LSCHE conversations


1 Starting a Learning Assistance Center: Conversations with CRLA members who have been there and done that. Editors: Frank Christ Rick Sheets Karen Smith Preface by Mike O’Hear 1998-99 CRLA President

2 Starting a new Learning Assistance Center is a daunting task. No matter the size of the operation or the level of support, there is so much to do, so many decisions to make. Which programs need development? Which have moderate to poor potential for succes s on campus? Which steps will likely insure success potential with faculty and students? How will I gather the staff needed? Will these staffers be full- time, part- time, professionals, students? More basic questions of center mission and goals need be answered as well. Long term problems, including where the center should ultimately be housed, are also important. Help dealing with these problems is essential for those moving into a director’s position for the first time. But even if an individual has directed a center before, each school and program contains enough differences that help in dealing with them can make life easier When I was named director of the English Language Skills Lab at West Virginia State College in the early 1970's, there was lit tle help available. I had previously served as the head of a small English Department, but that experience carried few clues to help. Luckily, I had acquired a mentor, Lila Bruckner, then head of the University of South Carolina’s reading/study skills program. I had studied under her for a year and found her willing to visit and provide advice; even more importantly, she introduced me to the Western College Reading Association (now the College Reading and Learning Association), which has provided a great deal of help and inspiration through the years. When I moved to my current job as head of Transitional Studies at Indiana-Purdue Fort Wayne, the situation was greatly different from the one I had experienced in West Virginia. Instead of only reading and writing responsibilities, I had acquired some math responsibilities and a tutoring operation–and the need to work very closely with three academic departments in – two different schools. There was a lot to learn, and again mentors became important. In both new situations, I would have profited greatly from a book with information on a wide range of areas that could help in forming questions and action plans. Providing such information is the purpose of this book. ii

3 Primary editors Frank Christ, Rick Sheets , and Karen Smith, all experienced LAC directors, have identified a number of areas that are primary concerns in LAC management and have invited a wide selection of long-time LAC personnel to respond to these areas of concern. Contributors include: Gwyn Enright of San Diego City College, Elaine Burns of [??], Frank Torres from California Polytechnic University Pomona, Sylvia Mioduski and Reed Mencke from the University of Arizona, David Gerkin of Paradise Valley Community College, Gene Kerstains a foundin g member of CRLA, Martha Maxwell of M.M. Associates, Georgine Materniak from the University of Pittsburgh, as well as Frank, Karen, and Rick themselves. Areas covered include: LAC definition, professional development, LAC justification, identification of significant individuals, meeting expectations, special populations, faculty roles in LACs, useful management tools, technology, program assessment, student assessment , program types, choice of appropriate instructional resources, staffing, organizational structure, design considerations, image development, and national standards. The book ends with a series of thought-provoking scenarios that cover a range of decision areas facing LAC directors. -answer format with e xperts responding to All chapters are arranged in question concerns raised by a moderator. The questions hit on areas of concern to people starting or developing LAC programs. The answers are generally in conversational style as respondents give their views on each of these important areas. The book serves as a primer on matters of importance to LAC directors. Those charged with developing and administrating are as always well advised to follow up on the information provided here by joining professional organizations and their sponsored special interest groups on LACs. Attending national or regional conferences put on by these organizations remains a major help in establishing networks and passing on ideas to deal with specific situations that arise as part of LAC development. Enjoy the book! Learn from it! Raise further questions on the book with its editors and contributors! Use it as a stepping stone in developing a successful LAC. (Cre ative Commons Copyright) CC BY - ND Attribution - NoDerivs commercial, as long as it is This license allows for redistribution, commercial and non- passed along unchanged and in whole, with credit cited . View License Deed | View Legal Code Christ, F. L., Sheets, R., and K. Smith (Ed.s.). Starting up a learning assistance center: Conversations with CRLA members who have been there and done ii- iii that. Clearwater, FL: H & H Publishing Company, Inc. Pp. iii

































































































100 APPENDIX B: READINGS ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY AND Baker, G., The learning (1983). L. Painter, & P. C. assistance: learning College (1982). Brown, W. study of effectiveness. In J. E. A center: A developmental concept. Journal of College (Ed.), Roueche look pro- at successful A new 395- (September), Personnel 401. Student assis- gram learning college for directions New s. 88. 73- - Bass, Jossey Francisco: . tance San S., Brown, G., Kerstiens, W., & Carnahan, H. (1977). Technology with Maddaford, (1980). Learning centers and retention. P. E. Beal, supports learning. humanism Community and In New L. (Eds.). Wayman D. & T. Lenning 0. College Journal, 6- 8, 27. Junior roles for learning assistance. directions for New San . assistance learning college Francisco: J. M. Burns, (1978). Harper York: New Leadership. 59- Jossey 73. -Bass, and Publishers. Row (1993). do What stu B. J. Biggs, - of inventories Management strategies E. (1986). to M. Burns, measure? A processes really dents' learning assist in improving learning skills. students theoretical review and a clarification. British 9), 3, 2- 4. Journal of Developmental Education , ( of Educational Journal Psychology , (63),3 -19. styles Leadership M. E. (1987). Burns, and manage- Bowles, ho!: Gung S. (1997). Turn & Blanchard, K., ment skills assistance/developmental of learning organization. York: New on the in any people . ERIC education program directors/coordinators & Company. William Morrow ED288472. & (1994). R. (Study SBI L., Bliss, Behaviors Mueller, learn a formulate to study A (1993). E. M. Burns, - the Palos - com California Verdes, for model assistance ing Rancho CA: Inventory). college. munity G. & Mioduski InS. Emight Andragogy Associates. (Eds.). of the 13th and 14th annual Proceedings Briggs, & Briggs Myers, I. (1990). MBTI (Myers- K., institutes for learning assistance professionals. Indicator). Type Briggs Consult - CA: Alto, Palo Tucson: University Learning Center, Univer - Inc. ing Psychologists Press, 23. 20- of Arizona, sity (1980). centers. learning Evaluating R. R. Brown, New M. E., & Dozen, P. (1982). Burns -Reed, academe. partnerships in In H. Boylan ( Ed. ), In O.T. Lenning & R. Nayman (Eds.). New New directions for assistance. learning in partnerships new Forging roles for learni ng assistance. assistance Francisco: San . ng learni college New directions for college l earnin g assistance . San Jossey 75- -Bass, 92. Francisco: Jossey -Bass, 17- 29.

101 averly, D., C Flippo, R. & reading Teaching (1991). Caputo, and model center Learning E. (1989). a the at strategies - Intern level. college and study administration Issues . in College Learning Association. Reading tional Centers, (9), 55 - 61. . A. (1990) Chickering, Education a nd identity. San to the Carlson, R., & Bailey, J. (1997) . Slowing down Francisco: Josse y- Bass. of life. Harper York: New speed Collins. The modern (1990). others. and A., , Chickering place centers K. (1985). A , for learning Carpenter Francisco: San colle American ge. -Bass. Jossey n of structure administrative i the Forum postsecondary institutions. , g Readin for h tec useful A - Videotaping: ). (1977 A. A. Christ, 23 - 27. 1, 17 , learning for nique assistance In practitioner s . G. Enright (Ed.), Personalizing learning systems: Silverman, Casazza, (1996). L. S. Learning & E., M. strat and Ecologies e gie s . Proceedings of the and developmental education: A guide assistance t enth annual conference of the Western practic effective for Francisco: Jossey - San e. 11 10, Association, 5- 118. Reading College Bass. Christ . Systems - L. F. , assis learning for (1971) & Castelli, C., center Learning . (1984). De Johnson tance: facilitators, and Learners, learning in the . for change 80's Managing assessment: learning ge Colle of Journal (Ed.), Fleming R. In D. Christ L. In F. centers. i (Ed.), Interd s - . Reading 17, 30-42 Learning, ciplinary aspects of reading instruction. Fourth and annual proceedings of the College Western Reading Association, 32 - 41. Technology learning D. (1995). Caverly, the and Mioduski G. Enright In S. center. assistance & Christ, - coun Preparing (1972). L. F. practitioners, (Eds.). Proceedings of the 15th and 16th annual learning of college directors selors, and for learning assistance professionals, institutes center assistance s. In F. P. Greene (Ed . ), 1- 14. reading: College of programs and junior Problems yearbook of y-first Twent colleges. senior and centers: learning in Technology D. (1995). Caverly, t he 2, 179 Past, present, future. InS. Mioduski G. Conference, Reading National - & 188. Proceedings (Eds.). and Enright 16th th e 15th of learning Christ, F. L. (1977). Management of a learning for institutes annual profes- assistance assistance Person- (Ed.), r. In G. Enright secto sionals, 34. - 15 strate gi es . alizing systems: Ecologies and learning Western of the proceedings annual Tenth Caverly, learning (1997). Teaching reading in a D. Mioduski assistance & G. Enright center. InS. College Reading Association, 76 -84. 18th annual (Eds.). and 17th the of Proceedings evaluation. 27- , professionals assistance learning for Christ, F . L. (1978) . Management is institutes Audiovisual Instruction, (23), 8, 26, 62. 42. Christ, F. L. (1979) . An audio tour of a university learning assistance center. Technological Education, in Horizons 6, 1, 50-51. B Appendix 110

102 Learning assistance at a state (1980) Christ, F. L. Clowes, D. (1981). Evaluation methodologies for InK. A cybernetic model. V. tmiversity: assistance learning programs. alkever In C. W Lauridsen (Ed.), the Examining of learning scope Assessment (Ed.), assistance services. of learning centers. learning college for directions New San directions for college learning assistance . New 32. assistance, -Bass, Jossey 45 Francisco: -56. 17 - Christ, F. (1982). L. Computers in learning assi s - Coda -Messerle, M. (1973). Data collection: A education: centers tance developmental cybernetic aspect and of a learning assistance center. ), (Ed. Kerstiens In G. l a gic o Technol explore. Developmental of Journal to Beginning 10 -13. & Remedial Education, learning in alternatives - proceed annual Sixth . of the ings - a Associ College Western Reading F. L. (1985). SRSE Christ, II (Survey of Reading/ tion, 6, 51- 58. Vista, AZ: Efficiency ). Sierra Personal Study Programs. Efficiency - re Professional (1980). -Messerle, Coda M.D. for learning assistance specialists. In sources K. V. of Lauridsen (Ed.), Examining the scope Yesterday's words, F. (1994). Christ, L. tomorrow's for directions learning centers. college New challenges. InS. Mioduski & G. Enright learning and 14th San Francisco: Jossey -Bass, 13th Proceedings of the assistance. annual (Eds.), institutes learning assistance for professionals: 98. 87- - Lear University AZ: Tucson, n 1993. and 1992 ( Center, University Arizona, 9- 11. ing of in Crossroads Cohen, 1995. D. (Ed.). mathematics: college mathematics Standards introductory for Christ, F. L. (1997). MBO to Using create, develop, American TN: Memphis, calculus. before and learning assistance , improve sustain Association Mathematical for -Year Two Mioduski . s InS. program & G. Enright Colleges. annual Proceedings 17th and 18th of the (Eds.). institutes N. E., Commander, professionals , 43- for assistance Callahan, C. B., C. Stratton, learning 51. B. D. (1996). A assis - Smith, learning & , A. for expanding support, model tance academic Edu Developmental of center in the Clar k, E. A. (1980). The Journal (2), 20, , ation c learning urban tmiversity. InK. ), (Ed. V. Lauridsen 16. 1 8-10, 2, 14, Examining the scope of learning centers. New S. (1990). 7 effective of highly habits people: Covey, directions San assistance. learning college for Francisco: Jossey 9-17. -Bass, change. personal lessons Powerful in York: New Simon Schuster. & Clark -Thayer, e - self NADE valuation 1995. S. (Ed.). leadership. Covey, . Principled centered S. R. (1992) assistance/ guides: Models for assessing learning New Books. Summit York: Clearwater, education programs. developmental H&H FL: Publishing Company. . York: First S. R. (1994) first. New Covey, things Simon 117. 103- Shuster, and Assistance 111 Center ing n Lear a Starting

103 Dempsey, A. Learning & Tomlinson, J., B. community comprehensive A (1980). (1980). Garner, college learning and instructional/ curricular reform. centers model for assistance centers. of Nayman In K.V. In T. R. & T. Lenning 0. (Ed.), Lauridsen (Eds.). New the scope Examining roles for learning Francisco: San . assistance learning college for directions New centers. 58. Jossey -Bass, 41- s -Bas Jossey San Francisco: . learning assistance , 19- 31. developmental LRC, LAC, G. (1995). Enright, and beginning the for orientation An education: (1995). of the D. M. Gerkin, perceptions Student professional. center learning InS. Mioduski programs of selected non - t raditional effectiveness G. Enright of the ceedings 15th Pro (Eds.). and Col Community Valley Paradise Master's lege. at 16th assistance institutes annual for learning and University. Ottawa Thesis, 40- 47. professionals, Gerkin, D. M. (1998). Program evaluation in the learning G., Enright, The G. (1980). Kerstiens, & Paradi center assistance learning se Valley at In 0. T. expanded role. Toward center: an Community paper Unpublished College. Lenning & for Nayman I. R New (Eds.). roles presented 1999 for at the Institute Winter college learning directions for assistance. New Professionals, Center Assistance Learning assistance learning , -Bass, Jossey Francisco: San Tucson, AZ. 1- 24. center. of a learning functions The Godsey, (1992). E. R. C. (2000). Handbook of Caverly, D. Flippo, & F., doctoral Southern dissertation, Unpublished Missouri college reading University. research. strategy and study Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers. Developmental (1989). Hashway, M. R. learning Fujitaki, Research and Teaching in Devel- center N. (1974). CSULB intern training in designs. (Ed .), In G. Kerstiens assistanc learning e. opmental Educat 2, 25- (5), ion, 38. Seventh reality to Ideals update: Reading annual . College Reading proceedings specialists: learning College P. (1976). Heard, of the A Western profession coming of age. In Proceedings of th e Association, 83 -90. ninth College Western of the annual conference of Gabriel, D. (1989). Assessing assessment. Re view Reading 9. Association,l - in Research Developmental (5), 6 Education, 1- 6. your Jones, L. B. (1996). The path: mission Creating of learning assis - Garcia, S. (1981). The training statement and for lif e. New York: for work In tance practitioners. - Coda M. & Christ L. F. Hyperion. Messerle for development Staff s.). learning (Ed college support systems. New directions for learni Design ng center: a Flying T. J. (1973). Karwin, learning assistance. San Francisco: Jossey -Bass, costs learnin and g. of an off - c ampus space for 4, 29- 37. on Berkeley, CA: Carnegie Commission r Highe Education. B Appendix 112

104 assistance learning College Kemig, R.T. (1983). Raising academic standards: A S. (1989). L. Lissner, programs: of a survey. national results The AAHE/ERIC guide to learning improvement. , Centers Learning College in Issues 95. 9, 82- Education Research Report No.4. Washington, D.C.: - American Association for Higher Edu ation. c Lissner, 1829 from center learning The S. (1990). L. M. R. year 2000 and beyond. In to the G. of function ombudsman The (1972). Kerstiens, (Ed.), Has hway developmental Handbook of Greene In F. the college learning center. Publishers , 127 - York: New ation. Praeger educ (Ed.), College reading: Problems and programs of 154. senior and colleges. Twenty- first year - junior book 2, Conference, Reading of the National boards advisory S. (1993). Lowenstein, Using for -227. 221 learning assistance program s . In Perspectives New Education. Developmental in Practice on Postsecondary - assess student (1994). G. Kerstiens, Association. Learning College Skills York placement: ment and History, status, direc - ). tion. Eds. ( G. Enright & Mioduski InS. & R., C. Blanc, M., Lorton, D. C., Martin, Evans, institutes Proceedings of the 13th and 14th annual The (1978). A comprehensive center: earning l 62. for learning assistance professional s, 56- universities. model for colleges and Kansas City, MO: Student Learning Center, University of G. Kerstiens, (1995). A taxonomy of learning 294. Missouri, ERIC ED 162- & G. Enright InS. Mioduski support services. 16th annual (Eds.). Proceedings of the 15th and D. C. (1980) . Learning - profes in centers Martin, Lauridsen schools. sional (Ed. V. InK. ), for learning assistance professionals, institutes Examining New . centers of learning scope the 48- 51. directions . assistance learning college for San Francisco: Jossey -Bass, 69- 79. Helm, P. (1981). & B., Knight, Developing trustee r to In F. assistance. learning commitment (1980). Martin, D. C., & Blanc, R. The learning Christ Coda (Eds.). & M. -Messerle Staff role student Integrating retention: in center's New learning support systems. development for - services with departmental instruc support g assistance. learnin college for directions San Remedial tion. Journal of Developmental & 27. Jossey Bass, 19- Francisco: 4. Education, (4), 2- San Knowles, (1984). M. action. in Andragogy & G., Materniak - n sta CAS (1987). A Williams, Francisco : Jossey -Bass. dards assistance and guidelines learnin for g of Developmental Journal programs. Education, of Knowles, adult (1988). M. modern The practice (11), -18. 12 educatio n. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Press. University professional Matthews, J. M. (1981). Becoming in college level learning assistance. In F. Christ M. adult learner (4th Ed). Gulf Knowles, The (1998). & M. (Eds. Staff development ). Coda -Messerle Publications. New for directions . systems support for learning Francisco: college Jossey learning assistance. San Bass, 18. 1- Assistance 113 Center ing n Lear a Starting

105 T. Miller, (1978). M. Maxwell, professional student learning Improving K. (Ed.). 1997. The book of San Jossey . -Bass. Francisco: skills standards for higher education. Washington, DC: Advancement the for in Standards of Council An Maxwell, M. annual institute for direc - (1981). Education. Higher centers. staff s and tor of college learning In F. Christ Cod a-Messerle (Eds.). & Staff M. Majer, & Myers, research C., Using (1981). K. assist evaluate pro ance - learning designs to development for learning support systems. New s. gram (Ed.), Assessment In C. Walkever of college for directions learning assistance. San directions New services. assistance learning for Francisco: Jossey Bass, 39- 45. learning Francisco: college assistance . San A -Bass, 65- 74. look Jossey help?" tutoring "Does (1990). M. Maxwell, Develop- in of Research Review literature. at the 7, (4), 1- 5. mental Education , L. M. Odom, es technologi new Incorporating (1992). center. assistance Paper pre - academic into an Maxwell, M. (1991). Evaluating academic skills Midwest Regional annual sented at fifth book. source and Study MD, Kensington, Reading Skills A programs: Conference, Kansas M.M. Associates. City, MO. Santa thinking. Critical (1992). R. Paul, CA: Rosa, (1997). and students Attracting Maxwell, M. for Thinking. Critical Foundation developing image. a positive Improving In learni ng skills: A new edition. student WOW. Publishing Company. Peters, Clearwater, FL: York: New H&H of pursuit The (1997). T. Vintage Books. (1997). student learning Maxwell, M. Improving The A sph e r e Peterson, G. T. (1975). learning center: skills: Clearwater, edition. new A FL: H&H Publishing Company. education. to approaches nontraditional for Press. Shoestring CT: Hamden, assistance Maxwell, M. (1998). Fellows in learning proposal. and developmental education: A Pflug, (1973). J. - disadvan R. and handicapped The G. In center. learning in the taged students (1), Journal of College Reading 29, Learning, and . -47 41 Kerstiens (Ed.), alternatives Technological in learning. annual sixth of the Proceedings Total quality management elin -Pyt Milesko (1994). Reading conference Western College of the Association, 131- 135. - in college learning centers. Research & Teach ing in -123. Developmental Education, 11, (1), 115 P., D., Smith, W. & McKeachie, T., Garcia, Pintrich, (1991). C., Dean, J. F., & McKinley, D. (Motivated L. 1990). rning a e L for Strategies Miller, MSLQ Learning and s: Male motive and approaches Arbor, Questionnaire). University MI: Ann of implications and differences female for Michigan. of Journal The assistance learning programs. , 31, 147- 154. College Student Development B Appendix 114

106 (1983). Roueche, S.D. Elements of program suc - K. Twelve answer to questions key (1995). Smith, national In J. E. study. cess: Report of a and designing in issue critical one and - imple , (Ed.) Roueche learning at look A new In S. center. successful a collegiate menting pro- of & G. Mioduski (Ed s.). Proceedings Enright for directions college learning assis- grams. New annual and 16th the 15th institutes for learning 10. 3- -Bass, Jossey Francisco: San tance. assistance professionals , 54 -55. . academic G of dimensions Shaw, (1994). Multiple response center's learning One t: suppor to performance (1981). S. Brown, & K., Smith, Staff in learning In assistance centers. evaluation learning diversity. In R. Lemelin (Ed.), Issues Walkever of C. (Ed.), Assessment learning n. access ME: Portland, educatio to higher in assistance 16. 14- Maine, Southern of University service s. New directions for college -Bass, Jossey Francisco: San e. assistanc learning 110. faculty: the and centers Learning . (1980) J. Shaw, 95- Improving In O.T. competency. academic Lenning Nayman R. & for roles New (Eds.). C., R. K. G., Clymer, Smith, & Brabham, (1976). D. New college for directions learning assistance. of Revolutionizing the attitudes academia 25 2), ( istance, ass learning -39. In center. skills R. learning a through Revolutionizing college learning Sugimoto (Ed.), and training Sheets, R. A. (1994). The effects of - confer annual ninth of the Proceedings skills. tutors experience on adult peer in community Associa Reading of the Western College - ence tion, 174 -180. dissertation, Doctoral s. college State Arizona 1- 5. University, attainment Goal the scaling in Spivey, N. (1981). college center. Journal of Developme n - learning Sheets, R. A. (1997). 5 C's of learning assistance as Compassion, manager: director center Remedial , -13. tal & Education 11 2, (4), credibility, connections, commitment, - a cat ( Eds. & InS. Mioduski G. Enright ). lyst. College (1992). B. Van, - pro assistance learning 18th ngs of the 17th and annual Pr oce edi institutes of success. for Ingredients Journal grams: , Reading College and Learning (24), 2, 27- 39. learni professionals, 82 - 84. for ng assistance quality Total (1991). learning college D. J. Teeter, & ., L.A Sherr, C. Vincent,V. of a Impact (1983). assistance on the achievement and retention center Francisco: San mana ge ment in higher education. students. 283 ED of disadvantaged 438. e y -Bass. Joss I Smit G., Devirian, M. (1975). A & Enright, G. D., h, in Walker, C. (1980). The learning assistance center t Lauridsen V. InK. institution. a selective of survey national and learning skills study (Ed .), of learning the centers. scope programs. Examining In G. H. McNich & W. D. Miller Jossey -68. San 57 -Bass, Francisco: (Eds .). Reading: . Convention and inquiry SC: Clemson, National Reading Conference A., (1987). D. Weinstein, C., Schulte, Palmer, & . 67-73 s, Proceeding Inventory). Study & (Learning Strategies LASSI Publishing H&H FL: Clearwater, Company. Assistance 115 Center ing n Lear a Starting

107 Jr., Kyzar, G., W. White, & B., Lane, K. E . (1990). W eisberger, development R. (1994). Model for the center . In Anderson support I. of an academic learning assistance center College design The Educational Facility Pla n- considerations. educators. lopmental deve for sourcebook (Ed.), A , (28), 4, 22 - ner 26. NH: Learning Assistance Ass o - Manchester, 16 -21. England, of New ciation and Whyte, C. S. (1980). An integrated counseling ), center. In K.V.Lauridsen (Ed. learning G. Williams, H., Arnold, A. P. Jacobsen, & J. W., Examining (1971). Prescriptive teaching linked to New a . centers of learning scope the Christ L. . In F. center tutorial and learning San . assistance directions learning for college Interdisciplinary (Ed.), instru of reading aspects c- Francisco: Jossey -Bass, 33-43 . proceedings annual Fourth tion. t Wes - of the support Xenaki s, F. S. (1979). Learning assistance c i ation , 147 - 155. ern College Reading Asso student for disadvantaged . s nursing system and In G. Enright diversity Multicultural ), (Ed. & College L. M. Schnuth, (1990). Jr., G., W. White, centers: Places for learning learn - assistance the learning. Twelfth Annual Proceedings of R. (Ed M. Hashway ing. .), Handbook of In Western College Reading Association, Vol. -132. 128 Angeles, XII, Los education. New York: developmental Praeger, 177. 5- 15 to NOTE: For almost everything that relates W. & Lane, K. E. (1990) . Learning go to the G., Jr., Kyzar, B . , White, learning assistance centers, Support at Site Institute /Winter Center centers: Spaces assistance learning College for In (Ed.), learning. of Handbook R. M. Hashway www : I I http winterinstitute / learning includes a calendar of This web site education. New York: Praeger, developmental conferences, a directory of assistance related 5 179- 19 . associations related learning assistance and software and listservs, many full text articles, and book reviews. B Appendix 116

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