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1 STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN PROTECTING CHILDREN ST CENTURY CONFLICT IN 21

2 Acknowledgements This report was written by George Graham, Mariam Kirollos, Gunvor Knag Fylkesnes, STOP Keyan Salarkia and Nikki Wong from Save the Children. This team was supported in producing the report by James Denselow, THE WAR Ida Haugen-Poljac, Kristoffer Nilsen, Ravi Wickremasinghe and other colleagues across the Save the Children movement ON CHILDREN who provided expert comment and review. We would like to thank the research team from the Peace Research Institute in Oslo (PRIO) for their background report and PROTECTING CHILDREN analysis, ‘Children Affected by Armed ST Conflict, 1990-2017’ – specifically, Gudrun IN 21 CENTURY CONFLICT Østby, Siri Aas Rustad, Andreas Foro Tollefsen. In addition, we are grateful to colleagues from Every Casualty Worldwide, Geneva Call, the London School of Economics, Norwegian People’s Aid and The Arsenal Foundation for their contributions. Most important, we would like to thank the children who shared their testimonies, their feelings and their hopes in the report’s foreword and case studies. Names have been changed to protect identities. Save the Children © 2019 Printed by vierC print+mediafabrik GmbH & Co. KG Germany Printed on 100 percent recycled paper Illustrations by Tomas Drefvelin (cover, insides and back) • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 2

3 CONTENTS Children’s foreword 4 7 Foreword 9 Executive summary Introduction 12 Children’s exposure to conflict and grave violations PART I: 16 A rising tide – children’s increasing exposure to armed conflict 16 18 The ten worst conflict-affected countries to be a child 19 The six grave violations against children 22 The distinctive ways children are harmed by armed conflict PART 2: 28 The three dimensions of the war on children 1 Failing to uphold standards in conflict: the war in Yemen 30 32 2 Failure to hold perpetrators to account: the Rohingya crisis 3 Lack of practical action on the ground: the conflict in South Sudan 33 36 PART 3: Emerging solutions: ensuring children’s protection in conflict 1 Upholding standards of conduct in conflict 36 2 Holding perpetrators to account 40 44 3 Practical action to protect children on the ground and to support their recovery Turning the tide: PART 4: an international re-commitment to children in conflict 52 54 Recommendations 56 Endnotes 3

4 LISTEN TO OUR VOICES Before conflict, we had peace. All this is our right. Before conflict, we could be children. School was a place of learning As leaders, you have this duty to fulfil. We call on the world’s leaders to ensure and development, and where our voices were heard. we are able to go to school, play The streets were full of joy and happiness, and feel protected... in every circumstance. where we walked and played. We remember a life without conflict. We ask leaders to change And we know a childhood in peace is possible. weapons for books, bullets for pencils, But today we are paying the price confrontations for games, cries for smiles, for adults’ war. and hatred for love. We are scared. We ask leaders to put a smile Our playground has been transformed Do not on every child’s face. into a dangerous place. We ask leaders to turn to peace, We hide under our kitchen table. We hear gunshots, bombs and explosions. to pledge to protect us silence We are forced to quit school and promise us development. our and leave our home. We ask leaders to offer us the opportunities Many of us have lost our parents, that will enable us to become words brothers, sisters and neighbours. the best versions of ourselves. We are forced to work, beg or even kill and our to survive. Our common future is at risk. We marry as children and give birth We demand that you act now. to children. dreams. We have been tortured, kidnapped, raped and silenced. We feel anger, resentment, and sadness. This message was composed by We go to bed hungry. Some of us never wake up. children from Mali, Sudan, Colombia, Yemen and Syria during consultations carried out Our present and future have been put on hold. by Save the Children in January 2019. Do not silence our words and our dreams. Listen to what we have to say. Listen to our opinions. We want the war to stop – we don’t want to hear a single shot. Let’s make the past the bridge to our future. We have big dreams for ourselves and our countries. We imagine our countries in peace, where we are put at the heart of all decisions – because we are our countries’ present and future. Even during war, we dream of a country where all children can walk safely in their neighborhood, and go to a school free from violence. A place with cinemas and parks – and electricity, so we can watch TV. All this should be not only in our dreams, but in reality. PHOTO: MOHAMMED AWADH / SAVE THE CHILDREN • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 4

5 Ye me n: Eight-year-old Razan seriously injured her eye when she was hit by shrapnel during an airstrike in Hodeidah. Save the Children referred Razan to a specialist hospital for emer - gency surgery and is providing psychosocial support to help her begin to come to terms with her experiences. 5

6 Democratic Republic With of Congo (DRC) : her mum, Lisa fled 30 km by foot. She wasn't able to bring anything, like many of the families, they left in a rush. • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 6

7 FOREWORD take to ensure that children are protected. The nature of conflict has changed, putting Our humanity demands that we act, and children in the frontline in new and terrible our future depends on it. If these children ways. Wars are lasting longer. They are are left behind, we cannot fulfil the prom more likely to be fought in urban areas - amongst civilian populations leading to ise of the Sustainable Development Goals deaths and life-changing injuries, and laying and lay the foundations for a peaceful and waste to the infrastructure needed to guar prosperous society. A society where we can - guarantee survival, protection and hope for antee access to food and water. Attacks all children. on schools and hospitals are up. The denial In our centenary year, we are more of humanitarian aid is used as yet another inspired and energised than ever by the weapon of war. The international rules and tireless commitment and example set by our basic standards of conduct that exist to founder, Eglantyne Jebb. Just a few years protect civilians in conflict are being flouted after she founded Save the Children in 1919, with impunity. Eglantyne presented a Declaration of the - Children are disproportionately suffer Rights of the Child to lead - ing the consequences of these brutal trends; almost one fifth of children worldwide are now ers from around the world living in areas affected by armed conflict. calling on them to remem - ber the ‘forgotten’ children. The suffering We are seeing more children facing unim - This declaration laid the aginable mental and physical trauma; more foundations for what would children going hungry; more children falling of millions later become the 1989 UN victim to preventable diseases; more children Convention on the Rights of out of school; more children at risk of sexual of children the Child, a landmark human violence and recruitment by armed groups; rights treaty. and more children trapped on the frontline should never without access to humanitarian aid. This reminds us that It should shame us all that last year saw the suffering of millions of be accepted the number of recorded grave violations children should never be against children in conflict rise yet again. We accepted as inevitable, and it as inevitable. are living in the age of a war on children. reminds us of what is possible I have seen the impact of conflict on Yem at this critical moment. There - is still hope for children living in conflict en’s children. The hospital waiting rooms today, but this will require concerted action were full of sick, starving children; so weak from governments and non-state actors. they didn’t even have the energy to cry. The tragedy of Yemen’s suffering – as in conflicts We can and must stop the children of across the world – is that it is manmade. today from becoming the forgotten genera - Save the Children is working to help tions of tomorrow. children living in conflict across the world including in Yemen, Syria, Somalia, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo Helle Thorning-Schmidt and Myanmar, but the causes and impact of Chief Executive, PHOTO: JOAN MARIE DEL MUNDO / SAVE THE CHILDREN these grave violations cannot be confronted Save the Children International by aid agencies like us alone. This is why we are calling on all leaders to stop the war on children. This report sets out an international plan of action, which will make a real difference for these children. We outline three main areas for action including upholding stand - ards of conduct in conflict, holding perpe - trators to account, and investing in helping children recover from the physical and psy - chological wounds of war. In each area, we are proposing practical recommendations that both state and non-state actors can 7

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9 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ‘Every war is a war against children.’ armed conflicts, there is often no longer a clearly demarcated battlefield: children’s homes and schools are the battlefield. One hundred years on, those words of Save the Children founder Eglantyne Jebb resonate as strongly as ever. Right now, across the world, millions of children are caught up in conflicts they played no part in creating. Often Children on the frontline their rights are violated with total impunity. New evidence presented by Save the Chil - Increasingly, the brunt of armed violence and warfare is being borne by children. Children dren is damning: suffer in conflict in different ways to adults, 420 million children – nearly one-fifth of • partly because they are physically weaker children worldwide – are living in a conflict and also because they have so much at stake zone; a rise of nearly 30 million children – their physical, mental and psychosocial devel from 2016. - • The number of children living in conflict opment are heavily dependent on the condi - zones has doubled since the end of the cold tions they experience as children. war. Conflict affects children differently depend - 142 million children are living in high-inten • ing on a number of personal characteristics – - significantly gender and age, but also disability sity conflict-zones; that is, in conflict zones 420 status, ethnicity, religion and whether they live with more than 1,000 battle-related deaths in rural or urban locations. The harm that is in a year. MILLION done to children in armed conflict is not only • New analysis from Save the Children shows CHILDREN often more severe than that done to adults, it that the numbers of ‘grave violations’ of chil - LIVE IN has longer lasting implications – for children dren’s rights in conflict reported and verified CONFLICT themselves and for their societies. Children by the United Nations have almost tripled suffer in conflict in three broad ways: since 2010. ZONES • Hundreds of thousands of children are dying every year as a result of indirect effects of They may be deliberately targeted. conflict – including malnutrition, disease and The commission of atrocities against children the breakdown of healthcare, water and is an exceptionally powerful way of terrorising sanitation. a population – and, hence, a preferred military tactic for armed forces and groups in many The protection of children in conflict – and with of today’s conflicts. Children are also often it the realisation of the promises made in the targeted because they may be easily manipu declarations, conventions and statutes of the - 20th century – is one of the defining challenges lated and exploited, for instance, as soldiers or of the 21st century. suicide bombers. Schools become targets for The nature of conflict – and its impact on tactical reasons – for example, as a recruiting children – is evolving. Intra-state conflict is ground or because they are being used for mil - increasing, as are the numbers of armed actors itary purposes. involved. The world is witnessing deliberate campaigns of violence against civilians, includ - Children suffer as a result of indiscriminate or disproportionate ing the targeting of schools, the abduction and military action. enslavement of girls, and deliberate starvation. Armed conflicts are more protracted; for For example, they may be killed or injured by instance, the most prominent conflict in recent landmines or the use of explosive weapons with times – the war in Syria – has lasted longer wide-area effect in populated areas. than the second world war. The longer a con - flict lasts the greater the indirect harm caused Children suffer on a huge scale from the as essential services cease to function. And in indirect consequences of conflict. many protracted situations the lines between These include displacement; the breakdown of ‘conflict’ and ‘peace’ have become blurred. markets and essential public services, such as Conflict is also increasingly urban; in Mosul healthcare, water and sanitation; and pervasive and Mogadishu, for example, children, their insecurity. While indirect effects and direct vio - homes and their schools are on the front line, lations are both part of the same continuum of vulnerable to indiscriminate attack. In today’s harm inflicted on children by modern conflict, 9

10 these indirect consequences of conflict affect The ten worst conflict-affected and kill many more children. More still miss out on school and the chance of a better future. countries to be a child Afghanistan • Central African Republic • A crisis of compliance • Democratic Republic of Congo • Iraq This report argues that children suffering in Mali • conflict today are not primarily suffering from • Nigeria a deficit of identified rights. Rather, they are • Somalia suffering from a crisis of compliance with those • South Sudan rights. Armed actors, often including govern - Syria • ment forces, are committing violations against • Yemen children. And they are often being met by, at best, international indifference and, at worst, complicity. tected and lives have been saved. There are three key dimensions of the crisis This report, Stop the War on Children , estab - facing children in conflict today. lishes the basis for an international plan of States and armed non-state actors are failing • action to protect children in conflict. Leaders to uphold standards in their own conduct and governments have a particularly powerful or to insist on this from their allies and from role to play. We call on them to: others over whom they have influence. • Uphold standards of conduct in conflict. • Governments are taking too little action to Hold perpetrators of violations to account. • hold perpetrators of violations to account • Take practical action to protect children for their crimes. and support their recovery. • Not enough is being invested in practical (For our detailed recommendations, action on the ground to protect children in see page 54.) conflict and to support their recovery. It is 100 years since Eglantyne Jebb, the But there is cause for hope. When govern founder of the idea of children’s rights, began - her work, and 30 years since the birth of the ments and other actors have decided that they UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. want to uphold high standards, we have seen The UN General Assembly’s 74th Session in that rules, law and norms have been developed September 2019 is a timely opportunity for gov to constrain violence. When governments and - international bodies have committed to take ernments to recommit to protecting children in accountability seriously, perpetrators have conflict through specific pledges of action. been punished. And when governments and For the children living in the world’s multilateral agencies have invested in practical conflict zones, action cannot come soon action on the ground, children have been pro enough. - Our Charter to Stop the War on Children No child is denied access to humanitarian aid • Based on the principle that all children have in conflict. fundamental rights, our Charter sets out ten • Violations of the rights of children in conflict are clear and incontrovertible goals: rigorously monitored, reported and acted upon. Those committing, overseeing and ordering vio • - All children are protected against killing • lations against children in conflict are brought to and maiming. Schools and health centres are treated as justice and held accountable for their actions. • • Every child harmed or affected by conflict zones of peace and protection. Every child is protected from rape and sexual • receives practical help and support to cope, recover and rebuild their lives. violence. • All children affected by conflict, including No child is recruited into armed forces or groups. • • All children in conflict are safe from abduction, refugees and those internally displaced, have detention and displacement. access to a good-quality education. • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 10

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12 INTRODUCTION supporting Wafa and Shadia’s medical care, ‘Mum and dad burned. providing psychosocial support and assisting They died. We all died.’ the extended family to help the girls heal. Wafa, a four-year-old girl in Yemen Wafa and Shadia may never fully recover from the attack they suffered. They may carry Wafa, aged four, and Shadia, two, were badly physical and mental scars for the rest of their injured in an airstrike in the Yemeni port city lives. Like millions of other children affected of Hodeidah in June 2018. Their mother and by armed conflict, their wellbeing, education, father were killed. health and nutrition may suffer, severely dam Since the incident Wafa has had difficulty - sleeping; she has nightmares and shouts out aging their life-chances. In turn, this is likely in her sleep. She cries much of the time and to lead to negative consequences for their cannot stand anyone, even her family, being in community and ultimately for their country, her room. whose stability and prosperity depend on the Wafa had surgery to remove a piece of wellbeing of its people. shrapnel in her head. It left a 15cm hole in This example is also emblematic in another her skull. Following that operation her body way. The killing or maiming of children – that swelled up as a result of additional fragments is, anyone under the age of 18 – has been of shrapnel in her body. She had two further identified by the United Nations as one of six operations to remove them. ‘grave violations’ of children’s rights in armed Save the Children’s team in Hodeidah is conflict. There is an imperative – especially Wafa, aged four, and her sister Shadia, two, were badly injured in an airstrike in the Injured and orphaned: Yemeni port city of Hodeidah in June 2018. Their mother and father were killed. PHOTO: SAVE THE CHILDREN • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 12

13 Second, children can suffer as a result of on states – to understand what happened indiscriminate or disproportionate military that day and to insist on accountability. As action. For example, they may be killed or things stand, the family of Wafa and Shadia injured by landmines or the use of explosive are not able to say whether the girls’ parents weapons with wide-area effect in populated were deliberately targeted by the air strikes, areas. whether their deaths were the result of indi - Third, children suffer on a huge scale from vidual recklessness or the product of a wilfully the indirect consequences of conflict – dis indiscriminate bombing policy, or whether - their death was an unfortunate consequence placement; the breakdown of markets and of an attack that was proportionate to a essential public services such as healthcare, legitimate military purpose. No one knows if a social welfare, water and sanitation; and high crime was committed – and no credible, inde levels of insecurity. While indirect effects and - direct violations are both part of the same pendent efforts have been made to find out. If continuum of harm inflicted on children by it was a crime, no one will be held to account. modern conflict, these indirect consequences If it was an unfortunate accident, it is unlikely of conflict affect and kill many more children that lessons will be learned to ensure that no and leave even greater numbers of children other children lose their mother and father out of school. in similar ways in the future. This report The nature of conflict – and its impact on argues that a world in which extreme violence 1 children – is evolving. against children can take place with seeming Intra-state conflict impunity is not a safe world for anyone. is increasing, as are the numbers of armed In addition, there is the role played by actors involved. The world is witnessing delib - the international community in this story. erate campaigns of violence against civilians, Powerful international actors have influence including the targeting of schools, the abduc - over the war that killed Wafa and Shadia’s tion and enslavement of girls, and deliberate 2 parents. In this particular case, it is likely that starvation. - Armed conflicts are more pro the weapon used was not built in the country tracted; for instance, the most whose air force dropped it, nor in the country prominent conflict in recent where it landed, but in a third country that times – the war in Syria – has profited from its sale. The commission of this lasted longer than the sec A world in - potential grave violation was facilitated by ond world war. The longer international actors. The posture that the a conflict lasts the greater which extreme international community takes towards war the indirect harm caused as - essential services cease to violence against ring parties – that is, the standards of conduct function. And in many pro that governments expect and insist upon, the - level of scrutiny that they impose in seeking children can tracted situations the lines accountability for violations, and the practical between ‘conflict’ and ‘peace’ assistance they provide to keep children safe have become blurred. Conflict take place 3 – sets the rules and norms that either enable is also increasingly urban ; children to be killed in armed conflict or that in Mosul and Mogadishu, with seeming protect them. For Wafa, Shadia and millions for example, children, their like them, everything depends on this. homes and their schools are impunity is not on the front line, vulnerable to indiscriminate attack. In a safe world for today’s armed conflicts, there is often no longer a clearly Every child’s right to protection anyone. demarcated battlefield: chil - Children suffer in conflict in three ways. First, dren’s homes and schools are the battlefield. they are sometimes deliberately targeted. This report argues that children suffering The commission of atrocities against children in conflict today are not primarily suffering is an exceptionally powerful way of terror - from a deficit of identified rights. Rather, they ising a population – and, hence, a preferred are suffering from a crisis of compliance with military tactic for armed forces and groups in those rights. Armed actors, often including many of today’s conflicts. Children are also government forces, are committing violations often targeted because they may be easily against children. And they are often being met manipulated and exploited, for instance, as by, at best, international indifference and, at soldiers or suicide bombers. Schools become worst, complicity. targets for tactical reasons – for example, as In this report we set out an agenda for a recruiting ground or because they are being tackling this crisis. The duty to try to keep used for military purposes. 13

14 International legal provisions 6 for children in conflict The Rome Statue is the principal instru - and their Addi - The Geneva Conventions - ment of international criminal law with tional Protocols are at the core of interna respect to the protection of civilians, grant - tional humanitarian law (IHL), which regulates the conduct of armed conflict and seeks to ing the International Criminal Court (ICC) limit its effects. The principles of ‘distinction’ jurisdiction over genocide, crimes against and ‘proportionality’ are the basis for specific humanity and war crimes when committed by rules, such as the prohibition of direct attacks any individual in the territory of a signatory on the civilian population or on civilian objects, state or by nationals of that state, or in a the prohibition of indiscriminate attacks, and situation referred to the ICC by the UN Secu - 7 the obligation to adopt precautionary meas rity Council. - There is also an important body of international criminal law that has arisen ures to avoid or limit casualties among civilians from ad hoc tribunals and courts, including and damage to civilian objects to the greatest the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of possible extent. IHL also includes special pro - Cambodia, the international criminal tribu tections for children, including provisions for - the protection of education. Under IHL, states nals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia, bear the primary responsibility for ensuring and the Special Court for Sierra Leone. The that the basic needs of civilians and civilian latter was the first international court to try populations under their control are met; but perpetrators for violations of IHL relating to if they are unable or unwilling to meet this the recruitment of children. These tribunals obligation, relief action can be taken by others, have also broken new ground in defining gen - such as humanitarian organisations, who must der-based crimes. be granted rapid and unimpeded access to the In addition, the UN Security Council and people affected. UN General Assembly have passed resolu - tions that carry the force of international The UN Convention of the Rights of the law both on specific conflict situations and ) is the most widely ratified Child (UNCRC on relevant thematic areas. These include 8 treaty in the world. It defines children as children and armed conflict ; women, peace 10 9 persons under the age of 18 and recognises and security ; the protection of civilians ; and and protects their equal and indivisible social, the elimination of all forms of discrimination 11 civil, political, economic, health and cultural against women. The UN Security Council is rights. By setting the minimum standards and the only UN body with authority under the overarching principles by which every soci UN Charter to issue a binding resolution on - 12 all UN members. ety should treat every child, the UNCRC has played a critical role in catalysing progress for children over the last 30 years. It establishes The African Charter on the Rights and the principle that ‘in all actions concerning chil Welfare of the Child of 1990 is notable as - the only intergovernmental treaty other than dren... the best interests of the child shall be a the UNCRC to recognise and protect the full primary consideration.’ Article 38 specifically spectrum of social, civil, political, economic, addresses the rights of children in armed con - health and cultural rights of children. It has - flict, requiring states to take ‘all feasible meas been ratified by almost all states of the Afri ures’ to protect and care for children affected - by armed conflict. The Optional Protocol to can Union. Article 22 directly addresses the the UNCRC on the Involvement of Children use of children in armed conflict, prohibiting in Armed Conflict was adopted in 2000; it their recruitment as soldiers and direct par - promotes the principle of non-recruitment and ticipation in fighting wars. non-participation in armed conflict of children under the age of 18 years. • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 14

15 Eastern Ukraine: Olha, a four-year-old girl almost lost her life when she and and her best friend picked up a mine thinking it was a whistle. PHOTO: SIMON EDMUNDS / SAVE THE CHILDREN in 1977 and the Rome Statute of 1998. All of children safe is an ethical norm recognised in 4 every culture. these exist in part to protect children from The ability and willingness to harm done to them by warfare. protect children would be recognised by the vast majority of people as fundamental to Ensuring respect for and adherence to the humanity. In the early 20th century, a British rules and norms that have been created to social reformer, Eglantyne Jebb, championed protect children is important not only for this basic truth – that all children, even the children themselves, but also because this children of one’s enemies, have a special claim rules-based international system underpins to protection. She gave the idea expression, the protection of everyone everywhere. If first, in the establishment of the Save the the world is unable to come together to keep Children Fund in 1919 to respond to the dep children safe, then it is hard to have hope for - sustainable international cooperation on any rivation to children caused by the blockade other issue. In a context of increasing chal of central Europe at the end of the first world - war, and then in drafting the Declaration of lenges to multilateral frameworks, bodies and the Rights of the Child in 1924. The Declara institutions, including from some of the world’s - most powerful states, there is an urgency to tion was adopted by the League of Nations this task. and, ultimately, led to the Convention on the There are also important instrumental Rights of the Child, which is today the world’s 5 reasons why the protection of children in most widely ratified human rights treaty. conflict is so urgent. A failure to protect the The Declaration was a defining moment, current generation of children will undermine establishing the principle that all children progress in human development and advances everywhere have certain identifiable and toward the Sustainable Development Goals, equal rights. Subsequently, the worst episodes leaving the societies in which these children of the 20th century inspired the drafting of 13 will grow up poorer and more fragile. additional frameworks that sought to cod Long- - term global stability, security and prosperity ify norms that further define our common are contingent on the protection of children humanity. These include the United Nations from conflict. Current negative trends for the Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human protection of children in conflict thus have Rights of 1948, the Geneva Conventions of serious implications not only for children 1949, the 1951 Refugee Convention, the Addi - themselves but also for the wider world. tional Protocols to the Geneva Convention 15

16 ‘Every war is a war PART 1 against children’ One hundred years on, those words of Save Children’s exposure the Children founder Eglantyne Jebb remain as true as ever. Despite constraints in the to conflict and grave available data, the scale, severity and unique violations. nature of the harm done to children by armed conflict is clear. More children are being exposed to armed violence than at any time in more than 20 years. The number of veri - fied violations perpetrated against them has reached a record high. And the damage done to many children – physically, psychologically and in terms of their development – will dev - astate their life chances. A rising tide – children’s increasing exposure to armed conflict - New analysis commissioned by Save the Chil dren and conducted by the Peace Research Institute in Oslo (PRIO) maps the numbers of children living in areas affected by armed con - 14 The research found flict around the world. that in 2017 more than 420 million children were living in areas defined by PRIO as ‘con - flict zones’ or ‘conflict-affected areas’ – that is, within 50km of where one or more conflict events took place in a given year, within the borders of a country. This is nearly one in 15 every five children worldwide – and a rise 16 of nearly 30 million from the previous year. Of these children, 142 million were living in high-intensity conflict-zones; that is, in conflict zones with more than 1,000 battle-related deaths in a year. 420 million children The number of children living in conflict-af - fected areas has increased drastically since are living in ‘conflict the end of the Cold War, significantly outpac - zones’ in 2017. - ing population growth, even though the num ber of countries experiencing armed conflict 30 million more has remained stable. Today’s figure of 420 mil - than in 2016. lion is more than twice as high as at the end of the Cold War. This increase is being driven by the proliferation of incidents of armed vio - lence, the perpetuation of long-running con - flicts and the increasingly urban character of armed violence. This analysis uses data collated by the Uppsala Conflict Data Programme (UCDP), the world’s foremost provider of metrics on 142 million were organised violence. This dataset provides the geographical location, timing and intensity of living in high-intensity recorded conflict events globally, covering the years 1990–2017. PRIO cross-referenced this conflict-zones. • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 16

17 CHILDREN LIVING FIGURE 1: 500000000 IN CONFLICT-AFFECTED ZONES, BY CONFLICT INTEN- SITY, 1990–2017 400000000 The number of children living in conflict areas has doubled since the end of the cold war 300000000 SOURCE: PRIO’S CALCULATION BASED ON UCDP GED DATASET, GRIDDED POPULATION OF THE WORLD V4, (CIESIN, 2016) AND 200000000 WORLD POPULATION PROS- PECTS (UN, 2017) High intensity conflict 100000000 Medium intensity conflict Low intensity conflict 2000 2005 2010 2017 2015 1990 1995 2004 2001 2003 2002 Conflict-zone Non-conflict zone Conflict-zone Non-conflict zone Asia Asia Africa Africa Middle East Middle East Americas Americas Europe Europe 1200 200 1000 800 600 400 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% NUMBER OF CHILDREN LIVING IN CONFLICT FIGURE 3: FIGURE 2: SHARE OF CHILDREN LIVING IN CONFLICT ZONES IN 2017, BY REGION ZONES IN 2017, BY REGION Two in five children in the Middle East and a quarter 195 million children in Asia and 152 million children of children across Africa live in a conflict zone across Africa are living in a conflict zone SOURCE: PRIO’S CALCULATION BASED ON UCDP GED DATASET, SOURCE: PRIO’S CALCULATION BASED ON UCDP GED DATASET, GRIDDED POPULATION OF THE WORLD V4, (CIESIN, 2016) AND GRIDDED POPULATION OF THE WORLD V4, (CIESIN, 2016) AND WORLD POPULATION PROSPECTS (UN, 2017) WORLD POPULATION PROSPECTS (UN, 2017) 18 group against civilians. - The dataset defines conflict data with recently-updated popula a conflict event as a lethal incident in the con tion data from the Gridded Population of the - 17 World and from the UN in order to estimate text of an armed conflict. Many countries account for the high num the numbers of children living in proximity to - incidents of armed violence worldwide. ber of children living in conflict-affected areas. The UCDP defines armed conflict as a In absolute terms, the highest figures came situation when armed force is used by an from India, Pakistan, Nigeria, Egypt, Bangla - organised actor against another organised desh and the Philippines. Asia has the largest actor, or against civilians, resulting in at least absolute number of children living in con - 25 battle-related deaths in one calendar year. flict-affected areas at 195 million children. In This could be conflict involving states and/ proportional terms, the figure for children in or non-state actors or it could be one-sided the Middle East is highest, with 40% of chil - violence perpetrated by an organised armed dren – 35 million – living in conflict-affected 17

18 Syria Afghanistan Iraq Mali Central African South Ye me n Republic Sudan Somalia Nigeria Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) areas. Across Africa, 152 million children Using this approach, the ten worst countries – one in four – are living in conflict-affected for children in conflict are: areas, up from one in five in 2016. Afghanistan • The 142 million living in high-intensity con Central African Republic • - Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) • flict zones are of particular concern, given the Iraq • greater scale and severity of violence to which Mali • they are exposed. Nearly 90% of Yemen’s • Nigeria children, 70% of Syria’s children and 60% of Somalia • Somalia’s children were living in close proxim - South Sudan • ity to high-intensity conflict in 2017. Syria • Yemen • The ten worst conflict-affected This list is presented in alphabetical order in recognition that the quality of data avail countries to be a child - able for each country is too variable to 19 substantiate a definitive ranking. Drawing on PRIO’s research and Save the However, Children’s analysis of the UN’s data on grave the DRC measures particularly poorly. The violations for 2017, we have identified a list of evidence also suggests a deterioration in the the ten worst conflict-affected countries for situation for children in Somalia, Syria and Afghanistan, all of which saw a rise in the children. This is based on nine indicators: number of verified grave violations in 2017 • the prevalence of reports of each of the six (see pages 19–22). The UN considers Yemen grave violations (see page 19) 20 the worst humanitarian crisis in the world conflict intensity (measured by the number • of recorded casualties) and the indirect effects of the conflict there total child population living in conflict-af • are putting huge numbers of children at risk - 21 of death due to malnutrition. However, the fected areas reporting of UN-verified violations by the • the proportion of children living in conflict zones relative to the population of the coun Saudi- and Emirati-led coalition in Yemen was - heavily contested in both 2017 and 2018, and try as a whole. • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 18

19 severe impact on children’s wellbeing. The the number of violations featuring in the 2018 UN Secretary-General publishes an annual children and armed conflict report is rela - report on children and armed conflict that tively low. The new country on the list com - documents the incidence of these violations in pared with the equivalent list we produced 26 22 conflicts around the world. in 2018 is Mali , which saw an increase in reported battle deaths from 2016 to 2017 and According to our analysis of the most a tripling in reports of denial of humanitarian recent annual report, the number of chil - 23 access. dren directly affected by verified cases of grave violations in 2017 was the highest ever While we are unable to definitively cap - 27 recorded, at more than 25,000. The crises ture all the reverberating impacts of armed conflict on children, we can start to estimate unfolding in the Central African Republic, the huge toll that conflict exacts on children the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), living in the countries on this list. In a study Myanmar, South Sudan, Syria and Yemen con - 28 , researchers matched The Lancet published in tributed significantly to this increase. Since 174 % 37% child-survival data to data on the intensity, 2010, there has been a 37% rise in the total scale and location of armed conflict in 35 number of children living in conflict zones, but SINCE 2010: African countries over the two decades to a 174% rise in the number of verified incidents 24 2015. of grave violations. They found that exposure to conflict MORE The figures for verified violations only rep increased the average risk of death for chil - - CHILDREN resent the tip of the iceberg – the challenges dren under the age of five by 7,7%. The risk LIVING IN was greatest for children under the age of in collecting and verifying reports to the high CONFLICT one living in areas with exposure to more standards required by the UN mean that ZONES many more incidents do not make it into the intense conflicts over more protracted peri - UN Secretary-General’s annual report. How ods. The deaths recorded by the Lancet study - DRAMATIC were due to the indirect impact of conflict, ever, the trend is clear and, while it may to INCREASE likely including the destruction of livelihoods some extent reflect more efficient reporting, IN VERI - and assets, of sanitation and food systems, of it suggests not only are more children living GRAVE FIED medical supply chains, and of access to basic in conflict-affected areas, they are more services. likely to suffer violations as a consequence. VIOLATIONS We have applied the findings in The Lan - cet’s study to the ten worst conflict-affected countries in which to be a child listed above and estimate that in the last five years alone more than 550,000 infants have died due to 25 the reverberating impact of conflict. The Grave violations Children in conflict (millions) total for children under five is 870,000. These estimates are imperfect – they are indicative 25000 500 and may be highly conservative. However, they suggest that every year in just ten conflict-affected countries at least 100,000 20000 400 infants die who in the absence of conflict would survive. 15000 300 The six grave violations 10000 200 against children The UN Security Council has identified six 5000 100 grave violations against children in situations of armed conflict: killing and maiming of children • 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 recruitment and use of children as soldiers • sexual violence against children • FIGURE 4: DRASTIC INCREASE IN GRAVE VIOLATIONS AND CHILDREN abduction of children • LIVING IN CONFLICT ZONES • attacks on schools and hospitals More children are living in conflict zones and grave violations against them are rising even faster. • denial of humanitarian access. SOURCE: SAVE THE CHILDREN’S ANALYSIS OF THE UN SECRETARY GENERAL’S CHILDREN AND ARMED CONFLICT REPORTS / PRIO’S CALCULATION BASED ON These grave violations have been defined on UCDP GED DATASET, GRIDDED POPULATION OF THE WORLD V4, (CIESIN, 2016) the basis of their egregious nature and their AND WORLD POPULATION PROSPECTS (UN, 2017) 19

20 those casualties. These include children being How are the six used to plant bombs and/or to carry out the grave violations tracked? 29 attacks themselves. A Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism According to UNICEF, (MRM) to track grave violations against chil 2018 saw a further increase in the killing and - 30 maiming of children in Afghanistan. dren in conflict was created in 2005 by the - In Nige UN Security Council. At the global level, the ria, the Boko Haram armed group forced chil - MRM is overseen by the Special Representa - dren – overwhelmingly girls – to perpetrate suicide attacks, which led to over half of all tive of the UN Secretary-General for Children the verified child casualties in the country in and Armed Conflict, in close cooperation 31 2 017. with UNICEF and the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations. At country level, In Iraq, Syria and Yemen, the use of air the MRM is overseen by country taskforces strikes has taken a particularly heavy toll on 32 on monitoring and reporting, which are children. In Syria, civilians constituted 71% of co-chaired by the representative of UNICEF deaths reported by the Violation Documen - and the highest UN representative in the tation Center. Shelling and air bombardment country. accounted for 57% of civilian deaths and 79% 33 By collecting timely, objective, accurate of children’s deaths. Almost all the deaths and reliable information on violations and reported from barrel bombs were civilians; abuses committed against children by parties 27% were children. to armed conflict (both state and non-state), Landmines and explosive remnants of the MRM provides the UN Security Council war pose a continuing risk, killing children in with an evidence base with which to hold Myanmar, Lebanon, South Sudan and Sudan. perpetrators accountable. It also helps actors Indiscriminate weapons, such as landmines on the ground to advocate for and to plan and cluster munitions, are a major threat to adequate protection and response measures. children even long after hostilities have ended. Verified violations are described in the UN Children often mistake them and other explo - Secretary-General’s annual report on children sive remnants for toys. Children’s smaller size and armed conflict. Parties to conflict that means they are more likely to die from blast are found to have committed grave violations injuries than adults: according to the Land - are listed in the annexes to the UN Secre - mine Monitor, in 2017 children accounted for 47% of all civilian casualties from mines and tary-General’s annual reports. In order to be explosive remnants of war where the age of delisted, parties to conflict are required to 34 the victim was known. develop and fully implement time-bound and specific action plans to halt and prevent viola - tions and to take remedial action. 2 Recruitment and use The MRM is strongest when the UN Sec The overall number of verified cases of forced - recruitment and use of children in conflict retary-General and member states allocate increased by 3% from 2016 to 2017, with sufficient resources in terms of budget and more than 8,000 girls and boys reported as staff both to do the documentation and veri - 10,677 having been recruited into the ranks of non- fication in the field and to engage in dialogue state armed groups or national armed and with parties to conflict to work towards end - UN- 35 state-affiliated forces. ing and preventing violations. Mandated and In certain countries VERIFIED well-resourced child protection adviser and the increase was very significant: the number REPORTS of verified cases quadrupled in the Central child protection officer posts in UN peace - African Republic, doubled in the DRC and keeping and political missions are critical OF increased significantly in Somalia, while the for this. So too is concerted advocacy for CHILDREN number of verified cases in South Sudan, Nige non-governmental child protection actors to - BEING have access to country taskforces, and where ria, Syria and Yemen persisted at alarming KILLED OR possible to participate in those taskforces, in levels. MAIMED order to complement the work of the UN in Boys and girls tend to experience recruit - IN 2017 areas where it has limited access. ment and use by armed groups or armed forces differently. Regardless of how they 1 Killing and maiming are recruited and whatever roles they are There were 10,677 UN-verified reports of required to carry out, children’s participation children being killed or maimed in 2017 – a in conflict bears serious implications for their rise of nearly 6% from the year before. In physical and emotional well-being. They are Afghanistan alone, the UN verified 3,179 child commonly subject to abuse and most of them casualties. Many of these incidents involved witness death, killing, and sexual violence. improvised explosive devices and unexploded Many are forced to commit violent acts, and ordnance, accounting for at least 33% of some suffer serious long-term psychological • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 20

21 43 consequences. The reintegration of these chil In Ukraine, at least - Syria are out of school. 750 education facilities have been damaged dren into civilian life is an essential part of the 36 44 or destroyed since the start of the conflict. work to help them rebuild their lives. In Nigeria, Boko Haram has killed an esti - mated 2,295 teachers and UNICEF estimates 3 Sexual violence that more than 1,400 schools have been Grave violations of sexual violence include rape, sexual slavery or trafficking, forced destroyed, damaged or looted, primarily in marriage, pregnancy, and abortion and steri the North East zone, and more than 600,000 - 45 children have lost access to education. lisation. The challenges of underreporting are exceptional. The military use of schools continues in In 2017 the UN Secretary-General docu Syria, Yemen, Sudan, the Philippines and - 46 Afghanistan. In some contexts, schoolgirls mented 954 verified cases of sexual violence have been specifically targeted for sexual against children in conflict situations, up 12% from the year before. In Myanmar, these violence and by armed groups who oppose included the gang rape of girls as young as female education. For instance, in the DRC, militiamen abducted 17 girls from primary ten by the Tatmadaw, Myanmar’s armed schools in 2017 and raped them over the forces, and a 14-year-old girl who was gang- 47 course of several months raped and then killed in front of her mother . In Balochistan 37 and three siblings. Province, Pakistan a girls’ school was spe A report published in - March 2018 by the UN Commission of Inquiry cifically targeted using improvised explosive 48 on Syria and that drew on interviews with devices. survivors of sexual violence, relatives of sur Hospitals, clinics and other health facilities - 3,179 are also a frequent target for military use vivors, defectors, healthcare practitioners, and/or attacks, and medical personnel are lawyers and members of affected communities UN- also targeted. To take just two examples: in found that thousands of women, girls, men VERIFIED Syria the UN verified 108 attacks on hospitals and boys have been subjected to sexual and 38 CHILD and medical personnel in 2017, resulting in the gender-based violence. These are just two killing of six and injury to at least 29; in South examples of recent conflicts where sexual - CASUAL Sudan, at least 20% of the country’s 1,900 violence has been prevalent; though in terms TIES IN medical facilities had closed as of December of quantifying its incidence, such reports only AFGHA - 2017 due to the conflict, with 50% function scratch the surface. - NISTAN 49 ing at extremely limited capacity. Violence ALONE 4 Abduction disrupts healthcare systems precisely when 50 In 2017, verified cases of child abduction children need them more than ever. IN 2017 increased by 62% from the previous year, making a total of 2,556. In Somalia alone, 6 Denial of humanitarian access the Al Shabaab armed group abducted more Access denial entails arbitrarily blocking the than 1,600 children, some as young as nine. free passage or timely delivery of humanitar - Schools are a common target for abduction. ian assistance to people in need and deliber - Children who are abducted almost always ate attacks against humanitarian workers. face further grave violations, such as recruit More than 1,500 verified cases of denial of - humanitarian access took place in 2017, up by ment, sexual violence or killing and maiming. roughly 50% from the year before. This rep Despite some success stories, many children - who are abducted during conflict never return resents a record high, building on a pattern home; for example, 112 of the 276 ‘Chibok of aid denial that has spiked in recent years. girls’ abducted by Boko Haram in April 2014 Children in Myanmar, South Sudan, Syria and 39 remain unaccounted for. Yemen were prevented from receiving life-sav - ing support. The impact of this violation is particularly 5 Attacks on schools and hospitals striking in the most protracted and severe There were 1,432 verified attacks on schools conflicts. Save the Children research has in 2017, making it one of the worst years in shown that 4.5 million children in 2018 were recorded history for attacks on education. at risk of starvation in ten of the worst con Much of Syria and Yemen’s education infra - - flicts for children, with one child likely to die structure has been reduced to rubble by mis - 51 every minute. Millions of children in conflicts siles and bombs. According to UNICEF, one around the world are currently unable to third of Syria’s schools have been destroyed 40 or damaged or are occupied. access basic assistance such as antibiotics or One in ten food. More children in conflicts are at risk of schools in Yemen have been destroyed or 41 dying due to disease and hunger than from damaged. As a result, an estimated 2 million 42 any other cause and the denial of humanitar children in Yemen and 2 million children in - 21

22 52 ian access is a major driver of their suffering. These violations have been described as ‘star - vation crimes’, emphasising that people are Gaps in the data 53 not passively starving but are being starved. Under IHL and customary international law, the intentional starvation of civilians is The research in this report uses findings that are pub - prohibited. But anomalously, the Rome Stat - licly available and credible. However, there remains a ute of the ICC does not expressly prohibit it in significant and worrying gap in child-specific and gen - the case of non-international armed conflicts. der-disaggregated data in conflicts. For example, there The government of Switzerland has proposed are currently no comprehensive, reliable data on child an amendment to the Rome Statute in order casualties in conflicts around the world. Authoritative to correct this discrepancy, with a decision sources of conflict and fatality data, such as the Uppsala expected at the 18th session of the Assem - Conflict Data Programme and the Armed Conflict and bly of State Parties to the Rome Statute in Events Data project, do not provide any information on December 2019. the age distribution of those killed in conflict. Likewise, as mentioned above, we know that there is significant underreporting in many contexts of all the grave violations, in particular, of sexual violence. The distinctive ways children are The UN data on violations collected through the MRM harmed by armed conflict inevitably only present a partial picture due to access restrictions, security threats and limited child protection Children suffer in conflict in different ways resources within UN peacekeeping and humanitarian to adults, partly because they are physically operations. Furthermore, the six violations are only a weaker and also because they have so much subset of the many ways in which children are harmed in at stake – their physical, mental and psycho - conflict. social development are heavily dependent on If we are to see progress in the areas set out below, the conditions they experience as children. improvements in the collection and use of high-quality Conflict affects children differently depending and more specific data will be essential. on a number of personal characteristics, sig - nificantly gender and age, but also disability status, ethnicity, religion and whether they live in rural or urban locations. The harm that is done to children in armed conflict is not only often more severe than that done to adults, it has longer lasting implications – for 2000 children themselves and for their societies. Malnutrition, disease and lack of healthcare 1500 Children bear a significant burden of con - flict-associated morbidity and mortality as a 54 result of armed conflict. Many more children die in conflict as a result of malnutrition, dis - ease and lack of healthcare than from bullets 1000 or bombs: our estimates suggest in just ten countries nearly 870,000 children may have died in the last five years due to these rever - berating effects. In the case of Yemen, an esti - mated 85,000 children died of extreme hunger 500 between April 2015 and October 2018, far more than any estimates of the numbers who 55 are thought to have been killed directly. Conflict makes children vulnerable to acute and chronic malnutrition, with damaging 2014 2015 2016 2017 2013 2012 2011 2010 effects on growth, immune and metabolic sys - 56 tems functioning, and cognitive development. FIGURE 5: INSTANCES OF DENIAL OF HUMANITARIAN ACCESS. Roughly three-quarters of the more than 150 Denial of humanitarian access in conflict zones has increased million stunted children in the world live in dramatically over ten years. 57 conflict zones. Even when malnutrition does SOURCE: SAVE THE CHILDREN’S ANALYSIS OF THE UN SECRETARY not kill children, its effects can be life-long, GENERAL’S CHILDREN AND ARMED CONFLICT REPORTS • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 22

23 life-changing and intergenerational. If a child does not get the right nutrition in their first two to three years, the impact on their physi - 58 cal and cognitive development is irreversible. Maternal malnutrition is a danger to children too, specifically during pregnancy and while nursing, contributing to low birthweight and child stunting. Access challenges and damage done in conflict to health, water and sanitation infra - structure exacerbate the risks to children. The diseases driving child mortality in con - - flict-affected countries – pneumonia, diar rhoeal diseases, malaria and measles – are largely preventable and treatable. But these illnesses claim more children’s lives because the healthcare and nutritious food that could save them is unavailable or out of reach due RAPED AND to insecurity. Proximity to organised violence SEXUALLY ABUSED also significantly reduces the likelihood of institutional births; for example, in sub-Saha - BY SOLDIERS: ran Africa it results in around 47,000 children MASIKA’S STORY being born outside health facilities every year, greatly increasing risks to the health 59 of the child in future years. Masika is from the DRC. There is a link between lack of adequate health services, When her father died she and increased risk of adolescent pregnancy and her brothers and sisters were high rates of health complications, including unable to support themselves. preventable maternal mortality. The risk of Masika stopped going to school pregnancy related-death is twice as high for and decided to join an armed girls aged 15 to 19 and five times higher for group. On her way to the mil - girls aged 10 to 14 compared with women in itary camp, she was raped by 60 their twenties. a soldier. It left her barely able to walk. Death and injury Masika spent a few days recov The ways children are killed and injured in - conflict can be significantly different from ering, then continued to the those suffered by adults. New research sup camp where she joined a mili - - tary group. Masika was trained ported by Save the Children shows how chil - to handle weapons. She was dren experience blast injuries differently from also forced to have sex with adults and how they have unique vulnerabili - many of the soldiers. ties. Evidence suggests, for example, that head and facial trauma is more common in children ‘[The soldiers] wouldn’t stop than in adults partly because they are more asking me for sex,’ she says. likely to pick up unexploded ordnance. Studies demonstrate the difference that penetrating ‘I found myself having to just injuries to the face, head, neck, upper limb give in.’ and trunk have on children and adults. These injuries affect 80% of child patients, markedly Eventually Masika and two 61 higher than the 31% in adults. other girls managed to escape. The research Masika returned home. She has also found that adult protocols for blood now lives with her uncle and is transfusion are not effective for children (see back at school. box below) and children with blast injuries are 62 more likely than adults to die. Additionally, ‘Everything that I had thought physical injuries to children can result in dis - I could one day do and be abilities that can have significant secondary seemed impossible,’ she says. ‘I effects, not least in limiting access to educa - thought my only option was tion due to inadequate provision for disabled to get involved with armed pupils. This is especially true in insecure and groups.’ resource-poor environments. 23

24 experiences during the earliest years of life Long-term damage to mental health have a lasting impact on the architecture of Exposure to conflict, violence and insecurity the developing brain, toxic stress has serious can have major psychological effects on chil - and enduring negative consequences on cog - dren. Unless appropriate support is provided, their distress can last well beyond the end nitive development and emotional regulation. of the conflict. Save the Children has con Specifically, the prolonged activation of stress - hormones in early childhood can reduce neu ducted research on the impact of conflict on - children’s mental health in Syria and Iraq. In ral connections in areas of the brain dedicated the Syria study, 84% of adults and almost all to learning and reasoning, affecting children’s children interviewed identified bombing and abilities to perform later in their lives. In this shelling as the number one cause of psycho way, in the societies in which it takes place, - 63 conflict imposes yet another huge social cost logical stress in children’s daily lives. 89% of on future generations. adults said children’s behaviour had become more fearful and nervous, and 71% said Loss of education children increasingly suffered from frequent Education is both a basic right and a life-sav bed-wetting and involuntary urination. In our - most recent research in Iraq, 43% of children ing humanitarian response. Moreover, when returning to Mosul reported feeling grief all children living in crisis are asked what they or a lot of the time. More than a quarter of need most, time and time again they say they 66 adolescents reported never liking who they want to continue their education. For a are, with a further 12% saying they only like child in conflict, school provides both access 64 themselves a little. to a safe space to learn and a precious sense of normality, routine and calm. Schools also In both studies, children were displaying serve a protective function, often keeping symptoms associated with toxic stress – a children safe from risks in their environment type of stress response that occurs when chil - and from negative coping strategies – school dren experience strong, frequent or prolonged can mean reduced rates of sexual violence, adversity, without adequate support. A con - child marriage, harmful work and recruitment tinuous state of toxic stress can have a life- into armed forces or armed groups. A safe long impact on children’s mental and physical 65 and high-quality education is one of the most health. It increases the likelihood of negative significant determinants of the future life- impacts on children’s development or health chances of children and a key contributor to problems later in life. Given that a child’s Challenges in the care of child blast casualties the condition. For those requiring prosthetic-limb ‘Although improved care of the adult blast-injury replacement, particularly in austere or low-re casualty in the last decade has transformed sur - - source environments, orthopaedic technologies vival rates, currently there is no consensus about are inadequate, and child patients rarely receive haemorrhage control in the child patient. There are no tourniquets designed for children, few the levels of expert rehabilitation that their inju - child-specific transfusion protocols and current ries will require. Nor will those replacement limbs research is clear that children with blast injuries adapt well as they grow into adulthood. are therefore considerably more likely than adults Beyond rehabilitation lies the profound psycho - to die than at point of wounding. Furthermore, logical challenge of child blast injury. In addition to children are often injured by blast in groups, so losing limbs, sight or hearing, they may have lost even if they survive to be admitted to a hospital, families, homes and the prospects of literacy, edu - such severe and complicated forms of casualty – cation, marriage and employment. requiring immediate and simultaneous treatment Improving the care of child blast casualties, and in numbers – can overwhelm existing medical securing their lives beyond survival, will depend on capability. the development of local capabilities from point of Beyond the point of wounding, the long-term wounding to rehabilitation and beyond.’ treatment of the blast-injured child remains chal - lenging and unresolved. Children’s experience of Dr Emily Mayhew, Co-chair, Paediatric Blast pain is poorly understood, as is the treatment of Injury Partnership, Imperial College, London • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 24

25 More than 75 million children across most of the world’s crisis- and conflict-affected countries currently require urgent support to receive an education. 76 the short and the long term. Although both societies’ potential for long-term stability and prosperity. girls and boys experience sexual violence, However, during conflict, armed actors fre girls are disproportionately targeted and - affected by it, both in peacetime and during quently attack schools, use them as barracks conflict. However, in conflict situations risks and stores, or for shelters, interrogations and 67 of multiple forms of gender-based violence detentions. Explosive weapons with a wide- – including sexual violence, child marriage, area effect also inflict significant indiscrimi - sexual harassment, female genital mutilation, nate damage on vital infrastructure in urban intimate partner violence, trafficking, sexual areas, including schools. The immediate con - exploitation and abuse – are exacerbated. sequences of attacks on education can include The physical impact of such violence on girls the death or injury of children, the destruction and boys is severe. Health consequences for of facilities and disrupted access to learning. girls can include serious physical injuries such In the long term, attacks can lead to dimin - as traumatic fistula, sexually transmitted ished education quality, loss of teachers and 68 infections such as HIV/AIDS, and forced and weakened educational systems. unwanted pregnancies, resulting in either More than 75 million children across most unsafe abortions or greater risk of maternal of the world’s crisis- and conflict-affected mortality or morbidity because their bodies countries currently require urgent support to 69 are not sufficiently developed to bear children. receive an education. Girls are particularly The psychological impact of sexual violence likely to be out of school, for a wide range of 70 on children is profound and is often worsened reasons. For example, in South Sudan, 72% by family and community rejection, with com of primary-school-aged girls do not attend - 71 primary school, compared with 64% of boys. - munities frequently stigmatising children sus In Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya only 38% pected of having been raped. 72 of primary school students are girls. As a result of their gender, girls are often In forced to drop out of school, and/or are pre Afghanistan 60% of the 3.7 million out-of- - 73 school children are girls. vented from accessing income-generating In recent years, Save the Children advocacy opportunities or social networks, resulting has focused on education for refugee children. in social exclusion and stigmatisation. These Only 61% of refugee children attend primary consequences are particularly stark for those school compared with 91% of children global who become pregnant as a result of rape; - 74 they may even be forced to marry the per - Refugee enrolment at secondary level is ly. even worse – just 23% of refugee adolescents petrator. The exclusion many girls face can receive a secondary education, compared trap them in a cycle of extreme poverty and with 84% around the world. In total, more increased vulnerability to sexual exploita - than half of the world’s school-aged refugees tion or trafficking. For boys, there is often a – 4 million – are out of school, with refugees different but severe stigma associated with five times more likely to be out of school than suffering sexual violence; one consequence is 75 the global average. significant underreporting. Moreover, where formal camps or structures do not exist, schools are Child marriage frequently converted into shelters for those Conflict increases and exacerbates the ine who have been forced to flee, thus reducing - access to education for host communities too. qualities that make girls vulnerable to child marriage and its consequences. Fear of sexual Sexual and gender-based violence, the implications of unintended ado - - lescent pregnancies, family shame and per violence against children Sexual violence against children has multiple ceived dishonour, stigma, homelessness, and and very significant negative impacts, in both hunger or starvation have all been reported 25

26 by parents and children as reasons for child 77 marriage. In some instances, child marriage is used to facilitate migration out of con - 78 flict-affected countries and refugee camps. In others, forced marriage of children or sexual PHOTO: NOUR WAHID / SAVE THE CHILDREN slavery have been used by armed groups as a 79 weapon of war. Limited access to sexual and reproductive, maternal, newborn and child healthcare in conflict settings increases the likelihood of girls falling pregnant too young and of young mothers and their babies dying through birth and pregnancy complications. To take the example of just one conflict context, rates of child marriage have risen for girls in Syria and among Syrian refugee popu - 80 lations. Marriage of children under 18 years old is not a new phenomenon in Syria, but in this protracted conflict child marriage has become a coping mechanism. Families arrange marriages for girls, believing marriage will protect their daughters from violence by strangers or armed groups and to ease finan - cial burdens on the family. Three in ten Syrian refugee girls in Lebanon between the ages of 15 and 19 are currently married, an increase 81 of 7% from 2017. Among Syrian refugees in Jordan, the share of registered marriages involving girls under 18 years of age rose from 12% in 2011 to 18% in 2012 to 25% in 2013 and TRAUMATISED 82 then to 32% in early 2014. There have been similar reports of BY SHELLING: increases in child marriage among Syrian ref - ASMAA’S STORY 83 ugees in Egypt, Iraq and Turkey. Improved data collection, dissemination and analysis is ‘My 11-year-old brother used to essential to improving understanding of the cover his ears when the shelling impact of conflict on child marriage and of was happening. He thought how to prevent marriages and to protect the that if he closed his ears, he rights of married girls in conflict contexts. would not hear the shelling anymore. He stopped eating.’ Violations of the rights of Asmaa was 14 when she fled to children allegedly associated Lebanon from Syria with her with armed forces and groups seven siblings. Their mother Around the world, thousands of children are died a month before they fled, being detained or otherwise having their so her oldest sister led them. rights violated because they are regarded as security threats for their – or their fami - They had to try four times to ly’s – alleged association with armed groups. escape before they were suc Cases have been documented of children - being tortured or abused, kept with adult cessful. Each time they failed prisoners, not being provided proper legal they were threatened and sent support or living in conditions that are against back. On the final attempt they international standards for juvenile justice. hid in a vehicle then walked for Adolescent boys over the age of ten years are three days across the moun - particularly vulnerable. For example, in Soma - tains to get to Lebanon. lia 67 boys were captured from Al Shabaab and detained in 2016, having recently been They are all traumatised from forcibly recruited by the group. Several were the shelling they experienced. given sentences of 20–30 years and ten were Asmaa’s younger brother sentenced to death, though these sentences stopped eating due to the were commuted in 2016 following advocacy stress. • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 26

27 The gendered dynamics of conflict for children armed actors is associated with sexual exploitation Children’s experience of conflict is highly gendered. and abuse, including survival sex. An increased risk Adolescent boys, for instance, are often targeted of sexual violence, child marriage and adolescent due to perceptions of the threat they could pose pregnancy leads to an increased risk of maternal and their potential fighting abilities. Girls are more mortality, particularly in contexts where ongoing often targeted for sexual violence. Attacks on girls conflict and entrenched gender norms make acces and women are often used as a deliberate tactic - by armed groups to disrupt communities. Girls and - sible sexual and reproductive health services diffi women can also be attacked with the aim of forci cult or even impossible. - Recruitment of children into fighting forces is bly displacing whole communities. often perpetrated using gender norms and gen In times of conflict, gender norms become espe - - cially important. Girls, in particular, can be tar der-related push and pull factors. Traditional - assumptions that greater numbers of boys are sub - geted for deviating from norms – either accepted community norms or those idealised by armed ject to recruitment are accurate – they remain the groups. ‘Offences’ can include entering public largest proportion of recruited children in the UN’s spaces, engaging in work or not adhering to dress data on children and armed conflict. However, Save codes. In countries such as Nigeria and Afghani the Children has encountered cases where promises - of greater freedom and autonomy, education and stan, girls, women and schools have come under other basic needs have been used to pull girls into attack due to gendered views of armed groups. recruitment. Gendered pull factors, such as the The real and credible threat of gendered vio - promise of wives, are also used to recruit boys. lence contributes to heightened fears. This, in turn, In the case of abduction, whereas boys are often limits the girls’ social mobility – including access to seized to be used in armed groups for military education, healthcare, information and legal status. purposes, girls are routinely abducted to be used In some contexts, girls may be married as a sup - as wives or to be sexually exploited. The different posedly protective and pre-emptive measure, due experiences boys and girls have in abduction are in large part to fears associated with an increase in generally insufficiently accounted for in reintegra armed actors. These concerns are not unfounded. - Evidence suggests that increases in numbers of tion programmes. The detention of children is always harmful on their behalf. In Iraq at least 1,036 children and never in their best interests – under the were held in juvenile detention facilities on UNCRC, the arrest, detention or impris national security-related charges in 2017, - mostly for their alleged association with ISIS, onment of a child must only be used as a 84 with many not even being charged. measure of last resort and for the shortest - Palestin appropriate period of time. ian children continue to be arrested in large More broadly, the purported association numbers by Israeli forces – sometimes in their of parents and family members with armed homes by night – to be held in the Israeli groups means tens of thousands of children military detention system and prosecuted in 87 and their families face collective punishment military courts; throughout 2018, a monthly , average of 312 Palestinian children were held and as a result may be deprived of their lib - 85 in detention. The practice is also prevalent in erty or are living in camps without freedom of movement. In 2017, a total of 2,199 children other areas of conflict, such as the DRC and were reported to have been deprived of their Sudan. liberty for their or their parents’ alleged asso Children who are accused of being asso - - ciated with armed forces or armed groups ciation with Boko Haram in Nigeria, Niger should be considered primarily as victims and Cameroon, though many were subse - 86 88 and not only as perpetrators. They must quently released by the Nigerian authorities. be treated in accordance with international In Syria and Iraq, thousands of children are living in limbo in camps, without freedom of law in a framework of restorative justice and movement, due to family members’ alleged social rehabilitation and, wherever possible, 89 alternatives to detention must be sought. links to ISIS. 27

28 As set out in Part 1, the war on children is becoming ever more deadly and destructive. From Syria to South Sudan the future of a PART 2 generation of children is under attack. The war on children is being waged with blatant disregard for the universally agreed The three dimensions international legal and normative framework to protect children in conflict. of the war on children In this Part, we identify the three dimensions of this crisis of compliance: failure to uphold standards of conduct in 1 . conflict failure to hold perpetrators of violations to 2 . account 3 . lack of practical action on the ground to protect children and support their recovery. We explore each dimension through three case studies – on the war in Yemen, the Rohingya crisis and the conflict in South Sudan. The crisis of compliance Preventing conflicts and atrocities in the first place and, where conflict is already taking place, acting swiftly and in a coordinated manner to bring it to a rapid halt would end the conditions in which grave violations of And three children’s rights can take place. In this respect, imperatives the children of Syria, South Sudan, Yemen, Myanmar, the Central African Republic and for action: many other places can all point to a lack of timely, concerted international action as a significant cause of their protracted suffering. However, the mere existence of conflict 1 is not sufficient to explain the prevalence of violations against children in conflict. Near universal ratification of the UNCRC – ‘that Uphold standards of luminous, living document that enshrines the conduct in conflict. rights of every child without exception, to a 90 life of dignity and self-fulfilment’ – has not yet translated into a universal recognition of children as holders of rights. This is particu - 2 larly true in situations of armed conflict. The context in which conflicts are fought and, more importantly, the actions and inac - Hold perpetrators to tion of parties to conflicts – and those with account. influence over these parties – are critical determinants of whether or not children suffer grave violations of their rights. As outlined in the introduction to this report, an exten - 3 sive legal and normative framework exists to protect children’s rights in conflict. However, in far too many places this framework is not Take practical action being upheld. This is the key challenge that needs to be met for millions of children to on the ground. • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 28

29 be able to survive and thrive in the modern without sufficient political will world. it fundamentally fails children. Approaches to the inves - Perpetrators There are three dimensions tigation and prosecution of violations must be strength to this crisis of compliance: - of violations , states and other armed actors are First ened as a matter of urgency. failing to uphold standards in conflict, both in These should include: have little their own conduct as military actors and in strengthened national judi • - the behaviour that they demand from others. reason to fear cial processes There is no such thing as a ‘child friendly’ • greater support for and warzone, but the level of risk facing children resourcing of international being held to is determined by the degree to which com investigatory mechanisms - strengthened expertise in • batants comply, or fail to comply, with their account for investigating and prosecut responsibilities under humanitarian, human - rights and criminal law and seek to meet the ing crimes against children their actions. highest standards of civilian protection in their as a specific group that approach. The requirements to distinguish requires special protection between civilians and combatants, to ensure more proactive use of targeted sanctions • military attacks are proportionate to military against perpetrators aims and to take all necessary precautions greater support for international judicial • to protect civilians before launching attacks mechanisms – whether the ICC, ad hoc are all enshrined in IHL. Parties are required tribunals or greater application of the prin - to consistently abide by these standards, but ciple of universal jurisdiction. often they do not. In addition to international legal requirements, standards of conduct also Third , there is not enough practical action include additional measures that could sig being taken to keep children safe and to - support their recovery. Parties to conflicts nificantly lessen the harm caused to children are not doing enough to protect children by conflict. Examples include minimising the themselves or to allow others to provide use of explosive weapons in populated areas, assistance. Efforts by the global community avoiding the use of schools for military pur - to ensure the centrality of protection in the poses or proactively tracking and addressing delivery of humanitarian assistance are often civilian casualties and other forms of civilian challenged due to weak accountability for harm. critical protection issues, especially in pro Common Article I of the four Geneva - Conventions requires signatories not just to - tracted crises. Furthermore, crucial interven ‘respect’ the Conventions but also to ‘ensure tions that would protect children in armed respect’ for them. This is an important princi conflict are underfunded and under-priori - - tised. In 2017, UNICEF reports that 2.8 million ple, namely that those states that turn a blind children received some form of humanitarian eye to violations of internationally accepted 91 standards – by other states or by non-state child protection support , but this is just a actors – in effect enable those violations. The small fraction of the total need – UNICEF sale of arms, military equipment or associated estimates that some 48 million children are in services to parties to conflict where there is a need of humanitarian support in 51 countries 92 risk that they will be used in unlawful attacks worldwide. Between 2010 and 2018 the gap on children is a notable example of states widened substantially between the require - helping to undermine standards. ments detailed in humanitarian response plans for all forms of humanitarian protection Second , perpetrators of violations have little work – not just child protection – and funds reason to fear being held to account for their actually received, dropping from an already actions. Even when perpetrators of violations disappointing 42% in 2010 to just 37% in 93 of international laws have their crimes made 2018. The average share of total human - public and receive international condemnation itarian aid allocated to protection broadly for them, most do not face any real political, over the period 2010–18 is just 2.5% and the economic or legal consequences for their average share over the same period going to 94 behaviour. As a result, there are too few child protection specifically is just 0.5%. - Fur effective deterrents to those who would com thermore, too little of this funding is allocated - across multiple years, even though protection mit grave violations against children – and a work typical requires long-term investments culture of impunity is perpetuated. The cur - 95 in order to be successful. rent international architecture for accounta - Education for conflict-affected children sim - bility is based on essential human values, but 29

30 ilarly suffers from under-resourcing and short- blockade was imposed by the Saudi- and term approaches, as do some other forms of Emirati-led coalition (SELC), cutting off key practical protection such as mine-risk educa seaports as well as Sana’a airport. While the - ports opened again in December 2017, a de tion and ensuring adequate civilian protection facto blockade of administrative and logis capability in peacekeeping missions. There - is also a need for increased action to sup tical barriers remains, and Sana’a airport - is still closed to commercial flights, denying port the recovery of children who have been Yemenis the ability to seek critical medical harmed by conflict. Adequate mental health care abroad, hindering the import of medical and psychosocial support is critically lack - supplies and keeping families apart. These ing in most contexts. Reconstruction efforts impediments are at odds with the requirement typically focus insufficiently on investment in in humanitarian law to allow and facilitate children through education, health systems, rapid and unimpeded passage of relief where mental-health support and physical rehabilita - it is required. The scale of the impact of these tion, and professional development for people restrictions renders them disproportionate working in those services. under the law of armed conflict, with a UN The following case studies exemplify these Group of Eminent Experts deeming that ‘no three dimensions. While each offers an exam - possible military advantage could justify such ple of failures across all three dimensions sustained and extreme suffering by millions – standards of conduct, accountability and 101 of people’. practical action – they have each focus on one Yet the international community particular dimension. has failed to take strong action to change this situation. There is no way of knowing exactly how many children have been killed in Yemen’s war. But it is possible to document that explo - 1 Failing to uphold standards in conflict: the war in Yemen sive weapons, when used in populated areas, have been devastating. Airstrikes have been responsible for the highest proportion of Children in Yemen are currently caught up direct civilian casualties. Between March 2015 in the world’s largest humanitarian crisis. and November 2018, a total of 18,942 air Yemen has been ravaged by a conflict that raids struck the country. That is 14 air raids escalated nearly four years ago when Saudi per day or one every 102 minutes for almost Arabia, UAE and their allies, with diplomatic 102 four years. and military support from the US, UK, France Recent findings from the Armed and other Western countries, launched a mil Conflict Location and Event Data (ACLED) - estimate that the total number of civilian itary offensive against the Houthis, an armed fatalities as a direct result of conflict is over non-state group that conquered key parts of 60,000 since the escalation of the conflict – the country in opposition to the Yemeni gov - six times higher than the frequently cited UN ernment led by President Abdrabbuh Mansour 1 IN 5 103 figure of 10,000. Hadi. Nearly 80% of the population, 24 million 96 people, are now in need of humanitarian aid, Among the most shocking incidents was SCHOOLS 97 the airstrike that killed 40 students and their including at least 11.3 million children. 18 IN YEMEN teachers while on a school trip in August million people across the country are food ARE NO 2018. The bomb was dropped by Saudi planes insecure, including 8.4 million who are suffer - 98 LONGER but, according to reports based on analysis The healthcare ing from extreme hunger. BEING of the debris, had been built in the USA and system is on its knees, with over half of med - 104 99 was sold directly to the Saudi government. ical facilities damaged or closed – creating USED The USA is not alone in selling weapons that further barriers for Yemeni people who are have been used – or are likely to have been struggling in the face of a national economic crisis, widespread malnutrition and the grave used – in the conduct of hostilities in this war threat of cholera and other life-threatening and that, by extension, are likely to have diseases. killed children. Other nations selling weapons The UN has documented strong evidence or military equipment to the SELC or aiding the war effort through technology, training or indicating that all parties have committed other means include Canada, China, France, violations of international law, including grave Georgia, Italy, Serbia, South Africa, Spain, violations against children and violations and 105 100 abuses that may amount to war crimes. Sweden, Turkey and the UK. For instance, all parties have been responsible for - Attacks on schools are particularly con restricting access to humanitarian aid, exac cerning, not only for the direct risks of killing - and maiming of students, staff and other erbating the suffering of Yemeni children. civilians who may be nearby but also because In November 2017, a month-long complete PHOTO: SAM TARLING / SAVE THE CHILDREN • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 30

31 Damaged Fahad, school: 12, outside his school in West Mosul, which was damaged exten - sively during the fighting between Iraqi forces and ISIS. 31

32 of the destruction of opportunities for chil - consistently by any of the parties. Moreover, while all parties have been guilty of serious dren to secure an education and to advance violations of international law, one party – the their future. The UN-backed government has SELC – has done so with the support of multi endorsed the Safe Schools Declaration, which - includes a set of Guidelines for Protecting ple powerful international allies. It is a graphic Schools and Universities from Military Use instance of the failure of influential leaders in during Armed Conflict as well as broader the international community to insist on the commitments to protect education from norms and standards that all states are obli - attack. However, other parties to the conflict - gated to uphold – with predictably devastat have not committed to implement the Dec ing consequences for children and damaging - 106 implications for the international rules-based laration and the Guidelines. In 2018, the system. The protection of children and their UN Secretary-General’s annual report on rights should never be considered optional children and armed conflict verified 20 attacks or subject to negotiation. If the international on schools, including 19 aerial attacks by the community is to succeed in protecting children SELC, and eight incidents of military use of 107 in conflict, leaders must take responsibility schools by parties to the conflict. While and all its members must consistently, confi Saudi Arabia has reportedly established a - child protection unit at the SELC headquar dently and unequivocally assert and reassert - the centrality of the law, norms and frame - ters and the UN Secretary-General did not list SELC in the annexes to his 2018 report works established to constrain the behaviour for committing attacks on schools or hospi of parties to conflict. - tals, the patterns of harm have continued in 108 2018. One in five schools in Yemen are no longer being used because they have been damaged or destroyed, are sheltering dis - 2 Failure to hold perpetrators to account: the Rohingya crisis placed families or are being used for military 109 purposes. The UN has warned that repeated strikes ‘Unless those at every level of political and military on civilian centres ‘raise serious doubts’ about command fear that they will be held accountable 110 the SELC’s respect for IHL. for crimes and subject to prosecution, there is lit - There is also little evidence that any efforts to adhere more tle prospect of restraining their behaviour during closely to IHL have made an impact in reduc armed conflicts. Allowing perpetrators to benefit - from impunity can only lead to contempt for the ing civilian harm: between July and August law and to renewed cycles of violence.’ 2018, Saudi/UAE coalition air raids hit twice 115 Graca Machel as many non-military sites as military tar - 111 gets, worse than the earlier – and already disturbing – figure of one third of air raids On 25 August 2017, following a series of hitting non-military sites since March 2015. attacks on Myanmar police and border guard Moreover, leading international human rights posts by a loosely organised Rohingya armed organisations have been critical of the SELC’s group, the Myanmar security forces began a efforts to investigate allegations of violations systematic campaign of violence against the of IHL, finding that they have ‘failed to meet Rohingya population in northern Rakhine 112 international standards’, State. In the months that followed, more than including those of 730,000 Rohingya, over half of them children, ‘transparency, independence, impartiality and 113 were forced to flee the violence into neigh effectiveness.’ - On at least three occasions between 2015 bouring Bangladesh. It was an exodus of a and 2018, the SELC successfully prevented the speed and scale the world had not witnessed UN Security Council from adopting resolu since the Rwandan genocide in 1994. - The violence left thousands of people dead tions calling on parties to comply with IHL, and many more physically injured and psycho to cease hostilities and to engage in a UN-led - political process without preconditions and in logically affected. Save the Children’s teams good faith. The Security Council did, however, working with child survivors and their families adopt Resolution 2451 on 21 December 2018, in Bangladesh heard first-hand testimonies of endorsing the agreements secured at Stock the atrocities suffered by the Rohingya refu - - gees, atrocities that have since been described holm as part of the UN-led peace process and as ethnic cleansing, crimes against humanity providing a framework to support implemen - 114 and possibly genocide. Children have been tation. particularly affected. Children were often tar Yemen is important as an example of a - conflict where basic international standards geted for brutal sexual violence and killed and of conduct have manifestly not been upheld maimed indiscriminately. • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 32

33 The government of Myanmar and the dence of the guilt of perpetrators, or if the Myanmar military have repeatedly rejected ICC were to convict on the crime of forced deportation, there would still be the challenge the evidence presented by impartial investiga - of gaining custody of the guilty parties. tors, denied responsibility for the commission There are far too many instances around of crimes against humanity, blocked independ - the world of perpetrators of violations not ent and credible investigations, and impeded being held to account that could have been international human rights mechanisms. given as an example. However, the failure – so Journalists investigating the abuses have been far, at least – with respect to the atrocities imprisoned. Despite the gravity of the crimes committed against the Rohingya stands out committed, international efforts to challenge as an especially vivid example. If the interna the Myanmar government’s stance have been - inconsistent at best and certainly not propor tional community does not make it absolutely - clear that crimes of this magnitude will never tional to the enormity of the harm inflicted be tolerated, future perpetrators of violations, on the Rohingya. Some governments have whether in Myanmar again or elsewhere in actively blocked measures to impose interna - the world, will find encouragement. For that tional accountability, with others deferring to reason, the response the international com the government of Myanmar to investigate - 116 the crimes committed by its own military. munity chooses to make to those guilty of the This not only denies justice to the Rohingya, egregious crimes committed against children in Myanmar will reverberate right around the it normalises the crimes against humanity to world and potentially far into the future. which they were subjected and entrenches impunity. In spite of the Myanmar government’s refusal to cooperate with international mechanisms, the UN-mandated Independent 3 Lack of practical action on the Fact-Finding Mission has been able to conduct ground: the conflict in South Sudan a very thorough examination into human rights violations and abuses in the country. South Sudan is the world’s youngest country Released in September 2018, it was unequiv but in its short history as an independent - nation its children have endured violence, hun - ocal in calling for named senior generals of 1.9 the Myanmar military to be investigated and ger and rights violations on an immense scale. 119 prosecuted in an international criminal tribu Half the population is 18 or under and one - MILLION in two of these children are affected by the nal for genocide, crimes against humanity and 120 CHILDREN conflict and associated humanitarian crisis. war crimes. IN SOUTH Now, well over a year since these crimes Despite the signing of a peace agreement SUDAN ARE took place, the international community is in September 2018, more than seven million EXPECTED still faced with the task of establishing justice. people are in need of humanitarian assistance, TO FACE Important steps in the respect have been and the situation for children continues to SEVERE taken by the Human Rights Council and by deteriorate. Nearly one million children under PROTECTION the ICC. The establishment of an ‘ongoing five are acutely malnourished, almost half of RISKS IN independent mechanism’ by the UN Human IDP individuals are children and five out of ten 121 2019 Rights Council in September 2018, in particu children are out of school. Moreover, South - Sudan remains the most dangerous place in lar, offers hope that those responsible will one 122 117 the world for humanitarian actors. day be held to account. And in an unprec - - - edented decision, the ICC concluded in Sep All parties to the conflict have commit ted alarming levels of all six grave violations tember 2018 that it did, in principle, have the 123 jurisdiction to initiate an indictment against against children. At least 19,000 children are members of Myanmar’s military for the crime estimated to have been recruited and used in of forcible transfer of population, also called South Sudanese armed groups since the start 124 118 the crime of deportation. of the conflict in 2013 That decision , and thousands have been abducted, raped, killed or maimed. For opens the door for ICC prosecutors to apply for a full-blown investigation into Myanmar example, in July 2017 the UN verified the mass recruitment of more than 150 boys at a cattle for deportation and other crimes against 125 humanity, including persecution. market. The use of sexual violence, including These steps taken by the Human Rights rape, has been systematic and employed as a 126 Council and the ICC send a strong signal tactic of war. Conservative estimates put the to the Myanmar military that perpetrators total number of conflict deaths – both adults of crimes against the Rohingya will be held and children – at more than 383,000 since accountable. However, even if the ‘independ 2011, with the actual figure potentially much - 127 higher. - ent mechanism’ were to find conclusive evi Partly as a result of these violations, 33

34 Syria: Zahra, 11, with her sister Fati - ma*, 3, in the door - way of their family’s temporary shelter in the suburbs of Idleb where they have been living for few months after they were forced to leave - their hometown be cause of the violent clashes and heavy bombardment. PHOTO: AHMAD BAROUDI / SAVE THE CHILDREN While measures to drive up standards of 900,000 million children are estimated to 128 suffer from psychosocial distress. conduct by parties to the conflict and to hold In this con - perpetrators to account would make a big text, the UN estimates that 1.9 million children difference, South Sudan is a context where are expected to face acute and severe protec - 129 increased practical action could protect tion risks in 2019. children and enable huge numbers of them Protection in South Sudan has emerged to recover. The UN Secretary-General’s Spe as much by default as by design. The influx - of 200,000 South Sudanese into UN bases cial Representative for Children and Armed in search of protection in 2013 created a Conflict has expressed serious concern at the new set of challenges for the UN Mission in severe lack of funding for long-term sustain - South Sudan (UNMISS) and for humanitar - able reintegration programmes for children 130 formerly associated with armed forces and ian organisations. The huge presence of armed groups. This increases the risk of chil displaced people within these newly formed - 133 Protection of Civilians (PoC) sites has offered dren being re-recruited. Although nearly an opportunity for humanitarian actors to 6,000 children have been reunified with their 134 reach people with greater ease, but conditions families since the conflict started in 2013 , in these sites often do not meet minimum thousands of unaccompanied and separated 131 standards. children are in need of quality case manage - At the same time, given all those people in need of protection and humanitarian ment and appropriate care, including children assistance in South Sudan, it is possible there associated with armed forces and armed has been a disproportionate focus on those groups. within PoC sites at the expense of others Security spending accounts for 44% of 132 living elsewhere. the government’s budget. The persistence of The lack of child-specific conflict has contributed to the government’s expertise and child protection programming failure to allocate any of its annual budget is particularly problematic. UNMISS is a very to child protection and social assistance to important actor in the protection that exists 135 children. in South Sudan, but it is ill-equipped to provide As of the end of 2018, interna - child-specific programming or to enable others tional funding for child protection services to provide that assistance. – including family tracing and reunification, • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 34

35 Separated: Nur, 11, stands near his home in a Rohingya refugee camp in Bangladesh. Nur, who has been deaf since birth, became separated from his parents after their village was attacked in Myanmar. He’s now living with extended family. PHOTO: AHMAD BAROUDI / SAVE THE CHILDREN identified as shaping the war on children. case management, child-friendly spaces and These three dimensions give rise to three psycho-social support – was just 1.7% of the imperatives for action by the world’s leaders: total humanitarian spend, which was itself 136 • Uphold standards of conduct in conflict 40% underfunded. Education consisted and insist on these from their allies and of just 5% of that total despite there being others over whom they have influence. nearly 2 million children out of school. Lack Hold perpetrators of violations of chil • of multi-year and cross-sectoral funding - prevents investment in the comprehensive dren’s rights in conflict to account. community-driven responses required for • Take practical action on the ground to 137 children affected by conflict. protect children in conflict and to support As a result of their recovery. the shortfall, the majority of children who need services to protect them and to enable their recovery simply will not have access Taken together, these three imperatives can to the assistance they require – there is not form the basis of an international approach enough investment in crucial services. The to ending violations against children in children of South Sudan are suffering not only armed conflict. Even small steps in each of from abysmal standards of conduct by armed these areas would directly and indirectly actors and near total impunity for violations, strengthen the protection of children – mak - but from far too little practical action to keep ing a difference in themselves and raising them safe and to enable them to survive and expectations from others, thereby changing thrive. the international environment in which con - flict occurs. If all actors go up a step across each of these three areas, children living in the world’s conflict zones will be better pro - tected. Three imperatives for action Many more examples than the three given above could have been selected to demon - strate the three dimensions that we have 35

36 While this report emphasises the scale and severity of the threats facing children in con - flict today, recent history has shown that PART 3 when there is political will, action and funding the protection of children is possible. The following section sets out some existing and Emerging solutions: emerging initiatives and practices that demon - strate the possibility of progress. They can Ensuring children’s serve as a platform on which the international protection in community can build its efforts to protect the 420 million children currently living in areas conflict affected by conflict, through: upholding standards 1 . 2 . holding perpetrators to account 3 . taking practical action on the ground. 1 Upholding standards of conduct in conflict The following initiatives are examples of international action that has improved or is improving the ways in which conflict is con - ducted so that children – and civilians more generally – are better protected. None of these initiatives on their own is a panacea for the threats that children face in armed con - flict, but each is an inspiring demonstration that good work is being done and progress in protecting children in conflict is possible. Taken together, they paint an encouraging picture of how standards can be progressively raised over time. Leaders, governments, armed groups, funders and NGOs should sup - port and encourage them. The Safe Schools Declaration – reducing the military use of schools The Safe Schools Declaration is an intergov - ernmental political commitment to protect education during armed conflict. The Decla - ration is not legally binding and complements international humanitarian law. By endorsing it, states commit to: collect reliable data on attacks and military 1 . A platform on which use of schools and universities the international 2 . provide assistance to victims of attacks 3 . investigate, develop and promote ‘conflict community can sensitive’ approaches to education build its efforts to seek and support efforts to continue educa 4 . - tion during armed conflict protect the support the UN’s work on the children and 5 . armed conflict agenda 420 million children implement the ‘Guidelines for Protecting 6 . Schools and Universities from Military Use currently living during Armed Conflict’, which provide guid - ance on concrete measures that armed in areas affected forces and armed non-state actors can take by conflict. to deter military use of education institutions. • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 36

37 to prevent recruitment of girls and boys Since the development of the Declaration in and to support their reintegration, noting 2015, the imperative not to use schools for relevant international legal standards. The military purposes or to subject students and Paris Commitments lay out political commit teachers to attack has gained international - momentum. Save the Children is a member ments to be undertaken by states to address of the Global Coalition to Protect Education recruitment and use. from Attack, which has been encouraging By 2017, the 10th anniversary of the Paris governments to endorse the Declaration. Principles and Commitments, more than To date, 83 UN members have done so. The 115,000 children had been released from 141 Declaration is having a positive effect, with armed forces or groups. - At a global con analysis showing the discrepancy between ference in Paris marking the anniversary, countries that have and have not endorsed: more than 70 states, 10 UN bodies and 20 in countries that have not endorsed the civil-society organisations reiterated their Declaration, there has been a 97% increase commitment to addressing recruitment of in the reported incidents of military use of children in a global environment where the schools since 2014, whereas in countries that characteristics and dynamics of conflict are have endorsed the Declaration, the number changing. of incidents has dropped by half in the same 2017 also saw the launch of the Van - 138 period. Disappointingly, there was an couver Principles at a UN Peacekeeping increase over the last year in reports of the Defence Ministerial Conference. Recognising Direct the importance of the Paris Principles, the military use of schools in three countries that Vancouver Principles comprise a compre have endorsed the Safe Schools Declaration: - diplomatic Nigeria, Sudan and South Sudan. Nigeria and hensive set of pledges including political Sudan have recently taken steps to reassess commitments by member states to enhance pressure 139 their policies. the training, planning and conduct of their own forces within peacekeeping operations has proved as they relate to the recruitment and use of International instruments to children. protect children from recruitment to be While recruitment and use of children by – 115,000 children released armed forces and armed groups remain a The past 40 years have seen a range of a powerful pervasive and serious problem, there have legal instruments developed to strengthen been significant improvements over the children’s protection from military exploita - tool. last two decades. Since 1999, more than tion during conflict. As discussed above, 60 armed groups have made unilateral or the UNCRC commits all ratifying states to bilateral commitments to reduce and end protecting and ensuring children’s rights, 142 the recruitment and use of children. which means holding themselves account - Based on the data collected for the UN Secre - able before the international community for ensuring children’s best interests and tary-General’s children and armed conflict protection from violence, abuse, neglect report, 28 governments and armed groups and exploitation, including in armed con signed action plans with the UN between - 2005 and 2018, committing to end their flict. In recognition of this commitment, the recruitment and use of children. Over the Optional Protocol to the Convention on same period, 13 parties to armed conflict the Rights of the Child on the involvement were removed from the list of violators in of children in armed conflict in 2000 was a the annex to the UN Secretary-General’s significant development – the world’s first annual report on children and armed conflict international treaty wholly focused on end - after successfully implementing their plans. ing the military exploitation of children. The Direct diplomatic pressure has proved to Protocol entered into force in 2002 and has be a powerful tool. For instance, in 2012 the now been ratified by the majority of the 140 Obama Administration announced it would world’s countries. withhold foreign military financing and train - The Paris Principles and Guidelines on Children Associated with Armed Forces or ing from a battalion in the DRC until the Armed Groups (Paris Principles) and the government signed an agreement with the Paris Commitments to Protect Children from UN to end its use of children in its armed Unlawful Recruitment or Use by Armed forces. The UN had tried for seven years Forces or Armed Groups (Paris Commit to persuade the Congolese government to - sign the action plan; five days after the US ments) were established in 2007. Currently announcement, the DRC signed the plan. more than 108 states – over half the UN The US has put similar pressure on other General Assembly – have formally endorsed 143 states as well, with good results. them. The Paris Principles detail steps both 37

38 Engagement with non-state armed with, or remain associated with, its armed groups – securing commitments to end forces. Armed non-state actors would also violations commit to ‘further endeavour to provide chil - The UN Secretary-General’s report on chil - dren in areas where [they] exercise authority with the aid and care they [children] require’, dren and armed conflict shows that roughly including access to food, healthcare and edu three-quarters of all verified grave violations - 145 are perpetrated by non-state groups. Asym - Signatories agree to take the neces - cation. metric and diffuse conflict often contributes to sary enforcement measures, such as internal orders, training and sanctions, as well as to a race to the bottom, with increased brutality and reduced civilian protection. However, cooperate with Geneva Call in the verification too often there is a misleading perception of their compliance. Building on these Commitments, Geneva that engaging non-state actors or holding them to account is unrealistic. As the Interna Call works with groups to improve their - knowledge and operational capacity to com tional Committee of the Red Cross’s Roots of - Restraint in War report explained: ply with international standards, particularly in key areas such as use and recruitment of children; military use of schools; sexual and External entities are able to influence the gender-based violence; and protection of behaviour of armed forces and armed groups. healthcare. Through innovative technology, Making it a criminal offence for humanitarian dialogue, awareness-raising and advocacy, organisations and local communities to interact Geneva Call and its partners have had wide with armed groups is counterproductive and - hampers efforts to promote respect for human spread impact (see, for example, the box - 144 below). A lesson that emerges is that, con - itarian norms. trary to a commonly held view, certain armed non-state actors have proved willing to accept - Geneva Call, a non-governmental organ external oversight and to cooperate in the isation (NGO) that focuses on improving 146 scrutiny of their compliance. the compliance and behaviour of non-state armed groups, has engaged more than 100 actors in 25 countries. Complementing UN Banning landmines and cluster munition initiatives, Geneva Call’s main instrument is – saving thousands of lives and limbs the Deed of Commitment, a mechanism for The global community has made tremendous armed non-state actors to commit to inter progress in protecting civilians – including - children – from indiscriminate weapons. The national norms. Signatories to the Deed of Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Produc Commitment for the Protection of Children - commit not only to a total ban on the use tion, and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines of children in hostilities, but also to ensuring and on their Destruction, known as the that they are not recruited into their armed Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention, and forces (whether voluntarily or involuntarily) the Convention on Cluster Munitions are the and never to compel children to associate humanitarian disarmament standard-bear - ers for efforts to prevent and reduce harm 148 from indiscriminate weapons. These ban the production of anti-personnel mines and cluster munitions and require the destruction of stockpiles of these weapons. They are tes - - tament to the potential for successfully nego 149 children demobilised from tiated international treaties when there is armed groups in Syria sufficient consensus, insight and political will. The conventions have probably saved tens of thousands of lives. To date, 163 countries are party to the Mine Ban Convention, and In June 2014, after several months of negotiations with 120 countries have joined the Convention on Geneva Call, the People’s Protection Units, Women’s Cluster Munitions. More than 53 million mines Protection Units and ‘Democratic Self-Administration’ 149 have been destroyed in north-east Syria demobilised 149 children from their , large tracts of lands ranks and signed Geneva Call’s Deed of Commitment have been cleared and nearly 30 states have 147 150 protecting children in armed conflict. Their signatures been declared mine-free. A recent report publicly formalised their collective policy of preventing on cluster munitions shows a 72% decrease children under 18 from taking part in hostilities and pro - in investment in cluster munitions from 2017 151 to 2018. tecting them from the effects of the conflict. These conventions have created strong international norms, with many states not party to the conventions nonetheless • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 38

39 largely following the regulations set out in them. Some non-party states, such as the USA, also fund NGOs and other actors that work to clear the ground of explosive rem - nants of war in post-conflict contexts. The Arms Trade Treaty – the first international legally binding agreement to control conventional arms One direct and practical way for countries to protect children in conflict is to restrict the export, supply and transfer of arms, weapons and other military assets to parties to conflict where there is an overriding risk that they will be used to undermine peace and security or to commit or to facilitate serious viola - tions, including unlawful attacks on children. Entering into force in 2014, the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) has been ratified by 100 states and a further 35 have signed but not yet rat - PHOTO: BEN WHITE / SAVE THE CHILDREN 152 States that are party to the Treaty ified it. are obligated not to authorise international transfers of weapons if there is a high risk the weapons could be used in violation of international humanitarian and human rights law. Article 7.4 requires exporting states to take into account the risk of the conventional FORCED TO FLEE: arms and related items being used to com - mit or facilitate serious acts of gender-based GODFREY’S STORY violence or serious acts of violence against 153 women and children. The ATT represents significant progress as ‘I left South Sudan because the first international legally binding agree of the war. My father was - killed by rebels. They came to ment that establishes standards for regulating drink alcohol, and then started the trade in conventional arms and ammuni - shooting my father. He was tion, and with a core humanitarian purpose shot because he worked for of reducing human suffering. Some shifts in government behaviour have been achieved, the government.’ with several European arms exporters deny - ing, ceasing and/or halting export of military Godfrey, now 16, witnessed material to Saudi Arabia or other countries in his father’s brutal murder by the coalition in response to violations in the rebels in South Sudan. He left 154 war In Yemen. the country with the other However, at the time of writ - members of his family, includ - ing major arms-exporters including France, 155 UK and USA ing his sister who was heavily , continue to flout the treaty, with arms transfers to Saudi Arabia continu pregnant. - ing despite the overriding risk of violations of international humanitarian and human rights ‘It took us three weeks to arrive law in Yemen. at the settlement camp,’ says Godfrey. ‘We had no food, blankets or water. My sister Avoiding the use of explosive weapons gave birth during the journey, in populated areas – preventing a but the baby died.’ predictable pattern of civilian harm Conflicts are increasingly fought in populated Godfrey and his family now areas and children are particularly vulner - live in Bidibidi refugee camp able. For a number of years, the UN has pointed out the predictable pattern of harm in Uganda, where life is much that arises from the use of explosive weapons better. Godfrey volunteers with wide-area effect in densely populated in a Save the Children child- 156 areas. friendly space there. Avoiding this practice would save 39

40 children’s lives both during attacks and in - Data from the UN and country-specific civil the longer term, as well as reduce the risk of ian-tracking organisations gives us an indica - 157 children suffering other grave violations. In tion of the scale of the problem but is likely to 2018, the NGO Action on Armed Violence be the tip of the iceberg. The current lack of recorded 32,102 deaths and injuries from the resources given to casualty recording means use of explosive weapons around the world, that adequate data is unavailable for identi - as reported in English-language media. Civil fying the perpetrators and tackling causes of - harm to children in conflict. ians continued to bear the burden of harm, accounting for 70% of these casualties. Of the 158 civilian casualties, 43% were killed. Save the Children is proud to be a founding member of the International Network on Explosive 2 Holding perpetrators to account Weapons, an NGO partnership calling for immediate action to prevent human suffer Accountability can come in a range of forms, - 159 including through naming and shaming of per Increasingly, states ing from this practice. - are joining us in recognising petrators, seeking judicial action against them the issue as one of critical or imposing political or financial penalties. importance. Against the In principle, the starting point should always backdrop of stark examples be local or national-level action – that is, for For children of humanitarian harm, more governments or communities in the contexts than 80 governments, several where violations have occurred to lead the to be able to multilateral organisations, process of holding perpetrators to account. and consecutive UN Sec However, in cases where local or national participate, the - actors are either unable or unwilling to do retary-Generals and other this, regional-level or international mecha high-level UN officials have processes need - expressed concern. nisms may be needed. Children themselves can sometimes play to be made In 2018, Ireland led a joint an important role in accountability processes. statement at the thematic For children to be able to participate, the pro debate on conventional accessible - weapons at the UN General cesses need to be made accessible to them, Assembly to support this information must be child-friendly, children to them. call for action to tackle the need to be listened to, and they must be humanitarian harm caused supported to campaign and influence govern - by the use of explosive weapons in populated ments to achieve justice. 160 areas. Given the widespread impunity enjoyed by These are important first steps to perpetrators of violations of children’s rights the formation of a non-legally binding com - in armed conflict, accountability is the area mitment. Such a commitment should focus where there is the most work to do to close on avoiding the use of explosive weapons in the gap between formal and rhetorical inter populated areas, ensuring militaries under - - stand the area effects of the weapons they national commitments on the one hand and are using, and enhancing the understanding reality on the other. However, as described in of long-term reverberating effects. The UN the following examples, the progress made by Secretary-General’s Agenda on Disarmament some international-level initiatives offer some has called on states to engage constructively encouragement. in efforts to develop such a political declara - 161 Measures to secure justice for tion. child survivors of sexual violence The role of casualty recording in protecting children in conflict ‘The only prize in the world that can restore The systematic collection of evidence of harm our dignity is justice and the prosecution of to children in conflict is crucial if violations criminals.’ against children are to be properly recognised Nadia Murad, Islamic State survivor and subsequently reduced. Effectively record - and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize for her fight to end rape in conflict ing casualties can: • more clearly specify the causes of harm to civilians caught in conflict, including children Despite the sensitive nature of violations and and other vulnerable groups widespread underreporting of sexual vio - help in the avoidance and mitigation of • lence against children, a number of promising casualties developments at the international level have 162 hold those responsible to account. • emerged in recent years. In 2001, the UN • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 40

41 The importance of casualty recording territory, and the African Union Mission in Soma - Evidence compiled in 2013 from civil society organ - isations that record casualties showed that by far lia – also conduct and use casualty recording or 164 casualty tracking the primary cause of violent death among children - to various degrees. At head in Syria was explosive weapons, killing 7,557 chil quarters level, the UN Office of the High Commis - - dren – 71% of the 10,586 children whose specific sioner for Human Rights maintains a Human Rights cause of death was recorded. Small-arms fire was Case Database that records casualty information, reported as the cause of an additional 2,806 child and the UN Department of Peacekeeping Opera - 163 deaths (26%); tions has developed its own information-manage - this included 764 cases of summary execution and 389 cases of sniper fire, with clear ment system that includes casualty data. evidence of children being specifically targeted. This Close to real-time casualty recording can also level of descriptive detail, which is not provided by improve protection and humanitarian responses to overall mortality statistics or estimates, may prove children in conflict. In Yemen, the Protection Clus - essential in future accountability processes, up to ter (which coordinates humanitarian protection and including war-crimes tribunals. work) makes use of figures on child casualties pro - State armed forces that undertake casualty vided regularly by the Civilian Impact Monitoring 165 recording can review and amend their own con Project. - Despite the individual examples of good practice duct as necessary. For example, since 2018 the US above, coordination across these systems and con Department of Defense has been required by law - to investigate and report publicly on allegations texts remains patchy. As a result, opportunities for of civilian and combatant casualties resulting from useful information-sharing and analysis are lost. In its military operations. In addition to supporting order to address this obstacle and promote best accountability for victims, this process enables con practice, the independent NGO Every Casualty - Worldwide led a three-year consultation including tinual improvement of strategies better to protect 16 casualty-recording organisations, the Interna civilians in future. - Similarly, casualty recording provides the basis tional Committee of the Red Cross, various UN for evidence-based advocacy by third parties. Since agencies and the ICC. This process culminated 2007 the Human Rights unit of the UN Assistance in 2016 with the publication of the Standards for Mission in Afghanistan has used its systematical Casualty Recording, which are internationally rec - - 166 ly-recorded information on civilian casualties to ognised as the authoritative guide to the field. support advocacy with parties to the conflict, By adhering to the standards, casualty-recording organisations ensure consistency and accuracy leading directly to changes in their practice and a internally and across the sector. significant reduction in civilian casualties. Other UN peacekeeping and political missions – includ - Every Casualty Worldwide, January 2019 ing in Iraq, the DRC and the occupied Palestinian Security Council’s landmark resolution on - Recent momentum on this issue has fur Women, Peace and Security put the issue of ther resulted in the development of a robust girl’s experience of sexual and gender-based legislative framework in the Security Council, 167 violence in conflict on the diplomatic agenda. which has given the Office of the Special Rep - The creation in 2009 of the office of the Special resentative new tools to drive the mandate Representative of the UN Secretary-General on the ground and to begin to effect some (SRSG) on Sexual Violence in Conflict has changes in behaviour. The Taskforce for further helped bring visibility to this issue International Criminal Justice in South Kivu and energy to tackling it. Collaboration and in the DRC, for example, brings together alignment between the SRSGs on Children and international and national actors, including Armed Conflict and Sexual Violence in Conflict NGOs and local hospitals, to ensure account - is both mandated by the Security Council and ability for perpetrators of sexual violence crucial to addressing crimes of sexual violence against children and young people. Signifi - perpetrated against children in conflict. cant progress in the fight against impunity 41

42 was achieved in the DRC in 2017, with two PHOTO: MOHAMMED AWADH / SAVE THE CHILDREN emblematic cases being prosecuted: a colo - nel of the Forces Armées de la République Démocratique du Congo was convicted for the war crimes of rape and pillage affecting 150 civilians in Musenyi, South Kivu; and a member of parliament in South Kivu was con - victed of crimes against humanity for his role in the abduction and rape of 39 children in 168 Kavumu. The UK’s Preventing Sexual Violence Initia - tive – founded in 2012 with the aim of raising awareness of the extent of sexual violence in situations of armed conflict and rallying global 169 action to end it – is also significant. One key contribution has been the development of an international protocol on the documentation and investigation of sexual violence in conflict, which includes important guidance specifi - cally on sexual violence and children. The UK has formed a team of experts who can be deployed at short notice to support govern - ments, judiciary, police, military and NGOs WHEN A CROWDED on evidence-gathering and training. SCHOOL BUS WAS HIT International criminal mechanisms – BY AN AIRSTRIKE: steps towards justice for children The International Criminal Tribunal in the ISMAIL’S STORY former Yugoslavia (ICTY), which lasted from 1993 to 2017, changed the landscape of IHL. It provided victims an opportunity Ismail was seven years old to voice the horrors they had witnessed and when the school bus he was on experienced, developed the framework for was hit by an airstrike on the gender-based crimes of war and proved that 9 August 2018. He sustained those who commit atrocities against civilians severe shrapnel injuries in his in conflict can be held to account. The tribu leg, his eye and head, and - remains traumatised by the nal indicted heads of state, prime ministers, event. 40 children died in the army chiefs-of-staff, government ministers attack – most were under ten and many other leaders from various parties 170 years old. to the former Yugoslav conflicts. In the final trial judgement of the ICTY in 2017, Ismail was in hospital for sev more than 20 years after the Srebrenica - massacre, the court convicted Ratko Mladic, - eral weeks. He received inten former Commander of the Main Staff of the sive psychosocial support to Bosnian Serb Army, of ten offences, including help him come to terms with genocide, crimes against humanity and vio what he had been through. - lations of the laws or customs of war. Many ‘We were on the bus when the of his victims were children. Along with the rocket hit... One of my friends International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, died. Another one was injured. the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of I was unconscious until I was Cambodia and the Special Court for Sierra at the hospital. I couldn’t see Leone, the ICTY is an important example anything after I was hit. After of how concerted international action has a week or two, I started to see delivered some measure of accountability for a bit.’ crimes committed against children. Since those ad hoc conflict-specific courts and tribunals were set up, the Rome Statute Ismail wishes that the war of 1998 has been agreed, establishing the would stop. His dream is to International Criminal Court in 2002. The become a doctor so that he ICC recognised ‘conscripting or enlisting can treat children. • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 42

43 children under the age of 15 and using them The principle of ‘universal jurisdiction’ to participate actively in hostilities’ as a war allows national prosecutors to pursue indi - 171 crime. The first case before the ICC – The viduals believed to be responsible for certain Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo – grave international crimes such as torture, war crimes, and crimes against humanity, focused specifically on the recruitment and even though they were committed elsewhere use of children. The 2012 guilty verdict ren - and neither the accused nor the victims are dered by the Court was a landmark decision nationals of the country. Germany has the because it demonstrated that the ICC can broadest interpretation in Europe of this prin bring to justice perpetrators of war crimes - specifically against children. Important policy ciple and, partly as a consequence, has taken steps have been taken by the ICC that could a lead in investigating crimes committed in help improve justice for children. In Novem Syria. Such prosecutions are an increasingly - important part of international efforts to ber 2016, the Chief Prosecutor launched its hold perpetrators of atrocities accountable, Policy on Children, highlighting the severity to provide justice to victims, to deter future of atrocity crimes against and affecting chil - crimes and to help ensure that countries do dren and reinforcing the court’s child-sensi - not become safe havens for human rights tive approach. By doing so, the Prosecutor 175 abusers. elevated the investigation and prosecution of atrocity crimes against children to one of the While the heavily contested politics sur - key strategic goals of the ICC. rounding the war in Syria suggest that justice However, the pace of international justice for its many victims is probably still a long is very slow. The verdict in the famous case way off, the Mechanism and the investigations of Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo of the Central now underway are encouraging examples African Republic was overturned in June of how international legal action can still 2018, and a number of high-profile suspects increase pressure on perpetrators of viola - have so far evaded being brought before the tions even in the absence of an internationally court. The ICC faces challenges of jurisdic mandated judicial process. Lessons should be - learned from the operation of this Mechanism - tion and enforcement, but it is now the prin – and also from the ‘independent mechanism’ cipal mechanism for delivering international for Myanmar mentioned in Part 2 above – justice and as such is key to global efforts to with a view to establishing a standing mech tackle atrocities and violations against chil - - anism to compile evidence on comparable dren. crimes in other countries as well. The International, Impartial Innovations in the use of financial and Independent Mechanism sanctions to promote compliance – steps towards justice for Syria In December 2016, the United Nations Gen - with international law eral Assembly adopted resolution 71/248 In the USA, the Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act authorises the to establish the ‘International, Impartial and Independent Mechanism to Assist in the American Government to sanction human Investigation and Prosecution of Persons rights offenders, freeze their assets and ban them from entering the territory. The Act Responsible for the Most Serious Crimes is the basis of current efforts to establish under International Law Committed in the 172 sanctions in the USA against a list of nearly Syrian Arab Republic since March 2011’. 20 individuals thought to be involved in the The Mechanism is mandated to collect, con - death of Jamal Khashoggi, the Saudi journal - solidate, preserve and analyse evidence of violations of IHL and human rights law and ist who was killed in the Saudi consulate in 176 to prepare files in order to facilitate inde Istanbul in October 2018. Similar legislation - has been introduced in Canada and across pendent criminal proceedings in national, Europe, with the UK including a Magnitsky regional or international courts or tribu - Amendment into its recent Sanctions and nals that have – or may in the future have 177 Anti-Money Laundering Act. – jurisdiction over these crimes. At the time The Dutch of writing, over a million pieces of evidence government, with the Norwegian Helsinki had been collected. These have been shared Committee, is currently working at the EU with national prosecutors’ offices who in level to develop a stronger approach to turn are investigating against perpetrators of human rights sanctions, which could be used 173 international crimes. So far, Germany to target individuals, including from armed and 174 non-state actors, with travel restrictions France have issued arrest warrants for sen - 178 across the EU. ior Syrian officials and authorities in Sweden These are important and and Austria have also initiated investigations. potentially transformative efforts. They, and 43

44 Humanitarian child protection others like them, should specifically include grave violations against children in their man - – keeping children safe in conflict Humanitarian child protection actors work dates. to prevent and respond to child protection In many of the worst-affected countries, conflict is prolonged, exacerbated or driven issues through direct interventions with indi - by poor governance, corruption and ready vidual children, such as case management; access to natural resources. Holding the com through programmes with families, such - as economic strengthening and parenting panies, politicians and armed actors involved support; and by strengthening child pro in corrupt practices to account can reduce - the incentives that drive conflict and can help tection mechanisms in communities. They build peace. The US Security Exchange Com also seek to build the capacity of national - actors to implement effective social support mission’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act has systems. Child protection programming has sought to tackle the issue of corruption partly been identified as a life-saving intervention with a view to addressing terrorism and that both prevents and responds to threats insecurity. The Act has successfully limited and helps to reduce detrimental long-term the corrupt practices of large corporations impacts on child development in conflict. working in, for example, the DRC, Libya and Furthermore, experience has shown that Nigeria. In the UK, recent amendments to the cross-sectoral, fully integrated protection UK’s Criminal Finances Act have introduced programming can ensure that other humani Unexplained Wealth Orders as a civil inves - - tigatory tool to support asset recovery on tarian efforts are more successful. suspects of unlawful conduct, including gross Child protection work is complex and human rights abuses. Unexplained Wealth often resource-intensive. It is a relatively Orders require a person who is reasonably new sector that lacks a clear path towards suspected of involvement in serious crime to professionalisation, and the profile of child protection practitioners can vary across explain the nature and extent of their interest contexts according to needs and available in particular property held in the UK, and to qualifications. A mapping and market analy explain how the property was obtained where - there are reasonable grounds to suspect sis undertaken in 2015 by Save the Children that the respondent’s declared lawful income on behalf of the Child Protection Working would be insufficient to allow the respondent Group identified a shortage of high-quality to obtain the property. They therefore have practitioners of child protection in emergen - 179 the potential to be a powerful tool in efforts cies as a core challenge for the sector. It to tackle impunity for wealthy perpetrators of found that ‘children in a subset of some of the violations of children’s rights in conflict. most extreme emergencies likely require at least triple the current estimated child pro - tection in emergencies practitioners.’ Further, there is a lack of capacity building available to those who need it the most, particularly 3 Practical action to protect adults and professionals most regularly in children on the ground and to contact with crisis-affected children and the support their recovery network of community-based organisations and local-authority staff that constitute the Even if all the belligerents in an armed conflict protective system around them. upheld the highest standards of conduct and faced a credible threat of being held mean However, despite the constraints it faces, - the sector is working to address these chal ingfully to account if any violations did occur, - it would still be a profoundly unsafe context lenges. The Minimum Standards for Child for a child to find herself or himself in. It is Protection in Humanitarian Action establish 180 essential therefore that measures to increase the practice standards for the sector. The 181 compliance with international standards, laws Child Protection Area of Responsibility and norms are accompanied by investment in now has a localisation strategy based on the practical measures at scale to provide direct principle that humanitarian action should protection for children on the ground and to be as local as possible and as international support their recovery. Wherever possible, as necessary – this is in line with the local - these measures should be locally owned and isation workstream of the ‘Grand Bargain’, managed. Such measures can have a trans an agreement between the biggest donors - and aid providers that aims to get more formative impact for enormous numbers of 182 means into the hands of people in need. children. Following are some examples of encouraging approaches and initiatives that This strategy includes a focus on building the should be supported and built upon. capacity of national NGOs to co-lead the • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 44

45 been rolled out in Asia, the Middle East and coordination of child protection responses East Africa targeting national NGO staff in humanitarian contexts. The Alliance for and staff from national authorities. These Child Protection in Humanitarian Action are encouraging examples of the profes also has a complementary Learning and - Development Working Group that oversees sionalisation of a sector of humanitarian 183 a strategy for professionalisation. response that needs much greater financial A Save support in order to enable its life-saving and the Children-supported Professional Devel - life-changing work on the scale that children opment Programme for child protection in in conflict need. emergencies is a flagship initiative that has Action for child protection are children who have been registered as missing by Reaching every last child in Bangladesh their caregivers. This work led to the development of Case management is an effective approach to a practice handbook for family tracing and reunifica addressing an individual child’s needs in an appro - - tion in emergencies, which supports the application priate, systematic and timely manner through direct 184 support and/or referrals. of global standards and guidance to the South Sudan Using case management 187 context. approaches, child protection specialists facilitate the strengthening of the protective environment around children by ensuring that a structured approach is Community-based child protection taken to identify, assess, plan and review the pro - – sustainable change by those closest to children For the majority of children in conflict, their families tection needs of individual children. In humanitarian contexts, it is often done as an extension of the for and communities offer the most immediate and sig - - mal government case management system in order nificant protection. Based on numerous ethnographic to address overwhelming needs. In Bangladesh, child studies and practice reviews, community-based protection agencies worked with the national author child protection is most effective when it is ‘commu - - ities to provide case management to around 20 000 - nity-driven, bottom-up work that enables nonfor 185 highly vulnerable Rohingya refugee children in 2018 , mal–formal collaboration and alignment, greater use addressing issues such as family separation, sexual and of formal services, internally-driven social change 188 gender-based violence, child labour, abduction and and high levels of community ownership’. In East trafficking. Case management is challenging work, Jerusalem, protection agencies have supported the often requiring significant engagement with individ YMCA to help vulnerable communities in the West - Bank to design and implement their own protection ual children and collaborative work with families and resilience interventions through a ‘survivor and and communities to ensure children’s protection and community-led crisis response’, an approach that has access to multi-sectoral assistance and services. While been found to promote community resilience and a it is time- and resource-intensive, when considered as sense of dignity, empowerment of community and an integral part of an overall humanitarian response, youth, and accountability of local authorities to the child protection case management ensures that every 189 community. last child receives the humanitarian response neces Children can also be active agents for - change within their communities. The Save the Chil - sary to survive and thrive. dren Local Engagement to Advocate for Peace (LEAP) project in three conflict-affected provinces of southern Family tracing and reunification – life-changing Thailand supports ten local civil society organisa practical action for children in South Sudan - In coordination with UNICEF, the Child Protection tions to empower children through direct activities Area of Responsibility and 31 partners, Save the Chil and through advocating for a more child-friendly and - inclusive society by tackling injustice and inequality. dren has helped reunify nearly 6,000 unaccompanied The approach of building the capacity of local organ and separated children in South Sudan with their - families and communities through family tracing and isations to support children’s empowerment has been 186 reunification activities. particularly effective in enabling children to articulate - More than 18,000 unaccom their views and ideas at both the community and pro - panied and separated children have been registered for case management since 2013. In addition to the vincial level. 7,576 receiving on-going case management support, reunification follow-up and alternative care, 5,362 45

46 guidelines – the Inter-Agency Standing Com Mental health and psychosocial support - – a key to rebuilding futures mittee guidelines for MHPSS in emergencies – specify the need for a multi-layered system of support that is delivered at different levels ‘There has rightly been growing attention to 190 of social and health systems. mental health and psychosocial support in In recent years, humanitarian contexts over the last several interest has grown among donor governments years. But we now need to come together and and NGOs to find ways to step up MHPSS take a giant leap forward to consider how inter responses for children affected by conflict. An - important conference in January 2018 devel - ventions can be replicated and taken to scale to reach all those needing support, building on oped a global roadmap with four key pathways provision across the education, health and pro to addressing the MHPSS needs of children and - 191 young people affected by conflict: tection sectors.’ Professor Alastair Ager, multi-sectoral programming and coordina 1 . - Deputy Chief Scientific Adviser, UK tion across all layers and beyond just the child protection sector Department for International Development engaging young people not as beneficiaries 2 . but as participants in their own lives As discussed in Part I, the impact of conflict 3 . supporting caregivers’ wellbeing and MHPSS on children’s mental health can be severe and needs and not only their parenting knowl life-long. However, the experience of Save - the Children and other organisations work edge - 4 . strengthening national capacity. ing with children and their families in conflict zones affirms children’s remarkable resilience, and important initiatives are underway to Recognising that there are pre-existing strengthen mental health and psychosocial sup regional and global shortages of men - - port (MHPSS) in conflict contexts. International tal-health professionals, particularly for • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 46

47 CHARLIE FORGHAM-BAILEY/SAVE THE CHILDREN The Power of Arsenal Football: Football Club and Save the Children have combined their expertise to create a ground-breaking coaching programme to help to build children’s courage and inner strength through football. PHOTO: CHARLIE FORGHAM-BAILEY/SAVE THE CHILDREN action to support children’s mental health and paediatric care, professionals need to be wellbeing in conflict to concrete funding com prepared with additional tools to work with - children and their families in conflict. It is crit mitments and changes in practice – in order - to place MHPSS work at the core of humani - ical for donors and the global community to move quickly from rhetorical enthusiasm for tarian responses. The HEART Programme begins when children process and express memo HEART, which stands for Healing and Education - through the Arts, is an arts-based approach to ries, ideas or feelings through artistic expression or providing psychosocial support for children affected through talking with a trusted adult or peer who 192 by serious or chronic stress. listens supportively. It uses group-based, The HEART programme has been shown to help structured, expressive arts activities to help chil - children feel less isolated, more connected to their dren process and communicate feelings related peers and safe amid the trusted adults in their lives to their experiences. Activities focus on relaxa - and the larger community. This in turn can lead to tion, stress processing, understanding emotions, a child becoming more confident, secure, and capa emotional regulation, confidence building, group - communication, problem solving, conceptualising ble, and more likely to thrive in education or social the future and group support. The healing process settings. 47

48 PHOTO: CHARLIE FORGHAM-BAILEY/SAVE THE CHILDREN The Power of Football It was great to see that football brings joy to Arsenal Football Club and Save the Children have everyone; it’s something genuine that we all share. combined their expertise to create a ground-break - But beyond playing football, the programme is about ing coaching programme to help to build children’s equipping children for life and giving them opportuni courage and inner strength through football. Former - footballer Per Mertesacker saw this for himself when ties, keeping children’s dreams alive and helping them he visited Za’atari refugee camp in Jordan: orientate towards their goals. ‘I met a young Syrian boy called Mohammad. The programme uses a train-the-trainer approach, Despite having fled his country his family have built a which first trained Arsenal coaches, who then trained new life in the camp and, while he dreams of becom local coaches in Jordan, who in turn coach the Syrian - girls and boys. These coaches have also been trained ing a footballer, he lives in the present and wants to by Save the Children experts on psychological first develop and be the best he can be. It was a privilege to aid, enabling them to support building children’s resil visit his home and spend time with him. - When I was still playing, I had my own mental ience. health issues. Some days, I felt that everything was a I spent some time with the kids. You always take burden, both physically and mentally, but you have to something with you, like when I met 14-year-old deliver. My experience helps me to connect to young Nabila who told me that “Football isn’t just for boys, players because everyone has a story and everyone it’s equal. I’m so happy we’re getting coaching and goes through something. professional support to help us on and off the pitch.” In Za’atari, I saw efforts to help kids recover from I truly believe that when children miss out on their emergencies, bringing football to war-torn and pov potential, everyone loses in the world.’ - erty-stricken regions with the aim of providing relief Per Mertesacker is a former footballer for from the struggles of daily life. We’re looking at seri - Germany and Arsenal and current manager ous mental challenges and psychological scars that are difficult to talk about. of the Arsenal Academy. • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 48

49 Keeping children safe in and around multi-year joint programmes in protracted school – the Safe Schools programme - crises, enabling humanitarian and develop approach ment actors to work together on delivering collective education outcomes. ECW has already reached more than 765,000 children ‘My school is very cosy and warm. We got new and youth with quality education in 19 cri windows and heating. In the school the teachers - are nice. I love my school very much because sis-affected countries, though fewer than half my school is a zone of peace’. are girls. The fund is on track to reach over 193 Anna, 8 years old, Ukraine 1 million children by the end of 2018. At the time of writing, ECW has launched two ground-breaking multi-year programmes for Save the Children’s Safe Schools program - education for refugees and host communi - ming is an inclusive, all-hazards approach to keeping children safe from violence, disaster, ties in Bangladesh and Uganda. ECW plans conflict and everyday hazards in and around to launch an estimated ten more multi-year schools. It draws on decades of experience, programmes in 2019. It is critical that donors learning and research to support children continue to support its ambitious funding tar - facing disruption to education due to conflict, gets and ensure every multi-year programme including attacks on schools, forced recruit is fully funded. - ECW works with the Education Cluster ment and sexual violence. It builds on the – the worldwide coordination mechanism ‘Schools as Zones of Peace’ concept, which for education programmes in humanitarian was first developed in the Sri Lankan and contexts, which Save the Children co-leads Nepali civil wars to protect schools from the with UNICEF – to ensure the long-term impact of political disturbances and violence. sustainability of education provision in pro These programmes focused on communi - - tracted crises. It does that by consultatively ty-engagement initiatives to ensure that schools were declared ‘zones of peace’. Since developing response plans that capture the needs and costs of both emergency and the launch of the Safe Schools Declaration in longer-term programming. At the end of 2018 2015, safe schools programmes link concrete protection measures in schools and communi national-level education clusters and working - groups were active in 25 countries. Due to ties to long-term advocacy with and capacity increased interest and action for education building of duty-bearers and armed non-state in emergencies, the Global Education Clus actors. - These approaches facilitate sustainable, ter has received increased funding in recent scalable solutions to protect education from years to strengthen capacity for coordination; attack. Supporting the implementation of Safe however, funding remains inconsistent for Schools programming is one way that gov national clusters and education-in-emergen - - cies responses. ernments that have endorsed the Safe Schools Declaration can operationalise their commit - ments to make real changes for children on Supporting refugee children the ground. In Ukraine, for example, Save the – getting back into school within Children works with schools near the line of months, not years contact between the combatants to mitigate In signing the New York Declaration for Ref - the impacts of the conflict, connecting local ugees and Migrants in 2016, all 193 member interventions – such as the development of states of the UN agreed that protecting those school safety plans and psychosocial support who are forced to flee and supporting the for children – with national advocacy on the countries that shelter them are shared inter - Safe Schools Declaration through child-led national responsibilities that must be borne 194 advocacy. more equitably and predictably. Among other things, the Declaration promised to Education in emergencies – increased ensure that all refugee children would be in funding and improved coordination school and learning within a few months of The World Humanitarian Summit in 2016 saw crossing an international border. Two years the launch of Education Cannot Wait (ECW), on, in December 2018, the UN General a new fund that aims to create a catalytic Assembly agreed an important new interna - shift in financing in emergencies. ECW’s First tional framework, the Global Compact on Emergency Response investment window Refugees, that will transform the way the supports education programmes immediately world responds to mass displacement and in sudden-onset or escalating crises. The refugee crises, benefiting both children who fund’s Multi-Year Resilience investment win become refugees as a result of conflict and - children in the communities that host them. dow addresses longer-term needs through 49

50 Save the Children has focused its advocacy on this process specifically on the issue of refugee education. Including refugee children PHOTO: DAPHNEE COOK / SAVE THE CHILDREN in the national education system of their host country is the most practical and sus - tainable way to provide displaced children with accredited and certified learning oppor - tunities that can be monitored for quality. The Global Compact includes a number of positive commitments on this, including that efforts be made to get refugee children back in school, ideally within a maximum of three months after arrival, and that ‘support will be provided for the development and imple - mentation of national education sector plans 195 that include refugees.’ It refers to the need for inclusive education and explicitly refer - ences the need to overcome barriers to girls’ education in refugee contexts. An increas - ing number of countries are taking positive steps towards these goals, including seven ROAD TO RECOVERY: East African countries that have promised to include refugee education in their national JANAT ARA’S STORY 196 systems by 2020. While the Global Com - pact on Refugees is not legally binding and leaves open how countries meet commit - ‘When we learn and play, I feel peace in my heart, and forget what has hap ments, it has received widespread support. - The creation of the Global Refugee Forum pened to me.’ mechanism provides a vehicle through which governments will be able to make financial, 12-year-old Janat Ara, a Rohingya technical and policy pledges and through refugee, lives in a camp in Cox’s which progress will be measured. Bazar, Bangladesh. She and her younger sister are orphans. They are The Paediatric Blast Injury Partnership cared for by an aunt and uncle. – paving the way to better treatment Janat attends a Save the Children for children injured by bombs learning centre. and blast waves The Paediatric Blast Injury Partnership is an ‘I love the learning centre,’ she says. initiative between Save the Children and the ‘I particularly like it when we learn Centre for Blast Injury Studies at Imperial maths and English.’ College London that brings together experts and institutions dedicated to improving the ‘I have been through a lot back in response to children critically injured by Myanmar,’ she adds. ‘At the learning explosive weapons, wherever they may be. centre we do drawing, dancing and Its purpose is to fill in the gaps in practice singing. That’s helped me and all the and research, to help increase awareness of children who go there to forget what the complexity and long-term effects of blast we’ve been through.’ injury on children and to provide practical guidance to practitioners on the ground. It is the first organisation in the world specifically Janat also attends girl friendly space focused on the challenges of paediatric blast run by Save the Children. Here trauma. she’s learned about keeping healthy, The Partnership has created a field manual self-protection, risks of child marriage for medics working in conflict and post-con and fire safety. - flict zones to help them treat blast-injured children. It is a pragmatic framework to ena - ‘I want to work when I grow up,’ she says. ‘I need to be able to earn ble paediatricians without trauma experience money for myself.’ She hopes to and trauma clinicians without paediatric become a teacher or to work in a experience to structure their care of blast-in - hospital or for an NGO. jured children, turning guesswork into trans - • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 50

51 ferable skills at the moment when they are needed most. In this way, it enables clinicians working in severely constrained environments Our training has reached to look after severely injured children with the direction and confidence needed, increas - approximately 100,000 military ing their patients’ chances of survival and their prospects for future wellbeing. staff and child protection units Civil–military coordination and training have now been set up within Given the severe impact conflict has on chil - 12 national armed forces. dren, coordination between military and civil actors is an important means of reducing the risks that children face. For Save the Children, the key approach is to facilitate the inclusion of child rights and child protection approaches within the operational frame this role depends on having a clear mandate - and objectives, as well as sufficient budget. works of military, police and other relevant Other governments should consider following groups. Our training has reached approxi - Sweden’s lead. - mately 100,000 military staff and child pro tection units have now been set up within 12 Mediation and peace processes national armed forces, with a further module developed for the African Union Standby – putting children at the centre Forces toolkit. We have also recently devel Including child-specific provisions at the - outset of any political agreement increases oped a partnership with NATO to develop a the chances of preventing future violations child-specific directive, which will offer states and of ensuring the protection of children. a blueprint from which to draw in order to This has been demonstrated recently in the mainstream these approaches more broadly. Colombian peace process, during which child While complex, this sort of civil–military protection served as a useful entry point coordination has tremendous impact when 198 for dialogue with armed groups. done effectively. Participation in, and design In 2018, of, training for military actors – focusing on the UN Security Council called upon mem - the unique vulnerabilities and needs of chil - ber states, United Nations entities, and the UN Peacebuilding Commission to take into dren, as well as the obligations on military account children’s views, where possible, in actors – helps to promote knowledge and 199 peace-making processes. compliance. In crucial areas, for instance UN agencies, civil the recruitment and use of children in armed society and UN member states have recently groups, improved training has translated into joined efforts to develop soft guidance for improved action on the ground. Given mili mediators. In 2016, Watchlist on Children - and Armed Conflict, a policy advocacy plat taries’ enormous role in protecting children in - conflict, investing in embedding child-specific form in New York, worked with stakeholders, expertise within them is crucial. including the UN Department of Political Affairs’ Mediation Support Unit, to put together a Checklist for Drafting Children Appointing an ambassador for and Armed Conflict Provisions in Ceasefire children and armed conflict 200 and Peace Agreements. Subsequently, – making children a priority the Security Council in its 2017 Presidential In 2017, Sweden appointed an ambassador 197 specifically for children and armed conflict Statement on children and armed conflict , encouraged the Special Representative of acting as a focal point across all government the UN Secretary-General for Children and departments to ensure a consistent focus and Armed Conflict to work with relevant child investment in protecting children in conflict. protection actors to compile a practical UN This role has made a significant difference guidance document on the integration of child to the effectiveness of Sweden’s work on this protection issues in peace processes, thereby agenda, raising its profile within the Swedish 201 taking work on the Checklist further. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and, importantly, By strengthening the focus on children in armed developing concrete resources to facilitate conflict in multilateral forums, such as the mainstreaming of children’s issues into peace UN and the European Union. One result has and ceasefire agreements, the global child been substantially more effective work on this protection community is increasing the likeli - agenda at the UN Security Council level dur hood of children’s concerns being addressed - in the aftermath of conflict. ing Sweden’s two-year term. The success of 51

52 This report has set out the scale and severity of the threats to children in armed conflict and the distinctive and devastating impact that such threats can have on PART 4 children. To respond to these escalating threats, Turning the tide: we set out three pillars for action: upholding standards of conduct in conflict 1 . an international holding perpetrators to account for violations 2 . re-commitment to 3 . taking practical action on the ground to keep children safe and to support their recovery. children in conflict There are powerful intrinsic moral arguments for greater efforts to protect children in conflict. Such efforts are also critical for the maintenance of the inter - national rules-based system everyone’s security depends on. There are compelling strategic and economic rea - sons to commit seriously to this agenda: unless the fail - ure to protect children in conflict is tackled, sustainable development and sustainable peace are in jeopardy. Pro - tecting children in conflict is of universal importance. As Save the Children enters its centenary year, we are recommitting to our founding purpose: we will hold ourselves and others to account to do more to ensure the protection of children in conflict. Working in almost all those conflict-affected countries that are the worst places to be a child (see page 18), Save the Children will scale up operational responses in key areas, including child protection and education in emergencies, and will support children’s recovery, including those who have suffered mental and psychosocial harm. We will strengthen our advocacy to challenge states and armed non-state actors to live up to their obligations and to push leaders to take their responsibilities more seriously. This report has highlighted examples of where inter - national progress has been achieved and children have been better protected as a result. The hope they offer must galvanise further action. Our ‘Stop the War on Children’ Charter (overleaf) sets out principles for protecting children in armed con - flict, holding those responsible for violating the rights of children to account and helping children rebuild their lives. This final section of this report makes recommen - 2019 dations on how the Charter’s principles can be trans - lated into action. There is nothing inevitable about the grave viola - tions or suffering that is inflicted on children in Yemen, The 100th year Myanmar, South Sudan or any other conflict. Viola - tions against children take place because of conscious since the founder decisions made by individuals – decisions taken by the of the idea of child perpetrators themselves and by others on whether or not to intervene. The values and incentives that deter - rights began her mine those decisions can – and must – be influenced work and the 30th and changed. Governments have an especially crucial role to play in shaping these values and incentives – the anniversary of the standards and instruments upheld by states influence the UN Convention on environment in which other states and non-state actors operate. For this reason, governments, in particular, the Rights of the must urgently strengthen the three pillars for action Child. described in this report. • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 52

53 ‘Stop the War on Children’ Charter We call on every government and every armed ‘Every war is a war against children.’ group to affirm and adhere to international laws, Written by Save the Children’s founder Eglantyne human rights provisions, rules and standards Jebb one hundred years ago, those words are a designed to protect children. call to action for our generation. Individually and collectively, we are Across the world, millions of children are caught up in wars they played no part in creating. Many committed to working for a world in which: children are routinely subjected to appalling acts of violence, including killing, maiming, sexual vio - • All children are protected against killing and maiming. lence and exploitation. Many more are treated as • Schools and health centres are treated as zones collateral damage in general onslaughts that fail of peace and protection. to protect children. Children in desperate need of Every child is protected from rape and sexual • food, care and help are denied humanitarian aid. violence. And failure to protect schools and schoolchildren • No child is recruited into armed forces or has resulted in classrooms becoming a target. groups. All children in conflict are safe from abduction, • Fundamental human rights and international laws detention and displacement. designed to protect vulnerable children from the No child is denied access to humanitarian aid in • anguish and destruction of war are violated with conflict. impunity. Violations of the rights of children in conflict are • rigorously monitored, reported and acted on. As people of many countries, cultures and beliefs, • Those committing, overseeing and ordering vio we demand that the war on children must stop. - The time has come to shatter the culture of impu - lations against children in conflict are brought to justice and held accountable for their actions. nity surrounding those who commit crimes against • Every child harmed or affected by conflict the world’s children – our children. receives practical help and support to cope, recover and rebuild their lives. Children are our present, our future and our hope • All children affected by conflict, including refu for rebuilding societies broken by war. No child - should be subjected to the fear and trauma that gees and those internally displaced, have access come with armed conflict. And every child has to a good-quality education. the rights that need to be protected, grounded in shared morality. Our common humanity demands Eglantyne Jebb said, ‘The only international that we act on our responsibility to provide that language in the world is a child’s cry.’ protection. We have heard that cry and it will not go unanswered. The war on children must stop. 53

54 RECOMMENDATIONS We call upon all leaders, governments, armed tive standards – as a matter of policy, no state should authorise the sale of arms, non-state actors, humanitarian NGOs and military equipment or services to actors relevant bodies to re-commit to protecting that are listed by the UN Secretary-General children in conflict and to set out their own for committing the six grave violations or practical agendas for action. where there is credible evidence that the The following recommendations are aimed weapons may be used to perpetrate rights specifically at governments, since it is govern - 202 violations against children. Further, all ments that have the primary responsibility for states should endorse and ratify the Arms upholding children’s rights and the greatest potential influence on the protection of chil Trade Treaty, with parties to the Treaty - adhering to its obligations in full. dren in conflict. In developing their agendas for action, we call on governments to: Hold perpetrators of violations to account: Uphold standards of conduct in conflict Support international mechanisms to pros • Commit to sign and implement in full the • - Optional Protocol to the Convention of ecute cases of violations of children’s rights the Rights of the Child on the involve in conflict, including through resourcing - dedicated gender-sensitive, child-specific ment of children in armed conflict and to expertise in international investigations and endorse the Paris Principles and the Paris through support for the ICC and ad hoc Commitments, which include the principle judicial mechanisms. of ‘straight 18’ for recruitment into armed Encourage the UN General Assembly to • forces. establish a standing impartial, independent • Commit to endorse and fully implement the and international mechanism that can be Safe Schools Declaration and to encourage activated to collect, consolidate, preserve other states to follow suit. and analyse evidence of violations of inter Strengthen doctrine, training and other • - measures to ensure armed forces and allies: national humanitarian law and human rights • Understand and take into account the violations and abuses, notably children’s reverberating effects from military rights. actions in collateral-damage assessments Support financially and diplomatically the • Take measures to reduce them • UN’s systematic monitoring and reporting • Record casualties according to interna of violations of children’s rights in conflict, - including the tracking of age- and sex-dis - tionally agreed standards. Support progress towards a political decla • - aggregated data on casualties and other violations, and the complete, accurate and ration on avoidance of the use of explosive impartial naming of perpetrators. weapons in populated areas. Develop and use national systems – such • Facilitate dialogue between states, the UN, • as sequestering property, freezing bank NGOs and non-state armed groups to accounts and imposing travel bans – to take protect children; support efforts to engage action against individual perpetrators of non-state armed groups to develop policies, violations of children’s rights in conflict and codes of conduct and action plans to pro - resource national crime agencies to inves tect children; and ensure that humanitarian - and human rights work is not impeded by tigate grave violations of children’s rights restrictions on organisations’ interaction in third countries and to prosecute through with armed groups. national courts. • Regulate and improve transparency on Support children to raise complaints of vio • - international arms transfers and delivery lations of their rights in conflict directly – in and the supply of other military services, Africa through the complaints procedure making these explicitly conditional on of the African Committee of Experts on the 203 respect for international legal and norma Rights and Welfare of the Child - and glob - • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 54

55 their access to good-quality education. ally by committing to sign and ratify the • Designate dedicated, senior child protection third Optional Protocol to the Convention and child rights expertise in multilateral on the Rights of the Child, which enables peacekeeping and political missions, by children to hold parties to the UNCRC to 204 securing specific provisions in UN Security account for failing to uphold their rights. Council mandates including explicit resourc Support an amendment to Article 8 of the • - Rome Statute to include intentional starva - ing for senior-level child protection advisers. Review approaches to counter-terrorism • tion of civilians within the list of war crimes and prevent violent extremism to ensure capable of being committed in non-interna - that children are treated first and foremost tional armed conflicts. as children, irrespective of their alleged • For members of the Security Council: refrain association with armed groups. from impeding UN action against perpetra - Appoint an ambassador for children and • tors of grave violations of children’s rights armed conflict at national levels. in conflict. Systematically support the inclusion of chil • - Take practical action to protect children dren in peace-making and peace-building and support their recovery efforts. Increase multi-year investment in human • - 2019 is the 100th year since the founder of itarian child protection with the aim of the idea of child rights began her work and growing its proportion of total humanitar - the 30th anniversary of the UN Convention ian funding from 0.5 percent to 4 percent, on the Rights of the Child. The UN General and ensure the centrality of protection Assembly’s 74th Session in September 2019 is in humanitarian needs assessments and thus a timely opportunity for governments to responses in conflict contexts, requiring articulate their recommitment to protecting all humanitarian sectors to measure and children in conflict through specific pledges report on child protection outcomes in their 205 of actions they will take against each of the interventions. three pillars. For the children living in the • Ensure mental health and psychosocial worlds’ conflict zones, these commitments and support for children and their families are this action cannot come soon enough. well resourced and fully mainstreamed as an essential component of all humanitarian responses. • Increase investment in other crucial protec - tive humanitarian programmes for children, including education, programmes to tackle sexual and gender-based violence and mine- risk reduction. • Mobilise new child-focused recovery fund - ing as a core element of post-conflict reconstruction, building human capital by investing in children’s education, healthcare, protection, mental health and psychosocial support. • Ensure that all children forced by conflict to For the children living in the leave their homes have access to good-qual - conflict zones, these worlds’ ity education within a few months of dis - placement, and support the development of national costed plans that set out the commitments and this action financing needs for all displaced children to be educated and the measures for ensuring cannot come soon enough. 55

56 ENDNOTES pdf?OpenElement Save the Children (2018), The War on Children: 1 11 United Nations General Assembly resolution 34/180, Time to end grave violations against children in conflict Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination 2 See for example, Williams (2017), ‘Continuity and (18 December 1979). http://www. against Women Change in War and Conflict in Africa’ , PRISM, 6, 4, un-documents.net/a34r180.htm p33-45 https://cco.ndu.edu/PRISM-6-4/Article/1171839/ 12 It is mandated with maintaining international peace continuity-and-change-in-war-and-conflict-in-africa/ and security, including through the establishment of 3 ICRC (2019), ‘Precautionary measures in urban warfare: peacekeeping operations and special political missions, , https:// A commander’s obligation to obtain information’ international sanction and the authorisation of blogs.icrc.org/law-and-policy/2019/01/10/joint-blog- military action. series-precautionary-measures-urban-warfare- 13 In 2015, states agreed the 2030 Agenda for commander-s-obligation-obtain-information/ Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable 4 This is reflected in the major faiths, which place Development Goals. These set an ambition for value on the protection of children. In Islam, for human development – including inclusive and peaceful example, clear rights exist to life, protection, health societies of which protection is a key component. and education. At the foundation of the Jewish social SDG 16 sets targets to reduce all forms of violence world-view is the proposition that individuals are against children (SDG 16.1, 16.2). The Sustainable obliged to protect the life and dignity of all human Development Goals (2015) UNDP. https://www.un.org/ beings, with the vulnerability of children demanding sustainabledevelopment/ an even greater responsibility. In Christianity, the 14 Ostby et al (2018) Children Affected by Armed Conflict , belief that children are a gift from God and should be 19 9 0 –2017, PR IO the subject of protection and cultivation is central. In 15 Defined as individuals under the age of 18 Buddhism, the avoidance of harm is a taught precept 16 The number of children living in conflict zones in 2016 that runs through all the Buddha’s teaching. is estimated at 393m. This is higher than the figure 5 The UN Convention of the Rights of the Child was End the War on of 357m cited in Save the Children’s adopted in November 1989 and came into force in (2018). The upward revision is due to the use Children September 1990. Currently, 196 countries are party of more accurate and finer-grained population data. to it, including every member of the United Nations 17 For full methodology see Ostby et al, note 16. except the USA. 18 This methodology therefore uses different definitions 6 Much of the following is drawn from Fatima, S. et of armed conflict from those used in International al (2018) Protecting Children in Armed Conflict , Hart Humanitarian Law (IHL)/Law of Armed Conflict Publishing. (LOAC). 7 The ICC’s Policy on Children identifies the following 19 A notable absence from this list is Myanmar, where war crimes directed specifically against children: child violence forced hundreds of thousands of Rohingya recruitment and use, the forcible transfer of children people – more than half of whom were children – to as an act of genocide, and trafficking of children as a flee into neighboring Bangladesh in August and form of the crime against humanity of enslavement or September 2017 (see page 32). Inadequate reporting sexual slavery. Other crimes affecting children include: and data collection mean that the absolute numbers killings, mutilation, torture, pillaging, and sexual and captured are low. gender-based crimes, perpetrated either against Yemen overview 20 UN News (2018), (webpage), https:// children themselves or their families and communities, news.un.org/en/focus/yemen. and attacks against buildings dedicated to education 21 Save the Children (2018), Starvation in Yemen: and healthcare. ICC Office of the Prosecutor, (2016). 85,000 children may have died of hunger . https://blogs. Policy on Children . https://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/ savethechildren.org.uk/2018/11/starvation-in-yemen- otp/20161115_OTP_ICC_Policy-on-Children_Eng.PDF 85000-children-may-have-died-of-hunger/ 8 United Nations Security Council, S/RES/1612 End the War on Children: Time 22 Save the Children (2017) (26 July 2005). http://www.un.org/ga/search/ to end grave violations against children . https://www. view_doc.asp?symbol=S/RES/1612%20 savethechildren.net/waronchildren/pdf/waronchildren. (2005)&Lang=E&Area=UNDOC pdf 9 United Nations Security Council, S/RES/1325, Annual Report of 23 United Nations, General Assembly, (31 October 2000). https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/ the Secretary General on Children and Armed Conflict doc/UNDOC/GEN/N00/720/18/PDF/N0072018. (CAAC). S/2018/465 (16 May 2018). http://undocs. pdf?OpenElement org/s/2018/465 10 United Nations Security Council, S/RES/1265, ‘Armed conflict and child mortality in 24 Wagner et al (2018) (17 September 1999). https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/ Africa: a geospatial analysis’ , The Lancet, Vol 392, 10150, doc/UNDOC/GEN/N99/267/94/PDF/N9926794. • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 56

57 2011–2016’ , The Lancet, Vol 6, 1, 2017, pp 103–110. Pp 857-865. https://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/ Available at https://www.thelancet.com/journals/ lancet/PIIS0140-6736(18)31437-5.pdf langlo/article/PIIS2214-109X(17)30469-2/fulltext 25 This is the estimated minimum total indirect deaths Landmine Monitor 2018: 34 Landmine Monitor (2018), of infants/under-fives in the period 2013–2018. For 20th annual edition. http://www.the-monitor.org/ Afghanistan, the Central African Republic, the DRC, media/2918780/Landmine-Monitor-2018_final.pdf Mali, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan and Yemen, we 35 See note 23 assume that the findings of Wagner et al apply, as 36 Office of the Special Representative of the baseline infant/under-five mortality is comparable Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict (based on UNIGME data). Using Wagner et al’s ‘Child recruitment and use’ (webpage), https:// (2019), finding that 3.2–3.6/5–5.7 under-one/under-fives die childrenandarmedconflict.un.org/six-grave-violations/ for every one battle death, we multiply recorded child-soldiers/ battle deaths in our sample countries (UCDP) by 37 See note 23 the mid-point in the range (3.4/5.35) to estimate the 38 United Nations, Human Rights Council, ‘I lost my number of indirect under-one and under-five deaths dignity’: Sexual and gender-based violence in the Syrian that resulted from conflict (n = 555,150 and 868,011 Arab Republic. HRC/37/CRP.3 (8 March 2018), https:// respectively). This total includes adjustments for Syria www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/ and Iraq – both of which had lower baseline infant CoISyria/A-HRC-37-CRP-3.pdf and child mortality. In those two countries we used 39 See note 23. The Chibok girls are female students Wagner et al’s findings that 6.6–7.3%/6.6–7.4% of all who were kidnapped from the Government Secondary under-one/under-five mortality could be attributed School in the town of Chibok in Borno State, Nigeria to conflict – applying those percentages to total in April 2014. infant/under-five mortality in Syria and Iraq between 40 UNICEF (2018), Nearly five million Syrian children 2013 and 2018 (UNIGME). This is a deliberately accessing education despite over seven years of war on conservative approach. According to UCDP data, (webpage) https://www.unicef.org/press- children. and Violations Documentation Center data for Syria releases/nearly-5-million-syrian-children-accessing- due to underreporting in the UCDP data, there were education-despite-over-seven-years-war 331,664 battle related deaths in the same countries Yemen Humanitarian Needs 41 UNOCHA (2018), in the same period. Of these, using the same sources, , https://www.unocha.org/sites/unocha/ Overview 2018 174,703 were combatants. files/dms/yemen_humanitarian_needs_overview_ 26 The annual children and armed conflict reports are hno_2018_20171204.pdf; UNICEF, (2017). Yemen not the only vehicle for recording and publishing , https:// Humanitarian Situation Report November 2017 violations against children in conflict. The Special www.unicef.org/yemen/YEM_sitreps_Nov2017.pdf Representative of the UN Secretary-General for 42 See note 41 Children and Armed Conflict also produces context- ‘Back to school, but not for all 43 Associated Press (2018), specific reports, which provide further detail. The of Syria’s children’ (webpage), https://www.apnews. SRSG also provides a report to the UN Human com/0e72a3ca724b4b35bdb8a9c215363b3c Rights Council. In addition, violations against girls 44 UNOCHA (2018), Ukraine Humanitarian Needs are reported in the UN Secretary-General’s annual Overview 2018 , https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/ report on women, peace and security, and the UN’s files/resources/humanitarian_needs_overview_2018_ annual report on sexual violence in conflict includes en_20171130.pdf data on sexual violence against girls and boys. ‘I will never go back to school’: The 45 GCPEA (2018), 27 See note 23 Impact of Attacks on Education for Nigerian Women and 28 Office of the Special Representative of the Girls. http://protectingeducation.org/sites/default/files/ Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict documents/attacks_on_nigerian_women_and_girls. ‘Children faced with unspeakable violence in (2018), pdf conflict as number of grave violations increased in 2017’ Education Under Attack 2018 46 GCPEA (2018), , http:// (webpage) https://childrenandarmedconflict.un.org/ www.protectingeducation.org/sites/default/files/ children-faced-with-unspeakable-violence-in-conflict- documents/eua_2018_full.pdf as-number-of-grave-violations-increased-in-2017/ 47 See note 46 29 See note 23 48 See note 23 ‘Geneva 30 UNICEF, 27 November 2018, press release, 49 Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict (2018), Palais briefing note on the situation of children in ‘Everyone and everything is a target’: The impact of attacks Afghanistan’ , https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/ on healthcare and denial of humanitarian access in South geneva-palais-briefing-note-situation-children- Sudan , https://watchlist.org/wp-content/uploads/ afghanistan watchlist-field_report-southsudan-web.pdf 31 See note 23 Healthcare in Danger: 50 Healthcare in Danger (2011), 32 See note 23 Making the Case, ICRC , http://healthcareindanger.org/ 33 Guha-Sapir et al (2017) ‘Patterns of civilian and child the-issue/ deaths due to war-related violence in Syria: a comparative 51 The ten conflict-affected countries included in the analysis from the Violation Documentation Center dataset, 57

58 do-children-want.pdf analysis were Syria, Afghanistan, Somalia, Yemen, 67 See note 46. Nigeria, South Sudan, Iraq, the DRC, Sudan, and (webpage), http://www. ‘The Problem’ 68 GCPEA (2019), the Central African Republic. Save the Children UK protectingeducation.org/problem (2018), Hunger – a Lethal Weapon of War: The impact Education Cannot Wait: Proposing a fund for 69 ODI (2016), , https://www. of conflict-related hunger on children , https://www.odi.org/sites/odi. education in emergencies savethechildren.org.uk/content/dam/gb/reports/policy/ org.uk/files/resource-documents/10497.pdf Hunger%20-%20a%20lethal%20weapon%20of%20 70 These can include higher rates of child marriage and war%207th%20pp.pdf adolescent pregnancy; greater levels of domestic 52 See note 51. labour and care work that keep girls in the home; lack 53 For more, see de Waal, A (2018), Mass Starvation: of mobility due to safety concerns either at school or , Polity Press. The history and future of famine en route; lack of access to menstrual hygiene supplies; 54 Shenoda et al (2018), ‘The effects of armed conflict on and a low value placed on girls’ education generally. , Pediatrics, Volume 152, 6, http://pediatrics. children’ 71 MONESCO (2018), Global Initiative on Out of School aappublications.org/content/142/6/e20182585 , Global Partnership Children: South Sudan case study 55 See note 21. for Education/UNICEF, https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ 56 See note 54. ark:/48223/pf0000265399 The State 57 FAO, WFP, UNICEF, WHO, IFAD (2017), 72 UNHCR (2016), No More Excuses: Provide education to of Food Insecurity and Nutrition in the World 2017. FAO, all forcibly displaced people , https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ http://www.fao.org/3/a-i7695e.pdf ark:/48223/pf0000244847 58 Save the Children (2010), Hungry for Change: An eight- 73 Ministry of Education, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, step, costed plan of action to tackle global child hunger , UNICEF (2018), Global Initiative on Out of School https://resourcecentre.savethechildren.net/library/ https://www.unicef.org/ Children: Afghanistan case study. hungry-change-eight-step-costed-plan-action-tackle- afghanistan/sites/unicef.org.afghanistan/files/2018-05/ global-child-hunger afg-report-oocs2018.pdf 59 Ostby et al (2018), ‘Organised violence and institutional 74 Save the Children (2018), Time to Act: Providing refugee child delivery: micro-level evidence from sub-Saharan Africa, https:// children the education they were promised. , PRIO, Demography, Volume 55, 4, https:// 1989 –2014’ resourcecentre.savethechildren.net/node/13479/pdf/ link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-018-0685-4 time_to_act_report_online.pdf Adolescent Girls in Disaster and 60 UNFPA (2016), 75 See note 74. Conflict: Interventions for improving access to sexual and Unspeakable Crimes Against 76 Save the Children (2011), reproductive health services , https://www.unfpa.org/sites/ https://www. Children: Sexual violence in conflict. default/files/pub-pdf/UNFPA-Adolescent_Girls_in_ savethechildren.es/sites/default/files/imce/docs/ Disaster_Conflict-Web.pdf unspeakable_crimes_report.pdf 61 Quintana et al (1997), ‘The spectrum of pediatric , 2018 End of Childhood Report 77 Save the Children (2018), injuries after a bomb blast’ , Journal Pediatric Surgery, https://www.savethechildren.org/content/dam/global/ ‘Effects Volume 32, 2, pp 307–11; Bendinelli (2009), reports/2018-end-of-childhood-report.pdf of land mines and unexploded ordnance on the pediatric See note 77. 78 , population and comparison with adults in rural Cambodia’ 79 See note 77. World Journal of Surgery, Volume 33, 5, pp 1070–1074 80 See note 77. ‘Paediatric blast injury: challenges and 62 Bull et al (2018), 81 UNHCR (2018), Vulnerability Assessment of Syrian priorities’ , The Lancet Child Adolescent Health 2018, Refugees in Lebanon. https://data2.unhcr.org/en/ https://www.imperial.ac.uk/media/imperial-college/ documents/download/67380 research-centres-and-groups/centre-for-blast-injury- 82 See note 77. studies/PBIComment.pdf 83 See note 77. 63 Save the Children (2017), Invisible Wounds: The impact 84 See note 23. , of six years of war on the mental health of Syria’s children 85 See note 23. https://resourcecentre.savethechildren.net/library/ 86 See Article 38 on the UN Convention on the invisible-wounds-impact-six-years-war-mental-health- Rights of the Child, https://www.ohchr.org/en/ syrias-children professionalinterest/pages/crc.aspx; The Paris Picking Up the Pieces: 64 Save the Children (2018), Principles: Principles and Guidelines on Children Rebuilding the lives of Mosul’s children after years of Associated with Armed Forces or Armed conflict and violence Groups, https://www.unicef.org/emerg/files/ ‘An integrated scientific framework 65 Shonkoff et al (2012), ParisPrinciples310107English.pdf for child survival and early childhood development’ , 87 Collective punishment is a form of sanction imposed Pediatrics, 29(2), pp. 460–472, https://www.ncbi.nlm. on persons or a group of persons in response to a nih.gov/pubmed/22218840 crime committed by one of them or a member of the 66 Save the Children (2015), What Do Children Want in ‘Collective group. (See Rabbat, P and Mehring, S (2015) Times of Emergency and Crisis? They want an education. punishment’ , Oxford Public International Law, http:// https://www.savethechildren.org.uk/content/dam/ global/reports/education-and-child-protection/what- opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/ • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 58

59 Belt Forces, 105 to the Yemeni Armed Forces, law-9780199231690-e269.) State practice establishes 50 to Popular Resistance and 1 to AQAP. Killing this rule as a norm of customary international law and maiming: 1,316 cases, among which 670 were applicable in both international and non-international attributed to the coalition, 324 to the Houthis, 41 armed conflicts. This prohibition is an application, to the Popular Resistance, 19 to other international in part, of Rule 102 that no one may be convicted of forces fighting for the Government of Yemen, 10 to an offence except on the basis of individual criminal AQAP, and 4 to the Yemeni Armed Forces. Attacks responsibility. However, the prohibition of collective on schools: 20 cases, of which 19 were attributed to punishments is wider in scope because it does not the Coalition and 1 to an unidentified group in Dali. only apply to criminal sanctions but also to ‘sanctions Attacks on hospitals: 11 cases, among which 5 were and harassment of any sort, administrative, by police attributed to the Houthis, 5 to the Coalition and 1 to action or otherwise’. the Security Belt Forces. Military use of schools and 88 See note 23. hospitals: 10 cases, among which 5 were attributed to ‘Iraq’s so-called “ISIS families”: rounded up, 89 Wille (2018), the Houthis, 1 to the Yemeni Armed Forces, 4 to the vilified, forgotten’ , Just Security (webpage), https://www. Popular Resistance. Abduction: 1 case attributed to justsecurity.org/61437/iraqs-so-called-isis-families- the Houthis. Denial of humanitarian access: 248 cases, rounded-up-vilified-forgotten/ among which 168 were attributed to the Houthis, 35 ‘Statement on Building a Global 90 N Mandela (2000). to the Yemeni Armed Forces and 15 to the Coalition. Partnership for Children’ , 6 May 2000. http://www. 101 United Nations High Commissioner for Human oneworldonepeople.org/articles/mandela_children. Rights (2018), Situation of human rights in Yemen, htm including violations and abuses since September 2014 , 91 2.8. million children accessed psychosocial support, para 24 p. 32. https://www.securitycouncilreport. categorised as child protection in the overview (see org/atf/cf/%7b65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3- note 92). CF6E4FF96FF9%7d/A_HRC_39_43_EN.pdf Humanitarian Action for Children 92 UNICEF (2018), 102 Yemen Data Project (2018), Yemen Data Project Air , UNICEF. https://www.unicef.org/ 2018: Overview . https://mailchi. Raids Summary for November 2018 publications/files/UNICEF_Humanitarian_Action_for_ mp/17cf33c9bbb7/december2018-yemen-data-project- Children_2018_Overview_ENG.PDF update-426035 Note: Air raid refers to a single 93 Based on FTS data accessed on 17/01/19 (HRP incident or air raid, which in turn may comprise funding for Protection+child protection+gender-based multiple airstrikes. violence). ‘Yemen war death toll now exceeds ACLED (2018), 103 94 M Thierry (2019), ‘Funding for Child Protection in 60,000 according to latest ACLED data’ , (webpage), Humanitarian Action 2010 -2018’ , Save the Children https://www.acleddata.com/2018/12/11/press-release- Norway, unpublished report. Estimate based on FTS data. Examining child protection funding needs in yemen-war-death-toll-now-exceeds-60000-according- detail is challenging because the data is lacking. No to-latest-acled-data/ systematic data on child protection needs exists and 104 J Borger (2018), ‘US supplied bomb that killed 40 children figures for child protection funding only started to be , The Guardian, 19 August 2018, on Yemen school bus’ recorded in 2018. The data on child protection funding https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/aug/19/ as a share over time was extracted by going through us-supplied-bomb-that-killed-40-children-school-bus- all funding flows reported by OCHA in the protection yemen sector between 2010 and 2018 and isolating those ‘These are the countries still selling arms 105 A Dewan (2018), projects that address child protection specifically. , CNN, 23 November 2018, https:// to Saudi Arabia’ 95 One of the objectives of the Grand Bargain is to move edition.cnn.com/2018/11/22/middleeast/arms-exports- towards longer-term funding for humanitarian action. saudi-arabia-intl/index.html, also see F Slijper, Under The Grand Bargain – a shared commitment to better serve the Radar: The United Arab Emirates, arms transfers people in need , https://agendaforhumanity.org/sites/ and regional conflict, 2017, https://www.paxforpeace. default/files/resources/2018/Jan/Grand_Bargain_ nl/publications/all-publications/under-the-radar final_22_May_FINAL-2.pdf ‘Safe Schools Declaration Endorsements’ GCPEA (2019), 106 96 UNOCHA (2019), Global Humanitarian Overview 2019, (webpage), http://www.protectingeducation.org/ OCHA . https://www.unocha.org/sites/unocha/files/ guidelines/support GHO2019.pdf See note 23. 107 97 UNICEF (2018), Humanitarian Action for Children, Civilian Civilian Impact Monitoring Project, (2018). 108 Yemen . https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/ Impact Monitoring Report August – October 2018. resources/2018-HAC-Yemen.pdf https://www.humanitarianresponse.info/sites/www. 98 See note 96. humanitarianresponse.info/files/documents/files/ 99 See note 96. civilian_impact_monitoring_report_august_-_ See note 23. From January to December 2017, the 100 october_2018.pdf United Nations verified the following violations in 109 UNICEF (2018), Fast Facts Yemen Crisis. https://www. Yemen. Recruitment: 842 cases, among which 534 unicef.org/mena/sites/unicef.org.mena/files/2018-12/ were attributed to the Houthis, 142 to the Security Yemen-FastFacts-En-06Dec18_0.pdf 59

60 122 A Stoddard et al (2018), Aid worker security report: 110 United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Figures at a glance, Humanitarian Outcomes. Press briefing note on Yemen, Human Rights (2018), United Nations, Children and armed conflict 123 Cambodia, Cuba, Nicaragua and Montenegro, 11 May S/2018/865, 25 September in South Sudan, 2018 , https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/ 2018 http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc. DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=23071&LangID=E asp?symbol=S/2018/865&Lang=E&Area= Yemen Data Project Air Yemen Data Project (2018), 111 UNDOC Raids Summary for August 2018 , https://mailchi.mp/ 124 Release and Reintegration: Children UNICEF (2018), f47262abc07d/september2018-yemen-data-project- Associated with Armed Forces and Armed Groups. update-389115 and Yemen Data Project, (2018), https://www.unicef.org/southsudan/UNICEF-South- Yemen Data Project Air Raids Summary for July 2018, Sudan-CAAFAG-Briefing-Note-Oct-2018.pdf https://mailchi.mp/04ccee3fac00/august2018-yemen- See note 123. 125 data-project-update-382175?e=c5a23e9692 126 See note 123. 112 Human Rights Watch (2018), Hiding Behind the Estimates of crisis-attributable 127 F Checchi el (2018), Coalition - Failure to Credibly Investigate and Provide mortality in South Sudan, December 2013-April 2018 Redress for Unlawful Attacks in Yemen . https://www.hrw. , London School of Hygiene A statistical analysis org/report/2018/08/24/hiding-behind-coalition/failure- and Tropical Medicine. https://crises.lshtm.ac.uk/ credibly-investigate-and-provide-redress-unlawful wp-content/uploads/sites/10/2018/09/LSHTM_ ‘Amnesty International 113 Amnesty International (2017), mortality_South_Sudan_report.pdf . response to the Saudi Arabia-led coalition’s investigations’ 128 See note 120. https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/ 129 See note 121. mde31/5494/2017/en/ See note 121. 130 114 United Nations Security Council, S/RES/2451, 2018, 131 See note 121. http://unscr.com/en/resolutions/doc/2451 132 See note 121. 115 United Nations (1996), Impact of Armed Conflict on See note 123. 133 Children , Report of the expert of the Secretary- 134 Child Protection Information Management System, General, Ms. Graça Machel, submitted pursuant South Sudan (national database), 2018. to General Assembly resolution 48/157, 26 August World Bank (2018), South Sudan Economic Update, 135 1996, http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc. July 2018 , World Bank, Washington, DC. https:// asp?symbol=A/51/306 openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/30294 116 According to the United Nations report of the . https://fts. 136 Financial Tracking Service UNOCHA (2018), independent fact-finding mission on Myanmar, there unocha.org/countries/211/summary/2018 is ‘a pervasive culture of impunity at the domestic Warchild (2018), Closing the Funding Gap for the 137 level’, see United Nations, Report of the independent Reintegration of Children Assosciated With Armed Forces , 12 international fact-finding mission on Myanmar Briefing, September 2018. https://www. and Groups. September 2018, https://www.securitycouncilreport. warchild.org.uk/sites/default/files/link-files/war_child_ org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3- uk_reintegration_child_soldiers_briefing_paper_web. CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/a_hrc_39_64.pdf pdf 117 United Nations (2018), ‘Human Rights Council adopts 138 B Sheppard (2018), Yes, We Can End the Military Use of 10 resolutions and one Presidential statement’ , Human Rights Watch. https://www.hrw.org/ Schools, 28 September 2018, https://www.ohchr. news/2018/07/02/yes-we-can-end-military-use-schools org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/Pages/NewsDetail. 139 See note 138. aspx?NewsID=23652&LangID=E ‘Optional Protocol to the Convention on United Nations, 140 International Criminal Court (2018), 118 Decision on the the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in ‘Prosecution’s Request for a Ruling on Jurisdiction under (webpage), http://indicators.ohchr.org/ armed conflict’ , ICC-RoC46(3)-01/18, Article 19(3) of the Statute’ 141 M Wallström and L Zerrougui (2017), ‘Ending the use 6 September 2018, https://www.icc-cpi.int/ of child soldiers’ , Statement, 12 February 2017. https:// CourtRecords/CR2018_04203.PDF childrenandarmedconflict.un.org/ending-the-use-of- UNOCHA (2018), 119 Humanitarian Needs Overview 2018 child-soldiers/ , November 2017, https://reliefweb.int/ South Sudan 142 A law unto Child Soldiers International (2016), sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/South_Sudan_2018_ themselves? Confronting the recruitment of children Humanitarian_Needs_Overview.pdf http://www.refworld.org/ by armed groups. 120 Childhood under Attack, Briefing UNICEF (2017), pdfid/574809d24.pdf Note , UNICEF. https://www.unicef.org/southsudan/ 143 Campaigning for Children: Strategies for J Becker (2017), UNICEF_South_Sudan_Report_Childhood_under_ Advancing Children’s Rights , Stanford University Press. Attack_15Dec_FINAL.pdf 144 International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) Humanitarian Needs Overview 2019 UNOCHA (2018), 121 https://www.icrc.org/ (2018), Roots of Restraint in War. South Sudan . https://www.humanitarianresponse. en/publication/roots-restraint-war info/sites/www.humanitarianresponse.info/files/ 145 Geneva Call (2013), Deed of Commitment under Geneva documents/files/south_sudan_humanitarian_needs_ Call for the Protection of Children from the Effects of overview_2019_final.pdf • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 60

61 explosive_weapons_and_grave_violations_against_ Armed Conflict, article 7 . https://www.genevacall.org/ children_1.pdf wp-content/uploads/dlm_uploads/2013/12/DoC- 158 2018: a year of Action on Armed Violence (2019), Protecting-children-in-armed-conflict.pdf explosive violence. https://aoav.org.uk/2019/2018-a- 146 ‘Nearly all signatory groups have abided by their year-of-explosive-violence/ monitoring obligations, providing information and 159 The International Network on Explosive Weapons reports on their implementation, and allowing (INEW) (2018), About, (webpage) http://www.inew. follow-up missions. No signatory has ever refused to org/about-inew/ receive a Geneva Call delegation in areas under its 160 The political statement was supported by Austria, control, even after allegations of non-compliance’. Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Germany, Guatemala, P Bongard, ‘Engaging armed non-state actors on Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, Montenegro, humanitarian norms: reflections on Geneva Call’s Mozambique, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, , Humanitarian Exchange Magazine, experience’ Samoa, Serbia, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Humanitarian Practice Network, Issue 58, July Uganda, Uruguay, Zambia. 2013, https://genevacall.org/wp-content/uploads/ Securing Our Common Future: United Nations (2018), 161 dlm_uploads/2013/12/art-1.pdf Agenda on Disarmament , 2018. https://front.un-arm.org/ Deed of Commitment under Geneva Call (2014), 147 documents/SG+disarmament+agenda_1.pdf Geneva Call for the Protection of Children from the Casualty recording is the process of systematically 162 Effects of Armed Conflict signed by the Peoples Protection and continuously recording deaths in armed conflict in Units (YPG), Women’s Protection Units (YPJ) and as much detail as possible, both concerning the dead 5 July the Democratic self-administration in Rojava. and how, when, where and by whom they were killed. 2014. https://genevacall.org/wp-content/uploads/ H Dardagan and H Salama, (2013). Stolen Futures: the 163 dlm_uploads/2014//07/2014-5july-YPG-YPJ-syria- , Oxford Research Hidden Cost of Child Casualties in Syria children.pdf Group. http://www.everycasualty.org/downloads/ 148 ‘Preventing Suffering through M Wareham (2017), reports/Stolen-Futures.pdf , Human Rights Watch. ‘Humanitarian Disarmament’‘ 164 A restricted form of casualty recording, conducted by https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/09/18/preventing- parties to conflict. suffering-through-humanitarian-disarmament Led by the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and 165 The Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention: 149 ICRC (2018), Safer Yemen. Twenty Years of Saving Lives and Limbs and Reducing , Standards for Casualty Recording 166 Every Casualty (2016), Civilian Suffering . https://www.icrc.org/en/publication/ https://www.everycasualty.org/downloads/ec/pdf/ anti-personnel-mine-ban-convention-twenty-years- StandardsforCasualtyRecording-Version1.0(2016).pdf saving-lives-and-limbs-and-reducing Resolution 1325 167 , S/RES/1325 (2000), United Nations, , (webpage). Landmine free 2025 (2018), 150 The Problem https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/ https://www.landminefree2025.org/the-problem.html N00/720/18/PDF/N0072018.pdf?OpenElement 151 The 2017 report listed 166 investors and a total of Report of the UN Secretary-General United Nations, 168 US$ 31 billion invested, as compared to 2018, with on Conflict-Related Sexual Violence , S/2018/250, 16 88 investors and US$ 8700 million invested. M Beenes April 2018, www.un.org/sexualviolenceinconflict/ and M Uiterwaal, Worldwide Investments in cluster wp-content/uploads/reports/sg-reports/SG-REPORT- munitions: a shared responsibility , Pax, the Netherlands, 2017-CRSV-SPREAD.pdf December 2018, p. 9, https://stopexplosiveinvestments. UK government, ‘Preventing Sexual Violence Initiative’ 169 org/wp-content/uploads/PAX-Dec-2018-update- (webpage), https://www.gov.uk/government/ Worldwide-Investment-in-cluster-munitions-WEB.pdf organisations/preventing-sexual-violence-initiative/ Arms Trade Treaty, Treaty Status , accessed 21 January 152 about 2018. https://www.thearmstradetreaty.org/treaty- United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the 170 status.html?templateId=209883 (webpage), http:// ‘About the ICTY’ former Yugoslavia, United Nations, Office for Disarmament Affairs. 153 www.icty.org/en/about The Arms Trade Treaty , Accessed January 2019. Rome Statute of the International Criminal 171 https://unoda-web.s3-accelerate.amazonaws.com/ Court, Article 8, 2b (xxvi), http://legal.un.org/icc/ wp-content/uploads/2013/06/English7.pdf statute/99_corr/cstatute.htm 154 For example, Belgium, Germany, Netherlands, 172 International, Impartial and Independent Mechanism, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland. (webpage), https://iiim.un.org/ ‘About us: mandate’ 155 See note 153. The US has signed but not ratified the Reuters (2018), ‘Germany issues international arrest 173 AT T. . https://www.reuters. warrant for top Assad officer’ Protecting civilians from the use of explosive UNOCHA, 156 com/article/us-syria-crisis-germany/germany-issues- weapons in populated areas , OCHA, https://www. international-arrest-warrant-for-top-assad-officer- unocha.org/sites/unocha/files/EWIPA%20Fact%20 idUSKCN1J41VQ Sheet%20June%202017.pdf ‘France issues arrest warrants for senior Reuters (2018), 174 Save the Children (2013), Explosive Weapons and Grave 157 Syrian officials’ . https://www.reuters.com/article/ Violations against Children . https://resourcecentre. us-syria-crisis-france/france-issues-arrest-warrants- savethechildren.net/sites/default/files/documents/ 61

62 Save the Children Programme data 185 for-senior-syrian-officials-idUSKCN1NA11L Save the Children, Child Protection Information 186 Human Rights Watch, (2017). ‘These are the 175 Management System Crimes we are Fleeing’: Justice for Syria in Swedish 187 Save the Children (2017), A practice handbook for and German Courts. https://www.hrw.org/ family tracing and reunification during emergencies, report/2017/10/03/these-are-crimes-we-are-fleeing/ South Sudan. https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/ justice-syria-swedish-and-german-courts files/resources/ftr_handbook_4web_002.pdf Human Rights Watch (2017), ‘The US Global 176 M Wessels (2015), ‘Bottom-up approaches to 188 Magnitsky Act’ (webpage), https://www.hrw.org/ strengthening child protection systems: Placing news/2017/09/13/us-global-magnitsky-act; and E children, families, and communities at the center’, Ochab, (2018). ‘The Magnitsky Law Is Taking Over Child Abuse and Neglect, 43, p. 8-21. The European Union’, Forbes, https://www.forbes.com/ 189 Grundin (2018), Learning from Community-led sites/ewelinaochab/2018/12/10/the-magnitsky-law-is- Resilience Responses in occupied Palestinian taking-over-the-european-union/#6d019dfd1eca territories. Local to Global Protection. https:// 177 Reuters (2018), ‘MPs back ‘Magnitsky amendment’ on resourcecentre.savethechildren.net/library/learning- sanctions for human rights abuses’. https://uk.reuters. community-led-resilience-responses-occupied- com/article/uk-britain-russia-magnitsky/mps-back- palestinian-territories magnitsky-amendment-on-sanctions-for-human- Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), (2007). 190 rights-abuses-idUKKBN1I24B9 IASC guidelines on mental health and psychosocial 178 Norwegian Helsinki Committee, (2018). ‘Governments support in emergency settings. Geneva. https://www. should create a European Human Rights Travel Ban who.int/mental_health/emergencies/guidelines_iasc_ Commission’. https://www.nhc.no/en/governments- mental_health_psychosocial_june_2007.pdf should-create-a-european-human-rights-travel-ban- Save the Children (2018), Healing the invisible wounds 191 commission/ of war: A roadmap for addressing the mental health 179 Save the Children (2015), The Child Protection in needs of children and young people affected by Emergencies (CPiE) Capacity Building Mapping conflict Report on the Wilton Park Dialogue 2018. and Market analysis. https://resourcecentre. Wilton Park, DFID, Save the Children. https://www. savethechildren.net/library/child-protection- wiltonpark.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/WP1581- emergencies-capacity-building-mapping-market- Report.pdf analysis 192 Save the Children (2018), Manualized Psychosocial 180 The Child Protection Working Group (2012), Programs Knowledge Builder: A side by side Minimum Standards for Child Protection in comparison of three psychosocial support programs. Humanitarian Action. https://www.unicef.org/iran/ Education Cannot Wait, ‘About us: the fund’ 193 Minimum_standards_for_child_protection_in_ (webpage), http://www.educationcannotwait.org/ humanitarian_action.pdf about-ecw/ 181 The Child Protection ‘Area of Responsibility’ is a 194 United Nations (2016), ‘New York Declaration’. group of humanitarian organisations who work on (webpage), https://refugeesmigrants.un.org/ improving coordinated responses for child protection declaration in humanitarian and early-warning contexts. The United Nations (2018), The Global Compact on 195 team provides in-country and remote support to field- Refugees. https://www.un.org/pga/72/wp-content/ level child protection coordination groups. The Child uploads/sites/51/2018/07/Global-Compact-on- The objective of the localisation workstream is 182 Refugees.pdf to ‘increase and support multi-year investment in 196 IGAD (2017), Djibouti Declaration on Regional the institutional capacities of local and national Conference on Refugee Education in IGAD member responders, including preparedness, response and states. http://www.globalcrrf.org/wp-content/ coordination capacities, especially in fragile contexts uploads/2018/04/Djibouti-Declaration-on-Refugee- and where communities are vulnerable to armed Education.pdf conflicts, disasters, recurrent outbreaks and the Government Offices of Sweden (2017), ‘Ambassador 197 effects of climate change.’ The Grand Bargain – a for Children and Armed Conflict appointed’, 14 shared commitment to better serve people in need, June 2017. https://www.government.se/press- https://agendaforhumanity.org/sites/default/files/ releases/2017/06/ambassador-for-children-and- resources/2018/Jan/Grand_Bargain_final_22_May_ armed-conflict-appointed/ FINAL-2.pdf 198 See note 23. The Alliance for Child Protection in Humanitarian 183 United Nations Security Council Resolution 2427, 199 Action (2014), ‘Learning and Development Working S/RES/2427 (9 July, 2018). http://unscr.com/en/ Group’ (webpage), https://alliancecpha.org/en/child- resolutions/doc/2427 protection-hub/learning-development-working-group 200 Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict (2016), The Child Protection Working Group (2014), Inter 184 Checklist for drafting children and armed conflict Agency Guidelines for Case Management & Child provisions in ceasefire and peace agreements https:// Protection. http://www.cpcnetwork.org/wp-content/ peacemaker.un.org/sites/peacemaker.un.org/files/ uploads/2014/08/CM_guidelines_ENG_.pdf • STOP THE WAR ON CHILDREN A REPORT FROM SAVE THE CHILDREN 62

63 Watchlist_ProvisionsChildrenArmedConflict- PeaceAgreements_2016.pdf United Nations, 201 Statement by the President of the Security Council , S/PRST/2017/21, http://undocs.org/S/ PRST/2017/21 202 When seeking to grant the supply of defence assets for defensive purposes, governments should provide greater transparency, reporting on the type, quantity and intended use of arms, weapons and military assets exported, supplied or otherwise transferred to parties to conflict and taking measures to trace the use and onward transfer of such assets. 203 African Committee of Experts on the Right and Welfare of the Child (2018), Revised rules of procedure of the African Committe of Experts on the Rights and ‘Working Documents’. https:// Welfare of the Child. acerwc.africa/working-documents/ 204 United Nations Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights (2014), Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on a Communications Procedure. https://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/ OPICCRC.aspx 205 This should be a key outcome of the ‘needs assessment’ workstream set up as part of the Grand Bargain 63

64 Eglantyne Jebb said ‘The only international language in the world is a child’s cry.’ We have heard that cry and it will not go unanswered. The war on children must stop. stopwaronchildren.org

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