all countries, progress has been modest. (scores stayed the same) in all aspects of the insti- On the positive side, the number of countries tutional framework considered. The figures indi- having a National Coordinator for the Manage- cate declines in some areas of capacity in some ment of Animal Genetic Resources in place is regions, most commonly in Latin America and the Caribbean. These declines are clearly matters of higher (in 2014) than ever before. The number of countries that have developed or are in the some concern, but are perhaps accounted for by process of developing national strategies and overly generous allocation of scores during the 3 Section F) is also action plans for AnGR (see Part first SoW-AnGR process. encouraging given that national plans target - At international level, the major change since ing AnGR management in a holistic sense were 2005 has been the adoption of the Global Plan of rare prior to the adoption of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources. Implemen- Action. Thirty-percent of country reports note an tation of most of the Global Plan of Action’s stra- increase in national funding for AnGR manage- tegic priorities takes place mainly at national level F). As described 3F1 in Part 3 Section ment since 2007. (see Table above, activities related to the development of Given that at the time the first SoW-AnGR was - institutional frameworks fall mainly within Stra prepared, only one regional focal point for AnGR tegic Priority Area 4 of the Global Plan of Action (Europe) was in operation, the existence of four 3A1). The (see Box Synthesis progress report on additional regional focal points and networks the implementation of the Global Plan of Action represents a significant step forward. However, (FAO, 2014) includes an analysis of the progress there is clearly scope for further improvement, made (as reported in the country reports) in the both in terms of the coverage of regional and implementation of the various elements of the subregional focal points and in terms of the level Global Plan of Action since its adoption in 2007. of activity of existing focal points. The number of international organizations sub- stantially involved in promoting the sustainable use, 11 ountries had the opportunity to request amendments during c development and conservation of AnGR has not the r eviewing process. the second rePort on 231 c r F o od and a G r i c ULtUre i net e F L a M i an s ' rLd o W the F o o resoUrces G the state

273 ac t F ca P e state o ities h 3 Part a BL t e 3 2 a Organizations supporting animal genetic resources management at regional and international levels Type Description of mission Organization name and web link frican Union a a ovide leadership in the development of animal resources for o pr o t frica through G i nterafrican Bureau for i a ) a frican Union Member s tates and r egional e conomic ar nimal r esources ( B U- i supporting and empowering a http://www.au-ibar.org/ ommunities. c i o develop plant varieties and animal br t o G eeds resistant to drought and integrated c rab a a tudies of rid Zones s enter for the management of water resources, preserve the environment and biodiversity and combat and ry Lands ( acsad d ) http://www.acsad.org/ desertification. c o deliver scientific evidence, management practices and policy options to use and G iar t i Bioversity nternational http://www.bioversityinternational.org/ safeguar d agricultural biodiversity to attain sustainable global food and nutrition security. onvention: c o support the goals of the t n U t he onvention of c ecretariat of the s - the conservation of biological diversity iversity ( d Biological ) d B c www.cbd.int/secretariat/ - the sustainable use of its components - the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources. anube river basin. n G o t eserve genetics in the o pr d d a anubian c ountries lliance of Genes in ene s a pecies ( ) da G nimal http://www.dagene.eu/ e uropean Federation of a nimal s cience o G n omote the improvement, organization and enlightened practice of animal o pr t ( P) eaa production by scientific research, the application of science and cooperation between www.eaap.org/ the national animal production organizations, scientists and practitioners of member countries. t o ough sustainable, values-based holistic community G n o eradicate poverty and hunger thr nternational i eifer h www.heifer.org/ development through distributing animals, along with agricultural and values-based training, to families in need around the world as a means of providing self-sufficiency. o support Member s U n t tates in the peaceful application of nuclear science and technology e nergy iaea nternational ) a tomic a gency ( i in a safe and effective manner to provide their communities with more, better and safer – Joint F iaea ao ivision d / www.iaea.org/ food and agricultural produce while sustaining natural resources. o impr t iar G ove the livelihoods of the resource-poor across the world’s dry areas. c gricultural entre for c nternational a i a ry d esearch in the r reas ( ) icarda www.icarda.cgiar.org/ i nternational c ommittee for a nimal omote the development and improvement of the activities of performance recording G o t o pr n ecording ( r ) icar and the evaluation of livestock. www.icar.org/ c G iar t o impr ove food security and reduce poverty in developing countries through research for esearch r nternational Livestock i nstitute i better and more sustainable use of livestock. ( ) i L ri http://www.ilri.org/ t o G n o support pastoral societies and other small-scale livestock keepers to pursue their League for Pastoral Peoples and ough research, technical support, advisory services and own vision of development thr e evelopment (LPP) d ndogenous Livestock http://www.pastoralpeoples.org/ advocacy, including endogenous development built on local knowledge, institutions and resources. G o o safeguar d the sustainable use of plants, farm animals and forests, securing the i t nord - ordic Genetic r esource en n G http://www.nordgen.org/ broad diversity of genetic resources linked to food and agriculture through conservation and sustainable use, solid documentation and information work and international agreements. event the loss of diversity in global farm animal genetic resources. o pr G t o n r i are Breeds nternational http://www.rarebreedsinternational.org/ n uropean umbrella organization for the promotion and coordination of activities for the a o G e afeguard for s gricultural Varieties in a in situ conservation of at risk breeds of domestic animals and cultivated plant varieties. urope ( V e Foundation) e sa http://www.save-foundation.net/ n fective international intellectual property o lead the development of a balanced and ef t U o i World ntellectual Property rganization www.wipo.int/ system that enables innovation and creativity for the benefit of all. Note: CGIAR = intergovernmental organization; Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research; IGO = non-governmental organization; UN = NGO 3A5. United Nations. For information on FAO’s work in this field see Box = rt on second re he t o P 232 G a and od o r F o F ces r U reso netic r L G a M ani s ' d L r o W the F o e U t L U ic r e the state

274 t Ut i o ns and staKehoLders inst i a a Box 3 7 Livestock Keepers’ Rights Principle 3: Traditional breeds represent collective “Livestock Keepers’ Rights” is a concept developed by property, products of indigenous knowledge and civil society (including non-governmental organizations cultural expression of Livestock Keepers ... and herders’ associations) during the “Interlaken Based on these principles articulated and implicit Process”.* It is based on the rationale that many breeds in existing legal instruments and international in developing countries disintegrate because of the loss agreements, Livestock Keepers from traditional of the customary rights of livestock keepers to sustain livestock keeping communities and/or adhering to their livestock on common property resources, as well ecological principles of animal production, shall be as policies that are adverse to small-scale livestock given the following Livestock Keepers’ Rights: keepers. Livestock Keepers’ Rights are a set of principles Livestock Keepers have the right to make breeding 1. that would support and encourage livestock keepers to decisions and breed the breeds they maintain. continue making a living from their breeds and thereby Livestock Keepers shall have the right 2. achieve the combined effect of conserving diversity and to participate in policy formulation and improving rural livelihood opportunities. implementation processes on animal genetic The term Livestock Keepers’ Rights was first coined resources for food and agriculture. during the 2002 World Food Summit, in allusion to Livestock Keepers shall have the right to 3. the Farmers’ Rights enshrined in the International appropriate training and capacity building and Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and equal access to relevant services enabling and Agriculture. In a series of consultations and workshops supporting them to raise livestock and to better held with hundreds of livestock keepers from more process and market their products. than 20 countries in Karen (Kenya) in 2003, Bellagio Livestock Keepers shall have the right to 4. (Italy) in 2006, Yabello (Ethiopia) in 2006, Sadri participate in the identification of research (India) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) in 2007, Livestock needs and research design with respect to Keepers’ Rights were elaborated into a much more their genetic resources, as is mandated by the comprehensive concept than Farmers’ Rights. Rather principle of Prior Informed Consent. than representing legal rights, they correspond to Livestock Keepers shall have the right to 5. development principles that would help livestock ef fectively access information on issues related keepers continue to conserve biodiversity. to their local breeds and livestock diversity.” The Declaration on Livestock Keepers’ Rights that Principles and rights emerged from the Kalk Bay Workshop references During a workshop with legal experts held in Kalk these principles and rights to existing international Bay, South Africa, in December 2008, the rights were agreements and legal frameworks such as the further refined and subdivided into principles and Convention on Biological Diversity, the United rights: Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, the “Principle 1: Livestock Keepers are creators of Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources breeds and custodians of animal genetic resources for and the Interlaken Declaration on Animal Genetic food and agriculture ... Resources, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Principle 2: Livestock Keepers and the sustainable the International Covenant on Economic, Social and use of traditional breeds are dependent on the Cultural Rights, the United Nations Declaration on conservation of their respective ecosystems ... the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, the Convention *“The Interlaken process” was the process that culminated in the on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of adoption of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources in Cultural Expressions, the Convention Interlaken, Switzerland in 2007. (Cont.) the second rePort on 233 a and od o r F o F resoUrces c i net e c L a M i an s ' rLd o W the F o ULtUre i r G G the state

275 ac h e state o F ca P t ities 3 Part 7 a Box 3 (Cont.) Livestock Keepers’ Rights (No. 169) concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in keepers and support them in making a living in their traditional agro-ecosystems. Independent Countries, the Declaration on the Rights of The discussion about Livestock Keepers’ Rights may Persons belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities and other pertinent instruments. be revived once The Nagoya Protocol on Access and The Declaration was signed by a large number Benefit-Sharing is ratified, as the Protocol requires its of individuals and organizations. Subsequently, the Contracting Parties to share monetary and non-monetary benefits arising from the utilization of traditional participants of the International Technical Expert knowledge associated with genetic resources, and from Workshop on Access and Benefit Sharing in Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, held in the utilization of genetic resources held by indigenous and local communities, with these communities. As Wageningen, the Netherlands, in December 2010, described above, non-monetary benefits, such as the recommended that “Livestock Keepers’ Rights should participation of livestock keepers in policy formulation be addressed.” and implementation processes on animal genetic Livestock Keepers’ Rights are frequently referred resources, training and capacity-building, access to services, to as a potential tool for protecting the rights of livestock keepers in a context where scientists and marketing support, identification of research needs and access to information, are among the demands made in industries are making increasing use of the intellectual property rights system to protect their advances in the Declaration on Livestock Keepers’ Rights. breeding and associated technologies. However, their Provided by Ilse Köhler-Rollefson. scope is not restricted to the right to breed, save and For further information see: Köhler-Rollefson and Wanyama, 2003; exchange genetic material. It encompasses a broader , 2010b; Köhler- et al. Köhler-Rollefson , 2010a, Köhler-Rollefson et al. Rollefson et al. 2012; FAO 2011c. approach that would strengthen small-scale livestock a a 3 t BL e 3 Institutions and stakeholders – changes 2005 to 2014 Europe and Southwest Latin America Asia Africa orld North America W Near and Pacific the Caucasus and the Middle East Caribbean n = 35 n = 5 n = 109 n = 5 n = 29 n = 16 n = 1 n = 18 2005 2014 ∆ ∆ 2005 2014 ∆ 2005 2014 ∆ ∆ 2005 2014 ∆ 2005 2014 2005 2014 ∆ 2005 2014 ∆ 2005 2014 1.4 1.6 0.2 0.8 0.4 -0.4 2.1 2.3 0.2 1.6 1.8 0.2 3 2 -1 1.2 1.8 0.6 1.4 1.7 esearch 0.8 1.5 0.7 0.3 r 1.8 0.5 0.6 1.4 0.8 2.2 2.3 0.1 1.6 1.7 0.1 1.3 3 0 1 1.8 0.8 1.4 1.8 0.4 1.4 0.7 Knowledge 0.7 3 1.1 0.2 1.5 1.7 0.2 0.4 1.2 0.8 2.2 2 -0.2 1.6 1.2 -0.4 2 2 0 1 1 0 1.5 1.5 0 eness 0.9 war a 1 1.5 0.1 0.8 0.6 -0.2 2.1 2.2 0.1 1.8 1.4 -0.4 3 3 0 1.2 1 -0.2 1.5 1.5 0 i nfrastructure 1.1 1.4 0.1 takeholder s 0.5 0.5 0.4 1.2 0.8 2 2.2 0.2 1.4 1.5 0.1 3 1.1 -1 0.4 0.8 0.4 1.2 1.5 0.3 2 1.5 0.6 1 participation Laws and 0 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.2 2 2.4 0.4 1.4 1.1 -0.3 3 3 1.2 0.8 1.2 0.4 1.2 1.6 0.4 0.7 1.8 0.5 1.2 policies mplementation i 0.7 of laws and 1.5 0.6 0.2 0.8 0.6 1.8 2.3 0.5 1 0.9 -0.1 3 3 0 0.6 0.9 0.3 0.9 1.4 0.5 0.9 0.3 1 policies This comparison is based on the country reports of 109 countries that reported for both the first and second SoWAnGRs. Notes: The date 2005 refers to the year in which the last country reports were submitted during the first reporting process (some reports were submitted as early as 2002). Scores: 0 = none; 1 = low; 2 = medium; 3 = high. In 2005, laws and policies were treated as a single category, while in 2014 they were scored separately. The 2014 scores for “laws and policies” and “implementation of laws and policies” shown in the table are averages of the scores for policies and the scores for laws. n= number of responding countries. ∆ = difference in score between 2005 and 2014. he second re rt on P o t 234 ani G and od o r F o F ces r r reso netic e L G a M a s ' d L r o W the F o e ic U L t U r U the state

276 i i o ns and staKehoLders inst Ut t a increased since 2005. However, four international quate or poorly implemented policies are among organizations (AU-IBAR, IAEA, ILRI and the SAVE the main reported constraints to the establishment Foundation) report that their budgets for activities of effective AnGR management programmes in all supporting AnGR-related activities have increased fields from surveying and monitoring to conserv- ation and genetic improvement. since the adoption of the Global Plan of Action. Conclusions and priorities References 6 In general, the conclusions drawn in the first t 2014. Country reports. he reports can be accessed at SoW-AnGR remain valid. Without effective insti- http://www .fao.org/3/a-i4787e/i4787e03.htm. tutions, it is difficult to make progress in terms of FAO. 2007a. The State of the World’s Animal Genetic strengthening AnGR management programmes. Resources for Food and Agriculture , edited by B. Major gaps and weaknesses in institutional r r ome (available at http:// ischkowsky & d . Pilling. frameworks still need to be addressed. The most www.fao.org/docrep/010/a1250e/a1250e00.htm). positive development in recent years has probably Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic FAO. 2007b. been the more widespread establishment of spe- . Resources and the Interlaken Declaration ome r cifically AnGR-focused structures and instruments, (available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a1404e/ in particular National Focal Points (appointment a1404e00.htm). of National Coordinators) and national strategies FAO. 2009. Preparation of national strategies and action and action plans. These developments indicate plans for animal genetic resources . F ao a nimal that AnGR management has acquired at least a Production and ealth Guidelines. h n o. 2. r ome foothold on national political agendas. This is (available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/i0770e/ further illustrated by the large number of country i0770e00.htm). reports submitted despite the short period of 2010. FAO. Breeding strategies for sustainable man- time available in which to prepare them. The agement of animal genetic resources . F nimal a ao development and strengthening of regional focal Production and ome ealth Guidelines. n o. 3. r h points and networks is another indicator of coun- (available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/i1103e/ tries’ interest in AnGR management. i1103e00.htm). While legal and policy frameworks are still Developing the institutional framework for 2011a. FAO. reported to be far from adequate in many coun- the management of animal genetic resources . F ao tries, they have been supplemented by a sub- a n nimal Production and ealth Guidelines. o 6. h stantial number of new instruments over recent r ome (available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/ F for further discussion). 3 Section years (see Part ba0054e/ba0054e00.pdf). , effective implementation remains a However FAO. 2011b. Surveying and monitoring of animal genetic problem for many countries. In many cases, the a ao ealth h nimal Production and resources . F basic prerequisites for effective policy implement- Guidelines. o. 7. r ome (http://www.fao.org/do- n ation – physical and organizational infra- crep/014/ba0055e/ba0055e00.htm). structure, stakeholder participation, and know- 2011c. FAO. Report of the International Technical Expert ledge and awareness of AnGR-related issues – Workshop: Exploring the Need for Specific Measures remain weak or absent. The consequences of for Access and Benefit-Sharing Of Animal Genetic these weaknesses are evident in many of the areas a r c G -13/11/ F . Resources for Food and Agriculture of AnGR management discussed in the country c irc.1. c ommission on Genetic r esources for Food reports. Aside from the ubiquitous lack of suffi- ome, t hirteenth r egular s ession, r a griculture, and cient funding, lack of knowledge and technical 18–22 July 2011. r ome (available at http://www.fao. skills, lack of stakeholder participation and inade- org/docrep/meeting/022/mb393e.pdf). the second rePort on 235 G a and od o r F o F resoUrces c i net e c L a M i an s ' rLd o W the F o ULtUre i r G the state

277 t e state o F ca P ac ities h Part 3 Synthesis progress report on the imple- 2012. FAO. Köhler-Rollefson, I. Mathias, E., Singh, H., mentation of the Global Plan of Action for Animal 2010a. Livestock Vivekanandan, P. & Wanyama, J. ommission on Genetic c Genetic Resources – 2012 . Keepers’ ights: r iscussion. d tate of s Animal t he r esources for Food and a griculture, Fourteenth Genetic Resources, 47: 1–5 (available at http://www. pril 2013. a ome 15–19 r egular s r ession, fao.org/docrep/013/i1823t/i1823t00.pdf). a c i F r ome (available at http://www. r G -14/13/ nf.15. Köhler-Rollefson, I., Vivekanandan, P. & Rathore, fao.org/docrep/meeting/027/mg044e.pdf). ights and Biocultural r H.S. 2010b. Livestock Keepers n vivo i conservation of animal genetic FAO. 2013. Protocols: tools for protecting biodiversity and the ao F resources. ealth nimal Production and h a 12(1): 35–36. LEISA India, livelihoods of the poor. r Guidelines. n ome (available at http://www. o. 14. Köhler-Rollefson, I. & Wanyama, J. (eds.). 2003. The fao.org/docrep/018/i3327e/i3327e00.htm). Karen Commitment. Proceedings of a conference FAO. 2014. Synthesis progress report on the imple- of indigenous livestock breeding communities on mentation of the Global Plan of Action for Animal animal genetic resources. Karen, Kenya, 27–30 . Genetic Resources – 2014 nformation i d ocument, October 2003 . Bonn, Germany, German n Forum o G t ntergovernmental i s ession of the e ighth echnical on evelopment (available at http:// e nvironment & d W a nimal Genetic r esources for orking Group on www.pastoralpeoples.org/docs/karen.pdf). ovember 2014. a griculture, r ome 26–28 n Food and Mäki-Tanila, A. & Hiemstra, S.J. egional issues r 2010. G /WG- F a c a nG r -8/14/ i nf.5. r ome (available at r on animal genetic resources: trends, policies and http://www.fao.org/3/a-at136e.pdf). networking in , Animal Genetic Resources urope. e Köhler-Rollefson, I., Kakar, A.R., Mathias, E., 47: 125–136 (available at http://www.fao.org/ Rathore, H.S. & Wanyama 2012. Biocultural J. , docrep/013/i1823t/i1823t00.pdf). community protocols: tools for securing the assets of WIPO. 2014. Patent landscape report on animal genetic Participatory Learning and Action, livestock keepers. resources , by P. o ldham, s . h all & c . Barnes. Geneva, 65 (Biodiversity and culture: exploring community witzerland (available at http://tinyurl.com/q5xbd2y). s protocols, rights and consent): 109–118. he second re rt on t P o 236 ani G and od o r F o F ces r U reso netic e L G a M a s ' d L r o W the F o r r ic U L t U e the state

278 B Section B Characterization, inventory and monitoring Intr were obliged to provide this information for the 1 oduction “big five” livestock species (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and chickens). Providing information on Characterization, inventory and monitoring of other species was optional. The other subsection animal genetic resources (AnGR) are essential to addressed countries’ progress in implementing their sustainable management. Information on Strategic Priority Area 1 of the Global Plan of breeds’ characteristics facilitates effective plan- Action for Animal Genetic Resources (Character- ning of how and where they can best be used and ization, Inventory and Monitoring of Trends and developed. Assessing risk status (the likelihood Associated Risks). In this subsection, countries that breeds will become extinct if no remedial were required to report on the state of develop- action is taken) is a key element of AnGR manage- ment of institutional and organizational arrange- ment at national level. This requires information ments for activities in this field, as well as on the on the size and structure (number of female and state of implementation of various activities. male breeding animals, proportion of females Countries also had the opportunity to describe breeding pure, total number of herds, geograph- constraints to the implementation of activities ical distribution, etc.) of breed populations and in this strategic priority area. Detailed analysis is how these change over time. A range of different Synthesis progress report on the provided in the approaches and specific tools are available for use implementation of the Global Plan of Action for in gathering information on the characteristics Animal Genetic Resources – 2014 (FAO, 2014a). of individual animals and livestock populations (FAO, 2011a; 2011b; 2012). The state of the art 4 Sections A and in this field is described in Part B, the latter focusing specifically on molecular 2 eed Development of national br genetic tools. inventories This section provides an overview of the state of implementation of characterization, inventory A national breed inventory is a comprehensive - and monitoring activities, based on the informa list of the breeds present in a country. Given that tion provided in the country reports (see the intro- the breed is the unit of management for many 3 for an overview of the country duction to Part AnGR-related activities, including conservation breed coverage and the use of the national programmes, establishing a complete inventory population as a unit of analysis). The country- 3B1 presents a is an important objective. Figure report questionnaire included two subsections region by region summary of the reported state focused on characterization activities. The first of - of countries’ national breed inventories, includ these requested countries to provide informat- ing whether or not progress has been made since ion on the extent to which their national breed the adoption of the Global Plan of Action. The populations have been subject to various types results show that while many countries have 3B1). Countries of characterization study (see Box made progress in improving their inventories in e the s on t or P ond r c e 237 od o r f o f s e c r U o s e r c ti e n e L G r M i an s ' d L r o he W f t o e t a t s the e LtU U c i r G a and a

279 ac h e state of ca P t ities Part 3 Box 3B1 Characterization – definitions of terms structure can be studied by comparing observed and A survey that Baseline survey of population size: expected heterozygosity (predicted according to obtains sufficient population data to determine a sample size and allelic frequencies) and by measuring breed’s risk status at national level. It provides a relationships between animals (proportion of shared reference point for monitoring population trends. alleles across the markers). This provides information Monitoring of population size: A systematic set on possible population fragmentation or recent cross- of activities undertaken to document changes in breeding events important for the future of the breed. population size and structure over time. Molecular genetic diversity studies between breeds: The process of Phenotypic characterization: Studies that involve the genotyping of representative identifying distinct populations and describing their groups of animals from a group of breeds for the morphological and production characteristics within purpose of evaluating genetic similarity between the given production environments; it includes the breeds. Genetic distance, a measure of the similarity of description of breeds’ production environments and the allele frequencies between breeds, is a parameter recording of their geographical distributions. commonly used to measure relationships between Genetic diversity studies based on pedigree: Studies breeds. Introgression between populations can be that involve estimating genetic relationships among detected by such studies. animals based on the probabilities of their sharing Genetic variance components estimation: Use of alleles from common ancestors. At breed level, average pedigree and performance data to estimate which part coefficients of inbreeding and/or kinships and their of the phenotypic variance in a population is under trends over time are the most commonly used measures. genetic control. Molecular genetic diversity studies within breed: The inclusion of Molecular genetic evaluation: Studies that involve the genotyping of individual molecular genetic information in the procedure for animals within a breed for a set of molecular markers, genetic evaluation. This may be limited to genotypes for the purpose of evaluating diversity within the for a few specific genes or extended to the prediction of breed. At breed level, heterozygosity is the most “genomic breeding values” by using information from simple and meaningful parameter used. Higher large panels of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). heterozygosity indicates higher diversity. Breed genetic provide the data needed to track a breed’s risk recent years, a majority (63 percent) still consider status over time are referred to as “monitoring” that their inventories are incomplete. (FAO, 2011b). The state of implementation of surveying and monitoring activities for the “big five” species, grouped by region and subregion, Baseline surveys and 3 3B1. Results broken down by is presented in Table monitoring of population sizes ables 3B2 and 3B3. species are presented in T The country-report data indicate that baseline This subsection focuses on activities undertaken percent of surveys have been conducted for 53 in order to obtain data on the size and struc- national breed populations belonging to the big ture of national breed populations. The term - percent of national breed popu five species; 44 “baseline survey” is used to refer to an initial lations are monitored regularly. It is important data-gathering exercise that provides sufficient to note here that the world figures are greatly data to allow a breed population’s risk status to influenced (in a positive direction) by those from be assessed accurately; ongoing activities that he second re rt on t P o 238 G r and food r fo ces r U reso netic e L G a M ani a s ' d L r o W the of e ic U L t U r the state

280 c chara t eriZation, inVentorY and MonitorinG B a BL t e 3B1 Coverage of baseline surveys and monitoring programmes for the big five species Number of Regions and Baseline survey of Regular monitoring of Number of national subregions breed populations population size (%) countries population size (%) 40 1 317 45 Africa 23 22 62 e ast a 8 289 frica 12 28 frica 20 563 orth and West n a 54 36 outhern s frica 12 465 a 37 18 Asia 20 1 323 83 38 a sia 4 165 entral c 8 21 ast a sia 4 548 e 50 9 276 6 sia a outh s 31 31 outheast s sia 6 334 a 30 16 Southwest Pacific 7 216 Europe 64 68 4 090 35 and the Caucasus Latin America 29 23 18 1 164 and the Caribbean 42 35 aribbean c 5 142 33 32 a entral 5 324 c merica 24 16 a merica 698 outh s 8 92 92 1 North America 241 34 23 Near and Middle East 7 168 53 44 128 8 519 World Note: The number of national breed populations refers to the number reported in the country reports. Big five species = cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and chickens. Country reports, 2014. Source: (more than 50 percent) of national breed popul- the Europe and the Caucasus region, which ations that have been subject to baseline surveys, percent) of the accounts for a large proportion (48 but the overall figures for developing regions are total number of reported national breed popul- low. The coverage of monitoring programmes also ations in the big five species. In this region, the varies from subregrion to subregion: relatively - percent) of national breed popula majority (64 percent) in Southern Africa, high (more than 30 tions (all figures refer to the big five species) are Central Asia, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean and monitored regularly. However, a substantial pro- Central America, but low or very low elsewhere. percent) portion of national breed populations (32 Country-report responses on the state of imple- have not been subject even to a baseline survey. mentation of the Global Plan of Action show The coverage of both baseline surveys and moni- percent of countries con - that approximately 45 percent coverage) toring programmes is high (92 sider that they have fully implemented baseline in North America. Elsewhere in the world, a few surveys for breeds in all livestock species of eco- subregions – East Africa, Southern Africa and percent nomic importance. In contrast, almost 20 Central Asia – have a relatively high proportion the se c o nd rePort on 239 od o r f o f s e c r U reso aGri Geneti L aniMa and s ' d L r o W the f o e c UL t U r c the state

281 t e state of ca P ac ities h Part 3 i re 3B1 GU f ogress in the establishment of national breed inventories Pr n 196 World Southwest Pacific 15 North America 2 Near and Middle East 14 Latin America and the Caribbean 33 49 Europe and the Caucasus 31 Asia 52 Africa 60% 40% 0% 20% 80% 100% c. Partially completed b. Completed a. Completed d. Partially completed No country report (progress since 2007) before 2008 after 2007 (no progress since 2007) Note: Countries were asked the following question: Which of the following options best describes your country’s progress in building an inventory of its animal genetic resources covering all livestock species of economic importance? Response options were as follows: a. Completed before the adoption of the GPA; b. Completed after the adoption of the GPA; c. Partially completed (further progress since the adoption of the GPA); d. Partially completed (no further progress since the adoption of the GPA). The following definition was provided: “An inventory is a complete list of all the different breeds present in a country.” GPA = Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources; n = number of countries. Country reports, 2014. Source: of countries report that no baseline surveys at all With regard to the state of organizational have been undertaken in any of their national arrangements for monitoring programmes, almost percent of countries report that they have alloc- breed populations. The remaining countries 60 institutional responsibilities for monitoring ated - report partial coverage. In the case of monitor percent of countries report percent that they have programmes and about 35 ing programmes, 30 full coverage of breeds in all important livestock established protocols (details of schedules, object- ives and methods) for such programmes. percent report partial coverage and species, 30 - percent report that they have no monitor 40 activities. Progress since the adoption of the ing Global Plan of Action has been encouraging, but Phenotypic and molecular 4 percent of coun - unspectacular, overall. About 20 genetic characterization tries report that the coverage of their monitoring programmes has increased since 2007. Approxim- The level of implementation of various types of - ately 30 percent report at least some new base phenotypic and molecular genetic characteriz- line surveys. ation study in the big five species is summarized in he second re rt on t P o 240 G and food r fo ces r U reso netic e L G a M ani a s ' d L r o W the of e ic U L t U r r the state

282 t chara eriZation, inVentorY and MonitorinG c B BL e 3B2 t a Coverage of baseline surveys and monitoring programmes for cattle Dairy cattle Beef cattle Multipurpose cattle Regions and subregions Number of Baseline Monitoring Number of Baseline Monitoring Monitoring Baseline Number of national breed (%) national breed survey (%) (%) survey survey national breed (%) (%) populations populations (%) populations 60 176 36 45 208 23 42 149 Africa 23 53 16 21 63 73 41 21 19 34 e ast a frica 79 28 18 23 11 66 45 18 frica orth and West a 67 n 78 37 56 59 110 33 63 43 frica a outhern 48 s 54 37 119 40 29 142 36 8 Asia 68 40 60 10 47 94 94 69 17 16 entral c a sia 70 0 48 30 90 60 7 27 e ast a sia 10 43 10 50 50 55 69 11 2 s 21 sia a outh 25 6 18 17 19 24 73 23 a 21 sia outheast s 15 36 31 23 33 18 36 11 13 Southwest Pacific Europe 84 80 82 86 85 80 425 219 206 and the Caucasus Latin America 35 247 40 34 65 31 23 31 103 and the Caribbean 35 18 15 27 27 14 36 36 c 17 aribbean 30 30 74 46 46 26 31 31 37 merica a entral c 28 25 39 8 37 158 39 30 merica s 49 outh a 73 73 59 93 93 4 100 100 15 North America 47 26 7 14 14 19 37 32 Near and Middle East 19 1098 48 56 58 40 636 60 59 World 573 Source: Country reports, 2014. 3B4 presents a summary of the by region. Table Figure 3B4. Because it was likely 3B2 and T able same data based on the average level of imple- to be difficult for countries to provide precise mentation at regional level. information on the number of breed popul- Given that countries were not asked to provide ations subject to specific types of study, the precise breedwise data, the presentations do not country-report questionnaire requested them reveal the exact proportion of breeds at global and to score the level of coverage, as follows: high regional levels subject to each type of study. There percent of breeds); medium (approximately >67 was clearly also some scope for differential inter- percent of breeds); low (approximately 33 to 67 pretation of how much characterization work is neces- percent of breeds); or none (approximately <33 sary to qualify a breed as “characterized” as opposed (no coverage). Figure 3B2 shows the proportion to “non-characterized” under the scoring system. of answers falling into each category, broken Moreover, it is possible that in some countries the down on the left by species and on the right the se c o nd rePort on 241 od o r f o f s e c r U reso e Geneti L aniMa and s ' d L r o W the f o r aGri c UL t U c the state

283 P ac ities e state of ca t h Part 3 BL e 3B3 t a Coverage of baseline surveys and monitoring programmes for sheep, goats, pigs and chickens Goats Regions and Pigs Sheep Chickens subregions Baseline Baseline Baseline Baseline Number of Monitoring Monitoring Monitoring Number of Number of Monitoring Number of survey survey survey survey national (%) national (%) (%) national (%) national br eed eed eed br br breed (%) (%) (%) (%) populations populations populations populations 16 36 143 25 Africa 51 170 28 54 11 31 293 178 e ast frica 44 a 54 32 69 29 64 90 40 45 61 11 20 n orth and 73 13 17 41 15 65 37 5 69 25 7 144 a frica West outhern frica 61 s a 39 60 53 30 64 31 19 95 43 21 54 Asia 224 189 15 58 19 29 387 15 25 194 15 37 c a sia 60 entral 88 37 21 76 43 9 78 44 32 75 13 e ast a sia 75 18 31 1 78 18 5 114 10 184 18 7 outh s sia 60 a 36 5 55 75 25 49 12 64 14 14 4 s outheast a sia 29 28 28 41 29 32 46 28 24 107 44 44 Southwest 40 5 50 19 21 16 44 25 18 56 27 18 Pacific Europe and 957 80 327 81 76 334 89 84 1622 45 38 80 the Caucasus Latin America and the 189 21 37 33 117 34 12 150 24 15 293 10 Caribbean c aribbean 24 50 46 22 45 41 26 38 31 24 50 38 c entral 42 24 74 31 33 26 34 34 35 26 24 36 a merica outh a merica 123 s 37 33 1 30 5 88 16 5 195 3 60 84 North America 57 100 100 16 100 100 26 96 84 96 64 Near and 38 1 47 29 32 59 41 0 0 0 52 0 Middle East World 1683 44 85 72 870 73 55 892 65 54 2767 35 Country reports, 2014. Source: have higher levels of coverage than other regions, reporting authorities were not aware of all relevant but many gaps in coverage remain even in these studies. Nonetheless, the country-level data appear regions. to indicate many gaps in the coverage of character- As noted in the introduction to this section, pro- ization studies. For almost all combinations of species viding information on characterization activities and type of study, a majority of countries report targeting breeds other than the big five was not either no coverage or low coverage. Phenotypic a compulsory element of the country-reporting characterization has been more widely implemented process. Nevertheless, countries had the option than the other activities. Across all categories, dairy of providing information on these species (equiv- cattle are more likely to have high or medium levels alent to that provided for the big five). Results of coverage than other species (and other types of for buffaloes, horses, asses, dromedaries, rabbits, cattle). North America and Europe and the Caucasus, he second re rt on t P o 242 G and r food r fo ces r U reso netic e L G a M ani a s ' d L r o W the of e ic U L t U r the state

284 c t chara eriZation, inVentorY and MonitorinG B f i GU re 3B2 Characterization activities for the big five species – fr equency of responses Regional breakdown Species breakdown 80% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0% 20% 40% 60% 100% Africa Cattle (specialized dairy) Asia Cattle (specialized beef) Southwest Pacific Cattle (multipurpose) Europe and the Caucasus Sheep North America Goats and the Caribbean Latin America Phenotypic Phenotypic Pigs Near and Middle East characterization characterization Chickens World Africa Cattle (specialized dairy) Asia Cattle (specialized beef) Southwest Pacific Cattle (multipurpose) Europe and the Caucasus Sheep North America Goats Latin America and the Caribbean Pigs Near and Middle East based on pedigree based on pedigree World Chickens Genetic diversity studies Genetic diversity studies Africa Cattle (specialized dairy) Asia Cattle (specialized beef) Southwest Pacific Cattle (multipurpose) Europe and the Caucasus Sheep North America Goats Latin America and the Caribbean between breed between breed Pigs diversity studies - diversity studies - Near and Middle East Molecular genetic Molecular genetic Chickens World Cattle (specialized dairy) Africa Asia Cattle (specialized beef) Southwest Pacific Cattle (multipurpose) Europe and the Caucasus Sheep North America Goats Latin America and the Caribbean within breed within breed diversity studies - diversity studies - Pigs Molecular genetic Molecular genetic Near and Middle East Chickens World Cattle (specialized dairy) Africa Asia Cattle (specialized beef) Southwest Pacific Cattle (multipurpose) Europe and the Caucasus Sheep North America Goats and the Caribbean Latin America Pigs Genetic variance Genetic variance Near and Middle East component estimation component estimation Chickens World Africa Cattle (specialized dairy) Asia Cattle (specialized beef) Southwest Pacific Cattle (multipurpose) Europe and the Caucasus Sheep th America Nor Goats the Caribbean Latin America and evaluation evaluation Pigs Near and Middle East Molecular genetic Molecular genetic World Chickens 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Medium (approximately 33–67% of the breeds) None High (approximately >67% of the breeds) Low (approximately <33% of the breeds) Note: The bar charts show the proportion of responses falling into the none, low, medium and high categories of breed coverage (see legend). The charts on the left show the overall proportion of countries that provided the respective response for the respective species. The charts on the right show the proportion of answers (country × species combinations) from the respective region falling into the respective category. Source: Country reports, 2014. the nd rePort on o c se 243 and od o r f o f s e c r U reso c r L aniMa s ' d L r o W the f o e U t UL c aGri Geneti the state

285 e state of ca P ac ities h t Part 3 i f re 3B3 GU Characterization activities for “minor” species 80% 100% 80% 100% 0% 20% 0% 20% 40% 60% 40% 60% Buffaloes (31) Buffaloes (31) Horses (62) Horses (62) Asses (31) Asses (31) Dromedaries (14) Dromedaries (14) Rabbits (43) Rabbits (43) Ducks (45) Ducks (45) studies - within breed Turkeys (32) Turkeys (32) Molecular genetic diversity Geese (28) Geese (28) Phenotypic characterization Guinea fowl (21) Guinea fowls (21) Buffaloes (31) Buffaloes (31) Horses (62) Horses (62) Asses (31) Asses (31) Dromedaries (14) Dromedaries (14) Rabbits (43) Rabbits (43) Ducks (45) Ducks (45) Genetic variance Turkeys (32) Turkeys (32) based on pedigree component estimation Genetic diversity studies Geese (28) Geese (28) Guinea fowl (21) Guinea fowls (21) Buffaloes (31) Buffaloes (31) Horses (62) Horses (62) Asses (31) Asses (31) Dromedaries (14) Dromedaries (14) Rabbits (43) Rabbits (43) evaluation Ducks (45) Ducks (45) Molecular genetic Turkeys (32) Turkeys (32) studies - between breed Geese (28) Geese (28) Molecular genetic diversity Guinea fowl (21) Guinea fowls (21) 100% 20% 80% 100% 60% 40% 0% 20% 40% 80% 60% 0% Medium (approximately 33–67% of breeds) No response None High (approximately >67% of breeds) Low (approximately <33% of breeds) Note: The figures refer only to countries that reported the presence of the respective species (number shown in brackets on the left for each species). The bars show the proportion of countries whose responses fell into the none, low, high and medium categories or that provided no information on the state of characterization in respective species. Country reports, 2014. Source: rt on second re he t o P 244 G a and food r fo ces r U reso netic e r a M ani s ' d L r o W the of e U t L U ic r L G the state

286 eriZation, inVentorY and MonitorinG chara c t B BL e 3B4 t a Characterization activities for the big five species – average scores World Near and North Latin Southwest Asia Africa Europe Species Activity Middle America America and the Pacific East and the Caucasus Caribbean attle (specialized dairy) c attle (specialized beef) c attle (multipurpose) c Phenotypic heep s characterization Goats Pigs c hickens attle (specialized dairy) c attle (specialized beef) c attle (multipurpose) c Genetic diversity studies based on heep s pedigree Goats Pigs hickens c attle (specialized dairy) c c attle (specialized beef) attle (multipurpose) c Molecular genetic diversity studies – heep s between breed Goats Pigs hickens c attle (specialized dairy) c attle (specialized beef) c attle (multipurpose) c Molecular genetic diversity studies – heep s within breed Goats Pigs hickens c attle (specialized dairy) c attle (specialized beef) c attle (multipurpose) c Genetic variance component heep s estimation Goats Pigs hickens c (Cont.) the nd rePort on o c se 245 and od o r f o f s e c r U reso c r L aniMa s ' d L r o W the f o e U t UL c aGri Geneti the state

287 t h e state of ca P ac ities Part 3 (Cont.) e 3B4 BL a t Characterization activities for the big five species – average scores World Near and North Latin Europe Southwest Asia Africa Species Activity Middle America America Pacific and the East and the Caucasus Caribbean attle (specialized dairy) c attle (specialized beef) c attle (multipurpose) c Molecular genetic heep s evaluation Goats Pigs c hickens 1–1.5 2–2.5 0.5–1 2.5–3 1.5–2 0–0.5 Low igh Medium h Scores provided by countries were converted into numerical values (none = 0; low = 1; medium = 2; high = 3). The colours indicate Note: average scores for the countries of the respective region, as shown in the legend (border values assigned to the higher class). Source: Country reports, 2014. prehensive studies had already been undertaken ducks, turkeys, geese and guinea fowl are shown in 3B3. As with Figure 3B2, the bar charts indi before 2007. Unfortunately, a substantial minority Figure - of countries remain at a low level of coverage and cate the proportion of responses (equivalent here have not made any progress in recent years. Both to the proportion of countries) corresponding to each level of implementation. As providing inform- the extent of coverage and the extent of progress are lower in the case of molecular genetic studies ation was not obligatory, a number of countries than in the case of phenotypic studies. that reported the presence of a given species pro- vided no indication of the level of implementation of characterization studies. The bar charts, there- fore, in contrast to those for the big five, include Constraints to characterization, 5 a “no answer” category. The figure shows that, surveying and monitoring as in the case of the big five species, many gaps remain in the coverage of characterization studies. As noted above, the country-report questionnaire Phenotypic characterization has, again, been rel- requested countries to provide information on the atively widely implemented. Across the range of major barriers and obstacles preventing them from different activities, characterization of horses, and improving their inventory, characterization and with some exceptions buffaloes, is more advanced monitoring programmes. Lack of funding was the than that of the other species. most commonly mentioned constraint, followed by Country reporting on the implementation of the lack of human capacity (technical skills and knowl- Global Plan of Action indicates that many countries edge). Other constraints mentioned included lack have made progress in AnGR characterization since of infrastructure and technical resources (including 2007. In the case of both phenotypic and molecular for data management); lack of awareness on the genetic characterization, the majority of countries part of policy-makers and livestock keepers; and either report improvements or report that com- lack of adequate policies and planning in the field rt on second re he P t o 246 fo r food and a L r o W the G r ic of U L t ' U r e d s ani M a L G e netic reso U r ces the state

288 chara c eriZation, inVentorY and MonitorinG t B Box 3B2 China’s second national animal genetic resources survey A volume on bees and a volume on rabbits, deer and China’s first national survey of animal genetic resources began in 1976. The first phase was fur animals were published for the first time. completed in 1984 and the results were published As a result of the survey, a number of previously unrecorded breeds were discovered and identified. between 1986 and 1990. Another phase was These included breeds with distinctive characteristics, implemented in 1995 and 1996, focusing on the such as the Gaoligongshan pig and Piao chicken of southwestern mountainous area and Tibet, which had the remote southwestern mountainous area. More not been included in the first phase. than 540 indigenous breeds were described, more During the 1980s, China began to implement a than twice the number recorded in the first survey. reform and opening-up policy. The importation of exotic breeds and rapid development of intensive The second survey revealed the precarious and large-scale production systems contributed to an status of China’s animal genetic resources. Nearly unprecedented improvement in livestock production 300 indigenous breeds had declined in numbers, performances. However, these achievements were accounting for more than half of all breeds. Fifteen breeds had become extinct. 55 were endangered accompanied by a great threat to the diversity of China’s animal genetic resources. As a result, the and 22 were on the brink of extinction, with the latter two categories accounting for 14 percent of Ministry of Agriculture decided to carry out a second national survey. In 2003, the National Commission the total. Impacts of the second survey on policies have of Animal Genetic Resources organized experts included the following: to draft a technical manual in preparation for the second survey. The following year, four provinces • Since 2012, the annual regular budgetary alloca - were selected for a pilot survey. After two years tion for the conservation of breeds has increased of the pilot survey, the Implementation Plan for from 32 million Y uan to 50 million Yuan (more the National Survey on Animal Genetic Resources than US$8 million). was finalized. In 2006, the plan was issued to • To date, one in three provinces has launched provinces and regions nationwide by the Ministry of regular budgetary allocation for the conserva - Agriculture, thereby formally launching the second tion of breeds on provincial priority lists. The survey. annual budget varies from 4 million Y uan to It is estimated that more than 6 900 people from 7 million Yuan (US$0.6 – US$1.1 million). 30 provinces and autonomous regions nationwide • In 2012, the Ministry of Agriculture issued the were involved in the survey, with more than Twelfth Five Year Plan on the Conservation 45 million Yuan (approximately US$7.3 million) of and Sustainable Utilization of Animal Genetic central and local funds invested in the survey and the Resources, which includes plans to establish a compilation of the findings. More than 1 200 animal national dynamic monitoring and early warning breeds were surveyed and 21 300 photos of breeds system. were taken. In February 2014, the Ministry of Agriculture • In 2010–2012, The record of China’s animal genetic re-issued the priority list for conservation. The resources was finalized and published, based on number of breeds on the list has risen to 159. the survey results. The publication consists of seven volumes and includes more than 2 100 pictures. Provided by Hongjie Yang. the nd rePort on o c se 247 and od o r f o f s e c r U reso c r L aniMa s ' d L r o W the f o e U t UL c aGri Geneti the state

289 ities t e state of ca P ac h 3 Part Box 3B3 BushaLive – a collaborative project to characterize the Busha cattle of the Balkans The BushaLive project, funded under the Funding strategy for the management of the breed, spanning all stakeholder levels from farmers Strategy for the Implementation of the Global Plan to governments. The project will also explore of Action for Animal Genetic Resources, targets the potential for more effective marketing of the autochthonous Busha cattle breed of the the breeds’ products. The next steps will be Balkans, which survives in small, highly endangered, the establishment of basic recording systems populations. The breed is hardy and well-suited to extensive farming, but has relatively low production and support for the development of breeding yields. It is an important part of the local identity, organizations and common breeding goals. The but will be lost if conservation measures are not project will close with a stakeholder workshop for people working at all levels on the conservation of put in place to protect it. Stakeholders across the the breed. The event will provide an opportunity to various nationalities and religions present in the pass on the information gathered and the strategies Balkans share a common willingness to collaborate in conserving the breed. developed during the project to those who will use them in the future. Blood samples have been taken from 254 animals. The aim is to obtain unbiased estimates of diversity parameters, population history and Provided by Elli Broxham, SAVE Foundation. the degree of admixture in the Busha population, using genome-wide marker data. Eight reference populations have been included. These represent possible sources of admixture and have also been subject to different levels of artificial selection. Four Busha strains sampled in former studies have also been included. These samples complement the newly collected material. Final conclusions will only be possible after completion of all the analyses. However, the results obtained so far show that locally well-adapted strains that have never been intensively managed and differentiated Photo credit: Elli Broxham. into standardized breeds show large haplotype diversity. This suggests the need for a conservation and recovery strategy that does not rely exclusively on searching for the original native genetic background, but rather on the identification and removal of common introgressed haplotypes. Further information on each of the sampled animals has been collected via a comprehensive survey targeting their phenotypic characteristics and husbandry systems, as well as the products and services that they provide. This information, together with the genetic data, will be used to provide a basis for the development of a regional Photo credit: Elli Broxham. rt on second re he t o P 248 G a and food r fo ces r U reso netic e r a M ani s ' d L r o W the of e U t L U ic r L G the state

290 eriZation, inVentorY and MonitorinG c chara t B support efforts to characterize, inventory of characterization, surveying and monitoring. and monitor trends and associated risks, Some countries mentioned practical difficulties sustainably use and develop, and conserve associated with the large size of the country or 1 animal genetic resources”. the location of livestock in remote areas, on small farms or in mobile production systems. A few coun- The evidence from the country reports sug- tries mentioned problems associated with a lack gests that this recommendation remains highly of coordination – or a lack of willingness to share relevant. information – among stakeholders (e.g. breeders’ Lack of funding is a widespread constraint to associations and private companies). improving many aspects of the management of AnGR. The Global Plan of Action recognizes both the need for “substantial and additional financial resources” and the need for predictable allocation Conclusions and priorities 6 of such resources. The latter may be particularly significant for ongoing activities such as moni- The results presented above need to be treated toring programmes. Unfortunately, the country with some caution because of possible missing reports indicate that improving funding is one data, and inter-country variations in interpret- of the elements of the Global Plan of Action for ation of the scoring systems and the use of breed which least progress has been made to date (FAO, concept. Nonetheless, it is clear that in most 3 Section F). 3F2 in Part 2014a) (see Table regions of the world there are major gaps in the While monitoring programmes are far from coverage of characterization activities and hence comprehensive in terms of breed coverage, in major gaps in knowledge about the characteris- most species a majority of national populations tics of AnGR. Similarly, there are major gaps in are reported to be subject to regular population programmes for monitoring trends in the size monitoring. Here there appears to be a discrep- and structure of breed populations and hence the ancy with the level of reporting of breed popu- current risk status of many breeds is unknown. lation data at international level, i.e. the entry by These gaps in knowledge inevitably hamper the countries of their national data into the Domes- sustainable use, development and conservation tic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS) of AnGR. Weaknesses are particularly marked in percent of 1 Section B). For example, 78 (see Part the developing regions of the world. Research national breed population figures in DAD-IS were priorities in the field of characterization are dis- during the four years preced- not updated once 4 Sections A and B. cussed in Part ing the preparation of this report (FAO, 2014b). If Strategic priorities for improving the state of data are available at national level, it is important inventory, characterization and monitoring are that they are entered into DAD-IS so that global set out in the Global Plan of Action, which recog- trends can be monitored more effectively. nizes the fundamental importance of improving Another issue that may require attention is the the state of knowledge of AnGR. Many countries institutional framework for the surveying and have made some progress in implementing these monitoring of AnGR. The Global Plan of Action priorities. However, progress is often constrained recognizes the need to “encourage the establish- by a lack of human and financial resources. The ment of institutional responsibilities and infra- need to strengthen capacity in this field is recog- structure for monitoring of trends ...” Establishing nized in the Global Plan of Action as follows: an effective surveying and monitoring programme “Establish or strengthen, in partnership requires not only funds and human resources, but with other countries, as appropriate, also clear allocation of responsibilities for overall relevant research, training and extension institutions, including national and 1 regional agricultural research systems, to ction 3. a trategic Priority 13, s the nd rePort on o c se 249 and od o r f o f s e c r U reso c r L aniMa s ' d L r o W the f o e U t UL c aGri Geneti the state

291 t e state of ca P ac ities h Part 3 References coordination and for specific tasks (organization of surveys, provision of data to national authorities, etc.). Objectives, relevant to national data require- Country reports. 2014. .fao. vailable at http://www a ments and feasible in terms of national capacities, org/3/a-i4787e/i4787e01.htm. need to be defined and support from stakeholders 2011a. FAO. Molecular genetic characterization of ani- needs to be ensured. The country reports indicate fao a nimal Production and . mal genetic resources that some progress has been made in terms of n ome (available at http:// h ealth Guidelines. o. 11. r improving institutional arrangements for survey- www.fao.org/docrep/014/i2413e/i2413e00.htm). ing and monitoring, but that large gaps remain. 2011b. Surveying and monitoring of animal FAO. Advice on the development of national strate- genetic resources. fao a nimal Production gies in this field, including institutional arrange- and ome (available h r o. 7. n ealth Guidelines. ments and stakeholder involvement, is provided at http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/ba0055e/ Surveying and monitoring in the FAO guidelines ba0055e00.htm). of animal genetic resources (FAO, 2011b). The FAO. Phenotypic characterization of animal ge- 2012. Phenotypic characterization of animal guidelines netic resources . fao ealth nimal Production and a h Molecular genetic charac- and genetic resources Guidelines. o. 11. n r ome (available at http://www. (FAO, 2011a; terization of animal genetic resources fao.org/docrep/015/i2686e/i2686e00.htm). 2012) also provide advice on how to ensure that Synthesis progress report on the imple- FAO. 2014a. characterization studies are relevant to national mentation of the Global Plan of Action for Animal requirements. All three guidelines provide practi- . Genetic Resources – 2014 i nformation d ocument. cal advice on the organization of characterization i e ighth s ession of the echnical ntergovernmental t and monitoring activities. W orking Group on a nimal Genetic r esources for The country reports reveal gaps in implemen- ovember 2014. n ome 26–28 griculture. a ood and r f tation across all the activities discussed in this c /WG- a nG r i -8/14/ G ome (available at r nf.5. rfa section. Specific priorities for action will depend http://www.fao.org/3/a-at136e.pdf). on national circumstances. However, in many Status and trends of animal genetic FAO. 2014b. countries the basic task of establishing a full resources – 2014. ighth i nformation d ocument. e inventory of national breeds has not been com- t ession of the orking echnical W s ntergovernmental i pleted. Similarly, for many recognized breeds, a Group on nimal Genetic r esources for f ood and - phenotypic characteristics – morphology, per ovember 2014. a griculture, r ome, 26–28 n / c G rfa formance in specific production environments, i a nG r -8/14/ WG- ome (available at http:// nf. 4. r degree of adaptedness to specific diseases or clim- www.fao.org/3/a-at135e.pdf). atic challenges, and so on – have been inade- quately studied. Gaps are particularly prominent in developing countries, which means that the characteristics of the locally adapted breeds of these countries have been poorly characterized and that the comparative performance of dif- ferent breeds in the production conditions of these countries has been inadequately assessed. If these gaps are not addressed, it will be difficult or impossible to manage locally adapted breeds sustainably and ensure that their potential is realized. he second re rt on t P o 250 G and food r fo ces r U reso netic e L G a M ani a s ' d L r o W the of e ic U L t U r r the state

292 c Section C Breeding programmes genetic terms, i.e. measures taken to promote Intr oduction 1 cross-breeding or the wider use of breeds per - ceived to be more productive. This section draws on the information provided This section provides an update of the mate- in the country reports to present an analysis of rial on the state of capacity in genetic improve- the state of implementation of livestock breed- ment programmes presented in the first report ing programmes and of capacity to implement on The State of the World’s Animal Genetic 3 for an over - them (see the introduction to Part Resources for Food and Agriculture (first SoW- view of the country coverage and the use of the 1 AnGR) (FAO, 2007a). national breed population as a unit of analysis). The country-report ques- The state of the art in breeding programmes is tionnaire addressed the main themes covered C. Breeding 4 Section described separately in Part in the first SoW-AnGR. However, because of the programmes were defined in the country-report different reporting methods, most of the findings questionnaire as follows: presented below are not directly comparable to “systematic and structured programmes those presented in the earlier publication. for changing the genetic composition of a population towards a defined breeding goal (objective) to realize genetic gain Global overview 2 (response to selection), based on objective performance criteria. For each of the so-called “big five” species (cattle, Breeding programmes typically contain the sheep, goats, pigs and chickens), the majority of following elements: country reports indicate the presence of breeding definition of breeding goal; • programmes (Table 3C1). The figures are higher • identification of animals; percent each for the dairy , for cattle (around 90 performance testing; • beef and multipurpose categories) than for the estimation of breeding values; • other species (around 80 percent in all cases). selection; • While the figures appear to show that breeding • mating; and programmes are widespread, in some cases the transfer of genetic gain. • activities referred to in the country reports do Breeding programmes are usually operated not seem to be breeding programmes in the strict either by a group of livestock breeders sense of the term (see introduction). Many coun- organized in a breeders’ association, tries report the presence of breeding programmes, community-based entity or other collective but also that some of the key elements of breed- body; by a large commercial breeding ing programmes are not in place for any of their company; or by the government.” breeds. For this reason, the figures presented in In addition to reporting on programmes of the table need to be treated with some caution. this type, countries also provided information on It should also be noted that the figures merely - other activities and strategies aimed at improv 1 ing the quality of their livestock populations in AO, 2007, Part F B (pages 215–241). 3 Section e the S On t Or P Ond r c e 251 Od O r F O F S e c r U O S e r c ti e n e L G r M i An S ' d L r O he W F t O e t A t S the e LtU U c i r G A And A

293 t c h e S t A t e OF A PA citie S r 3 P A t species (e.g. sheep, pigs and chickens across most indicate the presence of at least one programme subregions of Africa; and sheep and goats in East targeting the respective species. The numbers of Asia and the Southwest Pacific). breeds covered may be high or low, as may the In the case of species other than the big five, effectiveness and reach of the programmes. the proportion of countries indicating that they 3C1 The regional breakdown presented in Table have breeding programmes in place is gener - shows that programmes for beef and dairy cattle 3C2). Only in the case of horses ally low (Table are widespread in almost all regions and sub- percent) and Bact- faloes (58 percent), buf (74 regions (dairy cattle programmes in North and rian camels (80 percent), do the majority of West Africa are the main exception). Gaps are countries reporting the presence of the respect- more widespread in the case of multipurpose ive species indicate that they have breeding pro- cattle (e.g. in South Asia, the Near and Middle East grammes in place. and Central America) and even more so in other t ABL e 3 c 1 Proportion of countries reporting the existence of breeding programmes – regional breakdown Pigs Goats Sheep Regions and Dairy cattle Beef cattle Multipurpose Chickens Number of subregions cattle countries % Africa 40 90 82 58 75 57 56 76 88 100 86 50 88 50 63 e 8 ast Africa n 42 56 60 60 83 83 57 20 orth and West Africa 92 91 78 58 92 64 75 Southern Africa 12 80 85 75 80 74 95 89 Asia 20 100 50 100 100 100 100 100 4 c entral Asia 100 75 75 50 50 100 75 ast Asia e 4 80 100 83 83 60 100 100 6 South Asia 83 67 83 83 67 83 75 6 Southeast Asia 86 100 100 67 40 86 100 Southwest Pacific 7 Europe 94 88 97 97 97 94 97 35 and the Caucasus Latin America 100 83 100 80 94 89 100 18 and the Caribbean 100 100 100 100 60 100 75 5 aribbean c 80 100 100 100 100 60 100 c entral America 5 100 75 100 100 100 88 100 8 South America 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1 North America Near and 86 0 71 83 100 67 86 7 Middle East 79 80 81 91 93 87 79 128 World The figures and bars represent the number of countries indicating the presence of breeding programmes (at least one) Note: as a proportion of the number of countries reporting the presence of the respective species. Source: Country reports, 2014. d re he O t S O c t n O P e r n 252 r OU S re netic e AL G M i n S A r d L r WO the e OF t A t S e U t L U ic r AG d n A d Or FOO S F ce ' the

294 BreedinG PrOGrAMMeS c 2 ABL e 3 c t Proportion of countries reporting the existence of breeding programmes – species breakdown Per Species Number of countries centage of countries with breeding reporting presence programmes (at least one) d airy cattle 116 91 Beef cattle 103 93 103 Multipurpose cattle 87 123 Sheep 79 Goats 126 81 Pigs 112 80 c hickens 126 79 h 62 orses 74 ucks 43 d 40 r abbits 43 44 Buffaloes 31 58 t 31 urkeys 45 Asses 30 0 Geese 28 43 20 Guinea fowl 30 d romedaries 14 29 Quails 14 36 13 Ostriches 31 11 Pigeons 9 d 8 0 eer 7 Alpacas 0 Llamas 6 33 6 Muscovy ducks 33 Bactrian camels 5 80 Yaks 5 40 Guinea pigs 4 0 Country reports, 2014. Source: sectors and groups of stakeholders that operate Stakeholder involvement 3 breeding programmes (i.e. take the leading or organizational role in the operation of such pro- The systematic implementation of breeding grammes). For the purposes of this analysis, the programmes requires stable organizational private and non-governmental sectors are divided structures. Programmes can be organized by into the following categories: public-sector bodies, by the private sector, by • national commercial companies (companies non-governmental organizations (NGOs) or via based in the respective reporting country); collaborative efforts involving more than one • external commercial companies (companies 3C3 summarizes the information sector. Table based outside the reporting country); in the country reports regarding the provided th SecOnd rePOr t On e 253 L O r F And F ceS r U reSO c i t Gene L AniMA S ' d Od r O W e h F t O e t A t e S th AGric U LtU r e O

295 t OF h e S t A t e c A PA citie S t r 3 P A c e 3 ABL 3 t Extent of involvement of different stakeholder groups as operators of breeding programmes Others NGOs External National Breeders’ Livestock Regions and Government Number of commercial commercial associations keepers countries subregions companies companies or organized at cooperatives community level % 40 Africa 29 17 32 6 15 9 52 58 24 26 15 4 13 7 ast Africa 8 e orth and West Africa n 8 19 9 11 37 28 49 20 54 10 11 4 28 29 33 12 Southern Africa 30 11 22 43 38 83 28 Asia 20 94 60 40 40 37 40 0 entral Asia 4 c 75 29 43 36 39 29 0 e ast Asia 4 16 83 6 37 0 45 26 6 South Asia 77 23 57 32 20 13 30 Southeast Asia 6 47 40 45 45 60 43 6 7 Southwest Pacific Europe 37 14 76 25 20 17 9 35 and the Caucasus Latin America 55 33 57 60 26 29 25 18 and the Caribbean 3 3 70 29 15 24 13 aribbean c 5 20 60 29 74 80 17 54 entral America 5 c 41 29 40 54 38 72 59 8 South America 71 0 57 86 100 100 0 North America 1 Near and 20 18 20 24 78 43 24 7 Middle East 14 19 29 21 54 27 51 World 128 Note: The figures refer to the percentage of countries (among those reporting the respective species) in which the respective stakeholder group operates breeding programmes averaged over seven species/categories, i.e. the “big five” species (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and chickens), with the three categories of cattle breeds (dairy, beef and multipurpose) treated separately. Source: Country reports, 2014. traditional or newly established, that enable • breeders’ associations or cooperatives (member- livestock keepers to act collectively to organ- ship organizations in which individual livestock ize genetic improvement activities). breeders join together to pursue common At global level, the most frequently reported goals); operators of breeding programmes are govern- NGOs (NGOs that are not breeders’ associa- • ments and breeders’ associations. However, there tions: e.g. those involved in promoting rural are major differences between regions in terms development); and of the reported significance of these two categ- • livestock keepers organized at community ories. Breeders’ associations are frequently reported level (community-level structures, whether d re S O c t t he O P r n e n O 254 t r S re netic e AL G M i n S A ' d L r WO the e OF ce A t S e S F Or FOO d A n d AG r ic U L t U r OU the

296 BreedinG PrOGrAMMeS c in Europe and the Caucasus and North America, recording can play a role in herd management. but much less so in most developing regions. Thus, the building blocks may be in place even if no breeding programmes are yet in operation. Latin America and the Caribbean (or more specif- ically the Central and South America subregions) Countries were asked both to provide inform- is a partial exception to this pattern. Conversely, ation on the level of implementation of the various building blocks of breeding programmes government-operated programmes are reported more frequently in all developing regions (most par - and to report on the level of involvement of different stakeholders in their implement- ticularly in Asia and the Near and Middle East) than ation. Because some of these activities can be in Europe and the Caucasus and North America. No government-operated programmes are reported in undertaken by individual livestock keepers, and the latter region. Programmes operated by national because of the prominent role of research organ- and external commercial companies are reported izations in undertaking some of them, these two from all regions of the world (most frequently the stakeholder categories were included in the list Southwest Pacific, North America, and Central and of options provided in the country-report ques- South America). The species involved are most com- tionnaire. Countries were asked to provide scores for the level of involvement of the various categ- monly chickens, pigs or dairy cattle (see supplemen- 2 A3C7). A3C1, A3C6 and tary tables ories. The responses (with respect to the big five Programmes 3C1. species) are summarized in Figure operated by livestock keepers organized at commun- Governments, research organizations, breed- ity level are quite widely reported across all devel- ers’ associations and individual livestock breeders/ oping regions. However, the country reports gener - keepers are reported to play relatively prominent ally provide little information about the nature of roles across all activities, both in ruminants and these programmes. Programmes operated by NGOs monogastrics. In the case of commercial comp- are reported in most regions, but with relatively low anies, involvement in most activities is markedly frequency in most cases (highest levels in Central higher in monogastrics and dairy cattle than America, the Southwest Pacific and Central Asia). in other types of livestock. The role of NGOs is Whatever sector takes the leading role in organ- reported to be limited across all categories of izing a breeding programme, a range of different activity. The global figures conceal some regional tasks need to be addressed. A variety of different differences. As in the case of the figures pre- stakeholders may be involved in each of these 3C3, the roles of breeders’ assoc- sented in Table tasks, either in terms of planning (e.g. identifying iations are generally more prominent than those breeding goals and planning how the programme of governments in developed regions, while the will be organized) or in terms of practical imple- opposite is the case in developing regions. mentation (e.g. recording animals’ performance, 3C2 shows the distribution of countries Figure undertaking genetic evaluations or delivering arti- where breeders’ associations are reported either ficial insemination services). These activities can be to operate breeding programmes or to have thought of as the “building blocks” of breeding some involvement in implementing the elements programmes. Some of these building blocks can of breeding programmes. As noted above, the serve a number of different purposes, i.e. they can term “breeding programme” appears not to have contribute not only to breeding programmes, but been interpreted uniformly across all the country also to other aspects of livestock development. For reports and the same may be true of the phrase example, animal identification can facilitate disease “operating a breeding programme”. It is there- control, prevention of livestock theft and the deliv- fore possible that the number of countries shown ery of support payments (FAO, 2015). Performance to have programmes operated by breeders’ assoc- iations (i.e. as green rather than yellow on the 2 r OM and Supplementary tables for Part 3 ar e provided on cd map) may be an overestimate. at http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4787e/i4787e197.pdf th e SecOnd rePOr t On 255 L O r F O F ceS r U reSO c i t Gene L AniMA e S ' d Od r O W e h F t O e t A t e S th And AGric U LtU r

297 e c t h e S t A t S OF citie A PA t 3 A P r Fi GU re 3 c 1 Stakeholder involvement in br eeding-related activities in ruminants and monogastrics – global averages Score for ruminant species (cattle, goats and sheep) 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 Recording Breeding goals Artificial Animal Genetic evaluation identification insemination Score for monogastric species (pigs and chickens) 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 Breeding goals Animal Recording Artificial Genetic insemination evaluation identification Research organizations Governments Individual breeders/livestock keepers Breeders’ associations or cooperatives External commercial companies National commercial companies Others Non-governmental organizations Note: Countries provided scores (at species level) for the level of stakeholder involvement in each activity. Answering the question was optional (the number of responses varied from species to species). The scores were converted into numerical values (none = 0; low = 1; medium = 2; high = 3). The figures shown are global averages for the respective groups of species. Source: Country reports, 2014. O t t O he d re S c e n n P r O 256 netic e U t L U ic r d n A d Or FOO S F ce r OU S re r e AL G M i n S A ' d L r WO the e OF t A t S AG the

298 BreedinG PrOGrAMMeS c c Fi GU re 3 2 Involvement of br eeders’ associations in breeding programmes and elements of breeding programmes Countries reporting that breeders’ associations operate breeding programmes for at least one species Countries reporting that breeders’ associations are involved in some element of breeding programmes for at least one species Countries reporting no involvement of breeders’ associations in breeding programmes Countries that did not report Country reports, 2014. Source: Africa and the Near and Middle East are the regions 4 esearch and Educational, r reporting the lowest levels of provision. Responses organizational capacities related to the state of implementation the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources The successful development and operation of - 3C4). Approxi reveal a similar picture (Figure breeding programmes requires a high level of percent of reporting countries consider mately 31 technical capacity and knowledge on the part of that their provision of training and technical- the stakeholders involved. Many country reports support programmes for the breeding activities mention limited knowledge on the part of live- of livestock-keeping communities is at an ade- stock keepers and technicians as a significant percent report that they have some quate level; 43 constraint to the implementation of breeding programmes of this type in place, but that they programmes. Analysis of country-report responses percent report that they require improvement; 26 on the general state of education and training percent have no such programmes. Moreover, 39 in the field of animal genetic resources (AnGR) is report that they have made no progress in terms 3 Section A. However , countries presented in Part of improving provisions since the Global Plan of were also asked specifically to provide scores (none, Action was adopted in 2007. low, medium or high) for the state of education Countries were also asked to report on the and training in the field of animal breeding. The state of their research activities in the field of 3C3. The global responses are summarized in Figure animal breeding, again by providing a score. cumulative score of 12 out of a potential maximum 3C5. The responses are summarized in Figure of 21 illustrates that there is a major deficit in the On a global scale, as in the case of training, provision of education and training in this field. th On t SecOnd rePOr e 257 c i t Gene L AniMA AGric S ' d L r O W e h F t O e r LtU U And Od O r F e t A t e S th O F ceS r U reSO

299 t S citie PA t h e S t A A e OF c 3 t r A P re 3 c 3 Fi GU eeding State of training in the field of animal br Score 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Asia Southwest Europe Latin North Near and World Africa and the Pacific Middle East America America Caucasus and the Caribbean Dairy cattle Goats Multi purpose cattle Chickens Beef cattle Pigs Sheep Note: Each country provided a score for the level of provision with respect to each species. The scores were converted into numerical values (none = 0; low = 1; medium = 2; high 3) and an average score calculated for the respective species × region combinations = (countries where the respective species was not reported to be present were excluded from the calculations). The length of each bar corresponds to the cumulative average scores across all species for the respective region. The maximum potential score is 21 (3×7). Source: Country reports, 2014. As noted above, breeding programmes are there is a major gap between the current level complex undertakings that involve a range of of research activity and the potential maximum different tasks. Establishing a successful breed- (high level of research in all countries for all ing programme requires not only the technical species). In practice, the effect of this shortfall is capacity to undertake these tasks, but also organ- likely to be reduced by the diffusion of research izational structures that enable these tasks to be results from one country to another. However, carried out systematically and on a sufficiently the concentration of research in certain regions large scale. This is likely to require substantial or countries may increase the likelihood that and well-organized involvement of the livestock some production systems and species are inad- keepers that raise the respective breeds. Countries equately covered. Moreover, there may be con- were asked to report (again by providing a score) straints to the diffusion of knowledge, part- on the level of livestock-keeper organization with icularly into less-developed countries. Scores respect to animal breeding (taking all the various for the state of research are highest in North elements of breeding programmes into account). America and Europe and the Caucasus, and 3C4. Scores The responses are summarized in Table lowest in Africa. he S t c O t d re O P r n O n e 258 t r S re ce e AL G M i n S A ' d L r WO the e OF OU A t S e S F Or FOO d A n d AG r ic U L t U r netic the

300 BreedinG PrOGrAMMeS c 4 re 3 c GU Fi ogrammes for the breeding activities of State of implementation of training and technical support pr livestock-keeping communities n World 128 a. Sufficient programmes (since before 2008) Southwest Pacific 7 b. Sufficient programmes (progress since 2007) North America 1 c. Some programmes Near and Middle East 7 (progress since 2007) Latin America and 18 d. Some programmes the Caribbean (no progress since 2007) Europe and the Caucasus 35 e. Action planned and funding identified Asia f. Action planned and funding sought 20 g. No Africa 40 100% 40% 0% 60% 80% 20% Note: Countries were asked the following question: Have training and technical support programmes for the breeding activities of livestock-keepers been established or strengthened in your country? Response options were as follows: a. Yes, sufficient programmes have existed since before the adoption of the GPA; b. Yes, sufficient programmes exist because of progress made since the adoption of the GPA; c. Yes, some programmes exist (progress has been made since the adoption of the GPA); d. Yes, some programmes exist (but no progress has been made since the adoption of the GPA); e. No, but action is planned and funding identified; f. No, but action is . planned and funding is sought; g. No. GPA = Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources; n = number of responding countries Source: Country reports, 2014. animal identification; • for the level of organization are highest in Europe recording of pedigrees; • and the Caucasus, Latin America and the Carib- recording of animal performance; • bean and North America and lowest in Africa, the use of artificial insemination (AI); • Southwest Pacific and the Near and Middle East. implementation of genetic evaluation fol- • lowing the classic approach (i.e. not includ- ing the use of genomic information); 5 eeding methods and Br • implementation of genetic evaluation includ- activities ing the use of genomic information; and • management of genetic variation by maxi- An overview of the status of breeding pro- mizing the effective population size or mini- 2). This grammes is presented above (Subsection mizing the rate of inbreeding. subsection presents an analysis of the level of The findings are presented in Table 3C5 (broken - implementation of the various elements of breed down by region), in Table 3C6 (broken down by ing programmes and of the types of programmes 3 species) and in the supplementary tables. that are in operation, specifically the prevalence of programmes that involve cross-breeding. The figures presented in the tables show that Countries were asked to indicate the number no breeding goal has been defined for almost of exotic and locally adapted breed populations half of all reported national breed populations. for which breeding goals have been defined and in which the following activities are being imple- 3 cd r OM and Supplementary tables for Part 3 ar e provided on mented: at http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4787e/i4787e197.pdf th e SecOnd rePOr t On 259 L O r F And F ceS r U reSO c i t Gene L AniMA S ' d Od r O W e h F t O e t A t e S th AGric U LtU r e O

301 t S h e S t A t e OF c A PA citie 3 A t r P re 3 Fi 5 c GU esearch in the field of animal breeding State of r Score 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Africa Asia Southwest Europe Latin North Near and World and the America Middle East America Pacific Caucasus and the Caribbean Dairy cattle Goats Multi purpose cattle Chickens Beef cattle Pigs Sheep Note: Each country provided a score for the level of provision with respect to each species. The scores were converted into numerical 0; low = 1; medium = 2; high = values (none 3) and an average score calculated for the respective species × region combinations = (countries where the respective species was not reported to be present were excluded from the calculations). The length of each bar corresponds to the cumulative average scores across all species for the respective region. The maximum potential score is 21 (3×7). Source: Country reports, 2014. ulation is likely to benefit from the effects of - There are also major gaps in the breed cover breeding programmes operating in other coun- age of other fundamental breeding-programme tries, i.e. stakeholders may consider that there is elements, such as animal identification and the no need to establish a breeding programme at recording of pedigrees and performance. Even national level (the disadvantage may be a lack where activities are reported, their impacts may of fine-tuning to the needs of local production be limited. The figures give no indication of the 4 systems). level of coverage within the breed population. Second, some of the exotic breeds Given that the management of locally adapted reported may be present in very small numbers, breeds is generally considered to be neglected having been imported by hobbyists or on an relative to that of exotic breeds, it is interesting to note that in many cases (i.e. species × tech- 4 Some locally adapted br eeds are present in more than one nique combinations) coverage is higher among owever, international transfers of “improved” country. h breeding animals and genetic material are dominated by locally adapted breeds than among their exotic n the case of local breeds i a limited number of breeds. counterparts. Two points should be noted in (i.e. breeds present in only one country) as opposed to this regard. First, where continuously imported transboundary breeds, importing genetic material is not an exotic breeds are concerned, the national pop- option as far as straight-breeding is concerned. d re he S t c O t O P r n O n e 260 t r S re netic e AL G ce i n S A ' d L r WO the e OF OU A t S e S F Or FOO d A n d AG r ic U L t U r M the

302 BreedinG PrOGrAMMeS c t ABL e 3 c 4 Level of organization of livestock keepers with respect to animal breeding activities Number of Dairy cattle Beef cattle Multipurpose Sheep Goats Pigs Chickens Regions and countries cattle subregions Africa 40 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.6 0.3 0.6 0.6 0.9 0.4 ast Africa e 8 n orth and West Africa 20 0.6 1.0 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 Southern Africa 12 1.2 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.5 0.6 20 Asia 1.3 0.3 1.5 0.5 1.0 1.3 1.0 4 entral Asia c 2.5 2.3 0.5 1.0 1.3 2.3 1.8 ast Asia 4 e 0.2 1.0 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.8 0.7 South Asia 6 1.7 0.0 1.0 1.2 1.7 1.5 1.5 6 Southeast Asia 1.1 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.6 0.7 1.1 7 Southwest Pacific Europe 35 1.9 2.7 2.3 1.9 2.4 1.7 2.2 and the Caucasus Latin America 1.4 1.3 1.9 1.5 0.9 1.4 1.1 18 and the Caribbean c aribbean 5 1.0 1.2 1.8 1.2 0.2 0.4 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.4 5 entral America c 2.1 1.4 1.1 1.6 2.1 0.9 1.8 8 South America 2.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 North America 1 Near and 7 0.6 0.4 0.9 0.0 0.6 0.3 0.1 Middle East World 128 1.1 1.6 1.3 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.2 Each country provided a score for the level of organization with respect to each species. The scores were converted into numerical Note: values (none = 0; low = 1; medium = 2; high = 3). The figures shown in the table are average scores for the countries of the respective region. Country reports, 2014. Source: least where locally adapted breeds are concerned. experimental basis. These populations may not be intended for use as production animals and Artificial insemination is a partial exception to this therefore the absence of breeding programmes rule, a fact that is probably explained, in part, by for them may not be particularly significant. the species imbalance in the regional figures, i.e. the developed regions have relatively more breeds Across almost all the activities covered in 3C5, Europe and the Caucasus, North Table belonging to species other than cattle. The use 5 America and the Southwest Pacific of genomic information in genetic evaluation is are well ahead reported to be very limited everywhere except the of the other regions in terms of breed coverage, at Southwest Pacific (because of the responses from 5 ew Zealand accounts for 56 percent of all the breed n New Zealand) and North America. The species populations (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and chickens) r eported 3C6) shows that for most of the breakdown (Table from the region and almost all of them are covered by the activities described, the highest coverage is in dairy various breeding-programme elements considered. th e SecOnd rePOr t On 261 L O r F O F ceS r U reSO c i t Gene L AniMA S ' d Od r O W e h F t O e t A t e S th And AGric U LtU r e

303 t citie h e S t A t e OF c A PA S 3 r P t A t ABL e 3 c 5 Level of implementation of breeding-programme elements and techniques – regional breakdown Performance Pedigree Animal Artificial Number of Regions identification recording recording insemination national breed populations Exotic Exotic Locally Locally Exotic Locally Locally Exotic Locally Exotic adapted adapted adapted adapted adapted % 29 45 28 37 26 30 48 22 671 646 Africa 33 48 40 30 40 24 31 24 Asia 949 374 66 41 56 39 61 40 32 47 Southwest Pacific 150 66 58 78 47 74 41 70 33 32 2 051 2 039 urope and the e aucasus c 31 31 30 35 36 50 37 32 Latin America and the c aribbean 690 474 26 26 69 26 51 26 46 49 orth America 222 19 n 26 23 30 19 16 28 16 20 ast 69 ear and Middle 99 e n 49 35 30 40 51 59 51 36 4 024 World 4 495 Management Genetic Breeding goal Genetic Regions Number of of genetic evaluation defined evaluation national breed variation including (classic populations genomic approach) information Exotic Locally Exotic Locally Locally Exotic Locally Exotic Exotic Locally adapted adapted adapted adapted adapted % 34 39 15 24 9 6 16 13 646 Africa 671 7 47 21 22 6 26 13 11 Asia 374 949 48 57 54 61 54 61 70 53 66 150 Southwest Pacific 51 73 55 47 5 8 26 29 2 039 e urope and the c aucasus 2 051 28 4 5 4 27 12 30 8 Latin America and the 474 690 aribbean c 26 34 26 40 26 98 26 58 19 n 222 orth America 5 15 1 16 19 18 30 12 n ast e ear and Middle 99 69 8 53 32 45 20 24 35 9 4 024 4 495 World Note: The figures refer to the proportion of breeds (national breed populations) belonging to the big five species (cattle, goats, sheep, pigs and chickens) covered by the respective breeding-programme elements and techniques. They provide no indication of population coverage within breeds. Country reports, 2014. Source: of breeds raised either in backyard systems or by cattle breeds, beef cattle breeds and sheep breeds. hobbyists. Artificial insemination is again an exception, with Countries were also asked to indicate multipurpose cattle and pigs having higher cov- the prevalence (in terms of the number of erage than sheep. Chicken breeds have relatively exotic and locally adapted breed populations low levels of coverage across all activities, probably covered) of breeding programmes involving reflecting the domination of the chicken subsector straight-breeding only and those involving by a few high-output breeds and the large number d re S O c t O t he P n r O e n 262 t r S re ce e AL G M i n S A ' d L r WO the e OF OU A t S e S F Or FOO d A n d AG r ic U L t U r netic the

304 BreedinG PrOGrAMMeS c c 6 t ABL e 3 Level of implementation of breeding-programme elements and techniques – species breakdown Performance Animal Pedigree Artificial Number of Species recording recording insemination identification national breed populations Locally Exotic Locally Locally Exotic Locally Exotic Exotic Locally Exotic adapted adapted adapted adapted adapted % 348 airy cattle 225 d 69 56 68 54 64 81 73 81 55 76 81 63 76 64 65 59 Beef cattle 558 540 37 84 49 63 47 38 78 47 Multipurpose cattle 471 165 65 65 73 76 24 28 60 49 1 078 605 Sheep 44 46 61 42 62 47 27 19 528 342 Goats 33 50 46 53 56 50 45 47 491 Pigs 401 14 39 36 10 23 43 12 13 1 605 1 162 c hickens Management Genetic Breeding goal Genetic Species Number of of genetic evaluation evaluation defined national breed variation including (classic populations genomic approach) information Exotic Exotic Locally Locally Exotic Locally Exotic Locally Exotic Locally adapted adapted adapted adapted adapted % 348 airy cattle 225 d 26 45 29 42 66 29 54 14 34 51 13 17 54 66 25 38 Beef cattle 540 558 24 7 33 61 37 27 34 28 Multipurpose cattle 165 471 36 7 60 39 31 4 60 41 Sheep 1 078 605 27 4 25 31 49 44 26 8 342 Goats 528 45 11 36 33 51 29 25 13 Pigs 491 401 10 50 33 9 26 4 3 25 c hickens 1 605 1 162 The figures refer to the proportion of breeds (national breed populations) covered by the respective breeding-programme Note: elements and techniques. They provide no indication of population coverage within breeds. Source: Country reports, 2014. are linked to straight-breeding programmes is both straight-breeding and cross-breeding. not always clear. The responses are summarized for the big five The descriptions provided in the country - species in Table 3C7. As in the case of the over reports indicate that a strategy of cross- 2) view figures presented above (Subsection breeding locally adapted breeds or “non- the figures in both categories may be over- descript” populations with exotic breeds (often estimates if a strict definition of the term through the use of artificial insemination) is “breeding programme” is applied. While it is being widely pursued in developing countries. clear that cross-breeding strategies are being In many cases this strategy is being promoted by pursued in all the regions of the world, in all the country’s government as a means of rapidly species and in both breed categories, the nature increasing national output of livestock products. of these strategies and the extent to which they th e SecOnd rePOr t On 263 L And r F O F ceS r U reSO c i t Gene L AniMA S ' d Od r O W e h F t O e t A t e S th AGric U LtU r e O

305 t A h e S t A t e OF c PA citie S 3 P t A r 7 c e 3 tABL oportion of breeds reported to be subject to breeding programmes applying Pr straight/pure-breeding and cross-breeding Dairy cattle Beef cattle Straight/pure- Multipurpose Sheep Goats Pigs Chickens cattle breeding only Locally Exotic Locally Exotic Locally Exotic Exotic Locally Locally Locally Exotic Exotic Locally Exotic adapted adapted adapted adapted adapted adapted adapted % Africa 46 26 39 25 24 24 33 70 39 30 38 38 30 51 24 55 32 44 17 33 28 31 19 43 57 30 15 42 Asia 0 0 17 8 0 0 7 36 100 22 38 12 33 10 Southwest Pacific e urope 42 47 56 56 41 12 42 51 54 55 32 48 54 64 aucasus c and the Latin America 43 53 38 43 0 23 26 27 14 20 11 6 27 14 aribbean c and the 0 0 n 0 0 n/a 0 n/a 0 n/a 0 0 0 0 0 orth America 17 21 26 0 n/a 38 27 21 14 13 25 50 0 29 ear and Middle ast e n 39 40 39 27 48 38 43 40 45 35 35 14 39 35 World Dairy cattle Chickens Pigs Goats Sheep Multipurpose Beef cattle Straight/pure- cattle breeding and breeding - cross Locally Exotic Locally Exotic Locally Exotic Exotic Locally Exotic Locally Exotic Locally Exotic Locally adapted adapted adapted adapted adapted adapted adapted % Africa 54 77 58 57 35 46 32 36 40 23 36 30 80 25 13 33 47 17 15 23 15 31 81 37 10 31 58 51 Asia 100 50 33 56 63 100 100 96 80 58 86 69 61 81 Southwest Pacific e urope 23 21 30 34 42 11 21 26 26 25 50 37 33 30 aucasus c and the Latin America 37 40 28 43 37 42 29 47 33 24 39 29 24 12 aribbean c and the 100 100 n/a 100 100 100 100 100 n/a 100 100 0 100 n/a orth America n 33 n/a 14 18 21 21 33 50 50 0 0 0 57 0 e ast n ear and Middle 30 42 47 42 45 64 25 33 23 34 21 41 33 30 World Note: n/a indicates that no breed belonging to the respective species and breed category is reported from the respective region. The term “breeds” in the heading refers to national breed populations. Country reports, 2014. Source: strategies, where they are in place, are effec- Well-planned cross-breeding can be an effective tively implemented. Consequences in terms of means of pursuing this objective. However, if production levels (and in terms of livelihoods, not well planned, the anticipated benefits may genetic diversity and the environment) are often not be realized. The extent to which the cross- unmonitored. In all developing regions, a large breeding activities referred to in the country percent in Africa, proportion of countries (75 reports form part of organized strategies is not in Asia, 85 50 in the Southwest percent percent always clear, neither is the extent to which such d re t t he O O S c O e n P r n 264 re netic e AL G M i n S A ' d r r WO the e OF t A t S e U t L U ic r AG d n A d Or FOO S F ce r OU S L the

306 BreedinG PrOGrAMMeS c Pacific, 70 percent in Latin America and the being successfully implemented. As noted above, Caribbean and 85 percent in the Near and a number of countries are seeking to promote Middle East) report that they have not under - greater use of exotic breeds and cross-breeding. taken an assessment of the impact of the use of If not well planned and implemented, policies of 6 exotic breeds. this type can contribute to the erosion of locally 1 Section F). adapted breeds (see Part The Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources subsumes breeding programmes within 6 Br eeding policies the broader field of sustainable use and devel- 2) and calls for opment (Strategic Priority Area A majority of countries report that they have 7 “national sustainable use polices” national policies in place to support breed- and “species 8 ing progammes or influence their objectives and breed development strategies” that take 3C6). Dairy cattle breeding (75 percent of (Figure inter alia a long-term perspective and consider, , countries) is more frequently targeted than the the need to maintain sufficient genetic diversity. breeding of any other species or type of animal. Implementation of these elements of the Global Chickens are the least targeted species among Plan of Action is moderately well advanced in percent of countries). A number the big five (53 terms of the number of countries having sustain- of countries in all regions except North America percent able use policies in place (more than 50 report the presence of breeding programmes but of reporting countries). Considerable progress the absence of any policies in this field. A few since the adoption of the Global Plan of Action in countries, in contrast, report that they have no 2007 is reported. A majority of countries (close to breeding programmes in place, but nonetheless percent) also report that they have “long-term 60 have policies. In the case of most species, breed- sustainable use planning” in place for at least ing policies are more prevalent in developed some species and breeds. These figures, however, regions than elsewhere. These policies vary in clearly also indicate that large gaps remain in the terms of how much they aim to influence the coverage of sustainable use policies. National objectives and implementation of breeding pro- breeding policies are discussed in greater detail grammes. Some countries (e.g. the United States in the regional overviews presented below. of America) leave decision-making very much in the hands of the private sector, while others (e.g. European countries, to varying degrees) take a Regional overviews 7 more interventionist approach. Chicken-breeding policies are comparatively rare in Europe and the Caucasus (partly accounting for the low overall 7.1 Africa coverage of policies targeting this species). Asia Breeding programmes in Africa are often based on has a high level of coverage in several species: governmental farms from which breeding animals percent or higher in dairy and multipurpose 80 and/or genetic material are distributed to livestock cattle, goats, pigs and chickens. Latin America keepers. The main reported constraints to the and the Caribbean has a similarly high level of development of more effective programmes in coverage in the case of dairy cattle. this region are a lack of funding, a lack of techni- - The reported policies vary in terms of their objec cal knowledge at all levels and a lack of organiz- tives and in terms of the extent to which they are ational structures, particularly with respect to livestock-keeper participation in activities 6 es refer to responses to a specific question addressing Figur this topic included in the section of the country-report 7 F AO, 2007b, Strategic Priority 3. questionnaire addressing the state of implementation of the 8 AO, 2007b, Strategic Priority 4. F Global Plan of Action. th e SecOnd rePOr t On 265 L O r F O F ceS r U reSO c i t Gene L AniMA e S ' d Od r O W e h F t O e t A t e S th And AGric U LtU r

307 t e h e S t A t OF c A PA citie S 3 A t r P Fi GU re 3 c 6 Pr oportion of countries reporting breeding programmes and policies supporting breeding programmes 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Africa Africa Asia Asia Southwest Pacific Southwest Pacific Europe and the Caucasus Europe and the Caucasus Lat Latin America and the Caribbean America and the Caribbean in Goats North America North America Dairy cattle Near and Middle East Near and Middle East World World Africa Africa Asia Asia Southwest Pacific Southwest Pacific Europe and the Caucasus Europe and the Caucasus Pigs Latin America and the Caribbean Latin America and the Caribbean Beef cattle North America North America Near and Middle East Near and Middle East World World Africa Africa Asia Asia Southwest Pacific Southwest Pacific Europe and the Caucasus Europe and the Caucasus Latin America and the Caribbean Latin America and the Caribbean Chickens North America North America Near and Middle East Near and Middle East Multipurpose cattle World World 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Africa Asia Policies and breeding programmes Southwest Pacific Only breeding programmes Europe and the Caucasus Latin America and the Caribbean Sheep Only policies North America None Near and Middle Eas t World 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Proportions refer to the proportion of countries reporting the respective species, i.e. countries not reporting the respective Note: species are excluded from calculations. Country reports, 2014. Source: South Africa, for example, notes that 72 breed soc- such as animal identification and performance ieties “set standards and assist with evaluations” recording. within the framework of the country’s national The development of breeders’ associations animal-recording and improvement schemes, and their involvement in the operation of breed- operated by its Agricultural Research Council’s ing programmes have generally been limited in Animal Production Institute. The report from Africa, although they are playing an increasing Namibia mentions that breed societies “ensure role in some countries. The country report from d re S t c O t he O P r n O n e 266 t r S re netic e AL G ce i n S A ' d L r WO the e OF OU A t S e S F Or FOO d A n d AG r ic U L t U r M the

308 BreedinG PrOGrAMMeS c c Box 3 1 eeding in Tunisia Sheep br In Tunisia, the genetic improvement of sheep is traits have been roughly 10 percent of the mean over the last decade. The Sicilo-Sarde dairy breed was monitored by the Farming and Pasture Office (OEP). recently added to the recording system (five flocks Growth records are currently collected in only 109 flocks, via a simplified process involving four accounting for 100 ewes each). This breed’s population weighings. Registered breeds are the Barbarine tête size had declined drastically to a few thousand ewes, Noire (9 flocks), Barbarine tête Rousse (58 flocks), Noire but has increased to around 29 000 ewes in the last five de years following an increase in the price of milk and the Thibar (32 flocks), Queue Fine de l’Ouest (5 flocks) and D’man (5 flocks). The number of registered flocks establishment of a breed association in the region of Béja in the north of Tunisia. The establishment of breed declined substantially after 2011: firstly, because of civil associations for other breeds is being encouraged, disturbances, which led to several farms being dissolved, with the aim of supporting breeders, improving breed and secondly, because of an attempt to reduce costs. conservation and alleviating the financial burden on The number of weighings was also reduced as a the state, which entirely finances existing improvement cost-saving measure. Registered flocks account for roughly 25 000 ewes, a small fraction of the national programmes. A further objective is to better involve stock, which was estimated at 3 800 000 ewes in 2011 researchers in the characterization and genetic (Direction Générale de la Production Animale, 2011). evaluation of breeds and thereby provide a basis for the Future breeding stocks are selected on the basis of implementation of robust and durable improvement conformation, health and daily-growth traits. Candidate programmes appropriate for the production systems in rams and replacement ewes are then sold to breeders the various regions of the country. and institutional farms nationwide to spread genetic gain. Occasionally, the best rams are used for artificial Provided by Boulbaba Rekik, National Coordinator for the Management insemination. On average, genetic gains for growth of Animal Genetic Resources, Tunisia. examples of programmes of this kind are reported, that their breeders identify animals correctly, they are mainly operated by international research determine whether animal recording should be institutions or development NGOs. In Ethiopia, for mandatory ... and decide whether genetic evalu- example, the International Livestock Research Insti- ations should be undertaken.” Nonetheless, the tute (ILRI) and the International Center for Agri- majority of the country’s livestock keepers are cultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA) have both reported not to be involved in any structured established some community-based breeding pro- breeding programmes. In some countries, breed- grammes for small ruminants. ers’ associations have been established, but their Cross-breeding of locally adapted breeds with practical activities remain at a low level. Rwanda high-output exotic breeds (often via the use of arti- reports that breeders’ associations participate in ficial insemination) is widely reported. The extent the country’s “livestock working group” and that to which these efforts are organized or promoted their advice is taken into consideration in the by the government varies from country to country, setting of breeding goals. They also play a limited as does the extent to which steps are taken to mini- role in animal identification, performance record- mize the risk of indiscriminate cross-breeding. The ing and the provision of artificial insemination ser - country report from Uganda notes that Boer goats vices in some species. (a breed originally imported from South Africa) Some countries report efforts to establish commu- are raised on government farms and bucks made nity-based breeding programmes. Where successful th e SecOnd rePOr t On 267 L O r F O F ceS r U reSO c i t Gene L And S ' d Od r O W e h F t O e t A t e S th AGric U LtU r e AniMA

309 t citie h e S t A t e OF c A PA S 3 t A P r duction systems, where livestock are unconfined available to goat keepers for cross-breeding with and mating is usually uncontrolled; and livestock their indigenous animals. Goat keepers are trained keepers’ reluctance to participate in govern- in how to avoid indiscriminate cross-breeding and ment-driven breeding programmes. also in performance-recording techniques. In South and Southeast Asia, governments are also generally quite active in the development of 7.2 Asia breeding policies and in the implementation of The design and implementation of breeding breeding programmes. However, the presence programmes in Asia is generally very depend- of large numbers of small-scale livestock keepers ent on the public sector, with research organiz- and the lack of breeders’ associations lead to ations often playing a significant role (Table 3C3). difficulties with the organizational aspects of approaches to the implementation Nonetheless, breeding programmes. Breeding strategies in of breeding programmes vary greatly across the these subregions usually have a strong focus on region and there are many specificities at country cross-breeding with high-output exotic breeds. and subregional levels. Governments often facilitate the distribution In Central Asia, policies that foster cross- of breeding material from such breeds. While breeding with exotic breeds are widespread. In breeding policies in several countries in these sub- the Islamic Republic of Iran, for example, cross- regions have successfully contributed to increas- breeding has been heavily used in dairy cattle, ing production levels, a lack of attention to locally and to a lesser extent in sheep to improve meat adapted breeds has led to their genetic erosion via production and in goats to improve milk produc- indiscriminate cross-breeding and breed replace- tion. The Iranian country report notes that breed- ment. Commercial companies are implementing ing policies will in future continue to promote breeding programmes in some countries, mainly cross-breeding in dairy cattle, but that in beef in pigs and chickens. These programmes operate cattle, sheep and goats the intention is to give on a small scale, but their importance seems to be greater attention to the genetic potential of growing. The country report from Malaysia, for locally adapted breeds. While in some countries example, states that future progress will depend livestock keepers are organized into breeders’ on the private sector becoming the main driver of associations and cooperatives that participate in breeding programmes. the implementation of breeding programmes, this is not the case everywhere in the subregion. The country report from Kazakhstan notes that 7.3 Southwest Pacific 9 the intention is to concentrate breeding activities breeding pro- In New Zealand and Australia, on large collective farms. The country also intends grammes are long established and very well devel- to establish a well-organized system for the use oped. Attention is focused largely on the devel- 3C2). of imported genetic material (Box opment and improvement of a narrow range of In East Asia, breeding programmes for the species and breeds. Breeders’ associations and live- main livestock species are in place in the major - stock keepers’ cooperatives play key roles. Breed- ity of countries. Programmes are government ing programmes are organized by these bodies, driven, but livestock keepers are well organized and a large proportion of livestock keepers partic- 3C3 and 3C4). Breeding in most countries (Tables ipate in them. Government and research institu- programmes in Mongolia are less well developed tions support some activities, but decision-making than those in the other reporting countries in lies in the hands of the livestock keepers. this subregion. The country reports two major - constraints to the establishment of breeding pro 9 eport as part of the second Australia did not submit a country r grammes: the difficulty of organizing pedigree h SoW-AnG owever, it prepared a country report at r process. and performance recording in its extensive pro- its own initiative in 2012. d re he O t S O c t n O P e r n 268 r OU S re netic e AL G M i n S A r d L r WO the e OF t A t S e U t L U ic r AG d n A d Or FOO S F ce ' the

310 BreedinG PrOGrAMMeS c 2 c Box 3 s plan for the development of the beef-cattle industry Kazakhstan’ Kazakhstan is implementing the “Master Plan for the • preferential credit and subsidies for the purchase of imported pedigree cattle; Development of the Beef Cattle Industry till 2020” with the aim of ensuring the country’s supply of • investing in farm machinery and equipment; protein for human consumption. The main objectives • providing interest-rate subsidies for selective are to: breeding; • increase the numbers of specialized beef cattle; decreasing the costs of forage production; and • • subsidizing the construction of modern feedlots. increase the proportion of pedigree cattle in the • The imports have led to some negative herd (from 8 percent to 20 percent); and consequences, such as deaths of cattle from exotic • increase slaughter weights and dressing per - disease, and reduced reproductive and productive centage. rates because of the need to acclimatize to the new It is planned to import 72 000 animals from production environment. highly productive beef breeds. During the period It is planned to bring the share of imported cattle between 2010 and early 2014, 45 000 pedigree beef in the total beef breeding herd up to 40 to 50 percent. animals were imported from the United States of Currently, imported livestock are used both for pure- America (34 percent), Australia (22 percent), Canada breeding and for cross-breeding. Positive results have (14 percent), the countries of the European Union been obtained by crossing the Kazakh White-headed (21 percent) and the Russian Federation (8 percent). breed with the Hereford, the Auliyekol with the The programme aims to increase the population of Charolais, and the zonal type “Zhetysu” with the female beef cattle to 1.5 million head by 2020, with Limousin. Negative impacts on locally adapted breeds are annual delivery of more than 900 000 animals for possible if massive uncontrolled cross-breeding occurs. slaughter and annual beef production of more than 200 000 tonnes. o accomplish these objectives, the Government of T Provided by Talgat Karymsakov, National Coordinator for the , introducing: Kazakhstan is considering, inter alia Management of Animal Genetic Resources, Kazakhstan. involve large commercial farms as multipliers within In the small island countries of the Southwest a pyramidal breeding system as a means of meeting Pacific, breeding programmes are rare and where demand for breeding animals. The multipliers will they exist are in their early stages of development be supplied with breeding animals from govern- (it should be noted in this context that given the ment-run nucleus farms, and in turn supply individ- small size of these countries attempting to estab- ual farmers. lish independent breeding programmes is not nec- essarily an appropriate strategy). Livestock-keeper organizations are not well developed and the few Eur 7.4 ope and the Caucasus breeding programmes mentioned in the country In the majority of the countries of Europe and reports are government driven. Private companies the Caucasus, the livestock sector is well devel- are sometimes involved, but there is little participa- oped, and breeding programmes are long estab- tion on the part of individual breeders. The most and 3C5 3C4 lished and well organized (Tables commonly reported activity is the importation 3C6). In most European countries, and Figure and distribution of exotic breeds to replace locally breeders’ associations are well organized and adapted breeds or for cross-breeding with them. play a key role in the operation of breeding pro - The country report from Samoa describes plans to grammes (Table 3C3). In a number of countries th SecOnd rePOr t On e 269 L O r F O F ceS And U reSO c i t Gene L AniMA S ' d Od r O W e h F t O e t A t e S th AGric U LtU r e r

311 t h e S t A t e OF c A PA citie S t 3 r A P 3 c Box 3 Using exotic genetics in the dairy sector – experiences fr om Poland facilitated the development of specialized dairy production Cattle breeding work undertaken in Poland after the and as a result backcrossing with Holstein-Friesians became Second World War focused on dual-purpose cattle. All breeds were used for both milk and meat production. widespread. The greater availability of imported semen contributed to this development. As a result of long-term The majority of cattle belonged to the Black and White continuous backcrossing, the active Black and White cattle and Red and White lowland breeds, with the Polish Red population was completely replaced with the Holstein- breed also making up a substantial proportion of the percent of the cattle population. In this period, only 20 Friesian genotype. This led to the recognition of a new population was kept on large-scale farms, while farms breed, the Polish Holstein-Friesian, for which herd books percent keeping one or two cows accounted for 40 were established in 2005 by the Polish Federation of Cattle (Trela and Choroszy, 2010). Breeders and Dairy Farmers. The first national programme for the evaluation and To maintain the genetic resources of the traditional selection of bulls for use in artificial insemination was dual-purpose types of Polish cattle, the Polish Black and introduced in 1971. Initially, the breeding value of the White and the Polish Red and White, were included bulls was estimated using contemporary comparison. Best in the genetic resources conservation programme, as Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) was introduced in 1985, had been already been done for the Polish Red and and BLUP-Animal Model in 1991. The Programme on Whitebacked breeds. This enabled the continued Genetic Improvement of Cattle Performance, introduced production of semen for use on farms where conditions in 1972, with a timeframe running till 1990, underlined are not suitable for the highly demanding Polish the importance of artificial insemination, including the Holstein-Friesian cows. use of imported semen (which came mainly from the The widespread use of Holstein-Friesian semen resulted United States of America, Canada and Western Europe). in the transformation of the dual-purpose population Before 1985, very little genetic progress was achieved into a specialized dairy breed, and enabled an increase in within the national breeding scheme and therefore national milk production while reducing the number of there was an urgent need for an alternative approach. cows (5.5 million in 1985 and 2.4 million in 2013). In 2013, The “Programme on Cattle Breeding and Production the average milk yield of the Polish Holstein-Friesian Black kg and that of the Red and 588 to 2000”, adopted in 1986, for the first time accepted and White variety was 7 kg, while those of the Polish Black White variety was 6 936 backcrossing with Holstein-Friesian bulls as a way of and White and the Polish Red and White breeds were developing a specialized dairy population. This was to kg and 4 610 4 659 kg respectively (PFHBPM, 2013). It is be complemented by ongoing improvement of pure- clear that cross-breeding with an exotic highly specialized bred dual-purpose cattle. Backcrossing with Holstein- dairy breed has positively affected overall milk production. Friesians presented an opportunity to benefit from the However, high performance was accompanied by decreased high genetic potential of this specialized dairy breed fertility, higher somatic cell counts, poor leg conformation and to rapidly enhance the genetic value of the national et al. and reduced herd-life (Pokorska , 2012), problems cattle stock. Over time, as farmers’ demand for high- that are common in the Holstein-Friesian population performing dairy stock grew, the development of the worldwide. To address these issues, the breeding goals herd-book population became dependent on the import within the programme were substantially widened in 2007. of Holstein-Friesian semen. However, the general use of Moreover, in some commercial herds limited cross-breeding Holstein-Friesian semen was not promoted, as a large with Montbeliarde or Swedish/Norwegian Red cattle was part of the cattle population was kept in small herds (up initiated to improve health and robustness. to five cows) under modest husbandry conditions. After the introduction of the market economy in 1990, Elżbieta Martyniuk , National Coordinator for the Management Provided by the rapid development of the dairy processing sector of Animal Genetic Resources, Poland. O t S O he d re t c e O n P r n 270 r e re netic e AL G M i n S A ' d OU S L r WO the e OF t A S r ce S F Or FOO d A n d AG r ic U L t U t the

312 BreedinG PrOGrAMMeS c a programme of development based on the use (e.g. the Netherlands, Norway and the United of exotic breeds with measures that ensure that Kingdom) the government’s role in breeding locally adapted breeds are maintained and that programmes is largely restricted to providing appropriate genetic resources for use in more support to breeders’ associations via research marginal production environments remain avail- activities. Generally, governments supervise and able (see, for example, Box 3C3). monitor the implementation and performance of breeding programmes. They implement animal- identification schemes in which all livestock 7.5 Latin America and the Caribbean keepers have to participate regardless of whether In Latin America and the Caribbean, breeding or not they are members of breeders’ associa- programmes are diverse in terms of the stake- tions. They also support breeders’ associations holder groups involved in organizing and imple- by coordinating their work. Some countries (e.g. menting them. Depending on the country and the France and Spain) provide subsidies to support species, breeding programmes may be operated the work of breeders’ associations. Breeders’ asso- - by governments, breeders’ associations, commer ciations organize and implement performance cial companies or livestock keepers organized at and pedigree recording, set and review breeding community level. However, some stakeholders are goals, ensure the consistency of activities contrib- more important that others in terms of the imple- uting to the genetic improvement of the breed mentation of specific breeding-programme ele- and, where they have the capacity, implement - ments. Governments are very active in the oper genetic evaluations. Research institutes and uni- ation of animal-identification schemes. Breeders’ versities support breeders’ associations and gov- associations and individual livestock keepers are ernments in the theoretical and methodological heavily involved in the definition of breeding aspects of genetic evaluation, as well as working goals and in the recording of performance data. on the development and refinement of breed- Artificial insemination is mainly delivered by ing methods. There is, however, some variation commercial companies. Research institutions are across the region. In some countries, particularly heavily involved in genetic evaluations. in the Caucasus and parts of southeastern Europe, In the Caribbean, breeding programmes breeding programmes are relatively undevel- are less developed than in Central and South oped, livestock-keeper organization is limited America. Governments are the main operators of and breeders’ associations are rare. the few breeding programmes that are in place. Commercial companies are active in the The importation of exotic genetic material for region’s dairy cattle and pig-breeding sectors cross-breeding with locally breeds is widespread. and dominate the poultry-breeding sector. They The best-developed breeding programmes are control most of the market for genetic resources in the dairy-cattle sector, which is characterized in these sectors and work with a narrow range of by a relatively high level of livestock-keeper breeds and lines. As a result of this focus, their organization and the presence of commercial roles in breeding programmes for locally adapted companies. The country report from Suriname, breeds of pigs, chickens and dairy cattle are for example, notes that dairy cooperatives usually limited. actively participate in the definition of breeding Many European countries rely, to varying goals and also facilitate the provision of artificial degrees, on the use of imported genetics. A insemination services. The report from Trinidad number of countries report that this poses a and Tobago mentions that a national commercial threat to the survival of some of their locally dairy company provides artificial insemination to F). However 1 Section , in adapted breeds (see Part some dairy farms, although on an irregular basis, some countries it has proved possible to combine and also records production data for some farms. On t SecOnd rePOr e th 271 Od O r F O F ceS r U reSO c i t Gene L AniMA r S ' d L r O W e h F t O e t A t e S th e LtU U AGric And

313 e c S t h e S t A t citie OF PA A t 3 P r A 4 c Box 3 eeding in Brazil Beef cattle br One of the main successes has been a switch from As well as having the largest commercial cattle selection for qualitative traits (e.g. ear size in Zebu herd in the world, Brazil is currently the world’s cattle) to selection for quantitative traits with a more largest exporter of beef. In recent decades, breeding programmes have been at the forefront of beef-sector direct link to productivity. Since 2003, the number development and have achieved a marked increase in of animals recorded in the database of the PMGZ programme has risen from 1.5 million animals to the productivity of beef breeds. 3.6 million animals, with 230 000 new animals entering In 2003, when Brazil prepared its country report the database each year. GENEPLUS today covers five for the first report on The State of the World’s Animal , there Zebu breeds and four composite breeds, as well as Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture were 16 breeding programmes operating in the beef two European breeds. Its database, which covered 1 sector, about 700 000 animals in 2003, now covers more than and they all remain operational. Thirteen 2.5 million animals. Despite the successes, breeding programmes target various Zebu breeds, with the programmes in Brazil still face many constraints. In the objective of increasing reproductive efficiency and poorer regions of the country, the main constraints are: growth rate using classical breeding techniques allied a lack of farmer awareness and commitment to • with modern biotechnologies. Two further programmes recording animal performance; are the Breeding Programme for Zebu Cattle (PMGZ) • a low level of education among livestock and GENEPLUS. PMGZ is run by the Brazilian Zebu keepers; and Breeders’ Association, which identifies superior animals • the cost of recording for smallholders, especially by calculating expected progeny differences (EPDs) in the case of locally adapted breeds. for weight and weight gain at various ages, as well as Future priority objectives for breeding programmes for fertility traits and reproductive efficiency, based include, in addition to continuing to increase meat on a national database covering all Zebu breeds. production, increasing dam longevity and meat GENEPLUS provides zebu breeders with EPDs for quality. In Zebu cattle, meat tenderness is fundamental various production and reproductive traits. The oldest to maintaining export levels, especially exports to Brazilian herd book, created in 1906, the Collares Herd countries with higher quality requirements. Book, is responsible for the registration of British and continental cattle breeds, and operates PROMEBO, a Bos taurus genetic evaluation programme for seven Provided by Arthur Mariante, National Coordinator for the Management breeds, which provides yearly sire summaries with EPDs of Animal Genetic Resources, Brazil. 1 See FAO 2007a, Box 31 (page 231). for weights and reproductive traits. national, but in some cases international – are The majority of breeding programmes in very active in the region and operate breeding Central and South America are implemented by programmes for dairy and beef cattle, pigs and breeders’ associations or commercial companies. chickens, and to a lesser extent goats. The country Breeders’ associations generally receive support report from Costa Rica notes that experiences from the public sector, mainly via the work of gained in the implementation of cattle-breeding research institutions, which are involved not programmes are used to guide the development only in genetic evaluation, but also on defin- of programmes for small-ruminant species. ition of breeding goals, in performance record- Cross-breeding strategies are reported to be ing and in the organizational aspects of breed- 3C7). quite widespread in Latin America (Table ing programmes. Commercial companies – mainly d re he O t S O c t n O P e r n 272 r OU S re netic e AL G M i n S A r d L r WO the e OF t A t S e U t L U ic r AG d n A d Or FOO S F ce ' the

314 BreedinG PrOGrAMMeS c ing activities rests with livestock keepers or com- Companies and research institutes have developed mercial companies. Federal and state research composite lines, mostly in beef cattle, but also in other species. Cross-breeding with exotic breeds organizations may develop means of evaluating (using both imported genetic material and genetic traits that the livestock industry deems import- material sourced from within the region), and to a ant, but responsibility for adapting and utilizing lesser extent with composite lines developed in the such approaches lies with the industry. region, is widely used as a method of increasing production levels. Brazil reports a major increase Near and Middle East 7.7 in livestock productivity over recent years, brought The coverage and state of development of breed- about by the implementation of well-developed ing programmes in the Near and Middle East organ - breeding programmes (Box 3C4). Research are very limited. The programmes that do exist at national and regional levels, as well as izations mainly involve sheep and goats and are based universities and breeders’ associations, are respon- on governmental farms or breeding stations. The sible for the majority of Brazil’s breeding pro- involvement of livestock keepers is very limited grammes. In other countries (e.g. Chile, Ecuador 3C5 for example). Selected animals, (see Box and Paraguay), improvement of animal perfor - raised on governmental farms or imported, are mance has been based on the importation of distributed to livestock keepers with the aim of genetic material and efforts to establish breeding increasing production levels. Artificial insemin- - programmes for various livestock species are cur ation programmes operate on a limited scale. rently ongoing. Peru and the Plurinational State of Bolivia have established breeding programmes aimed at improving fibre quality in llamas and alpacas. Bolivian programmes include some oper - ated by community-owned companies, the main 200 camelid such company, COPROCA, involves 1 Box 3 c 5 keepers. Peru reports breeding programmes for eeding in Jordan Sheep br several “minor” species, including rabbits, ducks and guinea pigs. Jordan’s sheep-breeding programmes are conducted on a very limited scale. Breeding stations distribute some selected rams to livestock keepers, without 7.6 North America measuring the animals’ productivity under field In the United States of America, breeding pro- conditions and without monitoring. The majority grammes are technologically advanced and of these rams are selected phenotypically, without widely implemented in all the main livestock genetic-evaluation programmes. species. Cross-breeding strategies are widespread A national animal identification and registration 3C7). Breeders’ associations and individ- (Table system is in place, but there is no performance and ual livestock keepers are the main stakehold- pedigree recording at the livestock-keeper level. ers involved in the operation of breeding pro- To establish a breeding programme at national 3C3). National and international grammes (Table level, animal identification needs to be linked to commercial companies play a major role in cattle, performance and pedigree information. Establishing pig and chicken breeding programmes. Advanced such a programme would require well-qualified staff technologies such as genomic selection are widely and good collaboration among stakeholders. cattle breeding (see supplementary used in dairy 10 table A3C8). De cision-making regarding breed- Adapted from Jordan’s country report. Source: 10 OM and r Supplementary tables for Part 3 ar e provided on cd at http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4787e/i4787e197.pdf th t SecOnd rePOr e On 273 r ' d L r O W e h F t O e t A t e S th AniMA L Gene S t i c reSO U r ceS F O r F O Od And AGric U LtU e

315 t PA h e S t A t e OF c A citie S A t 3 P r 9 Conclusions and priorities Changes since 2005 8 As noted in the introduction to this section, many While the majority of countries report that they of the data presented above are not directly com- have at least some breeding progammes in place, the reported levels of implementation of the various parable to those presented in the first SoW-AnGR. elements of breeding programmes suggest that However, in both reporting processes countries these programmes are often in a very rudimentary provided information on the number of breeds state – or in some cases non-existent in the sense of subject to various breeding-related activities. The organized progammes involving the establishment list was slightly expanded for the second report- of breeding goals, recording of performance, etc. ing process, but results for the activities covered 3C7 (for in both processes are presented in Figure The involvement of stakeholder groups in the cattle breeds). organization and implementation of breeding Because the first reporting process was not programmes varies greatly from region to region. 11 based on a structured questionnaire, In Africa, Asia and the Near and Middle East, gov- compar- 12 ernments are the main players, while in North able figures are available for only 35 countries. America, Europe and the Caucasus, Australia and The results show that – at least as far as the 35 New Zealand, responsibility for operating breed- countries are concerned – the proportion of ing programmes lies mainly in the hands of breed- cattle breeds covered by all the various breeding- ers’ associations and commercial companies, with related activities reported upon has expanded various degrees of support from governments since the time of the first SoW-AnGR report- and research organizations, depending on the ing process. Is should, however, be noted that country. The involvement of breeders’ associa- there are some differences between the pattern tions and commercial companies is also relatively of development in OECD countries and that well developed in parts of Latin America. in non-OECD countries. In particular, cover - The first SoW-AnGR concluded that, where age of genetic evaluation has increased much they existed, government-operated breeding percent more sharply in OECD countries (46 programmes in developing countries tended to percent) than in non-OECD coun to 70 - have limited impact because of a lack of interac- tries, where it has remained almost stable at tion with livestock keepers. However, it also con- percent. Given the progress made around 32 cluded that there were many constraints to the in the implementation of other breeding- emergence of the “developed-country” model - programme elements, addressing the cover based on breeders’ associations and involving age of genetic evaluations would appear to be minimal governmental support, particularly with the logical next step towards the more wide- regard to the organizational structures needed to spread establishment of effective breeding pro- facilitate the involvement of individual livestock grammes. keepers and the relatively high levels of knowl- edge and technical skills required. The informa- 11 uring the first SoW-AnG process, countries were provided with d r tion provided in the country reports suggests edefined tables or “tabulation tools”, intended to facilitate the pr collection and analysis of information during the preparation of that a number of these preconditions have still their country reports. Some countries included the completed not been met in many countries. While there tables in their country reports, while others did not. are some reported examples of progress, live- 12 Albania, Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Benin, Brazil, Burundi, stock-keeper organization frequently remains d epublic of the yprus, c r roatia, c emocratic ameroon, c e c i thiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, celand, ongo, poorly developed, as do education and training n Latvia, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mexico, amibia, in the field of livestock breeding. orway, Paraguay, n r epublic of Korea, Senegal, Slovakia, Many countries have put policies in place aimed t Slovenia, Swaziland, Sweden, r epublic ogo, Ukraine, United at improving the state of livestock breeding. anzania and Uruguay of t . O t O t S he c d re n O P e r n 274 r OU S re netic e AL G M i r S A ' d L r WO the e OF t A t S U ic r AG e U t L d n A d Or FOO S F ce n the

316 BreedinG PrOGrAMMeS c GU c 7 re 3 Fi Implementation of br eeding tools in cattle (2005 and 2014) Percenta ge of cattle breeds (national breed populations) 100 80 60 40 20 0 Animal identification Animal identification Animal identification Artificial insemination Artificial insemination Artificial insemination Breeding goal defined Breeding goal defined Breeding goal defined Performance recording Performance recording Performance recording Genetic evaluation (classic approach) Genetic evaluation (classic approach) Genetic evaluation (classic approach) World OECD Non OECD Second SoW-AnGR (2014) First SoW-AnGR (2005) Note: The figure is based on information reported by the 35 countries (9 OECD and 26 non-OECD) that provided the relevant information in both State of the World (SoW-AnGR) reporting processes. The figures represent the percentage of cattle breeds (national breed populations) in which the tools are used. Note that they may be used only in part of the population within these breeds. attractions for countries seeking rapidly to boost In many developing countries, in particular, their output of livestock products. The difficulty these policies focus mainly on the introduction lies in the fact that while increasing the avail- of exotic breeds for use in cross-breeding, some- ability of exotic genetic material may be relatively times with little attention to the establishment of straightforward, ensuring that it is used appropri- breeding programmes. Utilizing the genetic pro- ately is more challenging. gress already made in exotic breeds has obvious th On t SecOnd rePOr e 275 Od r F O F ceS r U reSO c And t Gene L AniMA S ' d L r O W e h F t O e t A t e S th AGric U LtU O r e i

317 t A h e S t A t e OF c PA citie S r t 3 P A Countries have a range of different short- While interest in expanding the use of exotic breeds is practically universal in developing coun- and longer-term objectives and often have to tries, a number have also recognized the need to deal with a diverse range of production systems. take greater advantage of the characteristics of Identifying specific priorities at national and pro- their locally adapted breeds, particularly given the duction-system levels is therefore a matter for countries themselves. The information provided challenges associated with climate change and the in the country reports suggests that, in more ongoing need for livestock that are suitable for use general terms, priorities will often include capac- by small-scale producers and in low-input production systems. In this context, improving the productivity ity-building at all levels from livestock-keepers of locally adapted breeds through the implementa- to policy-makers, as well as strengthening the organizational structures needed in order to tion of breeding programmes is, at least in theory, implement successful breeding programmes. an appealing option, both because of the potential Livestock-keeper involvement is frequently a to derive benefits directly from increasing livestock weak point in existing programmes. productivity and because it may help to keep the breeds in use and hence available as resources for the future. However, for the reasons noted above, implementing such programmes is often challeng- References ing. Only a small number of developing countries report the successful establishment of commu- Country reports. 2014. Available at http://www.fao. nity-based breeding programmes in medium- or org/3/a-i4787e/i4787e01.htm. low-input production systems. 2011. Direction Générale de la Production Animale. On the positive side, the evidence provided . Enquête de structure t unis, Ministèr e de l’Agriculture. in the country reports suggests that the level FAO. 2007a. The State of the World’s Animal Genetic of implementation of several of the main ele- Resources for Food and Agriculture , edited by B. ments of breeding programmes – in terms of r . Pilling. r ome (available at http:// ischkowsky & d the number of breeds covered – has increased www.fao.org/docrep/010/a1250e/a1250e00.htm). in recent years. Major gaps, nonetheless, remain 2007b. Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic FAO. in all developing regions. Even where activities Resources and the Interlaken Declaration. ome r are reported to have become more widespread (available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a1404e/ in terms of breed coverage, they may remain a1404e00.htm). very restricted in terms of the proportion of the Development of integrated multipurpose FAO. 2015 . population covered within each breed. Animal . FAO Animal Production animal recording systems identification appears to be the area where the and ealth Guidelines. h r ome (in press). most progress has been made, probably because Analiza i podsumowanie wyników oceny 2013. PFHBPM. of its multiple roles in livestock development. wartości użytkowej bydła w 2013r. Polska Federacja As noted in the first SoW-AnGR, developing a odowców Bydła i Producentów Mleka. h national breeding strategy can be very challeng- rzyczyny Pokorska, J., Kułaj, D. & Ormian, M. P 2012. ing, particularly given that the information needed - brakowania krów rasy polskiej holsztyńsko-fryzyjsk in order to assess the relative costs and benefits iej odmiany czarno-białej użytkowanych w fermie of different approaches is often unavailable. The wielkotowarowej. Roczniki Naukowe Polskiego existence of these knowledge gaps underlines the Towarzystwa Zootechnicznego , 8(2): 17–24. importance of strengthening efforts to character - Wkład Instytutu 2010. Trela, J. & Choroszy, B. ize breeds and their production environments (see Zootechniki Państwowego Instytutu Badawczego 4 Sections B and Part 3 Section A and B) and Part w rozwój i doskonalenie krajowej populacji bydła the need to keep track of trends and drivers of mlecznego. Wiadomości Zootechniczne, R. XLVIII change in the livestock sector (see Part 2). (2010), 4: 3–30. d re he O t S O c t n O P e r n 276 r OU S re netic e AL G M i n S A r d L r WO the e OF t A t S e U t L U ic r AG d n A d Or FOO S F ce ' the

318 d Section D Conservation programmes 1 Intr oduction greater depth, including an analysis of the types of material stored and the breed coverage. Sub- section 6 presents a region by region overview of This section presents a review of the state of con- - the state of conservation programmes. Subsec servation programmes based on information pro- tion 7 presents an analysis of changes in the state vided in the country reports (see the introduction of conservation programmes since the time the 3 for an overview of the country coverage to Part The State of the World’s Animal first report on and the use of the national breed population as (first Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture Conservation actions are com- a unit of analysis). SoW-AnGR) (FAO, 2007a) was prepared. The final monly grouped into three categories: in situ con- subsection presents some conclusions and dis- servation; ex situ in vivo conservation; and ex situ cusses priority actions that need to be taken in Section for a D 4 conservation (see Part in vitro order to improve the state of conservation pro- discussion of the state of the art in conservation grammes worldwide. methods). These categories were defined in the country-report questionnaire as follows: : support for continued • In situ conservation use by livestock keepers in the production Global overview 2 system in which the livestock evolved or are now normally found and bred. A comprehensive assessment of the state of global in vivo conservation : maintenance of • Ex situ provision of conservation programmes would live animal populations not kept under their require breed-by-breed data on the presence or normal management conditions (e.g. in zoo- absence (and if present the effectiveness) of the logical parks or governmental farms) and/or various types of conservation programme that outside the area in which they evolved or are can be implemented, as well as on the risk status now normally found. of the respective breeds. Requiring the inclusion : conservation vitro in situ conservation • Ex of breedwise data on conservation activities in under cryogenic conditions including, inter the country reports was not considered to be fea- alia , the cryoconservation of embryos, semen, sible (the major gaps that exist in risk-status data oocytes, somatic cells or tissues having the 1 Section B). The country- are discussed in Part potential to reconstitute live animals at a report questionnaire therefore requested coun- later date. tries to provide scores (none, low, medium or high) The section is structured as follows. Subsec- for the extent to which their breed populations are - 2 presents an overview of the state of conser tion covered by each of the three categories of conserv- 3 and vation programmes worldwide. Subsections ation programmes. Given that some breeds may in situ conservation programmes in more 4 discuss be in so secure state that they do not need to be detail, including an analysis of the types of activ- included in a conservation programme, countries ities undertaken and whether they are managed were asked to focus particularly on at-risk breeds. - by the public or private sectors. Subsection 5 dis The main objective, as stated in the question- cusses ex situ in vitro conservation programmes in naire, was to obtain an indication of the extent e the s on t or P ond r c e 277 od o r f o f s e c r U o s e r c ti e n e L G r M i an s ' d L r o he W f t o e t a t s the e LtU U c i r G a and a

319 t P ac ities e state of ca h Part 3 the Caucasus, Central Asia, East Asia and North to which the countries’ programmes meet the percent) and America. North and West Africa (65 objective of minimizing the risk of breed extinc- percent) are the subregions Central America (60 tion. Countries where all breeds are regarded in which the lowest proportions of countries as secure had the option of indicating this as an conservation pro- report the presence of in situ explanation for the absence of programmes in a grammes. It should be noted that these figures given category. simply indicate the presence of conservation percent) of country reports The majority (82 programmes. They provide no indication of how indicate the presence of conservation in situ many breeds are targeted or how effective the programmes for breeds belonging to at least programmes are. one species. However, there is a lot of variation conservation programmes are less Ex situ across the regions and subregions of the world percent in situ common than programmes: 60 (Table 3D1). In situ conservation programmes ex situ in vivo percent of countries report and 54 are reported by all countries in Europe and t e 3 d 1 ab L Proportion of countries reporting conservation activities vitro in situ Ex vivo situ in Ex situ Regions and subregions Number of In conservation conservation countries conservation pr ogrammes programmes programmes % Africa 40 70 48 30 50 63 75 8 e frica a ast 20 65 40 orth and West a frica 20 n 50 75 33 outhern a 12 frica s 80 65 90 Asia 20 100 50 50 sia 4 entral a c 100 100 100 ast 4 sia a e 83 33 83 6 s outh sia a 83 83 83 6 sia a outheast s 71 14 29 Southwest Pacific 7 86 69 100 Europe and the Caucasus 35 83 72 61 Latin America and the Caribbean 18 60 80 100 5 c aribbean 60 40 60 merica c a entral 5 88 63 88 s a outh 8 merica 100 100 100 North America 1 29 71 71 7 Near and Middle East 84 63 55 World 128 Note: Figures refer to the proportion of countries reporting conservation activities for at least one species. Country reports, 2014. Source: rt on second re he t o P 278 G a and food r fo ces r U reso netic e r a M ani s ' d L r o W the of e U t L U ic r L G the state

320 conserVation ProGraMMes d sive conservation programmes for a given species ex situ in vitro and programmes, respectively. percent in at national level) are rare globally: 23 The figures are particularly low in the Southwest programmes; 7 the case of percent in the in situ , percent and 14 percent). However Pacific (29 ex situ in vivo case of percent programmes; and 8 100 percent of East Asian countries report the 1 programmes. ex situ in vitro in the case of presence of both types of programme. The the overall figures indicate that con- While regional breakdown shows that the main excep- servation programmes are widespread, the in situ tions are the coverage of and ex situ in country-report responses regarding the level of programmes in North America and to a vitro breed coverage indicate that in many countries lesser extent in Europe and the Caucasus. The programmes are far from comprehensive. This breed coverage of e x situ in vivo programmes is is illustrated, for example, by Figure 3D1, which generally low even in developed regions, where shows average national breed coverage scores for this type of programme appears to be a low programmes at country level (taking into in situ priority relative to the other two categories. This account the so-called “big five” species – cattle, is probably explained by the fact that if effective chickens, pigs, sheep and goats). A more detailed ex situ in vitro programmes are in and in situ breakdown, covering all three categories of con- 3D2. servation programme, is presented in Figure 1 ases where the species is absent or all breeds are considered c High scores for breed coverage (i.e. comprehen - secur e are excluded from these calculations. i f re 3 1 d GU Coverage of situ conservation programmes for the big five livestock species in 0 (no programme) >1.5-2.0 >2.5-3.0 >0.5-1 No data >1-1.5 >0-0.5 >2.0-2.5 Coverage indicates the reported extent to which country’s breeds are covered by conservation programmes. Coverage was scored Note: none (0), low (1), medium (2) or high (3) for each of the big five species (cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens and goats), with beef, dairy and multipurpose cattle treated separately, i.e. a total of seven categories. Countries could specify that no programmes are implemented in a given category because all breeds are secure. The average scores are calculated based on the scores for all the species/categories reported to be present in the country, with the exception of those in which all breeds are reported to be secure. Sierra Leone is shown on the map as having no data (grey) because for all the species/categories reported present, the option “no programmes implemented because all breeds are secure” was chosen. Country reports, 2014. Source: t nd rePort on o c se e h 279 od o r f o f s e c r U reso c Geneti L aniMa r ' d L r o W e h t f o tate e s h e U t UL c aGri and s t

321 e state of ca P ac ities h t 3 Part f d 2 i operation for a given breed, the addition of an GU re 3 eed coverage in conservation activities for the Br ex situ in vivo programme may not provide much big five species – frequency of responses additional benefit in terms of reducing extinction D). In all categories, high risk (see Part 4 Section scores are more common in Latin America and the 80% 0% 20% 40% 60% 100% Caribbean and in Asia than in other developing Africa regions. Asia 3D2 shows that, while in some regions able T Europe and the Caucasus breed coverage within a given category of pro - Latin America and the Caribbean gramme is at a similar level across all species, in Near and Middle East conservation other regions some species are more comprehen- North America In situ sively covered than others. For example, in the Southwest Pacific in situ case of programmes, sheep, pigs and multi- World purpose cattle have the highest average scores in Europe and the Caucasus, dairy cattle in Latin Africa America and the Caribbean, chickens in Asia and Asia small ruminants in the Near and Middle East. In Europe and the Caucasus ex situ in vitro programmes, the global the case of Latin America and the Caribbean conservation totals indicate a higher level of coverage for Near and Middle East cattle and sheep than for other species, although North America there are again some regional variations. Sub- Southwest Pacific regional breakdowns showing the three catego- Ex situ in vivo World ries of conservation programme are presented in 3D3, 3D4 and 3D5. Tables Africa In addition to providing information on the Asia big five species, countries also had the option Europe and the Caucasus of providing information on other species. The Latin America and the Caribbean 3D6. Coun- responses are summarized in Table conservation Near and Middle East tries that have programmes were probably more North America likely to respond than those that do not, so it Southwest Pacific is possible that the relatively high proportion Ex situ in vitro World of responding countries indicating the presence 80% of conservation programmes and the relatively 100% 0% 20% 40% 60% high breed coverage scores for these species are n/a All breeds secure None overestimates. Some of these species are widely Medium High Low distributed, but were only reported on by a few countries. In absolute terms, the number of The bar charts show the proportion of answers (country × Note: species combinations) from the respective region falling into the countries reporting the presence of conservation various categories of breed coverage (none, low, medium and programmes for some of these species is very low high) as well as those for which no programmes are reportedly needed because all breeds are secure. Cases where the respective (e.g. eight countries report in situ programmes species is not reported to be present in the country are assigned for asses, eight for geese, six for turkeys and ten to a separate category (n/a). The big five species comprise cattle, for ducks). goats, sheep, pigs and chickens. Country reports, 2014. Source: he second re rt on t P o 280 G and food r fo ces r U reso r e L G a M ani a s ' d L r o W the of e ic U L t U r netic the state

322 conserVation ProGraMMes d t ab L e 3 d 2 Breed coverage in conservation activities for the big five species – average scores World Africa Asia Southwest Species Conservation Europe North Near and Latin programmes and the America America Middle Pacific East Caucasus and the Caribbean c attle (specialized dairy) c attle (specialized beef) c attle (multipurpose) In situ conservation heep s Goats Pigs c hickens attle (specialized dairy) c attle (specialized beef) c attle (multipurpose) c Ex situ in vivo s heep conservation Goats Pigs hickens c c attle (specialized dairy) c attle (specialized beef) c attle (multipurpose) Ex situ in vitro s heep conservation Goats Pigs hickens c 0–0.5 0.5–1 1–1.5 1.5–2 2–2.5 2.5–3 Low Medium igh h Scores provided by countries were converted into numerical values (none = 0; low = 1; medium = 2; high = 3). The colours indicate Note: average scores for the countries of the respective region, as shown in the legend (border values assigned to the higher category). Country reports, 2014. Source: programmes and in situ list) form part of their conservation In situ 3 to indicate whether these activities are oper - programmes – elements ated by the public or private sectors (or both). The twelve potential activities considered in the conservation programmes can include a In situ questionnaire are listed below (grouped into wide range of different activities. The country- four categories for the purposes of analysis and report questionnaire requested countries to discussion): indicate which activities (from a predefined t h e c o nd rePort on se 281 r o r f o and s e c r U reso c Geneti L aniMa s ' d L od o W e h t f o tate e s h e aGri c UL t U r f t

323 t e state of ca P ac ities h Part 3 e 3 d 3 t L ab situ conservation programmes Proportion of countries reporting in Chickens Pigs Sheep Goats Dairy Regions and subregions Beef Number of Multi- cattle purpose cattle countries cattle % 41 56 51 59 54 40 Africa 37 47 57 60 86 43 57 50 38 8 e a frica ast 64 45 50 63 60 50 57 20 orth and West frica a n 25 55 17 42 27 50 42 12 outhern a frica s 78 67 68 79 71 77 67 20 Asia 50 100 75 100 75 100 75 entral a sia 4 c 33 100 67 100 50 75 100 sia 4 ast a e 80 60 0 100 80 40 75 s 6 sia a outh 83 67 83 67 83 25 50 outheast 6 a sia s 71 71 67 60 67 67 40 7 Southwest Pacific 77 89 85 78 64 90 97 Europe and the Caucasus 35 73 61 67 47 50 72 56 Latin America and the Caribbean 18 80 80 100 80 60 100 100 aribbean 5 c 60 33 50 33 60 60 40 entral merica a 5 c 50 43 38 60 75 20 75 8 merica a outh s 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 North America 1 0 50 33 71 71 43 50 7 Near and Middle East 59 64 68 74 67 65 61 128 World programmes for the respective species by in situ The proportions are calculated by dividing the number of countries reporting Note: the number of countries reporting the presence of breeds in need of conservation, i.e. countries where the respective species is not reported or where all breeds belonging to the species are reported to be secure are excluded from the calculations. Source: Country reports, 2014. a breed’s products to a subgroup of consum- Activities focused on increasing demand for breed products and services ers who have particular preferences regard- Promotion of niche marketing or other market 1. ing, for example, product quality, the type of differentiation (including promotion via asso- production system (e.g. high animal welfare ciation of breeds with products having geo- or organic) or the association of products with graphical indications or other indicators of particular geographical regions or traditions. 2 Promotion of at-risk breeds as tourist attract- origin): 2. efforts to promote the marketing of : the establishment of specific tourist ions 2 Geographical indications or other indicators of origin ar e attractions featuring at-risk breeds (e.g. farm schemes that protect (via the regulation of labelling, etc.) the parks) or efforts to promote the keeping of names of agricultural products and foods originating from a at-risk breeds as elements of attractive land- particular geographical area or that are produced in a particular scapes that appeal to tourists. way (e.g. using traditional methods and ingredients). he second re rt on t P o 282 G and food r fo ces r U reso netic e L G a M ani a s ' d L r o W the of e r U L t U r ic the state

324 conserVation ProGraMMes d L e 3 d 4 t ab ex in vivo conservation programmes Proportion of countries reporting situ Goats Pigs Chickens Sheep Dairy Beef Multi- Number Regions and subregions cattle cattle purpose of cattle countries % Africa 9 17 29 34 37 46 26 40 14 71 60 29 43 0 13 ast frica 8 e a 27 33 50 38 20 23 7 20 n frica a orth and West 33 42 25 36 17 8 18 outhern a frica 12 s 64 43 63 61 67 60 67 Asia 20 50 50 50 50 25 50 33 4 sia a entral c 100 33 75 100 50 100 100 a ast 4 sia e 80 100 50 80 80 80 40 6 sia a outh s 67 67 50 67 0 83 50 outheast 6 sia a s 33 29 33 20 14 20 33 7 Southwest Pacific 59 44 50 48 44 42 58 35 Europe and the Caucasus 50 33 64 42 44 50 35 18 Latin America and the Caribbean 60 50 67 75 20 60 60 aribbean 5 c 40 33 33 33 40 40 40 merica 5 entral a c 0 43 50 38 50 75 40 a outh 8 merica s 100 100 100 100 100 100 North America 1 0 43 0 29 17 0 33 14 7 Near and Middle East 39 41 37 39 49 50 41 128 World ex situ in vivo The proportions are calculated by dividing the number of countries reporting programmes for the respective Note: species by the number of countries reporting the presence of breeds in need of conservation, i.e. countries where the respective species is not reported or where all breeds belonging the species are reported to be secure are excluded from the calculations. Country reports, 2014. Source: Activities focused on incentivizing and support- 3. Use of at-risk breeds in the management of ing livestock keepers : situations wildlife habitats and landscapes Incentives or subsidy payment schemes for 5. in which animals belonging to at-risk breeds keeping at-risk : schemes under which breeds are used deliberately to alter the environ- livestock keepers receive payment (e.g. from ment (usually the vegetation) to create habit- the government) for keeping at-risk breeds. ats suitable for wildlife or landscapes that Recognition award programmes for breed - 6. are considered desirable by humans. ers : schemes in which breeders that make a - Promotion of breed-related cultural activi 4. particular contribution to the conservation ties : the promotion of cultural activities such and sustainable use of a breed or breeds are as shows, festivals and sporting events in honoured or recognized in some way (e.g. a which at-risk breeds play a role. programme of annual awards). h e se c o nd rePort on t 283 r o r f o f s e c r U reso c Geneti L aniMa s ' d L od o W e h t f o tate e s h e and aGri c UL t U r t

325 t e state of ca P ac ities h 3 Part e 3 d 5 t ab L in ex vitro conservation programmes Proportion of countries reporting situ Sheep Goats Pigs Chickens Dairy Beef Multi- Number Regions and subregions purpose cattle cattle of cattle countries % 9 0 24 32 20 40 Africa 7 6 60 43 0 0 0 0 43 e a frica ast 8 8 9 22 14 7 7 0 orth and West frica a 20 n 17 27 25 8 17 9 0 frica a outhern 12 s 50 54 29 42 50 33 33 Asia 20 25 0 50 50 25 50 33 4 a entral sia c 100 50 100 100 100 33 67 4 sia a ast e 20 40 25 40 0 40 20 sia a outh s 6 0 67 67 33 50 17 17 6 outheast sia a s 0 0 33 20 33 33 20 7 Southwest Pacific 74 58 76 76 56 57 35 Europe and the Caucasus 35 29 24 7 50 60 23 35 18 Latin America and the Caribbean 25 20 0 40 50 67 40 aribbean 5 c 0 75 50 50 25 25 25 entral a merica 5 c 63 25 14 33 25 38 0 merica a outh 8 s 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 North America 1 14 0 14 17 0 0 0 7 Near and Middle East 17 29 34 39 41 47 44 World 128 Note: The proportions are calculated by dividing the number of countries reporting ex situ in vitro programmes for the respective species by the number of countries reporting the presence of breeds in need of conservation, i.e. countries where the respective species is not reported or where all breeds belonging the species are reported to be secure are excluded from the calculations. Source: Country reports, 2014. Activities focusing on breeding programmes Extension programmes to improve manage 7. - breed- Conservation breeding programmes: 9. ment of at-risk breeds : programmes that ing programmes that maintain breed- target the keepers of at-risk breeds with specific traits and limit inbreeding. advice on how to manage them. Selection programmes for increased pro - 10. raising activities on the poten- – wareness A 8. duction or productivity in at-risk breeds: tial of specific at-risk breeds : activities that genetic improvement programmes for at-risk provide livestock keepers (or potential live- breeds that aim to increase their production stock keepers) with information on the and/or productivity and thereby promote potential (e.g. unique traits that may be val- their ongoing use by livestock keepers. uable in particular circumstances) of specific - at-risk breeds that might otherwise be over looked. he rt on second re P o t 284 G and food r fo ces r U reso netic e L G a M ani a s ' d L r o W the of e r ic U t U r L the state

326 conserVation ProGraMMes d L t d 6 e 3 ab Level of breed coverage in conservation programmes for “minor” species In situ Number of Species Ex Number of in situ Ex in vivo vitro situ countries countries conservation conservation conservation reporting on reporting Score Programmes Score Programmes Score Pr ogrammes existance of breeds reported reported reported conservation (%) (%) (%) programme b 31 21 81 62 52 uffaloes 1.3 1.0 1.9 81 55 45 h orses 62 47 0.9 2.1 0.9 38 25 50 16 30 sses a 1.3 0.6 0.4 60 20 20 romedaries 5 14 d 0.8 0.3 0.3 55 25 5 43 abbits 20 r 0.6 0.1 1.2 63 50 13 16 ucks d 43 1.4 0.9 0.1 42 50 17 12 31 urkeys t 0.2 1.0 0.6 67 42 8 Geese 12 28 0.7 1.6 0.1 67 33 17 20 6 Guinea fowl 0.7 1.0 0.2 0.5–1 1–1.5 1.5–2 2–2.5 2.5–3 0–0.5 Low h igh Medium Note: The percentages are calculated relative to the number of countries that provided information on the presence or absence of conservation programmes for the respective species. The scores for breed coverage are averages for the responding countries. Scores were converted into numerical values (none = 0; low = 1; medium = 2; high = 3). The colours indicate score categories as shown in the legend (border values assigned to the higher category). Country reports, 2014. Source: AO (2013). The various listed activities are and F Activities focusing on community-level particip- not necessarily completely distinct from each ation and empowerment other. In particular, a community-based con- conservation programmes: Community-based 11. servation programme is likely to include one or programmes in which the local people are more of the other activities. Moreover, many of the primary stakeholders responsible for the the activities are also not necessarily confined to development and implementation of the conservation programmes, i.e. they can be imple- activities undertaken to conserve their animal mented for a variety of reasons associated with genetic resources (AnGR). livestock and rural development, environmental a Development of biocultural protocols: 12. management, etc. The intention in the country- biocultural protocol is a document that is report questionnaire was to identify activities developed after a community undertakes that are part of conservation programmes, i.e. a consultative process to outline their core deliberately being used to reduce the risk of cultural and spiritual values and customary - genetic erosion or breed extinction. The infor laws relating to their traditional knowl- mation provided in the country reports was not edge and resources. always sufficient to determine whether or not For further discussion of the elements of in situ this was the case. 4 Section D conservation programmes, see Part t e se c o nd rePort on h 285 r o r f o f s e c r U reso c Geneti L aniMa s ' d L od o W e h t f o tate e s h e and aGri c UL t U r t

327 ities t e state of ca P ac h Part 3 Other conservation activities in the category The country-report responses are summar- ized in Tables “increasing demand for products and services for 3D7 (species breakdown) and 3D8 (regional breakdown). It should be recalled at-risk breeds” are far less widely reported than that the figures only indicate the presence of niche marketing. This may, in part, be accounted a given activity as an element of conservation for by the fact that the number of breeds for programmes within a given country for a given which these activities are potentially relevant is - lower. For example, use in landscape manage- species. The activities are not necessarily wide spread or well developed. The data presented in ment is mainly relevant for grazing animals and Figures 3D2 indicate able 3D1 and 3D2 and in T only in certain locations. It may also be because that, at least in developing regions, the majority the “demand” in question is, to varying degrees, of reported conservation activities are likely to be for public goods, and therefore the activities are being undertaken only on a limited scale. unlikely to become self-sustaining on the basis of Globally , the most commonly reported activity market demand. Some livestock-related cultural is the implementation of conservation breeding and touristic activities can generate income for 3 percent of responses), programmes (74 the keepers of at-risk breeds (trekking with ponies followed or other animals, charging for entrance to farm percent), by the promotion of niche marketing (68 parks, etc.), but others accrue to the general public awareness-raising activities (63 percent), exten - or to the local tourism industry more broadly. Con- sion activities aimed at improving the manage- servation grazing is typically organized by public percent) and breeding ment of at-risk breeds (53 authorities or on a smaller scale by NGOs. programmes aimed at increasing productivity in The second most commonly reported element at-risk breeds (51 percent). in this category is the promotion of AnGR-related The popularity of niche marketing as an cultural activities. This is reported with roughly element of conservation programmes may be the same frequency across the big five species. because of its potential to become self-sustain- However, it is reported far more frequently in ing, eventually removing the need for support Europe and the Caucasus than elsewhere. Pro- from government or other external sources. Niche motion of breeds as tourist attractions is some- marketing is reported to be widespread in con- what less frequently reported overall. Again servation programmes for all species, although there are no major differences in the frequency relatively uncommon in programmes for multi- with which it is reported in the various big five purpose cattle. The regional breakdown shows species, and Europe and the Caucasus is again - that this approach is less widespread in conser the region where the activity is most frequently vation programmes in Africa and in the Near and reported. It is also relatively frequently reported Middle East than in other regions. While tradi