1 1 National Core Arts Standards: Framework for A Conceptual Arts Learning This narrative document outlines the philosophy, primary goals, dynamic processes, achievement in dance, media arts, structures , and outcomes that shape student learning and musi c, theatre, and visual arts, as articulated in the National Core Arts Standards . To view the National Core Arts Standards go to www.nationalartsstandards.org . CONTENTS ... 2 Foreword: Understanding and Using the Core Arts Standards The Context for Arts Education Education in the United States Arts standards in America International arts standards The s tandards process t oday : The National Core Arts Standards ... Section I 8 ... The National Core Arts Standards Matrix Phil osophical foundations and lifelong goals Artistic process by each art s discipline Process components , anchor st andards and performance standards Enduring understandings and e ssential questions ornerstone assessment Model c s Section I I: Establishing Principles and Informing the Work ... 17 eracy Foundations for Artistic Lit What it means to be artistically literate Arts Success and Achievement through Creative Practices ... 18 The role of creative practices Contextual awareness st century skills 21 Section III: Resear ch-based Discoveries ... 23 Section IV: Concluding Thoughts: Re -imagined Core Arts Standards for America’s Schools ... 25 ... ... 26 Appendix A: High School Profi ciency Levels
2 2 FOREWORD Understanding and Using the Core Arts Standards The arts have always served as the distinctive vehicle for discovering who we are. Providing ways of thinking as disciplined as science or math and as disparate as philosophy or literature, the arts are used by and have shaped every culture and individual on earth. They continue to infuse our lives on nearly all levels —generating a significant part of the creative and intellectual capital that drives our economy. The arts inform our lives with meaning every time we experience the joy of a well -remembered song, experience the flash of inspiration that comes with immersing ourselves in an artist’s sculpture, enjoying a sublime from an exciting animation, or being moved by a captivating play. dance, learning The fact that the arts provide important touchstones confirms their value to the development of every human being. Nurturing our children, then, necessarily means that we must provide —not just those identified as “talented” all of them rounded education that —with a well- includes the arts. By doing so, we are fulfilling the college and career readiness needs of our students, laying the foundations for the success of our schools and, ultimat ely, the success of our nation. The central purposes of education standards are to identify the learning that we want for all of our students and to drive improvement in the system that delivers that learning. oncepts, processes and traditions of study in Standards, therefore, should embody the key c each subject area, and articulate the aspirations of those invested in our schools —students, teachers, administrators, and the community at large. To realize that end goal, these new, voluntary National Core Ar ts Standards are framed by a definition of artistic literacy that includes philosophical foundations and lifelong goals, artistic processes and creative practices, anchor and performance standards that students should attain, and model cornerstone assessments by which they can be measured. The connective threads of this conceptual framework are designed to be understood by all stakeholders and, ultimately, to ensure success for both educators and students in the real world of the school. The framework is being developed in the complex, evolving context of local, state, and national educational practice and public policy. Therefore, the National Coalition for Core Arts Standards (NCCAS) expects that this guiding document will evolve as the standards are bro ught to completion. This conceptual framework is intended to serve as an entry point into the further refinement of the standards through feedback and discussion with a broad range of stakeholders. In addition, while extensive research has been done in s upport of the standards revision (ranging from international standards and to alignment to the Common Core S tandards in Mathematics English Language Arts ), the research phase of the work is far from and complete. To further refine and develop this new generation of arts standards, NCCAS is committed to seeking out and gathering input from a broad range of stakeholders with an interest in arts education. Teachers, students, parents, and decision makers all have a stake in the work of creating coherent standards that will shape policy and classroom practice, helping arts education to solidify its contribut ions to the students of America.
3 3 The Context for Arts Education Arts education has had a formal place in American schools at least since the early1800s. The unique and essential contributions of the arts to every child’s growth and development were as clear to Americans then as they are to us today. Unfortunately, children’s access to arts education as part of their core education continues to be uneven across our nation’s nearly full, balanced 14,000 school districts. Some local education agencies currently offer a education that includes rich and varied arts opportunities for their students. However, too many schools have succumbed to funding challenges or embraced a narrow focus on tested subjects, resulting in minimal, if any, arts experiences for the children they serve. Narrow curricula and wide variances in the breadth of subject areas offered are incompatible with the ideal of a comprehensive public education. The underlying challenge seems to be how we can organize concepts, manage systems, an d leverage resources to provide a better education for every child. The original 1964 Elementary and Secondary Education Act - (ESEA) was designed to address problems of educational equity, particularly for high poverty students. Through its most recent revi sion, the 2001 act known as No Child Left Behind , ESEA continues to be a driving force in education at the federal and consequently at the state and local levels. ral law (and, more importantly, in American schools) has The status of arts education in fede -gathering than also evolved over time. While arts education has been subject to less data ematics and English language arts, we do know enough to present a subjects such as math relatively accurate pi cture of the status of arts education in today’s schools. The Department Arts Education In Public of Education’s Fast Response Survey System (FRSS) report, Elementary and Secondary Schools 1999- 10 , affirmed that there is a real and 2000 and 2009- robust infrastructure of arts education in American schools. However, it also revealed extreme inequities in students’ access to arts education, indicating that arts education is not too often limited to music and art, and is inconsistent across grade universally available, is 1 levels. These inequities in learning opportunity have, not surprisingly, resulted in lackluster 2008 National Assessment of Education achievement, as evidenced in student scores on the Progress (NAEP) in music and visual arts. (NAEP did not test theatre and dance students, nor were the media arts a part of the study.) 1 At the elementary level, 94% of our schools offer music, 83% offer visual arts. Fewer schools at this level offer dance or • theatre: 3% included dance and 4% offered theatre. • At the elementary level (at least three times per week) is offered in the following percentages of schools: 15% for music, 8 ured. percent for visual arts. The percentages for dance and theatre were not meas • At the elementary level, 88% of classroom teachers include arts as part of their ongoing instruction • for At the eighth grade level, 57% of eighth graders attend schools offering a credible level of instruction in music; the figure visual arts is 47%, while data for dance and theatre were not collected. • At the eighth grade level, there are differences (many of which are statistically significant) in achievement levels between some of the diverse ethnic, economic and geographic groups served by America n schools. That is, minorities, poorer children, and urban schools seem to achieve less in the arts. Some arts programs are provided on a co -curricular (having an academic and extra- • -curricular curricular component) or extra basis. At the middle and second ary levels, for example, 82% of queried theatre educators classified their programs as co - curricular, and 13% said that their programs were strictly extra -curricular. • At the secondary level, 91% of our schools offer music, 89% offer visual arts, 12% offer dance, and 45% offer theatre. • Americans’ reports of lifetime learning in the arts (as children or as adults) show that about one -third of our citizens have taken lessons or classes in music; about 17% have done so in visual arts, about 12 percent in danc e, and about six percent in theatre. These percentages have been declining at least for the past three decades.
4 4 Education in the United States tates is primarily provided by the public sector, with control and Education in the United S funding coming from state, local, and federal agencies. Public education is universally available, but policies regarding school curricula, funding, teaching, and employment are by locally elected policy -makers having jurisdiction over school districts, who established must also comply with numerous directives from state legislatures. The quality and availability of education in dance, media arts, music, theatre , and visual arts var y widely, particularly in locales where arts education is not compulsory. Further, the educational achievement gap in the U.S. between Black/Hispanic students and White/Asian Pacific Islander students, as well as urban/suburban schools, also applies to equity and a ccess in arts education . Federal law does require that all schools that receive federal funding must provide services to meet the individual needs of students with special needs or disabilities 2 . and provide access to the general curriculum, which may include arts instruction In most American schools today, students begin their formal education in kindergarten by age five and advance in age -based cohort groups through twelfth grade. While educational requirements vary state to state, the curriculum in public elementary education is typically determined by individual school districts that select curriculum and classroom resources linked to a state’s learning standards and benchmarks for a given grade level. Students in most high schools (grades 9- a broad variety of classes without special emphasis in 12) take any particular subject , with the exception of students enrolled in Career and Technical Education programs or themed schools . Students are required to take a certain minimum number of courses in mandat ory subjects for high school graduation, and may elect additional courses to round out their requirements toward graduation. States set graduation requirements for students , and individual schools must provide the opportunity for students to meet or exceed the minimum. High school students receive credits for courses as determined by local policies. The National Core Arts Standards are designed to encourage excellence within this educational structure. The a tandards also acknowledge the value rts s of assessment to evaluate curriculum, instruction, student achievement, and teacher effectiveness —most often (and uniquely) through performance or portfolio assessments. The new voluntary arts standards are designed to guide the delivery of arts education in the classroom with new ways of thinking, learning, and creating. The standards also inform policy -makers about implementation of arts programs for the traditional and emerging models and structures of education. As with other subject areas, a commitment to quality education, equitable opportunities, and comprehensive expectations is embedded within the new arts standards. Arts standards in America The standards movement emerged with the 1994 passage of the Goals 2000: Educate America Act stablished a National Education Standards and . Title II of that act e Improvement Council, which was charged with finding appropriate organizations to write standards. There were three goals for the standards development process: (1) to ensure that the standards reflect the best ideas in education, both in the United States and internationally; (2) to ensure that they reflected the best knowledge about teaching and 2 The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) ensures services to children with disabilities th roughout the nation. IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education and related services to more than 6.5 mi llion eligible infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities. Infants and toddlers with disabil ities (birth -2) and their families receive early intervention services under IDEA Part C. Children and youth (ages 3 -21) receive special education and related services under IDEA Part B.
5 5 learning, and (3) to ensure that they had been developed through a broad -based, open s were to define what students should “know and be able process. The standards themselve to do” to the end that “all students learn to use their minds well, so that they may be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our .” nation’s modern economy While the arts were not initially included as a core content area in Goals 2000, they did eventually become part of the legislation and were the first academic subject to successfully write standards under that law (though they were preceded by and pr ofited from standards developed by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics). Following the general idea of developing “voluntary” standards for “what students should know and be able to do,” and in anticipation of the passage of the act, a consorti um of organizations representing teachers of dance, music, theatre, and the visual arts approached the U.S. Department of Education, the National Endowment for the Arts, and the National Endowment for the Humanities in his area. 1992 for a grant to move forward in t The group completed its work and released the Education National Standards for Arts in 1994, the same year the Goals 2000 Act was enacted. The 1994 standards established th th th , and 12 , 8 grade. The introduction to the achievement expectations for students at the 4 standards set out the following purposes for that document: Standards for arts education are important for two fundamental reasons. First, they help define what a good education in the arts should provide: a thorough grounding in a basic body of knowledge and the skills required both to make sense and to make use of each of the arts discipline —including the intellectual tools to make qualitative judgments about artistic products and expression. Second, when states and school districts adopt the standards, they are taking a stand for rigor, informed by a clear intent. A set of standards for arts education says, in effect, “ An education in the arts means that st udents should know what is spelled out here, reach specified levels of attainment, and do both at defined points in their education.” Those standards, accepted by then -Secretary of Education Richard Riley, were highly influential. It is fair to say that they have helped shape curricula across the United States, through adoption of state standards, in the development of scope -and -sequence documents at the local education agency level, and by challenging individual arts educators to reflect on their practic es. International arts standards As a part of the effort to improve American standards for arts education, NCCAS studied by the College the standards that have been established in other nations. A 2011 study Board, an NCCAS leadership team member, found that arts standards exist in nations throughout the world. International arts standards seem to share certain univer sal assumptions about the primary educational goals to be attained. While the language used in different nations may vary, most standards for arts education seem to be grouped in three broad areas: • corresponds to the Ameri can formulation of Generating/Problem solving; this “Creating.” • Expressing/Realizing ; this corresponds to the American usage of “Performing.” • Responding/Appreciating ; this corresponds to the American “Responding.”
6 6 Further, both the history of standards in the United States and compari sons with our international colleagues confirm that a complete education system must include significant and well -designed programs in the arts and that well -designed standards play an essential ment. role in delivering quality curriculum, instruction and assess Standards in the United States have never been a monolithic and prescriptive set of governing rules for curriculum or teaching methods. Rather, the nation’s current standards for arts education have served as an important guide to the development of curricula in all fifty states and in the District of Columbia. It is also important to point out that standards are “living” documents, a vision that was articulated in the introduction to the 1994 standards document: As we look ahead, it is important to keep two things in mind: To the degree that students are successful in achieving them, the standards will have to be raised to encourage higher expectations. At the same time, even though the substance of each of the arts discipline will remain basicall y constant, the changes created by technology, new cultural trends, and educational advances will necessitate changes in the standards as well. Indeed, many states have gone through one or more revisions of their own standards in the arance of the first edition of the national standards. Clearly, standards in years since the appe the arts have played and continue to play an important role in improving and supporting education for America’s students. But the standards must be kept fresh if they are to remai n relevant and influential. The standards process today The voluntary National Core Arts Standards being developed with this framework are a re - imagining of the 1994 National Standards for Arts Education, and more recently, the 2005 Standards for Learning and Teaching Dance in the Arts . These standards are being crafted to guide arts curriculum, instruction, and assessment in America’s schools. Toward that end, they emphasize the process -oriented nature of the arts and arts learning that guide the continuous and systematic operations of instructional improvement by : • Defining artistic literacy through a set of overarching Philosophical Foundations and Lifelong Goals that clarify long -term expectations for arts learning. Placing Artistic Processes and Anchor Standards at the forefront of the work. • Identifying Creative Practices as the bridge for the application of the Artistic • Processes across all learning. • Specifying Enduring Understandings and Essential Questions that provide conceptual throughlines and ar ticulate value and meaning within and across the arts discipline. Providing Model Cornerstone A ssessments of student learning aligned to the Artistic • Processes. The National Core Arts Standards will be delivered to the field through a web- based platform , designed to allow flexible sorting and organizing to meet individual teacher and local district needs. The web -based platform will allow for examples of student work to be linked directly to each of the standards. Over time, as teachers implement the standards and capture student work based on the model cornerstone assessments, this repository of representative student work near standard, at standard, and above standard will grow.
7 7 The format and design of this new set of standards will reposition the way in which the field interacts with standards and assessments. No longer will we talk about standards as lists of what students should know and be able to do. Rather, we will talk about standards as measurable and attainable learning events based on artisti c goals. A backwards design approach was selected as a clear and cogent model for building standards. The Understanding by Design (UbD) Framework®, co -created by Jay McTighe and Grant Wiggins, assists educators in first identifying important outcomes of learning, then determining acceptable evidence of attainment, and finally designing the best path for achieving a These standards have been developed using the UbD framework as those desired results. major design driver. Jay McTighe, along with visual arts educator Daisy McTighe, provided early guidance to standards writing chairs as well as additional assistance on model cornerstone assessments. These standards are also developed with the full knowledge of current trends in the field of public education, including —t he Common Core State Standards. Educators — notably , in particular, familiar with the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts will find similarities in structure that should aid in the smooth implementation of the National Core Arts Standards. Simultaneously, those same educators will find differences in content and presentation that stem from the unique nature and traditions of each art form. sociated with the Common Core The National Coalition for Core Arts Standards is not as Standards project , although it did review CCSS concepts and design. State The National Core Arts Standards are built around evidence —not just evidence of student learning, but also research -based discoveries that helped writers and reviewers determin e best -practice methods for the presentation of the standards as well as the ir content. In addition to research compiled by the National Coalition for Core Arts Standards (NCCAS) member organizations, the standards writers have benefited from research efforts of the 3 College Board. (The College Board’s research on behalf of NCCAS is detailed in the Research -based Discoveries section of this document.) Additional valuable research on arts . education may be found in sources including ArtsEdSearch the new arts standards suggest s that they are learning events, progressing The structure of across grades and levels to create a sequential, standards -based approach to arts education. However, they also assume that learning does not happen out of context . Quality learnin g requires opportunity -to-learn conditions that create a rigorous and supportive learning environment . Standards are only one building block of quality arts education. 3 Under the leadership of Nancy Rubino, Senior Director, Office of Ac ademic Initiatives, AP and College Readiness, the College Board , and her team of researchers, led by Amy Charleroy .
8 8 SECTION dards I: The National Core Arts Stan This section communicates the purpose and relationship of the major elements of the new arts standards: Philosophical Foundations/Lifelong Goals, Artistic Processes, Anchor , NCCAS -developed instructional Standards , and Performance Standards. Additionally support resources available on the website are explained. These include : Enduring e , Essential Questions, Understandings Process Components, and Model Cornerston M atrix to the S Assessments. All of these elements are displayed visually in tandards studied, as illus trate their role in the development of knowledge and skills for the discipline well as their overarching function of nurturing the ultimate goal of artistic literacy. The National Core Arts Standards Matrix The Standards Matrix provides a unified view of the Standards for the five arts disciplines . Helping educators throughout the nation work toward common ends by recommending thy goals for students as they progress – from grade to grade , instructor to instructor, wor – is school to school, or community to community one of the key reasons for providing arts . Rather than offering simply a compilation of individual skills an d knowledge, the standards National Core Arts Standards integrate the processes, skills and knowledge, sample for successful learning that spans into a single organized system assessments, and criteria PreK -12 and is aligned to the philosophical foundations and life long goals. Rooted in -based approach to teaching and learning in the arts backward design, this outcomes emanates four artistic processes , eleven anchor standards, and PK -12 performance from standards articulated by each of the five arts discipline s. Ins tructional support resources provide greater insight into the meaning of the standards; provide instructional guidance; and show how student learning can be measured through rich performance tasks. The instructional support resources include enduring under standings , essential questions , process components, glossaries, and model cornerstone assessments with key traits. Some of t hese s upport resources are emphasized differently accommodate these nuances viewing and -based . To among the arts disciplines , web will vary arts disciplines . reporting options slightly across dvantages of a web- based presentation of standards , including the There are numerous a , enhance over time , and link to NCCAS organizational the site ability to add content sites for additi onal resources and professional development opportunities . The site member st Century skills align to the new standards. how 21 will also allow users to identify While the standards are rooted in an outcomes -based approach, they are also built on a en the existing structure of American schools and a vision of what balance betwe n attainable that structure could and should be. Thus, performance standards for students up to grade 8 by-grade, in the full knowledge that some schools do not provide inst ruction are listed grade- in some art forms in certain grades within that span. Notwithstanding this fact, performance standards appear at grade level because that is the typical working structure of our nation’s PK ulating the place of the arts in -8 schools, and the standards are meant as a guide to artic those schools. Individual districts will have to work through implementation of these standards within current allocations of time and resources even as they work toward the full availability of the arts for all students. Because students’ selection of arts courses can occur at any grade, the new high school standards are presented in three levels of proficiency rather than by grade. The three levels —Proficient, Accomplished, and Advanced —are flexible enough to accommodate
9 9 varying degrees of achievement by students during high school, including those who build -8 foundation by pursuing deeper engagement in one arts discipline, as well as on their PreK (furth er defined on page those who explore a wide range of artistic pursuits and experiences 17) . The standards matrix is a visual aid that shows the arrangement of and relationship among the elements of the National Core Arts Standards. Altogether, these elements will assist local education agencies in writing curriculum. The elements include sample cornerstone assessments – supplied for grades 2, 5, and 8, and for each high school proficiency level – that illustrate how student learning can be assessed through rich performance tasks with clearly identified criteria. These tas ks are intended to serve as models to guide the development of local assessments and as such, will eventually be benchmarked with student work and available on the NCCAS website. The above chart is a representational graphic only. T o see the full grid, refer to the Standards Matrix located on NCCAS website. Instructional r esources and their relationship to the standards are shown in the full matrix layout.
10 10 Philosophical foundations and lifelong goals hilosophical foundations and lifelong goa The p ls establish the basis for the new standards ing and illuminate artistic literacy the overarching common values and by express expectations for learning in arts education across the five arts discipline s (see page 17for an iteracy) in-depth explanation of artistic l . Philosophical Foundation Lifelong Goals The Arts as Communication Artistically literate citizens use a variety of In today’s multimedia society, the arts are the media, and therefore provide powerful and artistic media, symbols and metaphors to essential means of communication. The arts independently create and perform work that provide unique symbol systems and metaphors expresses and communicates their own ideas, and are able to respond by analyzing and interpreting that convey and inform life experience (i.e., the arts are ways of knowing). the artistic communications of others. The Arts as Creative Personal Realization Participation in each of the arts as creators, Artistically literate citizens find at least one arts performers, and audience members enables discipline in which they develop sufficient competence to continue active involvement in individuals to discover and develop their own creative capacity, thereby providing a source of creating, performing , and responding to art as an lifelong satisfaction. adult. The Arts as Culture, History, and Connectors Throughout history the arts have provided Artistically literate citizens know and understand artwork from varied historical periods and essential means for individuals and cultures, and actively seek and appreciate diverse communities to express their ideas, forms and genres of artwork of enduring experiences, feelings, and deepest beliefs. Each quality/significance. They also seek to discipline shares common goals, but approaches them through distinct media and understand relationships among the arts, and techniques. Understanding artwork provides cultivate habits of searching for and identifying insights into individuals’ own and others’ patterns, relationships between the arts and other knowledge. cultures and societies, while also providing integrate , and opportunities to access, express meani ng across a variety of content areas. Arts as Means to Wellbeing Participation in the arts as creators, performers, Artistically literate citizens find joy, inspiration, nce members (responders) enhances peace, intellectual stimulation, meaning, and and audie other life mental, physical, and emotional wellbeing. -enhancing qualities through participation in all of the arts. Th e Arts as Community Engagement The arts provide means for individuals to eek artistic Artistically literate citizens s , collaborate and connect with others in an experience and support the arts in their local enjoyable inclusive environment as they create, ies. state, national, and global communit prepare, and share artwork that bring communities together.
11 11 Artistic processes T he Artistic Processes are the cognitive and physical actions by which are realized. Inspired by the arts learning and making 1997 National Assessment of (NAEP) Arts Education Assessment Framework, the National Core Arts Education Progress Standards are based on the artistic processes of Creating; Performing/ Producing/Presenting; these processes in s incorporates Each of the arts discipline Responding; and Connecting. some manner hese processes define and organize the link between the art and the learner. . T The identification of these Artistic Processes was informed by two studies conducted by the and : A Review of Selected State Arts Standards College Board International Arts Education Fifteen Countries and Standards: A Survey of the Arts Education Standards and Practices of The former reviewed a series of recently revised arts education standards from Regions. states and large districts nationwide, noting trends in the structure and organization of these standards, as well as finding commonalities amon g their guiding philosophies. The found that the NAEP framework was a significant source of influence in many researchers . recent standards revisions The framework of creating, performing, and responding became a foundational element for the structure and content of the standards of several states: Washington, among others . In the other study Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, and , College Board researchers reviewed the recently created standards of 15 countries . In , the skills of creating, performing, and responding worldwide 14 of the studied countries were found to form the core of these international examples as well , though the terminology varied. Included in the NAEP framework were definitions for c esponding. reating, performing, and r The writing groups of the National Core Arts Standards have broadened the NAEP -centric. definitions and in some cases made them discipline Though the NCCAS definitions he use of verbs suggests that the art s operate in an active “hands are shorter, t -on” and “minds -on” capacity . CREATE ) CREATING ( NCCAS definition ) NAEP definition ( Creating refers to generating original art. Conceiving and developing new artistic ideas and work. ( ) PERFORMING/PRODUCING NAEP definition PERFORM ( NCCAS definition ) PRESENTING Performing/interpreting means performing an : (dance, music, theatre) Performing existing work, a process that calls upon the Realizing artistic ideas and work through interpretive or re interpretation and presentation. -creative skills of the student. Pres enting (visual arts): Interpreting and sharing artistic work. Producing (media arts) : Realizing and presenting artistic ideas and work . Note: The various arts disciplines have chosen different words to represent this artistic process; however, they are clustered here as essentially parallel .
12 12 RESPOND NAEP definition ) RESPONDING ( NCCAS definition ) ( how the arts Responding varies from that of an audience Understanding and evaluating convey meaning member to the interactive response between a student and a particular medium. . ( NCCAS definition ) NAEP definition CONNECTING Relating artistic ideas and work with personal N/A meaning and external context. The current set of arts standards e rocesses of Creating, merge from the Artistic P Performing/Presenting/Producing, Responding, and Connecting. Each artistic process branches into two or three anchor standards. The performance standards, which describe student learning in each of the specific arts disciplines, align with anchor standards . Collectively, the design reflects a ve and aligned system that allows for commonality cohesi across the disciplines and specificity within each discipline, therefore establishing the appropriate level of breadth and depth required for national standards. The model below represents a portion of the full design. Anchor standards Anchor standards describe the general knowledge and skill that teachers expect students to demonstrate throughout their education in the arts. These anchor standards are par allel across arts disciplines and grade levels and serve as the tangible educational expression of artistic literacy .
13 13 National Core Arts Standards Artistic Processes and Anchor Standards Artistic Processes Connecting Responding Creating Performing/Presenting/ Definition: Definition: Definition: Producing Definitions: Conceiving and Understanding and Relating artistic ideas and work with evaluating how the arts develo Performing: Realizing ping new personal meaning artistic ideas and work artistic ideas and convey meaning. and external context. through interpretation work. and presentation. : Interpreting Presenting and sharing artistic work. : Realizing Producing and presenting artistic ideas and work. Anchor Standards Students will: Students will: Students will: Students will: 4. S 10. Synthesize and 7. Perceive and analyze elect , analyze, and 1. Generate and interpret artistic work for conceptualize relate knowledge artistic work. and personal artistic ideas presentation. experiences to make Interpret intent and 8. and work. art. 5. Develop and refine meaning in artistic work. 2. Organize and and artistic techniques work for presentation. 11. Relate artistic develop artistic ideas and work. 9. Apply criteria to ideas and works with societal, evaluate artistic work. 6. Convey meaning through the presentation 3. Refine and cultural and complete artistic historical context to of artistic work. work. deepen understanding. Performance s tandards Performance standards are discipline -specific (dance, media arts, music, visual arts, theatre) , grade -by-grade articulation -8 and at three proficiency s of student achievement in the arts PK . As such levels in high school (proficient, accomplished and advanced) , the performance s into specific, measurable learning goals standards translate the anchor standard . Instructional resources Completing the design features of the model, instructional resources are provided to support teachers as they build understanding about the new standards and consider mult iple ways to implement the standards in their classrooms. The instructional resources include: enduring understandings and essential questions; process components; glossaries; and model cornerstone assessment with key traits . Instructional resources receiv e different emphasis based on various approaches to teaching and learning in individual disciplines. The web application of each discipline’s resources reflects these differences.
14 14 Enduring u ssential questions nderstandings and e ndards have been written using enduring understandings and The National Core Arts Sta essential questions to help both educators and students organize the information, skills and nduring understandings and essential questions focus experiences within artistic processes. E often called “big ideas.” Current brain research suggests that, by organizing on what are information (in the arts and other subjects) into a conceptual framework, greater “ ” transfer is facilitated —a key aspect of planning and delivering big ideas in er, in curricula. Furth How People Learn (National Research Council, 2000), one of the key factors which distinguishes “ “novices ” is the ability to organize or cluster thinking expert ” learners from owledge, as well as around big ideas. This process allows more efficient retrieval of prior kn improved “ mental filing ” of new information. Therefore, teachers who are interested in helping students helping their students understand must be intentional about construct their own mental “ ” systems , and teachers must seek to learn about and storage and retrieval -cognitive strategies that students can use to facilitate their meaning implement meta -making or understanding. explain in their seminal text, Understanding by Design Jay McTighe and Grant Wiggins (ASCD, 2005) , that enduring understandings refer to the big ideas or important understandings “that we want students to ‘get inside of’ and retain after they’ve forgotten many of the details. Put differently... [the big ideas and understandings] implicitly answer his topic worth studying?” the question, Why is t Enduring understandings are statements summarizing important ideas and core processes that are central to a discipline and have lasting value beyond the classroom. They synthesize what students should come to understand as a result of studying a particular content area . Moreover, they articulate what students should value about the content area over the course of their lifetimes. Enduring understandings should also enable students to make connections to other disciplines . A true grasp of an e nduring understanding mastered beyond the arts variety of activities d by the student ’s ability to explain, interpret, through a is demonstrate analyze, apply and evaluate its core elements. In their book, Wiggins and McTighe define essential questions as “questions that are not .” Their aim is to “ stimulate thought, to answerable with finality in a brief sentence... provoke inquiry, and to spark more questions —including thoughtful student questions —not ...i of thinking of content as something to be covered, consider just pat answers nstead knowledge and skill as the means of addressing questions central to understanding key issues in your subject .” Essential questions also guide students as they uncover enduring understandings. Wiggins and McTighe as sert that e ssential questions are those that encourage, hint at, even demand transfer beyond the particular topic in which students first encounter them , and therefore, should recur over the years to promote conceptual connections and curriculum coherence. traditions and instructional practices among the arts , the specific Reflecting differences in ir standards also vary enduring understandings and essential questions addressed by the somewhat . For example, one enduring understanding in the music standards for the artistic process of C reating is “ The creative ideas, concepts, and feelings that influence musicians’ work emerge ” This understanding is suggested, in slightly from a variety of sources. different language, within other arts discipline s as well . An enduring understanding in the visual arts standards for the artistic process of Responding is “ People gain insights into meanings of artworks by engaging in the process of art criticism. ” Again, this is an idea that
15 15 appears, variation in wordi ng but with very similar meaning , in the other art s. with modest enduring understanding for theatre in the artistic process of Performing is “ Theatre An artists share and present stories, ideas, and envisioned worlds to explore the human ” This understanding is evide nt in every other discipline. The same sort of experience. fundamental ideas and core processes appear in the enduring understandings of dance, and . F or dance, in the media arts “ As dance is as well artistic process of Connecting: experienced, all personal experiences, knowledge, and contexts are integrated and synthesized to interpret meaning. ” In m edia arts , for Producing: “ Media artists integrate ” various forms and contents to develop complex, unified artworks. Model c s ornerstone assessment In education, what is chosen for assessment signals what is valued. In other words, the evidence that is collected tells students what is most important for them to learn. What is not ts are assessed is likely to be regarded as unimportant. Sample model cornerstone assessmen provided within the standards to illustrate the type of evidence needed to show attainment of the assessments bring the standards to desired learning. This idea is key to backward design: life by illustrating the demonstrations of desired learning a nd the criteria by which student -based curriculum and associated instruction can performances should be judged. Standards then be designed “backward” from key assessments that reflect the desired outcomes. , describ ing the characteristi Jay McTighe (2011) s, wrote cs of cornerstone assessment “They: • are curriculum embedded (as opposed to externally imposed); • recur over the grades , becoming increasingly sophisticated over time; authentic contexts for performance; • establish and transfer understanding • assess via genuine performance; • integrate 21st century skills (e.g., critical thinking, technology use, teamwork) with subject area content; rubrics • evaluate performance with established ; meaningful learning while enco uraging the best teaching; • engage students in • provide content for a student’s portfolio (so that they graduate with a resume of demonstrated accomplishments rather than simply a transcript of courses taken). Unlike external ly-developed t instruction occasionally, standardized tests that interrup -embedded. Indeed, the term cornerstone is meant to cornerstone assessments are curriculum suggest that just as a cornerstone anchors a building, these assessments should anchor the es that students should be able to do (on curriculum around the most important performanc their own) with acquired content knowledge and skills. They are intended to engage students in applying knowledge and skills in authentic and relevant contexts. They call for higher - order thinking (e.g., evaluation) and habits of mind (e.g., persistence) in order to achieve successful results. Their authenticity and complexity is what distinguishes them from the de - contextualized, selected -response items found on many tests. Cornerstone tasks serve as more than just a means of gathering assessment evidence. These tasks are, by design, “worth teaching to” because they embody valuable learning goals and worthy accomplishments. Accordingly, they should be presented at the beginning of a course or a unit of instruction to serve as meaningful and concrete learning targets for students. Such assessment transparency is needed if standards are going to be met. Students must know the tasks to be mastered well in advance, and have continued opportunities to work toward their accomplishment.
16 16 The illustrative cornerstone assessments included in the standards reflect genuine and recurring performances that become increasingly sophisticated across the grades. Just as a keel protects boats from aimless drift, these tasks are design ed to prevent “curriculum drift” —in mind. —lifelong goals by helping educators and learners always keep the ends For these reasons, cornerstone assessment s are included in the National Core Arts Standards ion that schools or districts will value the project . The standards are built with the expectat understanding and transfer of knowledge and skills that will come with a standards -based curriculum in the arts and therefore, acknowledge that they are important curricular goals. Moreover, NCCAS hopes that the inclusion of cornerstone assessments in this project will focus the great majority of classroom - and district -level assessments around rich performance tasks that demand transfer These assessments also provide the basis for . collecting the benchmark stude nt work that illustrates the nature and quality of student achievement envisioned in the standards. This paradigm shift in measuring student learning in the arts will offer relevant and reliable evidence of what students truly understand and know how to do, for it is only when students are able to apply their learning thoughtfully and flexibly to a new situation that true understanding of the content is demonstrated. key traits Integral to each model cornerstone assessment are cri teria . Key traits describe the or “look- for’s” used to build evaluation tools for open- ended performance tasks. The lists of key traits included in the se example performance tasks disclose for students and teachers what skills and cognitive demands are being asked for in the task. Process components Process components are the actions artists carry out as they complete each artistic process . Students’ ability to carry out these operational verbs empowers them to work through the rocess c omponents played a key role in generating artistic process independently. The p understandings and performance s tandards, and serve as the action verbs that enduring collectively build toward the artistic processes . Process components and their definitions are presented among supplemental resources . In the final presentation of standards individual art s disciplines have placed differing levels of emph asis on the process components. Music standards process components in a central role . Visual arts standards, on , in particular, place the other hand, pla ce greater emphasis on enduring understandings and essential questions.
17 17 SECTION I I: Establishing Principles and Informing the Work Artistic Literacy Foundations of Artistic literacy is the knowledge and understanding required to participate thentically in the arts. Fluency in the language(s) of the arts ability to create, au is the perform/produce/present, respond, and connect through symbolic and metaphoric forms that are unique to the arts. It is embodied in specific philosophical foundations and lifelong goals that enable an artistically literate person to transfer arts knowledge, skills, and capacities to other subjects, settings, and contexts. In developing these standards, NCCAS has provided a structure within which educators can give a ll children key arts experiences. Through creative practices, these experiences will help them understand what it means to be artistically literate, and how that literacy can enrich their education and lives with 21st century skills developed through the a rts. What it means to be artistically literate about While individuals can learn dance, media, music, theatre, and visual arts through reading print texts, artistic literacy requires that they engage in art istic creation processes directly e of appropriate materials (such as charcoal or paint or clay , musical through the us instruments and scores, digital and mechanical apparatuses, light boards, and the actual human body ) and in appropriate spaces (concert halls, stages, dance rehearsal spaces, arts studi os and computer labs ). For authentic practice to occur in arts classrooms, teachers and students must participate fully and jointly in activities where they can exercise the creative practices of imagine, investigate, construct, and reflect as unique being s committed to In our increasingly multi giving meaning to their experiences. -media age, where information is communicated less through numeracy and the written word, these meta -cognitive activities are critical to student learning and achievement across t he arts and other academic disciplines. Throughout history the arts have provided essential means for individuals and communities to generate experiences, construct knowledge, and express their ideas, feelings, and beliefs. Each arts discipline shares co mmon goals, but approaches them through distinct media, practices, and techniques. Due to the highly process -oriented and reflective nature of arts making, arts education naturally encourages creative thinking, logical reasoning, and meta - cognition. Active engagement in the artistic process allows individuals to develop and realize their creative potential(s). In addition to —students’ creating and performing, careful study of —indeed, as a result of them their own and others’ art involves aking sense of the broad human in exploring and m condition across time and cultures. Arts literacy also fosters connections among the arts and between the arts and other disciplines, thereby providing opportunities to access, develop, express, and integrate meaning across a variety of content areas . Indeed, an arts -literate individual recognizes the value of the arts as a place of free expression and the importance of observing and participating in the social, political, spiritual, financial, and aesthetic aspects of their communities (both local and global, in person and virtually) and works to introduce the arts into those settings.
18 18 Recent research on arts education as it relates to students’ social, emotional, and cognitive developmental needs indicates that arts experiences are consistently found to give students tools to make sense of their world and make connections between disparat e ideas, while also making connections between themselves and others. Researchers found that the social and at all grades and levels. emotional benefits of arts education exist for students An artistically literate person understands that each arts disci pline employs unique sign and symbol systems to make and express meaning. For example, while a theatre artist or a dancer might primarily be concerned with the ways that dancers and actors interact with spaces and materials , a musician might co nsider the gestures that convey each other, meaning from a conductor to members of an orchestra or choir as signs that must be interpreted accurately in order for an ensemble to work together. Visual artists must understand the nuances of line, color, texture, and for m to successfully create and communicate . Conversely media artists must understand the languages of analogue and digital media if they want to determine appropriate methods of integrating technologies for the purpose of artistic expression. Arts literacy therefore requires an acknowledgement that language , which is informed by its history and common each arts discipline has its own practices , and that learning these languages requires in -depth immersion and training. The arts provide means for individuals to collaborate and connect with others in an inclusive environment as they create, prepare, and share artwork that bring communities together. person must have the capacity to transfer arts knowledge Additionally, an artistically literate and understanding s into a variety of settings , both in and outside of school. For example, within a school setting, theatre student s might use their training in acting to create persuasive presentation s for a history, science, or math class. Conversely, media arts student s may apply their expertise in animation to create a series of public service announcements for a local cable television channel. connections The Common Core Standards for English Language Arts acknowledge such by including numerous arts references in the text of the standards, including recommendations for students to read works of drama, analyze and interpret images and illustrations, compare the same work in different media, and complement written works with graphic and multimedia components. onal Core Arts Standards’ philosophical foundations and lifelong goals establish a The Nati definition of artistic literacy that clarifies how students can be involved in the arts beyond the high school level, and how that arts involvement contributes to college, c areer, and survey of college researchers conducted a lifelong learning. To that end, the College Board ctors and department heads to determine what students are commonly expected to arts instru know, understand, and be able to do in the arts beyond high school. The most common responses indicated that at this level students are expected to “develop functional competen ce in manipulating the basic elements, principles, and vocabulary” of dance, media arts, music, theatre, and/or visual art, but further responses noted that the opportunity to refine personal work in response to feedback is significant as well. This outcom e implies that arts study , even among non -arts majors, is not limited to and therefore, artistic literacy arts history and appreciation courses, but should include art -making experiences that can lead to a satisfying lifetime of active and creative practic es.
19 19 Arts Success and Achievement through Creative Practices Success and achievement in the arts demands engagement in the four fundamental creative practices of imagination, investigation, construction, and reflection in multiple contexts. These meta -cognitive activities nurture the effective work habits of curiosity, creativity and innovation, critical thinking and problem solving, s to the many diverse communication, and collaboration, each of which transfer st . aspects of learning and life in the 21 century The role of creative practices The fundamental creative practices of imagination, investigation, construction, and important for science and mathematics reflection, which are essential in the arts but equally learning, are cognitive processes by which students not only learn within an individual discipline but also transfer their knowledge, skill, and habits to other contexts and settings. essential Creative practices are and learning the arts , and are therefore included for teaching in this docum to help arts teachers identify methods to implement the core arts standards. ent context of the In the National Core Arts Standards, the creative practices are fundamental for the Creating process, and also contribute to other processes across all five di sciplines. The arts , both in academic and professional environments , are steeped in process and the interplay of artistic skills , individual voice, and the unexpected. C reativity , in involve , is given particular cademic disciplines. A rts greater emphasis in the arts than in other a teaching therefore requires a learning environment in which students are encouraged to imagine, investigate, construct, and reflect. One effective classroom approach to elicit creative process ( which is common in the arts and supported by Understanding by Design ) is to encourage open -ended responses by asking essential questions and providing lessons that allow for more than one solution. While p materials and access to technology can support creativity , they do roviding engaging . Arts education requires students to engage in higher not ensure that it occurs -order thinking skills inclusive of the creative pr actices . Indeed, the arts’ natural fusion of logical, analytical thought and playful unexpectedness provides students with ext raordinary opportunities to exercise their creativity through the artistic processes. A student engaged in creative practices: Imagines a mental image or concept. • • Investigates and studies through exploration or examination. • Constructs a product by combini ng or arranging a series of elements. • and thinks deeply about his or her work. Reflects Creative practices: • Evoke deep, meaningful engagement in the arts. • Can be fluid, though there is purpose and meaning to the order in which they occur. • Vary from perso n to person, project to project, and moment to moment. • Require intense cognition that can be developed through arts engagement.
20 20 Based on the cognitive rigor of the creative practices, t he College Board undertook a study areas of alignment between these creative practices and the Common Core State to research in English Language Arts and the Standards for Mathematical Practice. The Standards findings – presented in A Review of Connections between the Common Core Standards and the National Core Arts Standards Framework – indicated that the creative practices of investigation and reflection are connected to all ten of the Anchor Standards for Reading, and all four skills , investigation, construction, and reflection —were strongly —imagination , all four creative practices represented in the Anchor Standards for Writing. Additionally each of the Standards for Mathematical Practice. were found to be al igned with Contextual awareness in arts learning arises as an indirect result and appreciation of art Contextual awareness arts teaching, students view, make, and discuss art works, and co me to making. Through realize that the arts exist not of time, space, in isolation, but within the multiple dimensions , and history. These intrinsic aspects of art making students ’ relationship culture informs with art and how such experiences can influence their daily life . For example, contextual to : awareness in the arts allows a student • . Absorb meaningful information through the senses Develop openness in apprehension and push boundaries. • • Effectively construct artistic meaning within the ir cultural milieu. • Grasp the n ature and evolution of history . • e effectively within variable situations and for diverse audiences . Communicat Navigate the intricacies of . • emerging digital and global environments st 21 Century skills 21st Century Arts Map, published by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills , begins The with a key observation: “Anyone who has ever seen a student become excited, energized, and confident through artistic exploration has seen first -hand how arts education engages —dance music, theatre, and children and contributes to their overall development. The arts the visual arts, which collectively include the media arts —are recognized as “core academic tate statutes and core educational documents. While subjects” in Federal law, as well as in s each of the arts discipline s has its own unique set of knowledge, skills, and processes, the arts share common characteristics that make arts education powerful preparation for college, career, and a fulf illing life.” Creativity and innovation nnovation are essential for the development of the necessary skills to Creativity and i flourish in the 21st century, as well as to promote essential skills for successful student and workplace achievement. The goa l of fostering creativity and innovation through arts education is included in numerous initiatives inside and outside education across all subjects and disciplines. Specifically, it is described in a variety of state arts standards and frameworks across t he United States and is diversely applied in classrooms across the nation as an inherent aspect of teaching and learning in the arts. Widely held d efinitions of these aspects include: • Creativity is the capability or act of conceiving something original/unu sual. • Innovation is the implementation of something new. • Invention is the creation of something that has never been made before and is recognized as the product of some unique insight.
21 21 The arts impact educational change by taking the lead in the inclusion of creative practices in instruction; by recognizing creativity as a tool to learning in other content areas and for influencing many aspects of one’s life; and by exploring ways to use creativity as evidence in alternative assessments that provide new wa ys of showing what students know and can do. As a pathway to learning in arts education, creative practices include such attributes as -solving, inquisitiveness, and perseverance. Creative and flexible thinking, creative problem innovative strategies build students ability in problem formulation, research, interpretation, communication, precision and accuracy. Critical thinking and problem solving Critical thinking is the essential, intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualiz ing, analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating information as a guide to belief and - It is through critical thinking and problem solving that students learn the higher action. order thinking skills necessary to engage in the artistic processes and, therefore, begin to achieve artistic literacy. Standards ors encourage their students to apply critical thinking to the -based arts educat artifacts and processes that they : the art work of themselves, their find most compelling rld they are growing to understand. Precisely because of peers, and the artists in the wide wo that students make to and through works of art, the application of the emotional connections critical thinking to understanding and evaluating those works leads to the development of or elements of thought implicit in all reasoning: purpose, problem, or those structures question- at-issue; assumptions; concepts; empirical grounding; reasoning leading to conclusions; implications and consequences; objections from alternative viewpoints; and frame of ref erence. C ritical thinking also builds contextual awareness as an indirect but fundamental aspect of artistic practice and appreciation. Through viewing, making and discussing art works, students come to realize that the arts do not exist in isolation, but are always situated within multiple dimensions, including time, space, culture and history. Regarding the process of problem -solving, students who actively study the arts necessarily engage in and develop a disciplined, step- by-step approach to problems in creating, realizing, or understanding art. The steps involved may vary from one arts discipline to and the order of steps in the process may change according to the personal ideas of another more than one ite ration of work . B ut the the student artist, which in turn may prompt underlying discipline is always present. When working with the arts, as with most valuable processes in our world, students engage in a llocating r esources , m onitoring progress , and evaluating the r . esults Communication Communicatio n lies at the heart of the arts. In studying the arts, students develop a vast repertoire of skills in intrapersonal and interpersonal processing, listening, observing, speaking, questioning, analyzing, and evaluating meaning. Often, in the arts, this meaning concerns ideas that may be difficult to express outside of the medium chosen by the artist, but is always of great significance to the artist and the informed observer. Use of these processes is developmental and transfers to all areas of life: home, s chool, community, work, and beyond. It is through communication that collaboration and cooperation occur.
22 22 In learning to communicate through the arts in a standards -based curriculum, students learn to: • Articulate thoughts and ideas effectively using oral, written and nonverbal communication skills in a variety of forms and contexts. • Look and l isten effectively to decipher meaning, including knowledge, values, attitudes and intentions. Use communication for a range of purposes (e.g. to inform, instruct, motivate and • persuade). • Utilize multiple media and technologies, and know how to judge their effectiveness as a priority as well as assess their impact. • -lingual). Communicate effectively in diverse environments (including multi In order to understand the potential for connection between the arts learning and the acquisition of 21st century skills, the College Board completed an analysis comparing the 1994 to the 21st Century Art Skills Map . National Standards for Arts Education The study noted areas w here the goals and ideas expressed in these two documents aligned with one another. The 21st century skills mentioned above included the traits that were most frequently aligned to the 1994 standards, even though these two documents were created 16 part from one another. Further, they were reinforced in the standards of every arts years a discipline, at every grade level, as a primary component of the standards. The National Dance Education Association (NDEO) commissioned a similar study: An Analysis of the st Standards for Learning and Teaching Dance in the Arts (2005) as Compared to the 21 Century Skills Map (Rima Faber, 2012). Collaboration Collaboration is the pr ocess where two or more people or groups work together to realize common goals. Most collaboration requires leadership, although the form of leadership can be shared within a decentralized and egalitarian group. Collaboration is in many ways the engine that drives our economy and our sense of shared culture. It is also an inherent part of arts instruction, whether the collaboration includes all the students in a performing cast or ensemble, or the partnership between a single artist and his or her peers and audience or in a shared visual arts project that incorporates the ideas and techniques of multiple young artists. -based arts instruction, by its very nature, engages students with each Further, standards another, helping them: Develop, implement, and c ommunicate new ideas to others effectively. • • Be open and responsive to new and diverse perspectives; incorporate group input and feedback into the work. • Demonstrate originality and inventiveness in work and understand the real world limits to adopting new ideas. View failure as an opportunity to learn; understand that creativity and innovation is a • long -term, cyclical process of small successes and frequent mistakes. • Demonstrate ability to work effectively and respectfully with diverse teams. • Exercise fl exibility and willingness to be helpful in making necessary compromises to accomplish a common goal. • Assume shared responsibility for collaborative work, and values the individual contributions made by each team member.
23 23 SECTION III: Research veries -based Disco These standards have been prepared in the context of almost two decades of research on arts teaching and learning amassed since the writing of the 1994 standards. In addition to research compiled by the subject matter associations involved in NCCAS, The College research projects on behalf of Board, an NCCAS member, has conducted the following six National Core Arts Standards: 1. International Arts Education Standards: A Survey of the Arts Education Standards and Practices of Fifteen Countries and Regions outlines existing international standards and/or benchmarks for arts education in more than a dozen of the world’ s most educationally advanced countries. This report includes summaries of standards and practices, and includes -referenced chart of common themes and ideas from Australia, Austria, Canada, a cross China, Finland, Ireland, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Scotland, Singapore, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States, and Venezuela. The arts standards of these countries were identified by NCCAS as exemplar resources for the coalition’s writers and reviewers in their upcoming standards revision work. 2. Arts Education Standards and 21st Century Skills is an analysis of the relationship between the 1994 National Standards for Arts Education and the 21st Century Skills Map in the Arts, published by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. This report offers an analysis of the level of alignment between the current arts content standards and the skills, lesson examples, and outcomes included in the P21 Arts Map, across three grade bands in the disciplines of music, dance, visual art, and theatre. The arts map, created by the NCCAS professional education association members and released in 2010, identifies creativity, collaboration, critical thin king, and communication, and nine other skills developed through arts learning. NCCAS expects alignment with 21st century skills to be a fundamental aspect of the next generation of arts standards. was conducted in two phases. Phase I is a summary and 3. College Learning in the Arts —specifically those standards related to course content analysis of accreditation standards - and four -year degrees in the arts. The second and instruction—for schools offering two portion is a review of course goals for all AP courses in the arts, including AP Studio Art, xtbooks in the arts is AP Art History, and AP Music Theory. Finally, a survey of college te presented, in an effort to identify which types of arts information and content are most widely available on college campuses. Most of the material that was reviewed was rather broad in its treatment of the standards, and consequentl y the analysis of these resources is equally broad. In an effort to obtain more specific information about particular expectations of student arts performance at the college level, College Board r esearchers coordinated Phase II of this project, a national survey of professors and department heads in dance, - and four -year colleges throughout the music, theatre, visual arts, and media arts in two United States. examines the recently revised arts education 4. A Review of Selected State Arts Standards standards (in dance, music, theatre, and visual arts) of eight states and districts; reviews media arts standards in four states or districts; and analyzes possible links between the new National Arts Education Standards and the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts and Math. This report looks at the revised arts standards of seven states and one district in the United States: Colo rado, Florida, Michigan, New Jersey, New York City (which also included the discipline area of “moving image.”), North Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington. The second part of the report focuses on the relatively new arts form of
24 24 media arts, offering defini tions, examples of best practice, and standards structure and organization in four states/districts: Los Angeles Unified School District, Minnesota, New York City, and South Carolina. 5. Child Development and Arts Education: A review of Current Research and Best Practices is a literature review that analyzes research linking arts -based learning and human development, including physical and cognitive growth and academic skills such as long - term memory, reading, creative thinking, and writing fluency. The study also includes This report is divided into research on the social and emotional impact of arts participation. four literature reviews that address the discipline of dance, music, theatre, and visual arts. The reviews are further divided by grade band (early childhood, elementary, middle, high school, and college) each of which includes information on both general a nd discipline - specific developmental characteristics of students. The report also features a series of specific pedagogical practices that address social, emotional, and/or cognitive needs and abilities of students in each discipline and grade band. A Review of Connections between the Common Core State Standards and the Core Arts 6. Standards is a study of the Common Core standards as they relate to arts -based learning. This study was divided into two sections: In the first portion, researchers identified arts references already present in the Common Core State Standards. This analysis noted only the instances where the arts are explicitly mentioned —to commending that students read a play, for example, or respond to a performance as opposed to recording standards that — advocated for lines of inquiry that may or may not be met through arts -based study. The next phase of research involved identifying elements of the Common Core State Standards that reference the same broad goals, philosophies, thinking skills, and creative practices that are emphasized in the framework and planning documents for the Core Arts Standards .
25 25 SECTION IV: Concluding Thoughts: Re -imagined Core Arts Standards for America’s Schools The National Core Arts Standards are designed to serve an eminently practical purpose—to the chools, thereby improving improve the teaching and learning of the arts in America’s s million students annually. To accomplish this goal, the standards education of more than 50 have been written mindful of the realities faced by our nation’s m etropolitan, rural, st 21 suburban and independent school districts in the c entury. Key among those realities is and achievement . The new arts standards increased attention to accountability for instruction . will help address this priority The new benchmarks for arts learning articulated in these standards he more also focus on t distant yet still attainable goal of achieving a complete, balanced education for all our students. Using the standards as a guide, teachers, curriculum designers, and decision ( including administrators and school board members makers dents achieve the ) can help stu many skills and habits of thought necessary for success in school and beyond. That is to say, the standards outline the educational foundations for student success. Those educational foundations for success are interwoven with a clear definition of the elements of artistic literacy and how our future citizens can achieve it. The pursuit of this ) through literacy (accompanied by defining philosophical foundations and lifelong goals -based arts education will, in turn, support student achievement in school, career, standards and life. With a focus on processes, enduring understandings , essential questions, and assessments, these arts standards represent a new and innovative approach to arts education that will serve students, teachers, paren ts, and decision- makers now and in the future. Appendix A
26 26 * Descriptors for High School Performance Standards Levels Proficient Accomplished Advanced Students at the Advanced level level are Students at the Accomplished Students at the Proficient level have independently identify challenging arts -- with minimal assistance -- able to probl developed the foundational technical ems based on their interests or for s problems based identify or solve art essive skills and and expr specific purposes, and bring creativity on their interests or for a particular understandings in an art form and insight to finding artistic solutions. purpose; conduct research to inform They are facile in using at least one art necessary to solve assigned problems artistic decisions; and create and refine form as an effective avenue for or prepare assigned repertoire for arts products, performances, or presentation; make appropriate choices personal communication, presentations that demonstrate with some support; and may be demonstrating a higher level of technical proficiency, personal prepared for active engagement in al and expressive proficiency technic iii i communication characteristic of honors or college their community. and expressi on. They the They understand level work. They exploit their personal art form to be an important form of use the art form for personal v iv strengths and apply strategies to personal realization and wellbeing, realization and have and wellbeing, overcome personal challenges as arts and make connections between the art the necessary skills for and interest in learners. They are capable of taking a form, history, culture and other participation in arts activity beyond ii leadership role in arts activity within learning. the school environment. and beyond the school environment. A level and scope of achievement that A level of achievement attainable by significantly exceeds the A level of achievement attainable by most students who complete a high - Accomplished Level. Achievement at vi dents who complete a rigorous most stu school level course in the arts (or this level is indisputably rigorous and -school level courses sequence of high equivalent) beyond the foundation of subs tantially expands students’ (or equivalent) beyond the Proficient -8 instruction. quality PreK knowledge, skills, and understandings level. beyond the expectations articulated for Accomplished achievement. i Goal 5: Artistically literate citizens seek artistic experience and support the arts in their local, state, na tional, and global communities. ii Goal 3: Artistically literate citizens know and understand artwork from varied historical periods and cultures, and actively seek and appreciate diverse forms and genres of artwork of enduring quality/significance. They a lso seek to understand relationships among the arts, and cultivate habits of searching for and identifying patterns, relationships between the arts and other knowledge. iii Goal 1: Artistically literate citizens use a variety of artistic media, symbols and metaphors to independently create and perform work that expresses and communicates their own ideas, and are able to respond by analyzing and interpreting the artistic communications of others. iv Goal 2: Artistically literate citizens find at least one arts discipline in which they develop sufficient competence to continue active involvement in creating, performing, and responding to art as an adult. v Goal 4: Artistically literate citizens find joy, inspiration, peace, intellectual stimulation, meaning, an d other -enhancing qualities through participation in all of the arts. life vi vi vi . As stated in the NCES Secondary Course Code book Carnegie Unit (120 hours of study) ): “ Element 3. Available Credit identifies the amount of Carnegie pdf (http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2007/2007341. unit credit available to a student who successfully meets the objectives of the course. A course meeting every day for one period of the school day over the span of a school year offers one Carnegie unit. A Carnegie unit is thus a measure of ‘seat time’ rather than a measure of attainment of the course objectives. While some schools and districts use a performance— or competency―based metric of student progress, the Carnegie unit remains the predominant metric of student progress in schools in the United States and is part of the SCED framework. This document uses the term ‘credit’ to refer to what high school students typically earn upon completing a
27 27 are currently experimenting with alternatives, the concept of ‘credits’ yearlong course. Although some schools is still familiar and therefore useful to educators as the traditional unit earned to achieve a high school diploma, gain admission to college, and earn a college degree.” Preparat ory levels for Music Standards * In light of the practical reality of music students’ involvement in Ensemble and Harmonizing Instrument classes before they enter high school, performance standards are also provided for two preparatory levels in these strand s. These are attached for convenience to grade levels, but are potentially useful for earlier level experiences: 1. Novice: nominally assigned to the fifth grade level. Students at the Novice level have started specialization in an art form of their choic e. They are beginning to develop the basic artistic understanding and technique necessary to advance their skill level. Their expressive skills may be identified and exploratory work begins. They may participate in presentation and performance opportunities as they are able. Their curiosity in the art form begins their journey toward personal realization and wellbeing . 2. Intermediate: nominally equivalent to the eighth grade level. Students at the Intermediate level are continuing study in a chosen special ized art form. Their development continues in artistic understanding and technical and expressive skills enabling the student to begin to independently and collaboratively create, perform and respond at their given skill level. Their presentation and performance opportunities in ensembles at school and in the community increase and students actively participate in rehearsals. Through continued study of their art form they continue their journey toward personal realization and wellbeing.
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