Hesse Bieber 4 10

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1 Analyzing Qualitative Data: With or without software Sharlene Hesse-Biber, Ph.D. Department of Sociology Boston College Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 [email protected] 1 4/19/10

2 Role of the Researcher YOU are a data collection instrument   You take notes and decide what topics to record  How much do you set the agenda  What questions do you ask or not ask?  What do you deem important?

3 Role of the Researcher  You are driving the analysis:  What are your implicit/explicit theories?  What is your favored analysis method(s)?

4 Role of the Researcher You make decisions before analysis  based on your:  Epistemological perspective  Approach to the problem  Particular research questions

5 How should I analyze my qualitative data?  Depends on:  What research questions drive your study.  Research Question is linked to methods chosen and type of analysis rationale you apply.

6 Role of Transcription in analysis of your data  Builds theoretical sensitivity (Strauss & Corbin, 1990)  Brings the researcher closer to the data  Provides a unique opportunity to critique and improve on the interview process Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

7 What is Transcribed? Written texts:   Field notes  Supporting documents  Audio and/or Visual Data  Recordings of interviews, focus groups, consultation  Photos  Videos Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

8 Researcher Positionality  The researcher’s viewpoint is part of transcription  How does your set of social, economic, personal, and other characteristics impact the way you represent your data? Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

9 Issues of Representation  Whose transcription are you creating?  Address issues of authority and representation.

10 Transcription and data analysis : reflection  Recognize ways that data are interpreted and represented.  How do you decide what to transcribe (everything or only particular aspects)? Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

11 Data Analysis: The goal is to analytically reduce your data by:  Producing summaries, abstracts, coding, and memos  Finding ways to your display data( matrices, frequency counts, etc.)  Draw conclusions and test their validity  Remember: Analysis is an iterative and ongoing process

12 Memo- ing : A critical link between your interview data and creation of codes and categories  Memo about:  Codes, categories, and their relationships  Initial thoughts on data analysis  Memos are ways of Summarizing where you are at during your analysis and potential interpretations you may have about your data.  Analysis is saying: What does the data say.  Interpretation is saying: What does it mean?

13 Data Analysis as Data Reduction  Management goal is to make large amount of data manageable  Analysis goals:  Search for commonalities, which lead to categories (know as codes or themes)  Search for contrasts/comparisons  There is Physical reduction of data (putting names on excerpts as if you are creating labels in a filing cabinet with no analytical bite  Conceptual reduction of data: Thinking through meaning by coding—memo- ing —re-coding for meaning

14 Data Reduction...But how do I do this????  Know your data: listen, read, and think about it  Know your biases and standpoint  Focus on the data – one way is to take a grounded approach . But remember there are multiple analytical styles (i.e. narrative analysis, content analysis, etc. Go back to your research question to determine analytical rationale

15 Coding Styles: Deductive Coding of your data  Starts with pre-set themes/codes/categories  Themes suggested by research literature, advisor, etc.  Provides direction in your analysis  Yet: Do you want to start out with a set of themes a priori? Why? Go back to your research question. If you are exploring new territory it may not be best to start out looking for “a something.”

16 Inductive coding style: Iterative analysis (often referred to as a Grounded Analysis .  Your analysis– codes come directly from reading/thinking about data  Part of iterative process that is often a like an upward spiral in which you go up and down the twists and turns almost like a dance-- a tango that has no straight lines.

17 Inductive (Grounded) Analysis  Iterative process  After initial coding, go back to change and break down codes

18 Developing Grounded Codes Code: symbol applied to a section of text  in order to easily categorize it  Related to research questions, themes, concepts  Used for retrieval and organization  Finish coding when saturation is reached

19 Developing Grounded Themes During and after coding, look for  connections between codes  Begin with descriptive themes  Look for subcategories, relationships, cause-effect  Develop a matrix of codes and themes

20 Differentiating Types of Grounded : Codes  Tag  Code  Category  Themes

21 Using Software to Analyze Qualitative Data  Transcription Software: Using HyperTranscribe  Computer-Assisted Software: Using HyperRESEARCH

22 Advantages of Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQDAS).  Enhances ability to play with the data  Assists in development of organizing system  Theory building and construction  Exploring different possibilities of data analysis and interpretation Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

23 Advantages of CAQDAS Create and share large data sets   Access facilitates group projects  Allows for secondary analysis of qualitative data sets Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

24 Advantages of CAQDAS Facilitates exploration of epistemological  issues  Works as a pedagogical tool for qualitative research methods Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

25 Transcription as Analysis with Computer Software  Transition marker: using time stamps to highlight transitions, etc.  Mark text in color  Insert memos using representative fonts Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

26 Benefits of Transcription Technologies  Decrease time and money spent on transcription  More easily used by junior team members  Simplified technologies allow researchers to do own transcription Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

27 TM HyperTRANSCIBE Allows you to watch or listen to video or  audio file during transcription and take memos on the fly  Single interface for media and transcription  Allows you to time-stamp your transcription for easy retrieval and analysis on the fly Hands never have to leave the keyboard   Supports common video formats such as AVI, QuickTime, MPEG -2, MPEG-4 Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

28 TM HyperTRANSCIBE

29 TM HyperTRANSCIBE Simple control over timing options Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

30 TM HyperTRANSCIBE Add text shortcuts to speed up the transcription process Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

31 TM HyperTRANSCIBE  Download a free demo at www.researchware.com Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

32 HyperRESEARCH 2.8  CAQDAS for Win and Macintosh  Used for a variety of fields and analytical styles  Facilitates group work  Allows code and retrieval of data:  Boolean/proximity searches  Auto-coding and viewing codes in context Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

33 HyperRESEARCH 2.8 Uses AI to create complex code  categories  Summary memos on data documents  Hyperlinking  Theory building  Hypothesis testing  Cognitive mapping  Code lists Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

34 HyperRESEARCH 2.8  Links qualitative and quantitative  Export matrices  Import quantitative data  Detailed summary reports Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

35 Study Structure Study Case n Case 01 Case 02 Image Source 01 Text Source 01 Audio/Video Source 01 Text Source 02 Image Source 02 Audio/Video Source 02 Image Source n Text Source n Audio/Video Source n Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

36 Case Card Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

37 View codes in context Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

38 Code List Editor Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

39 Memoing in Master Code List  Define code categories on the  fly Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

40 Selecting Cases or Codes  Select all  Select by choosing from a list  Select using a Boolean expression (note:  All subsequent browsing or analysis is done using the SELECTED subset of cases and codes) Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

41 Selecting Cases or Codes Overlaps   Includes  Equals Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

42 Coding HyperRESEARCH adds codes on the fly. Or use the Master Code List Editor to add codes without attaching them to text or media segments A code definition may be added for each master code. 30,000 characters/code Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

43 Code Map Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

44 Coding Images Image FROM: http://ed.stanford.edu/IT/training/workshop_handouts/HyperRESEARCH-handout.pdf. Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

45 Coding Video and Audio Image FROM: http://ed.stanford.edu/IT/training/workshop_handouts/HyperRESEARCH- handout.pdf. Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

46 Running Reports Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

47 Auto Code: Choose Sources Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

48 Auto Code: Choose Phrases Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

49 Reporting Based on cases and  codes  Display, print, or export  A report is based on the set of cases AND codes you have selected. The checkboxes specify which  elements are included a report.  Reports may be displayed, printed or exported Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

50 Hypothesis Tester & Theory Generator Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

51 Integrating Qualitative Analysis with Software: A Step by Step Approach with some examples of the “how to’s ” Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

52 Exploration Phase Computer Function   Steps in Analysis  Read text and think  Assign codes of codes (also referred to as ‘indexing’ or ‘tagging’ Attaches codes to  text segments; Assign codes to  automatic coding or segments words and phrases Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

53 Add Codes to Text Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

54 Exploration Phase Steps in Analysis Computer Function   Assigns codes,   Clarify codes if overview of codes, necessary create theory memos, attach  Writing memos memos to text/codes about codes and new directions in  Memoing,theory research; link codes memos, formulate to the research questions new questions / hypotheses Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

55 Line by Line Coding Text: Code: I always wanted to be the thinnest, the prettiest Thinnest, Prettiest I wanted to look like the girls in the magazines Pos. body image I’m going to have so boyfriends and boys are going Provides Going to be so in love with me, I won’t have to economic resources work and I’ll be taken care of me for the Thin Rationale rest of my life Thinness as security Media Standards Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

56 Evaluation of codes Initial codes in Eating Disorders Study were changed as follows: TO: FROM: Clothing made for thin people... clothing that fits Weight lower priority... concerned with weight appearance Minimal diet...control over body and eating Magazines...media creates standards Dating and appearance...men control women by appearance Will always want to be thin...values thinness Thin rationales: Thin as a means of Security Thin and Healthy Thin as Part of Identity Thin /Beauty is Empowering Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

57 Using diagrams Thin as a means of Security  Thin and Health  Thin Rationales  Thin as Part of Identity Thin /Beauty is Empowering  Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

58 Meta Coding: Going from Larger Themes to Detailed Analysis  Meta Code: Pressure to be thin or thick Sub codes:  media source of thin pressure   no pressure to be thin  peer pressure to be thin  pressure to be thin  pressure to gain weight  resists pressure to be thin  teased about skinniness

59 HierarchicalCoding- Attitudes towards Appearance Positive Negative Neutral Don’t Care Supportive Destructive copyright, Hesse-Biber/Associates in Qualitative Consulting

60 Memoing Codes in Context

61 Memoing in Context: An Example  Code: Being thick  Throughout all interviews it was clear that being thin is not only not a valued social norm, but is also often considered a negative attribute associated with starvation and ill health ( several kids associated being thin with being bony). Conversely, being heavy or ‘thick’ was associated with health and sexuality ( one boy said he liked it when ‘things gjggle’). It was commonly acknowledged that guys like a “big butt” and a “big chest.” copyright, Hesse-Biber/Associates in Qualitative Consulting

62 Data Reduction Phase Steps in Analysis Computer Function   Linking text   Retrieval of text segments by codes segments that have the same meaning or combinations of codes copyright, Hesse-Biber/Associates in Qualitative Consulting

63 Data Reduction Phase  Computer Function  Steps in Analysis Perform coding and   Perform open and retrieval of code axial coding segments Formulate initial code   Create a hierarchical categories coding structure Create analytical   Create and analyze memos codes and check Change/adjust  with material segments and codes  May want to sub- Create methodological  categorize or memos integrate categories copyright, Hesse-Biber/Associates in Qualitative Consulting

64 Data Reduction: An Example  Code: Attitudes towards appearance  Subcodes:  Importance of looks in the estimation of self/ others  Worries about appearance  Important aspects of appearance  Social support or pressures re: appearance copyright, Hesse-Biber/Associates in Qualitative Consulting

65 Metacodes: An Example Code: Body Image Code: Hair - hair is important  Family supportive of looks Mother critical of weight - hair braiding experience   Not worried about looks - hair more important than weight  Parents critical of looks - short hair is in  Parents supportive of looks - straight is better  Peer support for looks - teased about hair  Positive body image - spends time on hair  Satisfied with wt - won’t hire if “ nappy hair”  Worried re looks -”afros not cool”

66 Mixed Methods: use of a qualitative and a quantitative method in your study  Based on priority and timing (Morgan, 1998)  QUAL- quan , QUAN- qual , equal  Sequential or concurrent  Note: Multi-modal study is the use of two or more qualitative methods OR two or more quantitative methods Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

67 Mixed Methods: Data Analysis Stage  Quantizing: changing codes into variables  Qualitizing : changing variables into codes Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

68 Mixed Methods Analysis: Quantizing  For example, what women report parents who are overweight and have an eating disorder (Hesse-Biber, 1996) ?  Or, of those women whose parents value thinness, how many report an eating disorder? Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

69 LINKING QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE Table 1 Relationship Between an Eating The Having and up with (EATDIS) Growing Disorder or Siblings Be ing Parents, Peers, “Critical” One’s Body and Eating Habits (PPSC) of PPSC No Yes 12.8 56.3 Yes EATDIS (9) (5) No 87.2 43.8 (34) (7) 100% 100% (39) (16) N=55 Copyrighted Hesse-Biber Qualitative Analysis Consulting

70 Matrix of and Qualtized Quantized Data Case Eating Self Eating Disorders Body Image Dissatisfaction Disorders Esteem Scale “Jenna” 8 high moderate low “Mary” 28 low high high

71 Sharlene J. N. Hesse-Biber (PhD, University of Michigan) is Am I Thin professor of sociology, Boston College. Her monograph, (Oxford, 1996), was selected as one of Choice Enough Yet? Magazine ’s best academic books for 1996. She is author of The (Oxford, 2007) and Mixed Methods Research: Cult of Thinness (Guilford Publications, 2010). She is Merging Theory with Practice the coauthor of Working Women in America (Oxford, 2005) and The Practice of Qualitative Research (Sage, 2006, 2011). She is coeditor of Feminist Approaches to Theory and Methodology ( Oxford, 1999), Approaches to Qualitative Research (Oxford, 2004), Feminist Perspectives on Social Research (Oxford, 2004), (Sage, 2006), and The Emergent Methods in Social Research (Guilford, 2008). She is editor of Handbook of Emergent Methods The Handbook of Feminist Research (Sage, 2007; this book was an AESA Critics’ Choice Award winner, and was selected one of Choice Magazine ’s Outstanding Academic titles for 2007), and The Handbook of Emergent Technologies (Oxford, 2011). She is co- developer of HyperRESEARCH , a software tool for analyzing qualitative data, and a transcription software tool, HyperTranscribe ( www.researchware.com ).

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