EDC SRI What Parents Talk About

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1 What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning A National Survey About Young Children and Science Research Ready To Learn March 2018

2 About EDC About SRI Education Development Center (EDC) is a global SRI Education, a division of SRI International headquartered in Menlo Park, California, is nonprofit that advances lasting solutions to improve education, promote health, and expand tackling the most complex issues in education economic opportunity. Since 1958, we have and learning to help students succeed. We work been a leader in designing, implementing, and with federal and state agencies, school districts, major foundations, nonprofit organizations, evaluating powerful and innovative programs in more than 80 countries around the world. and international and commercial clients to address risk factors that impede learning, assess learning gains, and use technology for educational innovation. Authors Megan Silander, Todd Grindal, Naomi Hupert, Elisa Garcia, Kea Anderson, Philip Vahey, Shelley Pasnik Contributing Researchers Alexandra Adair, Claire Christenson, Brandon Foster, Erika Gaylor, Sarah Gerard, Sara Gracely, Jaime Gutierrez, Cindy Hoisington, Breniel Lemley, Tiffany Maxon, Mary McCracken, Lucy Nelson, Min-Kyung Park, Regan Vidiksis About The Ready To Learn Initiative The Ready To Learn Initiative is a cooperative agreement funded and managed by the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Innovation and Improvement. It supports the development of innovative educational television and digital media targeted to preschool and early elementary school children and their families. Its general goal is to promote early learning and school readiness, with a particular interest in reaching low-income children. In addition to creating television and other media products, the program supports activities intended to promote national distribution of the programming, effective educational uses of the programming, community-based outreach and research on educational effectiveness. The contents of this research report were developed under a grant from the Department of Education. However, those contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government. [PR/Award No. U295A150003, CFDA No. 84.295A] Design: EDC Digital Design Group Photography: Burt Granofsky, EDC Suggested citation: What Parents Talk About When Silander, M., Grindal, T., Hupert, N., Garcia, E., Anderson, K., Vahey, P. & Pasnik, S. (2018). . New York, NY, & Menlo Park, CA: They Talk About Learning: A National Survey About Young Children and Science Education Development Center, Inc., & SRI International. © 2018 by Education Development Center, Inc., and SRI International

3 Contents 1 ... Introduction ... Key Takeaways 2 5 ... Overview: What This Study Found 6 ... About This Study  7 Methods ... Findings 10 ...  Most parents feel responsible for their children’s learning, ... especially social skills, literacy, and mathematics. 10  ... 15 Most parents are confident about their ability to teach their young children literacy, math, and social skills. Fewer parents are confident about science.  ... Parents help their children learn daily; some of these activities are about science. 20 What Parents Say about Science Learning 26 ...  ... Gender-related differences in parents’ early science beliefs and practices 28  Most parents say knowing more about early science learning—and having ... 29 concrete activity ideas—would help them do more science with their children. ... 33 What Parents Say about Supporting Science Exploration  ... Most children use educational digital media, including science media regularly; 34 parent reports suggest parents may be missing opportunities to deepen the impact on learning. 37 Science Media Resources ... 37 ... How Parents Use Science Media with Their Children 41 Media Curation and Selection ... 44 ... What Parents Say about Media and Learning  Parents’ beliefs and practices about early learning change as their children age ... 45 47 ... What Parents Say about Using Digital Media Where We Go from Here ... ... 48  ... Five Essential Messages 51 53 References ... 56 ... Appendices  Appendix A: Sampling and Analytic Methods ... 56  66 Appendix B: Survey Items ...  Appendix C: Tables of Results ... 90

4 Introduction Young children are naturally curious about the world around them. They mix water and dirt to create mud, ask whether plants eat food like people do, follow ants marching along a sidewalk crack, and wonder about everything they see. With help from adults, these early experiences are key to developing the important thinking and reasoning skills that children will later use to explore increasingly complex questions about how the world works (Bustamante, White, & Greenfield, 2017; French, 2004; Kuhn, 2011; Nayfeld, Fuccillo, & Greenfield, 2013; Peterson & French, 2008; Wright & Neumann, 2014). Science exploration and investigation help children develop language, literacy, and thinking skills necessary for them to become adults who can reason logically and solve problems, think creatively, and collaborate and communicate with others. Previous research has identified parental involvement—the ways parents and other caring adults interact with children in and outside of the home, and the kinds of learning materials with which parents surround children—as key to helping children develop knowledge and skills in literacy and math (Bassok, Finch, Lee, Reardon, & Waldfogel, 2016; Burgess, Hecht, & Lonigan, 2002; Niklas, Nguyen, Cloney, Tayler, & Adams, 2016; Sénéchal & LeFevre, 2002; Skwarchuk, Sowinski, & LeFevre, 2014). Parental support may be critical to children’s developing knowledge and understanding in science as well. This study used a nationally representative parent survey, combined with in-depth interviews and home visits with a smaller sample of families, to learn how parents of young children, particularly low-income parents, encourage and take part in their children’s learning, especially their science learning. This study also investigated parent perceptions and reported use of science-related educational media, such as television shows, videos, online games, and mobile apps. What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning | A National Survey About Young Children and Science 1

5 Key Takeaways especially ones that are specifically for young Parent responses to the survey suggest that most children and ones that use everyday materials, parents are working to help their children learn, and would help. In this context, science-related media that this is true of parents across all levels of income and education. Many parents say that it is important can play a substantial role in engaging both for them to help their children learn a range of skills, parents and children in science learning. Many including behavioral and academic skills, and nine parents say their children access science-related out of ten report doing learning activities with their media—particularly television shows and online children daily. Further, most parents feel confident videos—weekly or more often. Evidence of the about their abilities to help their young children positive impacts that media-based interventions with behavior and social skills, as well as with math can have on young children’s learning in math and and literacy learning. literacy (Clements & Sarama, 2008; Linebarger & Piotrowski, 2009; Neuman, Newman, & Dwyer, 2011) Parents do not hold the same views about science suggests that science media has the potential to learning, however. Many feel it is more important help children and parents build science knowledge for them to help their children learn other skills, and to show parents how to help support children’s and parents are less likely to be confident about explorations in ways that promote thinking and helping their children learn science than these conceptual understanding. For example, media other subjects. Findings from our qualitative study can help parents understand what science is and suggest that parents feel they do not know enough why it is important. Media also can model what science themselves, and often do not know how to doing science looks like for young children and their answer their children’s questions about complex adults, and how parents can enrich and extend their scientific ideas in a way that their young child can children’s experiences in ways that promote science understand. These concerns suggest that many exploration and thinking, children’s confidence parents seemed to believe that key to helping about their abilities to do science, and children’s their children learn science was providing factually perceptions of themselves as scientists. correct answers to questions, and that they did not seem to be aware of the importance and the power Parent responses to the survey suggest that science-based media has not yet met this potential, of noticing, talking about, and exploring the things however. For example, few surveyed parents think that children wonder about and experience in their their children are learning a lot of science from everyday lives. media. Parents in focus groups and home visits While nearly half of all parents reported doing suggested that the media content was not appropri - science daily, half of parents do science less often ate to support young children’s learning, or they did with their children, and many parents, especially not recognize the content of some media as being low-income parents, say that more resources would about science. help them to do more science with their children. Surveyed parents were most likely to report that access to easy-to-do ideas for science activities, | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 2

6 tions between parents and children are extremely Early Science as a Foundation for valuable as they promote the sharing of ideas, and Reasoning and Solving Problems allow parents to use complex language and a wide in Adulthood variety of vocabulary, asking “what,” “where,” and Children as young as preschool age are able to “why” questions and leaving room for children to engage in scientific thinking. For example, young think, reason, and respond. Providing learning ma - children are capable of developing and testing terials such as books and regularly reading together - hypotheses, asking questions, generating explana are also important parental supports for children’s tions, using models, predicting, and revising pre - cognitive development (National Academies of dictions based on observations (Gerde, Schachter, Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2016). & Wasik, 2013; National Research Council, 2012). Involving children in experiences that allow them to Having these kinds of interactions and experiences engage in scientific thinking from a young age allows - with parents around science may be a key compo them not only to build science skills and knowledge nent to success in science learning in school. More - but also to develop thinking and reasoning skills that over, out-of-school learning may be more critical are broadly applicable across many situations. By in early science, because many early education engaging in science, children are using language as programs do not address science (Blank, 2013). they reason about their experiences, math to mea - Nurturing young children’s scientific exploration in sure and developing their executive functioning and developmentally appropriate ways may not come persistence skills (Bustamante, White, & Greenfield, naturally for all parents, but there is evidence that 2017; French, 2004; Kuhn, 2011; Nayfeld, Fuccillo, & - simple supports can help to increase parents’ confi Greenfield, 2013; Peterson & French, 2008; Wright & dence and efficacy (Benjamin, Haden, & Wilkerson, Neumann, 2014). Engagement in science should start 2010; Haden et al., 2014). And when parents receive early—research suggests that children who have help to improve their involvement in learning, high levels of science knowledge in kindergarten are children’s school readiness also benefits (Brooks- likely to be high science achievers at later stages of Gunn & Markman, 2005; Vandermaas-Peeler, Massey, schooling, and vice versa (Morgan, Farkas, Hillemeier, & Kendall, 2016). & Maczuga, 2016). Helping Children Living in Better Early Learning and Early Science Poverty Catch Up Learning with Parental Supports Despite all children’s natural proclivities to explore Research indicates that parental involvement is the world around them, kindergarten students living critical in helping children develop early literacy in poverty display less knowledge about the natural and mathematics skills so that they can be ready world than do children from more affluent families. for school (e.g., Bassok, Finch, Lee, Reardon, & This gap in science-related knowledge persists Waldfogel, 2016; Burgess, Hecht, & Lonigan, 2002; and widens as children reach high school (Morgan, Niklas, Nguyen, Cloney, Tayler, & Adams, 2016; Farkas, Hillemeier, & Maczuga, 2016). Over the past Sénéchal & LeFevre, 2002; Skwarchuk, Sowinski, & decade, poverty and income disparity have grown LeFevre, 2014). Parental supports for learning need (DeNavas-Walt & Proctor, 2014), creating a greater not be special events; essential cogntive supports need to ensure that disadvantaged children enter - are embedded in everyday interactions. Conversa school primed to learn science by their experiences | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 3

7 Gordon, 2007; Secretary’s Proposed Supplemental at home. Moreover, some research suggests that the Priorities and Definitions for Discretionary Grant income-based science achievement gap is wider than income-based math and literacy achievement Programs, 2017; U.S. Department of Education, gaps (Curran, 2017). 2015). Family engagement with early science learning is a key component to helping stoke the Role of Educational Media future question-asking and problem-solving skills that lead to innovation and to ensuring that every Digital media resources—television shows, films, child enters school excited about learning and games, mobile apps, and more—hold potential for poised to succeed, and media may be a particularly encouraging parents to help their children learn powerful tool to engage families in this endeavor. science. Media are ubiquitous in most families with While many national studies have examined fam - young children; children under age eight years are ilies’ use of media for learning (e.g. Rideout, 2017; exposed to more than two hours of screen time a Rideout & Katz, 2016; Wartella, Rideout, Lauricella, & day, on average (Rideout, 2017), and many parents Connell,2014) and family engagement in literacy and report co-using media with their children (Connell, mathematics (e.g. the ECLS-K:2011 survey; NCES, Lauricella, & Wartella, 2015). Certain kinds of media 2011), no research has examined national patterns experiences can promote young children’s science in family engagement in science with their young learning (Mares & Pan, 2013; National Research children, nor their use of science-related media. Council, 2009). Media also can model scientific ways of thinking and talking (Troseth, Saylor, & Archer, Researchers at Education Development Center, Inc. 2006). Moreover, media that can be accessed at (EDC) and SRI International conducted this study as little or no cost can be important learning resources, part of the Ready To Learn Initiative. The Initiative particularly in lower-income families where other brings free educational television and digital media learning resources may be more scarce. resources to children ages 2–8, promoting early learning and school readiness, with an emphasis on Digital media resources also can provide important supporting children from low-income, underserved - supports for parental involvement in science learn communities. Developing a deeper understanding of ing—for example, by providing guidance for parents how national media and the network of local public on how to ask questions and provide feedback to media stations can support family learning at scale children (Crawley et al., 2002). When parents get drives the CPB-PBS Ready To Learn Initiative. By involved in their child’s learning using digital media, connecting perceptions of early learning and science not only does the child learn but the parent learns learning to the kinds of media and other educational as well, in a process known as co-learning (Clark, resources families use in and outside of the home, 2011; Pasnik, S., Moorthy, S., Llorente, C., & Hupert, the results of this study will inform the development N, 2015; Strouse, O’Doherty, & Troseth, 2013; - of public media resources to help parents and chil Rasmussen et al., 2016). dren learn together. In addition, these findings will Ready To Learn add to the growing understanding of how parents perceive their own role in their child’s learning For over a decade, United States policymakers experiences, and how educators and informal have prioritized increasing student achievement in caregivers can support parents and children as they science as critical to U.S. innovation and economic learn and grow. competitiveness (America COMPETES Act, 2007; | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 4

8 Overview What this Study Found Nearly all parents, regardless of income or education level, think it is important to help their young  children learn, especially social skills, literacy, and mathematics. Most parents say they are confident about their ability to teach their young children literacy, math,  and social skills. Fewer parents are confident about science. Parents with less formal education are less likely to feel confident in helping their children learn than are parents with more education. Nine out of ten parents report doing learning activities with their children daily. About half of  parents report doing science-related activities with their children daily. To do more science, parents want ideas and resources to build their knowledge and confidence for  helping their children learn science. Seven of 10 parents say that knowing what young children need to learn about science, and having ideas for doing science with everyday materials, would help them do a lot more science.  Many families say they use science media weekly or more—particularly videos or TV shows about science. Slightly more than half of parents are satisfied with science learning media resources, but most do not think these resources have helped their child learn a lot of science. Parents may be missing opportunities to deepen the impacts of these experiences. Parents report  monitoring media use and watching alongside their children but are less likely to draw connections between media and families’ daily lives. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 5

9 About This Study The purpose of this study is to provide new insights about the ways in which parents help their young children learn. The study builds on prior research that has examined parents’ support for literacy and mathematics learning (e.g., Bassok et al., 2016; O’Donnell & Mulligan, 2008), to provide new information on parents’ beliefs and practices related to early science learning and use of learning media. We examine four questions: 1 How do parents and caregivers help their young children learn in general? 2 How do parents and caregivers help their young children learn science? How do parents describe their children’s use of educational media? 3 How do interactions that support early learning differ among families? 4 A Note About Terminology Parent and Young Children. We use the term “parent” in a broad sense, as our sample includes guardians as well as parents. We use the term “young children” throughout this report to refer to children between the ages of three and six years old. Science. We chose not to define science in our survey for parents. Instead, we collected information about how parents interpret the word science, and allowed this definition to guide parents’ responses. More information about how parents defined science is available on page 9. Television and Digital Media. We refer to “media” and “digital media” in this report multiple times. We view media as resources that are available via television, computer, video, smart device (phone, tablet), app, or other electronic means. In some cases, these media may be games or videos; in others, they may be directions or other information that parents and children can download and use as print documents to guide activities or provide information. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 6

10 Methods Two complementary studies inform this report: of school, what skills and knowledge they feel are a nationally representative telephone survey of important for their young children to learn, the kinds of learning activities that they do with them, parents of three- to six-year-old children, and an and how the family uses learning-related digital in-depth qualitative study with a smaller sample media. of parents, based on focus groups, interviews, and home visits, all conducted from August– In addition to describing patterns across all families December, 2017. surveyed, we examined whether each finding about parents’ attitudes and practices differs across National Survey parent education levels, household income, parent Data for this study came from a telephone (cell - and child gender, and whether living in an urban, phone and landline) survey, conducted between suburban, or rural location. We report significant August 31 and October 8, 2017, of a nationally differences across subgroups, as well as provide representative sample of 1,442 parents with at least further discussion for some findings where we one three- to six-year-old child living at home. The observed notable variations or similarities across survey was developed and piloted by researchers at subgroups; however, we found no clear patterns in EDC and SRI and conducted by SSRS, a survey and differences by child gender and urbanicity, and thus market research firm. The survey study oversampled 2 do not discuss those in this report. low-income parents to suit the focus of the study on these families’ perspectives and experiences Qualitative Study in particular—909 of 1,442 families (63%) had an The qualitative study sought to illuminate parents’ 1 annual household income of $50,000 or less. survey responses by gathering rich, descriptive data The survey asked parents about their attitudes, around families’ interactions and everyday learning beliefs, and practices related to early learning, experiences. It also sought to extend the survey science learning, and digital media use. It also asked findings in a few key ways. First, it focused solely on parents about their sense of responsibility and low-income families, and so sheds light especially on those parents’ perspectives, experiences, and confidence in helping their children learn outside 1 The margin of sampling error for this study in total is +/-3.5 percentage points at a 95% confidence level. The survey used a prescreened, nationally representative, random, digital-dial dual-frame (cellular and landline) sample. The sample consisted of respondents who had been reached via dual-frame RDD sampling using a prior omnibus survey. This respondent sample was stratified by income, and researchers oversampled low-income parents (i.e., household income of $50,000 or less, n=909). Households who were identified as meeting the parental and income qualification criteria (both on landlines and cell phones) were recontacted and rescreened for this study. Specifically, researchers recontacted households from this sample who met parental and income requirements. Potential respondents were contacted via telephone, and those eligible to participate were offered a $5 financial incentive to complete the 25-minute survey. Toward the end of the field period (September 29, 2017), the incentive was increased to $10 in order to foster participation of harder-to-reach respondents. A total of 187 respondents were offered the $10 incentive. Eligible respondents who chose to participate were asked a series of questions about their beliefs and practices regarding early learning. All survey interviews were completed through the CfMC 8.6 Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) software system. Data were analyzed using weights that account for probability of sampling. See technical appendix (Appendix A, page 56) for more information regarding weighting procedures. 2 Subgroup differences are reported only when p < .05 in regression analyses. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 7

11 also explored, with home visit families, science needs in helping their children learn. Second, it delved more deeply into parents’ thinking and learning and digital media use, and conducted an observation of families engaging with a short, rationale, how and why they help their children researcher-provided video and iPad game. learn, and the kinds of supports they need to do so. To gain a deeper understanding of how and why parents help their young children learn, researchers - recruited families from a rural location in the south east, an urban location in the central south and a suburban location in the midwest. Data collection included eight focus groups (with 8–12 families per group) across three sites (a total of 65 parents of three- to six-year-old children), and home visits with 11 families over the course of a month. Two focus groups and one home visit were conducted - in Spanish, the rest in English. Focus group par ticipants were recruited by researchers in one site 3 through a local Head Start early learning program, and with the help of local public media station staff in two other sites. Study participants were screened to ensure they met the study criteria (i.e., one child aged 3–6 living at home, annual household income of $50,000 or less). Home visit participants opted Working from transcriptions and summaries of in to a visit and then were selected by researchers each data collection event, researchers created to ensure variability across the sample in terms of a data matrix that provided a preliminary view of comfort with science and use of digital media for the responses. The team then developed a coding learning. Families were asked to document typical scheme through an iterative process that began science learning activities that they engaged in with constructing a set of base codes grounded between the first and second home visits by texting in prior similar research studies, then using these or emailing pictures, videos, and/or short messages codes during an initial review of data. Through this to researchers. process new codes were identified and constructed Qualitative data collection addressed parents’ ideas to appropriately represent the core themes noted about the skills and learning domains they believe in the data. Once this development process was are most important to help their young children complete, researchers coded all focus group and learn at home; learning activities they do with their home visit interview transcripts. Coded excerpts children; challenges they face in regards to their provided evidence of noted themes and children’s learning; and educational digital media representative quotes. See Appendix A, page 56, they and their children use regularly. Researchers for more details about study methods. 3 Head Start is a program of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Service’s Administration of Children and Families. . https://www.acf.hhs.gov/ohs/about For more information, see | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 8

12 How Parents Define Science By conducting parent focus groups in three different areas of the country, we sought to hear what parents think about when asked about children doing science. It was our intention to give parents the freedom to define science in a way that made sense to them, rather than imposing a set definition of science when asking about their own and their child’s actions and thinking. Parents talked about their children’s curiosity and questioning, particularly during everyday routines such as taking the bus, walking to school, or going to the doctor. Children ask their parents about everything they see—the sky, birds, trees, seasonal changes, the moon, the sun. Some parents’ top-of-mind descriptions involved children doing science in relation to special projects, such as making “volcanoes,” mixing colors, making “slime,” or trying something out to “see what happens,” such as planting a seed and watching what comes up or leaving food out to see if mold grows on it. Some parents responded that nothing came to mind about science, that they did not like science, that their children were too young to do science, or that they did not know if what their children did would be considered science. In these instances parents talked about science as difficult or confusing. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 9

13 Finding Parents for their feel responsible children’s learning, especially social skills, literacy, and mathematics. Highlights  Nearly all parents, regardless of income or education, think it is important to help their children learn social skills, reading and writing, and mathematics at home.  Most parents feel they bear the most responsibility for helping their children learn social skills such as sharing and being patient.  Most parents see themselves as having just as much responsibility as their children’s school in helping their children learn early academic content and skills, such as reading, writing, and mathematics.  Although many parents believe science to be as important as other subjects to learn at home, close to half of parents say other skills, such as reading and social skills, are more important than science for children to learn at home.  Parents’ perceptions differ as to the role they have in helping their children learn: Parents with lower levels of education or income are more likely to report having less of a role than do schools. What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning | A National Survey About Young Children and Science 10

14 Attitudes Parents’ beliefs about whether, and how, to help their young children learn are important precursors to the kinds of learning activities that families engage in together (NASEM, 2016). To gain a better understand - ing of the rationale that might underlie how parents support children’s early learning, the survey asked parents a series of questions about the role they felt they play and skills that are important for their young child to learn at home. of parents 99%  Parents see themselves as playing an important role in their children’s education. Nearly all parents who participated in the survey reported they would like to have a role in supporting their - young children’s learning. Ninety-nine percent of parents either agreed or strongly agreed with the state ment, “You want to be involved in your child’s education.” Most parents (85%) reported that they did not think that their children will learn everything they need to know in school.  A majority of parents indicated they are most responsible for teaching their children social skills, and that they share responsibility with schools for teaching their children early academic skills. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 11

15 A large majority of parents reported that they think it is very important for them to help their children learn social skills (93%), reading and writing (83%), or mathematics (77%). More than three-quarters of parents reported that responsibility for helping children learn academic skills, such as reading, writing, and mathematics, is shared equally between parents and schools, while a majority of parents reported that they had primary responsibility for teaching their child social skills (Exhibit 1). Exhibit 1. Parent Reports Regarding Responsibilities for Teaching Their Child Academic skills, such as reading, math Social skills, such as sharing, patience Parent Most Responsible Parent & School 61% Equally Responsible 76% Parent & School Equally Responsible 37% School Most Responsible 15% Parent Most Responsible School Most Responsible 9% 2%  Although many parents state that science is as important as other subjects to learn at home, nearly half see other subjects, such as social skills and literacy, as more important than science to learn at home. The survey asked parents to indicate the relative importance of helping their child learn science compared to other kinds of skills and knowledge. Although a plurality of parents reported that helping their children learn science is as important as helping them learn reading and writing, mathematics, and social skills, a substantial proportion of parents reported that helping their children learn in these other areas was more important than helping them learn in science. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 12

16 Parents’ Perceptions of the Importance of Helping Children to Exhibit 2. Learn Science at Home, Compared to Other Skills and Knowledge 44% 54% 3% Reading and writing 47% 3% 49% Social skills 26% 3% 71% Mathematics More important than science As important as science Less important than science  Parents emphasize manners, respect, reading, and math. “I would say reading, math. Because, that stuff, they’re Findings from the qualitative study echo these survey findings. Parents in focus groups and interviews first going to use in everyday life, you know? You count, no matter what [...] math plays a complete part in cited social and behavioral skills as important to help their children learn, specifically “respect,” “manners,” everyday living, and their reading, too.” and how to focus or be patient. “It’s also very important for children to learn how to spell their name, what letters are, what numbers are. “I think modeling manners and kindness and stuff like that—that they learn a lot just by watching your That’s one idea. Also, the teachers have told us that we have to teach them the letters at home as well, so that behavior and how you handle yourself in stressful situations [...]. They’re going to mirror you in how you they go to school and already know what we taught show your feelings.” them at home” Parents often connected their opinions about how “I think respect begins at home, because they’re to help their young children learn to their own early always at home, they only spend some of their time learning experiences, which served as a model for the at school, right?” content and skills they taught their child, the manner Parents also talked about the importance of helping in which they taught them, and the resources they children learn academic skills, but focused on used. This connection was true for both early learning reading and math. Parents’ rationale for focusing overall and for science learning. on these skills at home related to both the kinds of things they felt their children would need to know for life, as well as what they thought their children would need to know to do well in school. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 13

17 Parents rarely cited science learning as important to 5-year-old son ever had science at school because he never talked about it: do at home, unless prompted by researchers. Some families may be taking cues from local schools. In ...[science] is not being taught enough. I truly believe focus groups and interviews, families shared the that, because ... he’s only five and he’s good with view that their young children do not learn science math, so they’ve got to be teaching it for him to be as in daycare or school. Parents at one site shared the good as he is. The spelling, they’ve got to be teaching impression during a focus group that their schools it, but he never comes home and talk about anything focus mainly on math and language arts instruction pertaining to science. So I’m assuming that they’re so they can improve students’ test scores. One not teaching it, so maybe it needs to be taught more.” mother observed that she didn’t think her  Parent beliefs about their role in helping their young children learn differ, depending on their income or education in some cases. need to know in school, compared to only 7% of Survey findings indicate that parents with lower incomes and parents with lower levels of education parents who earned $100,000 per year of more. We both reported that they see less of a role for them observe similar differences based on parents’ level - of education: 39% of parents with less than a high- selves in supporting their children’s learning than school education, compared to 6% of parents with a do parents with higher incomes and higher levels of education. For example, 32% of families who college degree, reported that school would provide earned $25,000 per year or less reported believing their children with everything they needed to learn. that their children would learn everything they Percent of parents who agree or strongly agree that their child will learn Exhibit 3. everything they need to know in school, by income and education Annual income less than $25,000 32% Annual income $25,000-$50,000 18% Annual income $50,000-$75,000 10% Annual income $75,000-$100,000 9% Annual income $100,000 or higher 7% Less than high school 39% High school 20% Some college 12% College graduate or higher 6% | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 14

18 Finding Most parents are about their confident ability to teach their young children literacy, math, and social skills. Fewer parents are confident about science. Highlights  Seven out of 10 parents are “very confident” in their ability to support core school readiness skills: reading and writing, mathematics, and social and behavioral skills.  Five out of 10 parents feel “very confident” in their ability to support their children’s science learning.  Parents with less education are less likely to be confident about their ability to support their children’s learning than are parents with more education. What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning | A National Survey About Young Children and Science 15

19 Confidence The ways in which parents help their children learn depend in part on parents’ perceptions of how capable they are of doing so (Ardelt & Eccles, 2001; Jones & Prinz, 2005). Even if parents think that a specific kind of knowledge or skill is important for their child to learn, if they doubt their ability to help their child with this kind of understanding, parental supports might be minimal. When parents feel confident about their abilities, they are more likely to provide their child with effective supports (Jones & Prinz 2005). Moreover, understanding parents’ confidence and lack of confidence related to learning can help identify specific supports that parents need. To better understand potential barriers to parenting practices around learning, the survey asked parents to report how confident they felt about their ability to help their children learn a variety of skills and knowledge important for school readiness.  Most parents reported being very confident in their ability to help their children learn reading, mathematics, or social skills. Survey findings indicate around three-quarters of parents reported feeling very confident in their ability to teach their children reading and writing skills, mathematics skills, and social and behavior skills (see Exhibit 4).  Fewer parents reported feeling very confident in their ability to help their children learn science. In contrast, only around half of parents reported that they were very confident in their ability to help their children learn science. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 16

20 Exhibit 4. Percentage of Parents Who Feel “Very Confident” in Their Ability to Help Their Children Learn Age-Appropriate Skills Reading and writing skills 75% Math skills 73% 71% Behavioral, social, and emotional needs Science skills 54%  Many parents connected their lack of confidence about helping their children learn to school expectations or to their own lack of content knowledge. of their own limitations can make them feel less Findings from the in-depth qualitative study with families provide insight into why some parents able to help their child. One parent felt she did not lacked confidence helping their child learn, and how have enough formal education to be able to help this differed by subject. Although discussions were her child learn as well as she would like. Another focused on three- to six-year-old children, parents parent talked about dreading having to read, and so dreaded helping her son learn to read. generally gauged their ability to help their child learn math and literacy in terms of school-related expectations. Parents described feeling disoriented by differences in what is taught in schools now, “I’ve never liked reading, and I hate when he’s and how it is taught, compared to when they were got some work that’s got to be read. I really in school. Because they did not learn these skills, hate it. Of course, he can’t just read yet. You or did not learn in the way their children are now know, he can read a little bit, but that’s the taught in school, they are uncertain how to help hardest part for me, because I hate reading. I their child. In a focus group, one parent described really do. It’s like—it just puts me to sleep. For her challenges as, “It’s all different. And then they real, I’ve never been able to get into reading. got coding [...] – back then, we didn’t have coding.” I can read, but I just—I’ve never been into it. Many parents stated that helping their child with Like when they’re doing the book fairs and math was particularly challenging because the ways things, these reading things, I’d be hating that that children learn math at school now differs from time of the year, because I don’t want to read how they were taught. Further, some parents’ sense the book either. That’s the hardest for me.” | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 17

21 Some native Spanish-speaking parents described their lack of fluency in English as a problem in helping their children learn, and some reported being motivated to learn English to keep up with their children’s growing fluency. “What I don’t want is for my son to ask me and not know how to respond to him. It’s embarrassing for me.”  Parents’ lack of confidence about science seems to be related to a lack of science knowledge as well as to a concern about how to answer their children’s complex questions in developmentally appropriate ways. In interviews and focus groups, several parents attributed their low confidence in helping their children learn science to not being able to answer their children’s spontaneous questions, such as why leaves change colors. Even when parents knew the answer to their children’s scientific questions, some struggled to frame their answers in developmentally appropriate ways. They also reported feeling challenged by questions about death and human reproduction, as well as by more innocuous questions with complex answers such as “Do trees breathe?” One parent stated, “Like, I have common sense, but I just don’t know how to get it and break it down to her most of the time”.  Parents with lower levels of education are less likely to be very confident in their ability to support their child’s mathematics and science learning at home than are parents with higher levels of education. Parents with lower levels of education were less likely than parents with more education to report that they were very confident in their ability to help their child learn science, and generally reported lower confidence in their ability to support their child’s science learning as compared to other domains of learning. Similarly, low-income parents were less likely than wealthier parents to say they were very confident about their ability to help their child learn science however, differences in confidence by income appear to be driven by education. Once we account for parent education, differences in confidence between low- and high-income parents are no longer apparent. Although we observe a similar pattern regarding parents’ confidence in helping their children learn mathe - matics, it is notable that we did not observe consistent parent income- or education-related differences in the percentages of parents who report feeling very confident in their ability to help their child learn social skills in the home. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 18

22 Exhibit 5. Percentage of Parents Who Reported Being “Very Confident” in Their Ability to Help Their Child Learn Various Types of Age-Appropriate Skills, by Parent Education and Annual Family Income 82% 79% 78% 76% 76% 70% 69% 68% 67% 67% 66% 65% 57% 47% 43% 41% Social and Mathematics Reading and Science behavioral skills Writing Less than High school College grad High school grad Some college 85% 81% 78% 76% 73% 74% 74% 72% 73% 71% 70% 70% 65% 65% 62% 63% 61% 57% 49% 44% Mathematics Science Reading and Social and behavioral skills Writing $75 - $100K $100K or more $25K or less $25K - $50K $50K - $75K | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 19

23 Finding Parents help their children learn daily ; some of these activities are about science. Highlights  Nearly all parents say they do daily activities that support learning with their children.  Approximately 2 out of 3 parents report reading books with their children every day. Slightly fewer than 2 out of 3 parents report doing chores with their children daily.  About half of parents report doing science-related activities with their children daily—most commonly, exploring science outdoors and exploring science in everyday activities.  While parent reports of general learning activities did not differ by income, fewer of the highest-income parents report doing science-related activities with their children daily. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 20

24 Learning Attitudes Activities The survey asked parents about the kinds of learning activities they do with their children. In order to capture the many kinds of learning that parents might support, the survey included a broad variety of activities, from literacy and math activities to more informal activities that offer opportunities for learning, such as telling stories or helping with daily chores (an activity that might support language development, motor skills, or behavioral and socio-emotional skills). To develop a fuller understanding of science learning in particular, the survey asked parents more detailed questions about some specific kinds of science activities they engage in with their children.  Almost all parents say they engage their children in daily activities that support learning. Nearly all surveyed parents reported engaging with their children in at least one learning activity every day (Exhibit 6); the most frequently reported activities were book reading and household chores. In the qualitative study, many parents similarly describe reading every day or every other day with their children—some parents talked about reading not only books but “anything you can get your hands on,” including “the cereal box” and signs. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 21

25 that their children liked to play mathematics or One parent described labeling things around the counting games. However, these skills came up far home to help with vocabulary and reading skills: less frequently than literacy when parents described the common learning activities in their home. In the initial focus groups in the qualitative study, “If you go in my house, you see different many parents discussed manners, respect, and little words taped everywhere. Refriger - other social behaviors as a key part of the learning ator, I even got the word ‘wall’ written that is important for them to support at home. on the wall. [...]So every time he comes However, few parents referenced teaching these home, he’ll twist the door, he’ll say, social behaviors without prompting from the researchers, perhaps because parents did not ‘Mommy, door,’ and stuff like that.” consider supporting social behavior as a learning activity because it was not a structured or sched - uled activity, but rather embedded in their day-to- day lives. Some families reported frequent trips to the library—during one home visit, a 5-year-old boy As one parent stated: proudly showed researchers a stack of library books—while others went rarely. Most parents in “I mean, any time we go out, he has to be reminded, the qualitative study described teaching their kids you have to wait in line to do this. There’s other a variety of different skills. Literacy was a primary people around you, so I hope that he learned focus for many, but parents made it clear that they something about that. I try to make sure when we’re also tried to help with behavior, math, science, and in social settings to be conscious of other people history. For example, a few parents in the in-depth around them. There wasn’t really much educational - study described cooking to help reinforce math con about all that, though.” cepts with their children, and some parents noticed  Over half of parents say they do science-related learning activities daily with their children. Fewer surveyed parents engaged in science-related activities daily. These daily science-related activities most frequently included exploring science outdoors and exploring science in everyday activities. When asked about the science learning activities they engaged in at home during their regular routines, many parents in the qualitative study described how science conversations arise from children’s questions in their everyday lives. Most parents reported fielding questions about weather, animals, bugs, why the leaves change, or how the world works. In addition to describing science-related conversations, many parents also described cooking with their children as an everyday activity into which they could incorporate science. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 22

26 Percentage of Parents Who Report Engaging in Exhibit 6. Learning Activities With Their Child Daily General Learning Activities Read or told stories 68% Involved your child in household chores 63% Worked on reading or writing skills 50% Worked on numbers/shapes/math concepts 50% Sang songs or played musical instruments 47% Watched TV/videos/digital games/apps 43% Played a sport or exercised 34% Played games or completed puzzles 27% Did arts and crafts 22% learning activity Engaged in one or more 94% Science Learning Activities Explored science outdoors 36% Explored science in everyday activities 26% Watched science-related videos/played digital games 20% Built something 17% Read about nature in science books or magazines 12% Played with a science-related puzzle or board game 5% Engaged in one or more science learning activity 58% | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 23

27  Parent reports of science-related activities are wide-ranging. Life science In order to understand parent perceptions of the kinds of early science experiences that are most More than a third of parents in the survey (36%) salient to families, the survey asked parents to described life science activities (the characteristics describe in a few words the kinds of science learning of, or observations about, living things) in their 5 Because the activities that their children like to do. responses, indicating, for example, that their children question was open-ended and unstructured, and were interested in animals and bugs, or in watching prompted parents to think generally about science, plants grow. Parents in our qualitative study also responses should not be interpreted as a complete often described planting and gardening activities list of the science-related activities that children as typical family activities that involved science enjoy, but rather, the children’s favorite science learning. Parents noted how these experiences activities that were at the front of parents’ minds. teach their children about how plants grow and what is needed to keep them alive. As one Illinois parent observed, “We’ve dried a lot of tears from the kids, you know, their favorite plant didn’t grow—‘but honey, you didn’t water it, or you didn’t pluck out the weeds and the weeds took over your garden box’.” Earth and space science Similarly, in the survey 32% of parents reported that their children enjoyed earth science activities (characteristics of the Earth and space), referring to nature or the outdoors and interest in the solar system with many reporting children’s interest in Science and engineering practices the August 2017 solar eclipse. Some parents in the qualitative study engaged in earth/space science Researchers categorized parents’ responses as activities with their children. Many of the examples science and engineering practices when they given centered around nature walks or visits to the referred to actively engaging in science-related science museum or were child-directed. Parents activities through investigation, exploration, or reported more conversations around earth science discovery. Nearly half of parents (40%) described than specific activities. at least one activity that incorporated science and engineering practices. 5 Based on a coding scheme developed using the PBS science learning framework, the Next General Science Standards, and the Head Start Early Science Learning Standards, researchers coded parents’ responses for any references to science and engineering practices, science content areas, or non-science activities (including responding that they did not know what activities their children like to do). Responses could be coded as representing science and engineering practices and content, or for multiple content areas. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 24

28 Making “slime” was also a popular activity among Physical science families. In animated exchanges, parents shared Slightly fewer than a third of parents in the survey recipes and experiences in focus groups, reporting (29%) referred to activities related to physical that children find recipes on Youtube (“toothpaste science (the exploration of materials to investigate and salt”) or parents buy “slime kits.” Children’s the properties of objects), such as making “slime,” enthusiasm for this activity seemed contagious playing with water, or cooking. Families in our to some parents. One stated, “I love it, it’s fun to qualitative study described cooking with their me. I can’t wait till she gets into the older grades children as a regular activity; some parents viewed and actually has to bring home science projects these experiences as teaching their children to and make them. It’s exciting to me ... I’m a science cook, while others explicitly drew out the science- or person when it comes to doing fun activities. I’m not math-learning aspects of the experience. a science person when it comes to like, you know, all the other stuff.” “We’re going to bake a cake, and so I was showing him, like, here’s a quarter cup [measure], and a Engineering and technology quarter cup is half of a half cup, and so we put the Few parents in the survey (12%) spontaneously quarter cup of sugar in the half cup [measure], and indicated that their child enjoyed learning about then I showed him how another quarter cup fit in engineering and technology—for example, building there, and that kind of made his brain go, ‘Oh, okay’.” things or using scientific instruments. Parents in “Well, like, spaghetti, they’ll ask, ‘How do you cook it?’ our qualitative sample indicated that their children and I’ll just tell them, you know, you put the noodles regularly spent time building—for example, with in the water and boil it [...]. Heat is what makes Legos, Lincoln Logs, or other similar toys. However, it cook.” this was generally not an activity that they engaged in together; rather, children tended to build independently and without parent prompting. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 25

29 Parents in focus groups and interviews often de - Perceptions that their children scribed science activities implicitly, in passing and don’t do science without recognizing them as such. They described Only 6% of parents reported that their children did cooking with their child, or exploring and discussing not engage in science-related activities, because of nature, discussing health and the body, and using age or interest, and only a few parents (4%) did not Legos and building things as they were conveying know what science-related activities their child liked another point. In these instances, prompting by to do. Another 8% referred to activities that were not researchers resulted in some parents coming to related to science, such as colors. Findings from our view these activities as helping their children learn qualitative study suggest that some parents may science. not recognize common family activities as related to science. “I guess, balance, that’s science, right? [...] Yeah, balance and motion and, gosh, all this other “I guess my main way to help my child would be terminology that I don’t remember from 6th grade.” to ask, ‘What is science? Where is it, what is it? What activities could we do that could be related Further, some parents held a narrow, formal view of to science?’ So ... like [at] first, planting, I didn’t science as experiments and chemical reactions— consider it science, but I guess it really is, because such as making “volcanoes” at home with baking if you think about it, it is science. So just knowing, soda and vinegar—and so felt they engaged only like, and then maybe you can expand on it.” rarely in science at home.  Parents with lower annual incomes were more likely than the highest income parents to say that they engaged in daily science activities. It is important to note that parents across the family income spectrum reported frequently engaging their children in general learning activities every day—in other words, we did not find any difference between low- and high-income families and the kinds of specific learning activities they reported doing with their children. In comparison, low-income parents were more likely than parents with the highest incomes to engage children in science-related learning activities daily (61% of parents with an income under $25,000, compared to 48% of parents with an income of $100,00 or more). These differences did not seem to be associated with parents’ education, as there were no systematic differences in parents’ reports of daily 6 activities depending on their educational attainment. 6 In addition, when parents’ educational level was statistically controlled, we still observed a difference between high- and lower-income parents. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 26

30 What Parents Say As part of the qualitative study, researchers asked parents during the first home visit to keep a “journal” of their science learning activities by sending pictures, videos, and short messages to researchers via text or email. Following is a series of text messages sent by one mother in rural Tennessee, along with additional comments she made during the visit: “[He] made his own helicopter airplane of it—like, what are the planets, and everything, with Legos.” [Attached was a picture of her son but just one-on-one time with me. I think that’s the builder holding his creation.] more fun with it.” “He said it was a helicopter slash airplane. He “We also talked about sound waves on the loves Legos. [...] He just made it up, a helicop - way to town the other day, and watched videos ter and an airplane together. He just made it [on on animals. My 3-year-old was very curious his own]. He’s always building. I like for him to about what each animal was.” make up his own stuff and be creative, but he “We went to the gas station and they were does have, like—when he first got all the Legos, doing—what’s it called?—jackhammering. And he had the little booklets to tell how you make he comes out, and he’s like, ‘It’s so loud in there, things, and he really liked doing that, too.” they’re jackhammering something,’ and the boys were like, ‘Why is it loud?’ And, you know, “Talking about planets and doing a fun because it’s inside, and so we talked about how activity book with it.” it’s louder inside [...], why it’s louder inside “My mother-in-law gave it to me and it just has the building than outside. I was telling them a bunch of science stuff about planets, and it like, sound, how it actually has waves and stuff, even had, like, a little kind of board game on the you know, and how it bounces off the walls pages. And just talks about each planet [...] It and everything. That’s what makes it so much had some stickers to go with it, and just differ - louder. That’s how I tried to describe it.” ent kinds of things. I was helping him. He can’t read yet, really, so I was helping him do it. [...] “This morning we talked about what makes clouds move.” Some of the questions were kind of difficult, I thought, because you’d have to read this story “We were on our way to school and the clouds and then answer the questions. But he—some were moving. He’s like, ‘How do clouds move?’ of them he got, and some he didn’t. They really The 6-year-old. So we talked about that and why like [the board game.] My oldest one [age 8] they move and what happens when they move and me played the board game because the and stuff. [...] My 8-year-old was like, 3-year-old couldn’t really do it yet. I don’t know ‘The wind is making them move’.” if [the 6-year-old] actually got, like, science out What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning | A National Survey About Young Children and Science 27

31 Gender-related differences in parents’ early science beliefs and practices There are well-documented gaps in the participation of women and girls in science-related professions. The information in this survey indicates some gender-related differences in parents’ beliefs about early science learning and the ways in which they help their young children learn science. Although similar percentages of male and female parents reported being very confident in their ability to support the development of their children’s mathematics, reading, and social skills, female parents were significantly less likely to report being very confident in their ability to help their children learn science (51%), compared to male parents (58%). Female parents also are somewhat more likely than male parents to report being less confident in their ability to support science as compared to other domains of learning (23% of female parents, 18% of male parents). Despite feeling less confident, female parents were more likely to report engaging their children in science-related activities on a daily basis. Among female parents, 63% reported engaging in some types of science learning activities every day, compared to 53% of male parents. Exhibit 7. Parent-Reported Confidence in Supporting Children’s Learning and Engagement in Daily Learning Activities, by Parent Gender 51% Very confident in supporting science learning* 58% 69% Very confident in supporting social skills learning 72% 76% Very confident in supporting learning reading/writing 73% 73% Very confident in supporting mathematics learning 73% 63% Engage in science learning activities every day* 53% 96% Engage in general learning activities every day* 92% Female parents Male parents *Differences are statistically significant at the level of p<.05. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 28

32 Finding Most parents say knowing more about early science learning —and having concrete activity ideas—would help them do more science with their children. Highlights  Seven out of 10 parents say having ideas for doing science with everyday materials would help them do a lot more science at home.  Parents say having information about what children need to learn about science would help them do a lot more science together. (Parents with lower incomes and with lower levels of education were more likely to say this.) | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 29

33 Supports for Science Learning In order to better understand supports that families need to engage in science, the survey asked parents to indicate the extent to which specific kinds of supports would help them to do more science in the home.  Most parents indicated that ideas for science activities and information on science learning expectations would help their family do more science activities at home. As shown in Exhibit 8, most parents indicated that more ideas for science activities, and ideas for doing science with everyday materials would help “a lot” in doing more science at home. Many parents also reported that having more information about the science that their child should learn would help them do more science at home, as would having ways to help their child become more interested in science. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 30

34 Exhibit 8. Percentage of Parents Who Reported That a Given Support Would Help “a Lot” in Doing More Science at Home Better access to technology 45% 52% Ways to get yourself more interested in science 64% Ways to get your child more interested in science 64% Information about what your child should learn about science 71% Ideas for doing science activities with everyday materials Ideas for science activities to do with your child 71% enjoyable so that they want to continue to do it. And Many parents in the qualitative study lacked confi - dence in helping their children learn. In some cases, if it becomes more, like, work, she’s not going to want to do it and it’s just going to stress everybody out. parents felt they simply did not know enough, or did not know how to express ideas “right.” A strong So, something that I can make more common and theme emerged in parents’ desire for resources that make quicker, and integrate, like, maybe every other target not only the child but also instruct parents day, something fun to show her.” on how to better teach their children. Parents also In addition, researchers in the qualitative study wanted these activity ideas to link to learning at heard and witnessed external barriers that affected school. Lastly, parents need things to be simple parents’ capacity to provide learning opportunities enough to fit into a regular day. outside of school settings. Issues outside parents’ “I think identifying ideas that ... I can do without immediate control—such as financial constraints, - it being, you know—I don’t know if this is going to inadequate access to transportation, and em sound bad—but, like, a really huge thing. Because ployment schedules—provided daily obstacles to parents’ supporting learning. Parents described we’re super stressed for time, too. So, I can’t go and make her something that’s going to take, you know, - difficulties finding resources that were geographi 20 minutes to set up and 30 minutes to do, and cally accessible and financially affordable. Financial then an hour to clean it off of everything, and then resources often restricted parents’ ability to engage with learning activities around them, from access she’s freaking out, you know, I want it to be fun and | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 31

35 to transportation, access to media consumption to get to parks or zoos, buying apps, or participating through the paid services (such as Internet, cable, in local programs. While many parents with whom or streaming services), to data use and storage researchers spoke did report taking advantage of capacity on mobile phones. Conversely, parents these various resources for learning, accessibility came up as a consideration with nearly every family. who reported taking advantage of local learning activities also mentioned modes of transportation  Families with lower incomes were more likely to say that information and technology access would help “a lot” in doing more science at home. Consistent with results from the qualitative study, results from our survey suggest that low-income parents may have different needs for supports compared to higher-income parents. Parents with lower incomes were more likely than those with higher incomes to indicate that each support would make it a “a lot” easier for them to do science at home. The largest gaps between lower- and higher-income parents related to access to technology, information about what children should learn about science, and ways to get parents more interested in or excited about science. (See Appendix B, page 66, for additional details about other income levels.) Similarly, parents with lower educational attainment were more likely than those with higher educational attainment to indicate that access to technology and to information about what children should learn about science would help “a lot” in doing science at home. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 32

36 Parents Say What In Jackson, Mississippi, researchers visited a family of 7, (including a niece and nephew), headed by a stay-at-home mom in her twenties. During the visit, the children sat around the mom as she described their latest learning activities, including 1-on-1 homework time and making slime. One activity—planting a seed in the yard in front of their apartment building—garnered a lot of excitement. Here’s how the mom described her family’s experience: I just think a cup of water so we made sure we “[My son] wanted to know, ‘How did that tree measured everything and made sure we’re get in the ground?’ ...What I did was, like when doing it by the book so we could have a nice I was in school with my teacher, we grew a plant. Plenty of water, plenty of sunlight, and plant. So that’s what we’re doing in my house now, growing a plant, so he can see. I told him it this weather, it’s been really good sunlight. wouldn’t get as big as the trees are but he could It’s been pretty every day. It’s coming out. I’m see it grow. surprised, I was like, ‘Oh, my god, it sprouted out.’ Because sometimes I planted things and I Googled ‘How to plant a plant’... to make it didn’t sprout, and I was like; what did I sure that I was doing it right. I hadn’t done it do wrong? in a while so I wanted to make sure it would sprout... Google always leads you to YouTube. I believe that [my son’s] amazement, he put the seed in there and he was like, ‘Oh, my god.” He So we looked at a video showing us how differ - ent people started planting different types of goes down there and is looking every day and seeing that it’s coming up out the ground. So things, and how to take care of them... I want - ed to make sure that it was getting everything - he’s really into it. Like I said, we stay in apart that it needed. ments, we can’t just be planting all over these people’s apartments. I think he learned most [After planting the seeds together], it started with the planting. And that’s when he got all to sprout. Because it hadn’t rained, we had to excited with what happens.” make sure we watered the plants, but not too much. So, here’s a measuring cup, we’re going to do a cup of water... I never was the type to measure stuff so when they said ‘cup of water’ | A National Survey About Young Children and Science | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 33 33

37 Finding Most children use educational digital media , including science media regularly; parent reports suggest parents may be missing opportunities to deepen the impact on learning. Highlights  According to their parents, young children regularly use science- related digital media—most frequently, viewing videos or TV shows about science.  Although parents regularly encourage and monitor their child’s science-related digital media use, they are less likely to help their child make connections between a show, app, or game and daily life.  Slightly more than half of parents are satisfied with science learning media resources, but most do not think these resources have helped their child learn a lot of science. What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning | A National Survey About Young Children and Science 34

38 Media Supports for Learning Perceptions that science is difficult and complicated pose a significant barrier for many families who might otherwise engage in science (Barton, Drake, Perez, St. Louis, & George, 2004). Media, such as TV shows and digital games, have the potential to help overcome some of these barriers, and to do so at scale by inspiring families and engaging them in science, as well as by supporting them by modeling language and scientific behaviors (Troseth, Saylor, & Archer, 2006). Moreover, children, including young children, spend a significant amount of time using media (Rideout, 2017).  Parent reports suggest that most families use educational media together weekly or more often. Almost all parents surveyed (94%) indicated that their child had watched educational TV shows or videos in the past month, and most parents (84%) reported that their child had played a digital learning game or app in the past month. Many families also report using these media together; just under half of parents (43%) reported that they watched educational TV shows or videos or played with educational digital games or apps with their child daily.  Parents used learning-related media both to teach or to get information, as well as to keep their child occupied productively while the parent was busy. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 35

39 Findings from our qualitative study suggest that - parents use educational media—including televi “Well, my 7-year-old actually learned her sion shows, YouTube videos, games, and apps—in ABCs from Barney. She didn’t learn it from the home for two primary purposes: as a way to me; like, she’d rather watch Barney singing teach or to get information and, most commonly, to occupy the child while the parent is busy. Less often, his ABCs. So it’s like, yeah, most ... well, parents reported using educational media with I’m not going to say most, but some things their child for mutual entertainment; for example, that they know, they learn from TV because one mother reported that both she and her child they’d rather look at that than hear me talk, Brain enjoyed watching the television program I guess.” Games . Parents often described using media to get informa - tion to facilitate their child’s learning. Across most qualitative interview sessions, participating parents Many parents in our qualitative study reported that - reported using education media for learning pur their child was learning from educational media, poses that ranged from academic skills (e.g., math, including television shows, documentaries, games, counting, reading, and spelling) to activities of basic and apps. Parents felt their children learned letters, living skills (e.g., increase frequency of brushing numbers, and colors from media. Many parents teeth, and how to properly wash hands). explained that their children were more willing to engage with, and learn from, media than through Parents described turning to media to answer their other modalities. child’s questions, or help address a topic in an “appropriate” way. Parents explained that in some One factor that parents agreed made digital media instances they trusted media to be able to address a successful and valuable tool for learning was its a topic or answer a question in a manner that was ability to keep children engaged. Many parents more appropriate than what they themselves would explained that their children were more willing have done. For example, one parent explained that to learn and engage around media versus other when her child was having a hard time adjusting activities. While this worried some parents, they to school and didn’t want to go, she searched for all agreed that this was beneficial. appropriate media on YouTube to help talk to her child about it. A few parents in our qualitative interviews expressed the belief that their child learns more from educational media when they watch or play with a parent. They felt that a parent’s presence increased the child’s attention to the media. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 36

40 Science Media Resources While much is known about families’ digital media and technology habits generally, little is known about how these habits connect to science. To develop an understanding of this context, we asked parents to describe whether, and how, their children used different types of science media.  Parent reports suggest that many young children regularly use science-related media—most frequently, viewing videos or TV shows about science. Virtually all parents reported that their child used science-related media at least once in the past month. Parents most commonly reported that their children watched educational TV shows and videos, or played digital learning games and apps, at least once in that time. About two-thirds of parents reported that their children are using these media frequently—weekly or more often (Exhibit 9). Exhibit 9. Types of Science Media Children Use, by Frequency of Use 12% 22% 66% TV shows/videos about science 45% 24% 31% Video games/apps about science 25% 20% 55% Websites about science Weekly or more Once or twice this past month Did not do this past month How Parents Use Science Media with Their Children Although parents who were surveyed reported that children used science media frequently, it is not clear how the use of these media might support children’s learning. To begin to understand this question, the survey asked parents about the ways in which they used the media with their children, with attention to the kinds of activities that research suggests are particularly effective for learning.  Parents regularly encourage and monitor their child’s science- related media use, but are less likely to build on this for better learning. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 37

41 To examine family media engagement patterns, the survey asked parents a series of questions about ways in which they interact with their child while he or she uses science-related media. Nearly all parents report - ed regularly (at least weekly) complimenting and encouraging or monitoring their child’s science-related media use, but fewer parents reported regularly engaging with their children regarding the content (see Exhibit 10). Among Parents Who Reported Using Science Media in the Last Month Exhibit 10. Monitor child’s viewing an playing 95% Compliment or encourage a child 94% Explain or talk about something that you’re watching or playing 86% Watch a show or play a game or app along with child 75% Help your child access and play a show, app, or game 73% Talk about connections between a show, app, or game 69% and things you do in your daily life  Many parents are not satisfied with science learning media resources, and most do not think these resources have helped their child learn a lot of science. When asked whether they were satisfied with the media resources available to help children learn science, about half of parents (54%) reported feeling satisfied. The survey further asked parents whether they felt their children were learning by using media. While the survey did not ask parents to explain this lack of satisfaction, a follow-up question asked parents about their perceptions of the role of media to support learning. Specifically, the survey asked parents the extent to which media was helping their children learn a variety of common topics. Most parents indicated that media represent an effective means to support their children’s literacy, art skills, and knowledge, whereas fewer parents reported that their children learned a lot of science or math from media. (See Exhibit 11, below.) | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 38

42 Percentage of Parents who Reported That Their Child “Learned a Lot” Exhibit 11. From Various Types of Media Reading or vocabulary or new words 47% Music or art 45% Healthy habits like healthy eating or hand-washing 34% Behavior 30% Science 29% Math 24% Problem solving or critical thinking 24% Information about people and the community around child 18% Other languages that are not English 18%  Parents’ use of science media centers on TV shows and videos for entertainment, and using Internet searches for answers. information about a specific topic. These instances Parents in our qualitative study reported that their children often watched science-related TV shows, of informational science media use often involved citing, for example, Magic Schoolbus , Sid the Science joint parent-child engagement in an activity, Octonauts , Nature Cat , although parents typically controlled the media , and Wild Kid , Sesame Street when searching for information. For example, one Kratts . Fewer parents recalled their children playing parent described “Googling” a bug they found on a science-related games or apps. Of those that did, ABCMouse, Minecraft, and ScratchJr. were most walk, as a means of identifying it. Another mother described searching YouTube for answers to her frequently reported. Findings from our qualitative study about why parents use science media suggest children’s questions about why Play-Doh bath soap - does not dissolve. In addition to finding informa that parents’ science media use paralleled their general media use, encompassing both educational tion, some parents also use media to search for and entertainment-focused uses. science-related activities to do with their children, such as making “slime” or cooking. Science media for information - Media not only serve the role of answering chil Much as with other topics (e.g., math), parents used dren’s questions, they also generate questions and sources such as Google and YouTube to answer conversations. For example, parents described their children’s science questions or to expand episodes of Nature Cat spurring questions about upon science interests. In most cases, parents leading to nature and animals, and Octonauts are not using media for broad information about interest in the ocean and fish. One parent reported science or its domains; rather, they are searching for | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 39

43 that her son asked—and then answered—a Even though they might not intentionally select science media to promote science learning, parents question about where snow comes from as a result felt as though their child was learning science from of watching a television program about it. certain media. Unlike general media use, parents Science media as entertainment typically attributed opportunities for science learn - - ing through media to television shows and docu While many parents acknowledged that their child mentaries versus games and apps. However, some used or watched science media, most did not parents felt that their child did not focus enough on actively seek out science-related media for their the educational content of science media to learn children. They also did not seem to have explicit from it. Rather, their child was watching to goals or skills that they hoped their child would be entertained. take away from science media. Echoing findings in the survey about parent perceptions of the value of “I asked him when he was watching, I was like, ‘Do media for learning, parents in our qualitative study you know what they’re saying? Do you understand?’ often seemed to value science media more for its He was like, ‘No.’ But now he can talk about the ability to entertain children, rather than to educate stars and the moon, but I don’t think he ever actually them. Very few parents were engaged with watching pays attention to that cartoon, actually what they’re science TV shows or playing science apps with talking about.” their children. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 40

44  The ways in which parents reported using science media did not differ by income or education. However, parents with lower levels of education were less likely than parents with more education to report that their children had learned a lot about science from media. The survey data showed few differences by parent of whether their child had learned a lot of science 7 income in the ways families reported using science We did find that perceptions of the from media. value of media for supporting learning differed by media. However, across all topics except for science, families with lower incomes were more likely than parent education. Considering science, in particular, were families with higher incomes to report that parents with lowest educational attainment were their child had learned a lot from media. We found less likely to report that their child had learned a lot no difference by family income in parent reports about science from media. Media Curation and Selection  Parents use Internet searches, trusted TV networks, and teachers to find educational media. The survey asked parents how they find educational Results from our interviews and focus groups similarly suggest that while some parents were videos, games, and apps for their children. Parents’ - responses indicate that many turned often to Inter more active in choosing the specific media with which their child interacts, through searches and net searches, relied on television networks that they recommendations, others put their trust in certain know and trust, and got recommendations from teachers. Relying on libraries or other community established “educational” resources (ABC Mouse, organizations, social media, and recommendations PBS, Leap Frog, Learning Academy) to provide educational content and teach their child. from periodicals or websites was less common. Parents reported using an average of just over two resources to find educational media. 7 This pattern held true after accounting for family education. Parent reports of how satisfied they were with science media did not differ across education and income levels. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 41

45 Exhibit 12. Percentage of Parents Who Reported Often or Sometimes Using Various Sources for Information Regarding Educational Media 26% 55% Searches on the internet, e.g., Google, YouTube, App Store, Google Play 44% 32% TV networks that you know and trust 44% 32% School or teachers 40% 32% Family members or friends 33% 21% Library, museum, or community organization 20% 23% Social media websites, such as Facebook, Pinterest, or Instagram 36% 18% Recommendations or reviews in newspapers, magazines, or websites like Common Sense Media Sometimes Often  Some children select media without parent involvement. Findings from our qualitative study suggest that “They can work my phone more than I can. And all my kids, even my 3-year-old, they all got their own tablet. some children select their own media, and this may be taking place despite parents’ best intentions of ... My 3-year-old, he shows me when he’s on YouTube monitoring their child’s media use. Some parents and ... he could be experimenting and stuff or he could be watching the craziest stuff. ... It’s amazing reported that they curate their child’s media use for educational content, while others gave their how even a 1-year-old just knows how to press my children freedom to select the media they used. power button on this phone. I still don’t even know how to work SnapChat.” Parents who allowed their children to choose media often seemed to trust that media would teach and Other parents put more emphasis on curating their entertain the child, and stated that their child was a child’s media use toward educational goals, often more savvy media user than they themselves were. by selecting apps that they perceive as educational. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 42

46 “Because it has a lot of games, and they’re not While parents differed on the degree to which they curated their child’s media use, most acknowledged games that waste time, but rather they’re something a need to limit children’s media use in terms of productive to do with their time. Because he’s going content and/or duration. They expressed concerns to learn what the letters sound like, he’s going to learn to form words, and he’s going to look for... about excessive media use, including the risk that I mean, I feel like it helps him plenty.” their child could access inappropriate content, could become lazy, or could choose media use over other activities, such as outdoor play.  The kinds of searches parents often used to find educational media differed by income. parents referenced slightly more sources for In our survey, lower-income parents were slightly educational media on average, compared to more likely than higher-income parents to indicate higher-income parents (lowest-income parents that they often used social media, reliable TV networks, internet searches, library and other reported using 2.6 resources on average, versus 2.0 resources for the highest-income parents). We - community organizations, and reviews in period icals or online to find educational media. In part, found no differences in search methods by family 8 this finding may be due to the fact that low-income education level, however. 8 When we controlled for differences in family education, the relationship between income and varying search methods remained largely the same (although lower-income families were no longer more likely than higher-income families to use trusted TV networks and internet searches). | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 43

47 What Parents Say During one of the home visits to Sycamore, Illinois, a Spanish-speaking mother told researchers how she carefully controls her son’s use of games on his tablet. They do not own a television; consequently, outside of watching YouTube videos on her smartphone, most of his media use takes place on the tablet. Because she lacks Internet access at home, she goes to the library to get online and download appropriate apps for her two children. She does her best to provide them with educational media despite her financial constraints. his sister. It was a tough battle. My partner and Her son’s favorite app is one she selected after I would have to hold him and brush his teeth, researching many reviews of games for children. The app is available in English and Spanish, and he would have a total fit. And with this app, and is designed to teach children hygiene and where he sees that Nico brushes his teeth and self-care as they help a character wash his that nothing happens to him, and Nico doesn’t hands, brush his teeth, go to the bathroom, and cry, he realized that nothing is going to happen to him either, and that he doesn’t need to cry, other hygiene-related activities. This mother and that it’s something he needs to do for his - described learning English as her biggest chal own good. Now they do it, they brush their teeth lenge when it comes to helping her son learn, and don’t cry, neither of them. For me, it’s great. especially as his English language skills quickly surpassed her own; for now, she is limited to They also didn’t like taking a bath, and now it’s hard to get them out of the water.” games that she can review in Spanish. Here’s how the mom described what she likes most about the app. “They see that Nico brushes his teeth, and they know that they have to brush their teeth, wash their hands ... and in the morning, he reminds me, ‘Mommy, Nico... ,’ and I tell him, ‘Yes, now we’re going to brush Nico’s teeth. First you brush yours, and then we’ll brush Nico’s.’ He didn’t like to brush his teeth—neither he nor | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 44

48 Parents’ beliefs and practices about early learning change as their children age Parents’ beliefs and practices likely change as their children develop. This survey helps shed light on the ways in which parents’ needs related to early learning shift as children progress through the preschool period. Parents with older children were more likely to report feeling very confident about teaching academic and social-emotional skills compared to parents with younger children—with the notable exception of science skills. For example, 69% of parents with 3-year-olds reported feeling very confident about teaching their child reading at home, compared to 82% of parents with 6-year-olds. Parents’ reports of confidence in teaching math and social-emotional skills followed similar patterns. For science, however, only 54% of parents with 3-year-olds and 55% of parents with 6-year-olds reported feeling very confident about teaching their child science at home. The frequency with which parents reported engaging in any learning activities and in science- related learning activities in particular also depended on the age of their child: Parents with younger children were more likely to report engaging in learning activities compared to parents with older children (97% of parents with 3-year-olds versus 91% of parents with 6-year-olds). Parents of younger children also were more likely to report doing science daily than were parents of older children (65% of parents with 3- and 4-year-old children versus 54% of parents with 5- and 6-year-old children). Though they frequently engaged their 3-year-old children in learning activities, parents with 3-year-olds seemed particularly interested in receiving more ideas for science activities. Some 78% reported that this would help a lot, compared to 69% of parents with 4- through 6-year-old children. Parents of older children were more likely than parents of younger children to report that their children use science-related websites to get information or learn something about science. Use of other types of science-related media was consistent across the age ranges (see Exhibit 13). Parents of older children reported greater satisfaction with media resources compared to parents of younger children. Only 25% of parents with 3-year-olds reported that their child had learned a lot of science from media, compared to 36% of parents with 6-year-olds. This pattern also was true for math and problem solving, but not for reading, music, or art, healthy habits, behavior, information about the community, or languages other than English. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 45

49 Exhibit 13. Percentage of Parents Who Report That Their Children Engaged With Various Types of Science-Related Media at Least Once a Month, by Child Age 90% 88% 88% 87% TV shows/videos about science 72% 69% 66% 66% Video games/apps about science 52% 47% 42% 31% Websites about science AGE AGE AGE AGE 3 6 4 5 | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 46

50 What Parents Say Many parents indicate their child can learn from media, but parents had different beliefs about their own role when their child used media. Some parents took an active role, engaging with media along with their child, while others felt their main responsibility was to select appropriate content. One mother of three children described living in Another mother we spoke to saw the media a town that has recently experienced an uptick her son consumes as the resource doing the of violent incidents. She said she makes sure to work and thought of herself as a bystander. set up a home environment that is conducive to She described herself as someone who needs learning, complete with flashcards, blocks, and to come home and spend time alone. She has a books. Between the birth of her first and third teenage son who follows his interests in gaming - and engineering alone in his room. Her youngest child, she earned her degree in child develop ment and told researchers how her practices son, though, is a social butterfly who enjoys changed over time based on what she learned watching television and talking to other people. He enjoys math, and eagerly shared math facts from her classes. For example, she moved from with researchers during our visits. She said he spanking her children to talking through their shares with her what interests him. behavior with them. She explained that she sees herself as her children’s primary source of “I’m really not the social type, so it’s like when learning, and she has noticed that her daughter I get out of work, I pick him up and we head gets more out of media when she watches and home until the next day. Our routine is the same: engages with an adult. school and work and back home. The TV actually stays on PBS. That’s his learning system. You “I think it’s more effective with me ... I watch with my daughter ... and I’m like, - know, when he thinks he’s going to learn some Super Why thing new, he’ll be like, ‘Mama, Mama, I know ‘Sound it out. What does that sound like? how to write. Mama, I know what 8 plus 6 is.’ Sometimes she’ll engage, sometimes she won’t, That’s the only channel he actually watches. but I know when I’m sitting, like, right there with her, or if I noticed she’s disconnected, I’ll sit next I don’t have cable, because, to her, like, ‘Oh, what is this?’ So, I think with me like I said, I’m not being with her, it helps her a little more. I think a big TV person. the tools are the reinforcement of what I tell her. So, regular TV, that’s So, I always think of any other outside tool as what it stays on.” just something to reinforce.” | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 47

51 Where We Go from Here These study findings offer the opportunity to listen closely to what parents have to say about supporting their young children’s learning. Often parents of young children are described in ways that highlight their deficits, or that point to their absence in their children’s lives, but rarely do parents get to say what they are thinking and feeling when it comes to their child’s learning. In this survey, and throughout the home visits and focus groups, we tried to give parents a voice about a topic that is gaining importance in education and in life. We live in a rapidly changing world where technology, medicine, communication, and many other fields that touch our lives are shifting and transforming in ways we could not have imagined when we were young. Yet, for parents, the job is to prepare children for this new world so that they can solve the problems they encounter, and develop the skills and knowledge they will need as they transition to adulthood and independence. In this new world, science and the process of scientific thinking that seeks to ask and answer questions will be essential for everyone. It is in this context that the findings of this study fit into the larger picture of young children, their families, and learning. There is growing recognition that the early years to support science learning, and so children’s in a child’s life may be the most transformative and their parents’ exposure to well-designed and and essential to laying the groundwork for age-appropriate content is limited to those with later linguistic, conceptual, and mathematical the financial resources to purchase or travel to understanding, and that the role of early science experiences, or to those with more educational learning should be part of this groundwork. There experience to draw on. also is growing evidence that interactions with Despite these barriers, many parents feel that parents are crucial in setting the foundation of science is important for their young children, and these skills before children start school. Yet parents many parents are helping their children explore are unprepared to support science because they science through engaging in conversations about have no prior experience to draw on, and there science in their everyday lives as they walk to are few supports or opportunities to learn about work or visit the park, providing their children how to engage and support young children in with opportunities to observe, experiment, ask developmentally appropriate science experiences. questions, and wonder. However, a substantial Even parents of older children note that they rarely number of parents do not feel science is as or never see their elementary school children come important as other school readiness skills for their home with science homework or information, and children to learn, are not confident enough, and do the few tasks that do come home from school are not feel knowledgeable enough to undertake the not connected to a full curriculum but rather are daunting task of helping their child learn science. single stand-alone activities. Educators of young These parents are working hard to support their children, for the most part, also are not prepared | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 48

52 less frequently) and some parents feel that media children, but report that they frequently do not know what to do, or why; they understand that can be an effective tool for learning, especially looking at the night sky could be science, but reading and music. Findings from our qualitative what next? They wonder how they build on this study suggest some parents also value educational experience, and want to know what their child is media for its ability to engage their children in learning, although parents also worried that their capable of understanding about the sky at such a children had trouble disengaging from media. Most young age. Many parents recognize that the learning taking place in young children’s lives happens in parents say their children use science-related media the world around us, but are often unsure of how to weekly or more often and some parents reported organize and support these experiences. they are more likely to use science media for their child’s entertainment than for a targeted learning What we heard from parents is an interest in, experience. Many parents also used science media and need for, more information about what is themselves, to find an answer to their child’s important about science for their young children, science-related question or to find models and how these experiences can help prepare their child ideas for science activities. for school, and about how to do science with them. Some parents also want to know more science themselves so that they can help their children. For Our study also suggests that parents may those parents who are less confident in their own benefit from knowing more about how to knowledge about science, this information can provide supports to help children learn from give them a sense of confidence when talking with their children and engaging in these new learning media, such as connecting what their child activities. Commonly, even parents who do talk is watching to real life. Because many par - about science with their children often describe ents use educational media to occupy their fitting science into their everyday experiences, children while they are busy with other tasks, when they are walking outside, going to the park, finding practical ways to help parents extend digging in the back yard; helping parents to see children’s learning will require much more science in the everyday and giving them ideas for than superficial encouragement to “engage how to do science with their children in this context could be a critical support. Doing science with together.” their children also can feel risky to some parents because they perceive themselves as not having Given media’s widespread availability and near the “right” answers. Some parents may need universal access through television, computers, more encouragement to feel comfortable learning smart phones, and other devices, there is the alongside their children, rather than teaching them directly. potential to bring opportunities for, and information about, science learning into homes and directly Our study findings suggest that most young to children. But simply supplying content is not children are watching TV and video weekly or adequate, even if it is an important first step. more often (and using digital games somewhat | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 49

53 young children, and that support the development Parents and their children need information of knowledge about early science learning and and resources that reflect high-quality science content, presented in ways that are clear and the kinds of activities and conversations that can support this learning. developmentally aligned with young children’s learning trajectories. Media that engage both adults Meeting the needs of all young learners and their and children also can serve to overcome barriers families is a goal that is beyond the reach of any that prevent some adults from doing science with single program or project, but by listening to their child; appealing to both generations can parents, hearing their concerns, and responding to help to ensure that parents are able to provide the their needs, we may be able to enhance the learning supports that children need to learn from their experiences for many young children across the media experiences. Adults who care for young country in ways that will help them prepare for children also will benefit from media resources that more successful school and life experiences. are clearly written, directed at adults and parents of | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 50

54 Five Essential Messages By supporting parents’ understanding of how to engage their children in science, we help children develop the thinking skills that are important for their academic success broadly, and not just for science. Over the past decade, we have seen parents, particularly low-income parents, increase the time they spend interacting with their children, through regularly 1 reading books and accessing more resources (such as digital games, apps, and video content) to help their young children read. Part of this shift includes parents’ recognition that children benefit from help to develop early literacy skills well before kindergarten (Bassok et al., 2016). Supporting the development of critical thinking and problem-solving skills through science content may be the next step to continuing to close persistent achievement gaps. With the right supports, more parents will be able to take advantage of their young children’s natural curiosity and questioning to help build their science understanding and knowledge about the world. Here are our messages for those interested in this research. Parents don’t have to be scientists or know the “right answer” to help their children learn science. Parents are uniquely able to notice, respond to, and extend their children’ questions, wondering, and interactions with the world during their everyday routines— and can do so on a daily basis. By letting children take the lead, parents can build on children’s curiosity through asking question and looking for answers together. Parents who worry that they don’t know enough about science can take advantage of media—including television shows, 1 videos, apps, and games—as a jumping-off point to explore science questions in the real world and to make connections to their children’s everyday lives, and to model for children that science is about asking and discovery, not just knowing the right answers. Parents are crucial to young children’s science learning and science exploration can start with wondering aloud and be reinforced with materials tailor-made for families. Organizations supporting parents can reinforce how important parents are in helping cultivate their children’s curiosity. No matter how little science they feel they know, parents play a special role in fostering their children’s science experiences through talking, asking questions, and searching for answers together. Parent advocates can take to heart that parents feel responsible for helping their children learn and can emphasize that the thinking skills and knowl - 2 edge that underlie early science experiences are critical for later school success. Parents need more than encouragement—they require well-constructed and high-quality resources that provide ideas about how to do science in ways that easily integrate with their routines and that don’t - require special or costly materials and extended amounts of time. Low-income families, in partic ular, need improved access to these kinds of resources. Parents feel a responsibility to help their | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 51

55 children learn and be ready for school; they need to know that science experiences are important, not only for learning science but also for helping their children develop important critical thinking, socio-emotional, and communication skills that are essential for success in school and life. Science is for home, school and all the places in between. Preschools, schools, and teachers must emphasize that science is critical for the early years, both in early education settings as well as at home. Findings from our qualitative study suggest that many parents use school expectations as a guide for what kinds of learning are important. If science gets short shrift in school, it will at home, too. Educators can help connect science learning at school with science experiences at home. Schools and educators can provide parents with ideas for activities that encourage conversations between children and their parents, siblings, and grandparents 3 to explore the science in their communities, and that help children make connections between science experiences at home, school, and in their communities. Policymakers and administrators have to ensure that science is part of the curriculum at school as well, given that science-related experiences may not be happening in all homes. Science is watchable, readable, playable and doable. Media producers can inspire and encourage parents, showing them how to use everyday opportunities to help their children learn science. Producers can get this message out to the widest public audience and can reinforce the importance of early science in and out of school. Media producers can engage families by - developing resources for both parents and children that include clear, high-quality, developmen tally appropriate science content that models ways to engage with science concepts, practices, and activities. It is important to ensure these resources are available widely and freely. Parents (and children) must be able to find and identify resources that are appropriate for their children’s ages and interests and that allow them to build knowledge over time. Parents also need media 4 content that can help them understand why science is important, why parents (along with schools) are in a unique position to help their children do science, the early science learning skills and knowledge that are important, what doing science looks like for young children, and the kinds of activities and conversations that parents can use to extend and support their children’s science learning and attitudes. What parents need to engage in everyday science with their young children doesn’t need to be a secret. Researchers can extend the work of producers, parent organizations, educators and parents themselves by studying how to lower the barriers that parents face in helping their children learn science. Those who study young children, families and learning can identify specific effective practices that parents, early childhood educators, and 5 children can use to increase exposure to and positive experience with high-quality science. In addition, researchers must ensure that their findings are accessible to all stakeholders, including families, teachers, professional development providers, administrators, and developers of science resources. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 52

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59 Appendix A: Methodology Report Parent Survey Survey Sample Design The sampling procedures were designed to efficiently reach parents and guardians who have a child aged 3 to 6 in their household. With this in mind, the sample capitalized on the ability to recontact respondents who had been reached via dual-frame RDD sampling using the SSRS Omnibus survey. Households who were identified as meeting the parental and income qualification criteria (both on landlines and cell phones) were recontacted and rescreened for this study. SSRS Omnibus utilizes an overlapping dual-frame design, with respondents reached by landlines and cell phones. The RDD landline sample was generated through Marketing Systems Group’s (MSG) GENESYS sam - pling system. MSG is one of the survey research industry’s largest statistical sampling companies, and is a supplier to social science researchers and governmental organizations such as the U.S. Census Bureau and the Centers for Disease Control. The standard GENESYS RDD methodology produces a strict single stage, Equal Probability Selection Method (epsem) sample of residential telephone numbers. In other words, a GENESYS RDD sample ensures an equal and known probability of selection for every residential telephone number in the sample frame. The sample was generated shortly before the beginning of data collection to provide the most up-to-date sample possible, maximizing the number of valid telephone extensions. Following generation, the RDD sample was prepared using MSG’s proprietary GENESYS IDplus procedure, which identifies and eliminates a large percentage of all non-working and business numbers. Using a procedure similar to that used for the landline sample, MSG generated a list of cell phone tele - phone numbers in a random fashion. Inactive numbers were flagged and removed utilizing MSG’s CellWins procedure. Table 1 details the final sample composition by telephone type. Table 1: Completed Interviews by Telephone Type Total All completed interviews: 1,442 Phone type: 1 1,004 Cell phone Landline 438 1. A total of 762 interviews were completed with respondents whose households can be reached by cell phones only. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 56

60 Table 2 details the demographic characteristics of the final survey sample. Table 2: Sample Demographics (weighted) N % Household income Annual income less than $25,000 16.1 228 24.3 343 Annual income $25,000-$50,000 20.4 Annual income $50,000-$75,000 288 Annual income $75,000-$100,0000 17.4 246 Annual income $100,000 or higher 21.7 307 Parent highest level of education Less than high school 12.6 183 High school 22.1 318 452 Some college 31.3 33.8 488 College graduate or higher Parent gender 45.9 661 Parent is male Parent is female 54.1 781 Child age Three years old 16.8 243 Four years old 20.5 295 Five years old 31.1 448 Six years old 456 31.6 Questionnaire Design The survey questionnaire was developed by EDC and SRI, in consultation with the SSRS project team. When available, researchers used items from existing and validated surveys. These include survey ques - tions based on the Parent Reading Belief Inventory (DeBaryshe & Binder, 1994), NCES National Household Education Survey (National Center for Education Statistics, 2012) and Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey (National Center for Education Statistics, 2011), and the Learning at Home: Families’ Educational Media Use in America survey (Rideout, 2014). In order to inform questionnaire design, researchers conducted six focus groups with 40 parents of young children in rural, urban, and suburban areas in the South, Midwest, and western U.S. Parents represented - a range of ethnicities, languages, and income and educational backgrounds. The focus groups, coordi nated by Delphyne Lomax of V&L Research and Consulting, Inc., focused on parents’ perceptions of early learning, science, and media. Based on the feedback and specific language parents used during focus groups, researchers created or adapted survey questions. These questions then were reviewed by three | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 57

61 experts in measurement, family engagement in learning, and media use. Based on this expert feedback, researchers revised survey questions again. Using these draft survey questions, researchers interviewed eight parents from a range of ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds to ensure wording, grammar and syntax, response options, reference periods, and meaning were appropriate. Next, SSRS researchers reviewed items with attention to language for use in telephone surveys. Once finalized, the questionnaire was translated into Spanish so respondents could choose to be interviewed in English or Spanish, or switch 2 between the languages according to their comfort level. Prior to the field period, SSRS researchers programmed the survey into CfMC 8.6 Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) software. Extensive checking of the program was conducted to ensure that skip patterns and sample splits followed the design of the questionnaire. Field Procedures Pretesting Nineteen pretest interviews were completed prior to the field period. The live pretest of the survey instru - ment was conducted on August 23 and August 24, 2017. SSRS provided recordings and a detailed summary of pretest findings, which included feedback from the interviewers. The final draft of the questionnaire was revised on the basis of the pretest. Changes were made in order to shorten the survey instrument, and to improve respondent-comprehension of questions. Survey Administration The field period for the survey was August 31 through October 8, 2017. All interviews were completed through the CATI system. The CATI system ensured that questions followed logical skip patterns and that complete dispositions of all call attempts were recorded. CATI interviewers received written materials about the survey instrument and received formal training for this particular project. The written materials were provided prior to the beginning of the field period and included an annotated questionnaire that contained information about the goals of the study as well as detailed explanations as to why questions were being asked, the meaning and pronunciation of key terms, potential obstacles to be overcome in getting good answers to questions, and respondent problems that could be anticipated ahead of time, as well as strategies for addressing the potential problems. Interviewer training was conducted both prior to the study pretest and immediately before the survey was launched. Call center supervisors and interviewers walked through each question from the questionnaire. Interviewers were given instructions to help them maximize responses and ensure accurate data collection. SSRS enacted the following procedures during the field period: Each non-responsive number was contacted a minimum of 7 times, varying the times of day and » » the days of the week that call-backs were placed, using a programmed differential call rule. 2. A total of 153 interviews were completed in Spanish. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 58

62 » Respondents were offered the option of scheduling a call-back at their convenience. » » » Respondents were allowed to phone back on our 800 number if they chose to do so. » » Interviewers immediately called back any Spanish-language respondents that were reached by a non-bilingual interviewer with a bilingual interviewer. » » Interviewers left messages on answering machines at the third and fifth consecutive attempts when answering machines were reached. » » Interviewers explained the purpose of the study and, when asked, stated as accurately as possible the expected length of the interview (~25 minutes). » » Specially trained interviewers contacted households where the initial call resulted in a refusal in an attempt to convert refusals to completed interviews. » All respondents were offered a $5 incentive for participation. Toward the end of the field period » (September 29, 2017), the incentive was increased to $10 to foster participation of the harder-to- reach respondents. A total of 187 respondents were offered the $10 incentive. Screening and Child Selection Respondents qualified for the study if they were the parent or guardian of a child aged 3 to 6 living in their household. For eligible respondents with more than one child in this age range, one child was randomly selected to be the referenced child for specific questions in the survey. Weighting Procedures This study was weighted to provide nationally representative and projectable estimates of parents of children aged 3 to 6. The data were weighted in four stages. Recontact Propensity Correction (Wp). 1. This adjustment accounts for the potential bias associated with recontacting respondents. All respondents were recontacted on the basis of their participation in a previous survey, the SSRS Omnibus. Inverse Probability Weighting (IPW), or Propensity Weighting, is typically used to adjust for attrition in longitudinal studies. Characteristics of the respondents as measured in the initial study are used to model the respondents’ propensity to respond to the recontact survey. - The predictive values from the logistic regression model were used as the probability of a person com pleting the recontact survey. Predictors included age, gender, home ownership, employment status, race, education, registered-to-vote status, income, and cell phone use. The inverse of this probability was used as the propensity weight. As such, higher propensity weights correspond to respondents who have a lower probability of responding to the recontact survey. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 59

63 2. The Propensity Weight (Wp) from step one was then Total Probability of Selection Weight (Wps). multiplied by the Total Probability of Selection Weight (Wps) from the original SSRS Omnibus study. The process to calculate the Wp is outlined below. - SSRS Omnibus Baseweight. The original SSRS Omnibus respondents were weighted to provide na tionally representative and projectable estimates of the adult population 18 years of age and older. The weighting process takes into account the disproportionate probabilities of household and respondent selection due to the number of separate telephone landlines and cellphones answered by respondents and their households, as well as the probability associated with the random selection of an individual household member. Probability of Selection (P A. ). A phone number’s probability of selection depends on the phone number of phone numbers selected out of the total sample frame. So, for each respondent whose - household has a landline phone number, this is calculated as total landline numbers dialed divid ed by total numbers in the landline frame, and conversely, for respondents answering at least one cell phone number, this is calculated as total cell phone numbers divided by total numbers in the cell phone frame. B. Probability of Contact (P ). The probability that the sampling unit (households on landlines contact or respondents on cell phone) will be reached is a product of the number of phones (by type) that a respondent or their household answer. - C. Probability of Respondent Selection (P ). In households reached by landline, a single respon select dent is selected. Thus, the probability of selection within a household is inversely related to the number of adults in the household. Total Probability of Selection. This is calculated as the phone number’s probability of selection (by frame), multiplied by the number of devices of each type the respondent answers, and, for landlines, divided by the 3 number of adults in the household. Thus, for each respondent a probability can be calculated for being reached via landline (LL ) and for being reached via cell phone (Cell ). These calculations are prob prob LL =P *P *P phone prob select contact =P *P Cell contact prob phone The sample weights derived at this stage are calculated as the inverse of the combined probability of selection, or ) 1/(LL +Cell -LL *Cell prob prob prob prob 3. To avoid extremely large or small weights, the maximum number of devices for each type of phone and the maximum number of adults was capped at three. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 60

64 3. Post-Stratification Weighting. With the base-weight applied, the sample underwent the process of iterative proportional fitting (IPF), in which the sample was balanced to match known population parameters for households with children ages 3–6 based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2015 American Community Survey. This process of weighting was repeated until the root mean square error for the differences between the sample and the population parameters was 0 or near-zero. The population parameters used for post-stratification are: age (18–29; 30–49; 50–64; 65+) by gender; census region (Northeast, North-Central, South, West); education (less than high school, high school graduate, some college, four-year college or more); and race/ethnicity (white non-Hispanic; black non-Hispanic; Hispanic; other non-Hispanic). This adjustment was implemented separately for the income less than $50,000 (LT50K) group and the greater than or equal to $50,000 (GE50K) group. Weights were decreased and or increased as necessary so that the share of the two income groups reflected the distribution of 59.8% for the GE50K group and 40.2% LT50K in the ACS 2015 data. To reduce variance caused by extremely large weights, the weights Weight Truncation (“Trimming”). 4. were truncated to top/bottom 2%. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 61

65 Table 3: Weighting Parameters Income greater than Income less than $50k or equal to $50k Gender by Age 4.3% 7.7% M 18–29 M 30–49 23.4% 42.7% M 50–64 5.5% 2.9% M 65+ 1.3% .8% F 18–29 24.2% 5.9% F 30–49 35.1% 35.5% F 50–64 4.1% 4.0% F 65+ 1.1% 1.5% Education Less than High School 6.4% 23.7% 30.8% High School Graduate 16.2% Some College 34.5% 29.8% College+ 11.0% 47.7% Region Northeast 17.3% 13.9% North Central 22.0% 20.6% South 35.5% 42.6% West 25.2% 22.8% Race White 40.2% 64.6% African American 8.8% 21.3% Hispanic 16.4% 32.1% Other 10.2% 6.4% Margin of Error and Design Effect Weighting procedures increase the variance in the data, with larger weights causing greater variance. Complex survey designs and post-data collection statistical adjustments affect variance estimates and, as a result, tests of significance and confidence intervals. Design effect for this survey was 1.8 overall. Accounting for sample size and design effect, the margin of sampling error for this study in total is +/-3.5 percentage points at a 95% confidence level. Weights were normalized such that the sum of weights equals the un-weighted number of completed interviews. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 62

66 Table 4: Margin of Error and Design Effect Design Effec MOE with N (DEFF) DEFF % Total 1442 1.8 3.5 Income greater than or equal to $50k 533 1.5 5.2 Income less than $50k 909 1.5 3.9 Survey Data Analyses Researchers analyzed survey data using SAS and STATA 15.0. Primary analyses were simple frequencies, applying sampling weights to account for the probability of selection. Exploratory subgroup analyses were conducted for family income, parents’ educational attainment, parent gender, and child age, in which the means for each group were calculated, with sampling weights applied. The statistical significance of the subgroup differences was probed using linear regression, weighted for the probability of selection. Qualitative Study Sample and Recruitment In order to better understand parent thinking, rationale, and engagement in learning with their children, researchers recruited research participants in three regions of the U.S., including an urban, a surburban, and a rural location—Jackson, Mississippi; Two Rivers, Illinois and Cookeville, Tennessee. Data collection activities included eight focus groups with a total of 65 families and two home visits with 11 families (selected from focus group participants). Focus group participants were recruited by researchers (in Illinois), and with the help of local PBS station staff (in Tennessee and Mississippi). In Illinois, participating families all had young children in a local Head Start early learning program. In Tennessee, families were recruited with the help of WCTE Upper Cumberland PBS and a local after-school program partner. In Mississippi, families were recruited with the help of Mississippi Public Broadcasting (MPB) and MPB partner, Springboard to Opportunities. With one exception—a woman who lived nearby—all study participants in Mississippi were residents of one of two public housing complexes. Researchers screened interested families by phone ahead of focus groups to ensure each had at least one child aged 3 to 6 living at home. Because of the study focus on the experiences of low-income families, families were also screened for an annual household income of less than $50,000. Following the focus groups, home visit participants volunteered for a follow-up visit and then were selected by researchers to ensure a variety of comfort with science and the use of digital media for learning. | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 63

67 Data Collection Researchers conducted eight focus groups with 65 families and two home visits spaced two or three weeks apart with 10 families. One additional family included in the first round of home visits was not available for a second home visit. Focus group and home visit data were collected between October 16 and December 6, 2017. Researchers used a different semi-structured interview protocol for each phase. The focus group protocol probed for parents’ current ideas about their role in helping their children learn; the skills and learning domains they believe are most important to impart to their young children at home; learning activities they do with their children; the challenges parents face in regard to their children’s learning and supports they would like; and the educational media they and their children use regularly. The first home visit protocol focused on gathering similar information about specific families, as well as expounding on the challenges they face and resources they would most want. Because parents’ perceptions of the ways they help children learn tend to focus on more formal learning opportunities and our interest was in understanding the widest possible opportunities for engagement in learning, the home visit interview protocols started by asking parents to describe typical weekday and weekend routines when parents spend the most time with their child, to identify a recent experience during one of those typical routines, and to describe the learning the parent might have helped their child with during that time. In addition, researchers asked parents about special learning opportunities or experiences they engaged in with their children. Researchers also asked parents to talk about the devices and digital media their child used most often and whether and how it related to their learning. During the two or three weeks between home visits, researchers asked families to document typical science-related learning activities that they did with their children by texting or emailing pictures, videos, and/or short messages to researchers. The second home visit focused particularly on science learning, and included a discussion about the science-related texts and emails as well as an observation of families engaging with a short, researcher-provided science-related video and iPad game. Data Analysis of Focus Groups, Interviews, and Observations The approach to analysis roughly followed the Sort and Sift, Think and Shift method, with special focus on the data inventory, categorization, bridging, and data presentation phases (Curry, Nembhard, & Bradley, 2009; Fryer et al., 2016; Maietta, 2006). All interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. Researchers also completed episode summaries after each data collection event based on their notes and the tran - scriptions, taking care to keep inferences and impressions documented separately. Researchers created a matrix that summarized the episode summaries by domains aligned to the research questions. After diving into the episode summaries and data matrix, the qualitative research team stepped back to generate a list of propositions about the data (Miles, Huberman, & Saldana, 2013) and developed a coding scheme to test and confirm our initial set of propositions. The team then developed a coding scheme through an iterative process that began with constructing a set of base codes grounded in the propositions and prior similar research studies, then using these codes during an initial review of data. Through this process, new codes | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 64

68 were identified and constructed to appropriately represent the core themes noted in the data. Once this development process was complete, five members of the qualitative research team divided up the families of codes and applied the coding scheme to all transcripts using the qualitative and mixed methods appli - cation Dedoose. This process yielded coded excerpts that researchers culled for representative quotes and specific evidence. For the purposes of this report, we have polished the syntax of the quotes we use to enhance readability. We have also removed the interviewer’s dialogue and have consolidated quotes from a conversation while maintaining meaning, when appropriate, including reordering some statements within longer quotations. References Curry, L. A., Nembhard, I. M., & Bradley, E. H. (2009). Qualitative and mixed methods provide unique contri - butions to outcomes research. Circulation, 119 (10), 1442–1452. DeBaryshe, B. D., & Binder, J. C. (1994). Development of an instrument for measuring parental beliefs about reading aloud to young children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 78 (3_suppl), 1303–1311. Fryer, C. S., Passmore, S. R., Maietta, R. C., Petruzzelli, J., Casper, E., Brown, N. A., ... & Quinn, S. C. (2016). The symbolic value and limitations of racial concordance in minority research engagement. Qualitative Health (6), 830–841. Research, 26 Maietta, R. (2006). State of the art: Integrating software with qualitative analysis. In L. Curry, R. Shield, & T. Wetle (Eds.), Improving aging and public health research: Qualitative and mixed methods (pp. 117–139). Washington, DC: American Public Health Association and the Gerentological Society of America. (3rd ed.) Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. National Center for Education Statistics (2011). Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010–11. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences. National Center for Education Statistics (2012). National Household Education Survey. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences. New York, NY: The Joan Learning at home: Families’ educational media use in America. Rideout, V. (2014). Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 65

69 Appendix B: Parent Survey SCREENER LANDLINE INTRO: (ASK IF LL SAMPLE) LINTRO1. Hello. My name is ______________ and I’m calling on behalf of the Education Development Cen - ter, a nonprofit research organization. This phone survey is part of a research project for PBS KIDS and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. The goal of this survey is to learn more about how parents support children’s learning at home. Eligible participants will be sent $5 or a $5 Amazon gift code at the end of the survey. [IF ASKED: This interview takes about 20 minutes or less. Your telephone number was randomly selected]. [IF NECESSARY: This is NOT a sales or fundraising call.] [IF NECESSARY: Your responses are confidential, and will not be shared with anyone outside the research team.] [IF NECESSARY: The data collection for this study is being conducted by SSRS, a research company that specializes in public opinion research.] (CONTINUE TO INTRO2) CELLPHONE INTRO (ASK IF CELL SAMPLE) CINTRO1. Hello. My name is ______________ and I’m calling on behalf of the Education Development Cen - ter, a nonprofit research organization. This phone survey is part of a research project for PBS KIDS and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. The goal of this survey is to learn more about how parents support children’s learning at home. Eligible participants will be sent $5 or a $5 Amazon gift code at the end of the survey. Before we continue, are you driving? | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 66

70 [IF ASKED: This interview takes about 20 minutes or less. Your telephone number was randomly selected]. [IF NECESSARY: This is NOT a sales or fundraising call.] [IF NECESSARY: Your responses are confidential, and will not be shared with anyone outside the research team.] [IF NECESSARY: The data collection for this study is being conducted by SSRS, a research company that specializes in public opinion research.] 1 Not driving GO TO INTRO2 2 Driving SET UP CALLBACK 3 (DO NOT READ) This is NOT a cell phone THANK & TERM R (DO NOT READ) Refused THANK & TERM (ASK ALL) (INSERT INTERVIEWER NOTE IF LANDLINE) Could you please tell me if you are 18 or older? INTRO2. (IF UNDER 18: May I please speak with an adult 18 or older living in this household?) 1 Under 18 THANK & TERM GO TO S1 2 18 or older R REFUSED THANK & TERM (ASK ALL) S1. First, including yourself, how many people are there living in your household? (RECORD SINGLE DIGIT NUMBER) ____________________ [IF 1 THANK & TERM] 8 Eight or more people 9 Refused THANK & TERM (ASK IF MORE THAN 1 PERSON S1>1) S2. How many of these are children, under age 18? (RECORD SINGLE DIGIT NUMBER) ___________________ (0-7) [IF 0 THANK & TERM] 8 Eight or more children THANK AND TERM 9 Refused | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 67

71 (ASK IF ANY CHILDREN S2>0) S3. Are you the parent or guardian of any child age 3 to 6 living in your household? 1 Yes 2 No IF CELL PHONE, THANK & TERM; IF LANDLINE ASK S4 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused THANK & TERM (ASK IF LANDLINE, MORE THAN 1 PERSON, AND NOT A PARENT (IF LL AND S1>1 AND S3=2) S4. Is there anyone else living there who is the parent or guardian of a child age 3 to 6 living in your household? 1 Yes, available now ASK TO SPEAK WITH, GO TO LINTRO1 2 Yes, not available right now SET UP CALLBACK 3 No, no one in household is parent/guardian of child age 3-6 THANK & TERM R Refused THANK & TERM (ASK IF PARENT OF CHILD 3-6 -S3 = 1) How many children age 3 to 6 do you have? S5. ___________ (RECORD NUMBER 1-10) NN None THANK & TERM RR (DO NOT READ) Refused THANK & TERM (ASK IF HAS CHILD 3-6 – S5>0) S6. Now, what is your age? ___________ (RANGE 18-97) NN (DO NOT READ) Under 18 THANK & TERM RR (DO NOT READ) Refused (ASK IF S6=RR) S7. Could you please tell me if you are ...? (READ LIST) 0 (IF UNDER 18) THANK & TERM 1 18-24 2 25-29 3 30-49 4 50-64 5 65+ THANK & TERM R (DO NOT READ) Refused | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 68

72 (ASK IF HAS CHILD 3-6 – S5>0 Was the total income of all persons in your household over the past year more than or less than S8. $50,000? (READ IF NEEDED: Please include salaries or other earnings, interest, retirement, and so on for all household members in your response.) [INTERVIEWER NOTE: If R says exactly $50,000. Code as 1 ‘more than $50k’] 1 More than $50,000 2 Less than $50,000 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know THANK & TERM 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused THANK & TERM (ASK IF HAS CHILD 3-6 – S5>0) SEX. Record SEX of Respondent: (INTERVIEWER NOTE: OBSERVATION ONLY, ASK ONLY IF UNCERTAIN) 1 Male 2 Female (ASK IF HAS CHILD 3-6 – S5>0) [IF MORE THAN ONE CHILD AT S5 SHOW: Since you have more than one child in the 3 to SEL 1. 6-year-old age range, please select the child whose first name comes first in the alphabet, and focus your responses around this child.] Let’s start with a few basic questions. (ASK IF HAS CHILD 3-6 – S5>0) (PN: HIDE THIS Q ADDED IN, IN CASE SELECTION CRITERIA CHANGES) SEL 2. [IF MORE THAN ONE CHILD AT S5 SHOW: Since you have more than one child in the 3 to 6-year-old age range, please select the child who is the youngest, and focus your responses around this child.] Let’s start with a few basic questions. (ASK IF HAS CHILD 3-6 – S5>0) CHILD AGE. [IF S5=1 SHOW: For your child age 3-6, what is their month and year of birth?] [IF S5>1 SHOW: What is this child’s month and year of birth?] [If date of birth indicates that child is outside of the 3 to 6 age range, ask parent to select anoth - er child. If no other child falls within target age range, terminate interview.] | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 69

73 [IF NEEDED: If you have more than one child age 3 to 6, please think of the one whose first name comes first in the alphabet. [(PN: HIDE THIS INSTRUCTION – ONLY TO BE ADDED IF SELECTION CRITERIA CHANGES IN SEL2: IF NEEDED If you have more than one child in the 3 to 6 year-old age range, please think of the one who is the youngest.) ] 1 Month given (RANGE 01-12) 2 Year given (RANGE 2010-2014) THANK & TERM 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused (PN: CHILD AGE NEEDS TO BE 09/2010 – 09/2014 TO MOVE FORWARD IN SURVEY. IF CHILD AGE FALLS OUTSIDE THIS RANGE PLEASE REASK CHILD AGE) (ASK IF HAS CHILD 3-6 – S5>0) CHILD GENDER. Is this child male or female? 1 Male 2 Female 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused (PN: IF INELGIBLE OR OQ THANK AND TERM, ALL ELIGIBLE PARENTS OF A CHILD AGE 3-6 CONTINUE.) PROGRAMMER QUOTA CHECK: TARGET CHILD GENDER = CHILDGEN » » TARGET CHILD AGE = CHILDAGE (IF CHILD GENDER=1 AND CHILD AGE=3 OR 4 [ QUOTA=375 ]) – MALE AGE 3 OR 4 • • (IF CHILD GENDER=2 AND CHILD AGE=3 OR 4 [ QUOTA=375 ]) – FEMALE AGE 3 OR 4 QUOTA=375 • (IF CHILD GENDER=1 AND CHILD AGE=5 OR 6 [ ]) – MALE AGE 5 OR 6 • QUOTA=375 ]) – FEMALE AGE 5 OR 6 (IF CHILD GENDER=2 AND CHILD AGE=5 OR 6 [ » PARENT INCOME = S8 • (IF S8=1 [ QUOTA=500 ]) – INCOME GREATER THAN $50,000 QUOTA=1000 ]) – INCOME LESS THAN $50,000 • (IFS8=2 [ INCOME AND CHILDGEN/CHILDAGE QUOTAS ARE SEPARATE | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 70

74 MAIN STUDY [NOTE: no Q1 or Q2] [QUALIFIED RESPONDENTS ONLY FOR REST OF SURVEY] (ASK ALL) Q3. Would you share this child’s first name with us? I will only use this so I can refer to [IF QCHILD GENDER=1 INSERT: him, IF QCHILD GENDER=2 INSERT her, IF QCHILD GENDER=8 or 9 INSERT your child] by name in this survey. [IF NEEDED: If you are more comfortable, you could just give me [IF QCHILD GENDER=1 INSERT: his, IF QCHILD GENDER=2 INSERT her, IF QCHILD GENDER=8 or 9 INSERT your child’s] initials or a nickname.] 1 Answer given 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused FAMILY COMPOSITION (ASK ALL) (RANDOMIZE CODES 1-3) (CODE 5,8,9 SB UNIQUE CODES) Q4. We have listed that you and [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT: your child] current - ly live in the same household. Which other adults, if any, live with you in your home? (INTERVIEWER NOTE: READ LIST. SELECT ALL THAT APPLY.) 1 Spouse or partner 2 Child’s grandparents 3 Other adult relatives 4 Other adults (not relatives) 5 (DO NOT READ) No other adults live in your home 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused EARLY LEARNING (ASK ALL) (READ: Next, I’d like to ask about your thoughts on your child’s learning.) | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 71

75 ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS ABOUT EARLY LEARNING (ASK ALL) (RANDOMIZE a-c) Q6. I am going to read you three statements about your role in [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT: your child]’s learning. For each statement, please tell me if you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree. First, (INSERT ITEM). Do you (READ LIST)? How about (INSERT ITEM)? (INTERVIEWER NOTE: READ SCALE AS NECESSARY.) 4 Strongly Agree 3 Agree 2 Disagree 1 Strongly Disagree 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused a. You want to be involved in your child’s education. b. You don’t have to worry about your child’s learning, because [IF QCHILD GENDER=1 INSERT: he, - IF QCHILD GENDER=2 INSERT she], IF QCHILD GENDER=8 or 9 INSERT your child] will learn every thing [IF QCHILD GENDER=1 INSERT: he, IF QCHILD GENDER=2 INSERT she, IF QCHILD GENDER=8 or 9 INSERT your child] needs to know in school. c. You prioritize having fun with your child at home without being concerned if it is educational or not. (READ TO ALL: I am going to read you a few more statements about [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT your child]’s learning in school. If your child is not in school yet, please describe what you expect to happen once your child starts school.) (ASK ALL) (ROTATE ITEMS 1-2) Q7. Who do you think is most responsible for teaching your child about social skills, like sharing and being patient? Would you say...? (INTERVIEWER NOTE: READ LIST) 1 You as a parent are most responsible 2 Your child’s school is most responsible OR | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 72

76 3 You and your child’s school are equally responsible 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused (ASK ALL) (ROTATE ITEMS 1-2 SAME ORDER AS Q7) Q8. Who do you think is most responsible for teaching your child academic skills like reading, writing, and mathematics? Would you say...? (READ LIST) 1 You as a parent are most responsible 2 Your child’s school is most responsible OR 3 You and your child’s school are equally responsible 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused PARENTS’ SUPPORT OF EARLY LEARNING (ASK ALL) (RANDOMIZE a-e) Q10. I’d like to ask you about activities you do with [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT your child], and how often you do them. In the last month, how often have you (INSERT ITEM)? (READ LIST) How often have you (INSERT ITEM)? (INTERVIEWER NOTE: READ SCALE AS NECESSARY.) 1 Daily 2 Once or twice a week 3 Once or twice this past month 4 Did not do this past month 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused - a. Played games or completed puzzles with [IF QCHILD GENDER= 1 INSERT him, IF QCHILD GEN DER=2 INSERT her, IF QCHILD GENDER= 8 OR 9 INSERT: your child]? b. Done arts and crafts with [IF QCHILD GENDER= 1 INSERT him, IF QCHILD GENDER=2 INSERT her, IF QCHILD GENDER= 8 OR 9 INSERT: your child]? | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 73

77 c. Involved [IF QCHILD GENDER= 1 INSERT him, IF QCHILD GENDER=2 INSERT her, IF QCHILD GEN - DER= 8 OR 9 INSERT: your child] in household chores (READ IF NEEDED: like cooking, cleaning, setting the table, and caring for pets)? d. Sung songs or played musical instruments with [IF QCHILD GENDER= 1 INSERT him, IF QCHILD GENDER=2 INSERT her, IF QCHILD GENDER= 8 OR 9 INSERT: your child]? e. Played a sport or done exercise with [IF QCHILD GENDER= 1 INSERT him, IF QCHILD GENDER=2 INSERT her, IF QCHILD GENDER= 8 OR 9 INSERT: your child]? (ASK ALL) (RANDOMIZE a-d) Q11. I’d like to ask you about a few more activities, and how often you have done them with [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT: your child]. In the last month, how often have you (INSERT ITEM)? (READ LIST) How often have you (INSERT ITEM)? (INTERVIEWER NOTE: READ SCALE AS NECESSARY.) 1 Daily 2 Once or twice a week 3 Once or twice this past month 4 Did not do this past month 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused a. Read or told stories to [IF QCHILD GENDER= 1 INSERT him, IF QCHILD GENDER=2 INSERT her, IF QCHILD GENDER= 8 OR 9 INSERT: your child]? b. Worked on reading or writing skills with [IF QCHILD GENDER= 1 INSERT him, IF QCHILD GEN - DER=2 INSERT her, IF QCHILD GENDER= 8 OR 9 INSERT: your child]? c. Worked on learning numbers, shapes or other math concepts with [IF QCHILD GENDER= 1 IN - SERT him, IF QCHILD GENDER=2 INSERT her, IF QCHILD GENDER= 8 OR 9 INSERT: your child]? d. Watched educational TV shows or videos or played with educational digital games or apps with [IF QCHILD GENDER= 1 INSERT him, IF QCHILD GENDER=2 INSERT her, IF QCHILD GENDER= 8 OR 9 INSERT: your child]? | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 74

78 EARLY SCIENCE LEARNING (ASK ALL) (READ: We’ve been talking about your child’s learning more broadly, but now I would like to turn spe - cifically to science learning.) (ASK ALL) Q12. In a few words, what science learning activities does your child like to do? 97 Answer given 98 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 99 (DO NOT READ) Refused ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS ABOUT EARLY SCIENCE LEARNING (ASK ALL) At what age do you think children should start learning science? When they are (READ LIST)? Q13. 1 Infants 2 1-2 years old 3 3-4 years old 4 5-7 years old 5 Older than 7 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused (ASK ALL) (RANDOMIZE a-c) Q14. I am going to list a few subjects. For each, please tell me how important it is for you to help [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT: your child] learn these things at home. How important is it for you to (INSERT ITEM)? Is it (READ LIST)? And, how important is it for you to (INSERT ITEM)? (INTERVIEWER NOTE: READ SCALE AS NECESSARY.) 3 Very important 2 Important 1 Not important 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 75

79 a. Help [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT your child] learn to read and write at home? (PN: IF Q14a=2 OR 3 ASK Q15a IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING Q14a.) b. Help [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT your child] learn math at home? (IF Q14b=2 OR 3 ASK Q15b IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING Q14b.) c. Help [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT your child] learn social skills at home, such as cooperation and self-control? (IF Q14c=2 OR 3 ASK Q15c IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING Q14c.) (ASK CORRESPONDING Q15 IMEDIATELY FOLLOWING Q14 IF RESPONSE=2 OR 3) (ASK AS FOLLOW UP IMMEDIATELY AFTER Q14a) (ASK Q15a IF Q14a=2 OR 3) Q15a. Is helping [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT your child] learn to read and write at home more important, as important, or less important than science learning? 1 More important than science 2 As important as science 3 Less important than science 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused (ASK AS FOLLOW UP IMMEDIATELY AFTER Q14b) (ASK Q15b IF Q14b=2 OR 3) Is helping [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT your child] learn math at home Q15b. more important, as important, or less important than science learning? 1 More important than science 2 As important as science 3 Less important than science 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused (ASK AS FOLLOW UP IMMEDIATELY AFTER Q14c) (ASK Q15c IF Q14c=2 OR 3) Q15c. Is helping [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT your child] learn social skills at home more important, as important, or less important than science learning? 1 More important than science 2 As important as science 3 Less important than science 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 76

80 (ASK ALL) (RANDOMIZE a-g) Q16. How often have you done the following activities with [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT your child] at home or in your community? In the last month, how often have you (INSERT ITEM)? (READ LIST) How often have you (INSERT ITEM? (INTERVIWER NOTE: READ LIST AS NECESSARY) 1 Daily 2 Once or twice a week 3 Once or twice this past month 4 Did not do this past month 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused a. Read about nature or science in books or magazines with [IF QCHILD GENDER=1 INSERT: him, IF QCHILD GENDER=2 INSERT her, IF QCHILD GENDER=8 OR 9 INSERT: your child] b. Built something with [IF QCHILD GENDER=1 INSERT: him, IF QCHILD GENDER=2 INSERT her, IF QCHILD GENDER=8 OR 9 INSERT: your child] (READ IF NEEDED: such as a tower with blocks, a model airplane, etc.) c. Played with a science-related puzzle or board game with [IF QCHILD GENDER=1 INSERT: him, IF QCHILD GENDER=2 INSERT her, IF QCHILD GENDER=8 OR 9 INSERT: your child] (READ IF NEEDED: such as one involving plants or animals) d. Explored science in the outdoors with [IF QCHILD GENDER=1 INSERT: him, IF QCHILD GENDER=2 INSERT her, IF QCHILD GENDER=8 OR 9 INSERT: your child] (READ IF NEEDED: such as observing animals, insects, plants, or the weather) e. Explored science in everyday activities with [IF QCHILD GENDER=1 INSERT: him, IF QCHILD GENDER=2 INSERT her, IF QCHILD GENDER=8 OR 9 INSERT: your child] (READ IF NEEDED: such as noticing what sinks and floats, mixing colors, or talking about freezing and melting) f. Visited a science place with [IF QCHILD GENDER=1 INSERT: him, IF QCHILD GENDER=2 INSERT her, IF QCHILD GENDER=8 OR 9 INSERT: your child] (READ IF NEEDED: such as a zoo, pet store, community garden, aquarium, nature center, or museum) g. Watched science-related educational television shows or videos or played with science-related educational digital games or apps with [IF QCHILD GENDER=1 INSERT: him, IF QCHILD GEN - DER=2 INSERT her, IF QCHILD GENDER=8 OR 9 INSERT: your child] | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 77

81 (ASK ALL) (RANDOMIZE a-d) Q17. I’m going to read a list of skills. Please tell me if you feel very confident, somewhat confident, or not confident about helping your child learn these skills. If you’re unsure of what these skills are, please say “I am unsure of what the skills are.” How confident do you feel about helping [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=2 INSERT your child] learn (INSERT ITEM)? Would you say (READ LIST.) How about (INSERT ITEM)? (INTERVIEWER NOTE: READ LIST AS NECESSARY.) 1 You feel very confident 2 You feel somewhat confident 3 You don’t feel confident 4 You are unsure of what the skills are 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused a. Age-appropriate reading and writing skills b. Age-appropriate math skills c. Age-appropriate behavioral, social and emotional skills d. Age-appropriate science skills (ASK ALL) (RANDOMIZE a-f) Q18. We are interested in what kinds of things might make it easier for you to help [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT your child] learn science at home. How much, if at all, would each of these help your family do more science at home? First, (INSERT ITEM)? Would this help a lot, a little, or not at all? Next, (INSERT ITEM)? (INTERVIEWER NOTE: READ SCALE AS NECESSARY. 1 A lot 2 A little 3 Not at all 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 78

82 a. Would having information about what [IF QCHILD GENDER=1 INSERT he, IF QCHILD GENDER=2 INSERT she, IF QCHILD GENDER=8 OR 9 INSERT: your child] should learn about science help your family do more science at home? b. Would having ideas for science activities to do with [IF QCHILD GENDER=1 INSERT: him, IF QCHILD GENDER=2 INSERT: her, IF QCHILD GENDER=8 OR 9 INSERT: your child] help your family do more science at home? c. Would having ideas for doing science with everyday materials help your family do more science at home? d. Would having better access to technology such as a computer, smartphone or an Internet con - nection help your family do more science at home? e. Would having ways to get yourself more interested in or excited about science help your family do more science at home? f. Would having ways to get [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT Your child] more inter - ested in science help your family do more science at home? MEDIA USE FOR LEARNING (ASK ALL) (READ: The next set of questions concerns educational media, that is, TV shows, videos, games, and apps that teach your child something.) FREQUENCY OF EDUCATIONAL MEDIA USE (ASK ALL) (RANDOMIZE a-c) Q19. In the past month, has [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT your child] ever done any of the following at home? You can say yes, no, or I don’t know. Has [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT your child] (INSERT ITEM)? 1 Yes 2 No 8 Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused a. Watched educational TV shows and videos (READ IF NEEDED: including DVDs or online videos like YouTube, viewed on a computer, smartphone, or tablet.) b. Played digital learning games or apps (READ IF NEEDED: including games and apps played on the computer, smartphone, iPhone, iPad, Leap Pad, or tablet.) c. Visited websites to get information or learn something, either independently or with an adult | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 79

83 (ASK ALL) (RANDOMIZE a-g) Q20. How do you typically find educational videos, games, and apps for [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT your child]? I’m going to read a list of options. For each option, please say whether you use it often, sometimes, rarely, or never to find educational videos and games. How often do you use (INSERT ITEM) to find educational videos and games? (INTERVIEWER NOTE: READ SCALE AS NECESSARY.) 1 Often 2 Sometimes 3 Rarely 4 Never 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused a. Recommendations from your family members or friends b. Recommendations from school or teachers c. Recommendations from a library, museum or community organization such as the YMCA d. Social media websites, such as Facebook, Pinterest or Instagram e. TV networks that you know and trust f. Searches on the internet, such as using Google, YouTube, App store, or Google Play g. Recommendations or reviews of educational shows, online games or apps in newspapers, mag - azines or websites like common sense media. ATTITUDES TOWARDS EARLY MEDIA USE (ASK ALL) (RANDOMIZE a-i) Q21. We are curious about how much children learn about various topics from media, such as television shows or videos, digital games, and apps. For each of the following topics, please say whether [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT your child] has learned a lot, some, only a little, or nothing from media. If you think it is not appropriate for [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT your child]’s age to learn about some topics from media, please say “not appropriate for my child’s age”. First, would you say your child has learned a lot, some, only a little, or nothing about [INSERT ITEM] from media? | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 80

84 How about [INSERT ITEM]? [READ AS NEEDED: Would you say your child has learned a lot, some, only a little, or nothing about [INSERT ITEM] from media?] 1 A lot 2 Some 3 Only a little 4 Nothing 5 Not appropriate for my child’s age 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused a. Math b. Science c. Reading or vocabulary or new words d. Social skills or behavior like cooperation, self-control, how to share, or empathy e. Music or art f. Healthy habits like healthy eating or hand-washing g. Other languages that are not English h. Problem solving or critical thinking i. Information about people and the community around [IF QCHILD GENDER=1 INSERT: him, IF QCHILD GENDER=2 INSERT her, IF QCHILD GENDER=8 OR 9 INSERT your child.] USE OF MEDIA FOR SCIENCE LEARNING (ASK ALL) (RANDOMIZE a-c) Q22. The following statements focus on how often [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT: your child] watches science-related television or videos or plays science-related digital games or apps. In the past month, how often has [IF QCHILD GENDER=1 INSERT: he, IF QCHILD GENDER=2 INSERT she, IF QCHILD GENDER=8 OR 9 INSERT your child] (INSERT ITEM)? (READ LIST) How about (INSERT ITEM)? (INTERVIEWER NOTE: READ SCALE AS NECESSARY.) 1 Daily 2 Once or twice a week 3 Once or twice this past month | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 81

85 4 Did not do this past month 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused a. Watched TV shows and videos about science? (READ IF NEEDED: Including any science shows your child watched, such as cartoons about science or nature shows that are for kids or adults) b. Played with video games or apps about science c. Visited websites to get information or learn something about science FAMILY MEDIA PATTERNS AND SUPPORT FOR EARLY SCIENCE LEARNING (ASK ALL) (RANDOMIZE a-f) Q23. For these questions please think specifically about science learning. In the past month, how often did you (INSERT ITEM)? (READ LIST) And, how often did you (INSERT ITEM)? (INTERVIEWER NOTE: READ SCALE AS NECESSARY) 1 Daily 2 Once or twice a week 3 Once or twice this past month 4 Did not do this past month 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused a. Monitor [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT: your child]’s viewing and playing (READ IF NEEDED: such as what they are watching or playing or for how long) b. Help [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT: your child] access and play a show, app, or game c. Watch a show or play a game or app along with [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT: your child] d. Explain or talk about something that you’re watching or playing e. Talk about connections between a show, app, or game and things you do in your daily life f. Compliment or encourage [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT: your child] (READ IF NEEDED: such as when [IF QCHILD GENDER=1 INSERT: he, IF QCHILD GENDER=2 INSERT she, IF QCHILD GENDER=8 OR 9 INSERT your child.] wins part of a game, creates something interesting or uses a device well) | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 82

86 (ASK ALL) Are you satisfied with the kinds of TV shows, games, apps or websites currently available to Q24. help [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT: your child] learn science? Would you say you are... (READ LIST)? 1 Satisfied 2 Not satisfied 3 Or do you have no opinion 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused FAMILY DEMOGRAPHICS/ CHARACTERISTICS (READ TO ALL: I have a few final questions about [IF Q3=1 INSERT: CHILD NAME, IF Q3=9 INSERT: your child]and your household.) CHILD’S AGE AND SCHOOL STATUS (ASK ALL) D1. Is your child currently attending or about to start any of the following? (READ LIST. SELECT ALL THAT APPLY.) 1 Daycare 2 Head Start 3 Other Pre-K program 4 Elementary school 5 Childcare is provided by family members, friends, or neighbors 6 Child is not enrolled in preschool or daycare 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused RACE AND ETHNICITY (ASK ALL) Are you of Hispanic or Latino origin or descent? D2. 1 Yes 2 No 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 83

87 (ASK ALL) (PN: SINGLE RESPONSE) D3. Do you consider yourself white, black or African American, Asian, Native American, Pacific Islander, mixed race or some other race? (IF RESPONDENT SAYS HISPANIC ASK: Do you consider yourself a white Hispanic or a black Hispan - ic?) (INTERVIEWER NOTE: CODE AS WHITE (1) OR BLACK (2). IF RESPONDENTS REFUSED TO PICK WHITE OR BLACK HISPANIC, RECORD HISPANIC AS “OTHER,”) (IF “OTHER” SAY: “I’m not referring to your nationality. I just want to know if you consider yourself white or black.”) (IF RESPONDENT WON’T PICK ONE, THEN ENTER CODE FOR “OTHER”) 01 White 02 Black or African American 03 Asian/Chinese/Japanese 04 Native American/American Indian/Alaska Native 05 Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 06 Mixed 97 Other (SPECIFY) 98 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 99 (DO NOT READ) Refused LANGUAGES SPOKEN INCLUDING PRIMARY HOME LANGUAGE (ASK ALL) (ASK IF CURLANG=1 [SURVEY BEING CONDUCTED IN ENGLISH]) Other than English, what languages are spoken in your home? (SELECT ALL THAT APPLY) D4a. 1 Spanish 7 Other (SPECIFY) 6 (DO NOT READ) No other language spoken/English only 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 84

88 (ASK IF CURLANG=2 [SURVEY BEING CONDUCTED IN SPANISH]) Other than Spanish, what languages are spoken in your home? (SELECT ALL THAT APPLY) D4b. 1 English 7 Other (SPECIFY) 6 (DO NOT READ) No other language/Spanish only 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused PARENT EMPLOYMENT STATUS (ASK ALL) D5. During the past week, did you work at a job for pay? 1 Yes 2 No 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused (ASK D6 IF D5=1) D6. About how many total hours per week do you usually work for pay, counting all jobs? ______________ (1-100 HOURS) 0 (DO NOT READ) Less than 1 hour 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused (ASK D7 IF D5=2) D7. How did you spend most of your time last week? Would you say ...? (READ LIST) 01 Keeping house or caring for children 02 Going to school 03 Retired 04 Unable to work, or 97 Something else? (SPECIFY) 98 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 99 (DO NOT READ) Refused | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 85

89 PARENT EDUCATION (ASK ALL) D8. What is the highest level of school you have completed or the highest degree you have re - ceived? (READ LIST IF NECESSARY) (INTERVIEWER NOTE: Enter code 3-HS grad if Respondent completed training that did NOT count toward a degree) (INTERVIEWER NOTE: Enter code 3-HS graduate if Respondent completed vocational, business, technical, or training courses after high school that did NOT count toward an associate degree from a college, community college or university (e.g., training for a certificate or an apprenticeship)) 01 Less than high school (Grades 1-8 or no formal schooling) 02 High school incomplete (Grades 9-11 or Grade 12 with NO diploma) 03 High school graduate (Grade 12 with diploma or GED certificate) 04 Some college, no degree (includes community college) 05 Two-year associate degree from a college or university 06 Four-year college or university degree/Bachelor’s degree (e.g., BS, BA, AB) 07 Some postgraduate or professional schooling, no postgraduate degree 08 Postgraduate or professional degree, including master’s, doctorate, medical or law degree (e.g., MA, MS, PhD, MD, JD) 98 (DO NOT READ) Don’t Know 99 (DO NOT READ) Refused HOUSEHOLD INCOME (READ TO ALL: Earlier we asked you about the total income of all persons in your household over the past year (READ IF NEEDED: including salaries or other earnings, interest, retirement, and so on for all household members.)) | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 86

90 (ASK IF S8=2) Was your total income of all persons in your household over the past year (READ LIST)? D9a. 1 Less than $25,000 2 $25,000 to less than $50,000 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused (ASK IF S8=1) D9b. Was your total income of all persons in your household over the past year (READ LIST)? 1 $50,000 to less than $75,000 2 $75,000 to less than $100,000 3 $100,000 or more 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused (IF LANDLINE SAMPLE) L1. Now thinking about your telephone use. Does anyone in your household including yourself, have a working cell phone? 1 Yes respondent or someone else has cell phone in household 2 No 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t Know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused (IF CELL PHONE SAMPLE) C1. Now thinking about your telephone use, is there at least one telephone INSIDE your home that is currently working and is NOT a cell phone? 1 Yes, has a home telephone 2 No, no home telephone 8 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know 9 (DO NOT READ) Refused (ASK IF CELL PHONE SAMPLE OR HH HAS A CELL PHONE (L1=1)) How many different cell phone numbers do you personally answer calls on? C1a. ________ (ENTER # CELL PHONE NUMBERS; RANGE 0-7) 99 (DO NOT READ) Refused | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 87

91 (ASK IF LL SAMPLE OR HH HAS A LL PHONE (C1=1)) How many telephone numbers does your household have that I could have reached you on? C3a. Not extensions, but different telephone numbers, NOT counting cell phones? __________ (ENTER # CELL PHONE NUMBERS; RANGE 1-7) 8 (DO NOT READ) 7 or more 9 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know/No answer (ASK ALL) ZIP. And finally, what is your zipcode? (INSTRUCTION: If “Don’t Know” or “Refused” enter “99999”) __________ (00000 99998) 99999 (DO NOT READ) Don’t know/Refused (ASK IF ZIP9 = 99999) State. In what State do you reside? (DO NOT READ LIST) ____________ (LIST OF STATES) RR (DO NOT READ) Refused (ASK ALL) INCENT1. That completes the survey! Thank you for participating. We would like to send you $5 as a token of gratitude for your valuable time. Would you prefer us to mail the $5 to your postal address or send you an Amazon Gift Code by email? 1 Mail 2 Email 9 Refused incentive (ASK IF INCENT1=1) INCENT2 Can I please have your full name and a mailing address where we can send you $5? (IF NECESSARY: We want to reassure you that your responses will be kept strictly confidential and your information will be kept in a separate file from the answers to the survey) COLLECT AND ENTER RESPONDENT’S COMPLETE NAME AND MAILING | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 88

92 ONLY IF RESPONDENT WOULD LIKE TO RECEIVE COMPENSATION (ASK ONLY IF RESPONDENT ACCEPTED INCENTIVE) May I please have your name? (VERIFY SPELLING) 1 Answer given (SPECIFY) _________________ R (DO NOT READ) Refused May I please have your address? (VERIFY SPELLING) 1 Street: _____________________________ 2 City: ______________________________ 3 State: ______________________________ 4 Zip code:____________________________ R (DO NOT READ) Respondent does not want the money (IF INCENT1=2) INCENT3 Can I please have your email address where we can send the Amazon Gift Code for $5? 1 Email: [email protected]________________ (INTERVIEWER: READ BACK AND CONFIRM EMAIL ADDRESS) 1 Gave email address [RECORD EMAIL ADDRESS] R (DO NOT READ) Refused email address (READ TO ALL: Thank you very much for your time and input.) [IF INCENT2=1: We will send you $5 by mail at the completion of the study. This should arrive in 4 to 6 weeks.] [IF INCENT3=1: We will email you a $5 Amazon gift code within the next 2 weeks.] (READ TO ALL: Have a great evening/day!) | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 89

93 Appendix C: Table of Results Attitudes and Beliefs About Early Learning Table C1 Parent Perceptions of the Role of Parents and School in Children’s Education Parent wants to be Child will learn everything he/ involved child’s education she needs to know in school Agree or strongly agree n= 1442 n= 1441 All respondents (%) 99.1 14.8 Income status (%) n= 1412 n= 1411 Annual income less than $25,000 32.4 99.1 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 99.3 18.3 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 99.6 10.1 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 100.0 8.7 Annual income $100,000 or higher 98.2 6.8 n= Parent highest level of education (%) 1441 n= 1434 Less than high school 99.0 38.5 100.0 High school 20.0 Some college 98.9 11.6 98.8 College graduate or higher 5.5 Parent gender (%) n= 1442 n= 1441 Parent is male 98.6 13.1 Parent is female 16.2 99.5 Child age (%) n= 1442 n= 1441 Three years old 99.5 20.9 Four years old 99.1 16.0 Five years old 98.4 12.0 99.7 13.4 Six years old | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 90

94 Table C2 Parent Reports of Who is Most Responsible for Teaching Child Social Skills Parent and school Parent most School most responsible responsible equally responsible n= 1439 All respondents (%) 1439 n= 1439 n= 60.9 1.7 37.4 Income status (%) n= 1408 n= 1408 n= 1408 Annual income less than $25,000 1.1 53.6 45.3 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 61.9 1.1 37.1 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 69.4 1.8 28.8 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 55.5 4.3 40.2 Annual income $100,000 or higher 66.3 .37 33.3 n= Parent highest level of education (%) n= 1437 n= 1437 1437 Less than high school 52.6 45.8 1.6 60.0 39.8 High school .23 Some college 56.2 2.7 41.0 69.2 College graduate or higher 29.3 1.5 Parent gender (%) n= 1439 n= 1439 n= 1439 Parent is male 66.3 1.6 32.1 Parent is female 56.4 41.9 1.7 n= Child age (%) n= 1439 n= 1439 1439 Three years old 73.7 0.0 26.3 Four years old 60.3 .38 39.3 Five years old 58.6 1.9 39.5 56.9 3.2 39.9 Six years old | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 91

95 Table C3 Parent Reports of Who is Most Responsible for Teaching Child Academic Skills Parent and school Parent most School most responsible responsible equally responsible n= 1442 All respondents (%) 1442 n= 1442 n= 8.9 15.5 75.7 Income status (%) n= 1412 n= 1412 n= 1412 Annual income less than $25,000 14.0 80.4 5.6 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 9.1 13.7 77.2 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 12.6 15.4 71.9 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 7.6 18.0 74.4 Annual income $100,000 or higher 8.7 15.9 75.3 n= Parent highest level of education (%) n= 1441 n= 1441 1441 Less than high school 5.1 78.2 16.7 6.2 73.9 High school 19.9 Some college 10.6 11.5 77.9 10.5 College graduate or higher 73.8 15.8 Parent gender (%) n= 1442 n= 1442 n= 1442 Parent is male 9.5 17.5 73.0 Parent is female 8.3 77.9 13.7 n= Child age (%) n= 1442 n= 1442 1442 Three years old 11.7 11.6 76.7 Four years old 9.6 13.8 76.7 Five years old 7.0 15.9 77.1 8.8 18.2 73.0 Six years old | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 92

96 Table C4 Parent Reports About the Importance of Helping Their Children Learn at Home Help child learn social skills, such Help child learn to Help child learn read and write mathematics as cooperation and self-control Very important All respondents (%) 1441 n= 1441 n= 1441 n= 93.4 82.7 76.5 Income status (%) n= 1410 n= 1412 n= 1412 Annual income less than $25,000 86.4 75.4 91.3 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 94.3 85.5 79.6 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 92.3 79.6 72.9 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 96.2 75.1 74.5 Annual income $100,000 or higher 92.4 85.7 79.2 n= Parent highest level of education (%) n= 1439 n= 1440 1440 Less than high school 87.9 66.1 79.7 93.1 76.2 High school 85.7 Some college 95.3 82.6 79.4 94.0 College graduate or higher 77.8 81.9 Parent gender (%) n= 1440 n= 1442 n= 1442 Parent is male 93.1 81.7 76.3 Parent is female 93.7 76.6 83.5 n= Child age (%) n= 1442 n= 1442 1440 Three years old 97.6 75.0 70.6 Four years old 92.9 81.4 71.6 Five years old 91.7 84.5 77.7 85.8 81.6 93.3 Six years old | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 93

97 Table C5 Parents’ Perceptions of Importance of Reading and Writing Skills at Home, Compared to Science Less important More important As important as than science science than science n= 1425 n= 1425 All respondents (%) 1425 n= 43.8 53.6 2.5 Income status (%) 1395 1395 1395 Annual income less than $25,000 44.0 53.5 2.5 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 55.9 2.8 41.3 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 51.0 46.3 2.6 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 43.3 54.7 2.0 Annual income $100,000 or higher 60.1 2.8 37.1 Parent highest level of education (%) 1423 1423 n= 1423 n= n= 51.1 Less than high school 47.6 1.3 High school 47.7 2.4 50.0 42.3 3.3 Some college 54.4 College graduate or higher 40.0 57.7 2.3 n= Parent gender (%) n= 1425 n= 1425 1425 Parent is male 46.9 49.7 3.3 Parent is female 41.2 57.0 1.8 Child age (%) 1425 n= 1425 n= 1425 n= Three years old 48.3 43.3 8.4 Four years old 45.1 53.9 1.0 Five years old 43.3 55.2 1.5 1.4 57.4 41.2 Six years old | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 94

98 Table C6 Parents’ Perceptions of Importance of Learning Social Skills at Home, Compared to Science Less important More important As important as than science science than science n= 1430 All respondents (%) 1430 n= 1430 n= 47.1 49.5 3.4 Income status (%) n= 1400 n= 1400 n= 1400 Annual income less than $25,000 50.3 1.5 48.1 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 48.3 49.6 2.1 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 46.1 49.0 4.9 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 49.4 47.0 3.5 Annual income $100,000 or higher 42.7 53.3 4.0 n= Parent highest level of education (%) n= 1429 n= 1429 1429 Less than high school 43.4 1.2 55.4 41.1 3.4 High school 55.5 Some college 50.9 45.8 3.3 48.8 College graduate or higher 4.4 46.8 Parent gender (%) n= 1430 n= 1430 n= 1430 Parent is male 49.2 46.9 3.9 Parent is female 45.3 3.0 51.6 n= Child age (%) n= 1430 n= 1430 1430 Three years old 49.6 44.4 6.0 Four years old 53.8 45.0 1.2 Five years old 47.6 48.3 4.1 40.9 56.3 2.8 Six years old | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 95

99 Table C7 Parents’ Perceptions of Importance of Learning Math Skills at Home, Compared to Science Less important More important As important as than science science than science n= 1413 All respondents (%) 1413 n= 1413 n= 26.0 71.4 2.7 Income status (%) n= 1383 n= 1383 n= 1383 Annual income less than $25,000 68.2 1.1 30.7 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 30.6 67.9 1.5 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 25.4 68.5 6.1 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 27.1 70.7 2.1 Annual income $100,000 or higher 16.2 81.5 2.3 n= Parent highest level of education (%) n= 1412 n= 1412 1412 Less than high school 39.5 .64 59.9 29.3 3.4 High school 67.3 Some college 26.5 70.1 3.4 18.4 College graduate or higher 2.2 79.4 Parent gender (%) n= 1413 n= 1413 n= 1413 Parent is male 28.1 67.9 4.0 Parent is female 24.2 1.5 74.2 n= Child age (%) n= 1413 n= 1413 1413 Three years old 32.0 64.3 3.7 Four years old 28.6 70.1 1.3 Five years old 26.0 71.6 2.4 21.2 75.6 3.2 Six years old | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 96

100 Table C8 Parent Confidence About Their Abilities to Help Child Learn Behavioral Reading and Mathematics and social Science skills writing skills skills skills Very confident n= 1442 All respondents (%) 1441 n= 1442 n= 1442 n= 74.7 72.6 70.8 54.3 Income status (%) n= 1412 n= 1411 n= 1412 n= 1412 Annual income less than $25,000 63.1 71.1 43.6 73.5 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 73.4 69.8 74.1 49.0 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 64.9 69.9 64.9 57.3 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 76.1 72.5 60.9 84.5 Annual income $100,000 or higher 77.9 80.6 71.5 62.0 1441 Parent highest level of education (%) n= 1441 n= 1440 n= 1440 n= Less than high school 66.8 66.0 40.6 47.2 68.8 67.6 43.2 High school 66.6 Some college 78.9 76.4 75.6 56.5 77.7 82.4 College graduate or higher 64.7 70.4 Parent gender (%) n= 1442 n= 1442 n= 1442 n= 1442 Parent is male 73.4 72.6 69.2 58.4 Parent is female 75.8 72.2 50.8 72.6 n= 1442 Child age (%) 1442 n= 1442 n= 1442 n= Three years old 68.6 70.8 65.3 53.5 Four years old 70.6 67.2 71.1 52.7 Five years old 73.1 72.0 72.4 55.0 55.0 72.1 77.5 Six years old 82.3 | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 97

101 How Parents Support Early Learning Table C9 Parent Reports of Learning Activities They Do With Child Daily Singing Watching Reading/ Reading educational songs/ play - Household telling and writing TV/videos/ chores ing musical skills stories instruments games/apps Daily 1441 1442 1441 n= 1442 n= 1441 n= n= n= All respondents (%) 63.1 49.7 46.8 43.1 67.7 n= 1412 n= n= n= 1412 Income status (%) 1411 n= 1411 1411 Annual income less than 61.2 60.6 42.9 44.4 55.4 $25,000 Annual income 68.9 54.2 67.8 48.3 49.1 $25,000–$50,000 Annual income 65.0 64.4 44.5 54.1 44.0 $50,000–$75,000 Annual income 74.4 63.1 43.0 41.9 44.7 $75,000–$100,0000 Annual income 34.4 72.3 57.9 48.7 42.0 $100,000 or higher Parent highest level of n= 1439 1441 n= 1440 n= 1441 n= 1440 n= education (%) Less than high school 56.9 49.0 40.7 42.8 57.4 59.2 61.6 44.9 44.7 High school 47.3 72.4 54.0 53.7 50.9 Some college 72.5 72.7 57.7 College graduate or higher 44.0 34.8 47.5 Parent gender (%) 1442 n= 1441 n= n= n= 1441 n= 1441 1442 Parent is male 58.4 60.0 41.7 35.8 43.6 Parent is female 75.6 56.4 56.2 42.6 65.7 1442 n= Child age (%) 1441 n= 1442 n= 1441 n= 1441 n= Three years old 75.7 59.0 27.6 58.3 51.3 Four years old 68.1 36.2 53.2 47.3 60.1 42.8 65.3 64.9 56.7 44.0 Five years old 36.2 63.2 39.4 Six years old 70.8 60.3 | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 98

102 Table C9 (cont.) Parent Reports of Learning Activities They Do With Child Daily Playing Playing a Engaging in Doing arts sport/exer games/ one or more - and crafts cising activity puzzles Daily All respondents (%) 1442 n= 1439 n= 1440 n= 1442 n= 34.3 27.4 21.9 93.9 Income status (%) n= 1412 n= 1409 n= 1410 n= 1412 Annual income less than $25,000 28.6 26.7 94.9 40.0 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 37.3 28.9 22.7 93.9 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 30.7 29.8 22.3 94.2 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 24.5 20.5 92.2 28.8 Annual income $100,000 or higher 33.6 25.1 16.7 93.5 1438 Parent highest level of education (%) n= 1440 n= 1439 n= n= 1441 Less than high school 33.6 25.3 90.9 16.8 33.3 23.3 92.0 High school 28.4 Some college 37.2 30.3 22.2 96.9 32.7 28.0 College graduate or higher 93.3 19.3 Parent gender (%) n= 1442 n= 1439 n= 1440 n= 1442 Parent is male 32.9 26.3 21.0 91.9 Parent is female 35.6 22.6 95.5 28.3 n= 1442 Child age (%) 1439 n= 1440 n= 1442 n= Three years old 52.2 37.0 27.1 96.9 Four years old 34.7 29.9 19.6 94.3 Five years old 34.5 28.0 21.5 95.2 20.0 90.7 20.9 Six years old 24.4 | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 99

103 How Parents Support Early Science Learning Table C10 Parent Reports of Science Activities They Do With Child Daily Watching Exploring - Building science in science-re Exploring lated videos/ something everyday outdoors playing games activities Daily n= n= n= 1442 n= 1442 1442 1442 All respondents (%) 36.3 26.0 20.3 16.6 Income status (%) n= 1411 n= 1412 n= 1412 n= 1412 Annual income less than $25,000 29.3 21.6 22.1 35.8 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 35.9 24.1 25.8 17.7 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 43.6 28.9 23.6 16.1 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 27.3 16.1 n= 14.1 38.5 Annual income $100,000 or higher 28.2 22.8 13.2 15.1 1440 Parent highest level of education (%) n= 1441 n= n= 1441 n= 1441 Less than high school 37.1 21.8 16.1 23.0 31.2 22.0 15.6 High school 23.0 Some college 43.2 29.1 26.2 17.3 32.9 26.3 College graduate or higher 16.9 13.1 Parent gender (%) n= 1442 n= 1442 n= 1442 n= 1442 Parent is male 29.7 22.7 20.8 12.7 Parent is female 41.9 19.8 19.9 28.8 n= 1442 Child age (%) 1442 n= 1442 n= 1442 n= Three years old 39.6 26.1 23.3 28.5 Four years old 41.3 24.5 16.9 19.3 Five years old 38.2 30.6 24.2 16.0 9.1 22.4 17.0 Six years old 29.4 | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 100

104 Table C10 (cont.) Parent Reports of Science Activities They Do With Child Daily Playing sci - Engaging in one or Reading about ence-related nature in books/ more science-re - puzzles/board lated activity magazines games Daily n= 1441 n= 1436 All respondents (%) 1442 n= 11.7 4.8 58.2 Income status (%) n= 1411 n= 1406 n= 1412 Annual income less than $25,000 7.0 61.3 17.9 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 10.9 4.7 61.5 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 11.2 5.0 62.2 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 11.7 3.6 59.3 Annual income $100,000 or higher 9.4 4.0 48.0 n= Parent highest level of education (%) n= 1440 1434 n= 1441 Less than high school 9.9 63.1 8.9 13.0 53.7 High school 4.5 Some college 10.4 4.9 65.7 12.7 College graduate or higher 52.5 3.3 Parent gender (%) n= 1441 n= 1436 n= 1442 Parent is male 10.4 4.1 53.1 Parent is female 12.9 62.6 5.4 n= Child age (%) n= 1436 n= 1442 1441 Three years old 15.8 9.1 68.6 Four years old 8.9 5.6 61.6 Five years old 13.5 4.0 59.8 9.6 2.7 49.0 Six years old | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 101

105 Table C11 Parent Reports of the Science Learning Activities Child Likes to do, by Content Area Science and Physical Earth and engineering Life science science space science practices n= 1297 All respondents (%) 1297 n= 1297 n= 1297 n= 40.1 36.4 28.5 32.1 Income status (%) n= 1273 n= 1273 n= 1273 n= 1273 Annual income less than $25,000 32.9 20.5 24.3 26.5 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 33.7 40.1 24.1 31.2 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 41.7 43.6 31.7 34.0 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 33.6 27.2 29.3 47.4 Annual income $100,000 or higher 50.9 30.2 37.3 38.3 1295 Parent highest level of education (%) n= 1295 n= 1295 n= 1295 n= Less than high school 19.1 13.9 23.9 37.6 33.4 17.4 28.1 High school 34.9 Some college 38.2 38.9 36.0 33.7 52.8 34.5 College graduate or higher 35.5 33.2 Parent gender (%) n= 1297 n= 1297 n= 1297 n= 1297 Parent is male 39.8 35.0 26.6 31.9 Parent is female 40.4 30.0 32.3 37.5 n= 1297 Child age (%) 1297 n= 1297 n= 1297 n= Three years old 38.1 40.7 24.1 36.3 Four years old 31.9 33.0 25.8 36.1 Five years old 36.8 39.5 29.4 29.6 31.6 30.0 33.3 Six years old 49.4 | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 102

106 Table C11 (cont.) Parent Reports of the Science Learning Activities Child Likes to do, by Content Area Does not Learn about Use Report of Does not interaction education and know what technological do science activities with caregiver tools technology All respondents (%) 1297 n= 1297 n= 1297 n= 1297 n= 1297 n= 11.7 7.1 5.5 3.7 9.9 Income status (%) n= 1273 n= 1273 n= 1273 n= 1273 n= 1273 Annual income less 5.4 9.1 7.7 4.5 6.0 than $25,000 Annual income 10.0 5.5 8.3 3.0 7.6 $25,000–$50,000 Annual income 15.1 8.5 7.2 2.8 2.5 $50,000–$75,000 Annual income 15.6 12.9 2.9 2.9 11.6 $75,000–$100,0000 Annual income 17.8 5.6 4.3 2.3 10.3 $100,000 or higher Parent highest level of n= 1295 n= 1295 n= 1295 1295 n= 1295 n= education (%) Less than high school 11.1 6.7 4.8 2.8 3.0 12.9 8.1 7.7 10.1 High school 6.9 9.5 6.0 3.6 9.6 Some college 3.5 College graduate or 15.9 3.8 8.5 1.1 12.4 higher 1297 1297 Parent gender (%) 1297 n= n= n= 1297 n= 1297 n= Parent is male 13.1 7.5 6.2 5.5 9.3 Parent is female 10.5 4.9 2.2 10.4 6.9 1297 n= Child age (%) 1297 n= 1297 n= 1297 n= 1297 n= Three years old 8.5 7.5 6.4 3.9 11.4 Four years old 5.3 8.1 4.4 9.2 9.4 9.0 12.5 6.4 5.7 5.0 Five years old 10.4 3.2 1.8 Six years old 13.9 8.8 | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 103

107 Table C12 Parent Reports of Supports That Would Help a lot in Doing More Science at Home Ways to get Ways to get child Access to yourself (parent) more interested technology more interested Help a lot All respondents (%) 1414 n= 1442 n= 1442 n= 45.3 51.8 63.5 Income status (%) n= 1389 n= 1412 n= 1412 Annual income less than $25,000 67.9 74.2 63.7 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 56.3 61.4 69.4 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 45.4 46.0 60.4 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 28.9 45.5 59.4 Annual income $100,000 or higher 32.5 39.1 57.4 n= Parent highest level of education (%) n= 1412 n= 1441 1441 Less than high school 60.3 62.6 52.9 55.8 69.0 High school 62.2 Some college 49.0 55.7 69.3 29.0 College graduate or higher 54.9 41.0 Parent gender (%) n= 1414 n= 1442 n= 1442 Parent is male 43.3 44.3 59.5 Parent is female 47.0 67.0 58.2 n= Child age (%) n= 1442 n= 1442 1414 Three years old 46.6 54.9 63.5 Four years old 43.4 51.2 62.1 Five years old 46.1 54.0 64.4 48.5 63.6 44.8 Six years old | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 104

108 Table C12 (cont.) Parent Reports of Supports That Would Help a lot in Doing More Science at Home Ideas for doing Ideas for science Information about science activities what child should activities to do with everyday with your child learn materials Help a lot n= 1439 n= 1440 n= 1438 All respondents (%) 64.1 70.9 71.3 Income status (%) n= 1409 n= 1410 n= 1408 Annual income less than $25,000 76.9 77.6 80.4 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 71.5 76.1 77.2 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 60.6 67.7 66.6 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 59.7 68.4 72.2 Annual income $100,000 or higher 51.1 67.0 63.4 1438 Parent highest level of education (%) n= 1438 n= n= 1437 Less than high school 70.7 67.3 63.2 73.6 74.5 High school 72.1 Some college 67.4 75.5 79.0 52.3 College graduate or higher 63.6 68.5 Parent gender (%) n= 1439 n= 1440 n= 1438 Parent is male 59.0 63.8 66.1 Parent is female 68.5 75.7 76.9 n= Child age (%) n= 1440 n= 1438 1439 Three years old 68.7 78.7 71.3 Four years old 67.1 65.8 69.7 Five years old 61.4 71.0 71.7 72.0 69.9 72.0 Six years old | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 105

109 Types of Media Families Use in Learning Activities Table C13 Percent of Parents who Report That Child Used Educational Media in the Last Month, by Media Type Digital learning TV and videos Websites games or apps In the last month n= 1405 All respondents (%) 1410 n= 1379 n= 93.6 84.0 46.6 Income status (%) n= 1376 n= 1380 n= 1351 Annual income less than $25,000 78.4 47.1 92.3 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 91.3 81.8 44.1 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 95.0 84.3 47.9 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 93.5 88.0 42.0 Annual income $100,000 or higher 96.2 86.0 52.5 n= Parent highest level of education (%) n= 1404 n= 1408 1378 Less than high school 85.3 41.4 72.9 93.2 44.8 High school 85.7 Some college 95.2 87.3 48.1 95.5 College graduate or higher 48.5 84.0 Parent gender (%) n= 1405 n= 1410 n= 1379 Parent is male 94.8 87.5 44.2 Parent is female 92.6 48.6 81.1 n= Child age (%) n= 1410 n= 1379 1405 Three years old 95.9 76.6 32.2 Four years old 91.4 82.1 41.0 Five years old 94.5 86.6 44.0 92.7 86.7 60.6 Six years old | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 106

110 Table C14 Parent Reports of Frequency With Which Child Watched TV Shows/Videos About Science Once or twice this Did not do this Weekly or more past month past month n= 1440 All respondents (%) 1440 n= 1440 n= 66.1 22.1 11.8 Income status (%) n= 1410 n= 1410 n= 1410 Annual income less than $25,000 18.5 n= 14.1 67.4 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 66.0 22.0 12.0 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 66.5 19.2 n= 14.3 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 65.4 25.4 9.3 Annual income $100,000 or higher 66.9 24.0 9.2 1439 Parent highest level of education (%) n= 1439 n= 1439 n= Less than high school 66.4 20.5 13.1 69.3 13.4 High school 17.3 Some college 66.1 23.2 10.7 63.9 College graduate or higher 8.6 27.6 Parent gender (%) n= 1440 n= 1440 n= 1440 Parent is male 68.3 19.0 12.7 Parent is female 64.3 11.1 24.6 n= Child age (%) n= 1440 n= 1440 1440 Three years old 66.2 21.8 12.0 Four years old 64.6 22.0 13.3 Five years old 70.2 19.3 10.5 63.0 12.1 24.9 Six years old | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 107

111 Table C15 Parents’ Report of Frequency With Which Child Used Video Games/Apps About Science Once or twice this Did not do this Weekly or more past month past month 1438 n= All respondents (%) n= 1438 n= 1438 24.0 31.4 44.6 n= 1408 n= 1408 n= 1408 Income status (%) Annual income less than $25,000 45.6 31.8 22.6 44.6 32.9 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 22.5 46.7 21.1 32.2 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 24.5 28.7 46.8 Annual income $100,000 or higher 41.5 28.1 30.4 Parent highest level of education (%) n= 1437 n= 1437 n= 1437 Less than high school 50.5 12.1 37.4 High school 41.7 35.3 23.0 46.5 26.1 Some college 27.4 College graduate or higher 42.6 26.1 31.3 n= Parent gender (%) n= 1438 n= 1438 1438 Parent is male 51.4 22.5 26.1 Parent is female 38.8 25.3 35.8 Child age (%) 1438 n= 1438 n= 1438 n= Three years old 46.2 19.8 33.9 Four years old 41.1 25.1 33.9 Five years old 47.3 24.3 28.4 31.3 43.4 25.3 Six years old | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 108

112 Table C16 Parents’ Report of Frequency With Which Child Used Websites About Science Once or twice this Did not do this Weekly or more past month past month n= 1430 n= 1430 n= 1430 All respondents (%) 20.1 55.0 24.9 Income status (%) n= 1400 n= 1400 n= 1400 Annual income less than $25,000 30.3 17.8 51.9 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 18.2 53.1 28.7 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 22.3 17.8 59.9 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 20.5 21.3 58.2 Annual income $100,000 or higher 24.1 52.4 23.5 Parent highest level of education (%) 1429 1429 n= 1429 n= n= Less than high school 28.3 n= 14.4 57.3 High school 26.5 56.1 17.4 24.7 54.7 Some college 20.6 College graduate or higher 22.8 23.3 53.9 n= Parent gender (%) n= 1430 n= 1430 1430 Parent is male 24.7 19.2 56.1 Parent is female 25.1 20.8 54.1 Child age (%) 1430 n= 1430 n= 1430 n= Three years old 19.6 11.6 68.8 Four years old 19.3 22.2 58.5 Five years old 26.6 20.6 52.8 29.7 22.7 47.5 Six years old | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 109

113 Table C17 Percent of Parents Who Help Their Children With Media Weekly or More, by Type of Support Explain or talk Monitor child’s Compliment or viewing and about what are encourage child watching/playing playing Weekly or more All respondents (%) 1322 n= 1323 n= 1324 n= 94.9 94.0 86.2 Income status (%) n= 1294 n= 1296 n= 1297 Annual income less than $25,000 88.8 87.0 92.3 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 96.5 94.8 85.1 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 94.1 93.3 86.7 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 94.6 93.8 88.2 Annual income $100,000 or higher 96.0 97.8 85.0 n= Parent highest level of education (%) n= 1320 n= 1322 1323 Less than high school 94.0 88.9 92.4 93.8 84.6 High school 94.4 Some college 95.8 94.8 87.9 95.1 College graduate or higher 84.7 93.6 Parent gender (%) n= 1322 n= 1323 n= 1324 Parent is male 94.7 92.7 82.5 Parent is female 95.1 89.4 95.1 n= Child age (%) n= 1323 n= 1324 1322 Three years old 96.1 94.1 84.6 Four years old 92.4 92.5 88.4 Five years old 96.0 94.8 88.0 94.2 83.9 94.8 Six years old | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 110

114 Table C17 (cont.) Percent of Parents Who Help Their Children With Media Weekly or More, by Type of Support Talk about con - Watch show or Help child access play along nections Weekly or more n= All respondents (%) n= 1320 n= 1320 1324 75.3 72.7 69.2 Income status (%) n= 1297 n= 1293 n= 1292 Annual income less than $25,000 70.7 68.1 82.2 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 75.5 75.1 75.5 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 74.1 72.1 67.1 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 73.5 72.3 71.0 Annual income $100,000 or higher 71.7 71.6 63.3 1319 Parent highest level of education (%) n= 1323 n= 1319 n= Less than high school 80.3 55.8 66.1 78.1 69.6 High school 74.5 Some college 76.0 79.4 77.2 71.2 College graduate or higher 66.0 67.8 Parent gender (%) n= 1324 n= 1320 n= 1320 Parent is male 74.2 72.1 64.8 Parent is female 76.3 72.9 73.3 n= Child age (%) n= 1320 n= 1320 1324 Three years old 77.5 73.7 70.1 Four years old 79.5 78.0 71.1 Five years old 74.1 70.7 71.5 72.7 65.2 70.9 Six years old | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 111

115 Table C18 Percent of Parents Who Report That They are Satisfied With Media Resources to Help Child Learn Science Satisfaction with science media All respondents (%) n= 1439 54.0 Income status (%) n= 1409 Annual income less than $25,000 58.6 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 56.0 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 50.4 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 51.0 Annual income $100,000 or higher 56.9 Parent highest level of education (%) n= 1437 Less than high school 61.3 High school 55.3 Some college 48.3 College graduate or higher 55.9 Parent gender (%) n= 1439 Parent is male 54.4 Parent is female 53.7 Child age (%) n= 1439 Three years old 53.3 Four years old 56.0 54.2 Five years old 53.0 Six years old | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 112

116 Table C19 Percent of Parents Who Report That Child has Learned “a lot” From Media, by Content Area Behavior Healthy Reading or Music or art and social Science habits vocabulary skills Child has learned “a lot” All respondents (%) n= 1439 n= 1442 n= 1440 n= 1436 n= 1441 44.7 33.7 29.9 28.9 46.6 n= n= n= 1409 n= 1411 n= 1410 1411 1406 Income status (%) Annual income less than 54.5 54.7 58.7 40.5 31.3 $25,000 Annual income 47.3 42.1 36.0 28.6 45.4 $25,000–$50,000 Annual income 46.2 44.7 24.9 23.9 24.5 $50,000–$75,000 Annual income 28.1 30.9 28.7 42.3 49.2 $75,000–$100,0000 Annual income 38.5 36.9 17.2 21.4 33.0 $100,000 or higher Parent highest level of n= 1434 n= 1440 n= 1438 1440 n= 1438 n= education (%) Less than high school 40.4 49.8 32.4 16.9 49.2 47.4 47.8 33.3 26.6 High school 43.9 52.0 34.8 31.1 32.8 Some college 52.1 40.3 37.4 College graduate or higher 25.6 31.3 20.2 Parent gender (%) 1441 n= 1439 n= n= n= 1440 n= 1436 1442 Parent is male 44.9 42.1 29.7 26.3 29.0 Parent is female 48.1 37.1 33.0 28.8 46.8 1442 n= Child age (%) 1439 n= 1441 n= 1440 n= 1436 n= Three years old 49.6 47.3 36.3 28.3 24.8 Four years old 44.7 30.2 29.0 21.7 41.5 30.0 51.6 46.5 37.8 32.4 Five years old 34.6 28.9 30.6 Six years old 43.5 41.4 | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 113

117 Table C19 (cont.) Percent of Parents Who Report That Child has Learned “a lot” From Media, by Content Area Problem Information Languages solving about people other than Math and commu or critical - English nity thinking Learned a lot n= n= n= 1427 n= 1434 1436 1436 All respondents (%) 23.7 24.2 18.0 17.6 Income status (%) n= 1406 1398 n= 1404 n= 1405 Annual income less than $25,000 30.7 23.9 24.3 32.9 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 27.9 27.4 19.2 19.9 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 15.9 19.8 16.1 15.6 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 31.9 15.6 19.3 24.0 Annual income $100,000 or higher 18.2 15.2 16.1 11.3 1432 Parent highest level of education (%) n= 1434 n= 1425 n= 1434 n= Less than high school 26.6 12.5 22.0 23.0 27.2 19.1 18.4 High school 22.2 Some college 25.1 26.6 20.2 18.5 18.8 23.5 College graduate or higher n= 14.5 17.5 Parent gender (%) n= 1436 n= 1427 n= 1434 n= 1436 Parent is male 20.8 18.9 n= 14.5 15.1 Parent is female 26.1 21.0 19.8 28.6 n= 1436 Child age (%) 1427 n= 1434 n= 1436 n= Three years old 17.6 16.8 n= 14.2 15.0 16.1 Four years old 18.0 n= 14.7 19.3 Five years old 26.2 29.2 19.0 19.2 21.2 27.2 18.5 Six years old 27.2 | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 114

118 Table C20 Percent of Parents Who Report Using a Given Resource to Find Educational Videos and Games Often Family TV networks Schools or Searches on you know members or teachers the Internet and trust friends Often n= All respondents (%) n= 1441 n= 1434 n= 1442 1439 55.2 43.5 43.7 31.8 Income status (%) n= 1409 n= 1411 n= 1404 n= 1412 Annual income less than $25,000 49.3 41.2 31.0 58.0 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 56.2 47.3 48.7 31.0 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 57.4 41.8 45.6 30.4 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 42.9 43.2 34.3 54.8 Annual income $100,000 or higher 47.7 36.6 39.1 30.5 n= Parent highest level of education (%) n= 1437 n= 1439 n= 1433 1441 Less than high school 51.6 41.7 22.1 42.8 56.7 40.0 24.3 High school 45.8 Some college 64.8 49.9 48.3 43.4 46.9 36.3 College graduate or higher 29.6 42.7 Parent gender (%) n= 1439 n= 1441 n= 1434 n= 1442 Parent is male 54.8 41.5 36.7 27.1 Parent is female 55.6 49.7 35.8 45.2 n= 1439 Child age (%) 1441 n= 1434 n= 1442 n= Three years old 54.8 42.1 34.0 36.1 Four years old 53.7 43.9 34.9 34.5 Five years old 52.3 42.5 40.0 25.0 34.5 45.1 58.1 Six years old 59.3 | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 115

119 Table C20 (cont.) Percent of Parents Who Report Using a Given Resource to Find Educational Videos and Games Often - Websites such as Reviews in news Library, museums, - Facebook, Pinter papers, maga - community org. est, Instagram zines, or websites Often n= 1438 n= 1429 n= 1436 All respondents (%) 21.2 19.6 18.1 Income status (%) n= 1408 n= 1405 n= 1405 Annual income less than $25,000 27.0 26.4 26.6 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 24.7 22.2 25.4 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 16.7 11.5 n= 14.3 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 19.6 25.2 8.2 Annual income $100,000 or higher 17.2 n= 14.9 15.0 n= Parent highest level of education (%) n= 1436 1428 n= 1434 Less than high school 17.3 n= 14.2 19.4 21.8 21.5 High school 21.0 Some college 22.4 22.1 19.6 21.1 College graduate or higher 16.0 16.5 Parent gender (%) n= 1438 n= 1429 n= 1436 Parent is male 18.0 13.3 15.7 Parent is female 23.9 20.2 24.8 n= Child age (%) n= 1429 n= 1436 1438 Three years old 26.0 16.0 15.4 Four years old 21.7 19.4 12.6 Five years old 18.9 20.0 23.5 17.7 21.2 20.6 Six years old | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 116

120 Table C21 Percent of Parents Who Report Using a Given Resource to Find Educational Videos and Games Sometimes Family TV networks Schools or Searches on you know members or teachers the Internet and trust friends Sometimes n= All respondents (%) n= 1441 n= 1434 n= 1442 1439 25.8 31.8 31.7 40.0 Income status (%) n= 1409 n= 1411 n= 1404 n= 1412 Annual income less than $25,000 28.1 34.6 34.9 25.6 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 25.1 29.7 25.4 38.6 Annual income $50,000-$75,000 22.7 31.7 28.1 40.4 Annual income $75,000-$100,0000 34.3 31.8 42.3 22.1 Annual income $100,000 or higher 34.4 34.9 38.4 43.8 n= Parent highest level of education (%) n= 1437 n= 1439 n= 1433 1441 Less than high school 21.9 27.3 40.5 29.5 28.3 35.1 44.7 High school 29.4 Some college 19.1 28.5 27.5 34.1 31.7 37.4 College graduate or higher 42.2 34.7 Parent gender (%) n= 1439 n= 1441 n= 1434 n= 1442 Parent is male 24.4 31.0 33.1 43.4 Parent is female 27.0 30.4 37.2 32.5 n= 1439 Child age (%) 1441 n= 1434 n= 1442 n= Three years old 22.0 36.1 32.9 35.6 Four years old 26.2 32.8 38.2 39.6 Five years old 27.3 31.0 34.4 42.4 40.4 29.7 24.1 Six years old 26.1 | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 117

121 Table C21 (cont.) Percent of Parents Who Report Using a Given Resource to Find Educational Videos and Games Sometimes Websites such as Reviews in Library, Facebook, newspapers, museums, magazines, or Pinterest, Insta - community org. gram websites Sometimes n= 1438 n= All respondents (%) n= 1436 1429 32.8 22.8 35.7 Income status (%) n= 1408 n= 1405 n= 1405 Annual income less than $25,000 21.2 31.3 28.4 Annual income $25,000–$50,000 31.3 24.4 34.4 Annual income $50,000–$75,000 27.8 24.7 32.2 Annual income $75,000–$100,0000 39.8 19.5 42.0 Annual income $100,000 or higher 38.5 23.0 38.7 Parent highest level of education (%) n= 1436 n= 1428 n= 1434 Less than high school 36.0 36.1 16.4 23.5 35.9 High school 21.1 Some college 33.9 27.0 37.0 36.6 College graduate or higher 34.1 22.4 Parent gender (%) n= 1438 n= 1429 n= 1436 Parent is male 30.0 19.7 34.4 Parent is female 35.1 36.8 25.4 n= Child age (%) n= 1429 n= 1436 1438 Three years old 29.5 26.5 36.6 Four years old 29.7 26.2 41.3 Five years old 35.9 22.3 29.6 19.0 33.3 37.6 Six years old | A National Survey About Young Children and Science What Parents Talk About When They Talk About Learning 118

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