120 Years of American Education: A Statistical Portrait

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2 120 Years of American Education: A Statistical Portrait Editor Thomas D. Snyder Center for Education Statistics

3 U.S. Department of Education Lamar Alexander Secretary Office of Educational Research and Improvement Diane Ravitch Assistant Secretary National Center for Education Statistics Emerson J. Elliott Commissioner National Center for Education Statistics ‘‘The purpose of the Center shall be to collect, analyze, and disseminate statistics and other data related to edu- cation in the United States and in other nations.’’—Sec- tion 406(b) of the General Education Provisions Act, as amended (20 U.S.C. 1221e–1). January 1993

4 Foreword Emerson J. Elliott Commissioner of Education Statistics During the period in which this report was pre- NCES statistics and reports are used for myriad purposes. Congress, federal agencies, state and pared, Diane Ravitch, an educational historian by local officials, business leaders, scholars and re- profession, was Assistant Secretary for Educational searchers, the news media, and the general public Research and Improvement. Dr. Ravitch knows the use our data to formulate programs, apportion re- importance of the record that America’s education sources, monitor services, research issues, and in- data collections form, and it was her personal inter- form and make decisions. est and initiative that prompted preparation of this re- Since 1870, the federal government has collected port. Her support, both as Assistant Secretary and as statistics on the condition and progress of American an historian of education, has been invaluable to the education. In the beginning, data were collected on production of this volume and in all other efforts of very basic items, such as public elementary and sec- NCES. ondary school enrollment, attendance, teachers and The Assistant Secretary’s Introduction to this vol- their salaries, high school graduates, and expendi- ume states that an historical perspective is indispen- tures. Over the years, the level of detail has gradu- sable for a full understanding of American education ally increased. Today, the National Center for Edu- and the changes it has undergone. Such a perspec- cation Statistics has a staff of approximately 130 who tive will help supply that meaning, understanding, collect information through nearly 40 surveys and and judgment needed to help improve education in studies and produce more than 175 publications per America. year. I join her in thanking Vance Grant of OERI and Statistics paint a portrait of our Nation. By looking Tom Snyder of NCES for producing this work. We at changes in the data over time—like number of will benefit from the better understanding of our past schools, participation rates, completion rates, and ex- that these education statistics bring to us. penditures—we see how our Nation has progressed. This work supplements other major compilations of But the questions, too, have changed. Illiteracy, for education statistics, including the annual Digest and example, is defined differently today than it was in reports, and reaffirms the the Condition of Education earlier years. While we once looked only at whether mission of the National Center for Education Statis- a person could read or write, today we are con- tics to provide the Nation with data on the condition cerned with how well a person can function in a and progress of education. Our goal is to make edu- modern society. Recent additions to the long-term cation data accessible, useful, and meaningful to our data series contain more qualitative information, es- many publics. I welcome comments for improve- pecially on student performance and classroom ac- tivities. ments to our data collections and publications. iii

5 Acknowledgments Sisson of HCR provided research assistance. Nancy Many people have contributed in one way or an- other to the development of 120 Years of American Floyd copyedited this book, and Margery Martin and Education . Foremost among these contributors is W. Wilma Greene provided editorial assistance. Annie Vance Grant, who has served as an education statis- Lunsford designed the cover. Jerry Fairbanks and tics expert since 1955. Thomas D. Snyder was re- Kim Stiles of the U.S. Government Printing Office sponsible for the overall development and prepara- provided typesetting assistance. tion of which was 120 Years of American Education, 120 Years of American Education has received ex- prepared under the general direction of Jeanne E. tensive reviews by individuals within and outside the Griffith, Associate Commissioner for Data Develop- Department of Education. We wish to thank them for ment. their time and expert advice. In the Office of Edu- William Sonnenberg served as a statistical consult- cational Research and Improvement (OERI), Diane ant in all phases of 120 Years of American Education Ravitch, Maris Vinovskis, Mary Frase, W. Vance and was responsible for chapter 2, ‘‘Elementary and Grant, Fred Beamer, Frank Morgan, John Sietsema, Secondary Education.’’ Irene Baden Harwarth devel- and Irene Baden Harwarth reviewed the entire manu- oped a table on higher education enrollment and was script. Rosemary Clark and Dave Fleck of the Bu- responsible for developing charts for the report. reau of the Census also reviewed the entire docu- Charlene Hoffman developed tables on degrees con- ment. Agency reviews were conducted by the Office ferred and managed the typesetting. Carol Sue of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Af- Fromboluti managed the review process of the publi- fairs, Office of Management and Budget, Office of cation. Celestine Davis provided statistical assist- Policy and Planning, Office of Private Education, and ance. Office of Vocational and Adult Education, U.S. De- A number of people outside the Center also ex- partment of Education. pended large amounts of time and effort on 120 OERI Deputy Assistant Secretary Francie Alexan- Years of American Education. James J. Corina and der and NCES Chief of Staff Paul R. Hall provided Robert Craig of Pinkerton Computer Consultants, leadership and gave enthusiastic support to this Inc., provided computer support. Louise Woerner, project. Barbara Robinson, Jeannette Bernardo, and Jeffrey v

6 Introduction Diane Ravitch Assistant Secretary Snyder’s careful preparation of this report substan- As an historian of education, I have been a regular consumer of education statistics from the U.S. De- tially enriches our knowledge of American education. partment of Education. For many years, I kept the But collecting these historical data in one volume Department’s telephone number in my address book not only benefits professional historians. As a Nation, and computer directory. It did not take long to dis- we need to develop an historical perspective in ana- cover there was one person to whom I should ad- lyzing change. Too often, newspapers report impor- dress all my queries: Vance Grant. In my many tele- tant political, economic, or social events without sup- phone calls for information, I discovered he is the plying the necessary historical context. We are all man who knows what data and statistics have been now accustomed to reading headlines about the lat- gathered over the years by the Department of Edu- est test scores. Whether up or down, they invariably cation. No matter how exotic my question, Dr. Grant overstate the meaning of a single year’s change. And could always tell me, without delay, whether the in- the same short-sightedness often flaws journalistic formation existed; usually, he produced it himself. reports of other major educational trends. When I asked a statistical question, I could often Historical Context hear the whir of an adding machine in the back- ground, even after the advent of the electronic cal- One does not need to be an historian to recognize culator. the tremendous importance of historical context. Imagine my surprise, therefore, to find myself in Each of us should be able to assess events, ideas, the position of Assistant Secretary of the Office of and trends with reliable knowledge of what has hap- Educational Research and Improvement (OERI), the pened in the past. If we cannot, our ability to under- very home of the National Center for Education Sta- stand and make sense of events will be distorted. tistics (NCES). The latter agency is headed by Emer- This volume would become a reference for all who son Elliott, the first presidentially appointed Commis- wish to make informed judgments about American sioner of Education Statistics. And imagine my de- education. We must struggle mightily against the light when I encountered Vance Grant, face to face, contemporary tendency towards presentism, the idea for the first time. The voice on the telephone, always inspired by television journalism that today’s news cheerful and confident, belonged to a man employed has no precedent. As we struggle to preserve his- by the Department or Office of Education since 1955. tory, we preserve our human capacity to construct Vance Grant, a Senior Education Program Special- meaning and to reach independent judgment. ist, and Tom Snyder, NCES’ Chief of the Compila- In an age when we are awash with information and tions and Special Studies Branch in the Data Devel- instantaneous news, it is meaning, understanding, 120 Years of American opment Division, prepared and judgment that are in short supply. This collection Education: A Statistical Portrait. They did so enthu- of historical statistics about American education pro- siastically, because—like me—they knew it was vides its readers with the perspective they need to needed. Historians of education customarily must understand how far we have come in our national consult multiple, often disparate, sources to find and commitment to education and how far we must still collect the information in this one volume. They can go in pursuit of our ideals. never be sure if the data they locate are consistent I especially thank Vance Grant and Tom Snyder and reliable. This compilation aggregates all relevant for their untiring efforts in assembling this book. With- statistics about the history of our educational system out their dedication, and without Emerson Elliott’s in one convenient book. It will, I believe, become a support for the importance of this work, it would classic, an indispensable volume in every library and never have happened. on every education scholar’s bookshelf, one that will be periodically updated. Vance Grant’s and Tom vii

7 Contents Page iii Foreword, by Emerson J. Elliott ... Acknowledgments ... v Introduction, by Diane Ravitch ... vii Statistics in the U.S. Department of Education: Highlights from the Past 120 Years, by W. Vance Grant. 1 5 Chapter 1. Education Characteristics of the Population, by Thomas D. Snyder ... Chapter 2. Elementary and Secondary Education, by William C. Sonnenberg ... 25 Chapter 3. Higher Education, by Thomas D. Snyder ... 63 95 Methodology ... Figures 1. 6 Percent of 5- to 19-year-olds enrolled in school, by race: 1850 to 1991 ... 2. Percent of 20- to 24-year-olds and 25- to 34-year-olds enrolled in school, by sex: 1940 to 1991 ... 7 Percent of persons 25 years old and over completing 4 years of high school, by sex 3. 8 and race: 1940 to 1991 ... 4. Percent of persons 25 years old and over completing 4 years of college, by sex and race: 1940 to 1991 ... 8 5. Annual average income of high school and college graduates, 25 years old and over, in constant 1991 dollars, by sex: 1959 to 1991 ... 10 Enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools, by level: 1869–70 to 6. 26 1992–93 ... 7. Elementary and secondary enrollment as a percentage of 5- to 17-year-olds, by 27 level: 1869–70 to fall 1991 ... Average number of days per year attended by public school students: 1869–70 to 8. 1980–81 ... 28 9. Pupil/teacher ratio in public elementary and secondary schools: 1869–70 to fall 1990 ... 29 10. Percentage of elementary and secondary school teachers, by sex: 1869–70 to fall 1990 ... 29 11. Number of public and private high school graduates per 100 17-year-olds: 1869–70 to 1991–92 ... 31 12. Sources of revenues for public elementary and secondary schools: 1889–90 to 1989–90 ... 32 13. Current expenditure per pupil in average daily attendance, in constant 1989–90 33 dollars: 1919–20 to 1989–90 ... ix

8 x CONTENTS Enrollment in institutions of higher education, by sex: 1869–70 to 1990–91 ... 65 14. 15. Percentage of students in institutions of higher education, by control, type, and attendance status: 1931–32 to 1991–92 ... 66 16. Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred by institutions of higher education: 1869–70 to 1989–90 ... 67 68 17. Bachelor’s degrees per 1,000 23-year-olds: 1889–90 to 1989–90 ... Percentage of higher education degrees conferred to females, by level: 1869–70 to 18. 1989–90 ... 69 19. Bachelor’s degrees per 100 high school graduates 4 years earlier and master’s degrees per 100 bachelor’s degrees 2 years earlier: 1869–70 to 1989–90 ... 69 Sources of current-fund revenue for institutions of higher education: 1909–10 to 20. 71 1989–90 ... 21. Expenditures of institutions of higher education per student in constant 1990–91 73 dollars: 1929–30 to 1989–90 ... Tables Education Characteristics of the Population 1. Population, by age and race, live births, and birth rate: 1790 to 1991 ... 11 2. School enrollment of 5- to 19-year-olds per 100 persons, by sex and race: 1850 to 1991 ... 14 3. School enrollment and school enrollment rates, by age and sex: 1940 to 1991 ... 15 Years of school completed by persons 25 years old and over, by race and sex: April 4. 18 1940 to March 1991 ... 5. Median years of school completed by persons age 25 and over and 25 to 29, by race and sex: 1910 to 1991 ... 21 6. Percentage of persons 14 years old and over who were illiterate, by race and nativity: 1870 to 1979 ... 21 7. Annual mean income of males and females 25 years old and over, by years of school completed: 1939 to 1991 ... 22 Elementary and Secondary Education 8. Historical summary of public elementary and secondary school statistics: 1869–70 to 1989–90 ... 34 9. Enrollment in regular public and private elementary and secondary schools, by grade level: 1869–70 to fall 1992 ... 36 10. Enrollment in regular public elementary and secondary schools, by grade: 1910–11 to fall 1990 ... 38 11. Enrollment in regular public elementary and secondary schools, by state: 1870–71 to fall 1990 ... 42 12. Children served in special education programs, by type of disability: 1921–22 to 1989–90 ... 44

9 xi CONTENTS Public school pupils transported at public expense and current expenditures for 13. transportation: 1929–30 to 1989–90 ... 45 Average daily attendance, instructional staff, and teachers in public elementary and 14. secondary schools: 1869–70 to 1990–91 ... 46 15. Catholic elementary and secondary enrollment, teachers, and schools, by level: 1919–20 to 1990–91 ... 49 50 16. Public school enrollment in grades 9 to 12, by subject: 1889–90 to fall 1981 ... 17. Student proficiency in reading, writing, mathematics, and science, by age and race/ethnicity: 1969–70 to 1989–90 ... 51 18. Percentage of students at or above selected reading, mathematics, and science pro- ficiency levels, by age and race/ethnicity: 1970–71 to 1989–90 ... 52 High school graduates, by sex and control of institution: 1869–70 to 1991–92 ... 19. 55 20. Public school districts and public and private elementary and secondary schools: 1929–30 to 1990–91 ... 56 Revenues for public elementary and secondary schools, by source of funds: 21. 57 1889–90 to 1989–90 ... 22. Total and current expenditures and expenditure per pupil in public elementary and secondary schools, by purpose: 1869–70 to 1989–90 ... 59 Higher Education 23. Historical summary of higher education statistics: 1869–70 to 1989–90 ... 75 24. Enrollment in institutions of higher education, by sex, attendance status, and type 76 and control of institution: 1869–70 to fall 1991 ... Enrollment in institutions of higher education, by state: 1869–70 to fall 1990 ... 78 25. 26. Number and professional employees of institutions of higher education: 1869–70 to 1991–92 ... 80 27. Number of permanent colleges and universities founded before 1860, by decade of founding and by state ... 81 28. Degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by sex and level: 1869–70 to 1989–90 ... 82 29. Bachelor’s degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by field of study: 1959–60 to 1989–90 ... 85 30. Master’s degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by field of study: 1959–60 to 1989–90 ... 86 31. Doctor’s degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by field of study: 1959–60 to 1989–90 ... 87 32. First-professional degrees conferred by institutions of higher education in dentistry, medicine, and law, by sex: 1949–50 to 1989–90 ... 88 33. Current-fund revenue of institutions of higher education, by source of funds: 1889–90 to 1989–90 ... 89 34. Current-fund expenditures and educational and general expenditures per student of institutions of higher education, by function: 1929–30 to 1989–90 ... 90

10 xii CONTENTS 35. Value of property and endowment, and liabilities of institutions of higher education: 1899–1900 to 1989–90 ... 92 Appendix 36. Gross domestic product, state and local expenditures, personal income, disposable personal income, and median family income: 1940 to 1991 ... 93 37. Gross domestic product deflator, Consumer Price Index, education price indexes, and federal budget composite deflator: 1919 to 1992 ... 94

11 Statistics in the U.S. Department of Education: Highlights from the Past 120 Years W. Vance Grant In 1867, the Congress of the United States passed encies in the data obtained from the states and terri- tories and from the various colleges and universities. legislation providing ‘‘That there shall be established Early on, the compilers of education statistics learned at the City of Washington, a department of edu- to look to the decennial censuses of population to fill cation, for the purpose of collecting such statistics some of the gaps in the data reported to this office. and facts as shall show the condition and progress Some of the problems faced by the new agency, of education in the several States and Territories, along with some of the progress made in the early and of diffusing such information respecting the orga- years, are evident in a quotation from Commissioner nization and management of schools and school sys- John Eaton, who wrote in the Report of the Commis- tems, and methods of teaching, as shall aid the peo- sioner of Education for the Year 1875: ‘‘When the ple of the United States in the establishment and work of collecting educational statistics was begun by maintenance of efficient school systems, and other- the Office, it was found that there was no authentic wise promote the cause of education throughout the list of the colleges in the United States, or of acad- country.’’ The department was to be headed by a emies, or normal schools, or schools of science, law, Commissioner of Education. The Commissioner was or medicine, or of any other class of educational in- to be paid a salary of $4,000 a year, and he was au- stitutions. The lists of nearly all grades of schools are thorized to appoint three clerks, at annual salaries of now nearly complete. Information on all other matters $2,000, $1,800, and $1,600, to help him carry out his relating to educational systems was equally incom- duties. plete and difficult of access.’’ Two years later, the name of the new department The statistical surveys of what is now the National was changed to the Office of Education, its budget 1 Center for Education Statistics date from 1870. The was cut back, and the Commissioner’s support staff first statistics were apparently the responsibility of the was reduced from three to two clerks. The Office of chief clerk, but in 1872, Congress authorized the Education became one of the constituent agencies agency to hire its first statistician at a salary of within the Department of the Interior in 1869, and it $1,800 a year. In the beginning, data were collected remained there for 70 years. During most of those on basic items, such as public elementary and sec- years, it was known as the Bureau of Education, but ondary school enrollment, attendance, teachers and in 1929 its name was restored to the Office of Edu- their salaries, high school graduates, and expendi- cation. In 1939, it became part of the Federal Secu- tures. At the higher education level, the data in the rity Agency, and in 1953, it was assigned to the early years included the number of colleges and uni- newly established Department of Health, Education, versities, enrollment, faculty, and bachelor’s and and Welfare. In 1980, education was separated from higher degrees conferred. health and welfare, and a new cabinet-level Depart- The level of detail obtained in the surveys of this ment of Education came into existence. office gradually increased. By 1890, the data collec- Early in its history, the federal education agency tion program had been expanded to include private moved to fulfill its mandate to ‘‘collect’’ and ‘‘diffuse’’ statistics on education in the United States. The de- 1 The statistical component of the Department of Education has had velopment of a statistical program proved to be a for- many names. A staff member who joined this office in 1955 recalls midable task. The country was large, its educational that in the past 37 years it has been called the Research and Statis- tical Services Branch, the Educational Statistics Branch, the Division system was decentralized, and the staff available to of Educational Statistics, the National Center for Educational Statis- collect statistics was almost nonexistent. tics, the National Center for Education Statistics, the Center for Sta- In the beginning, no effort was made to estimate tistics, the Center for Education Statistics, and, once again, the Na- for nonresponding institutions (probably because tional Center for Education Statistics. For convenience it will be re- there were no bench marks from which to make rea- ferred to in this paper as the National Center for Education Statistics or simply National Center. sonable estimates). There were also some inconsist- 1

12 2 Highlights from the Past 120 Years in the fall enrollment and earned degree surveys for elementary and secondary school enrollment, teach- ers, and graduates; enrollment by subject field in many years. Beginning in 1976, both surveys were public high schools; public school revenue receipts expanded to include the race/ethnicity of the students by source; and income and value of physical plants and degree recipients. Statistics on the number of of institutions of higher education. By 1920, the sta- foreign (nonresident alien) students and degree re- tistical program included a detailed breakdown of cipients have also been collected periodically since public school expenditures by purpose and of higher 1976. education income by source of funds. An annual survey of public school enrollment, The statistical program of the National Center for teachers, and schoolhousing was begun in 1954. Education Statistics took a major step forward in This survey has continued through the years, but the 1923 when it was authorized to hire four new ‘‘Prin- amount of information collected has increased sub- cipal Statistical Assistants.’’ A major responsibility of stantially over time. Today, it is our primary source these new employees was to make visits ‘‘to the of state and national data on the enrollment, staff, field’’ every two years. During these field visits, they graduates, and finances of public elementary and worked with the state departments of education and secondary schools. with the institutions of higher education that had not The professional and clerical staff of the National responded fully to the Center’s requests for statistical Center had grown gradually from 16 in 1948 to 26 in information. The field staff brought back a great deal 1956. A major expansion of its staff and responsibil- of information that would not have been available ities occurred in fiscal year 1957 when the Center otherwise, thus enabling the Center to report national was authorized to increase its personnel to 76, in- totals that were virtually 100 percent complete. cluding 32 statisticians and education specialists. These field visits were made biennially for many The increase in staff enabled the Center to collect years. The last extensive use of a field staff was more statistical information and to process it more made in 1962 when representatives of the National expeditiously. The period from the late 1950s through Center visited every state department of education in the early 1960s was a productive time for the Center. connection with the National Inventory of School Fa- The quantity and quality of the statistical publications cilities and Personnel. coming out of the Center in those years were quite By 1930, the education data collected included the high. number of public elementary and secondary schools, In the mid-1960s, the National Center’s education the approximate number of private elementary and statistics were put to a new use—that of supporting secondary schools, the endowments of institutions of the education proposals that were making their way higher education, and a breakdown of the expendi- through the legislative process on Capitol Hill. It is no tures of colleges and universities by purpose. The exaggeration to say that the Center’s statistics collection of education statistics was curtailed during played an indispensable role in the passage of a the early and middle 1940s, as the office assumed number of acts of Congress which provided support various responsibilities related to the war effort. to elementary, secondary, and higher education. For Following the end of World War II, there was a fur- those staff members of the Center who were in- ther expansion in the statistical information collected volved in preparing testimony and in supplying statis- by this office. College enrollment increased as many tical analyses to Capitol Hill for legislative purposes, war veterans took advantage of the G.I. Bill of Rights it was a very exciting time indeed. to attend the Nation’s institutions of higher education. For many years, the National Center for Education The office responded with an annual survey of fall Statistics has prepared a directory of public school 2 While there enrollment in colleges and universities. districts in the United States. Recent editions of this have been some modifications in the coverage and directory provide the name, address, and telephone in the amount of detail requested over time, this sur- number, as well as statistics on the number of vey continues in an unbroken series 47 years later. schools, enrollment, teachers, high school graduates, A survey of earned degrees conferred by major and grade span of each public school district. In field of study was initiated in 1948, and it continues 1967, the Center assumed the responsibility for the today to provide annual data on the supply of trained preparation of a directory of institutions of higher personnel coming out of colleges and universities education. Today, this publication has evolved into a with bachelor’s, master’s, doctor’s, and first-profes- Directory of Postsecondary Institutions: two-volume sional degrees. This survey was extended to include Volume 1 provides data on 4-year and 2-year institu- associate degrees and other awards below the bac- tions (primarily colleges and universities); Volume 2 calaureate in 1966. Data by sex have been collected contains information about institutions that offer less 2 than 2 years of postsecondary education (mainly vo- Earlier, surveys of enrollment in the ‘‘third week of fall term’’ had been conducted biennially. cational schools).

13 3 Highlights from the Past 120 Years day-care experiences and preparation of children for Traditionally the information collected by the Na- elementary school. tional Center for Education Statistics emphasized in- In addition to completely new survey systems, puts rather than outcomes. Recognizing the need to other existing survey systems have been expanded provide data on the quality of education as well, the during the 1980s. For example, the new Integrated Center in 1969 launched the National Assessment of Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) was Educational Progress. For the past two decades, the designed to include all postsecondary education pro- National Assessment surveys have measured the viders, rather than just colleges and universities. achievement of a nationwide sample of students A review of the statistical program of the Depart- aged 9, 13, and 17 in reading, writing, mathematics, ment of Education would not be complete without and science. Surveys of civics, history, and geog- mentioning a few of the major publications that cover raphy achievement also have been conducted on a the field of education from a broad perspective. From periodic basis. The Center also has participated in 1870 through 1917, the statistics collected by this of- several international studies which provide compara- fice appeared in the Annual Report of the Commis- tive data on student achievement in mathematics, sioner of Education. These impressive volumes, pro- science, and reading. duced by a small but dedicated staff, provide the The longitudinal surveys of the National Center for framework for much of the National Center’s statis- Education Statistics date from 1972. In these sur- tical program today. veys, a nationwide sample of students is tracked From 1918 through 1958, the major surveys of this over a period of years. Their educational and occu- office were collected and published as chapters in pational experiences are recorded, and some infor- the Biennial Survey of Education in the United mation is collected on their family lives and other ex- States. The Biennial Survey usually contained chap- periences and on their goals in life. The first series ters on state school systems, city school systems, began with a group of high school seniors in 1972, and institutions of higher education, and a summary and the second longitudinal series began with both chapter covering all levels of education. From time to high school sophomores and seniors in 1980. A third time, there were additional chapters covering a vari- longitudinal study of students who were in the eighth ety of subjects, including offerings and enrollments in grade in the spring of 1988 will contribute to our high school subjects, statistics of public secondary knowledge of when and why students drop out of schools, special education for exceptional children, high school. Future longitudinal studies based on statistics of private elementary and secondary other student levels are planned. schools, and library statistics. Among the new surveys added to the National After the demise of the Biennial Survey, a need Center’s statistical program in recent years are the was felt for a publication that would bring together in National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, the Na- one convenient volume a summary of the different tional Survey of Postsecondary Faculty, the Schools kinds of data being collected by the National Center. and Staffing Survey, and the National Household Digest of Education To fulfill this objective, the first Education Survey. The Student Aid Study, first con- 3 Statistics was prepared and published in 1962. Thir- ducted in 1986–87, provides data on the proportion ty years later, a greatly expanded Digest continues to of postsecondary students who obtain financial as- meet the needs of thousands of users of education sistance, the kinds and sources of assistance they statistics each year by providing numerous trend ta- receive, and the average amounts of aid awarded. bles as well as the latest survey data. The National Survey of Postsecondary Faculty, first In 1964, the National Center initiated a series enti- conducted in 1987–88, collected information about 4 tled This report, Projections of Education Statistics. the characteristics of academic departments and col- which is now prepared annually, provides projections lege faculty members. The Schools and Staffing Sur- for each of the next 10 years of many key data items vey, first conducted in 1987–88, provides a wealth of collected by the National Center, including enroll- information on elementary and secondary school ment, instructional staff, high school and college teachers, including their personal characteristics, graduates, and educational finances. In recent years, their teaching assignments, and their attitudes toward the report has been expanded to include some fore- the teaching profession. The data on teacher turn- casts at the state level. over and teacher characteristics, which are derived Responding to a congressional mandate ex- from this study, make possible a variety of analyses, pressed in the Education Amendments of 1974, the such as a projection of the number of teachers that National Center has prepared a report on the ‘‘condi- will be needed in the years ahead. The National Household Education Survey, first conducted in 3 Early editions of the Digest of Education Statistics were called Di- 1991, is used to collect data that are difficult to ob- gest of Educational Statistics. 4 tain through surveys of institutions. For example, this Early editions of the Projections of Education Statistics were called Projections of Educational Statistics. system was used to collect information about the

14 4 Highlights from the Past 120 Years the National Center will be looking for additional tion of education’’ each year since 1975. The Condi- tion of Education provides timely data on the status ways to serve its wide audience of users of edu- and progress of education in this country. It uses an cation statistics. ‘‘indicators’’ approach to highlight specific issues with Bibliography relevant information. Recent editions of this report have added a new dimension by comparing the edu- Annual Reports of the Commissioner of Education, cational attainment, achievement, and expenditures 1870 to 1917. Bureau of Education, Washington, in the United States with those in other countries. D.C.: various years. From humble beginnings 120 years ago, the Na- Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, tional Center for Education Statistics has emerged as 1916–18 to 1956–58. Office of Education, Washing- one of the major statistical agencies of the federal ton, D.C.: various years. government. Today, it is headed by a Commissioner To Promote the Cause of Edu- Blauch, Lloyd E. of Education Statistics and has a staff of approxi- cation, A Review of Historic Background of Today’s mately 130 people. It issues approximately 175 publi- Office of Education. Office of Education, Washington, cations a year. These documents include early re- D.C.: 1953. leases, bulletins, statistical reports, directories, and Grant, W. Vance. Specialist in Education Statistics, handbooks of standard terminology. Electronic for- personal reminiscences. mats, including data tapes, diskettes, CD-ROMs, and Kappel, Joseph W. (1957) and Henry G. Badger bulletin boards, are also used to make data available (1962), unpublished staff papers. to the public. Lykes, Richard Wayne. Higher Education and the The demand for the National Center’s products Of- United States Office of Education (1867–1953). continues to grow. The number of requests for edu- fice of Education, Washington, D.C.: 1975. cation statistics and related information directed to Smith, Darrell Hevenor. The Bureau of Education, the information office now averages close to 1,000 a Its History, Activities, and Organization. The Johns week. The requests come from a variety of sources, Hopkins Press, Baltimore: 1923. including Members of Congress and congressional Sniegoski, Stephen J. The Department of Edu- committees, government agencies, state and local Chelsea House Publishers, New York: 1988. cation. school officials, institutions of higher education, orga- nizations representing the education community, the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Historical Statistics of news media, business organizations, students, and the United States, Colonial Times to 1957. U.S. Gov- the general public. As the 21st century approaches, ernment Printing Office, Washington, D.C.: 1960.

15 Chapter 1 Education Characteristics of the Population ‘‘. . . [I]t is believed that the most effectual means U.S. education enterprise from its past to the of preventing [tyranny] would be, to illuminate, as far present, pointing toward its future. as practicable, the minds of the people at large, and One of the important determinants of the scope of more especially to give them knowledge of those an education system is the size of the population facts, which history exhibiteth, that . . . they may be base. Changes in the birth rate and consequential enabled to know . . .’’ Thomas Jefferson’s ‘‘Bill for shifts in population profoundly influence society for the more general diffusion of knowledge’’ (1779). decades as larger or smaller groups (birth cohorts) move through school, adulthood, work force, and fi- ‘‘By the year 2000: . . . nally into retirement. Larger birth cohorts can cause Every adult American will be literate and will pos- pressure for building schools, hiring more teachers, sess the knowledge and skills necessary to compete and expanding medical services; reduced cohorts in a global economy and exercise the rights and re- can have the opposite effect. During the historical sponsibilities of citizenship. . . .’’ period covered by this publication, there have been Goal #5, The National Education Goals (1990). several of these population expansions and contrac- tions that have impacted on public school systems. We are unable to know the level of enthusiasm The early years of the United States were marked that the founding fathers actually had for public edu- by very rapid population growth. Between 1790 and cation. But it is clear that many Americans have 1860, the U.S. population grew by about a third each shared Mr. Jefferson’s vision of the need to have an decade. This rate of growth is more than three times educated population in order to ‘‘exercise the rights the population growth that has occurred in the past and responsibilities of citizenship.’’ Thus, even as decade. These rises occurred despite the decline in early as the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, the fed- the birth rate during the 19th century. Increases in eral government set aside resources for education. immigration and in the number of women of child- The creation of the federal Department of Education bearing age apparently compensated for the birth- in 1867, while not a cabinet level position, did rein- rate decline (table 1). force the importance of education. In the last decade of the 19th century, the popu- The Act of 1867 directed the Department of Edu- lation growth rate fell to 22 percent and the drops cation to collect and report the ‘‘condition and continued into the first two decades of the 20th cen- progress of education’’ in annual reports to Con- tury. The 1920s marked a period of shifts in the pop- gress. In the first report of 1870, the Commissioner ulation outlook. The birth rate continued to fall, drop- proudly reported that nearly 7 million children were ping from 118 per 1,000 women 15 to 44 years old enrolled in elementary schools and 80,000 were en- in 1920 to 89 in 1930. Also, the actual number of rolled in secondary schools. Also, some 9,000 col- births fell by 11 percent during the 1920s, marking a lege degrees had been awarded. This contrasts with divergence from the relative stability of the teens. 1990, when 30 million were enrolled in public ele- The decline in the birth rate stabilized during the mentary schools and 11 million were enrolled in sec- 1930s, and then rose dramatically following World ondary schools. Over 1.5 million bachelor’s and high- War II, reaching a peak of 123 births per 1,000 er degrees were awarded. women in 1957. This post-war birth rate was nearly as high as those registered in the early teens. After What path has American education taken from this peak of the ‘‘baby boom,’’ the birth rate resumed such modest beginnings to such an impressive its historical decline. The low points in birth rates so present? These and other questions prompted the far this century were in 1984 and in 1986, when Office of Educational Research and Improvement to there were 65 births per 1,000 women. The United review historical data and report on historical edu- States is now experiencing a surge in the number of cation statistics. This publication presents information births caused by the large number of ‘‘baby from the first Office of Education report for 1869–70 boomers’’ at child-bearing age. The 4.1 million births to current studies. It charts the development of the 5

16 6 Education Characteristics of the Population in 1991 is nearly as high as the peak of 4.3 million century. Although enrollment rates fluctuated, roughly in 1957. half of all 5- to 19-year-olds were enrolled in school The number of births and the population size are (table 2). Rates for males and females were roughly important determinants of the scope of the school similar throughout the period, but rates for blacks system. But the relative size of the school-age popu- were much lower than for whites. Prior to the eman- lation is also an important consideration when exam- cipation of Southern blacks, school enrollment for ining the impact of the cost of education on the adult blacks largely was limited to only a small number in population. In 1870, about 35 percent of the popu- Northern states. Following the Civil War, the enroll- lation was 5 to 17 years old. This proportion fell rap- ment rate for blacks rose rapidly from 10 percent in idly to 28 percent at the turn of the century, but fur- 1870 to 34 percent in 1880. However, in the ensuing ther changes in the beginning of the century were 20 years there was essentially no change in the en- very small. In the 1930s, the percentage of 5– to 17- rollment rate for blacks and the rate for whites actu- years-olds in the population began to decline, reach- ally fell. The beginning of the 20th century brought ing a low point of 20 percent in 1947. During the late sustained increases in enrollment rates for both white 1960s, the proportion of 5– to 17-year-olds rose to and minority children. The overall enrollment rates for 26 percent. However, this proportion has fallen in re- 5- to 19-year-olds rose from 51 percent in 1900 to 75 cent years, hitting 18 percent in 1991. Thus, the pro- percent in 1940. The difference in the white and portion of the population requiring elementary and black enrollment rates narrowed from 23 points in secondary school services is at or near a record low 1900 to 7 points in 1940. level. Given the recent rises in births, significant de- Enrollment rates continued to rise in the post-war creases in this proportion are not anticipated for the period for all race groups. By the early 1970s, enroll- near future. ment rates for both whites and blacks had risen to about 90 percent, and these rates since have re- Enrollment Rates mained relatively stable. In the most recent 1991 The proportion of young people enrolled in school data, the enrollment rate for 5- to 19-year-olds was remained relatively low in the last half of the 19th 93 percent for blacks, whites, males, and females. Figure 1.-- Percent of 5- to 19-year-olds enrolled in school, by race: 1850 to 1991 Percent enrolled 100 90 80 White 70 60 50 Black and other races 40 30 20 10 0 1991 1930 1870 1950 1970 1890 1850 1910 1980 1940 1920 1900 1880 1960 1860 Year and Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, School Enrollment - Social and various issues. Economic Characteristics of Students, Current Population Reports, Series P-20,

17 7 Education Characteristics of the Population Figure 2.--Percent of 20- to 24-year-olds and 25- to 34-year-olds enrolled in school, by sex: 1940 to 1991 Percent enrolled 34 Males, 20 to 24 32 30 Females, 20 to 24 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 Males, 25 to 34 10 8 6 4 Females, 25 to 34 2 0 1980 1960 1940 1970 1950 1991 Year Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; and SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Economic Characteristics of Students, School Enrollment - Social and various issues. Current Population Reports, Series P-20, While the enrollment rates for children of elemen- ing high school and college. Progressively fewer tary school age have not shown major changes dur- adults have limited their education to completion of ing the past 20 years, there have been some in- the eighth grade which was typical in the early part creases for younger students as well as for those of the century. In 1940, more than half of the U.S. persons attending high school and college (table 3). population had completed no more than an eighth- The enrollment rate for 7- to 13-year-olds has been grade education. Only 6 percent of males and 4 per- 99 percent or better since the late 1940s, but the cent of females had completed 4 years of college rate for the 14- to 17-year-olds has exhibited signifi- (table 4). The median years of school attained by the cant increases since that period. During the 1950s, adult population, 25 years old and over, had reg- the enrollment rate of 14- to 17-year-olds rose from istered only a scant rise from 8.1 to 8.6 years over 83 percent to 90 percent. Further increases during a 30-year period from 1910 to 1940 (table 5). the 1960s and 1980s brought the enrollment rate to During the 1940s and 1950s, the more highly edu- a high of 96 percent by the late 1980s. The rates for cated younger cohorts began to make their mark on 5- and 6-year-olds also rose, from 58 percent in the average for the entire adult population. More than 1950 to 95 percent in 1991. Rates for those of col- half of the young adults of the 1940s and 1950s lege-age doubled or tripled throughout the 1950 to completed high school, and the median educational 1991 period, with much of the increase occurring attainment of 25- to 29-year-olds rose to 12.3 years. during the 1980s. In 1950, only 30 percent of 18- By 1960, 42 percent of males, 25 years old and over, and 19-year-olds were enrolled in school, compared still had completed no more than the eighth grade, to 60 percent in 1991. The rate for 20- to 24-year- but 40 percent had completed high school and 10 olds rose from 9 percent in 1950 to 30 percent in percent had completed 4 years of college. The cor- 1990. responding proportion for women completing high Educational Attainment school was about the same, but the proportion com- pleting college was somewhat lower (table 4). The increasing rates of school attendance have been reflected in rising proportions of adults complet-

18 8 Education Characteristics of the Population Figure 3.--Percent of persons 25 years old and over completing 4 years of high school, by sex and race: 1940 to 1991 Percent 100 90 80 70 60 Black and other races, females 50 White, females 40 White, males 30 20 Black and other races, males 10 0 1980 1940 1960 1970 1950 1991 Year SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; and Current Population Reports, Series P-20, the United States, Educational Attainment in various issues. Figure 4.--Percent of persons 25 years old and over completing 4 years of college, by sex and race: 1940 to 1991 Percent 40 35 30 White, males 25 White, females 20 Black and other races, males 15 Black and other races, females 10 5 0 1940 1980 1960 1970 1950 1991 Year Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; and SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, the United States, Educational Attainment in various years. Current Population Reports, Series P-20,

19 9 Education Characteristics of the Population During the 1960s, there was a rise in the edu- post-Civil War period and often had some chance to obtain a basic education. The gap in illiteracy be- cational attainment of young adults, particularly for tween white and black adults continued to narrow blacks. Between 1960 and 1970, the median years of through the 20th century, and in 1979 the rates were school completed by black males, 25 to 29 years old, about the same. rose from 10.5 to 12.2. From the middle 1970s to 1991, the educational attainment for all young adults Income remained very stable, with virtually no change among whites, blacks, males or females. The average edu- Education is generally considered important to indi- cational attainment for the entire population contin- viduals to help them obtain good jobs with relatively ued to rise as the more highly educated younger co- high pay. More highly educated individuals are paid horts replaced older Americans who had fewer edu- more, on average, than less well educated persons. cational opportunities. In 1991, about 70 percent of The historical changes that have occurred in the rel- 1 1 and 69 percent of black females had black males ative incomes for different levels of education are completed high school. This is lower than the cor- less well known. responding figures for white males and females (80 Most of the increases in incomes for males over percent). However, the differences in these percent- the past three decades may be attributed solely to in- ages have narrowed appreciably in recent years. flation. After adjusting for inflation, incomes for males Other data corroborate the rapid increase in the edu- at all education levels rose rapidly during the 1950s cation level of the minority population. The proportion and 1960s (table 7). Incomes for males with lower 1 with 4 or more years of college rose of black males levels of education maintained pace with those with higher levels of education. Between 1961 and 1971, from 12 percent in 1980 to 18 percent in 1991, with 1 the incomes for males who had only 1 to 3 years of a similar rise for black females. high school rose by 14 percent after adjustment for Illiteracy inflation, while incomes for those who completed high school rose by 16 percent. For males who had 4 Illiteracy statistics also give an important indication years of college, the increase was only 8 percent. of the education level of the adult population. Today, After peaking in the early 1970s, incomes for illiteracy is a different issue than in earlier years. The males of all education levels suffered during the rest more recent focus on illiteracy has centered on func- of the decade, especially during 1974 and 1975. Be- tional literacy, which addresses the issue of whether tween 1971 and 1981, incomes for males who had a person’s reading and writing levels are sufficient to not finished high school fell by 24 percent, while in- function in a modern society. The earlier surveys of comes for those who had completed high school fell illiteracy examined a very fundamental level of read- by 16 percent. Incomes for males who had com- ing and writing. (See Methodology for additional de- pleted 4 years of college fell by 20 percent during the tail.) The percent of illiteracy, according to earlier same period. measurement methods, was less than 1 percent of The 1980s showed some recovery in income for persons 14 years old and over in 1979 (table 6). more educated groups; however, those with lower Modern measurements have suggested somewhat levels of education continued to suffer. For males higher levels of functional illiteracy. with 1 to 3 years of high school, the average income For the major part of this century, the illiteracy fell by 13 percent between 1981 and 1991, after ad- rates have been relatively low, registering only about justment for inflation. The incomes for those who had 4 percent as early as 1930. However, in the late 19th completed only high school fell by 6 percent. In con- century and early 20th century, illiteracy was very trast, the average income for males with 4 years of common. In 1870, 20 percent of the entire adult pop- college rose by 11 percent and the income of those ulation was illiterate, and 80 percent of the black with 5 or more years of college rose by 20 percent. population was illiterate. By 1900, the situation had Thus, in the 1980s there was a widening of the in- improved somewhat, but still 44 percent of blacks re- come gap between those with less education com- mained illiterate. The statistical data show significant pared to those with more education. From an histori- improvements for black and other races in the early cal perspective over these three decades of portion of the 20th century, as the former slaves who changes, the income gap between males with 4 had no educational opportunities in their youth were years of college and those with 4 years of high replaced by younger individuals who grew up in the school has widened only slightly. 1 Includes other races.

20 10 Education Characteristics of the Population Figure 5.--Annual average income of high school and college graduates, 25 years old and over, in constant 1991 dollars, by sex: 1959 to 1991 Income $60,000 50,000 Males, 4 years of college 40,000 30,000 Male high school graduates 20,000 Females, 4 years of college 10,000 Female high school graduates 0 1979 1959 1991 1969 1989 Year Historical SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; and Current Population Reports, unpublished data. Money Income of Families and Persons in the United States; equivalent education, and the salary for males with 4 The patterns in salary increases for females have been somewhat similar to those for males. However, years of high school is nearly double that of women the incomes for females continued to rise during the with a similar level of education. More detailed statis- 1970s. For example, between 1971 and 1981, the tics for specific age groups, and controlled for full- average income for females with a high school di- time year-round workers, generally show smaller in- 2 ploma rose by 19 percent compared to the 16 per- come gaps, but substantial differences remain. cent decline for males. The incomes for women with The historical data show large increases in enroll- 4 or more years of college increased by 6 percent ment ratios and rates over the past 140 years, with during the period. During the 1980s, the growth in in- some significant rises even in more recent years. comes for females continued to outpace those for The higher levels of education attained by young males. The incomes for women with less than 4 adults in the most recent decades suggest that the years of high school increased by 17 percent and the overall education level of the population will continue incomes for women completing 4 years of high to rise slowly into at least the early 21st century. school rose by 27 percent. Incomes for women with 4 years of college rose by 45 percent. 2 For example, see Youth Indicators, 1991. The 1989 income for Despite very large increases for females, salaries male full-time year-round workers, 15 to 24 years of age was 13 for males continue to be significantly higher than Di- percent higher than for females. Additional material appears in those for females with equivalent levels of education. and U.S. Department of Com- gest of Education Statistics, 1992 For example, the salary for males with 4 years of col- merce, Bureau of the Census, Money Income of Households, Fami- lege is 86 percent higher than that for women with lies and Persons in the United States.

21 11 Education Characteristics of the Population 2 93.8 99.8 102.6 194.0 126.8 126.8 124.7 123.4 121.0 111.2 126.6 106.6 110.9 111.2 119.8 126.3 110.5 125.8 125.0 119.8 117.9 222.0 130.0 240.0 278.0 274.0 184.0 260.0 167.0 155.0 137.0 Birth rate 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 — — — — — — — — — — — 2,966 2,809 2,840 2,869 2,674 2,950 2,718 2,777 2,948 2,964 2,740 2,839 2,965 2,944 2,910 2,882 3,055 2,909 2,979 2,802 Live births — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 89 79 168 351 413 172 427 races Other 1 7——— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 75 9,828 6,581 4,442 8,834 4,880 7,470 1,378 1,772 2,874 1,002 2,329 3,639 Black 10,463 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— 4,306 7,867 5,862 3,172 66,809 33,589 54,984 10,537 14,196 19,553 81,732 43,403 94,821 26,923 White Population, by race — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 5,308 3,929 7,240 9,638 91,972 75,995 38,558 50,156 31,443 62,622 12,866 17,069 23,192 Total 105,711 959 3,875 7,952 9,029 8,531 8,775 7,724 7,531 7,161 8,325 7,832 7,341 8,161 5,017 5,943 5,258 5,658 4,901 6,274 6,101 5,518 5,793 5,380 5,138 1,933 2,828 6,985 6,783 6,428 6,591 9,292 9,576 9,877 1,348 over 60 and 59 6,224 6,069 6,564 6,751 6,388 3,111 9,997 9,793 1,586 1,110 5,324 5,914 5,186 5,472 5,757 5,610 2,245 3,999 7,063 8,208 7,784 8,408 9,579 6,904 8,662 9,388 8,927 8,123 7,452 7,262 7,957 9,172 7,615 50 to 10,195 49 9,343 9,822 9,571 9,124 8,925 8,518 7,939 8,724 7,752 8,138 8,324 3,519 4,558 5,917 1,847 2,614 40 to 13,456 13,804 10,555 11,355 12,492 10,272 12,232 11,609 10,038 13,078 11,859 12,738 11,997 11,098 10,851 14,397 14,118 14,643 ) ) 11 11 ( ( 39 5,530 5,126 5,394 5,677 5,261 4,996 2,315 3,866 8,732 8,424 8,195 7,992 7,241 7,929 6,598 6,742 7,715 7,648 6,453 7,383 6,121 7,914 7,097 5,823 6,281 5,967 6,920 7,843 7,942 8,076 7,526 3,000 35 to 7,281 6,697 7,159 6,542 6,860 7,436 6,399 7,591 7,031 3,369 7,817 7,916 9,142 5,589 8,242 8,422 6,249 5,713 7,872 7,994 8,773 6,105 9,370 7,707 5,847 5,971 8,095 2,563 4,579 9,480 9,369 9,475 2,826 4,021 10 10 30 to 34 ) ) 9 9 ( ( 29 8,873 8,997 9,505 8,918 8,959 9,415 9,502 9,458 8,573 9,350 9,321 8,634 7,382 8,243 7,553 7,888 6,890 6,729 6,572 8,371 8,063 7,210 7,048 7,715 8,491 8,779 3,075 4,081 5,228 9,387 9,473 9,584 25 to [Population and births in thousands] 24 7,383 7,544 7,713 8,237 8,047 7,876 3,748 9,524 9,416 9,751 9,239 9,370 9,071 9,373 9,423 9,907 9,323 8,642 8,584 9,249 8,943 8,764 9,192 9,333 8,414 9,404 9,117 5,088 6,197 4,277 5,726 20 to 10,258 10,472 10,064 8 8 Population, by age ) ) ) ) ) 7 7 7 7 7 ( ( ( ( ( 19 3,655 3,748 3,698 3,679 3,383 3,727 3,516 3,587 3,448 4,378 3,996 3,180 3,313 3,740 4,116 3,901 3,749 4,209 3,672 4,290 4,451 3,000 3,827 3,056 3,651 3,752 3,119 3,749 3,245 18 and 17 7,123 8,260 7,563 8,825 6,654 6,999 7,619 7,252 6,132 7,665 9,093 8,079 6,228 7,737 7,794 9,213 7,388 6,878 6,333 7,715 7,477 7,869 7,319 6,769 6,433 8,669 6,539 8,956 8,454 4,041 3,361 2,530 5,011 6,558 14 to 6 6 6 6 6 ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— 7,892 9,601 6,132 18,016 20,122 19,043 15,893 21,853 17,379 21,136 16,044 16,513 15,750 17,645 21,633 17,138 19,716 21,364 15,572 18,717 20,913 20,426 18,397 19,834 16,365 21,995 16,210 16,888 15,402 20,656 16,687 19,380 14,608 12,195 5 5 5 5 to 13 5 5 Table 1.—Population, by age and race, live births, and birth rate: 1790 to 1991 — — — — — — 5 7,635 4,842 5,515 3,498 9,645 9,181 9,944 9,336 9,502 6,915 9,791 Under 12,031 12,316 12,119 11,879 11,606 11,631 11,442 11,978 11,536 11,527 12,111 12,189 12,269 11,347 10,671 10,364 10,509 11,082 11,244 10,220 10,092 10,915 10,796 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213 14 15 16171819 7,240 9,638 5,308 3,929 62,622 31,443 23,192 38,558 97,225 82,166 12,866 90,490 92,407 87,008 99,111 85,450 95,335 77,584 93,863 50,156 79,163 17,069 88,710 83,822 76,094 80,632 Total 104,514 119,035 115,829 103,268 110,049 101,961 108,538 111,947 117,397 120,509 100,546 106,461 103,208 114,109 1 Year ... ... ... ... 4 12 4 4 1890 1916 ... 1927 ... 1925 ... 1870 1840 ... 1850 1912 ... 1820 ... 1924 ... 1911 ... 1880 ... 1810 ... 1917 ... 1923 ... 1913 ... 1800 ... 1860 1830 ... 1910 ... 1922 ... 1928 ... 1900 ... 1908 ... 1901 ... 1918 ... 1921 ... 1790 ... 1902 ... 1914 ... 1903 ... 1907 ... 1915 ... 1920 ... 1904 ... 1906 ... 1905 ... 1919 ... 1926 ... 1909 ...

22 12 Education Characteristics of the Population 2 90.8 96.3 85.2 87.2 85.9 89.3 77.6 79.1 94.3 91.5 88.8 83.4 89.2 79.9 78.5 84.6 81.7 77.2 75.8 76.3 77.1 107.3 101.9 113.3 111.5 118.1 118.5 113.9 107.1 121.2 115.2 106.2 118.8 120.2 122.9 112.0 118.0 104.7 117.1 108.3 Birth rate 4,245 4,255 4,308 2,413 2,440 2,307 2,396 2,377 2,355 2,506 4,098 4,167 4,268 3,760 3,606 3,521 4,258 3,502 4,027 2,582 2,466 3,649 4,218 4,078 3,637 2,496 3,104 2,703 3,817 3,823 2,939 3,965 3,411 4,104 2,989 2,858 3,913 2,618 3,632 2,559 Live births — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 589 713 597 1,954 1,876 1,716 1,795 2,318 1,638 2,028 2,119 2,224 races Other 1 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Black 11,891 15,042 12,866 21,671 18,960 20,610 20,194 21,983 21,346 19,385 20,999 19,792 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — White 159,381 118,215 168,577 166,413 134,942 110,287 161,891 164,185 172,111 173,562 175,096 170,499 Population, by race — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Total 188,483 195,576 199,399 182,992 193,526 197,457 185,771 179,979 191,141 150,697 122,775 131,669 over 15,050 20,627 13,826 17,382 13,472 13,140 21,202 18,435 14,207 15,455 20,057 16,891 14,642 15,940 19,522 16,398 10,164 21,739 17,917 10,484 18,975 23,828 23,291 25,560 25,108 27,058 22,287 26,510 24,717 26,023 24,290 27,602 22,775 12,112 12,797 11,099 11,759 11,418 12,459 10,793 60 and 59 50 to 19,957 19,295 18,130 17,737 19,648 18,915 17,155 20,226 20,458 20,667 18,518 17,430 10,410 12,903 12,622 13,182 10,718 13,668 13,425 11,006 11,504 11,729 11,941 12,148 12,366 11,267 16,183 16,396 15,993 13,902 16,886 15,806 16,629 15,597 14,134 15,361 15,089 14,846 14,600 14,376 49 40 to 24,144 22,792 23,751 23,053 23,909 22,055 23,322 21,838 22,273 22,539 23,562 24,061 18,509 18,282 20,944 19,141 18,920 19,385 20,566 21,281 18,049 19,773 18,714 20,173 17,806 21,582 16,437 15,969 15,402 16,228 16,714 15,689 16,596 17,562 17,326 16,944 14,865 17,097 15,128 16,828 39 9,218 9,597 9,741 9,032 9,306 9,446 9,869 9,051 9,170 8,941 8,973 8,974 9,164 9,069 35 to 11,456 10,657 10,312 11,434 11,397 11,524 10,459 11,829 11,648 10,873 10,012 11,301 10,157 11,099 11,569 11,763 11,952 11,356 12,274 12,481 12,294 12,133 12,481 12,433 12,413 12,056 9,845 9,717 9,574 9,191 9,212 9,955 9,424 9,289 9,145 11,348 12,205 11,040 12,344 11,547 11,144 12,064 10,953 11,738 10,962 11,076 11,905 10,163 11,475 11,060 11,788 10,536 10,061 12,006 11,336 11,193 10,684 10,838 11,614 12,368 12,427 10,413 10,290 12,434 10,938 12,212 30 to 34 29 9,729 9,894 25 to 10,848 11,051 11,226 11,943 12,624 10,823 10,740 11,434 10,756 11,521 11,001 11,209 11,157 11,013 11,280 10,768 11,511 12,038 10,660 12,284 10,326 10,448 11,796 11,670 11,893 10,892 11,603 12,156 11,728 11,870 12,254 12,314 10,051 12,184 11,374 10,558 12,023 10,195 [Population and births in thousands] 24 20 to 11,519 11,317 11,266 11,411 12,036 11,810 11,689 12,003 11,453 11,614 11,812 11,700 11,795 12,065 10,762 11,077 10,558 11,152 11,375 10,915 10,694 11,462 11,005 11,238 12,061 11,953 11,003 10,633 13,615 13,404 10,698 15,054 10,921 12,941 10,868 10,554 11,222 11,653 12,397 14,566 Population, by age 19 7,183 5,617 4,597 5,461 4,886 6,988 6,928 5,429 4,695 4,564 6,450 5,411 4,645 4,315 4,216 4,567 4,420 4,643 4,754 4,625 4,846 4,513 4,333 4,850 4,883 4,430 4,510 4,909 4,247 4,604 4,701 4,392 4,611 4,916 4,850 4,154 4,637 4,592 4,772 4,659 18 and 17 8,915 9,477 9,526 9,618 9,389 8,592 9,784 9,404 9,221 9,753 8,723 8,521 9,652 8,864 8,705 8,445 9,846 9,858 9,898 9,133 9,283 8,868 9,361 9,908 9,370 9,526 9,445 8,993 14 to 14,398 12,046 14,145 10,606 14,265 13,492 12,751 15,170 11,211 10,951 14,729 10,148 27,716 31,683 21,082 19,664 22,266 22,238 22,129 33,217 22,131 19,697 21,730 20,949 35,244 30,559 29,539 22,266 19,378 25,452 21,964 19,942 32,965 19,302 33,897 20,253 24,279 36,629 35,754 28,776 21,631 20,094 22,786 22,263 20,668 19,378 26,645 36,804 19,460 21,434 36,283 34,578 5 to 13 5 Table 1.—Population, by age and race, live births, and birth rate: 1790 to 1991—Continued Under 13,246 17,941 17,248 10,170 16,328 19,362 17,913 10,331 10,580 11,179 12,020 10,044 20,522 10,418 17,528 17,211 19,824 15,609 20,342 14,919 20,341 18,563 11,734 10,009 11,300 10,176 11,372 10,903 12,979 20,031 19,745 19,208 14,405 18,869 10,851 12,525 18,448 20,165 20,469 10,612 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213 14 15 16171819 Total 159,559 126,374 188,483 127,250 139,924 144,122 174,154 193,526 149,199 146,634 134,865 199,399 138,398 130,880 124,040 185,771 171,278 121,767 154,283 129,825 197,457 141,392 133,412 168,225 182,992 191,141 195,576 123,077 177,080 179,979 156,947 136,755 128,053 165,276 124,840 151,689 128,825 162,388 125,579 132,122 1 Year 1960 ... 1933 ... 1967 ... 1938 ... 1939 ... 1965 ... 1940 ... 1964 ... 1941 ... 1942 ... 1963 ... 1932 ... 1943 ... 1936 ... 1944 ... 1945 ... 1946 ... 1961 ... 1947 ... 1966 ... 1937 ... 1968 ... 1948 ... 1931 ... 1959 ... 1929 ... 1949 ... 1950 ... 1958 ... 1951 ... 1957 ... 1935 ... 1952 ... 1953 ... 1956 ... 1930 ... 1954 ... 1955 ... 1934 ... 1962 ...

23 13 Education Characteristics of the Population 2 — — 68.4 65.0 67.4 66.0 67.3 67.8 67.2 65.8 65.5 68.8 65.4 73.1 66.2 81.6 65.4 65.7 66.8 87.9 67.3 86.1 68.8 United Birth rate Monthly Vital 4,111 4,179 3,137 3,160 4,021 3,629 3,639 3,494 3,681 3,258 3,600 3,144 3,612 3,910 3,669 3,327 3,761 3,731 3,333 3,556 3,809 3,168 3,757 Live births — — 3,271 4,017 6,039 3,791 7,097 2,593 8,618 2,443 3,553 5,656 7,845 2,913 6,379 4,249 8,228 5,263 3,088 7,478 2,746 6,730 4,521 races Other 1 — — Black 22,301 24,696 25,886 26,784 24,326 23,572 29,748 30,660 27,636 22,687 28,870 28,056 26,310 25,079 25,472 27,207 28,457 23,143 29,303 23,954 30,202 — — Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial White 196,774 184,316 176,641 178,703 193,736 202,769 208,961 190,271 185,745 182,799 188,693 180,938 205,827 199,849 195,208 207,377 201,290 187,216 204,326 198,321 191,960 Population, by race — — Total 213,342 229,637 219,760 227,255 211,357 222,095 241,107 234,284 248,239 231,996 206,827 236,477 238,736 203,984 201,385 245,807 224,567 215,465 209,284 243,419 217,563 over 35,849 32,095 37,429 41,842 38,131 31,388 34,189 35,000 38,843 41,851 28,147 32,780 30,724 41,301 28,783 39,535 30,077 40,727 36,611 33,480 42,336 40,136 29,433 60 and various years, and unpublished data; 59 50 to 22,853 23,195 21,803 22,068 22,286 21,167 22,033 21,461 23,314 22,074 22,051 22,162 20,888 22,101 22,617 21,840 22,476 23,306 23,239 22,344 22,965 22,741 23,059 49 40 to U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics, 29,150 24,099 24,141 23,472 25,077 30,403 26,274 23,011 24,361 23,478 27,919 31,608 23,197 22,673 23,700 23,957 22,685 22,953 22,793 32,848 22,774 25,701 22,734 , various years. (This table was prepared October 1992.) 39 35 to 18,722 11,052 17,708 13,592 18,737 13,052 11,222 16,932 19,140 11,079 11,400 16,165 19,621 11,155 11,585 19,976 15,599 11,105 11,883 14,381 14,080 20,518 12,310 NOTE.—Population data for 1790 through 1959 include U.S. population overseas; data for later years are for U.S. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-25, States Population Estimates, Statistics Report lation. Excludes Indians living in Indian Territory or reservations until 1890. Beginning in 1960, data include Alaska resident population only. Population data for 1790 through 1890 are from decennial censuses. Age data for later years are estimates of population for July 1, but race data are from decennial censuses through 1950. Population data for 1990 and 1991 are consistent with the 1990 Census, as enumerated. Data for early years are for continental popu- and Hawaii. Beginning in 1959, birth data include Alaska. Because of rounding, details may not add to totals. Times to 1970; 22,159 18,786 21,907 18,808 17,754 20,269 14,131 11,287 12,321 21,333 22,135 15,661 19,211 20,773 14,428 13,644 11,505 21,798 19,696 16,218 13,094 11,842 16,961 30 to 34 29 25 to 18,177 20,718 16,428 17,183 22,005 20,200 21,877 21,535 21,202 18,585 13,927 21,229 20,753 15,694 18,180 19,697 15,142 21,979 21,758 13,119 13,604 19,077 21,699 [Population and births in thousands] 24 20 to 19,184 17,703 18,702 16,579 19,131 19,317 21,587 19,794 18,758 21,380 19,791 21,000 20,411 20,748 15,767 18,273 21,489 17,865 21,328 21,096 19,194 21,614 20,311 Population, by age 19 7,119 8,204 8,553 8,713 8,617 7,500 7,818 8,698 8,425 7,644 7,410 8,044 7,315 8,196 8,613 7,480 7,644 8,418 8,604 7,854 7,191 7,697 7,322 18 and 17 14 to 13,312 16,140 14,797 16,610 16,944 17,042 16,637 15,598 13,423 17,117 15,041 15,550 14,720 17,125 13,496 15,921 14,467 16,864 14,865 14,704 17,033 13,982 16,326 30,410 32,855 36,236 32,500 31,406 34,465 30,110 30,238 32,094 30,824 36,672 31,834 33,919 31,431 31,095 35,046 36,836 32,000 30,351 33,516 30,754 30,614 35,679 5 to 13 5 Table 1.—Population, by age and race, live births, and birth rate: 1790 to 1991—Continued Under 16,458 17,244 15,617 16,121 17,651 17,376 18,874 18,004 17,166 16,931 18,752 18,154 17,298 18,276 18,456 15,735 16,851 15,564 16,063 19,222 17,830 17,101 16,487 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213 14 15 16171819 Total 219,760 234,284 241,107 231,996 201,385 248,239 217,563 224,567 211,357 209,284 215,465 213,342 206,827 238,736 252,177 222,095 249,415 243,419 245,807 236,477 203,984 229,637 227,255 1 Year Excludes population (325,464) in the Indian Territory and on Indian reservations. Data included in column 9. Includes persons 35 to 39 years old. Number of live births per 1,000 women, 15 to 44 years old. Data for 1790 through 1950 are from the decennial Census. These figures differ from the age data tabulated from Data are for white women only. Data included in column 7. Total includes persons not identified by age. Data included column in 5. Data for persons 5 to 14 years old. Includes persons 25 to 29 years old. Data for persons 15 to 19 years old. —Data not available. 5 8 9 4 10 7 11 2 12 1 6 3 1977 ... 1985 ... 1982 ... 1973 ... 1981 ... 1969 ... 1972 ... 1991 ... 1990 ... 1986 ... 1976 ... 1983 ... 1970 ... 1980 ... 1987 ... 1989 ... 1975 ... 1984 ... 1978 ... 1979 ... 1988 ... 1971 ... 1974 ... 1900 to 1950 because of data calculation and timing differences.

24 14 Education Characteristics of the Population Table 2.—School enrollment of 5– to 19–year-olds per 100 persons, by sex and race: 1850 to 1991 Both sexes Female Male Year Black and Black and Black and White Total White Total Total White 1 1 1 other races other races other races 2345678910 1 53.3 47.2 2.0 44.8 1.8 1.8 1850 ... 56.2 49.6 59.0 1.9 52.6 62.0 1.9 48.5 57.2 1860 ... 50.6 59.6 1.8 54.4 49.8 56.0 9.6 46.9 52.7 10.0 1870 ... 48.4 9.9 33.8 59.2 63.5 34.1 56.5 60.5 33.5 57.8 1880 ... 62.0 57.9 32.9 54.7 58.5 31.8 1890 ... 57.2 33.9 54.3 53.8 2 50.5 1900 50.1 53.4 29.4 50.9 53.9 32.8 53.6 ... 31.1 2 59.4 44.8 59.1 61.4 43.1 ... 61.3 46.6 1910 59.2 61.3 2 64.3 65.7 53.5 1920 64.1 52.5 64.5 65.8 54.5 ... 65.6 2,3 69.7 69.9 70.2 71.4 59.7 60.3 70.9 60.8 ... 71.2 1930 75.6 68.4 74.9 75.9 67.5 74.7 75.4 69.2 1940 ... 74.8 78.7 1950 ... 74.8 79.1 79.7 74.7 78.4 78.9 74.9 79.3 1954 ... 87.0 80.8 87.5 88.4 80.9 84.8 85.4 80.7 86.2 86.5 1955 ... 88.4 88.9 84.6 84.5 85.0 81.2 87.0 82.9 87.8 88.6 89.4 83.6 85.8 86.1 83.5 87.2 1956 ... 83.6 88.2 85.3 89.4 90.0 85.6 86.2 86.4 85.0 1957 ... 87.8 88.4 88.9 90.1 90.5 87.2 86.7 87.2 82.9 1958 ... 85.1 88.5 85.9 89.7 90.2 86.8 87.1 87.5 85.0 1959 ... 88.8 4 ... 90.6 89.0 86.1 90.0 1960 86.6 87.1 87.3 85.7 88.6 88.5 88.9 90.2 90.5 87.7 86.9 87.2 84.9 1961 ... 86.3 89.1 86.3 90.8 91.3 87.6 87.4 87.8 85.0 1962 ... 89.6 89.6 89.8 88.0 91.1 91.5 1963 ... 88.0 88.1 87.3 88.7 1964 ... 89.8 88.4 91.1 91.4 89.2 88.1 88.2 87.6 89.6 89.6 89.8 88.5 91.0 91.2 89.8 88.3 88.5 87.2 1965 ... 1966 ... 89.7 89.9 88.5 91.2 91.5 89.9 88.2 88.4 87.2 1967 ... 90.5 88.6 91.9 92.2 89.8 89.0 89.3 87.4 90.8 90.8 91.0 92.2 92.5 90.5 89.3 89.5 88.4 1968 ... 89.4 91.1 92.1 92.5 90.0 89.5 89.7 88.9 90.9 1969 ... 89.5 90.8 89.4 91.6 91.9 89.6 89.6 89.7 89.1 1970 ... 90.6 90.9 90.9 91.9 92.0 91.3 89.9 89.8 90.3 1971 ... 90.8 90.0 90.1 91.0 91.0 90.9 89.0 89.0 89.3 1972 ... 90.0 89.3 89.4 88.9 90.3 90.4 90.1 88.2 88.3 87.7 1973 ... 1974 ... 89.4 90.1 90.1 89.9 90.9 88.6 88.5 89.3 89.2 89.9 89.8 90.7 90.6 91.1 89.1 89.0 89.6 1975 ... 90.4 89.6 90.8 90.4 90.1 91.9 88.9 88.7 89.6 1976 ... 89.4 89.6 89.3 91.1 90.3 89.9 1977 ... 89.0 88.8 90.2 91.9 1978 ... 89.0 90.6 89.8 89.5 91.6 88.6 88.4 89.7 89.2 89.0 88.8 90.2 89.7 89.4 91.5 88.3 88.1 88.8 1979 ... 1980 ... 89.1 88.9 90.4 89.5 89.3 90.4 88.8 88.4 90.4 1981 ... 89.6 90.5 90.0 89.8 91.4 89.2 89.1 89.7 89.4 89.6 89.5 90.0 89.9 90.6 89.1 89.1 89.4 1982 ... 90.0 90.3 90.3 90.4 90.3 90.8 90.2 90.2 89.8 1983 ... 90.3 90.3 90.3 90.2 90.7 90.6 1984 ... 89.9 90.0 89.5 90.9 1985 ... 91.1 90.7 91.2 91.2 91.4 90.7 90.9 89.9 91.0 91.4 91.3 91.6 92.0 91.8 92.6 90.8 90.8 90.7 1986 ... 1987 ... 91.7 91.5 92.3 92.4 92.2 93.2 90.9 90.8 91.4 1988 ... 91.8 92.2 92.1 91.6 94.5 91.5 91.4 91.9 91.7 1989 ... 91.7 92.1 92.1 92.1 92.2 91.5 91.3 92.0 91.8 1990 ... 92.6 92.5 92.8 92.9 92.6 93.8 92.2 92.3 91.8 1991 ... 93.2 93.4 93.1 94.2 92.8 93.0 92.2 93.1 93.1 1 For 1971 to 1990, black and other races is calculated by subtracting whites from Historical Statistics SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, total. of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; and Current Population Reports, Series 2 Enrollment rates are for 5– to 20–year-olds. P-20, School Enrollment - Social and Economic Characteristics of Students, various 3 Revised to include Mexicans as white persons. years. (This table was prepared September 1992.) 4 Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii. NOTE.—Data for 1850 through 1950 are based on April 1 counts. Data for 1954 to 1991 are based on October counts.

25 15 Education Characteristics of the Population — — — 41 89 48 78 60 27 175 171 171 217 238 181 383 480 375 178 173 172 211 181 120 306 869 669 290 627 526 527 3 3 34 1,385 1,222 1,332 1,025 1,016 1,579 1,561 1,589 1,550 1,446 25 to 268 880 801 206 294 244 206 236 215 322 414 479 393 439 362 324 391 346 274 197 548 649 716 24 1,139 1,121 1,297 1,615 2,147 2,061 1,310 2,138 2,235 2,234 1,540 1,955 2,363 1,449 1,389 2,021 1,988 1,786 20 to 440 480 683 667 598 629 519 680 435 452 420 782 754 538 538 450 476 415 958 881 932 19 1,958 1,899 1,819 1,644 1,465 1,861 1,798 1,617 1,910 1,844 1,825 1,800 1,601 1,983 1,500 1,390 1,501 1,335 1,425 1,241 18 and 17 3,420 3,331 3,388 3,373 3,695 3,682 3,840 3,602 3,782 4,993 5,458 4,421 4,798 4,138 3,873 4,591 7,265 7,509 7,065 6,770 7,078 3,481 7,594 3,465 7,089 7,471 7,624 6,919 7,542 7,634 6,662 7,290 7,424 6,523 6,774 7,657 6,420 6,820 5,708 6,115 6,356 14 to Females, by age 13 7 to 7,428 9,813 7,291 8,798 8,449 8,045 7,521 7,698 7,381 9,032 9,120 12,547 12,634 12,070 11,121 10,304 11,564 10,767 11,641 11,860 14,223 14,106 12,837 13,944 14,190 12,301 12,083 13,183 13,405 13,756 11,391 13,712 13,518 11,579 12,503 14,255 11,190 11,771 13,177 12,631 12,923 904 6 1,516 1,548 1,655 2,697 1,520 3,236 1,679 1,608 3,146 2,978 2,700 3,064 2,866 2,758 3,244 3,368 2,977 3,279 3,140 3,537 3,532 2,843 2,904 3,187 1,410 3,112 3,455 3,120 3,066 2,944 3,632 3,440 2,882 3,048 3,558 3,252 3,364 1,820 3,328 2,003 5 and 1 14,692 14,337 13,145 22,764 13,399 17,324 13,794 22,025 13,111 19,657 21,178 18,801 17,853 20,404 26,891 28,075 28,515 27,227 27,689 27,258 28,246 27,544 28,135 26,690 27,980 28,323 27,115 27,482 28,365 12,855 26,337 27,144 28,254 25,710 27,513 15,822 24,113 23,252 24,809 15,336 12,983 to 34 Total, 5 — — — 621 465 407 358 511 487 620 627 494 639 648 897 832 996 697 711 414 597 576 350 629 333 228 34 3 3 1,580 1,428 1,195 1,409 1,155 1,011 1,372 1,618 1,220 1,535 1,479 1,557 1,388 1,508 1,573 25 to 602 938 467 733 827 989 936 677 947 898 830 915 892 686 897 636 630 114 24 2,243 2,401 2,651 2,062 2,229 2,070 2,290 2,217 1,667 2,118 1,867 2,202 2,534 2,467 1,559 2,299 2,358 2,334 2,582 1,862 1,177 1,365 1,332 20 to 680 587 682 593 642 612 534 770 730 898 780 752 809 918 192 469 19 1,731 1,892 1,783 1,857 2,018 1,637 1,907 1,874 1,902 1,940 1,879 1,841 1,937 1,939 1,924 1,919 1,821 1,956 1,886 1,689 1,212 1,238 1,180 1,170 1,063 18 and 17 4,002 3,614 3,870 3,568 4,275 4,854 5,041 3,447 4,096 4,646 3,436 3,364 3,475 7,934 6,975 7,720 7,845 7,814 7,374 7,018 8,042 7,906 6,613 6,770 7,108 7,321 3,435 7,531 7,795 3,844 7,199 7,309 3,758 8,014 7,021 7,680 5,705 6,658 6,402 5,247 6,032 14 to Males, by age 13 7 to 7,607 7,456 9,148 8,773 8,330 7,781 7,990 9,405 7,585 9,382 11,179 11,584 12,059 12,556 10,725 14,688 14,633 12,253 12,951 13,932 12,285 12,110 13,267 13,650 14,342 13,884 14,620 14,513 12,075 12,514 14,195 14,139 11,887 11,665 12,751 13,074 13,548 13,280 13,003 13,167 10,138 Enrollment, in thousands 901 6 1,648 1,514 2,746 1,912 2,035 1,649 3,123 2,821 3,158 1,549 1,628 2,839 2,963 1,807 1,423 3,555 3,220 2,971 3,166 3,246 3,422 3,162 3,545 3,054 3,093 3,450 3,623 3,619 3,003 3,051 3,683 3,719 3,280 3,220 3,346 3,478 3,292 3,402 3,399 3,440 5 and 1 15,736 23,192 15,489 14,635 14,991 19,573 21,509 22,497 20,522 12,660 29,368 28,255 28,059 30,642 29,831 28,577 28,013 28,459 28,230 30,051 27,952 30,012 30,178 30,583 29,002 31,114 28,733 30,502 30,505 30,209 25,452 26,243 26,851 24,234 24,944 15,774 13,615 16,974 13,941 18,759 16,644 to 34 Total, 5 — — — 448 798 799 820 858 576 667 405 288 534 635 428 810 793 792 686 835 360 34 3 3 1,822 1,001 2,773 3,179 3,115 1,682 2,278 2,649 1,536 1,003 2,589 2,912 3,028 2,819 1,280 1,207 1,477 3,097 2,581 1,889 25 to 761 981 999 904 311 846 24 1,183 1,307 1,001 1,010 1,103 1,041 1,336 1,192 1,144 1,283 4,720 3,659 4,390 4,886 2,014 3,692 4,446 3,002 3,359 1,468 1,350 4,379 4,700 2,360 3,606 4,245 2,547 3,816 2,988 3,380 1,725 2,048 4,121 4,290 4,897 20 to 974 668 884 19 3,700 2,061 3,284 2,196 3,351 1,952 3,762 3,317 3,176 3,375 3,458 3,837 3,693 3,976 3,768 2,930 3,322 3,765 1,817 3,938 3,788 3,026 2,144 3,724 3,557 1,449 1,007 1,199 1,180 1,409 1,601 1,407 1,268 1,028 1,062 1,232 1,134 1,564 18 and 17 Table 3.—School enrollment and school enrollment rates, by age and sex: 1940 to 1991 7,709 7,538 9,067 6,988 8,413 6,824 6,956 9,839 6,900 7,970 7,784 7,440 7,216 6,737 6,778 9,446 14 to 14,970 15,267 15,529 13,638 15,649 14,373 15,356 14,796 13,793 14,118 13,293 11,163 15,698 11,740 13,928 14,452 12,517 13,791 15,529 15,354 13,014 15,144 10,240 13,033 14,411 13 7 to 15,035 25,455 26,104 21,028 18,414 24,025 24,597 24,145 25,634 28,844 25,052 23,623 26,203 28,286 19,952 17,946 14,747 28,943 15,302 26,833 21,946 28,620 24,626 27,289 28,823 18,525 16,374 27,895 23,751 27,907 25,621 15,688 25,801 27,450 23,278 26,725 22,705 17,222 22,854 23,654 14,966 Males and females, by age 6 1,805 3,487 5,846 3,030 6,101 5,597 3,069 7,000 2,833 3,304 3,237 6,701 6,222 6,228 5,520 7,155 3,732 6,332 5,829 5,997 6,438 7,241 5,443 6,214 5,853 6,340 6,590 4,038 7,352 6,638 6,842 7,156 6,651 6,070 6,995 6,433 6,818 6,768 3,196 6,421 5,955 5 and 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112131415 16 171819202122 26,759 47,708 55,717 25,515 56,544 26,924 27,746 58,078 28,390 55,068 58,533 29,283 56,057 58,867 30,073 58,252 54,704 57,703 30,466 58,486 31,980 59,630 32,796 55,483 36,083 58,896 37,426 58,718 39,353 57,564 41,166 56,511 42,900 55,070 44,370 53,769 46,259 51,660 55,120 48,704 50,356 to 34 Total, 5 ... 1 2 Year 1965 ... 1960 ... 1966 ... 1959 ... 1967 ... 1958 ... 1968 ... 1957 ... 1969 ... 1956 ... 1970 ... 1955 ... 1971 ... 1954 ... 1982 ... 1953 ... 1972 ... 1962 ... 1973 ... 1984 ... 1974 ... 1951 ... 1975 ... 1950 ... 1976 ... 1949 ... 1977 ... 1948 ... 1980 ... 1947 ... 1978 ... 1946 ... 1963 ... 1945 ... 1979 ... 1983 ... 1964 ... 1940 1981 ... 1961 ... 1952 ...

26 16 Education Characteristics of the Population — — — 3.2 4.2 2.7 2.6 2.1 1.9 4.6 3.2 3.8 4.0 4.5 0.7 0.4 0.6 0.4 1.4 1.5 0.9 1.7 1.5 1.8 1.5 0.3 1.6 1.4 1.5 5.8 1.0 3 3 34 1,560 1,712 1,769 1,694 1,835 1,666 1,622 25 to 4.3 3.4 7.1 6.0 3.9 8.2 7.4 9.1 7.3 6.4 6.1 8.3 6.8 4.6 3.3 5.0 4.9 3.4 3.7 16.0 12.4 15.2 16.7 15.1 15.7 10.9 10.3 14.3 11.8 16.0 17.3 24 2,695 2,279 2,324 2,367 2,498 2,532 2,309 20 to 24.3 18.0 20.3 26.9 40.3 37.7 41.8 28.1 27.4 43.4 41.8 33.7 25.9 41.3 30.0 25.4 18.5 32.3 41.6 29.4 38.2 37.7 22.5 28.6 29.2 33.7 40.7 19.9 20.3 22.1 21.3 19 1,864 2,028 1,936 1,874 2,063 1,993 2,006 18 and 82.3 85.2 78.7 79.7 81.7 92.5 80.7 85.0 80.1 85.0 93.4 93.1 89.0 89.2 93.4 87.3 92.1 91.8 79.8 85.2 87.6 90.5 92.6 92.6 87.8 92.9 90.3 92.8 91.6 85.4 93.7 17 6,830 6,363 6,164 6,205 6,772 6,163 6,603 14 to Females, by age 98.7 99.1 98.5 98.4 95.2 99.4 99.4 98.9 99.4 99.6 99.6 99.3 99.6 98.5 99.4 99.5 99.3 99.4 99.4 99.1 98.7 99.3 99.6 99.6 99.4 99.5 99.5 98.0 99.2 99.5 99.3 13 7 to 12,412 11,714 11,182 12,184 11,922 11,463 11,221 6 59.5 54.0 61.3 63.3 43.7 56.8 54.6 80.2 92.9 78.2 82.6 85.7 92.2 88.2 58.7 80.5 84.4 80.6 78.1 78.3 93.9 56.6 81.4 83.2 92.3 79.0 88.0 58.4 81.7 89.1 90.2 3,376 3,274 3,522 3,439 3,471 3,373 3,502 5 and 1 48.4 49.1 57.3 57.5 56.9 54.0 41.9 53.4 53.8 46.3 54.9 56.1 51.0 55.2 55.3 56.1 52.8 47.0 56.0 52.7 56.5 52.0 43.0 55.5 39.2 48.7 50.0 52.6 38.4 56.3 38.0 27,125 27,079 28,596 27,565 27,396 28,222 27,798 to 34 Total, 5 — — — 4.2 6.8 5.7 4.5 4.9 6.0 5.9 5.9 5.9 7.0 9.4 6.2 3.7 8.9 9.0 9.2 5.9 8.4 7.8 5.7 3.8 8.1 4.2 4.5 3.3 3.2 5.9 10.0 3 3 34 1,496 1,552 1,494 1,422 1,653 1,466 1,459 25 to 5.6 8.2 14.3 17.7 25.2 27.8 21.3 16.9 25.8 17.0 19.6 27.6 20.2 29.2 16.5 30.6 18.1 18.5 19.9 23.4 29.2 29.3 30.5 21.0 20.6 19.1 23.8 25.6 32.0 15.4 14.3 24 2,305 2,710 2,552 2,448 2,339 2,469 2,467 20 to 35.7 32.4 29.0 21.6 30.8 37.2 31.6 34.3 50.9 42.5 45.1 43.3 47.5 31.4 45.6 47.8 48.6 51.2 51.0 37.7 55.6 57.8 56.3 60.4 59.4 54.4 55.4 51.2 47.9 45.8 40.6 19 1,852 2,038 2,061 1,998 2,032 2,047 1,976 18 and 84.4 85.2 79.2 78.0 78.9 93.7 91.4 94.4 93.7 94.2 86.8 78.9 93.6 90.7 95.0 94.4 95.0 94.0 85.4 92.2 82.5 91.3 95.3 81.9 91.1 94.7 94.8 88.7 89.1 93.3 88.6 17 6,583 6,491 6,679 7,186 7,095 6,584 6,928 14 to Males, by age 98.7 99.1 97.7 98.0 94.8 99.1 99.2 99.5 99.2 99.2 99.1 99.2 99.0 99.3 98.9 98.8 99.2 98.6 98.7 99.1 99.3 98.5 99.3 99.5 98.9 99.2 98.3 98.9 99.5 99.2 99.1 13 7 to 12,832 11,666 12,509 12,057 12,329 11,768 13,033 Percent of population enrolled 6 56.8 55.1 59.6 60.8 42.3 87.3 84.5 82.7 88.9 80.6 82.6 60.2 78.3 94.4 76.3 84.4 86.6 54.8 82.0 55.1 55.0 90.9 92.2 87.7 83.4 79.5 91.7 78.1 57.4 80.8 77.1 3,544 3,573 3,422 3,580 3,705 3,655 3,551 5 and 1 56.8 72.7 64.9 58.6 64.1 61.7 58.3 50.2 44.3 56.3 62.1 54.9 63.5 57.9 64.1 54.0 57.5 60.1 62.3 64.1 62.6 60.4 60.0 58.7 62.3 59.1 64.3 54.8 44.8 45.8 49.4 29,077 28,262 28,087 29,612 28,483 28,547 28,539 to 34 Total, 5 — — — 3.8 5.5 3.6 3.9 3.8 3.5 2.3 6.7 1.8 6.0 2.7 2.0 1.8 6.6 4.7 5.4 3.8 6.4 3.6 2.5 2.9 4.6 6.8 3.7 3.2 7.8 2.5 3.0 3 34 3 3,294 3,160 3,112 3,422 3,160 3,208 3,044 25 to 9.2 3.9 9.2 8.6 9.7 9.7 6.6 13.7 20.8 10.1 11.2 13.1 23.0 21.9 11.1 12.8 11.1 21.4 22.0 21.4 14.0 21.6 19.9 15.6 13.4 19.0 12.7 16.8 17.3 21.5 10.2 24 5,083 4,776 4,584 4,792 4,816 5,406 4,837 20 to 42.9 41.6 40.9 36.8 47.6 29.7 26.2 46.3 24.3 28.8 38.0 32.4 49.2 31.5 46.3 41.8 50.4 47.7 26.9 25.3 37.6 34.9 43.1 20.7 22.5 38.4 50.2 35.4 31.2 47.2 28.9 19 3,982 3,716 4,125 3,969 3,872 4,044 4,059 18 and 94.0 93.1 79.3 87.1 79.6 83.4 92.9 94.2 94.5 86.9 90.3 88.2 93.7 90.2 93.2 89.2 92.9 78.4 92.0 81.6 92.9 85.9 91.4 94.1 81.8 89.5 85.2 85.2 93.3 93.7 79.3 17 14 to 13,868 14,016 12,653 13,532 12,747 12,789 13,042 99.3 99.1 99.0 98.1 98.6 99.1 99.5 99.3 98.8 99.3 99.5 99.2 99.4 99.1 99.4 99.3 99.2 99.1 98.7 99.3 99.4 99.2 99.5 98.5 99.2 98.1 99.4 99.3 99.3 98.3 95.0 Table 3.—School enrollment and school enrollment rates, by age and sex: 1940 to 1991—Continued 13 7 to 23,521 24,044 22,849 22,987 25,445 25,016 24,431 Males and females, by age 6 89.5 82.7 80.7 88.4 78.1 91.9 58.0 56.0 84.4 77.3 54.5 80.4 54.7 55.7 81.7 87.6 82.2 80.0 87.4 91.6 59.3 92.5 58.2 94.2 78.6 62.0 83.3 60.4 77.6 85.1 43.0 6,956 6,697 7,044 6,917 7,207 6,990 7,178 5 and 1 58.6 59.7 56.8 57.8 52.8 41.5 41.1 55.5 42.4 60.1 55.4 64.0 58.5 56.4 60.0 61.1 56.9 59.0 58.7 50.8 60.1 54.8 60.2 46.4 45.4 50.0 53.6 55.3 52.3 51.6 57.7 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112131415 16 171819202122 55,340 55,214 55,943 56,049 57,297 56,338 58,208 to 34 Total, 5 ... 1 2 Year 1946 ... 1949 ... 1960 ... 1972 ... 1967 ... 1955 ... 1970 ... 1966 ... 1986 ... 1968 ... 1961 ... 1953 ... 1952 ... 1958 ... 1990 ... 1954 ... 1974 ... 1956 ... 1947 ... 1965 ... 1964 ... 1989 ... 1951 ... 1948 ... 1962 ... 1950 ... 1959 ... 1957 ... 1945 ... 1940 1973 ... 1969 ... 1963 ... 1991 ... 1985 ... 1988 ... 1987 ... 1971 ...

27 17 Education Characteristics of the Population 7.6 8.0 7.9 7.8 7.7 8.5 7.8 8.3 8.0 7.9 7.1 7.5 7.9 8.0 8.0 6.3 6.5 34 25 to 22.5 22.1 24.0 21.2 20.2 19.4 24.7 27.1 20.8 24.2 29.4 20.8 27.7 20.1 20.8 18.7 20.0 24 20 to 45.8 51.0 53.5 55.2 56.3 59.4 55.4 43.0 47.9 46.8 43.4 53.4 47.5 50.3 44.0 44.4 44.2 19 18 and 93.0 92.8 92.6 93.9 93.5 94.9 93.1 95.6 94.0 95.7 90.6 95.3 94.5 94.7 94.5 92.6 94.8 17 14 to Females, by age 99.4 99.3 99.4 99.4 99.7 99.3 99.3 99.6 99.3 99.4 99.4 99.3 99.3 99.7 99.5 94.5 99.5 13 Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial 7 to School Enrollment - Social and Economic Characteristics 6 95.1 95.8 95.5 95.2 94.6 95.5 96.4 96.9 94.6 97.0 95.3 96.4 96.0 95.1 93.8 95.2 95.8 5 and 1 48.9 47.8 48.1 52.1 50.4 49.2 48.1 47.3 48.3 48.4 49.7 47.6 51.7 49.8 50.5 52.6 47.6 to 34 Total, 5 7.5 8.8 8.3 7.0 6.8 8.0 7.5 8.4 7.8 7.9 8.0 6.9 7.1 7.9 10.0 10.2 10.7 34 25 to 25.5 26.9 27.2 26.0 24.3 26.3 26.4 24.4 29.6 25.9 27.6 25.6 24.5 23.3 25.0 31.0 23.8 24 20 to and Current Population Reports, Series P-20, 57.9 47.8 56.6 50.5 48.9 59.8 56.2 49.9 58.2 47.1 57.1 50.5 48.2 46.6 52.2 48.4 52.4 19 various years. (This table was prepared September 1992.) 18 and 95.4 94.6 94.6 95.9 94.5 96.4 95.4 94.3 95.3 93.7 94.7 96.1 95.1 93.9 94.9 94.3 94.9 17 14 to SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Times to 1970; of Students, Males, by age 99.0 99.8 99.0 99.1 99.6 99.1 99.1 99.1 99.2 99.1 99.0 99.7 99.2 99.0 99.2 99.7 99.3 13 7 to 6 95.1 96.5 95.0 94.2 95.1 96.0 94.7 95.7 95.0 95.9 96.3 95.1 94.0 95.6 94.4 94.7 95.3 5 and 1 57.7 50.0 50.5 50.4 50.4 50.5 51.0 50.1 55.6 54.0 52.8 51.6 50.4 51.4 50.0 52.3 56.6 to 34 Total, 5 8.2 8.1 7.7 8.1 8.0 8.0 7.7 9.0 7.9 7.7 8.1 7.1 8.5 7.4 7.5 7.5 8.0 34 25 to 21.8 28.6 23.6 22.7 23.7 22.3 26.1 24.0 22.9 23.3 27.0 22.4 30.2 21.7 23.5 22.5 25.5 24 20 to 55.6 47.8 56.0 45.4 57.2 49.0 54.6 46.2 45.0 55.6 59.6 50.4 46.9 50.1 46.4 46.2 51.6 19 18 and 94.1 94.4 93.6 93.6 94.7 95.0 93.7 96.0 95.0 94.9 95.8 94.9 95.1 93.7 95.7 93.6 93.4 17 14 to 99.2 99.7 99.4 99.2 99.2 99.6 99.6 99.2 99.5 99.1 99.3 99.2 99.2 99.2 99.3 99.0 99.3 Table 3.—School enrollment and school enrollment rates, by age and sex: 1940 to 1991—Continued 13 7 to Males and females, by age 6 94.7 95.0 95.3 96.5 95.3 95.8 95.4 94.5 94.0 95.2 95.5 96.0 95.6 95.7 95.8 96.1 95.2 5 and 1 51.4 49.0 49.7 49.3 53.6 49.3 48.8 48.9 55.1 49.7 51.2 48.6 50.6 49.3 52.2 50.4 54.3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112131415 16 171819202122 to 34 Total, 5 1 Year Data for 1940 through 1946 are for ages 5–24. Data for 1950 and 1951 are for ages 5–29. As of April 1. 25 to 29 years old. 3 1 2 —Data not available. NOTE.—Unless otherwise noted, data are for October. 1991 ... 1981 ... 1976 ... 1985 ... 1978 ... 1988 ... 1982 ... 1975 ... 1983 ... 1987 ... 1977 ... 1979 ... 1980 ... 1990 ... 1989 ... 1986 ... 1984 ...

28 18 Education Characteristics of the Population 8.8 8.7 9.6 10.0 12.4 12.5 12.3 12.7 12.7 12.6 12.6 12.6 12.6 12.6 12.6 12.4 12.5 12.5 12.4 12.4 12.1 12.1 12.2 12.1 12.1 12.0 12.0 12.1 12.1 12.1 10.7 12.3 12.3 12.2 12.2 12.2 12.2 12.0 11.8 11.6 12.0 11.0 com- years school pleted, Median females 5.4 8.6 9.6 9.0 8.5 6.8 7.0 7.4 6.7 3.8 5.2 6.0 7.3 7.1 7.7 8.2 8.2 8.0 7.6 8.2 8.4 7.9 5.8 4.0 16.5 12.9 18.4 16.0 12.0 12.2 15.7 13.4 14.0 16.1 15.1 18.8 11.3 13.6 17.0 18.1 10.6 10.1 4 years or more College 9.2 9.4 9.7 9.4 9.3 9.8 9.5 9.4 9.7 9.9 9.0 6.5 8.1 8.8 9.9 9.3 9.0 6.1 7.7 9.5 12.4 12.7 13.4 16.7 17.2 18.6 17.2 15.4 14.9 14.2 14.6 15.6 14.0 17.1 18.0 16.2 10.5 10.8 11.4 10.3 10.1 11.7 1–3 years 39.9 41.4 41.3 41.6 39.6 40.4 40.2 41.3 41.0 39.6 41.6 41.1 41.8 41.0 41.1 41.8 24.6 35.6 39.0 34.8 37.8 38.7 34.8 39.2 38.5 35.7 35.9 39.4 37.2 37.5 36.9 39.7 36.2 27.8 33.4 33.1 34.4 31.6 17.5 16.4 23.2 29.2 4 years 18.2 17.7 17.9 18.5 16.6 17.3 18.2 18.1 18.0 18.2 17.7 17.3 17.2 17.8 17.9 16.9 18.1 19.7 18.5 17.9 17.4 18.8 16.5 15.9 17.9 19.6 14.0 12.5 13.4 14.1 16.3 11.5 12.0 12.9 11.9 12.9 15.0 15.9 11.4 12.1 16.2 14.5 High school 1–3 years 4.9 5.5 9.1 7.0 7.8 4.4 8.2 8.6 6.0 5.8 9.8 6.5 6.6 9.2 5.2 7.3 21.1 15.4 14.5 13.9 15.9 14.9 11.3 14.1 10.7 13.4 13.5 14.9 10.4 13.7 11.8 13.1 12.7 17.3 16.5 14.6 16.8 15.6 29.0 20.3 27.5 17.8 8 years Percent of female population completing — 5.5 4.6 4.0 5.8 4.2 6.8 4.4 6.8 3.9 6.5 5.3 4.9 4.5 6.0 6.1 3.7 9.8 9.4 9.7 9.3 9.1 8.7 8.1 8.1 7.4 9.0 8.8 8.5 7.8 7.7 8.5 7.2 14.4 10.2 10.8 11.2 10.3 18.0 15.8 11.9 13.1 16.7 5–7 years Elementary school 2.8 3.5 3.4 2.6 2.4 2.3 3.2 3.1 2.4 3.2 2.5 2.1 2.8 2.5 3.5 2.2 7.4 5.7 6.9 4.7 6.3 4.9 5.2 5.6 5.4 5.3 4.4 4.2 4.3 4.2 4.5 4.2 4.1 3.8 3.9 5.1 4.7 9.8 6.0 8.1 12.4 10.0 0–4 years 9.3 8.6 9.0 8.7 12.5 12.6 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.6 12.7 12.7 12.6 12.6 12.5 12.5 10.3 12.1 12.0 12.0 12.0 11.8 11.1 11.9 11.5 11.6 12.1 12.2 12.2 12.4 12.1 12.3 12.4 12.2 12.1 12.3 12.2 10.6 com- years males school pleted, Median 5.9 7.3 5.5 7.9 9.7 13.3 12.3 22.9 19.7 21.9 11.7 24.0 20.9 21.1 24.3 12.2 23.2 13.3 12.5 18.6 19.2 20.4 12.7 24.4 23.6 23.0 24.5 11.4 23.1 12.8 16.9 14.1 15.4 14.3 17.6 13.5 14.1 15.0 13.7 16.0 14.6 10.3 4 years or more College 9.2 9.4 9.0 9.4 8.9 9.8 9.3 8.8 9.6 7.4 8.6 9.1 7.0 4.9 5.3 15.7 15.6 14.9 16.8 13.8 16.5 17.8 15.6 15.9 18.2 17.1 14.2 16.1 15.4 17.4 17.1 10.0 10.8 10.8 10.3 11.4 12.5 11.3 10.3 13.2 11.1 12.0 1–3 years 32.1 34.9 35.4 34.8 36.0 32.1 35.4 32.6 32.7 34.6 35.7 32.3 33.9 34.1 33.6 35.5 29.9 29.1 32.1 30.6 29.7 30.1 30.9 32.3 31.4 30.6 32.3 28.2 27.7 28.9 25.8 28.8 26.3 27.6 24.7 28.2 12.2 13.0 19.3 18.2 22.2 21.2 4 years 16.6 16.1 15.8 16.1 14.5 14.7 16.4 15.3 16.8 15.6 16.1 17.4 17.3 17.4 17.0 17.1 16.9 17.1 17.4 17.0 15.1 16.9 14.5 17.4 18.9 18.7 13.5 11.5 12.9 13.1 14.2 14.0 12.9 10.4 11.3 11.8 12.5 12.1 11.2 10.7 11.0 11.5 High school 1–3 years 8.6 4.6 6.0 9.5 8.1 4.8 6.3 6.9 5.7 9.4 6.5 7.5 6.7 5.0 4.5 9.0 13.9 13.6 14.0 14.7 10.2 12.1 15.4 11.1 11.5 13.4 14.3 16.7 16.5 15.1 15.6 14.3 16.4 15.8 17.0 16.1 21.4 28.8 30.5 22.4 18.4 17.8 8 years Percent of male population completing — 9.5 7.0 6.9 7.5 4.6 4.2 9.5 5.6 9.1 8.6 7.7 5.8 8.9 4.5 9.9 5.0 7.4 8.8 4.3 5.1 6.3 8.2 6.0 4.7 5.2 9.7 3.9 18.1 16.9 19.0 10.5 10.5 10.7 10.3 10.1 10.3 12.2 11.4 11.4 15.9 13.7 14.6 5–7 years Elementary school 2.9 6.9 6.8 4.2 2.6 6.1 2.7 4.7 4.8 5.0 4.9 2.7 4.0 3.9 5.9 8.7 5.6 3.6 2.8 3.7 2.5 6.5 5.7 3.2 4.9 4.9 2.7 2.9 6.1 6.5 3.4 8.1 4.5 3.3 7.3 5.3 9.8 7.4 9.4 12.2 15.1 12.0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516 17 0–4 years Table 4.—Years of school completed by persons 25 years old and over, by race and sex: April 1940 to March 1991 1 and race Total 1 White ... ... ... ... ... ... 2,3 2,3 2,3 3 3 2,3 Year 1990 ... 1967 ... 1983 ... 1962 ... 1968 ... 1966 ... 1950 1976 ... 1969 ... 1950 1975 ... 1968 ... 1979 ... 1977 ... 1964 ... 1960 1940 1964 ... 1984 ... 1969 ... 1991 ... 1960 1974 ... 1970 ... 1981 ... 1970 ... 1985 ... 1989 ... 1971 ... 1988 ... 1972 ... 1987 ... 1973 ... 1980 ... 1982 ... 1965 ... 1962 ... 1940 1978 ... 1966 ... 1967 ... 1986 ...

29 19 Education Characteristics of the Population 7.2 6.1 9.1 9.6 9.7 9.8 8.9 8.5 12.7 12.0 12.1 11.7 11.1 10.6 11.0 12.4 12.7 12.6 12.6 12.6 12.6 12.6 12.6 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.4 12.4 12.7 12.1 12.3 12.3 10.4 11.5 11.7 12.3 12.3 12.2 10.3 10.0 com- years school pleted, Median females 2.4 8.0 9.0 9.7 9.2 1.2 9.9 8.9 9.4 5.5 4.8 4.4 4.0 5.5 5.6 5.3 3.7 9.0 6.8 6.0 7.3 3.6 19.3 15.4 12.6 13.8 16.0 16.3 17.3 18.5 16.9 14.0 16.4 14.4 11.6 13.3 19.0 12.4 10.6 10.4 11.0 4 years or more College 9.1 8.2 6.9 8.7 3.2 9.3 9.0 2.1 6.3 6.1 5.3 6.4 5.4 4.0 5.6 4.9 4.4 18.8 14.9 17.6 15.2 16.9 14.3 14.5 17.3 17.4 13.2 16.4 15.7 15.8 13.7 12.8 18.1 12.1 11.1 12.1 10.7 11.7 10.9 11.9 10.9 1–3 years 9.2 5.1 41.8 30.0 27.4 41.2 26.5 41.9 42.8 29.3 29.6 29.8 42.5 41.6 42.4 40.9 41.6 42.2 42.6 42.3 42.4 40.9 28.7 30.4 42.8 42.7 40.8 41.1 40.7 31.6 40.2 39.2 20.2 22.5 22.3 23.5 21.2 24.6 25.9 18.2 15.2 4 years 9.9 10.5 21.7 22.8 24.4 23.8 23.4 21.7 22.5 22.2 14.8 16.5 17.0 17.0 20.4 16.1 15.9 22.7 22.0 22.1 24.1 23.5 22.0 23.0 24.0 20.2 15.3 14.1 12.1 13.3 11.2 13.7 12.2 11.8 11.2 15.6 15.0 10.8 12.7 11.4 13.1 High school 1–3 years 5.2 9.8 9.2 6.6 5.0 8.7 8.6 8.3 5.4 8.4 7.1 8.6 7.4 6.6 8.4 8.1 6.0 6.1 9.3 4.5 9.6 9.5 8.2 9.3 6.9 12.5 12.9 12.0 11.0 10.6 11.5 12.4 11.3 10.8 13.9 11.7 12.6 12.9 11.5 11.8 13.3 8 years Percent of female population completing — 3.3 6.2 4.0 5.5 3.5 4.9 4.2 5.9 3.5 4.4 6.1 5.0 3.8 5.3 4.8 4.1 7.5 6.9 7.1 6.6 6.4 11.9 12.4 10.2 13.8 11.0 15.9 14.0 13.1 31.8 19.3 17.4 20.7 19.4 16.7 18.5 16.7 11.0 17.5 23.7 29.3 5–7 years Elementary school 2.6 2.5 2.3 1.8 2.1 2.8 2.9 2.1 2.8 2.0 2.5 8.7 1.8 1.9 2.1 2.3 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.0 3.8 7.6 1.8 8.2 7.8 9.7 8.2 10.5 10.1 10.8 28.6 37.5 13.3 11.9 14.6 14.1 18.5 10.7 15.4 14.0 19.7 0–4 years 6.4 5.4 8.3 8.7 9.7 8.8 9.2 8.9 9.9 7.9 10.3 11.0 10.7 12.8 12.6 12.7 12.6 12.8 12.8 12.6 12.8 12.8 12.5 12.7 12.5 12.8 12.6 12.7 12.7 11.3 12.1 11.9 12.1 11.5 10.2 12.4 12.2 12.5 12.3 12.3 12.4 com- years males school pleted, Median 1.4 6.8 5.7 4.0 5.0 6.8 5.2 5.6 6.7 3.5 9.0 9.4 8.0 2.1 10.3 25.4 23.9 20.7 24.5 22.1 24.0 24.0 25.3 24.0 22.2 19.6 23.0 25.0 21.4 25.4 20.2 18.4 12.0 17.7 11.9 16.2 10.7 11.0 15.5 16.8 10.5 4 years or more College 6.5 9.9 9.1 7.9 2.9 1.7 6.2 5.2 6.0 6.3 4.9 5.3 5.6 4.8 4.4 18.4 15.8 15.8 16.9 15.7 16.1 15.8 17.2 14.6 16.7 17.6 16.3 14.2 15.2 18.0 17.3 10.2 11.6 12.4 12.7 12.5 12.9 12.0 14.1 11.5 13.6 1–3 years 3.8 7.5 36.1 34.3 34.5 34.1 35.3 33.1 35.6 35.1 35.9 35.2 33.1 32.9 35.7 32.7 32.7 35.7 32.8 31.3 28.8 33.1 27.7 25.9 33.0 24.3 29.3 27.1 25.3 27.2 32.2 25.5 15.3 14.5 19.3 23.8 21.8 22.4 20.3 17.4 12.1 4 years 9.9 7.4 17.6 17.7 20.0 15.6 15.3 17.9 14.8 14.3 18.6 17.1 14.0 18.4 20.6 18.2 20.6 20.1 18.2 20.2 18.9 20.1 19.8 20.2 12.1 17.0 10.8 10.8 10.9 10.4 12.4 10.1 13.0 11.9 11.5 12.3 10.6 12.5 13.8 11.1 13.5 High school 1–3 years 7.1 9.7 6.8 9.6 6.1 9.2 6.6 8.3 5.8 4.7 8.7 5.1 6.8 4.8 7.7 6.3 4.5 7.4 8.1 8.8 7.9 7.1 9.7 7.1 9.4 11.3 13.7 11.7 10.5 12.4 12.0 12.2 13.2 10.6 13.1 10.8 10.9 10.3 11.3 11.4 12.3 8 years Percent of male population completing — 6.6 7.0 5.5 5.3 5.1 7.5 9.7 4.8 6.3 4.7 4.6 6.2 4.2 6.8 8.1 3.6 4.2 4.1 3.9 3.9 7.8 5.7 15.3 19.3 14.0 11.7 12.4 16.3 13.8 19.7 18.2 17.5 15.9 13.0 17.3 14.3 13.4 16.6 28.1 27.1 23.0 5–7 years Elementary school 2.1 2.7 2.1 3.7 2.2 3.6 3.2 4.4 2.4 3.1 2.3 2.9 2.3 2.8 3.9 2.2 2.6 3.9 2.2 2.7 2.6 14.6 14.1 22.2 17.5 15.3 13.1 21.2 13.8 10.3 11.4 26.1 11.3 17.9 22.5 11.0 20.4 16.3 46.2 36.9 27.7 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516 17 0–4 years Table 4.—Years of school completed by persons 25 years old and over, by race and sex: April 1940 to March 1991—Continued 1 and race 1 ... ... ... 2,3 3 2,3 Year Black and other races 1964 ... 1974 ... 1978 ... 1985 ... 1986 ... 1977 ... 1983 ... 1979 ... 1975 ... 1966 ... 1987 ... 1978 ... 1981 ... 1976 ... 1962 ... 1968 ... 1950 1975 ... 1976 ... 1972 ... 1988 ... 1974 ... 1960 1980 ... 1980 ... 1989 ... 1969 ... 1977 ... 1990 ... 1973 ... 1970 ... 1982 ... 1991 ... 1972 ... 1971 ... 1940 1984 ... 1971 ... 1979 ... 1973 ... 1967 ...

30 20 Education Characteristics of the Population 12.5 12.4 12.4 12.3 12.4 12.2 12.4 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.2 various com- years school pleted, Median females 13.8 15.8 12.8 14.4 11.3 14.2 15.1 13.4 15.7 15.1 10.8 4 years or more College 12.9 13.2 16.0 15.9 14.5 17.4 13.9 15.6 17.4 15.1 12.7 1–3 years 35.9 34.1 32.5 35.9 35.7 35.9 34.6 35.0 35.8 35.3 31.9 Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial 4 years Educational Attainment in the United States, 20.2 16.7 16.7 16.0 17.4 17.8 16.3 18.5 17.0 19.9 16.8 High school 1–3 years 3.7 4.6 6.4 5.7 6.8 5.2 4.3 6.0 6.5 5.6 6.1 8 years Percent of female population completing — 7.3 6.7 8.8 6.4 9.9 6.8 7.6 8.1 7.0 6.3 11.0 5–7 years Elementary school 7.4 5.8 5.0 5.4 5.1 4.8 4.1 5.3 4.8 6.1 6.4 and Current Population Reports, Series P-20, 0–4 years 12.6 12.5 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.6 12.4 12.5 12.5 12.4 12.5 SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, com- years males school pleted, Median Times to 1970; years. (This table was prepared October 1992.) 12.8 17.0 17.8 15.6 17.7 16.9 18.3 13.7 18.3 15.6 17.2 4 years or more College 15.0 16.6 14.2 16.7 14.4 16.0 14.3 15.6 15.1 16.2 16.0 1–3 years 33.8 35.7 33.1 30.9 34.1 30.0 30.9 33.5 31.0 31.2 34.0 4 years 16.8 14.9 14.8 16.6 15.2 16.8 14.9 14.3 15.1 18.0 16.3 High school 1–3 years 6.4 5.9 5.0 5.7 4.7 4.3 5.9 4.0 5.1 6.0 4.0 8 years Percent of male population completing — 7.6 8.0 6.2 9.3 8.1 9.5 6.7 5.6 8.1 7.4 8.6 5–7 years Elementary school 7.9 7.8 5.5 5.6 6.9 5.8 8.5 6.0 5.9 6.0 8.9 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516 17 0–4 years Table 4.—Years of school completed by persons 25 years old and over, by race and sex: April 1940 to March 1991—Continued 1 and race 1 Year Excludes population for whom school years were not reported. Unless otherwise indicated, surveys were conducted in March of the years shown. As of April. 2 3 1 —Data not available. 1987 ... 1989 ... 1986 ... 1985 ... 1983 ... 1988 ... 1982 ... 1990 ... 1984 ... 1981 ... 1991 ...

31 21 Education Characteristics of the Population Table 5.—Median years of school completed by persons age 25 and over and 25 to 29, by race and sex: 1910 to 1991 25 to 29 years old Age 25 and over Male Female Year Male Female Total Total 1 1 1 1 Black White White Black Black Black White White 1 234567891011 2 8.1 ————————— 1910 ... 2 ————————— 8.2 ... 1920 2 8.4 ... ————————— 1930 5.4 8.8 6.1 1940 ... 10.5 6.5 10.9 7.5 8.6 8.7 10.3 9.3 6.4 10.0 7.2 12.1 12.4 7.4 1950 ... 8.9 9.3 12.2 3 10.5 1960 11.0 8.5 12.3 12.4 10.5 12.3 11.1 10.6 ... 7.9 12.2 9.4 9.9 12.6 12.7 12.2 12.5 12.1 12.1 1969 ... 12.2 12.2 9.6 12.2 10.2 12.6 12.7 12.1 12.5 12.2 1970 ... 12.2 12.2 9.9 12.2 10.3 12.6 12.3 12.1 12.6 12.3 1971 ... 12.8 12.2 1972 ... 10.1 12.3 10.5 12.7 12.8 12.3 12.6 12.4 12.3 1973 ... 12.4 10.3 12.3 10.8 12.7 12.8 12.3 12.6 12.4 12.3 12.3 12.4 12.3 10.9 12.8 12.9 12.5 12.7 12.4 1974 ... 10.5 12.5 13.0 12.3 11.1 12.8 12.4 12.5 12.7 12.5 1975 ... 10.7 13.2 12.4 12.4 11.4 12.9 10.8 12.5 12.8 12.5 1976 ... 12.5 12.4 12.5 11.3 12.4 11.4 12.9 13.2 12.6 12.8 12.5 1977 ... 1978 ... 12.4 11.7 12.4 11.7 12.9 13.3 12.7 12.8 12.6 12.6 13.2 12.5 12.5 11.9 12.9 11.9 12.6 12.9 12.6 1979 ... 12.6 12.5 12.6 12.0 12.5 12.0 1980 ... 13.0 12.6 12.8 12.6 12.9 1981 ... 12.6 12.1 12.5 12.1 12.5 12.9 12.6 12.8 12.6 12.8 1982 ... 12.6 12.7 12.2 12.5 12.1 12.8 12.9 12.7 12.8 12.7 1983 ... 12.6 12.6 12.2 12.9 12.9 12.6 12.8 12.6 12.7 12.2 12.6 12.7 12.3 12.8 12.9 12.6 12.9 12.7 12.6 12.2 1984 ... 12.7 12.3 12.6 12.3 12.9 1985 ... 12.7 12.9 12.7 12.6 12.9 12.6 12.3 12.6 12.4 12.9 12.8 12.7 12.9 12.7 1986 ... 12.9 12.7 12.8 12.4 12.6 12.4 12.9 12.9 12.7 12.9 12.7 1987 ... 12.7 1988 ... 12.6 12.4 12.9 12.9 12.7 12.9 12.6 12.8 12.4 12.9 12.7 12.7 12.4 12.9 12.4 12.7 12.9 12.7 1989 ... 12.8 12.7 12.8 12.4 12.7 12.4 12.9 12.9 12.7 12.9 12.7 1990 ... 12.7 12.7 12.4 12.7 12.5 12.9 12.9 12.7 12.9 12.8 1991 ... 1 Data for years 1940 through 1960 include persons of ‘‘other’’ races. Historical Statistics SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2 Estimates based on retrojection, by the Bureau of the Census, of 1940 census data of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; Current Population Series, P-20, Edu- on education by age. cational Attainment of the United States Population, various years; and ‘‘Education of the 3 Denotes first year in which figures include Alaska and Hawaii. American Population,’’ by John K. Folger and Charles B. Nam. (This table was prepared —Data not available. February 1998.) NOTE.—Data for 1940, 1950, and 1960 are for April 1. Data for later years are as of March. 1 by race and nativity: Table 6.—Percentage of persons 14 years old and over who were illiterate, 1870 to 1979 White Total Black and other Year Total Native Foreign born 1 23456 11.5 — — 79.9 20.0 1870 ... 17.0 9.4 8.7 12.0 70.0 1880 ... 1890 ... 13.3 6.2 13.1 56.8 7.7 10.7 4.6 12.9 44.5 1900 ... 6.2 7.7 5.0 3.0 1910 ... 30.5 12.7 1920 ... 6.0 4.0 2.0 13.1 23.0 1930 ... 4.3 3.0 1.6 10.8 16.4 1940 ... 2.9 9.0 11.5 2.0 1.1 1.8 2.7 — 11.0 1947 ... — 1950 ... 3.2 ———— 2.5 1.8 — — 10.2 1952 ... 2.2 1.6 — — 7.5 1959 ... 2 1.0 0.7 — — 1969 ... 3.6 2 1979 ... — — 1.6 0.4 0.6 1 Historical Statistics Persons are counted as illiterate if they cannot read or write in any language. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2 of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; and Current Population Reports, Series Based on black population only. P-23, Ancestry and Language in the United States: November 1979. (This table was pre- —Data not available. pared September 1992.)

32 22 Education Characteristics of the Population Table 7.—Annual mean income of males and females 25 years old and over, by years of school completed: 1939 to 1991 Males Elementary school College Year High school Less than 8 8 years 1 to 3 years years 5 or more years 1 to 3 years 4 or more years 4 years 4 years only 1 23456789 Current dollars — $1,931 $2,607 — 1939 ... — $1,379 — $1,661 2,939 3,654 4,527 — — 2,449 $1,738 1946 ... $2,327 3,226 3,784 4,423 6,179 1949 ... — 2,062 2,829 — 3,631 5,183 5,997 7,877 — — 1956 ... 2,574 4,367 4,452 $7,565 6,272 8,643 3,677 $9,178 1958 ... 2,530 5,257 4,206 5,946 7,348 9,817 9,342 9,987 2,998 1961 ... 5,161 4,410 5,348 6,557 1963 ... 9,811 9,392 10,353 3,078 7,633 3,298 5,653 6,738 7,907 10,284 9,757 11,004 1964 ... 4,520 4,867 6,294 8,783 11,739 11,135 12,563 1966 ... 3,520 7,494 5,002 7,515 8,713 11,753 11,022 12,639 3,540 1967 ... 6,258 5,689 6,454 7,688 8,890 11,851 11,086 12,794 1968 ... 4,135 4,679 6,170 8,313 9,553 12,644 12,111 13,274 1969 ... 7,063 6,674 14,018 8,998 10,554 4,948 13,434 14,727 1970 ... 7,575 5,175 7,941 9,321 10,942 14,563 13,634 15,687 1971 ... 6,901 5,436 7,088 8,273 9,741 11,205 15,017 14,192 15,983 1972 ... 6,101 1973 ... 8,755 10,591 11,934 15,993 15,189 16,966 7,729 6,422 8,559 11,408 12,640 16,769 15,859 17,817 1974 ... 9,526 8,604 10,019 13,317 16,996 16,194 17,912 1975 ... 6,581 11,983 8,957 12,559 14,104 18,750 17,599 20,141 6,673 1976 ... 9,920 9,679 10,690 13,334 14,674 20,114 18,857 21,553 1977 ... 7,306 7,841 10,131 14,312 15,728 21,464 20,056 23,103 1978 ... 11,400 10,991 22,922 15,440 16,781 8,347 21,669 24,343 1979 ... 12,361 8,757 12,956 16,657 18,232 24,417 22,949 26,065 1980 ... 12,050 9,263 12,350 13,578 17,496 19,362 25,816 24,545 27,313 1981 ... 1982 ... 10,151 14,362 18,468 20,889 28,896 26,612 31,434 13,214 9,593 13,124 18,750 21,212 30,489 28,058 33,240 1983 ... 14,131 13,451 31,969 19,289 22,219 9,944 29,530 34,731 1984 ... 14,529 10,832 15,479 20,763 23,334 34,992 32,266 38,211 1985 ... 14,049 10,401 14,193 15,722 21,265 1986 ... 36,883 33,793 40,732 25,046 1987 ... 14,756 16,606 21,848 26,197 38,627 35,454 42,414 11,078 12,184 27,383 17,350 22,747 1988 ... 39,241 35,800 43,487 14,787 1989 ... 16,017 17,191 23,855 28,050 41,484 37,648 46,189 12,063 1990 ... 12,446 15,754 17,331 24,940 29,792 44,257 40,384 49,085 1991 ... 12,582 17,702 24,737 30,650 44,485 40,750 49,259 15,525 Constant 1991 dollars 1939 ... $13,512 $16,275 $18,921 $25,545 — — — — $16,253 17,105 25,522 31,619 — — 1946 ... $12,139 20,528 16,189 21,655 25,311 35,360 — — 11,800 1949 ... 18,461 18,182 21,867 25,953 30,029 39,443 — — 1956 ... 12,889 11,923 17,329 24,775 29,559 40,733 $35,652 $43,254 1958 ... 20,981 19,159 44,718 27,085 33,471 13,656 42,555 45,493 1961 ... 23,509 13,700 23,804 29,185 33,974 43,669 41,804 46,081 1963 ... 19,629 14,490 19,859 24,837 29,604 34,740 45,183 42,868 48,347 1964 ... 14,797 1966 ... 26,458 31,503 36,921 49,347 46,808 52,811 20,459 14,436 20,397 30,645 35,530 47,927 44,946 51,540 1967 ... 25,519 22,266 46,382 30,089 34,794 16,184 43,388 50,073 1968 ... 25,260 17,365 26,212 30,851 35,453 46,924 44,946 49,262 1969 ... 22,898 17,369 23,428 26,591 31,586 1970 ... 49,208 47,157 51,696 37,048 1971 ... 23,208 26,705 31,346 36,798 48,975 45,851 52,755 17,403 17,713 36,510 26,957 31,740 1972 ... 48,931 46,243 52,079 23,095 1973 ... 23,709 26,857 32,489 36,608 49,060 46,593 52,044 18,715 1974 ... 17,742 23,646 26,317 31,517 34,920 46,327 43,813 49,223 1975 ... 16,660 25,364 30,336 33,713 43,027 40,997 45,346 21,782 15,973 21,440 30,062 33,760 44,881 42,126 48,211 1976 ... 23,745 21,754 45,207 29,968 32,980 16,420 42,382 48,441 1977 ... 24,026 16,380 23,814 29,897 32,855 44,837 41,896 48,261 1978 ... 21,163 15,659 20,619 23,190 28,966 1979 ... 43,002 40,652 45,668 31,482 1980 ... 19,918 21,415 27,533 30,136 40,359 37,933 43,083 14,475 13,879 29,011 20,345 26,215 1981 ... 38,681 36,777 40,924 18,505 1982 ... 18,650 20,271 26,066 29,483 40,784 37,560 44,366 14,327 1983 ... 13,118 17,947 19,324 25,640 29,007 41,693 38,368 45,455 1984 ... 13,035 19,046 25,285 29,126 41,907 38,710 45,528 17,633 13,711 19,593 26,282 29,536 44,293 40,842 48,367 1985 ... 17,783 12,925 17,638 19,538 26,426 1986 ... 45,835 41,995 50,618 31,125 1987 ... 13,282 17,692 19,910 26,195 31,409 46,312 42,507 50,852 1988 ... 14,028 17,024 19,975 26,189 31,526 45,179 41,217 50,067 1989 ... 17,593 18,882 26,202 30,810 45,565 41,352 50,733 13,250 1990 ... 12,970 16,417 18,060 25,990 31,046 46,119 42,083 51,151 1991 ... 12,582 15,525 17,702 24,737 30,650 44,485 40,750 49,259

33 23 Education Characteristics of the Population Table 7.—Annual mean income of males and females 25 years old and over, by years of school completed: 1939 to 1991—Continued Females Elementary school College Year High school Less than 8 8 years 1 to 3 years years 5 or more years 1 to 3 years 4 or more years 4 years 4 years only 1 1011121314151617 Current dollars ———————— 1939 ... ———————— 1946 ... 1949 ... ———————— 1956 ... ———————— ———————— 1958 ... ———————— 1961 ... 1963 ... ———————— 1964 ... ———————— 1966 ... ———————— 1967 ... ———————— $1,550 $1,879 $2,297 $3,862 $3,210 $5,667 1968 ... $1,039 $1,323 1,701 2,099 2,468 4,063 3,266 5,977 1,515 1969 ... 1,205 1,621 1,825 2,280 2,753 4,610 3,824 1970 ... 1,274 6,479 1,406 1,905 2,452 3,006 5,056 4,241 6,900 1971 ... 1,731 1,766 1972 ... 3,087 5,310 4,450 7,250 2,075 1,458 2,577 1,916 2,819 3,285 5,502 4,587 7,544 1,559 1973 ... 2,219 2,058 2,395 3,026 3,761 1974 ... 4,909 7,682 1,792 5,807 1,999 2,709 3,314 4,133 6,313 5,371 8,175 1975 ... 2,315 2,456 2,835 3,611 4,548 7,213 6,086 9,381 1976 ... 2,054 2,225 2,725 3,057 1977 ... 4,858 7,616 6,449 9,894 4,044 1978 ... 3,082 3,330 4,455 5,514 8,114 6,834 10,412 2,448 2,840 3,250 5,063 6,181 9,007 7,601 11,389 1979 ... 3,718 3,639 5,844 7,325 10,305 8,848 12,798 2,926 1980 ... 4,228 4,025 4,562 6,535 8,389 11,500 10,066 14,013 1981 ... 3,314 3,650 4,554 7,119 9,055 12,673 10,912 15,543 1982 ... 4,848 3,610 5,090 7,682 9,707 14,113 12,243 17,061 1983 ... 4,662 3,876 4,991 5,400 8,122 10,440 15,372 13,237 18,813 1984 ... 1985 ... 4,278 5,991 8,788 11,394 16,743 14,517 20,366 5,408 4,230 5,314 9,333 12,212 17,979 15,739 21,721 1986 ... 6,129 4,526 6,380 9,751 12,746 19,365 17,197 22,939 1987 ... 5,268 4,685 5,727 6,749 10,419 1988 ... 20,375 17,982 24,237 14,021 1989 ... 5,577 6,952 11,114 15,159 21,827 19,570 25,462 5,026 5,224 6,201 7,575 11,791 15,681 23,478 20,837 27,843 1990 ... 1991 ... 5,583 6,298 7,987 12,429 16,310 24,684 21,859 29,466 Constant 1991 dollars 1939 ... ———————— ———————— 1946 ... 1949 ... ———————— 1956 ... ———————— ———————— 1958 ... 1961 ... ———————— ———————— 1963 ... ———————— 1964 ... 1966 ... ———————— 1967 ... ———————— $6,066 $7,354 $8,990 $15,115 $12,563 $22,179 $4,066 1968 ... $5,178 5,622 6,313 1969 ... 9,159 15,078 12,121 22,182 4,472 7,790 4,472 6,406 8,004 9,664 16,183 13,423 22,743 1970 ... 5,690 5,821 6,406 8,246 10,109 17,003 14,262 23,204 1971 ... 4,728 4,751 5,754 6,761 8,397 1972 ... 17,302 14,500 23,623 10,059 1973 ... 5,877 6,807 8,647 10,077 16,878 14,071 23,142 4,782 4,951 5,686 8,360 10,390 16,043 13,562 21,223 1974 ... 6,617 5,061 6,858 8,390 10,463 15,982 13,597 20,696 1975 ... 5,861 4,917 5,879 6,786 8,644 1976 ... 17,266 14,568 22,455 10,886 1977 ... 6,125 6,871 9,089 10,918 17,117 14,494 22,237 5,001 5,114 6,438 6,956 9,306 11,519 16,950 14,276 21,750 1978 ... 1979 ... 5,328 6,097 6,975 9,498 11,596 16,897 14,260 21,366 1980 ... 4,836 6,989 9,660 12,108 17,033 14,625 21,154 6,015 4,966 6,031 9,792 12,570 17,231 15,082 20,996 1981 ... 6,835 5,152 6,842 10,048 12,780 17,887 15,401 21,937 1982 ... 6,428 4,937 6,375 6,960 10,505 1983 ... 19,299 16,742 23,330 13,274 1984 ... 6,543 7,079 10,647 13,686 20,151 17,352 24,662 5,081 5,415 6,845 7,583 11,124 14,423 21,193 18,376 25,779 1985 ... 1986 ... 5,257 6,604 7,617 11,598 15,176 22,343 19,559 26,993 1987 ... 5,426 7,649 11,691 15,282 23,218 20,618 27,503 6,316 5,394 16,143 7,770 11,996 1988 ... 23,458 20,703 27,904 6,594 1989 ... 6,126 7,636 12,207 16,650 23,974 21,495 27,967 5,520 1990 ... 5,444 6,462 7,894 12,287 16,341 24,466 21,714 29,015 1991 ... 6,298 7,987 12,429 16,310 24,684 21,859 29,466 5,583 —Data not available. and unpublished data. (This table was pre- of Families and Persons in the United States, pared September 1992.) SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; Current Population Reports, Money Income

34 Chapter 2 Elementary and Secondary Education William C. Sonnenberg agricultural training. In 1805, New York City adopted Several cities in the colonies, particularly in Massa- chusetts, set up a variety of elementary schools. a concept known as monitorial schools which were These efforts were often modest, taught by house- designed to provide mass education to large num- wives, clergy, or missionaries in their spare time, with bers of children. However, success was limited when sparse resources. Boston, and several other large teachers had to try to teach hundreds of children at cities, did provide some structure and some re- once using better students as helpers. But the stage sources for their schools. But no colony centralized was set for what has been termed the ‘‘educational control of education. As towns prospered, the need awakening,’’ a movement strongly influenced by Hor- for public education standards became a concern of ace Mann. As Secretary of the State Board of Edu- colonial governments. Thus, in 1642, the General cation of Massachusetts, he presided over the enact- Court of Massachusetts enacted into law a con- ment of the first compulsory elementary school at- demnation of parents and masters who did not take tendance law in 1852. Although significant progress steps to guarantee that their children could ‘‘read & was made in providing formal education to residents understand the principles of religion & the capitall in some states, such as Massachusetts, there were lawes of this country.’’ It is important to note that the wide variations in the availability of education serv- responsibility for providing education was placed on ices. parents rather than borne by the government. From colonial times, America has recognized the Perhaps in response to a lack of direction in the value, both individually and collectively, of a basic above legislation, albeit a clear expression of con- education. By the time of the first national surveys of cern, Massachusetts enacted provisions in 1647 for education statistics in 1869–70, millions of young the creation of grammar schools in any town which people were enrolled in public elementary schools. attained a population level of 100 families or house- Statistical Trends holds. The stated aim of these schools was to ‘‘in- struct youth so farr as they shall be fited for y univer- Enrollment sity Harvard.’’ These Massachusetts laws served as The most fundamental measure of the scope of an models for other colonies. education system is a measure of enrollment. Over Boston also took the lead in establishing the first the period covered in this report, total enrollment in public secondary school, Latin Grammar School, in U.S. public elementary and secondary schools rose 1635. This institution focused primarily on college from 7.6 million in 1870–71 to 41.2 million in 1990– preparatory studies, such as mathematics and an- 91. This increase may be attributed to growth in the cient languages. In subsequent years, the concept population, as well as to increases in the proportion spread throughout the Massachusetts colony, espe- of young people attending school. Detailed informa- cially with the acts of the legislature in 1647. tion on the increases in the enrollment rates can be The Northwest Ordinances of 1787 represent a found in chapter 1. The pattern of the rise in public significant federal step in providing education. This school enrollment has not been consistent. Enroll- legislation authorized grants of land for the establish- ment increases have occurred at different rates, and ment of educational institutions. The Continental there have been two periods of enrollment declines: Congress stated, ‘‘Religion, morality and knowledge the first, from the mid-1930s to the mid-1940s; and being necessary to good government and the happi- the second, from the early 1970s to the mid-1980s ness of mankind, schools and the means of edu- (table 9). cation shall forever be encouraged.’’ Other governmental efforts also followed independ- Public school enrollment expanded rapidly during ence, as many local legislatures moved to establish the late 19th century, with a particularly large in- the concept of a uniform public system of elementary crease of 44 percent during the 1870s. The in- education. This was necessary to guarantee such es- creases of the 1870s and 1880s were fueled by in- sentials as a common language and technical and creases in the school-age population and increases 25

35 26 Elementary and Secondary Education After World War II, public school enrollment began in the enrollment ratios. Some of the apparent in- crease, particularly during the 1870s, may be due to increasing again. The 1950s were a period of dy- improvements in the relatively primitive data collec- namic growth, with public school enrollment jumping tion systems. Enrollment growth continued in the by 44 percent. The enrollment increase was driven 1890s and the early 20th century, primarily driven by by the entry of the ‘‘baby boomers’’ into elementary population increases. Between 1889–90 and 1909– schools, as well as by the increase in the high school 10, the ratio of enrollment to the number of 5- to 17- enrollment ratio of 14- to 17-year-olds. During the year-olds rose only slightly, from 77 percent to 81 rush to accommodate the growing numbers of stu- percent. Enrollment growth accelerated again be- dents during this period, school buildings were con- tween 1909–10 and 1919–20, especially at the sec- structed in expanding suburban areas, and teacher ondary level. Between 1909–10 and 1919–20, the demand rose dramatically. Enrollment increases con- ratio of high school enrollment to the 14- to 17-year- tinued through the 1960s and until 1971. Since 1971, old population rose from 14 percent to 31 percent. enrollment ratios have been relatively stable, show- The enrollment ratio for the younger 5- to 13-year-old ing an increase only at the elementary level in the children was over 100 percent, indicating both the 1980s. The enrollment declines after 1971 were due high enrollment rate for the age group and the num- to a decline in births following the end of the ‘‘baby ber of older students attending below ninth grade. boom.’’ Between 1971 and 1984, public school en- Enrollment growth continued during the 1920s aided rollment declined by 15 percent. The increase in en- by further increases in the high school enrollment ra- rollment from 1985 to 1992 has been driven by in- tios. During the mid 1930s, changes in enrollment ra- creases in population and, to a smaller extent, by tios moderated and enrollments began to decline as rises in the enrollment rate of prekindergarten and the number of 5- to 13-year-olds declined. Between kindergarten pupils. 1933–34 and 1944–45, public school enrollment fell by 12 percent. Figure 6.--Enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools, by level: 1869-70 to 1992-93 Millions 50 40 Total 30 Elementary 20 10 Secondary 0 1970 1950 1930 1910 1890 1870 1993 1920 1980 1900 1940 1880 1960 Year ending Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; and Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, various issues.

36 27 Elementary and Secondary Education Figure 7.--Elementary and secondary enrollment as a percentage of 5- to 17-year-olds, by level: 1869-70 to fall 1991 Percent Elementary enrollment/5- to 13-year-olds 110 100 Elementary and secondary enrollment/ 90 5- to 17-year-olds 80 70 60 50 Secondary enrollment/ 40 14- to 17-year olds 30 20 10 0 1910 1930 1870 1950 1890 1970 1992 1900 1920 1880 1980 1960 1940 Year ending Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, and U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, various issues. School Attendance days in 1979–80. In the early years, students were likely to take time off to help with harvests or other Enrollment figures show the progress made in en- farm work. Also, the less advanced state of medicine couraging students to participate at the secondary and hygiene left students more susceptible to long- education level, but they do not fully illustrate the term illnesses that prevented school attendance. The progress that has been made in the amount of edu- length of the school year and the average number of cation provided to students. The average number of days attended rose slowly during the late 19th cen- days that students attended school increased sub- tury, but rapid increases did not occur until the stantially during the late 19th century and early 20th 1920s. Between 1919–20 and 1929–30, the average century (table 14). number of days attended rose from 121 to 143. Dur- In 1869–70, the school year was only about 132 ing the 1930s, the average number of days attended days long compared to about 180 today. Not only increased to 152, and the school year lengthened to was the year much shorter, but the attendance rate 175 days, almost as long as today. Since then the of 59 percent was much lower than the 90 percent changes have been relatively small. The increase in figure calculated for 1979–80. The net result of these the number of school days for the average student factors is that students in 1869–70 attended school during the early 20th century meant that a more ex- for an average of only 78 days compared to 161 tensive instructional program could be provided.

37 28 Elementary and Secondary Education Figure 8.--Average number of days per year attended by public school students: 1869-70 to 1980-81 Number of days per year 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1950 1870 1970 1910 1930 1890 1940 1900 1960 1880 1920 1981 Year ending and Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; Digest of Education Statistics, various issues. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Pupil/Teacher Ratios Over the past 120 years, there have been several shifts in the proportion of female teachers. During the As might be expected, the increases in enrollment late 19th and early 20th centuries, the proportion of were mirrored by rises in the number of teachers em- female teachers increased steadily, from 57 percent ployed in public school systems. During the late 19th in 1879–80 to 86 percent in 1919–20. This shift in and early 20th centuries, the number of teachers the composition of the teacher force was brought rose at almost exactly the same rate as enrollment about by the extensive hiring of women teachers to (table 14). A steady pupil/teacher ratio of about 34 to provide instruction for the rising enrollment and the 37 resulted. During the mid 1920s, a long-term pat- 22 percent decline in the number of male teachers. tern developed of a slowly falling pupil/teacher ratio. During the 1920s and 1930s, the proportion of fe- This slow movement picked up in the 1960s, when male teachers dipped to a slightly lower level, before the pupil/teacher ratio fell from 27 to 23. During the returning to the 85 percent level during World War II, 1970s, the number of teachers remained relatively when many young men left their positions to enter steady during the enrollment decline, causing the the military. After the war, the proportion of female pupil/teacher ratio to drop to 18 in 1984-85. By 1990, teachers began falling, as the number of male teach- 2.4 million Americans, an all-time high, were elemen- ers increased more rapidly than the number of fe- tary-secondary teachers (nearly one percent of the male teachers. In 1959–60, about 71 percent of the population). More complex and diverse school offer- teachers were women. After dipping to a slightly ings, including special education and enrichment pro- lower proportion during the late 1960s and 1970s, grams, required increasing numbers of specialized the proportion of women returned to the 1959–60 teachers. level during the late 1980s (table 14).

38 29 Elementary and Secondary Education Figure 9.--Pupil/teacher ratio in public elementary and secondary schools: 1869-70 to fall 1990 Pupil/teacher ratio 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1970 1870 1950 1930 1910 1890 1900 1920 1880 1980 1960 1940 1991 Year ending Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; Historical and U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, various issues. Digest of Education Statistics, Figure 10.--Percentage of elementary and secondary school teachers, by sex: 1869-70 to fall 1990 Percent 100 90 Female 80 70 60 50 40 30 Male 20 10 0 1930 1910 1890 1970 1950 1870 1991 1960 1880 1940 1980 1920 1900 Year ending Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; and U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, various issues.

39 Elementary and Secondary Education 30 Student Assessment 13, and these students maintained their initial levels of achievement at age 17. The overall trends in science, mathematics, and In mathematics, the only significant progress by reading suggest few changes in levels of educational white students since 1973 was at age 9. In compari- achievement across the two decades covered by the son, black students showed significant improvements National Assessment of Educational Progress at all three ages, as did Hispanic students at ages (NAEP). Although students appear to be mastering 9 and 13. The reading results show a similar pattern. the lower-level skills and virtually all students appear Although the proficiency of white 17-year-olds has to have grasped mathematics, science, and reading improved significantly since 1971, 9- and 13-year- fundamentals, few demonstrate competency with olds were reading at about the same level in 1990 more sophisticated materials and tasks. as nearly two decades ago. Black students, however, In 1990, science achievement was no better at demonstrated significantly higher proficiency in 1990 ages 9 and 13 and somewhat worse at age 17 than at all three ages. Hispanic students also showed in 1969–70 (table 17). At all three ages, across the gains at age 17, yet their reading performance did 20-year span, performance declined significantly in not change significantly at the younger ages. the 1970s, but improved significantly during the High School Graduates 1980s. At ages 9 and 13, these recent gains re- turned performance to levels observed two decades The large enrollment in high schools is one of the earlier. However, at age 17, average proficiency in many success stories of American education during 1990 remained significantly below that in 1969. In the 20th century. Not surprisingly, the high enroll- addition, science proficiency did not improve during ment ratios have resulted in the growth in the num- the 1980s for the lower-performing 25 percent of the ber of high school graduates. An indicator of high 17-year-olds. school graduation success can be measured by com- Average mathematics proficiency improved be- paring the number of high school graduates to the tween 1973 and 1990 at ages 9 and 13. For 17-year- 17-year-old population. This measurement does not olds, statistically significant declines in performance account for students receiving their diplomas through between 1973 and 1982 were followed by recovery GED programs, night schools, or other special pro- during the 1980s to the original level of performance. grams; however, this ratio does allow rough historical At all three ages, students’ average proficiency was comparisons to be made over the past 120 years. significantly higher in 1990 than in 1978. In 1869–70, there were only about two persons re- The reading achievement of 9- and 13-year-olds in ceiving high school diplomas per 100 17-year-olds 1990 was unchanged from 1971, but 17-year-olds (table 19). While this ratio increased to 9 per 100 were reading better. However, the pattern at age 9 during the ensuing 40 years, high school graduation is the reverse of that found for science and for math- remained an atypical occurrence, at least in most ematics at age 17. Significant improvement during areas of the country. It should be noted that gradua- the 1970s has been all but eradicated by commensu- tion ratios for females have consistently been higher rate declines during the 1980s. Little change oc- than those for males. In 1909–10, about 60 percent curred for 13-year-olds. Seventeen-year-olds showed of the graduates were women. During the 1910s, the relatively steady progress across the assessments. 1920s, and the 1930s, the graduation ratios in- The call for improved education and equal oppor- creased rapidly. In 1939–40, the ratio rose above 50 tunity for all students is at the heart of many edu- percent for the first time. In that year, about 53 per- cation reform recommendations. Across the NAEP cent of the graduates were females. During World assessments, both black and Hispanic students War II, the graduation ratio dipped as some young have, on average, demonstrated significantly lower men left school to join the armed forces. proficiency than white students. Immediately after the war, the graduation ratio re- sumed its upward trend, reaching 70 percent in The 1990 results show that white students consist- 1959–60. A peak ratio of 77 percent was attained at ently had higher average achievement than their the end of the 1960s. After falling to around 71 per- black and Hispanic counterparts at all three ages in cent in 1979–80, the ratio has returned to about the all three curriculum areas. The trends, however, do same level as the late 1960s. More students now ob- indicate a lessening of the achievement gap. For ex- tain diplomas through non-traditional programs than ample, between 1969–70 and 1990, science pro- in the earlier years. If these graduates were included, ficiency has remained stable for white 9- and 13- the total graduation ratio for young adults might now year-olds but decreased at age 17. In contrast, black be higher than ever. and Hispanic students showed gains at ages 9 and

40 31 Elementary and Secondary Education Figure 11.--Number of public and private high school graduates per 100 17-year-olds: 1869-70 to 1991-92 Graduates per 100 17-year-olds 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1970 1950 1910 1870 1890 1930 1992 1900 1880 1980 1940 1920 1960 Year ending and Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Current Population Reports, Series P-25; and U.S. Department of Education, various issues. Statistics, Public Elementary and Secondary School During the post-war period, the proportions from Revenues state and federal governments began to rise, while the local proportion declined. By the early 1970s, the Today, public schools derive most of their funds federal government proportion had risen to 9 percent, from state and local governments. Smaller amounts and it remained around this level until the early of federal funds are directed to specific programs, 1980s. The state proportion continued to rise in the such as those for disabled or educationally disadvan- 1970s and, in 1978–79, exceeded the local propor- taged children. Prior to the Great Depression of the tion for the first time. During the 1980s, the propor- 1930s, most of the funding came from local (county and city) sources. From 1889–90 until the mid 1930s, tion from the federal government declined, while the local governments provided over three-quarters of fi- proportion from state governments continued to in- nancial support for elementary and secondary edu- crease, reaching a high of 50 percent in 1986–87. cation. In 1935–36, local governments provided 70 During the late 1980s, the local proportion began percent of the revenues for public schools and 29 growing again, while the state proportions dipped percent came from state governments (table 21). The slightly. federal government provided less than 1 percent.

41 32 Elementary and Secondary Education Figure 12.--Sources of revenues for public elementary and secondary schools: 1889-90 to 1989-90 Percent 100 90 80 70 Local 60 50 40 State 30 20 Federal 10 0 1910 1970 1950 1930 1890 1990 1960 1940 1920 1980 1900 Year ending SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Annual Report of the Commissioner of Education; Systems; Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary Biennial Survey of Education in the United States; Statistics of State School and Common Core of Data survey. and Secondary Education; Public Elementary and Secondary School riod (table 22). This increase in spending would not Expenditures indicate a real increase if even very modest levels of inflation occurred during the 40 years. Also, the sta- Current expenditures are those costs associated ble pupil/teacher ratio during this period suggests with providing educational services to children (e.g., that little additional resources on a per student basis instruction, transportation, and administration). Two were devoted to education. of the most important factors that affect school costs In 1919–20, current expenditure per student in av- are the relative number and pay of teachers. If there erage daily attendance stood at about $53, or about is a drop in the pupil/teacher ratio, school expendi- $355 after adjusting to 1989–90 dollars. The expend- tures per student will rise if other factors are held iture per student jumped 81 percent in the 1920s, constant. Consistent price indexes to adjust older after adjusting for inflation. The real value of teacher historical education finance data are not available. salaries rose by 82 percent during this economic However, an examination of the 1869–70 to 1909–10 boom period, while pupil/teacher ratios changed little data indicates an increase in per student funding. (table 14). During the Depression of the 1930s, ex- The total expenditure (including current expenditures, penditures per student continued to increase, reg- plus capital outlay and interest on school debt) per istering a rise of 24 percent by the end of the dec- student rose from $16 to $33 during the 40-year pe- ade.

42 33 Elementary and Secondary Education Figure 13.--Current expenditure per pupil in average daily attendance, in constant 1989-90 dollars: 1919-20 to 1989-90 Expenditure per pupil $6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 1950 1980 1990 1930 1970 1920 1960 1940 Year ending and SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, various years. Digest of Education Statistics, economic difficulties. In 1989–90, the current ex- Large rises in current expenditure per pupil have occurred in every decade since World War II, even penditure per student in the public schools was near- after adjusting for inflation. The 45 percent boost in ly $5,000. the 1950s and the 69 percent jump in the 1960s are These historical elementary and secondary edu- particularly impressive considering the rapidly rising cation statistics depict a great achievement during enrollment that occurred during these decades. Dur- the first half of the 20th century in the development ing the 1970s and 1980s, the rate of increase in ex- of high schools. Enrollment in high school, once lim- penditures per student slowed to a more moderate ited to the elite, is now an opportunity that is shared rate of 35 percent and 33 percent, respectively. The by nearly all America’s young people. A higher pro- steady increase in expenditure per pupil has been in- portion of students are graduating than ever, and terrupted only twice during the past 70 years, during education funding and teacher salaries are at historic the periods 1931–32 to 1933–34 and 1978–79 to highs. 1980–81. In each case, the Nation was experiencing

43 Elementary and Secondary Education 34 — — — — — — — — — — 6.1 1.7 8.4 1.4 46.6 16.3 89.4 18.3 28.1 47.2 88.5 11 2,528 3,693 2,320 2,969 9 12,751 37,779 45,330 11,390 29,152 96,774 98,060 17,685 40,543 11 248,239 187,384 15 $211,731 $207,584 8 1989–90 — — — — — — — — — — 1.7 6.2 7.3 1.3 18.5 88.5 16.3 29.1 47.8 46.0 89.7 11 3,213 2,459 2,447 2,564 9 11,902 88,345 91,769 14,101 40,189 28,499 37,268 45,388 11,690 11 245,807 173,099 14 $192,977 $192,016 8 1988–89 35 9.8 2.0 6.8 0.6 4 106 782 598 46.8 18.5 86.7 32.7 21.4 43.4 90.6 34.0 90.1 4 11 2,441 1,874 9,504 2,748 6,506 2,300 1,518 160.8 178.5 6,835 9 4 4 11 45,349 38,289 48,041 41,651 13,616 42,029 28,034 86,984 4 4 4 4 $95,962 $96,881 224,567 8 1979–80 91 2.9 8.0 1.6 636 691 87.0 22.6 90.4 28.6 26.0 52.1 39.9 11.5 84.1 32.4 4 161.7 2,589 2,131 4,659 3,220 1,171 2,253 178.9 7,501 1,440 4 9 20,985 41,934 13,037 32,513 16,063 52,386 45,550 34,218 4 201,385 $40,683 $40,267 8 64 4.4 3.1 0.8 490 652 133 402 985 23.5 20.4 84.6 90.0 24.1 56.5 39.1 17.0 79.0 29.0 4 4 1,464 178.0 5,768 5,782 160.2 8,327 1,627 2,662 1,387 8,485 9 4 42,634 36,087 32,477 27,602 12,329 177,080 $15,613 $14,747 8 39 36 2.9 1.7 0.6 101 156 914 719 962 195 57.3 21.3 22.8 83.1 16.8 88.7 20.3 80.3 39.8 17.4 157.9 3,116 4,687 177.9 2,166 1,063 1,014 5,725 3,964 22,284 30,223 19,387 $5,838 $5,437 25,111 149,199 40 32 13 1.8 5.6 0.6 912 195 684 258 681 131 875 23.0 26.0 84.4 19.4 86.7 68.0 22.2 82.8 30.3 11.0 175.0 1,143 6,601 3,858 151.7 1,536 1,942 $2,344 $2,261 25,434 18,832 22,042 30,151 130,880 7 31 93 10 0.4 4.0 0.4 854 142 371 892 354 592 712 16.9 16.0 21.1 17.1 81.7 82.8 25.8 82.7 16.6 79.6 1,728 1,844 143.0 172.7 4,399 3,673 21,265 $2,089 31,414 25,678 $2,317 21,279 121,767 2 3 77591432 Amounts in millions of current dollars 18 14 96 0.3 1.8 0.3 700 160 231 680 584 808 861 154 20.6 78.3 74.8 10.2 26.4 83.2 14.1 16.5 14.8 83.1 $970 121.2 2,200 161.9 2,615 16,150 $1,036 19,378 27,571 21,578 104,514 — — — — — — — — — — — — — 70 5.1 110 111 523 915 413 356 74.2 19.7 72.0 26.5 21.1 16.4 83.6 $426 $433 7 156.8 2,011 112.9 7 6 7 8 9 101112 13 90,490 24,011 17,814 12,827 16,899 1909–10 1919–20 1929–30 1939–40 1949–50 1959–60 1969–70 — — — — — — — — — — — — — 62 35 3.3 423 519 296 127 180 29.9 99.0 71.9 20.4 68.6 28.4 16.5 83.5 $215 $220 7 144.3 1,535 7 10,633 21,573 14,984 75,995 15,503 5 1899–1900 — — — — — — — — — — — — — 22 26 1.6 126 238 364 203 114 86.3 29.5 68.9 20.3 64.1 34.5 18.7 81.3 $143 $141 7 134.7 1,098 8,154 7 62,622 12,723 12,520 18,473 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 1.1 287 110 $78 164 123 801 81.1 19.7 65.5 62.3 30.0 42.8 6,144 130.3 9,868 9,757 50,156 15,066 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 78 80 1.2 123 201 539 $63 3 17.8 57.0 59.3 78.4 30.3 38.7 132.2 4,077 7,562 7,481 2 3 4 38,558 11,683 3 3 1869–70 1879–80 1889–90 ... 2 ... 2 Table 8.—Historical summary of public elementary and secondary school statistics: 1869–70 to 1989–90 in thousands ... 1 1 ... ... ... Item ... ... 2 Finance 6 6 in thousands ... 10 10 5 in thousands ... ... ... 1 9 8 Percent men ... Men, in thousands ... Women, in thousands ... Population, pupils, and instructional staff Kindergarten and grades 1–8, in thousands Grades 9–12 and postgraduate, in thousands structional staff, Interest on school debt ... State governments ... Supervisors, in thousands ... Capital outlay Local sources, including intermediate ... Capital outlay State governments ... Federal government ... schools, in thousands 12 and postgraduate) ... Local sources, including intermediate ... Principals, in thousands ... Other expenditures Teachers, librarians, and other nonsupervisory in- Other expenditures millions ... Federal government ... Interest on school debt ... Current expenditures Current expenditures Total enrollment in elementary and secondary Total number of days attended by pupils enrolled, in Total revenue receipts ... Percent of enrolled pupils attending daily ... Total instructional staff, in thousands ... Average number of days attended per pupil ... High school graduates, in thousands ... Total population, Percent of revenue receipts from Population aged 5–17 years, Total expenditures for public schools ... Enrollment as a percent of 5– to 17–year-olds ... Average daily attendance, in thousands ... Percent of total population 5–17 ... Percent of total expenditures devoted to Enrollment as a percent of total population ... Average length of school term, in days ... Percent of total enrollment in high schools (grades 9–

44 35 Elementary and Secondary Education — — — — 853 853 5,526 4,960 5,526 4,960 17,099 17,099 34,886 34,886 112,358 112,358 $32,723 $32,723 15 13 13 1989–90 — — — — 785 823 Economic Indicators; 5,109 4,645 5,353 4,866 17,061 16,284 33,036 34,612 112,525 107,400 $30,969 $32,447 14 13 13 1988–89 Statistics of State School Systems; 427 699 13.95 12.73 22.82 20.82 4,074 9,117 3,716 2,491 2,272 87,454 19,087 31,218 53,470 14,911 $16,715 $27,339 13 13 1979–80 (copyright by the National Education Association.) 202 679 955 816 5.34 4.56 17.95 15.33 3,210 2,743 3,829 8,750 18,656 12,871 62,709 $8,840 29,412 $29,714 88 381 472 375 2.65 9.12 2.11 2,272 11.45 2,040 9,818 1,621 5,413 54,220 $5,174 23,392 12,547 $22,359 39 210 259 209 7.83 1.46 6.27 1.17 1,388 8,149 1,120 3,400 1,520 10,312 55,287 $3,010 18,229 $16,138 Estimates of School Statistics Common Core of Data survey; Council of Economic Advisers, 587 961 163 800 0.50 5.45 0.60 4.54 17.91 3,502 5,333 1,356 88.09 $1,441 12,320 31,819 105.74 $13,093 Amounts 805 141 643 667 4.67 0.63 3.71 0.50 3,845 1,634 86.70 19.03 4,948 28,522 $1,420 12,121 108.49 $10,534 — — — — — — Amounts in constant 1989–90 dollars 66 427 355 The expenditure figure used here is the sum of current expenditures allocable to pupil costs, capital outlay, and Estimated by the National Education Association. Per-day rates derived by dividing annual rates by average length of term. Excludes current expenditures not allocable to pupil costs. ‘‘A.D.A.’’ means average daily attendance in elementary and secondary schools. 2.20 2.67 0.40 9.91 0.33 $871 64.16 53.32 NOTE.—Kindergarten enrollment includes a relatively small number of nursery school pupils. Because of rounding, —Data not collected. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 15 13 16 14 17 $5,803 Secondary Education, FY 1980; interest on school debt. details may not add to totals. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. Beginning in 1959– 60, data include Alaska and Hawaii. (This table was prepared October 1992.) and National Education Association, Statistics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Systems; Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and — — — — — — — — — — — — 4.71 0.21 0.18 $485 33.23 27.85 7 6 7 8 9 101112 13 7 1909–10 1919–20 1929–30 1939–40 1949–50 1959–60 1969–70 — — — — — — — — — — — — 2.83 0.14 0.12 $325 20.21 16.67 7 7 5 1899–1900 — — — — — — — — — — — — 2.23 0.13 0.10 $252 17.23 13.99 7 7 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 0.10 1.56 $195 12.71 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 1.59 0.12 $189 15.55 2 3 4 1869–70 1879–80 1889–90 ... ... ... ... 1 1 15 15 ... ... 12 12 per pupil in A.D.A. ... per pupil in A.D.A. ... Table 8.—Historical summary of public elementary and secondary school statistics: 1869–70 to 1989–90—Continued 17 17 1 Item per pupil in A.D.A. per pupil in A.D.A. per pupil in A.D.A. ... per pupil in A.D.A. ... 14 14 per capita ... per capita ... 16 16 1 1 Average includes supervisors, principals, teachers, and other nonsupervisory instructional staff. Excludes community colleges and adult education. Includes summer schools, community colleges, and adult education. Beginning in 1959–60, also includes commu- Beginning in 1969–70, includes capital outlay by state and local school building authorities. Estimated by the National Center for Education Statistics. Data for 1869–70 through 1959–60 are school year enrollment. Data for later years are fall enrollment. Prior to 1919–20, data are for the number of different persons employed rather than number of positions. Data on population and labor force are from the Bureau of the Census, and data on personal income and national Prior to 1919–20, includes expenditures for interest. Data for 1870–71. Includes interest on school debt. Because of the modification of the scope of ‘‘current expenditures for elementary and secondary schools,’’ data 8 5 9 7 10 6 1 11 4 12 3 2 National income per pupil in A.D.A. ... Total expenditure Total school expenditures per capita of total population National income Current expenditure per day Total expenditure Total expenditure per day per pupil in A.D.A. ... Personal income per member of labor force Current expenditure per day Total school expenditures per capita of total population National income per pupil in A.D.A. ... Current expenditure Annual salary of instructional staff Total expenditure per day per pupil in A.D.A. ... Annual salary of instructional staff Current expenditure National income Personal income per member of labor force nity services, formerly classified with ‘‘current expenditures for elementary and secondary schools.’’ overseas. income are from the Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce. Population data through 1900 are for 1959–60 and later years are not entirely comparable with prior years. based on total population from the decennial census. From 1909–10 to 1959–60, population data are total population, including armed forces overseas, as of July 1. Data for later years are for resident population, excluding armed forces

45 36 Elementary and Secondary Education Table 9.—Enrollment in regular public and private elementary and secondary schools, by grade level: 1869–70 to fall 1992 [Enrollment in thousands] 1 Public schools All public and private schools Private schools All schools Ratio of Ratio of kinder- kinder- Ratio of grades 9 garten to garten to Kinder- Kinder- Kinder- Year Grades 9 grade 12 grade 8 Grades 9 to 12 en- Grades 9 Total Total garten to Total garten to garten to rollment to enrollment to 12 to 12 enrollment to 12 grade 8 grade 8 grade 8 to 5– to 14– to 17- to 5– to year-olds 17-year- 13-year- olds olds 2345678910111213 1 2 1869–70 ... .——— — — 6,872 ————— 57.0 7,562 80 —————— 1870–71 ... .——— 7,481 ———————— .——— 1871–72 ... 7,815 .——— ———————— 1872–73 ... 8,004 1873–74 ... 8,444 ———————— .——— .——— 1874–75 ... ———————— 8,786 1875–76 ... .——— 8,869 ———————— 8,965 1876–77 ... .——— ———————— ———————— 9,439 .——— 1877–78 ... 1878–79 ... 9,504 ———————— .——— 2 9,757 110 — — 1879–80 ... .——— 65.5 — — 9,868 — .——— ———————— 1880–81 ... 10,001 10,212 1881–82 ... ———————— .——— ———————— 10,652 .——— 1882–83 ... .——— ———————— 1883–84 ... 10,982 1884–85 ... 11,398 ———————— .——— .——— 1885–86 ... ———————— 11,664 1886–87 ... .——— 11,885 ———————— 12,183 1887–88 ... .——— ———————— — 12,392 — — 1,269 ————— 13,661 1888–89 ... — 14,036 298 12,723 12,520 203 1,611 1,516 1889–90 ... 77.3 — — 14,334 95 14,541 310 13,050 12,839 212 1,491 1,392 98 — — — 1890–91 ... 14,231 14,215 1,199 13,256 13,016 240 1,300 14,556 101 — — — 1891–92 ... 340 1,240 14,826 13,483 13,229 254 1,343 356 102 — — — 1892–93 ... 14,470 15,314 14,906 408 1893–94 ... 13,706 289 1,319 1,200 119 — — — 13,995 1894–95 ... 14,987 468 14,244 13,894 350 1,211 1,093 118 — — — 15,455 15,834 15,347 14,499 14,118 380 1,335 1,228 107 — — — 1895–96 ... 487 15,623 1896–97 ... 14,414 409 1,317 1,209 108 — — — 517 16,140 14,823 105 15,904 14,654 450 1,355 1,250 15,104 — — — 16,459 1897–98 ... 555 15,894 580 15,176 14,700 476 1,298 1898–99 ... 104 — — — 16,474 1,194 16,855 630 15,503 14,984 519 1,352 1,241 111 78.1 — — 1899–1900 ... 16,225 1,262 16,422 15,703 15,161 542 1,370 650 108 79.3 106.6 10.6 1900–01 ... 17,072 17,126 16,471 655 15,917 15,367 551 1,209 1,104 105 78.6 105.8 10.5 1901–02 ... 1902–03 ... 17,205 694 16,009 15,417 592 1,196 1,094 102 77.9 104.8 11.0 16,511 17,560 16,821 16,256 15,620 636 1,304 1,201 103 78.7 105.8 11.5 1903–04 ... 739 1,231 17,806 16,468 15,789 680 1,338 787 107 78.8 106.1 12.0 1904–05 ... 17,019 18,056 17,231 824 16,642 15,919 723 1,414 1,312 102 79.0 106.3 12.4 1905–06 ... 1906–07 ... 18,292 848 16,891 16,140 751 1,402 1,305 97 79.1 106.6 12.5 17,444 18,537 1,475 862 17,062 16,292 770 1907–08 ... 1,383 92 79.2 107.0 12.5 17,675 1,411 1908–09 ... 935 17,506 16,665 841 17,982 1,317 94 79.9 107.8 13.4 18,917 1909–10 ... 19,372 18,340 1,032 17,814 16,899 915 1,558 1,441 117 80.7 108.6 14.5 1910–11 ... 19,636 1,288 18,035 16,878 1,157 1,601 1,471 131 80.5 107.1 17.8 18,349 19,830 18,488 18,183 16,982 1,201 1,647 1,506 141 80.3 106.4 18.3 1911–12 ... 1,342 18,866 1912–13 ... 17,276 1,333 1,739 1,591 148 81.3 106.9 20.1 1,482 20,348 18,609 155 19,348 17,722 1,432 1,781 1,626 19,154 82.1 107.4 21.2 20,935 1913–14 ... 1,587 19,758 1,717 19,704 18,143 1,562 1,770 1,615 1914–15 ... 82.7 107.4 22.7 21,474 155 22,172 1,866 20,352 18,641 1,711 1,820 1,665 155 84.2 108.5 24.5 1915–16 ... 20,306 3 ... 20,392 1,952 20,603 18,808 1,795 22,344 1,584 157 83.7 107.1 25.5 1916–17 1,741 22,516 20,423 2,093 20,854 18,920 1,934 1,662 1,504 159 1917–18 ... 105.4 27.1 83.1 3 ... 22,897 20,643 2,253 21,216 19,149 2,067 1,681 1,495 186 83.2 104.7 28.9 1918–19 23,278 20,863 21,578 19,378 2,200 1,699 1,486 214 84.4 105.2 31.2 1919–20 ... 2,414 3 1,640 21,292 2,757 22,409 19,872 2,537 ... 1,420 220 85.9 105.8 35.0 1920–21 24,049 24,820 21,721 3,099 23,239 20,366 2,873 1,581 1921–22 ... 226 87.1 106.3 38.4 1,355 3 ... 25,418 22,047 3,371 23,764 20,633 3,131 1,654 1,414 240 87.9 106.7 40.8 1922–23 1,473 26,016 3,644 24,289 20,899 3,390 1,727 22,372 254 88.6 107.0 43.1 1923–24 ... 3 1,808 ... 26,733 22,807 3,926 24,650 20,999 3,651 2,083 1924–25 275 89.7 107.9 45.3 1925–26 ... 27,180 4,053 24,741 20,984 3,757 2,439 2,143 296 90.0 108.3 45.9 23,127 3 ... 23,342 4,153 24,961 21,126 3,834 2,535 2,216 318 89.9 107.9 46.4 1926–27 27,495 341 23,558 25,180 21,268 3,911 2,631 2,289 4,252 89.9 107.8 46.8 1927–28 ... 27,810 3 ... 28,070 23,573 4,497 25,429 21,274 1928–29 2,641 2,300 341 89.9 107.2 48.8 4,155 28,329 1929–30 ... 4,741 25,678 21,279 4,399 2,651 2,310 341 90.2 106.6 51.1 23,588 3 4,770 28,695 23,553 5,142 25,977 21,207 1930–31 2,719 2,346 372 90.7 105.8 54.9 ... 2,786 29,061 5,543 26,275 21,135 5,140 23,518 2,383 403 91.8 105.6 59.0 1931–32 ... 3 1932–33 ... 23,326 5,786 26,355 20,950 5,405 2,757 2,375 382 92.0 104.9 61.5 29,112 29,163 2,368 6,029 26,434 20,765 5,669 2,729 1933–34 ... 360 92.4 104.5 63.8 23,133 3 ... 29,084 22,889 6,196 26,401 20,579 1934–35 2,684 2,310 374 92.4 104.2 65.0 5,822 1935–36 ... 29,006 22,644 6,362 26,367 20,393 5,975 2,639 2,251 387 92.4 104.2 65.9 3 1936–37 28,834 22,316 6,518 26,171 20,070 ... 2,663 2,246 417 92.4 104.1 66.6 6,101 1937–38 ... 28,663 21,989 6,674 25,975 19,748 6,227 2,687 2,241 447 92.6 104.3 67.7 3 19,290 ... 28,354 21,487 6,866 25,704 1938–39 6,414 2,649 2,197 452 92.7 104.0 69.3

46 37 Elementary and Secondary Education Table 9.—Enrollment in regular public and private elementary and secondary schools, by grade level: 1869–70 to fall 1992—Continued [Enrollment in thousands] 1 Public schools All public and private schools Private schools All schools Ratio of Ratio of kinder- kinder- Ratio of grades 9 garten to garten to Kinder- Kinder- Kinder- Year Grades 9 grade 12 grade 8 Grades 9 Grades 9 to 12 en- Total Total garten to Total garten to garten to to 12 enrollment to 12 to 12 enrollment rollment to grade 8 grade 8 grade 8 to 5– to 14– to 17- to 5– to year-olds 17-year- 13-year- olds olds 2345678910111213 1 7,059 25,434 18,832 6,601 2,611 2,153 458 93.0 103.6 71.3 28,045 1939–40 ... 20,985 3 20,726 7,184 25,296 18,582 6,714 2,614 2,143 470 93.7 103.9 73.0 1940–41 ... 27,910 92.3 6,871 18,175 6,388 2,617 2,133 483 24,562 103.1 70.5 1941–42 ... 27,179 20,308 3 26,709 20,135 1942–43 24,155 6,574 6,122 2,554 2,102 452 91.9 103.5 68.4 ... 18,033 25,758 5,974 23,267 17,713 5,554 2,491 2,070 421 89.3 102.1 63.0 1943–44 ... 19,783 3 ... 6,053 23,226 17,666 5,560 2,658 2,165 493 90.3 102.7 64.7 25,884 1944–45 19,830 91.6 6,187 17,678 5,622 2,825 2,259 565 23,300 102.9 67.7 1945–46 ... 26,124 19,937 3 26,598 20,177 6,421 23,659 17,821 5,838 ... 2,355 584 93.1 102.6 72.0 1946–47 2,939 26,998 6,256 23,945 18,291 5,653 3,054 2,451 602 93.2 103.2 70.5 1947–48 ... 20,743 3 ... 21,398 6,296 24,477 18,818 5,658 27,694 2,580 637 93.4 102.1 72.3 1948–49 3,217 28,492 22,095 6,397 25,111 19,387 1949–50 ... 3,380 2,708 672 94.3 102.1 74.5 5,725 3 ... 29,301 22,831 6,470 25,706 19,900 5,806 3,595 2,931 664 95.4 102.5 76.6 1950–51 30,372 23,834 26,563 20,681 5,882 3,809 3,154 656 97.0 104.6 76.7 1951–52 ... 6,538 3 3,373 6,584 27,507 21,625 5,882 4,074 24,997 702 95.7 103.0 75.5 ... 1952–53 31,581 26,138 7,038 28,836 22,546 6,290 4,339 3,592 747 96.7 102.7 79.4 1953–54 ... 33,175 3 ... 27,210 7,359 30,045 23,471 6,574 4,524 3,739 785 97.0 102.1 81.8 1954–55 34,569 3,886 28,177 31,163 24,290 6,873 4,709 7,696 823 97.1 101.7 83.5 1955–56 ... 35,872 37,303 29,107 8,195 32,334 25,016 7,318 4,968 4,092 877 97.4 101.2 86.0 1956–57 ... 38,756 25,669 8,790 33,529 1957–58 ... 7,860 5,227 4,297 931 97.7 101.4 86.6 29,966 40,290 31,040 34,839 26,581 8,258 5,451 4,459 993 97.9 101.6 87.2 1958–59 ... 9,250 4,640 41,762 36,087 27,602 8,485 5,675 9,520 1,035 98.0 101.8 86.9 1959–60 ... 32,242 43,070 33,191 9,879 37,260 28,439 8,821 5,810 4,752 1,058 97.5 100.4 89.0 1960–61 ... 1961–62 ... 44,146 10,694 38,253 28,686 9,566 5,893 4,765 1,128 97.5 100.7 88.8 33,451 45,798 6,052 11,574 39,746 29,374 10,372 1962–63 ... 4,850 1,202 98.2 101.0 90.8 34,224 6,174 1963–64 ... 12,375 41,025 29,915 11,110 34,825 4,910 1,265 98.2 100.7 91.7 47,199 1964–65 ... 48,580 35,652 12,928 42,280 30,652 11,628 6,300 5,000 1,300 98.1 101.2 90.6 Fall 1965 ... 48,368 13,002 42,068 30,466 11,602 6,300 4,900 1,400 96.9 98.9 91.9 35,366 49,242 35,962 43,042 31,162 11,880 6,200 4,800 1,400 97.2 99.1 92.2 Fall 1966 ... 13,280 36,243 Fall 1967 ... 31,643 12,247 6,000 4,600 1,400 97.1 98.9 92.7 13,647 49,890 43,890 1,400 36,581 32,181 12,723 5,800 4,400 44,903 97.6 99.4 93.1 50,703 Fall 1968 ... 14,123 36,713 14,337 45,550 32,513 13,037 5,500 Fall 1969 ... 1,300 97.5 99.7 92.2 51,050 4,200 51,257 14,647 45,894 32,558 13,336 5,363 4,052 1,311 97.5 99.8 92.0 Fall 1970 ... 36,610 3,900 36,218 46,071 32,318 13,753 5,200 15,053 1,300 97.5 100.0 92.2 Fall 1971 ... 51,271 50,726 35,579 15,148 45,726 31,879 13,848 5,000 3,700 1,300 97.0 99.7 91.0 Fall 1972 ... Fall 1973 ... 50,445 15,344 45,445 31,401 14,044 5,000 3,700 1,300 97.2 100.2 91.0 35,101 50,073 34,671 45,073 30,971 14,103 5,000 3,700 1,300 97.2 100.6 90.4 Fall 1974 ... 15,403 3,700 49,819 44,819 30,515 14,304 5,000 15,604 1,300 97.6 100.9 91.1 Fall 1975 ... 34,215 49,478 33,822 15,656 44,311 29,997 14,314 5,167 3,825 1,342 97.7 100.9 91.5 Fall 1976 ... Fall 1977 ... 48,717 15,546 43,577 29,375 14,203 5,140 3,797 1,343 97.6 101.0 91.2 33,172 47,637 5,086 15,441 42,551 28,463 14,088 Fall 1978 ... 3,732 1,353 97.1 100.3 91.1 32,195 5,000 Fall 1979 ... 14,916 41,651 28,034 13,616 31,734 3,700 1,300 97.1 101.0 89.8 46,651 Fall 1980 ... 46,208 31,639 14,570 40,877 27,647 13,231 5,331 3,992 1,339 97.8 101.7 90.3 Fall 1981 ... 45,544 14,164 40,044 27,280 12,764 5,500 4,100 1,400 98.3 102.0 90.8 31,380 45,166 31,361 39,566 27,161 12,405 5,600 4,200 1,400 98.9 102.4 91.8 Fall 1982 ... 13,805 4,315 44,967 39,252 26,981 12,271 5,715 13,671 1,400 99.6 102.9 92.9 Fall 1983 ... 31,296 44,908 31,205 13,704 39,208 26,905 12,304 5,700 4,300 1,400 99.9 103.2 93.2 Fall 1984 ... Fall 1985 ... 44,979 13,750 39,422 27,034 12,388 5,557 4,195 1,362 100.0 103.7 92.5 31,229 45,205 5,452 13,669 39,753 27,420 12,333 Fall 1986 ... 4,116 1,336 100.1 103.9 92.4 31,536 5,479 Fall 1987 ... 13,324 40,007 27,930 12,077 32,162 4,232 1,247 100.4 104.3 92.1 45,486 Fall 1988 ... 45,430 32,535 12,896 40,189 28,499 11,690 5,241 4,036 1,206 100.1 103.6 92.2 Fall 1989 ... 45,898 12,583 40,543 29,152 11,390 5,355 4,162 1,193 101.3 104.6 93.2 33,314 4,090 Fall 1990 ... 12,472 41,224 29,888 11,336 5,226 33,978 1,136 102.5 106.2 93.7 46,450 3 93.8 ... 47,032 34,447 12,585 41,839 30,378 11,461 5,193 4,069 1,124 102.4 106.0 Fall 1991 3 — 47,601 34,855 12,746 42,250 30,663 11,587 5,351 4,192 1,159 ... — — Fall 1992 1 For 1958–59 and 1960–61 through 1963–64, numbers were estimated using linear graduate students. Population data for 1870 through 1961 include U.S. population over- interpolation. Data for most years are at least partially estimated. seas; data for later years are for U.S. resident population only. Population data for 1870 2 to 1890 are from the decennial census. Data for later years are based on counts of pop- Data are for public elementary and secondary schools only. 3 ulation for July 1 preceding the school year. Because of rounding, details may not add Estimated. to totals. —Data not available. NOTE.—Prior to 1965, enrollment data include students who enrolled at any time dur- An- SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, ing the school year. Enrollment ratios based on cumulative enrollment figures tend to nual Report of the Commissioner of Education, Biennial Survey of Education in the Unit- and U.S. be approximately 1 to 2 percentage points higher than counts based on fall enrollment. ed States; Statistics of State School Systems; Digest of Education Statistics; Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P- In later years, data for grades kindergarten through 8 include a relatively small number 20, and unpublished data. (This table was prepared September 1992.) of prekindergarten students. Data for grades 9 to 12 contain a small number of post-

47 38 Elementary and Secondary Education Table 10.—Enrollment in regular public elementary and secondary schools, by grade: 1910–11 to fall 1990 Kindergarten through grade 8 Year Total Kinder- Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Total Grade 1 Grade 2 1 garten 1 2345678910 1,870,290 2,449,584 2,300,622 2,201,315 18,035,118 1,522,714 16,878,123 1910–11 ... 3,889,542 326,883 348,303 3,875,684 2,445,174 2,295,469 1911–12 ... 1,879,624 1,546,947 18,182,937 16,982,139 2,212,300 17,275,684 3,922,183 2,468,270 2,316,117 2,248,493 1,910,374 1,589,160 1912–13 ... 18,609,040 369,723 391,143 3,986,026 2,495,599 2,374,285 2,287,632 1,975,683 1,663,733 19,153,786 1913–14 ... 17,721,691 18,142,653 409,083 4,043,254 2,535,900 1914–15 ... 2,340,831 2,021,627 1,720,156 19,704,209 2,411,766 20,351,687 434,022 4,114,735 2,585,365 2,476,124 2,403,297 2,075,574 1,784,266 1915–16 ... 18,640,815 3 2,425,708 433,700 4,224,907 2,600,418 2,503,813 18,807,710 2,104,986 1,814,236 ... 1916–17 20,602,602 18,919,695 433,377 4,323,170 2,607,727 2,524,215 2,440,871 2,128,086 1,838,770 1917–18 ... 20,853,516 3 ... 19,148,811 457,322 4,321,996 2,622,775 2,510,915 2,498,633 2,140,588 1,864,631 1918–19 21,215,916 2,556,395 19,377,927 4,320,823 2,637,822 2,497,615 481,266 2,153,091 1,890,492 1919–20 ... 21,578,316 3 ... 22,408,773 19,872,124 505,252 1920–21 2,743,417 2,606,922 2,558,036 2,221,331 1,974,256 4,248,745 23,239,227 1921–22 ... 4,176,567 2,849,013 2,716,229 2,559,677 2,289,571 2,058,019 20,366,218 529,235 3 2,634,084 569,447 4,180,450 2,831,210 2,755,947 20,632,624 2,365,065 2,089,418 ... 1922–23 23,764,017 20,898,930 609,659 4,184,232 2,813,409 2,795,665 2,708,491 2,440,558 2,120,817 1923–24 ... 24,288,808 3 ... 20,999,078 599,684 4,048,598 2,799,520 2,730,383 2,696,479 2,514,493 2,186,346 1924–25 24,650,291 2,662,205 20,984,002 3,976,750 2,819,896 2,729,252 673,231 2,473,053 2,234,246 1925–26 ... 24,741,468 3 ... 24,960,582 21,126,210 684,360 4,073,894 1926–27 2,695,615 2,647,339 2,454,260 2,238,844 2,818,218 25,179,696 1927–28 ... 4,171,037 2,816,540 2,661,977 2,632,474 2,435,466 2,243,443 21,268,417 695,490 3 2,697,108 21,273,505 709,467 4,160,978 2,809,727 ... 2,615,851 2,408,979 2,249,846 1928–29 25,428,856 25,678,015 21,278,593 723,443 4,150,919 2,802,914 2,732,239 2,599,229 2,382,491 2,256,249 1929–30 ... 3 1930–31 21,207,007 712,423 4,040,558 2,789,646 25,976,728 2,594,164 2,422,527 2,267,081 ... 2,697,881 26,275,441 21,135,420 701,403 3,930,196 2,776,378 2,663,524 2,589,098 2,462,563 2,277,913 1931–32 ... 3 1932–33 ... 26,354,817 20,950,229 649,001 3,826,112 2,704,053 2,637,885 2,581,054 2,448,002 2,282,982 1933–34 ... 26,434,193 601,775 3,716,852 2,631,728 2,612,246 2,573,010 2,433,441 2,288,051 20,765,037 3 ... 20,578,799 604,264 3,623,589 2,594,659 2,568,491 2,535,875 2,433,216 2,303,760 1934–35 26,400,646 2,432,991 20,392,561 2,557,589 2,524,736 2,498,741 3,530,325 2,319,470 606,753 26,367,098 1935–36 ... 3 26,171,103 20,070,368 606,893 3,423,735 2,522,070 ... 2,450,679 2,387,710 2,286,096 1936–37 2,484,558 25,975,108 607,034 3,317,144 2,486,550 2,444,381 19,748,174 2,342,428 2,252,722 1937–38 ... 2,402,617 3 ... 25,704,325 19,290,136 600,841 3,167,803 1938–39 2,387,970 2,362,242 2,295,060 2,214,428 2,409,813 25,433,542 1939–40 ... 594,647 3,018,463 2,333,076 2,331,559 2,321,867 2,247,692 2,176,133 18,832,098 3 ... 18,582,225 613,213 2,991,738 2,285,614 25,296,138 2,270,749 2,211,285 2,155,538 1940–41 2,263,315 24,562,473 18,174,668 625,783 2,930,762 2,215,100 2,175,245 2,196,732 2,166,018 2,124,494 1941–42 ... 3 1942–43 24,155,146 18,033,080 664,915 2,919,242 2,228,945 2,179,843 2,148,889 2,101,723 2,071,396 ... 23,266,616 17,713,096 697,468 2,878,843 2,220,739 2,162,878 2,079,788 2,016,635 1,997,806 1943–44 ... 3 1944–45 ... 17,665,594 733,974 2,881,849 2,265,796 2,173,078 2,083,552 2,007,988 1,950,624 23,225,784 2,094,352 23,299,941 2,894,588 2,318,502 2,190,617 772,957 2,006,120 1,910,028 1945–46 ... 17,677,744 3 ... 23,659,158 17,821,481 872,835 2,896,451 1946–47 2,204,573 2,119,377 2,012,212 1,907,319 2,319,772 1947–48 ... 23,944,532 988,680 2,951,300 2,363,477 2,258,858 2,183,171 2,055,115 1,939,500 18,291,227 3 ... 24,476,658 18,818,254 1,016,186 3,067,375 1948–49 2,314,645 2,220,554 2,088,826 1,994,735 2,502,828 1949–50 ... 25,111,427 19,386,806 1,034,203 3,170,343 2,644,707 2,395,904 2,254,028 2,150,678 2,055,741 3 1950–51 25,706,000 19,900,000 941,138 3,052,806 2,739,176 2,600,440 2,357,752 2,211,306 2,117,360 ... 2,717,947 26,562,664 1,272,127 2,957,485 2,670,162 20,680,867 2,559,115 2,320,132 2,165,741 1951–52 ... 3 3,357,598 ... 27,506,630 21,624,682 1,399,064 1952–53 2,638,816 2,633,457 2,684,145 2,520,163 2,275,680 1953–54 ... 22,545,807 1,474,007 3,666,466 2,940,285 2,569,243 2,565,345 2,606,983 2,449,174 28,836,052 3 3,518,000 1954–55 30,045,000 23,471,000 1,415,000 ... 3,391,000 2,896,000 2,535,000 2,523,000 2,584,000

48 39 Elementary and Secondary Education Table 10.—Enrollment in regular public elementary and secondary schools, by grade: 1910–11 to fall 1990—Continued Grades 9 through 12 and postgraduate Kindergarten through grade 8 Year Elementary Secondary Post- Total Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12 Grade 9 unclassi- unclassi- Grade 8 Grade 7 graduate 2 2 fied fied 11121314151617181920 1 1,156,995 495,194 308,918 208,259 — — — 1910–11 ... 1,059,279 1,257,894 144,624 — 1,200,798 500,733 325,416 1911–12 ... 156,104 — — 1,280,805 1,097,833 218,545 1,132,699 1,333,356 546,676 358,673 248,004 — — — 1,318,665 1912–13 ... 180,003 1,178,477 — 1,432,095 584,295 383,801 266,370 197,629 — — 1913–14 ... 1,369,113 1,241,350 1,418,686 1,561,556 638,677 416,935 287,326 218,618 — — 1914–15 ... — — 1,292,682 692,903 460,225 316,511 241,233 1,710,872 — 1915–16 ... 1,474,750 — 3 1,481,027 1,218,915 — 1,794,892 743,064 476,406 1916–17 251,259 — — 324,163 ... 1,482,675 1,140,804 1,933,821 816,396 506,974 341,534 268,917 — — 1917–18 ... — 3 541,462 1,194,566 — 2,067,105 866,519 ... 368,888 290,236 — — 1918–19 1,537,385 1,592,095 1,248,328 — 2,200,389 916,642 575,950 396,242 311,555 1919–20 ... — — 3 ... 1,668,158 1,346,007 — 2,536,649 1,065,177 678,752 455,842 336,878 — — 1920–21 1,744,222 1,443,685 2,873,009 1,213,713 781,553 515,542 362,201 — — 1921–22 ... — 3 583,386 — 3,131,393 1,271,062 850,766 1,411,689 426,179 — — ... 1,795,314 1922–23 1,379,692 — 3,389,878 1,328,412 919,979 1923–24 ... 490,158 — — 1,846,407 651,329 3 715,978 1,930,732 — 3,651,213 1,424,304 ... 1,492,843 540,516 — — 1924–25 970,415 1,927,265 1,488,104 — 3,757,466 1,425,204 1,004,503 736,254 591,505 — — 1925–26 ... 3 ... 1,974,451 1,539,229 — 3,834,372 1,450,564 1,025,030 751,980 606,798 — — 1926–27 622,091 2,021,636 3,911,279 1,475,924 1,045,558 767,706 — — — 1927–28 ... 1,590,354 3 ... 2,025,686 1,595,863 — 4,155,351 1928–29 1,118,871 823,616 661,490 — — 1,551,374 1929–30 ... 2,029,736 — 4,399,422 1,626,823 1,192,185 879,525 700,889 — — 1,601,373 3 ... 2,041,280 1,641,447 — 4,769,721 1930–31 1,289,758 973,140 786,337 18,270 — 1,702,216 1931–32 ... 2,052,825 1,681,520 — 5,140,021 1,777,608 1,387,331 1,066,755 871,786 36,541 — 3 1932–33 2,119,972 1,701,168 — 5,404,588 1,816,317 1,463,793 1,137,967 938,580 47,931 — ... 2,187,119 1,720,815 5,669,156 1,855,026 1,540,254 1,209,180 1,005,375 59,321 — 1933–34 ... — 3 1,229,295 — 5,821,847 1,912,549 1,580,058 1,730,392 1,034,922 65,023 — ... 2,184,553 1934–35 1,739,969 — 5,974,537 1,970,072 1,619,862 1935–36 ... 1,064,469 70,725 — 2,181,987 1,249,409 3 1,314,404 2,177,580 — 6,100,735 1,974,726 ... 1,731,047 1,107,487 59,547 — 1936–37 1,644,571 2,173,173 1,722,125 — 6,226,934 1,979,379 1,669,281 1,379,398 1,150,506 48,370 — 1937–38 ... 3 ... 2,140,420 1,711,559 — 6,414,189 1,995,360 1,718,297 1,432,500 1,216,121 51,911 — 1938–39 1,281,735 2,107,667 6,601,444 2,011,341 1,767,312 1,485,603 — 55,453 — 1939–40 ... 1,700,994 3 ... 2,049,791 1,690,982 — 6,713,913 1940–41 1,792,615 1,517,344 1,322,641 46,997 — 2,034,316 1941–42 ... 2,060,752 — 6,387,805 1,927,040 1,705,746 1,450,788 1,273,141 31,090 — 1,679,782 3 ... 2,022,880 1,695,247 — 6,122,066 1942–43 1,653,586 1,374,470 1,170,319 25,941 — 1,897,750 1943–44 ... 1,964,997 1,693,942 — 5,553,520 1,774,593 1,519,638 1,230,168 1,009,611 19,510 — 3 1944–45 1,897,743 1,670,990 — 5,560,190 1,742,873 1,529,857 1,236,883 1,015,959 34,618 — ... 1,032,420 1,836,897 5,622,197 1,728,499 1,555,302 1,255,907 — 50,069 — 1945–46 ... 1,653,683 3 ... 1,850,394 1,638,548 — 5,837,677 1946–47 1,583,245 1,308,592 1,119,968 64,852 — 1,761,020 1947–48 ... 1,897,740 — 5,653,305 1,672,920 1,502,743 1,271,645 1,130,805 75,192 — 1,653,386 3 ... 1,919,462 1,693,643 — 5,658,404 1948–49 1,499,477 1,267,483 1,126,022 56,584 — 1,708,838 1949–50 ... 1,947,227 1,733,975 — 5,724,621 1,760,740 1,513,086 1,275,295 1,133,673 41,827 — 3 1950–51 1,995,238 1,884,784 — 5,806,000 1,780,738 1,547,895 1,313,207 1,127,527 36,633 — ... 1,337,930 2,082,533 — 5,881,797 1,819,732 1,582,142 1,935,625 1,110,638 31,355 — 1951–52 ... 3 5,881,948 ... 2,143,106 1,972,653 — 1952–53 1,861,411 1,579,177 1,306,615 1,107,884 26,861 — 1,716,758 1953–54 ... — 6,290,245 1,944,357 2,032,188 1,411,722 1,190,138 27,270 — 2,242,116 3 2,028,000 1954–55 2,432,000 2,177,000 — 6,574,000 ... 1,765,000 1,520,000 1,246,000 15,000 —

49 40 Elementary and Secondary Education Table 10.—Enrollment in regular public elementary and secondary schools, by grade: 1910–11 to fall 1990—Continued Kindergarten through grade 8 Year Total Kinder- Total Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 1 1 garten 1 2345678910 2,481,210 3,242,407 3,290,740 2,847,741 3,494,997 2,470,310 31,162,843 1,564,396 24,290,257 1955–56 ... 1,675,373 3,491,387 3,240,771 3,183,406 1956–57 ... 2,808,290 2,442,701 32,334,333 25,015,873 3,237,852 25,668,820 3,586,683 3,213,900 3,175,704 1,771,753 3,180,952 2,758,859 33,528,591 1957–58 ... 3,127,702 26,580,774 1958–59 ... 3,678,772 3,345,722 3,179,087 3,141,825 3,099,426 3,135,641 34,838,641 1,834,014 36,086,771 1,922,712 3,732,924 3,436,173 3,302,366 3,146,168 3,117,885 3,069,692 1959–60 ... 27,601,902 3 ... 28,439,000 2,000,000 3,822,000 3,502,000 3,405,000 3,278,000 3,131,000 3,095,000 1960–61 37,260,000 3,342,980 28,686,420 3,857,075 3,567,852 3,428,206 2,064,852 3,218,277 3,064,577 1961–62 ... 38,252,673 3 ... 39,746,000 1962–63 29,374,000 3,928,000 3,630,000 3,518,000 3,391,000 3,332,000 3,190,000 2,162,000 3 ... 41,025,000 29,915,000 2,177,000 4,023,000 3,705,000 3,560,000 3,467,000 3,366,000 3,299,000 1963–64 3 ... 30,652,000 2,250,000 4,014,000 3,800,000 3,662,000 3,523,000 3,465,000 3,362,000 1964–65 42,280,000 30,465,838 2,259,978 3,914,890 3,644,283 3,595,485 3,475,718 3,376,965 3,311,608 Fall 1965 ... 42,068,117 43,042,127 31,162,189 2,370,462 3,954,328 3,696,457 3,615,340 3,580,280 3,462,525 3,369,162 Fall 1966 ... 43,889,800 3,722,925 2,420,163 3,979,641 Fall 1967 ... 3,658,900 3,579,595 3,562,040 3,449,982 31,643,017 44,903,166 2,510,856 3,926,204 3,758,260 3,692,353 3,628,751 3,572,609 3,555,465 Fall 1968 ... 32,180,510 45,550,284 32,513,403 2,544,675 3,868,874 3,715,875 Fall 1969 ... 3,660,367 3,621,198 3,568,291 3,720,273 Fall 1970 ... 32,558,308 2,563,579 3,816,598 45,893,960 3,662,935 3,675,187 3,635,354 3,597,730 3,654,267 Fall 1971 ... 46,071,327 32,318,229 2,483,175 3,569,907 3,586,811 3,611,940 3,623,135 3,662,163 3,622,049 Fall 1972 ... 45,726,408 2,503,475 3,351,551 3,381,182 3,532,508 3,553,633 3,596,637 3,638,617 31,878,600 45,444,787 31,400,809 3,239,246 3,191,806 3,335,705 3,505,015 3,538,470 3,592,162 Fall 1973 ... 2,654,770 30,970,723 3,344,721 3,198,255 3,106,126 3,169,434 45,073,441 3,510,207 3,558,679 Fall 1974 ... 2,800,625 44,819,327 2,971,538 3,238,299 3,027,189 3,038,127 3,112,233 3,281,102 3,476,322 Fall 1975 ... 30,515,131 44,310,966 29,996,835 2,918,189 3,332,225 3,086,214 2,986,432 3,024,788 3,116,272 3,298,200 Fall 1976 ... Fall 1977 ... 43,577,373 2,741,820 3,294,755 3,199,609 3,059,474 2,979,007 3,018,803 3,111,480 29,374,503 42,550,893 2,652,467 3,062,180 3,148,000 3,158,000 3,046,000 2,980,000 3,036,000 Fall 1978 ... 28,463,348 41,650,712 28,034,345 2,674,708 2,936,788 2,908,724 Fall 1979 ... 3,147,912 3,054,764 2,999,408 3,119,639 Fall 1980 ... 27,646,536 2,689,243 2,894,473 40,877,481 2,893,007 3,107,126 3,129,864 3,037,601 2,799,593 Fall 1981 ... 40,044,093 27,280,220 2,687,151 2,950,609 2,782,406 2,806,394 2,917,954 3,126,877 3,180,311 Fall 1982 ... 39,565,610 2,845,402 2,937,054 2,790,497 2,763,006 2,797,859 2,911,721 3,141,580 27,160,518 39,252,308 2,858,783 3,079,916 2,781,355 2,772,025 2,758,011 2,797,905 2,928,288 Fall 1983 ... 26,980,962 39,208,252 26,904,517 3,009,630 3,112,800 2,904,385 Fall 1984 ... 2,771,972 2,760,549 2,830,629 2,764,966 Fall 1985 ... 27,034,244 3,192,406 3,238,855 39,421,961 2,894,524 2,771,015 2,776,402 2,788,817 2,940,995 Fall 1986 ... 39,753,172 27,420,063 3,309,782 3,357,949 3,054,039 2,933,018 2,895,932 2,774,856 2,805,770 Fall 1987 ... 40,007,022 3,387,202 3,407,072 3,172,777 3,046,374 2,937,636 2,900,558 2,811,047 27,930,296 Fall 1988 ... 28,499,136 3,433,124 3,460,049 3,223,428 3,167,036 3,050,506 2,945,065 2,936,696 40,188,690 Fall 1989 ... 40,542,707 29,152,224 3,486,358 3,484,789 3,289,081 3,234,961 3,182,098 3,066,633 2,987,333 Fall 1990 ... 41,223,804 29,887,650 3,611,561 3,499,091 3,328,109 3,298,633 3,249,437 3,197,495 3,111,713

50 41 Elementary and Secondary Education Table 10.—Enrollment in regular public elementary and secondary schools, by grade: 1910–11 to fall 1990—Continued Grades 9 through 12 and postgraduate Kindergarten through grade 8 Year Elementary Secondary Post- Grade 7 Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12 Total Grade 9 unclassi- unclassi- Grade 8 graduate 2 2 fied fied 1 11121314151617181920 2,541,719 6,872,586 1955–56 ... 1,848,570 1,542,646 1,325,726 13,071 — 2,142,573 — 2,356,737 1,349,315 — 2,367,969 1,973,829 1,614,593 7,318,460 12,754 — 2,475,610 1956–57 ... 2,460,483 2,395,395 — 7,859,771 2,479,588 2,193,739 1,736,180 1,431,302 18,962 — 1957–58 ... 2,457,872 2,381,076 1958–59 ... 8,257,867 2,412,495 2,317,913 1,954,578 1,537,872 35,009 — 2,785,211 — 3,813 2,701,184 2,412,413 2,258,010 2,063,322 1,747,311 8,484,869 — — 3,172,798 1959–60 ... 3 1960–61 3,083,000 — 8,821,000 2,750,000 2,252,000 3,123,000 1,820,000 2,000 — ... 1,997,000 3,121,946 — 9,566,253 3,155,544 2,594,694 3,020,655 1,790,759 7,268 — 1961–62 ... 2,017,988 3 ... 3,140,000 3,083,000 — 1962–63 10,372,000 2,981,000 2,348,000 1,866,000 5,000 — 3,172,000 3 ... 3,241,000 3,077,000 — 11,110,000 3,190,000 3,006,000 2,747,000 2,160,000 6,000 — 1963–64 3 ... 3,212,000 — 11,628,000 3,198,000 3,085,000 2,778,000 2,560,000 7,000 — 1964–65 3,363,000 3,185,613 2,993,191 11,602,279 3,215,090 3,296,830 2,740,889 2,477,142 6,563 169,404 Fall 1965 ... 404,468 2,755,522 3,408,884 11,879,938 3,318,359 3,110,920 432,822 2,507,943 8,117 179,077 Fall 1966 ... 3,271,929 3,454,124 3,356,821 458,826 12,246,783 3,395,030 3,221,364 2,879,107 2,525,408 16,266 209,608 Fall 1967 ... 3,552,276 Fall 1968 ... 560,545 12,722,656 3,508,374 3,310,258 2,986,249 2,650,172 16,701 250,902 3,423,191 3,047,342 3,666,623 13,036,881 3,567,783 3,404,835 627,602 2,731,777 20,680 264,464 Fall 1969 ... 3,519,625 3,661,771 3,601,368 689,519 13,335,652 3,653,691 Fall 1970 ... 3,127,721 2,775,013 28,002 293,224 3,458,001 Fall 1971 ... 3,635,020 813,999 13,753,098 3,781,001 3,710,030 3,200,171 2,863,832 9,037 328,033 3,571,024 Fall 1972 ... 3,713,030 3,648,987 958,980 13,847,808 3,779,014 3,648,083 3,248,310 2,873,311 9,527 289,563 Fall 1973 ... 3,741,103 926,850 14,043,978 3,800,743 3,650,445 3,323,148 2,917,920 3,695 348,027 3,675,682 3,711,508 3,708,183 14,102,718 3,832,324 3,675,111 3,302,021 2,954,753 12,524 325,985 Fall 1974 ... 862,985 3,635,697 3,353,888 14,304,196 3,878,760 3,723,241 3,618,952 2,986,296 22,598 339,413 Fall 1975 ... 1,115,672 3,372,577 3,572,142 14,314,131 3,825,463 3,738,005 1,083,962 3,015,123 23,222 339,741 Fall 1976 ... 3,578,411 3,384,593 3,533,583 1,051,379 14,202,870 3,779,103 3,686,352 3,387,650 3,026,115 12,732 310,918 Fall 1977 ... Fall 1978 ... 3,228,000 797,701 14,087,545 3,726,000 3,610,217 3,312,222 3,023,181 — 415,925 3,355,000 3,240,825 3,127,695 13,616,367 3,526,450 3,531,995 893,958 2,968,747 — 348,350 Fall 1979 ... 3,170,749 3,085,185 3,086,215 924,229 13,230,945 3,376,921 Fall 1980 ... 3,194,840 2,925,093 — 366,252 3,367,839 Fall 1981 ... 3,058,995 586,910 12,763,873 3,286,288 3,182,613 3,038,979 2,907,276 — 313,766 3,217,564 Fall 1982 ... 3,287,557 3,123,326 562,516 12,405,092 3,248,270 3,137,434 2,916,632 2,787,292 — 315,464 Fall 1983 ... 3,247,425 535,118 12,271,346 3,330,074 3,102,912 2,860,892 2,678,093 — 299,375 3,222,136 2,819,417 3,035,837 12,303,735 3,440,090 3,145,206 527,674 2,599,348 — 299,674 Fall 1984 ... 3,186,075 2,938,307 2,981,883 511,040 12,387,717 3,438,951 Fall 1985 ... 2,866,025 2,549,614 — 302,997 3,230,130 Fall 1986 ... 2,869,754 519,611 12,333,109 3,256,407 2,899,352 2,953,561 2,600,516 — 307,684 3,214,941 Fall 1987 ... 2,910,432 2,838,513 518,685 12,076,726 3,143,179 3,020,018 2,935,626 2,680,825 — 297,078 Fall 1988 ... 2,905,036 525,189 11,689,554 3,106,280 2,894,602 2,748,750 2,649,674 — 290,248 2,853,007 2,867,522 Fall 1989 ... 540,016 11,390,483 3,141,456 2,853,464 2,629,483 2,473,278 — 278,744 3,027,491 Fall 1990 ... 3,067,077 2,980,984 543,550 11,336,154 3,169,211 2,896,670 2,612,157 2,380,470 — 277,646 1 An- In later years, data contain a relatively small number of prekindergarten students. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2 Prior to fall 1965, enrollment in ungraded and special classes was prorated among nual Report of the Commissioner of Education, Biennial Survey of Education in the Unit- the regular grades. ed States; Statistics of State School Systems; and Digest of Education Statistics. (This 3 Estimated. table was prepared February 1998.) —Data not available. NOTE.—Prior to 1965 enrollment data include students who enrolled at any time dur- ing the school year.

51 42 Elementary and Secondary Education 80,694 99,658 954,581 756,374 721,806 483,652 215,149 437,034 824,595 784,757 812,234 469,123 574,213 220,840 636,401 274,081 715,176 622,112 436,286 447,891 301,881 579,087 138,813 502,417 171,708 129,164 201,316 172,785 834,314 152,974 117,825 484,652 639,853 113,874 1990 1,089,646 1,086,871 1,151,687 3,382,887 4,950,474 2,598,337 1,771,516 1,581,925 1,821,407 1,861,592 1,667,834 41,223,804 97,808 81,301 723,743 213,775 819,660 430,864 478,486 739,553 117,816 807,934 461,560 562,755 214,932 630,688 270,920 698,806 434,960 472,394 438,554 296,057 578,580 135,729 607,615 502,020 169,493 186,834 954,165 825,588 109,280 783,025 151,265 616,177 127,329 171,696 1989 1,764,410 1,576,785 1,797,355 1,126,535 1,789,925 2,565,841 1,655,279 1,076,005 1,080,744 3,328,514 4,771,978 40,542,707 88,573 Fall enrollment 800,435 866,117 754,181 227,823 778,056 624,795 872,933 550,527 117,688 566,634 202,758 677,123 133,840 287,288 453,125 467,128 509,252 154,699 275,572 106,156 170,546 482,039 168,660 104,035 422,924 548,317 777,725 333,049 583,458 147,734 158,208 1979 1,083,826 1,287,809 1,150,053 2,025,256 2,872,719 1,860,498 4,119,511 2,043,239 1,035,724 1,968,801 1,078,462 1,508,337 2,969,216 41,650,712 76,828 660,389 518,867 853,766 891,981 891,414 147,782 648,182 646,393 302,394 612,374 166,693 330,990 123,663 478,923 276,286 418,069 180,285 149,054 152,188 174,784 826,237 240,169 913,915 538,175 179,873 703,720 460,115 575,284 178,448 130,471 1969 1,454,378 1,223,747 1,185,592 1,112,416 1,408,095 2,754,600 3,442,809 1,077,288 2,423,831 2,138,979 4,597,700 2,324,516 1,147,561 2,346,002 45,550,284 66,415 44,450 80,874 787,269 820,724 598,103 195,325 681,938 478,630 693,202 393,690 162,839 631,412 949,099 596,375 136,766 993,496 610,099 424,206 235,934 533,928 566,421 153,596 388,772 302,672 105,827 122,486 989,259 144,998 810,300 476,828 282,721 231,004 133,317 860,667 139,429 3 2 2 1,905,995 1,787,869 1,927,832 1,051,079 1,105,412 2,068,158 2,828,853 1,625,247 3,199,455 1959–60 36,086,771 2 2 89,820 96,305 13,910 46,055 25,144 71,733 96,323 689,808 674,915 884,733 158,247 644,457 659,785 680,066 347,626 477,720 481,612 632,285 229,196 273,015 483,363 122,259 562,883 227,879 335,018 449,836 407,084 494,185 153,648 148,978 441,263 527,440 117,675 105,917 718,037 114,661 255,032 139,244 1,354,167 1,998,129 1,757,424 1,202,967 1,069,435 1,153,683 1,550,286 1949–50 25,111,427 6,312 20,746 75,697 96,170 91,821 44,046 671,364 716,527 886,484 700,640 970,188 376,349 648,131 512,224 163,640 737,979 503,481 686,767 221,409 700,305 281,032 140,126 120,987 604,064 276,188 287,225 465,339 188,876 136,519 114,161 132,589 110,205 611,818 594,799 473,020 107,302 369,214 481,750 136,447 1,213,978 1,248,827 2,227,870 1,851,780 1,328,822 1,189,106 1939–40 25,433,542 3,436 18,041 71,657 74,240 42,360 80,965 667,379 434,557 792,012 866,939 622,988 154,455 551,741 970,582 713,290 346,434 627,747 240,482 469,370 319,453 169,277 120,947 588,354 165,624 325,216 456,185 202,595 118,704 103,806 102,084 595,449 656,073 431,166 554,655 759,492 277,459 138,046 682,650 120,337 1,277,636 1,308,028 1,395,907 1,068,683 1,937,433 2,141,479 1929–30 25,678,015 3,360 65,298 41,350 76,505 14,114 93,501 81,399 64,205 38,483 672,483 514,521 566,288 406,880 354,079 623,586 241,618 690,918 619,852 225,160 691,674 478,045 261,463 117,406 168,283 589,282 146,955 311,821 696,238 151,028 594,780 691,249 126,576 569,940 503,597 137,681 220,232 115,192 535,332 483,172 412,670 4 1,035,648 1,719,841 1,020,663 1,127,560 1,610,459 1919–20 21,578,316 91,611 80,061 76,168 56,304 63,972 55,774 35,950 66,141 31,312 10,200 429,797 520,404 424,611 398,746 707,031 838,080 440,083 469,137 510,661 144,278 535,869 168,798 263,617 494,863 238,393 148,089 541,501 395,978 555,794 340,415 139,802 422,399 126,253 118,412 531,459 521,753 190,353 821,631 368,391 281,375 4 4 1,002,687 1,282,965 1,422,969 1909–10 17,813,852 6,676 36,669 16,504 36,735 99,602 36,895 73,042 67,231 77,686 65,688 46,519 98,822 89,405 39,430 564,807 322,575 400,452 376,423 958,911 130,918 386,507 389,582 829,160 566,223 719,817 485,354 399,207 196,169 288,227 117,555 155,228 474,891 500,294 659,598 222,373 269,736 314,662 108,874 281,891 504,985 482,673 1,209,574 1,151,880 15,503,110 Students enrolled at any time during the school year 1899–1900 — 7,387 7,989 65,490 37,279 35,543 52,774 59,813 36,906 78,043 63,254 16,980 92,472 14,311 18,215 31,434 512,955 234,072 322,533 280,960 381,297 399,322 139,676 334,158 620,314 301,615 427,032 797,439 493,267 447,950 240,300 126,505 371,492 466,872 399,660 184,251 221,756 223,071 778,319 120,253 201,260 1,042,160 1,020,522 1889–90 12,722,581 ) 5 — 4,212 5,834 4,755 9,045 4,270 24,326 39,315 77,642 40,604 92,549 64,341 27,823 22,119 13,718 26,439 37,533 81,972 511,283 704,041 204,961 252,612 149,827 362,556 179,400 300,217 180,248 236,654 236,533 937,310 119,694 134,072 158,765 729,499 426,057 482,986 231,434 306,777 162,431 220,000 276,000 4 4 9,867,505 1,031,593 1879–80 )( 5 — ————— ————— — ( 906 4,357 1,660 1,657 3,106 1,320 15,157 49,578 69,927 57,639 21,000 89,777 66,056 14,000 16,992 34,000 23,265 71,957 20,058 63,504 91,332 23456789101112131415 672,787 330,070 719,372 450,057 341,938 273,661 292,466 115,683 140,000 113,588 834,614 169,430 115,000 152,600 178,457 141,312 117,000 113,983 7,561,582 1,028,110 1870–71 Estimated Table 11.—Enrollment in regular public elementary and secondary schools, by state: 1870–71 to fall 1990 1 State ... 1 ... ... 1 1 United States Nebraska ... Michigan ... Kentucky ... South Carolina ... Hawaii Montana ... Massachusetts ... Georgia ... Nevada ... Florida ... New Hampshire ... District of Columbia ... Mississippi ... Kansas ... Texas ... Pennsylvania ... New Jersey ... Maine ... Delaware ... New Mexico ... Maryland ... Connecticut ... New York ... Colorado ... Iowa ... North Carolina ... California ... Oklahoma ... Arkansas ... North Dakota ... Utah ... Ohio ... Arizona ... Indiana ... Louisiana ... Illinois ... Alaska Rhode Island ... Idaho ... Alabama ... Oregon ... Missouri ... Tennessee ... Minnesota ... South Dakota ...

52 43 Elementary and Secondary Education 95,762 98,226 839,709 797,621 998,601 322,389 1990 94,779 97,172 327,540 810,232 782,905 985,346 1989 Historical Trends: State Edu- Annual Report of the Commis- and 98,338 95,422 Fall enrollment 387,966 857,855 764,879 1979 1,031,403 86,440 99,957 401,366 980,064 820,482 1969 1,076,749 81,431 72,822 841,574 460,429 609,035 698,509 2 2 2 1959–60 61,143 59,585 493,949 400,867 597,867 438,498 1949–50 64,911 56,199 (This table was prepared September 1992.) 535,880 568,131 452,821 331,409 1939–40 65,976 54,505 564,022 562,956 395,505 344,731 1929–30 SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 43,112 61,785 sioner of Education, Biennial Survey of Education in the United States; Statistics of State School Systems; Statistics of Public Elementary and Secondary Day Schools; Digest of Education Statistics; cation Facts, 1969 to 1989. 505,190 346,256 465,243 291,053 1919–20 66,615 24,584 464,311 402,109 276,458 215,688 1909–10 65,964 14,512 445,142 115,104 370,595 232,343 Students enrolled at any time during the school year 1899–1900 7,052 65,608 55,964 342,269 351,723 193,064 1889–90 2,907 75,328 14,780 220,736 299,457 142,850 1879–80 450 5,000 76,999 65,384 23456789101112131415 131,088 265,285 1870–71 Estimated Table 11.—Enrollment in regular public elementary and secondary schools, by state: 1870–71 to fall 1990—Continued 1 State Includes only students enrolled on a specific date. National totals include data for Alaska and Hawaii beginning in 1959–60. Included in North Dakota. Includes an estimate for kindergarten. Estimated. 5 4 2 1 3 —Data not available. Washington ... Vermont ... Wyoming ... West Virginia ... Wisconsin ... Virginia ...

53 44 Elementary and Secondary Education Table 12.—Children served in special education programs, by type of disability: 1921–22 to 1989–90 [In thousands] Percent Hard- Ortho- Seriously of Pre- of- Other Visually Multi- Other Deaf- school emotion- Learning pedically Speech public Mentally handi- handi- Total Year hear- handi- health handi- school ally blind retarded impaired handi- disabled capped ing and capped capped impaired capped disturbed enroll- capped deaf ment 1 23 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112131415 — — — 23 — 1921–22 — — — — — — — — 4 — — — 52 — 4 — — 4 — — — — 1926–27 — 1 — — — 10 — 32 —————— — 1929–30 — 1 0.6 23 75 14 161 4 40 — 5———— 1931–32 — 1 9 117 100 13 — 294 48 — 7———— 1935–36 1.1 1 1.2 — 126 98 10 13 1939–40 53 — 9———— 310 1 356 182 87 15 14 1947–48 50 — 8———— 1.5 — 1 1.7 114 — 16 307 29 — 9———— 475 — 1952–53 1 — 490 1957–58 29 20 838 52 — 12 — — — 12 2.5 223 1 3.7 — 802 432 80 46 22 65 — 22 — — — 1962–63 1,469 1 — 990 540 88 51 1,794 69 — 23 — — — 33 4.3 1965–66 1 5.9 — 1,237 830 113 78 269 1969–70 — 24 — — — 126 2,677 2 141 796 1,302 959 283 87 87 8.3 38 — — ( 3,692 )— 1976–77 2 3,751 8.6 964 1,223 933 288 85 87 135 35 — — ( 1977–78 )— 2 1978–79 1,214 901 300 85 70 105 32 50 2 ( 3,889 )— 9.1 1,130 2 9.6 1,186 869 329 80 66 106 4,005 60 2 ( 31 )— 1979–80 1,276 2 31 1,168 829 346 79 58 98 1,462 68 3 ( 4,142 )— 1980–81 10.1 2 10.5 1,622 1,135 786 339 75 58 79 29 71 2 ( 1981–82 )— 4,198 2 28 1,131 757 352 73 57 50 1,741 63 2 ( 4,255 )— 10.8 1982–83 2 10.9 1,806 1,128 727 361 72 56 53 29 65 2 ( 1983–84 )— 4,298 2 4,315 11.0 1,832 1,126 694 372 69 56 68 28 69 2 ( 1984–85 )— 2 1985–86 1,862 1,125 660 375 66 57 57 27 86 2 ( 4,317 )— 11.0 2 4,374 1,914 1,136 643 383 65 1986–87 52 26 97 2 ( 57 )— 11.0 47 4,447 1,928 953 582 373 56 11.1 45 22 77 1 363 — 1987–88 1988–89 4,544 11.3 1,987 967 564 376 56 47 43 23 85 2 394 — 22 1989–90 2,050 973 548 381 57 48 52 11.4 86 2 422 — 4,641 1 fall 1986, which mandates public school special education services for all handicapped Includes special health problems. 2 Prior to 1987–88, these students were included in the counts by handicapping condi- children ages 3 through 5. tion. Beginning in 1987–88, states are no longer required to report preschool handi- capped students (0 to 5 years) by handicapping condition. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Bi- —Data not available. ennial Survey of Education in the United States; Digest of Education Statistics; Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Annual Report to Congress on the Im- NOTE.—Data for years 1957–58 to 1969–70 are as of February. Data for other years plementation of the Education of the Handicapped Act; and unpublished tabulations. are for the school year. Data for 1976–77 and later years are for children participating (This table was prepared September 1992.) in federal programs. Increases since 1987–88 are due in part to new legislation enacted

54 45 Elementary and Secondary Education Table 13.—Public school pupils transported at public expense and current expenditures for transportation: 1929–30 to 1989–90 Pupils transported at public expense Expenditures for transportation Expenditures for transportation (in current dollars) (in constant 1989–90 dollars) Average daily attendance, all School year 1 1 Percent of total Average per Number Total Total students Average per pupil transported (In thousands) (In thousands) pupil transported 1 2345678 8.9 $54,823 $29 $406,681 $214 1929–30 ... 21,265,000 1,902,826 10.9 58,078 24 511,511 211 2,419,173 22,245,000 1931–32 ... 2,794,724 12.4 53,908 19 516,913 185 1933–34 ... 22,458,000 3,250,658 14.6 62,653 19 578,909 178 1935–36 ... 22,299,000 3,769,242 75,637 20 670,437 178 22,298,000 1937–38 ... 16.9 4,144,161 18.8 83,283 20 756,698 183 1939–40 ... 22,042,000 21,031,000 4,503,081 92,922 21 756,720 168 1941–42 ... 21.4 19,603,000 23.0 107,754 24 785,197 174 1943–44 ... 4,512,412 1945–46 ... 5,056,966 25.5 129,756 26 903,178 179 19,849,000 1947–48 ... 5,854,041 28.0 176,265 30 960,569 164 20,910,000 22,284,000 6,947,384 214,504 31 1,150,050 166 1949–50 ... 31.2 7,697,130 268,827 35 1,298,722 169 23,257,000 33.1 1951–52 ... 8,411,719 32.8 307,437 37 1953–54 ... 173 25,643,871 1,451,614 27,740,149 9,695,819 35.0 353,972 37 1,671,897 172 1955–56 ... 29,722,275 10,861,689 36.5 416,491 1957–58 ... 1,851,808 170 38 1959–60 ... 12,225,142 37.6 486,338 40 2,101,650 172 32,477,440 34,682,340 38.1 576,361 44 2,434,741 184 1961–62 ... 13,222,667 37,405,058 14,475,778 38.7 673,845 1963–64 ... 2,774,187 192 47 1965–66 ... 39,154,497 15,536,567 39.7 787,358 51 3,133,220 202 1967–68 ... 40,827,965 17,130,873 42.0 981,006 57 3,662,763 214 1969–70 ... 41,934,376 1,218,557 67 4,095,997 225 18,198,577 43.4 19,474,355 1,507,830 77 4,652,654 239 42,254,272 1971–72 ... 46.1 21,347,039 51.5 1,858,141 87 5,060,321 237 1973–74 ... 41,438,054 41,269,720 21,772,483 2,377,313 109 5,443,026 250 1975–76 ... 52.8 2 40,079,590 21,800,000 54.4 2,731,041 125 5,536,601 254 1977–78 ... 38,288,911 21,713,515 56.7 3,833,145 177 6,269,416 289 1979–80 ... 2 2 2 37,703,744 4,408,000 22,272,000 59.1 6,461,000 290 1980–81 ... 198 2 2 2 291 60.0 215 37,094,652 6,467,000 4,793,000 22,246,000 1981–82 ... 2 2 2 1982–83 ... 36,635,868 5,000,000 225 60.6 6,468,000 291 22,199,000 2 2 2 22,031,000 60.6 1983–84 ... 36,362,978 240 5,284,000 6,592,000 299 2 2 2 1984–85 ... 36,404,261 5,722,000 256 22,320,000 6,869,000 308 61.3 2 2 2 36,523,103 6,123,000 1985–86 ... 278 22,041,000 7,145,000 324 60.3 2 2 2 6,551,000 1986–87 ... 22,397,000 292 60.8 7,478,000 334 36,863,867 2 2 2 341 22,158,000 311 1987–88 ... 7,550,000 6,888,000 37,050,707 59.8 2 2 2 1988–89 ... 37,268,072 7,550,000 334 60.7 7,910,000 349 22,635,000 2 2 2 22,459,000 1989–90 ... 37,778,512 8,304,000 370 59.4 8,304,000 370 1 Excludes capital outlay for years through 1979–80. Beginning in 1980–81, total trans- Sta- SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, portation figures include capital outlay. tistics of State School Systems; Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and 2 Estimate based on data appearing in January issues of School Bus Fleet. Secondary Education, and unpublished data; and Bobbit Publishing Co., School Bus Fleet, January issues. (This table was prepared October 1992.) NOTE.—Constant dollars are adjusted for inflation using the Consumer Price Index computed on a school year basis. Some data have been revised from previously pub- lished figures.

55 46 Elementary and Secondary Education — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — dollars 1990–91 In constant 3 ers — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Average dollars annual salary of teach- In current — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 2 dollars 1990–91 In constant — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 325 195 224 386 485 252 286 $189 dollars of instructional staff Average annual salary In current 34.6 35.0 35.0 34.5 34.4 36.0 34.3 36.6 36.7 34.0 34.7 35.2 35.7 34.1 35.1 35.7 36.2 34.0 34.1 36.3 34.0 35.7 35.0 35.4 35.1 33.6 36.0 34.4 35.8 35.2 34.2 33.9 34.0 35.1 35.8 34.1 35.5 33.6 35.0 36.6 36.7 ratio Pupil- 1 teacher 140 135 130 123 270 150 264 377 357 283 245 212 149 145 261 321 238 180 158 221 164 391 341 208 268 398 350 274 204 296 232 153 188 253 306 413 332 279 171 159 195 Female Instructional staff 78 95 98 90 104 117 109 114 104 110 111 108 121 103 130 114 109 124 119 132 125 122 119 131 119 122 121 127 116 123 123 110 126 127 126 130 126 122 131 123 124 Male Classroom teachers, in thousands 230 238 287 258 347 364 304 260 368 294 314 220 339 280 326 374 400 201 383 277 357 389 299 331 267 248 398 460 481 455 495 423 414 442 523 405 466 432 411 449 506 Total — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Other staff, in thousands supervisory — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — in thousands Principals, — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Total, in thousands 98.0 96.3 97.9 98.0 99.0 89.6 80.0 79.4 78.4 94.8 88.4 84.1 82.9 84.9 86.4 81.3 85.9 80.5 93.5 77.0 76.5 80.9 79.4 81.1 81.1 91.6 86.3 77.9 83.6 80.0 86.6 79.5 100.6 106.0 107.3 109.8 112.6 102.1 113.0 105.2 101.7 days enrolled Average per pupil attended number of 132.1 129.8 134.4 131.3 133.7 132.2 128.8 130.4 132.1 140.5 132.3 131.2 129.1 130.3 130.2 134.7 139.5 132.0 133.1 130.7 139.5 135.7 130.0 136.3 136.9 129.1 133.4 144.3 151.8 142.0 143.0 146.7 144.7 157.5 143.7 150.6 150.9 147.2 155.3 143.0 154.1 term (days) school Average length of School attendance 6,146 7,056 5,051 7,526 4,659 8,154 4,745 8,329 6,144 7,298 8,561 5,876 5,248 7,682 8,856 9,188 6,331 7,907 5,783 9,549 6,652 5,291 4,545 8,006 4,077 9,781 5,427 11,055 10,053 11,318 11,064 10,356 11,712 12,154 12,827 10,389 10,716 11,926 11,482 12,685 10,633 2 3456 7 89101112131415 thousands Average daily attendance, in Table 14.—Average daily attendance, instructional staff, and teachers in public elementary and secondary schools: 1869–70 to 1990–91 1 School year 1878–79 ... 1874–75 ... 1898–99 ... 1891–92 ... 1879–80 ... 1870–71 ... 1897–98 ... 1890–91 ... 1899–1900 ... 1896–97 ... 1894–95 ... 1908–09 ... 1877–78 ... 1906–07 ... 1880–81 ... 1895–96 ... 1904–05 ... 1888–89 ... 1873–74 ... 1869–70 ... 1875–76 ... 1887–88 ... 1881–82 ... 1900–01 ... 1893–94 ... 1886–87 ... 1909–10 ... 1905–06 ... 1901–02 ... 1882–83 ... 1907–08 ... 1885–86 ... 1876–77 ... 1872–73 ... 1903–03 ... 1884–85 ... 1883–84 ... 1871–72 ... 1903–04 ... 1892–93 ... 1889–90 ...

56 47 Elementary and Secondary Education — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 31,584 21,196 29,230 27,217 26,030 24,571 30,580 31,827 30,100 22,765 31,243 30,934 $19,926 dollars 1990–91 In constant 3 ers — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Average 9,268 9,705 4,520 6,485 5,995 8,626 7,423 5,515 4,995 $4,000 10,770 10,174 11,641 dollars annual salary of teach- In current — — — — — — — 2 9,109 9,603 9,572 31,460 33,267 33,237 22,049 27,094 19,048 29,106 31,339 25,395 31,050 20,703 23,581 32,324 $6,120 32,693 17,578 12,943 15,168 13,162 14,646 13,809 11,110 12,409 12,503 10,605 17,020 13,280 12,845 dollars 1990–91 In constant 466 512 492 563 871 635 543 525 9,698 3,450 2,639 3,010 1,441 1,417 1,728 1,995 1,227 1,420 1,507 1,277 1,227 1,283 1,364 1,374 5,700 7,885 4,702 8,840 4,156 6,935 3,825 1,166 6,240 5,174 12,167 10,213 10,634 11,254 dollars of instructional staff Average annual salary In current 20.8 21.7 22.3 22.3 26.2 23.5 22.5 27.1 32.1 27.1 26.2 24.6 27.9 32.7 28.0 29.6 30.1 32.9 30.3 31.9 27.8 33.0 27.5 30.3 32.0 30.1 29.1 32.6 33.8 28.1 31.2 31.8 33.2 31.8 28.6 26.6 21.3 27.6 ratio Pupil- 1 teacher 728 906 850 779 605 694 699 719 584 685 692 701 647 718 676 681 712 693 633 692 546 486 452 433 423 499 465 962 1,333 1,280 1,053 1,080 1,167 1,421 1,403 1,382 1,438 1,383 5 5 5 5 5 Female Instructional staff 96 118 118 110 113 115 115 123 105 299 332 544 690 254 451 584 488 142 131 179 235 127 129 138 183 162 138 162 195 195 185 154 393 727 715 703 688 676 5 5 5 5 5 Male Classroom teachers, in thousands 723 914 861 778 872 680 828 847 832 859 875 877 871 831 761 854 963 547 622 651 580 604 565 534 1,238 1,149 1,032 1,711 1,458 2,023 1,864 1,568 1,355 2,165 2,070 2,106 2,136 2,059 Total — — — — — — — — 8.4 9.8 7.9 5.8 9.2 5.0 5.7 6.8 7.7 6.1 5.5 6.6 9.2 4.8 6.9 5.0 38.0 21.6 29.0 14.1 13.3 10.3 18.7 31.5 16.2 14.0 13.8 Other staff, in thousands supervisory — — — — — — — — 13.6 29.4 39.3 37.1 28.1 36.4 30.9 23.9 17.9 31.5 18.6 33.1 29.6 28.8 26.9 31.6 51.0 59.0 85.5 67.2 72.6 77.3 90.6 45.7 39.7 63.6 100.0 in Principals, thousands — — — — — — — 901 787 850 962 907 867 880 868 906 865 700 919 912 756 892 898 1,717 1,012 1,213 1,098 1,588 2,071 2,322 1,885 1,333 2,253 2,338 1,464 Total, in thousands 145.8 156.0 158.9 158.5 157.4 121.2 151.7 132.5 135.9 121.2 162.3 147.9 149.3 115.6 119.8 120.9 146.3 163.2 115.6 111.8 149.6 163.5 150.6 155.1 161.7 144.9 161.7 159.5 163.2 117.8 143.0 157.9 140.4 130.6 160.2 days enrolled Average per pupil attended number of ———— — ———— — ———— — 171.2 173.0 178.2 178.7 178.8 179.0 179.3 174.7 158.1 172.7 158.8 177.6 177.6 171.5 159.4 178.9 176.8 161.9 171.6 158.7 177.9 178.9 169.3 173.9 175.5 156.8 175.0 168.3 178.0 179.1 164.0 160.3 178.6 160.7 178.0 term (days) school Average length of School attendance 22,299 41,524 22,245 34,682 27,740 21,031 13,302 19,856 15,359 22,284 41,438 40,828 22,042 42,428 22,458 23,257 19,132 42,179 14,216 19,603 39,154 18,432 21,265 13,614 20,910 37,405 42,254 12,872 29,722 25,644 20,608 16,150 14,986 15,549 22,298 19,849 41,934 32,477 2 3456 7 89101112131415 thousands Average daily attendance, in ... 4 1 Table 14.—Average daily attendance, instructional staff, and teachers in public elementary and secondary schools: 1869–70 to 1990–91—Continued School year 1949–50 ... 1927–28 ... 1943–44 ... 1969–70 ... 1914–15 ... 1929–30 ... 1947–48 ... 1919–20 ... 1973–74 ... 1967–68 ... 1971–72 ... 1955–56 ... 1931–32 ... 1917–18 ... 1965–66 ... 1921–22 ... 1913–14 ... 1933–34 ... 1935–36 ... 1945–46 ... 1963–64 ... 1912–13 ... 1953–54 ... 1937–38 ... 1957–58 ... 1974–75 ... 1961–62 ... 1939–40 ... 1941–42 ... 1911–12 ... 1972–73 ... 1923–24 ... 1970–71 ... 1959–60 1910–11 ... 1925–26 ... 1915–16 ... 1951–52 ...

57 48 Elementary and Secondary Education 30,470 32,977 30,357 28,236 28,860 27,427 32,408 33,064 31,011 29,881 32,673 31,987 29,387 27,548 27,277 30,426 dollars 1990–91 In constant 3 and unpublished ers Average 31,350 25,199 26,569 23,600 28,034 29,568 15,032 15,970 12,600 17,644 21,935 13,354 20,695 14,198 19,274 32,977 dollars annual salary of teach- In current Annual Report of the Commis- 2 34,385 31,426 30,268 31,579 29,527 28,926 30,819 28,833 28,451 31,691 32,443 34,472 33,794 31,231 34,143 33,356 dollars 1990–91 In constant Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial (This table was prepared September 1992.) 13,840 21,641 34,385 27,706 24,666 26,362 20,327 32,685 23,005 30,899 14,698 29,233 13,124 18,404 15,764 16,715 5 dollars of instructional staff Average annual salary In current 18.9 17.2 17.9 17.6 20.2 18.1 17.3 17.7 18.6 18.4 19.7 17.2 19.3 18.7 19.1 20.4 ratio Pupil- 1 teacher Estimates of School Statistics. 1,476 1,442 1,472 1,456 1,454 1,439 1,489 1,728 1,537 1,455 1,699 1,570 1,467 1,460 1,664 1,614 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Female Instructional staff 708 669 735 669 658 742 665 679 679 674 743 734 742 679 659 679 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Male Classroom teachers, in thousands —Data not available. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2,279 2,168 2,244 2,206 2,357 2,323 2,207 2,118 2,209 2,133 2,397 2,139 2,189 2,185 2,198 2,184 sioner of Education, Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, Digest of Education Statistics, Times to 1970; data: National Education Association, Total — — — — — — — — 35.0 20.6 35.0 Other staff, in thousands supervisory — 127.0 124.5 126.6 125.6 129.3 131.6 125.9 104.0 107.0 106.0 in thousands Principals, 2,441 2,452 2,337 2,931 2,297 2,692 2,986 2,823 2,757 2,860 3,051 Total, in thousands — — — — — — — — 161.1 160.8 160.7 days enrolled Average per pupil attended number of ———— — ———— — ———— — ———— — ———— — — — — — — — — — 178.3 178.5 178.2 term (days) school Average length of — School attendance 36,363 36,864 41,270 36,636 37,095 37,268 37,779 39,075 37,051 37,704 36,404 40,832 38,289 36,523 40,079 2 3456 7 89101112131415 thousands Average daily attendance, in 1 Table 14.—Average daily attendance, instructional staff, and teachers in public elementary and secondary schools: 1869–70 to 1990–91—Continued Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii. For select years prior to 1951–52, includes a small number of librarians and other non-supervisory instructional staff. Data for 1970–71 and subsequent years are estimated by the National Education Association. Prior to 1919–20, computed for teaching positions only; beginning 1919–20, also includes supervisors and prin- Estimated. School year 5 4 1 2 3 1979–80 ... 1980–81 ... 1990–91 ... 1976–77 ... 1977–78 ... 1987–88 ... 1983–84 ... 1985–86 ... 1975–76 ... 1981–82 ... 1986–87 ... 1989–90 ... 1988–89 ... 1984–85 ... 1982–83 ... 1978–79 ... cipals. Data for 1980–81 and subsequent years are estimates from the National Education Association.

58 49 Elementary and Secondary Education Table 15.—Catholic elementary and secondary enrollment, teachers, and schools, by level: 1919–20 to 1990–91 1 Enrollment Instructional staff Student- Number of schools School year instructional Elementary Secondary Elementary Secondary Total Elementary Secondary staff ratio Total Total 1 234567891011 7,924 1,795,673 129,848 49,516 41,592 1,925,521 38.9 8,103 1,552 6,551 1919–20 ... 2,123 2,464,467 2,222,598 241,869 72,552 1929–30 ... 14,307 34.0 10,046 7,923 58,245 7,929 2,388,000 2,103,000 285,000 76,000 1,946 17,000 31.4 9,875 1935–36 ... 59,000 7,944 2,105 2,396,305 2,035,182 361,123 81,057 60,081 20,976 29.6 1939–40 ... 10,049 — — — — 467,000 — — 27,000 — 1946–47 ... 2,111 62,000 8,285 2,305,000 483,000 89,000 2,788,000 27,000 31.3 10,435 1947–48 ... 2,150 8,589 2,189 3,066,387 2,560,815 505,572 94,295 66,525 27,770 32.5 1949–50 ... 10,778 11,060 8,880 3,391,000 2,842,000 549,000 101,000 72,000 29,000 33.6 1951–52 ... 2,180 109,000 11,575 3,859,000 3,235,000 624,000 2,296 77,000 32,000 35.4 1953–54 ... 9,279 11,926 9,615 1955–56 ... 4,276,000 3,571,000 705,000 120,000 85,000 35,000 35.6 2,311 1960–61 ... 10,501 2,392 5,253,791 4,373,422 880,369 151,902 108,169 43,733 34.6 12,893 13,007 10,631 5,383,000 4,445,000 938,000 158,000 111,000 47,000 34.1 1961–62 ... 2,376 112,000 10,676 4,485,000 1,009,000 159,000 5,494,000 47,000 34.6 13,178 2,502 1962–63 ... 10,775 2,430 5,590,000 4,546,000 1,044,000 1963–64 ... 115,000 51,000 33.7 13,205 166,000 13,249 2,417 5,601,000 4,534,000 1,067,000 10,832 118,000 53,000 32.8 1964–65 ... 171,000 13,292 10,879 2,413 5,574,000 4,492,000 1,082,000 177,000 1965–66 ... 57,000 31.5 120,000 1966–67 ... 10,769 2,463 5,485,000 4,375,000 1,110,000 176,000 120,000 56,000 31.2 13,232 179,000 12,627 5,199,000 4,106,000 1,093,000 2,277 124,000 55,000 29.0 1967–68 ... 10,350 12,305 10,113 2,192 4,941,000 3,860,000 1,081,000 183,000 1968–69 ... 57,000 27.0 126,000 2 2 2 2,076 4,658,098 1,050,930 11,771 195,400 3,607,168 133,200 9,695 62,200 23.8 1969–70 ... 1970–71 ... 11,350 9,370 1,980 4,363,566 3,355,478 1,008,088 166,208 112,750 53,458 26.3 1971–72 ... 10,841 1,859 4,034,785 3,075,785 959,000 159,083 106,686 52,397 25.4 8,982 10,504 8,761 3,790,000 2,871,000 919,000 155,964 105,384 50,580 24.3 1972–73 ... 1,743 102,785 8,569 2,714,000 907,000 153,883 3,621,000 51,098 23.5 10,297 1,728 1973–74 ... 8,437 1,690 3,504,000 2,602,000 902,000 1974–75 ... 100,011 50,168 23.3 10,127 150,179 9,993 1,653 3,415,000 2,525,000 890,000 8,340 99,319 49,957 22.9 1975–76 ... 149,276 9,904 8,281 1,623 3,365,000 2,483,000 882,000 150,610 100,016 50,594 22.3 1976–77 ... 1977–78 ... 9,797 1,593 3,289,000 2,421,000 868,000 150,648 99,739 50,909 21.8 8,204 147,948 9,723 3,218,000 2,365,000 853,000 1,564 98,539 49,409 21.8 1978–79 ... 8,159 9,640 8,100 1,540 3,139,000 2,293,000 846,000 147,294 97,724 49,570 21.3 1979–80 ... 1980–81 ... 9,559 1,516 3,106,000 2,269,000 837,000 145,777 96,739 49,038 21.3 8,043 828,000 1981–82 ... 1,498 3,094,000 2,266,000 7,996 146,172 96,847 49,325 21.2 9,494 1982–83 ... 9,432 7,950 1,482 3,026,000 2,225,000 801,000 146,460 97,337 49,123 20.7 1983–84 ... 9,380 1,463 2,969,000 2,179,000 790,000 146,913 98,591 48,322 20.2 7,917 149,888 9,325 2,903,000 2,119,000 784,000 1,449 99,820 50,068 19.4 1984–85 ... 7,876 9,220 7,790 1,430 2,821,000 2,061,000 760,000 146,594 96,741 49,853 19.2 1985–86 ... 1986–87 ... 9,102 1,409 2,726,000 1,998,000 728,000 141,930 93,554 48,376 19.2 7,693 681,000 1987–88 ... 1,391 2,623,000 1,942,000 7,601 139,887 93,199 46,688 18.8 8,992 1988–89 ... 8,867 7,505 1,362 2,551,000 1,912,000 639,000 137,700 93,154 44,546 18.5 1989–90 ... 8,719 1,324 2,499,000 1,894,000 606,000 136,900 94,197 42,703 18.3 7,395 591,533 1990–91 ... 1,296 2,475,439 1,883,906 7,291 131,198 91,039 40,159 18.9 8,587 1 Beginning in 1970–71, includes full-time teaching staff only. A Statistical Report on Catholic SOURCE: National Catholic Educational Association, 2 Includes estimates for the nonreporting schools. Elementary and Secondary Schools for the Years 1967–68 to 1969–70, as compiled —Data not available. from the Official Catholic Directory; United States Catholic Elementary and Secondary Schools, 1989 and 1990-91; and Franklin Press, Catholic Schools in America and United NOTE.—Data reported by the National Catholic Educational Association and data re- States Catholic Elementary and Secondary Schools, 1989–90 and 1990–91. (This table ported by the National Center for Education Statistics are not directly comparable be- was prepared September 1992.) cause survey procedures and definitions differ.

59 50 Elementary and Secondary Education 3.2 6.6 2.1 1.1 1.0 4.6 1.2 3.3 0.2 3.5 9.8 12.3 21.0 21.7 23.2 29.5 59.0 86.5 24.2 32.5 11.4 21.6 19.7 23.0 23.9 12,764 Digest of Fall 1981 and 2.7 3.6 6.2 8.7 5.8 7.6 3.1 1.5 2.9 3.7 0.9 12.3 20.3 13.8 19.6 11.3 19.7 89.8 20.4 57.0 17.9 32.3 11.6 25.1 15.2 13,848 Fall 1972 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 2.7 4.5 2.0 9.3 Biennial Survey of Education in 12.4 18.7 23.2 28.5 13.9 14.5 15.4 11,628 1964–65 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 2.0 8.3 3.8 17.6 24.0 11.7 30.4 14.7 10,372 1962–63 8.0 7.7 9.8 7.8 4.9 0.8 6.2 3.0 0.9 1.7 9.1 9.5 22.2 17.4 28.6 23.1 94.6 73.7 24.3 28.0 13.8 28.0 23.1 21.7 19.3 8,821 1960–61 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 2.7 8.1 4.7 12.7 19.6 20.8 29.9 13.4 8,258 1958–59 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 4.7 2.6 7.5 12.3 20.0 25.3 12.5 6,574 1954–55 (This table was prepared October 1992.) 6.7 2.0 9.0 7.6 0.4 0.8 8.0 8.2 8.7 4.7 5.4 7.8 1.0 20.8 24.2 13.1 22.5 92.9 18.4 26.8 22.8 26.6 30.1 12.8 69.4 5,658 1948–49 SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 6.2 9.9 6.3 1.8 3.6 7.4 1.3 7.6 8.7 1.7 2.4 50.7 16.7 17.8 16.7 10.9 14.6 90.5 30.4 17.8 21.0 17.1 25.5 16.0 16.4 the United States; A Trend Study of High School Offerings and Enrollments: 1972–73 and 1981–82; Education Statistics. 5,669 1933–34 7.9 3.7 1.3 7.1 1.8 2.8 9.4 6.8 2.7 Percentage of students taking specific subject 17.5 16.5 15.2 15.0 14.0 93.1 10.7 13.6 18.8 13.5 11.7 26.0 19.8 22.0 35.2 20.0 3,911 1927–28 8.9 5.1 5.1 1.5 8.8 7.4 0.6 4.5 11.3 13.1 14.3 18.3 12.4 15.5 76.7 12.6 40.2 18.2 13.7 22.7 25.3 14.7 27.5 19.3 2,873 1921–22 7.2 2.7 1.5 8.8 6.9 7.4 3.4 9.5 12.9 58.4 14.2 48.8 50.5 11.2 22.9 26.5 31.5 24.4 37.3 15.3 15.7 1,562 1914–15 — — — — 3.8 0.7 4.7 1.9 1.1 9.9 6.9 915 57.1 14.6 56.9 55.0 30.9 21.0 23.7 49.0 15.6 15.3 1909–10 — — — — — — — — 1.9 7.8 7.7 519 56.3 19.0 50.6 29.8 14.3 21.7 27.4 38.5 38.2 27.4 Table 16.—Public school enrollment in grades 9 to 12, by subject: 1889–90 to fall 1981 1900 1899– ————8.98.79.07.8——6.7——4.63.1 ———— ————5.7 ———— ———— — — — — — — — — — — — — — 5.8 203 45.4 22.8 27.3 21.3 10.5 10.1 34.7 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516 1889–90 ... 1 ... 1 Subject For 1914–15 and earlier years, includes ancient, medieval, and modern history. Total, in thousands 1 —Data not available. Art ... Physical education ... Latin ... Music ... Geometry ... English ... Physiology ... Chemistry ... Civics and government ... Biology ... Algebra ... German ... Agriculture ... French ... Industrial subjects ... Home economics ... General mathematics ... Typewriting ... General science ... Earth science ... U.S. and English history Physics ... Shorthand ... Bookkeeping ... Spanish ... Trignometry ...

60 51 Elementary and Secondary Education 253 290 262 301 17-year-olds 264 255 232 226 Science 13-year-olds 196 238 206 229 9-year-olds 284 310 289 305 November 1991. (This table was prepared December 1992.) 17-year-olds 270 276 255 249 13-year-olds Mathematics 230 214 208 235 Trends in Academic Progress, 9-year-olds 9—————— 8—————— 0—————— 4—————— 5—————— 9—————— 8—————— 2—————— 194 217 18 198 20 19 21 212 21 19 21 21 SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Edu- cational Progress, Grade 11 198 190 182 202 190 206 203 191 188 189 207 210 Writing Grade 8 163 155 169 179 168 186 191 193 186 154 154 183 Grade 4 1————————— 1————————— 2————————— 1————————— 3————————— 3————————— 6————————— 3————————— 5————————— 6————————— 9————————— 29 28 29 26 28 264 24 289 295 268 267 275 29 23 28 295 25 290 24 271 274 290 297 17-year-olds 261 233 262 256 258 243 240 257 261 222 242 238 257 263 226 264 255 240 237 233 262 259 236 Reading 13-year-olds ——————219266304220250296 —————————220247290 ——————190228270177205250 ——————219269299221250283 —————————225255305 ——————224272306——— ——————224274304229257293 ——————227274308232259298 ——————225274310231259304 —————————175208240 ——————222269302224251289 ——————192230268——— ——————204252277189226249 —————————192213262 ——————205254283199226259 ——————202249279196222253 ——————219264300——— ——————203238276——— ——————195240272187217235 ——————202239277——— —————————230256298 —————————179215258 —————————236263312 214 187 190 181 170 186 194 189 212 209 217 211 208 183 189 182 218 217 189 218 221 215 210 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213 9-year-olds Table 17.—Student proficiency in reading, writing, mathematics, and science, by age and race/ethnicity: 1969–70 to 1989–90 ... ... 1 1 1 Year and race/ethnicity Includes persons of Hispanic origin. 1987–88 ... 1989–90 ... 1983–84 ... 1976–77 ... 1987–88 ... 1977–78 ... 1985–86 ... 1979–80 ... 1985–86 ... 1987–88 ... 1983–84 ... 1981–82 ... 1981–82 ... 1979–80 ... 1983–84 ... 1977–78 ... 1976–77 ... 1974–75 ... 1977–78 ... 1972–73 ... 1976–77 ... 1970–71 ... 1985–86 ... 1969–70 ... 1972–73 ... 1970–71 ... 1969–70 ... 1989–90 ... 1989–90 ... 1972–73 ... 1974–75 ... 1974–75 ... 1989–90 ... 1969–70 1987–88 ... 1985–86 ... 1970–71 1972–73 ... 1983–84 ... 1981–82 ... 1979–80 ... 1977–78 ... 1974–75 ... 1979–80 ... 1976–77 ... 1981–82 ... 1 —Data not available. White Black Hispanic Total

61 52 Elementary and Secondary Education 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 15 Level 350 0.2 2.3 0.1 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.9 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.3 3.2 3.9 0.4 3.8 11.1 14 Level 300 3.5 8.8 4.2 3.9 8.3 8.5 25.7 30.8 48.8 11.6 10.7 27.5 29.4 24.3 32.7 37.5 31.1 13 Level 250 Science 86.0 42.0 27.2 76.8 68.0 56.3 40.2 46.2 38.9 50.1 46.4 78.9 78.4 72.0 70.7 76.4 84.4 12 Level 200 ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— 97.7 93.5 72.4 84.6 98.5 93.6 88.0 98.3 98.2 96.2 95.2 99.2 97.0 85.1 82.1 89.6 88.6 11 Level 150 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 10 Level 350 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.9 0.6 0.8 1.2 1.5 9 18.0 300 Level 16 16 4.1 5.6 7.8 9.2 4.4 7.3 9.4 8 24.6 19.6 18.8 22.9 64.9 20.7 21.8 11.3 32.7 27.7 250 Level Mathematics 9-year-olds 13-year-olds 7 94.6 76.3 57.6 55.7 76.8 70.4 53.4 79.6 42.0 46.1 54.2 71.4 74.1 60.0 68.4 86.9 81.5 200 Level —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— 6 98.8 98.3 96.7 96.4 88.4 93.0 97.1 97.9 90.2 94.3 98.5 93.9 99.8 99.1 99.6 96.9 98.0 150 Level 1970–71 to 1989–90 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 5 350 Level 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.4 0.0 1.1 2.2 1.4 0.8 0.9 9.8 1.6 0.7 1.7 0.6 1.2 1.0 0.6 4 10.2 11.3 300 Level 4.3 4.5 5.2 2.0 8.6 5.0 5.8 5.6 4.1 2.6 1.6 3 18.0 14.6 17.4 58.6 15.6 17.5 60.7 18.4 17.2 20.9 57.8 21.0 17.7 22.6 20.3 250 Level Reading 2 65.0 62.1 33.9 94.8 74.2 69.0 58.7 41.3 93.2 39.6 31.6 93.0 67.7 68.4 45.9 41.6 61.5 36.6 39.4 22.0 34.6 40.9 68.6 62.6 66.0 58.9 200 Level ————— ————— —————————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— —————————— —————————— —————————— ————— ————— —————————— ————— ————— 1 94.0 90.1 94.6 93.1 80.7 82.0 95.4 84.5 99.9 92.3 92.7 83.7 93.5 99.8 83.2 95.1 99.7 97.1 90.6 96.0 69.7 81.3 76.9 84.9 85.6 80.8 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516 150 Level ... 1 Table 18.—Percentage of students at or above selected reading, mathematics, and science proficiency levels, by age and race/ethnicity: and 17 Age, year race/ethnicity 1981–82 ... 1979–80 ... 1979–80 ... 1977–78 ... 1981–82 ... 1983–84 ... 1976–77 ... 1974–75 ... 1987–88 ... 1985–86 ... 1987–88 ... 1989–90 ... 1989–90 ... 1970–71 ... 1987–88 ... 1989–90 ... 1985–86 ... 1983–84 ... 1983–84 ... 1987–88 ... 1974–75 ... 1985–86 ... 1970–71 ... 1981–82 ... 1974–75 ... 1979–80 ... 1977–78 ... 1976–77 ... 1976–77 ... 1977–78 ... 1976–77 ... 1989–90 ... 1985–86 ... 1979–80 ... 1977–78 ... 1974–75 ... 1970–71 ... 1974–75 ... 1983–84 ... 1976–77 ... 1981–82 ... 1977–78 ... 1979–80 ... 1970–71 Black White Total Hispanic Total

62 53 Elementary and Secondary Education 0.3 7.9 0.0 0.0 7.1 0.4 0.1 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.5 0.0 0.8 0.5 0.2 0.4 9.2 0.1 10.0 15 Level 350 1.1 1.5 9.1 9.6 0.8 3.3 1.2 1.8 1.5 2.4 41.3 11.3 41.7 14.2 13.4 47.5 37.3 11.5 43.3 11.2 14 Level 300 24.9 19.6 18.1 81.6 14.9 88.2 66.5 56.5 76.6 58.3 24.3 17.1 81.2 56.5 24.1 30.0 61.0 80.7 50.9 52.5 13 Level 250 Science 73.6 76.7 92.2 97.1 62.2 96.9 57.3 95.7 94.4 91.6 89.8 97.1 77.6 96.1 96.7 92.3 75.5 99.2 68.6 80.2 12 Level 200 ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— 99.0 99.0 94.3 99.8 93.1 99.6 99.7 99.9 98.8 99.7 99.5 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.7 98.0 97.5 98.9 11 100.0 100.0 Level 150 0.4 0.4 6.5 1.2 0.5 7.3 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 8.5 0.1 5.5 0.6 0.1 7.2 10 Level 350 5.5 4.0 3.9 6.3 2.3 2.9 4.0 6.4 9 57.6 20.5 48.5 21.4 18.6 51.5 15.8 17.4 51.7 56.1 17.3 21.0 300 Level 16 8 95.6 93.0 78.3 56.0 49.0 92.0 72.9 71.4 73.3 78.9 95.6 96.0 52.2 37.9 28.7 36.0 48.7 56.7 82.0 74.7 250 Level Mathematics 17-year-olds 7 99.9 99.1 95.9 79.7 86.4 90.2 95.4 99.4 98.5 96.8 99.9 99.8 99.3 98.6 97.6 96.9 97.7 95.4 100.0 100.0 200 Level —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— 6 99.8 98.6 99.9 99.6 99.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 150 Level 0.2 7.7 0.3 4.6 5.7 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.5 6.8 7.0 6.2 0.3 0.4 7.2 0.3 5.3 0.4 0.3 5 1970–71 to 1989–90—Continued 350 Level 1.8 2.2 4.6 1.5 4.4 2.3 2.8 0.8 4.6 4.1 3.9 4 43.2 11.3 40.9 40.3 13.6 12.4 12.1 11.0 43.9 39.0 13.1 11.0 37.8 38.7 41.4 13.3 10.9 300 Level 3 85.7 83.1 67.8 37.2 32.0 24.8 86.2 41.7 58.7 80.1 40.2 58.7 38.0 63.7 80.7 84.1 21.1 35.4 34.6 65.3 64.8 65.5 30.1 59.0 39.0 78.6 64.2 83.7 250 Level Reading 2 98.1 85.5 96.4 97.9 93.8 86.7 87.4 84.1 98.6 97.2 91.3 96.0 94.9 96.2 86.8 87.7 96.4 85.8 93.9 76.9 96.2 96.0 81.3 74.2 96.0 98.3 97.1 98.9 200 Level ————— ————— —————————— ————— ————— ————— ————— —————————— ————— ————— —————————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— —————————— ————— —————————— ————— 1 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.7 99.8 99.5 99.6 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.4 98.6 99.9 99.8 99.2 98.4 99.9 99.8 99.7 99.9 99.1 99.9 99.4 99.3 99.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516 150 Level ... ... 1 Table 18.—Percentage of students at or above selected reading, mathematics, and science proficiency levels, by age and race/ethnicity: and 17 17 Age, year race/ethnicity 1985–86 ... 1983–84 ... 1976–77 ... 1974–75 ... 1974–75 ... 1989–90 ... 1979–80 ... 1985–86 ... 1977–78 ... 1989–90 ... 1987–88 ... 1983–84 ... 1979–80 ... 1981–82 ... 1970–71 1976–77 ... 1983–84 ... 1976–77 ... 1987–88 ... 1985–86 ... 1989–90 ... 1981–82 ... 1970–71 1981–82 ... 1970–71 ... 1974–75 ... 1987–88 ... 1989–90 ... 1987–88 ... 1979–80 ... 1979–80 ... 1974–75 ... 1981–82 ... 1974–75 ... 1977–78 ... 1987–88 ... 1985–86 ... 1976–77 ... 1976–77 ... 1970–71 ... 1985–86 ... 1983–84 ... 1977–78 ... 1981–82 ... 1983–84 ... 1977–78 ... 1977–78 ... 1989–90 ... Hispanic Black White White Total

63 54 Elementary and Secondary Education 9.6 1.1 1.4 0.4 1.5 2.1 0.9 8.6 1.8 0.2 11.4 15 Level 350 6.5 7.7 48.7 12.5 11.1 43.9 14.8 18.5 51.2 21.1 15.7 14 Level 300 87.8 52.2 84.9 61.5 40.5 89.6 51.4 59.9 35.0 60.0 48.0 13 Level 250 Science 98.8 90.9 98.6 83.6 93.1 93.3 79.7 99.0 86.9 88.3 91.9 12 Level 200 ————— ————— 99.7 98.5 99.7 99.8 98.9 97.9 99.4 99.6 11 100.0 100.0 100.0 Level 150 November 1991. (This table was prepared December 1992.) 1.4 0.7 0.5 1.1 0.5 6.4 2.0 8.3 1.9 7.9 0.2 10 Level 350 9 20.8 59.1 23.4 26.5 17.1 16.8 21.6 54.7 32.8 63.2 30.1 300 Level Trends in Academic Progress, 8 85.6 98.0 89.3 70.7 78.3 76.4 81.4 97.6 85.8 96.2 92.4 250 Level Mathematics All participants of this age were in school. Includes persons of Hispanic origin. Able to interpret data from simple tables and make inferences about the outcomes of experimental procedures. Able to evaluate the appropriateness of the design of an experiment and have the skill to apply scientific knowl- Able to infer relationships and draw conclusions using detailed scientific knowledge from the physical sciences, SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Edu- —Data not available. 16 14 15 13 17 this field. from the physical sciences. Exhibit knowledge and understanding of the life sciences, and also demonstrate some knowledge of basic information edge in interpreting information from text and graphs. Exhibit a growing understanding of principles from the physical sciences. cational Progress, particularly chemistry. Able to apply basic principles of genetics and interpret the societal implications of research in 7 99.6 99.9 98.8 99.4 99.8 99.3 99.7 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 200 Level —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— —————————— 6 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 150 Level 6.2 8.7 5.5 6.9 1.4 0.4 0.4 0.2 1.5 1.3 1.3 2.4 0.9 2.0 1.2 5 1970–71 to 1989–90—Continued 350 Level 7.1 8.1 7.7 4 47.5 24.9 43.3 45.4 46.3 16.2 23.3 12.6 19.7 27.1 21.2 16.5 300 Level 3 88.0 88.3 88.7 75.8 86.9 44.0 65.7 62.2 75.2 69.1 71.5 40.1 43.0 68.3 52.9 250 Level Reading 2 88.7 95.6 82.0 93.3 85.6 96.3 95.9 95.9 95.7 81.9 99.3 99.1 99.0 98.0 98.8 200 Level —————————— ————— ————— ————— —————————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— 1 99.8 99.7 99.9 99.3 99.8 99.6 99.9 97.7 99.0 97.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516 150 Level 1 Table 18.—Percentage of students at or above selected reading, mathematics, and science proficiency levels, by age and race/ethnicity: and Age, year race/ethnicity Able to perform reasoning and problem solving involving geometry, algebra, and beginning statistics and prob- Exhibit knowledge of some general scientific facts of the type that could be learned from everyday experiences. Developing some understanding of simple scientific principles, particularly in the life sciences. Able to follow brief written directions and select phrases to describe pictures. Able to find, understand, summarize, and explain relatively complicated literary and informational material. Able to perform simple additive reasoning and problem solving. Able to understand the links between ideas even when those links are not explicitly stated and to make appropriate Able to perform simple multiplicative reasoning and 2–step problem solving. Able to search for specific information, interrelate ideas, and make generalizations about literature, science, and Able to perform reasoning and problem solving involving fractions, decimals, percents, elementary geometry, and Able to perform elementary addition and subtraction. Able to understand combined ideas and make references based on short uncomplicated passages about specific 1974–75 ... 1983–84 ... 1987–88 ... 1989–90 ... 1970–71 ... 1979–80 ... 1976–77 ... 1983–84 ... 1981–82 ... 1985–86 ... 1974–75 ... 1976–77 ... 1981–82 ... 1981–82 ... 1989–90 ... 1987–88 ... 1985–86 ... 1979–80 ... 1985–86 ... 1977–78 ... 1979–80 ... 1987–88 ... 1983–84 ... 1977–78 ... 1989–90 ... 6 12 1 9 8 7 10 11 5 4 2 3 Black Hispanic ability. or sequentially related information. social studies materials. simple algebra. generalizations even when the text lacks clear introductions or explanations.

64 55 Elementary and Secondary Education Table 19.—High school graduates, by sex and control of institution: 1869–70 to 1991–92 [Numbers in thousands] High school graduates Graduates per Population 17 100 Control Sex School year 1 years old Total 17-year-olds 2 3 Female Private Male Public 2345678 1 16 9 — — 2.0 815 7 1869–70 ... 13 — — 2.5 946 24 1879–80 ... 11 1889–90 ... 25 22 22 3.5 1,259 44 19 95 57 62 33 6.4 1899–1900 ... 1,489 38 64 93 111 45 8.8 1,786 1909–10 ... 156 311 124 188 231 80 16.8 1919–20 ... 1,855 667 367 2,296 592 75 29.0 1929–30 ... 300 747 1930–31 ... — — 32.1 337 2,327 409 375 35.5 — — 827 1931–32 ... 2,330 452 871 468 — — 37.3 2,335 1932–33 ... 403 915 432 483 — 1933–34 ... 39.2 2,334 — 2,348 459 506 — — 41.1 1934–35 ... 965 1,015 — 530 2,377 — 42.7 1935–36 ... 486 2,416 505 563 — — 44.2 1936–37 ... 1,068 2,456 1937–38 ... 524 596 — — 45.6 1,120 1939–40 ... 1,221 579 643 1,143 78 50.8 2,403 2,421 1,242 666 — — 51.3 1941–42 ... 577 1,019 424 — — 42.7 1943–44 ... 2,386 595 1,080 613 — — 47.4 2,278 1945–46 ... 467 1,190 563 627 1,073 117 52.6 1947–48 ... 2,261 2,034 1,200 629 1,063 136 59.0 1949–50 ... 571 1,197 141 627 1,056 2,086 57.4 1951–52 ... 569 2,135 613 664 1,129 147 59.8 1953–54 ... 1,276 2,242 1,415 680 735 1955–56 ... 163 63.1 1,252 1956–57 ... 1,434 690 744 1,270 164 63.1 2,272 2,325 1,506 781 1,332 174 64.8 1957–58 ... 725 2,458 784 843 1,435 192 66.2 1958–59 ... 1,627 2,672 1,858 895 963 1,627 231 69.5 1959–60 ... 1960–61 ... 2,892 955 1,009 1,725 239 67.9 1,964 2,768 1,678 938 980 1961–62 ... 240 69.3 1,918 1962–63 ... 1,943 956 987 1,710 233 70.9 2,740 1963–64 ... 2,978 2,283 1,120 1,163 2,008 275 76.7 1964–65 ... 2,684 1,311 1,347 2,360 298 72.1 2,658 3,489 2,665 1,342 2,367 298 76.4 1965–66 ... 1,323 2,672 1,328 2,374 298 76.3 1966–67 ... 3,500 1,344 2,695 1,357 2,395 300 76.3 3,532 1967–68 ... 1,338 2,822 1,399 1,423 2,522 300 77.1 1968–69 ... 3,659 3,757 2,889 1,459 2,589 300 76.9 1969–70 ... 1,430 2,937 300 1,483 2,637 3,872 75.9 1970–71 ... 1,454 3,973 1,487 1,514 2,699 302 75.5 1971–72 ... 3,001 4,049 3,036 1,500 1,536 2,730 306 75.0 1972–73 ... 1973–74 ... 4,132 1,512 1,561 2,763 310 74.4 3,073 4,256 3,133 1,591 2,823 310 73.6 1974–75 ... 1,542 3,148 311 1,596 2,837 4,272 73.7 1975–76 ... 1,552 4,272 1,548 1,607 2,840 315 73.9 1976–77 ... 3,155 4,286 3,127 1,531 1,596 1977–78 ... 302 73.0 2,825 1978–79 ... 3,117 1,523 1,594 2,817 300 72.0 4,327 4,262 1,552 1,491 1979–80 ... 2,748 295 71.4 3,043 1980–81 ... 3,020 1,483 1,537 2,725 295 71.8 4,207 1981–82 ... 4,121 2,995 1,471 1,524 2,705 290 72.7 1982–83 ... 3,939 1,437 1,451 2,598 290 73.3 2,888 4 4 3,753 1983–84 ... 1,454 2,495 272 73.7 2,767 1,313 4 4 3,658 1,291 1,386 2,414 263 73.2 1984–85 ... 2,677 4 4 2,643 2,383 3,621 1,380 1985–86 ... 260 73.0 1,263 4 4 3,697 1,301 265 1,393 2,429 1986–87 ... 72.9 2,694 4 4 2,500 1,384 3,781 1,389 1987–88 ... 273 73.4 2,773 4 4 2,727 1,384 1,343 1988–89 ... 3,761 2,459 268 72.5 4 4 1989–90 ... 1,285 3,485 1,302 2,320 268 74.2 2,587 4 5 4 2,511 3,325 1,257 1990–91 1,254 2,263 247 75.5 ... 5 234 ... 3,286 2,485 — — 2,251 1991–92 75.6 1 4 Series P-25. Ad- Estimates based on data published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Population as of July 1, derived from Current Population Reports, 5 justed to reflect October 17–year-old population. Public high school graduates based on state estimates. 2 Statistics of Public High Schools and Data for 1929–30 and preceding years are from —Data not available. exclude graduates of high schools which failed to report to the Office of Education. 3 SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics For most years, private school data have been estimated based on periodic private of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; Current Population Reports, Series P-25: school surveys. For years through 1957–58, private includes data for subcollegiate de- U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Edu- partments of institutions of higher education and residential schools for exceptional chil- cation Statistics, various years. (This table was prepared September 1992.) dren.

65 56 Elementary and Secondary Education Table 20.—Public school districts and public and private elementary and secondary schools: 1929–30 to 1990–91 2 2,3 Public schools Private schools Public School year school Elementary schools Total, Total, all Secondary 1 4 districts Total Elementary Secondary regular 4 schools schools 5 One-teacher Total schools 2345678910 1 — 238,306 — 23,930 — 9,275 3,258 — 1929–30 ... 149,282 — — 221,660 121,178 25,467 — 9,992 3,327 1937–38 ... 119,001 — — — 113,600 — — 11,306 3,568 1939–40 ... 117,108 — 160,227 86,563 24,314 — 9,863 3,294 101,382 — 1945–46 ... — — 146,760 75,096 25,484 1947–48 ... 10,071 3,292 94,926 — 83,718 — 128,225 59,652 — — 10,375 3,331 1949–50 ... 24,542 1951–52 ... — — 123,763 50,742 23,746 — 10,666 3,322 71,094 1953–54 ... — — 110,875 42,865 25,637 — 11,739 3,913 63,057 54,859 — 104,427 34,964 26,046 — 12,372 3,887 1955–56 ... — — — 95,446 25,341 25,507 47,594 13,065 3,994 1957–58 ... — 40,520 — 91,853 20,213 25,784 — 13,574 4,061 1959–60 ... — 35,676 — — 81,910 13,333 1961–62 ... — 14,762 4,129 25,350 1963–64 ... — — 77,584 9,895 26,431 — — 4,451 31,705 26,983 6,491 — 73,216 1965–66 ... 26,597 17,849 15,340 4,606 — 1967–68 ... — 94,197 70,879 4,146 27,011 — — — 22,010 1970–71 ... 17,995 — 89,372 65,800 1,815 25,352 — 14,372 3,770 1973–74 ... 16,730 88,655 65,070 1,365 25,906 — — — — 16,376 88,597 63,242 1,166 25,330 — — — 1975–76 ... 87,034 — 19,910 62,644 1,111 25,378 16,271 16,385 5,904 1976–77 ... 86,501 16,014 84,816 61,982 1,056 24,504 19,489 16,097 5,766 1978–79 ... — 15,912 85,982 83,688 61,069 921 24,362 1980–81 ... 16,792 5,678 20,764 1982–83 ... 84,740 82,039 59,656 798 23,988 — — — 15,824 6 6 6 59,082 838 23,947 1983–84 ... 27,694 15,747 20,872 81,418 84,178 7,862 1984–85 ... 84,007 81,147 58,827 — 23,916 — — — 825 6 6 6 25,616 —————— 1985–86 ... 7,387 20,252 7 1986–87 ... 82,190 60,784 763 83,455 — — — 15,713 23,389 7 6 6 6 61,490 729 22,937 83,248 26,807 15,577 22,959 1987–88 ... 8,418 82,248 7 15,376 83,165 82,081 61,531 583 1988–89 ... — — — 22,785 7 83,425 15,367 1989–90 ... 82,396 62,037 630 22,639 — — — 7 1990–91 ... 81,746 61,340 617 22,731 84,538 — — 15,358 — 1 Includes operating and nonoperating districts. —Data not available. 2 Schools with both elementary and secondary programs are included under elemen- Sta- SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, tary schools and also under secondary schools. 3 Data for most years are partly estimated. tistics of State School Systems; Statistics of Public Elementary and Secondary School 4 Includes regular schools and special schools not classified by grade span. Systems; Statistics of Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Schools; Private Schools in 5 Includes elementary, secondary, and combined elementary/secondary schools. American Education; and Common Core of Data surveys. (This table was prepared April 6 These data are from sample surveys and should not be compared directly with the 1992.) data for earlier years. 7 Because of expanded survey coverage, data are not directly comparable with figures for earlier years.

66 57 Elementary and Secondary Education Table 21.—Revenues for public elementary and secondary schools, by source of funds: 1889–90 to 1989–90 Percentage distribution In thousands School year Local (including Local (including 1 1 State Federal State Total Federal Total 2 2 intermediate) intermediate) 123456789 3 $26,345 $97,222 1889–90 ... 21.3 78.7 100.0 $143,195 — — 3 — 27,632 100,359 1890–91 — 21.6 78.4 100.0 ... 147,915 3 157,175 29,908 105,630 100.0 — 22.1 77.9 1891–92 ... — 3 23.7 33,695 108,425 100.0 — — 76.3 1892–93 ... 165,023 3 1893–94 — 32,750 170,404 100.0 — 22.5 77.5 ... 112,785 3 176,565 1894–95 118,915 100.0 — 22.6 77.4 — ... 34,638 3 21.9 35,032 124,880 100.0 — ... 78.1 1895–96 182,480 — 3 191,959 — 33,942 130,318 1896–97 100.0 20.7 79.3 ... — 3 20.6 199,833 135,516 100.0 — 35,122 79.4 — ... 1897–98 3 ... — 35,341 144,898 100.0 — 19.6 80.4 1898–99 203,337 3 ... 219,766 — 37,887 149,487 1899–1900 100.0 20.2 79.8 — 3 ... 235,339 — 36,281 163,897 100.0 — 18.1 81.9 1900–01 3 1901–02 — 39,216 173,151 100.0 — 18.5 81.5 ... 245,498 3 18.9 40,456 173,731 100.0 — — 81.1 1902–03 ... 251,637 3 279,134 — 42,553 193,216 1903–04 — 18.0 82.0 100.0 ... 3 ... — 44,349 210,168 100.0 — 17.4 82.6 1904–05 301,819 3 ... — 47,943 223,491 322,106 — 17.7 82.3 1905–06 100.0 3 ... 100.0 — 44,706 231,738 1906–07 — 16.2 83.8 355,016 3 ... — 58,097 259,341 100.0 — 18.3 81.7 1907–08 381,920 3 ... — 63,547 288,643 100.0 403,647 18.0 82.0 1908–09 — 3 1909–10 433,064 — 64,605 312,222 ... — 17.1 82.9 100.0 3 ... 451,151 — 69,071 333,832 100.0 — 17.1 82.9 1910–11 3 1911–12 469,111 — 75,814 346,898 ... — 17.9 82.1 100.0 3 17.3 ... 507,227 — 78,376 375,582 100.0 — 1912–13 82.7 3 1913–14 561,743 — 87,895 425,457 100.0 — 17.1 82.9 ... 3 ... — 91,104 456,956 100.0 — 16.6 83.4 1914–15 589,652 3 — 95,278 488,120 100.0 — 16.3 83.7 ... 1915–16 633,901 $1,669 122,256 612,951 100.0 0.2 16.6 83.2 1917–18 ... 736,876 970,121 2,475 807,561 100.0 0.3 16.5 83.2 1919–20 ... 160,085 3 0.2 2,891 230,517 1,184,530 100.0 ... 16.3 83.5 1921–22 1,444,242 3 ... 1,618,438 3,986 261,997 1,290,239 100.0 1923–24 16.8 82.9 0.3 1,830,017 5,552 284,569 1,539,896 100.0 0.3 15.6 84.1 1925–26 ... 2,025,750 6,174 1,686,297 100.0 0.3 16.5 83.2 1927–28 ... 333,279 2,088,557 353,670 1,727,553 100.0 0.4 16.9 82.7 1929–30 ... 7,334 2,068,029 8,262 410,550 1,649,218 100.0 0.4 19.9 79.7 1931–32 ... 1,810,652 21,548 423,178 1,365,926 100.0 1.2 23.4 75.4 1933–34 ... 4 4 1,383,184 9,850 578,369 1935–36 ... 100.0 0.5 29.3 70.2 1,971,402 2,222,885 26,535 655,996 1,540,353 100.0 1.2 29.5 69.3 1937–38 ... 1939–40 ... 2,260,527 39,810 684,354 1,536,363 100.0 1.8 30.3 68.0 1941–42 ... 2,416,580 759,993 1,622,281 100.0 1.4 31.4 67.1 34,305 2,604,322 35,886 1,709,253 100.0 1.4 33.0 65.6 1943–44 ... 859,183 3,059,845 1,062,057 1,956,409 100.0 1.4 34.7 63.9 1945–46 ... 41,378 4,311,534 120,270 1,676,362 2,514,902 100.0 2.8 38.9 58.3 1947–48 ... 1949–50 ... 5,437,044 2,165,689 3,115,507 100.0 2.9 39.8 57.3 155,848 6,423,816 100.0 2,478,596 3,717,507 1951–52 ... 3.5 38.6 57.9 227,711 1953–54 ... 355,237 2,944,103 4,567,512 100.0 4.5 37.4 58.1 7,866,852 1955–56 ... 9,686,677 441,442 3,828,886 5,416,350 100.0 4.6 39.5 55.9 1957–58 ... 12,181,513 4,800,368 6,894,661 100.0 4.0 39.4 56.6 486,484 14,746,618 100.0 5,768,047 8,326,932 1959–60 ... 4.4 39.1 56.5 651,639 1961–62 ... 760,975 6,789,190 9,977,542 100.0 4.3 38.7 56.9 17,527,707 1963–64 ... 20,544,182 896,956 8,078,014 11,569,213 100.0 4.4 39.3 56.3 1965–66 ... 1,996,954 9,920,219 13,439,686 100.0 7.9 39.1 53.0 25,356,858 1967–68 ... 31,903,064 2,806,469 12,275,536 16,821,063 100.0 8.8 38.5 52.7 1969–70 ... 40,266,923 3,219,557 16,062,776 20,984,589 100.0 8.0 39.9 52.1

67 58 Elementary and Secondary Education Table 21.—Revenues for public elementary and secondary schools, by source of funds: 1889–90 to 1989–90—Continued Percentage distribution In thousands School year Local (including Local (including 1 1 Total Federal State State Federal Total 2 2 intermediate) intermediate) 123456789 3,753,461 17,409,086 23,348,745 100.0 8.4 39.1 1970–71 ... 44,511,292 52.5 50,003,645 19,133,256 26,402,420 100.0 8.9 38.3 52.8 1971–72 ... 4,467,969 4,525,000 20,843,520 26,749,412 100.0 8.7 40.0 51.3 1972–73 ... 52,117,930 58,230,892 4,930,351 24,113,409 29,187,132 100.0 8.5 41.4 50.1 1973–74 ... 64,445,239 1974–75 ... 27,211,116 31,422,528 100.0 9.0 42.2 48.8 5,811,595 71,206,073 6,318,345 33,111,627 100.0 8.9 44.6 46.5 1975–76 ... 31,776,101 75,322,532 32,688,903 36,004,134 100.0 8.8 43.4 47.8 1976–77 ... 6,629,498 81,443,160 7,694,194 35,013,266 38,735,700 1977–78 ... 9.4 43.0 47.6 100.0 1978–79 ... 8,600,116 40,132,136 39,261,891 100.0 9.8 45.6 44.6 87,994,143 96,881,165 9,503,537 45,348,814 42,028,813 100.0 9.8 46.8 43.4 1979–80 ... 1980–81 ... 105,949,087 9,768,262 50,182,659 45,998,166 100.0 9.2 47.4 43.4 1981–82 ... 110,191,257 52,436,435 49,568,356 100.0 7.4 47.6 45.0 8,186,466 117,497,502 56,282,157 52,875,354 100.0 7.1 47.9 45.0 1982–83 ... 8,339,990 126,055,419 8,576,547 60,232,981 57,245,892 100.0 6.8 47.8 45.4 1983–84 ... 1984–85 ... 137,294,678 67,168,684 61,020,425 100.0 6.6 48.9 44.4 9,105,569 1985–86 ... 9,975,622 73,619,575 65,532,582 100.0 6.7 49.4 43.9 149,127,779 1986–87 ... 158,523,693 10,146,013 78,830,437 69,547,243 100.0 6.4 49.7 43.9 2 1987–88 169,561,974 10,716,687 84,004,415 74,840,873 100.0 6.3 49.5 44.1 ... 192,016,374 11,902,001 91,768,911 88,345,462 100.0 6.2 47.8 46.0 1988–89 ... 1989–90 ... 207,583,910 12,750,530 98,059,659 96,773,720 100.0 6.1 47.2 46.6 1 An- Prior to 1917–18, excludes receipts other than state taxes and appropriations. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2 Includes a relatively small amount from nongovernmental sources (gifts and tuition nual Report of the Commissioner of Education, 1890 to 1917; Biennial Survey of Edu- and transportation fees from patrons). These sources accounted for 0.4 percent of total cation in the United States, 1916–18 to 1956–58; Statistics of State School Systems, revenues in 1967–68. Prior to 1917–18, excludes receipts from sources other than local 1959–60 to 1969–70; Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary taxes and appropriations. Education; and Common Core of Data survey. (This table was prepared September 3 Total includes receipts not distributed by source. Percents based on funds reported 1992.) by source. 4 Excludes federal funds other than aid for vocational education. —Data not available. NOTE.—Beginning in 1980–81, revenues for state education agencies are excluded. Data for 1988–89 reflect new survey collection procedures and may not be entirely com- parable to figures for earlier years. Because of rounding, details may not add to totals.

68 Elementary and Secondary Education 59 age daily ance attend- Current in aver- per pupil Per daily ance attend- pupil in average Per pupil Total enrolled ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— Per capita Expenditures in constant 1989–90 dollars 4———— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— ————— 25 18 20 19 24 18 23 21 17 28 15 16 15 16 15 15 15 16 14 15 $1 age daily ance attend- in aver- Current, per pupil 6————— —————— 28 23 22 21 26 24 32 31 33 20 16 14 18 15 18 15 19 15 16 14 19 14 19 19 19 16 13 13 16 16 19 17 15 17 16 15 15 15 18 $1 Per daily ance attend- pupil in average 9 8 9 9 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 24 14 13 13 12 12 13 12 12 13 11 10 18 14 $9 11 17 10 22 20 10 16 15 23 18 11 10 10 10 Per pupil Total enrolled 4 3 3 5 4 4 3 4 3 3 5 2 2 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — $2 Expenditures in current dollars Per capita in — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 5 pendi- millions tures, Other ex- — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — debt, in millions Interest on school 4 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 56 29 61 74 40 31 30 29 33 31 82 49 40 46 30 65 32 70 35 26 26 $23 in 1869–70 to 1989–90 Capital millions outlay, — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 3 89 42 25 22 58 56 83 26 61 36 34 29 40 33 44 39 78 33 48 70 47 $22 Other — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — and ation Plant oper- nance mainte- 55 43 46 48 51 55 58 55 56 55 56 61 65 83 68 73 76 79 88 92 96 2 220 143 119 117 177 124 168 109 105 157 100 186 129 114 151 237 202 138 260 $38 tion Instruc- — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — $7 tration Adminis- — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 1 180 247 272 151 121 114 163 320 142 146 298 224 188 126 356 155 198 235 205 169 134 Current expenditures, day schools (in millions) $109 Total 79 84 79 76 69 78 83 80 74 97 76 84 89 215 183 164 308 273 251 133 124 176 401 173 156 141 194 200 116 426 113 337 228 238 371 292 $63 147 103 188 110 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112131415161718 Total millions tures, in expendi- Table 22.—Total and current expenditures and expenditure per pupil in public elementary and secondary schools, by purpose: 1 School year 1885–86 ... 1906–07 ... 1884–85 ... 1872–73 ... 1895–96 ... 1886–87 ... 1896–97 ... 1882–83 ... 1871–72 ... 1875–76 ... 1899–1900 ... 1908–09 ... 1878–79 ... 1887–88 ... 1876–77 ... 1888–89 ... 1873–74 ... 1905–06 ... 1870–71 ... 1874–75 ... 1893–94 ... 1889–90 ... 1881–82 ... 1869–70 ... 1907–08 ... 1901–02 ... 1909–10 ... 1894–95 ... 1877–78 ... 1898–99 ... 1880–81 ... 1883–84 ... 1903–04 ... 1890–91 ... 1879–80 ... 1891–92 ... 1904–05 ... 1897–98 ... 1900–01 ... 1892–93 ... 1902–03 ...

69 60 Elementary and Secondary Education 978 949 852 801 800 743 610 496 647 687 552 529 717 643 $355 1,517 1,621 2,912 2,743 2,458 3,195 3,055 3,287 1,770 1,895 2,138 1,390 1,120 1,180 3,346 1,250 age daily ance attend- Current in aver- per pupil 816 781 908 635 727 900 731 961 704 884 861 805 $427 3,481 3,715 3,592 1,007 1,105 1,995 2,040 3,353 3,210 2,238 2,602 2,936 2,300 1,388 1,833 1,511 3,788 1,657 Per daily ance attend- pupil in average 555 504 870 981 765 774 836 693 585 623 762 641 731 668 $320 1,663 1,244 1,333 3,491 1,487 1,801 1,871 3,388 3,100 3,191 3,310 2,948 2,439 2,137 2,028 2,752 Per pupil Total enrolled ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— ———— 540 624 466 424 $66 154 145 163 141 352 381 717 713 734 735 230 163 154 120 210 108 143 679 125 313 131 142 135 131 745 269 Per capita Expenditures in constant 1989–90 dollars 30 74 88 72 84 67 77 35 83 34 67 40 98 33 32 53 29 81 87 179 136 341 375 911 816 990 209 658 294 460 537 244 419 117 265 1,207 1,077 1,365 age daily ance attend- in aver- Current, per pupil 64 35 36 76 88 42 98 40 49 86 95 39 38 125 108 145 203 449 472 313 110 654 530 259 388 106 559 106 100 786 955 102 351 1,128 1,211 1,364 1,049 1,545 Per daily ance attend- pupil in average 48 27 25 31 31 75 82 83 86 68 65 95 92 87 28 29 37 90 75 180 125 405 433 232 276 105 877 613 737 519 970 480 352 315 1,424 1,244 1,116 1,034 Per pupil Total enrolled 7 6 5 5 5 6 6 21 30 79 88 10 19 14 17 48 18 17 15 39 66 15 18 18 17 18 16 57 Expenditures in current dollars 304 136 270 100 113 167 232 248 223 202 Per capita 8 5 5 9 4 9 8 4 in — — — — — — — 28 11 $3 10 30 13 13 10 36 92 5 648 194 866 428 123 133 702 973 636 453 396 101 1,698 pendi- millions tures, Other ex- — — — — — — 72 93 97 36 59 92 77 76 18 216 342 490 109 114 137 133 140 701 $15 978 101 114 588 131 792 154 1,171 1,318 1,514 1,378 1,547 1,737 millions debt, in Interest on school 4 54 59 76 78 84 92 111 138 412 154 388 411 258 171 383 371 239 306 211 119 103 104 in 5,746 2,853 2,662 1,477 1,014 3,755 4,552 4,978 2,862 2,978 4,659 4,459 2,387 4,256 4,091 2,055 Capital millions outlay, 3 27 69 92 99 91 46 1869–70 to 1989–90—Continued 144 116 131 112 179 164 349 220 713 276 142 144 152 917 127 527 130 101 1,020 7,469 1,304 9,399 2,304 4,388 5,829 3,284 7,657 2,738 9,849 1,605 1,943 12,075 Other — — — — — — 146 221 316 757 260 526 289 295 372 233 268 278 203 244 908 203 257 642 $133 1,072 5,291 3,960 1,760 4,325 6,136 2,386 4,677 2,864 1,985 3,512 1,302 1,508 and ation Plant oper- nance mainte- 2 903 358 273 295 335 316 444 633 378 1,214 1,333 1,360 1,318 1,403 1,001 1,127 1,220 1,121 1,591 1,458 4,552 3,782 2,572 1,854 3,112 5,502 6,901 8,351 30,119 28,148 10,016 36,482 23,270 18,376 14,445 11,750 32,609 26,224 tion Instruc- 6 9 10 37 15 25 13 12 67 92 68 64 75 79 77 51 55 86 648 938 745 443 528 220 266 170 111 311 133 101 373 1,607 2,276 2,670 1,789 2,018 1,249 1,876 tration Adminis- 1 861 629 463 438 503 371 405 537 Current expenditures, day schools (in millions) 1,235 1,538 1,369 2,293 1,942 2,068 1,657 4,687 2,707 5,722 1,516 6,791 1,844 3,795 1,810 1,870 1,706 8,251 17,218 41,818 34,218 57,363 50,025 10,252 46,213 21,053 26,877 14,729 39,630 12,329 Total 483 555 641 447 522 764 605 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112131415161718 2,026 2,184 1,581 9,092 2,175 7,344 2,317 1,720 1,036 5,838 2,344 2,323 1,969 2,233 2,453 4,311 2,907 1,821 56,970 64,846 32,977 13,569 40,683 48,050 51,852 26,248 21,325 10,955 18,373 45,500 15,613 Total millions tures, in expendi- Table 22.—Total and current expenditures and expenditure per pupil in public elementary and secondary schools, by purpose: ... 1 6 School year 1913–14 ... 1925–26 ... 1973–74 ... 1971–72 ... 1927–28 ... 1929–30 ... 1970–71 ... 1933–34 ... 1915–16 ... 1935–36 ... 1937–38 ... 1969–70 ... 1914–15 ... 1939–40 ... 1941–42 ... 1943–44 ... 1921–22 ... 1972–73 ... 1967–68 ... 1919–20 ... 1974–75 ... 1945–46 ... 1947–48 ... 1949–50 ... 1961–62 ... 1917–18 ... 1912–13 ... 1965–66 ... 1951–52 ... 1953–54 ... 1911–12 ... 1955–56 ... 1959–60 1963–64 ... 1910–11 ... 1957–58 ... 1923–24 ... 1931–32 ...

70 61 Elementary and Secondary Education 4,866 3,716 4,960 4,532 3,667 4,647 4,383 3,696 3,444 3,744 3,544 3,958 3,678 3,823 4,166 age daily ance attend- Current in aver- per pupil 5,353 4,074 5,526 3,885 3,929 4,097 4,059 5,101 4,019 4,918 4,691 4,144 4,011 4,468 4,330 Per daily ance 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 attend- pupil in average Digest of Education Statistics; 3,581 3,734 3,619 3,761 3,745 5,149 4,964 3,837 4,149 4,012 3,716 4,724 4,560 3,707 4,345 Per pupil Total 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 enrolled 853 699 823 750 746 738 724 672 679 660 696 776 762 653 726 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Per capita Expenditures in constant 1989–90 dollars Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial 4,645 2,272 4,960 2,502 1,504 3,756 4,240 1,638 3,970 2,020 1,823 2,726 3,470 3,173 2,955 age daily ance attend- in aver- Current, per pupil 5,526 5,109 2,491 2,002 1,697 1,816 2,210 4,020 4,654 4,308 2,742 3,471 3,722 3,203 2,973 Per daily ance 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 attend- pupil in average 2,029 1,842 1,564 1,673 2,290 4,738 5,149 2,966 3,216 2,754 3,456 2,529 3,724 3,995 4,310 Per pupil Total 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 enrolled Expenditures in current dollars 427 390 341 328 368 853 785 458 544 484 622 579 510 708 667 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Per capita U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, in — — — — 5 357 853 589 553 598 2,564 2,969 pendi- millions tures, Other ex- Estimated. Denotes first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii. 7 6 SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, —Data not available. Times to 1970; and unpublished data. (This table was prepared September 1992.) — — — — 1,953 1,955 1,846 1,952 3,693 1,874 3,213 millions debt, in Interest on school 4 — — — — in 5,344 5,448 6,146 5,245 6,506 14,101 17,685 Capital millions outlay, — — — — — — — 3 1869–70 to 1989–90—Continued 14,391 12,884 18,087 16,071 Other — — — — — — 7,331 8,565 9,745 6,675 8,096 and ation Plant oper- nance mainte- — 2 96,967 89,559 83,463 45,024 39,687 48,403 41,869 53,258 tion 108,964 101,016 Instruc- — — — — — — 3,896 4,264 2,808 3,867 3,273 tration Adminis- 2——— —— — — 7——— —— — — 9——— —— — — 8——— —— — — 1 Current expenditures, day schools (in millions) 94,321 62,054 86,984 78,951 73,058 66,864 Total 115,39 126,33 187,384 157,098 146,365 108,26 137,165 173,099 101,10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112131415161718 95,962 86,712 80,844 74,194 70,601 Total 111,186 137,000 118,425 211,731 192,977 148,600 172,400 127,500 104,125 160,900 millions tures, in expendi- Table 22.—Total and current expenditures and expenditure per pupil in public elementary and secondary schools, by purpose: 1 School year Beginning in 1953–54, includes expenditures for community services, previously included in ‘‘current expenditures, Prior to 1917–18, includes expenditures for interest. Prior to 1917–18, includes plant operation and maintenance; prior to 1909–10, includes all current expenditures ex- Prior to 1909–10, includes only expenditures for salaries of teachers and superintendents. Beginning in 1965–66, includes capital outlay by state and local school building authorities. 3 4 2 1 5 1980–81 ... 1982–83 ... 1978–79 ... 1989–90 ... 1988–89 ... 1984–85 ... 1986–87 ... 1983–84 ... 1975–76 ... 1981–82 ... 1976–77 ... 1979–80 ... 1977–78 ... 1985–86 ... 1987–88 ... day schools.’’ cept salaries of teachers and superintendents.

71 Chapter 3 Higher Education Development of American institutions of higher Horace Mann established the first public normal school in Massachusetts. These schools typically of- education began early in the colonial period. Many of fered a 2-year program. the first European colonists left their homelands to Although national education statistics were not col- avoid religious persecution and were particularly in- lected prior to 1869-70, some inferences about the terested in literacy, as well as more advanced schol- number of colleges can be made by examining the arship, to facilitate religious instruction. Thus, one of current colleges that have founding dates during the the most important missions of colonial colleges was late 18th and early 19th centuries. Some 37 of to- to prepare men to be ministers or priests. The first day’s colleges were founded prior to 1800 (table 27). colonial college, now Harvard University, was found- Only four of these colleges were founded as public ed in 1636 to prepare ministers. The profusion of institutions. The evidence suggests that the first of small theological and religious colleges served the the public colleges to obtain a charter was the Uni- expanding frontier by providing ministers to serve versity of Georgia, though the University of North local communities. The religious zeal which became 4 Carolina was the first to open. Most of these 37 col- more pronounced after 1800 played an important role leges had their beginning in the last two decades of in stimulating the growth of educational enterprises. the 18th century. The growth of colleges accelerated Prior to the Civil War, it has been estimated that per- during the 19th century. During the first two decades haps one-fourth of all college graduates became min- 1 of the 1800s, 31 more colleges were founded, of Besides meeting the demand for religious isters. which 5 were publicly controlled (6, if the federally leaders, these religiously affiliated colleges assisted controlled West Point is included). The next two dec- in the general diffusion of knowledge. ades brought 102 more colleges that still exist today, Public colleges also expanded westward across and between 1840 and 1859, an additional 210 col- the United States as states made higher education leges were founded. Whether college enrollments available to their citizens. Benjamin Franklin was kept pace with the rise in population from 3.9 million among the first prominent Americans to advocate in 1790 to 31.5 million in 1860 is unknown, but at higher education without religious control. After the least the increase in the number of colleges suggests Revolutionary War, considerable discussion was de- 5 sharp rises in enrollment. Public colleges also ex- voted to the thought of establishing a national or fed- panded in the first half of the 19th century, and by 2 Although all six of the first U.S. eral university. 1860, there were 21 state colleges in 20 different presidents supported the concept of a national uni- 6 Today, many of the 380 colleges founded states. versity, such an institution was never approved by prior to 1860 are independent or public, but most 3 Congress. Despite Thomas Jefferson’s lack of suc- 7 were originally controlled by religious groups. Public cess with the national university concept, he was in- higher education was assisted through such pro- fluential in the founding of the U.S. Military Academy grams as the First Morrill Act in 1862, which provided at West Point in 1802. land grants for the creation and maintenance of agri- Another major development of the early 19th cen- cultural and mechanical colleges. tury was the creation of normal schools. These insti- tutions were designed to help prepare teachers for 4 Tewksbury, The Founding of American Colleges and Universities , the expanding school systems. The first of the nor- 167. 5 mal schools was founded in 1823. Later in 1839, U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970 , 2 vols. 1 Donald G. Tewksbury, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1973), 1:8. The Founding of American Colleges and U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statis- Universities , (New York: Columbia University Press, 1932; reprint tics, ‘‘Institutional Characteristics, 1980–81,’’ unpublished data. ed., New York: Archon Books, 1965), 90–91. 6 2 Tewksbury, The Founding of American Colleges and Universities (New , Adolphe E. Meyer, Grandmasters of Educational Thought York: McGraw Hill, 1975), 146. 169. 7 3 Richard Hofstadter and Wilson Smith, ed., American Higher Edu- The Part Played by Religion in the History of Raphael M. Huber, cation, A Documentary History, Vol. I (Chicago: University of Chi- (Trenton: MacCrillish & Education in the United States of America cago Press, 1961), 157. Quigley & Co., 1951), 27. 63

72 Higher Education 64 ciencies in Latin, Greek, or sometimes mathe- Higher education in the early 19th century was 13 characterized by heavy emphasis on the classics. matics. Higher education often began at 14 to 16 years of Enrollment age, though 17 to 20 was more common. Generally, prospective students were expected to have an un- Higher education enrollment in the colonies was derstanding of Greek and Latin and were frequently largely limited to the well-to-do. This situation pre- tested on these before being allowed entrance. vailed through the late 19th and early 20th century. Some knowledge of basic mathematics, such as al- When the federal Office of Education began collect- gebra, was assumed. The college curriculum gen- ing education data in 1869–70, only 63,000 students erally comprised four years of study, and the typical were attending higher education institutions through- core of this instruction was equal parts of mathe- out the country, which amounted to only about 1 per- matics, Greek, and Latin. Sometimes these were the cent of the 18- to 24-year-old population. This small sole elements of freshman and sophomore edu- number of students was divided among 563 cam- cation. At more progressive and prestigious colleges, puses, giving an average enrollment size of only 112 juniors and seniors might delve into a variety of sci- students. About 21 percent of students were female. entific topics, perhaps including some medical lec- Today, there are over 14,000,000 students in the tures, though physical sciences were more common. U.S. attending some 3,600 institutions, for an aver- Other common subjects for upperclassmen included age enrollment of 3,931 students. More than half of 8 rhetoric, philosophy, and Christian studies. Thomas college students are women (table 23). About 33 per- Jefferson in his founding of the University of Virginia cent of all 18- to 24-year-olds are enrolled in college designed what was considered a progressive institu- today. Not only are many more students involved in tion that provided electives for students to choose higher education today, but the system itself has particular courses of study. The courses of study at shown dynamic change over the past century, evolv- the university included medicine, ancient and modern ing from small institutions serving a relatively re- 9 languages, mathematics, philosophy, and sciences. stricted student body with instruction focussing on in- During the 1820s and 1830s, developments at other struction in the classics and mathematics into today’s colleges such as Harvard and Brown, reflected more large enterprises offering a vast array of courses. interest in science and mathematics instruction at the 10 During the latter part of the 1800s, enrollment grew Colleges reacted to expense of ancient studies. rapidly in higher education institutions, but much of the changing times. The first exclusively scientific in- this growth was due to increases in the population. stitution, Renssalaer Polytechnic University, opened 11 Enrollment grew by 278 percent between 1869–70 in 1824. and 1899–1900, but students as a percent of 18- to Higher education continued to maintain a strong 24-year-olds rose from 1 percent to 2 percent. The attachment to traditional studies through much of the proportion of women students in colleges grew sig- 19th century. In 1886–87, 62 percent of college stu- 12 nificantly from 21 percent in 1869–70 to 36 percent dents were enrolled in classical courses. In 1878, in 1899–1900. While the number of colleges grew more than 10 percent of those students wishing to during this period, it did not rise as fast as the num- enter colleges where entrance examinations were ber of students. As a result, the average size of col- given were rejected only because of their lack of pro- leges grew as well, reaching 243 in 1899–1900 ficiency with the Greek language. Altogether, about one fourth of students were rejected because of defi- (table 24). 8 Exposition of the System of Instruction and For examples, see ( sity in Cambridge, October 1820 (Cambridge: University Press, Discipline Pursued in the University of Vermont by the Faculty [Bur- 1820); and Catalogue of the Officers and Students of Harvard Uni- lington: University of Vermont, 1829], 30) and ( Catalogue of the Offi- versity for the Academical Year 1827–28 (Cambridge: University cers and Students of the University in Cambridge, October 1825 Press, 1827). [Cambridge: University Press, 1825], 19. These standards remained 11 This excludes the military science academy at West Point. Nich- in effect at many campuses well after the Civil War ( Catalogue of Education in the United States, Monographs olas Butler, gen. ed., the University of North Carolina, 1866–67 [Raleigh: Nichols, Gorman (New York: Arno Press & The on Education in the United States & Neathery Printers, 1867], 15.) New York Times, 1969), ‘‘Scientific, Technical, and Engineering 9 Catalogue of the Officers and Students of the University of Virginia, Education,’’ by T.C. Mendenhall, 555. Session of 1839–40 (Charlottesville: Robert Noel, 1840), 1. and N.J. 12 U.S. Department of the Interior, Annual Report of the Secretary Cabell, ed., Early History of the University of Virginia, as Contained , 5 vols., of the Interior for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1890 in the Letters of Thomas Jefferson and Joseph C. Cabell (Richmond: (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1893), Part J.W. Randolph, 1856), 142–143. 2, 5:772–773. 10 Catalogue of the Officers and Students of Brown University, March 13 Report of U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Education, 1824 (Providence: Carlile & Co., 1824), 5; Catalogue of the Officers (Washington, the Commissioner of Education for the Year 1878 (Providence: Carlile & and Students of Brown University, 1827–28 D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1880), XCIV. Catalogue of the Officers and Students of the Univer- Co., 1828), 13;

73 65 Higher Education Figure 14.--Enrollment in institutions of higher education, by sex: 1869-70 to 1990-91 Millions 15 14 13 12 Total 11 10 9 Female 8 7 6 Male 5 4 3 2 1 0 1910 1950 1870 1890 1930 1970 1900 1940 1980 1880 1920 1960 1991 Year ending Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; and Digest of Education Statistics, various issues. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, had risen to the point where more than half of col- Enrollment growth accelerated in the first 30 years lege students were enrolled in public institutions. of the 20th century, driven by population growth and During the early 1940s, the enrollment of males continuing rises in participation rates. Between 1899– dropped precipitously as large numbers of young 1900 and 1909–10, enrollment rose by 50 percent. In men went to fight World War II. In 1943–44, about the following decade, enrollment rose by 68 percent, half of the students in colleges were women. By the and between 1919–20 and 1929–30, enrollment rose end of the 1940s, college enrollment was surging. by 84 percent. During these 30 years, the ratio of Large numbers of World War II veterans entered col- college students to 18- to 24-year-olds rose from 2 leges assisted by such programs as the Service- to 7 per 100. However, the proportion of women stu- men’s Readjustment Act which provided education dents in higher education dropped during the 1920s from 47 percent to 44 percent. The depression of the benefits. In fall 1949, about 2.4 million students en- 1930s may have contributed to slower growth in col- rolled in colleges, or about 15 per 100 18- to 24- year-olds. The proportion of women on campus lege enrollment and participation. By the end of the dropped to 30 percent. The proportion of students decade, college enrollment had reached 1.5 million enrolled in public colleges was about half, the same with 9 college students per 100 18- to 24-year-olds. The total was still 36 percent higher than 1929–30, as in the 1929–30. Enrollment was still concentrated but the proportion of women students had fallen to at 4-year colleges, with less than 10 percent of stu- 40 percent. By this time, enrollment in public colleges dents at 2-year colleges.

74 66 Higher Education Figure 15.--Percentage of students in institutions of higher education, by control, type, and attendance status: Percent 1931-32 to 1991-92 100 of enroll- ment 90 Public 80 70 60 50 Part-time 40 2-year 30 20 10 0 1970 1932 1950 1992 1980 1960 1940 Year ending Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, and Digest of Education Statistics, various issues. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, campuses. Enrollment growth slowed substantially The 1950s and 1960s marked two major develop- ments. First, large numbers of young people entered during the 1980s, with only a 17 percent increase be- college and second, public colleges expanded dra- tween 1979 and 1989. Incremental increases have matically to meet the demand. College enrollment continued during the early 1990s. The proportion of rose by 49 percent in the 1950s, partly because of part-time students has increased only slightly during the rise in the enrollment/population ratio from 15 the 1980s as participation rates for older age groups percent to 24 percent. During the 1960s, enrollment have remained stable. In contrast, enrollment rates rose by 120 percent. By 1969, college enrollment for younger, traditional college-age people rose sig- was as large as 35 percent of the 18- to 24-year-old nificantly, and college enrollment showed increases population. About 41 percent of the college students during the 1980s, despite drops in the college-age were women. Public institutions accounted for 74 population. percent of enrollment, and about one-fourth of all stu- Institutions and Professional Staff dents were enrolled at 2-year colleges. The 1970s were a period of slower growth in col- Historical trends in numbers of institutions reflect lege enrollment despite record numbers of young steady growth over the past 120 years, but the rate people of college age and increasing participation of of growth has been substantially slower than the rise older adults in college. During the 1970s, enrollment in enrollment. The result of these differing rates of in- rose by 45 percent, somewhat slower than the crease has been that the average size of colleges 1960s, but about the same as the 1950s. The pro- has steadily increased. The average size of colleges portion of part-time students also increased, from 31 rose from only 112 students in 1869–70 to 243 at the percent in 1969 to 41 percent in 1979. This rise was turn of the century. By 1929–30, average size had partly due to increased participation rates of older risen to 781, and it more than doubled by 1960. In students and the expansion of 2-year college sys- 1989–90, the average size of colleges was 3,830 tems, whose enrollment more than doubled. By students (table 23). 1979, women constituted the majority on college

75 Higher Education 67 coming eligible for college admission. The 1940s The growth in the number of professional staff em- ployed by colleges and universities has closely par- surge was partly a result of the federal financial aid alleled the rise in enrollment. The ratio of students to program for veterans which encouraged huge num- staff has remained remarkably stable for more than bers of returning servicemen to enter higher edu- 100 years. In 1869–70, there were 11 students for cation programs. In the 1960s, the ‘‘baby boom’’ gen- every professional, and in 1989–90, there were 9 eration entered college, and their large numbers re- students for every professional (table 26). Although sulted in substantial increases in bachelor’s degrees the measure fluctuated somewhat over the time pe- conferred. An additional factor in the increase in the riod, the changes have not been dramatic, and some number of students and degrees was that over time of them are due to changes in survey procedures a higher proportion of young people sought access to and definitions. Full-time-equivalent data which might higher education. During the 1970s, interest in higher be used to make more precise measurements of education remained relatively steady, but the number staff resources are not available for the entire time of bachelor’s degree recipients in relation to the 23- period. year-old population was somewhat lower than the Degrees Conferred peaks attained during the late 1960s and early 1970s. The number of bachelor’s degrees continued The number of bachelor’s degrees conferred ex- to grow during the 1980s, despite declines in the tra- hibited substantial increases during the 20th century. ditional college-age population. This may be partly The periods of most rapid growth were the 1920s, attributed to rising proportions of high school grad- the 1940s, and the 1960s (table 28). The increase in uates attending college as well as to the graduation the 1920s corresponds to rising proportions of young of older students. people completing high school and consequently be- Figure 16.--Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred by institutions of higher education: 1869-70 to 1989-90 Number 1,100,000 Bachelor’s 1,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 Master’s 300,000 200,000 100,000 Doctor’s 0 1930 1970 1870 1990 1910 1890 1950 1940 1920 1880 1900 1980 1960 Year ending Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; and U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, various issues.

76 Higher Education 68 women constituted the majority of graduates. Follow- The proportion of women earning bachelor’s de- grees rose slowly during the latter part of the 19th ing the war, the number of male graduates surged as and early 20th century. Between 1869–70 and 1909– large numbers of former soldiers took advantage of 10, the proportion of bachelor’s degrees earned by financial assistance to complete their studies. In women rose from 15 percent to 23 percent. During 1949–50, only 24 percent of the graduates were the teens and the twenties, the proportion received women, but subsequently the proportion of women by women grew more rapidly, reaching 40 percent in began to grow again, reaching 43 percent in 1970. 1929–30. The proportion remained about the same By the early 1980s, the majority of bachelor’s degree during the 1930s, but rose dramatically during the recipients were women, and in 1989–90, women early 1940s as large numbers of men left home to earned 53 percent of all bachelor’s degrees. fight in World War II. During some of the war years, Figure 17.--Bachelor’s degrees per 1,000 23-year-olds: 1889-90 to 1989-90 Number per 1,000 500 23-year-olds 400 300 200 100 0 1980 1940 1900 1920 1960 1990 1950 1930 1970 1910 Year ending SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; Current Population Reports, Population Estimates and Projections; and U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, 1992.

77 69 Higher Education Figure 18.--Percentage of higher education degrees conferred to females, by level: 1869-70 to 1989-90 Percentage 80 70 60 50 Master’s 40 30 Bachelor’s 20 Doctor’s 10 First-professional 0 1870 1970 1930 1910 1990 1950 1890 1880 1980 1940 1960 1900 1920 Year ending SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Biennial Survey of Education in the United States; and Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) "Completions" survey. Earned Degrees Conferred; Figure 19.--Bachelor’s degrees per 100 high school graduates 4 years earlier and master’s degrees per 100 bachelor’s degrees 2 years earlier: 1869-70 to 1989-90 Number of 80 degrees 70 60 50 Bachelor’s per 100 high school graduates 40 30 20 Master’s per 100 bachelor’s 10 0 1910 1970 1890 1990 1930 1870 1950 1880 1960 1940 1920 1900 1980 Year ending SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970; Current Population Reports, Population Estimates and Projections, various years; and U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Digest of Education Statistics, various years. Education Statistics,

78 Higher Education 70 Master’s Degrees their bachelor’s degrees. Also, more people were re- ceiving bachelor’s degrees which increased the size The pattern of growth in the number of master’s of the pool for potential graduate school students. As degrees conferred is similar to that displayed by a function of these shifts, the number of doctor’s de- bachelor’s degrees. The number of master’s degrees grees conferred in 1929–30 showed an increase of grew between 1871–72 and 1899–1900, but the rate 274 percent compared to 1919–20. was erratic with year-to-year fluctuations, some of During the 1930s, the number of doctor’s degrees which may have been caused by survey anomalies. continued to rise, but at a slower rate. The ratio of Still the number of master’s degrees per 100 bach- doctor’s to bachelor’s degrees fell significantly during elor’s degrees remained steady, generally remaining the 1930s and continued to fall during World War II. between 6 and 8. This pattern shifted upward during The lapse in time from bachelor’s to doctor’s degree the 1920s as more bachelor’s degree recipients also lengthened significantly during the postwar sought master’s degrees, and the ratio rose to 16 in years, suggesting that many young people took time 1931–32. The ratio rose rapidly immediately after from their studies to serve during the war. The num- World War II, especially compared to the relatively ber of doctor’s degrees continued to rise through the small number of bachelor’s degrees awarded during 1950s, but at much slower rate than the 1920s or the war years. The rise in master’s degrees probably 1940s. Also, the ratio of doctor’s degrees to bach- was influenced by veterans returning to college to elor’s degrees rose and then fell sharply. As in the complete their studies. The next period of dramatic lower levels of degrees, the 1960s brought a surge growth began in the early 1960s when both the num- of interest in doctor’s degrees. Not only did the abso- ber of bachelor’s degree recipients and the ratio of lute number of degrees rise by 204 percent between master’s degrees per 100 bachelor’s degrees began 1959–60 and 1969–70, but the ratio of doctor’s de- to rise. In 1969–70, there were 33 master’s degrees grees to 1,000 bachelor’s degrees rose from 23 to per 100 bachelor’s degrees awarded 2 years earlier. 78. Also, the time-lapse from bachelor’s degree to This ratio has remained fairly stable since that time doctor’s degree hit a low of 7.9 years, as short as period. any period measured except in 1919–20. The number of master’s degrees reached a peak Through the 1970s, the number of doctor’s de- of 317,000 in 1976–77 and then declined for several grees conferred fluctuated within a narrow range. years. The former 1976–77 peak finally was ex- The ratio of doctor’s degrees per 1,000 bachelor’s ceeded in 1989–90 when 324,000 degrees were degrees fell sharply, and the average length of time awarded. to obtain the degree began to rise. The 1980s saw The proportion of master’s degrees awarded to the average time to complete the doctor’s degree women rose significantly after the turn of the century, lengthen to a record 10.5 years in 1987–88, 1988– reaching 26 percent in 1909–10. The proportion con- 89, and 1989–90. The number of these degrees per tinued to increase during the teens and twenties, like 1,000 bachelor’s degrees held steady during the the bachelor’s degrees. However, there was little rise 1980s and actually rose slightly at the end of the in the proportion of women receiving master’s de- decade. Because of the increases in the pool of grees during the 1930s. The proportion of degrees graduate students, the number of doctor’s degrees awarded to women fell during the 1940s, and by rose somewhat during the 1980s from 32,600 in 1949–50, the proportion had fallen to 29 percent, 1979–80 to 38,200 in 1989–90. partly as a result of the influx of veterans. Not until 1969–70 did the proportion of women reach 40 per- Women generally have obtained a lower proportion cent again, about the same as 1929–30. During the of doctor’s degrees than master’s or bachelor’s. Only 1970s and 1980s, the proportion of degrees awarded a small number of doctor’s degrees were awarded to to women continued to rise, reaching 53 percent in women in the last 30 years of the 19th century, per- 1989–90. haps fewer than might be awarded by a large univer- sity in a single year today. The proportion of doctor’s Doctor’s Degrees degrees awarded to women rose at an irregular rate between 1899–1900 and 1939–40, from 6 percent to The number of doctor’s degrees conferred by U.S. 13 percent. After the war years, the proportion colleges remained very small until the 1920s. While awarded to women fell. By 1970 the proportion of the number of doctor’s degrees in relation to the doctor’s degrees awarded to women had reached 13 number of bachelor’s degrees rose somewhat during percent again. During the 1970s, more women began the late 1880s and 1890s, the doctor’s degrees grew graduating from doctor’s degree programs, and the at a slower rate in the later years of the 19th century. proportion reached 30 percent by 1979-80. In 1989- During the 1920s, the number of doctor’s degrees 90, about 36 percent of all doctor’s degrees were per 1,000 bachelor’s degrees rose indicating that more people were pursuing advanced degrees after earned by women.

79 Higher Education 71 First-Professional Degrees then fell 6 percent by 1989-90. The number of de- grees conferred in law rose the most rapidly with an Prior to 1960–61, separate figures on first-profes- increase of 306 percent between 1959–60 and sional degrees did not exist because these programs 1984–85, but since then the number of law degrees were tabulated with the bachelor’s degrees. In the has fluctuated at a slightly lower level. late 18th and early 19th century, professional de- One of the most significant trends in first-profes- grees frequently did not require attainment of a bach- sional degrees has been the dramatic increase in the elor’s degree before entrance into the programs. portion of degrees earned by women. In 1959–60, Since 1960–61, first professional degrees, such as women received 1 percent of the dentistry degrees, degrees in law, medicine, and dentistry, have risen in 6 percent of the medical degrees, and only 2 percent a different pattern than other types of degrees (table of the law degrees. The number of women earning 31). For example, first-professional degrees grew degrees in these fields rose rapidly, particularly dur- more rapidly during the 1970s than in the 1960s. In ing the 1970s. In 1989–90 women accounted for 31 contrast to the increases of bachelor’s, master’s, and percent of the dentistry degrees, 34 percent of the doctor’s degrees, the number of first-professional de- degrees in medicine, and 42 percent of the degrees grees fell during the latter half of the 1980s. in law. Over the past 30 years, the number of degrees Revenues for Higher Education awarded in law has grown much more rapidly than degrees conferred in medicine or dentistry. However, Although there have been huge increases in the the number of degrees conferred in each of the three total revenues for higher education during the 20th areas is down from peaks reached during the mid- century, the sources of the funds have shown rel- 1980s. The number of degrees in dentistry grew by atively stable patterns. For example, the proportion of 72 percent between 1959–60 and 1982–83, before revenues from tuition and fees was 24 percent in falling dramatically by 27 percent between 1982–83 1909–10 and in 1989–90. However, there have been and 1989–90. The number of medical degrees rose some significant shifts through the period, notably by 128 percent between 1959–60 and 1984–85, and during World War II (table 33). Figure 20.--Sources of current-fund revenue for institutions of higher education: 1909-10 to 1989-90 Percent 60 50 40 Other 30 State Tuition 20 10 Federal 0 1930 1990 1950 1910 1970 1980 1940 1920 1960 Year ending SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Annual Report of the Commissioner; Biennial Survey of Education in the United States; Financial Statistics of Institutions of and Higher Education; Digest of Education Statistics, 1992; unpublished data.

80 Higher Education 72 proportion of expenditures for administration, re- From 1909–10 to 1939–40, revenue sources search, and university hospitals, and a decline in the evolved slowly. The proportion of revenues from tui- proportion of expenditures for instruction, auxiliary tion dropped slightly during the teens and then rose enterprises, and plant operation and maintenance. to 26 percent in 1929–30 and 28 percent in 1939– However, these shifts have not been consistent over 40. The proportion from federal sources fluctuated the 60-year period (table 24). between 4 and 7 percent during this 30-year period. Administrative and general expenditures as a per- The proportion of revenues from state sources fluc- tuated around 30 percent between 1909–10 and cent of current-fund expenditures rose slowly throughout the 1929–30 to 1989–90 period. In 1929– 1931–32, and then fell significantly during the Great 30, administrative expenditures accounted for about Depression of the 1930s. By the early 1940s, only 21 8 percent of college budgets, but they increased to percent of revenues came from the state govern- 10 percent in 1959–60 and 14 percent in 1989–90. ments. The proportion of revenues from endowments The administrative costs rose most rapidly in the fell from 16 percent in 1909–10 to 10 percent in 1960s while changes in most of the other decades 1939–40. Part of this drop may have been due to the amounted to about 1 percentage point or less. rapidly rising number of institutions. The new schools usually did not have the resources of some of the One of the most rapidly growing areas of college older, well-established institutions. Also the stock budgets in recent years has been university hos- pitals. When data were first tabulated separately in market crash of 1929 and the ensuing depression 1966–67, university hospitals accounted for 2 percent dampened revenues from endowments. One signifi- of the budget. Hospitals accounted for 8 percent of cant rise during the early part of the century was in the budget in 1979–80 and 9 percent in 1989–90. income from auxiliary enterprises, which rose from 12 percent of all revenues in 1909–10 to 20 percent The proportion of college budgets for instruction is of all revenues in 1939–40. lower now than in 1929–30, but most of the change The war years were marked by an increase in fed- occurred during the 1930s and 1940s. Between 1929–30 and 1949–50, the share of college budgets eral funding of higher education. Some of this fund- for instruction fell from 44 percent to 35 percent. In ing was earmarked for research, and some was for training programs specifically contracted by the fed- the following 40 years, the proportion dipped slightly, reaching 31 percent in 1989–90. eral government. After the war, the proportion of rev- Although there have been significant fluctuations, enues coming from the federal government began to the proportion of college budgets spent on plant op- decline, dipping to 14 percent in 1955–56. After some rises during the early 1960s, the proportion of eration and maintenance has fallen over the 60-year period. The share of college budgets for plant oper- revenues from the federal government began a long, slow slide to 10 percent in 1989–90. In contrast, the ation and maintenance fell from 12 percent in 1929– proportion of revenues from state sources increased 30 to 10 percent in 1939–40. Between 1939–40 and in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, but dipped slightly 1943–44, there was a further drop to 8 percent, likely in the 1980s. The percent of revenues from local caused by conservation policies prompted by the war. After jumping to 10 percent again after the war, government has fluctuated between 2 and 4 percent the proportion of funds for plant operation and main- since World War II. Similarly, the proportions of reve- tenance fell to 7 percent through the late 1960s. In nues from endowments and from private gifts, grants, the early 1970s, partly due to the sharply higher and contracts have shown only small fluctuations costs of energy, the plant operation share returned to during the postwar period. One significant shift in col- 8 percent. In the latter part of the 1980s, the propor- lege finances of the postwar period has been the tion fell to 7 percent. steady increase in revenues from university hos- The part of the college budget that goes to auxil- pitals. Between 1949–50 and 1989–90, the propor- iary enterprises such as residence halls, food serv- tion of revenues rose from 5 percent in 1949–50 to 9 percent in 1989–90. This increase occurred during ice, and sports arenas has fallen through much of the 60-year period. These auxiliary enterprises rose the 1970s and 1980s, after falling in the early part of the postwar period. from 17 percent of the budget in 1931–32 to 23 per- cent in 1947–48. But during the 1950s and the Expenditures 1960s, the proportion fell steadily. After stabilizing in the 1970s, the proportion dipped slightly again to In the 60-year period between 1929–30 and 1989– about 10 percent in 1989–90. At least part of this 90, there were several significant developments in shift may be attributed to the increased popularity of the expenditure patterns of colleges and universities. 2-year colleges, which have lower spending on auxil- Although changes in definitions and data collection procedures sometimes hamper direct comparisons, iary enterprises compared to 4-year colleges with larger numbers of students living on campus. there appears to have been some increase in the

81 73 Higher Education Figure 21.--Expenditures of institutions of higher education per student in constant 1990-91 dollars: 1929-30 to 1989-90 Expenditure per $10,000 student 9,000 8,000 Total educational and general 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 Instruction 3,000 2,000 Research 1,000 Plant operation 0 1950 1990 1930 1970 1980 1960 1940 Year ending SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Annual Report of the Commissioner; Biennial Survey Higher Education; of Education in the United States; Financial Statistics of Institutions of and Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) "Finance" survey. per student rose a further 24 percent reaching an all Another way of examining college and university time record of $7,799 per student in 1989–90. expenditures is to look at per student spending. After adjustment for inflation, expenditures per student Endowment and Physical Plant have risen in nearly every decade since 1929–30. Because consistent data on full-time-equivalent en- Endowment funds and physical plant value are rollment were not available for this historical analysis, long-term assets that can be used to analyze institu- data on total head-count enrollment were used in- tional resources. Physical plant value measures the book value of land, buildings, and equipment owned stead. Because of the rising proportion of students by colleges and universities. Endowment funds are attending college part-time, the use of total enroll- economic resources that are acquired by colleges ment makes the expenditure per student percentage through donations or deliberate transfers from current changes lower than they would have been if more operating funds. The principal of the endowment is precise FTE enrollment data had been used. maintained in investments while the interest is di- Educational and general spending on a per student verted to fund special programs, such as faculty basis held up remarkably well during the Great De- members in specific disciplines, or student aid, or pression of the 1930s, even registering a 25 percent scholarships for particular categories of students. increase. Per student expenditures rose a further 18 Endowments at colleges represent a sizeable eco- percent during the 1940s. The 1950s saw the most nomic resource amounting to $68 billion in 1989–90. rapid growth. The large 49 percent increase in ex- Endowment funds are deposited in a variety of in- penditures per student may be partly attributed to the vestments, including relatively volatile ones like enrollment drop during the early part of the decade stocks. Thus, their value tends to fluctuate more over when the high expenditures of the immediate post- time than other types of higher education finances. war years remained steady. Expenditures per student When examined on a per student basis, there was a rose a further 27 percent during the 1960s, but drop in the book value of the endowments per stu- dropped 11 percent in the 1970s. The drops were dent between the mid-1930s and the early 1950s. A particularly notable during the years with the highest more reliable indicator of market value of endowment inflation rates. During the 1980s, the expenditures became available in the mid-1960s. Market value of

82 Higher Education 74 of students in 1969. Two-year colleges generally endowment takes into account unrealized losses and have lower physical plant value per student than 4- gains in the value of the investments. The market year colleges because relatively few students live on value data indicate a continuing drop in value per campus, and equipment and land holdings are gen- student through the early 1980s. Some of this may erally less extensive. Property value per student re- be attributed to the rapid growth of new public col- mained stable during the 1980s after adjustment for leges, especially 2-year colleges, which generally student enrollment and inflation. Like other expendi- have either no or small endowments. During the 1980s, the market value of endowment per student ture-per-student measures, the use of total enroll- rose a dramatic 71 percent. Some of this may be ment rather than FTE enrollment tends to depress percentage changes. due to favorable stock market performances, as well The 20th century has been a period of dynamic as to institutional drives to boost endowments even at public colleges. growth for higher education institutions. Colleges The plant value data must be interpreted with cau- have evolved from institutions largely limited to the social elite to much more egalitarian institutions at- tion since the book value of buildings or land may tended today by nearly two out of three high school differ considerably from their replacement value. After adjustment for student enrollment and inflation, graduates. Colleges showed particularly strong it appears that plant fund value per student generally growth during the late teens and in the twenties, fif- is lower now than in the late 1960s and early 1970s. ties, sixties and eighties. The missions of colleges Some of this may be attributed to the growth in the have evolved with the times as has the student com- enrollment of 2-year colleges which accounted for 38 position. College enrollments, degrees, and finances are now at record highs. percent of students in 1989 compared to 26 percent

83 75 Higher Education — 3,535 24,371 44,002 70,980 38,238 26,978 13,867 880,766 987,518 650,305 558,169 191,072 263,607 454,679 153,643 491,488 170,201 323,844 6 6 6 6 6 6 16 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7,348,545 1,531,071 6,190,015 1,049,657 13,538,560 6 155,401,508 1989–90 139,635,477 109,241,902 134,655,571 105,585,076 6 6 6 6 — — — — — 3,565 25,810 22,648 13,072 45,046 70,856 35,720 161,267 149,354 250,448 436,764 186,316 483,346 310,621 535,409 15 7,053,441 6,001,896 1,018,755 13,055,337 96,803,377 100,598,033 123,867,184 142,425,392 1988–89 $128,501,638 Biennial Survey of Education in — 3,587 70,735 45,484 34,870 25,251 22,615 12,255 517,626 154,154 145,163 245,038 435,085 994,829 850,451 587,524 477,203 299,317 190,047 954,534 6,834,586 1,437,975 5,932,056 12,766,642 91,863,743 89,157,430 1987–88 113,786,476 133,228,717 $117,340,109 — — — — 9,672 3,152 17,415 22,943 70,131 32,615 52,716 455,806 147,332 150,749 183,737 217,173 929,417 473,611 298,081 400,910 5,887,022 5,682,877 11,569,899 46,534,023 44,542,843 56,913,588 83,733,387 1979–80 18,561,472 $58,519,982 10 — — — 2,525 1,784 4,022 32,794 82,667 25,890 88,591 34,578 29,912 341,220 206,023 117,432 792,317 451,097 208,291 551,000 125,624 3,258,459 4,746,201 8,004,660 17,144,194 21,043,110 42,093,580 16,845,210 1969–70 10,837,343 $21,515,242 10 ) ) ) 7 7 7 and ‘‘Fall Enrollment in Institutions of Higher Education,’’ ‘‘Degrees and Other Formal 8,801 2,004 9,829 1,028 50,898 23,537 83,781 74,435 138,377 296,773 380,554 281,506 392,440 254,063 3,639,847 4,685,258 5,601,376 1,307,230 4,593,485 2,332,617 5,322,080 1959–60 $5,785,537 13,548,548 10 )( )( )( 7 7 7 616 5,804 1,851 6,420 41,220 16,963 58,183 60,533 432,058 723,328 186,189 328,841 190,353 103,217 246,722 2,601,223 2,444,900 1,751,393 1,706,444 1,721,572 2,245,661 4,799,964 1949–50 $2,374,645 )( )( )( 7 7 7 429 2,861 1,708 3,290 SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, —Data not available. NOTE.—Beginning in 1959–60, includes Alaska and Hawaii. Some data have been revised from previously published 76,954 40,601 16,508 10,223 26,731 186,500 600,953 146,929 109,546 538,511 893,250 674,688 110,885 106,328 521,990 the United States; Education Directory, Colleges and Universities; Faculty and Other Professional Staff in Institutions of Higher Education; Fall Enrollment in Colleges and Universities; Earned Degrees Conferred; Financial Statistics of Institutions of Higher Education; figures. Education Data System (IPEDS), ‘‘Fall Enrollment,’’ ‘‘Completions,’’ and ‘‘Finance’’ surveys. (This table was prepared Awards Conferred,’’ and ‘‘Financial Statistics of Institutions of Higher Education’’ surveys; and Integrated Postsecondary November 1992.) $715,211 2,753,780 1,494,203 1,686,283 1939–40 10 )( )( )( 7 7 7 — — — ———— ———— ———— 353 8,925 6,044 2,299 1,946 1,409 48,869 73,615 14,969 82,386 122,484 480,802 494,092 377,903 619,935 507,142 $554,511 1,100,737 2,065,049 1,372,068 1929–30 )( )( )( 7 7 7 — — — — — — 93 522 615 2,985 1,294 1,041 4,279 35,807 48,615 12,808 16,642 31,980 48,622 597,880 282,942 747,333 569,071 172,929 314,938 1919–20 )( )( )( 7 7 7 — — — — — — 44 558 951 443 399 8,437 2,113 1,555 7,348 29,132 28,762 67,917 37,199 36,480 457,954 $76,883 $199,922 323,661 355,430 214,779 140,651 1909–10 3 3 )( )( )( 7 7 7 — — — — — — — 23 359 977 382 303 1,280 5,237 4,717 1,583 27,410 23,868 85,338 19,151 22,173 $35,084 253,599 152,254 237,592 194,998 1899–1900 )( )( )( 2 7 7 7 — — — — — — — 194 821 147 998 149 1,015 2,682 3,105 12,857 95,426 15,539 78,788 15,809 56,303 12,704 3 $21,464 156,756 100,453 3 3 3 1889–90 3 )( )( )( 3 7 7 7 — — — — — — — — — — 51 54 11 Table 23.—Historical summary of higher education statistics: 1869–70 to 1989–90 868 811 879 2,485 4,194 7,328 10,411 12,896 77,994 11,522 37,856 3 3 115,850 3 3 3 )( )( )( 1 0 1 7 7 7 — — — — — — — — — — — — — ( ( ( 563 666 2345678 9 1011 12 13 14 3 7,993 1,378 9,371 5,553 4,887 62,839 13,372 49,467 3 3 3 3 1869–70 1879–80 ... 8 ... 8 ... total ... ... ... 9 7 5 ... ... 1 1 2 Item 4 total ... 7 total ... 8 income ... expenditures ... Male ... Female ... Educational and general Male ... Female ... Female ... Female ... Male ... Educational and general Male ... Male ... Female ... Endowment funds only. Preliminary data. Prior to 1979–80, excludes branch campuses. Total number of different individuals (not reduced to full-time equivalent). Beginning in 1959–60, data are for the Estimated. Includes all faculty, instructors and above, and research assistants. Data for 1869–70 to 1939–40 are for resident degree-credit students who enrolled at any time during the academic Book value. Includes annuity funds. Figures for years prior to 1969–70 are not precisely comparable with later data. From 1869–70 to 1959–60, first-professional degrees included under bachelor’s degrees. Endowment funds Male ... Doctor’s, total ... Female ... Value of physical property ... First-professional, Master’s, Male ... Current-fund revenue Current-fund expenditures Associate, total ... Female ... Bachelor’s, 7 1 9 6 10 2 5 3 8 4 Total institutions Professional staff Earned degrees conferred Finances, in thousands Total fall enrollment Instructional staff first term of the academic year. year.

84 76 Higher Education — — — 47 48 50 47 32 39 26 28 23 57 44 50 41 58 43 59 19 40 42 2-year — — — — 655 631 986 997 796 622 546 556 562 503 1,212 1,092 1,127 1,052 1,161 1,020 1,134 1,179 4-year Private institutions 525 572 584 843 594 661 672 698 591 1,262 1,186 1,033 1,045 1,142 1,093 1,177 1,218 1,064 1,238 1,584 1,351 1,459 Total — — — 71 82 37 61 59 56 163 171 265 154 192 168 210 241 156 110 298 108 101 2-year — — — — 511 474 523 989 972 882 976 910 724 544 607 689 631 1,359 1,032 1,036 1,112 1,211 4-year Public institutions 834 797 614 689 732 531 582 530 571 2,181 1,973 2,561 1,656 1,354 1,101 1,140 1,476 1,186 1,186 1,038 1,207 1,152 Total — — — — 89 85 78 122 150 102 141 156 347 222 238 211 217 258 229 200 308 282 9 101112131415 2-year ———— 9——11 ———— 5—— 7 ———————— ———————— ———————— ———— 1—— 3 ———————— ———————— ———————— ————28——16 ———————— ———————— ———— 3—— 5 ———————— ———————— ———————— ———————— ———————— ————14——13 — — — — 977 2,571 1,902 1,896 2,164 1,973 2,064 2,192 2,116 2,345 2,216 1,520 1,344 1,069 1,263 1,229 1,066 1,106 8 4-year — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 7 Part-time [In thousands] 1869–70 to fall 1991 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 6 Full-time — — — — — — — — — — — 38 13 56 85 749 283 141 808 883 711 920 754 721 661 679 723 694 576 547 481 601 487 440 499 585 1,153 1,559 1,007 1,307 Female — — — — — — — — — — — 49 78 152 928 215 100 315 710 620 893 579 819 804 616 667 4 5 2,333 1,423 1,911 1,560 1,709 1,659 1,722 1,418 1,380 1,563 2,171 1,733 1,391 2,586 Male 6.1— — — 1.8 5.2 2.3 2.9 6.7 4.7 2.8 3.1 2.8 1.6 2.8 3.3 2.8 3.4 6.8 8.4 7.4 7.2 8.4 6.7 9.1 7.2 7.6 2.3 1.3 22.0 23.8 13.8 12.5 13.4 15.2 14.7 10.0 16.2 14.7 23.6 17.7 19.5 14.2 14.3 1 3 lation Enrollment as a percent of 18– to 24–year-old popu- 63 441 354 361 941 379 404 441 355 598 157 356 681 264 116 238 823 2 2,231 1,208 1,101 2,134 1,154 1,054 3,640 2,445 1,351 3,324 4,145 2,918 1,494 1,677 1,055 2,403 1,404 2,078 2,653 1,155 2,281 2,102 2,338 2,447 2 Total Table 24.—Enrollment in institutions of higher education, by sex, attendance status, and type and control of institution: enrollment 1 Year 1945–46 ... Fall 1957 ... 1904–05 ... Fall 1956 ... 1889–90 ... 1943–44 ... 1909–10 ... 1910–11 ... Fall 1955 ... 1879–80 ... 1911–12 ... Fall 1959 ... 1941–42 ... 1912–13 ... Fall 1954 ... Fall 1946 ... 1914–15 ... Fall 1953 ... 1915–16 ... 1869–70 ... 1899–1900 ... 1917–18 ... Fall 1952 ... 1919–20 ... 1921–22 ... 1939–40 ... Fall 1961 ... Fall 1951 ... Fall 1947 ... 1923–24 ... 1925–26 ... Fall 1950 ... 1927–28 ... 1929–30 ... Fall 1949 ... 1931–32 ... 1933–34 ... 1937–38 ... Fall 1948 ... 1935–36 ... 1913–14 ...

85 77 Higher Education — 114 111 243 267 260 115 146 141 137 132 122 124 122 133 155 141 160 132 252 134 264 119 252 261 235 198 236 266 4 4 3 3 2-year — 2,489 2,518 2,558 2,506 2,442 2,117 2,524 2,513 2,373 2,298 2,478 2,319 2,227 2,217 1,698 1,588 2,693 2,726 2,634 1,937 1,955 1,975 2,022 2,060 2,029 1,904 2,029 1,820 4-year Digest of Education Statis- Private institutions 1,812 1,698 2,894 2,970 2,961 2,183 2,730 2,041 2,765 2,793 2,359 2,725 2,790 2,082 2,108 2,144 2,235 2,640 2,096 2,768 2,782 2,439 1,951 2,144 2,350 2,533 2,474 2,153 2,983 Total — 740 875 1,372 2,890 2,195 2,641 1,646 2,457 1,189 1,041 1,934 4,459 4,414 3,285 4,057 4,270 4,329 3,836 4,279 4,520 4,541 3,874 3,902 3,752 4,481 4,938 4,884 4,615 Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial 2-year — 4,998 5,223 4,980 5,198 5,176 4,945 5,166 4,703 5,210 5,129 4,912 5,432 5,300 4,902 5,803 5,546 5,694 2,341 3,784 2,593 2,928 4,233 3,160 4,347 4,530 4,430 3,444 3,963 4-year Public institutions 8,835 9,714 3,970 3,081 6,804 9,477 9,696 9,479 9,457 9,647 8,653 6,428 7,989 8,786 8,847 4,349 9,973 5,897 7,420 7,071 9,683 9,037 5,431 4,816 3,468 10,741 10,578 10,161 11,174 Total — 989 850 9 101112131415 1,792 1,326 1,513 3,012 2,756 1,173 2,319 2,068 2,579 4,217 4,716 3,404 4,776 4,043 5,151 4,680 3,970 4,028 4,531 4,875 4,531 4,723 4,772 3,883 5,181 4,526 2-year — and U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 7,990 8,180 7,711 7,571 7,353 7,741 8,529 7,129 7,215 6,820 7,232 7,654 8,388 7,716 7,243 7,655 7,824 5,399 6,262 4,748 5,721 4,291 3,929 5,064 6,369 6,590 5,937 6,459 8 4-year (This table was prepared September 1992.) SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, NOTE.—Prior to 1970, data for 2–year branch campuses of 4–year institutions are included with the 4–year institu- —Data not available. year. Beginning in fall 1960, data include Alaska and Hawaii. non-degree-credit enrollment. Data for 1869–70 through 1945–46 are cumulative enrollment for the entire academic tions. Data for 1869–70 through fall 1956 are degree-credit enrollment. Data for later years include degree-credit and Times to 1970; tics. 2,765 3,142 1,596 2,119 3,413 1,825 2,506 2,871 1,707 1,951 2,303 5,204 5,172 4,493 5,190 5,619 3,853 5,144 4,999 4,776 5,878 4,592 5,536 6,126 5,384 5,930 4,344 4,295 5,205 7 Part-time [In thousands] 1869–70 to fall 1991 6,189 3,573 4,439 3,184 6,077 4,793 5,816 4,096 6,072 5,499 5,210 7,661 8,031 6,717 6,793 7,098 7,181 7,780 7,098 6,370 7,221 7,437 7,120 7,075 6,668 7,261 7,231 6,794 6,841 6 vol. 3, no. 6, 1944. Full-time 3,537 6,397 6,441 3,976 6,223 4,231 7,752 7,053 2,779 6,429 5,201 3,035 4,601 3,742 5,036 5,497 2,031 7,472 2,534 2,291 6,835 5,619 6,619 6,394 5,887 7,349 3,258 6,378 1,818 Female Education for Victory, 4 5 5,811 6,149 5,641 5,622 6,024 6,002 5,975 5,818 5,874 5,864 6,031 5,683 6,239 6,190 5,789 6,405 5,932 5,885 4,478 5,044 4,133 3,856 5,239 2,962 4,746 3,249 5,207 5,371 3,630 Male 40.2 35.8 29.8 35.0 49.0 38.8 35.8 43.0 51.4 38.8 42.0 27.7 36.5 42.0 37.9 45.1 40.3 35.3 30.7 34.1 39.0 51.1 28.7 41.4 41.0 47.1 32.2 38.3 53.7 1 3 lation Enrollment as a percent of 18– to 24–year-old popu- 9,215 6,912 4,780 6,390 8,005 5,280 7,513 8,949 9,602 8,581 5,921 11,185 12,767 11,286 12,426 12,372 13,710 11,260 12,465 10,224 11,012 11,570 12,504 12,097 13,055 12,247 12,242 14,157 13,539 2 Total enrollment Table 24.—Enrollment in institutions of higher education, by sex, attendance status, and type and control of institution:—Continued ... ... 5 6 1 Year Preliminary estimate. Because of imputation techniques, data are not consistent with figures for other years. Preliminary data. Large increases are due to the addition of schools accredited by the National Association of Trade and Technical Data for 1923–24 and previous years based on U.S. Office of Education, Population ratio data are based on persons 18 to 24 years old, as of July 1 prior to the opening of school, except 4 1 6 3 5 2 Fall 1967 ... Fall 1978 ... Fall 1983 ... Fall 1987 ... Fall 1981 ... Fall 1982 ... Fall 1977 ... Fall 1975 ... Fall 1973 ... Fall 1989 ... Fall 1971 ... Fall 1986 ... Fall 1969 ... Fall 1979 ... Fall 1991 Fall 1965 ... Fall 1963 ... Fall 1970 ... Fall 1976 ... Fall 1985 ... Fall 1968 ... Fall 1988 ... Fall 1974 ... Fall 1964 ... Fall 1980 ... Fall 1990 Fall 1972 ... Fall 1984 ... Fall 1966 ... Schools in 1980 and 1981. are over age 24, particularly in the later years. In fall 1990, about 44 percent of college students were over age 24. are total population, including armed forces overseas. Data for 1960 to 1991 are resident population. Many students for 1899–1900 which is based on July 1 population after the closing of school in June. Population data through 1959

86 78 Higher Education 59,510 42,004 51,881 53,772 37,878 85,596 78,273 57,186 35,876 61,728 29,833 90,425 80,669 173,221 112,831 323,947 227,131 729,246 253,789 251,810 163,375 264,735 351,990 259,700 186,599 166,641 168,530 418,874 604,060 217,550 122,883 283,015 177,852 289,407 170,515 538,389 569,803 554,787 1,035,323 1,769,997 Fall 1990 13,710,150 59,081 40,562 48,969 56,471 37,660 88,572 79,800 54,188 28,627 58,230 40,404 81,350 76,503 175,855 108,844 253,097 345,502 254,533 275,821 709,952 242,289 201,114 314,091 158,497 252,625 180,202 169,438 161,822 426,476 116,370 208,562 610,479 166,014 278,505 169,901 550,720 578,123 560,320 1,029,518 1,802,884 Fall 1989 13,538,560 42,112 40,661 35,935 48,994 74,453 56,487 64,435 42,912 87,855 31,904 32,308 86,446 31,906 20,052 188,976 153,812 396,267 312,460 156,100 178,017 613,874 133,360 152,683 193,830 156,067 154,597 100,272 159,784 269,065 481,347 218,447 135,179 221,088 132,599 970,286 228,397 463,310 395,233 503,839 1,698,788 Fall 1979 11,569,899 7,514 23,012 68,594 65,239 97,816 33,586 97,243 28,868 42,788 28,114 29,830 30,498 41,478 31,450 12,746 97,692 51,530 77,886 Total enrollment 188,810 111,893 117,198 104,568 393,518 425,002 106,269 158,359 110,780 114,419 161,038 135,712 114,995 174,486 285,709 106,063 728,379 185,290 218,303 358,892 366,568 8,004,660 1,149,148 Fall 1969 3,964 6,783 9,769 3,074 12,624 34,501 49,082 31,776 12,579 41,630 45,360 14,448 12,408 33,121 12,320 80,564 17,125 19,915 24,371 54,253 57,836 49,518 70,788 49,054 73,013 45,745 84,579 68,500 46,397 50,775 59,267 54,958 93,549 193,680 134,589 193,967 376,508 160,313 169,762 507,302 3,639,847 Fall 1959 328 3,441 9,069 1,775 8,266 4,822 8,622 8,673 9,592 9,507 19,695 45,401 65,183 13,144 50,709 39,094 45,562 35,063 19,445 31,760 45,195 37,061 36,570 36,093 37,454 35,641 70,363 32,105 22,024 25,588 32,455 13,841 44,045 151,622 151,218 312,971 102,351 101,390 137,743 200,447 2,444,900 1949–50 268 5,897 5,425 6,615 2,730 1,267 1,118 8,332 6,685 5,969 6,092 4,950 32,908 40,393 16,579 12,860 17,376 20,515 34,647 23,229 10,928 19,987 32,118 16,141 57,772 18,557 22,414 27,244 22,319 25,996 29,753 60,961 84,367 37,065 14,019 83,401 11,473 195,596 107,074 120,290 1,494,203 1939–40 86 711 1,046 3,897 5,857 4,846 6,891 2,635 4,659 9,183 3,742 6,445 4,262 1,005 3,812 22,770 24,884 15,685 10,070 15,290 18,901 11,796 13,084 16,877 23,688 26,118 66,985 44,144 78,086 81,701 69,087 14,662 15,838 11,290 31,458 54,424 21,326 15,944 11,180 156,730 1929–30 1,100,737 0 198 430 498 4,161 5,596 2,562 3,221 9,442 6,050 5,403 1,357 9,564 4,829 4,521 3,505 7,929 9,109 6,421 7,048 7,430 2,048 2,900 2,322 2,189 1,794 48,649 21,031 16,437 33,138 11,671 44,098 21,833 10,565 18,102 20,044 36,779 64,727 19,994 24,257 597,880 1919–20 0 0 225 612 407 235 342 650 724 4,942 7,630 9,724 3,298 1,382 4,917 1,713 6,283 4,802 4,601 4,731 2,994 6,898 2,920 5,211 7,061 9,409 1,604 4,710 2,343 3,883 29,069 14,844 31,482 11,146 19,792 17,584 16,477 32,813 11,394 14,967 355,430 1909–10 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 237,592 1899–1900 0 0 0 0 37 60 52 31 22 651 849 454 500 169 402 185 Academic year degree-credit enrollment 4,779 2,723 6,039 1,305 2,688 7,606 3,003 2,314 1,989 3,366 1,554 2,311 2,787 4,863 3,162 7,652 9,965 2,536 3,209 2,389 11,512 19,482 10,255 15,562 156,756 1889–90 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 96 39 35 851 411 655 768 952 709 195 392 920 Table 25.—Enrollment in institutions of higher education, by state: 1869–70 to fall 1990 6,256 1,556 2,396 1,775 2,250 1,711 2,990 3,269 3,601 8,796 5,812 2,155 7,075 3,945 1,527 1,170 2,812 5,657 12,845 16,767 115,850 1879–80 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 80 368 560 957 238 251 102 491 675 957 885 188 466 217 7,869 2,668 1,587 1,449 1,173 3,007 5,207 3,367 1,644 2,097 1,715 3,992 2,445 8,085 1,097 1,790 234 5 678 9 101112131415 62,839 1869–70 ... 1 State United States New Jersey ... North Dakota ... Kansas ... Georgia ... Kentucky ... Arkansas ... Connecticut ... Hawaii ... North Carolina ... Louisiana ... Pennsylvania ... Illinois ... District of Columbia ... New Hampshire ... Colorado ... Arizona ... Maine ... Maryland ... Delaware ... Nevada ... Alaska ... Massachusetts ... New York ... Michigan ... Oklahoma ... Rhode Island ... Ohio ... Nebraska ... Minnesota ... Mississippi ... Alabama ... Montana ... Missouri ... Oregon ... Indiana ... Florida ... Iowa ... New Mexico ... California ... Idaho ...

87 79 Higher Education 34,208 36,398 84,790 48,023 31,326 263,278 901,437 299,774 353,442 226,238 159,302 121,303 Fall 1990 32,666 35,946 82,455 29,159 55,607 255,760 291,966 879,335 344,284 218,866 145,730 114,815 Fall 1989 Report of the Commissioner of 31,294 81,335 19,490 88,608 18,102 29,550 303,469 676,047 255,907 270,599 131,459 199,902 Fall 1979 and Integrated Postsecondary Education Data Sys- 21,964 30,908 81,540 62,320 15,828 62,052 14,115 Total enrollment 407,918 190,496 170,107 138,561 127,568 Fall 1969 6,371 9,571 14,621 73,556 57,511 28,838 34,903 59,887 13,411 65,018 30,875 185,518 Fall 1959 7,767 8,157 3,817 7,340 49,678 22,834 43,093 23,038 37,393 22,380 39,748 129,477 1949–50 6,583 2,264 3,975 4,326 26,226 26,156 15,914 13,043 25,253 33,135 14,444 74,552 1939–40 SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Term, 1959–60; Fall Enrollment in Institutions of Higher Education; Education, Biennial Survey of Education in the United States; Total Enrollment in Institutions of Higher Education, First tem, ‘‘Fall Enrollment’’ survey. (This table was prepared September 1992.) 1,177 6,113 2,442 7,127 3,400 23,758 19,316 11,632 46,703 20,496 17,903 10,666 1929–30 375 1,813 5,246 2,990 2,313 4,676 4,334 9,219 10,738 20,159 10,675 23,490 1919–20 125 2,708 4,524 1,763 6,540 1,245 8,344 1,211 5,152 1,102 8,134 10,763 1909–10 — — — — — — — — — — — — 1899–1900 9 — 84 677 896 141 Academic year degree-credit enrollment 5,531 3,293 4,273 1,174 1,774 2,441 1889–90 0 0 — 55 973 138 782 1,069 1,929 2,659 4,872 3,178 1879–80 Table 25.—Enrollment in institutions of higher education, by state: 1869–70 to fall 1990—Continued 0 0 0 — 325 381 421 759 296 2,408 1,255 1,663 234 5 678 9 101112131415 1869–70 1 State —Data not available. NOTE.—National totals exclude data for Utah in 1869–70 and 1879–80, and Washington in 1879–80. Beginning in Virginia ... Wyoming ... U.S. Service Schools ... West Virginia ... Vermont ... Utah ... South Dakota ... South Carolina ... Tennessee ... Washington ... Wisconsin ... Texas ... 1959–60, data include Alaska and Hawaii.

88 80 Higher Education Table 26.—Number and professional employees of institutions of higher education: 1869–70 to 1991–92 1 Number of institutions Professional staff Number Number Instruc- of of 4-year colleges tional Year 2-year colleges medical dental 3 Total Total Male Female staff 2 2 schools schools Public Private Total Total Public Private 1 2345678 9 10 11 12 13 14 —————— 75 10 4,887 666 — 563 5,553 1869–70 ... 7,328 4,194 1879–80 ... 811 ——————100 14 11,522 — 15,809 12,704 3,105 — ——————133 31 998 1889–90 ... 23,868 19,151 4,717 — 1899–1900 ... 977 ——————160 57 36,480 ——————131 54 7,348 — 1909–10 ... 951 29,132 ———— 1915–16 ... ——————— 95 49 1917–18 ... — 46 14 32 90 46 ———— 934 — 980 48,615 989 52 10 42 85 46 — 35,807 12,808 — 1,041 1919–20 ... — 1,082 — — 80 17 63 81 45 1921–22 ... — — 56,486 1,162 — 1,295 — — 132 39 93 79 43 — — — 63,999 1923–24 ... 1,163 1,224 1925–26 ... 153 47 106 79 44 — — — 70,674 — 1,377 — — 1,162 248 114 134 80 40 — — — 76,080 1,410 1927–28 ... — 1,132 — — 277 129 148 76 1929–30 ... — — — 82,386 1,409 38 1,478 — — 342 159 183 76 38 100,789 71,680 29,109 88,172 1931–32 ... 1,136 39 1,096 — 322 152 170 77 — 108,873 78,369 30,504 86,914 1933–34 ... 1,418 1,628 1,213 — — 415 187 228 77 39 121,036 1935–36 ... 34,469 92,580 86,567 1937–38 ... 1,237 — — 453 209 244 77 39 135,989 97,362 38,627 102,895 1,690 1,708 1,252 — 456 217 239 77 39 146,929 106,328 40,601 110,885 1939–40 ... — 1,308 1941–42 ... 461 231 230 77 39 151,066 109,309 41,757 114,693 — 1,769 — 150,980 1,237 413 210 203 77 39 — 106,254 44,726 105,841 1,650 1943–44 ... — 1,304 — — 464 242 222 77 1945–46 ... 165,324 116,134 49,190 125,811 1,768 39 1,788 — — 472 242 230 77 40 223,660 164,616 59,044 174,204 1947–48 ... 1,316 40 1,327 983 524 297 227 72 344 246,722 186,189 60,533 190,353 1949–50 ... 1,851 1,852 1,312 341 971 540 295 245 72 1950–51 ... ———— 40 1951–52 ... 1,326 350 976 506 291 215 72 41 244,488 187,136 57,352 183,758 1,832 1,882 1,355 1,006 527 290 237 72 41 ———— 1952–53 ... 349 42 1,345 976 518 293 225 73 1,863 265,911 204,871 61,040 207,365 1953–54 ... 369 1,849 1,333 353 980 516 295 221 72 42 ———— 1954–55 ... 1,850 1,347 360 987 503 290 213 73 42 298,910 230,342 68,568 228,188 1955–56 ... 1,878 297 359 996 523 1956–57 ... 226 75 43 ———— 1,355 75 1,930 366 1,024 540 300 240 1957–58 ... 43 344,525 267,482 77,043 258,184 1,390 1958–59 ... 1,947 1,394 366 1,028 553 307 246 76 43 ———— 1959–60 ... 2,004 367 1,055 582 328 254 79 45 380,554 296,773 83,781 281,506 1,422 2,021 1,431 1,063 590 332 258 79 46 ———— 1960–61 ... 368 1,443 1961–62 ... 590 344 246 81 46 424,862 332,006 92,856 310,772 374 1,069 2,033 81 376 625 364 261 1,092 46 ———— 1,468 1962–63 ... 2,093 1,499 386 1,113 633 374 259 82 46 494,514 385,405 109,109 355,542 1963–64 ... 2,132 1,521 1964–65 ... 1,128 654 406 248 81 45 ———— 2,175 393 1,551 47 1,150 679 420 259 84 2,230 ———— 1965–66 ... 401 47 1,577 1,174 752 477 275 83 2,329 646,264 — — 445,484 1966–67 ... 403 2,374 1,588 414 1,174 786 520 266 1967–68 ... 48 709,811 — — 484,387 85 1968–69 ... 1,619 417 1,202 864 594 270 84 48 ———— 2,483 2,525 1,639 1,213 886 634 252 86 48 — — — 551,000 1969–70 ... 426 48 2,556 1,230 891 654 237 89 435 — — — 574,592 1970–71 ... 1,665 2,606 1,675 440 1,235 931 697 234 92 48 ———— 1971–72 ... 2,665 1972–73 ... 449 1,252 964 733 231 97 51 881,665 639,251 242,414 652,517 1,701 2,720 1,003 440 1,277 1973–74 ... 760 243 99 52 ———— 1,717 Including branch campuses 1974–75 ... 1,866 537 1,329 1,138 3,004 242 104 52 ———— 896 1975–76 ... 3,026 1,898 545 1,353 1,128 897 231 107 56 ———— 1976–77 ... 3,046 550 1,363 1,133 905 228 109 57 1,073,119 729,169 343,950 793,296 1,913 3,095 1,938 1,386 1,157 921 236 109 57 ———— 1977–78 ... 552 1,941 269 1,391 1,193 924 3,134 109 58 ———— 1978–79 ... 550 269 3,152 1,408 1,195 926 549 112 58 ———— 1979–80 ... 1,957 3,231 1,957 552 1,405 1,274 1980–81 ... 329 116 58 ———— 945 1981–82 ... 1,979 558 1,421 1,274 940 334 119 59 ———— 3,253 3,280 933 560 1,424 1,296 1982–83 ... 363 118 59 ———— 1,984 916 1983–84 ... 565 1,448 1,271 2,013 355 119 60 ———— 3,284 1984–85 ... 3,331 2,025 566 1,459 1,306 935 371 120 59 ———— 1985–86 ... 3,340 566 1,463 1,311 932 379 120 59 ———— 2,029 376 3,406 1,497 1,336 960 573 122 58 ———— 1986–87 ... 2,070 3,587 2,135 599 1,536 1,452 992 1987–88 ... 122 57 1,437,975 850,451 587,524 954,534 460 1988–89 ... 2,129 598 1,531 1,436 3,565 452 124 58 ———— 984 1989–90 ... 3,535 2,127 595 1,532 1,408 968 440 124 57 1,531,071 880,766 650,305 987,518 1990–91 ... 2,141 595 1,546 1,418 972 446 — ————— 3,559 1991–92 ... 3,601 2,157 599 1,558 1,444 999 445 — ————— 1 Data for 1869–70 through 1973–74 include main campuses only and exclude branch NOTE.—Beginning in 1959–60, data include Alaska and Hawaii. campuses. Data for later years include both main and branch campuses. An- SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2 Medical and dental schools are included, as appropriate, in columns 2 through 5. nual Report of the Commissioner; Biennial Survey of Education in the United States; 3 Includes regular faculty, junior faculty, and research assistants. Numbers and Characteristics of Employees in Institutions of Higher Education; and Di- —Data not available. gest of Education Statistics. (This table was prepared October 1992.)

89 81 Higher Education Table 27.—Number of permanent colleges and universities founded before 1860, by decade of founding and by state Total 1810 to 1770 to 1850 to Before 1840 to 1790 to 1830 to 1800 to 1820 to 1780 to State before 1779 1819 1799 1839 1789 1849 1829 1859 1769 1809 1860 23456789101112 1 381 11 4 14 9 10 21 36 66 79 131 United States ... 0—————— 1 4 2 3 Alabama ... 1 1 )—————————— ( Alaska ... 1 ( Arizona ... )—————————— Arkansas ... 1 ——————— 1—— ————————— 6 California ... 6 1 ( Colorado ... )—————————— 1 5 Connecticut ... ————— 1 3—— Delaware ... 1 ——————— 1—— 3 — — 1 — — — 1 District of Columbia — 1 — Florida ... ————————— 2 2 10 — 1 — — — 2 5 1 1 Georgia ... — 1 Hawaii ... )—————————— ( 1 )—————————— ( Idaho ... 2 1—————— 3 1 512 Illinois ... 7———— 1 1 2 3 5 5 Indiana ... 1 3——————— 1 4 8 1 Iowa ... Kansas ... 3 ————————— 3 9 — — Kentucky ... 1 — 2 1 — 1 3 1 Louisiana ... —————— 1 1— 1 3 4 — — — 1 — 2 — 1 — Maine ... — — Maryland ... — 2 1 2 — 1 1 1 3 11 Massachusetts ... 18 1 — 1 1 2 — 2 4 2 5 Michigan ... 8 ————— 1— 2 3 2 4 ————————— 4 Minnesota ... —————— 1— 1— 2 Mississippi ... 1 5————— 2 1 3 2 7 Missouri ... 1 Montana ... ( )—————————— 1 ( Nebraska ... )—————————— 1 ( )—————————— Nevada ... New Hampshire ... 2 1 —————— 1—— 8 2 — 1 — — 1 — — — 4 New Jersey ... 1 ( )—————————— New Mexico ... 5 39 1 1 1 5 — 5 7 13 New York ... 1 16 — 1 North Carolina ... ———— 5 2 6 2 1 North Dakota ... )—————————— ( 3 0———— 2 1 3 6 810 Ohio ... 1 ————————— 1 Oklahoma ... Oregon ... 5 ———————— 3 2 Pennsylvania ... 44 2 1 3 1 — 3 6 6 9 13 Rhode Island ... 2 ———————— 1 1 11 3 1 — — 1 — 2 2 2 South Carolina ... — South Dakota ... 1 ————————— 1 1 2——— 2—— 1— 6 3 Tennessee ... Texas ... ———————— 4 1 5 Utah ... 1 ————————— 1 Vermont ... 7 — — 1 1 1 1 1 2 — — 1 Virginia ... 1 — — — 2 2 6 3 1 16 Washington ... 1 ————————— 1 West Virginia ... 3 ——————— 2 1— Wisconsin ... ———————— 7 4 11 1 ( )—————————— Wyoming ... 1 No permanent colleges founded prior to 1860. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, ‘‘In- stitutional Characteristics of Colleges and Universities, 1980–81,’’ and unpublished data. —No permanent colleges reported. (This table was prepared November 1992.)

90 82 Higher Education 1 8.1 9.2 6.1 5.7 9.0 13.2 13.0 13.7 13.3 15.2 19.8 16.0 12.5 18.3 18.5 13.6 13.8 12.6 13.0 12.9 11.8 11.2 10.2 14.2 Per elor’s 1,000 bach- x-years earlier degrees — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Total lapse bach- years, time in doctor’s elor’s to 3 2 — — — — — 23 39 28 20 29 18 44 35 35 25 29 32 52 31 25 18 54 Female Doctor’s degrees — — — — — 51 359 302 264 339 247 320 236 341 147 327 358 399 334 397 285 299 261 302 Male 54 382 218 124 365 324 190 272 334 345 349 279 319 140 443 337 383 369 391 293 149 187 271 451 Total )14——— — ) ) ) )77——— 6.4 )110— — )32——— 3.4 ) ) ) ) ) )39——— — ) )84——— 2.9 )31——— — ) )66——— 3.8 ) ) ) ) ) )13——— — ) )36——— 2.9 ) )26——— — ) ) ) )23——— — )50——— 4.2 ) )46——— 3.7 )13——— — )37——— 3.7 ) )77——— 5.8 ) ) 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Female )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Male )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( First-professional degrees Total 7 6 7 7 9 6 7 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 6 8 7 8 9 7 6 8 7 6 5 5 6 6 7 6 6 7 6 5 6 6 7 — — 11 elor’s bach- earlier 2 years Per 100 degrees — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 11 250 210 267 265 252 210 387 558 460 339 421 404 333 303 475 394 339 194 Female — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 868 821 1,280 1,213 1,275 1,013 1,188 1,124 1,163 1,538 1,464 1,511 1,215 1,366 1,340 1,385 1,713 1,555 1,405 Male — — 776 987 730 923 859 901 863 884 922 879 816 731 835 661 860 890 794 919 1,071 1,223 1,542 1,104 1,413 1,161 1,478 1,015 1,334 1,440 1,619 1,925 1,858 1,744 1,787 1,971 2,113 1,679 1,718 2,188 1,583 Master’s degrees (includes second- Total professional for years prior to 1959–60) — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 43 49 48 36 46 47 50 49 48 37 47 53 53 59 51 56 31 34 32 36 33 36 32 30 32 30 32 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 high grad- uates earlier school 4 years Per 100 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 19 19 19 19 20 19 19 19 21 19 19 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 6 7 8 9 1011121314151617 18 23 old Per years 1,000 persons 2,682 2,938 6,965 3,325 4,517 2,691 2,822 2,962 2,623 6,804 1,873 5,741 8,459 4,383 7,424 4,916 6,585 4,681 2,694 6,264 2,830 2,357 2,485 4,694 2,394 6,035 8,437 2,836 3,933 2,366 5,582 2,027 1,226 1,737 5,237 2,117 2,094 1,900 1,378 2,273 1,816 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Female Bachelor’s degrees 7,993 6,626 9,911 9,070 9,808 9,593 9,905 8,329 9,416 3 22,173 10,411 25,269 12,043 26,376 28,762 15,342 23,872 23,225 20,076 12,397 11,008 12,035 20,550 10,484 13,902 13,840 24,934 10,408 12,294 17,917 19,723 12,857 25,215 23,099 24,237 29,433 21,064 20,358 12,168 12,562 10,731 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Male Table 28.—Degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by sex and level: 1869–70 to 1989–90 7,852 9,371 2 25,052 28,681 11,493 28,966 15,116 13,097 16,840 11,932 12,896 32,019 33,800 24,593 31,519 32,234 14,734 14,998 15,539 12,081 25,980 12,765 29,907 15,256 15,020 10,807 37,199 12,005 12,357 24,106 30,501 13,402 14,871 18,667 11,533 10,145 25,231 37,892 21,850 16,802 27,410 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Total 1 Year 1871–72 ... 1906–07 ... 1874–75 ... 1875–76 ... 1905–06 ... 1876–77 ... 1904–05 ... 1892–93 ... 1877–78 ... 1878–79 ... 1870–71 ... 1903–04 ... 1879–80 ... 1891–92 ... 1909–10 ... 1902–03 ... 1908–09 ... 1893–94 ... 1872–73 ... 1881–82 ... 1901–02 ... 1882–83 ... 1900–01 ... 1883–84 ... 1907–08 ... 1899–1900 ... 1884–85 ... 1885–86 ... 1898–99 ... 1886–87 ... 1897–98 ... 1887–88 ... 1888–89 ... 1869–70 ... 1896–97 ... 1889–90 ... 1895–96 ... 1890–91 ... 1873–74 ... 1894–95 ... 1880–81 ...

91 83 Higher Education 1 42.3 35.2 27.6 15.6 57.6 49.7 26.6 29.1 26.4 36.7 16.5 15.9 17.2 15.7 14.9 18.1 14.9 15.0 22.7 25.5 33.6 43.0 28.7 14.1 25.3 25.6 34.4 33.0 65.4 24.3 18.9 25.9 41.7 67.5 39.5 71.5 29.8 41.5 53.4 Per elor’s bach- 1,000 x-years earlier degrees — — — — — — — 7.8 9.2 8.5 9.5 9.1 9.9 9.8 9.7 8.8 9.7 9.8 9.4 8.4 8.7 8.6 8.4 7.7 9.4 10.3 10.2 10.2 10.0 10.0 10.8 10.4 10.3 10.2 10.3 11.0 10.2 10.3 10.2 Total lapse bach- years, time in doctor’s elor’s to 93 73 62 57 65 64 48 81 493 425 128 430 400 374 407 353 386 193 198 714 616 815 939 522 674 792 885 989 429 826 964 461 159 1,245 1,112 1,374 1,775 1,535 1,028 Female Doctor’s degrees 522 708 491 449 436 486 481 586 549 939 9,463 3,496 2,456 2,370 2,247 1,880 2,502 7,515 1,946 3,036 8,371 1,580 6,663 5,804 4,527 8,801 1,216 2,861 7,978 1,249 8,181 6,969 7,817 8,018 8,014 Male 11,448 10,377 14,692 12,955 836 615 497 500 611 556 667 538 559 7,683 1,966 1,447 2,299 9,829 8,307 1,409 8,942 6,420 5,049 1,098 9,360 8,996 3,497 8,756 8,903 8,840 3,290 7,337 2,932 2,770 2,305 3,989 2,654 2,830 Total 14,490 16,467 10,575 12,822 11,622 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 676 771 837 852 1,007 Female )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Male 24,577 24,836 25,753 27,283 26,357 )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( )( 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( First-professional degrees Total 26,590 25,253 25,607 28,290 27,209 9 7 8 6 8 8 8 6 22 23 27 29 28 15 17 16 15 13 22 20 21 25 21 21 16 19 20 31 13 18 13 15 13 13 16 13 11 12 12 elor’s bach- earlier 2 years Per 100 degrees 635 972 820 939 1,680 1,094 1,014 7,157 2,701 6,799 6,777 8,228 3,533 1,294 1,004 7,703 9,725 6,044 4,660 39,848 35,333 10,223 10,469 13,501 28,815 26,779 31,382 19,977 20,611 21,357 20,013 18,881 24,172 23,537 19,461 19,888 16,963 15,529 18,676 Female 2,215 2,256 5,711 2,934 6,202 4,304 9,484 2,985 2,021 5,515 7,727 8,925 2,638 1,806 1,821 Male 62,603 67,302 57,830 73,850 81,319 14,179 16,508 43,557 38,739 39,393 41,220 38,147 50,898 46,196 40,946 35,212 48,360 41,329 44,229 28,931 13,400 12,210 11,503 11,516 3,035 2,456 5,984 3,577 9,735 2,900 3,906 3,025 8,216 4,279 3,270 Master’s degrees (includes second- 84,609 98,684 91,418 24,648 26,731 19,209 65,586 74,435 63,534 59,281 14,969 58,200 13,414 56,823 60,959 18,302 65,077 72,532 19,367 18,293 42,432 58,183 61,940 12,387 21,628 50,741 Total professional for years prior to 1959–60) 109,183 121,167 25 25 25 25 25 26 24 26 18 27 36 18 27 23 27 25 25 19 28 17 40 30 24 27 30 22 30 28 28 20 28 28 11 22 10 22 35 16 18 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 high grad- uates earlier school 4 years Per 100 22 72 49 24 33 61 52 57 23 43 56 81 24 26 55 63 23 63 78 20 21 192 181 194 173 165 182 147 178 113 143 161 129 132 151 182 154 163 167 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 6 7 8 9 1011121314151617 18 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 23 old Per years 1,000 persons 8,934 9,848 4 11,084 12,085 16,642 95,571 12,316 20,362 76,954 81,457 27,875 35,045 12,495 13,398 67,265 48,869 57,058 54,792 77,510 43,502 53,815 69,998 2 2 211,584 195,917 140,636 153,505 170,111 127,414 104,306 104,624 121,942 103,217 103,256 103,002 104,005 138,377 110,899 116,786 101,884 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Female Bachelor’s degrees 3 86,067 67,659 82,341 97,678 73,615 55,865 83,271 58,664 62,218 31,417 31,852 31,312 26,269 32,183 29,560 54,908 41,306 31,980 28,547 265,349 282,173 241,309 230,456 224,538 109,546 186,884 278,240 182,839 198,615 103,889 221,650 175,615 254,063 241,560 199,793 328,841 225,981 252,517 263,608 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Male 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Table 28.—Degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by sex and level: 1869–70 to 1989–90—Continued 2 45,250 44,268 38,585 37,481 61,668 82,783 97,263 48,622 39,408 43,912 42,396 461,266 365,174 411,420 493,757 383,961 363,502 382,546 432,058 125,863 143,125 365,492 291,508 111,161 185,346 122,484 392,440 379,931 338,436 186,500 285,841 164,943 303,049 138,063 271,186 329,986 136,174 309,514 136,156 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Total 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ... 4 1 Year 1943–44 ... 1962–63 ... 1913–14 ... 1963–64 ... 1927–28 ... 1953–54 ... 1931–32 ... 1956–57 ... 1960–61 ... 1945–46 ... 1957–58 ... 1955–56 ... 1910–11 ... 1954–55 ... 1915–16 ... 1925–26 ... 1923–24 ... 1939–40 ... 1933–34 ... 1952–53 ... 1917–18 ... 1964–65 ... 1958–59 ... 1947–48 ... 1961–62 ... 1941–42 ... 1948–49 ... 1914–15 ... 1921–22 ... 1919–20 ... 1912–13 ... 1951–52 ... 1949–50 ... 1911–12 ... 1937–38 ... 1950–51 ... 1929–30 ... 1935–36 ... 1959–60

92 84 Higher Education 1 37.1 35.1 35.7 36.4 37.9 35.5 37.1 70.4 61.0 72.3 65.0 65.5 36.9 54.3 58.8 38.8 41.3 77.9 52.6 44.1 78.0 71.6 58.9 38.8 41.1 Per elor’s 1,000 bach- x-years earlier degrees 8.9 8.1 7.9 8.1 8.0 9.0 7.9 9.3 8.7 9.8 9.6 9.4 8.6 8.6 8.5 8.4 8.2 10.5 10.0 10.5 10.0 10.2 10.5 10.4 10.4 U.S. Department of Total lapse bach- years, time in doctor’s elor’s to 7,266 6,451 6,206 7,797 5,273 9,189 4,022 2,454 2,906 3,436 9,672 4,577 8,090 8,473 2,116 13,072 12,255 11,834 11,243 10,247 10,483 11,145 10,873 12,021 13,867 Female and National Academy of Sciences, Doctor’s degrees Male 22,648 22,722 21,700 22,711 23,541 25,142 27,530 22,224 22,099 18,163 25,890 22,943 20,183 22,064 21,819 21,902 23,658 22,615 16,121 24,371 26,817 27,365 26,267 28,571 28,090 Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Total 32,131 34,870 33,209 32,775 34,120 32,730 32,943 32,615 33,232 32,707 32,958 33,653 33,816 34,064 18,237 33,363 34,777 34,083 35,720 20,617 29,912 26,158 23,089 32,107 38,238 Population Estimates and Projectons; (This table was prepared November 1992.) Digest of Education Statistics; 1,784 1,537 2,402 1,519 1,294 5,286 2,688 9,757 3,529 1,142 6,960 25,810 26,978 19,164 24,649 11,985 25,251 16,196 24,608 23,073 14,311 17,415 25,290 21,826 19,809 Female Male 45,046 52,892 50,455 52,792 49,261 51,334 52,374 40,723 46,489 52,716 52,652 51,310 48,956 45,484 28,982 47,460 52,270 52,223 48,530 44,002 33,595 30,401 32,794 35,544 32,402 First-professional degrees Total 70,856 74,407 75,063 71,956 55,916 35,114 73,910 43,411 70,131 53,816 31,695 64,359 72,750 70,735 68,848 66,581 34,578 62,649 33,939 73,136 37,946 50,018 72,032 70,980 30,124 Current Population Reports, Series P-25, 30 35 33 34 32 32 31 32 32 30 33 30 30 30 34 32 32 31 32 34 30 31 31 33 33 elor’s bach- earlier 2 years Per 100 degrees SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, —Data not available. Times to 1970; Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Doctorate Recipients from United States Universities. 72,225 82,667 92,363 54,617 63,197 47,521 108,903 154,154 102,083 119,191 148,696 142,861 147,709 130,880 150,014 145,059 140,668 144,523 148,194 149,381 145,224 147,332 150,408 161,267 170,201 Female Male 93,081 149,354 153,643 157,842 141,363 113,552 143,508 153,370 167,248 144,697 150,749 143,390 167,783 125,624 154,468 161,212 138,146 145,532 121,531 161,570 149,550 143,595 103,109 145,163 147,043 Master’s degrees (includes second- Total professional for years prior to 1959–60) 310,621 301,079 299,317 288,567 311,771 317,164 208,291 295,546 157,726 193,756 277,033 230,509 140,602 284,263 286,251 289,921 298,081 176,749 289,557 292,450 251,633 263,371 295,739 311,620 323,844 30 27 31 30 30 32 31 36 29 30 33 33 28 31 29 31 33 33 34 30 27 30 32 38 40 high grad- uates earlier school 4 years Per 100 272 282 247 218 218 258 230 227 278 229 249 262 267 241 252 218 222 225 234 181 242 225 208 236 238 5 6 7 8 9 1011121314151617 18 23 old Per years 1,000 persons 4 501,900 274,607 444,046 510,485 496,949 341,220 491,990 220,828 420,821 386,683 490,370 418,463 479,634 404,171 517,626 418,092 465,257 424,004 535,409 235,823 364,136 455,806 433,857 318,250 558,169 Female Bachelor’s degrees 3 518,191 469,883 500,590 480,854 479,140 322,711 482,319 299,287 473,364 473,611 487,347 482,528 477,203 483,346 451,097 410,595 504,925 504,841 527,313 477,344 357,682 485,923 495,545 475,594 491,488 Male Table 28.—Degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by sex and level: 1869–70 to 1989–90—Continued 2 921,204 919,549 929,417 887,273 945,776 632,289 728,845 935,140 792,317 839,730 994,829 921,390 952,998 925,746 991,339 520,115 922,933 987,823 969,510 979,477 974,309 922,362 558,534 Total 1,018,755 1,049,657 ... 5 1 Year First-professional degrees included with bachelor’s degrees. Includes first-professional degrees. Represents the number of years from the receipt of the bachelor’s degree to the receipt of the doctorate degree. Preliminary data. Denotes the first year for which figures include Alaska and Hawaii. 4 1 2 3 5 1965–66 ... 1978–79 ... 1967–68 ... 1982–83 ... 1989–90 1983–84 ... 1966–67 ... 1984–85 ... 1980–81 ... 1985–86 ... 1981–82 ... 1986–87 ... 1979–80 ... 1987–88 ... 1977–78 ... 1976–77 ... 1968–69 ... 1975–76 ... 1974–75 ... 1973–74 ... 1988–89 ... 1969–70 ... 1972–73 ... 1971–72 ... 1970–71 ... See column 17.

93 85 Higher Education 1 and 87,739 83,727 86,333 22,030 24,798 77,589 70,032 49,820 43,974 57,845 95,796 30,983 28,113 90,702 88,882 84,338 85,966 87,161 92,293 90,707 89,876 90,604 86,793 38,807 34,916 26,822 25,783 21,112 21,181 35,166 Other and arts per- 40,892 40,479 36,638 40,969 40,951 42,138 41,793 13,163 25,521 21,548 17,391 18,679 12,942 13,609 40,422 36,223 36,949 16,159 14,518 35,901 31,588 39,730 33,831 36,017 40,782 30,394 39,695 100,057 37,925 37,936 39,469 39,833 Visual forming 99,545 93,703 96,185 63,104 74,729 48,002 81,919 90,632 95,088 93,212 91,461 50,221 55,296 100,345 103,519 112,827 126,287 107,922 100,288 116,879 155,236 155,922 158,037 150,298 135,165 107,914 116,925 137,517 101,550 117,093 150,331 Social sciences Earned Degrees Conferred 6,252 1,688 1,560 4,912 3,242 2,032 1,957 8,221 5,762 3,714 2,320 2,960 5,282 Public affairs 8,460 9,578 8,061 gy 41,031 18,739 40,833 18,714 41,962 18,422 10,993 13,258 42,868 14,161 43,093 44,559 18,078 40,521 13,878 49,908 16,751 47,373 17,627 45,003 14,294 42,461 18,882 16,897 14,626 29,332 47,695 11,346 37,880 51,821 12,671 50,988 14,730 53,586 16,241 48,737 15,270 40,364 16,290 39,872 14,396 19,364 39,811 13,838 23,819 33,606 Psy- cholo- 24,052 16,215 21,178 21,412 23,207 21,731 17,806 19,974 20,778 20,745 22,497 20,696 22,986 21,465 15,851 15,452 16,007 16,131 17,186 23,732 23,671 17,739 23,405 19,380 23,952 23,410 17,456 21,439 17,129 17,861 21,480 Physical sciences 11,378 11,078 18,624 11,399 23,513 19,977 21,207 19,460 27,209 27,442 11,599 16,078 11,806 24,801 23,713 12,569 15,904 15,984 23,067 21,635 18,181 16,306 16,489 14,196 14,570 13,097 14,597 15,218 13,211 12,453 15,146 matics Mathe- 46,370 43,216 22,723 41,639 19,114 48,340 48,846 42,233 51,502 38,114 53,605 38,524 36,755 54,275 35,743 37,293 51,741 16,915 16,060 36,059 37,170 38,640 38,445 39,982 15,576 25,166 31,826 26,916 28,849 35,308 37,389 Life sciences 84 423 439 701 619 623 122 814 258 255 202 398 375 510 307 462 123 843 693 989 139 558 157 781 1,938 1,000 1,054 1,013 1,069 1,164 1,159 Library sciences 33,497 33,208 34,334 35,146 30,225 34,557 38,836 61,799 64,670 43,019 35,434 42,262 36,365 38,849 55,469 39,551 64,933 48,534 37,133 48,075 22,457 26,609 24,003 45,900 43,387 52,467 59,674 34,091 32,743 33,739 62,583 Letters 24,455 63,385 11,854 11,314 11,366 60,754 33,523 53,813 28,570 19,825 15,908 63,206 64,535 59,168 57,122 61,819 17,429 48,858 41,394 25,190 59,138 64,513 64,614 64,338 21,674 58,816 63,348 63,607 11,527 11,611 14,965 Health SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, sciences (IPEDS), ‘‘Completions’’ surveys. ‘‘Degrees and Other Formal Awards Conferred’’ surveys; and Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System 5,405 9,841 9,707 7,906 6,364 9,479 9,954 9,685 lan- For- 10,319 11,133 12,160 21,493 13,859 19,128 15,186 16,706 eign 19,945 18,840 12,730 18,964 18,849 11,825 17,606 13,944 15,471 10,045 10,102 10,780 10,184 20,895 11,326 guages 37,679 68,893 80,005 75,000 35,698 34,735 35,226 33,458 49,283 46,852 51,265 46,331 62,375 55,654 51,164 50,046 50,286 85,225 93,074 89,270 95,953 88,706 96,105 94,444 44,479 82,110 35,954 36,795 41,248 37,368 35,615 Engi- neering 97,082 89,002 96,280 91,028 92,382 87,221 97,991 91,287 87,115 88,161 8 910111213 1415161718192021 154,807 143,722 136,141 126,109 185,225 167,015 176,614 194,229 191,220 133,965 118,955 150,985 116,448 117,137 104,715 164,080 108,309 101,113 118,169 101,338 111,215 Education 0 0 0 0 0 89 87 459 222 933 7,201 3,402 4,756 5,033 6,407 8,719 2,388 4,304 5,652 1,544 20,267 39,664 24,510 11,154 41,889 38,878 32,172 34,523 15,121 30,454 27,434 tion and informa- sciences Computer 5,199 1,548 2,741 1,830 2,001 3,173 2,357 1,928 4,269 1,519 1,687 34,222 26,457 25,400 19,248 48,645 23,214 40,165 42,083 45,408 14,317 51,283 46,726 43,091 38,602 17,096 28,616 10,802 21,282 31,282 12,340 Com- muni- cations 5 6 7 51,076 55,474 69,032 59,288 49,017 79,074 93,094 62,721 48,074 50,639 and 249,081 247,175 199,338 185,361 241,156 114,865 238,160 226,893 150,964 230,031 133,010 243,725 171,764 121,360 142,379 104,706 126,263 160,187 131,766 233,351 214,001 ment manage- Business 4,105 9,146 9,250 8,922 9,186 9,273 6,962 9,728 8,603 5,570 6,440 9,222 7,822 9,325 9,119 9,823 9,132 8,226 9,455 1,801 9,261 9,150 2,937 3,477 1,674 3,057 2,663 2,059 1,774 2,333 2,028 4 design mental environ- ture and Architec- 6,241 7,866 6,169 7,178 6,013 5,649 9,965 8,308 6,734 5,841 13,070 13,492 19,317 16,823 20,909 22,802 14,222 12,672 17,528 21,467 19,402 14,756 18,107 16,253 22,650 21,886 14,991 21,029 23,134 11,321 13,516 3 and natural Table 29.—Bachelor’s degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by field of study: 1959–60 to 1989–90 resources Agriculture 2 Total 392,440 945,776 632,289 994,829 935,140 728,845 461,266 383,961 839,730 922,362 969,510 991,339 925,746 921,204 929,417 987,823 887,273 979,477 974,309 922,933 493,757 919,549 921,390 411,420 520,115 952,998 558,534 792,317 365,174 ... 2 1 Year ‘‘Other’’ includes degrees in area and ethnic studies, home economics, law, liberal/general studies, military sciences, All of the first-professional degrees and some master degrees are included. The degrees that are affected are busi- 1 2 1973–74 ... 1963–64 ... 1967–68 ... 1983–84 ... 1989–90 ... 1,049,657 1960–61 ... 1976–77 ... 1982–83 ... 1968–69 ... 1961–62 ... 1981–82 ... 1988–89 ... 1,018,755 1969–70 ... 1987–88 ... 1980–81 ... 1959–60 1971–72 ... 1979–80 ... 1972–73 ... 1965–66 ... 1962–63 ... 1977–78 ... 1974–75 ... 1986–87 ... 1964–65 ... 1970–71 ... 1966–67 ... 1985–86 ... 1984–85 ... 1978–79 ... 1975–76 ... ness and management, education, health sciences, letters, library sciences, public affairs, and other categories. not classified by field of study. multi/interdisciplinary studies, parks and recreation, philosophy and religion, protective services, theology, and degrees

94 86 Higher Education 1 and 6,765 4,727 5,346 5,945 9,595 8,379 9,115 7,597 3,617 3,752 3,978 4,020 16,990 16,839 20,879 18,143 17,593 16,598 16,689 17,398 17,162 19,764 16,716 14,821 16,966 16,819 17,935 11,055 12,919 14,107 10,448 Other 7,849 7,413 4,244 6,675 7,537 6,563 3,151 2,910 3,363 8,265 8,714 8,546 8,742 5,019 7,937 8,629 8,746 8,506 8,520 8,416 2,892 9,036 8,524 8,708 8,817 8,636 8,362 8,001 7,254 5,812 3,673 and arts per- Visual forming 5,448 8,493 9,565 7,637 6,678 5,825 10,380 11,477 11,892 10,867 10,428 10,465 11,419 10,294 11,855 11,112 10,397 14,578 12,807 15,395 12,101 15,824 17,249 16,892 17,288 13,460 17,416 16,281 16,068 16,476 14,539 Social sciences Earned Degrees Conferred 568 9,183 7,067 8,215 6,318 5,858 4,769 4,085 2,841 3,180 3,651 5,087 2,706 affairs Public 1,406 2,530 2,241 8,160 18,341 8,301 17,917 7,811 16,117 7,806 18,413 8,003 18,300 6,588 12,077 7,066 14,610 5,831 10,899 1,918 1,832 3,138 1,719 7,791 18,216 8,204 17,032 9,231 17,993 8,408 16,045 7,872 17,290 4,431 8,378 16,245 8,002 15,373 7,998 18,524 8,552 17,918 8,293 16,300 5,289 4,011 4,111 3,479 2,059 gy Psy- cholo- 4,561 3,376 5,902 5,576 5,290 5,284 5,796 5,723 5,935 6,287 5,447 5,733 5,652 6,367 5,895 5,514 5,499 4,914 4,987 5,451 5,331 5,561 5,219 5,466 6,257 6,062 5,807 5,405 3,790 3,925 4,123 Physical sciences 1,757 2,567 5,198 2,727 3,677 5,191 3,442 5,713 2,741 5,636 3,159 3,321 2,837 3,447 2,882 4,769 5,527 4,141 2,860 3,036 3,695 3,857 3,373 4,834 5,028 4,327 2,231 2,680 3,313 3,597 5,278 matics Mathe- 3,296 4,996 2,154 5,013 6,101 5,728 4,961 5,743 5,059 4,954 5,406 5,978 5,800 5,696 4,784 5,874 4,861 3,598 5,506 4,232 6,831 6,510 6,582 6,806 7,114 6,263 6,552 6,550 2,358 2,921 2,642 Life sciences 305 7,383 3,805 3,815 3,979 6,511 4,859 5,932 3,953 7,001 3,713 4,506 4,349 3,626 3,893 5,165 3,211 3,939 8,037 5,906 6,914 7,572 5,374 8,134 8,091 7,696 2,717 4,489 1,931 2,140 2,363 Library sciences 5,745 7,033 9,468 8,701 7,289 6,807 8,306 8,231 3,556 4,490 3,947 3,262 5,934 9,684 6,676 5,818 5,767 6,194 6,421 6,291 7,223 6,123 6,515 9,713 9,021 5,006 10,808 10,068 10,384 11,074 11,148 Letters 6,875 5,445 2,279 2,493 2,833 1,838 9,901 9,090 7,879 4,488 4,067 3,677 3,398 2,011 1,632 1,632 20,354 17,443 19,293 18,665 18,624 17,068 15,942 17,383 16,004 18,426 12,323 14,781 13,619 11,885 15,068 Health SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, sciences ‘‘Degrees and Other Formal Awards Conferred’’ surveys; and Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), ‘‘Completions’’ surveys. 2,690 3,393 1,055 2,426 2,726 4,289 3,147 3,964 2,236 3,531 3,807 4,803 4,691 4,511 1,274 1,480 1,849 4,755 1,759 1,844 1,746 1,724 1,773 1,898 2,008 1,995 4,616 1,721 2,104 2,196 4,017 lan- For- eign guages 7,159 8,909 8,178 9,635 23,388 20,661 16,709 21,661 24,848 21,557 22,693 24,572 16,443 19,350 16,960 17,939 10,827 13,880 13,675 12,055 16,619 15,495 15,348 16,398 15,379 16,342 16,243 16,245 15,240 15,593 15,182 Engi- neering 44,314 50,397 33,433 70,967 79,293 63,399 55,760 37,878 34,368 36,182 76,353 93,757 82,533 76,137 77,867 98,143 98,938 86,057 84,853 77,187 75,501 88,952 41,091 8 910111213 1415161718192021 103,951 105,565 128,417 126,825 120,169 119,038 111,995 112,610 Education 0 0 0 0 0 548 146 238 449 5,321 2,603 1,588 8,070 3,647 2,798 9,414 4,935 4,218 9,643 8,491 3,055 2,276 2,113 6,190 9,197 3,038 7,101 1,977 2,299 1,012 1,459 tion and informa- sciences Computer 0 44 38 65 37 32 32 44 129 130 107 2,640 3,105 2,794 3,091 2,200 4,369 3,925 3,823 3,082 3,327 3,126 2,882 3,656 3,296 3,937 3,604 1,856 4,257 2,406 3,669 Com- muni- cations 6,723 8,334 7,691 4,643 9,251 5 6 7 67,137 48,326 67,496 31,007 46,420 69,655 32,644 67,527 65,319 57,898 17,795 61,299 42,512 77,203 19,281 30,367 36,247 26,481 50,372 21,287 55,006 66,653 73,521 10,602 12,959 14,892 and ment manage- Business 373 812 383 702 378 356 311 319 3,223 3,357 3,327 2,702 3,492 3,275 2,938 3,153 3,139 1,021 3,113 1,143 3,383 3,115 2,307 3,260 3,142 3,159 1,427 3,213 1,705 1,899 3,215 4 design mental environ- ture and Architec- 1,241 1,261 1,357 1,203 4,003 1,750 1,793 1,797 2,457 4,163 3,976 3,724 2,070 2,680 4,254 3,340 3,994 3,928 3,479 4,178 1,366 2,807 3,523 3,373 4,023 3,245 1,661 3,067 2,928 3,801 1,344 3 and Table 30.—Master’s degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by field of study: 1959–60 to 1989–90 natural resources Agriculture 2 84,609 98,684 91,420 74,435 Total 298,081 299,317 289,557 311,620 288,567 310,621 208,291 301,079 193,756 311,771 292,450 277,033 251,633 295,739 263,371 317,164 323,844 295,546 286,251 157,726 140,602 289,921 121,167 109,183 176,749 230,509 284,263 ... 2 1 Year ‘‘Other’’ includes degrees in area and ethnic studies, home economics, law, liberal/general studies, military sciences, Some master degrees are included in bachelor’s degrees. 2 1 1980–81 ... 1960–61 ... 1989–90 ... 1988–89 ... 1974–75 ... 1985–86 ... 1978–79 ... 1966–67 ... 1984–85 ... 1982–83 ... 1976–77 ... 1965–66 ... 1969–70 ... 1972–73 ... 1964–65 ... 1983–84 ... 1979–80 ... 1963–64 ... 1962–63 ... 1975–76 ... 1968–69 ... 1986–87 ... 1970–71 ... 1959–60 1967–68 ... 1961–62 ... 1973–74 ... 1977–78 ... 1981–82 ... 1971–72 ... 1987–88 ... not classified by field of study. multi/interdisciplinary studies, parks and recreation, philosophy and religion, protective services, theology, and degrees

95 87 Higher Education 1 767 828 983 722 567 529 598 580 627 and 2,497 2,473 1,827 2,053 1,247 1,466 1,877 2,319 2,326 2,295 2,796 2,516 1,189 2,599 2,667 2,533 2,605 2,562 2,946 2,492 3,074 1,014 Other 621 684 693 692 728 722 734 752 725 792 842 428 311 292 379 422 504 528 616 654 670 649 303 585 572 476 620 655 662 708 700 arts and per- Visual forming 4,230 3,061 3,114 4,209 4,078 2,033 4,123 3,659 3,784 3,583 3,219 4,154 3,358 2,955 2,851 3,638 2,931 2,911 3,016 3,023 2,885 1,913 2,916 2,781 1,211 1,461 1,309 1,719 2,388 2,684 1,302 Social sciences Earned Degrees Conferred 87 67 77 43 72 66 185 347 152 137 431 385 421 398 470 429 495 129 123 214 389 388 271 219 108 214 298 372 344 316 385 affairs Public 703 847 641 781 844 939 2,780 2,089 2,955 2,442 1,881 1,046 2,336 2,768 2,761 2,581 2,587 2,662 1,782 1,551 3,108 1,668 2,973 2,908 3,088 3,123 3,353 3,222 2,987 1,268 1,231 gy Psy- cholo- 3,859 4,168 3,809 2,829 3,858 3,672 2,122 2,380 1,838 3,593 2,455 4,390 4,006 3,141 3,286 3,551 3,403 3,306 3,269 4,312 3,626 4,103 3,045 3,626 3,431 3,133 3,102 3,341 3,089 3,462 1,991 Physical sciences 728 681 695 699 742 698 975 782 730 856 724 805 823 832 344 682 915 725 866 750 396 303 490 947 596 1,199 1,068 1,236 1,128 1,031 1,097 matics Mathe- 3,423 3,520 3,844 3,629 1,928 1,205 1,338 1,455 2,784 1,625 3,718 3,743 3,645 3,636 3,384 3,437 3,358 3,341 3,432 3,289 3,051 2,097 3,392 3,542 3,309 3,397 3,653 3,439 3,636 2,255 1,193 Life sciences 71 39 84 62 56 52 87 74 17 40 19 16 14 41 57 61 46 60 64 67 12 75 70 73 71 10 19 17 22 13 102 Library sciences 766 565 431 526 618 801 972 439 2,076 1,504 1,723 1,616 1,500 1,884 2,023 1,380 1,857 2,170 1,313 1,951 1,234 1,215 1,215 1,172 1,266 1,181 1,239 1,176 1,275 1,339 1,116 Letters 643 827 459 910 609 357 251 283 243 250 133 173 771 568 638 705 538 425 577 107 148 157 192 1,199 1,213 1,241 1,543 1,436 1,163 1,155 1,261 Health SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, sciences (IPEDS), ‘‘Completions’’ surveys. ‘‘Degrees and Other Formal Awards Conferred’’ surveys; and Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System 923 841 864 549 752 641 649 376 478 610 232 203 228 237 326 437 991 441 448 781 512 462 588 488 420 411 536 857 760 659 426 lan- For- eign guages 786 943 3,230 4,965 4,523 3,492 2,981 3,820 3,410 2,561 2,831 4,191 3,638 2,636 3,108 3,377 2,304 3,681 2,440 2,507 3,312 2,506 2,586 3,671 2,821 2,124 2,932 2,614 1,378 1,207 1,693 Engi- neering 7,044 7,963 7,736 7,293 7,778 7,941 7,595 2,705 1,898 2,075 1,742 1,591 2,348 6,553 7,680 7,900 6,800 6,922 7,318 7,151 7,551 7,110 6,403 7,473 6,909 7,446 3,065 5,895 4,830 4,078 3,529 8 910111213 1415161718192021 Education 6 0 0 0 0 0 19 64 38 36 428 344 196 551 128 251 262 251 248 623 252 374 213 107 240 196 216 198 236 167 244 tion and informa- sciences Computer 1 5 9 7 9 0 10 14 11 16 12 193 175 191 192 111 204 171 269 234 275 253 145 200 223 234 139 219 214 182 165 Com- muni- cations 842 809 977 807 923 866 969 855 437 441 792 896 981 321 860 863 866 530 387 601 953 250 226 275 172 135 1,109 1,149 1,142 1,098 1,009 5 6 7 and ment manage- Business 3 1 3 3 80 93 58 92 89 97 86 98 84 73 97 36 69 73 10 50 73 18 35 69 32 15 79 82 96 12 17 4 design mental environ- ture and Architec- 991 648 893 950 991 971 449 823 637 971 465 450 930 555 529 928 699 588 440 1,158 1,213 1,059 1,272 1,183 1,172 1,086 1,142 1,079 1,067 1,049 1,149 3 and Table 31.—Doctor’s degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by field of study: 1959–60 to 1989–90 natural resources Agriculture 9,829 2 18,237 32,131 38,238 32,615 32,107 11,622 32,730 33,209 12,822 32,707 29,866 26,158 16,467 33,653 14,490 33,232 33,816 32,775 35,720 23,089 32,958 10,575 33,363 34,083 34,120 34,870 34,777 20,617 32,943 34,064 Total 1 Year ‘‘Other’’ includes degrees in area and ethnic studies, home economics, law, liberal/general studies, military sciences, 1 1961–62 ... 1975–76 ... 1970–71 ... 1989–90 ... 1977–78 ... 1987–88 ... 1959–60 ... 1960–61 ... 1969–70 ... 1978–79 ... 1986–87 ... 1974–75 ... 1968–69 ... 1979–80 ... 1972–73 ... 1985–86 ... 1967–68 ... 1980–81 ... 1962–63 ... 1966–67 ... 1981–82 ... 1984–85 ... 1963–64 ... 1965–66 ... 1988–89 ... 1973–74 ... 1983–84 ... 1976–77 ... 1982–83 ... 1971–72 ... 1964–65 ... not classified by field of study. multi/interdisciplinary studies, parks and recreation, philosophy and religion, protective services, theology, and degrees

96 88 Higher Education Table 32.—First-professional degrees conferred by institutions of higher education in dentistry, medicine, and law, by sex: 1949–50 to 1989–90 Medicine (M.D.) Law (LL.B. or J.D.) Dentistry (D.D.S. or D.M.D.) Number of Number of Number of Degrees conferred Year Degrees conferred Degrees conferred institutions institutions institutions conferring conferring conferring Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female degrees degrees degrees 6 10 111213 3 4 5 7 8 9 2 1 1 1 1 1 5,028 584 1949–50 ... 40 )( 2,579 )( 2,561 )( 18 ) 72 5,612 ( 1 1 1 1 72 6,201 330 ( 23 )( 2,895 )( 2,918 )( 41 ) 1951–52 ... 5,871 1 1 1 1 3,102 6,377 335 ( ) )( 39 )( 73 )( 6,712 42 1953–54 ... 3,063 3,009 6,810 34 73 42 6,464 346 131 8,262 7,974 288 1955–56 ... 2,975 347 43 34 75 6,816 6,469 3,031 131 9,394 9,122 272 1957–58 ... 3,065 1959–60 ... 3,247 3,221 26 79 7,032 6,645 387 134 9,240 9,010 230 45 1961–62 ... 3,183 3,166 17 81 7,138 6,749 389 134 9,364 9,091 273 46 46 3,180 12 82 7,303 6,878 425 133 10,679 10,372 307 1963–64 ... 3,168 3,178 503 32 84 7,673 7,170 47 136 13,246 12,776 470 1965–66 ... 3,146 626 48 47 85 7,944 7,318 3,375 138 16,454 15,805 649 1967–68 ... 3,422 48 3,718 3,684 34 86 8,314 1969–70 ... 699 145 14,916 14,115 801 7,615 1970–71 ... 3,745 3,703 42 89 8,919 8,110 809 147 17,421 16,181 1,240 48 48 8,423 3,819 43 92 9,253 1971–72 ... 830 147 21,764 20,266 1,498 3,862 9,388 1972–73 ... 3,992 55 97 10,307 4,047 919 152 27,205 25,037 2,168 51 1973–74 ... 52 4,440 4,355 85 99 11,356 10,093 1,263 151 29,326 25,986 3,340 1974–75 ... 52 4,627 146 104 12,447 10,818 1,629 154 29,296 24,881 4,415 4,773 56 5,425 238 107 13,426 11,252 2,174 166 32,293 26,085 6,208 1975–76 ... 5,187 5,138 2,570 374 109 13,461 10,891 57 169 34,104 26,447 7,657 1976–77 ... 4,764 3,069 57 566 109 14,279 11,210 4,623 169 34,402 25,457 8,945 1977–78 ... 5,189 58 5,434 4,794 640 109 14,786 1978–79 ... 3,405 175 35,206 25,180 10,026 11,381 1979–80 ... 5,258 4,558 700 112 14,902 11,416 3,486 179 35,647 24,893 10,754 58 58 11,672 4,672 788 116 15,505 1980–81 ... 3,833 176 36,331 24,563 11,768 5,460 11,867 1981–82 ... 4,467 815 119 15,814 5,282 3,947 180 35,991 23,965 12,026 59 1982–83 ... 59 5,585 4,631 954 118 15,484 11,350 4,134 177 36,853 23,550 13,303 1983–84 ... 60 4,302 1,051 119 15,813 11,359 4,454 179 37,012 23,382 13,630 5,353 4,874 59 1,106 120 16,041 11,167 4,233 181 37,491 23,070 14,421 1984–85 ... 5,339 59 5,046 3,907 1,139 120 15,938 1985–86 ... 4,916 181 35,844 21,874 13,970 11,022 1986–87 ... 4,741 3,603 1,138 122 15,620 58 5,054 180 36,172 21,643 14,529 10,566 1987–88 ... 57 4,477 3,300 1,177 122 15,358 10,278 5,080 180 35,397 21,067 14,330 2 1988–89 58 4,265 3,124 1,141 124 15,460 .. 5,150 182 35,634 21,069 14,565 10,310 3 2,830 .. 57 4,093 1989–90 1,263 124 15,115 9,977 5,138 182 36,437 21,059 15,378 1 Data prior to 1955–56 are not shown because they lack comparability with the figures SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, for subsequent years. ‘‘Degrees and Other Formal Awards Conferred’’ surveys, and Integrated Postsecondary 2 Revised from previously published data. Education Data System (IPEDS), ‘‘Completions’’ surveys. (This table was prepared No- 3 vember 1991.) Preliminary data.

97 89 Higher Education $8,966 26,993 60,419 87,983 16 691,737 838,817 143,923 244,436 157,424 106,479 130,523 183,644 574,769 511,265 103,269 509,546 465,154 3,734,229 2,481,670 1,606,974 1,270,885 2,244,518 2,767,314 1,004,283 4,919,602 4,080,202 4,547,622 2,139,117 5,327,821 5,741,309 9,456,369 8,121,611 6,481,458 8,769,521 7,287,290 3,466,934 3,308,957 2,982,973 3,125,238 Auxiliary 12,855,580 11,364,188 10,674,136 13,938,469 10,100,410 11,947,778 enterprises 2 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 15 ent 765,495 708,542 953,577 768,498 831,324 855,696 $951,668 9 3,056,760 2,902,022 1,271,988 1,893,904 1,449,695 1,268,877 1,623,363 1,131,117 1,031,314 2,238,259 2,679,369 3,238,442 1,439,213 1,081,585 1,063,331 1,007,590 1,030,751 Independ- operations Other revenue Annual Report of the Commis- — — — 17,759 92,725 32,777 53,577 27,947 24,943 40,308 67,084 14 253,790 187,769 497,280 152,078 290,000 821,478 619,578 238,567 293,777 111,987 136,442 $21,008 250,000 164,880 191,829 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 5 5 5 5 5 1,436,481 9,277,834 8,226,635 2,152,079 2,859,376 2,494,340 1,006,865 3,763,453 3,268,956 1,181,390 7,474,575 7,040,662 4,980,346 4,373,384 5,838,565 6,531,562 10,626,566 11,991,265 13,216,664 Hospitals $7,775 22,135 71,214 26,955 80,133 20,167 22,779 12,330 15,208 11,383 36,324 12,811 88,208 72,657 14,826 40,834 58,553 34,625 13 664,227 139,082 104,537 902,377 849,625 884,298 406,616 376,941 295,245 297,621 471,090 298,519 238,320 286,332 Other 2,639,973 1,087,719 2,293,706 3,015,483 1,948,503 1,328,991 1,641,965 4,753,051 2,335,084 3,769,787 3,476,760 4,268,618 3,199,186 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 — — — — — — — — ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 9,653 92,902 10,998 52,364 32,027 32,212 29,535 70,058 23,821 12 882,585 118,073 394,386 497,930 148,093 571,536 $11,027 800,075 709,101 658,016 764,590 309,855 Student aid — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 45,423 64,742 52,252 34,680 11 127,800 127,461 137,775 116,862 118,618 148,711 $47,302 554,882 882,715 645,420 779,058 222,382 163,482 2,918,090 2,373,494 2,641,906 1,037,130 3,632,100 1,582,922 1,409,730 1,970,747 1,723,484 1,239,439 2,126,927 3,315,620 activities Sales and services of educational — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — and unpublished data. (This table was prepared September 1992.) 65,533 69,443 57,102 10 317,627 421,301 399,821 524,697 373,573 590,448 484,977 $46,877 610,342 611,678 ments 7 depart- activities related to Organized educational 7,584 9 26,172 29,948 27,468 50,449 77,572 45,916 40,453 36,908 91,468 $3,551 37,115 382,570 450,145 550,684 915,909 848,450 613,718 765,927 324,426 149,826 190,899 118,627 245,085 7,060,730 1,744,967 1,917,036 2,105,070 2,320,368 1,001,454 1,091,654 1,208,070 7,781,422 4,896,325 2,808,075 3,176,670 4,415,275 3,563,558 4,052,649 1,300,343 1,430,982 6,359,282 5,410,905 5,952,682 2,489,366 Preliminary data. and grants Private gifts SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, —Data not available. NOTE.—Beginning in 1959–60, data include Alaska and Hawaii. Because of changes in data collection instruments 10 for years prior to 1929–30 give only a rough indication of the scope of the higher education enterprise at that time. and definitions, a number of data comparability problems exist in this table. See methodology for more details. Data Because of rounding, details may not add to totals. of Education Statistics; sioner; Biennial Survey of Education in the United States; Financial Statistics of Institutions of Higher Education; Digest 8 26,482 60,090 60,903 68,605 55,534 89,763 75,196 74,075 70,654 96,341 71,304 86,680 266,157 232,289 206,619 145,000 $12,584 515,041 576,915 985,242 687,470 717,915 832,286 764,788 447,275 413,276 480,806 470,655 363,990 328,068 288,833 181,585 112,859 127,475 income 2,914,396 2,275,898 2,377,958 2,586,441 3,143,696 1,596,813 1,873,945 1,720,677 1,176,627 2,096,298 1,364,443 Endowment [In thousands] ) ) ) ) 4 4 4 4 — ( ( ( ( 7 26,449 31,005 24,392 61,378 88,198 47,521 22,091 27,057 72,013 503,661 774,803 239,851 991,034 614,462 907,274 405,561 151,715 303,401 191,188 106,857 129,324 $21,050 Local 3,639,902 1,937,669 1,744,230 2,387,212 1,424,392 1,790,740 1,626,908 1,573,018 1,587,552 2,192,275 1,616,975 2,031,353 2,544,506 3,006,263 2,799,321 3,363,676 1,143,529 1,263,145 Educational and general revenue ———————— —— — ———————— —— — 61,690 6 $20,937 225,161 175,169 174,663 140,959 611,302 119,585 166,532 878,349 352,281 740,043 150,847 151,222 117,551 491,958 State 9,182,189 6,502,813 7,120,982 4,812,482 5,787,910 2,894,893 4,181,070 3,371,986 7,917,825 1,138,454 1,668,289 1,374,476 2,110,981 38,349,239 36,031,208 12,260,885 31,309,303 10,857,376 33,517,166 29,911,500 13,285,684 27,583,011 16,363,784 23,065,636 14,746,166 20,106,222 21,848,791 24,706,990 18,378,299 Government ) 4 — — ( 1 $4,607 20,658 29,345 38,860 19,827 58,232 43,234 12,783 5 451,011 707,048 526,476 417,097 489,800 524,319 197,250 308,162 3 1,537,697 2,160,889 1,036,988 2,587,893 6,112,805 6,843,736 3,359,027 3,659,506 4,176,226 8,181,402 9,615,221 2,200,276 2,924,547 8,319,817 4,990,969 3,146,869 8,478,709 8,782,803 2,695,681 5,413,847 3,994,490 5,729,818 7,771,726 12,837,218 11,869,932 11,224,680 10,466,491 Federal 14,016,432 — — 42,254 $18,463 154,485 214,345 201,365 158,134 138,257 144,126 150,649 178,996 200,897 304,601 934,203 394,610 722,215 551,424 446,591 4 8,171,942 6,500,101 3,814,160 2,640,641 6,010,926 9,855,270 3,380,294 4,419,845 5,021,211 7,232,908 9,024,932 5,594,095 2,972,050 1,157,481 1,892,839 1,499,924 23,116,605 30,806,566 25,705,827 27,836,781 33,926,060 10,704,171 19,714,884 21,283,329 15,774,038 13,773,259 11,930,340 17,776,041 and fees Student tuition 67,917 35,084 810,077 $21,464 857,874 172,929 585,988 538,511 494,092 441,987 494,161 466,163 380,620 3 1,469,172 3,650,492 4,593,485 1,751,393 2,205,901 5,919,927 2,719,804 1,916,463 7,642,763 Total 91,863,743 79,298,586 85,488,436 28,373,036 22,927,142 31,597,873 17,144,194 25,510,428 60,844,948 41,325,437 73,003,805 56,958,692 37,581,559 20,964,859 46,534,023 66,296,893 14,901,466 11,111,063 19,101,148 34,218,636 10,345,108 13,288,034 52,048,276 100,598,033 109,241,902 Table 33.—Current-fund revenue of institutions of higher education, by source of funds: 1889–90 to 1989–90 — — 597,585 199,922 652,631 566,264 $76,883 715,211 783,720 486,362 554,511 2 9,543,514 2,027,051 7,429,379 2,374,645 4,641,387 3,603,370 2,945,550 1,047,298 5,785,537 1,169,394 2,562,451 Total 92,472,694 18,874,602 39,703,166 23,879,188 12,734,225 26,234,258 43,436,827 58,519,982 31,712,452 65,584,789 16,825,199 21,515,242 28,606,217 84,417,287 77,595,726 51,837,789 35,686,902 72,190,856 14,561,039 47,034,032 revenue 100,437,616 108,809,827 117,340,109 128,501,638 139,635,477 current-fund ... 10 1 Year Excludes federally funded research and development centers (FFRDCs) from 1966–67 to 1989–90. Included under state governments. Primarily limited to federally funded research and development centers (FFRDCs). Where separate data are not Universities, colleges, and professional schools only; teachers and normal colleges included under state. Includes organized activities related to educational departments. Estimated. Drop from previous year caused by a change in jurisdiction of one of the centers. In later years, data are included primarily under sales and services and hospitals. Data are included under source of student aid money. 8 9 2 6 5 4 1 3 7 1966–67 ... 1975–76 ... 1909–10 ... 1974–75 ... 1970–71 ... 1972–73 ... 1959–60 ... 1945–46 ... 1968–69 ... 1981–82 ... 1899–1900 ... 1971–72 ... 1889–90 ... 1986–87 ... 1965–66 ... 1947–48 ... 1957–58 ... 1939–40 ... 1984–85 ... 1983–84 ... 1963–64 ... 1988–89 ... 1933–34 ... 1943–44 ... 1980–81 ... 1985–86 ... 1976–77 ... 1982–83 ... 1931–32 ... 1978–79 ... 1919–20 ... 1967–68 ... 1961–62 ... 1949–50 ... 1973–74 ... 1937–38 ... 1951–52 ... 1929–30 ... 1969–70 ... 1979–80 ... 1977–78 ... 1989–90 1941–42 ... 1955–56 ... 1935–36 ... 1953–54 ... 1987–88 ... shown, they are included under federal.

98 90 Higher Education Table 34.—Current-fund expenditures and educational and general expenditure per student of institutions of higher education, by function: 1929–30 to 1989–90 [In thousands] Educational and general expenditures Instruction Organized Current-fund Administra- Plant Year and Other activities Organized tion and operation expenditures depart- Libraries Total sponsored related to and general research 1 mental instructional programs expense maintenance research departments 2345678910 1 5 6 $42,633 $18,007 $9,622 $61,061 ( 1929–30 ... )— $507,142 $377,903 $221,598 5 7 $21,297 21,978 11,379 56,797 47,232 420,633 — 536,523 1931–32 ... 232,645 5 7 1933–34 ... 469,329 17,064 13,387 51,046 369,661 14,155 — 43,155 203,332 5 7 225,143 541,391 22,091 15,531 56,802 48,069 20,241 — 1935–36 ... 419,883 7 5 475,191 25,213 17,588 62,738 253,006 24,031 — 1937–38 ... 56,406 614,385 5 7 280,248 62,827 27,266 19,487 69,612 674,688 27,225 — 1939–40 ... 521,990 7 5 738,169 572,465 34,287 19,763 72,594 66,968 37,771 — 1941–42 ... 298,558 5 7 8 334,189 81,201 58,456 20,452 1943–44 ... 974,118 48,415 753,846 $97,044 69,668 5 7 1,088,422 1945–46 ... 86,812 26,560 110,947 375,122 60,604 — 820,326 104,808 7 5 1,391,594 159,090 44,208 201,996 657,945 85,346 — 1947–48 ... 171,829 1,883,269 7 5 — 780,994 56,147 225,110 1,706,444 119,108 225,341 2,245,661 213,070 1949–50 ... 7 5 823,117 1951–52 ... 317,928 60,612 240,446 2,471,008 1,960,481 — 233,844 147,854 5 7 960,556 2,882,864 372,643 72,944 2,345,331 288,147 186,905 — 1953–54 ... 277,874 5 7 355,207 1,140,655 1955–56 ... 500,793 85,563 324,229 3,499,463 222,007 — 2,861,858 5 7 4,509,666 1957–58 ... 727,776 109,715 406,226 1,465,603 238,455 — 3,734,350 473,945 7 5 1,793,320 4,685,258 1,022,353 135,384 469,943 5,601,376 294,255 — 1959–60 ... 583,224 5 7 730,429 2,202,443 1961–62 ... 1,474,406 177,362 564,225 7,154,526 375,040 — 5,997,007 5 7 686,054 2,801,707 9,177,677 1,973,383 236,718 7,725,433 957,512 458,507 — 1963–64 ... 5 7 10,376,630 1,251,107 3,756,175 1965–66 ... 2,448,300 346,248 844,506 12,509,489 558,170 155,202 1966–67 ... 14,230,341 1,445,074 4,356,413 1,565,102 415,903 969,275 591,848 350,950 10,724,974 16,480,786 12,847,350 5,139,179 1,933,473 493,266 1,127,290 350,711 514,294 1967–68 ... 1,738,946 14,718,140 5,941,972 2,034,074 571,572 1,337,903 535,269 668,483 18,481,583 1968–69 ... 2,277,585 16,845,210 2,627,993 6,883,844 2,144,076 652,596 1,541,698 648,089 769,253 1969–70 ... 21,043,110 23,375,197 18,714,642 7,804,410 2,209,338 716,212 1,730,664 693,011 890,507 1970–71 ... 2,983,911 25,559,560 3,344,215 8,443,261 2,265,282 764,481 1,927,553 779,728 1,059,989 1971–72 ... 20,441,878 27,955,624 22,400,379 3,713,068 9,243,641 2,394,261 1972–73 ... 2,141,162 791,290 1,284,085 840,727 1973–74 ... 24,653,849 4,200,955 10,219,118 2,480,450 939,023 2,494,057 838,170 1,355,027 30,713,581 35,057,563 4,495,391 11,797,823 3,132,132 1,001,868 2,786,768 1,253,824 — 1974–75 ... 27,547,620 38,903,177 30,598,685 5,240,066 13,094,943 3,287,364 1,223,723 3,082,959 1,248,670 — 1975–76 ... 1976–77 ... 42,599,816 5,590,669 14,031,145 3,600,067 1,250,314 3,436,705 1,544,646 — 33,151,681 1977–78 ... 36,256,604 6,177,029 15,336,229 3,919,830 1,348,747 3,795,043 1,781,160 — 45,970,790 1978–79 ... 50,720,984 39,833,116 6,832,004 16,662,820 4,447,760 1,426,614 4,178,574 2,044,386 — 1979–80 ... 56,913,588 7,621,143 18,496,717 5,099,151 1,623,811 4,700,070 2,252,577 — 44,542,843 64,052,938 8,681,513 20,733,166 5,657,719 1,759,784 5,350,310 2,513,502 — 1980–81 ... 50,073,805 70,339,448 54,848,752 9,648,069 22,962,527 5,929,894 1,922,416 5,979,281 2,734,038 — 1981–82 ... 1982–83 ... 75,935,749 10,412,233 24,673,293 6,265,280 2,039,671 6,391,596 3,047,220 — 58,929,218 1983–84 ... 63,741,276 11,561,260 26,436,308 6,723,534 2,231,149 6,729,825 3,300,003 — 81,993,360 1984–85 ... 89,951,263 70,061,324 12,765,452 28,777,183 7,551,892 2,361,793 7,345,482 3,712,460 — 1985–86 ... 97,535,742 13,913,724 31,032,099 8,437,367 2,551,331 7,605,226 4,116,061 — 76,127,965 1986–87 ... 82,955,555 15,060,576 33,711,146 9,352,309 2,441,184 7,819,032 5,134,267 — 105,763,557 1987–88 ... 113,786,476 89,157,430 16,171,015 35,833,563 10,350,931 2,836,498 8,230,986 5,305,083 — 1988–89 ... 96,803,377 17,309,956 38,812,690 11,432,170 3,009,870 8,739,895 5,894,409 — 123,867,184 10 42,145,987 1989–90 134,655,571 105,585,076 19,062,179 ... 12,505,961 3,254,239 9,458,262 6,183,405 —

99 91 Higher Education Table 34.—Current-fund expenditures and educational and general expenditure per student of institutions of higher education, by function: 1929–30 to 1989–90—Continued [In thousands] Educational and general Educational and general expenditures expenditures per student in fall Other 3 enrollment Auxiliary Independent Hospitals Other current Extension Scholarships Year 2 enterprises operations and general and public expenditures Constant fellowships expenditures Current service 1989–90 dollars 4 dollars 1 111213141516171819 6 5 7 $3,127 ( ( )( 1929–30 ... ) $126,112 343 2,547 ) — $24,982 7 6 5 24,993 90,897 $5,239 )( ) ) ( 364 3,210 24,066 1931–32 ... ( 5 6 7 7,502 ( ) ( )( 20,020 ) 20,938 350 3,359 1933–34 ... 78,730 6 5 7 95,332 ( ( )( 2,580 ) ) 348 3,211 1935–36 ... 29,426 26,176 7 5 6 2,020 115,620 ( 1937–38 ... )( 34,189 ) ( 352 3,118 23,574 ) 6 5 7 — 124,184 ( ( )( ) ) 28,514 349 3,174 1939–40 ... 35,325 6 5 7 — 137,328 ( ( )( ) 42,525 28,375 408 3,320 1941–42 ... ) 6 5 7 ) — 1943–44 ... ( 44,421 )( ( ) 20,928 653 4,755 199,344 5 7 6 55,473 242,028 ( 1945–46 ... )( ) ) 26,068 489 3,405 ( — 5 7 6 52,687 ( ( )( — ) ) 595 3,243 71,180 438,988 1947–48 ... 5 6 7 — 476,401 ( 86,674 ( 1949–50 ... ) 62,816 698 3,742 ) )( 5 7 477,672 ( 97,408 )( — $39,272 32,855 933 4,506 1951–52 ... ) 7 5 — 537,533 ( 4,964 )( 1953–54 ... ) — 1,051 112,227 74,035 5 7 137,914 ( 1955–56 ... )( 637,605 ) — 1,079 5,095 95,490 — 5 7 ) ( 129,935 )( 775,316 175,256 — 1,124 4,995 1957–58 ... 7,439 7 5 9,134 916,117 ( ) )( 1959–60 ... 205,595 — 1,287 5,563 172,050 5 7 ) ( 244,337 )( 1,157,517 — — 1,447 6,112 228,765 1961–62 ... 5 7 13,832 1,452,244 ( 1963–64 ... )( 297,350 ) — 1,616 6,654 300,370 5 7 9 153,013 1,887,744 ( 1965–66 ... )( 438,385 ) 425,524 245,115 1,753 6,974 9 1966–67 ... 220,453 2,060,130 $951,668 $253,790 226,566 239,780 1,678 6,474 583,390 9 597,544 2,302,419 765,495 290,000 712,425 275,523 1,859 6,940 1967–68 ... 240,222 814,755 1968–69 ... 697,317 526,943 — 1,959 6,974 — 536,527 2,539,183 984,594 2,769,276 757,388 671,236 — 2,104 7,074 593,067 1969–70 ... — 1,098,198 — 2,988,407 829,596 842,552 1970–71 ... 2,181 6,971 588,390 — 615,997 — 3,178,272 940,825 998,585 — 2,284 7,049 1971–72 ... 1,241,372 1,322,411 — 3,337,789 1,033,746 1,183,709 — 2,431 7,210 1972–73 ... 669,735 730,560 1,396,488 — 3,613,256 1973–74 ... 1,431,604 — 2,568 6,992 1,014,872 1974–75 ... 1,449,542 532,485 4,073,590 1,085,590 2,350,763 — 2,694 6,606 1,097,788 1,238,603 1,635,859 4,476,841 1,132,016 2,695,635 — 2,736 6,264 1975–76 ... 546,498 1,343,404 584,515 4,858,328 1,434,738 3,155,069 — 3,010 6,513 1976–77 ... 1,770,214 1,425,294 1,839,298 633,973 5,261,477 855,054 1977–78 ... — 3,213 6,513 3,597,655 1978–79 ... 1,944,599 703,262 5,749,974 1,007,119 4,130,775 — 3,538 6,557 1,593,097 1,816,521 2,200,468 732,385 6,485,608 1,127,728 4,757,409 — 3,850 6,297 1979–80 ... 1980–81 ... 2,057,770 2,504,525 815,516 7,288,089 1,257,934 5,433,111 — 4,139 6,068 1981–82 ... 2,203,726 783,854 7,997,632 1,258,777 6,234,287 — 4,433 5,982 2,684,945 2,320,478 2,922,897 8,614,316 1,406,126 6,986,089 — 4,742 6,135 1982–83 ... 856,548 2,499,203 958,321 9,250,196 1,622,233 7,379,654 — 5,114 6,379 1983–84 ... 3,301,673 2,861,095 3,670,355 1,015,613 10,012,248 1,867,550 1984–85 ... — 5,723 6,871 8,010,141 1985–86 ... 4,160,174 1,192,449 10,528,303 2,187,361 8,692,113 — 6,216 7,253 3,119,533 3,448,453 4,776,100 1,212,488 11,037,333 2,597,655 9,173,014 — 6,635 7,574 1986–87 ... 1987–88 ... 3,786,362 5,325,358 1,317,633 11,399,953 2,822,632 10,406,461 — 6,984 7,655 — 1988–89 ... 12,280,063 2,958,962 11,824,782 1,458,397 7,415 7,769 5,918,666 4,227,323 10 ... 4,689,758 6,655,544 1,629,742 13,203,984 3,187,224 12,679,286 1989–90 7,799 7,799 — 10 1 Preliminary data. Includes all separately budgeted programs, other than research, which are supported by sponsors outside the institution. Examples are training programs, workshops, and —Data not available. training and instructional institutes. For years not shown, most expenditures for these programs are included under ‘‘Extension and public service.’’ NOTE.—The data in this table reflect limitations of data availability and comparability. 2 Generally includes only those expenditures associated with federally funded research Major changes in data collection forms in 1965–66 and 1974–75 cause significant data and development centers (FFRDCs). comparability problems among the three mostly consistent time periods, 1929–30 to 3 Data for 1929–30 to 1945–56 are based on school year enrollment. 1963–64, 1965–66 to 1973–74, and 1974–75 to 1989–90. The largest problems affect 4 Data adjusted by the Consumer Price Index computed on a school year basis. Hospitals, Independent operations, Organized research, Other sponsored programs, Ex- 5 Expenditures for federally funded research and development centers are included tension and public service, and Scholarships and fellowships. under ‘‘Research.’’ 6 Included under ‘‘Other current expenditures.’’ 7 Expenditures for hospitals and independent operations included under ‘‘Organized SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Bi- activities related to instructional departments.’’ ennial Survey of Education in the United States, Financial Statistics of Institutions of 8 Expenditures were for federal contract courses. Higher Education; and Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, ‘‘Finance’’ sur- 9 Includes current expenditures for physical plant assets. In later years, the educational vey. (This table was prepared September 1992.) and general expenditures for physical plant assets are included under ‘‘Other educational and general expenditures.’’

100 92 Higher Education Table 35.—Value of property and endowment, and liabilities of institutions of higher education: 1899–1900 to 1989–90 [In thousands] Property value at end of year Endowment Liabilities of (end of year Physical plant value Year plant funds Endowment market Total 1 1 (book value) value) Total Land Buildings Equipment 1 23456789 2 — — $253,599 $194,998 — — 1899–1900 ... $448,597 — 2 457,594 $297,153 $68,082 323,661 — — 781,255 1909–10 ... $92,359 2 128,922 122,491 747,333 1,316,404 569,071 — — 1919–20 ... 495,920 2 — 270,921 2,065,049 1,372,068 1,490,014 — 1929–30 ... 3,437,117 304,114 2 334,085 1,636,722 388,611 1,553,610 1935–36 ... — — 3,913,028 2,359,418 2,556,075 4,208,695 1,811,309 431,101 1,652,620 — — 1937–38 ... 313,665 4,440,063 — — — 1,686,283 — — 1939–40 ... 2,753,780 2 2,759,261 — — — — 1,766,664 1941–42 ... 4,525,925 — 1947–48 ... 3,691,725 — — — 2,384,487 — — 6,076,212 2 7,401,187 — — 4,799,964 2,601,223 — — 1949–50 ... — 6,373,195 — — 2,868,530 — — 9,241,725 — 1951–52 ... 7,523,193 — — — 3,193,889 1953–54 ... — 10,717,082 — 3 624,467 12,561,046 6,697,648 1,536,792 8,858,907 — $894,383 1955–56 ... 3,702,139 3 11,124,489 733,182 1957–58 ... 8,540,429 1,850,878 15,770,197 — 1,444,602 4,645,708 3 13,548,548 842,664 1959–60 ... 10,472,478 2,233,407 5,322,080 — 1,964,306 18,870,628 3 6,079,349 22,761,193 12,900,093 2,772,457 1,009,294 — 2,806,868 1961–62 ... 16,681,844 3 21,279,346 1,292,691 1963–64 ... 16,460,867 28,232,362 6,953,016 — 4,190,189 3,525,788 3 26,851,273 1,758,901 1965–66 ... 20,653,028 35,274,597 8,423,324 $11,126,831 6,071,750 4,439,344 3 — 34,506,348 2,062,545 5,769,977 26,673,826 1967–68 ... — — — 1969–70 ... 52,930,923 3,076,751 31,865,179 7,151,649 10,837,343 11,206,632 9,384,731 42,093,580 57,394,951 46,053,585 35,042,590 7,893,100 11,341,366 13,714,330 9,786,240 1970–71 ... 3,117,895 50,153,251 38,131,339 8,734,586 11,983,208 15,180,934 10,291,095 62,136,459 3,287,326 1971–72 ... 53,814,596 3,492,611 40,808,481 9,513,503 1972–73 ... 15,099,840 10,823,595 66,814,103 12,999,507 71,305,817 58,002,777 3,888,372 43,701,491 10,412,914 13,303,040 13,168,076 11,400,916 1973–74 ... 75,585,674 62,183,078 4,210,901 46,453,642 11,518,536 13,402,596 14,364,545 12,413,420 1974–75 ... 1975–76 ... 80,300,595 4,345,232 49,349,224 12,653,847 13,952,291 15,488,265 12,687,015 66,348,304 85,486,550 4,444,927 52,384,393 13,910,107 14,747,123 16,304,553 13,068,341 1976–77 ... 70,739,427 90,337,044 74,770,804 4,621,071 55,188,603 14,961,131 15,566,240 16,840,129 13,437,861 1977–78 ... 1978–79 ... 95,442,468 4,824,250 57,563,005 16,250,737 16,804,477 18,158,634 13,712,648 78,637,991 1979–80 ... 83,733,387 5,037,172 60,847,097 17,849,119 18,561,472 20,743,045 14,181,991 102,294,859 1980–81 ... 109,701,242 88,760,567 5,212,453 64,158,017 19,390,097 20,940,675 23,465,001 14,794,669 1981–82 ... 117,601,954 5,402,339 67,794,877 21,319,297 23,085,442 24,415,245 15,487,618 94,516,512 127,345,302 5,889,080 71,519,718 23,584,042 26,352,461 32,691,133 16,749,900 1982–83 ... 100,992,841 137,141,741 107,640,113 6,109,746 75,220,765 26,309,602 29,501,629 32,975,610 18,277,315 1983–84 ... 1984–85 ... 148,163,096 6,236,159 79,133,998 29,393,829 33,399,110 39,916,361 22,105,712 114,763,986 1985–86 ... 122,261,355 6,573,923 82,886,012 32,801,419 38,698,162 50,280,775 25,699,408 160,959,517 1986–87 ... — 126,996,079 7,220,353 85,176,226 34,599,500 — 56,470,724 — 1987–88 ... — 7,827,226 88,356,303 37,045,188 — 57,338,768 — 133,228,717 1988–89 ... 142,425,392 8,403,922 93,983,463 40,038,007 — 64,096,719 — — 1989–90 ... — 155,401,508 8,969,805 101,909,833 44,521,870 — 67,927,188 — 1 Includes funds functioning as endowment. NOTE.—Because of rounding, details may not add to totals. 2 Includes annuity funds. 3 Bi- SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Includes improvements to land and equipment. These funds are included under ap- ennial Survey of Education in the United States; and Financial Statistics of Institutions propriate categories after 1967–68. of Higher Education survey. (This table was prepared September 1992.) —Data not available.

101 93 Appendix Table 36.—Gross domestic product, state and local expenditures, personal income, disposable personal income, and median family income: 1940 to 1991 Disposable State and local Disposable personal income Gross domestic product, 1 Personal in billions expenditures, personal in millions per capita Median family in- Year income, income, come Constant All general Education Current Constant in billions in billions of Current 1987 dollars dollars dollars 1987 dollars expenditures 1987 dollars expenditures 1 2345678910 — $9,229 $2,638 ————— 1940 ... — ————————— 1941 ... 9,190 ————— — 1942 ... — 2,586 ————————— 1943 ... — 2,793 ————— — 1944 ... 8,863 1945 ... ————————— — 11,028 3,356 ————— 1946 ... — $3,031 1947 ... ———————— — 17,684 5,379 ———— 3,187 1948 ... — 3,107 1949 ... ———————— 22,787 7,177 ———— — 1950 ... — 3,319 3,709 ———————— 1951 ... — 26,098 8,318 ———— 3,890 1952 ... — — — 9,390 ———— 4,242 1953 ... 27,910 — ———— 10,557 — 4,167 1954 ... 30,701 — 33,724 11,907 ———— 4,418 1955 ... — — — 1956 ... 13,220 ———— 4,780 36,711 1957 ... — 40,375 14,134 ———— 4,966 — — — 15,919 ———— 5,087 1958 ... 44,851 $1,931.3 17,283 $391.2 $1,284.9 $1,958 $7,256 5,417 $494.2 1959 ... 48,887 1,973.2 51,876 18,719 409.2 1,313.0 1,994 7,264 5,620 1960 ... 513.4 531.8 2,025.6 20,574 426.5 1,356.4 2,048 7,382 5,735 1961 ... 56,201 571.6 60,206 22,216 453.4 1,414.8 2,137 7,583 5,956 1962 ... 2,129.8 603.1 2,218.0 63,977 23,729 476.4 1,461.1 1963 ... 7,718 6,249 2,210 1964 ... 2,343.3 69,302 26,286 510.7 1,562.2 2,369 8,140 6,569 648.0 702.7 74,678 28,563 552.9 1,653.5 2,527 8,508 6,957 1965 ... 2,473.5 769.8 2,622.3 82,843 33,287 601.7 1,734.3 2,699 8,822 7,532 1966 ... 1967 ... 814.3 93,350 37,919 646.5 1,811.4 2,861 9,114 7,933 2,690.3 1968 ... 2,801.0 102,411 41,158 709.9 1,886.8 3,077 9,399 8,632 889.3 1969 ... 959.5 2,877.1 116,728 47,238 773.7 1,947.4 3,274 9,606 9,433 1970 ... 1,010.7 131,332 52,718 831.0 2,025.3 3,521 9,875 9,867 2,875.8 1,097.2 2,965.1 59,413 893.5 2,099.9 3,779 10,111 10,285 1971 ... 150,674 3,107.1 65,814 980.5 2,186.2 4,042 10,414 11,116 1,207.0 1972 ... 168,550 3,268.6 181,357 69,714 1,098.7 2,334.1 4,521 11,013 12,051 1973 ... 1,349.6 1,458.6 3,248.1 75,833 1,205.7 2,317.0 4,893 10,832 12,902 1974 ... 198,959 1,585.9 230,721 87,858 1,307.3 2,355.4 5,329 10,906 13,719 1975 ... 3,221.7 1,768.4 3,380.8 256,731 97,216 1,446.3 1976 ... 5,796 11,192 14,958 2,440.9 1977 ... 3,533.2 274,215 102,780 1,601.3 2,512.6 6,316 11,406 16,009 1,974.1 2,232.7 296,983 110,758 1,807.9 2,638.4 7,042 11,851 17,640 1978 ... 3,703.5 2,488.6 3,796.8 327,517 119,448 2,033.1 2,710.1 7,787 12,039 19,587 1979 ... 1980 ... 2,708.0 369,086 133,211 2,265.4 2,733.6 8,576 12,005 21,023 3,776.3 1981 ... 3,843.1 407,449 145,784 2,534.7 2,795.8 9,455 12,156 22,388 3,030.6 1982 ... 3,149.6 3,760.3 436,896 154,282 2,690.9 2,820.4 9,989 12,146 23,433 1983 ... 3,405.0 163,876 2,862.5 2,893.6 10,642 12,349 24,674 3,906.6 466,421 3,777.2 505,008 176,108 3,154.6 3,080.1 11,673 13,029 26,433 1984 ... 4,148.5 4,038.7 4,279.8 553,899 192,686 3,379.8 3,162.1 12,339 13,258 27,735 1985 ... 13,010 4,268.6 210,819 3,590.4 3,261.9 605,623 13,552 29,458 4,404.5 1986 ... 2 4,540.0 657,134 226,619 3,802.0 3,289.6 13,545 13,545 1987 ... 30,970 4,539.9 2 4,900.4 4,718.6 704,921 242,683 4,075.9 3,404.3 14,477 13,890 1988 ... 32,191 2 1989 ... 762,360 263,898 4,380.2 3,471.2 15,313 14,030 5,244.0 34,213 4,836.9 2 3,538.3 834,786 288,148 4,679.8 4,884.9 16,236 14,154 1990 ... 35,353 5,513.8 1991 ... 5,671.8 4,848.4 — — 4,833.9 3,534.1 16,693 13,987 — 1 NOTE.—Gross Domestic Product (GDP) data are adjusted by the GDP implicit price Data for years prior to 1963 include expenditures for government fiscal years ending during that particular calendar year. Data for 1963 and later years are the aggregations deflator. Personal income data are adjusted by the personal consumption deflator. Some of expenditures for government fiscal years which ended on June 30 of the stated year. data have been revised from previously published figures. General expenditures exclude expenditures of publicly owned utilities and liquor stores, SOURCE: Executive Office of the President, , Feb- Economic Report of the President and of insurance-trust activities. Intergovernmental payments between state and local Consumer Income, ruary 1992: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, governments are excluded. Payments to the federal government are included. 2 Series P-60, No. 174: U.S. Census Bureau, news release, December 30, 1991. (This Revised methodology. —Data not available. table was prepared May 1992.)

102 94 Appendix Table 37.—Gross domestic product deflator, Consumer Price Index, education price indexes, and federal budget composite deflator: 1919 to 1992 Federal fiscal year Calendar year School year Gross Federal Elementary/ Higher domestic Consumer budget Consumer Year Year Secondary Education Year 1 2 Price Index composite Price Index product Price Index Price Index deflator deflator 23456789 1 1919–20 ... 19.1 — — 1919 ... — 1919 ... — 17.3 1929–30 ... — — 17.1 1929 ... — 1929 ... — 17.1 1934–35 ... 1934 ... — — 13.4 — 1934 ... — 13.6 13.9 14.0 — — 1939 ... — — 1939 ... 1939–40 ... 14.0 1940–41 ... 14.2 — — 1940 ... 0.0988 — 1940 ... — 1941–42 ... 15.6 — — 1941 ... 0.1036 1941 ... 14.7 16.3 1942–43 ... — — 1942 ... 0.1136 1942 ... — 16.9 17.3 17.4 — — 1943 ... 0.1234 — 1943 ... 1943–44 ... 17.6 1944–45 ... 17.8 — — 1944 ... 0.1198 1944 ... — — 18.0 18.2 — — 1945 ... 0.1157 1945 ... 1945–46 ... 19.5 — 21.2 — — 1946 ... 0.1129 1946 ... 1946–47 ... — 1947–48 ... 23.3 — — 1947 ... 0.1419 1947 ... 22.3 — 24.1 1948–49 ... 1948 ... — — 1948 ... 0.1637 24.1 1949 ... 23.8 1949–50 ... 23.7 — — 1949 ... 0.1701 — — 24.1 25.1 — — 1950 ... 0.1702 1950 ... 1950–51 ... 26.0 1951 ... — — 1951 ... 0.1597 1951–52 ... — 26.3 26.5 26.7 — — 1952 ... 0.1683 — 1952 ... 1952–53 ... 26.7 1953–54 ... 26.9 — 1953 ... 1953 ... 0.1787 — — — 1954–55 ... 26.8 — — 1954 ... 0.1835 1954 ... 26.9 26.8 1955–56 ... 26.9 — — 1955 ... 0.1897 1955 ... — — 27.2 1956–57 ... 27.7 — — 1956 ... 0.1995 1956 ... 1957 ... — 1957–58 ... 28.6 — — 1957 ... 0.2081 28.1 — 28.9 29.0 — — 1958 ... 0.2205 1958 ... 1958–59 ... 25.6 1959–60 ... 29.4 — — 1959 ... 0.2317 1959 ... 29.1 26.0 29.6 1960–61 ... 29.8 — 25.1 1960 ... 0.2367 1960 ... 1961 ... 26.3 1961–62 ... 30.1 — 26.1 1961 ... 0.2392 29.9 26.8 — 1962–63 ... 30.4 1962 ... 27.1 1962 ... 0.2435 30.2 1963 ... 30.6 1963–64 ... 30.8 — 28.1 1963 ... 0.2539 27.2 1964 ... 27.7 31.0 1964–65 ... 31.2 — 29.3 1964 ... 0.2586 1965 ... 28.4 1965–66 ... 31.9 — 30.8 1965 ... 0.2641 31.5 29.4 32.4 32.9 — 32.4 1966 ... 0.2705 1966 ... 1966–67 ... 33.4 1967 ... — 34.3 1967 ... 0.2780 1967–68 ... 30.3 34.0 34.8 35.7 — 36.7 1968 ... 0.2903 31.7 1968 ... 1968–69 ... 36.7 1969–70 ... 37.8 — 1969 ... 1969 ... 0.3086 33.3 39.2 35.1 1970–71 ... 39.7 — 41.6 1970 ... 0.3273 1970 ... 38.8 40.5 1971–72 ... 41.2 — 44.0 1971 ... 0.3497 1971 ... 37.0 38.8 41.8 1972–73 ... 42.8 — 46.3 1972 ... 0.3731 1972 ... 1973 ... 41.3 1973–74 ... 46.6 — 49.6 1973 ... 0.3961 44.4 44.9 49.3 51.8 52.7 53.8 1974 ... 0.4307 1974 ... 1974–75 ... 49.2 1975–76 ... 55.5 57.1 57.9 1975 ... 0.4758 1975 ... 53.8 52.3 56.9 1976–77 ... 58.7 60.8 61.7 1976 ... 0.5098 1976 ... 1977 ... 55.9 1977–78 ... 62.6 64.6 65.8 1977 ... 0.5623 60.6 60.3 70.3 1978–79 ... 68.5 1978 ... 70.6 1978 ... 0.5928 65.2 1979 ... 72.6 1979–80 ... 77.6 76.5 77.5 1979 ... 0.6441 65.5 1980 ... 71.7 82.4 1980–81 ... 86.6 85.7 85.9 1980 ... 0.7102 1981 ... 78.9 1981–82 ... 94.1 93.7 94.0 1981 ... 0.7817 90.9 83.8 96.5 98.2 100.0 100.0 1982 ... 0.8369 1982 ... 1982–83 ... 87.2 1983–84 ... 101.8 105.6 104.7 1983 ... 0.8776 1983 ... 99.6 91.0 103.9 1984–85 ... 105.8 112.6 110.5 1984 ... 0.9125 1984 ... 1985 ... 94.4 1985–86 ... 108.8 119.6 115.6 1985 ... 0.9452 107.6 96.9 125.7 1986–87 ... 111.2 1986 ... 120.3 1986 ... 0.9735 109.6 1987 ... 113.6 1987–88 ... 115.8 132.7 125.8 1987 ... 1.0000 100.0 1988 ... 103.9 118.3 1988–89 ... 121.2 139.7 133.1 1988 ... 1.0361 1989 ... 108.4 1989–90 ... 127.0 147.6 140.8 1989 ... 1.0815 124.0 112.9 — 1990–91 ... 133.9 1990 ... — 1990 ... 1.1283 130.7 1991 ... 136.2 1991–92 ... 138.2 — — 1991 ... 1.1782 117.0 1992 ... — — 1992–93 ... — — — 1992 ... 1.2147 1 Index for urban wage earners and clerical workers through 1977; 1978 and later fig- February 1991, and Economic Indicators, SOURCE: Council of Economic Advisers, ures are for all urban consumers. Economic Report of the President, February 1992; U.S. Department of Education, Na- 2 tional Institute of Education, Inflation Measures for Schools and Colleges; U.S. Depart- Consumer Price Index adjusted to a school-year basis (July through June). ment of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Price Index; Research Associates —Data not available. of Washington , ‘‘Inflation Measures for Schools and Colleges, 1990 Update;’’ U.S. Office NOTE.—Some data have been revised from previously published figures. of Management and Budget, Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 1993. (This table was prepared July 1992.)

103 Methodology General Note in accordance with various circulars of information Nationwide statistics on education have been col- distributed by the Office of Education. lected and published primarily by the U.S. Depart- Since 1962, the annual publication, Digest of Edu- ment of Education (formerly the Office of Education) has provided an abstract of statis- cation Statistics, and the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Data on edu- tical information covering the broad field of American cation have also been collected and published by education from kindergarten through graduate other federal, state and local governmental agencies, utilizes materials from numerous school. The Digest and by independent research organizations. sources, including the statistical surveys and esti- The Department of Education obtained the data for mates of the Department of Education and other ap- this publication from reports of state and local school propriate agencies, both governmental and non- systems and institutions of higher education. These governmental. It is divided into seven chapters: (1) data relate to school enrollment and attendance, all levels of education; (2) elementary and secondary graduates, instructional staff, curricula, school district education; (3) postsecondary education; (4) federal organization, and receipts and expenditures for ele- programs for education; (5) outcomes of education; mentary and secondary schools, and enrollment, fac- (6) international comparisons of education; and (7) ulty, degrees conferred, income, expenditures, prop- learning resources and technology. erty, and plant fund operations for institutions of high- A major issue in presenting accurate statistical er education. data on a national basis is the uniformity with which Data in this report from the Bureau of the Census all recording units use standard terms, definitions, were obtained from households in the decennial cen- and procedures. Prior to 1908–09, this was con- suses and monthly sample surveys, and relate pri- trolled only by definitions on the questionnaires re- marily to school enrollment, literacy, and educational questing information. Since 1908–09, the Office of attainment of the general population. Education in cooperation with other national and The Department of Education has issued statistical state organizations has improved uniform recording reports on elementary, secondary, and higher edu- and reporting through the means of national commit- cation since 1870. From 1869–70 to 1916–17, statis- tees, publications, and national and regional con- tics were included as part of the Annual Report of ferences. the Commissioner of Education. From 1917–18 to A major problem in the collection and processing 1957–58, a report was issued for each even-num- of comprehensive nationwide school statistics is get- bered school year under the title, Biennial Survey of ting all the schools to respond within reasonable time Bi- Chapter 1 of the Education in the United States. limits. School authorities are not compelled to report ennial Survey, ‘‘Statistical Summary of Education,’’ to the Department of Education. There is some evi- and chapter 2, ‘‘Statistics of State School Systems,’’ dence that the proportion of schools reporting has in- are primary sources for some derived measures re- creased through the years. This increase is most evi- lating to education. Beginning with 1940–41 and end- dent in the data for secondary schools. Prior to ing with 1950–51, chapter 2 was supplemented by 1929–30, a complete list of public secondary day an abridged report issued as a circular for each odd- schools had not been compiled, and consequently numbered school year. Biennial survey data were there is no way to measure the degree of response based on report forms completed by state depart- in the earlier years. Since there was no attempt to ments of education (a copy of the report form ap- estimate data for the nonrespondents in the early pears in the Biennial Survey of 1951–52 and 1953– years, the secondary school data are undercounted. Biennial Survey of 1951–52 54). Beginning with the This was especially problematic for high school en- and 1953–54, these forms have been completed by rollment and graduate data of the 1870s and 1880s. education officials in accordance with detailed in- In 1929–30, there were 23,930 public secondary day structions contained in the Office of Education, Hand- schools on file, and reports were received from book I, the Common Core of State Educational Infor- 22,237. In 1937–38, the number of schools on file in- Prior to that date, the forms were completed mation. creased to 35,308, and the number reporting was 95

104 96 Methodology (originally by the National Office of Vital Statistics). 25,091. In 1951–52, there were 23,757 schools, and Since 1900, these have been collected by the Bu- replies were received from all but 12 schools. The data for the missing schools were estimated, and the reau of the Census from various state offices. Since published totals for 1951–52 cover all public second- 1951, birth statistics have been estimated based on ary day schools. a 50 percent sample of all registered births. Data on death registrations are compiled in a similar manner. Since 1869–70, there have been both major and However, each of these relies on the purported reli- minor changes in the collection patterns with ability of registrations at state and local levels. changes in the administration of the program. Some patterns lasted for many years. With voluntary re- Table 2.—School enrollment of 5- to 19-year- sponse and no field service (until 1924), response olds per 100 persons, by sex and race: 1850 to rates varied in their completeness for both reporting 1991 in general and for specific items. The completeness Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. Decennial of the coverage is not always made evident in the data, 1850 to 1930, Fifteenth Census Reports, Popu- publications. For example, field service supple- lation, vol. II; 1940 to 1950, U.S. Census of Popu- mented returns by mail for the 1923–24 biennial lation: 1950, vol. II, part 1; U.S. Census of Popu- chapters. From 1923 to 1963, visits were made to lation: 1960, PC(1)-ID. Other data, Current Popu- state departments of education and colleges and uni- lation Reports, series P-20, Nos. 54, 66, 74, 80, 93, versities to complete the coverage from basic or sec- 101, 110, 117, 126, 129, 148, 162, 167, 206, and ondary records available in the state departments of 222; 1970 to 1991, Current Population Survey, sur- education or at individual schools and institutions. vey data files. The introduction of sampling in recent years has also insured adequate coverage. For decennial census years, the statistics refer to The data in these historical tables will not always the total population within the specified age group; agree with similar data in the publications cited as figures from the Current Population Survey (CPS) sources for a specific year because tabulations were refer to the civilian noninstitutional population. Per- ‘‘kept open’’ for many years, and as data came in, sons not covered in the CPS (Armed Forces and in- they were added and reflected in future historical ta- stitutional population) are known to have low enroll- bles. In addition, when feasible, missing data have ment rates. been imputed to produce consistent national informa- In the Census of Population for 1940 and 1950, tion. and in the CPS, 1954 to 1991, enrollment was de- fined as enrollment in ‘‘regular’’ schools only—that is, Table 1.—Population, by age and race, live schools where enrollment may lead toward an ele- births, and birth rate: 1970 to 1991 mentary or high school diploma, or to a college, uni- Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of versity, or professional school degree. Such schools the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P- included public and private nursery schools, kinder- Historical Statistics of the 25, and unpublished data; gartens, elementary and secondary schools, col- U.S. Depart- United States, Colonial Times to 1970. leges, universities, and professional schools. Enroll- ment of Health and Human Services, National Center ment could be either full-time or part-time, day or Monthly Vital Statistics Report, for Health Statistics, night. various issues. If a person was receiving regular instruction at The annual population estimates are as of July 1 home from a tutor and if the instruction was consid- and, thus, differ from decennial census population ered comparable to that of a regular school or col- estimates. Annual estimates prior to 1900 are based lege, the person was counted as enrolled. Enrollment on linear interpolation between decennial years. Esti- in a correspondence course was counted only if the mates between 1900 and 1919 are based on inter- person received credit in the regular school system. polation applied to decennial age data. Subsequent Enrollments in business and trade schools at the data are based on decennial data augmented by in- postsecondary level were excluded if the coursework formation on births, deaths, and international migra- did not lead to a degree. tion. Population data for the period from 1980 to Children enrolled in kindergarten were included in 1989 are likely to be revised when they are con- the ‘‘regular’’ school enrollment figures in the Current trolled to the 1990 census. However, experience Population Survey beginning in 1950; children en- from past decennial census changes indicates that rolled in nursery school were included beginning in these changes will be small. 1967. Children enrolled in kindergarten were not in- Births and deaths are classified in the category of cluded in the ‘‘regular’’ school enrollment figures in information known as vital statistics. These data are the 1950 Census of Population; however, they have compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics been included here to make the data comparable

105 Methodology 97 merator’s inquiry as to whether the person was en- with earlier years and with current practice. In cen- rolled in school. See description of CPS procedures suses prior to 1950, no attempt was made to exclude under previous table. children in kindergarten so that the statistics for those years include varying proportions attending kin- Table 4.—Years of school completed by per- dergarten. Also, in censuses prior to 1940, the data sons 25 years old and over, by race and sex: were not restricted as to type of school or college the April 1940 to March 1991 person was attending. In addition to differences in definitions of school Table 5.—Median years of school completed by enrollment and in population coverage, the enroll- persons age 25 and over and 25 to 29, by race ment data for different years may differ because of and sex: 1910 to 1991 variations in the dates when the questions were Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1940 and asked and the time periods to which enrollment re- 1950, U.S. Census of Population, 1950, vol. II; 1960, ferred. Data from the Current Population Survey U.S. Census of Population: 1960, series PC-l; 1970 were obtained in October and refer to enrollment in to 1991, Current Population Survey, survey data the current school term. In 1940, 1950, and 1960, files. the censuses were taken as of April 1, but enrollment The median years of school completed is defined related to any time after March 1 in 1940 and any as the value which divides the population into two time after February 1 in 1950 and 1960. The cor- equal parts—one-half having completed more and responding question in the censuses from 1850 to the other half less schooling than the median. The 1930 applied to a somewhat longer period: in 1850 median was computed after the statistics on years of to 1900, to the 12 months preceding the census school completed had been converted to a continu- date; and in 1910, 1920, and 1930, to the period be- ous series of numbers (e.g., completion of the 1st tween the preceding September 1 and the census year of high school was treated as completion of the date (April 15 in 1910, January 1 in 1920, and April 9th year and completion of the 1st year of college as 1 in 1930). completion of the 13th year). The persons completing Information on school enrollment is also collected a given school year were assumed to be distributed and published by the Department of Education. evenly within the interval from .0 to .9 of the year These data are obtained from reports of school sur- (e.g., persons completing the 12th year were as- veys and censuses. They are, however, only roughly sumed to be distributed evenly between 12.0 and comparable with data collected by the Bureau of the 12.9). The effect of the assumption is to place the Census from households, because of differences in median for younger persons slightly below, and for definitions, time references, population coverage, and older persons slightly above, the true median. Be- enumeration methods. cause of the inexact assumption as to the distribution within an interval, this median is more appropriately Table 3.—School enrollment and school enroll- used for comparing groups and the same group at ment rates, by age and sex: 1940 to 1991 different dates than as an absolute measure of edu- Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1940, U.S. cational attainment. Census of Population: 1950, vol. II, part 1; 1945 to The data for 1940, 1950, and 1960 are based on 1969, Current Population Reports, series P-20, Nos. the decennial censuses: complete count in 1940, 20 19, 24, 30, 34, 45, 52, 54, 66, 74, 80, 93, 101, 110, percent sample in 1950, and 25 percent sample in 117, 126, 129, 148, 162, 167, 190, 206, and 222; 1960. The data for 1970 through 1991 are based on 1970 to 1991, Current Population Survey, survey the March Current Population Survey and may differ data files. from decennial census data for the following reasons: The estimates are based on data obtained in Octo- (1) only those members of the Armed Forces in the ber in the Current Population Survey of the Bureau United States living off post or with their families on of the Census, except that data shown for 1940 are post are included in the CPS whereas all members based on complete enumeration of the population of the Armed Forces in the United States are in- and were published in volume II of the 1950 census cluded in the census data and (2) there are dif- reports on population. Except for 1940, data are for ferences between the CPS and the censuses in cov- the civilian population excluding the relatively small erage, enumeration techniques, and methods of allo- number in institutions. Data shown for 1940 relate to cating responses. the total population, including those in institutions The procedure used both in 1940 and 1950 for cal- and all members of the Armed Forces (about culating the median years of school completed made 267,000) enumerated on April 1. allowance for the fact that many persons reported as having completed a given full school year had also The school enrollment statistics from the Current completed a part of the next higher grade. Thus, it Population Survey are based on replies to the enu-

106 98 Methodology is assumed that persons who reported 12 full years they exclude the Armed Forces and inmates of insti- tutions. The statistics for the census years 1940 and of school completed had actually completed 12.5 1950 were derived by estimating procedures. In years, on the average. 1947, the literacy question was asked only of per- Although the statistics on median years of school sons who had completed less than 5 years of school; completed have been available only since 1940, the in 1952, 1959, 1969, and 1979, the same general data by age give further indication of time trends. procedure was used, but the question was asked of The 1910 to 1930 data cited in the table are based those who had completed less than 6 years of on a retrojection of educational attainment of older school. age groups. These surveys examined a very fundamental level Differences in the quality of education data for the of reading and writing. More recent studies on this three censuses may have resulted in part from issue have analyzed functional illiteracy. Functional changes in the way the information was requested. illiteracy indicates a lack of ability to function effec- In 1940, a single question was asked on highest tively in a modern society. These functional illiteracy grade of school completed. In the 1950 and 1960 percentages are substantially higher than earlier censuses and the various CPS surveys, data on studies based on fundamental illiteracy. years of school completed were obtained from a Some variation has existed over the years in the combination of responses to two questions, one ask- way the question on illiteracy was asked. Since ing for the highest grade of school attended and an- 1930, reference has been made as to whether or not other whether that grade was finished. Analysis of the person was able to read and write. In the cen- data from the 1940 census returns and from surveys suses of 1870 to 1930, two questions were asked; conducted by the Bureau of the Census based on one on whether the person was able to read and one the same question wording as in 1940 indicated that on whether he could write. Illiteracy was defined as respondents frequently reported the year or grade inability to write ‘‘regardless of ability to read.’’ Since they had last attended, instead of the one completed. the data showed that nearly all persons who were There is evidence that, as a result of the change in able to write could also read, the earlier statistics the questions in 1950, there was relatively less exag- should be generally comparable with data obtained geration in reporting educational attainment than in through the consolidated question used in later 1940. Hence, the indicated increases in attainment years. between 1940 and 1950 tend slightly to understate Ability to read and write cannot be defined so pre- the true increase. cisely in a census to cover all cases with certainty. The 1970 to 1991 data are based on sample sur- No specific test of ability to read and write was used, veys and relate to the resident population, including but enumerators were instructed not to classify a per- inmates of institutions and members of the Armed son as literate simply because he was able to write Forces living off post or with their families on post; his name. Analysts of earlier census data assumed all other members of the Armed Forces are ex- that the illiterate population comprised only those cluded. Except for 1940, the data were derived from persons who had no education whatever. Information the combination of answers to two questions: (a) on the educational attainment of illiterates obtained in ‘‘What is the highest grade of school he has ever at- recent sample surveys indicates, however, that some tended?’’ and (b) ‘‘Did he finish the grade?’’ In 1940, persons cannot read and write even though they a single question was asked on highest grade of have had some formal schooling. For example, data school completed. The questions on educational at- from the Current Population Survey of October 1952 tainment apply only to progress in ‘‘regular’’ schools. show that among persons 14 years old and over the proportion reported as illiterate ranged from 77.8 per- Table 6.—Percentage of persons 14 years old cent of those who had not completed a year of and over who are illiterate, by race and nativity: school to 1.3 percent of those who had completed 5 1870 to 1979 years. Comparable figures from the November 1969 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1870 to 1930, survey were 57.4 percent and 2.3 percent, respec- Fifteenth Census Reports, Population, vol. II; 1940 to tively. 1979, Current Population Reports, series P-20, Nos. Data on illiteracy were also collected in the cen- 20, 45, and 217; and series P-23, No. 116. suses of 1840, 1850, and 1860, but are not included here because they are not comparable with statistics Persons were regarded as illiterate if they could for subsequent years and because of limitations in not read and write, either in English or some other the quality of data for those early years. In 1840, the language. Information on illiteracy of the population head of the family was asked for the total number of was obtained from direct questions in the censuses illiterates in each family, a method which undoubtedly of 1870 to 1930. The data for 1947, 1952, 1959, led to some understatement. Beginning with 1850, 1969, and 1979 were obtained from sample surveys;

107 99 Methodology the individual entry system was used, the question uates more than persons with less schooling and for being asked regarding each member of the family. them tends to create a biased sample since college By 1870, another change in census methods was in- graduates are more likely to have income other than troduced, separate questions being asked on ability earnings. to read and ability to write. In addition to changes in The 1946 figures are based on the Current Popu- the form of the inquiry, the statistics on illiteracy for lation Survey and represent the total money earnings 1840, 1850, and 1860 related to the population 20 (not total income) of the civilian noninstitutional male years old and over, whereas in the 1870 and later population 25 years old and over. Although the con- censuses, they referred to the population 10 years ceptual differences between income and earnings old and over. are substantial, the actual differences in the aver- The percentages of illiterates in the total population ages are quite small, primarily because the amount 20 years old and over, as recorded in those earlier of nonearned income is small relative to the total, censuses, were as follows: 1840, 22.0 percent; 1850, and this type of income tends to be seriously under- 22.6 percent; and 1860, 19.7 percent. The com- reported in household surveys of income. The 1949 parable percentages for the white population 20 figures are based on the 1950 census and also rep- years old and over in those years were 9.0, 10.7 and resent the total money income of all males 25 years 8.9 percent, respectively. The apparent increases in old and over, including a relatively small number of illiteracy of white persons in 1850 and 1870 may be institutional inmates. due, in part, to the large influx of immigrants during The 1956 to 1991 figures are entirely comparable those periods, many of whom could not read and since they are based on the Current Population Sur- write in any language. It is more likely, however, that vey and represent the total money income of the ci- the apparent increases resulted from improvements vilian noninstitutional population of the United States in the way the information was obtained at those and members of the Armed Forces in the United census dates. States living off post or with their families on post, but excluding all other members of the Armed Table 7.—Annual mean income of males and Forces. For each person in the sample, 14 years old females 25 years old and over, by years of and over, questions were asked on the amount of school completed: 1939 to 1991 money income received during the preceding cal- Source: 1939 to 1949, Herman P. Miller, ‘‘Annual endar year from each of the following sources: (1) and Lifetime Income in Relation to Education’’; 1939 money wages or salary; (2) net income from nonfarm to 1959, American Economic Association, The Amer- self-employment; (3) net income from farm self-em- December 1960 (copyright); ican Economic Review, ployment; (4) social security; (5) dividends, interest 1956 to 1969, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current (on savings or bonds), income from estates or trusts Population Reports, series P-60, No. 74; and 1970 to or net rental income; (6) public assistance or welfare 1991, Current Population Survey, survey data files. payments; (7) unemployment compensation, govern- Data for 1939 were derived from 1940 Census of ment employee pensions, or veterans’ payments; (8) Education: Educational Attainment by Population, private pensions, annuities, alimony, regular contribu- ; for Economic Characteristics and Marital Status tions from persons not living in this household, royal- 1946, from Current Population Reports, series P-60, ties, and other periodic income. The amounts re- No. 5; and for 1949, from 1950 Census of Popu- ceived represent income before deductions for per- For details of Education. lation, series P-E, No. 5B, sonal taxes, social security, bonds, etc. methodology, see the source. Table 8.—Historical summary of public elemen- Neither the income concept nor the universe cov- tary and secondary school statistics: 1869–70 to ered is directly comparable for all years shown. Most 1989–90 of the differences, however, are relatively small and are not believed to seriously distort the relationships. Table 9.—Enrollment in regular public and pri- The figures for 1939 are based on the 1940 census vate elementary and secondary schools, by grade and are restricted to males 25 to 64 years of age level: 1869–70 to fall 1992 with $1 or more of wage or salary income and less than $50 of nonwage income. For this group the Table 10.—Enrollment in regular public elemen- averages represent total money income; however, tary and secondary schools, by grade: 1910–11 this group includes only about three-fifths of all men to fall 1990 25 to 64 years old in 1940. The effects of this restric- Table 11.—Enrollment in regular public elemen- tion cannot be measured, but it is undoubtedly more tary and secondary schools, by state: 1870–71 to important than restrictions cited for other years. It is also possible that this restriction affects college grad- fall 1990

108 100 Methodology Source: U.S. Department of Education (Office of giate departments of institutions of higher education, Annual Report of Education), 1869–70 to 1915–16, normal schools, etc. Enrollment figures prior to 1976 var- the United States Commissioner of Education, do not include private schools for exceptional chil- ious issues; 1916–17 to 1955–56, Biennial Survey of dren or private vocational or trade schools. They Education in the United States, Statistics of State cover only regular day school pupils. Summer school School Systems, various issues; 1957–58 to 1991– pupils are excluded in all years. Digest of 92, National Center for Education Statistics, It should be noted that the annual public enroll- Education Statistics, various issues, and unpublished ment information such as that tabulated in the Bien- Historical tabulations. U.S. Bureau of the Census, nial Survey of Education was collected on a state-by- Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to state basis and represented a cumulative count of 1970. the total number of different pupils registered at any time during the school year in each state. Pupils en- A school is defined as a division of the school sys- rolled in two or more states at any time during the tem consisting of a group of pupils composed of one school year are, therefore, counted more than once, or more grade groups, organized as one unit with resulting in a tendency to increase the total enroll- one or more teachers to give instruction of a defined ment figure for the Nation. type and housed in a school plant of one or more The number of pupils per classroom teacher, oth- buildings. More than one school may be housed in erwise known as the ‘‘pupil/teacher ratio,’’ has often one school plant, as is the case when the elementary been used as a measure of teacher workload. For and secondary programs are housed in the same school plant. The actual operation of public schools years prior to the 1940s, the available figures on is generally the sole responsibility of local school ‘‘teachers’’ sometimes included librarians and guid- systems in the various states. The local basic admin- ance and psychological personnel as well as class- istrative unit or school district is an area organized as room teachers. a quasi-corporation under the jurisdiction of a board Table 12.—Children served in special education of education responsible for the administration of all programs, by type of disability: 1921–22 to 1989– public schools in the area. School districts provide 90 the machinery through which local control of schools Source: U.S. Department of Education (Office of is exercised and are largely responsible for the loca- tion and size of schools, the types of educational Biennial Survey of Education), 1921–22 to 1947–48, programs and services offered, and the amount of fi- 1951–52 and 1952– Education in the United States; nancial support to be provided locally. 53, Statistics of Special Schools and Classes for Ex- A public school is defined as one operated by pub- and 1957–58 to 1989–90, Na- ceptional Children; licly elected or appointed school officials in which the tional Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Edu- program and activities are under the control of these various issues. cation Statistics, officials and which is supported by public funds. Children served in these programs include ‘‘excep- Enrollment and other figures prior to 1959–60 for tional children’’ in years prior to 1970. This term ap- public elementary and secondary day schools only plies to pupils who need additional education serv- include the coterminous United States. Excluded are public schools in the outlying areas of the United ices, referred to as ‘‘special education,’’ because of States, public schools operated directly by the fed- their physical, intellectual, or personal-social dif- eral government on military reservations and schools ferences from other children. Included are the unusu- for Indians, public residential schools for exceptional ally bright or gifted children; the mentally retarded; children, and subcollegiate departments of institu- the disabled, including the physically handicapped, tions of higher education. Only regular day school learning disabled, and cerebral-palsied; those with pupils are included; pupils enrolled in night schools special health problems such as cardiac involvement, and summer schools are excluded. epilepsy, and other debilitating conditions; the blind Private schools, while subject to certain regulatory and partially seeing; the deaf and hard-of-hearing; controls of the state, are under the operational con- those with speech impairments; and the emotionally trol of private individuals or religiously affiliated or disturbed. Pupils are reported according to the major nonsectarian institutions. Whether operated on a type of exceptionality for which they were receiving profit or nonprofit basis, private schools are generally special education. supported by private funds as distinguished from Data for years after 1970 are based on counts of public funds. students participating in PL 94–142, Education of the Private school figures are not strictly comparable. Handicapped Act, and the successor, Individuals with For example, in some of the earlier years, the figures Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) programs. include enrollment of secondary pupils in subcolle-

109 101 Methodology or a group of buildings with or without the aid of su- Table 13.—Public school pupils transported at pervisors. public expense and current expenditures for The term ‘‘teacher’’ is defined as a person em- transportation: 1929–30 to 1989–90 ployed to instruct pupils or students. At the elemen- Source: 1929–30 to 1989–90, U.S. Department of tary and secondary levels, it does not include super- Education, National Center for Education Statistics, visors and principals, or librarians and guidance and 1979–80 to Digest of Education Statistics, 1992. psychological personnel when separately reported. 1989–90, Bobbit Publishing Co., School Bus Fleet, Beginning with 1919–20, the Department of Edu- January issues. cation has collected data on salaries of total instruc- More than half of U.S. public school children ride tional staff (supervisors, principals, teachers, librar- buses to school, frequently because walking to ians, and guidance and psychological personnel). school would be inconvenient or unsafe. Pupil trans- Salary information for prior years is available for portation services may also be provided as a result teachers only. Average annual salaries of instruc- of state or local legislation for reorganizing school tional staff members were obtained by dividing total systems, consolidating widely scattered school at- expenditures for salaries by the number of such per- tendance areas, or achieving equalization of edu- sonnel. cational opportunity. Table 15.—Catholic elementary and secondary Expenditures of public funds for transportation in- enrollment, teachers, and schools, by level: clude salaries, vehicle replacement, supplies and 1919–20 to 1990–91 maintenance for vehicles and garages, transportation Source: National Catholic Educational Association, insurance, contracted services, fares for public trans- A Statistical Report on Catholic Elementary and Sec- portation, and payments in lieu of transportation. ondary Schools for the Years 1967–68 and 1969–70, Data through 1979–80 are based on reports by state as compiled from the Official Catholic Directory, and education agencies to the National Center for Edu- United States Catholic Elementary and Secondary cation Statistics. Data for later years are estimates Schools, 1989–90 and 1990–91. Franklin Press, based on data reported by School Bus Fleet. (1978 edition). U.S. Bu- Catholic Schools in America Table 14.—Average daily attendance, instruc- Historical reau of the Census, 1919–20 to 1959–60, tional staff, and teachers in public elementary Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to and secondary schools: 1869–70 to 1990–91 1970. Source: U.S. Department of Education (Office of Education), 1869–70 to 1915–16, The elementary division of the Catholic school sys- Annual Report of the United States Commissioner of Education, var- tem includes five types of schools: (1) parochial Biennial Survey of ious issues; 1917–18 to 1957–58, schools are operated in connection with parishes; (2) various issues; Education in the United States, inter-parochial schools are under the administrative 1959–60 to 1989–90, National Center for Education control of two or more parishes; (3) archdiocesan or Statistics, various is- Digest of Education Statistics, diocesan schools are under the direct administration sues. 1969–70 to 1980–91, National Education Asso- of an ordinary and serve the parishes designated by Estimates of School Statistics, various is- ciation, him; (4) private schools are conducted independently sues. of parishes by religious communities; and (5) institu- tional schools include industrial schools; schools for Figures for average daily attendance in public blind, deaf, delinquent, or other disadvantaged chil- schools were computed by dividing the total number dren; and schools conducted in orphanages. of days attended by all pupils enrolled by the number In Catholic secondary education, there are, broad- of days school was actually in session. Only days ly, three types of administrative control, defined gen- when the pupils were under the guidance and direc- erally as for the elementary above: (1) central or di- tion of teachers are considered as days in session. ocesan; (2) parochial; and (3) private. However, ‘‘Instructional staff’’ refers to personnel who render many parochial and private schools really function as direct and personal services which are in the nature diocesan schools. The data for elementary school of teaching or the improvement of the teacher-learn- teachers exclude priests serving as part-time teach- ing situation. Included, therefore, are supervisors of ers of religion. instruction, principals, teachers, guidance personnel, librarians, and psychological personnel. The duty of Table 16.—Public school enrollment in grades supervisors of instruction, including consultants, is to 9 to 12, by subject: 1889–90 to fall 1981 assist teachers in improving the learning situation Source: U.S. Department of Education (Office of and instructional methods at a particular level or in Biennial Survey of Education), 1889–90 to 1948–49, a particular subject. Principals are the administrative Education in the United States, 1947–48 to 1949–50; heads of schools. They usually administer a building 1954–55 to 1964–65, National Center for Education

110 102 Methodology Statistics, fall 1972 particular subpopulations of students, as defined by Digest of Educational Statistics; and fall 1981, A Trend Study of High School Offer- sex, race/ethnicity, region of the country, and size/ and unpublished data. ings and Enrollments; type of community. NAEP samples about 40,000 stu- dents per subject, per assessment. For the trend as- For 1919–10 to 1933–34, the percentages are sessments, NAEP assesses 9-, 13-, and 17-year-old based on the number of pupils enrolled in the last 4 students. To reduce the burden for students, NAEP years of all schools that returned usable question- uses a variant of matrix sampling called Focused- naires. For 1889–90, 1899–1900, and 1948–49 to Balanced Incomplete Block (BIB) Spiraling. Thus, not 1964–65, the figures are based on the total number all students are asked to answer all questions. This of pupils enrolled in the last 4 years of all schools. system provides broad coverage of the subject being The source for 1889–90 to 1948–49 states that assessed while minimizing the classroom time re- ‘‘when necessary, the subjects reported in previous quired of any one student. surveys were analyzed, and appropriate components were either recombined, separately listed, or elimi- Table 19.—High school graduates, by sex and nated (with corresponding changes in the number control of institution: 1869–70 to 1991–92 and percentage enrolled) in a manner to yield as Source: U.S. Department of Education (Office of close comparability as possible with the data in the Education), 1869–70 to 1937–38, Statistical Sum- current (1948–49) survey.’’ mary of Education, 1937–38 ; 1939–40 to 1951–52, Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, Table 17.—Student proficiency in reading, writ- ing, mathematics, and science, by age and race/ various issues; 1953–54 to 1991–92, National Center ethnicity: 1969–70 to 1989–90 Digest of Education Statis- for Education Statistics, tics, 1992. Seventeen-year-olds computed on the Table 18.—Percentage of students at or above basis of U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Popu- selected reading, mathematics, and science pro- lation Reports, series P-25, Nos. 310, 311, and 511, ficiency levels, by age and race/ethnicity: 1970– and unpublished tabulations. 71 to 1989–90 Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Figures for high school graduates include grad- Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment uates from public and private schools and exclude Trends in Academic of Educational Progress, persons granted equivalency certificates. Progress. Table 20.—Public school districts and public The idea of an indicator of student achievement at and private elementary and secondary schools: the national level first emerged in 1963 when then 1929–30 to 1990–91 Commissioner of Education Frank Keppel decided to Source: U.S. Department of Education, National collect information on how well the Nation’s schools Digest of Education Center for Education Statistics, were doing. In 1969, a National Assessment of Edu- Statistics, 1992. cational Progress (NAEP) was designed as a vol- untary, cooperative program to monitor the scholastic These data are fall counts of local education agen- achievement of our Nation’s 9-, 13-, and 17-year- cies and public schools. Since schools are organiza- olds. NAEP is a congressionally mandated project of tional units and not counts of physical plants, there the U.S. Department of Education’s National Center may be more schools than school buildings (see ad- for Education Statistics. ditional notes for tables 9, 10, and 11). In addition, Over the past 20 years, NAEP has generated school districts include various entities which provide more than 200 reports spanning 11 instructional specialized instruction and administrative and other areas. Commonly known as the ‘‘Nation’s report student-related assistance to schools. These entities card,’’ it is the only ongoing, comparable, and rep- include various kinds of units such as vocational and resentative assessment of what U.S. students know special education districts and supervisory unions. and can do. The NAEP trend data in this report are Counts of private schools are estimated from var- based on four science assessments (1976–77, ious sources. Specifically, key elements of the pri- 1981–82, 1985–86, and 1989–90), four mathematics vate school universe, such as the Catholic schools assessments (1977–78, 1981–82, 1985–86, and and other private schools, are located with the assist- 1989–90), and six reading assessments (1970–71, ance of private school associations. In addition, sam- 1974–75, 1979–80, 1983–84, 1987–88, and 1989– pling techniques are used to discover the existence 90). of other religious and non-affiliated schools. After Students are randomly selected based on a strati- 1980, estimates of the number of these schools and fied, three-stage sampling plan designed to yield na- other data were obtained from sample surveys. tionally representative results as well as results for

111 103 Methodology Capital outlay includes expenditures for the acqui- Table 21.—Revenues for public elementary and sition of fixed assets or additions to fixed assets secondary schools, by source of funds: 1889–90 (such as land or existing buildings, improvement of to 1989–90 grounds, construction of buildings, additions to build- Source: U.S. Department of Education (Office of ings, remodeling of buildings, and initial or additional Annual Report of Education), 1889–90 to 1915–16, equipment). Interest includes interest payments on the United States Commissioner of Education, var- short-term and current loans from current funds and Biennial Survey of ious issues; 1917–18 to 1957–58, on bonds from current and sinking funds. Other ex- Education in the United States, various issues; penditures include those separately reported for sum- 1959–60 to 1989–90, National Center for Education mer schools, community colleges, and adult edu- Digest of Education Statistics, 1992. Statistics, cation. Revenue receipts represent additions to assets Table 23.—Historical summary of higher edu- (cash) from taxes, appropriations, and other funds cation statistics: 1869–70 to 1989–90 which do not incur an obligation that must be met at Source: U.S. Department of Education (Office of some future date and do not represent exchanges of Education), 1869–70 to 1915–16, Annual Report of property for money. Receipts from county and other the United States Commissioner of Education, var- intermediate sources are included with local receipts. ious issues; 1917–18 to 1955–56, Biennial Survey of Other sources of revenue include gifts, tuition, and Education in the United States, various issues; transportation fees from patrons. 1957–58 to 1979–80, National Center for Education Nonrevenue receipts represent amounts which ei- Statistics, Education Directory, Colleges and Univer- ther incur an obligation that must be met at some fu- sities; Faculty and Other Professional Staff in Institu- ture date or change the form of an asset from prop- tions of Higher Education; Fall Enrollment in Colleges erty to cash and therefore decrease the amount and and Universities; Earned Degrees Conferred; Finan- the value of school property. Money received from and cial Statistics of Institutions of Higher Education; loans, sale of bonds, sale of property purchased from ‘‘Fall Enrollment in Institutions of Higher Education,’’ capital funds, and proceeds from insurance adjust- ‘‘Degrees and Other Formal Awards Conferred,’’ and ments constitute most of the nonrevenue receipts. ‘‘Financial Statistics of Institutions of Higher Edu- Nonrevenue receipts are not included in the table. cation’’ surveys; and 1989–90, Digest of Education Table 22.—Total and current expenditures and Statistics, 1992. expenditure per pupil in public elementary and The Office of Education has issued statistical re- secondary schools, by purpose: 1869–70 to ports on higher education on a periodic basis since 1989–90 1869–70. Until 1915–16, these statistics appeared in Source: U.S. Department of Education (Office of the Annual Report of the United States Commis- Annual Report of Education), 1869–70 to 1915–16, For 1917–18 through 1957–58, sioner of Education. the United States Commissioner of Education, var- statistical reports were issued biennially, as chapters Biennial Survey of ious issues; 1917–18 to 1955–56, Biennial Survey of Education in the United of the various issues; Education in the United States, States. Since 1962, data have appeared in the an- 1957–58 to 1989–90, National Center for Education In addition, an nual Digest of Education Statistics. various is- Digest of Education Statistics, Statistics, annual report on conferral of earned degrees has sues. been issued since 1948 and one on fall enrollments since 1946. An annual report on current income and Expenditures for administration include those for expenditures and other finance items was also is- the central office staff for administrative functions and The Eco- sued from 1933 to 1940, first under the title all general control which is system wide and not con- nomic Outlook in Higher Education and later under fined to one school, subject, or narrow phase of College Income and Expenditures. the title school services. Instruction expenditures include sal- aries of instructional staff and clerical assistants, ex- Among the major problems involved in the collect- penditures for free textbooks, school library books, ing and processing of nationwide statistics of higher supplies, and other expenditures for instruction. Plant education have been those of uniformity and prompt- operation and maintenance expenditures include sal- ness of reporting and completeness of coverage of aries of custodians, engineers, carpenters, painters, the field. The problem of uniformity of reporting was etc.; fuel, light, water, and power; and supplies, ex- attacked in 1930 with the formation of the National penses, and contractual service. Other current ex- Committee on Standard Reports for Institutions of penditures include those for fixed charges and for at- Higher Education; this committee was disbanded in tendance, health, transportation, food, and mis- 1935. Its successor, the Financial Advisory Service cellaneous services. of the American Council on Education, carried on the

112 104 Methodology earlier years. Since 1946, this underreporting has work until 1940, when it, too, was discontinued. These two organizations, voluntary in character and been corrected by the use of estimated reports pre- operating with no official status, did much to conven- pared from secondary sources for nonrespondent in- tionalize finance accounting and reporting procedures stitutions. in universities and colleges. The term ‘‘junior college’’ is used comprehensively The problems of promptness of reporting and com- to designate all institutions, of whatever curricular or- pleteness of coverage stem from the fact that only ganization, which offer at least 2 but fewer than 4 the land-grant institutions (fewer than 4 percent of all years of college-level work immediately beyond high the institutions in the Nation) are under legal obliga- school. tion to submit financial or statistical reports to the Of- Faculty figures include full-time and part-time fac- fice of Education. The percent of institutions supply- ulty members. No attempt has been made to system- ing usable reports within a reasonable time, however, atically evaluate these services on a full-time equiva- has increased materially in the last two or three dec- lent basis. Faculty figures also include the adminis- ades, in spite of the fact that inquiries emanating trative, instructional, research, and other professional from the Office of Education have increased in num- personnel. Resident instructional staff, however, ex- ber and scope. Since 1966, data have been collected cluded administrative and other professional person- from individual colleges and universities by the High- nel not engaged in instructional activities. er Education General Information Survey and the Table 24.—Enrollment in institutions of higher successor, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data education, by sex, attendance status, and type System. These survey systems allow for extensive and control of institution: 1869–70 to fall 1991 data checks and imputations for nonrespondents. Response rates are generally quite high, over 90 Table 25.—Enrollment in institutions of higher percent, for most survey components. All of the data education, by state: 1869–70 to fall 1990 in this report are for institutions of higher education Source: U.S. Department of Education (Office of only. Institutions which do not offer a program cred- Education), 1869–70 to 1915–16, Annual Report of itable towards an associate or higher level degree var- the United States Commissioner of Education, are excluded. Biennial Survey of ious issues; 1917–18 to 1945–46, Another problem in the compilation of historical various issues; and Education in the United States, statistics of higher education is the double counting Fall 1946 to 1990, National Center for Education Sta- of data for some institutions. Until 1916, the tabula- Digest of Education Statistics, various edi- tistics, tions of the Office of Education were built largely tions. around the various professional curricula, with the re- sult that in many instances the data of a professional The term ‘‘degree-credit enrollment’’ refers to stu- school within a university were included both in the dents whose current program in an institution of high- overall tabulations of universities and colleges and in er education consisted wholly or principally of work those of the profession involved. With the inception which was creditable toward a bachelor’s or higher Biennial Survey of Education in 1918, the em- of the degree, either in the student’s own institution or by phasis in tabulation was shifted to the administrative transfer to another institution. organization, and the data relating to certain profes- sional schools were so tabulated that any possible Table 26.—Number and professional employees duplication was identifiable without too much dif- of institutions of higher education: 1869–70 to ficulty. Since 1932, the Office of Education has main- 1991–92 tained a master list of all institutions in the Nation; Source: U.S. Department of Education (Office of thus, the problem of duplicate tabulation is no longer Education), 1869–70 to 1915–16, Annual Report of important. the United States Commissioner of Education, var- Institutions reporting include universities, colleges, ious issues; 1917–18 to 1943–44, Biennial Survey of professional schools, junior colleges, teachers col- Education in the United States, various issues; and leges, and normal schools, both privately and pub- 1961–62 to 1990, National Center for Education Sta- licly controlled, regular session. The figures for insti- various edi- tistics, Digest of Education Statistics, tutions represent administrative organizations rather tions. than individual campuses, i.e., a university operating one or more branches away from the main campus An institution of higher education is authorized and is counted as one institution. Beginning in 1969–70, currently offering either a 2-year or 4-year degree or or as noted, figures for institutions represent individ- credit transferable to such an institution leading to ual campuses. The branch campuses are counted as such a degree. In addition, such an institution must individual units according to their length of program. be accredited by an agency recognized as a valid There is some (undeterminable) underreporting in the accrediting agency by the Secretary of Education.

113 105 Methodology less; and regardless of whether the student had pre- Table 27.—Number of permanent colleges and universities founded before 1860, by decade of viously earned a degree in another field. The first- founding and by state level degree is ordinarily a bachelor’s degree, but im- Source: U.S. Department of Education, Higher portant exceptions occur in certain of the profes- Education General Information Survey (HEGIS), ‘‘In- sional fields. The second-level degree is a degree stitutional Characteristics of Colleges and Univer- beyond the first level but below the doctorate; ordi- sities,’’ unpublished tabulation. narily, a master’s degree. The doctorate (the highest The Department of Education has maintained a level of earned degrees) includes such advanced de- data file on the characteristics of colleges and univer- grees as Ph.D., Ed.D., D.Eng., and Dr. P.H.; it in- sities, which includes a founding date for each higher cludes only earned degrees, not honorary. education institution in the country. An analysis was Although the first medical school in the United conducted based on the 1980–81 data file to find the States was established in 1765, the accuracy of data number of colleges founded prior to the Civil War. recorded for years prior to 1900 is questionable. In- According to the tabulation, some 381 of today’s col- spection and classification of medical schools was leges existed prior to 1860; however, some were initiated by the American Medical Association Council probably not providing college-level education during on Medical Education in 1904; by 1929, there was that time period. This estimate seems to give a rea- only one unapproved school. As far as the data per- sonable measure of the number of institutions that mit, only approved medical and basic science existed prior to 1860. The 1860 census reported that schools are included. Before the founding of the first there were 467 colleges which, after allowing for clo- dental school in 1840, dental work was done by sures gives some credibility to the figure of 381 per- medical doctors or by persons who were self-taught manent colleges. or apprentice-trained. By 1880, most states required dental practitioners to be dental school graduates. Table 28.—Degrees conferred by institutions of The Doctorate Records File is a virtually complete higher education, by sex and level: 1869–70 to source of data about persons receiving doctorates 1989–90 since 1920. This survey was used as a source of Table 29.—Bachelor’s degrees conferred by in- data on the average length of time required to earn stitutions of higher education, by field of study: a doctor’s degree. The doctoral degrees reported are 1959–60 to 1989–90 those earned at regionally accredited U.S. univer- sities and include such degree titles as Doctor of Phi- Table 30.—Master’s degrees conferred by insti- losophy (Ph.D.), Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Doctor tutions of higher education, by field of study: of Engineering (D.Eng.), etc. Professional degrees 1959–60 to 1989–90 such as Doctor of Medicine (M.D.), Doctor of Dental Surgery (D.D.S.), and Doctor of Veterinary Medicine Table 31.—Doctor’s degrees conferred by insti- (D.V.M.) are excluded. tutions of higher education, by field of study: 1959–60 to 1989–90 Table 33.—Current-fund revenue of institutions of higher education, by source of funds: 1889–90 Table 32.—First-professional degrees conferred to 1989–90 by institutions of higher education in dentistry, Source: U.S. Department of Education (Office of medicine, and law, by sex: 1949–50 to 1989–90 Education), 1889–90 to 1919–10, Annual Report of Source: U.S. Department of Education (Office of var- the United States Commissioner of Education, Biennial Survey of Education), 1869–70 to 1952–53, ious issues; 1919–20 to 1959–60, Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, Statistics of Higher various issues; Education in the United States, biennial issues, and unpublished data; Education, 1961–62 to 1963–64, National Center for Education Digest of Education Statistics, 1953–54 to 1989–90, and Higher Education Finances, Statistics, annual issues. National Research Council, Commis- Financial unpublished data; 1965–66 to 1979–80, sion on Human Resources, Washington, D.C., Doc- various Statistics of Institutions of Higher Education, torate Records File. issues; and 1980–81 to 1989–90, Digest of Edu- The first-level degree (designated as ‘‘bachelor’s or various issues. cation Statistics, first professional’’) is defined as the first degree Total current-fund revenue represents funds accru- granted upon completion of a course of study in a ing to, or received by, higher education institutions, given academic field. The degree must be based on usable for their recurring day-to-day activities. at least 4 years of college work or the equivalent thereof. The same classification (namely, ‘‘first level’’) Educational and general revenue are those avail- is given to a degree, e.g., LL.B., regardless of wheth- able for the regular or customary activities of an insti- er the degree is based on 7 years’ preparation or tution which are part of, contributory to, or necessary

114 106 Methodology union buildings, college bookstores, university press- to its instructional or research program. These in- clude salaries and travel of faculty and administrative es, student hospitals, faculty housing, intercollegiate or other employees; purchase of supplies or mate- athletic programs, concerts, industrial plants operated rials for current use in classrooms, libraries, labora- on a student self-help basis, and other enterprises tories, or offices; and operation and maintenance of conducted primarily for students and staff and in- the educational plant. tended to be self-supporting without competing with Income from students’ tuition and fees represents the industries of the community in which the institu- funds (matriculation, tuition, laboratory, library, tion is located. health, and other fees, but not charges for rooms or The other account of an institution of higher edu- meals) regularly paid by students themselves or for cation includes income which is either so incidental them by their relatives or philanthropic groups. in its nature, so irregular in its frequency, or so minor Endowment income is derived from invested funds. in its amount as to make its classification difficult or Only the income of the endowment funds is to be impractical. The most common types of other income used for the current purposes of the institution. If are probably (1) interest on current funds; (2) rent of funds are merely temporarily placed in the endow- institutional property for noninstitutional purposes; (3) ment fund, the right to withdraw them being reserved transcript fees of students; (4) library fines; and pos- by the donor or the governing board of the institution sibly other minor items. concerned, they are known as ‘‘funds functioning as Table 34.—Current-fund expenditures and edu- endowment’’ and are not subject to the principal of cational and general expenditure per student of ‘‘once endowment, always endowment.’’ institutions of higher education, by function: Private gifts and grants are voluntary contributions 1929–30 to 1989–90 from philanthropically minded individuals and organi- Source: U.S. Department of Education (Office of zations to the various institutions of higher education. Sales and services of educational activities and of Education), 1929–30 to 1959–60, Biennial Survey of organized activities related to them are frequently re- Education in the United States, various issues; ferred to briefly as ‘‘related activities.’’ The term in- Higher Education Finances, 1961–62 to 1963–64, cludes all the incidental earnings of an institution, and unpublished tabulations; 1965–66 to 1989–90, such as sales of livestock or dairy products of an ag- National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of ricultural school; tuition and other income of a labora- various issues. Education Statistics, tory school, a demonstration school, or a museum; Expenditure data were not tabulated for all institu- fees for care at a medical or dental clinic; and other tions of higher education until 1930. Prior to that income of this nature derived from services directly time, they were collected from land-grant institutions connected with the instructional program of the insti- and teacher-education institutions only. Other profes- tution. sional schools and non-land-grant institutions were Student-aid funds are funds having to do with the omitted from the surveys. provision of scholarships, fellowships, prizes, and Organized research expenditures cover research student-financed aid of any type not involving em- programs of sufficient magnitude to warrant carrying ployment by or repayment to the institution. Student- them separately in the finance budget. aid funds may be lent to students to help them de- Plant operation and maintenance expenditures in- fray their expenses while in school. clude wages of janitors and other caretakers; cost of Other sources of income include annuity and plant fuel, light, trucking of materials about the campuses, funds. Annuity funds are funds acquired subject to and repairs to buildings; and other costs connected the condition that the recipient institution pay a stipu- with keeping the physical plant in good order. lated sum of money annually or at other regular inter- Expenditures for conducting laboratory or dem- vals to a designated beneficiary or beneficiaries, not onstration schools, medical-school hospitals, dental necessarily the same person as the donor. These clinics, home-economics cafeterias, agricultural-col- payments continue until the death of the beneficiary lege creameries, college-operated industries, and (the last beneficiary, if more than one), at which time other activities closely connected with the instruc- the principal of the fund becomes the property of the tional program but not actually integral parts of it are institution. Plant funds are funds which have been or frequently referred to briefly as ‘‘related activities.’’ are to be invested in buildings, grounds, furniture, Extension and public service expenditures cover scientific equipment, or other permanent physical correspondence courses, radio and television property of the institution. Real estate held for direct courses, adult study courses and other non-degree- educational or auxiliary use by the institution is thus credit courses, institutes, public lectures, cooperative part of the plant-fund group. Income from auxiliary enterprises and activities in- extension in land-grant institutions, radio and tele- cludes income of dormitories, dining halls, cafeterias, vision stations, and similar media for carrying the

115 107 Methodology ing expenses or tuition bills. The term ‘‘fund’’ is used work of an institution beyond its traditional and cus- tomary campus activities. in its accounting sense of cash or other valuable as- sets (real estate, bonds, stock certificates, and other Table 35.—Value of property and endowment, evidences of ownership or equity). and liabilities of institutions of higher education: 1899–1900 to 1989–90 Table 36.—Gross domestic product, state and Source: U.S. Department of Education (Office of local expenditures, personal income, disposable Education), 1919–20 to 1957–58, Biennial Survey of personal income, and median family income: Education in the United States, various issues; 1940 to 1991 Statistics of Higher Education-Receipts, 1959–60, Source: Gross domestic product, state and local 1961–62 to Expenditures, and Property, 1959-60; expenditures, personal income and disposable per- 1963–64, Higher Education Finances; 1965–66 to sonal income, 1940 to 1991, Executive Office of the 1985–86, and Digest of Education Statistics, 1992; President, Economic Report of the President, Feb- 1986–87 to 1989–90, Integrated Postsecondary Edu- ruary 1992. Median family income, 1947 to 1989, cation Data System (IPEDS), ‘‘Finance’’ survey, sur- U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Cen- vey data files. sus, Current Population Reports, series P-60, No. 174; and 1990, Bureau of the Census, News Re- Data represent moneys received and spent by lease, December 30, 1991. higher education institutions for expanding their phys- ical holdings (land, buildings, equipment of various Table 37.—Gross domestic product deflator, sorts) held or utilized primarily for instructional, rec- Consumer Price Index, education price indexes, reational, or student residence purposes. Real estate and federal budget composite deflator: 1919 to held and operated for investment purposes is not in- 1992 cluded. Source: Gross domestic product deflator, Property data represent value of all permanent or Consumer Price Index, and federal budget composite quasi-permanent assets which include lands, build- deflator, 1919 to 1992, Executive Office of the Presi- ings, and equipment; funds held for investment pur- dent, Economic Report of the President, February poses only (the income from such funds being avail- 1992. Education price indexes, Research Associates able for current use); funds subject to annuity or liv- of Washington, Inflation Measures for Schools and ing trust agreements; and funds the principal of which may be lent to students to help defray their liv- Colleges, various issues.

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