College and University Basic Needs Insecurity: A National #RealCollege Survey Report

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1 APRIL 2019 College and University Basic Needs Insecurity: A National #RealCollege Survey Report AUTHORS: Sara Goldrick-Rab, Christine Baker-Smith, Vanessa Coca, Elizabeth Looker and Tiffani Williams

2 NEARLY 86,000 STUDENTS Executive Summary PARTICIPATED. THE RESULTS INDICATE: The #RealCollege survey is the nation’s largest annual assessment of basic needs security among college 45% of respondents were food • students. The survey, created by the Hope Center insecure in the prior 30 days for College, Community, and Justice (Hope Center), specifically evaluates access to affordable food and 56% of respondents were • housing. This report describes the results of the housing insecure in the #RealCollege survey administered in the fall of 2018 at previous year 123 two- and four-year institutions across the United States. • 17% of respondents were homeless in the previous year Rates of basic needs insecurity are higher for students attending two-year colleges compared to those attending four-year colleges. Rates of basic needs insecurity are higher for marginalized students, including African Americans, students identifying The Hope Center thanks the as LGBTQ, and students who are independent from Lumina Foundation, the Jewish their parents or guardians for financial aid purposes. Students who have served in the military, former foster Foundation for Education of youth, and students who were formerly convicted of a Women, the City University crime are all at greater risk of basic needs insecurity. Working during college is not associated with a lower of New York, the Chicago risk of basic needs insecurity, and neither is receiving City Colleges, the Institute for the federal Pell Grant; the latter is in fact associated College Access and Success, with higher rates of basic needs insecurity. and the California Community If your institution is interested in participating in College Chancellor’s Office for the 2019 survey, please contact the Hope Center at making this report possible. [email protected] . 2 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

3 Introduction According to the federal government’s 2018 U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) report, insufficient food and housing undermines postsecondary educational experiences and credential attainment for 1 many of today’s college students. Data describing the scope and dimensions of this problem, particularly at the college level, remain sparse. The GAO report noted that there are only 31 quality studies of campus food insecurity, very few of which involve multiple colleges. Among existing multi-institutional studies, four draw on data from the #RealCollege survey. The #RealCollege survey fills a void by providing needed information for campus leaders and policymakers who are seeking to support students better. Food and housing insecurity undermine academic 2 Housing insecurity and homelessness have a success. particularly strong, statistically significant relationship with college completion rates, persistence, and 3 credit attainment. Researchers also associate basic needs insecurity with self-reports of poor physical health, symptoms of depression, and higher 4 perceived stress. While campus food pantries are increasingly common, usage of other supports to promote economic security are not. In particular, use of public benefits programs remains low among students in higher education, with many students missing out on the opportunity to receive SNAP 5 The GAO estimates that (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, also called food stamps). 57% of students at risk of food insecurity and eligible for SNAP did not collect those benefits. Designing effective practices and policies that can address the challenges of food and housing insecurity at scale requires understanding how students experience and cope with basic needs insecurity. Since 2013, the Hope Center (previously the Wisconsin HOPE Lab) has helped lead the effort in collecting and sharing information on college students’ basic needs insecurity. The Wisconsin HOPE Lab initially focused on assessing the prevalence of basic needs challenges of student in Wisconsin. However, by 2015, the Wisconsin HOPE Lab expanded to consider these challenges at colleges around the nation through student surveys. Over the last four years, we have surveyed approximately 167,000 students across 101 community colleges and 68 4-year colleges and universities. In 2015, the Wisconsin HOPE Lab worked with the Association of Community College Trustees (ACCT) and invited all 1,200 of its members to participate in the survey. In total, 10 community colleges in seven states accepted, and just over 4,000 students completed the questions. In 2016, they again partnered with ACCT, and 70 of its members responded from 24 states, with more than 33,000 respondents. By 2017, the Wisconsin HOPE Lab invited any college or university to participate in the #RealCollege survey and offered to support participants’ efforts to address students’ basic needs by sharing data to inform their 3 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

4 practices. In 2017, 31 two-year colleges and 35 four-year colleges, from 20 states and Washington, DC, participated, totaling 43,566 respondents. Figure 1 highlights survey participation by state since 2015. The Hope Center builds on this prior work by collecting and sharing information from a fourth national survey. This year, 90 two-year colleges and 33 four-year colleges from 24 states participated and nearly 86,000 college students responded. FIGURE 1 . Map of #RealCollege Survey Participation over Time Most recent year surveyed: 2015 2016 2017 2018 No data Source: 2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018 #RealCollege surveys Notes: One public university asked not to be named in 2017 and is not represented in the figure above. REPORT OVERVIEW The following report presents findings from the Hope Center’s 2018 #RealCollege survey on basic of this report describes the overall rates of basic needs needs of students in college. Section 1 describes rates of basic needs insecurity by Section 2 insecurity across all survey respondents. Section 3 describes the work and academic experiences of students specific groups of students. Section 4 describes the utilization of public assistance by students with basic needs insecurity. contains concluding remarks. Section 5 who need support. For more on the research methodology and additional tables with information on survey participants, please refer to the appendices. 4 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

5 SECTION 1: THE DATA Prevalence of Basic Needs The data in this report come from an Insecurity electronic survey fielded to college students. This system-wide report What fraction of students are affected by includes data from 123 colleges basic needs insecurity? This section examines across the United States. Colleges the prevalence of food insecurity during the distributed the electronic survey month prior to the survey, and the prevalence to more than 1,478,935 enrolled of housing insecurity and homelessness during students, yielding an estimated the previous year. response rate of 5.8%, or nearly 86,000 total student participants. FOOD INSECURITY For more information on how the is the limited or uncertain Food insecurity survey was fielded and discussion of availability of nutritionally adequate and safe how representative the results are, food, or the ability to acquire such food in a please see the appendices. socially acceptable manner. The most extreme form is often accompanied by physiological sensations of hunger. We assessed food security among students using the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) 18-item set 6 of questions. During the 30 days preceding the survey, approximately 48% of students in two-year institutions who responded to the survey experienced food insecurity, with slightly more than 19% assessed at the low level and slightly more than 28% at the very low level of food security (Figure 2). Approximately 41% of students at four-year institutions who responded to the survey experienced food insecurity, with slightly less than 18% assessed at the low level and slightly less than 24% at the very low level of food security. More than half of survey respondents from two-year institutions and 44% of students from four-year institutions worried about running out of food (Figure 3). Nearly half of students could not afford to eat balanced meals. 5 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

6 FIGURE 2 . Food Security Among Survey Respondents by Sector 100 39% 44% 80 High 60 Marginal 14% 15% Low Very Low 40 19% 18% Cumulative Percentage (%) 20 28% 24% Four−Year Two−Year Source: 2018 #RealCollege Survey Notes: According to the USDA, students at either low or very low food security are termed “food insecure.” For more details on the food security module used in this report, see Appendix C. Cumulative percentage may not add up to 100 due to rounding error. 6 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

7 FIGURE 3. Food Insecurity Items Among Survey Respondents by Sector Two−Year Four−Year I worried whether my food would run out before I got 51 44 money to buy more. t I couldn’t afford to ea 47 49 balanced meals. The food that I bought just did not last and I did not have 41 34 the money to buy more. I cut the size of meals or skipped meals because there was not 35 40 enough money for food. I ate less than I felt I should because there was not 33 38 enough money for food. t I was hungry but did not ea because there was not 28 32 enough money for food. I cut the size of meals or skipped meals because there was not enough 27 24 money for food (3 or more times). s I lost weight because there wa 16 19 not enough money for food. I did not eat for a whole da y because there was not 12 8 enough money for food. I did not eat for a whole day because there was not enough money 5 7 for food (3 or more times). 60 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 0 80 100 Percentage Endorsing Statement (%) Source: 2018 #RealCollege Survey Notes: For more details on the food security module used in this report, see Appendix C. 7 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

8 HOUSING INSECURITY AND HOMELESSNESS Housing insecurity includes a broad set of challenges such as the inability to pay rent or utilities, or the need to move frequently. All of these challenges affect students, and results suggest that they are more likely to suffer some form of housing insecurity than to have all their needs met during college. Housing insecurity among students was assessed with a nine-item set of questions developed by the Hope Center. Sixty percent of survey respondents at two-year institutions and 48% at four-year institutions experience housing insecurity (Figure 4). The most commonly reported challenge is experiencing a rent or mortgage increase that made it difficult to pay (30% of students at two-year institutions and 25% at four-year institutions). Eight percent of survey respondents at two-year institutions and 6% at four-year institutions left their household because they felt unsafe. . Housing Insecurity Among Survey Respondents by Sector FIGURE 4 Four−Year Two−Year Any item 60 48 Had a rent or mortgage increase 30 25 that made it difficult to pay Did not pay full amount 16 27 of utilities Did not pay full amount 19 28 of rent or mortgage Moved in with people due 16 23 to financial problems Lived with others beyond the expected 14 19 capacity of the housing Had an account default 11 19 or go into collections Left household because felt unsafe 8 6 Moved three or more times 4 3 Received a summons to appear 3 3 in housing court 100 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 40 0 20 Percentage Endorsing Statement (%) Source: 2018 #RealCollege Survey Notes: For more details on the housing insecurity module used in this report, see Appendix C. 8 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

9 Homelessness means that a person does not have a stable place to live. Students were identified as homeless if they responded affirmatively to a question asking if they had been homeless or they identified living conditions that are considered signs of homelessness. Homelessness was assessed with a tool development by California State University researchers. Homelessness affects 18% of survey respondents at two-year institutions and 14% at four-year institutions (Figure 5). Five percent of respondents at two-year institutions self-identify as homeless; 13% experience homelessness but do not self-identify as homeless. Two percent of respondents at four-year institutions self-identify as homeless; 12% experience homelessness but do not self-identify as homeless. The vast majority of students who experience homelessness temporarily stayed with a relative or friend, or couch surfed. . Homelessness Among Survey Respondents by Sector FIGURE 5 Four−Year Two−Year Any item 18 14 Self−identified homeless 5 2 Locations stayed overnight: Temporarily with relative, 14 10 friend, or couch surfing Temporarily at a hotel or motel without 3 2 a permanent home to return to In closed area/space with roof not 2 3 meant for human habitation At outdoor location 2 2 In transitional housing or 2 1 independent living In a camper 1 1 At a treatment center (such 1 1 as detox, hospital, etc.) At a shelter 1 1 At a group home such as halfway house or residential program for mental 1 0 health or substance abuse 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 40 0 10 Percentage Endorsing Statement (%) Source: 2018 #RealCollege Survey Note: For more details on the homelessness module used in this report, see Appendix C. 9 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

10 OVERLAPPING CHALLENGES Students who lack resources for housing often also lack resources for food. In addition, basic needs insecurity varies over time, such that a student might experience housing insecurity during one semester and food insecurity the next. Some students are housing insecure during the summer and homeless during the winter. Seven in 10 community college students responding to the survey experienced food insecurity, housing insecurity, or homelessness during the previous year, whereas about six in 10 four-year students did (Figure 6). Thirty-nine percent of respondents from two-year institutions and 30% from four-year institutions were both food and housing insecure in the past year. FIGURE 6 . Intersections of Food Insecurity, Housing Insecurity, and Homelessness Among Survey Respondents by Sector Two−Year Four−Year 30 No needs ("Secure") 39 Food Insecure, Housing Insecure 70 61 or Homeless ("Insecure") Food and Housing Insecure 39 30 Housing Insecure and Homeless 16 11 Food Insecure and Homeless 9 13 80 60 40 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 100 20 Percentage (%) Source: 2018 #RealCollege Survey Notes: For more details on how each measure of basic needs insecurity was constructed, see Appendix C. VARIATION BY INSTITUTION Rates of basic needs insecurity vary across institutions as well (Figure 7). There is wide variation in rates of food insecurity across institutions, from 32% to 65% across two-year institutions and from 19% to 65% across four-year institutions. Rates of housing insecurity across all participating 10 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

11 institutions range from a low of 19% of students experiencing housing insecurity to a high of 74%. Rates of student homelessness range from 10% to 32% at two-year institutions and 8% to 28% at four-year institutions, with most participating institutions in the range of 12% to 21%. FIGURE 7 . Variation in Institutional Rates of Food Insecurity, Housing Insecurity, and Homelessness Among Survey Respondents by Sector 100 80 ) 60 Food Insecurity Housing Insecurity Homelessness 40 Institutional Rate (% 20 0 Two−Year Four−Year Source: 2018 #RealCollege Survey Notes: The horizontal line within each box represents the median institutional rate. Institutional-level rates were not available for the San Mateo Community College District; however, district-level rates are used in compiling the figure above. 11 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

12 SECTION 2: Disparities in Basic Needs Insecurity Some college students are at higher risk of basic needs insecurity than others. This section of the report examines basic needs insecurity according to students’ demographic, academic, and economic characteristics, as well as their life circumstances. DEMOGRAPHIC DISPARITIES IN BASIC NEEDS INSECURITY Generally, students who are heterosexual, male, or female have lower rates of basic needs insecurity as compared to their peers (Table 1). Students who are transgender and students who do not identify as female, male, or transgender have the highest rates of homelessness compared to their male and female peers. Gay or lesbian students have higher rates of housing insecurity than their heterosexual and bisexual peers. Gay or lesbian students also have rates of homelessness about seven percentage points higher than their heterosexual peers. There are also sizable racial/ethnic disparities in basic needs insecurity among students. For example, the overall rate of food insecurity among students identifying as African American or Black is 58%, which is approximately eight percentage points higher than the overall rate for Hispanic or Latinx students, and 19 percentage points higher than the overall rate for students identifying as White or Caucasian. American Indian or Alaskan Native students experience the highest rates of housing insecurity (67%) compared to their peers. Students who are not U.S. citizens are more likely than students who are U.S. citizens to experience housing insecurity and homelessness. Higher levels of parental education are associated with lower risk of food or housing insecurity, with the clearest disparities evident based on whether or not a student’s parent possesses a bachelor’s degree. Students who experience the highest rates of housing insecurity are those whose parent(s) have no high school diploma, with 64% of students experiencing housing insecurity. Nonetheless, about 32% of students with college- educated parents experience food insecurity, 43% experience housing insecurity, and 14% experience homelessness. Basic needs insecurity is more pronounced among older students, particularly students ages 26 and older. Overall, 74% of students surveyed ages 26 to 30 experience housing insecurity (compared with 40% for 18–20 year olds). 12 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

13 TABLE 1 . Demographic Disparities in Rates of Food Insecurity, Housing Insecurity, and Homelessness^ Four-Year All Institutions Two-Year FI* HM* HI* HI* HM* Number of Number of FI* FI* HI* Number of HM* (%) (%) Students (%) Students (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Students (%) GENDER ORIENTATION 16 55 20 6,772 39 45 Male 19,530 42 51 19 12,758 44 32,637 49 63 17 17,969 42 49 13 50,606 47 58 16 Female 393 Transgender 63 35 182 57 57 27 575 55 61 33 55 Does not identify 27 58 68 31 357 55 57 841 1,198 57 65 30 as female, male, or transgender SEXUAL ORIENTATION Heterosexual or 36,935 20,446 60 17 47 40 47 13 57,381 44 55 16 straight 56 55 67 25 880 47 Gay or lesbian 20 2,645 52 63 23 1,765 Bisexual 4,048 56 66 25 2,285 51 54 19 6,333 54 61 23 Is not sure or neither heterosexual, 2,546 49 59 20 1,320 49 50 19 3,866 49 56 20 gay, lesbian, or bisexual RACIAL OR ETHNIC BACKGROUND 43 57 19 9,864 33 White or Caucasian 15 24,567 39 51 17 14,703 41 African American 5,375 59 69 24 3,661 56 60 16 9,036 58 65 21 or Black Hispanic or Latinx 63 16 6,598 50 55 51 25,709 50 61 15 19,111 13 American Indian 55 1,002 72 30 431 53 62 21 1,433 59 67 27 or Alaskan Native Middle Eastern or North African 47 39 45 63 20 573 17 784 14 1,357 43 56 or Arab or Arab American Southeast Asian 2,572 42 54 17 1,738 38 44 12 4,310 40 50 15 Pacific Islander or 19 785 56 62 24 243 46 48 23 1,028 54 59 Native Hawaiian 13 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

14 TABLE 1 . Demographic Disparities in Rates of Food Insecurity, Housing Insecurity, and Homelessness^ (continued) Two-Year Four-Year All Institutions FI* FI* Number of HI* HM* HM* HI* Number of FI* HI* Number of HM* (%) (%) Students Students (%) Students (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Other Asian or 12 50 16 2,991 35 38 4,006 6,997 37 45 15 39 Asian American 1,673 54 65 23 895 47 59 19 2,568 52 63 22 Other Prefers not to 1,520 64 22 856 46 50 15 2,376 49 61 20 54 answer STUDENT IS A U.S. CITIZEN OR PERMANENT RESIDENT 14 60 18 23,211 41 47 48 65,182 46 56 16 Ye s 41,971 2,454 46 64 23 1,381 42 56 No 3,835 45 61 22 21 Prefers not to 17 1,251 61 17 409 46 17 47 1,660 47 60 58 answer HIGHEST LEVEL OF PARENTAL EDUCATION No high school 16 8,521 53 67 18 3,553 49 56 13 12,074 52 64 diploma High school 9,944 49 19 4,224 45 48 13 14,168 48 56 18 60 diploma 16 65 19 7, 8 73 47 54 Some college 24,690 51 61 18 16,817 52 Bachelor's degree 8,707 34 47 15 8,607 30 39 13 17,314 32 43 14 or greater Does not know 47 57 19 910 44 2,018 14 2,928 46 54 18 48 AGE 18 to 20 16,490 39 44 15 10,295 34 33 11 26,785 37 40 13 52 21 to 25 66 22 9,086 46 53 16 21,728 50 60 19 12,642 26 to 30 6,621 56 76 22 2,665 52 71 20 9,286 55 74 21 16 Older than 30 51 70 17 3,020 46 66 14 13,004 50 69 9,984 ^Among survey respondents *FI stands for the rate of food insecurity; HI stands for the rate of housing insecurity; and HM stands for the rate of homelessness. Source: 2018 #RealCollege Survey Notes: The Number of Students column indicates the number of survey respondents to our measure of homelessness. The number of survey respondents for our measures of food insecurity and housing insecurity may vary slightly. For more detail on how each measure of basic needs insecurity was constructed, see Appendix C. Classifications of gender orientation and racial/ ethnic background are not mutually exclusive. Students could self-identify with multiple classifications. 14 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

15 BASIC NEEDS INSECURITY BY ACADEMIC, ECONOMIC, AND LIFE EXPERIENCES Rates of basic needs insecurity vary as well by students’ academic, economic, and life experiences (Table 2). Food insecurity and homelessness vary minimally with respect to part-time or full-time academic status, though full-time students experience less housing insecurity than their part-time peers, at 53% versus 62%. Students who spend three or more years in college have higher rates of housing insecurity than students still in their first year, at 62% compared with 47%. Forty percent of students in their first year of college are food insecure, while half of students with more than three years in college are food insecure. Rates of homelessness do not differ by number of years in college. Among those attending four-year institutions, undergraduate students experience higher rates of food insecurity than graduate students but lower rates of housing insecurity and homelessness. Students who are considered independent from their families for the purposes of filing a FAFSA are more likely to experience food insecurity, homelessness, and housing insecurity than those claimed as a dependent by their parents. We also find disparities in basic needs insecurity by financial need (measured using Pell Grant status). Pell Grant recipients experience greater basic needs insecurity compared with students who do not receive the Pell. In addition, students with children experience higher rates of food insecurity (53%) and housing insecurity (66%) as compared with those who do not have children; rates of homelessness varied less. Students who are married or in a domestic partnership have lower rates of homelessness than their peers. While the total number of students who reported being divorced (n=1,260) is relatively small, the rates of food insecurity (63%), housing insecurity (81%), and homelessness (23%) are worth noting, as these rates are higher than those for any other relationship category. TABLE 2. Rates of Food Insecurity, Housing Insecurity, and Homelessness by Student Life Experiences^ Two-Year Four-Year All Institutions HM* FI* HI* HI* HM* FI* Number of Number of FI* Number of HI* HM* (%) Students (%) Students (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Students (%) (%) COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS Full-time (at least 29,313 48 58 19 22,164 41 17 14 51,477 45 53 46 12 credits) Part-time (fewer 17 19,585 48 63 17 3,860 44 60 14 23,445 47 62 than 12 credits) YEARS IN COLLEGE 11 14,170 19 5,375 33 33 53 19,545 40 47 17 Less than 1 43 1 to 2 48 60 18 6,793 40 44 14 24,361 46 55 17 17,568 3 or more 14,474 52 67 18 11,915 48 56 15 26,389 50 62 17 DEPENDENCY STATUS Dependent 41 48 15 13,029 38 15,434 12 28,463 39 44 13 39 Independent 30,114 52 67 20 11,937 46 58 16 42,051 50 64 19 15 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

16 . Rates of Food Insecurity, Housing Insecurity, and Homelessness by Student Life Experiences^ TABLE 2 (continued) Two-Year All Institutions Four-Year HM* HI* Number of HM* HM* Number of HI* FI* FI* HI* FI* Number of (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Students Students (%) (%) Students (%) (%) LEVEL OF ENROLLMENT Undergraduate n/a n/a n/a n/a 24,116 42 48 14 n/a n/a n/a n/a 50 n/a n/a n/a n/a 1,911 31 Graduate 17 n/a n/a n/a n/a STUDENT RECEIVES THE PELL GRANT 49 12,088 20 15 67 56 20,868 Ye s 54 54 62 18 32,956 13 28,002 55 15 51 39 41,944 No 43 35 13,942 16 41 STUDENT HAS CHILDREN 16 66 53 15,093 14 58 49 17 68 55 11,150 3,943 Ye s 17 46 40 22,033 18 59,915 58 45 37,882 No 43 53 14 RELATIONSHIP STATUS 14 39,367 45 52 18 Single 24,435 47 57 20 14,932 40 45 44 50 13,377 51 63 19 7,394 In a relationship 15 20,771 48 58 17 Married or 62 41 9,471 11 59 38 2,513 12 63 42 6,958 11 domestic partnership 56 Divorced 1,002 64 82 24 75 23 81 63 1,260 18 258 63 22 205 55 66 22 Widowed 178 56 67 22 27 52 STUDENT HAS BEEN IN FOSTER CARE 38 Ye s 1,588 67 80 41 391 63 67 27 1,979 66 77 41 No 55 45 69,068 14 48 16 24,731 18 60 47 44,337 STUDENT SERVED IN THE MILITARY 61 23 538 25 Ye s 1,535 47 63 23 2,073 46 42 57 46 44,389 No 18 24,594 17 56 48 68,983 14 48 41 60 ~ EMPLOYMENT STATUS 18 62 50 42,714 16 55 46 16,133 66 52 26,581 20 Employed Not employed, 57 50 8,389 42 20 42 12 12,778 47 52 17 4,389 looking for work Not employed, not 12 11 31 14,228 8 29 24 4,748 40 45 34 9,480 looking for work 16 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

17 . Rates of Food Insecurity, Housing Insecurity, and Homelessness by Student Life Experiences^ TABLE 2 (continued) Two-Year All Institutions Four-Year HM* HI* Number of HM* HM* Number of HI* FI* FI* HI* FI* Number of (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Students Students (%) (%) Students (%) (%) STUDENT HAS BEEN CONVICTED OF A CRIME 39 76 40 81 64 1,894 Ye s 58 272 41 65 1,622 81 45,576 No 14 70,653 45 55 16 47 41 25,077 17 59 47 DISABILITY OR MEDICAL CONDITION Learning disability 3,502 4,494 992 28 69 60 24 67 52 59 27 58 (dyslexia, etc.) Attention deficit 28 58 5,401 hyperactivity 66 24 56 51 1,531 30 70 60 3,870 disorder (ADHD) Autism spectrum 49 52 28 629 47 52 29 223 54 53 28 852 disorder Physical disability (speech, sight, 988 58 3,478 22 59 52 28 70 60 2,490 26 66 mobility, hearing, etc.) Chronic illness (asthma, diabetes, 18 8,437 54 65 22 5,650 57 70 24 2,787 49 56 autoimmune disorder, cancer, etc.) Psychological 26 65 13,510 58 69 20 6,608 51 56 20,118 disorder (depression, 24 56 anxiety, etc.) 1,940 60 53 571 27 69 57 1,369 Other 27 26 56 67 No disability or 51 13 42 26,476 15 15,676 37 44 11 42,152 56 40 medical condition ^Among survey respondents *FI stands for the rate of food insecurity; HI stands for the rate of housing insecurity; and HM stands for the rate of homelessness. ~ Employment circumstances does not include students attending City Colleges of Chicago. For more information on their employment behavior, see City Colleges of Chicago #RealCollege Survey report. Source: 2018 #RealCollege Survey Notes: The Number of Students column indicates the number of survey respondents to our measure of homelessness. The number of survey respondents for our measures of food insecurity and housing insecurity may vary slightly. For more detail on how each measure of basic needs insecurity was constructed, see Appendix C. Classifications of disability or medical conditions are not mutually exclusive. Students could self-identify with multiple disabilities or medical conditions. 17 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

18 Table 2 also illustrates variations in basic needs insecurity by student life circumstances. Students who have been in the foster care system are much more likely to report basic needs insecurity than their peers. Sixty-six percent of these students experience food insecurity and 77% experience housing insecurity. Thirty-eight percent of students who were in foster care experience homelessness. Students who served in the military are more likely to experience both housing insecurity (61%) and homelessness (23%) than students who did not. Rates of food insecurity do not vary. Within employment categories, students who were not employed and not looking for work experience the least amount of basic needs insecurity compared to their peers. However, employed students experience higher rates of basic needs insecurity in all three categories compared to their peers. For more detailed information about employment and basic needs insecurity, refer to Section 3. Among students who reported that they had been convicted of a crime in the past, many encounter food and housing challenges while attending college. Sixty-four percent of respondents convicted of a crime experience food insecurity, while 81% experience housing insecurity. Forty percent of students who had been convicted of a crime experience homelessness. Basic needs insecurity varies widely by disability or medical condition. Students who reported having a learning disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, physical disability, chronic illness, or psychological disorder struggle the most with basic needs insecurity. 18 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

19 SECTION 3: Employment and Academic Performance Students who experience basic needs insecurity are overwhelmingly part of the labor force. For example, the majority of students who experience food insecurity (68%), housing insecurity 7 (69%), and homelessness (67%) are employed (Figure 8). Also, among working students, those who experience basic needs insecurity work more hours than other students. Employment Behavior by Basic Need Insecurity Status Among Survey Respondents FIGURE 8. 100 13 14 15 22 26 28 ) 80 19 17 19 18 18 Not working, not 20 looking for work 60 Not working, 27 28 looking for work 28 Working 1 to 28 20 hours 28 Working 21 to 40 29 30 hours 18 Working more 18 18 than 30 hours Cumulative Percentage (% 15 13 20 12 24 22 21 17 15 11 0 Yes No Yes Yes No No Housing Homeless Food Insecure Insecure Source: 2018 #RealCollege Survey Notes: For more detail on how each measure of basic needs insecurity was constructed, see Appendix C. Cumulative percentage may not add up to 100 due to rounding error. 19 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

20 Figure 9 illustrates that while most students report receiving A’s and B’s, students who experience food insecurity or homelessness report grades of C or below at slightly higher rates than students who do not have these experiences. Self-Reported Grades by Basic Need Insecurity Status Among Survey Respondents FIGURE 9. 100 38 39 40 80 44 48 48 ) 60 A B C 46 40 43 44 D or F 43 41 41 Cumulative Percentage (% 20 14 14 14 12 10 10 3 2 2 2 1 1 0 No Yes Yes No No Yes Food Homeless Housing Insecure Insecure Source: 2018 #RealCollege Survey Notes: For more detail on how each measure of basic needs insecurity was constructed, see Appendix C. Cumulative percentage may not add up to 100 due to rounding error. 20 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

21 SECTION 4: Utilization of Supports Many students who experience basic needs insecurity do not access public assistance (Figure 8 10). About 20% of food insecure students receive SNAP. Likewise, only 7% of students who experience homelessness receive housing assistance. Nine percent of students who experience homelessness utilized transportation assistance. Medicaid or public health insurance, SNAP, and tax refunds are the supports used most often, though they remain quite low given the rates of students experiencing basic needs insecurity. Figure 10 highlights that students with basic needs insecurity are not accessing all of the public benefits that they could. Overall, students with basic needs insecurity at two-year colleges access public assistance at higher rates than students with basic needs insecurity at four-year colleges. It is also worth noting that students who are secure in their basic needs are still accessing public benefits, albeit at lower rates (35%) than students with food insecurity (57%), housing insecurity (57%), and homelessness (58%). 21 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

22 FIGURE 10. Use of Assistance Among Survey Respondents According to Basic Needs Security Four−Year Two−Year Any Assistance Medicaid or public health insurance SNAP (food stamps) Tax refunds (including EITC) WIC (nutritional assistance for children and pregnant women) Transportation assistance Utility assistance (e.g., help paying for heat or water) Housing assistance TANF (public cash assistance, formerly called ADC or ADFC) Child care assistance SSI (supplemental security income) SSDI (social security disability income) Unemployment compensation or insurance Veterans benefits Other assistance 20 20 40 60 80 100 0 40 0 60 80 100 Percentage Utilizing Assistance (%) Food Insecure Housing Insecure Homeless Secure Source: 2018 #RealCollege Survey Notes: For more detail on how each measure of basic needs insecurity was constructed, see Appendix C. For more detail on the percentages for each bar, see Appendix E, Table E-10. 22 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

23 SECTION 5: Conclusion and Recommendations The #RealCollege survey affirms what administrators, faculty, staff, and students have known for many years: basic needs insecurity is a condition challenging many undergraduates trying to pursue credentials. The scope of the problem described here is substantial and should be cause for a systemic response. It is especially important for colleges and universities to move beyond food pantries as they respond to basic needs insecurity on campus. For resources and ideas, please join the Hope #RealCollege website for more Center at our annual #RealCollege conference (visit the information). In addition, we recommend the following five action steps to support students’ basic needs on campus: Appoint a Director of Student Wellness and Basic Needs. This person should have a 1. team that includes both staff members with case management skills and one individual who serves as the single point of contact for homeless students. 2. Isolating basic Evolve programmatic work to advance cultural changes on campus. needs into a single office, without broad campus support for a “culture of caring,” limits efficacy. Consider the example of Amarillo College , where cultural change starts at the top, and faculty and staff are engaged along with students. 3. Engage community organizations and the private sector in proactive, rather than reactive, support. A referral to a food pantry or a shelter is a crisis response. The goal should be to refer students to support before they need it, in order to prevent a crisis. Take a look at the Houston Food Scholarship model as an alternative to simply hosting pantries, or the Tacoma program offering Section 8 housing vouchers to college Chicago students, or the program where the city’s public housing authority pays tuition for its residents who lost access to financial aid. Employers who want to hire college graduates need to be involved in creating graduates. Could your college develop a network of preferred landlords who offer deeply discounted, time-limited rates on vacant apartments to students at risk of homelessness? It is also important to engage the food service vendors on your campuses to reduce prices wherever possible and utilize Swipe Out Hunger programs. 4. Develop and expand an emergency aid program. There is no substitute for a quick influx of cash assistance right when students need it. Information about how to distribute our website . emergency aid can be found on 5. Ensure that basic needs are central to your government relations work at all levels. Access to public assistance needs to be further expanded for college students. In particular, we must extend the opportunity to enroll in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) to college students who work less than 20 hours a week or go to school part-time, and allow college enrollment and work-study hours to fulfill job-training requirements. 23 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

24 Appendices 24 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

25 Appendix A. Participating Colleges TWO-YEAR COLLEGES Austin Community College District (TX) Barstow Community College (CA) Bellevue College (WA) Berkeley City College (CA) Butte College (CA) Cañada College (CA) CUNY Borough of Manhattan Community College (NY) CUNY Bronx Community College (NY) CUNY Guttman Community College (NY) CUNY Hostos Community College (NY) CUNY Kingsborough Community College (NY) CUNY LaGuardia Community College (NY) CUNY Queensborough Community College (NY) Cabrillo College (CA) Cascadia College (WA) Chaffey College (CA) Citrus College (CA) City Colleges of Chicago-Harold Washington College (IL) City Colleges of Chicago-Harry S. Truman College (IL) City Colleges of Chicago-Kennedy-King College (IL) City Colleges of Chicago-Malcolm X College (IL) City Colleges of Chicago-Olive-Harvey College (IL) City Colleges of Chicago-Richard J. Daley College (IL) City Colleges of Chicago-Wilbur Wright College (IL) Clovis Community College (CA) Coastline Community College (CA) College of San Mateo (CA) College of the Redwoods (CA) College of the Siskiyous (CA) Columbus State Community College (OH) Community College of Denver (CO) Compton College (CA) Contra Costa College (CA) Copper Mountain College (CA) Cypress College (CA) Dakota County Technical College (MN) Daytona State College (FL) De Anza College (CA) Diablo Valley College (CA) El Paso Community College (TX) Evergreen Valley College (CA) 25 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

26 Foothill College (CA) Fresno City College (CA) Fullerton College (CA) Golden West College (CA) Grayson College (TX) Hennepin Technical College (MN) Inver Hills Community College (MN) Jefferson College (MO) Jefferson Community and Technical College (KY) Lake Tahoe Community College (CA) Laney College (CA) Long Beach City College (CA) Los Angeles Trade Technical College (CA) Los Medanos College (CA) Marion Technical College (OH) Minnesota State Community and Technical College (MN) Monterey Peninsula College (CA) Montgomery County Community College (PA) Moorpark College (CA) Mt. Hood Community College (OR) Mt. San Antonio College (CA) Normandale Community College (MN) North Hennepin Community College (MN) North Orange Continuing Education (CA) Northeast Wisconsin Technical College (WI) Northwest Vista College (TX) Orange Coast College (CA) Palo Alto College (TX) Palomar College (CA) Pellissippi State Community College (TN) Porterville College (CA) Reedley College (CA) Rio Hondo College (CA) San Antonio College (TX) San Diego City College (CA) San Diego Continuing Education (CA) San Diego Mesa College (CA) San Diego Miramar College (CA) San Joaquin Delta College (CA) San Jose City College (CA) Santa Monica College (CA) Santa Rosa Junior College (CA) Signature Healthcare Brockton Hospital School of Nursing (MA) Skyline College (CA) South Seattle College (WA) 26 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

27 St. Cloud Technical and Community College (MN) St. Philip’s College (TX) West Los Angeles College (CA) Woodland Community College (CA) FOUR-YEAR COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES Boise State University (ID) CUNY Bernard M Baruch College (NY) CUNY Brooklyn College (NY) CUNY City College (NY) CUNY Hunter College (NY) CUNY John Jay College of Criminal Justice (NY) CUNY Lehman College (NY) CUNY Medgar Evers College (NY) CUNY New York City College of Technology (NY) CUNY Professional Studies (NY) CUNY Queens College (NY) CUNY York College (NY) California State University, East Bay (CA) College of Staten Island CUNY (NY) Colorado State University-Pueblo (CO) Felician University (NJ) Frostburg State University (MD) Gwynedd Mercy University (PA) Jefferson (Philadelphia University + Thomas Jefferson University) (PA) Kalamazoo College (MI) La Salle University (PA) Metropolitan State University (MN) Metropolitan State University of Denver (CO) The College of New Jersey (NJ) The University of Montana (MT) University of California, Riverside (CA) University of Colorado, Denver (CO) University of Delaware (DE) University of Denver (CO) University of Montevallo (AL) University of Oregon (OR) University of Tulsa (OK) University of Washington Bothell (WA) 27 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

28 Appendix B. Survey Methodology SURVEY ELIGIBILITY AND PARTICIPATING COLLEGES Together with administrators, the Hope Center fielded this survey to all participating institutions. Participating institutions agreed to administer an online survey in the fall and offer ten $100 prizes to their students in order to boost response rates. Institutions sent a series of invitations and follow-up reminders to all enrolled students encouraging them to participate. The Hope Center for College, Community, and Justice provided the email invitation language as well as hosted the survey as shown below. Upon opening the survey, students were presented with a consent form in compliance with Institutional Review Board standards. To actually take the survey, the student must have clicked continue as a record of consent and completed a minimum of the first page of the survey. Participating institutions were asked to use only the provided invitation language to ensure consistency across institutions. Subject: #RealCollege: Speak out – chance to win $100! Making it in college these days can be tough. We want to help. Colleges and universities need to know about the lives of real students like you so that they can offer more support. After you complete the survey, you can enter a drawing to receive a $100 award. This survey we call “#RealCollege” is all about you and your college experience. You’re getting it because you attend [COLLEGE NAME] and people there want to help you succeed. Click here to share your story! Everything will be kept confidential so, tell the truth. Share your challenges. Help us find solutions. COLLEGE SURVEY PARTICIPANTS In 2018, 123 postsecondary institutions fielded the survey early in fall term, as students enduring 9 basic needs insecurity are at greater risk for dropping out of school later in the year. 28 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

29 TABLE B-1 . Characteristics of Participating Institutions Four-Year Two-Year Overall Colleges Colleges (n=120) (n=32) (n=88) Percentage Percentage Percentage SECTOR 78 93 Public 99 1 7 Private, not-for-profit 22 Private, for-profit <1 <1 <1 REGION West 31 51 58 Midwest 6 17 20 11 12 South 13 10 50 21 Northeast URBANIZATION 53 78 60 City Suburb 33 22 30 Tow n 6 <1 4 Rural 8 6 <1 SIZE Under 5,000 19 20 20 27 25 27 5,000–9,999 10,000–19,999 34 35 35 20,000 or more 17 22 18 UNDERGRADUATES AWARDED PELL GRANTS Below 25% 35 16 30 25%–49% 57 58 59 8 25 50%–74% 13 75% or more <1 <1 <1 TUITION AND FEES Below $5,000 <1 60 82 $5,000–$9,999 17 56 28 29 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

30 TABLE B-1 . Characteristics of Participating Institutions (continued) Two-Year Four-Year Overall Colleges Colleges (n=120) (n=88) (n=32) Percentage Percentage Percentage $10,000–$19,999 6 <1 22 6 $20,000 or more <1 22 Source: Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (2018). Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/ Notes: The information above reflects the characteristics of 120 institutions as of the fall of 2017, with the exception of the information on Pell awardees, which was collected in the fall of 2016. In addition, Signature Healthcare Brockton Hospital School of Nursing is missing information on Tuition and Fees. North Orange Continuing Education, San Diego Continuing Education, and CUNY Professional Studies were missing all IPEDS information and are not included in the above table. Cumulative percentage may not add up to 100 due to rounding error. STUDENT SURVEY PARTICIPANTS Most students who were sent the #RealCollege survey did not answer it. Institutions sent survey invitations to an estimated 1,478,935 students and 85,837 students participated, yielding an 10 In this report, we exclude students who did not identify a estimated response rate of 5.8%. college they attend. We surveyed all students rather than drawing a subsample due to legal and financial restrictions. The results may be biased—overstating or understating the problem—depending on who answered and who did not. As readers ponder this issue, consider that the survey was emailed to students, and thus they had to have electronic access to respond. The incentives provided were negligible and did not include help with their challenges. Finally, the survey was framed as being about college life, not about hunger or homelessness. . Characteristics of Survey Respondents TABLE B-2 Four-Year Two-Year Overall Colleges Colleges Percentage Percentage Percentage GENDER ORIENTATION 28 27 27 Male 71 71 71 Female 1 Transgender 1 1 Does not identify as female, male, or 2 1 2 transgender SEXUAL ORIENTATION 82 Heterosexual or straight 82 82 Gay or lesbian 4 4 4 30 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

31 TABLE B-2 . Characteristics of Survey Respondents (continued) Two-Year Four-Year Overall Colleges Colleges Percentage Percentage Percentage 9 Bisexual 9 9 Is not sure or neither heterosexual, gay, 6 5 6 lesbian, or bisexual RACIAL OR ETHNIC BACKGROUND 35 39 32 White or Caucasian 12 15 African American or Black 13 Hispanic or Latinx 36 26 42 2 2 2 American Indian or Alaskan Native Middle Eastern or North African or Arab or 2 2 2 Arab American 6 Southeast Asian 6 7 Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian 2 1 1 Other Asian or Asian American 9 10 12 4 4 4 Other Prefers not to answer 3 3 3 STUDENT IS A U.S. CITIZEN OR PERMANENT RESIDENT 93 92 Ye s 92 5 6 5 No Prefers not to answer 3 2 2 HIGHEST LEVEL OF PARENTAL EDUCATION 19 No high school diploma 14 17 High school 22 17 20 35 31 37 Some college 34 24 19 Bachelor's degree or greater Does not know 4 4 4 AGE 41 38 18 to 20 36 31 36 28 21 to 25 31 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

32 TABLE B-2 . Characteristics of Survey Respondents (continued) Two-Year Four-Year Overall Colleges Colleges Percentage Percentage Percentage 13 26 to 30 14 11 18 12 22 Older than 30 COLLEGE ENROLLMENT STATUS 68 86 59 Full-time (at least 12 credits) 14 Part-time (fewer than 12 credits) 32 41 YEARS IN COLLEGE Less than 1 31 23 28 28 38 1 to 2 35 49 3 or more 31 37 DEPENDENCY STATUS Dependent 34 52 40 48 Independent 66 60 STUDENT RECEIVES THE PELL GRANT 44 Ye s 42 46 56 54 58 No LEVEL OF ENROLLMENT 92 n/a Undergraduate n/a n/a 8 n/a Graduate STUDENT HAS CHILDREN Ye s 23 15 20 77 No 85 80 RELATIONSHIP STATUS 55 59 53 Single In a relationship 29 29 29 13 Married or domestic partnership 15 10 1 2 Divorced 2 <1 <1 <1 Widowed 32 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

33 TABLE B-2 . Characteristics of Survey Respondents (continued) Two-year Four-Year Overall Colleges Colleges Percentage Percentage Percentage STUDENT HAS BEEN IN FOSTER CARE Ye s 3 2 3 97 98 97 No STUDENT SERVED IN THE MILITARY 2 Ye s 3 3 No 97 98 97 EMPLOYMENT STATUS* 64 59 Employed 61 17 Not employed, looking 19 18 21 Not employed, not looking 22 19 STUDENT HAS BEEN CONVICTED OF A CRIME 1 Ye s 3 3 99 97 No 97 DISABILITY OR MEDICAL CONDITION 4 Learning disability (dyslexia, etc.) 6 8 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder 8 6 8 (ADHD) 1 1 1 Autism spectrum disorder Physical disability (speech, sight, mobility, 5 4 5 hearing, etc.) Chronic illness (asthma, diabetes, 11 12 12 autoimmune disorders, cancer, etc.) Psychological disorder (depression, anxiety, 28 26 29 etc.) Other 3 3 2 49 56 No disability or medical condition 46 *Employment status does not include students attending City Colleges of Chicago. Source: 2018 #RealCollege Survey Notes: Classifications of gender orientation, racial or ethnic background, and disability or medical condition are not mutually exclusive. Students could self-identify with multiple classifications. Percentages of mutually exclusive groups may not add up to 100 due to rounding error. 33 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

34 Appendix C. Three Survey Measures of Basic Needs Insecurity Food Security 1. in 2018, we used questions from the 18-item Household Food Security To assess food security Survey Module (shown below) from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). It is important insecurity , the standard is to measure the level of to note that while we mainly discuss , security referring to those with low or very low security as “food insecure.” FOOD SECURITY MODULE Adult Stage 1 1. “In the last 30 days, I worried whether my food would run out before I got money to buy more.” (Often true, Sometimes true, Never true) “In the last 30 days, the food that I bought just didn’t last, and I didn’t have money to 2. get more.” (Often true, Sometimes true, Never true) 3. “In the last 30 days, I couldn’t afford to eat balanced meals.” (Often true, Sometimes true, Never true) If the respondent answers “often true” or “sometimes true” to any of the three questions in Adult . Stage 1, then proceed to Adult Stage 2 Adult Stage 2 4. “In the last 30 days, did you ever cut the size of your meals or skip meals because there wasn’t enough money for food?” (Yes/No) 5. [ ] “In the last 30 days, how many days did this happen?” (Once, If yes to question 4, ask Twice, Three times, Four times, Five times, More than five times) 6. “In the last 30 days, did you ever eat less than you felt you should because there wasn’t enough money for food?“ (Yes/No) “In the last 30 days, were you ever hungry but didn’t eat because there wasn’t enough 7. money for food?“ (Yes/No) 8. “In the last 30 days, did you lose weight because there wasn’t enough money for food?” (Yes/No) If the respondent answers “yes” to any of the questions in Adult Stage 2, then proceed to Adult Stage 3. Adult Stage 3 “In the last 30 days, did you ever not eat for a whole day because there wasn’t enough 9. money for food?” (Yes/No) 10. [ If yes to question 9, ask ] “In the last 30 days, how many days did this happen?” (Once, Twice, Three times, Four times, Five times, More than five times) If the respondent has indicated that children under 18 are present in the household, then proceed to Child Stage 1. 34 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

35 Child Stage 1 11. “In the last 30 days, I relied on only a few kinds of low-cost food to feed my children because I was running out of money to buy food.” (Often true, Sometimes true, Never true) 12. “In the last 30 days, I couldn’t feed my children a balanced meal, because I couldn’t afford that.” (Often true, Sometimes true, Never true) “In the last 30 days, my child was not eating enough because I just couldn’t afford 13. enough food.” (Often true, Sometimes true, Never true) If the respondent answers “often true” or “sometimes true” to any of the three questions in Child Stage 1, then proceed to Child Stage 2. Child Stage 2 “In the last 30 days, did you ever cut the size of your children’s meals because there 14. wasn’t enough money for food?” (Yes/No) 15. “In the last 30 days, did your children ever skip meals because there wasn’t enough money for food?” (Yes/No) 16. [If yes to question 15, ask ] “In the last 30 days, how often did this happen?” (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or more times) 17. “In the last 30 days, were your children ever hungry but you just couldn’t afford more food?” (Yes/No) 18. “In the last 30 days, did any of your children ever not eat for a whole day because there wasn’t enough money for food?” (Yes/No) To calculate a raw score for food security, we counted the number of questions to which a student answered affirmatively. “Often true” and “sometimes true” were counted as affirmative answers. a. Answers of “Three times” or more were counted as a “yes.” We translated the raw b. score into food security levels as follows: RAW SCORE 18-item 18-item (children present) (no children present) FOOD SECURITY LEVEL High 0 0 Marginal 1–2 1–2 Low 3–7 3–5 Very Low 8–18 6–10 35 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

36 2. Housing Insecurity To assess housing insecurity, we used a series of survey questions adapted from the national Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) Adult Well-Being Module to measure 11 students’ access to and ability to pay for safe and reliable housing. In 2018, we asked students the following questions: HOUSING INSECURITY MODULE 1. “In the past 12 months, was there a rent or mortgage increase that made it difficult to pay?” (Yes/No) 2. “In the past 12 months, have you been unable to pay or underpaid your rent or mortgage?” (Yes/No) “In the past 12 months, have you received a summons to appear in housing court?” (Yes/ 3. No) 4. “In the past 12 months, have you not paid the full amount of a gas, oil, or electricity bill?” (Yes/No) 5. “In the past 12 months, did you have an account default or go into collections?” (Yes/No) 6. “In the past 12 months, have you moved in with other people, even for a little while, because of financial problems?” (Yes/No) “In the past 12 months, have you lived with others beyond the expected capacity of the 7. house or apartment?” (Yes/No) 8. “In the past 12 months, did you leave your household because you felt unsafe?” (Yes/No) 9. “In the past 12 months, how many times have you moved?” (None, Once, Twice, 3 times, 4 times, 5 times, 6 times, 7 times, 8 times, 9 times, 10 or more times) In 2018, students were considered housing insecure if they answered “yes” to any of the first eight three questions or said they moved at least times (question #9). 3. Homelessness To measure homelessness, we asked a series of survey questions that align with the definition of homelessness dictated by the McKinney Vento Homeless Assistance Act. Please refer to pp. 31–32 12 In 2018, students were in Crutchfield and Maguire (2017) for further discussion of this measure. considered homeless if they answered affirmatively to question #1 OR any part of question #2 (parts e through m) in the Homelessness Module (below). HOMELESSNESS MODULE 1. “In the past 12 months, have you ever been homeless?” 2. “In the past 12 months, have you slept in any of the following places? Please check all that apply.” a. Campus or university housing b. Sorority/fraternity house c. In a rented or owned house, mobile home, or apartment (alone or with roommates or friends) 36 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

37 d. In a rented or owned house, mobile home, or apartment with my family (parent, guardian, or relative) e. At a shelter f. In a camper Temporarily staying with a relative, friend, or couch surfing until I find other housing g. Temporarily at a hotel or motel without a permanent home to return to (not on h. vacation or business travel) i. In transitional housing or independent living program j. At a group home such as halfway house or residential program for mental health or substance abuse At a treatment center (such as detox, hospital, etc.) k. l. Outdoor location (such as street, sidewalk, or alley; bus or train stop; campground or woods, park, beach, or riverbed; under bridge or overpass; or other) m. In a closed area/space with a roof not meant for human habitation (such as abandoned building; car, truck, van, RV, or camper; encampment or tent; uncon - verted garage, attic, or basement; etc.) 37 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

38 Appendix D. Comparing Measures of Homelessness One key challenge to supporting homeless students is that they often do not identify as homeless. In this survey, we posed direct questions about students’ homelessness status and compared those results with the indirect measures assessing their actual experiences (described in Appendix C). As shown in Table D, when asked if they ever experienced homelessness in the past year, the majority of students who said “yes” also reported couch surfing (75%) or sleeping in a location used to classify students as homeless (90%). However, among students who reported couch surfing in the past year—a somewhat greater number of students than those who said they had been homeless (5,308 versus 3,282)—only 46% self-identified as experiencing homelessness. Similarly, only 25% who reported sleeping in a location used to classify students as homeless also self-identified as experiencing homelessness. D. Comparisons of Homelessness Measures TABLE Percentage also Percentage Percentage Number of experienced also ever self-identified location-based Students couch surfed homeless homelessness AMONG RESPONDENTS WHO: Self-identified as homeless 3,282 100 75 90 Ever couch surfed 5,308 100 89 46 Experienced location-based 11,962 25 39 100 homelessness Source: 2018 #RealCollege Survey Notes: The first row refers to students who responded “Yes” to the following question: “In the past 12 months have you been homeless?” The second row refers to students who responded “Yes” to the following question: “In the past 12 months, did you couch surf—that is moved from one temporary housing arrangement to another because you had no other place to live?” The last row, experienced location-based homelessness, reflects the students who reported sleeping in any of the following locations in the past 12 months: at a shelter; in a camper; temporarily staying with a relative, friend, or couch surfing; temporarily at a hotel or motel; in transitional housing or independent living program; at a group home; at a treatment center; outdoor location; in a closed area/space with a roof not meant for human habitation. 38 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

39 Appendix E. Tables on Data Used in Figures TABLE E-1 . Number of Postsecondary Participants by Sector, State, and Year (Figure 1) 2016 2017 2015 2018 Two-Year Four-Year Two-Year Four-Year Two-Year Four-Year Two-Year Four-Year STAT E 1 Alabama Alaska Arizona 11 Arkansas California 14 4 48 2 4 Colorado 1 4 1 Connecticut Delaware 1 1 Florida 1 1 Georgia 11 Hawaii Idaho 1 1 Illinois 2 2 7 1 Indiana Iowa 1 Kansas Kentucky 1 1 Louisiana Maine 1 Maryland 1 Massachusetts 1 13 7 1 Michigan 3 2 1 Minnesota 1 7 1 3 Mississippi 1 Missouri 4 1 1 Montana 1 1 39 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

40 TABLE E-1 . Number of Postsecondary Participants by Sector, State, and Year (Figure 1) (continued) 2015 2016 2017 2018 Two-Year Four-Year Two-Year Four-Year Two-Year Four-Year Two-Year Four-Year Nebraska 1 1 Nevada New Hampshire 2 1 2 1 1 New Jersey 1 New Mexico 12 3 1 1 New York 7 1 North Carolina 1 1 1 North Dakota 1 1 2 Ohio 1 Oklahoma 1 Oregon 1 1 3 1 Pennsylvania 1 1 1 2 Rhode Island South Carolina 2 South Dakota Tennessee 1 7 Tex a s 10 1 1 Utah Vermont Virginia 1 3 Washington 1 3 1 1 Washington, DC West Virginia 1 4 1 Wisconsin 1 1 Wyoming Source: 2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018 #RealCollege surveys Notes: One public university asked not to be named in 2017 and is not represented in the table above. 40 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

41 TABLE E-2 . Food Security Among Survey Respondents (Figure 2) Two-Year Four-Year Overall College College Number of Number of Number of Percentage Percentage Percentage Students Students Students 39 11,302 High 30,153 41 18,851 44 6,569 14 3,804 15 10,373 14 Marginal 9,330 19 4,538 Low 13,868 19 18 Very Low 28 6,142 24 19,834 27 13,692 Source: 2018 #RealCollege Survey Notes: According to the USDA, students at either low or very low food security were considered “food insecure.” For more details on the food security module used in this report, see Appendix C. Cumulative percentage may not add up to 100 due to rounding error. Table E-3. Food Insecurity Among Survey Respondents (Figure 3) Four-Year Two-Year Overall College College Number of Number of Number of Percentage Percentage Percentage Students Students Students I worried whether my food would run out before I got money to buy 49 24,810 51 11,225 44 36,035 more. I couldn't afford to eat balanced 23,871 12,068 47 35,939 48 49 meals. The food that I bought just didn't 39 19,962 41 8,654 34 last and I didn't have the money to 28,616 buy more. I cut the size of meals or skipped meals because there wasn't 19,414 40 35 28,439 38 9,025 enough money for food. I ate less than I felt I should because there wasn't enough 36 18,309 38 8,411 33 26,720 money for food. I was hungry but didn't eat 15,325 32 because there wasn't enough 28 22,462 30 7,1 37 money for food. I cut the size of meals or skipped because there wasn't enough 26 12,852 27 6,201 24 19,053 money for food. (3 or more times) I lost weight because there wasn't 18 9,367 19 4,045 16 13,412 enough money for food. 41 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

42 Table E-3. Food Insecurity Among Survey Respondents (Figure 3) (continued) Four-Year Two-Year Overall College College Number of Number of Number of Percentage Percentage Percentage Students Students Students I did not eat for a whole day because there wasn't enough 5,565 12 2,164 8 7,72 9 10 money for food. I did not eat for a whole day 1,212 3,225 7 6 5 4,437 because there wasn't enough money for food. (3 or more times) Source: 2018 #RealCollege Survey Notes: For more details on the food security module used in this report, see Appendix C. . Housing Insecurity Among Survey Respondents (Figure 4) TABLE E-4 Four-Year Two-Year Overall College College Number of Number of Number of Percentage Percentage Percentage Students Students Students Any item 60 29,436 41,851 56 12,415 48 Had a rent or mortgage increase 28 14,611 30 6,373 25 20,984 that made it difficult to pay 4,020 Did not pay full utilities 13,114 27 16 17,134 23 Did not pay full amount of rent or 19 4,978 28 13,576 25 18,554 mortgage Moved in with people due to 23 21 15,401 16 4,063 11,338 financial problems Lived with others beyond the 17 12,939 9,254 19 3,685 14 expected capacity of the housing Had an account default or go into 11 17 9,408 19 2,962 12,370 collections Left household because felt 5,378 8 1,479 3,899 6 7 unsafe 4 Moved three or more times 2,914 3 863 4 2,051 Received a summons to appear in 3 1,284 3 688 3 1,972 housing court Source: 2018 #RealCollege Survey Notes: For more details on the housing insecurity module used in this report, see Appendix C. 42 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

43 TABLE E-5. Homelessness Among Survey Respondents (Figure 5) Two-Year Four-Year Overall College College Number of Number of Number of Percentage Percentage Percentage Students Students Students Any item 18 3,635 14 12,489 17 8,854 2,679 5 Self-identified homeless 2 3,321 4 642 LOCATIONS STAYED OVERNIGHT: Temporarily with relative, friend 14 2,677 10 9,379 13 6,702 or couch surfing Temporarily at a hotel or motel 1,588 without a permanent home to 3 469 2 2,057 3 return to In closed area/space with roof not meant for human habitation (such as abandoned building; car, truck, 2 1,801 2 1,401 3 400 van, RV, or camper; encampment or tent; unconverted garage, attic, or basement; etc.) At outdoor location (such as street, sidewalk or alley; bus or train stop; campground or woods, 959 2 392 2 1,351 2 park, beach, or riverbed; under bridge or overpass; or other) In transitional housing or 735 2 196 1 931 1 independent living In a camper 702 1 286 1 988 1 At a treatment center (such as 618 284 1 902 1 1 detox, hospital, etc.) At a shelter 1 197 1 837 1 640 At a group home such as halfway 1 house or residential program for 431 1 106 <1 537 mental health or substance abuse Source: 2018 #RealCollege Survey Notes: For more details on the homelessness module used in this report, see Appendix C. 43 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

44 TABLE E-6. Intersections of Food Insecurity, Housing Insecurity, and Homelessness Among Survey Respondents (Figure 6) Two-Year Four-Year Overall College College Number of Number of Number of Percentage Percentage Percentage Students Students Students 30 No needs ("Secure") 39 25,144 33 14,965 10,179 Food insecure, housing insecure, 34,111 70 15,861 61 67 49,972 or homeless (“Insecure”) 19,021 7,72 3 30 26,744 36 Food and housing insecure 39 7,846 16 2,917 11 10,763 14 Housing insecure and homeless 6,485 Food insecure and housing 2,394 9 8,879 12 13 Source: 2018 #RealCollege Survey Notes: For more details on how each measure of basic needs insecurity was constructed, see Appendix C. TABLE E-7. Variation in Institutional Rates of Food Insecurity, Housing Insecurity, and Homelessness Among Survey Respondents by Level of Institution (Figure 7) Number of P50 Standard Mean P75 P25 (Median) Deviation Colleges TWO-YEAR INSTITUTIONS Food insecurity rate 47 7 43 47 53 88 88 60 8 Housing insecurity rate 60 66 56 Homelessness rate 88 18 4 16 18 21 FOUR-YEAR INSTITUTIONS Food insecurity rate 33 39 10 33 39 46 Housing insecurity rate 47 13 41 47 55 33 Homelessness rate 33 14 4 12 14 17 Source: 2018 #RealCollege Survey Notes: For more detail on how each measure of basic needs insecurity was constructed, see Appendix C. Institutional-level rates were not available for institutions that are part of the San Mateo Community College District; however, district-level rates for this district are used. 44 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

45 TABLE E-8 . Employment Behavior by Basic Need Insecurity Status* (Figure 8) Two-Year Four-Year Overall College College Number of Number of Number of Percentage Percentage Percentage Students Students Students EXPERIENCED FOOD INSECURITY—NO Not employed, not looking for 27 3,569 24 9,705 26 6,136 work 4,154 2,539 17 6,693 18 Not employed, looking for work 18 24 5,017 34 10,525 28 Working 1 to 20 hours 5,508 3,266 14 Working 21 to 30 hours 12 5,017 13 1,751 Working more than 30 hours 17 1,797 12 5,773 15 3,976 EXPERIENCED FOOD INSECURITY—YES Not employed, not looking for 3,227 15 1,117 11 4,344 14 work 4,115 20 1,817 18 5,932 19 Not employed, looking for work 5,072 Working 1 to 20 hours 3,527 34 8,599 28 24 Working 21 to 30 hours 17 1,975 19 5,623 18 3,648 Working more than 30 hours 4,823 23 1,927 19 6,750 22 EXPERIENCED HOUSING INSECURITY—NO Not employed, not looking for 29 26 8,552 28 5,167 3,385 work 20 2,562 19 Not employed, looking for work 20 3,584 6,146 4,363 25 4,700 35 9,063 29 Working 1 to 20 hours 2,370 13 1,482 11 3,852 12 Working 21 to 30 hours 2,305 1,143 9 3,448 11 13 Working more than 30 hours EXPERIENCED HOUSING INSECURITY—YES Not employed, not looking for 4,308 16 1,362 11 5,670 15 work Not employed, looking for work 4,802 1,828 15 6,630 17 18 Working 1 to 20 hours 24 3,936 33 10,277 27 6,341 Working 21 to 30 hours 4,635 17 2,274 19 6,909 18 9,160 Working more than 30 hours 25 2,597 22 6,563 24 45 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

46 TABLE E-8 . Employment Behavior by Basic Need Insecurity Status* (Figure 8) (continued) Two-Year Four-Year Overall College College Number of Number of Number of Percentage Percentage Percentage Students Students Students EXPERIENCED HOMELESSNESS—NO Not employed, not looking for 22 12,682 20 4,354 23 8,328 work 18 18 10,550 3,850 18 Not employed, looking for work 6,700 7,420 8,738 28 Working 1 to 20 hours 34 24 16,158 15 8,648 Working 21 to 30 hours 15 14 3,044 5,604 Working more than 30 hours 17 10,152 14 3,099 19 7,0 5 3 EXPERIENCED HOMELESSNESS—YES Not employed, not looking for 1,152 14 394 11 1,546 13 work Not employed, looking for work 1,689 21 539 15 19 2,228 25 35 1,218 Working 1 to 20 hours 1,967 28 3,185 2,112 Working 21 to 30 hours 1,403 17 709 18 20 18 2,459 21 Working more than 30 hours 1,816 23 643 *Among survey respondents Source: 2018 #RealCollege Survey Notes: For more detail on how each measure of basic needs insecurity was constructed, see Appendix C. TABLE E-9 . Self-Reported Grades by Basic Need Insecurity Status* (Figure 9) Two-Year Four-Year Overall College College Number of Number of Number of Percentage Percentage Percentage Students Students Students EXPERIENCED FOOD INSECURITY—NO A 10,120 44 17,728 7,608 48 55 41 5,317 42 9,706 B 38 15,023 10 3,757 888 12 2,869 C 6 1 409 1 D or F 323 1 86 46 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

47 TABLE E-9 . Self-Reported Grades by Basic Need Insecurity Status* (Figure 9) (continued) Two-Year Four-Year Overall College College Number of Number of Number of Percentage Percentage Percentage Students Students Students EXPERIENCED FOOD INSECURITY—YES A 7, 3 57 35 4,129 42 11,486 38 46 9,441 45 4,472 46 13,913 B 4,416 10 1,014 16 14 3,402 C D or F 596 3 148 2 744 2 EXPERIENCED HOUSING INSECURITY—NO 14,482 54 6,721 44 7,761 A 48 41 B 7, 5 9 2 43 4,855 39 12,447 2,925 10 C 2,133 12 792 6 D or F 252 1 67 1 319 1 EXPERIENCED HOUSING INSECURITY—YES 39 A 9,881 37 5,111 45 14,992 16,814 44 11,787 44 5,027 44 B 5,356 1,134 16 4,222 C 14 10 1 854 2 D or F 685 3 169 EXPERIENCED HOMELESSNESS—NO 44 A 14,723 40 10,285 50 25,008 8,480 B 15,982 43 24,462 41 44 1,604 12 C 5,054 14 8 6,658 D or F 683 2 184 1 867 2 EXPERIENCED HOMELESSNESS—YES 40 A 37 1,548 47 4,470 2,922 3,407 B 4,810 1,403 43 43 42 10 1,625 14 C 1,303 17 322 3 3 306 2 52 254 D or F *Among survey respondents Source: 2018 #RealCollege Survey Notes: For more detail on how each measure of basic needs insecurity was constructed, see Appendix C. 47 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

48 TABLE E-1 0. Use of Assistance According to Basic Need Security* (Figure 10) Two-Year Four-Year Overall College College Number of Number of Number of Percentage Percentage Percentage Students Students Students FOOD INSECURE 58 5,763 55 18,835 57 Any assistance 13,072 Medicaid or public health 7,709 3,908 37 11,617 35 34 insurance 23 1,602 15 6,653 20 SNAP (food stamps) 5,051 3,931 18 1,912 Tax refunds (including EITC) 5,843 18 18 WIC (nutritional assistance for 1,838 8 4 2,215 7 377 children and pregnant women) 1,721 Transportation assistance 429 4 2,150 7 8 Utility assistance (e.g., help 1,446 6 351 5 1,797 3 paying for heat or water) 1,467 618 6 2,085 6 Housing assistance 7 TANF (public cash assistance; 1,034 5 288 3 1,322 4 formerly called ADC or ADFC) Child care assistance 1,105 5 264 3 1,369 4 SSI (supplemental security 3 195 2 978 3 783 income) SSDI (social security disability 4 196 2 993 3 797 income) Unemployment compensation or 739 3 228 2 967 3 insurance Veterans benefits 3 248 2 887 3 639 Other assistance 2 128 1 545 2 417 HOUSING INSECURE Any assistance 16,456 58 6,754 55 23,210 57 Medicaid or public health 34 4,524 37 14,158 35 9,634 insurance 5,989 21 1,827 15 7,816 19 SNAP (food stamps) Tax refunds (including EITC) 5,241 18 2,429 20 7, 670 19 WIC (nutritional assistance for 2,851 2,359 8 492 4 7 children and pregnant women) 48 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

49 TABLE E-1 0. Use of Assistance According to Basic Need Security* (Figure 10) (continued) Two-Year Four-Year Overall College College Number of Number of Number of Percentage Percentage Percentage Students Students Students 4 2,529 6 Transportation assistance 2,029 500 7 Utility assistance (e.g., help 1,763 6 389 3 2,152 5 paying for heat or water) 1,675 6 675 6 2,350 6 Housing assistance TANF (public cash assistance; 3 331 4 1,570 4 1,239 formerly called ADC or ADFC) 4 Child care assistance 1,381 5 298 2 1,679 SSI (supplemental security 3 940 3 228 2 1,168 income) SSDI (social security disability 939 3 229 2 1,168 3 income) Unemployment compensation or 964 3 281 2 1,245 3 insurance 3 313 Veterans benefits 838 3 3 1,151 1 144 493 2 637 2 Other assistance HOMELESS 54 7,100 61 5,199 Any assistance 58 1,901 Medicaid or public health 36 3,118 36 1,199 34 4,317 insurance 22 SNAP (food stamps) 2,203 26 509 14 2,712 1,495 18 2,193 20 698 17 Tax refunds (including EITC) WIC (nutritional assistance for 819 7 8 695 124 3 children and pregnant women) 846 10 192 5 1,038 9 Transportation assistance Utility assistance (e.g., help 3 111 6 476 587 5 paying for heat or water) 221 878 7 657 Housing assistance 8 6 TANF (public cash assistance; 5 622 3 115 6 507 formerly called ADC or ADFC) 2 564 5 Child care assistance 477 6 87 SSI (supplemental security 3 2 73 4 345 418 income) 49 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

50 TABLE E-1 0. Use of Assistance According to Basic Need Security* (Figure 10) (continued) Two-Year Four-Year Overall College College Number of Number of Number of Percentage Percentage Percentage Students Students Students SSDI (social security disability 349 4 74 2 423 3 income) Unemployment compensation or 3 325 4 98 3 423 insurance 287 Veterans benefits 424 4 137 3 3 213 2 Other assistance 2 269 2 56 SECURE 35 35 8,363 35 3,415 4,948 Any assistance Medicaid or public health 4,981 19 2,685 2,296 21 23 insurance 1,544 6 SNAP (food stamps) 943 7 601 6 10 1,417 10 1,000 10 2,417 Tax refunds (including EITC) WIC (nutritional assistance for 2 401 3 107 1 508 children and pregnant women) 679 2 503 4 176 3 Transportation assistance Utility assistance (e.g., help 293 81 1 212 1 1 paying for heat or water) 2 428 2 Housing assistance 244 2 184 TANF (public cash assistance; 1 1 178 1 126 52 formerly called ADC or ADFC) 1 186 1 246 1 Child care assistance 60 SSI (supplemental security 260 2 361 2 101 1 income) SSDI (social security disability 254 2 73 1 327 1 income) Unemployment compensation or 1 1 80 1 272 192 insurance 3 394 2 566 2 Veterans benefits 172 1 178 1 Other assistance 124 1 54 *Among survey respondents Source: 2018 #RealCollege Survey Notes: For more detail on how each measure of basic needs insecurity was constructed, see Appendix C. 50 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

51 Authors SARA GOLDRICK-RAB Sara Goldrick-Rab is a Professor of Higher Education Policy and Sociology at Temple University, founder of the Wisconsin HOPE Lab, and founder of the Hope Center for College, Community, and Justice (launched September 2018). She is best known for her innovative research on food and housing insecurity in higher education. She is the recipient of the William T. Grant Foundation’s Faculty Scholars Award, and the American Educational Research Association’s Early Career Award, and in 2016 POLITICO magazine named her one of the top 50 people shaping American politics. Her latest book, Paying the Price: College Costs, Financial Aid, and the Betrayal of the American Dream , is a 2018 winner of the Grawemeyer Award. Dr. Goldrick-Rab is ranked sixth in the nation among education scholars according to . Education Week CHRISTINE BAKER-SMITH Christine Baker-Smith is the Managing Director and Director of Research for the Hope Center for College, Community, and Justice. A sociologist of education, Christine’s training is in mixed-methods research and causal inference with a focus on student social and academic engagement across schooling transitions. She holds a PhD from New York University in Sociology of Education, an EdM in Leadership, Policy and Politics from Teachers College, Columbia University, an MA in Social Sciences of Education from Stanford University, and a BA in Sociology from Whitman College. She has published on adolescence and school transitions in numerous peer-reviewed journals such as Sociology of Education, Peabody Journal of Education , and Education Finance and Policy . VANESSA COCA Vanessa Coca is a Senior Research Associate at the Hope Center for College, Community, and Justice. She has more than a decade of experience in conducting research on the postsecondary enrollment and completion of students of color, students from low-income households, immigrant students, and first-generation college goers. Vanessa received her PhD in Sociology of Education at the Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development at New York University— where she was an Institute of Education-funded Pre-doctoral Interdisciplinary Research Training (IES-PIRT) fellow. She also holds a BA and MPP degree from the University of Chicago. ELIZABETH LOOKER Elizabeth Looker is a Research Project Manager at the Hope Center for College, Community, and Justice. Prior to joining the Hope Center, her experience was in academic affairs where she launched an EMBA program, managed graduate and undergraduate curricula, and advised students on coursework and careers in the MIT Sloan School of Management. Elizabeth earned an MEd in Higher Education Administration from Suffolk University and a BA in Sociology and Fine Art from Hampshire College. TIFFANI WILLIAMS Tiffani Williams is a Research Associate at the Hope Center for College, Community, and Justice. She has spent her career in the K-12 and postsecondary education sectors working in academic affairs, public policy, and applied research—conducting studies on K-16 alignment, STEM student career development, financial aid, degree attainment, and equity in socioeconomic outcomes. She will complete her PhD in Higher and Postsecondary Education at New York University in May 2019. She holds an MA in Higher Education Administration from the University of Maryland, College Park, and a BS in Graphic Media from Rochester Institute of Technology. 51 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

52 Endnotes 1 Food insecurity: Better information could U.S. Government Accountability Office. (2018). (GAO Publication No. 19– help eligible college students access federal food assistance benefits. 95) Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Accountability Office. (2016). Higher education: Actions (GAO needed to improve access to federal financial assistance for homeless and foster youth. Publication No. 16–343) Washington, D.C. El Zein, A., Shelnutt, K., Colby, S., Olfert, M., Kattelmann, K., Brown, O., & Mathews, A. 2 (2017). The prevalence of food insecurity and its association with health and academic outcomes among college freshmen. Advances in Nutrition , 8(1), 4; Maroto, M. E., Snelling, A., & Linck, H. (2015). Food insecurity among community college students: Prevalence and association with , 39(6), 515–526; Mor - grade point average. Community College Journal of Research and Practice ris, L. M., Smith, S., Davis, J., & Null, D. B. (2016). The prevalence of food security and insecurity among Illinois University students. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior , 48(6), 376–382; Patton-López, M., López-Cevallos, D. F., Cancel-Tirado, D. I., & Vazquez, L. (2014). Prevalence and Jour correlates of food insecurity among students attending a midsize rural university in Oregon. - nal of Nutrition Education and Behavior , 46(3), 209–214; Simon, A., Goto, K., Simon, A., Breed, J., - & Bianco, S. (2018). Factors associated with food insecurity and food assistance program partici Californian Journal of Health Promotion 16(1), 73–78. pation among university students. 3 Broton, K. M. (2017). The evolution of poverty in higher education: Material hardship, aca - (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Wiscon demic success, and policy perspectives - sin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin. 4 For physical health, see Bruening, M., van Woerden, I., Todd, M., & Laska, M. (2018). Hungry to learn: The prevalence and effects of food insecurity on health behaviors and outcomes over time among a diverse sample of university freshmen. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 15(9), 1–10; Bruening, M., Argo, K., Payne-Sturges, D., & Laska, M. N. (2017). The struggle is real: A systematic review of food insecurity on postsecondary education campus - es. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics - , 117(11), 1767–1791; Freudenberg, N., Man Food insecurity at CUNY: Results from a zo, L., Jones, H., Kwan, A., Tsui, E., & Gagnon, M. (2011). . New York: The Campaign for a Healthy CUNY, The City survey of CUNY undergraduate students University of New York; McArthur, L. H., Ball, L., Danek, A. C., & Holbert, D. (2018). A high preva - lence of food insecurity among university students in Appalachia reflects a need for educational Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior , 50(6), 564–572; interventions and policy advocacy. Payne-Sturges, D. C., Tjaden, A., Caldeira, K. M., & Arria, A. M. (2017). Student hunger on campus: Food insecurity among college students and implications for academic institutions. American , 32(2), 349–354; Tsui, E., Freudenberg, N., Manzo, L., Jones, H., Kwan, Journal of Health Promotion A., & Gagnon, M. (2011). - Housing instability at CUNY: Results from a survey of CUNY undergrad uate students . New York: The Campaign for a Healthy CUNY, City University of New York. For symptoms of depression, see Bruening et al. (2018); Bruening et al. (2017); Payne-Sturges et al. (2017); Eisenberg, D., Goldrick-Rab, S., Lipson, S.K., & Broton, K. (2015). Too distressed to learn? Wisconsin HOPE Lab. Freudenberg et al. (2011). For higher perceived stress, see El Zein et al. (2017). Broton, K. M. & Goldrick-Rab, S. (2017). Going without: An exploration of food and housing 5 insecurity among undergraduates. Educational Researcher 47(2). 121–133. 6 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. (2012). U.S. adult food securi - ty survey module: Three-stage design, with screeners . 7 - Unlike students at other institutions, students who both attended the City Colleges of Chi cago (CCC) and were not employed were not asked in the survey whether they were looking for employment. As a result, students from the CCC system are not included in the broader national analysis of work behavior. See our reports on the Hope Center website . 52 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

53 8 One of the many reasons students do not take advantage of available assistance is the social stigma that accompanies such aid. See King, J. A. (2017). Food insecurity among college students—Exploring the predictors of food assistance resource use (Unpublished doctoral disser - tation). Kent State University, Kent, Ohio; Allen, C. C. & Alleman, N. F. (2019). A private struggle at a private institution: Effects of student hunger on social and academic experiences. Journal of College Student Development, 60(1), 52–69; Henry, L. (2017). Understanding food insecurity among college students: Experience, motivation, and local solutions. Annals of Anthropological Practice, 41(1), 6–19; Ambrose, V. K. (2016). It’s like a mountain: The lived experience of homeless college student (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Tennessee–Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee; Tierney, W. G., Gupton, J. T., & Hallett, R. E. (2008). Transitions to adulthood for home - less adolescents: Education and public policy. Los Angeles: Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis, University of Southern California. Although assessments of basic needs insecurity made early in the fall semester are likely 9 to capture more students, these assessments may also understate students’ basic needs. In fact, Bruening et al. (2018) surveyed the same population at the beginning and at the end of a semes - ter and found that rates of food insecurity were higher at the end of the semester (35%) than at the beginning (28%). 10 For most participating institutions, the estimated number of survey invitations is based on the total number of students at institutions in the fall of 2017, as reported by the National Center for Education Statistic’s Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System. The estimated num - ber of survey invitations for institutions in the City University of New York system is based on the total number of undergraduate students in the fall of 2017, as these were the only students sent survey invitations. Fall 2017 enrollment numbers for the North Orange Continuing Education and San Diego Continuing Education programs were gathered from the California Community Col - leges Chancellor’s Office website. In addition, fall 2017 enrollment numbers for the Professional Studies program were gathered from the CUNY Office of Institutional Research’s website. See the Census website for more information on SIPP. 11 12 Crutchfield, R. M. & Maguire, J. (2017). Researching basic needs in higher education: Quali - tative and quantitative instruments to explore a holistic understanding of food and housing in - security. Long Beach, California: Basic Needs Initiative, Office of the Chancellor, California State University. 53 | THE HOPE CENTER National #RealCollege Survey

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