OIG 16 130 Potentially Ineligible Individuals Have Been Granted U.S.Citizenship Because of Incomplete Fingerprint Records

Transcript

1 Potentially Ineligible Individuals Have Been Granted U.S. Citizenship Because of Incomplete Fingerprint Records September 8, 2016 OIG-16-130

2 IGHLIGHTS H DHS OIG Potentially Ineligible Individuals Have Been Granted U.S. Citizenship Because of Incomplete Fingerprint Records What We Found September 8, 2016 USCIS granted U.S. citizenship to at least 858 individuals Why We ordered deported or removed under another identity when, during the naturalization process, their digital fingerprint Did This records were not available. The digital records were not Inspection available because although USCIS procedures require checking applicants’ fingerprints against both the When aliens apply for U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s and the Federal Bureau citizenship, U.S. Citizenship of Investigation’s (FBI) digital fingerprint repositories, and Immigration Services neither contains all old fingerprint records. Not all old (USCIS) obtains information records were included in the DHS repository when it was about their immigration being developed. Further, U.S. Immigration and Customs history through fingerprint Enforcement (ICE) has identified, about 148,000 older records. Our objective was fingerprint records that have not been digitized of aliens to determine whether USCIS with final deportation orders or who are criminals or uses these records fugitives. The FBI repository is also missing records effectively during the because, in the past, not all records taken during naturalization process. immigration encounters were forwarded to the FBI. As long as the older fingerprint records have not been digitized and included in the repositories, USCIS risks making What We naturalization decisions without complete information and, Recommend as a result, naturalizing additional individuals who may be ineligible for citizenship or who may be trying to obtain U.S. We are recommending that citizenship fraudulently. ICE finish uploading into the digital repository the As naturalized citizens, these individuals retain many of the fingerprints it identified and rights and privileges of U.S. citizenship, including serving in that DHS resolve these law enforcement, obtaining a security clearance, and cases of naturalized citizens sponsoring other aliens’ entry into the United States. ICE who may have been has investigated few of these naturalized citizens to ineligible. determine whether they should be denaturalized, but is now taking steps to increase the number of cases to be investigated, particularly those who hold positions of public trust and who have security clearances. For Further Information: Contact our Office of Public Affairs at (202) 254-4100, or email us at Response [email protected] DHS concurred with both recommendations and has begun implementing corrective actions. www.oig.dhs.gov OIG-16-130

3 OFFICE OF GENERAL INSPECTOR of Department Homeland Security 20528 Washington, / DC www.oig.dhs.gov 2016 September 8, MEMORANDUM Leon Rodriguez The FOR: Honorable Director and Immigration Services Citizenship U.S. Sarah R. The Honorable Saldana Director and Customs Enforcement U.S. Immigration Chavez Richard Director Operations Coordination of Office John ~~ "\(oh_ Roth FROM: Inspector General Potentially Ineligible Individuals Have Been Granted SUBJECT: U.S. Because of Incomplete Fingerprint Citizenship Records For is our final report, Potentially Ineligible Individuals Have Been action your Citizenship Because of Incomplete Fingerprint Records. We U.S. Granted the formal incorporated provided by your offices. comments The contains two recommendations aimed at improving the report Department's to identify and investigate individuals who have obtained ability or may attempt to obtain naturalization through fraud or misrepresentation. Your offices with both recommendations. Based on information concurred report, in to the draft response we consider both provided your open and resolved. Once the Department has fully recommendations the recommendations, please submit a formal closeout letter to implemented close within days so we may us the recommendations. The memorandum 30 should be accompanied by evidence of completion of agreed-upon corrective actions. Please your updates to the status of recommendations to send . [email protected] with our responsibility under Consistent Inspector General Act, we will the provide copies of our report to congressional committees with oversight and will appropriation over the Department of Homeland Security. We responsibility post the report on our website for public dissemination.

4 OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL Department of Homeland Security www.oig.dhs.gov Washington, DC 20528 / Please call me with any questions, or your staff may contact Anne L. Richards, Assistant Inspector General for Inspections and Evaluations, at (202) 254-4100. Attachment

5 OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL Department of Homeland Security Table of Contents Background ... 1 Results of Inspection ... 2 Missing Digital Fingerprint Records Hinder USCIS’ Ability to Fully Review 3 Naturalization Applications ... Few of These Naturalized U.S. Citizens Have Been Investigated ... 6 Recent Actions ... 7 Conclusion ... 7 Recommendations ... 8 Management Comments and OIG Analysis ... 8 Appendixes Appendix A: Objective, Scope, and Methodology ... 10 Management Comments to the Draft Report... Appendix B: 12 Appendix C: Office of Inspections and Evaluations Major Contributors to This Report ... 17 18 Appendix D: Report Distribution ... Abbreviations U.S. Customs and Border Protection CBP DOJ Department of Justice FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation Fraud Detection and National Security Directorate FDNS Historical Fingerprint Enrollment HFE Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System IAFIS U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement ICE Automated Biometric Identification System IDENT Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 INA U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service INS Next Generation Identification NGI OIG Office of Inspector General OPS Office of Operations Coordination Transportation Security Administration TSA USAO Offices of the United States Attorneys USCIS U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services USC U.S. Code www.oig.dhs.gov OIG-16-130

6 OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL Department of Homeland Security Background In 2008, a U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) employee identified 206 1 aliens who had received final deportation orders and subsequently used a different biographic identity, such as a name and date of birth, to obtain an immigration benefit (e.g., legal permanent resident status or citizenship). These aliens came from two special interest countries and two other countries that 2 shared borders with a special interest country. After further research, in 2009, CBP provided the results of Operation Targeting Groups of Inadmissible Subjects, now referred to as Operation Janus, to DHS. In response, the DHS Counterterrorism Working Group coordinated with multiple DHS components to form a working group to address the problem of aliens from special interest countries receiving immigration benefits after changing their identities and concealing their final deportation orders. In 2010, DHS’ Office of Operations Coordination (OPS) began coordinating the Operation Janus working group. 3 OPS provided the Office of Inspector General (OIG) with the In July 2014, names of individuals it had identified as coming from special interest countries or neighboring countries with high rates of immigration fraud, had final deportation orders under another identity, and had become naturalized U.S. citizens. OIG’s review of the list of names revealed some were duplicates, which resulted in a final number of 1,029 individuals. Of the 1,029 individuals reported, 858 did not have a digital fingerprint record available in the DHS fingerprint repository at the time U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) was reviewing and adjudicating their applications for U.S. citizenship. USCIS Review of Naturalization Applicants People from other countries (aliens) may apply to become naturalized U.S. citizens and may be granted citizenship, provided they meet the eligibility requirements established by Congress in the Immigration and Nationality Act of 4 (INA). 1952 USCIS adjudicates applications for naturalization, as well as other immigration benefits, such as asylum and lawful permanent resident status. Naturalization eligibility requirements in the INA include lawful admission for 1 When an immigration judge orders an alien to be deported the judge issues an order of removal. In this report, we refer to orders of removal as deportation orders. 2 Special interest countries are generally defined as countries that are of concern to the national security of the United States, based on several U.S. Government reports. 3 As of November 2015, OPS had identified 953 more individuals who had final deportation orders under another identity and had been naturalized; some of these individuals were from special interest countries or neighboring countries with high rates of fraud. OPS did not capture the dates these 953 individuals’ fingerprint records were digitized, so we could not tal fingerprint repository determine the number whose records were available in the DHS digi . when their applications were being reviewed and adjudicated 4 1101 et seq. .S . Code (USC) 8 U www.oig.dhs.gov 1 OIG-16-1 30

7 OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL Department of Homeland Security permanent residence, continuous residence and physical presence in the United States, and good moral character. During the naturalization process, USCIS may determine that aliens who lie under oath about their identity or immigration history do not meet the good moral character requirement. Aliens with final deportation orders may not meet the INA’s admissibility requirement, unless other circumstances make them admissible. On naturalization applications and in interviews, aliens are required to reveal any other identities they have used and whether they have been in deportation proceedings. They must also submit their fingerprints. USCIS checks applicants’ fingerprint records throughout the naturalization process. By searching the DHS digital fingerprint repository, the Automated Biometric Identification System (IDENT) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 5 digital fingerprint repository, the Next Generation Identification (NGI) system, USCIS can gather information about an applicant’s other identities (if any), criminal arrests and convictions, immigration violations and deportations, and links to terrorism. When there is a matching record, USCIS researches the circumstances underlying the record to determine whether the applicant is still eligible for naturalized citizenship. If USCIS confirms that an applicant received a final deportation order under a different identity, and there are no other circumstances to provide eligibility, USCIS policy requires denial of naturalization. Also, USCIS may refer the applicant’s case to U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) for investigation. Likewise, if a naturalized citizen is discovered to have been ineligible for citizenship, ICE may investigate the circumstances and refer the case to the Department of Justice for revocation of citizenship. Results of Inspection USCIS granted U.S. citizenship to at least 858 individuals ordered deported or removed under another identity when, during the naturalization process, their digital fingerprint records were not in the DHS digital fingerprint repository, IDENT. Although USCIS procedures require checking applicants’ fingerprints against both IDENT and NGI, neither repository has all the old fingerprint records available. IDENT is missing records because when they were developing it, neither DHS nor the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), one of its predecessor agencies, digitized and uploaded all old fingerprint records into the repository. Later, ICE identified missing fingerprint records for about 315,000 aliens who had final deportation orders or who were criminals or 5 it had replaced its old system with NGI, Until September 2014, when the FBI announced fingerprints were vetted against the Integrated entification System. Automated Fingerprint Id www.oig.dhs.gov 2 OIG-16-130

8 OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL Department of Homeland Security fugitives, but it has not yet reviewed about 148,000 aliens’ files to try to retrieve and digitize the old fingerprint cards. NGI is also missing records because, in the past, neither INS nor ICE always forwarded fingerprint records to the FBI. As long as the older fingerprint records have not been digitized and included in the repositories, USCIS risks making naturalization decisions without complete information and, as a result, naturalizing more individuals who may be ineligible for citizenship or who may be trying to obtain U.S. citizenship fraudulently. As naturalized citizens, these individuals retain many of the rights and privileges of U.S. citizenship, including serving in law enforcement, obtaining a security clearance, and sponsoring other aliens’ family members’ entry into the United States. ICE has investigated few of these naturalized citizens to determine whether they should be denaturalized, but within the last year has taken steps to identify additional cases for investigation. Missing Digital Fingerprint Records Hinder USCIS’ Ability to Fully Review Naturalization Applications To determine whether there is any evidence that may make an alien ineligible for an immigration benefit, such as naturalization, USCIS has established procedures to check fingerprints against other sources of information. In addition, applicants are required to reveal all other identities and past immigration or criminal proceedings on their applications. However, even with fingerprint checks, unless fingerprint records are available or applicants reveal their immigration history, USCIS adjudicators will not know about all identities used by applicants, as well as any prior criminal or immigration issues or charges; therefore, they cannot fully review an application. Without this knowledge, adjudicators may grant citizenship to otherwise ineligible individuals. The DHS Digital Fingerprint Repository Is Incomplete During immigration enforcement encounters with aliens, CBP and ICE take fingerprint records. These components and their predecessor, INS, used to collect aliens’ fingerprints on two paper cards. One card was supposed to be sent to the FBI to be stored in its repository. The other fingerprint card was to be placed in the alien’s file with all other immigration-related documents. In 2007, DHS established IDENT as the centralized, department-wide digital fingerprint repository. IDENT was built from a digital fingerprint repository www.oig.dhs.gov 3 OIG-16-130

9 OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL Department of Homeland Security 6 originally deployed by INS in 1994 (used primarily by the Border Patrol). In 2008, according to officials we interviewed, ICE management directed its employees to send all fingerprints collected during immigration enforcement encounters to both IDENT and the FBI repository (at the time, the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System or IAFIS, now NGI). At the same time, USCIS also began gathering fingerprints digitally and storing them in IDENT; since that time, the fingerprints of individuals who apply for immigration benefits requiring fingerprints are stored in IDENT. Although fingerprints are now taken digitally and stored in IDENT, the repository is missing digitized fingerprint records of some aliens with final deportation orders, criminal convictions, or fugitive status whose fingerprints were taken on paper cards. The records are missing because when INS initially developed and deployed IDENT in 1994, it did not digitize and upload the fingerprint records it had collected on paper cards. Further, ICE investigators only began consistently uploading fingerprints taken from aliens during law enforcement encounters into the repository around 2010. ICE has led an effort to digitize old fingerprint records that were taken on cards and upload them into IDENT. In 2011, ICE searched a DHS database for aliens who were fugitives, convicted criminals, or had final deportation orders dating back to 1990. ICE identified about 315,000 such aliens whose fingerprint records were not in IDENT. B ecause fingerprints are no longer taken on paper cards, this number will not grow. In 2012, DHS received $5 million from Congress to pull its paper fingerprint cards from aliens’ files and digitize and upload them into IDENT, through an ICE-led project called the Historical Fingerprint Enrollment (HFE). Through HFE, ICE began digitizing the old fingerprint cards of the 315,000 aliens with final deportation orders, criminal convictions, or fugitive status and uploading them into IDENT. The process was labor intensive, requiring staff to manually pull the fingerprint cards from aliens’ files. ICE reviewed 167,000 aliens’ files and uploaded fingerprint records into IDENT before HFE funding was depleted. Some fingerprint cards were missing or unclear and could not be digitized. Since that time, ICE has not received further funding for HFE; efforts to digitize and upload the records have been sporadic, and the process has not been completed. 6 In 2004, DHS copied the digital repository deployed by INS in 1994 and made it and other DHS information repositories available to the United States Visitor and Immigrant Status acked aliens entering and exiting the United Indicator Technology Program. That program tr when they traveled. States by capturing their biographic informatio n and digital fingerprints This version of IDENT ran in conjunction with the INS-developed digital repository the Border were merged to form the unified IDENT for all Patrol used until 2007 when the two repositories fingerprints collected by DHS. www.oig.dhs.gov 4 OIG-16-130

10 OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL Department of Homeland Security The FBI Digital Fingerprint Repository Is Incomplete The FBI has maintained a fingerprint repository since the 1920s, collecting and including in the repository fingerprints from state, local, and Federal agencies. INS and, later, ICE were supposed to provide copies of fingerprints collected during encounters with aliens to the FBI for its repository. In 1999, the FBI established a digital fingerprint repository, IAFIS, which facilitated electronic searches for fingerprint matches. In 2008, IAFIS and IDENT became capable of exchanging information with each other. In 2014, the FBI replaced IAFIS with a new digital fingerprint repository, NGI, which also exchanges information with IDENT. When identifying aliens who were granted naturalized citizenship even though they had multiple identities and final deportation orders, Operation Janus checked NGI for matching FBI fingerprint records. These checks revealed that NGI does not contain all digital fingerprints from previous INS and ICE actions. ICE officials told us that, in the past, neither INS nor ICE always sent the FBI copies of paper fingerprint cards associated with immigration enforcement encounters. Also according to an official, ICE officers did not always update the information associated with fingerprint records to reflect issuance of final deportation orders. According to the FBI, it has digitized and uploaded into NGI all fingerprint records it received from DHS components and their predecessors, including all records related to immigration enforcement. NGI and IDENT are connected, so IDENT records can be accessed from NGI and NGI records can be accessed from IDENT. USCIS Naturalized Individuals Who Had a Final Deportation Order Under a Different Identity With neither a fingerprint record in IDENT, nor an admission by the applicant to alert adjudicators to an individual’s immigration history, USCIS granted naturalization to individuals with final deportation orders who may not be eligible for citizenship. According to USCIS officials, merely having used multiple identities or having a previous final deportation order does not automatically render an individual ineligible for naturalization. Each applicant’s specific circumstances must be thoroughly reviewed before a determination on eligibility can be made. In these cases, however, USCIS adjudicators did not always have all the information necessary for a thorough review. Of the 1,029 individuals OPS identified who had final deportation orders under another identity and were naturalized, only 170 had fingerprint records in IDENT at the time of naturalization. The other 858 records were subsequently loaded into IDENT, but were not in the repository at the time of naturalization. If applicants had www.oig.dhs.gov 5 OIG-16-130

11 OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL Department of Homeland Security revealed the facts of their immigration history, as required, on their applications and in interviews, USCIS adjudicators could have obtained the information. However, our review of 216 of these aliens’ files showed that none of the applicants admitted to having another identity and final deportation orders on the naturalization application, and only 4 admitted to another identity and final deportation orders when USCIS adjudicators questioned them. Because USCIS initially vetted applicants’ fingerprints against NGI, adjudicators might also have obtained information about immigration histories from the FBI repository, but it is also missing records. Of the 1,029 naturalized citizens OPS identified as having multiple identities and final deportation orders, 40 had fingerprint records at the FBI. It is not clear whether these fingerprints were in the repository when the individuals were naturalized or whether the fingerprints were related to immigration offenses or other crimes. Few of These Naturalized U.S. Citizens Have Been Investigated Although their fingerprint records may not have been available in either the DHS or FBI digital repositories before these individuals were naturalized, all of their digital records are now available and their immigration histories are known. Some of these naturalized citizens may have attempted to defraud the U.S. Government. Yet, having been naturalized, they have many of the rights and privileges of U.S. citizens, including the right to petition for others to come to the United States and the right to work in law enforcement. For example, one U.S. citizen whom Operation Janus identified is now a law enforcement official. Naturalized U.S. citizens may also obtain security clearances or work in sensitive positions. Until they were identified and had their credentials revoked, three of these naturalized citizens obtained licenses to conduct security- sensitive work. One had obtained a Transportation Worker Identification Credential, which allows unescorted access to secure areas of maritime facilities and vessels. Two others received Aviation Workers’ credentials, which allow access to secure areas of commercial airports. Federal court may revoke naturalization (denaturalize) Under the INA, a through a civil or criminal proceeding if the citizenship was obtained through 7 fraud or misrepresentation. few of these individuals have been However, investigated and subsequently denaturalized. As it identified these 1,029 individuals, OPS referred the cases to ICE for investigation. As of March 2015, ICE had closed 90 investigations of these individuals and had 32 open investigations. The Offices of the United States Attorneys (USAO) accepted 2 cases for criminal prosecution, which could lead to denaturalization; the USAO 7 8 USC 1451(a), 8 USC 1451(e), and 18 USC 1425 www.oig.dhs.gov 6 OIG-16-130

12 OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL Department of Homeland Security declined 26 cases. ICE transferred two additional cases with fingerprint records linked to terrorism to the FBI’s Joint Terrorism Task Force. ICE was scrutinizing another two cases for civil denaturalization. According to ICE, it previously did not pursue investigation and subsequent revocation of citizenship for most of these individuals because the USAO generally did not accept immigration benefit fraud cases for criminal prosecution. ICE staff told us they needed to focus their resources on investigating cases the USAO will prosecute. In late 2015, however, ICE officials told us they discussed with the Department of Justice Office of Immigration Litigation the need to prosecute these types of cases, and that office agreed to prosecute individuals with Transportation Security Administration (TSA) credentials, security clearances, positions of public trust, or criminal histories. To date, and with assistance from OPS and USCIS, ICE has identified and prioritized 120 individuals to refer to the Department of Justice for potential criminal prosecution and denaturalization. Recent Actions In 2016, OPS eliminated Operation Janus and disbanded its staff, which raises concerns about the future ability of ICE and USCIS to continue identifying and prioritizing individuals for investigation. Since 2010 and until recently, Operation Janus identified these individuals, created watchlist entries to ensure law enforcement and immigration officials were aware of them, and coordinated DHS and other agencies’ activities related to these individuals. Two DHS employees outside of OPS said that without Operation Janus, it would be difficult to coordinate these cases and combat immigration fraud perpetrated by individuals using multiple identities. We received this information late in our review and cannot assess the future impact of this change. Conclusion Given the risk of naturalizing aliens who may be ineligible for this immigration benefit and the difficulty of revoking citizenship, USCIS needs access to all information related to naturalization applicants. Because IDENT does not include 148,000 digitized fingerprint records of aliens with final deportation orders or who are criminals or fugitives, USCIS adjudicators may continue in the future to review and grant applications without full knowledge of applicants’ immigration and criminal histories. ICE should review the remaining 148,000 aliens’ files and digitize and upload all available fingerprint cards. By making these fingerprint records available in IDENT, USCIS would be better able to identify those aliens should they apply for naturalization or other immigration benefits and ensure a full review of their applications. This, in turn, would help prevent the naturalization of aliens who may be ineligible. In www.oig.dhs.gov 7 OIG-16-130

13 OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL Department of Homeland Security addition, the digital fingerprint records could reveal others who have received immigration benefits to which they may not be entitled and should be investigated. Recommendations Recommendation 1. We recommend that the ICE Deputy Assistant Director for Law Enforcement Systems and Analysis complete the review of the 148,000 alien files for fingerprint records of aliens with final deportation orders or criminal histories or who are fugitives, and digitize and upload into IDENT all available fingerprint records. We recommend that the Directors of USCIS, ICE, and Recommendation 2. OPS establish a plan for evaluating the eligibility of each naturalized citizen whose fingerprint records reveal deportation orders under a different identity. The plan should include a review of the facts of each case and, if the individual is determined to be ineligible, a recommendation whether to seek denaturalization through criminal or civil proceedings. The plan should also require documentation and tracking of the decisions made and actions taken on these cases until each has been resolved. Management Comments and OIG Analysis DHS concurred with our recommendations and has begun implementing corrective actions. In response to recommendation 1, ICE indicated that it has taken steps to procure contractor services to help review the 148,000 files and to digitize and upload to IDENT available fingerprint records. ICE anticipates awarding the contract before the end of fiscal year 2016. We will track ICE’s progress in completing this recommendation. The Department appears to be taking actions to address recommendation 2. DHS has established a team to review the records of the 858 aliens with final deportation orders who were naturalized under a different identity. The team will also review the 953 cases that OPS identified more recently and that we mention in footnote 3. During these reviews, the team will determine which individuals appear to have been ineligible for naturalization and will coordinate with DOJ for possible prosecution and denaturalization. In addition, as the 148,000 fingerprints that are available are uploaded to IDENT, the team will evaluate whether any fingerprints match other identities of individuals who have been granted naturalization or other immigration benefits. The team will review records that are identified to determine whether ICE should investigate the individuals and coordinate possible prosecution 8 www.oig.dhs.gov OIG-16-130

14 OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL Department of Homeland Security with DOJ. DHS plans to complete its review of these cases by December 31, 2016. We will track the Department’s progress until the work is complete. OIG-16-130 www.oig.dhs.gov 9

15 OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL Department of Homeland Security Appendix A Objective, Scope, and Methodology Homeland Security Act of 2002 DHS OIG was established by the (Public Law . 107–269) by amendment to the Inspector General Act of 1978 The objective of our review was to determine whether USCIS uses fingerprint information effectively to identify naturalization applicants with multiple identities and final deportation orders. We examined the records of 216 naturalized citizens that DHS OPS identified to confirm whether they: (1) had received final deportation orders under a second identity and (2) did not admit to the final deportation orders or identities on their naturalization applications. We also assessed TECS records and summary information related to investigations of these cases. We analyzed communications among USCIS, CBP, ICE, and OPS personnel about these cases of possible naturalization fraud. We also reviewed user manuals, policies, system documentation, and summary presentations about the DHS fingerprint repository, IDENT, and the United States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology Program Secondary Inspection Tool. We assessed USCIS user manuals, standard operating procedures, policies, guidance, and training material, as well as statutes and regulations related to final deportation orders, the naturalization and denaturalization processes, fraud detection, and use of fingerprint records. We reviewed ICE and CBP policies and procedures for handling naturalized citizens and legal permanent residents who have final orders of deportation under different identities, mission priorities, and coordination between DHS components and the Department of Justice. We interviewed headquarters staff from DHS OPS, USCIS, ICE, CBP, the National Protection and Programs Directorate, and the Office of Policy. In addition, we travelled to Missouri and Kansas where we interviewed USCIS National Benefits Center staff in the Lee’s Summit and Overland Park offices, and ICE staff at ICE Homeland Security Investigations’ Kansas City field office. In addition, we met with CBP and ICE personnel at Dulles International Airport, JFK International Airport, and Newark Liberty International Airport. We also visited USCIS field offices in New York, New York; Newark, New Jersey; and Baltimore, Maryland, where we spoke with immigration services officers and FDNS personnel. In Virginia, we interviewed several CBP employees who worked in the National Targeting Center and a TSA employee familiar with vetting applicants for TSA-approved credentials. We conducted telephone interviews with USCIS adjudicators in Houston, Texas and Atlanta, Georgia, and ICE investigators in Los Angeles, California, Seattle Washington, and 10 www.oig.dhs.gov OIG-16-130

16 OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL Department of Homeland Security Houston, Texas. We interviewed 46 USCIS staff members, 34 ICE staff members, 21 CBP staff members, 3 OPS staff members, and 5 staff members from the DHS Office of Biometric Identity Management and the Office of Policy. We also interviewed FBI subject matter experts about the FBI fingerprint repository and information exchange with DHS. After December 2015, we contacted subject matter experts in OPS, ICE, and USCIS to clarify issues in our report and to confirm that the conditions we identified had not changed. In May 2016, we briefed these subject matter experts on our report’s findings and conclusions. We conducted this review from July 2014 to December 2015 under the , as amended, and according to the Inspector General Act 1978 authority of the Quality Standards for Inspection and Evaluation issued by the Council of the Inspectors General on Integrity and Efficiency. www.oig.dhs.gov 11 OIG-16-130

17 OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL Department of Homeland Security Appendix B Management Comments to the Draft Report www.oig.dhs.gov 12 OIG-16-130

18 OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL Department of Homeland Security www.oig.dhs.gov 13 OIG-16-130

19 OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL Department of Homeland Security www.oig.dhs.gov 14 OIG-16-130

20 OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL Department of Homeland Security OIG-16-130 www.oig.dhs.gov 15

21 OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL Department of Homeland Security www.oig.dhs.gov 16 OIG-16-130

22 OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL Department of Homeland Security Appendix C Office of Inspections and Evaluations Major Contributors to This Report John D. Shiffer, Chief Inspector Deborah Outten-Mills, Chief Inspector Elizabeth Kingma, Lead Inspector Jennifer Kim, Senior Inspector Megan Pardee, Inspector Joseph Hernandez, Inspector Kelly Herberger, Communications Analyst Natalie Fussell Enclade, Independent Referencer 17 www.oig.dhs.gov OIG-16-130

23 OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL Department of Homeland Security Appendix D Report Distribution Department of Homeland Security Secretary Deputy Secretary Chief of Staff Deputy Chiefs of Staff General Counsel Executive Secretary Director, GAO/OIG Liaison Office Assistant Secretary for Office of Policy Assistant Secretary for Office of Public Affairs Assistant Secretary for Office of Legislative Affairs Director, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Director, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Director, Office of Operations Coordination Under Secretary, National Protection and Programs Directorate Audit Liaison, ICE Audit Liaison, USCIS Audit Liaison, OPS Audit Liaison, NPPD Office of Management and Budget Chief, Homeland Security Branch DHS OIG Budget Examiner Congress Congressional Oversight and Appropriations Committees 18 www.oig.dhs.gov OIG-16-130

24 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION AND COPIES To view this and any of our other reports, please visit our website at: www.oig.dhs.gov. For further information or questions, please cont act Office of Inspector General Public Affairs at: [email protected] Follow us on Twitter at: @dhsoig. OIG HOTLINE To report fraud, waste, or abuse, visit our website at www.oig.dhs.gov and click on the red "Hotline" tab. If you cannot access our website, call our hotline at (800) 323-8603, fax our hotline at (202) 254-4297, or write to us at: Department of Homeland Security Office of Inspector General, Mail Stop 0305 Attention: Hotline 245 Murray Drive, SW Washington, DC 20528-0305

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