2010 US Lighting Market Characterization

Transcript

1 BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM 2010 U.S. Lighting Market Characterization January 2012 Prepared for: Solid-State Lighting Program Building Technologies Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy Prepared by: Navigant Consulting, Inc.

2 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government, nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information , apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not neces sarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency, contractor or subcontractor thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not United States Government or any agency thereof. necessarily state or reflect those of the REPORT PREPARED BY: Navigant Consulting Mary Ashe Dan Chwastyk Caroline de Monasterio Mahima Gupta Mika Pegors Page ii

3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS those authors like to express their appreciation to would who provided support, input, and The used to develop this report. First and foremost information we would like to thank Dr. James Brodrick U.S. Department of Energy’s Building the Program. Dr. Brodrick provided perceptive of Technologies and review throughout the de guidance this report and was an invaluable aide to the of velopment The authors would also like to express their appreciation to members of the technical review authors. participated in a review of the reports, who methods and results, which added to the committee integrity of the estimates. These members include: Jennifer American Council for an Energy ‐ Efficient Economy Amann Baldacci Consortium for Energy Efficiency Kate Borgos Osram Sylvania Michael Cao CAO Group Densen Philips Keith Lighting Cook Efficiency Consortium for Energy Eileen Eaton English Acuity Brands Cheryl Ferranti NYSERDA Adele An Goldgar Acuity Brands Pekka Lutron Electronics Hakkarainen Osram Sylvania Pamela Horner Horowitz Natural Resources Noah Defense Council Joseph Howley GE Lighting Aaron James Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance Alliance Elaine Northwest Energy Efficiency Miller Carley Murray NYSERDA Michael Poplawski PNNL Rebecca Rainer Cooper Lighting Paul Scheidt Cree Ray Yingling Eastman Kodak Company Page iii

4 In addition, the authors are grateful to the following contributors who provided valuable insight concerning the inputs used in this analysis, and assisted with obtaining the lighting datasets used: Stadium Managers Association Joe Abernathy Federal Aviation Administration Marcia Adams Scott Albert GDS Associates Federal Highway Administration Carl Anderson Tom Balog DTE Energy Andrew Brix City of Ann Arbor, MI City of New York, NY Amanda Burden Mike Borgos Osram Sylvania Rolf Butters U.S. Department of Energy, Industrial Technologies Program Keith Cook Philips Lighting Shawn Conrad International Parking Institute Federal Railroad Administration Steven Denton Ed Ebrahimian City of Los Angeles, CA Gary Fuselier Metro -Washington Airport Authority Stacey Harrison National Electrical Manufacturers Association Jim Helmer City of San Jose, CA Joseph Howley GE Lighting Bruce Kinzey Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Ken Kobetsky American Association of State and Highway Transportation Officials Myron Laible Outdoor Advertising Association of America Federal Aviation Administration Alvin Logan Federal Aviation Administration Tom Mai Federal Aviation Administration Rick Marinelli Walker Parking Consultants Don Monahan Michael Muller Rutgers University Mary Mycka Stadium Managers Association City of Raleigh, NC John Nelms Chris Oswald Airport Council International Michael Poplawski Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Steve Prey CA Department of Transportation E Engineers, Inc Ed Ragain M- Chris Rogers Hartsfield - Jackson Airport Tom Rosinbum City of Portland, OR Michael Sills City of Glendale, AZ -Trausch Edward Smalley Seattle City Light Bobby Switzer Lamar Advertising Co. Craig Updyke National Electrical Manufacturers Association Nexus Market Research Lisa Wilson -Wright Page iv

5 Finally, we would like to thank the following organizations which sponsored the collection of much of the data used in this report, and graciously allowed us access to this data. APS California Energy Commission California Public Utilities Commission Cape Light Compact Connecticut Energy Conservation Management Board Connecticut Light & Power National Grid NSTAR Electric NYSERDA Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Tuscon Electric Power Unisource Energy United Illuminating Company Unitil U.S. Department of Energy – Industrial Technologies Program Vermont Department of Public Service Western Massachusetts Electric Company Page v

6 Table of Contents ABBREVIATIONS LIST OF ACRONYMS AND X ... ... XI EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 INTRODUCTION ...1 2 ...2 STUDY SCOPE METHODOLOGY ...5 3 ... OLLECTION ATA C 6 D 3.1 Data Sources ... 6 3.1.1 National Residential Data Sources ... 7 3.1.2 3.1.3 ... 9 Commercial and Industrial Data Sources 3.1.4 Outdoor Data Sources ... 10 3.2 I NVENTORY AND E U SE C ALCULATION ... 12 NERGY 12 ... 3.2.1 Buildings Sector Inventory and Energy Use Calculation ... 3.2.2 15 Sample Weighting in the Buildings Sector 3.2.3 Outdoor Inventory and Energy Use Calculation Method ... 16 4 LIGHTING INVENTORY A ND ENERGY CONSUMPTIO N ESTIMATES ... 20 4.1 C UMULATIVE R ESULTS ... 21 4.2 S ECTOR S PECIFIC R ESULTS ... 37 4.2. 1 Residential Results ... 37 4.2.2 ... 43 Commercial Results Industrial Results ... 48 4.2.3 Ou ... 53 4.2.4 tdoor Results S 4.3 TATE L IGHTING ... 56 OLID -S L 4.4 C IGHTING ... 58 ONTROLS ... 63 5 SUMMARY RESULTS ... ARKET IGHTING M 63 C HARACTERISTICS 5.1 L 5.2 2010 L IGHTING M ARKET C HARACTERISTICS C OMPARED TO 2001 V ALUES ... 67 6 NG ELECTRICITY CONSU MPTION ESTIMATES ... 70 COMPARISON OF LIGHTI LAMP CATEGORY DESCRI PTIONS ... 72 APPENDIX A. APPENDIX B. SAMPLE DATASET CHARA CTERISTICS ... 73 APPENDIX C. EFFICACY AND WATTAGE ASSUMPTIONS ... 78 APPENDIX D. RESIDENTIAL OPERATIN G HOURS ... 80 APPENDIX E. SUPPLEMENTARY RESIDE NTIAL RESULTS ... 82 ... 85 WORKS CITED Page vi

7 L T ABLES IST OF 2010 ES.1 L IGHTING M ARKET C HARACTERISTICS IN UMMARY OF ... XII ABLE S T T ... S UBSECTORS A NALYZED ECTORS AND 3 ABLE 2.1 S T U.S. B UILDING P OPULATION AND F LOORSPACE S UMMARY ... 7 ABLE 3.1 T ESIDENTIAL 3.2 ATA S OURCE K EY C HARACTERISTICS ... 9 D ABLE R T EY C OMMERCIAL D ATA S OURCE K C HARACTERISTICS ... 10 3.3 ABLE T I NDUSTRIAL D ATA S OURCE ABLE EY C HARACTERISTICS ... 10 3.4 K T O UTDOOR D ATA S OURCES ... 11 ABLE 3.5 T 4.1 STIMATED I NVENTORY OF L AMPS IN THE U.S. BY E ND E SE S ECTOR IN 2010 ... 22 ABLE -U T D ISTRIBUTION OF L AMPS (%) BY E ND ABLE SE S ECTOR IN 2010 ... 24 4.2 -U T A VERAGE N UMBER OF L AMPS PER B UILDING BY E 4.3 -U SE S ECTOR IN 2010 ... 26 ABLE ND T 4.4 HOUSAND A VERAGE N UMBER OF L AMPS PER T ABLE S QUARE F EET BY E ND -U SE S EC TOR IN 2010 ... 27 T 4.5 VERAGE W ATTAGE PER L AMP BY E ND -U SE S ECTOR IN 2010 ... 29 ABLE A T 4.6 D ISTRIBUTION (%) OF I NSTALLED W ATTAGE BY E ND -U ABLE S ECTOR IN 2010 ... 30 SE T ND A VERAGE D AILY O PERATING H OURS BY E -U SE S ECTOR IN 2010 ... 32 ABLE 4.7 T 4.8 A NNUAL L IGHTING E LECTRICITY C ONSUMED (TW H ) BY ABLE ND -U SE S ECTOR IN 2010 ... 34 E T E 4.9 NNUAL L UMEN P RODUCTION (T LM – HR ) BY A ND -U SE S ECTOR IN 2010 ... 36 ABLE T 4.10 E STIMATED N UMB ER OF ABLE ESIDENCES BY S IZE AND T YPE IN 2010 ... 37 R T ESIDENCE AND 4.11 A VERAGE N UMBER OF L AMPS PER H OUSEHOLD BY ABLE R OOM T YPE IN 2010 ... 38 R T ABLE 4.12 L AMP D ISTRIBUTION OF R ESIDENCES BY R OOM T YPE IN 2010 ... 39 T ABLE 4.13 A VERAGE W ATTAGE PER L AMP BY R ESIDENCE T YPE AND R OOM T YPE IN 2010 ... 40 T ABLE A VERAGE D AILY O PERATING H OURS BY R ESIDENCE T YPE AND R OOM T YPE IN 2010... 41 4.14 T ABLE L IGHTING E LECTRICITY U SE BY R OOM T YPE IN 2010 ... 42 4.15 T 4.16 L IGHTING E LECTRICITY U SE BY R ABLE T YPE IN 2010... 42 ESIDENCE T OMMERCIAL E STIMATED N UMBER AND F LOORSPACE OF C ABLE B UILDINGS IN 2010 ... 43 4.17 T 4.18 L AMP D ISTRIBUTION BY C OMMERCIAL B UILDING T YPE IN 2010 ... 44 ABLE T ABLE A VERAGE W ATTAGE PER L AMP BY C OMMERCIAL B UILDING T YPE IN 2010 ... 45 4.19 T ABLE A VERAGE D AILY O PERATING H OURS PE R L AMP BY C OMMERCIAL B UILDING T YPE IN 2010 ... 46 4.20 T ABLE L IGHTING E LECTRICITY U SE BY C OMMERCIAL B UILDINGS IN 2010 ... 47 4.21 T ABLE E STIMATED N UMBER AND F LOORSPACE OF 4.22 NDUSTRIAL B UILDINGS IN 2010 ... 48 I T ABLE 4.23 L AMP D ISTRIBUTION BY I NDUSTRIAL B UILDING T YPE IN 2010 ... 49 T ABLE A VERAGE W ATTAGE PER L AMP BY I NDUSTRIAL B UILDING T YPE IN 2010 ... 50 4.24 T ABLE A VERAGE D AILY O PERATING H OURS PER L AMP BY I NDUSTRIAL B UILDING T YPE IN 2010 ... 51 4.25 T ABLE L IGHTING E LECTRICITY U SE BY I NDUSTRIAL B UILDINGS IN 2010 ... 52 4.26 T ABLE E STIMATED I NVENTORY OF O UTDOOR 4.27 AMPS BY S UBSECTOR (1,000’ S ) ... 53 L T ABLE 4.28 A VERAGE W ATTAGE PER L AMP BY S UBSECTOR IN 2010 ... 54 T L ABLE VERAGE D AILY O PERATING H OURS PER 4.29 AMP BY S UBSEC TOR IN 2010 ... 54 A T ABLE 4.30 L IGHTING E LECTRICITY U SE BY O UTDOOR S UBSECTORS IN 2010 (TW H / YR ) ... 55 T AMPS IN 4.31 LED E XIT S IGNS AND L ABLE C OMMERCIAL AND I NDUSTRIAL S ECTORS ... 56 T ... 59 ABLE 4.32 P REVALENCE OF L IGHTING C ONTROLS BY S ECTOR Page vii

8 T ABLE P REVALENCE OF L IGHTING C ONTROL S IN THE R ESIDENTIAL S ECTOR BY L AMP T YPE ... 59 4.33 T ABLE P REVALENCE OF L IGHTING C ONTROLS IN THE R ESIDENTIAL S ECTOR BY R OOM T YPE ... 60 4.34 T ABLE P REVALENCE OF L IGHTING C ONTROLS IN THE R ESIDENTIAL 4.35 ECTOR BY R ESIDENCE T YPE ... 60 S T ABLE 4.36 P REVALENCE OF L IGHTING C ONTROLS IN THE C OMMERCIAL S ECTOR BY L AMP T YPE ... 61 T ABLE P REVALENCE OF L IGHTING C ONTROLS IN THE C OMMERCIAL 4.37 ECTOR BY B UILDING T YPE ... 61 S T ABLE 5.1 U.S. A NNUAL L IGHTING E NERGY U SE E STIMATES BY S ECTOR IN 2010 ... 67 T OURCE IN ABLE 5.2 U.S. A NNUAL L IGHTING E NERGY U SE E STIMATES BY S ECTOR AND S 2010 ... 67 T ABLE 2010 S ECTOR L IGHTING C HARACTERISTICS C 2001 V ALUES ... 68 5.3 OMPARISON TO T 6.1 A NNUAL L IGH TING E LECTRICITY C ONSUMPTION E STIMATES ... 70 ABLE T ABLE L AMP C ATEGORY D ... 72 A.1 ESCRIPTIONS T C.1 L B ALLAST P REVALENCE IN N ON -I NTEGRATED ABLE AMPS ... 78 T ABLE C.2 S YSTEM E FFICACY A SSUMPTIONS ... 79 T ABLE C OMPARISON OF R ESIDENTIAL O D.1. H OURS ... 81 PERATING T ABLE E.1 L AMP S HAPE BY T ECHNOLOGY ... 82 T CCURRENCES BY E.2 L AMP T ECHNOLOGY O ABLE R OOM T YPE ... 83 T ABLE E.3 L AMP T ECHNOLOGY W ATTAGES BY R OOM T YPE ... 84 Page viii

9 L IST F IGURES OF S IGURE U.S. L IGHTING E LECTRICITY C ONSUMPTION BY -1 ECTOR AND L AMP T YPE IN 2010 ... XIII F ES IGURE 2-1 L AMP C LASSIFICATION F 4 ... F M 3-1 ATIONAL I NVENTORY C ALCULATION N ETHODOLOGY ... 5 IGURE F C 3-2 E NERGY U SE ALCULATION ... 12 IGURE F IGURE 4-1 LED P REVALENCE IN THE O UTDOOR S ECTOR ... 57 F IGURE U.S. P RIMARY E NERGY C 5-1 E LECTRICITY P RODUCTION IN 2010 ... 63 ONSUMPTION FOR F IGURE 5-2 U.S. L IGHTING L AMP I NVENTORY , E LECTRICITY C ONSUMPTION AND L UMEN P RODUCTION IN 2010 ... 64 F S 5-3 U.S. L IGHTING E LECTRICITY C ONSUMPTION BY IGURE ECTOR AND L AMP T YPE IN 2010 ... 65 F RODUCTION BY IGURE 5-4 U.S. L UMENS P S 66 ECTOR AND L AMP T YPE IN 2010 ... F IGURE A VERAGE E FFICACY BY S ECTOR ... 69 5-5 F R R ESIDENTI AL S ECTOR D ISTRIBUTION BY ESIDENCE T YPE ... 73 IGURE B-1 F B-2 R ESIDENTIAL S ECTOR D IGURE R ESIDENCE S IZE ... 73 ISTRIBUTION BY F G B-3 R ESIDENTIAL S ECTOR D IGURE EOGRAPHIC R EGION ... 74 ISTRIBUTION BY F IGURE B-4 R ESIDENTIAL S ECTOR D ISTRIBUTION BY Y EAR B UILT ... 74 F IGURE C OMMERCIAL S ECTOR D ISTRIBUTION BY B UILDING T YPE ... 75 B-5 F IGURE C OMMERCIAL S ECTOR D B-6 G EOGRAPHIC R EGION ... 75 ISTRIBUTION BY F B IGURE I NDUSTRIAL S ECTOR D ISTRIBUTION BY UILDING T YPE ... 76 B-7 F ISTRIBUTION BY IGURE I NDUSTRIAL S ECTOR D B-8 G EOGRAPHIC R EGION ... 77 Page ix

10 List of Acronyms and Abbreviations Annual Energy Outlook AEO American Housing Survey AHS Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey CBECS Compact Fluorescent Lamp CFL U.S. Department of Energy DOE DSM Demand -side Management Energy Information Administration EIA FAA Federal Aviation Administration Federal Railroad Administration FRA High Intensity Discharge HID High Pressure Sodium HPS kilowatt hours kWh Lighting Controls Association LCA Light Emitting Diode LED Lm/W Lumens per Watt LMC Market Characterization Lighting LPS Low Pressure Sodium MECS Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey Metal Halide MH Mercury Vapor MV NAICS North American Industry Classification System NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association NEMS National Energy Modeling System NFDC National Flight Data Center Quadrillion BTU Quad RECS Residential Energy Consumption Survey SSL Solid State Lighting Tlm -hr Teralumen -hours TWh Terawatt hours Watts W Page x

11 Executive Summary The is the second report released by the U.S. Department of 2010 U.S. Lighting Market Characterization that Energy’s Solid State Lighting Program provides summary estimates of the installed stock, energy , the fi rst version being released in 2002 use, and lumen production of all lamps operating in the U.S . The objective of this report is to collect and present in one document the fundamental energy consumption information that DOE needs to plan an effective lighting research and development program. This re port answers three main questions: • How ma ny of each lighting technology are installed in the U.S. in 2010 and where are they installed? • How much energy is consumed by light sources in the U.S. in 2010? • How have the U.S. lighting market characteristics changed over the past decade? The results in this report are provided at both a national level and a sector- specific level. The four sectors represented include three building sectors – residential, commercial, ind ustrial – and one outdoor sector. The estimates have been based primarily on public sources of information, building lighting audits, industry surveys, national lamp shipment data, and interviews with lighting professionals inputs and subject matter experts. A variety of sources were used to ensure all data were reinforced and to i the accuracy of the analysis. mprove broad categories: incandescent, halogen, compact Light sources in this study were grouped into six Within each of these, the fluorescent, linear fluorescent, high intensity discharge, and solid state/other. market analysis evaluated subgroups of commonly available lighting products (e.g., reflector lamp s, T8 28 lamp types were carried through the analysis, fluorescent tubes, metal halide lamps). In total, extracting information like average wattage, operating hours and number of sockets from the data set. A complete list of the light source subgroups can be found in Table A.1 of the main report. Table ES. 1 presents a summary of t he U.S. lighting characteristics in 2010. More detailed results on the lighting characteristics of each sector analyzed can be found in S ection 4 of the main report. The largest sector in terms of number of installed lamps is the residential sector. Residences account for 71 percent of all lamp installations nationwide, at 5.8 billion lamps . The commercial buildings sector is the second largest sector with 25 perc ent of all installations and 2.1 billion lamps. The outdoor and industrial sectors are significantly smaller, each accounting for roughly 2 percent of all lamps installed, 1 million 80 and 14 0 million lamps, respectively. With regard to average daily operating hours, while lamps in the commercial, industrial, and outdoor sectors typically are used for half the day (working hours for commercial and industrial sector lamps and night time hours for outdoor lamps) residential lamps are only used a couple hours a day on average. As for the average wattage characteristics, the residential sector average wattage of 46 W per lamp represents the mix of low wattage, high efficacy CFLs and higher wattage, lower efficacy incandescent lamps installed in the sector. The commercial, industrial and outdoor sector’s average wattages are characteristic of the high installed base of fluorescent lamps and high wattage high intensity discharge lamps. Page xi

12 1 Summary of Lighting Market Characterist ics in 2010 Table ES. Wattage per Average Daily Annual Electricity Lamps Lamp Operating Hours Use (TWh) 5,811,769,000 Res i denti a l 175 46 1.8 11.2 349 Commerc i a l 42 2,069,306,000 Industrial 144,251,000 13.0 75 58 Outdoor 11.7 178,374,000 118 151 8,203,700,000 Total 4.7 48 700 The se inputs combined result in a total annual electricity use of U.S. lighting of 700 T Wh, or 1 presents the lighting electricity use by Figure ES- approximately 19 percent of total U.S. electricity use. in the commercial sector, which the lighting electricity is consumed early half of sector and lamp type. N also represents the sector in which the majority of lumens are produced. This sector is dominated by s large installed base lighting. The residential sector’ of low efficacy lighting fluorescent linear area causes the sector to be the second largest lighting energy consumer, at 175 TWh per year. Ranked by technology, linear fluorescent lighting represen ts the overall highest electricity consumer at 42 percent lighting electricity. This is following high intensity discharge lighting at 26 percent and incandescent lighting at 22 percent. While over the past d ecade experienced , the impact of this LED lighting has significant growth niche applications, such as traffic signal lighting. LEDs technology has been limited , as of 2010 , to mostly penetration into general illumination applications in the building sectors is still significantly below 1 e technology will need continued research and marketing support to realize its high percent and th . penetration and energy savings potential Page xii

13 800 Incandescent Halogen 700 118 700 Compact Fluorescent Linear Fluorescent 58 600 HID 349 LED/Other 500 400 (TWh/yr) 300 175 200 Annual Electricity Consumption 100 0 Total Outdoor Industrial Commercial Residential Figure ES Electricity Consumption by Sector and Lamp Type in 2010 -1 U.S. Lighting since in the lighting stock and energy consumption characteristics There have been significant changes 2001 (the baseline year of the previous Light ing Market Characterization). A detailed comparison of the ection of the main report. Two notable trends include: 5.2 two estimates can be found in S • Increased demand for light. The total number of lamps installed in U.S. stationary applications grew from just under 7 billion in 2 001 to over 8 billion in 2010. The vast majority of the growth occurred in the residential sector, primarily due to the increase in number of households and the rise in the number of sockets per household, from 43 in 2001 to 51 in 2010. • Push towards higher efficacy lighting. Investment in more energy efficient technologies, federal -level lighting regulations, and public awareness campaigns have been effective in and state rgy efficient lighting technologies. Across all sectors the shifting the market towards more ene lighting stock has become more efficient, with the average system efficacy of installed lighting increasing from 45 lumens per Watt in 2001 to 58 lumens per Watt in 2010. This rise in efficacy is largely due to two major technology shifts; the move from incandescent to compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) in the residential sector, and the move from T12 to T8 and T5 fluorescent lamps in the commercial and industrial sectors. Page xiii

14 1 Introduction The lighting market is entering a period of great change with new technology entrants , energy efficiency programs, and government regulations promising to reshape the market in the upcoming years. to fully understand where the market is headed , we must first establish its current However, U.S. Department of Energy published the U.S. Lighting Market characteristics. In 2002 the Characterization Volume I: National Lighting Inventory and Energy Consumption Estimate , or LMC for short, which provided a detai led view of these characteristics for the baseline year of 2001 (Navigant 1 . Consulting, Inc., 2002) After almost a decade and significant changes to both the lighting market as well as our nation’s energy policy, the Departmen t of Energy (DOE) presents this, the second version of the LMC. The objective of this report is to collect and present in one document the fundamental energy consumption information that DOE needs to plan an effective lighting research and development program. This report answers three main questions: • How many of each lighting technology are installed in the U.S. in 2010 and where are they installed? • How much energy is consumed by light sources in the U.S. in 2010? ristics changed over the past decade? • How have the U.S. lighting market characte Th is report is -State Lighting (SSL) Program. The SSL Program focuses on sponsored by DOE’s Solid -emitting diodes research and development as well as commercialization activities concerning light (LEDs) and organic lig ht -emitting diodes (OLEDs). This report provides the baseline DOE needs to plan an effective program and against which to measure progress. In addition the LMC is intended to be d evaluating lighting used by both governmental and non -governmental organizations for planning an opportunities, forecasting the direction of the lighting market , and additional research efforts. For ease of use and comparison , this LMC is structured similarly to the 200 1 study. However, this t by utilizing updated data sources and incorporating input from a version expands on the previous effor 2 technical review committee. of particular interest topics additional In addition, this version examines to the lighting community, such as the penetration of LED lighting and prevalence o f lighting controls, which were not included in the 200 1 study . 1 The previous version of the LMC was released in 2002, but provided results for 2001. In this report it is referred to as the 2001 LMC. The previous version of the LMC can be downloaded at: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/ssl/lmc_vol1_final.pdf 2 The methodologies and results found in this report were presented to a to a technical review committee in the summer and fall of 2011. The committee consisted of twenty members representing government, lighting manufacturers, utilities, and other non- government organization. This final report incorporates their suggestions and insights. Page 1

15 2 Study Scope The scope of the LMC includes all lighting installed in the U.S. in stationary applications during 2010. Mobile applications, such as automobile headlights, are 1 LMC, excluded from this report. As in the 200 the lighting inventory and energy use estimates are split amongst four sectors : residential buildings, commercial buildings, industrial buildings, and outdoor. Each of these sectors is further divided into several subsectors. For the residential sector, the subsectors are based on the type of construction of the residence the lamp is located . For the commercial and industrials and the room type in which sectors, the subsectors are based on the principal activity conducted within the building. In the previous 2001 LMC, lighting characteristics were additionally provided by application area within commercial and industrial buildings; however the updated data sources did not contain sufficient data to provide this level of detail . For the , the subsector classification is in accordance with that used by building sectors -use consumption surveys the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in its end and the American Housing Survey (AHS) . The outdoor stationary sector accounts for the remainder of lamps not installed inside buildings. The outdoor subsectors are based on the application where the lamp is used. This includes lamps that may be associated with a specific commercial or industrial building but are ins ior, such as talled on the exter parking lot lights or exterior wall packs. T his is in contrast to the 200 1 report in which some outdoor lighting was classified in the commercial and industrial sectors. In addition, the 2010 estimates for the outdoor secto r include subsectors not previously analyzed, namely stadiums and railroad applications . Table 2.1 lists all of the sectors and subsectors. Page 2

16 Analyzed Table 2.1 Sectors and Subsectors 3 4 5 Residential Commercial Outdoor Industrial Airfield Food Education Residence s Type Billboard Beverage & Tobacco Products Food Service Single Family Detached Building Exterior Textile Product Mills Food Store Single Family Attached (Townhouse) Parking Wood Products Health Care – Inpatient Multifamily Railway Paper Outpatient Health Care – Mobile & Manufactured Roadway Printing & Related Support Lodging Stadium Petroleum & Coal Products Offices (Non -medical) Rooms Traffic Signals Plastics & Rubber Products Public Assembly Basement Nonmetallic Mineral Products Public Order and Safety Bathroom Primary Metals Religious Worship Bedroom Fabricated Metal Products Retail -mall – Mall & Non Closet Machinery Services Dining Room Computer & Electronic Products Warehouse & Storage Exterior Electrical Equipment, Appliances Other & Components Garage Transportation Equipment Hall Furniture & Related Products Kitchen Miscellaneous Laundry/Utility Room Living / Family Room Office Other / Unknown 3 For definitions of each residential subsector refer to: http://www.census.gov/housing/ahs/files/Appendix%20A.pdf 4 For definitions of each commercial subsector refer to: http://www.eia.gov/emeu/cbecs/building_types.html 5 For definitions of each industrial subsector refer to the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). http://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/ For further information on the NAICS refer to: Page 3

17 in Figure 2-1. The categories are The lamp technologies have been categorized as displayed below based on those used in the 200 1 LMC, the categories used in the various data sources, as well as input Description s of ea ch lamp technology can be found from members of the technical review committee. Appendix A . in Incandescent Fluorescent A-type General Service - • T5 • - Decorative • Service General T8 less than 4 foot • • Reflector • T8 4 foot • Miscellaneous • T8 greater than 4 foot Halogen less than 4 foot T8 • • General Service T8 4 foot • • Reflector T8 greater than 4 foot • Low Voltage Display • • U-shaped T8 • Miscellaneous • U-shaped T12 Miscellaneous • Compact Fluorescent Service – Screw • General General Service – Pin • High Intensity Discharge Reflector • • Mercury Vapor Miscellaneous • • Metal Halide • High Pressure Sodium Other Low Pressure Sodium • LED Lamp • • Miscellaneous 6 Figure 2-1 Lamp Classification 6 Low pressure sodium is a discharge lamp, but not a high intensity discharge lamp. It has been classified as such for presentation purposes. Page 4

18 3 Methodology methodology used to develop the national lighting inventory for the buildings sectors (residential, The commercial, and industrial) involved two major steps. The first step entailed aggregating sets of building lighting data, which were collected through on -site audits as well as through interviews with the building owners, and then scaling the aggregated datasets up to a national level. The building lighting data collected in this step provided data on the lamps installed in each building, including details such as lamp quantities, wattages , and operating hours. More information on the data used in this step and the Section 3.1 and Section 3.2 , respectively. method of aggregation can be found in Because the data used in the first step was collected in various years (prior to 2010) and in selected geographies not necessarily re presentative of the entire U.S, the second step of the analysis involves statistically adjusting the initial inventory estimates so that the final estimate represents the entire U.S. in the year of 2010. To do so historical national lamp shipment data obt ained from the National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association (NEMA), the U.S. Census Bureau , and interviews with lamp manufacturers was utilized . Additional detail on the shipments analysis can be found in Section 3.2.1.1. The analysis for the outdoor sector was developed in a slightly different manner than that of the buildings sector due to a lack of audit and survey data. Due to the varying formats of the data sources utilized, e ach subsector in the outdoor sector was developed in a unique way based on the available data. In general, the characteristics of the outdoor subsectors were based on interviews with experts, inventory data collected from trade associations or relevant organizations , and the shipment data above. The data sources use mentioned . d for each outdoor subsector are discussed in Section 3.1.4 Figure 3-1 illustrates the basic structure of the methods used as well as the key inputs for each method. STEP 1 Lamp Type -level Building Lamp Wattage Data Lighting Buildings Operating Hours Audit -based Sector Inventory National Lamp Counts Building Counts STEP 2 Total U.S. Shipments - Annual Shipments by Lamp Type Lighting based Inventory Operating Hours from Audits Inventory Lamp Lifetimes from Product Databases Interviews Application Outdoor Surveys Specific Sector Inventories Shipment data Figure 3-1 National Inventory Calculation Methodology Page 5

19 3.1 Data Collection ew data was collected for this study, apart from The LMC relies primarily on existing data sources. N not data collected through interviews and surveys for outdoor subsectors where insufficient existing data sources were available . The reliance on existing data sources allows the LMC to collect and utilize data from a wider variety of geographies and a greater number of buildings than if all data had to be collected in the field. this analysis relies on existing sources, the quality of the analysis is dependent on the quality of Because the source data. Thus, c ollecting high quality data— objective, accurate, and recent— was the primary concern in the development of this report. In order to do so, data was drawn from several diffe rent sources: • National data sources include surveys conducted by the EIA and the Census Bureau that provide the total number and square footage of buildings in the U.S. • On -site sources consist of lamp inventories developed through on -site audits and, at times, operating hours developed through the use of lighting loggers, for a small random sample of buildings in a specific region of the U.S. -site sources • Off include inventory data collected through mail, telephone, and online surveys as well as additional data collected through interviews. sources provide the quantity of annual shipments from manufacturer groups for • Shipment specific lamp types. etail on the key data sources used in this analysis. The following sections provide more d 3.1.1 National Data Sources National data was drawn from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Housing Survey (AHS) for the residential sector and from EIA energy consumption surveys for the commercial and indust sectors . rial The EIA releases multiple studies for which a randomly selected sample of building owners are interviewed in order to estimate basic energy use characteristics for U.S. buildings. The 2010 LMC utilized two of these studies: the Commercial Bu ildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). The population estimate for the commercial and industrial sectors were derived from these studies. In the commercial and industrial sectors, the building po pulation is defined by the total floorspace installed in the U.S. per building type . The residential sector population was developed from the AHS, a bi -annual survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau which collects household and demographic data on the nation’s housing units. The 2001 LMC used the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) by the EIA to determine the total population of residences. However, the AHS has been used in this update because it is based on a sample size almost five times as large as that used in the RECS. The residential building population only includes permanently occupied houses. Unoccupied and seasonally occupied houses likely do contain some lamps. However, these lamps are not used in the same manner as the majority of the lighting stock and likely comprise a small portion of total lighting energy use; thus, they have been excluded. Page 6

20 The AHS, CBECS, and MECS provided building population and floorspace estimates for various years. For of building stock growth ’s Annual Energy ectors, estimates from the EIA the residential and commercial s the values to reflect the Outlook 2 10 base year. For the industrial sector, the 011 were used to adjust 20 -in- MECS estimate of total buildings floorspace was projected to the 2010 base year using annual put Census Bureau as a proxy for floorspace growth . Table 3.1 place construction values from the U.S. used in this report in white) as (shown summarizes the building characteristics of the national surveys well as the adjusted 2010 values used in the LMC ( shown in blue) (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011; EIA, 2003; EIA, 2006) . 3.1 U.S. Building Population and Floorspace Summary Table National Floorspace Base Number of 2 (million ft Buildings (1,000’s) Survey Year Sector ) 2009 238,118 111,860 Residential AHS 2010.. 113,153.. 240,868 7 2003 71,658 4,859 CBECS Commercial 5,497.. 81,203.. 2010.. 2006 474 10,274 Industrial MECS .. 2010.. 9,866.. 455 3.1.2 Residential Data Sources The residential sector analysis was based on data from five existing building audit studies , which included lighting data from 15 states. A majority of these studies were originally conducted in order to gain a quantitative understanding of the impacts of different utilities demand side management these sources, and consequently the 2010 LMC residential database, contain lighting programs. In total, inventory data for approximately 3,500 separate residences and nearly 200,000 lamps. Some buildings were removed from the final database as they did not contain complete lighting inventories. These studies were selected for this analysis as they provide detail on lamp inventories, wattages, and operating hours in som e instances, utilize the appropriate data collection methodologies, and contain the most up -to-date information on the residential lighting sector. Table 3.2 outlines the key characteristics of the residential sources used in this report. Below is a brief summary of each study utilized. • Upstream Lighting Program Evaluation (KEMA, Inc., 2010) : The report evaluated the sponsors’ 2006– 2008 Upstream Lighting Programs. As part of this evaluation, a complete inventory of all lamps installed in 1,200 randomly selected homes was conducted. The lighting data was collected fro m July of 2008 to December of 2009 in California. In addition, this report provided 7 According to the EIA, CBECS 2007 was not released to the public because “it did not yield valid statistical estimates of building counts, energy characteristics, consumption, and expenditures ”. Page 7

21 the most comprehensive operating hour data of all studies included in the LMC, with lighting loggers applied to 7,299 fixtures. (RLW Analytics, 2007a; RLW Analytics, 2007b; RLW • Residential Construction Baseline Studies : Analytics, 2007c; RLW Analytics, 2007d) This entry accounts for four studies conducted in the Pacific Northwest which aimed to determine the penetration rate of energy efficient technologies in new and existing single -family residences, as well as multifamily residences in the Pacific Northwest . Onsite data collection occurred from 2004 to 2006 and included general demographic information, and full lighting inventories for the interior and exterior of the homes. • Multi -State CFL Modeling Effort (NMR Group, Inc., 2010) : This study represents a collaboration of numerous energy efficiency program sponsors to explain the drivers to CFL purchases, usage, and saturation in households. Onsite saturation surveys were collected for over 1,400 households from 2008 to 2009 in a range of geographies (see 3.2). Data for every region Table collected in this study was not available at the time of publishing the LM C. This Side Management 2010 Targeted Baseline Study (Navigant Consulting, Inc., 2011) • Demand- : study aimed to identify demand -side management ( DSM ) programs that could be revised or introduced to maximize customer participation and energy savings potential in Arizona . Onsite surveys were conducted at nearly 100 residences. • Measurement, Evaluat ion, and Research Study (Summit Blue Consulting, LLC, 2008) : This study is a quantitative assessment to determine the demand and energy savings resulting from Arizona’s Consumer Products Program, a program that helps custom ers purchase ENERGY STAR products. The lighting inventory of nearly 60 residences was collected through onsite surveys. Page 8

22 Table 3.2 Residential Data Source Key Characteristics Building Years of Data Geographic Region(s) Count Collection Source Upstream Lighting Program California 1,2 32 2006– 2009 Evaluation Residential Construction Idaho, Oregon, Washington 1,092 2004– 2006 Baseline Studies Connecticut, District of Columbia, -State CFL Modeling Multi 2010 Indiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, 2008– 984 Effort New York, Ohio, Texas, Wisconsin Demand- Side Management Arizona 2010 Targeted Baseline 92 2010 Study Measurement, Evaluation, 2010 2009– Arizona 61 and Research Study 3.1.3 Commercial and Industrial Data Sources The commercial and industrial sources are presented together as most of the data sources used include data on both types of buildings. The 2010 LMC utilized four recent studies for these sectors, which l of 18 states and over 3,000 buildings. covered a tota Some buildings were removed from the final database as they did not to contain complete lighting inventories. Table 3.3 and Table 3.4 outline the key characteristics of the commercial and industrial studies used in this report. California Commercial End -Use Survey • (Itron, Inc., 2006) : This study’s main purpose was to collect information on the commercial sector’s energy in order to support forecasts of California’s energy demand. Onsite surveys were conducted in 2,790 buildings across t he service regions of California’s public utilities . Published in 2006, this study was the oldest used in the LMC. • Business Sector Market Assessment and Baseline Study (KEMA, Inc., 2009) : This study aimed to of the current market conditions in Vermont in order to identify opportunities gather a baseline for investment into energy efficiency. An onsite survey was conducted at almost 150 buildings in order to determine their installed stock of energy consuming equipment but onl y examined buildings that were built prior to 2006. • Industrial Assessment Center Data (DOE, 2011) : This source consists of data collected in Industrial Assessment Centers around the country which provide eligible small and m edium sized manufacturers no These assessments included lamp counts and -cost energy assessments. characteristics for all sockets. As this data is collected from buildings who sign up for the program, and not a randomly selected set of buildings, and does not include large industrial buildings, there could be a slight bias in the data collected. • Measurement, Evaluation, and Research Study (Summit Blue Consulting, LLC, 2008) : This study is a quantitative assessment to determine the demand and energy savings resulting from Arizona’s Page 9

23 Consumer Products Program, a program that helps customers purchase ENERGY STAR products. The lighting inventory of buildings was collected through onsite surveys. over 100 Characteristics 3.3 Commercial Data Source Key Table Building Years of Data Source Geographic Region(s) Collection Count Use California Commercial End- California 2,406 2003– 2005 Survey Business Sector Market 2008 115 Vermont Assessment and Baseline Study Measurement, Evaluation, and 106 2010 Arizona Research Study Characteristics Table 3.4 Industrial Data Source Key Years of Data Building 8 Collection Source Count Geographic Region(s) California Commercial End- Use 2005 California 22 2003– Survey Business Sector Market Vermont 20 2008 Assessment and Baseline Study Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, North Carolina, Massachusetts, Industrial Assessment Center 55 2010 2005– New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Data Washington, Wyoming Measurement, Evaluation, and Arizona 8 2010 Research Study 3.1.4 Outdoor Data Sources The outdoor sector covers the eight lighting applications: airfield, billboard, building exterior, parking, railway, roadway, sports lighting , and traffic signal. Railways and sports lighting are two new 1 LMC. following sections provide an applications which were not previously evaluated in the 200 The overview of these applications as well as the sources and methods used to develop the inventory and energy use estimates for each. Where applicable , the current analysis utilized the same information source s as the 200 1 LMC in an effort to maintain consistency between the two reports. As compared to the building sectors, less inventory data was available for the applications in the outdoor stationary sector. Thus conducted in a slightly different , the analysis of the outdoor sector was manner than the building sectors. However, the same basic building blocks needed in the building sector evaluations – namely lamp inventory, operating hours, distribution of lamp technologies, and 8 The industrial sector contained a smaller sample size of building lighting data than the other building sectors. The sector were corroborated with national lamp shipment data. results from this Page 10

24 average wattage for each - were required in order to estimate the national inventory and technology energy use for the outdoor stationary applications. wh at sources were Table 3.5 provides For each of the eight outdoor stationary lighting applications, Definitions of each outdoor subsector are included in Section 3.2.3 used for each building block. s Table 3.5 Outdoor Data Source Source(s) Outdoor Subsector Federal Aviation Administration (Mai, Logan, Marinelli, & Adams, 2011; NFDC, 2011) , Airfield Lighting Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, 2011) Outdoor Advertising Association of America, Inc. (Laible, 2011) , Billboard Lighting (Switzer, 2010) Lamar Advertising Co. See Commercial Data Sources and Industrial Data Building Exterior Sources International Parking Institute (International Parking Institute, 2010; Conrad, 2010) , , (Monahan, 2010) Walker Parking Consultants Parking ructure: Energy, Emissions, and nfrast Parking I -Cycle Environmental Accounting Automobile Life (Chester, 2010) Federal Railroad Administration (Denton, 2011; Federal Railroad Administration, 2009) , Railway Federal Highway Administration (FHWA, 2009) DOE Municipal Solid -State Street Lighting Consortium (DOE, 2010), Local Government Interviews (City Governments, , 2010) Roadway (State State Department of Transportation , Governments, 2010) Federal Highway Administration (Anderson, 2010) (Abernathy, Ragain, Stadium Managers Association & Mycka, 2010; Stadium Managers Association, Sports Lighting 2010) , (Anderson, 2010) Federal Highway Administration Institute of Transportation Engineers (NTOC, 2007) , Traffic Signals Navigant Consulting (Navigant Consulting, Inc., 2008) Page 11

25 3.2 ne rgy Use Calculation Inventory and E As shown in Figure 3-2, to determine energy use for each technology the total number of installed lamps was multiplied by the average watts per lamp and the average operating hours. This calculation was applied on the subsector level (per room type and residence type in the residential sector, per building type in the commercial and industrial sectors and per application in the outdoor sector) and then summed or averaged across the subsectors to arrive at total sec tor energy use estimates. Operating Number of Wattage per Hours per x x Lamps Lamp Lamp = NATIONAL LIGHTING ENERGY CONSUMPTION Figure 3-2 Energy Use Calculation 3.2.1 Buildings Sector Inventory and Energy Use Calculation discussed in Section 3.1 The inputs to this calculation are discussed below for the buildings sectors. As , these inputs were primarily derived from building survey and audit data, and shipment data. 3.2.1.1 Number of Lamps An initial estimate based on the aforementioned ber of installed lamps in each subsector was of the num ” is used in reference to a single lamps’ In this report the term “ audit, survey, and interview data. lighting unit . While for incandescent, compact fluorescent, linear fluorescent, or HID technologies it does represent the common usage of the term “lamp,” for LED sources, “lamp” could refer to an , exit sign, or under cabinet lighting). These e.g. integrated lamp, a luminaire, or an installation ( subsector values were then weighted based on the discussion in n Section 3.2.2 to determine the total number of lamps in the U.S. Two adjustments were made to these national inventory values prior to applying shipment data. As the Appendix A buildings datasets were slightly biased to western U.S. (see ), inventory values for certain less prevalent in the western states than the rest of the country were over lamp types that are more or To account for this bias, regional inventory and underrepresented in the initial inventory estimates. share estimates were generated for each lamp type regional bias. suspected of Regional estimates that were two standard deviations from mean were considered to be impacted by the regional bias. The lamp s included CFLs, incandescent a -type, reflector lamps, and linear fluorescent lamps. For affected ory was adjusted so that the final inventory share estimates properly these lamps the initial invent reflect national conditions. Page 12

26 The second adjustment involved recognizing that nearly all exit sign lamps in the commercial and industrial sector had transitioned in 2010 to LEDs. Becaus e some of the building inventories were initially conducted prior to 2010, some of these buildings had instances of incandescent and CFL exit signs. The inventories were adjusted so that LED lamps replaced these incumbent technologies for this . application adjusted inventory totals were then finalized using annual lamp shipment data The so that the final values represented the entire U.S. in 2010. NEMA provided historical shipments for the U.S. through 2010 for several of the major lamp types considered i n this report (NEMA, 2011) . In addition, lamp import data was obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011) . The import data provides an indication of shipm ents not domestically manufactured. In general, a five step process was followed to adjust the national inventory estimates shipments. using these 1. Use historical shipments, lamp import quantities, and other available data to estimate the total historical shipments (i.e., NEMA member and non -NEMA member shipments) for each lighting technology. 2. Apply operating hour data from audit and survey sources to determine the range of socket service lifetimes in years for each lamp technology in each subsector. 3. For each subsector, determine the survey baseline year on which initial inventory estimates were based using the date of the original raw data collection. For example, in the residential sector most of the in -house inventories were conducted in 2008, with the remainder conducted in 2007, 2009, and 2010. The average date was 2008 so this was approximated to be the survey baseline year for the residential sector inventory. 4. Determine the portion of annual shipments assigned to each sector by first calculating the shipment installed stock of lamps for each sectors’ baseline year (as determined in step 3) using historical shipments and the socket service lifetimes, and second matching this shipment inventory to the initial survey inventory estimate. 5. Determine the 2010 shipment inventory estimate by using the historical lamp shipments (from step 1), the operating hours (from step 2), and the sector breakdown (from step 4). The inventory estimates derived from this shipments model are very sensitive to the assum ptions used for lamp lifetime and NEMA manufacturer market share. Thus, this model was used to calibrate the inventory values only when market research and input from the technical review committee adjusted suggested that the survey and audit data were no t properly capturing a recent trend in the lighting market. In all other cases, the shipments model was used only for verification purposes. 3.2.1.2 Operating Hours The daily hours of operation of installed lights was recorded for each subsector where data was av ailable. Residential sector operating hours were based solely on lighting metering data collected in California. This data was collected through lighting loggers that used photo -sensors to record when lamps were turned on or off. The lighting metering d ata was collected during different seasons of the year. To ensure that the final operating hours are reflective of the entire U.S. for the entire year, the raw data was adjusted using a seasonality factor and a geographic factor. It is assumed that opera ting Page 13

27 of all indoor lighting is affected by the hours of daylight. The seasonality factor is a varying adjustment to the daily operating hours based on the day time hours of the specific day that the data was collected. The geographic factor is a single adjustment applied to the entire set of operating hours to account for the hours of sunlight in California as compared to the U.S. average. Commercial and industrial sector operating hours were based on surveys with building owners and operators. All studies used in the commercial and industrial studies provided some survey information on estimated operating hours. The operating hours were originally drawn from multiple geographies, and were provided as average estimates of use over the entire year, so no adjustment factors were applied to them. For all the building sectors the sample operating hour data was expanded to the entire inventory by developing average operating hours for lamps in similar applications and then weighed by the prevalence of a particular lamp type in the various applications. For the residential sector, the “application” categories were based on the room of installation and the lamp technology type (general service, reflector, linear fluorescent, HID). For the commercial and industrial sector, the “application” categories were based on the “use types” provided in the audit data (area, task, track, display, and exit ) and the lamp technology type. Operating hours for each technology were binned in this fashion for two reasons. First , because operating hour data was not collected for every lamp in the building audits and survey, in order to estimate average operating hour accounting for the distribution of lamps across different applications, each lamp in the database needed an associ ated estimate of hours of operation. Second, after disaggregating the audit data by building type, room type (for residential only), and lamp type, the sample set to estimate operating hours for some lamp types became too small to reliably approximate hou rs of operation. Utilizing averages for operating groups based on application combined data for several lamp types and increased the usable samples. 3.2.1.3 Wattage per Lamp The metric of average watts per lamp includes the lamp wattage (as provide d by the buildi ng audit and survey data) combined with ballast assumptions for relevant lamp types. For incandescent, halogen, and screw . Pin -based CFLs, -base CFLs the wattage per lamp were represented solely the lamp wattage linear fluorescent lamps, and HID lamps were assumed to be operated by an external These ballast. lighting systems consume additional energy due to the losses in the ballasts. In addition, as some ballasts operate lamps at power levels other than their rated power, this can significantly affect o verall system wattage. In order to estimate these effects on externally ballasted lamps, a database of typical ballast input watts and their associated rated lamp watts was developed using manufacturer data and the DOE’s Fluorescent Lamps Ballast Standards Rulemaking. (DOE, 2011). Only systems with rated lamp powers similar to the average lamp wattage as provided in the LMC data sources were included in this manufacturer data. The a verage (system) wattage per lamp for these lamp types listed in the LMC was calculated by multiplying the lamp wattage by the average ratio of system input power by lamp rated r from the manufacturer catalog data for characteristic systems. powe Page 14

28 푃 푖푛 푊 푊 푥 = 푙푎푚푝 푠푦푠 ) ( 푊 푟푎푡푒푑 Where: W = S ystem wattage reported in LMC sys W = L amp wattage provided in data sources lamp P = R ated input power into the ballast from manufacturer data in W = R ated lamp power for ballast from manufacturer data rated ballast assumption s is provided in Appendix C . Further information on Sample Weighting in the Buildings Sector 3.2.2 ided in the database were for a sample dataset of a The inventory, operating hours, and wattages prov few thousand buildings. In order to expand this dataset so that it represented the 2010 U.S. population of buildings, sample weights were use. The sample weight is unique to each sample building and reflects the number of buildings in the U.S. population that the sample building represents. Sample weights were used as it provides a quantifiable method to adjust for the under and over representation of certain segments of the building population in the s ample dataset. Residential Sector 3.2.2.1 data from the 2009 American Housing Survey to determine the For the residential sector we used characteristics of the U.S. population of homes. A single growth rate based on Energy Information Administration estimates of the housing stock growth was applied to the number of homes in the AHS to adjust the baseline year from 2009 to 2010. Over 113 million residences existed in the U.S. in 2010, not (EIA, 2011a) . The sample including homes that were considered vacant or only seasonally occupied , the total floorspace of the residence weight was based on the residence type , and the age of the residence . Other weighting categories were considered , such as whether the property was owned or rented, and the household income. However , none of these metrics were found to be significant indicators of the number of lamps in a residence. The calculation for the basic weight is: ∑ ) 푧 ( 푎푔푒 ) & 푦 ( 푡푦푝푒 푆 푅푒푠푖푑푒푛푐푒푠 푖푛 푈 . ) & . 표푓 푠푖푧푒 ( 푥 푥 푆푎푚푝푙푒 푧 , 푦 , ) = ( 푊푒푖푔 ℎ푡 ∑ 푖푛 퐷푎푡푎푠푒푡 표푓 푠푖푧푒 ( 푥 ) & 푡푦푝푒 ( 푦 ) & 푎푔푒 ( 푧 ) 푅푒푠푖푑푒푛푐푒푠 Where: 2 2 2 2 x = size categories (less than 1,000ft ; greater than 2,500 ft ; 1,000ft to 2,500ft ) -family detached; single -family attached; multifamily; mobile or y = type categories (single manufactured) z = age categories (constructed prior to 1980, in the 1980’s, in the 1990’s, in the 2000’s) Geography was examined as a potential a weighting catego ry, however the sample dataset did not have enough data points from each geographic regions to produce statistically significant results based on geography. Page 15

29 The dataset did not include any lighting data for mobile manufactured homes with a floorspace greater 2 . According to the AHS, there are just over 1 million of these homes in the U.S., than 2,500 ft approximately 1 percent of the entire stock. Lighting data for smaller mobile homes was used to in this category. and lighting characteristics approximate the inventory Commercial and Industrial Sectors 3.2.2.2 For the commercial and industrial sectors we used data from the 2003 CBECS and 2006 MECS to the characteristics of the U.S. population of these buildings. The building population and determine f commercial buildings were adjusted from a 2003 baseline to a 2010 baseline using growth floorspace o EIA’s Annual Energy Outlook 2011. The building population and floorspace of estimates from the industrial buildings were adjusted from a 2006 baseline to a 2010 baseline using the annual put -in-place construction values as a proxy for the growth in buildings. The use of this proxy method results in a 9 uilding floorspace since 2006. slight decline in industrial b sample weight for each building was based on the use type of the building and the total U.S. The dedicated to that use type. The calculation for the basic weight is as follows floorspace : ∑ 푥 ( 표푓 퐹푙표표 푟 푠푝푎푐푒 푖푛 푈 . 푆 . ) 푡푦푝푒 = 푆푎푚푝푙푒 푊푒푖푔 ℎ푡 × 퐹푙표표푟 푠푝푎푐푒 표푓 퐵푢푖푙푑푖푛푔 ∑ 푡푦푝푒 ( 푥 ) 퐹푙표표푟 푠푝푎푐푒 푖푛 푑푎푡푎푠푒푡 표푓 Where: -type of a building (retail, lodging, machinery manufacturing, etc.) x = Use The dataset did not include any information on four industrial building types: textile mills, apparel manufacturing shops, leather and allied product manufacturing shops, and chemical manufacturing facilities . The calculated lighting characteristics for t he entire industrial sector were used to approximate the lighting characteristics in these building subsectors. Outdoor Inventory and Energy Use Calculation Method 3.2.3 The energy use calculations follow the same basic calculation in the outdoor sector as the building sectors , that being lighting inventory multiplied by average wattage multiplied by average operating hours equals electricity use . However the inputs were derived in different manners according to the data available. The following provides detail on how the outdoor data sources were used to develop the inventory and energy use estimates. 3.2.3.1 Airfield Lighting Airfield lighting includes all of the runway and taxiway lamps that direct airplane traffic at the nation’s airfields. To determine the total number of lit runways, the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) National Flight Data Center (NFDC) was consulted. The FAA’s Advisory Circular 150/5340 -30d, which contains the design and installation details for airport visual aids, was used to determine the recommended spacing for the lamps in the majority of runway lighting systems. The installed base of 9 The 2001 LMC estimated the total square footage of the industrial sector to be almost 17 billion in 2001. This value is significantly more than what the MECS reported in 2002 or what is being used in this report, and caused the estimated number of lamps in the industrial sector to be considerably greater in the 2001 LMC than this study. Page 16

30 lamps, except those used in taxiway lighting, was calculated using these recommended spacing distances and the runway lengths provided by the NFDC d atabase. Data on taxiway edge lighting is not included in the NFDC database, so a separate method was used to determine the installed base for these lamps. Because taxiway edge lamps are required by the FAA for 10 all 14 CFR Part 139 certified airports, this analysis considers taxiway edge lighting only for the 549 certified airports. The Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority provided the number of taxiway edge lamps installed in its two major commercial airports, Dulles International Airport and Reagan National Airport. This number of lights was normalized based on the two airports size and the average 139 certified airports. Lastly, the FAA provided estimates for typical value was applied to all Part mp wattages for each type of lighting system. operating hours, technology mix, and typical la 3.2.3.2 Billboard Lighting Billboard lights include the lamps that illuminate the billboards found along roadways. This analysis only considers non -digital billboards. Digital billboards have not been included in th e inventory and energy use section as these billboards had a very limited presence in 2010. The Outdoor Advertising Association of America, Inc. confirmed that no national inventory of billboard lights currently exists. However, the Outdoor Advertising As sociation of America was able to provide estimates of the total number of billboards in 2010 broken down by billboard size. Additionally, the Lamar Advertising Company provided the typical values for the number of lamps per billboard, operating hours, and the technology mix for traditional billboard types (Switzer, 2010) . 3.2.3.3 Building Exterior Lighting All lamps that are directly associated with a commercial or industrial building, but installed on the exterior have been included in this application. Examples of these types of lamps are wall pack lights on the building’s facade, walkway lights, landscape lights, and the other various flood and area lights used to illuminate the exterior of the building and the surrounding propert y. In the previous LMC, many of these lamps were categorized in the commercial buildings and industrial buildings sectors. In the current analysis, the estimate for exterior building lights is based on the commercial and industrial audit datasets. The s ources used in these datasets often included exterior lighting data for both commercial and industrial buildings. The same method used for the building sectors was applied to the exterior building lighting application to determine the installed base, operating hours, technology mix, and average lamp wattages. 3.2.3.4 Parking Lighting Parking lighting includes the lamps that illuminate parking lots and stand -alone above grade parking garages. In the 200 1 LMC a portion of parking lights, those directly associated w ith a commercial or industrial building, was included in the commercial and industrial buildings sectors. In this analysis , we have incorporated all parking lights in this outdoor stationary sector. 10 A Part 139 certified airport is one that adheres to the regulations contained in 14 CFR 139. This includes most large commercial airports that serve scheduled and unscheduled flights with more than 30 seats. Additional irports/airport_safety/part139_cert/ http://www.faa.gov/a information on this certification can be found at: Page 17

31 The International Parking Institute confirmed that no national inventory of parking facility lighting has been developed in recent years. In this analysis, the total number of lighting installations is based on S. the estimated number of total parking spaces. As there is no commonly accepted number of total U. off- street parking spaces, and estimates can range from 100 million to two billion, a middle ground from a recent University of California study was employed. It assumed that all , of 420 million, value parking spaces are lit. To convert this value to a total number of lamp installations, typical design provided guidelines of one lamp per every three garage spaces and per every twenty parking lot spaces, by Walker Parking Consultants, are used. The International Parking Institute conducted a survey of i ts membership on a variety of lighting issues relevant to this report. The operating hours, technology mix, and average system wattages were all drawn from this survey. 3.2.3.5 Railway Lighting valuated in the 200 Railway Lighting is one of the new application areas not previously e 1 LMC. - There are two general types of railway signals considered in this analysis: wayside signals and highway rail crossing signals. Wayside signals are colored control signals, similar to roadway traffic signals, and ent train collisions. Highway -rail crossing signals are located where highways and are used to prev railways cross at the same grade. Their purpose is to alert roadway traffic when trains are approaching. The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) confirmed that no natio nal census of railway lamps has recently been conducted, but provided an estimate of the technology mix and typical wattages for all railway lamps. The number of wayside installations was based on typical signal spacing estimates and the total miles of lit track, which were provided by the FRA. The Office of Safety Analysis at the FRA maintains a database containing the number of highway rail crossings, which was accessed for this 11 analysis. g on crossing type, and was based on The number of lamps per installation varied from 2 to 8 dependin FRA estimates and the Federal Highway Administration’s Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, The hours of operation for these lamps are based which provided minimum numbers of lamps required. on the volume of train traffic, as most signals only activate during the presence of a train. 3.2.3.6 Roadway Lighting Roadway lighting includes lamps that illuminate streets and those that illuminate highways. Street lights -urban settings where pedestrian traffic, residences, or commercial are found in typically urban and sub properties lie adjacent to the roadway, and therefore these lights are responsible for illuminating the roadway as well as the nearby walkways and building fronts. Highway lights are found on roadways that independently serve transportation purposes and are only responsible for illuminating the roadway. The national inventory of street lighting was estimated from data collected through interviews with City Departments of Transportation as well as data provid ed by the DOE’s Municipal Solid -State Street 11 http://www.fra.dot.gov/rrs/pages/fp_801.shtml The FRA database of highway rail crossings can be found at: Page 18

32 Lighting Consortium. The lighting data provided by these sources included the number, the type, and the application for every roadway light owned by the city. Combined, these two sources provided street g inventory data for 25 local governments. lightin The highway lighting estimate is based on interviews with various State Departments of Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration . These interviews provided the technology mix, operating mp wattages of highways lamps for a sample set of states that was considered hours, and la ederal Highway representative of the U.S. The total number of U.S. highway lamps is based on F Administration estimates for the total U.S. lighted highway miles and average roadway spacing of 200 feet between lamps. 3.2.3.7 Sports Lighting Sports lighting is the other new application not previously evaluated in the 200 1 LMC. Sports lighting includes the lamps that illuminate the outdoor playing fields at sports stadiums. The indoor spo rts lights and other lights installed inside of stadiums have been included in the commercial sector. The Stadium Managers Association , a trade association dedicated to efficient management of stadiums throughout the world , conducted a survey of its member ship to collect lighting data. The survey collected information on the total number of stadium lights, operating hours, the technologies installed and the associated wattages of each technology. 3.2.3.8 Traffic Signal Lighting Traffic signal lighting includes the lamps that illuminate street signals, such as stop lights and pedestrian colored ball, the Three types of stop lights are considered in this analysis: the tri- road crossing signals. turn arrow, and the bimodal arrow. In addition, three pedestrian cro ssing signals are considered: the walking person, the stop hand and the countdown. 300,000 signalized intersections , from To determine the inventory of these traffic lights, an estimate of , was used. This estimat e was adjusted based on information the Institute of Transportation Engineers provided by the Federal Highways Administration. The number of each signal type per each signalized intersection (approximately 10 colored ball signals, 3 arrow signals, 8 walking person and hand signals and 0.21 countdo wn signals) , as drawn from a 2008 DOE analysis, was multiplied by the total number of signalized intersections to determine the total number of signals. This analysis was also used to determine operating hour data for each type of traffic signal. The En ergy Policy Act of 2005 required all traffic signals manufactured after January 1, 2006 to meet or exceed ENERGY STAR performance criteria, effectively requiring all new and replacement signals to be LEDs. Prior to this mandate, traffic signals were predo minantly lit by incandescent lamps. Based on the turnover rate of incandescent traffic signals and interviews with experts, it was assumed that approximately 95 percent of traffic signals have been converted to LEDs. A complete conversion has not yet occ urred as some incandescent bulbs manufactured before 2006 remain on the market today. Page 19

33 4 Lighting Inventory and Energy Consumption Estimates The objectives of the LMC analysis were to develop an accurate depiction of the nation’s lighting inventory and lighting electricity consumption for the baseline year of 2010. The remainder of this report provides detailed results concerning these objective s, and compares the findings to the 20 01 LMC results as well as other comparable energy use estimates. Section 4.1 provides the cumulative results for all lamp technologies by sector. The following fou r sections take a closer look at the same results, but focus in on the subsector level: 4.2.1 Section 4.2.2 the commercial sector, Section 4.2.3 the industrial Section provides detail on the residential sector, sector , and Section 4.2.4 the outdoor sector. In addition, Section 4.3 examines in further detail the predominate applications of LED lighting in each of the sectors. Finally, Section 4.4 examines the prevalence of lighting controls. Page 20

34 4.1 Cumulative Results 4.1 presents Table estimate of the installed lamps in the U.S. by lamp technology and sector. The the total installed base of lamps in the U.S. for 2010 was estimated to be 8 .2 billion. This represents an overall growth of 17 percent relative to 2001’s estimate of nearly 7 .0 billion lamps. When comparing the installed base estimates in each sector from 2001 to those presented here for 2010, it i s important to note that the definitions for the commercial, industrial, and outdoor sectors used in this report are not identical to those used in the 200 1 report. As discussed in Section 2, for this report all outdoor lighting associated with commercial and industrial buildings (e.g., parking lot lighting and building exterior lighting) were classified in the outdoor sector; this is in contrast to the 200 1 report in which some outdoor lighting was classified in the commercial and industrial sectors. In addition, the 2010 estimates for the outdoor sector include subsectors not previously analyzed, namely stadiums and railroad applications; however, these additional subsectors contribute a very low percentage of the total installed base of the outdoor sector. In general, the bulk of lamp inventory growth has been in the residential sector, which accounts for more than double the number of lamps in th e remaining sectors combined. Accounting for changes in outdoor lamp classifications, compared to 2001 the lamp inventory in the residential and commercial sectors have increased by 26 percent and 13 percent, respectively, largely due to an increase in nu mber of homes and floor space. In contrast, the industrial sector lamp inventory has decreased by 54 percent over the past ten years, mostly due to a reduction in manufacturing floorspace and a movement toward higher lumen output technologies, such as HID. After accounting for the differences in categorization of -related outdoor lighting, the outdoor sector has seen a moderate decline of 16 percent buildings relative to 2001. Page 21

35 Table 4.1 Estimated Inventory o Use Sector in 2010 f Lamps in the U.S. by End- Commercial Industrial All Sectors Residential Outdoor 77,597,000 3,698,622,000 17,814,000 3,602,809,000 Incandescent 402,000 42,930,000 387,000 2,071,501,000 Gener a l Ser vi c e - A-type 2,028,184,000 980,054,000 980,054,000 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Dec or a ti ve 433,929,000 19,421,000 15,000 453,365,000 Refl ec tor 160,642,000 17,814,000 193,702,000 Miscellaneous 15,246,000 256,990,000 47,596,000 71,000 Halogen 308,678,000 4,021,000 Gener a l Ser vi c e 26,785,000 969,000 3,000 27,757,000 Refl ec tor 168,876,000 19,499,000 63,000 188,438,000 Low Voltage Display 19,348,000 44,992,000 25,644,000 41,981,000 5,000 4,021,000 47,491,000 Miscellaneous 1,484,000 1,322,525,000 216,183,000 Compact Fluorescent 12,053,000 1,551,167,000 406,000 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Sc r ew 1,121,452,000 40,498,000 91,000 1,162,041,000 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Pi n 5,386,000 136,207,000 201,000 141,794,000 Refl ec tor 39,478,000 114,000 154,346,000 114,754,000 Miscellaneous 80,933,000 12,053,000 92,986,000 Linear Fluorescent 572,897,000 1,654,753,000 128,625,000 29,124,000 2,385,399,000 3,636,000 T5 9,245,000 108,066,000 120,947,000 T8 Les s tha n 4ft 3,020,000 708,000 17,818,000 14,090,000 64,022,000 907,727,000 1,050,174,000 T8 4ft 78,425,000 27,914,000 3,349,000 1,369,000 T8 Gr ea ter tha n 4ft 32,632,000 T12 Less than 4ft 7,025,000 7,294,000 14,000 14,333,000 331,790,000 410,460,000 T12 4ft 766,256,000 24,006,000 T12 Greater than 4ft 109,066,000 10,830,000 148,581,000 28,685,000 1,155,000 45,897,000 T8 U-Sha ped 47,598,000 546,000 T12 U-Sha ped 316,000 10,828,000 1,021,000 12,165,000 Miscellaneous 131,879,000 13,411,000 481,000 29,124,000 174,895,000 High Intensity Discharge 1,434,000 14,155,000 93,087,000 143,527,000 34,851,000 206,000 4,177,000 1,424,000 Mercury Vapor 6,832,000 1,025,000 Metal Halide 30,422,000 9,407,000 29,514,000 69,388,000 45,000 High Pressure Sodium 1,183,000 3,355,000 3,324,000 57,941,000 65,803,000 Low Pr es s ur e Sodi um 1,455,000 1,504,000 49,000 Other 55,114,000 38,326,000 592,000 22,275,000 116,307,000 LED 9,175,000 38,029,000 592,000 19,219,000 67,015,000 Miscellaneous 45,939,000 297,000 3,056,000 49,292,000 2,069,306,000 8,203,700,000 5,811,769,000 178,374,000 144,251,000 TOTAL Page 22

36 Table 4.2 presents the distribution of lamps by end -use sector. It is essentially the same information Table presented in 4.1, but instead portrayed as percentages so as to more easily depict technological trends by sector. Similar to 2001, linear fluorescent and incandescent lamps are estimated to comprise While t he overall shares of linear fluorescent and HID the vast majority of the installed base in 2010. lamps have remained largely unchanged relative to 2001, incandescent lamp shares have decreased from 62 percent in 2001 to 45 percent in 2010, while the CFL inventory shares have correspondingly increased fro m 3 percent in 2001 to 19 percent in 2010. In the residential sector, the most obvious trend is seen in the transition from general service incandescent lamps (decreasing from 79 percent in 2001 to 52 percent in 2010) to screw -base general service CFLs ( increasing from 2 percent in 2001 to 19 percent in 2010). In addition, there has been significant movement toward directional lamps (such as incandescent reflector, halogen reflector, and halogen low voltage display), which now comprise 10 percent of the residential installed base. In the commercial sector, the most evident trend is seen in the migration from T12 linear fluorescent lamps to T8 and T5 linear fluorescent lamps . In 2001, T8 lamps comprised less than 34 percent of the commercial installed bas e of linear fluorescent lamps, with the remaining base being overwhelmingly T12 lamps. In contrast, in 2010, T5s, T8s, and T12s constituted 7 percent, 61 percent, and 33 percent of , respectively the installed base of linear fluorescent lamps . This trend ca n be largely attributed to federal 12 regulations -based incentive programs, and a further interest in energy conservation. , utility While the industrial sector depicts many of the same trends as the commercial sector, one unique trend is an increase in the p revalence of HID lamps, which doubled in share relative to 2001. This movement from lower lumen output fluorescent lamps to higher lumen output HID lamps may also account for part of the reduction in overall number of lamps installed in the industrial sect or. Although the data indicates a migration toward HID sources (likely in high bay applications), it is uncertain whether this trend will persist as fixture sales data indicates a recent increase of high lumen output linear fluorescent systems trial sector, potentially replacing HID systems in low in the indus -bay applications. The outdoor sector groups all incandescent, halogens, CFLs, and linear fluorescents in miscellaneous categories. This was done as many of the data sources used for the outdoor sector did not provide inventory detail beyond the general lamp technology level. After accounting for the different classifications of building exterior lighting, the primary trend evident in this sector is a movement from mercury vapor lamps toward metal halide lamps, which constituted only 8 percent of the outdoor HID installed base in 2001 and has increased to 32 percent in 2010. 12 Further information on federal energy conservatio n standards for fluorescent lamps and ballasts can be found http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/ at: Page 23

37 Table 4.2 Distribution of Lamps (%) by End- Use Sector in 2010 Commercial Industrial All Sectors Residential Outdoor 3.7% 10.0% 45.1% 62.0% 0.3% Incandescent 2.1% Gener a l Ser vi c e - A-type 25.3% 34.9% 0.3% 16.9% 11.9% Gener a l Ser vi c e - Dec or a ti ve 7.5% Refl ec tor 0.0% 5.5% 0.9% Miscellaneous 0.7% 10.0% 2.4% 2.8% 4.4% 0.0% Halogen 2.3% 3.8% 2.3% 0.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.3% Gener a l Ser vi c e Refl ec tor 2.9% 0.9% 0.0% 2.3% Low Voltage Display 0.3% 0.5% 1.2% 0.7% 0.0% 2.3% 0.6% Miscellaneous 0.1% 22.8% 10.4% Compact Fluorescent 6.8% 18.9% 0.3% Gener a l Ser vi c e - Sc r ew 19.3% 2.0% 0.1% 14.2% Gener a l Ser vi c e - Pi n 0.1% 6.6% 0.1% 1.7% Refl ec tor 1.9% 0.1% 1.9% 2.0% Miscellaneous 1.4% 6.8% 1.1% Linear Fluorescent 9.9% 80.0% 89.2% 16.3% 29.1% 5.2% T5 0.1% 6.4% 1.5% T8 Les s tha n 4ft 0.1% 0.5% 0.2% 0.7% 1.1% 43.9% 12.8% T8 4ft 54.4% 1.3% 2.3% 0.0% T8 Gr ea ter tha n 4ft 0.4% T12 Less than 4ft 0.1% 0.4% 0.0% 0.2% 5.7% 19.8% T12 4ft 9.3% 16.6% T12 Greater than 4ft 5.3% 7.5% 1.8% 0.5% 0.0% 2.2% T8 U-Sha ped 0.6% 0.4% T12 U-Sha ped 0.0% 0.5% 0.7% 0.1% Miscellaneous 2.3% 0.6% 0.3% 16.3% 2.1% High Intensity Discharge 0.0% 9.8% 52.2% 1.7% 1.7% 0.0% 2.3% 1.0% Mercury Vapor 0.1% 0.0% Metal Halide 1.5% 6.5% 16.5% 0.8% 0.0% High Pressure Sodium 0.0% 0.2% 2.3% 32.5% 0.8% Low Pr es s ur e Sodi um 0.8% 0.0% 0.0% Other 0.9% 1.9% 0.4% 12.5% 1.4% LED 0.2% 1.8% 0.4% 10.8% 0.8% Miscellaneous 0.8% 0.0% 1.7% 0.6% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% TOTAL Page 24

38 Table 4.3 lists the average number of lamps observed in a typical building within each building sector. part of a multifamily structure For residences, a “building” is a single housing unit, even if . For the commercial and industrial sectors a building is a single stand -alone building . Outdoor is not shown because the data cannot be shown on a per building basis. Table 4.4 lists the average number of lamps using the lamp counts from per thousand square feet 4.1 and the floorspace estimates from Table Table 3.1. As seen in Table 4.3 the average residence in 2010 is estimated to have 51 lamps installed; this represents a 20 percent growth in lamps per household relative to 2001. This increase has occurred despite a slight decrease in the total square footage of household in the U.S. from an average of 2,090 square feet in 2001 to an average of 1,900 in 2010. The slight decrease in average floor spaces results in a slightly larger increase in the average number of lamps per thousand square feet (from 21 in 2001 to 27 in 2010) and suggests that newer homes have been built with more lamps per floorspace than existing homes For the commercial sector, the 2010 analysis estimates there are an average of 3 76 lamps per building in 2010, an overall 5 percent reduction from 2001. This takes into account the re classifying the outdoor lamps originally classified in the buildings sector in the 200 1 report into the outdoor sector . A similar decline of 7 percent on the basis of lamps per floorspa ce is also indicated by the data , from 29 to 26 lamps per thousand square feet. , the lamps per building declined by 78 percent , from 1,440 In the industrial sector would appear to have lamps per building lamps per building in 2010. However, this is largely due to a in 2001 to 317 definitional change of the term “building” in the 2001 LMC and 2010 LMC. The 2001 LMC used the number of “establishments” in MECS as an indicator of the number of buildings. As establishments can consist of mul tiple stand -alone buildings, the 2010 LMC instead used the number of individual buildings reported in MECS. of industrial floorspace in 2001 , the total Using the estimate of 17 billion square feet lamps per floorspace has declined by a much more moderate 20 percent, from 19 in 2001 to 15 lamps per thousand square feet in 2010. Both of these declines may be a result of a move to higher lumen output lamps or may be within the uncertainty of the 2001 and 2010 estimates. Page 25

39 Table 4.3 Average Number of Lamps per Building by End- Use Sector in 2010 Commercial Industrial Residential 14.1 0.9 Incandescent 31.8 Gener a l Ser vi c e - A-type 7.8 0.9 17.9 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Dec or a ti ve 8.7 3.8 Refl ec tor 0.0 3.5 Miscellaneous 2.8 1.4 2.3 8.7 Halogen 0.2 Gener a l Ser vi c e 0.2 0.2 0.0 Refl ec tor 1.5 3.5 0.1 Low Voltage Display 0.2 4.7 0.4 0.0 Miscellaneous 0.3 11.7 39.3 Compact Fluorescent 0.9 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Sc r ew 9.9 7.4 0.2 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Pi n 0.0 24.8 0.4 Refl ec tor 7.2 0.3 1.0 Miscellaneous 0.7 Linear Fluorescent 5.1 301.0 282.7 0.0 T5 19.7 20.3 T8 Les s tha n 4ft 0.0 1.6 2.6 0.6 165.1 T8 4ft 172.4 5.1 7.4 0.0 T8 Gr ea ter tha n 4ft 0.1 1.3 0.0 T12 Less than 4ft 2.9 74.7 T12 4ft 52.8 T12 Greater than 4ft 19.8 23.8 0.3 0.0 T8 U-Sha ped 1.2 8.3 T12 U-Sha ped 0.0 2.0 2.2 Miscellaneous 1.2 2.4 1.1 High Intensity Discharge 0.0 31.1 6.3 0.0 0.2 Mercury Vapor 3.1 Metal Halide 0.0 5.5 20.7 High Pressure Sodium 0.0 0.6 7.3 Low Pr es s ur e Sodi um 0.0 Other 0.5 7.0 1.3 LED 0.1 6.9 1.3 Miscellaneous 0.4 0.1 51.4 TOTAL 317.0 376.4 Page 26

40 Table 4.4 Average Number of Lamps per Thousand Square Feet by End- Use Sector in 2010 Industrial Residential Commercial 0.0 16.8 1.0 Incandescent Gener a l Ser vi c e - A-type 9.4 0.0 0.5 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Dec or a ti ve 4.6 0.2 Refl ec tor 2.0 0.0 0.7 Miscellaneous 0.2 0.6 0.0 1.2 Halogen 0.1 0.0 0.0 Gener a l Ser vi c e 0.8 0.2 0.0 Refl ec tor 0.1 Low Voltage Display 0.3 0.0 Miscellaneous 0.0 0.2 2.7 0.0 Compact Fluorescent 6.2 0.5 0.0 5.2 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Sc r ew 0.0 1.7 0.0 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Pi n 0.5 0.0 0.5 Refl ec tor Miscellaneous 0.4 2.7 20.4 13.0 Linear Fluorescent T5 0.0 1.3 0.9 T8 Les s tha n 4ft 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 7.9 T8 4ft 11.2 T8 Gr ea ter tha n 4ft 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.0 T12 Less than 4ft T12 4ft 1.5 2.4 5.1 0.1 1.3 T12 Greater than 4ft 1.1 T8 U-Sha ped 0.0 0.6 0.1 T12 U-Sha ped 0.0 0.1 0.1 Miscellaneous 0.6 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.4 High Intensity Discharge 1.4 Mercury Vapor 0.0 0.0 0.1 Metal Halide 0.0 0.4 1.0 High Pressure Sodium 0.0 0.3 0.0 Low Pr es s ur e Sodi um 0.0 Other 0.3 0.5 0.1 LED 0.0 0.5 0.1 0.2 Miscellaneous 0.0 25.5 27.0 TOTAL 14.6 Page 27

41 4.5 lists the average wattage per lamp for each end -use sector. The average wattages for Table externally ballasted lamps account for ballast losses and operation at ballast factors less than one. See for further detail on the calculation of average wattage per lamp. In general, relative to Section 3.2.1.3 the 2001 characteristics, each sector has seen a movement to higher efficacy, and therefore often lower wattage, light sources. Technological trends that contributed to this decrease in overall wattage per lamp include a migration from incandescent lamps to CFLs, from T12 linear fluorescent lamps to T8 and T5 lamps, and from mercury vapor lamps to metal halide lamps. Thes e trends are discussed in more detail in the sector specific results. Page 28

42 Table 4.5 Average Wattage per Lamp by End- Use Sector in 2010 Commercial Industrial All Sectors Residential Outdoor 53 68 58 56 46 Incandescent 58 Gener a l Ser vi c e - A-type 64 64 46 44 44 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Dec or a ti ve 69 Refl ec tor 65 70 79 Miscellaneous 7 68 44 45 65 68 Halogen 149 68 68 50 46 36 50 Gener a l Ser vi c e Refl ec tor 68 78 64 69 Low Voltage Display 44 53 60 82 145 149 88 Miscellaneous 99 16 19 Compact Fluorescent 22 17 31 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Sc r ew 17 20 17 17 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Pi n 22 19 45 19 Refl ec tor 20 16 18 17 Miscellaneous 18 22 18 Linear Fluorescent 24 37 39 63 35 36 T5 19 58 37 T8 Les s tha n 4ft 16 23 19 20 26 30 30 T8 4ft 30 54 73 41 T8 Gr ea ter tha n 4ft 56 T12 Less than 4ft 16 35 33 26 27 43 T12 4ft 36 39 T12 Greater than 4ft 78 84 73 50 27 31 T8 U-Sha ped 31 30 T12 U-Sha ped 27 42 41 41 Miscellaneous 16 31 42 63 25 High Intensity Discharge 126 403 240 282 350 193 219 451 Mercury Vapor 288 362 Metal Halide 349 434 247 317 79 High Pressure Sodium 150 356 295 241 248 Low Pr es s ur e Sodi um 107 110 185 Other 47 12 11 30 32 LED 11 12 11 20 14 Miscellaneous 54 11 93 56 42 48 46 151 75 AVERAGE Page 29

43 Table 4.6 presents the distribution of installed wattage across lamp types within each sector. The 4.1 by the installed wattage by lamp type was calculated by multiplying the lamp inventories in Table 4.5. While on an inventory basis HID lamps are relatively minor players, they wattages per lamp in Table for over 10 percent of the total installed wattage. This is largely due to their use in applications account that require high lumen output. This is in contrast to CFLs, which represent nearly 20 percent of all sults in their accounting for only 7 percent of total installed base of lamps, but their high efficacy re installed wattage. Use Sector in 2010 Table 4.6 Distribution (%) of Installed Wattage by End- Industrial Outdoor All Sectors Commercial Residential 78.8% 4.8% 0.2% Incandescent 55.2% 4.5% Gener a l Ser vi c e - A-type 2.9% 0.2% 34.0% 48.8% 16.0% 10.9% Gener a l Ser vi c e - Dec or a ti ve 0.0% 11.2% 1.8% 0.0% Refl ec tor 8.1% Miscellaneous 2.7% 0.1% 4.5% 2.2% Halogen 6.4% 3.8% 0.0% 2.2% 5.4% Gener a l Ser vi c e 0.5% 0.0% 0.4% 0.1% 4.3% 0.0% 3.3% Refl ec tor 1.8% 0.3% 1.8% Low Voltage Display 0.6% Miscellaneous 1.3% 0.2% 0.0% 2.2% 1.1% Compact Fluorescent 8.4% 4.9% 0.1% 1.0% 6.9% Gener a l Ser vi c e - Sc r ew 1.0% 0.0% 5.0% 7.0% Gener a l Ser vi c e - Pi n 0.0% 3.0% 0.1% 0.7% Refl ec tor 0.7% 0.9% 0.0% 0.7% Miscellaneous 0.5% 1.0% 0.4% 5.4% Linear Fluorescent 6.8% 71.8% 46.9% 21.2% T5 0.0% 4.9% 1.2% 4.5% 0.0% 0.3% 0.1% T8 Les s tha n 4ft 0.2% 31.8% 21.7% 0.6% T8 4ft 8.0% T8 Gr ea ter tha n 4ft 0.0% 1.8% 2.3% 0.5% 0.0% 0.3% 0.0% 0.1% T12 Less than 4ft T12 4ft 3.3% 8.6% 7.0% 20.4% 0.5% 8.5% 2.8% T12 Greater than 4ft 9.9% 0.0% 1.6% T8 U-Sha ped 0.4% 0.2% T12 U-Sha ped 0.0% 0.5% 0.4% 0.1% Miscellaneous 0.8% 0.5% 0.2% 6.8% 1.1% High Intensity Discharge 0.1% 52.8% 83.0% 10.3% 14.2% 0.0% 3.4% 5.9% Mercury Vapor 0.5% 0.4% Metal Halide 12.4% 37.8% 27.1% 5.6% 0.0% High Pressure Sodium 0.1% 1.4% 9.1% 51.9% 4.2% Low Pr es s ur e Sodi um 0.6% 0.0% 0.0% Other 1.0% 0.5% 0.1% 2.5% 1.0% LED 0.0% 0.5% 0.1% 1.5% 0.2% Miscellaneous 0.9% 0.0% 1.1% 0.7% 100% 100% 100% TOTAL 100% 100% Page 30

44 Table 4.7 presents the operating hours per day for each lamp type in each sector. The operating hours represents en displayed the average daily hours throughout the year and account for differences betwe 3.2.1.2 high use and low use days. See Section for details on the operating hour calculation. As the operating hours represent sector averages, some of the ext remities of use, such as lamps operating around the clock, are lost. The 2010 average operating hour estimates for the residential sector seem to indicate lower usage characteristics (by approximately 10 percent) than those estimated in 2001. While this c ould be indication of reduced operation of lighting (potentially due to increased use of lighting controls; see Section 4.4 for further discussion), it is also pos sible that the difference could be attributed to the datasets used for the two reports. The 2001 LMC used unadjusted metering data from a study conducted in Tacoma, Washington, while the 2010 LMC’s operating hours were based on geographically and seasonall y adjusted metering data collected in southern California. It is important to note that though the operating hour estimates presented below is considered to be the best for the purposes of depending on the sample size, the this report, operating hour data vary widely from source to source residence types considered, the occupant’s habits, the sample geographies, and other factors. Appendix D further details on resi dential operating hour estimates. Compared to the 2001 LMC, average operating hours estimated for the commercial and industrial sectors in 2010 are 13 higher and 4 percent lower , respectively. Outdoor operating hour estimates have increased 11 percent sin ce 2001. As both the 2001 and 2010 LMC utilized building owner and industry expert interviews to develop the average use characteristics for these sectors, this variation could potentially indicate slight changes in lighting use or be within the uncertaint y of the estimates. Of particular interest in the commercial and industrial sectors is the average operating hours for LEDs which are higher than other lamp technologies. This is primarily due to the large number of LED exit sign erated 24 hours per day. installations that are op Page 31

45 Table 4.7 Average Operating Hours by End- Use Sector in 2010 Daily Commercial Industrial All Sectors Residential Outdoor 10.4 2.0 9.0 1.8 Incandescent 12.6 10.5 12.7 1.9 Gener a l Ser vi c e - A-type 1.8 1.8 1.8 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Dec or a ti ve 1.7 9.8 11.9 2.1 Refl ec tor 1.9 9.0 3.2 Miscellaneous 10.8 1.9 12.4 11.7 Halogen 3.5 10.5 Gener a l Ser vi c e 2.0 12.1 11.7 2.4 Refl ec tor 1.9 12.4 11.7 3.0 Low Voltage Display 1.7 7.9 12.6 2.0 11.7 10.5 3.0 Miscellaneous 10.1 1.8 10.4 Compact Fluorescent 9.0 3.2 13.1 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Sc r ew 1.8 10.7 13.0 2.1 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Pi n 1.9 10.4 13.2 10.1 Refl ec tor 10.0 13.0 3.9 1.8 Miscellaneous 1.9 9.0 2.8 Linear Fluorescent 1.9 11.1 12.5 14.0 9.0 2.5 T5 12.6 11.7 11.5 T8 Les s tha n 4ft 2.1 12.6 9.7 11.2 1.9 11.1 10.6 T8 4ft 12.6 11.0 12.6 1.7 T8 Gr ea ter tha n 4ft 10.8 T12 Less than 4ft 2.0 11.3 12.0 6.7 1.9 11.1 T12 4ft 7.1 12.4 T12 Greater than 4ft 11.1 12.5 9.4 1.7 2.1 11.0 T8 U-Sha ped 10.8 12.6 T12 U-Sha ped 1.9 11.0 12.5 10.9 Miscellaneous 2.1 11.0 12.3 14.0 4.8 High Intensity Discharge 2.5 16.8 12.3 12.3 11.1 2.4 10.8 16.5 Mercury Vapor 11.8 11.1 Metal Halide 11.1 16.5 12.1 12.2 2.1 High Pressure Sodium 2.5 11.0 17.9 12.5 12.5 Low Pr es s ur e Sodi um 11.5 11.4 11.2 Other 1.5 20.8 22.3 9.8 5.5 LED 2.1 20.8 22.3 9.3 15.0 Miscellaneous 1.4 14.8 12.6 2.2 11.2 4.7 1.8 11.7 13.0 AVERAGE Page 32

46 4.8 presents the electricity consumed by lighting technologies in 2010, calculated by summing the Table 13 Total electricity consumed by lighting in sector specific electricity consumption values in Section 4.2 . .5 quads of primary energy. Linear TWh, or roughly 7 the U.S. in 2010 was estimated to be 700 percent of total lighting 42 onstituting fluorescent lamps consumed the greatest amount of energy, c 22 electricity consumption. This is followed by HID lamps at 26 percent and incandescent lamps at percent of total electricity consumption. , approximately half of the Lighting in the commercial sector consumes the largest amount of electricity total, The residential sector’s due to its high operating hour characteristics and large lamp inventories. large installed stock makes it the second greatest consumer of electricity despite the low operating industrial sector since 2001, taking the place ges. Outdoor lamps grew faster than the hours and watta of the third greatest lighting electricity consumer. The industrial sector was the smallest in terms of electricity use, comprising only 8 percent of the total. 13 While these estimates are based on the multiplication of lamp inventories by wattage by operating hours, doing so on a sector level by multiplying together Table 4.1, Table 4.5, Table 4.7 will not reproduce the electricity consumption values presented in Table 4.8. This is because wattages, and operating hours provided are weighted only by inventory and do not account for correlations between wattage per lamp and hours of use. Page 33

47 Table 4.8 Annual Lighting Electricity Consumed (TWh) by End- Use Sector in 2010 Commercial Industrial All Sectors Residential Outdoor 15 156 4 136 Incandescent 0 9 0 94 Gener a l Ser vi c e - A-type 84 28 0 0 28 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Dec or a ti ve Refl ec tor 19 0 24 5 5 0 4 9 Miscellaneous 0 12 15 Halogen 1 28 0 Gener a l Ser vi c e 1 0 0 1 Refl ec tor 8 7 0 15 Low Voltage Display 1 8 7 2 0 1 4 Miscellaneous 1 15 16 Compact Fluorescent 1 32 0 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Sc r ew 13 3 0 16 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Pi n 0 10 0 10 Refl ec tor 3 0 4 1 Miscellaneous 1 0 1 2 Linear Fluorescent 10 250 23 10 294 0 T5 2 16 19 T8 Les s tha n 4ft 0 0 1 1 1 111 123 T8 4ft 11 6 1 0 T8 Gr ea ter tha n 4ft 7 T12 Less than 4ft 0 1 0 1 6 71 4 81 T12 4ft T12 Greater than 4ft 1 4 40 35 0 0 6 T8 U-Sha ped 6 0 2 0 T12 U-Sha ped 2 Miscellaneous 2 2 0 10 14 High Intensity Discharge 0 49 35 98 183 Mercury Vapor 0 4 4 9 1 0 29 25 Metal Halide 97 43 High Pressure Sodium 5 6 65 76 0 Low Pr es s ur e Sodi um 0 0 0 1 1 Other 3 0 3 8 1 LED 0 3 0 2 5 Miscellaneous 1 0 1 3 58 349 700 118 TOTAL 175 Page 34

48 Finally, 4.9 presents the total lumen production for the U.S. in each sector in 2010. These were Table calculated by multiplying together the subsector level (by building type and room type) estimates of lamp inventory, wattage per lamp, and an assumed system efficacy (including ballast losses where appropriate). These subsector lumen production estimates were then summed to calculate the total lighting service for each lamp technology in each sector. Potential fixture losses have not been included in these values. The efficacy assumptions used for the lumen output are discussed in Appendix C . Light pr oduction is presented in Teralumen hours (Tlm -hr is the amount -hr). For sense of scale, one Tlm on the next page, the commercial seen of light used by approximately 35,000 homes each year. As , due to its long operating hours and large sector accounts for the vast majority of the lumen production inventory of lamps. This is followed by the outdoor sector and industrial sector which both have the long operating hours and high wattage lamps to thanks for the relatively high lumen production. The residential sector uses the least amount of light of all of the sectors analyzed. R elative to 2001, the 2010 estimates of lumen production remain s largely unchanged. Page 35

49 Table 4.9 Annual Lumen Production (Tlm Use Sector in 2010 –hr) by End- Commercial Industrial All Sectors Residential Outdoor 180 1,870 50 1,640 Incandescent 0 120 0 1,200 Gener a l Ser vi c e - A-type 1,080 310 310 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Dec or a ti ve 190 60 0 250 Refl ec tor 60 50 110 Miscellaneous 0 170 240 0 Halogen 430 20 Gener a l Ser vi c e 20 0 0 20 Refl ec tor 110 100 0 210 Low Voltage Display 10 140 130 30 0 20 70 Miscellaneous 10 780 880 Compact Fluorescent 50 1,710 0 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Sc r ew 670 180 850 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Pi n 0 580 0 580 Refl ec tor 130 0 180 60 Miscellaneous 50 50 100 Linear Fluorescent 670 19,180 1,800 750 22,400 1,480 T5 0 210 1,700 T8 Les s tha n 4ft 0 10 90 80 80 8,690 9,620 T8 4ft 850 490 90 0 T8 Gr ea ter tha n 4ft 590 T12 Less than 4ft 0 60 0 60 400 5,030 300 5,730 T12 4ft T12 Greater than 4ft 70 330 3,060 2,670 0 10 440 T8 U-Sha ped 430 0 120 10 T12 U-Sha ped 130 Miscellaneous 100 120 10 750 980 High Intensity Discharge 10 3,720 2,680 7,320 13,720 Mercury Vapor 0 150 120 330 60 0 1,730 1,860 Metal Halide 6,730 3,130 High Pressure Sodium 520 660 5,410 6,610 10 Low Pr es s ur e Sodi um 0 10 60 60 Other 180 0 180 410 50 LED 0 180 0 80 270 Miscellaneous 50 0 100 150 8,370 4,480 TOTAL 24,380 3,320 40,550 Page 36

50 4.2 Sector Specific Results The following four sections examine the cumulative results for all lamp technologies by sector focusing on the subsector level results. Specifically, details on the installed base, average system wattage and operating hour characteristics of all lamps are evaluated by the defined subsectors within the residential, commercial, industrial and outdoor sectors. As discussed in Section 3 , the tables for the residential, commercial and industrial sectors were extracted directly from the building survey data, scaled to a national level (based on size and building t for any geographic bias and to better characterize type), and adjusted with shipment data to accoun the lighting market in 2010, the base year of this analysis. The subsector results for the outdoor sector were developed in a slightly different manner due to a lack of audit and survey data. Each subse ctor in the outdoor sector was developed in a unique way based on the available data. Results Residential 4.2.1 The numbers of households considered in this analysis are provided in Table 4.10 , by residence type and , the values were drawn from the 2009 AHS and adjusted to reflect size. As discussed in Section 3.1.1 ach “residence” represents a single housing unit, even if part of a multifamily 2010 conditions. E structure. Table 4.10 Estimated Number of Residences by Size and Type in 2010 Single Family Single Family Attached Detached Mobile Home Total Multifamily 2 Less than 1,000ft 5,385,000 1,014,000 14,493,000 2,334,000 23,226,000 2 2 48,920,000 3,742,000 7,699,000 3,759,000 1,000ft to 2,500ft 64,121,000 2 19,699,000 1,288,000 4,027,000 Greater than 2,500ft 793,000 25,806,000 26,220,000 6,044,000 113,153,000 6,886,000 Total 74,004,000 Page 37

51 Table 4.11 presents the average number of lamps by residence type and room type in 2010. It is important to note that the values represent total number of lamps in a typical residence in all rooms of each room typ e. For this reason, bathrooms (of which there are usually multiple in a single residence) are reported to contain the most number of lamps among all residence types; this is followed by bedrooms, kitchens and living rooms. As seen below, in general, the a verage number of lamps per household tracks fairly well with the size characteristics of each of the home types (meaning larger residence types have more lamps installed than smaller residence types). 4.11 Table of Lamps per Household by Residence and Room Type in 2010 Average Number Single Family Single Family Detached Attached Multifamily Mobile Home Average Ba s ement(s ) 1.5 1.8 0.2 1.2 0.2 Bathroom(s) 10.5 5.1 7.1 8.9 8.6 Bedroom(s) 9.7 8.0 4.4 6.6 8.2 Cl oset(s) 1.7 1.1 0.7 0.7 1.4 Di ni ng Room(s) 4.1 3.6 1.7 2.5 3.4 Exteri or(s ) 5.4 1.1 2.9 4.1 2.7 Garage(s) 4.0 0.5 0.6 2.9 1.4 Hall(s) 4.7 2.2 5.6 4.5 1.4 Kitchen(s) 7.2 6.8 4.4 4.4 6.4 Laundry / Utility Room(s) 1.4 0.7 1.0 1.1 0.2 Living / Family Room(s) 6.0 4.1 5.6 6.5 7.5 Offi ce(s) 1.7 0.5 0.2 1.3 0.9 Other 2.0 2.0 0.3 1.3 1.6 25.4 48.0 51.4 62.4 34.6 TOTAL Page 38

52 Table 4.12 Appendix C presents this same presents the lamp technology distribution by room type. in a more disaggregated form (distinguishing each lamp type separately). As seen below, information there can be significant variation between the room types. Lighting in bathrooms and dining rooms is rative lamps and fixtures in those predominately incandescent, largely due to the high volume of deco applications. While CFLs seem to be significant players in almost every room type, linear fluorescent lamps seem to only have significant penetration in several applications, the highest of which are garages, basements, and utility rooms. Lamp Distribution of Residences by Room Type Table 4.12 in 2010 Linear Fluorescent Halogen CFL Incandescent HID Other Total Ba s ement(s ) 1% 0% 28% 40% 0% 100% 30% Bathroom(s) 2% 3% 0% 1% 74% 20% 100% Bedroom(s) 3% 28% 2% 0% 67% 0% 100% Cl oset(s) 60% 2% 20% 0% 1% 17% 100% Di ni ng Room(s) 81% 3% 15% 1% 0% 0% 100% Exteri or(s ) 59% 24% 2% 0% 2% 14% 100% Garage(s) 1% 13% 51% 0% 0% 35% 100% Hall(s) 4% 22% 72% 0% 1% 2% 100% Kitchen(s) 45% 7% 23% 22% 0% 3% 100% Laundry / Utility Room(s) 50% 2% 28% 0% 0% 19% 100% Living / Family Room(s) 5% 29% 3% 0% 1% 61% 100% Offi ce(s) 58% 27% 8% 0% 0% 6% 100% Other 53% 6% 17% 24% 0% 0% 100% 23% 10% 100% 1% 0% Average 62% 4% Page 39

53 Table 4.13 presents the average wattage per lamp by residence type and room type. As discussed earlier, the wattages presented include ballast effects, where appropriate. Because these numbers represent average wattages across the different lamp types in each room, the variations in watt age are fairly small. Appendix C also presents this same information in a more disaggregated form (distinguishing each lamp type separately). 4.13 Table in 2010 Average Wattage per Lamp by Residence Type and Room Type Single Family Single Family Detached Attached Multifamily Mobile Home Average Ba s ement(s ) 41 36 29 67 41 Bathroom(s) 49 43 42 44 47 Bedroom(s) 48 43 45 40 47 Cl oset(s) 47 45 40 45 46 Di ni ng Room(s) 38 45 36 44 44 Exteri or(s ) 56 42 55 54 49 Garage(s) 44 33 46 43 41 Hall(s) 40 40 47 46 41 Kitchen(s) 42 35 30 35 40 Laundry / Utility Room(s) 44 39 43 43 37 Living / Family Room(s) 47 47 41 48 48 Offi ce(s) 48 46 52 47 40 Other / Unknown 48 39 42 36 46 47 41 46 42 41 Average Page 40

54 Table 4.14 s per day by residence type and room type. As seen presents the average operating hour below for every residence type, exterior lighting represents the application which has the highest operating hours. This is closely followed by lighting found in kitchens and living rooms. The applications which have the lowest operating hours include closets, halls, and miscellaneous applications otherwise undefined. 4.14 Average Daily Operating Hours by Residence Type and Room Type Table in 2010 Single Family Single Family Detached Attached Multifamily Mobile Home Average Ba s ement(s ) 1.6 1.7 1.4 1.9 1.6 Bathroom(s) 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 Bedroom(s) 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 Cl oset(s) 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.4 Di ni ng Room(s) 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 Exteri or(s ) 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.7 Garage(s) 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 Hall(s) 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 Kitchen(s) 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 Laundry / Utility Room(s) 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.3 Living / Family Room(s) 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 Offi ce(s) 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 Other / Unknown 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 Average Page 41

55 Table 4.15 presents the lighting electricity use by room type. The bathroom and living room /family 228 h per year, respectively. use the most energy for lighting, consuming kW room kWh per year and 242 Outdoor lights are used for the most hours, but only rank as the fifth energy consumer because of the limited number of installations. At the bottom of the list is lights used in laundry/utility room(s) which 25 only consumes h per year in the typical house. kW Type in 2010 Table 4.15 Lighting Electricity Use by Room Electricity Use Operating Average Lamps Electricity Use per per Residence Room (kWh/yr) Hours per Day Rank Ba s ement(s ) 1.6 1.2 28 11 1 Bathroom(s) 1.6 8.9 242 1.6 Bedroom(s) 3 222 8.2 10 1.4 1.4 Cl oset(s) 32 Di ni ng Room(s) 1.9 3.4 105 7 214 4.1 2.6 Exteri or(s ) 5 Garage(s) 1.5 2.9 69 8 4.5 Hall(s) 1.5 111 6 215 6.4 Kitchen(s) 2.3 4 Laundry / Utility Room(s) 1.5 1.1 25 13 2 2.0 6.5 228 Living / Family Room(s) Offi ce(s) 9 41 1.3 1.8 Other / Unknown 12 26 1.6 1.0 1,556 51.4 1.8 TOTAL provides both electricity use and the electricity use density by residence type. As expected, 4.16 Table there is a direct correlation between the size of a home and the amount of lighting electricity consumed. -family detached Similarly, when comparing the density of electricity use across residence types single homes rank the highest. in 2010 4.16 Lighting Electricity Use by Residence Type Table Intensity Installed Wattage Intensity Average Electricity Use per 2 2 (kWh/yr/ft (W/ft Building (kWh/yr) Rank Floorspace ) ) Single Family Detached 2,178 1.4 1,922 0.9 1 Single Family Attached 1.1 1,279 0.7 2 1,816 4 1,050 1.0 679 0.6 Multifamily 975 1.0 3 1,395 0.7 Mobile Page 42

56 4.2.2 ercial Results Comm Table Fourteen commercial building space types were examined for the 2010 lighting market analysis. displays the number of buildings, total square footage and average floorspace per building for each 4.17 space type on a national level. As previously mentioned in Section , these sector characteristics 3.1.3 were co llected from the 2003 CBECS database and scaled to 2010 via the EIA’s Annual Energy Outlook 2011 total square footage estimates. Table 4.17 Estimated Number and Floor space of Commercial Buildings in 2010 Total Square Average Number of Feet Buildings Square Feet Educa ti on 25,580 454,000 11,604,995,000 Food Servi ce 5,569 349,000 1,943,960,000 Food Store 5,553 266,000 1,475,012,000 238,125 Health Care - Inpatient 9,000 2,238,962,000 Health Care - Outpatient 1,478,538,000 142,000 10,397 Lodging 35,887 167,000 5,989,372,000 14,816 968,000 14,348,165,000 Offices (Non-medical) 14,220 326,000 4,629,540,000 Public Assembly 83,000 15,352 1,281,086,000 Public Order and Safety Religious Worship 435,000 4,412,108,000 10,146 Retail - Mall & Non-Mall 17,035 772,000 13,154,052,000 Ser vi c es 6,511 731,000 4,759,999,000 Warehouse and Storage 16,881 702,000 11,844,758,000 2,042,686,000 Other 22,000 93,000 5,497,000 14,773 TOTAL 81,203,232,000 Page 43

57 4.18 Table illustrates the distribution of lamp technologies across the commercial sector by space type. commercial sector, linear fluorescent lighting technology is by far the most prevalent at For the entire 80 percent of lamp inventory, and represents over half of lamp installations for all subsectors except lodging, which has some characteristics similar to the residential sector including increased use of CFLs incandescent lamps. In addition, food service has a large prevalence of incandescent lamps possibly and lamps. Also, due to their greater demand for warmer color temperature and high index color rendering of note is the higher prevalence of HID lamps in war likely due to the ehouse and storage building, greater number of high bay applications in this subsector. Lamp Distribution by Commercial Building Type in 2010 Table 4.18 Linear Fluorescent Halogen CFL HID Other Total Incandescent Educa ti on 2% 10% 85% 1% 1% 2% 100% Food Servi ce 20% 67% 1% 3% 1% 8% 100% Food Store 1% 3% 94% 1% 1% 1% 100% Health Care - Inpatient 1% 13% 84% 0% 1% 1% 100% Health Care - Outpatient 1% 1% 9% 88% 0% 1% 100% Lodging 18% 2% 25% 53% 0% 2% 100% Offices (Non-medical) 1% 14% 0% 1% 1% 82% 100% Public Assembly 8% 21% 58% 3% 9% 1% 100% Public Order and Safety 1% 1% 89% 1% 2% 6% 100% Religious Worship 1% 8% 84% 1% 2% 4% 100% Retail - Mall & Non-Mall 5% 6% 79% 3% 1% 6% 100% Ser vi c es 1% 4% 90% 3% 1% 1% 100% Warehouse and Storage 0% 6% 86% 5% 1% 2% 100% Other 2% 4% 9% 79% 2% 3% 100% 2% 2% 80% 100% 10% Average 4% 2% Page 44

58 Table 4.19, shows the average wattage for each commercial space type. The wattages displayed account for any ballast effects where relevant. In general, the wattage values across space types for each display significant variation. lighting technology do not Average Wattage per Lamp by Commercial Building Type in 2010 4.19 Table Linear Fluorescent Incandescent Halogen CFL Average HID Other Educa ti on 86 73 21 35 352 13 37 Food Servi ce 66 19 13 224 44 41 42 Food Store 74 20 43 258 14 69 44 Health Care - Inpatient 73 18 32 75 7 192 30 Health Care - Outpatient 74 78 20 194 10 37 36 Lodging 55 74 17 34 224 11 34 Offices (Non-medical) 58 74 33 275 8 19 31 Public Assembly 80 20 39 420 6 55 44 Public Order and Safety 76 18 81 329 10 35 37 Religious Worship 96 97 20 39 260 12 42 Retail - Mall & Non-Mall 42 65 35 347 30 22 45 Ser vi c es 69 18 43 406 10 63 51 Warehouse and Storage 72 18 50 348 23 69 64 Other 88 40 20 38 333 12 44 37 19 42 12 342 Average 53 67 Page 45

59 The average operating hours by lighting technology for each commercial building space is provided in Table 4.20. The average operating hours for each space type are clearly influenced by the dominant -based lighting is technology, linear fluorescent. The “other” category which is mainly populated by LED characterized by high daily operating hours as the majority of these lamps are used in exit sign applications. Table 4.20 Average Daily Operating Hours per Lamp by Commercial Building Type in 2010 Linear Fluorescent CFL Other Halogen Average Incandescent HID Educa ti on 12.4 10.5 11.0 11.1 23.5 10.4 11.2 Food Servi ce 12.0 10.5 11.1 10.2 23.1 10.3 11.2 Food Store 10.5 10.4 11.3 11.2 23.0 12.3 11.4 Health Care - Inpatient 12.2 10.4 11.0 10.0 23.6 9.2 11.1 Health Care - Outpatient 10.0 12.3 10.3 11.1 23.6 11.0 11.1 Lodging 10.3 12.2 10.3 11.0 11.2 23.7 11.0 Offices (Non-medical) 10.1 10.4 11.0 11.1 23.6 12.3 11.1 Public Assembly 12.1 10.4 11.1 10.9 13.2 10.3 11.1 Public Order and Safety 12.4 10.4 10.1 11.2 23.7 11.0 11.2 Religious Worship 10.0 12.1 10.4 11.0 10.5 23.7 11.2 Retail - Mall & Non-Mall 10.6 12.5 11.4 11.1 22.8 10.4 11.5 Ser vi c es 12.4 10.4 11.0 11.0 23.6 10.1 11.2 Warehouse and Storage 10.3 10.4 11.0 11.2 23.3 12.4 11.1 Other 9.9 12.5 10.4 11.0 11.2 23.7 11.4 10.4 11.1 11.2 20.8 11.1 Average 10.4 12.4 Page 46

60 Table depicts the consumption of annual lighting energy per building and per square foot for each 4.21 space type. The installed wattage, which includes ballast losses, represents weighted averages across all lighting technologies for each building type subsector. Hospital buildings consume the largest amount of lighting electricity per building due to their substantial area footprint. The final column in Table 4.21 provides a ranking of electricity use per floorspace in order to compare all subsectors by a common have the most energy intense lighting characteristics. metric. Based on this ranking , grocery stores 4.21 Lighting Electricity Use by Comme rcial Buildings in 2010 Table Intensity Average Lamps Installed Electricity Use per Intensity 2 2 2 Building (kWh/yr) Rank Wattage (W/ft pe r 1,000 ft (kWh/yr/ft ) ) Educa ti on 0.6 2.5 17 13 65,100 Food Servi ce 1.3 5.4 4 32 30,100 Food Store 1.8 7.3 1 40 40,800 Health Care - Inpatient 26 0.8 3.2 10 768,100 Health Care - Outpatient 37 5.4 5 1.3 55,900 Lodging 18 2.4 14 0.6 85,300 Offices (Non-medical) 1.0 33 4.1 9 60,800 Public Assembly 24 1.0 4.1 8 58,900 Public Order and Safety 19 0.7 12 2.8 43,200 Religious Worship 1.1 4.4 6 27 45,100 Retail - Mall & Non-Mall 1.5 34 6.3 2 107,800 Ser vi c es 28 1.4 5.7 3 37,400 Warehouse and Storage 7 17 1.1 4.3 71,900 Other 0.8 18 11 3.2 70,500 Page 47

61 Industrial Results 4.2.3 4.22. The total floorspace Table The MECS database provides data for the 21 subsectors shown below in presented is based on the 2005 MECS and has been adjusted to a 2010 baseline using industrial construction value growth as a proxy for floorspace growth. Estimated Number and Floorspace of Industrial Buildings in 2010 Table 4.22 Total Square Average Number of Square Feet Buildings Feet Apparel 106,592,000 25,216 4,000 Beverage and Tobacco Products 9,000 24,031 222,788,000 Chemicals 10,101 65,000 654,919,000 39,465 Computer and Electronic Products 453,257,000 11,000 Electrical Eq., Appliances & Components 5,000 284,246,000 61,056 Fabricated Metal Products 25,708 46,000 1,188,840,000 43,000 Food 18,146 788,399,000 12,000 46,336 Furniture and Related Products 534,882,000 20,166,000 1,000 Leather and Allied Products 28,417 820,089,000 Machinery 34,637 24,000 Nonmetallic Mineral Products 12,570 347,625,000 28,000 13,000 34,044 Pa per 431,171,000 12,000 5,013 Petroleum and Coal Products 62,419,000 728,861,000 53,103 Plastics and Rubber Products 14,000 15,527 452,297,000 Primary Metals 29,000 390,838,000 15,000 26,575 Printing and Related Support 65,506 Textile Mills 227,589,000 3,000 3,000 126,758,000 Textile Product Mills 46,875 Transportation Equipment 40,636 31,000 1,275,267,000 57,000 6,299 Wood Products 357,228,000 12,829 Miscellaneous 31,000 391,799,000 21,672 Total 455,000 9,866,031,000 It is important to note that facility lighting characteristics including lamp inventory, wattage and operating hours for textile mills, apparel, leather and allied products and chemicals were not available within the industrial survey database. To address this issue, the average of the lighting characteristics building types assumed to be representative for ere remaining 17 subsectors w y data was where surve unavailable. Page 48

62 4.23 Table provides the distribution of lamp technologies in industrial buildings for 2010. The industrial buildings database represents a limited sample size, and therefore, lamp classifications for several building types were not available and are not included in the results. This is most evident when considering the incandescent, halogen and CFL results per building type. It is likely that these lamp technologies are used to some extent within each industrial building subsector, however, the vast majority of the installed stock are the fluorescent installations followed by HID. Building Type Table Lamp Distribution by Industrial in 2010 4.23 Linear Fluorescent CFL HID Other Total Halogen Incandescent Apparel 0.3% 89.1% 9.9% 0.3% 0.1% 0.4% 100.0% Beverage and Tobacco Products 0.2% 7.1% 2.2% 0.0% 90.4% 0.1% 100.0% Chemicals 0.3% 89.1% 9.9% 0.4% 0.1% 0.3% 100.0% Computer and Electronic Products 0.4% 0.1% 96.4% 3.1% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0% Electrical Eq., Appliances & Components 0.0% 88.0% 11.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 100.0% Fabricated Metal Products 0.3% 0.2% 83.4% 15.8% 0.1% 0.1% 100.0% Food 0.1% 0.3% 1.4% 24.8% 0.0% 73.5% 100.0% Furniture and Related Products 0.0% 0.2% 87.7% 12.1% 0.0% 0.1% 100.0% Leather and Allied Products 0.3% 0.1% 0.3% 89.1% 9.9% 0.4% 100.0% Machinery 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 87.9% 10.9% 0.7% 100.0% Nonmetallic Mineral Products 0.1% 0.2% 32.7% 0.0% 0.3% 66.7% 100.0% Pa per 0.0% 0.1% 34.1% 65.6% 0.0% 0.2% 100.0% Petroleum and Coal Products 0.1% 0.3% 87.7% 9.2% 1.1% 1.7% 100.0% Plastics and Rubber Products 0.8% 0.2% 93.1% 5.1% 0.8% 0.0% 100.0% Primary Metals 0.0% 2.1% 88.9% 7.4% 1.5% 0.0% 100.0% Printing and Related Support 0.5% 0.0% 0.1% 91.6% 6.6% 1.2% 100.0% Textile Mills 0.1% 89.1% 9.9% 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 100.0% Textile Product Mills 0.0% 0.4% 93.6% 5.9% 0.0% 0.1% 100.0% Transportation Equipment 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 97.7% 2.2% 0.0% 100.0% Wood Products 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 89.2% 10.5% 0.0% 100.0% Miscellaneous 0.5% 0.0% 0.1% 94.4% 4.0% 1.0% 100.0% 0.4% 0.3% 9.8% 89.2% 100.0% Average 0.3% 0.0% Page 49

63 The average system wattage by lamp technology for industrial buildings is provided in Table 4.24 . These . wattages account for ballast effects for externally ballasted lamps Industrial Building Type in 2010 4.24 Table Average Wattage per Lamp by Linear Fluorescent HID Other Average Halogen Incandescent CFL Apparel 30 46 404 11 68 39 75 Beverage and Tobacco Products 63 35 444 14 63 17 Chemicals 68 30 39 404 11 75 46 Computer and Electronic Products 55 17 33 503 48 63 Electrical Eq., Appliances & Components 63 31 453 81 17 Fabricated Metal Products 63 17 53 462 3 118 54 Food 54 17 55 391 138 63 Furniture and Related Products 17 40 567 103 63 Leather and Allied Products 46 68 30 39 404 11 75 Machinery 66 15 17 44 449 13 87 Nonmetallic Mineral Products 24 17 59 335 149 69 Pa per 63 42 290 205 17 Petroleum and Coal Products 63 17 53 453 13 90 112 Plastics and Rubber Products 15 17 48 388 3 65 63 Primary Metals 44 35 352 20 59 63 Printing and Related Support 71 63 17 34 453 5 62 Textile Mills 46 30 39 404 11 75 68 Textile Product Mills 63 17 38 452 62 Transportation Equipment 90 17 34 453 43 Wood Products 17 54 417 92 63 Miscellaneous 52 63 17 36 440 10 63 403 31 39 75 11 Average 46 68 Page 50

64 Table 4.25 presents the average daily operating hours per building type. Operating hours are based on l periods of high and low lighting use. The average annual estimates and thus take into account seasona across the sector is greater than any other sector largely due to the long business hours found at many manufacturing facilities. 4.25 Average Daily Operating Hours per Lamp by Industrial Building Type Table in 2010 Linear Fluorescent Incandescent HID Other Halogen CFL Average Apparel 11.7 12.5 16.9 22.3 12.6 13.0 13.0 Beverage and Tobacco Products 11.7 12.5 17.5 20.4 13.0 13.0 Chemicals 11.7 13.0 13.0 16.9 22.3 12.6 12.5 Computer and Electronic Products 11.7 13.0 16.5 12.7 12.9 12.5 Electrical Eq., Appliances & Components 11.7 12.6 16.1 13.0 13.0 Fabricated Metal Products 11.7 13.0 12.6 16.7 13.0 13.2 23.1 Food 11.7 12.4 16.6 13.5 13.0 13.0 Furniture and Related Products 13.0 12.4 16.6 12.9 11.7 Leather and Allied Products 12.6 11.7 13.0 12.5 16.9 22.3 13.0 Machinery 12.1 11.9 13.0 12.4 16.3 22.3 12.9 Nonmetallic Mineral Products 11.9 13.0 12.5 17.0 14.0 10.5 Pa per 11.7 12.4 18.3 16.3 13.0 Petroleum and Coal Products 11.7 13.0 12.4 17.2 22.2 13.0 12.1 Plastics and Rubber Products 13.2 13.0 12.6 17.0 23.1 12.9 11.7 Primary Metals 13.2 12.6 16.0 22.2 13.0 11.7 Printing and Related Support 12.4 11.7 13.0 12.6 16.5 22.2 12.9 Textile Mills 12.6 13.0 12.5 16.9 22.3 13.0 11.7 Textile Product Mills 11.7 13.0 12.3 16.2 12.5 Transportation Equipment 12.0 13.0 12.5 16.1 12.6 Wood Products 13.0 12.1 16.0 12.5 11.7 Miscellaneous 12.8 11.6 13.0 12.6 15.8 22.6 11.0 13.1 16.8 12.5 13.0 22.3 Average 12.6 11.7 Page 51

65 Table 4.26 displays the lighting electricity consumption for the industrial sector in 2010. The metric s are while operating hours do not display the same as those discussed earlier for the commercial sector, significant variation across , wattage is slightly more variable. The final column in Table subsectors the 4.26 provides a ranking of electricity use per floorspace in order to compare all subsectors by a common metric Paper facilities are ranked as the greatest electricity consumer based on this metric, consuming kWh per square feet, while textile product mills represents the least at 1. 6 kWh per sq. ft. per 10.8 building. 4.26 Lighting Electricity Use by Industrial Building s in 2010 Table Average Installed Electricity Use Intensity Intensity Wattage Lamps per per Building 2 Rank (kWh/yr/ft ) 2 2 (kWh/yr) (W/ft 1,000 ft ) Apparel 15 1.1 6.1 8 154,800 Beverage and Tobacco Products 0.7 3.9 19 11 93,600 Chemicals 15 1.1 58,500 5.8 11 Computer and Electronic Products 1.1 228,300 5.8 12 23 Electrical Eq., Appliances & Components 20 1.6 511,000 8.4 3 Fabricated Metal Products 10 1.2 167,000 6.5 6 Food 8 1.1 110,400 6.1 9 Furniture and Related Products 10 242,500 5.2 14 1.0 Leather and Allied Products 15 4.1 18 1.1 117,100 Machinery 9 143,400 4.1 17 0.8 Nonmetallic Mineral Products 1.5 106,700 10 2 8.5 Pa per 1.7 10.8 1 8 366,400 Petroleum and Coal Products 7 17,300 3.5 20 0.6 Plastics and Rubber Products 14 0.9 232,200 4.4 15 Primary Metals 20 93,900 6.0 10 1.2 Printing and Related Support 21 181,200 6.8 4 1.3 Textile Mills 1.1 440,600 6.7 5 15 Textile Product Mills 5 74,300 1.6 21 0.3 Transportation Equipment 26 1.1 220,800 5.4 13 Wood Products 9 0.9 27,500 4.4 16 Miscellaneous 78,800 24 1.2 7 6.1 Page 52

66 4.2.4 Outdoor Results ssed in Section the outdoor sector comprises eight different applications including building As discu 3.2.3 exterior, airfield, billboard, railway, stadium, traffic signals, parking and roadway. Table 4.27 shows the lamps installed in each of these applications. Combined these applications represent over 178 million lamp installations for 2010 compared to the estimated 73 million lamps in 2002. However, the previous 2002 LMC classified several o utdoor parking lot and building exterior lamps within the commercial and industrial sectors. In addition, the railway and stadium applications are new to this version of the report. The building exterior, parking and roadway applications are by far the largest applications, cumulatively represent ing nearly 90 percent of the outdoor lamps and almost two -thirds of all HID lamps installed in the U.S. Table Estimated Inventory of Outdoor Lamps by Subsector (1,000’s) 4.27 L inear Halogen CFL Fluorescent HPS MV MH Incandescent LPS LED Other Tot al Building 9,865 62,084 14,775 2,621 12,052 12,468 1,815 294 7,919 274 1 Exteri or Airfield 512 98 1,024 414 5 502 7 519 Billboard 5 549 427 Railway 976 Stadium 64 7 839 120 1,030 Traffi c 15,693 785 14,908 Signals Parki ng 824 16,595 429 992 14,205 2,231 2,701 52,168 14,191 44,882 300 2 55 1,922 4,116 35,698 1,182 1,546 61 Roadway 19,218 57,942 1,456 178,376 3,056 Tot al 17,815 4,021 12,054 29,123 4,178 29,513 Page 53

67 4.28 provides the average system wattage of outdoor sector lamps. This wattage takes into Table account ballast losses for all externally ballasted lamps . The use of high lumen output lamps to illuminate large open spaces causes the outdoor lamp wattages to be relatively high. The exceptions are building exterior lamps which are often used for smaller area illumination such as in landscaping light ll packs. and wa in 2010 Average Wattage per Table Lamp by Subsector 4.28 L inear Fluorescent CFL Incandescent Halogen MV MH HPS LPS LED Other Average 8.33 68. 747 74.4 61 74 22 42 79 72 78 Building 55 68 61 74 22 42 79 72 78 74 28 Exteri or 92 65 17 71 Airfield 394 148 400 400 125 Billboard 16 18 14 Railway 1,000 4375 Stadium 1,661 1,000 1,554 Traffi c 130 9 15 Signals 112 73 108 224 Parki ng 153 97 60 201 350 233 221 62 71 78 230 243 50 44 181 Roadway Average 132 93 20 77 204 215 185 60 22 148 68 Table 4.29 presents the average daily operating hours per application. The operating hours for most applications are relatively high, at over 12 hours per day. This is because many outdoor lamps are used to provide continual lighting service during dusk, dawn and night -time hours. Parking lamps, and specifically, lamps in above grade parking decks, are used on average the longest, while stadium lights are typically only lit during events and thus are used the least of all lamps in the sector. Table Lamp by Subsector Average Daily Operating Hours per 4.29 in 2010 L inear Fluorescent Incandescent CFL MV MH Halogen LPS LED Other Average HPS Building 9 8.4 8.2 9.0 8.7 8.9 8.8 8.9 9.1 8.9 8.9 Exteri or Airfield 12.0 12.0 12 12.0 12.0 12.0 24.0 12 Billboard 12.0 10.7 9.8 Railway 10 Stadium 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1 Traffi c 8 8.0 8.0 Signals Parki ng 17.9 18.0 13.5 15.9 16.0 16.3 13.1 16 15.0 12 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 Roadway 12.5 12.6 9.3 11.4 11.7 Average 9.0 10.5 9.0 14.0 10.8 12.1 Page 54

68 Table 4.30 provides the electricity consumption of each of the outdoor applications. In terms of energy use, parking and roadways lamps with their high prevalence, wattages, and operating hours are the dominant applications. Though LEDs have penetrated the outdoor sector quicker than any of the y still are responsible for only approximately 1 percent of the energy consumed by building sectors, the the sector. Lighting Electricity Use Table Outdoor Subsectors in 2010 (TWh/yr) 4.30 by L inear CFL MH Incandescent MV Halogen HPS LPS LED Other Tot al Fluorescent Building 2 3 1 2 1 12 1 0 0 0 3 Exteri or Airfield 0 0 0 0 0 0 Billboard 0 0 1 0 1 Railway 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Stadium 0 1 0 Traffi c 0 0 0 1 Signals Parki ng 1 1 8 1 20 20 1 1 52 5 Roadway 0 0 2 0 43 1 0 0 51 65 1 2 1 118 Tot al 4 1 1 10 4 29 Page 55

69 4.3 Solid-State Lighting Solid-state lighting is one of the most efficacious lighting technologies available and the primary focus of the U.S. DOE lighting research and development efforts. The 2001 LMC reported that SSL, specifically LEDs, was found in approximately 1.6 million lamps or installations, or less than 0.1 percent of the total installed base of lighting. The vast majority, nearly 90 percent, were exit signs in the commercial and industrial sectors. The remainder of the LED installations in 2001 was primarily in outdoor traffic signal applications. Over the last decade the installed base of LED lighting has grown to over 67 million lamps, luminaires, and exit signs. While this represents a 40 fold increase in installed lamps, LEDs still only represented approximately 1 percent of the total installed base of lighting in 2010. This section details several characteristics of the LED installations in the residential, commercial, industrial, and outdoor sectors. It was estimated that in 2010 approximately 9.2 million LED lamps were installed in the residential sector, accounting for 0.2 percent of the installed inventory of residential lighting. According to the LMC database, approximately one-third of these residential LED lamps were screw based lamps. These lamps were most often found in common replacement applications such as torchieres and table lamps. Screw- based LEDs represent less than 0.1 percent of the installed stock of all residential screw based lamps. The remainder, non-screw based, of the residential LEDs were installed in specialty applications such as under cabinet and landscape applications. In the commercial and industrial sectors the majority of the LED lamps were installed in exit sign applications, as shown in Table 4.31. Although only 20 percent of LED lamps in the commercial sector are in non-exit sign applications, this represents significant growth from 37,000 non-exit sign LED lamps in 2001 to nearly 7.5 million non-exit sign LED lamps in 2010. These lamps range in wattages from 2 to 57, and are installed in applications ranging from display, track, task, and area lighting. Overall, non-exit sign LED lamps represent less than 1 percent of non-exit lighting in the commercial and industrial sectors. Table 4.31 LED Exit Signs and Lamps in Commercial an d Industrial Sectors Total LED Exit Signs LED Lamps 30,558,000 7,471,000 38,029,000 Commercial 580,000 592,000 Industrial 12,000 Total 31,139,000 7,482,000 38,621,000 h e o u t d o o r s e c t o r h as s e e n t h T g re a t e s t p e n e t r at i o n an d g ro w t h i n L E D l a m p s d u e l arg e l y t o t h e i r l o n g e l i fe t i m e ( l o w m ai n t e n an c e c o s t ) an d h i g h e ffi c a c y ( l o w o p e ra t i n g c o s t ) . W h i l e i n 2 0 0 1 i t w as e s t i m at e d n t at 9 7 , 0 0 0 L E D l a m p s o r l u m i n ai re s w e r e i n s t al l e d i h t h e o u t d o o r s e c t o r, t h i s re p o rt e s t i m at e s t h at i n e 2 0 1 0 t h e o u t d o o r i n s t al l l d b as e o f L E D l a m p s o r l u m i n ai re s g re w t o 1 9 m i l i o n . A c ro s s t h e e n t i re o u t d o o r d s t o r, L E D s c o m p ri s e d 1 0 p e rc e n t o f t h e i n s t al l e c s t o c k an d e x p e ri e n c e d far g re at e r s h ar e s i n c e rt ai n e i n d i v i d u al s u b s e c t o rs , as d e p i c t e d b y F i g u re 4 - 1 . S i m i l a r t o t h e 2 0 0 1 an al y s i s , t raffi c s i g n al s s t i l l r e p re s e n t t t e o u t d o o r ap p l i c at i o n i n w h i c h L E D s h a v e b o t h h h e g re at e s t p e rc e n t ag e p e n e t ra t i o n ( 9 5 p e rc e n t ) an d t ab s o l u t e n u m b e r o f i n s t al l a t i o n s . L E D s i n p ark i n g a n d r o ad w a y ap p l i c at i o n s h a v e t h e n e x t h i g h e s Page 56

70 installed LED lamps or luminaires, representing three to four percent of lighting inventory in number of those applications. 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% Percent Other Percent LED Figure 4-1 LED Prevalence in the Outdoor Sector of electricity per year, constituting less than 0.5 Wh Overall LED lamps consume approximately 3 T percent of national lighting energy use. DOE’s SSL Program is helping to propel this market forward through funding research and development projects, conducting market research such as this report, an d engaging in commercialization support initiatives such as the L -Prize, CALiPER, and the Gateway 14 programs. These efforts will support future improvements in efficacy and light quality, and reductions n for the lighting market. in cost that will make LEDs an even more viable optio 14 on each of these initiatives, see the DOE SSL Program website at: For further information http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/ssl/ Page 57

71 4.4 Lighting Controls ed In recent years, lighting controls have garnered increas attention as a potential method of more intelligently operating lighting systems to save energy. Lighting controls, which include various dimming an d sensor technologies used separately or in conjunction with other systems such as timers and daylighting, can, if used properly, yield very significant energy savings, as they use feedback from the lit environment to provid when needed. e adequate lighting levels only Lighting controls can save energy by either reducing input wattage or limiting hours of operation. The average operating hours presented in this report account for the use of certain controls, such as timers and EMS, because they are based on building surveys and metering data. However, the LMC analysis does not account for the use of controls that reduce wattage, such as dimmers or daylighting systems . , we estimated the prevalence of lighting controls in the residential an d commercial For this analysis sectors. Lighting controls data was extracted from several building audit studies, spanning several This data was then scaled to a national level using the geographic regions and years of data collection. methodology described in Section 3.2.2. Unlike the lamp inventory and operating hour estimates presented earlier, no additional data was available to account for any geographic bias or to bring up to the year 2010. In addition, the industrial and outdoor sectors were not included in this analysis due to insufficient data. The following discussion provides a brief description of each of the lighting control types examined in this study: • Dimmers allow use rs to manually regulate the level of lighting in a building by adjusting the voltage reaching the lamp. As voltage input is reduced, either by way of a step function or a continuous function, the lumen output of the system is proportionally decreased. • ht sensors , or photocells, also work by dimming or by on/off cycling . In response to Lig detected light levels, light sensors regulate the lumen output in order to supplement available natural light with an optimized level of artificial lumen output. Motion detectors • on for a set period of time in , or occupancy sensors, switch the lamp response to detected motion and are useful in areas that are sporadically occupied. This control type saves energy by reducing hours of operation of lighting. • Timers provide lighting service on a preset schedule, without the need for manual operation. This control type also saves energy by reducing hours of operation. • Energy management systems are information and control systems that monitor occupancy and lighting in the built environment in order to provide centralized lighting control. They often combine several of these control technologies to reduce energy consumption. As depicted in Table 4.32 , lighting controls are more frequently installed in the commercial sector than in the residential, with an estimated 31 percent of lamps in the commercial sector being used in conju nction with lighting controls. This is in contrast to only 14 percent of residential lamps being used with lighting controls. Page 58

72 Table 4.32 Prevalence of Lighting Controls by Sector Light Motion Detector Sensor Timer Total EMS Dimmer None 86% 1% 1% Res i denti a l 12% 0% 0% 100% Commerc i a l 18% 70% 3% 0% 5% 4% 100% Table presents the prevalence of lighting controls in the residential sector by lamp type. Even 4.33 though incandescent lamps have a longer history of control compatibility, they are not the technology in the residential sector . Instead, the analysis indicates that most likely to be used with lighting controls halogen and HID lamps are more likely to be used in conjunction with lighting controls, mostly with ch larger dimmers and light sensors, respectively. However, because incandescent lamps represent a mu share of the residential sector inventory than the other lamp types, the 13 percent of incandescent lamps used with dimmers represent the vast majority of residential lamps used with lighting controls. 4.33 Table Prevalence of Lighting Controls in the Residential Sector by Lamp Type Light Motion Sensor Detector Dimmer None Timer Other Total Incandescent 86% 1% 1% 0% 0% 13% 100% Ha l ogen 25% 4% 3% 2% 0% 66% 100% CFL 90% 7% 1% 1% 1% 0% 100% 98% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% Li nea r Fl uor es c ent 100% HID 60% 8% 21% 0% 0% 11% 100% 100% 0% 7% 1% 3% Other 77% 11% Page 59

73 presents the prevalence of lighting controls in the residential sector by room type. As seen Table 4.34 below, lighting controls are most likely to be found in the dining room and the living room, with dimmers being the predominate lighting control type. Also, as expected the vast majority of light sensors and motion sensors are installed in exterior applications. n the Residential Sector by Room Type Table 4.34 Prevalence of Lighting Controls i Light Motion Detector Sensor Dimmer Other Total Timer None 90% 1% 0% 0% 1% Ba s ement(s ) 8% 100% Bathroom(s) 0% 96% 4% 0% 0% 0% 100% 85% 14% 0% 0% 0% 0% Bedroom(s) 100% Cl oset(s) 98% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 100% 0% Di ni ng Room(s) 63% 37% 0% 0% 0% 100% 80% Exteri or(s ) 0% 4% 7% 8% 2% 100% 0% 1% 97% Garage(s) 0% 0% 1% 100% 0% Hall(s) 92% 8% 0% 0% 0% 100% 0% Kitchen(s) 88% 11% 0% 0% 0% 100% 1% 0% Laundry / Utility Room(s) 99% 0% 0% 0% 100% 0% Living / Family Room(s) 73% 26% 0% 0% 1% 100% 0% 13% Offi ce(s) 86% 0% 0% 0% 100% 100% 0% 1% 0% 1% 8% 90% Other presents the prevalence of lighting controls by residence type. As seen below, single family 4.35 Table t likely to use lighting controls. This is likely due to the more recent construction attached homes are mos of much of this base in buildings. in the Residential Sector by Residence Type 4.35 Table Prevalence of Lighting Controls Motion Light Sensor Detector None Timer Other Total Dimmer 87% 11% 1% 1% 1% 0% Single Family Detached 100% Single Family Attached 26% 0% 1% 0% 1% 72% 100% Multifamily 81% 18% 0% 0% 0% 0% 100% 0% 2% 1% 0% 100% Mobi l e Home 91% 7% Page 60

74 In Table contrast to the residential sector, 4.36 indicates that the likelihood of finding lighting controls in e lamp type. Approximately 25 percent of all lamp the commercial sector is not greatly impacted by th management systems types are used in conjunction with lighting controls. Energy , which often include multiple control types, predominate as the most often utilized controls scheme. Prevalence of Lighting Controls in the Commercial Sector by Lamp Type Table 4.36 Light Motion Sensor Detector None Dimmer Timer Total EMS Incandescent 76% 5% 0% 0% 2% 16% 100% Ha l ogen 73% 5% 0% 1% 3% 18% 100% 18% CFL 77% 0% 3% 2% 0% 100% 68% 7% 17% 4% 1% 3% Li nea r Fl uor es c ent 100% 0% 2% 1% 71% 6% 20% HID 100% Other 100% 15% 0% 0% 0% 0% 85% The choice of lighting controls also depends on the building type and how and to what extent the space 4.37, in the commercial sector, lighting controls are most popular in retail is used. As seen in Table settings, in which 40 percent of lamps operate on an EMS and 7 percent operate on a timer. Lighting ols are also very common in non -medical office buildings and food stores (i.e., not restaurants), contr where they are used on 48 percent and 40 percent of lamps, respectively. Lighting controls are uncommon in public order and safety, religious worship, lodging, and food service buildings (i.e., restaurants). Prevalence of Lighting Controls in the Commercial Sector by Building Type 4.37 Table Light Motion Sensor Detector None Dimmer Timer EMS Total Educa ti on 9% 83% 4% 0% 2% 3% 100% Food Servi ce 2% 0% 0% 2% 1% 95% 100% Food Store 1% 0% 4% 31% 60% 4% 100% Health Care - Inpatient 1% 0% 1% 1% 6% 92% 100% 78% 0% 0% Health Care - Outpatient 8% 1% 12% 100% 95% 0% 0% 0% 4% Lodging 1% 100% 52% 4% 0% 14% 5% 24% Offices (Non-medical) 100% Public Assembly 77% 0% 0% 1% 20% 2% 100% Public Order and Safety 0% 0% 0% 0% 4% 96% 100% 95% 3% 0% 2% 0% 0% Religious Worship 100% Retail - Mall & Non-Mall 50% 0% 1% 2% 7% 40% 100% 81% 19% 0% 1% 0% 0% Ser vi c es 100% Warehouse and Storage 85% 0% 1% 3% 1% 9% 100% 100% 0% 4% Other 88% 2% 1% 4% Page 61

75 tomated control types, such as Lighting controls equate to energy savings only if they are used. For au time clocks and occupancy sensors, this is a nonissue. However, dimmers, the most popular control in the residential sector, typically require users to manually adjust the level of light output. Nonetheless, if National Research used properly, light controls can yield huge energy savings. For example, a 2007 Council Canada study found that occupancy sensing, daylight harvesting, and individual occupant dimming control working together in an office building produce average energy savings of 47 percent. If installed alone, the occupancy sensors would have produced an estimated average 35 percent savings, daylight harvesting 20 percent, and individual dimming control 1 0 percent (Newsham, 2007) . Page 62

76 5 Summary Results In 2010, the total energy consumption in the United States was 97.8 quadrillion Btus (quads) of primary energy according to the EIA’s AEO 2011. Roughly 40 quads (or 41 percent) of this energy was consumed for electricity use . The breakout of the total electricity consumption by each sector is displayed in Figure 5-1 below. 26% 39% 36% Residential Commercial Industrial 15 Figure 5-1 U.S. Primary Energy Consumption for Electricity Production in 2010 In 2010, the total amount of electricity consumed by li TWh ghting technologies was estimated to be 700 16 5 quads of primary energy. of site energy, or 7. Thus, lighting accounted for 7 percent of the total 17 This is the equivalent to in the U.S. in 2010. energy and 18 percent of the total electricity consumed 500 -MW coal the total energy consumed by nearly 40 million homes and the energy produced by 228 burning power plants (D&R International, Ltd., 2011) . 4 of this report. The following section summarizes the results presented in section 5.1 Lighting Market Characteristics 5-2 displays the breakdown of the inventory estimates, total lighting electricity consumption, and Figure the lumens produced by sector. The residential sector accounts for the overwhelming majority of consumption, installed lamps, at 71 percent of installed base of lighting. However, in terms of electricity 175 TWh, or 25 percent of the total. Due to the relatively low efficacy of the sector only consumes residential light sources (primarily incandesc 8 percent of ent), the residential sector only accounts for the lumens produced. The commercial sector is the greatest energy consumer, accounting for half of the total lighting sector in which the greatest electricity consumption. In addition, the commercial sector represents the 15 Commercial sector includ es public street and highway lighting, interdepartmental sales, and other . 16 ion of 3.14 from AEO Based on site to source electricity convers 17 Based on a total electricity consumption of 40.3 quads of source energy for residential, commercial, and industrial sectors from AEO Page 63

77 number of lumens is operating hour s found in the produced. This is largely due to the longer commercial sector as compared to the residential sector. Both the industrial and outdoor sectors make up a relatively small portion of the total installed stock of lamps, each approximately 2 percent. However, the use of high lumen output lamps and high operating hours result in these sectors consisting of greater shares of total electricity consumption and lumen production. Lumen Production Energy Use Number of Lamps Residential 25% 71% 8% 50% 25% 60% Commercial 8% Industrial 2% 11% 17% Outdoor 2% 21% 5-2 U.S. Lighting Lamp Inventory, Electricity Consumption and Figure Lumen Production in 2010 Figure 5-2, except this time 5-3 portrays the same electricity consumption values from Figure the largest luorescent lamps are disaggregated by lamp technology. At 42 percent of the total, f in the commercial and electricity consuming technology due primarily to their high level operating hours industrial sectors. This is a shift from 2001, when incandescent lamps were the largest consumers of largest. In 2010, incandescent lamps were still electricity and fluorescent lamps were the second percent of the total electricity consumption. 22 responsible for Page 64

78 800 Incandescent Halogen 700 118 700 Compact Fluorescent Linear Fluorescent 58 600 HID 349 LED/Other 500 400 (TWh/yr) 300 175 200 Annual Electricity Consumption 100 0 Residential Outdoor Total Industrial Commercial Figure Lighting Electricity Consumption by Sector and Lamp Type in 2010 5-3 U.S. Focusing on the residential sector, incandescent lamps are the largest electricity consuming lamps. These lamps make up 78 percent of the total sector consumption, followed by CFLs, halogen lamps, and fluorescent lamps, which consume 9 percent, 7 linear and 6 percent, respectively. In the percent, percent of the 72 commercial sector, fluorescent lamps consume the most energy, accounting for sector’s lighting electricity consumption. At 4 percent of the total, incandescent lamps have fallen from t electricity consumer in 2001 to the fourth, now trailing HID lamps and CFLs, which the second larges 14 consume percent and 5 percent, respectively. The industrial sector is dominated by two lamp the total lighting electricity technologies. HID lamps are the main electricity consumer at 60 percent of use, while fluorescent lamps, at nearly 40 percent, make up most of the balance. Though the technology mix varies widely in the outdoor sector depending on the subsector (traffic signals are almost entirely LED lamps while HID lamps are relied on exclusively for sports lighting), on a sector- wide basis HID lamps are the principal technology, accounting for 83 percent of the sector’s total electricity consumption. can be realized by switching to more To understand the energy use of light ing and the savings that the relationship between lumen s produced and efficient lighting sources, it is important to recognize The electricity use. Wattage is a measure of power input while lumens produced is an output measure. er watt of electrical power input is the lamp’s efficacy (lm/W) and is the key measure of lumen output p a lamp’s energy performance. Figure ach sector by lamp type in 5-4 provides the lumen production for e Annual lumen production was calculated by multiplying the wattage per -hours per year. teralumen lamp by its average efficacy and associated operating hours per year. Page 65

79 45000 Incandescent 40,550 8,370 Halogen 40000 hr) Compact Fluorescent - Linear Fluorescent 35000 4,480 HID LED/Other 30000 24,380 25000 20000 15000 10000 Annual Lumen Production ( Tlm 3,320 5000 0 Residential Commercial Industrial Outdoor Total Lumens Production by Sector and Lamp Type 5-4 U.S. Figure in 2010 , largely due to its high The commercial sector uses more light than all the other sectors combined average operating hours and large floorspace second greatest amount of produces . The outdoor sector , also d lamps for long operating hours (in this case, during lumens put to the use of high lumen out ue most of the night). The industrial sector uses the third most light. The residential sector, which houses k predominately utilizes low lumen output lamps for the largest quantity of installed lighting stoc relatively few hours per day and thus uses the least amount of lumens relative to the other three sectors. 5 percent of annual lumen Across all sectors, fluorescent lamps , responsible for approximately 5 production nationally, produce the most lumens of all the technologies. HID light sources are the second output . Because incandescent of the total national light 4 percent most important, producing about 3 ned on relatively infrequently, and given their lamps are most often found in sockets that are tur characteristically low lumen outputs, the total lumen production of the technology only accounts for 5 percent of the total. 5.2 present the sectoral lighting energy consumption estimates in Table 5.1 and In summary, Table -use) and primary (source) energy. It also provides the estimated average terms of both delivered (end annual energy consumption for lighting per building and by technology. Page 66

80 Annual Lighting Energy Use Estimates by Sector in 2010 Table 5.1 U.S. ` Electricity Use Per Total Primary Energy Total Site Energy Percent of Number of Consumption Consumption Building Buildings Total (quads/yr) (kWh/yr) (Twh/yr) Res i denti a l 113,153,000 175 1.9 25% 1,542 Commerc i a l 3.7 349 5,497,000 63,501 50% Industrial 127,380 0.6 58 455,000 8% Outdoor N/A N/A 118 1.3 17% 700 100% Total 7.5 Annual Lighting Energy Use Estimates by Sector and Source in 2010 5.2 U.S. Table Linear HID Incandescent CFL Other Total ` Halogen Fluorescent Quad Quad Twh Quad Twh Quad Twh Twh Twh Quad Twh Quad Twh Quad 0 1.87 175 0.01 1 0.00 0.11 10 0.16 15 0.13 12 1.46 136 Res i denti a l 250 49 349 0.04 3 0.53 2.68 3.74 0.17 16 0.16 15 0.16 15 Commerc i a l 0.00 0 Industrial 23 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.25 35 0.37 0 0.00 58 0.62 0.04 Outdoor 1.26 1 0.02 1 0.01 4 10 0.03 3 1.05 0.11 98 118 32 700 0.08 7.49 Total 156 1.67 28 0.30 8 0.34 294 3.14 1.96 183 2010 Lighting Market Characteristics Compared to 2001 Values 5.2 Compared to 2001, there have been substantial changes in the nation’s lighting inventory which are s wattage average have increased while quantities , lamp 4. In general Section discussed in more detail in decreased as a result of ve ha more efficient technologies gain ing market share Table 5.3 provides a sectoral overview of these changes. In the residential sector, the number of lamps grew faster than the growth in residences due to the larger floor space and a greater number of lamps per square foot in newer homes. However the prominence of CFLs caused a large decrease in average wattage and partially explains the decline in electricity use. The decline in operating hours seen in the residential sector may not be indicative of a true market trend, but instead is likely symptomatic of differences in sources between the two studies and the relatively small sample size of residences used in the 200 1 LMC. In the commercial sector, the installed lamp base has increased but this increase lagged the growth in commercial floor space. This difference is partially due to the changes in the lamp application classification of sectors between the two reports 2. Another change ection previously discussed in S as between the two reports is the decrease in average wattage and electricity use for which th e shift to T8 responsible. and T5 lamps from T12 lamps is partially Page 67

81 of lamps is largely due to the different floor In the industrial sector, the large decrease in the number 20 there was approximately a space values used in the two studies. On a lamps per square foot basis decline in installed stock . The shift from fluorescent lamps to higher lumen output HID lamps is percent mo st likely responsible for the wattage increase as well as the lamp decrease between the 2010 and 2001 results for the industrial sector. The outdoor sector experienced the greatest relative increase in lamp quantities from 2001. This is new applications considered in the current report, the classification differences between partially due to . the two reports, and the increasing popularity of outdoor lighting 5.3 2010 Sector Lighting Characteristics Comp arison to 2001 Values Table Average Daily Electricity Use Lamps Wattage per Lamp (million) (TWh) Operating Hours 2001 2010 2001 2010 2010 2001 2010 2001 5,812 Res i denti a l 4,611 2.0 1.8 63 46 208 175 349 1,966 2,069 9.9 11.2 56 42 391 Commerc i a l 327 Industrial 144 13.0 65 75 108 58 13.5 Outdoor 73 178 10.5 11.7 205 151 58 118 Total 4.8 700 765 48 62 4.7 8,203 6,977 Much of the reduction in lighting electricity use over the past ten years has occurred due to the migration toward higher efficacy light sources and an increase in overall stock efficacy. The average 18 efficacy, in lumens per watt, is depicted for each sector for 2010 in 5-5. Figure The efficacy displayed is calculated based on total lumen production divided by total energy used for each sector. This is an different than the average efficacy of the installed stock because a higher wattage lamp, such as incandescent lamp, consumes mor e energy than a similarly used lower wattage lamp, such as a CFL, and thus is weighted more in the calculation. An average efficacy based on installed stock would weight every installed lamp equally. In addition, the average s for the 2001 LMC are provided for comparison. In order to ensure that an equitable comparison is made, the same average efficacies for each lamp technology were assumed for the 2001 and 2010 data. This assumption likely overestimates the efficacies of 2001 lamps as significant e.g., ss has been made in progre the efficacy of several lamp types over the past decade ( increasing linear fluorescent T8 lamps, CFLs, and metal halide lamps). The efficacy assumptions are presented in Appendix C of this report. . The in 2010 the most inefficient lighting sector As evident in the table, is the residential sector 19 continued reliance of this sector upon incandescent lamps resulted in an average efficacy of lm/W, at or above 70 lm/W. significantly below the remaining three sectors which all have average efficacies lm/W in 2001 due improvement in efficacy from 17 However, the residential sector did see a significant largely to the growth of CFLs. The comm ercial sector efficacy also improved markedly, increasing from 18 The lamp efficacies depicted do not account for fixture losses but do include ballast effects. Page 68

82 lm/W in 2010. The industrial and outdoor sector efficacies increased slightly 70 lm/W in 2001 to 51 relative to 2001; however, this is largely due to a migration from mercury vapor lamps to me tal halide lamps. Overall, the average efficacy of the entire lighting stock, based on energy use and lumen production, lm/W in 2001 to 58 lm/W in 2010. has increased from 45 100 2010 77 80 75 2001 71 70 63 58 60 51 45 40 19 17 Average Efficacy (lm/W) 20 0 Average Industrial Commercial Residential Outdoor Figure 5-5 Average Efficacy by Sector Page 69

83 6 Comparison of Lighting Electricity Consumption Estimates The previous sections of this report provide discussion and analysis comparing the 2010 LMC results to 6.1 for comparison, this those of the 2001 LMC. Though the 2001 LMC values are shown in Table discussion focuses on comparing the 2010 LMC results to those of the other studies listed. 6.1 Annual Lighting Electricity Consumption Estimates Table Annual Lighting Electricity Model Sector Year Consumption (TWh/yr) Residential 2001 208 LMC, 2002 EIA, 10 208 AEO 2011 20 2010 1 75 LMC, 2011 Commercial 2001 391 LMC, 2002 CBECS, 2003 2003 393 AEO 2011 20 10 299 EIA, 34 9 2010 LMC, 2011 Industrial 2001 108 LMC, 2002 MECS, 2006 58 2003 2010 5 8 LMC, 2011 Outdoor 19 2001 87 LMC, 2002 LMC, 2011 118 2010 less than In the residential sector the estimate of energy use is approximately 1 EIA’s AEO 6 percent what predicts . The AEO 2011 uses equipment stocks from the 2005 RECs analysis and projects those forward to 2010, while the 2010 LMC utilizes the 2009 AHS . The commercial sector results for electricity cons umption are in good agreement with other available estimates. Compared to the 2003 CBECS , lighting electricity consumption has declined 3 TWh in from 39 3 to the TWh in 2010. The decrease, as discussed in Section 2 , can be largely attributed to 200 shift 349 Differences in calculation methods also cause some discrepancies. to T8 and T5 lamps from T12 lamps. The lighting model utilized for the 2003 CBECS c alculates energy consumption as a function of average lamp wattage per square foot and average annual operating hours. Over 5,000 buildings were surveyed across the U.S. To estimate the total energy consumption of lighting in commercial buildings, each sample building is weighted to represent a specified number of the total U.S. building population. In addition, t s include exterior and parking lot lamps which are classified as part of he 2003 CBECS result the outdoor sector in the 2010 LMC analysis . The 20 11 AEO also provides estimates for lighting electricity consumption from commercial buildings. The AEO uses the results developed in the 2003 CBECS and projects floorspace growth, market penetration, efficiency improvements and the cost of 19 e 2001 LMC outdoor electricity consumption value has been adjusted from the original value of 58 TWh in 2001 to account Th for the classification differences and allow for a more accurate comparison between the two reports. Page 70

84 0. These projections result in an estimate for commercial sector lighting electricity lighting to 201 consumption of 299 TWh, which is within 15 percent of the 2010 LMC estimate of 349 TWh. TWh The industrial sector results for the 2010 LMC indicate that lighting consumed ap proximately 58 . The 2006 MECS indicated that electricity consumption from industrial lighting was approximately 58 TWh in 2006. Both the MECS and the 2010 LMC estimates reflect a significant slowdown in manufacturing lighting use from the 2001 LMC, w hen the sector was estimated to consume 108 TWh. AEO 2011 does not provide lighting energy use estimates for the industrial sector. The only comparable study found that provided lighting energy use for the entire outdoor sector was the 2001 LMC. Page 71

85 Appendix A. Lamp Category Descriptions A.1 Lamp Category Descriptions Table Description Lamp Category General Service – Standard incandescent lamps greater than 15 Watts and with an a -type bulb and of all base types. A type General Service – Standard incandescent lamps greater than 15 Watts with a globe, bullet, candle, Decorative -shaped bulb and of all base type. tubular, or other decorative Reflector Reflectorized incandescent lamps greater than 15 Watts and with an ER, BR, PAR, or other reflector -shaped bulb and of all base types. ANDESCENT Miscellaneous All other types of incandescent lamps not previously listed, such as night lights, bug INC ndescent lamps of unknown lights and lamps less than 15 Watts, as well as inca characteristics. General Service Halogen lamps with a tungsten halogen capsule with an a -type, globe, candle or other decorative -shaped bulb meant as a direct replacement for general service incandescent lamps, including all base types and wattages. Reflector – Other Reflectorized lamps with a tungsten halogen capsule and a parabolic, elliptical or other reflector -shaped bulb and of all base types. – Low Reflectorized lamps that operate at 24 Volts or less, most typically multifaceted Reflector HALOGEN reflectors and other display lamps, of all base types. Voltage All other types of halogen lamps not previously listed, such as those with a quartz Miscellaneous characteristics. envelope not employing a decorative bulb, and halogens of unknown -shaped General Service – Compact fluorescent lamps with an a -type, globe, spiral or other decorative bulb meant as a direct replacement for general service incandescent lamps having a Screw -in base, including all wattages. screw Gen eral Service – Pin Compact fluorescent lamps with an a -type, globe, spiral or other decorative -shaped CFL bulb having a non - screw - in base, such as a pin base, including all wattages. Reflector Reflectorized compact fluorescent lamps with an R, PAR, or other reflector -shaped bulb and of all base types. Miscellaneous All other types of CFLs not previously listed as well as CFLs of unknown characteristics. T5 pin linear T5 lamps of all wattages and exact metric lengths - Bi T8 ft Bi-pin linear T8 fluorescent lamps less than 4 feet in length, predominantly 2 feet Less than 4 T8 4ft Bi - pin linear T8 fluorescent lamps 4 feet in length T8 Greater than 4 ft Single and bi -pin linear T8 fluorescent lamps greater than 4 feet in length, predominantly 8 feet T12 Bi - pin linear T12 fluorescent lamps less than 4 feet in length, predominantly 2 feet Less than 4ft T12 4ft Bi-pin linear T12 fluorescent lamps 4 feet in length FLUORESCENT T12 Greater than 4ft Single and b i- pin linear T12 fluorescent lamps greater than 4 feet in length, predominantly 8 feet T8 U - Shaped U - shaped T8 fluorescent lamps having medium bi - pin bases LINEAR T12 U U-shaped T12 fluorescent lamps having medium bi -pin bases -Shaped eous All other fluorescent and not previously listed, as well as fluorescent lamps of Miscellan unknown characteristics Mercury Vapor Mercury vapor lamps , of all base types Metal Halide Metal halide l amps, including ceramic metal halide, of all base types HID High pressure sodium lamps of all base types High Pressure Sodium Low pressure sodium lamps of all base types Low Pressure Sodium LED LED lamp s and luminaires greater than or equal to 2 watts of all shapes, sizes, & bases not including LED screens or decorative walls , such as fiber optic Miscellaneous Other lamps that do not fall into any of the previous categories OTHER lights, induction lamps, as well as lamps of unknown characteristics Page 72

86 Sample Dataset Characteristics Appendix B. The following plots provide details of the building sector data sets juxtaposed with details of the national building stock. These plots are intended to display how representative the sample data sets are. In most categories the distribution of the sample sets is fairly close to th e true conditions. The 3.2 , greatest deviations are found in the geographic distribution plots. As was discussed in Section r statistical adjustments used to offset these deviations. national shipment data as well as othe 11% oversampled 80% AVERAGE SAMPLE VARIANCE 6% FROM POPULATION BASED ON 3,461 SAMPLE POINTS 60% 40% 8% undersampled 20% 1% 5% oversampled undersampled 0% Multifamily Mobile Townhouse / Single Family Rowhouse Detached LMC Dataset U.S. Total Figure B-1 Residential Sector Distribution by Residence Type 80% 3% AVERAGE SAMPLE VARIANCE FROM POPULATION BASED ON 4% 3,461 SAMPLE POINTS oversampled 60% 40% 3% 2% undersampled undersampled 20% 0% - 2,500 1,000 <1,000 >2,500 LMC Dataset U.S. Total B-2 Residential Sector Distribution by Residence Size Figure Page 73

87 80% 50% AVERAGE SAMPLE VARIANCE 25% oversampled FROM POPULATION BASED ON SAMPLE POINTS 3,461 60% 30% undersampled 40% 15% 5% undersampled undersampled 20% 0% West Midwest South Northe ast U.S. Total LMC Dataset Figure B-3 Residential Sector Distribution by Geographic Region 80% 9% AVERAGE SAMPLE VARIANCE FROM POPULATION BASED ON 18% undersampled 3,003 SAMPLE POINTS 60% 40% 14% oversampled 2% 1% 20% oversampled oversampled 0% 1990s 1980s >2000s <1980s LMC Dataset U.S. Total on by Year Built B-4 Residential Sector Distributi Figure Page 74

88 40% 4% AVERAGE SAMPLE VARIANCE FROM POPULATION BASED ON U.S. Total o.s. 15% 2,627 SAMPLE POINTS LMC Dataset 30% u.s. = undersampled o.s. = oversampled 20% 5% u.s. u.s. 5% u.s. 2% o.s. 10% o.s. 4% 10% 4% u.s. u.s. 5% u.s. 2% 4% u.s. 2% u.s. 1% u.s. 0% u.s. u.s. 1% u.s. 0% 0% - - - Othe r Mall & Mal l Vacant - - Lodging Services Education medical) Food Store Inpatient Safe ty Storage Non Outpatient Food Service He al th Care He al th Care Offi ce s (Non Retail Warehouse and Public Assembly Public Order and Religious Worship B-5 Commercial Sector Distribution by Building Type Figure 81% oversampled 100% AVERAGE SAMPLE VARIANCE 41% FROM POPULATION BASED ON SAMPLE POINTS 2,627 80% 60% 37% undersampled 40% 25% undersampled 19% undersampled 20% 0% Northe ast South Midwest West U.S. Total LMC Dataset B-6 Commercial Sector Distribution by Geographic Region Figure Page 75

89 20% AVERAGE SAMPLE VARIANCE 3% U.S. Total FROM POPULATION BASED ON LMC Dataset 105 SAMPLE POINTS u.s. = undersampled o.s. = oversampled 10% 5% u.s. 5% o.s. 1% u.s. 2% u.s. 3% u.s. 0% o.s. 2% u.s. 0% u.s. 1% u.s. 0% u.s. 0% Food (311) Paper (322) (314) Apparel (315) Products (316) Support (323) Products (324) Textile Mills (313) Leather and Allied Products (312) Petroleum and Coal Printing and Related Textile Product Mills Wood Products (321) Beverage and Tobacco 20% 17% u.s. 7% o.s. 1% o.s. 5% u.s. 10% 5% u.s. 7% u.s. 3% o.s. 2% u.s. 4% u.s. 1% u.s. 0% u.s. 0% Chemicals (325) Machinery (333) (326) (327) (337) Products (334) Miscellaneous (339) Primary Metals (331) Computer and Electronic and Components (335) Electrical Equip., Appliances, Plastics and Rubber Products Nonmetallic Mineral Products Furniture and Related Products Transportation Equipment (336) Fabricated Metal Products (332) Figure B-7 Industrial Sector Distribution by Building Type Page 76

90 AVERAGE SAMPLE VARIANCE 27% 80% FROM POPULATION BASED ON 65% SAMPLE POINTS 105 oversampled 45% undersampled 60% 40% 9% undersampled 20% 0% oversampled 0% South West Midwest Northe ast LMC Dataset U.S. Total 20 B-8 Industrial Sector Distribution by Geographic Region Figure 20 The total consumption of energy is used as a proxy for square footage as MECS does not provide floorspace estimates by region. Page 77

91 Appendix C. Efficacy and Wattage Assumptions The total electricity consumption estimate provided in this report takes into account ballast effects for -integrated lamps. Similarly, the lumen output estimate is dependent on the system efficacies. non 3.1 Limited ballast data and no efficacy data was provided in the data sources discussed in Section . The assumed values used for these inputs are provided below. The ballast values used are based on manufacturer catalog data for the commercial and industrial sectors. Table C.1 Ballast Prevalence in Non- Integrated Lamps Residential Other Sectors Ballast Ballast Factor Factor Magne ti c Electronic Magne ti c Electronic 0% 100% 1.0 0% 100% CFL - Pi n 1.0 T5 100% 0% 1.0 100% 0% 1.0 0.88 - 0.94 T8 0% 100% 0.78 0% 100% 90% 90% 10% 10% T12 0.59 0.88 - 1.1 0% 1.0 100% 0% 1.0 100% Mercury Vapor 10% 1.0 90% Metal Halide 90% 10% 1.0 High Pressure Sodium 0% 1.0 100% 1.0 0% 100% 1.0 100% 0% Low Pr es s ur e Sodi um The lamp efficacy values depicted on the next page in Table C. 2 are sector efficacies values based on a lamp’s total lumen production divided by its energy use. Thus these values take into account ballast effects. Also, since these efficacies are based energy use instead of lamp count these efficacy values do not indicate stock efficacy but instead energy use weighted efficacy. The original efficacies (used to develop the lumen production) were derived from manufacturer alculated for each lamp type for each subsector and varied based on catalogs. Lamp efficacies were c . the average lamp wattage for the subsector Page 78

92 Table C.2 System Efficacy Assumptions Industrial Commercial Outdoor Residential All Sectors 11.8 12.0 11.7 12.2 Incandescent 12.1 11.9 Gener a l Ser vi c e - A-type 12.9 12.4 12.8 10.9 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Dec or a ti ve 10.9 10.4 Refl ec tor 10.2 10.2 10.3 11.3 12.2 Miscellaneous 11.9 12.0 16.5 12.9 Halogen 16.3 15.4 14.3 14.7 14.3 Gener a l Ser vi c e 15.0 15.0 14.1 14.6 12.9 Refl ec tor 14.3 Low Voltage Display 18.1 16.8 18.0 Miscellaneous 13.0 16.5 13.8 15.3 14.8 54.6 62.8 Compact Fluorescent 55.2 53.7 52.1 54.4 53.3 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Sc r ew 53.0 53.3 59.1 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Pi n 68.6 58.4 58.4 43.1 41.9 Refl ec tor 44.9 44.3 52.1 54.6 Miscellaneous 53.3 76.6 77.7 73.7 Linear Fluorescent 76.3 67.3 T5 53.3 90.4 84.8 89.5 T8 Les s tha n 4ft 55.4 71.0 71.4 70.6 T8 4ft 78.5 72.9 78.5 78.4 87.0 78.5 T8 Gr ea ter tha n 4ft 80.5 80.3 56.1 48.5 T12 Less than 4ft 51.8 55.8 66.7 70.8 71.5 T12 4ft 70.5 74.5 77.1 78.1 T12 Greater than 4ft 77.2 T8 U-Sha ped 76.9 77.3 75.7 75.7 T12 U-Sha ped 64.6 64.5 63.3 64.6 62.7 74.9 79.8 73.7 Miscellaneous 72.6 High Intensity Discharge 75.2 76.7 74.6 75.1 62.4 Mercury Vapor 29.3 38.8 30.5 37.9 35.2 Metal Halide 72.8 75.5 60.0 49.0 69.6 70.1 107.5 104.7 83.6 High Pressure Sodium 86.9 Low Pr es s ur e Sodi um 143.5 89.2 92.1 55.9 40.3 58.6 Other 53.8 37.7 LED 40.7 55.8 40.3 45.3 51.9 Miscellaneous 37.5 66.2 75.8 57.5 71.1 58.0 77.4 AVERAGE 19.1 69.8 Page 79

93 Appendix D. Residential Operating Hours The residential operating hours used in the 2010 LMC were developed from lighting logger data from approximately 7,299 sockets initially collected primarily in southern California as part of the CPUC Upstream Lighting Report effort. This data was used as it was the most recent, m ost comprehensive data set that was available to the DOE for this report. It is important to note that though this data is considered to be the best for the purposes of this report, operating hour data var ies widely from source to source depending on the sample size, the residence types considered, the occupant’s habits, the sample geographies, and other factors. For this reason it is suggested that when conducting any in depth analysis concerning the impact of energy conservation measures field work be c onducted to gather operating hour data applicable the project. For comparison, the LMC 2010 average residential operating hours by room type are depicted below in Table , D.1 along with similar data from several other recent studies (Navigant Consulting, et al, 2010) (NMR, 2007), (NMR, et al, 2009) . Each of these studies used light ing loggers to record the operating hour data. The overall residential average lighting operating hours of these studies, that is simply the average of the averages, is 2.5 hours a day. Noticeably, the range of these averages is quite large, spanning from 1.8 to 3.2 hours a day, indicating the difficulty of determining a true national average. The L MC 2010 operating hours average falls at the low end of this range. At 3.2 hours per day the Efficiency Maine residential average lies at the other end, and is approximately 80 percent more than the LMC 2010 value. The Efficiency Maine, and all of the ot her non LMC studies, only monitored CFL lamps. A tendency of consumers to use CFLs to replace their most used lamps c ould explain in part these studies greater operating use values. Page 80

94 Table D. 1. Comparison of Residential Operating Hours Efficiency 2001 LMC Maine New Eng land 2010 LMC EmPOWER Years of Collection -2009 2010 2006- 2007 2007- 2008 Pre 1996 2008 Oregon, Maryland New England Maine California Geography Washington (unadjusted) (unadjusted) (unadjusted) (adjusted) (unadjusted) Number of 200 4,884 7,299 153 657 Sockets Logged CFLs Only Lamps Considered All sockets CFLs Only CFLs Only All sockets 2.6 1.6 Basement 2.4 1.6 1.7 Bathroom 1.8 1.0 Bedroom 1.2 1.6 1.3 1.1 Closet 0.2 1.1 1.4 Dining 4.4 3.0 1.9 8.7 2.5 6. Exterior 2.6 2.1 5.5 Garage 1.1 1.5 1.5 1.8 Hall 1.5 1.5 1.3 Kitchen 5.3 3.0 2.3 3.0 4.4 Laundry / Utility 1.7 2.0 1.5 Room Living /Family Room 3.3 3.0 2.5 / 1.8 2.0 3.7 Office / Den 2.0 3.0 3.4 1.7 1.8 Other / Unknown 6.18 2.0 1.0 0.8 Average 2.9 2.5 1.8 3.2 2.0 Page 81

95 Appendix E. Supplementary Residential Results Additional detail is provided on the residential sector due to the greater availability of data sources for Table E.1 provides the breakdown of the general service lamp shapes in the residential this sector. sector. The classic a- type is by far the most common incandescent shape, and thus most common p shape. Halogen general service lamps, which are relatively new to the scene, are general service lam type and the smaller bullet shape. A vast majority of the CFL general almost evenly split between a- service lamps are spiral shaped. E.1 Lamp Shape by Technology Table Incandescent Halogen CFL A-Type 46% 4% 68% Gl obe 14% 2% 4% Bullet 4% 52% 1% 2% Flame / Candle 3% - Spi ral 89% - - 12% 1% - Other Dec or a ti ve on the installed lamp characteristics by room detail The remaining tables in this section provide further Table E.2 provides the breakdown of lamp installations by room type and Table E.3 provides the type. average wattage of lamps by room type. Page 82

96 Table E.2 Lamp Technology Occurrences by Room Type Bedroom Closet Exterior Garage Hall Kit che n Utility Rm Living Rm Office Other Basement Bathroom Dining Rm 61% 67% 59% 35% 72% 45% 50% 81% 58% 53% Incandescent 74% 60% 40% 49% 54% 31% 32% 32% 38% 18% 32% 35% 36% 37% 32% 42% Gener a l Ser vi c e - A-type 11% 2% 44% 12% 1% 21% 34% 3% 14% 7% 6% 2% 8% Gener a l Ser vi c e - Dec or a ti ve 6% 4% 3% 3% 10% 2% 11% 16% 3% 9% 12% 7% 4% Refl ec tor 3% 3% 2% 4% 4% 1% 2% 2% 3% 3% 2% 3% Miscellaneous 0% Halogen 2% 2% 3% 14% 1% 1% 7% 2% 5% 6% 6% 4% 3% 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% Gener a l Ser vi c e 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 11% 0% 3% 4% 1% 3% 4% 4% Refl ec tor 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 1% 0% 0% Low Voltage Display 0% Miscellaneous 0% 0% 2% 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 2% 1% 0% 1% 23% 30% 20% 15% 24% 13% 22% 28% 19% 29% 27% 17% Compact Fluorescent 20% 27% 17% 26% 18% 14% 19% 12% 17% 16% 18% 26% 21% 14% Gener a l Ser vi c e - Sc r ew 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% Gener a l Ser vi c e - Pi n 2% 1% 1% 1% 1% 3% 1% 3% 5% 1% 2% 4% 2% Refl ec tor 1% 2% 1% 1% 0% 2% Miscellaneous 1% 2% 1% 1% 2% 1% 1% Linear Fluorescent 28% 3% 2% 17% 1% 2% 51% 2% 22% 28% 3% 8% 24% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% T5 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% T8 Les s tha n 4ft 3% 0% 2% 0% 0% 6% 0% 2% 4% 0% 1% 3% 0% T8 4ft 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% T8 Gr ea ter tha n 4ft 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% T12 Less than 4ft 21% 2% 1% 9% 0% 1% 33% 1% 11% 18% 2% 4% 17% T12 4ft 1% 0% 1% 0% 0% 7% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% T12 Greater than 4ft 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% T8 U-Sha ped 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% T12 U-Sha ped Miscellaneous 3% 1% 1% 4% 1% 1% 4% 1% 7% 5% 1% 3% 3% High Intensity Discharge 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% Mercury Vapor 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% Metal Halide 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% High Pressure Sodium Low Pr es s ur e Sodi um 1% 0% 0% 1% 0% 2% Other 1% 3% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% LED La mp 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% 3% 0% 0% 2% Miscellaneous 100% 100% TOTAL 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Page 83

97 Table E.3 Lamp Technology Wattages by Room Type Bathroom Bedroom Dining Rm Exterior Garage Hall Kit che n Utility Rm Living Rm Office Other Basement Closet 63 56 49 62 72 55 60 62 61 62 63 67 59 Incandescent 62 64 63 60 65 73 60 Gener a l Ser vi c e - A-type 64 70 65 66 70 62 41 42 51 41 44 53 47 45 45 42 45 46 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Dec or a ti ve 39 Refl ec tor 82 64 67 63 80 70 67 67 72 65 66 66 66 Miscellaneous 48 41 54 40 48 57 41 43 56 42 60 55 24 54 91 66 45 53 87 Halogen 60 48 59 69 68 61 64 65 Gener a l Ser vi c e 58 22 35 69 65 54 31 100 61 60 55 - Refl ec tor 48 62 60 53 55 89 80 61 55 54 61 62 57 Low Voltage Display 50 40 44 45 35 91 45 44 50 45 42 44 51 42 121 35 66 94 123 66 97 71 135 95 84 Miscellaneous 75 18 16 17 17 16 17 19 Compact Fluorescent 17 17 18 18 18 16 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Sc r ew 15 17 17 16 17 18 16 17 17 18 17 18 19 Gener a l Ser vi c e - Pi n - 18 17 22 23 19 36 16 17 14 22 49 21 16 Refl ec tor 16 18 19 19 18 17 18 17 16 15 18 16 Miscellaneous 18 16 19 17 18 18 19 17 17 17 21 19 17 29 Linear Fluorescent 24 23 24 22 28 26 22 22 25 24 24 26 - T5 - - 15 26 19 - 37 15 19 26 - 26 T8 Les s tha n 4ft 21 15 15 - - 16 15 16 17 17 12 12 12 26 25 26 26 27 26 26 26 26 26 25 26 T8 4ft 25 46 45 36 33 - 41 - - - 41 41 41 T8 Gr ea ter tha n 4ft - 13 - 14 - 19 17 16 21 20 18 - 17 T12 Less than 4ft 14 27 28 28 26 27 27 27 T12 4ft 26 26 27 27 27 28 T12 Greater than 4ft 48 41 46 51 52 52 - 45 42 53 52 53 48 - 28 25 - - 27 T8 U-Sha ped - 27 27 27 - - 27 - T12 U-Sha ped - - - - - 26 27 - - 27 - 27 Miscellaneous 17 18 18 16 19 25 16 18 14 17 20 17 17 High Intensity Discharge - - - - 154 164 - 51 - 215 - 221 - - - - - 197 178 - - - - - - Mercury Vapor - - - - - - - - Metal Halide - - 79 - - - High Pressure Sodium - - - - 146 - - 51 - 280 - 221 150 Low Pr es s ur e Sodi um - - - - - - - - - - - - - 56 Other 54 73 63 62 67 114 14 87 36 67 21 41 LED La mp 4 10 16 - 3 12 11 6 12 - 11 2 12 95 Miscellaneous 118 59 73 86 70 77 62 14 87 53 77 60 TOTAL 47 48 46 41 47 47 46 44 54 43 46 40 43 Page 84

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