Monthly Energy Review – April 2019

Transcript

1 DOE/EIA ‐ 0035( 2019/4 ) April 2019 Monthly Energy Review www.eia.gov/mer

2 Monthly Energy Review The Energy Review (MER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) primary report of recent and Monthly energy Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, stocks, trade, and energy historical statistics. energy, petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear renewable energy, and international overviews prices; of dioxide emissions; and petroleum; carbon unit conversions. data EIA MER is in keeping with responsibilities of to the in Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Release given Act), which states, in part, in Section 205(a)(2): Organization “The be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and shall Administrator program information which collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, disseminate data and information...” will and MER is intended for use by members of Congress, federal and state agencies, The energy analysts, and the general welcomes suggestions from readers regarding MER content and other EIA EIA publications. public. Supply are Petroleum Petroleum Marketing Monthly, Related monthly publications: Other monthly EIA reports Monthly, Gas Monthly, and Electric Power Monthly. For more information, contact EIA’s Office of Natural via Communications at [email protected] . email about the data Important notes displayed: For tables beginning in 1949, annual data are usually displayed only in 5 ‐ year Data increments between 1950 in the tables in Portable Document Format (PDF) files; 2000 all annual data are shown in the Excel files, and however, ‐ separated values (CSV) files, application programming interface (API) files, and comma in data browser. Also, only the to three years of monthly data are in the PDF files; however, for many series, monthly data beginning with two displayed 1973 are available in the Excel files, CSV files, API files, and in the data browser. January Comprehensive Each month, changes: most MER and figures present data for a new month. These data are tables preliminary (and sometimes estimated or forecasted) and likely to be revised the following month. usually The first dissemination most annual data is also preliminary. It is often based on monthly estimates and is likely to be revised of later according year after final data are published from sources, to source data revision policies and publication that In addition, EIA may revise historical data when a major revision in a source publication is needed, when new schedules. when become available, or data estimation methodologies are improved. A record of sources historical current and to MER data is available at https://www.eia.gov/totalenerg y/data/monthly/whatsnew.php . changes incorporate data from 1949: In Annual EIA expanded the MER to annual data as far back as 1949 in those data 2013, tables that were previously published in both the Annual Energy Review and MER. Electronic access is available on EIA’s website in various formats at http://www.eia.gov/tota lenergy/data/monthly . The MER Full report and report tables: PDF files  data (unrounded): Excel files, CSV files, API files, and Table data browser   Graphs: PDF files and data browser Note: PDF files display selected annual and monthly data; Excel files, CSV files, API files, and data browser display all greater available and monthly data, often with annual precision than the PDF files. Timing of release: The MER is posted at http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly no later than the last work day of the month. Released: April 25, 2019

3 DOE/EIA-0035(2019/4) Monthly Energy Review April 2019 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Statistics U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Admi nistration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA’s data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or empl oyee of the United States Government. The views in this report ther efore should not be construed as representing those of the Depart ment of Energy or other federal agencies.

4 Contacts is prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Admini The Statistics, Office of stration, Office of Energy Monthly Energy Review Survey Development and Statistical Integration, Integrated Ener gy Statistics Team, under the direction of Ryan Repice, 202-586- Monthly Energy Review 5828 ([email protected]). Questions an d comments specifically related to the may be addressed to Alexander Sun, 202-287-5948 ([email protected]). ntact EIA’s Office of Communications at 202-586-8800 ([email protected]). Questions For assistance in acquiring data, please co about the collection, processing, or interpretation of the information may be directed to the following subject specialists: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dianne R. Dunn gy Overview 202-586-2792 Section 1. Ener [email protected] 2. Energy Consumption by Sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dianne R. Dunn 202-586-2792 Section [email protected] 202-586-1155 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Javed Zaidi 3. Petroleum Section [email protected] 202-586-4001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Michael Kopalek 4. Natural Gas Section [email protected] 5. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resource Development 202-586-3467 . . . Gary Long Section [email protected] 202-586-6393 6. Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Rosalyn Berry Section [email protected] 202-586-4325 7. Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Glenn McGrath Section [email protected] S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tim Shear 202-586-0403 ection 8. Nuclear Energy [email protected] Section 9. Energy Prices 202-586-8013 Petroleum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maureen Klein [email protected] Natural Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Michael Kopalek 202-586-4001 [email protected] 202-586-7574 Average Retail Prices of Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Peter Wong [email protected] Cost of Fuel at Electric Generating Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Joy Liu 202-586-5542 [email protected] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lolita Jamison 202-586-9567 S ection 10. Renewable Energy [email protected] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Patricia Smith 11. Internatio nal Petroleum 202-586-6925 Section [email protected] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Perry Lindstrom 12. Environment 202-586-0934 Section [email protected] / April Review Energy Monthly 2019 Administration Information Energy S. U. ii

5 Contents Page Section 1. Energy Overview ... 1 Section 2. Energy Consum ption by Sector ... 33 troleum ... 55 Section 3. Pe Section 4. Natu ral Gas ... 95 Section 5. Crude Oil and Natura l Gas Resource De velopment ... 105 Coal ... 111 Section 6. Section 7. Elect ricity ... 121 Section 8. Nucl ear Ener gy ... 145 Prices ... 151 Section 9. Energy Section 10. Renewa ble Energy ... 171 Section 11. Internatio nal Petrol eum ... 191 ronment ... 201 Section 12. Envi actors Appendix it Conversion F British Thermal Un A. ... 215 B. Metric Conversion Factors, Metric Prefixes, and Other Appendix Physical Conversi on Factors... 231 Appendix Population, U.S. Gross Domes C. tic Product, and U.S. Gross Output ... 235 Appendix D. Estimated Primary Energy Consumption in the United States, ... 237 Selected Years, 1635–1945 Alternative Approaches for Deriving Energy Contents of E. Appendix newables ... 239 Noncombustible Re ... 243 Glossary ... / April Review Energy Monthly 2019 Administration Information Energy S. U. iii

6 Tables Page Section 1. Energy Overview 1.1 Primary Energy Overview ... ... 3 urce ... Primary Energy Produ ction by So 1.2 ... 5 1.3 Primary Energy Consum ption by Source ... ... 7 ... 10 a Primary Energy Impor ts by Source ... 1.4 Primary Energy Exports by So 1 t Imports ... 1 urce and Total Ne b 1.4 1.5 ... 13 Merchandise Trade Value ... 5 Cost of Fuels to End Users in Real (1982–19 84) Dollars ... 1 1.6 1.7 Primary Energy Consumption, Energy Expenditures, and Carbon Dioxide Em issions Indicators ... 17 1.8 Motor Vehicle Mileage, Fuel Cons umption, and Fuel Economy ... 19 1.9 Heating Degree Days by Census Division ... ... 20 ... 21 Cooling Degree Days by 1.10 Census Division ... a 1.11 ical Un its ... 22 Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels in Phys ... 23 mbustion Use of Fossil Fuels ... Heat Content of Non-Co 1.11b Section 2. Energy Consumption by Sector Energy Consumption by Sector... 2.1 ... 35 ... 37 2.2 Residential Sector En ergy Cons umption ... Commercial Sector En ergy Consumption ... ... 39 2.3 ... 41 umption ... ergy Cons Industrial Sector En 2.4 ... 43 Energy Consumption ... Transportation Sector 2.5 2.6 Electric Power Sector Energy Consumption ... ... 45 cal Years ... 46 n by Agency, Fis 2.7 U.S. Government Energy Consumptio n by Source, Fis U.S. Government Energy Consumptio cal Years ... 47 2.8 Section 3. Petroleum 3.1 ... 57 Petroleum Overview... tion Produc Refinery and Blender Net In puts and Net 3.2 ... 59 3.3 Petroleum Trade ... 61 3.3a Overview ... ... 63 3.3b Imports by Type ... .. 64 3.3c Imports From OPEC Countries ... 3.3d Imports From No 5 n-OPEC Countries ... 6 ... 66 by Type ... 3.3e Exports ry of Des 3.3f Exports by Count .. 67 n ... tinatio ... 69 Petroleum Stocks ... 3.4 ... 71 3.5 Petroleum Products Supplied by Type ... by Type ... 7 Heat Content of Petroleum Pr 3 3.6 oducts Supplied Petroleum Consumption 3.7 Commercial Sectors ... 75 3.7a Residential and ... 76 rial Sector ... 3.7b Indust 3.7 c Transportation and Elect ric Power S ectors ... 77 Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption 3.8 3.8a Residential and Commercial Sectors ... 80 rial Sector ... ... 81 3.8b Indust ectric Power 3.8c Transportation and El 2 Sectors ... 8 Section 4. Natural Gas 4.1 Natural Gas Overview ... ... 97 4.2 ... 98 e by Country ... Natural Gas Trad ... 99 Natural Gas Consump ector ... 4.3 tion by S rground Storage ... Natural Gas in Unde 4.4 ... 100 / April Review Energy Monthly 2019 Administration Information Energy S. U. iv

7 Tables Page Section 5. Crude Oil and Na tural Gas Resource Development Crude Oil and Natural Gas Drilli 5.1 ements ... 107 ng Activity Measur 5.2 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Explorat ory and Developm ent Wells ... 108 Section 6. Coal 6.1 view ... ... 113 Coal Over Coal Consumpti on by Sector ... ... 114 6.2 by Sector ... Coal Stocks 6.3 ... 115 Section 7. Electricity Overview ... ... 123 Electricity 7.1 7.2 Electricity Net Generation 7.2a Total (A ll Sector s) ... ... 125 ... 126 wer Sector ... 7.2b Electric Po c Commercial and Indu 7 strial Sectors ... 12 7.2 7.3 Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation ... 129 ll Sector s) ... 7.3a Total (A ... 130 wer Sector ... 7.3b Electric Po Fuels) ... 131 ctors (Selected c Commercial and Industrial Se 7.3 7.4 Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output 7.4a Total (A s) ... ... 133 ll Sector 7.4b Electric Po wer Sector ... ... 134 c Commercial and Industrial Se ctors (Selected Fuels) ... 135 7.4 Stocks of Coal and Petroleum: 7.5 37 Electric Power Sector ... 1 ... 139 7.6 Electricity End Use ... Section 8. Nuclear Energy 8.1 Nuclear Ener gy Overview ... ... 147 8.2 Uranium Overview ... ... 149 Section 9. Energy Prices 9.1 Crude Oil Pric e Summary ... ... 153 Countrie F.O.B. Costs of Crude Oil Import s ... 154 s From Selected 9.2 Landed Costs of Crude Oil Imports Countries ... 155 From Selected 9.3 Prices ... 156 9.4 Retail Motor Gasoline and On-Highw ay Diesel Fuel el Oil ... sidual Fu Refiner Prices of Re 9.5 ... 157 r Resale ... .. 158 eum Products fo Refiner Prices of Petrol 9.6 Refiner Prices of Petroleu 159 m Products to End Users ... 9.7 ... 161 ricity ... of Elect 9.8 Average Retail Prices Electric Genera ts ... 1 63 ting Plan 9.9 Cost of Fossil-Fuel Receipts at Prices ... Natural Gas 9.10 ... 165 Section 10. Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Production and Source ... 173 Consumption by 10.1 10.2 Renewable Energy Consumption nd Commercial Sectors ... 10.2a Residential a . 174 Transportati 10.2b Industrial and ... 175 on Sectors ... c Electric Po or ... ... 176 wer Sect 10.2 10.3 Fuel Ethanol ... 177 Overview ... Biodiesel and Other Rene 10.4 178 wable Fuels Overview ... ... 179 Solar Energy 10.5 Consumption ... 10.6 ... 180 Net Generation ... Solar Electricity / April Review Energy Monthly 2019 Administration Information Energy S. U. v

8 Tables Page Section 11. International Petroleum 11.1 World Crude Oil Production 11.1a OPEC Members ... ... 194 , Non-OPEC, an ... 195 11.1b Persian Gulf Nations d World 197 in OECD Countries ... Petroleum Consumption 11.2 Petroleum Stocks in OECD Countries ... ... 199 11.3 Section 12. Environment gy Consumption by Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Ener Source ... 203 12.1 ector ... 205 Residential S om Energy Consumption: Carbon Dioxide Emissions Fr 12.2 12.3 Carbon Dioxide Emissions Fr om Energy Consumption: Commercial Sector ... 206 12.4 Carbon Dioxide Emissions Fr om Energy Consumption: Industrial S ector ... 207 om Energy Consumption: Carbon Dioxide Emissions Fr 12.5 Sector ... 208 Transportation Sector ... 209 12.6 Carbon Dioxide Emissions Fr om Energy Consumption: Electric Power 12.7 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Bi omass Energy Co nsumption ... 210 Appendix A. British Thermal Unit Conversion Factors r Liquid s ... 216 Petroleum and Othe A1 Approximate Heat Content of A2 Approximate Heat Content of Petroleu m Production, Imports, and Exports ... 217 Approximate Heat Content of Petrol A3 Fuel Ethanol ... 218 eum Consumption and A4 Approximate Heat Co ntent of Na tural Gas ... ... 219 Coal Coke ... 220 of Coal and A5 Approximate Heat Content ity ... 221 A6 Approximate Heat Rates for Electricity , and Heat Content of Electric Prefixes, and Other Physical Conversion Factors Appendix B. Metric Conversion Factors, Metric B1 Metric Conver ... 232 sion Factors ... B2 Metric ... 233 Prefixes ... ... 233 B3 Other Physical Conversion Factors ... Appendix C. Population, U.S. Gross Domestic Product, and U.S. Gross Output C1 Population, U.S. Gross Domestic Product, and U.S. Gr oss Output ... 235 Appendix D. Estimated Primary Ener gy Consumption in the United States, Selected Years, 1635–1945 D1 lected Years, umption in the United States, Se 945 ... 237 Estimated Primary Energy Cons 1635 –1 for Deriving Energy Contents of Noncombustible Renewables Appendix E. Alternative Approaches E1 Noncombustible Renewable Primary Energy Consumption: wer, Geothermal, and Wind ... 241 E.1a Conventional Hydroelectric Po ... 242 d Total ... E.1b Solar an / April Review Energy Monthly 2019 Administration Information Energy S. U. vi

9 Figures Page Section 1. Energy Overview Overview ... Primary Energy 1.1 ... 2 1.2 Primary Energy Produc tion ... ... 4 ... 6 Consumption ... Primary Energy 1.3 1.4 ts and Exports ... Primary Energy Impor a ... 8 ... 9 Net Imports ... b Primary Energy 1.4 ... 12 Merchandise Trade Value ... 1.5 4 84) Dollars ... 1 Real (1982–19 Cost of Fuels to End Users in 1.6 gy Expenditures Indicators ... 16 Primary Energy Consumption and Ener 1.7 on, and Fuel Econom Motor Vehicle Mileage, Fuel Consumpti y, 1949–2016 ... 18 1.8 Section 2. Energy Consumption by Sector ... 34 Energy Consumption by Sector ... 2.1 ergy Consumption ... Residential Sector En 2.2 ... 36 ... 38 ergy Consumption ... Commercial Sector En 2.3 2.4 ergy Cons Industrial Sector En umption ... ... 40 Transportation Sector Energy Consumption ... ... 42 2.5 Energy Consumption ... Electric Power Sector 2.6 ... 44 Section 3. Petroleum Petroleum Overview ... ... 56 3.1 ... Refinery and Blender Net In Produc 58 tion puts and Net 3.2 Petroleum Trade 3.3 3.3a Overview ... ... 60 3.3 b Imports and Ex ... 62 ports by Type ... ... 68 3.4 Petroleum Stocks ... ... 70 Supplied by Type ... Petroleum Products 3.5 3.6 2 by Type ... 7 oducts Supplied Heat Content of Petroleum Pr 3.7 ... 74 tion by Sector ... Petroleum Consump 3.8 Heat Content of Petroleum Consumptio n by End-User Sect or, 1949–20 17 ... 78 a 3.8b Heat Content of Petroleum Consump tion by End-User S ector, Monthly ... 79 Section 4. Natural Gas l Gas ... 4.1 Natura ... 96 tural Gas Resource Development Section 5. Crude Oil and Na 5.1 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Reso urce Development Indicators ... 106 Section 6. Coal ... 112 6.1 Coal ... Section 7. Electricity Overview ... ... 122 7.1 Electricity ... 124 7.2 tion ... Electricity Ne t Genera 128 7.3 Consumption of Selected Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generati on ... 7.4 Consumption of Selected Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output ... ... 132 Stocks of Coal and Petroleum: 36 7.5 Electric Power Sector ... 1 Electricity 7.6 ... 138 End Use ... / April Review Energy Monthly 2019 Administration Information Energy S. U. vii

10 Figures Page Section 8. Nuclear Energy 8.1 Nuclear Ener gy Overview ... ... 146 ... 148 8.2 Uranium Overview ... Section 9. Energy Prices 9.1 Petroleum Prices ... ... 152 ... 160 ricity ... of Elect Average Retail Prices 9.2 9.3 Cost of Fossil-Fuel Receipts at Electric Genera 62 ts ... 1 ting Plan 9.4 ... 164 Prices ... Natural Gas Section 10. Renewable Energy gy Consumption ... 10.1 Renewable Ener ... 172 Section 11. International Petroleum 11.1 World Crude Oil Production 11.1a Overview ... ... 192 11.1b By Select ed Countries ... ... 193 on in OECD Countries... 11.2 Petroleum Consumpti ... 196 11.3 Petroleum Stocks in OECD Countries ... ... 198 Section 12. Environment gy Consumption by Source ... 202 12.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Ener 12.2 Sector ... 204 gy Consumption by Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Ener / April Review Energy Monthly 2019 Administration Information Energy S. U. viii

11 1. Energy Overview

12 Overview Energy Primary 1.1 Figure (Quadrillion Btu) Overview, 1949–2018 120 Consumption 100 80 Production 60 Imports 40 20 Exports 0 1955 1950 2015 2010 2005 2000 1995 1990 1985 1980 1975 1970 1965 1960 By Source, Monthly 12 10 Consumption 8 Production 6 4 Imports 2 Exports 0 J FMAM J J A SOND J FMAM J J A SOND J FMAM J J A SOND 2019 2018 2017 Net Imports, January Overview, January 2019 1.00 10 9.516 0.933 8.481 8 0.75 0.629 6 0.50 4 2.115 0.25 1.935 0.180 2 0.00 0 2019 2018 2017 Consumption Production Exports Imports http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary. Page: Web Source: Table 1.1. Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U. 2019 April Review 2

13 T able 1.1 Primary Energy Overview (Quadrillion Btu) Trade Production Consumption Stock Change Renew- Nuclear Nuclear Renew- Net Fossil Fossil and able Electric Electric able a b e d f c b Imports Exports Total Total Fuels Fuels Imports Other Power Energy Energy Power ... 32.563 0.000 1 35.540 1.913 1.465 0.448 -1.372 31.632 0.000 2.978 34.616 950 Total 2.978 955 Total 37.364 .000 2.784 40.148 2.790 2.286 .504 -.444 37.410 .000 2.784 40.208 1 ... 2.710 ... .006 2.928 42.803 4.188 1.477 39.869 -.427 42.137 .006 2.928 45.086 1 960 Total 965 Total ... 47.235 .043 3.396 50.674 5.892 1.829 4.063 -.722 50.577 .043 3.396 54.015 1 970 Total 1 .239 4.070 63.495 8.342 2.632 5.709 -1.367 63.522 .239 4.070 67.838 ... 59.186 ... 11.709 1.900 4.687 61.320 14.032 2.323 975 Total -1.065 65.357 1.900 4.687 71.965 1 54.733 12.101 980 Total 2.739 5.428 67.175 15.796 3.695 59.008 -1.210 69.828 2.739 5.428 78.067 1 ... 985 Total ... 57.539 4.076 6.084 67.698 11.781 4.196 7.584 1.110 66.093 4.076 6.084 76.392 1 14.065 990 Total 6.104 6.040 70.704 18.817 4.752 58.560 -.284 72.332 6.104 6.040 84.485 ... 1 995 Total ... 57.540 7.075 6.557 71.173 22.180 4.496 17.684 2.134 77.222 7.075 6.559 90.991 1 2 000 Total ... 57.366 7.862 6.102 71.330 28.865 3.962 24.904 2.543 84.694 7.862 6.104 98.776 2 001 Total 58.541 8.029 5.162 71.732 30.052 3.731 26.321 -1.924 82.865 8.029 5.160 96.129 ... 25.722 002 Total 8.145 5.731 70.710 29.331 3.608 56.834 1.172 83.662 8.145 5.726 97.605 2 ... 003 Total ... 56.033 7.960 5.942 69.935 31.007 4.013 26.994 .969 83.972 7.960 5.944 97.898 2 2 004 Total 55.942 8.223 6.063 70.228 33.492 4.351 29.141 .704 85.737 8.223 6.075 100.073 ... R 30.197 55.049 8.161 6.221 69.431 34.659 4.462 ... .540 85.689 8.161 2 6.234 100.168 005 Total 2 006 Total ... 55.934 8.215 6.586 70.735 34.649 4.727 29.921 -1.192 84.550 8.215 6.637 99.464 2 007 Total 56.429 8.459 6.510 71.398 34.679 5.338 29.341 .232 85.883 8.459 6.523 100.971 ... R R 26.021 8.426 008 Total 7.192 73.205 32.970 6.949 2 -.401 83.112 8.426 57.587 7.175 98.825 ... R 009 Total ... 56.661 8.355 22.770 7.625 72.641 29.690 6.920 2 -1.388 77.944 8.355 7.608 94.023 R R R .949 2 8.314 58.222 74.970 29.866 8.176 21.690 ... 80.818 8.434 8.434 8.267 97.608 010 Total R R R R 8.269 96.950 9.300 011 Total 78.136 28.748 10.373 18.375 .439 79.350 8.269 ... 9.204 60.567 2 R R R R ... 62.334 8.062 77.409 8.886 94.480 79.282 27.068 11.267 15.801 -.603 8.062 2 8.847 012 Total 2 013 Total 8.244 9.418 81.862 24.623 11.788 12.835 2.521 79.326 8.244 9.451 97.218 ... 64.200 R 8.338 9.766 87.746 23.241 12.270 10.971 -.336 80.122 8.338 9.740 ... 98.382 69.642 014 Total 2 R R R 10.892 9.729 2 88.325 23.794 12.902 015 Total -1.732 79.200 8.337 ... 9.720 97.484 70.259 8.337 R January ... .759 2 .876 7.238 2.103 1.099 1.004 .821 7.424 .759 .859 9.063 016 5.604 .426 5.265 .865 6.816 2.027 1.038 .989 .687 6.673 .687 .855 8.231 February ... R 5.506 .692 .942 7.140 2.135 1.167 .968 -.122 6.344 .692 .933 7.986 March ... R April ... .892 6.731 2.026 1.123 .904 -.183 5.894 .656 .887 7.452 5.183 .656 5.400 -.339 .902 6.998 2.165 1.243 .923 May ... 5.968 .696 .899 7.582 .696 .153 June ... .859 6.901 2.071 1.190 .881 .703 6.358 .703 .853 7.935 5.340 R 5.532 .736 .871 7.138 2.254 1.131 1.123 .208 6.837 .736 .872 8.469 July ... .315 August ... .822 7.197 2.211 1.186 1.025 .748 6.943 .748 .823 8.537 5.627 R 5.384 .685 .789 6.857 2.098 1.184 .914 -.025 6.258 .685 .787 7.745 September ... R October ... 5.642 .635 .836 7.113 2.058 1.124 .934 -.395 6.167 .635 .831 7.651 November ... .835 7.034 2.105 1.263 .842 -.163 6.178 .682 .833 7.713 5.517 .682 .750 5.509 December ... 7.199 2.124 1.372 .752 1.128 7.379 .750 .935 9.080 .941 R R R R 8.427 11.259 10.428 84.362 25.378 14.119 1.824 78.424 8.427 Total 10.368 ... 97.445 65.507 .933 017 .765 .926 7.311 2.315 1.382 5.620 .738 7.292 .765 .904 8.982 January ... 2 February ... 5.209 .665 .867 6.741 1.959 1.387 .572 .309 6.089 .665 .852 7.623 R R 5.698 .681 2.195 1.023 7.401 1.467 .728 .301 6.723 .681 March ... 1.010 8.430 -.254 .997 7.023 2.112 1.429 .683 .593 5.851 .593 .993 7.452 5.433 April ... R 5.663 .641 1.035 7.340 2.264 1.459 .805 -.344 6.110 .641 1.034 7.800 May ... R R 5.610 .701 .688 .991 7.302 2.117 1.430 -.025 6.254 .701 June ... .992 7.964 R R 8.433 .746 .932 7.425 2.129 1.459 .670 .337 6.742 .746 .927 5.747 July ... R 1.392 5.895 .757 .874 7.526 2.153 August ... .760 .011 6.652 .757 .869 8.298 7.630 September ... 5.670 .712 .852 7.234 1.993 1.481 .512 -.116 6.060 .712 .842 R 7.838 .914 7.603 .690 6.223 -.146 .382 1.686 2.067 October ... 5.988 .690 .924 R .905 1.671 .356 .214 6.517 .697 2.027 7.559 8.130 November ... 5.941 .697 .921 .771 6.066 December ... .417 9.229 .940 .771 7.504 1.016 1.718 2.136 7.795 .959 R R R R 7.507 11.301 68.541 88.261 25.467 17.960 ... 2.042 78.017 8.419 8.419 11.181 97.809 Total R R R R R R R 7.748 1.602 2.231 .781 5.965 January ... .629 018 1.277 7.872 .781 2 .989 9.655 1.002 R R R R R R R 1.516 1.864 February ... .949 .347 5.576 .526 7.203 6.463 .678 .924 8.077 .678 R R R R R R R 2.119 7.964 1.033 6.230 1.691 .701 .427 .293 6.950 .701 1.018 March ... 8.684 R R R R R R -.052 2.126 5.940 1.782 .618 .343 1.034 6.239 .618 1.016 7.593 7.884 April ... R R R R R R R May ... 7.964 2.145 6.197 1.751 .394 .704 -.339 6.248 .704 1.053 1.063 8.019 R R R R R R 7.875 6.095 2.176 June ... 1.759 .729 .417 1.051 -.148 6.365 .729 1.036 8.144 R R R R R R R R July ... .758 8.098 .179 .946 6.905 .331 .930 1.830 8.607 .758 2.161 6.394 R R R R R R R 6.666 2.194 .756 .958 .476 August ... -.162 8.380 6.979 .756 .943 8.694 1.718 R R R R R R R 7.976 2.001 September ... 1.752 .249 7.860 6.425 -.365 .677 6.318 .677 .854 .874 R R R R R R R .912 8.246 1.976 October ... 1.895 8.095 .081 6.713 -.232 .621 6.570 .621 .894 R R R R R R R .669 .928 November ... 8.168 1.887 1.947 .908 -.060 8.477 .369 6.572 6.891 .669 R R R R R R R R R R .558 8.487 1.949 .970 .010 .749 1.959 6.767 7.342 .749 December ... .953 9.054 R R R R R R R R R R 8.441 75.540 95.703 ... 24.838 Total 21.193 11.722 3.645 1.903 11.518 81.141 8.441 101.251 .954 9.516 2.115 8.481 .979 .771 .855 6.731 January ... .180 019 2 1.935 7.776 .771 a ry Coal, natural gas (dry), crude oil, and natural gas plant liquids. Notes: See "Primary Energy," "Primary Energy Production," and "Prima • b See Tables 10.1–10.2c for notes on series components and estimation; and Energy Consumption," in Glossary. Totals may not equal sum of componen • ts Geographic coverage is the 50 states and th • due to independent rounding. ee Note, "Renewable Energy Production and Consumption," at end of Section 10. s e c District of Columbia. Net imports equal imports minus exports. d el Includes petroleum stock change and adjustments; natural gas net storage Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary (Exc ithdrawals and balancing item; coal stock change, losses, and unaccounted for; w and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da ta uel ethanol stock change; and biodiesel stock change and balancing item. f beginning in 1973. e Coal, coal coke net imports, natural gas, and petroleum. k • Stoc Sources: • Production: Table 1.2. • Tables 1.4a and 1.4b. Trade: f Also includes electricity net imports. Change and Other: s. Calculated as consumption minus production and net import Table 1.3. • Consumption: R=Revised. Monthly U. 3 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

14 1.2 Primary Energy Figure Production Btu) (Quadrillion By Source, 1949–2018 35 30 Coal 25 20 Natural Gas 15 Crude Oil and NGPL [a] 10 5 Renewable Energy Nuclear Electric Power 0 1980 1975 1970 1985 2015 2010 2005 2000 1995 1965 1990 1950 1955 1960 By Source, Monthly 3.0 Natural Gas 2.5 Crude Oil and NGPL [a] 2.0 Coal 1.5 Renewable Energy 1.0 0.5 Nuclear Electric Power 0.0 J FMAMJ J ASONDJ FMAMJ J ASONDJ FMAMJ J ASOND 2019 2018 2017 By Source, January 2019 Total, January 10 Natural Gas 2.845 8.481 7.748 8 7.311 Crude Oil and NGPL [a] 2.618 6 Coal 1.267 4 Renewable Energy 0.979 2 Nuclear Electric Power 0.771 0 2017 2018 2019 0.0 2.0 2.5 1.5 1.0 3.0 0.5 [a] liquids. plant gas National Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary. 1.2. Source: Table Administration Information Energy S. U. 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / 4

15 T able 1.2 Primary Energy Production by Source (Quadrillion Btu) a Renewable Energy Fossil Fuels Natural Nuclear Hydro- electric Gas Crude Bio- Geo- Electric b d e c Wind Coal Total NGPL Total Solar Total Power Oil mass thermal Power (Dry) ... 14.060 6.233 11.447 0.823 32.563 0.000 1.415 1 NA NA 1.562 2.978 35.540 950 Total NA 955 Total 12.370 9.345 14.410 1.240 37.364 .000 1.360 NA NA NA 1.424 2.784 40.148 1 ... (s) ... 12.656 14.935 1.461 39.869 .006 1.608 10.817 NA NA 1.320 2.928 42.803 1 960 Total 965 Total ... 13.055 15.775 16.521 1.883 47.235 .043 2.059 .002 NA NA 1.335 3.396 50.674 1 970 Total 1 21.666 20.401 2.512 59.186 .239 2.634 .006 NA NA 1.431 4.070 63.495 ... 14.607 .034 975 Total 19.640 17.729 2.374 54.733 1.900 3.155 14.989 NA NA 1.499 4.687 61.320 1 ... 980 Total ... 18.598 19.908 18.249 2.254 59.008 2.739 2.900 .053 NA NA 2.475 5.428 67.175 1 .097 985 Total 16.980 18.992 2.241 57.539 4.076 2.970 19.325 (s) (s) 3.016 6.084 67.698 ... 1 990 Total ... 22.488 18.326 15.571 2.175 58.560 6.104 3.046 .171 .059 .029 2.735 6.040 70.704 1 .152 995 Total ... 22.130 19.082 13.887 2.442 57.540 7.075 3.205 .068 1 .033 3.099 6.557 71.173 2 000 Total 22.735 19.662 12.358 2.611 57.366 7.862 2.811 .164 .063 .057 3.006 6.102 71.330 ... .164 001 Total 20.166 12.282 2.547 58.541 8.029 2.242 23.547 .062 .070 2.624 5.162 71.732 2 ... 002 Total ... 22.732 19.382 12.160 2.559 56.834 8.145 2.689 .171 .060 .105 2.705 5.731 70.710 2 2 003 Total 22.094 19.633 11.960 2.346 56.033 7.960 2.793 .173 .058 .113 2.805 5.942 69.935 ... 2.688 2 22.852 19.074 11.550 2.466 55.942 8.223 ... .178 .058 .142 2.996 6.063 70.228 004 Total 2 005 Total ... 23.185 18.556 10.974 2.334 55.049 8.161 2.703 .181 .058 .178 3.101 6.221 69.431 .181 2 19.022 10.767 2.356 55.934 8.215 2.869 23.790 .061 .264 3.212 6.586 70.735 ... 006 Total R ... 23.493 19.786 10.741 2.409 56.429 8.459 2.446 .186 2 .066 .341 3.472 6.510 71.398 007 Total R 008 Total ... 23.851 20.703 10.613 2.419 57.587 8.426 2.511 .192 .074 .546 3.868 2 7.192 73.205 R .078 21.624 21.139 11.324 2.574 56.661 8.355 2.669 .200 ... .721 3.957 2 7.625 72.641 009 Total R R R 22.038 21.806 11.596 2.781 58.222 8.434 2.539 .208 2 .091 .923 4.553 74.970 8.314 ... 010 Total R R R 011 Total ... 22.221 23.406 11.970 2.970 60.567 8.269 3.103 .212 9.300 .112 1.168 4.704 78.136 2 R R R 2 3.246 62.334 8.062 2.629 .212 012 Total .159 1.340 4.547 24.610 8.886 13.801 79.282 ... 20.677 .225 ... 15.807 3.532 64.200 8.244 2.562 .214 24.859 1.601 4.816 9.418 81.862 013 Total 2 20.001 ... 20.286 26.718 18.542 4.096 69.642 8.338 2.467 .214 .337 1.728 5.020 9.766 87.746 2 014 Total R R R ... 4.567 70.259 8.337 2.321 .212 28.067 .427 1.777 4.992 015 Total 9.729 19.679 88.325 2 17.946 R .018 2.365 1.631 .385 5.604 .759 .236 1.222 .026 .170 .425 January ... .876 7.238 2 016 February ... 1.156 2.243 1.503 .363 5.265 .687 .223 .017 .035 .186 .404 .865 6.816 March ... 1.611 .409 5.506 .692 .253 .018 .043 .203 .425 .942 7.140 1.115 2.371 R .048 1.522 .398 5.183 .656 .239 .016 2.293 .192 .396 April ... .892 6.731 .971 May ... 1.069 2.342 1.565 .423 5.400 .696 .235 .018 .055 .174 .420 .902 6.998 .056 June ... 1.488 .408 5.340 .703 .215 .017 2.245 .151 .421 .859 6.901 1.198 R R 2.339 1.532 .415 5.532 .736 .198 .017 .062 .163 .431 July ... .871 7.138 1.246 .748 August ... 1.376 2.320 1.538 .393 5.627 7.197 .181 .018 .061 .125 .437 .822 R 1.462 .382 5.384 .685 .151 .017 .055 .151 .413 September ... .789 6.857 1.309 2.231 R .049 1.559 .408 5.642 .635 .160 .018 2.296 .188 .421 October ... .836 7.113 1.379 November ... 1.350 2.241 1.526 .401 5.517 .682 .174 .018 .041 .179 .423 .835 7.034 .214 December ... 1.557 .386 5.509 .750 .208 .019 .037 2.289 .464 .941 7.199 1.276 R R R 14.667 27.576 18.494 4.770 65.507 8.427 2.472 .210 .570 2.096 5.081 10.428 Total 84.362 ... R 017 January ... 1.382 2.281 1.568 .389 5.620 .765 .247 .018 2 .034 .183 .445 .926 7.311 February ... 2.078 1.456 .376 5.209 .665 .218 .016 .040 .195 .398 .867 6.741 1.300 R R .018 1.622 .423 5.698 .681 .270 March ... .063 .230 .442 2.354 1.023 7.401 1.299 April ... 1.184 2.281 1.560 .409 5.433 .593 .271 .018 .069 .227 .412 .997 7.023 R .081 2.353 1.626 .432 5.663 .641 .298 .017 1.252 .207 .432 1.035 7.340 May ... R R 1.335 2.295 1.558 .422 5.610 .701 .278 .016 7.302 .087 .183 .427 June ... .991 7.425 July ... 1.271 2.400 1.638 .438 5.747 .746 .244 .018 .083 .147 .439 .932 R 5.895 .018 7.526 .874 .450 .125 .080 .432 August ... 1.424 2.400 1.640 .201 .757 R .074 .852 .017 .176 .712 5.670 .414 1.630 2.357 1.269 September ... 7.234 .421 .164 October ... 1.721 .461 5.988 .690 .168 .017 .068 .233 .438 .924 7.603 1.336 2.470 .017 November ... 1.735 .456 5.941 .697 .189 2.455 .050 .222 .443 .921 7.559 1.296 December ... 1.277 .455 1.781 6.066 .771 .206 .020 .049 .226 .458 .959 7.795 2.552 R R R 15.625 28.274 19.535 5.107 68.541 8.419 .210 .777 2.343 5.204 Total 11.301 ... 88.261 2.767 R E E R R .437 2 2.502 018 1.768 January ... .247 5.965 .781 .236 .018 .050 .451 1.002 1.259 7.748 E E R R R R R .222 5.576 .678 .235 .017 .058 2.302 1.223 .417 1.637 .949 .415 7.203 February ... E E R R R R R 1.850 .476 6.230 1.329 .701 .239 .018 .076 .251 .448 2.574 1.033 March ... 7.964 R E E R R 5.940 1.177 1.793 .471 April ... .618 .253 .017 .089 .247 .429 1.034 2.500 7.593 R R R R E E R R 6.197 1.063 1.241 7.964 2.611 .217 1.851 .493 .100 May ... .704 .280 .019 .447 E E R R R .478 1.827 2.541 1.051 1.249 .445 June ... .225 .107 .018 .258 .729 6.095 7.875 R E E R R 6.394 2.678 July ... 1.934 .504 .946 8.098 .758 .221 .019 .100 .148 .459 1.278 R R E E R 2.735 1.406 8.380 .958 2.003 .522 August ... 6.666 .756 .197 .019 .099 .180 .464 R R R E E 6.425 .512 September ... 1.266 2.684 1.963 7.976 .677 .172 .018 .090 .166 .428 .874 R E R R E R October ... 6.713 .173 .523 2.044 .912 2.800 .451 1.345 .195 .076 8.246 .018 .621 R R RE RE R 6.572 8.168 1.273 .928 2.752 2.041 .505 November ... .440 .669 .204 .018 .058 .207 R R R R R RE RE R .229 .050 December ... 1.286 .454 2.854 .020 2.115 .511 .970 6.767 .749 .219 8.487 R R R RE RE R R R R 95.703 5.846 22.826 .951 31.535 .218 15.333 11.722 ... 2.688 8.441 75.540 5.332 Total 2.533 .979 .232 .055 .019 .226 .771 6.731 .448 2.099 2.845 1.267 January ... 019 2 8.481 .519 a R=Revised. E=Estimate. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Most data are estimates. See Tables 10.1–10.2c for notes on series c omponents and estimation; and see Note, "Renewable Energy Production and Notes: • See "Primary Energy Production" in Glossary. • Totals may not equ al sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is th e C onsumption," at end of Section 10. b 50 states and the District of Columbia. Beginning in 1989, includes waste coal supplied. Beginning in 2001, also el Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary (Exc i ncludes a small amount of refuse recovery. See Table 6.1. c ta and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da Includes lease condensate. d beginning in 1973. Natural gas plant liquids. e Conventional hydroelectric power. Sources: See end of section. Monthly U. 5 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

16 Consumption Figure 1.3 Primary Energy Btu) (Quadrillion By Source, [a] 1949–2018 45 Petroleum 30 Natural Gas Coal 15 Nuclear Electric Power Renewable Energy 0 2010 2005 2000 1995 1990 1975 1970 1965 1960 1955 1950 1985 1980 2015 By Source, [a] Monthly 4 Petroleum 3 Natural Gas 2 Renewable Energy Coal 1 Nuclear Electric Power 0 JFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASOND 2017 2019 2018 By Source, [a] January 2019 Total, January 12 Natural Gas 3.504 9.655 9.516 10 8.982 Petroleum 3.118 8 6 Coal 1.157 4 Renewable Energy 0.954 2 Nuclear Electric Power 0.771 0 2019 2018 2017 0.5 3.5 4.0 1.5 0.0 1.0 2.0 2.5 3.0 not shown. of imports net electricity and coke are [a] Small quantities of coal http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary. Page: Web Source: 1.3. Table 6 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U.

17 T able 1.3 Primary Energy Consumption by Source (Quadrillion Btu) a b Renewable Energy Fossil Fuels Nuclear Hydro- electric Bio- Petro- Geo- Natural Electric e d f c g Power leum thermal Gas mass Wind Total Solar Total Coal Power Total 12.347 5.968 13.315 31.632 0.000 1.415 ... NA NA 1.562 2.978 34.616 950 Total 1 NA ... 11.167 8.998 17.255 37.410 .000 1.360 NA NA NA 1.424 2.784 40.208 1 955 Total 960 Total 9.838 12.385 19.919 42.137 .006 1.608 (s) NA NA 1.320 2.928 45.086 1 ... .002 ... 15.769 23.246 50.577 .043 2.059 11.581 NA NA 1.335 3.396 54.015 1 965 Total 970 Total ... 12.265 21.795 29.521 63.522 .239 2.634 .006 NA NA 1.431 4.070 67.838 1 975 Total 1 19.948 32.732 65.357 1.900 3.155 .034 NA NA 1.499 4.687 71.965 ... 12.663 .053 980 Total 20.235 34.205 69.828 2.739 2.900 15.423 NA NA 2.475 5.428 78.067 1 ... 985 Total ... 17.478 17.703 30.925 66.093 4.076 2.970 .097 (s) (s) 3.016 6.084 76.392 1 .171 990 Total 19.603 33.552 72.332 6.104 3.046 19.173 .059 .029 2.735 6.040 84.485 ... 1 995 Total ... 20.089 22.671 34.401 77.222 7.075 3.205 .152 .068 .033 3.101 6.559 90.991 1 ... 000 Total .063 22.580 23.824 38.226 84.694 7.862 2.811 .164 2 .057 3.008 6.104 98.776 2 001 Total 21.914 22.773 38.149 82.865 8.029 2.242 .164 .062 .070 2.622 5.160 96.129 ... .171 002 Total 23.510 38.187 83.662 8.145 2.689 21.904 .060 .105 2.701 5.726 97.605 2 ... 003 Total ... 22.321 22.831 38.770 83.972 7.960 2.793 .173 .058 .113 2.806 5.944 97.898 2 2 004 Total 22.466 22.923 40.210 85.737 8.223 2.688 .178 .058 .142 3.008 6.075 100.073 ... R .181 22.797 22.565 40.283 85.689 8.161 2.703 ... .058 .178 3.114 2 6.234 100.168 005 Total 2 006 Total ... 22.447 22.239 39.803 84.550 8.215 2.869 .181 .061 .264 3.262 6.637 99.464 R 2 22.749 23.663 39.445 85.883 8.459 2.446 .186 007 Total .066 .341 3.485 6.523 100.971 ... R .192 22.387 23.843 36.841 83.112 8.426 2.511 ... .074 .546 3.851 2 7.175 98.825 008 Total 2 009 Total ... 19.691 23.416 34.860 77.944 8.355 2.669 .200 .078 .721 3.940 7.608 94.023 R R .091 24.575 35.416 80.818 8.434 2.539 .208 2 ... .923 4.506 20.834 8.267 97.608 010 Total R R R 19.658 24.955 34.727 79.350 8.269 3.103 .212 96.950 .112 1.168 4.609 011 Total 9.204 ... 2 R R R .212 ... 26.089 33.939 77.409 8.062 2.629 17.378 012 Total .159 1.340 4.508 2 8.847 94.480 2.562 97.218 2 013 Total ... 18.039 26.805 34.500 79.326 8.244 .214 .225 1.601 4.848 9.451 R 2 27.383 34.763 80.122 8.338 2.467 .214 .337 1.728 4.994 9.740 014 Total 98.382 ... 17.998 R R .427 79.200 8.337 2.321 .212 ... 28.191 1.777 4.983 35.478 9.720 97.484 015 Total 15.549 2 January ... 1.297 3.201 2.927 7.424 .759 .236 .018 .026 .170 .408 .859 9.063 2 016 1.074 2.853 6.673 .687 .223 .017 .035 .186 .395 .855 8.231 February ... 2.746 R .043 3.039 6.344 .692 .253 .018 2.438 .203 .416 March ... .933 7.986 .867 April ... .844 2.156 2.895 5.894 .656 .239 .016 .048 .192 .392 .887 7.452 May ... 2.975 5.968 .696 .235 .018 .055 .174 .417 .899 7.582 .960 2.033 1.314 .056 2.974 6.358 .703 .215 .017 June ... .151 .415 .853 7.935 2.070 R July ... 3.047 6.837 .736 .198 .017 2.262 .062 .163 .432 .872 8.469 1.529 August ... 1.521 2.285 3.139 6.943 .748 .181 .018 .061 .125 .438 .823 8.537 .055 September ... 2.948 6.258 .685 .151 .017 2.015 .151 .412 .787 7.745 1.296 October ... 1.147 1.991 3.031 6.167 .635 .160 .018 .049 .188 .417 .831 7.651 2.926 November ... 1.022 2.235 .421 6.178 .682 .174 .018 .041 .179 .833 7.713 December ... 2.967 3.062 7.379 .750 .208 .019 .037 .214 .457 .935 9.080 1.352 R R R .570 35.817 78.424 8.427 2.472 .210 ... 2.096 5.020 14.226 10.368 28.400 97.445 Total R January ... 1.313 3.012 2.970 7.292 .765 .247 .018 2 .034 .183 .422 017 8.982 .904 1.011 2.418 2.661 6.089 .665 .218 .016 .040 .195 .383 .852 7.623 February ... R R 2.608 3.087 6.723 .681 .270 .018 1.029 .063 .230 .429 1.010 8.430 March ... April ... .937 1.995 2.920 5.851 .593 .271 .018 .069 .227 .408 .993 7.452 .207 3.093 6.110 .641 .298 .017 .081 1.953 .431 1.034 7.800 1.066 May ... R R 1.972 3.067 6.254 .701 .278 .016 .087 .183 .428 June ... .992 7.964 1.218 R R 1.433 2.212 3.099 6.742 .746 .244 .018 .083 .147 .434 .927 July ... 8.433 R R 2.163 3.137 6.652 .757 .201 .018 1.356 .080 .125 .445 .869 8.298 August ... R September ... 1.140 1.983 2.939 6.060 .712 .176 .017 .074 .164 .411 .842 7.630 R October ... 1.051 2.097 3.080 6.223 .690 .168 .017 .068 .233 .427 7.838 .914 R .222 .050 8.130 .017 .697 .905 .426 November ... 1.069 2.433 3.018 6.517 .189 .049 .226 .439 .940 9.229 .206 .771 7.504 December ... 1.216 3.187 3.104 .020 R R R 8.419 78.017 36.174 28.034 13.837 ... Total 97.809 5.084 2.343 .777 11.181 .210 2.767 R R R .018 9.655 3.423 3.125 7.872 .781 .236 January ... .050 .247 .437 1.328 .989 018 2 R R R .961 2.792 2.711 February ... 6.463 .678 .235 .017 .058 .222 .391 .924 8.077 R R R R .939 2.867 3.146 6.950 .701 .239 .018 March ... .076 .251 .433 1.018 8.684 R R R 7.884 .863 April ... 2.416 2.963 6.239 .618 .253 .017 .089 .247 .411 1.016 R R R R R May ... 2.116 3.137 1.053 6.248 .704 .280 .019 .996 .100 .217 .437 8.019 R R .729 1.159 2.118 3.089 6.365 June ... .258 .018 .107 .225 .429 1.036 8.144 R R R R .019 .442 .148 .758 .221 July ... 8.607 1.310 .930 2.425 3.171 6.905 .100 R R R 8.694 1.308 .943 August ... .448 .180 .099 .019 .197 .756 6.979 3.284 2.388 R R R R 6.318 .018 1.120 7.860 2.230 2.968 September ... .677 .172 .090 .166 .408 .854 R R R R .433 .195 8.095 .018 October ... .076 1.018 2.352 3.201 .894 6.570 .621 .173 R R R 3.033 2.780 1.082 .908 November ... .421 .207 .058 .018 .204 .669 6.891 8.477 R R R R R R .749 .050 .020 .953 9.054 7.342 .219 3.116 December ... .436 1.157 .229 3.071 R R R R R R R ... 101.251 5.128 2.533 .951 .218 2.688 8.441 81.141 36.945 30.979 13.242 Total 11.518 .055 2 .232 .226 .423 .771 7.776 .954 3.118 .019 1.157 9.516 019 January ... 3.504 a separately displayed. See Tables 1.4a and 1.4b. Includes non-combustion use of fossil fuels. b R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Most data are estimates. See Tables 10.1–10.2c for notes on series Notes: • See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossar omponents and estimation; and see Note, "Renewable Energy Production and c y. See Table D1 for estimated energy consumption for 1635–1945. onsumption," at end of Section 10. C • • y Totals ma c not equal sum of components due to independent roundin g. Natural gas only; excludes supplemental gaseous fuels. See Note 3, • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of Section 4. " d Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary (Exc Petroleum products supplied; excludes biofuels that have been blended with el ta etroleum—biofuels are included in "Biomass." p and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da e beginning in 1973. Includes coal coke net imports. See Tables 1.4a and 1.4b. f Sources: See end of section. Conventional hydroelectric power. g Includes coal coke net imports and electricity net imports, which are not Monthly U. 7 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

18 Figure Primary Energy Imports and 1.4a Exports Btu) (Quadrillion Imports by Source, 1949–2018 35 Petroleum 30 25 20 15 10 Natural Gas 5 Other [a] 0 1990 1950 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1955 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Exports by Source, 1949–2018 16 14 12 10 8 Petroleum 6 4 Coal [b] 2 Natural Gas Electricity 0 1960 2015 2010 1995 2005 2000 1950 1955 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 Exports by Major Source, Monthly Imports by Source, Monthly 1.6 2.5 1.4 Petroleum Petroleum 2.0 1.2 1.0 1.5 0.8 1.0 0.6 Natural Gas 0.4 0.5 Natural Gas 0.2 Coal[b] Electricity Other [a] 0.0 0.0 JFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASOND JFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASOND 2017 2018 2019 2017 2018 2019 Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary. Web [a] Coal, coal coke, biomass, and electricity. Sources: 1.4b. and 1.4a coke. [b] coal Includes Tables 8 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U.

19 Energy Net 1.4b Primary Figure Imports (Quadrillion Btu) Total, 1949–2018 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 1980 1975 2015 2010 2005 2000 1995 1970 1990 1985 1950 1955 1960 1965 By Major Source, 1949–2018 24 Crude Oil [a] 18 12 6 Natural Gas Petroleum Products [b] 0 Coal -6 1990 1975 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 1970 1980 1985 1950 1955 1960 1965 By Major Source, Monthly Total, Monthly 1.0 2.0 0.8 Crude Oil [a] 1.0 0.6 0.4 Natural Gas 0.0 0.2 Coal 0.0 Petroleum Products [b] -1.0 -0.2 J FMAM J J ASOND J FMAM J J ASOND J FMAMJ J ASOND J FMAM J J ASOND J FMAM J J ASOND J FMAMJ J ASOND 2017 2018 2019 2017 2018 2019 biofuels. components. blending Strategic not include Does [a] Crude oil and lease condensate. Includes imports into the Reserve, which Petroleum began in 1977. http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary. Page: Web products, unfinished oils natural gasoline, and gasoline Petroleum [b] and 1.4a Tables Sources: 1.4b. 9 2019 April Review Energy U. / Administration Information Energy S. Monthly

20 T able 1.4a Primary Energy Imports by Source (Quadrillion Btu) Imports Petroleum Petroleum Coal Crude Natural a b c Oil Products Gas Coke Total Electricity Total Coal Biomass NA 0.009 0.000 1.056 0.830 1.886 0.011 0.007 1.913 ... 950 Total 1 ... .008 .003 .011 1.691 1.061 2.752 NA 1 2.790 955 Total .016 960 Total .007 .003 .161 2.196 1.802 3.999 NA .018 4.188 1 ... ... 2.748 .002 .471 2.654 965 Total 5.402 NA .012 5.892 1 .005 7.470 970 Total .004 .846 2.814 4.656 .001 NA .021 8.342 1 ... 975 Total ... .024 .045 .978 8.721 4.227 12.948 NA .038 14.032 1 980 Total 1 .016 1.006 11.195 3.463 14.658 NA .085 15.796 ... .030 ... 10.609 .014 .952 6.814 3.796 985 Total NA .157 11.781 1 .049 17.117 990 Total .019 1.551 12.766 4.351 .067 NA .063 18.817 1 ... 995 Total ... .237 .095 2.901 15.669 3.131 18.800 .001 .146 22.180 1 24.424 000 Total .094 3.869 19.783 4.641 .313 (s) .166 28.865 ... 2 001 Total ... .495 .063 4.068 20.348 4.946 25.294 .002 .131 30.052 2 4.677 002 Total .422 .080 4.104 19.920 ... 24.597 .002 .125 29.331 2 4.042 003 Total ... .626 .068 .104 21.060 5.105 26.165 .002 2 31.007 2 004 Total .682 .170 4.365 22.082 6.063 28.145 .013 .117 33.492 ... 005 Total ... .088 4.450 22.091 7.108 29.198 .012 .150 34.659 2 .762 29.139 006 Total .101 4.291 22.085 7.054 .906 .066 .146 34.649 2 ... 007 Total ... .909 .061 4.723 21.914 6.842 28.756 .055 .175 34.679 2 2 008 Total .855 .089 4.084 21.448 6.214 27.662 .085 .195 32.970 ... 009 Total 5.367 .566 .009 3.845 19.699 2 25.066 .027 .178 29.690 ... 5.219 2 .484 .030 3.834 20.140 ... 25.359 .004 .154 29.866 010 Total 2 011 Total ... .327 .035 3.555 19.595 5.038 24.633 .019 .178 28.748 2 012 Total .212 .028 3.216 19.239 4.122 23.361 .049 .202 27.068 ... 013 Total 4.169 .199 .003 2.955 16.957 2 21.126 .102 .236 24.623 ... 3.773 2 .252 .002 2.763 16.178 ... 19.951 .046 .227 23.241 014 Total 2 015 Total ... .256 .003 2.786 16.299 4.111 20.410 .079 .259 23.794 .353 2 .015 (s) .280 1.429 January ... 1.782 .003 .022 2.103 016 February ... .018 (s) .258 1.389 .339 1.728 .003 .019 2.027 1.503 .026 (s) .247 March ... .333 1.837 .005 .020 2.135 .016 April ... .017 (s) .247 1.382 .357 1.739 .008 2.026 .255 .001 .020 May ... 2.165 .019 .008 1.864 .376 1.488 1.373 2.071 June ... .002 .248 .398 1.771 .013 .023 .014 .402 1.519 .272 .022 July ... (s) 2.254 .026 .012 1.921 August ... (s) .269 1.504 .379 1.883 .014 .025 2.211 .021 September ... .343 .002 .244 1.460 1.804 .012 .018 2.098 .018 .350 .001 .237 1.420 .017 1.770 .013 .020 2.058 October ... November ... .016 (s) .237 1.457 .359 1.816 .015 .022 2.105 .319 (s) .288 1.467 .015 1.786 .017 .019 2.124 December ... Total ... .220 .006 3.082 17.392 4.309 21.700 .123 .248 25.378 .003 2 017 January ... .016 (s) .299 1.590 .383 1.973 .024 2.315 February ... (s) .261 1.334 .327 1.661 .004 .019 1.959 .013 March ... .337 (s) .288 1.531 1.869 .006 .021 2.195 .012 .342 (s) .244 1.489 .011 1.831 .006 .019 2.112 April ... May ... .023 (s) .250 1.592 .374 1.965 .008 .017 2.264 .355 .001 .246 1.468 .014 1.824 .013 .020 2.117 June ... July ... .021 (s) .257 1.484 .335 1.819 .012 .020 2.129 1.486 .018 (s) .254 August ... .361 1.847 .011 .022 2.153 September ... 1.993 .018 .004 1.725 .396 1.329 .235 (s) .011 .250 .013 October ... .012 (s) 1.441 .346 1.787 .004 2.067 .013 1.751 .358 1.393 .250 (s) .008 November ... .005 2.027 December ... (s) .285 1.460 .362 1.822 .004 .016 2.136 .009 17.597 ... .167 .001 3.118 4.277 21.874 .081 .224 25.467 Total R R 1.507 January ... (s) .010 .311 2 .381 1.888 .004 .018 018 2.231 R .318 .007 (s) .247 1.273 1.591 .003 .016 1.864 February ... March ... .011 (s) .281 1.432 .371 1.804 .004 .019 2.119 R .001 2.126 .015 .004 1.846 1.501 .345 April ... .010 .250 R R .001 .011 2.145 May ... .018 .004 1.877 .405 1.472 .235 R R .236 1.543 .010 (s) .363 1.906 .004 .019 June ... 2.176 R R .002 2.161 .018 1.871 .381 1.490 .255 July ... (s) .014 R 2.194 August ... .010 (s) .245 1.505 .409 1.914 .005 .021 R .221 September ... 2.001 .005 (s) 1.381 .375 1.756 .003 .015 R 1.727 1.375 .006 .223 .013 1.976 .001 .352 October ... .006 R 1.887 .218 (s) .279 .008 1.642 November ... .005 .013 1.363 R R R 1.658 .323 1.335 1.959 .014 (s) .018 .004 December ... .264 R R R 2.987 ... 24.838 .048 21.480 4.303 17.177 .199 .003 .122 Total .301 January ... 1.414 1.779 .365 (s) 019 2.115 .017 .005 .013 2 a Geographic coverage is the 50 state • components due to independent rounding. s Crude oil and lease condensate. Includes imports into the Strategic Petroleum R and the District of Columbia. eserve, which began in 1977. b Petroleum products, unfinished oils, natural gasoline, and gasoline blending el Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary (Exc omponents. Does not include biofuels. and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da c ta c beginning in 1973. Fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) and biodiesel. Sources: See end of section. R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Totals may not equal sum of • See "Primary Energy" in Glossary. • Notes: / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 10

21 T able 1.4b Primary Energy Exports by Source and Total Net Imports (Quadrillion Btu) Net Exports a Imports Petroleum Coal Crude Natural Petroleum d b c Coke Oil Products Gas Total Electricity Total Biomass Total Coal ... 0.786 0.010 1 0.202 0.440 0.642 NA 0.001 1.465 0.448 950 Total 0.027 955 Total 1.465 .013 .032 .067 .707 ... NA .002 2.286 .504 1 .774 960 Total 1 1.023 .009 .012 .018 .413 .431 NA .003 1.477 2.710 ... 1 ... 1.376 .021 .027 .006 .386 .392 NA .013 1.829 4.063 965 Total 970 Total .520 1.936 .061 .072 .029 1 .549 NA .014 2.632 5.709 ... .427 1 1.761 .032 .074 .012 ... .439 NA .017 2.323 11.709 975 Total 1 980 Total ... 2.421 .051 .049 .609 .551 1.160 NA .014 3.695 12.101 1 985 Total 2.438 .028 .056 .432 1.225 1.657 NA .017 4.196 7.584 ... 990 Total 1.594 2.772 .014 .087 .230 1 1.824 NA .055 4.752 14.065 ... 1.776 1 2.318 .034 .156 .200 ... 1.976 NA .012 4.496 17.684 995 Total 2 000 Total ... 1.528 .028 .245 .106 2.003 2.110 NA .051 3.962 24.904 1.956 2 1.265 .033 .377 .043 ... 1.999 (s) .056 3.731 26.321 001 Total 2 002 Total ... 1.032 .020 .520 .019 1.963 1.982 (s) .054 3.608 25.722 2.083 2 ... 1.117 .018 .686 .026 003 Total 2.110 .001 .082 4.013 26.994 1.253 2 004 Total ... .033 .862 .057 2.068 2.125 .001 .078 4.351 29.141 2 005 Total 1.273 .043 .735 .067 2.276 2.344 .001 .065 4.462 30.197 ... 006 Total ... .040 .730 .052 2.554 2.606 .005 .083 4.727 29.921 2 1.264 2.861 007 Total .036 .830 .058 2.803 1.507 .036 .069 5.338 29.341 2 ... 008 Total ... 2.071 .049 .972 .061 3.626 3.686 .089 .083 6.949 26.021 2 2 009 Total 1.515 .032 1.082 .093 4.101 4.194 .035 .062 6.920 22.770 ... 010 Total 4.691 2.101 .036 1.147 .088 2 4.780 .047 .065 8.176 21.690 ... 5.820 2 2.751 .024 1.519 .100 ... 5.919 .108 .051 10.373 18.375 011 Total 2 012 Total ... 3.087 .024 1.633 .143 6.261 6.404 .078 .041 11.267 15.801 2 013 Total 2.895 .021 1.587 .284 6.886 7.170 .076 .039 11.788 12.835 ... 014 Total 7.414 2.435 .023 1.528 .744 2 8.158 .081 .045 12.270 10.971 ... 8.153 2 1.852 .021 1.800 .964 ... 9.118 .080 .031 12.902 10.892 015 Total 2 016 January ... .114 .001 .170 .087 .713 .800 .013 .001 1.099 1.004 February ... (s) .164 .075 .666 .742 .014 .002 1.038 .989 .116 .818 .001 .197 .106 .712 .134 .016 .002 1.167 .968 March ... April ... .118 .001 .179 .107 .699 .807 .016 .002 1.123 .904 .788 .108 .001 .190 .140 May ... .928 .014 .001 1.243 .923 .881 1.190 .002 .014 .848 .757 .091 .185 .002 .139 June ... .746 1.123 July ... .084 .001 .095 .841 .012 .002 1.131 .190 .015 .822 .694 .128 .003 .128 August ... .216 1.025 1.186 .002 September ... .003 .204 .133 .716 .850 .016 .002 1.184 .914 .110 October ... .799 .004 .178 .089 .710 .017 .001 1.124 .934 .125 .842 .005 .230 .104 .738 .168 .016 .001 1.263 .842 November ... December ... .203 .002 .253 .083 .811 .894 .017 .002 1.372 .752 8.752 ... 1.546 .025 2.356 1.238 Total 9.990 .181 .021 14.119 11.259 2 017 January ... .182 .003 .274 .126 .778 .904 .017 .002 1.382 .933 .754 .170 .001 .257 .184 February ... .938 .018 .002 1.387 .572 1.467 March ... .197 .002 .274 .165 .807 .018 .003 .972 .728 April ... .001 .249 .194 .787 .981 .015 .004 1.429 .683 .178 .017 May ... .256 .195 .808 1.004 .001 .003 1.459 .805 .178 June ... .180 .003 .256 .149 .823 .016 .003 1.430 .688 .972 .177 .001 .251 .170 July ... 1.010 .018 .002 1.459 .670 .840 August ... .211 .004 .249 .145 .764 .910 .017 .003 1.392 .760 .990 .002 .253 .252 .738 .219 .015 .002 1.481 .512 September ... October ... .226 .005 .284 .306 .847 1.153 .016 .002 1.686 .382 .856 .235 .003 .291 .266 November ... 1.122 .016 .003 1.671 .356 .003 .417 .003 .024 1.152 .882 .271 1.718 .302 December ... .234 ... Total 2.388 7.507 17.960 .032 .206 12.108 9.684 2.424 3.196 .030 R R R .013 .304 .238 .826 1.064 .004 January ... .213 1.602 .004 .629 018 2 R R R R .279 .257 .729 .986 February ... .027 .004 .219 1.516 .001 .347 R R R .295 1.691 .229 .002 .427 .296 .840 1.136 .025 .004 March ... R R R .022 .282 .301 .899 1.201 .343 .006 .269 1.782 .003 April ... R R .234 .002 .276 .356 .861 1.217 May ... .018 .004 1.751 .394 R R R June ... 1.759 .246 .002 .264 .378 .843 1.220 .023 .004 .417 R R R .003 .017 1.268 .889 .379 .002 1.830 .308 July ... .331 .232 R R R .825 .476 .244 .001 .314 .310 1.135 .020 .004 August ... 1.718 R R R R September ... .249 .230 .001 1.752 .304 .363 .832 1.195 .017 .004 R R R 1.895 .081 .412 October ... .003 .259 .002 .308 .025 .884 1.297 R R R .004 .216 .003 .340 .913 1.361 .022 -.060 November ... 1.947 .448 R R R R R .003 .010 December ... 1.949 .217 .003 .365 .445 .895 1.341 .021 R R R R R 3.645 .047 .250 14.421 10.237 21.193 Total ... 4.184 2.809 .029 3.637 2 .180 1.935 .019 1.320 .863 .457 .366 .003 .226 January ... 019 .003 a Notes: • See "Primary Energy" in Glossary. • Totals may not equal sum of Net imports equal imports minus exports. b Geographic coverage is the 50 state • components due to independent rounding. s Crude oil and lease condensate. c and the District of Columbia. Petroleum products, unfinished oils, natural gasoline, and gasoline blending Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary (Exc omponents. Does not include biofuels. el c d Beginning in 2001, includes biodiesel. Beginning in 2010, also includes fuel ta and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da thanol (minus denaturant). Beginning in 2016, also includes wood and beginning in 1973. e Sources: See end of section. ood-derived fuels. w R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Monthly U. 11 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

22 1.5 Merchandise Trade Value Figure Dollars[a]) (Billion Imports and Exports, Monthly Imports and Exports, 1974–2018 250 3,000 Total Imports 2,500 200 2,000 Total Exports 150 1,500 Total Imports 100 1,000 50 Total Exports Energy Imports 500 Energy Imports Energy Exports Energy Exports 0 JFMAMJ JASONDJFMAMJ JASONDJFMAMJ JASOND 0 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 1975 1980 1985 1990 2018 2017 2019 Trade Balance, 1974–2018 Trade Balance, Monthly 200 25 100 Non-Energy 0 0 Energy -100 Energy -200 -25 -300 -400 -50 Non-Energy -500 -600 -75 -700 Total -800 -100 Total JFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASOND -900 1995 2000 1990 2005 2010 2015 1985 1980 1975 2018 2019 2017 Glossary. in Dollars” “Nominal See inflation. for adjusted not are Prices [a] Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary. 1.5. Source: Table / Administration Information 12 Energy S. U. 2019 April Review Energy Monthly

23 T able 1.5 Merchandise Trade Value a (Million Dollars ) b c Energy Non- Total Merchandise Petroleum Energy Balance Balance Exports Imports Balance Exports Imports Balance Exports Imports -22,010 ... 24,668 -23,876 3,444 25,454 792 18,126 99,437 103,321 -3,884 974 Total 1 975 Total ... 1 25,197 -24,289 4,470 26,476 -22,006 31,557 108,856 99,305 9,551 907 1 ... 2,833 78,637 -75,803 7,982 82,924 -74,942 55,246 225,566 245,262 -19,696 980 Total 53,917 985 Total 4,707 50,475 -45,768 9,971 ... -43,946 -73,765 218,815 336,526 -117,712 1 1 990 Total ... 6,901 61,583 -54,682 12,233 64,661 -52,428 -50,068 393,592 496,088 -102,496 1 995 Total 6,321 54,368 -48,047 10,358 59,109 -48,751 -110,050 584,742 743,543 -158,801 ... 135,367 2 10,192 119,251 -109,059 13,179 ... -122,188 -313,916 781,918 1,218,022 -436,104 000 Total 2 001 Total ... 8,868 102,747 -93,879 12,494 121,923 -109,429 -302,470 729,100 1,140,999 -411,899 115,748 2 8,569 102,663 -94,094 11,541 ... -104,207 -364,056 693,103 1,161,366 -468,263 002 Total 2 003 Total ... 10,209 132,433 -122,224 13,768 153,298 -139,530 -392,820 724,771 1,257,121 -532,350 -188,018 2 004 Total ... 13,130 179,266 -166,136 18,642 206,660 818,775 -462,912 1,469,704 -650,930 2 005 Total 250,068 -230,913 26,488 289,723 -263,235 -504,242 905,978 1,673,455 -767,477 ... 19,155 ... -297,789 299,714 -271,543 34,711 332,500 006 Total -519,515 1,036,635 1,853,938 -817,304 2 28,171 -323,262 007 Total 327,620 -294,327 41,725 364,987 33,293 -485,501 1,148,199 1,956,962 -808,763 2 ... 008 Total ... 61,695 449,847 -388,152 76,075 491,885 -415,810 -400,389 1,287,442 2,103,641 -816,199 2 -217,203 009 Total 251,833 -207,324 54,536 271,739 44,509 -286,379 1,056,043 1,559,625 -503,582 ... 2 010 Total ... 64,753 333,472 -268,719 80,625 354,982 -274,357 -361,005 1,278,495 1,913,857 -635,362 2 b b b 2 102,180 011 Total 431,866 ... -329,686 128,989 453,839 -324,850 -400,597 1,482,508 2,207,954 -725,447 2 012 Total 111,951 408,509 -296,558 136,054 423,862 -287,808 -442,638 1,545,821 2,276,267 -730,446 ... 379,758 2 123,218 363,141 -239,923 147,539 ... -232,219 -457,712 1,578,439 2,268,370 -689,931 013 Total 2 014 Total ... 127,818 326,709 -198,891 154,498 347,474 -192,976 -541,506 1,621,874 2,356,356 -734,482 190,501 2 85,890 177,455 -91,565 103,612 ... -86,889 -658,594 1,503,328 2,248,811 -745,483 015 Total -736,577 016 Total ... 74,703 142,900 -68,197 92,757 153,781 -61,024 -675,553 1,451,024 2,187,600 2 -61,285 -6,929 17,258 10,329 -8,314 15,772 017 7,458 January ... -68,214 185,672 117,458 2 10,634 -50,140 February ... 7,799 14,238 -6,439 15,420 -4,786 -45,354 119,252 169,392 -58,353 135,905 -51,783 -6,570 17,030 10,460 -8,179 15,889 7,710 March ... 194,258 April ... 14,440 -6,363 10,714 15,449 -4,735 -57,573 123,842 186,150 -62,308 8,077 May ... -6,307 16,226 -7,852 10,950 17,257 -66,508 127,782 200,597 -72,815 8,374 -5,507 15,081 -6,837 10,555 16,062 8,244 -60,199 132,741 198,447 -65,706 June ... July ... 8,820 13,991 -5,171 11,083 14,985 -3,902 -66,001 122,140 192,044 -69,903 -6,198 15,479 -7,680 10,302 16,500 7,799 -66,437 129,186 201,821 -72,635 August ... 130,278 September ... 8,446 14,155 -5,709 11,213 15,105 -3,892 -60,626 194,796 -64,518 October ... 10,237 15,247 -5,010 13,294 16,207 -2,913 -71,620 136,199 210,732 -74,533 November ... 16,158 -5,482 13,728 17,212 -3,484 -68,809 135,477 207,770 -72,293 10,676 -2,186 14,987 -4,103 14,112 16,298 10,884 -62,084 136,014 200,285 -64,270 December ... Total ... 104,525 181,662 -77,137 137,374 194,784 -57,410 -738,280 1,546,273 2,341,963 -795,690 -78,374 2 January ... 10,139 18,086 -7,947 13,231 19,944 -6,713 -71,661 125,219 203,593 018 15,947 9,504 14,996 -5,492 12,643 February ... -3,304 -56,179 128,057 187,540 -59,483 11,130 March ... 208,133 149,164 -55,775 -3,194 17,567 14,373 -5,492 16,622 -58,969 18,002 18,813 15,200 -6,030 11,972 April ... -64,010 -67,623 205,271 137,648 -3,613 -5,028 19,781 -7,683 15,557 20,585 12,098 -66,981 144,593 216,602 -72,009 May ... June ... 12,764 20,315 -7,551 15,865 21,188 -5,323 -62,319 145,134 212,775 -67,642 22,448 July ... 13,338 21,549 -8,211 16,988 -5,460 -78,051 133,429 216,940 -83,511 -7,275 21,667 -9,831 15,424 22,699 11,836 -75,450 139,760 222,485 -82,725 August ... -72,785 September ... 12,651 19,277 -6,626 16,022 20,207 -4,185 -68,600 139,262 212,047 146,983 -86,640 -2,607 20,737 236,230 18,130 -89,247 October ... 14,465 19,713 -5,248 16,930 -73,675 214,048 140,373 -74,464 789 17,719 -1,690 15,797 14,107 November ... 15,456 12,551 14,040 -1,489 16,467 December ... 1,011 -73,670 134,464 207,123 -72,659 -878,702 Total ... 146,555 219,845 -73,290 187,619 232,520 -44,901 -833,801 1,664,085 2,542,788 14,017 204,600 129,608 -75,022 30 15,589 15,619 12,021 -74,992 2 019 January ... -1,996 13,704 185,890 11,734 12,260 -526 14,687 February ... 983 -56,369 130,504 -55,386 -130,378 2-Month Total 23,755 26,277 -2,522 30,306 29,292 1,013 -131,391 260,112 390,490 35,891 -13,439 -10,017 -127,840 253,276 391,133 -137,857 25,874 2 018 2-Month Total 19,643 33,082 017 2-Month Total 355,064 -118,354 -14,753 15,257 30,010 20,963 32,678 -11,715 -106,639 236,710 2 a Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. n both government and nongovernment imports of merchandise from foreig b e Through 2010, data are for crude oil, petroleum preparations, liquefied countries into the U.S. customs territory, which comprises the 50 states, th ropane and butane, and other mineral fuels. Beginning in 2011, data are for District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. p Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summa etroleum products and preparations. ry p c (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in Petroleum, coal, natural gas, and electricity. Notes: See Note Monthly data are not adjusted for seasonal variations. • • 1974. Sources: See end of section. • , "Merchandise Trade Value," at end of section. Totals may not equal sum of 1 The U.S. import statistics reflect • omponents due to independent rounding. c Monthly U. 13 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

24 Users Dollars 1984) Figure 1.6 Cost of Fuels to End ‐ (1982 In Real Costs, 1960–2018 30 25 Residential Electricity [a] 20 15 10 Motor Gasoline [a] Dollars per Million Btu Residential Heating Oil [b] 5 Residential Natural Gas [a] 0 1995 1980 1975 1970 1965 2015 2010 2005 2000 1990 1960 1985 Residential Electricity, [a] Monthly Costs, January 2019 6 18 14.52 15 4 12 9 7.77 2 6 Cents per Kilowatthour Dollars per Million Btu 3.61 2019 2017 2018 3 0 0 JFMAMJJASOND Residential Natural Motor Residential Electricity [a] Gasoline [a] Gas [a] Motor Gasoline, [a] Monthly Residential Natural Gas, [a] Monthly 1.25 8 1.00 6 0.75 4 0.50 Dollars per Gallon 2 0.25 2018 2019 2017 2018 2017 2019 Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet 0.00 0 JFMAMJJASOND JFMAMJJASOND http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary. Page: Web Includes [a] Taxes. [b] Excludes Taxes. 1.6. Tables Sources: Dollars” Glossary. in “Real See Note: / Energy Review April 2019 Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 14

25 T able 1.6 Cost of Fuels to End Users in Real (1982–1984) Dollars Consumer Price Index, Residential Residential Residential c a b b b Electricity All Urban Consumers Natural Gas Heating Oil Motor Gasoline Dollars per Thousand Dollars per Dollars per Index Dollars per Dollars per Dollars per Dollars per Cents per Cubic Feet Gallon Million Btu Kilowatthour Million Btu Million Btu 1982–1984=100 Gallon Million Btu ... 29.6 NA NA NA NA NA 1 8.8 25.74 960 Average NA 965 Average 31.5 NA NA NA NA NA NA 7.6 22.33 1 ... ... NA NA NA NA 970 Average 2.81 2.72 5.7 16.62 1 38.8 3.18 975 Average NA NA NA NA 53.8 3.12 6.5 19.07 1 ... 980 Average ... 82.4 1.482 11.85 1.182 8.52 4.47 4.36 6.6 19.21 1 985 Average 1 107.6 1.112 8.89 0.979 7.06 5.69 5.52 6.87 20.13 ... 990 Average ... 0.931 7.44 0.813 5.86 4.44 4.31 5.99 17.56 1 130.7 3.98 995 Average 0.791 6.38 0.569 4.10 152.4 3.87 5.51 16.15 1 ... 000 Average ... 172.2 0.908 7.33 0.761 5.49 4.51 4.39 4.79 14.02 2 2 001 Average 177.1 0.864 6.98 0.706 5.09 5.44 5.28 4.84 14.20 ... 002 Average 4.52 179.9 0.801 6.47 0.628 2 4.39 4.28 4.69 13.75 ... 5.31 2 184.0 0.890 7.19 0.736 ... 5.23 5.09 4.74 13.89 003 Average 2 004 Average ... 188.9 1.018 8.23 0.819 5.91 5.69 5.55 4.74 13.89 ... 2 005 Average 195.3 1.197 9.68 1.051 7.58 6.50 6.33 4.84 14.18 2 006 Average 201.6 1.307 10.59 1.173 8.46 6.81 6.63 5.16 15.12 ... 007 Average ... 1.374 11.22 1.250 9.01 6.31 6.14 5.14 15.05 2 207.342 6.45 008 Average 1.541 12.67 1.495 10.78 215.303 6.28 5.23 15.33 2 ... 009 Average ... 214.537 1.119 9.24 1.112 8.02 5.66 5.52 5.37 15.72 2 2 010 Average 218.056 1.301 10.78 1.283 9.25 5.22 5.11 5.29 15.51 ... 011 Average NA 224.939 1.590 13.19 NA 2 4.90 4.80 5.21 15.27 ... NA 2 229.594 1.609 13.35 NA ... 4.64 4.53 5.17 15.17 012 Average 2 013 Average ... 232.957 1.538 12.77 NA NA 4.43 4.31 5.21 15.26 2 014 Average 236.736 1.447 12.01 NA NA 4.63 4.49 5.29 15.50 ... 015 Average NA 237.017 1.059 8.80 NA 2 4.38 4.22 5.34 15.64 ... NA 2 236.916 0.859 7.13 NA January ... 3.50 3.36 5.06 14.83 016 February ... 237.111 0.773 6.42 NA NA 3.53 3.39 5.12 15.01 NA 0.849 7.05 NA 238.132 3.86 3.71 5.27 15.46 March ... April ... 239.261 0.918 7.63 NA NA 4.03 3.88 5.20 15.23 NA 240.229 0.967 8.04 May ... NA 4.84 4.66 5.32 15.60 15.48 5.76 June ... 241.018 1.005 8.35 NA NA 5.99 5.28 7.90 0.950 240.628 July ... 6.62 15.44 5.27 6.88 NA NA NA 15.67 August ... 240.849 7.65 NA 7.31 7.03 5.35 0.921 6.95 NA NA 0.940 241.428 September ... 7.81 15.62 5.33 6.69 October ... 0.953 7.92 NA NA 5.68 5.47 5.15 15.11 241.729 November ... NA 0.931 7.73 NA 4.46 4.29 5.28 15.48 241.353 NA 0.948 7.88 NA 241.432 3.75 3.61 5.07 14.85 December ... Average ... 240.007 0.918 7.63 NA NA 4.19 4.03 5.23 15.33 NA 2 242.839 0.992 8.25 NA January ... 3.84 3.70 5.03 14.74 017 February ... 243.603 0.969 8.05 NA NA 4.11 3.96 5.25 15.39 NA 243.801 0.979 8.13 NA March ... 4.04 3.90 5.29 15.50 1.014 April ... 244.524 NA 8.43 NA 4.64 4.47 5.20 15.25 May ... 1.000 8.31 NA NA 5.42 5.22 5.34 15.65 244.733 June ... NA 0.980 8.14 NA 6.56 6.32 5.39 15.79 244.955 NA 0.958 7.96 NA 244.786 7.30 7.04 5.34 15.66 July ... August ... 245.519 0.992 8.25 NA NA 7.42 7.16 5.36 15.70 NA 1.089 9.05 NA 246.819 6.86 6.61 5.38 15.77 September ... October ... 246.663 1.032 8.58 NA NA 5.42 5.22 5.19 15.21 NA 246.669 1.057 8.79 November ... NA 4.12 3.97 5.25 15.37 NA 8.50 246.524 1.023 14.80 5.05 3.63 3.77 December ... NA 4.29 ... 245.120 8.37 NA NA 4.45 1.007 5.26 15.41 Average R 2 14.48 4.94 3.46 018 3.60 NA NA 8.70 1.047 247.867 January ... NA 1.057 8.78 NA 248.991 3.87 3.73 5.08 14.90 February ... March ... 249.554 1.054 8.76 NA NA 3.92 3.78 5.21 15.26 NA April ... 250.546 1.116 9.27 NA 4.01 3.86 5.14 15.07 R NA 251.588 1.178 9.79 NA May ... 5.42 5.22 5.23 15.32 R 15.17 June ... 251.989 1.179 9.79 NA NA 6.55 5.17 6.31 R 6.85 252.006 July ... 5.21 15.27 7.11 NA NA 9.66 1.163 NA 15.44 August ... 252.146 1.158 9.62 NA 7.39 7.12 5.27 R 5.15 September ... 252.439 1.161 9.65 NA NA 6.86 15.10 6.61 R 14.92 4.85 4.67 5.09 October ... 252.885 1.165 9.68 NA NA R NA 252.038 1.084 9.01 NA November ... 3.74 15.06 3.60 5.14 R December ... 251.233 0.987 NA NA 3.83 8.20 3.69 4.96 14.55 4.19 5.13 4.04 15.04 Average ... 251.107 1.113 9.25 NA NA R R R R NA 3.61 7.77 NA 4.95 14.52 3.75 2 019 January ... 251.712 0.934 252.776 February ... 7.93 NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.954 NA NA NA NA NA NA 8.57 1.031 254.202 March ... a Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary (Exc el Data are U.S. city averages for all items, and are not seasonally adjusted. b Includes taxes. ta and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1960 and monthly da c Excludes taxes. beginning in 1995. Sources: R=Revised. NA=Not available. • Fuel Prices: Tables 9.4 (All Grades), 9.8, and 9.10, adjusted by th e Fuel costs are calculated by using Notes: • See "Real Dollars" in Glossary. • Monthy Energy Review, CPI; and • Consumer Pric e September 2012, Table 9.8c. or he Urban Consumer Price Index (CPI) developed by the Bureau of Labor U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Lab t Index, All Urban Consumers: Statistics, series ID CUUR0000SA0. • Tables A1, A3, A 4, Annual averages may not equal average of months due to S tatistics. • Conversion Factors: and A6. i ndependent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of C olumbia. Monthly U. 15 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

26 Consumption and Figure 1.7 Primary Energy Indicators Energy Expenditures Energy Consumption per Capita, 1949–2018 400 300 200 Million Btu 100 0 1965 1985 2015 2010 2005 1950 1955 1960 2000 1970 1975 1980 1995 1990 Primary Energy Consumption per Real Dollar [a] of Gross Domestic Product, 1949–2018 20 15 10 5 Thousand Btu per Chaned (2012) Dollar[a] 0 2010 2005 2000 1950 2015 1995 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 Energy Expenditures as Share of Gross Domestic Product and Gross Output,[b] 1970–2016 16 Share of GDP 14 12 10 Share of Gross Output 8 Percent 6 4 2 0 1990 1985 1980 1975 1970 2005 2015 2010 2000 1995 BEA’s 2012 comprehensive revision. by based adjusted on EIA [a] See “Chained Dollars” and “Real Dollars” in Glossary. http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary. Gross output is the value of gross domestic product (GDP) plus the value [b] Web Page: to produce GDP. Through 1996, used data have been inputs intermediate of Table Source: 1.7. 16 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U.

27 T able 1.7 Primary Energy Consumption, Energy Expenditures, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Indicators a b c Primary Energy Consumption Energy Expenditures Carbon Dioxide Emissions Emissions Expenditures Consumption as Share per per Expenditures Expendi- Consump- d d Expendi- Emissions Consump- Real Dollar of Gross Real Dollar tion as Share tures e f e e per Capita tion tures of GDP of GDP Emissions Output of GDP per Capita per Capita Metric Tons Thousand Million Metric Carbon Dioxide Btu per Tons Metric Tons Million per Million Carbon Chained (2012) Carbon Nominal Million ) Nominal Quadrillion Chained (2012 d d g g Dioxide Dollar Dioxide Dollars Dollars Btu Btu Dollars Percent Percent 1 950 ... 227 15.12 NA NA NA NA 2,382 15.6 1,040 34.616 955 ... NA 242 14.00 NA NA 1 NA 2,685 16.2 935 40.208 NA 1 250 13.83 NA NA 45.086 NA 2,914 16.1 894 960 ... 1 965 ... 54.015 278 12.95 NA NA NA NA 3,462 17.8 830 7.7 1 331 13.70 82,875 404 67.838 4.3 4,261 20.8 861 970 ... 1 975 ... 71.965 333 12.75 171,851 796 10.2 5.6 4,421 20.5 783 6.8 1 980 ... 78.067 344 11.55 374,347 1,647 13.1 4,750 20.9 703 1 981 ... 332 10.98 427,898 1,865 13.3 7.1 4,625 20.2 667 76.106 982 ... 73.099 10.74 426,479 1,841 12.8 6.9 4,393 19.0 645 1 316 6.3 983 ... 10.25 417,617 1,786 11.5 312 4,371 18.7 614 1 72.971 984 ... 76.632 325 10.04 435,309 1,846 1 5.9 4,600 19.5 603 10.8 1 76.392 321 9.61 438,339 1,842 10.1 5.6 4,593 19.3 578 985 ... 8.4 986 ... 319 9.32 384,088 1,599 76.647 4.8 4,598 19.1 559 1 1 987 ... 79.054 326 9.29 397,623 1,641 8.2 4.6 4,757 19.6 559 1 988 ... 338 9.33 411,565 1,683 7.9 4.4 4,982 20.4 562 82.709 989 ... 7.8 344 9.22 439,046 1,779 1 4.4 5,066 20.5 551 84.785 8.0 1 338 9.02 474,647 1,901 84.485 4.5 5,038 20.2 538 990 ... 1 991 ... 84.437 334 9.03 472,434 1,867 7.7 4.4 4,993 19.7 534 7.3 1 334 8.86 476,840 1,859 85.782 4.2 5,090 19.8 526 992 ... 521 993 ... 87.325 336 8.78 492,267 1,894 7.2 4.1 5,181 19.9 1 504,854 8.60 338 89.040 994 ... 508 20.0 5,258 3.9 1 6.9 1,919 1,933 501 995 ... 90.991 342 8.56 1 6.7 3.8 5,321 20.0 514,622 3.9 6.9 2,080 8.52 349 94.000 996 ... 1 560,292 499 20.5 5,510 1 997 ... 347 8.21 567,960 2,083 6.6 3.7 5,582 20.5 484 94.571 5.8 1 344 7.89 526,280 1,908 94.982 3.2 5,635 20.4 468 998 ... 1 999 ... 96.615 346 7.66 558,624 2,002 5.8 3.2 5,687 20.4 451 6.7 2 350 7.52 687,708 2,437 98.776 3.7 5,864 20.8 447 000 ... 2 001 ... 96.129 337 7.25 696,240 2,443 6.6 3.7 5,759 20.2 434 663,962 2 002 ... 97.605 339 7.23 430 2,308 6.1 3.5 5,803 20.2 2 003 ... 337 7.05 755,068 2,603 6.6 3.7 5,854 20.2 422 97.898 7.1 2 342 6.95 871,209 2,975 100.073 4.0 5,969 20.4 414 004 ... 2 005 ... 100.168 339 6.72 1,045,729 3,539 8.0 4.4 5,990 20.3 402 8.4 2 333 6.48 1,158,819 3,884 99.464 4.6 5,911 19.8 385 006 ... 384 007 ... 100.971 335 6.46 1,233,864 4,096 8.5 4.7 6,002 19.9 2 5,811 5.2 1,408,750 4,633 9.6 372 19.1 2 008 ... 98.825 325 6.33 17.6 354 1,066,275 7.4 4.3 5,388 3,476 2 009 ... 94.023 306 6.18 2 010 ... 358 18.1 5,586 4.6 8.1 3,923 1,213,609 6.26 316 97.608 R 4,465 344 96.950 311 6.12 1,391,358 011 ... 9.0 5.0 5,446 17.5 2 R 2 012 ... 1,354,948 94.480 301 5.83 4,317 8.4 4.6 5,237 16.7 323 8.2 17.0 325 5,363 4.5 4,354 2 013 ... 97.218 308 5.89 1,376,201 R 2 4.4 5,411 4,381 17.0 8.0 014 ... 320 98.382 309 5.82 1,394,971 16.4 5,265 3.5 6.2 3,516 1,127,726 304 97.484 015 ... 2 5.61 303 R 3.2 293 16.0 5,172 5.6 3,214 2 016 ... 5.52 97.445 302 1,038,504 R 97.809 5,131 NA NA NA 2 017 ... 284 NA 301 5.42 15.8 R R R R R NA NA 309 018 ... 101.251 5,268 16.1 5.45 284 2 NA NA a See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary. ). Calculated as energy consumption divided by U.S. population (see Table C1 b • Consumption per Real Dollar of GDP: Calculated as energy consumptio n Expenditures include taxes where data are available. c ). Carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption. See Table 12.1. divided by U.S. gross domestic product in chained (2009) dollars (see Table C1 d Expenditures: d U.S. Energy Information Administration, "State Energy Price an • See "Chained Dollars" and "Real Dollars" in Glossary. e Expenditure Estimates, 1970 Through 2015" (June 2017), U.S. Table ET 1. See "Gross Domestic Product (GDP)" in Glossary. f Calculated as energy expenditures divided by U.S . • Expenditures per Capita: Gross output is the value of GDP plus the value of intermediate inputs used to • population (see Table C1). roduce GDP. Through 1996, data have been adjusted by EIA based on s Calculated a Expenditures as Share of GDP: p OC/BEA’s 2012 comprehensive revision. D energy expenditures divided by U.S. gross domestic product in nominal dollars (se e g Table C1). y Calculated as energ Expenditures as Share of Gross Output: • See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. R=Revised. NA=Not available. • Emission expenditures divided by U.S. gross output (see Table C1). s: Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the Data are estimates. • Notes: • 1, Annual Energy Review 201 U.S. Energy Information Administration, 1949–1972— Table 12.1. • D Table 11.1. Emissions per Capita: Calculated a istrict of Columbia. s 1973 forward— Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary (Excel Emission • carbon dioxide emissions divided by U.S. population (see Table C1). s . Calculated as carbon dioxide emissions divided by U.S a nd CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949. per Real Dollar of GDP: Consumption: • Sources: • Consumption per Capita: Table 1.3. gross domestic product in chained (2009) dollars (see Table C1). Monthly U. 17 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

28 Figure Vehicle Mileage, Fuel Consumption, and Fuel Economy, 1949 ‐ 2016 1.8 Motor Mileage 40 30 Heavy Duty Trucks [c] 20 Light Duty Vehicles, Long Wheelbase [b] 10 Thousand Miles per Vehicle Light Duty Vehicles, Short Wheelbase [a] 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 Fuel Consumption 5 Heavy Duty Trucks [c] 4 3 2 Light Duty Vehicles - Long Wheelbase [b] 1 Thousand Gallons per Vehicle Light Duty Vehicles - Short Wheelbase [a] 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 1965 1950 1960 1955 1970 Fuel Economy 30 25 Light Duty Vehicles, Short Wheelbase [a] 20 15 Light Duty Vehicles, Long Wheelbase [b] 10 Miles per Gallon 5 Heavy Duty Trucks [c] 0 2000 1975 1980 1985 1990 1950 1955 2005 2010 2015 1960 1965 1970 1995 Through 1989, data are for passenger cars and motorcycles. For 1990 – 2006, tires, combination trucks, and other vehicles with 2 axles and 4 tires [a] that 2 with truck unit ‐ single for are data 1966–2006 For cars. passenger not are data ‐ light for are data 2007, in Beginning only. cars passenger for are duty axles and 6 or more tires, and combination trucks. Beginning in 2007, data trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles) with a vehicles (passenger cars, light (or more tires a gross vehicle axles and 6 or trucks unit ‐ single for are 2 with equal wheelbase less than or to 121 inches. weight rating exceeding 10,000 pounds), and combination trucks. are data 1966–2000, For [b] for vans, pickup trucks, and sport utility vehicles. Through data Wheelbase” Note: are Long Vehicles, Duty ‐ “Light 1965, in Beginning 2007, cars, (passenger vehicles light trucks, data for light ‐ duty are in included ‐ Duty Trucks.” “Heavy than greater wheelbase a with vehicles) utility sport and vans, inches. 121 Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary. with data are for single ‐ unit trucks [c] more 2 axles and 6 or For 1949–1965, Source: 1.8. Table / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 18

29 T able 1.8 Motor Vehicle Mileage, Fuel Consumption, and Fuel Economy Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Vehicles, a b c d Long Wheelbase Short Wheelbase Heavy-Duty Trucks All Motor Vehicles Fuel Fuel Fuel Fuel Fuel Fuel Fuel Fuel Economy Consumption Consumption Economy Economy Consumption Economy Consumption Mileage Mileage Mileage Mileage Miles per Gallons Gallons Miles per Miles per Miles per Gallons Miles per Miles per Miles per Gallons Miles per Vehicle Vehicle per Vehicle per Vehicle Gallon Gallon Vehicle per Vehicle per Vehicle Vehicle Gallon Gallon e e e 15.0 1 () 950 ... () 603 ( ) 9,060 1,229 8.4 9,321 725 12.8 10,316 e e e 645 14.6 ( ) () 1 () 955 ... 9,447 10,576 1,293 8.2 9,661 761 12.7 e e e 1 960 ... () 668 () 14.3 ( ) 10,693 1,333 8.0 9,732 784 12.4 9,518 e e e 14.5 1 () 661 () 9,603 ( ) 10,851 1,387 7.8 9,826 787 12.5 965 ... 1 970 ... 9,989 737 13.5 8,676 866 10.0 13,565 2,467 5.5 9,976 830 12.0 15,167 1 665 14.0 9,829 934 10.5 9,309 2,722 5.6 9,627 790 12.2 975 ... 1 980 ... 8,813 551 16.0 10,437 854 12.2 18,736 3,447 5.4 9,458 712 13.3 19,016 1 981 ... 8,873 538 16.5 819 12.5 10,244 3,565 5.3 9,477 697 13.6 1 982 ... 535 16.9 10,276 762 13.5 19,931 3,647 5.5 9,644 686 14.1 9,050 983 ... 9,118 17.1 10,497 767 13.7 21,083 3,769 5.6 9,760 686 14.2 1 534 3,967 984 ... 17.4 11,151 797 14.0 22,550 530 5.7 10,017 691 14.5 1 9,248 985 ... 9,419 538 17.5 10,506 735 14.3 1 3,570 5.8 10,020 685 14.6 20,597 1 9,464 543 17.4 10,764 738 14.6 22,143 3,821 5.8 10,143 692 14.7 986 ... 23,349 987 ... 539 18.0 11,114 744 14.9 9,720 3,937 5.9 10,453 694 15.1 1 1 988 ... 9,972 531 18.8 11,465 745 15.4 22,485 3,736 6.0 10,721 688 15.6 1 989 ... 533 19.0 11,676 724 16.1 22,926 3,776 6.1 10,932 688 15.9 10,157 23,603 1 520 20.2 11,902 738 16.1 10,504 3,953 6.0 11,107 677 16.4 990 ... 1 991 ... 10,571 501 21.1 12,245 721 17.0 24,229 4,047 6.0 11,294 669 16.9 25,373 1 517 21.0 12,381 717 17.3 10,857 4,210 6.0 11,558 683 16.9 992 ... 16.7 993 ... 10,804 527 20.5 12,430 714 17.4 26,262 4,309 6.1 11,595 693 1 17.3 701 12,156 16.7 531 698 11,683 6.1 4,202 25,838 1 994 ... 10,992 20.7 530 11,203 1 995 ... 16.8 700 11,793 6.1 4,315 26,514 17.3 694 12,018 21.1 1 996 ... 534 21.2 11,811 685 17.2 26,092 4,221 6.2 11,813 700 16.9 11,330 27,032 1 539 21.5 12,115 703 17.2 11,581 4,218 6.4 12,107 711 17.0 997 ... 1 998 ... 11,754 544 21.6 12,173 707 17.2 25,397 4,135 6.1 12,211 721 16.9 26,014 1 553 21.4 11,957 701 17.0 11,848 4,352 6.0 12,206 732 16.7 999 ... 16.9 000 ... 11,976 547 21.9 11,672 669 17.4 25,617 4,391 5.8 12,164 720 2 11,831 2 001 ... 534 22.1 11,204 636 17.6 26,602 4,477 5.9 11,887 695 17.1 2 002 ... 555 22.0 11,364 650 17.5 27,071 4,642 5.8 12,171 719 16.9 12,202 28,093 2 556 22.2 11,287 697 16.2 12,325 4,215 6.7 12,208 718 17.0 003 ... 2 004 ... 12,460 553 22.5 11,184 690 16.2 27,023 4,057 6.7 12,200 714 17.1 17.7 2 12,510 567 22.1 10,920 617 005 ... 26,235 4,385 6.0 12,082 706 17.1 4,304 25,231 612 10,920 22.5 17.8 698 12,017 5.9 2 006 ... 12,485 554 17.2 c a a a b b b c 14,970 10,710 28,290 17.2 17.1 693 007 ... 877 11,915 6.4 22.9 4,398 468 2 17.3 2 10,290 435 23.7 15,256 880 008 ... 28,573 4,387 6.5 11,631 667 17.4 882 2 009 ... 10,391 442 23.5 15,252 4,037 17.3 26,274 6.5 11,631 661 17.6 17.2 2 10,650 456 23.3 15,474 901 010 ... 26,604 4,180 6.4 11,866 681 17.4 11,652 17.5 6.3 4,128 665 2 011 ... 11,150 481 23.2 12,007 702 17.1 26,054 2 23.3 17.6 665 11,707 6.4 3,973 25,255 17.1 694 11,885 484 11,262 012 ... 683 17.6 013 ... 11,244 480 23.4 11,712 2 17.2 25,951 4,086 6.4 11,679 663 014 ... 6.3 11,048 17.5 666 11,621 2 4,036 476 23.2 12,138 710 17.1 25,594 11,327 17.9 6.4 11,742 656 2 015 ... 3,904 475 23.9 11,855 684 17.3 24,979 11,810 658 17.9 17.4 689 11,991 24.0 6.4 3,904 475 11,370 016 ... 2 25,037 11,543 653 6.5 3,758 24,335 17.5 659 11,789 24.2 474 11,467 017 ... 2 18.1 a Through 1989, data are for passenger cars and motorcycles. For 1990–2006, 10,000 pounds), and combination trucks. d d ata are for passenger cars only. Beginning in 2007, data are for light-duty Includes buses and motorcycles, which are not separately displayed. e v ehicles (passenger cars, light trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles) with a Included in "Heavy-Duty Trucks." Note: Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. heelbase less than or equal to 121 inches. w b Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary (Exc For 1966–2006, data are for vans, pickup trucks, and sport utility vehicles. el eginning in 2007, data are for light-duty vehicles (passenger cars, light trucks, and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949. B • Sources: Light-Duty Vehicles, Short Wheelbase: 1990–1994— U.S . v ans, and sport utility vehicles) with a wheelbase greater than 121 inches. c Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Nation al For 1949–1965, data are for single-unit trucks with 2 axles and 6 or more tires, All Other Dat a: ombination trucks, and other vehicles with 2 axles and 4 tires that are not Transportation Statistics 1998, Table 4-13. • c Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), p assenger cars. For 1966–2006, data are for single-unit trucks with 2 axles and 6 cs Highway Statisti 1949–1994— s, r more tires, and combination trucks. Beginning in 2007, data are for single-unit o Summary to 1995, Table VM-201A. 1995 forward— FHWA, Highway Statistic annual reports, Table VM-1. t rucks with 2 axles and 6 or more tires (or a gross vehicle weight rating exceeding Monthly U. 19 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

30 T able 1.9 Heating Degree Days by Census Division New East North Middle West North United South East South West South d c i e a h f b g Pacific Mountain Central Central Atlantic Central States Atlantic Central England 6,794 6,324 7,027 7,455 3,521 3,547 2,277 6,341 1 5,367 950 Total ... 3,906 ... 6,231 6,486 6,912 3,508 3,513 6,872 6,704 4,320 5,246 955 Total 1 2,294 ... 6,828 6,391 6,908 7,184 3,780 4,134 2,767 6,281 3,799 5,404 1 960 Total 965 Total 7,029 6,393 6,587 6,932 3,372 3,501 2,237 6,086 3,819 5,146 1 ... ... 3,823 6,388 6,721 7,090 3,452 970 Total 2,558 6,119 3,726 5,218 1 7,022 3,437 975 Total 5,892 6,406 6,880 2,970 6,547 2,312 6,260 4,117 4,905 1 ... 980 Total ... 7,071 6,477 6,975 6,836 3,378 3,964 2,494 5,554 3,539 5,080 1 3,660 985 Total 5,971 6,668 7,262 2,899 6,749 2,535 6,059 3,935 4,889 1 ... 990 Total ... 5,987 5,252 5,780 6,137 2,307 2,942 1,968 5,391 3,603 4,180 1 995 Total ... 6,093 6,740 6,911 2,988 3,648 2,147 5,101 3,269 4,640 1 6,684 3,551 000 Total 5,999 6,315 6,500 2,905 6,625 2,153 4,971 3,460 4,494 2 ... 001 Total ... 6,202 5,541 5,844 6,221 2,604 3,327 2,162 5,004 3,545 4,257 2 2 002 Total 6,234 5,550 6,128 6,485 2,664 3,443 2,292 5,197 3,510 4,356 ... 003 Total 2,884 6,975 6,258 6,536 6,593 2 3,559 2,205 4,817 3,355 4,544 ... 2,715 2 6,709 5,892 6,178 6,329 ... 3,291 2,041 5,010 3,346 4,344 004 Total 2 005 Total ... 6,644 5,950 6,222 6,213 2,775 3,380 1,985 4,896 3,377 4,348 2,475 2 5,885 5,211 5,703 5,821 ... 3,211 1,802 4,915 3,557 4,040 006 Total 2 007 Total ... 6,537 5,756 6,074 6,384 2,525 3,187 2,105 4,939 3,506 4,268 7,118 2 ... 6,434 5,782 6,677 008 Total 2,712 3,600 2,125 5,233 3,566 4,494 4,481 2 009 Total ... 6,644 5,922 6,512 6,841 2,812 3,536 2,152 5,139 3,538 2 010 Total 5,934 5,553 6,185 6,565 3,167 3,948 2,449 5,082 3,624 4,463 ... 011 Total ... 5,483 6,172 6,565 2,565 3,343 2,114 5,322 3,818 4,312 2 6,114 2,876 012 Total 4,970 5,356 5,515 2,306 5,561 1,650 4,574 3,411 3,769 2 ... 013 Total ... 6,426 5,838 6,621 7,135 2 3,648 2,326 5,273 3,362 4,465 2,736 2 ... 6,675 6,203 7,194 7,304 2,951 3,932 2,422 4,744 2,774 4,550 014 Total 2,487 015 Total 6,521 5,777 6,165 6,088 ... 3,222 2,087 4,602 2,898 4,087 2 2 016 January ... 1,127 1,119 1,241 1,303 659 857 565 918 569 871 February ... 901 957 937 483 573 310 618 342 628 957 March ... 324 644 670 653 240 179 542 396 450 754 162 515 506 424 152 605 61 381 242 309 April ... May ... 251 213 221 207 58 71 17 254 181 150 0 22 25 27 1 45 0 42 44 21 June ... July ... 4 1 2 11 0 0 0 15 20 6 0 5 1 5 17 August ... 0 0 31 12 6 67 40 38 September ... 39 66 115 1 5 2 75 October ... 316 285 304 91 89 22 265 201 198 389 339 609 582 569 290 672 154 512 332 418 November ... December ... 1,054 975 1,166 1,257 479 672 444 926 627 783 5,786 Total ... 5,929 5,353 5,701 2,456 3,094 1,752 4,619 3,031 3,878 1,082 017 January ... 1,038 971 2 1,212 476 579 417 962 666 766 February ... 780 776 818 323 409 208 627 496 547 906 387 908 834 783 346 1,037 147 467 392 543 March ... April ... 451 341 349 401 76 94 52 404 309 248 47 303 233 249 224 May ... 57 14 235 171 154 2 3 0 59 50 25 June ... 45 25 27 37 July ... 0 5 14 6 0 0 10 6 3 9 0 34 50 1 1 18 27 8 15 26 August ... September ... 57 53 64 78 14 24 3 120 45 45 146 October ... 215 291 363 237 59 358 178 193 89 November ... 743 699 773 805 322 407 180 489 351 490 535 1,186 1,087 1,197 1,218 December ... 729 501 815 507 798 ... Total 6,038 5,332 5,684 5,997 2,231 2,835 1,582 4,568 3,187 3,828 R R R R R R 897 1,214 018 1,308 January ... 1,374 701 930 660 2 770 1,258 460 R R R 981 1,177 307 871 347 747 809 496 625 February ... 411 R R R R R R March ... 922 869 435 475 185 913 602 931 488 609 R R R R R 411 380 April ... 680 299 618 142 703 207 715 312 R R R R 109 177 May ... 86 169 163 99 89 12 13 0 R R R 0 0 1 23 24 29 27 64 June ... 65 56 R 2 1 311000983 July ... R 2 3 14 8 20 0 0 0 25 August ... 7 R R 3 September ... 67 34 48 90 2 38 3 90 62 R R R R 383 69 October ... 138 460 253 355 420 186 494 99 R R R R 593 352 766 677 819 November ... 372 565 379 913 1,002 R R R R R R R 731 1,030 562 928 1,003 1,102 894 489 635 December ... 470 R R R R R R R R R R 6,355 3,169 Total 6,431 6,966 ... 2,633 4,797 3,482 4,278 2,248 5,777 752 1,154 1,223 January ... 019 2 548 892 540 859 1,360 1,302 584 a degrees Fahrenheit (°F). Cooling degree days are the number of degrees that th e Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and V daily average temperature rises above 65°F. The daily average temperature is th e ermont. b mean of the maximum and minimum temperatures in a 24-hour period. F or New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. c Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin. ld example, a weather station recording an average daily temperature of 40°F wou d ). report 25 heating degree days for that day (and 0 cooling degree days Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South akota. D e If a weather station recorded an average daily temperature of 78°F, cooling degre e • days for that station would be 13 (and 0 heating degree days). Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland (and the District of Columbia), North ot Totals may n equal sum of components due to independent rounding. is C arolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. Geographic coverage • f the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee. g Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary (Exc Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas. el h and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and ta yoming. W beginning in 1973. i Source: State-level degree day data are from U.S. Department Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. of R=Revised. Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Nation al Notes: Degree days are relative measurements of outdoor air temperature • Centers for Environmental Information. Using these state-level data, th e sed as an index for heating and cooling energy requirements. Heating degree u U.S. Energy Information Administration calculates population-weighte d census-division and U.S. degree day averages using state populations fro d ays are the number of degrees that the daily average temperature falls below 65 m / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 20

31 T able 1.10 Cooling Degree Days by Census Division New East North United West North South Middle East South West South h d b c e a g f i Central England Mountain Atlantic Pacific Central Central States Atlantic Central 1,420 ... 401 505 647 1,414 950 Total 2,282 682 629 871 1 295 955 Total ... 532 761 922 1,139 1 1,674 2,508 780 558 1,144 1,636 1 ... 318 487 626 871 1,583 1,532 2,367 974 796 1,000 960 Total 965 Total 1,613 310 498 618 832 1 1,552 2,461 780 577 979 ... 1,744 1 423 615 747 980 ... 1,571 2,282 971 734 1,079 970 Total 1 975 Total ... 422 584 721 937 1,791 1,440 2,162 903 597 1,049 1 980 Total 438 680 769 1,158 1,911 1,754 2,651 1,071 653 1,214 ... 1,522 985 Total 509 602 780 1,878 324 2,519 1,095 761 1,121 1 ... 990 Total ... 429 562 602 913 1 1,563 2,526 1,212 838 1,200 2,054 1 ... 471 704 877 928 995 Total 1,613 2,398 1,213 794 1,261 2,028 2 000 Total ... 279 458 632 983 1,925 1,674 2,775 1,480 772 1,232 1,897 2 464 623 722 994 ... 1,478 2,543 1,508 861 1,255 001 Total 2 002 Total ... 508 772 899 1,045 2,182 1,757 2,515 1,467 783 1,363 1,980 2 ... 475 615 619 907 003 Total 1,452 2,496 1,553 978 1,268 1,517 2 004 Total ... 368 591 585 722 2,038 2,482 1,290 828 1,217 2 005 Total 598 892 944 1,063 2,098 1,676 2,647 1,372 777 1,388 ... 006 Total ... 693 734 1,034 2,053 1,648 2,786 1,466 922 1,360 2 485 ... 1,892 694 881 1,102 2,219 007 Total 2,475 1,564 828 1,392 2 447 1,537 008 Total 667 683 818 1,993 462 2,501 1,385 918 1,282 2 ... 009 Total ... 350 524 534 698 2 1,479 2,590 1,393 894 1,241 2,029 2 ... 635 908 964 1,096 2,269 1,977 2,757 1,358 674 1,456 010 Total 011 Total 2,259 554 836 859 1,074 2 1,727 3,112 1,450 736 1,470 ... 2,162 2 565 815 974 1,221 ... 1,762 2,915 1,573 917 1,495 012 Total 2 013 Total ... 540 683 690 892 2,000 1,441 2,536 1,462 892 1,306 2 014 Total 420 596 610 814 2,009 1,493 2,474 1,431 1,068 1,299 ... 015 Total 2,405 555 804 729 942 2 1,718 2,741 1,478 1,068 1,488 ... 25 2 0 0 0 0 January ... 2 9 0 8 7 016 February ... 0 0 0 0 24 3 25 10 15 11 March ... 0 3 10 89 36 86 24 13 35 0 37 0 1 8 87 0 123 42 27 43 April ... May ... 7 17 42 49 185 124 238 90 37 98 379 75 129 188 263 June ... 371 475 331 166 271 620 473 509 306 277 310 241 July ... 384 236 408 269 362 August ... 241 312 297 484 547 305 234 460 131 114 61 September ... 321 219 122 173 429 352 138 October ... 6 19 28 157 113 233 99 47 86 0 November ... 12 0 0 2 56 80 14 17 26 0 4 0 0 0 65 0 17 0 8 17 December ... Total ... 626 888 958 1,073 2,412 1,957 2,882 1,497 928 1,559 50 2 0 0 0 0 January ... 20 36 0 7 17 017 February ... 0 0 0 3 55 18 67 5 7 22 56 0 0 1 6 March ... 28 111 32 17 32 51 April ... 0 2 7 9 124 74 141 25 56 May ... 14 37 51 213 135 240 109 46 106 3 445 June ... 167 206 337 272 123 308 150 241 72 July ... 170 251 242 331 469 582 414 283 363 430 128 162 148 166 August ... 341 508 329 281 292 406 September ... 66 87 92 127 282 194 368 178 139 184 66 22 16 14 159 11 145 92 68 78 October ... November ... 0 0 0 0 66 6 67 29 21 27 38 0 0 0 0 December ... 1 6 1 10 10 1,428 1,053 1,548 2,718 1,585 2,254 450 Total ... 911 661 709 8 15 5 4 1 21 0 0 0 0 January ... 018 2 33 0 0 81 22 0 3 8 23 0 February ... R 0 0 0 2 34 15 88 14 9 21 March ... R R 0 0 0 April ... 78 0 57 71 25 32 7 R R R R 64 24 264 May ... 268 396 168 137 39 174 140 R R 54 111 192 272 384 June ... 376 550 300 117 270 R R R R R 286 258 303 July ... 440 376 431 607 417 250 321 R R R R R R R 393 258 258 August ... 438 298 566 345 255 351 262 R R R R 339 61 122 122 124 391 September ... 231 392 240 143 R R 143 47 70 46 177 October ... 0 4 4 6 78 R 17 0 0 0 0 November ... 66 1 13 5 18 0 December ... 0 0 0 38 2 10 0 9 11 R R R R R R R R R R Total 651 885 1,004 ... 2,859 1,132 1,585 2,411 1,584 1,932 974 8 0 12 5 30 0 0 0 0 January ... 019 2 9 a daily average temperature falls below 65°F. The daily average temperature is th Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and e ermont. or mean of the maximum and minimum temperatures in a 24-hour period. F V b example, if a weather station recorded an average daily temperature of 78° F, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. c A Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin. cooling degree days for that station would be 13 (and 0 heating degree days). d Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South weather station recording an average daily temperature of 40°F would report 2 5 ). heating degree days for that day (and 0 cooling degree days akota. D e g. Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland (and the District of Columbia), North Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent roundin • C arolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. • f Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary (Exc el Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee. g Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas. ta and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da h Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and beginning in 1973. W yoming. Source: State-level degree day data are from U.S. Department of i Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. al Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Nation Centers for Environmental Information. Using these state-level data, th R=Revised. e d U.S. Energy Information Administration calculates population-weighte Notes: Degree days are relative measurements of outdoor air temperature • u sed as an index for heating and cooling energy requirements. Cooling degree census-division and U.S. degree day averages using state populations fro m d at the same year the degree days are measured. See methodology ays are the number of degrees that the daily average temperature rises above 65 egrees Fahrenheit (°F). Heating degree days are the number of degrees that the http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/steo/special/pdf/2012_sp_04.pdf. d Monthly U. 21 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

32 T able 1.11a Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels in Physical Units Petroleum Petro- Hydrocarbon Asphalt and Gas chemical Petroleum Natural Special b a c Feedstocks Liquids Road Oil Lubricants Total Other Coal Naphthas Gas Coke Billion Thousand Cubic Feet Short Tons Thousand Barrels per Day ... 3,345 792 522 1 162 375 42 88 134 2,059 973 Total 736 975 Total ... 2,972 674 419 1 137 330 41 75 159 1,863 702 1 ... 2,370 674 396 871 159 709 39 100 176 2,451 980 Total 985 Total 145 1,050 572 425 980 1 364 43 83 114 2,154 ... 164 1 641 712 483 1,067 ... 553 56 56 94 2,473 990 Total 1 995 Total ... 921 868 486 1,347 156 593 55 37 87 2,762 1 996 Total 884 896 484 1,420 151 593 54 39 87 2,828 ... 691 997 Total 909 505 1,452 160 842 40 38 86 2,972 1 ... 998 Total ... 786 938 521 1,375 1 693 69 56 107 2,988 168 1 ... 784 906 547 1,605 999 Total 654 98 76 99 3,248 169 2 000 Total ... 807 918 525 1,586 166 666 45 51 103 3,142 153 2 727 839 519 1,422 ... 592 79 41 104 2,911 001 Total 2 002 Total ... 660 836 512 1,504 151 630 66 53 103 3,020 1,436 2 ... 676 808 503 003 Total 140 676 56 101 2,954 42 2 004 Total ... 660 818 537 1,481 141 784 99 27 98 3,167 2 005 Total 654 761 546 1,399 141 729 85 33 102 3,034 ... 006 Total ... 584 521 1,454 137 726 97 37 112 3,084 2 640 664 007 Total 598 494 1,461 142 634 91 41 104 2,997 2 ... 008 Total ... 616 608 417 1,340 131 574 102 44 107 2,714 2 2 009 Total 427 524 360 1,456 118 507 82 24 99 2,648 ... 010 Total 131 588 654 362 1,587 2 539 28 14 100 2,760 ... 125 2 598 680 355 1,624 ... 520 28 12 103 2,767 011 Total 2 012 Total ... 579 706 340 1,642 114 444 31 8 94 2,673 2 013 Total 599 721 323 1,782 121 448 28 52 97 2,853 ... 014 Total 126 594 725 327 1,780 2 410 28 55 101 2,829 ... 138 2 550 703 343 1,865 ... 378 28 52 102 2,906 015 Total 2 016 January ... 37 69 195 2,075 136 377 31 47 107 2,968 February ... 63 230 1,970 148 373 29 53 95 2,899 38 368 63 254 1,932 143 40 29 58 108 2,892 March ... April ... 37 59 301 1,840 131 370 22 46 109 2,820 132 38 58 394 1,828 May ... 359 21 59 101 2,894 2,907 39 107 40 18 363 146 1,751 482 55 June ... 472 57 40 July ... 3,007 112 47 25 384 115 1,853 August ... 58 524 1,760 124 371 36 43 110 2,968 39 September ... 364 56 439 1,817 125 21 56 107 2,928 37 365 58 417 1,920 131 37 26 41 90 2,991 October ... November ... 37 62 310 1,865 121 373 42 49 108 2,868 390 70 195 1,969 115 40 32 45 107 2,853 December ... Total ... 460 729 351 1,882 130 371 28 49 105 2,917 136 2 January ... 40 70 183 2,124 017 372 35 55 108 3,013 242 February ... 62 38 1,921 128 409 17 55 106 2,878 March ... 66 260 2,014 143 435 13 53 110 3,028 40 April ... 429 60 316 1,895 128 26 41 104 2,939 40 439 59 367 1,906 131 41 28 48 111 3,030 May ... June ... 39 57 475 1,982 120 439 21 56 111 3,204 403 57 443 2,018 116 42 38 49 109 3,177 July ... August ... 43 59 543 1,724 92 383 24 55 107 2,928 114 41 57 444 1,718 September ... 356 29 45 97 2,804 373 123 1,989 411 62 3,067 100 58 13 October ... 41 373 41 November ... 33 3,175 117 59 122 2,163 308 66 381 72 209 2,309 94 43 32 55 107 3,188 December ... Total ... 489 748 351 1,981 121 399 26 52 107 3,037 105 2 January ... 41 73 204 2,479 018 345 29 58 105 3,326 66 February ... 36 350 219 2,296 105 15 53 103 3,141 370 69 233 2,312 134 41 24 55 103 3,230 March ... April ... 43 65 242 2,188 99 384 25 58 110 3,107 111 45 62 370 2,043 May ... 370 28 56 110 3,087 109 46 3,294 384 June ... 41 59 475 2,117 133 29 R 49 27 399 127 2,222 471 61 44 July ... 3,406 110 120 3,513 44 61 508 2,269 August ... 429 38 39 110 2,199 September ... 44 60 388 73 409 35 45 109 3,259 R 97 October ... 48 43 63 396 2,244 110 429 38 3,362 R 23 378 136 255 68 43 2,495 November ... 3,435 111 37 R 92 41 45 71 179 2,513 December ... 391 21 111 3,350 R R Total ... 511 3,294 780 329 2,282 112 387 28 49 107 23 39 107 3,497 January ... 76 019 38 206 2,641 113 368 2 a to Ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, natural gasoline, and refinery transportation sector. • Totals may not equal sum of components due Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District independent rounding. lefins (ethylene, propylene, butylene, and isobutylene). o • of b . Columbia. • See Note 2, "Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels," at end of section Includes still gas not burned as refinery fuel. c Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, waxes, and miscellaneous products. ll Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary for a R=Revised. available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. • Data are estimates. • Non-combustion use estimates are included in Notes: See Note 2, "Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels," at end Sources: • of Non-combustion estimates are all for • otal energy consumption. See Table 1.3. section. t ndustrial sector consumption, except for some lubricants consumed by the i / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 22

33 T able 1.11b Heat Content of Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels (Quadrillion Btu) Petroleum Percent of Total Hydro- Petro- Energy chemical carbon Petro- Asphalt Consump- Feed- Gas leum and Natural Special Lubri- a b c tion stocks Liquids Coke Road Oil Gas Naphthas cants Total Coal Other Total 0.107 1 1.264 0.977 0.359 0.767 0.088 0.169 0.290 3.914 4.829 6.4 973 Total ... 0.808 .144 ... 1.014 .921 .304 .675 .085 .688 .341 3.485 4.268 5.9 975 Total 1 .095 ... .076 .690 .962 1.147 1 1.464 .081 .193 .379 4.580 5.345 6.8 980 Total .354 985 Total .034 .590 1.029 1.251 .322 .747 .090 .159 .242 3.841 4.465 5.8 1 ... .107 ... 1.170 1.393 .362 1.138 .117 .732 .198 4.486 5.239 6.2 990 Total .021 1 ... .029 .892 1.178 1.764 .346 1.222 1 .071 .185 4.879 5.800 6.4 995 Total .115 996 Total .028 .921 1.176 1.856 .335 1.211 ... .075 .185 4.951 5.900 6.3 1 .113 997 Total ... .027 .933 1.224 1.894 .354 1.410 .083 .072 .183 5.220 6.181 6.5 1 998 Total ... .969 1.263 1.789 .371 1.409 .143 .107 .229 5.310 6.304 6.6 1 .025 .205 999 Total .932 1.324 2.098 .375 1.336 .025 .145 .211 5.695 6.652 6.9 1 ... 000 Total ... .026 .942 1.276 2.065 .369 1.353 .094 .097 .222 5.476 6.443 6.5 2 .165 001 Total .863 1.257 1.844 .338 1.205 .023 .078 .223 5.112 5.998 6.2 2 ... 002 Total ... .021 .856 1.240 1.945 .334 1.276 .138 .102 .220 5.257 6.134 6.3 2 .117 003 Total .832 1.220 1.869 .309 1.371 .022 .080 .217 5.183 6.037 6.2 2 ... 004 Total ... .021 .840 1.304 1.924 .313 1.592 .207 .051 .211 5.602 6.463 6.5 2 2 005 Total .021 .782 1.323 1.812 .312 1.474 .177 .063 .218 5.380 6.183 6.2 ... 1.477 2 .020 .600 1.261 1.871 .303 ... .203 .070 .242 5.427 6.048 6.1 006 Total 2 007 Total ... .020 .614 1.197 1.872 .313 1.351 .191 .078 .223 5.224 5.859 5.8 2 008 Total .020 .625 1.012 1.722 .291 1.172 .214 .085 .230 4.725 5.370 5.4 ... 1.031 2 .014 .537 .873 1.839 .262 ... .172 .046 .212 4.434 4.985 5.3 009 Total 2 010 Total ... .019 .669 .878 2.010 .291 1.096 .058 .026 .213 4.571 5.258 5.4 1.057 2 .019 .695 .859 2.028 .276 ... .059 .023 .221 4.522 5.236 5.4 011 Total 5.4 012 Total ... .019 .724 .827 2.062 .254 .901 .064 .015 .201 4.324 5.066 2 5.5 2 013 Total ... .019 .741 .783 2.248 .268 .901 .059 .100 .206 4.567 5.327 2 014 Total .019 .749 .793 2.234 .280 .827 .058 .106 .214 4.512 5.280 5.4 ... 015 Total ... .730 .832 2.351 .305 .760 .059 .099 .215 4.622 5.370 5.5 2 .018 .006 016 .072 .040 .223 .026 .065 .001 .008 .019 .386 .459 5.1 2 January ... February ... .001 .066 .044 .196 .026 .060 .005 .008 .016 .355 .422 5.1 March ... .065 .052 .204 .027 .063 .005 .010 .019 .380 .447 5.6 .001 April ... .004 .061 .060 .189 .024 .061 .007 .019 .364 .426 5.7 .001 .004 .060 .081 .193 .025 .062 .001 .010 .018 .392 .453 6.0 May ... June ... .001 .057 .096 .180 .027 .060 .003 .006 .019 .391 .449 5.7 July ... .059 .097 .195 .022 .066 .004 .008 .020 .412 .473 5.6 .001 August ... .006 .060 .108 .185 .023 .064 .007 .020 .413 .475 5.6 .001 .004 .058 .087 .188 .023 .061 .001 .009 .019 .390 .450 5.8 September ... October ... .001 .061 .086 .205 .025 .063 .005 .007 .016 .406 .468 6.1 .007 .065 .062 .190 .022 .062 .001 .008 .019 .370 .435 5.6 November ... December ... .001 .073 .040 .210 .022 .067 .006 .007 .019 .371 .445 4.9 .289 Total ... .015 .757 .853 2.358 .754 .058 .094 .223 4.629 5.401 5.5 .006 .064 .026 .227 .038 .009 5.1 .462 .388 .020 2 017 January ... .001 .073 February ... .064 .045 .182 .022 .063 .003 .008 .017 .339 .405 5.3 .001 March ... .002 .069 .053 .214 .027 .075 .009 .020 .400 .470 5.6 .001 .004 .062 .063 .194 .023 .072 .001 .006 .018 .381 .444 6.0 April ... May ... .001 .061 .075 .200 .025 .076 .005 .008 .020 .409 .471 6.0 .004 .059 .095 .200 .022 .073 .001 .009 .019 .422 .482 6.1 June ... .491 July ... .001 .059 .091 .214 .022 .070 .007 .008 .020 .430 5.8 August ... .001 .061 .112 .180 .017 .066 .004 .009 .019 .408 .471 5.7 September ... .060 .088 .176 .021 .060 .005 .007 .017 .374 .435 5.7 .001 .002 .064 .085 .211 .023 .064 .001 .009 .018 .412 .478 6.1 October ... November ... .001 .069 .061 .219 .022 .062 .006 .009 .020 .400 .470 5.8 .006 .075 .043 .243 .018 .065 .001 .009 .019 .403 .479 5.2 December ... 5.7 Total ... .016 .776 .849 2.459 .267 .809 .054 .100 .228 4.767 5.558 .496 5.1 .264 .020 .059 .005 .042 .009 .019 .418 2 018 January ... .001 .076 February ... 5.3 .430 .361 .017 .008 .002 .054 .018 .221 .041 .068 .001 .009 .048 .241 .025 .064 .004 .072 .018 .409 .483 5.6 .001 March ... R .001 .068 .048 .221 .018 .064 .004 .009 .019 .384 .453 5.7 April ... R R .001 .005 .065 .076 .212 .021 .064 .009 .020 .407 May ... .473 5.9 R .024 .001 .062 .095 .213 June ... .064 .005 .007 .019 .427 .490 6.0 6.0 .454 .005 .020 .008 .518 July ... .001 .063 .097 .232 .024 .069 August ... .007 .472 .536 .006 6.2 .020 .001 .063 .104 .238 .022 .074 R .413 .019 .007 .006 .068 .013 .222 .077 .062 September ... 6.1 .477 .001 R .021 .001 .065 .081 .237 October ... .073 .007 .008 .017 .445 .512 6.3 R .051 5.8 .495 November ... .025 .001 .071 .423 .255 .063 .004 .006 .019 R .267 .495 December ... 5.5 .001 .074 .037 .419 .017 .067 .004 .007 .020 R R R .228 .093 .058 .783 .248 2.824 .797 5.8 .809 5.857 .016 5.031 ... Total .021 2 .518 .438 .019 .006 .004 .064 5.4 .281 .042 .079 .001 January ... 019 a Ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, natural gasoline, and refinery of Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District independent rounding. • Columbia. o lefins (ethylene, propylene, butylene, and isobutylene). • See Note 2, "Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels," at end of section. b Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#summary for a ll Includes still gas not burned as refinery fuel. c available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, waxes, and miscellaneous products. • Sources: See Note 2, "Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels," at end R=Revised. of Data are estimates. • Notes: • Non-combustion use estimates are included in Percent of Total Energy Consumption: al section. Calculated as tot • n non-combustion use of fossil fuels divided by total primary energy consumptio t otal energy consumption. See Table 1.3. • Non-combustion estimates are all for (see Table 1.3). i ndustrial sector consumption, except for some lubricants consumed by the Totals may not equal sum of components due to • t ransportation sector. Monthly U. 23 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

34 Energy Overview Note Merchandise Trade Value. Imports data presented are based on the customs values. Those values do not 1. insurance freight and are consequently lower than the cost, insurance, and freight (CIF) values, which are and include reported by the Bureau of the Census. All exports data, and imports data through also are on a free alongside ship 1980, basis. (f.a.s.) is exports minus imports; a positive balance indicates a surplus trade value and a negative balance indicates a “Balance” Energy trade value. “Energy” includes mineral fuels, lubricants, and related material. “Non ‐ Balance” and “Total deficit foreign exports include (i.e., re ‐ Merchandise” and nonmonetary gold and U.S. Department of Defense Grant ‐ exports) Aid The “Non ‐ Energy Balance” is calculated by subtracting the “Energy” from the “Total Merchandise shipments. Balance.” states, of government “Imports” nongovernment shipments of merchandise into the 50 the District of consist and Rico, the U.S. Puerto Virgin Islands, and Columbia, the U.S. Foreign Trade Zones. They reflect the total arrival from of merchandise that immediately entered consumption channels, warehouses, the Foreign Trade countries foreign or the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. They exclude shipments between the United States, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Zones, Forces to U.S. Armed shipments and diplomatic possessions, missions abroad for their own use, U.S. goods returned to the States by its Armed Forces, and in ‐ transit shipments. United and Non ‐ Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels. Most fossil fuels consumed in the United States elsewhere are Note 2. produce heat and power. However, to some are used directly for combusted non ‐ combustion use as construction and feedstocks, lubricants, solvents, materials, waxes. For example, coal tars from coal coke manufacturing are chemical natural feedstock in the chemical industry, used metallurgical work, and in anti ‐ dandruff shampoos; as gas is used to for make nitrogenous fertilizers and as chemical feedstocks; asphalt and road oil are used for roofing and paving; hydrocarbon liquids are used to create intermediate products that are used in making plastics; lubricants, including gas and greases, motor used in vehicles and various industrial processes; petrochemical oil feedstocks are used to make are plastics, synthetic fabrics, and related products. Coal The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) assumes all non ‐ combustion use of coal comes from the process of typically manufacturing coal coke. Among the byproducts of the process are "coal tars" or "coal liquids," which are rich in aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, and are used as chemical feedstock. EIA's Office of Energy Analysis (OEA) data production tar coal on estimates non ‐ combustion use ratios based of coal tar. Prior to 1995, estimate ratios are from United States International Trade Commission's Synthetic Organic Chemicals. From 1995 forward, coal tar the production using the ratio of EIA’s estimate of is 1994 estimated coke production, reported in EIA's Quarterly Coal Report. Coal tar ratios prior to 1980 are assumed to be equal to the 1980 ratio. For Table 1.11b, coal tar values in Table 1.11a multiplied by 32.0067 million Btu/short ton, which is the are product of 4.95 barrels/short ton (the density of coal tar) and 6.466 million Btu/barrel (the approximate heat content of coal tar). Natural Gas assumes that all non ‐ combustion use of natural gas EIA takes place in the industrial sector. OEA estimates non ‐ combustion ratios of natural gas using Form EIA ‐ 864A "Manufacturers Energy Consumption Survey" (MECS) and natural gas as feedstock for hydrogen production using Form EIA ‐ 820 "Annual Refinery Report" data. For used years when MECS using unavailable, estimates are interpolated data extrapolated are chemical indices as scaling factors. Non ‐ or combustion ratios prior to 1980 are assumed to be equal to the 1980 ratio. For Table 1.11b, natural gas values in Table natural 1.11a multiplied by the heat content factor for are gas total consumption shown Table A4. in Asphalt & Road Oil EIA assumes all asphalt and road oil consumption is for non ‐ combustion use. For Table 1.11b, asphalt and road oil values and road oil) and the asphalt in Table 1.11a are multiplied by 6.636 million Btu/ barrel (the approximate heat content of the in days of number period. / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 24

35 Distillate & Residual Fuels estimates OEA ‐ combustion ratios of distillate and residual fuels using chemical industry fuel product data reported non to for years after the most recent MECS are assumed to be equal MECS. the most recent MECS values. Non ‐ in Values ratios to 1980 are assumed to be equal to the combustion prior oils ratio. Distillate and residual fuel are included in 1980 petroleum products. For Table 1.11b, distillate "other" fuel values in Table 1.11a are multiplied by the appropriate Table A3 and the number of days in the period. Residual fuel values in Table 1.11a are multiplied by 6.287 values in million approximate heat content of Btu/barrel residual fuel oil) and the number of days in the period. (the Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL) estimates non ‐ combustion ratios of liquefied petroleum (LPG) components, including ethane, propane, and OEA gas using chemical industry fuel product data reported in MECS. Values for years after the most recent MECS are butane, to be equal to the most recent MECS values. OEA estimates non ‐ combustion ratios of natural assumed gasoline plus) with annual surveys of natural gas liquids and (pentanes refinery gases sold to the chemical industry published in Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). All non ‐ combustion ratios prior to 1980 are assumed to be equal to the 1980 ratio. EIA's 1.11b, HGL values in Table 1.11a are For Table by the appropriate heat content factors in Table A1 and the multiplied of days in the period. number Lubricants use all lubricants consumption are EIA non ‐ combustion assumes in the industrial and transportation sectors. For for 1.11b, lubricants values in Table 1.11a are multiplied by 6.065 million Table Btu/barrel (the approximate heat rate for lubricants) and the number of days in the period. Petrochemical Feedstocks feedstock assumes all naphthas and EIA other oils for petrochemical use are for non ‐ combustion use. OEA estimates non ‐ combustion ratios of still gas by deducting all known fuel uses (refinery fuel use from PSA and pipeline gas supplies from Natural Gas Annual) from the products supplied value from the EIA's assumed PSA. remainder is The to be to chemical plants as a feedstock. dispatched ‐ combustion ratios prior to 1980 are assumed to be equal to the 1980 Non ratio. For Table 1.11b, petrochemical feedstock values in 1.11a are multiplied by the appropriate values in Table A1 and the of number days the period. in Petroleum Coke EIA assumes all non ‐ combustion of petroleum coke occurs in the industrial sector. Examples include petroleum coke use estimates used in the production of chemicals and metals. EIA non ‐ combustion ratios of petroleum coke using PSA and MECS Values for years after the most recent MECS are assumed to be data. recent equal the most to MECS values. ‐ combustion ratios prior to 1980 are assumed to be equal to the 1980 ratio. For Table 1.11b, petroleum coke Non values in 1.11a are multiplied by 5.719 million Btu/barrel (the approximate heat content of marketable petroleum coke) and the number of days in the period. Special Naphthas EIA assumes all special naphthas consumption is for non ‐ combustion use. For Table 1.11b, special naphthas values in Table are multiplied by 5.248 million Btu/barrel (the approximate heat content of special naphthas) and the 1.11a the days in number period. of Waxes use. assumes all waxes consumption is EIA non ‐ combustion Waxes are included in "other" petroleum products. For for Table 1.11b, waxes values in Table 1.11a are multiplied by 5.537 million Btu/barrel (the approximate heat content of days waxes) the number of and in the period. Miscellaneous Petroleum Products Miscellaneous products all finished petroleum products not classified elsewhere. EIA assumes all miscellaneous include combustion ‐ non Table For products. petroleum "other" in included are and use petroleum products consumption are for Monthly U. 25 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

36 1.11b, miscellaneous petroleum values in Table 1.11a are multiplied by 5.796 million Btu/barrel (the approximate heat days miscellaneous petroleum products) and the number of in the period. content of 1.2 Sources Table Coal Coal production data from Table 6.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the coal production heat 1949–1988: content factors in Table A5. by Coal production data from Table 6.1 are converted to Btu 1989 by multiplying forward: the coal production heat content factors in Table A5. Waste coal supplied data from Table 6.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the waste coal coal heat content factors in Table A5. Coal production (including waste supplied supplied) is equal to coal production plus waste supplied. coal Natural Gas (Dry) 1949 forward: Natural gas (dry) production data from Table 4.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the natural gas (dry) heat content factors production in Table A4. Crude Oil 1949 forward: Crude oil (including lease condensate) production data from Table 3.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the crude oil (including lease condensate) production heat content factors in Table A2. NGPL data 1949 forward: Natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) production from Table 3.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the production heat content factors in Table A2. NGPL Fossil Fuels Total values Total fossil fuels production is the sum of the production forward: for coal, natural gas (dry), crude oil, and 1949 NGPL. Nuclear Electric Power forward: Nuclear electricity net generation data from Table 7.2a are converted to Btu by multiplying by 1949 the nuclear heat rate factors in Table A6. Renewable Energy 1949 forward: Table 10.1. Total Primary Energy Production forward: Total primary energy production is the sum of the 1949 production values for fossil fuels, nuclear electric power, and renewable energy. 1.3 Sources Table Coal 1949 forward: Coal consumption data from Table 6.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the total coal consumption heat factors in Table A5. content Natural Gas data Natural gas (including supplemental 1949–1979: fuels) consumption from Table 4.1 are converted to Btu gaseous by multiplying by the total natural gas consumption heat content factors in Table A4. data 1980 Natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption forward: from Table 4.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the in natural gas consumption heat content factors total Table A4. Supplemental gaseous fuels data in Section of end the at Fuels,” Gaseous Note “Supplemental 3, Natural 4. Btu are estimated using the method described in / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 26

37 gas (excluding supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption is equal to natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) minus supplemental gaseous fuels. consumption Petroleum (excluding biofuels) consumption is 1949–1992: to total Petroleum petroleum products supplied from Table 3.6. equal Petroleum (excluding biofuels) consumption is equal to total 1993–2008: petroleum products supplied from Table 3.6 minus fuel ethanol consumption from Table 10.3. Petroleum (excluding biofuels) 2009–2011: is equal to: total petroleum products supplied from consumption Table 3.6; minus fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption from Table 10.3; minus biodiesel consumption (calculated using biodiesel from U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), EIA ‐ 22M, "Monthly Biodiesel Production Survey"; and data Report," ‐ diesel biomass fuel data from EIA ‐ 810, "Monthly Refinery based EIA ‐ 812, "Monthly Product Pipeline Report," and EIA ‐ 815, "Monthly Bulk Terminal and Blender Report” (the data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the biodiesel heat content factor in Table A1); minus other renewable diesel fuel and other renewables fuels consumption from Table 10.4. 2012 forward: Petroleum (excluding biofuels) consumption is equal to: total petroleum products supplied from Table biodiesel 3.6; minus fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption from Table 10.3; minus consumption from Table 10.4; minus renewable diesel fuel and other renewables fuels consumption from Table 10.4. other Coal Coke Net Imports from Coal coke net imports are equal to coal coke imports forward: Table 1.4a minus coal coke exports from Table 1949 1.4b. Fossil Fuels Total forward: Total fossil fuels consumption is the sum of the consumption values for coal, natural 1949 and petroleum, gas, plus coal coke net imports. Nuclear Electric Power multiplying forward: Nuclear electricity net generation data from Table 7.2a are converted to 1949 Btu by by the nuclear heat rate factors in Table A6. Renewable Energy forward: 1949 10.1. Table Electricity Net Imports 1949 forward: Electricity net imports are equal to electricity imports from Table 1.4a minus electricity exports from Table 1.4b. Total Primary Energy Consumption fuels, forward: Total primary energy consumption is the sum of the consumption values for 1949 nuclear electric fossil power, and renewable energy, plus electricity imports. net Table 1.4a Sources Coal 1949 forward: Coal imports data from Table 6.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the coal imports heat content factors in Table A5. Coal Coke 1949 forward: Coal coke imports data from U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Monthly Report IM heat imports coke coal the by multiplying A5. Table in factor content 145, are converted to Btu by Monthly U. 27 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

38 Natural Gas forward: gas imports data from Table 4.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying Natural by the natural gas imports 1949 content factors in Table A4. heat Crude Oil 1949 Crude oil imports data from Table 3.3b are converted to Btu by multiplying by the crude oil imports heat forward: in Table factors A2. content Petroleum Products Petroleum products (excluding biofuels) imports are equal to total petroleum imports from Table 3.3b 1949–1992: oil imports from Table 3.3b; petroleum products (excluding biofuels) imports data are converted to Btu by crude minus the total petroleum products imports by content factors in Table A2. multiplying heat Petroleum products (excluding biofuels) 1993–2008: imports are equal to petroleum products (including biofuels) 1949–1992 sources above) imports fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) (see imports (see “Biomass—Fuel Ethanol minus (Minus Denaturant)” sources below). 2009 forward: Renewable fuels (excluding fuel ethanol) imports data are from U.S. Energy Information Administration, Petroleum Annual (PSA), Tables 1 and 25, and Supply Monthly (PSM), Tables 1 Petroleum and 37 (for biomass ‐ Supply based diesel fuel and other renewable fuels, the data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the biodiesel heat content other factor in Table A1; for other renewable diesel fuel, the data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the renewable fuel heat content factor in Table A1). diesel products (excluding biofuels) imports are equal to petroleum Petroleum imports products (including biofuels) imports (see 1949–1992 sources above) minus fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) (see Ethanol (Minus Denaturant)” sources below) minus “Biomass—Fuel renewable fuels (excluding fuel ethanol) imports. Total Petroleum 1949 forward: Total petroleum imports are equal to crude oil imports plus petroleum products imports. Biomass—Fuel Ethanol (Minus Denaturant) forward: Fuel ethanol (including denaturant) imports data 1993 are from PSA/PSM Table 1. Fuel ethanol (minus from denaturant minus 10.3 Table production ethanol denaturant) (including denaturant) production is equal to fuel from 10.3. Fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) imports are equal to fuel ethanol (including denaturant) imports Table multiplied the ratio by to of fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) production fuel ethanol (including denaturant) production. Fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) imports data are converted to Btu by multiplying by 3.539 million Btu per barrel, the undenatured heat content factor ethanol in Table A3. Biomass—Biodiesel 2001 forward: Biodiesel imports data are from Table 10.4, and are converted to Btu by multiplying by the biodiesel heat Table content factor in A1. Biomass—Other Renewable Fuels 2009 forward: Other renewable fuels imports data are from PSA Table 25 and PSM Table 37. For other renewable diesel fuel, data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the other renewable diesel fuel heat the content factor in Table A1; for other renewable fuels, the data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the biodiesel heat content factor in Table A1. Total Biomass 1993–2000: Total biomass imports are equal fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) imports. to 2001–2008: biomass imports are equal to fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) imports plus biodiesel imports. Total and values for fuel imports ethanol (minus denaturant), biodiesel, 2009 forward: Total biomass imports are the sum of renewable other fuels. / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 28

39 Electricity Btu forward: imports data from Table 7.1 are converted to Electricity by multiplying by the electricity heat content 1949 in Table A6. factor Total Primary Energy Imports forward: Total primary energy imports are the sum of the imports values for coal, coal coke, natural gas, total 1949 total biomass, and electricity. petroleum, Table Sources 1.4b Coal Coal exports data from Table 6.1 are 1949 to forward: Btu by multiplying by the coal exports heat content converted in Table A5. factors Coal Coke forward: Coal coke exports data from U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Monthly Report EM 1949 exports are converted to Btu by multiplying by the coal coke content heat 545, factor in Table A5. Natural Gas 1949 forward: Natural gas exports data from Table 4.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the natural gas exports Table factors in heat A4. content Crude Oil forward: Crude oil exports data from Table 1949 3.3b are converted to Btu by multiplying by the crude oil exports heat content factor in Table A2. Petroleum Products 1949–2009: Petroleum products (excluding biofuels) exports are equal total petroleum exports from Table 3.3b minus to crude oil exports from Table 3.3b; petroleum products (excluding biofuels) exports data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the total petroleum products exports heat content factors in Table A2. biofuels) 2010: Petroleum products (including minus 3.3b Table crude exports are equal to total petroleum exports from oil from Table 3.3b; petroleum products (including biofuels) exports data are converted to Btu by multiplying by exports factors petroleum products exports heat content the in Table A2. Petroleum products (excluding biofuels) exports total are to petroleum equal ethanol biofuels) exports products fuel (including (minus denaturant) exports (see minus “Biomass—Fuel Ethanol (Minus Denaturant)” sources below). 2011 Biomass ‐ based diesel fuel exports data are forward: from U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA), Table 31, and Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM), Table 49, and are converted to Btu by multiplying by the biodiesel heat content factor in Table A1. Petroleum products (excluding biofuels) exports are equal to petroleum products (including biofuels) exports (see 2010 sources above) minus fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) exports “Biomass—Fuel Ethanol (Minus Denaturant)” sources below) minus biomass ‐ based diesel fuel exports. (see Total Petroleum 1949 forward: Total petroleum exports are equal to crude oil exports plus petroleum products exports. Biomass—Fuel Ethanol (Minus Denaturant) are forward: Fuel ethanol (including denaturant) exports data 2010 from PSA/PSM Table 1. Fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) production is equal to fuel ethanol (including denaturant) production from Table 10.3 minus denaturant from 10.3. Fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) exports are Table equal to fuel ethanol (including denaturant) exports multiplied by the ratio fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) production of to fuel ethanol (including denaturant) production. the Btu per barrel, Fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) exports are converted to Btu by multiplying by 3.539 million heat ethanol undenatured A3. Table in factor content Monthly U. 29 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

40 Biomass—Biodiesel Btu Biodiesel exports data are from Table 10.4, and are converted to 2001 forward: by multiplying by the biodiesel heat content factor in Table A1. Biomass—Densified Biomass Biomass 2016 forward: Densified biomass exports data are from EIA, Form EIA ‐ 63C, “Densified Fuel Report.” Total Biomass Total biomass exports are 2001–2009: equal to biodiesel exports. exports 2010 forward: Total biomass equal are to fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) exports plus biodiesel exports. values 2016 Total biomass exports are the sum of the exports forward: for fuel ethanol (minus denaturant), biodiesel, and densified biomass. Electricity 1949 forward: Electricity exports data from Table 7.1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the electricity heat content factor in Table A6. Total Primary Energy Exports gas, natural coke, coal coal, total for values exports the of 1949 forward: Total primary energy exports are the sum total petroleum, and electricity. biomass, Total Primary Energy Net Imports imports 1949 Total primary energy net imports are equal to total primary energy forward: from Table 1.4a minus total exports. energy primary 1.5 Sources Table Department U.S. of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, Foreign Trade Division: Petroleum Exports 1974–1987: “U.S. Exports,” FT 410, December issues. ‐ 1988 1989: “Report on U.S. Merchandise Trade,” Final Revisions. and 1990–1992: “U.S. Merchandise Trade,” Final Report. in 1993–2009: “U.S. International Trade Revisions. Goods and Services,” Annual 2012 2010–2011: International Trade in Goods and Services,” “U.S. Annual Revisions. Services,” 2014 Annual Revisions. Goods and 2012–2014: “U.S. International Trade in Trade 2015 forward: “U.S. International Goods in and Services,” FT ‐ 900, monthly. Petroleum Imports 1974–1987: “U.S. Merchandise Trade,” FT 900, December issues, 1975–1988. ‐ and 1989: “Report on U.S. Merchandise Trade,” Final Revisions. 1988 Report. 1990–1993: “U.S. Merchandise Trade,” Final “U.S. 1994–2009: Revisions. Annual Services,” and Goods in Trade International Goods Annual 2012 Services,” and Revisions. in Trade International “U.S. 2010–2011: / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 30

41 2012–2014: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services,” 2014 Annual Revisions. “U.S. International Trade in Goods 2015 and Services,” FT ‐ 900, monthly. forward: Energy Exports and Imports 1974–1987: U.S. merchandise trade press releases and database printouts for adjustments. FT 1988: January–July, monthly FT ‐ 900 supplement, 1989 issues. August–December, monthly ‐ 900, 1989 issues. 900, 1989: Monthly FT ‐ 1990 issues. Merchandise 1990–1992: “U.S. Trade,” Final Report. 1993–2009: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services,” Annual Revisions. and in Goods Services,” Annual Revisions. Trade International 1993–2009: “U.S. 2010–2011: International Trade in Goods and Services,” 2012 Annual Revisions. “U.S. 2012–2014: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services,” 2014 Annual Revisions. Goods 2015 forward: “U.S. International Trade in and Services,” FT ‐ 900, monthly. Petroleum Balance the petroleum as (EIA) Administration Information Energy U.S. 1974 forward: The petroleum balance is calculated by imports exports. petroleum minus Energy Balance EIA forward: The energy balance is calculated by as energy imports minus energy exports. 1974 Non-Energy Balance calculated forward: The non ‐ energy balance is merchandise by EIA as the total 1974 balance minus the energy balance. Total Merchandise U.S. merchandise trade press 1974–1987: and database printouts for adjustments. releases 1988: “Report on U.S. Merchandise Trade, 1988 Final Revisions,” August 18, 1989. U.S. on 1990. 10, July Revisions,” 1989 Trade, Merchandise 1989: “Report 1990: “U.S. Merchandise Trade, 1990 Final Report,” May 10, 1991, and “U.S. Merchandise Trade, December 1992,” 18, 1993, page 3. February 1991: “U.S. Merchandise Trade, 1992 Report,” Final May 12, 1993. 1992–2009: International Trade in Goods “U.S. and Services,” Annual Revisions. 2010–2011: “U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services,” 2012 Annual Revisions. Services,” and Goods in Trade Revisions. Annual 2014 2012–2014: “U.S. International Services,” Trade in Goods and FT ‐ 900, monthly. forward: “U.S. International 2015 Monthly U. 31 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

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43 2. Energy Consumption By Sector

44 Consumption by 2.1 Energy Figure Sector (Quadrillion Btu) Total Consumption by End-Use Sector, 1949–2018 40 Industrial 30 Transportation Residential 20 Commercial 10 0 1955 1950 2000 2015 2010 2005 1995 1990 1985 1980 1975 1970 1965 1960 Total Consumption by End-Use Sector, Monthly 4 Industrial 3 Transportation Residential 2 Commercial 1 0 JFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASOND 2019 2017 2018 By Sector, January 2019 Primary Consumption Total Consumption 4 3.269 2.904 3 2.508 2.286 2.279 2.115 1.817 2 1.163 1 0.689 0 Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Electric Power http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg Page: Web y/data/monthly/#consumption. Source: Table 2.1. Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U. 2019 April Review 34

45 T able 2.1 Energy Consumption by Sector (Trillion Btu) Electric End-Use Sectors Power c,d a b Residential Commercial Sector Industrial Transportation Balancing Primary g f e f e f e f e h e Total Item Primary Total Total Total Primary Total Primary Primary Primary ... 4,829 1 2,834 3,893 13,890 16,241 8,383 8,492 4,679 (s) 34,616 950 Total 5,989 955 Total 5,608 7,278 2,561 3,895 16,103 19,485 9,474 9,550 6,461 (s) 40,208 1 ... 10,560 ... 9,039 2,723 4,609 16,996 20,842 6,651 10,596 8,158 (s) 45,086 1 960 Total 965 Total ... 7,279 10,639 3,177 5,845 20,148 25,098 12,399 12,432 11,012 (s) 54,015 1 970 Total 1 13,766 4,237 8,346 22,964 29,628 16,062 16,098 16,253 (s) 67,838 ... 8,322 ... 18,210 14,813 4,059 9,492 21,434 29,413 975 Total 18,245 20,270 1 71,965 1 7,990 19,659 980 Total 15,753 4,105 10,578 22,595 32,039 7,439 19,697 24,269 -1 78,067 1 ... 985 Total ... 7,148 16,041 3,732 11,451 19,443 28,816 20,041 20,088 26,032 -4 76,392 1 d 22,366 16,940 3,893 13,317 21,172 31,802 6,552 22,419 990 Total 30,495 7 84,485 ... 1 995 Total ... 6,934 18,517 4,100 14,690 22,718 33,969 23,757 23,812 33,479 3 90,991 1 2 000 Total ... 7,156 20,421 4,278 17,175 22,823 34,662 26,456 26,516 38,062 2 98,776 2 001 Total 6,864 20,038 4,084 17,137 21,792 32,718 26,179 26,242 37,215 -6 96,129 ... 26,747 002 Total 20,786 4,132 17,346 21,797 32,660 6,907 26,808 38,016 5 97,605 2 ... 003 Total ... 7,232 21,119 4,298 17,346 21,533 32,553 26,807 26,881 38,028 -1 97,898 2 2 004 Total 6,987 21,081 4,232 17,655 22,411 33,515 27,748 27,827 38,701 -6 100,073 ... 32,441 2 6,901 21,613 4,052 17,853 21,410 ... 28,180 28,261 39,626 (s) 100,168 005 Total 2 006 Total ... 6,154 20,670 3,747 17,707 21,529 32,390 28,618 28,697 39,417 (s) 99,464 R 2 6,589 21,519 3,922 18,253 21,362 007 Total 32,385 28,728 28,815 40,371 -1 100,971 ... 27,340 2 6,889 21,668 4,100 18,402 20,527 31,333 ... 27,422 39,969 1 98,825 008 Total R R ... 6,637 21,081 26,507 4,056 2 17,888 18,755 28,465 009 Total 26,589 38,069 (s) 94,023 R 26,899 6,640 21,894 4,023 2 18,059 20,421 30,669 ... 26,980 39,619 7 97,608 010 Total R R R 6,472 21,381 2 4,065 011 Total 17,981 20,591 30,979 26,521 26,601 39,293 8 ... 96,950 R R R ... 5,684 19,870 94,480 3,725 2 17,421 20,884 31,057 26,054 26,129 38,131 2 012 Total 97,218 21,478 -1 38,357 26,614 2 013 Total ... 6,688 21,051 4,161 17,929 31,625 26,536 R R R 2 014 Total 21,445 4,390 18,264 21,560 31,796 26,791 26,871 38,629 6 7,006 98,382 ... R R 31,469 015 Total 20,617 4,441 18,157 21,525 6,464 27,164 27,241 37,890 1 97,484 2 ... 016 January ... 1,059 2,392 627 1,751 1,928 2,731 2,182 2,189 3,267 (s) 9,063 2 February ... 1,837 1,985 532 1,539 2,584 2,121 2,127 2,889 -4 8,231 856 R March ... 603 1,582 405 1,438 1,847 2,345 2,351 2,794 -7 7,986 2,621 R 2,504 462 1,341 329 1,346 1,720 2,260 2,266 2,687 -5 7,452 April ... R May ... 324 1,290 265 1,376 1,727 2,562 2,351 2,357 2,918 -3 7,582 R June ... 237 1,529 222 1,464 1,710 2,359 2,366 3,404 3 7,935 2,573 2,648 July ... 1,817 222 1,561 1,751 227 2,430 2,437 3,833 6 8,469 August ... 213 1,771 224 1,569 1,841 2,729 2,456 2,462 3,797 7 8,537 R 2,540 1,478 230 1,421 1,737 230 2,298 2,304 3,247 3 7,745 September ... October ... 324 1,319 290 1,397 1,808 2,608 2,321 2,327 2,909 (s) 7,651 2,586 519 1,446 382 1,427 1,806 November ... 2,251 2,257 2,757 -3 7,713 594 December ... 981 2,240 3,225 1,738 1,942 2,758 2,338 2,345 (s) 9,080 R R R 6,032 ... 20,181 4,321 18,030 21,657 31,450 27,713 27,788 37,727 -4 97,445 Total R 2,219 2,316 605 1,706 1,939 2,732 017 1,016 2,226 3,201 2 8,982 2 January ... R 726 -2 1,709 463 1,432 1,712 2,437 2,041 2,047 2,684 7,623 February ... R March ... 1,773 482 1,560 1,910 2,373 2,720 2,379 2,932 -2 8,430 736 R April ... 1,311 307 1,322 1,776 2,260 2,557 2,266 2,700 -3 7,452 413 2,668 May ... 1,325 268 1,386 1,821 324 2,417 2,423 2,971 -1 7,800 June ... 251 1,483 229 1,436 1,784 2,643 2,395 2,401 3,303 2 7,964 R R R R R 8,433 1,833 1,745 2,722 219 2,426 1,528 2,432 3,722 5 227 July ... R R 2,485 1,615 1,484 1,831 2,704 August ... 225 2,491 3,531 4 223 8,298 September ... 232 1,379 229 1,376 1,765 2,572 2,296 2,302 3,108 (s) 7,630 R R 2,404 1,350 294 1,413 1,855 2,673 2,397 334 2,960 -2 7,838 October ... R R R R R 430 1,495 8,130 1,927 620 2,733 2,280 2,287 2,874 -2 1,618 November ... 3,255 2,361 9,229 -1 December ... 1,009 2,281 617 1,757 1,995 2,832 2,354 R R R R Total 28,017 27,942 31,994 22,149 17,897 4,366 19,900 97,809 (s) 6,111 37,241 ... R R R R R R R 2,255 2 1,199 2,712 692 1,856 2,057 2,829 2,248 January ... 3,457 3 9,655 018 R R R R R 532 February ... 1,537 2,047 1,804 2,514 856 2,053 1,974 2,840 -2 8,077 R R R R R R R 1,983 1,615 March ... 2,756 2,405 1,906 2,411 829 2,943 -4 528 8,684 R R R R R R R R 1,551 403 -5 1,434 April ... 1,832 7,884 2,586 2,312 2,318 597 2,746 R R R R R R R R R 2,462 1,884 1,388 2,738 2,456 252 May ... 304 3,125 1,433 -2 8,019 R R R R R R R R R 1,470 June ... 1,835 1,571 2,669 2,423 2,430 226 3,411 246 3 8,144 R R R R R R R R 6 July ... 236 2,501 1,792 222 3,759 1,553 8,607 1,890 2,495 2,755 R R R R R R 6 226 2,544 2,537 2,858 1,735 8,694 1,975 3,724 227 1,552 August ... R R R R R R R R R 2,312 229 1,419 September ... 1,836 2 2,631 239 2,306 7,860 3,249 1,497 R R R R R R R R October ... -1 411 8,095 1,446 341 2,411 1,465 2,951 1,987 2,774 2,405 R R R R R R R R R 2,318 1,842 500 1,581 1,936 2,731 774 2,324 2,950 -2 November ... 8,477 R R R R R R R R R R 2,372 1,693 December ... 1,990 9,054 2,766 978 2,226 2,365 597 3,126 -2 R R R R R R R R R R R 4,747 Total 101,251 ... 23,010 2 32,606 6,896 28,316 28,394 21,640 38,280 18,609 2,508 9,516 1,163 2,904 January ... 2,286 2,279 019 1,817 3,269 689 2 1 2,115 a to the use of sector-specific conversion factors for coal and natural gas. Commercial sector, including commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) h Primary energy consumption total. See Table 1.3. nd commercial electricity-only plants. a b R=Revised. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu and greater than -0.5 trillion Btu. Industrial sector, including industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and See Note Notes: • Data are estimates, except for the electric power sector. • 2, ndustrial electricity-only plants. i c "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7. Electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS • See Note 2, "Energy Consumption Data and Surveys," at end of sectio n. 2 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to 2 t Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent roundin • g. he public. d • Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data are Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. n Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#consumptio or electric utilities and independent power producers. f e (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and month ly See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary. f data beginning in 1973. Total energy consumption in the end-use sectors consists of primary energy • Electric Power Sector Sources: • End-Use Sectors: Tables 2.2–2.5. : onsumption, electricity retail sales, and electrical system energy losses. See Note c Calculated as primary energy total consumptio n Balancing Item: , "Electrical System Energy Losses," at end of section. 1 • Table 2.6. g A balancing item. The sum of primary consumption in the five energy-use minus the sum of total energy consumption in the four end-use sectors. s ectors equals the sum of total consumption in the four end-use sectors. However, Primary Total: Table 1.3. • t otal energy consumption does not equal the sum of the sectoral components due Monthly U. 35 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

46 Sector Energy 2.2 Residential Figure Consumption (Quadrillion Btu) By Major Source, 1949–2018 6 Natural Gas 5 Electricity[a] 4 3 2 Petroleum 1 Renewable Energy Coal 0 2000 1995 1990 1985 1980 1975 1970 1965 1960 1955 2010 1950 2015 2005 By Major Source, Monthly 1.2 Natural Gas Renewable Energy 0.9 Electricity[a] 0.6 0.3 Petroleum 0.0 J FMAMJ J ASONDJ FMAMJ J ASONDJ FMAMJ J ASOND 2018 2019 2017 By Major Source, January 2019 Total, January 3 2.712 2.508 Natural Gas 0.981 2.316 2 Electricity[a] 0.454 Petroleum 0.120 1 Renewable Energy 0.062 0 2019 2018 2017 0.00.20.40.60.81.01.2 retail Electricity [a] sales. y/data/monthly/#consumption. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg 2.2. Source: Table Energy Information S. U. 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration 36

47 T able 2.2 Residential Sector Energy Consumption (Trillion Btu) a Primary Consumption b Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Electrical System Electricity Energy Retail Natural Total Petro- Bio- Geo- f e c d Total Total Coal Total Solar thermal leum mass Primary Sales Losses Gas ... 1,261 1,240 1,322 3,824 NA 1 1,006 1,006 4,829 246 913 5,989 950 Total NA 955 Total 867 2,198 1,767 4,833 NA NA 775 775 5,608 438 1,232 7,278 1 ... 627 ... 3,212 2,227 6,024 NA NA 585 627 6,651 687 1,701 9,039 1 960 Total 965 Total ... 352 4,028 2,432 6,811 NA NA 468 468 7,279 993 2,367 10,639 1 970 Total 1 4,987 2,725 7,922 NA NA 401 401 8,322 1,591 3,852 13,766 ... 209 ... 425 5,023 2,479 7,564 NA NA 975 Total 425 7,990 2,007 4,817 14,813 1 63 850 980 Total 4,825 1,734 6,589 NA NA 31 850 7,439 2,448 5,866 15,753 1 ... 985 Total ... 39 4,534 1,565 6,138 NA NA 1,010 1,010 7,148 2,709 6,184 16,041 1 580 990 Total 4,487 1,394 5,912 6 55 31 640 6,552 3,153 7,235 16,940 ... 1 3,557 ... 17 4,954 1,373 6,345 7 63 520 589 6,934 1 8,026 18,517 995 Total 2 000 Total ... 11 5,105 1,553 6,669 9 58 420 486 7,156 4,069 9,197 20,421 2 001 Total 12 4,889 1,528 6,429 9 55 370 435 6,864 4,100 9,074 20,038 ... 380 002 Total 4,995 1,456 6,463 10 53 12 443 6,907 4,317 9,562 20,786 2 ... 003 Total ... 12 5,209 1,546 6,768 13 52 400 465 7,232 4,353 9,534 21,119 2 2 004 Total 11 4,981 1,519 6,511 14 51 410 475 6,987 4,408 9,687 21,081 ... 50 2 8 4,946 1,450 6,405 16 ... 430 496 6,901 4,638 10,074 21,613 005 Total 2 006 Total ... 6 4,476 1,221 5,704 18 53 380 451 6,154 4,611 9,905 20,670 2 007 Total 8 4,835 1,249 6,092 22 55 420 497 6,589 4,750 10,180 21,519 ... 58 2 NA 5,010 1,324 6,334 26 ... 470 555 6,889 4,711 10,068 21,668 008 Total 2 009 Total ... NA 4,883 1,157 6,040 33 60 504 597 6,637 4,657 9,788 21,081 65 2 NA 4,878 1,120 5,998 37 ... 541 642 6,640 4,933 10,321 21,894 010 Total 21,381 011 Total ... NA 4,805 1,033 5,838 40 71 524 635 6,472 4,855 10,054 2 19,870 2 012 Total ... NA 4,242 885 5,127 40 79 438 557 5,684 4,690 9,496 5,023 21,051 2 013 Total ... NA 9,604 963 5,986 40 91 572 703 6,688 4,759 R R R 2 6,278 40 109 579 014 Total 728 5,242 7,006 4,801 9,638 1,036 21,445 ... NA R R R 680 5,783 40 015 Total 128 513 NA 4,777 6,464 4,791 9,362 1,007 20,617 2 ... 016 January ... NA 912 98 1,009 3 8 38 49 1,059 447 886 2,392 2 48 February ... 92 808 3 10 35 716 856 396 733 1,985 NA R NA 472 77 548 3 13 38 54 603 342 638 1,582 March ... R R NA 340 67 407 3 15 37 54 April ... 462 301 579 1,341 R 324 66 267 3 16 38 57 201 321 644 1,290 NA May ... R R 127 53 180 3 17 37 57 June ... 237 427 865 1,529 NA R July ... NA 110 58 168 3 17 38 59 227 527 1,063 1,817 38 104 50 155 3 17 NA 58 213 534 1,024 1,771 August ... R September ... NA 114 61 175 3 15 37 55 230 441 806 1,478 194 October ... NA 324 75 269 3 13 38 55 346 649 1,319 November ... 394 75 468 3 11 37 51 519 318 609 1,446 NA 51 December ... 106 930 3 10 38 824 981 414 845 2,240 NA R R R R 4,506 20,181 5,384 40 NA 161 448 ... 649 Total 6,032 4,815 9,334 878 017 10 NA 860 106 966 3 2 37 50 1,016 441 859 2,316 January ... R 33 599 79 679 3 11 NA 47 726 345 638 1,709 February ... March ... NA 600 80 680 3 16 37 56 736 352 685 1,773 R 288 68 356 3 18 36 April ... 57 413 310 588 1,311 NA R R 37 59 265 3 20 NA 206 60 324 335 665 1,325 May ... June ... NA 128 64 192 3 20 36 59 251 418 814 1,483 R 1,745 NA 111 55 166 3 21 37 61 227 511 1,006 July ... 20 NA 107 56 163 3 August ... 37 60 223 485 907 1,615 742 1,379 September ... NA 118 57 175 3 18 36 57 232 405 R R 351 334 1,350 October ... NA 212 65 277 3 16 37 56 665 R R 484 NA November ... 36 13 1,618 51 662 335 620 3 569 85 12 2,281 December ... NA 850 957 3 37 52 1,009 416 856 107 R R R R R 433 NA 4,563 881 5,445 40 193 ... 666 6,111 4,704 9,085 19,900 Total R R R R R 508 129 1,140 3 12 44 59 January ... 1,199 NA 018 1,005 2 2,712 1,011 R R R R 1,974 711 88 731 800 3 13 40 56 856 387 February ... NA R R R R R R NA 1,906 680 84 712 763 3 18 44 66 March ... 829 365 R R R R R R 76 April ... 531 3 21 43 NA 67 597 325 454 629 1,551 R R R R 3 NA 174 59 731 234 May ... 23 44 70 1,388 304 353 R R R R 54 June ... 884 1,571 246 NA 123 442 69 177 3 23 43 R R 522 236 71 44 24 165 56 109 NA July ... 3 1,034 1,792 R R August ... NA 103 54 157 1,735 23 44 70 227 522 986 3 R R 3 1,497 September ... NA 116 57 173 819 20 43 66 239 438 R R R 82 264 671 1,446 364 411 44 65 NA 18 3 346 October ... R R R R R 3 November ... NA 97 715 714 353 617 15 43 60 774 1,842 R R R R 418 918 829 3 120 13 798 44 61 2,226 978 December ... NA R R R R R R R 4,996 780 9,748 517 224 21,640 40 6,115 957 6,896 5,159 NA ... Total 3 2,508 NA 981 019 120 1,101 2 January ... 14 45 62 1,163 454 891 a of See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary. electricity retail sales. See Note 1, "Electrical System Energy Losses," at end b See Table 10.2a for notes on series components. section. c Natural gas only; excludes the estimated portion of supplemental gaseous R=Revised. NA=Not available. f Notes: uels. See Note 3, "Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of Section 4. • Data are estimates, except for electricity retail sales. • See Note 2, d Totals may n ot • "Energy Consumption Data and Surveys," at end of section. Distributed (small-scale) solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation in the r esidential sector and distributed solar thermal energy in the residential, equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. c ommercial, and industrial sectors. See Tables 10.2a and 10.5. e Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by electric utilities and, n Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#consumptio (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and month ly b eginning in 1996, other energy service providers. f data beginning in 1973. Total losses are calculated as the primary energy consumed by the electric Sources: See end of section. p ower sector minus the energy content of electricity retail sales. Total losses are a llocated to the end-use sectors in proportion to each sector’s share of total Monthly U. 37 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

48 2.3 Commercial Figure Sector Energy Consumption (Quadrillion Btu) By Major Source, 1949–2018 5 Electricity[a] 4 Natural Gas 3 2 Petroleum 1 Coal Renewable Energy 0 2010 2005 2000 1995 1990 1985 1950 1980 1975 1970 1965 1955 2015 1960 By Major Source, Monthly 0.6 Electricity[a] 0.4 0.2 Natural Gas Petroleum Renewable Energy 0.0 J FMAMJ J ASONDJ FMAMJ J ASONDJ FMAMJ J ASOND 2019 2018 2017 Total, January By Major Source, January 2019 2 1.856 1.817 1.706 Natural Gas 0.571 Electricity[a] 0.381 1 Petroleum 0.095 Renewable Energy 0.022 Coal 0.001 0 2017 2018 2019 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.5 0.6 0.0 0.1 [a] sales. retail Electricity Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg y/data/monthly/#consumption. Web Source: Table 2.3. Energy Administration Information S. U. 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / 38

49 T able 2.3 Commercial Sector Energy Consumption (Trillion Btu) a Primary Consumption b Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Elec- Electrical Hydro- tricity System electric Energy Retail Bio- Natural Petro- Geo- Total h g d e f c Power Sales Losses mass thermal Gas leum Primary Solar Total Total Total Wind Coal 1,542 401 872 2,815 NA NA NA NA 19 19 2,834 225 834 3,893 950 Total 1 ... ... 651 1,095 2,547 NA NA NA NA 801 15 2,561 350 984 3,895 955 Total 1 15 ... 407 1,056 1,248 2,711 NA NA NA NA 12 12 2,723 543 1,344 1 960 Total 4,609 965 Total 265 1,490 1,413 3,168 NA NA NA NA 9 9 3,177 789 1,880 5,845 1 ... 8 ... 1,592 4,229 NA NA NA NA 2,473 8 4,237 1,201 2,908 8,346 970 Total 1 165 ... 147 2,558 1,346 4,051 NA NA NA NA 8 8 4,059 1,598 3,835 9,492 1 975 Total 980 Total ... 2,651 1,318 4,084 NA NA NA NA 21 21 4,105 1,906 4,567 10,578 1 115 NA 985 Total 2,488 1,083 3,708 NA NA NA 137 24 24 3,732 2,351 5,368 11,451 1 ... 990 Total ... 124 2,680 991 3,795 1 3 (s) – 94 98 3,893 2,860 6,564 13,317 1 995 Total 1 117 3,096 769 3,982 1 5 (s) – 113 119 4,100 3,252 7,337 14,690 ... 000 Total ... 3,252 806 4,150 1 8 1 – 119 128 4,278 3,956 8,942 17,175 2 92 92 ... 789 3,983 1 8 1 – 3,097 101 4,084 4,062 8,990 17,137 001 Total 97 2 ... 90 3,212 725 4,027 (s) 9 1 2 95 105 4,132 4,110 9,104 17,346 002 Total – 003 Total 82 3,261 841 4,184 1 11 1 ... 101 114 4,298 4,090 8,958 17,346 2 – 004 Total ... 103 3,201 809 4,113 1 12 1 – 105 120 4,232 4,198 9,225 17,655 2 005 Total 97 2 3,073 761 3,931 1 14 2 – 105 121 4,052 4,351 9,451 17,853 ... R – 2,902 661 3,627 1 14 006 Total 3 65 103 120 3,747 4,435 9,525 17,707 2 ... R ... 70 3,085 646 3,801 1 14 4 – 103 2 122 3,922 4,560 9,771 18,253 007 Total R 2 81 3,228 660 3,969 1 15 6 – 109 008 Total 131 4,100 4,559 9,743 18,402 ... R R R 8 (s) 659 3,919 1 17 2 ... 112 137 73 4,056 4,459 9,373 3,187 17,888 009 Total R R 646 ... 70 3,165 142 3,881 1 19 2 12 (s) 111 4,023 4,539 9,497 010 Total 18,059 R R R R 2 3,910 (s) 20 011 Total 20 (s) 115 62 155 3,216 4,065 4,531 9,385 632 17,981 ... R R R R 012 Total (s) 20 ... 33 1 108 2,960 162 560 3,725 4,528 9,168 3,563 17,421 2 44 120 ... 558 3,979 (s) 20 41 1 3,380 182 4,161 4,562 9,206 17,929 013 Total 41 2 ... 40 3,572 577 4,190 (s) 20 52 2 127 200 4,390 4,614 9,261 18,264 014 Total 1 015 Total 31 3,316 864 4,211 (s) 20 57 ... 152 230 4,441 4,643 9,073 18,157 2 1 016 January ... 3 522 84 609 (s) 2 3 (s) 2 19 627 377 747 1,751 13 3 429 82 513 (s) 2 4 (s) 12 18 532 353 654 1,539 February ... 13 March ... 72 384 (s) 2 5 (s) 309 20 405 361 673 1,438 3 April ... 1 242 65 308 (s) 2 6 (s) 13 20 329 348 669 1,346 May ... 177 65 244 (s) 2 6 (s) 13 21 265 370 741 1,376 1 6 (s) 143 56 201 (s) 2 2 13 21 222 411 831 1,464 June ... July ... 1 140 59 200 (s) 2 6 (s) 14 22 222 444 896 1,561 August ... 146 55 202 (s) 2 6 (s) 14 22 224 461 884 1,569 1 13 September ... 61 209 (s) 2 6 (s) 147 20 230 421 770 1,421 1 October ... 2 198 70 270 (s) 2 5 (s) 13 20 290 385 722 1,397 November ... 291 71 364 (s) 2 4 (s) 13 19 382 358 686 1,427 2 4 (s) 480 92 575 (s) 2 3 13 19 594 376 768 1,738 December ... Total ... 24 3,224 832 4,079 2 20 62 1 158 242 4,321 4,665 9,044 18,030 2 017 3 496 87 585 (s) 2 4 (s) 14 20 605 374 728 1,706 January ... 4 (s) February ... 372 70 444 (s) 2 2 12 18 463 340 630 1,432 March ... 2 384 73 460 (s) 2 6 (s) 13 21 482 366 712 1,560 7 (s) 219 65 285 (s) 2 1 13 22 307 350 665 1,322 April ... May ... 1 184 59 245 (s) 2 8 (s) 13 23 268 375 743 1,386 2 1 143 63 207 (s) June ... 8 (s) 13 23 229 409 797 1,436 2 13 1,528 868 441 219 23 8 (s) (s) July ... 1 138 56 196 438 1,484 8 (s) (s) 13 23 225 2 821 August ... 1 142 59 202 12 7 (s) 2 (s) 207 150 1 September ... 57 1,376 742 405 229 21 13 64 272 (s) 2 6 (s) 207 21 294 387 733 1,413 1 October ... November ... 2 333 75 410 (s) 2 5 (s) 13 20 430 358 707 1,495 2 December ... 91 504 597 (s) 2 5 (s) 13 20 617 373 767 1,757 R 20 Total ... 21 3,272 818 4,111 2 76 1 156 255 4,366 4,616 8,916 17,897 R R R R R 568 13 1,856 101 2 671 (s) 2 5 (s) 018 21 January ... 692 391 3 773 R R R R R 75 2 512 (s) 2 February ... 12 20 1,537 532 348 435 658 6 (s) R R R R 13 2 74 505 NM 2 8 (s) 429 23 March ... 528 368 718 1,615 R R R 9 (s) April ... 309 69 379 (s) 2 1 12 23 403 351 1,434 681 R R R R 228 25 May ... 1 384 168 59 252 1,433 NM 2 10 (s) 13 796 R R R 55 145 1 June ... 830 1,470 415 226 25 13 10 (s) 2 NM 201 R R 13 56 197 NM 2 10 (s) 1 July ... 222 447 25 885 140 1,553 R R 10 (s) 1 146 54 201 NM 2 25 13 226 459 867 August ... 1,552 R R R 12 55 206 (s) 2 9 (s) September ... 23 229 415 1 775 150 1,419 R R R R R R 2 1 13 243 73 October ... 318 NM 729 8 (s) 1,465 23 341 395 R R R R 395 83 480 NM 2 6 (s) 13 21 November ... 500 357 2 724 1,581 R R R R R 475 99 576 2 6 (s) 13 21 December ... 597 367 2 728 (s) 1,693 R R R R R 2 ... 19 3,604 852 18,609 4,474 Total 20 96 2 153 273 9,165 4,747 4,697 6 (s) 2 NM 667 95 571 1 January ... 019 2 1,817 748 381 689 22 13 a section. See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary. b R=Revised. NA=Not available. NM=Not meaningful. – =No data reported . See Table 10.2a for notes on series components and estimation. c (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Natural gas only; excludes the estimated portion of supplemental gaseous Data are estimates, except for coal totals beginning in 200 Notes: • f uels. See Note 3, "Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of Section 4. 8; d 9. hydroelectric power; solar; wind; and electricity retail sales beginning in 197 Does not include biofuels that have been blended with petroleum—biofuels The commercial sector includes commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP re included in "Biomass." a ) • e ts and commercial electricity-only plants. See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plan Conventional hydroelectric power. f See Note 2, "Energ • Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7. Solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity net generation in the commercial sector, y b • Totals may not equal sum Consumption Data and Surveys," at end of section. oth utility-scale and distributed (small-scale). See Tables 10.2a and 10.5. of g Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by electric utilities and, Geographic coverage is the 50 state components due to independent rounding. • s and the District of Columbia. eginning in 1996, other energy service providers. b h Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#consumptio Total losses are calculated as the primary energy consumed by the electric n ly (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and month ower sector minus the energy content of electricity retail sales. Total losses are p data beginning in 1973. a llocated to the end-use sectors in proportion to each sector’s share of total Sources: See end of section. lectricity retail sales. See Note 1, "Electrical System Energy Losses," at end of e Monthly U. 39 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

50 2.4 Industrial Figure Sector Energy Consumption (Quadrillion Btu) By Major Source, 1949–2018 12 Natural Gas Petroleum 9 6 Coal Electricity[a] 3 Renewable Energy 0 1985 1980 1975 2005 1965 1960 1955 1970 2015 2010 1950 1995 1990 2000 By Major Source, Monthly 1.2 1.0 Natural Gas 0.8 0.6 Petroleum 0.4 Electricity[a] 0.2 Renewable Energy Coal 0.0 J FMAMJ J ASONDJ FMAMJ J ASONDJ FMAMJ J ASOND 2019 2017 2018 By Major Source, January 2019 Total, January 4 Natural Gas 0.997 2.904 2.829 3 2.732 Petroleum 0.808 2 Electricity[a] 0.266 Renewable Energy 0.217 1 Coal 0.096 0 2017 2018 2019 0.6 1.2 0.0 0.9 0.3 retail Electricity [a] sales. Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg y/data/monthly/#consumption. Web Source: Table 2.4. Energy Administration Information S. U. 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / 40

51 T able 2.4 Industrial Sector Energy Consumption (Trillion Btu) a Primary Consumption c b Renewable Energy Fossil Fuels Electrical Elec- Hydro- System tricity electric Energy Retail Bio- Geo- Total Petro- Natural d g f f h e j i Power Losses Sales Gas Primary mass leum thermal Coal Total Total Solar Total Wind ... NA 3,546 3,960 13,288 69 950 Total NA NA 532 602 13,890 500 1,852 16,241 1 5,781 NA 955 Total 4,701 5,123 15,434 38 NA NA 5,620 631 669 16,103 887 2,495 19,485 1 ... 960 Total ... 4,543 5,973 5,766 16,277 39 NA NA NA 680 719 1 1,107 2,739 20,842 16,996 1 ... 5,127 7,339 6,813 19,260 33 NA NA NA 855 888 20,148 1,463 3,487 25,098 965 Total NA 970 Total 9,536 7,776 21,911 34 NA NA 4,656 1,019 1,053 22,964 1,948 4,716 29,628 1 ... 975 Total ... 3,667 8,532 8,127 20,339 32 NA NA NA 1,063 1,096 21,434 2,346 5,632 29,413 1 1 980 Total 3,155 8,333 9,509 20,962 33 NA NA NA 1,600 1,633 22,595 2,781 6,664 32,039 ... NA 1 2,760 7,032 7,714 17,492 33 NA ... NA 1,918 1,951 19,443 2,855 6,518 28,816 985 Total 1 990 Total ... 2,756 8,443 8,251 19,455 31 2 (s) – 1,684 1,717 21,172 3,226 7,404 31,802 1 995 Total 2,488 9,592 8,585 20,726 55 3 (s) – 1,934 1,992 22,718 3,455 7,796 33,969 ... – 000 Total 9,500 9,073 20,895 42 4 (s) 2,256 1,881 1,928 22,823 3,631 8,208 34,662 2 ... 001 Total ... 2,192 8,676 9,176 20,073 33 5 (s) – 1,681 1,719 21,792 3,400 7,526 32,718 2 2 002 Total 2,019 8,832 9,166 20,078 39 5 (s) – 1,676 1,720 21,797 3,379 7,484 32,660 ... (s) 2 2,041 8,488 9,228 19,809 43 3 ... – 1,678 1,725 21,533 3,454 7,565 32,553 003 Total 2 004 Total ... 2,047 8,550 9,825 20,560 33 4 (s) – 1,815 1,852 22,411 3,473 7,631 33,515 – 2 7,907 9,634 19,539 32 4 (s) 1,954 1,834 1,871 21,410 3,477 7,554 32,441 ... 005 Total 006 Total ... 1,914 7,861 9,767 19,603 29 4 1 – 1,892 1,926 21,529 3,451 7,411 32,390 2 R 007 Total ... 1,865 8,074 9,441 19,404 16 5 1 – 1,937 1,958 21,362 3,507 7,515 2 32,385 1 2 ... 1,793 8,083 8,575 18,492 17 5 008 Total – 2,012 2,035 20,527 3,444 7,362 31,333 7,805 2 009 Total ... 1,392 7,609 2 16,783 18 4 – 1,948 1,972 18,755 3,130 6,580 28,465 2 010 Total 1,631 8,278 8,174 18,078 16 4 3 – 2,320 2,343 20,421 3,314 6,934 30,669 ... 011 Total ... 8,481 8,138 18,190 17 4 4 (s) 2,375 2,401 20,591 3,382 7,005 30,979 2 1,561 R ... 8,819 8,166 18,501 22 4 7 (s) 012 Total 2,349 2,383 20,884 3,363 6,810 31,057 2 1,513 (s) ... 9,140 8,360 19,029 33 4 9 1,546 2,403 2,449 21,478 3,362 6,785 31,625 2 013 Total 014 Total ... 1,530 9,441 8,126 19,076 12 4 11 1 2,456 2,484 21,560 3,404 6,832 31,796 2 015 Total 13 1,380 9,426 8,246 19,034 2 4 14 (s) 2,460 2,491 21,525 3,366 6,578 31,469 ... (s) 016 886 729 1,716 1 (s) 1 102 209 212 1,928 269 534 2,731 2 January ... February ... 103 818 717 1,638 1 (s) 1 (s) 197 200 1,837 262 485 2,584 March ... 825 707 1,637 1 (s) 2 (s) 206 210 1,847 270 504 2,621 105 (s) 776 651 1,524 1 (s) 2 97 193 196 1,720 268 516 2,504 April ... May ... 99 771 651 1,520 1 (s) 2 (s) 204 207 1,727 278 557 2,562 June ... 743 663 1,505 1 (s) 2 (s) 202 205 1,710 285 578 2,573 100 208 July ... 665 1,539 1 (s) 2 (s) 775 211 1,751 297 600 2,648 101 August ... 99 786 747 1,629 1 (s) 2 (s) 209 213 1,841 304 583 2,729 September ... 756 686 1,538 1 (s) 2 (s) 197 200 1,737 284 519 2,540 98 (s) 779 726 1,602 1 (s) 2 99 204 207 1,808 278 522 2,608 October ... November ... 99 808 695 1,598 1 (s) 1 (s) 206 208 1,806 268 512 2,586 December ... 895 713 1,708 1 (s) 1 (s) 231 234 1,942 268 548 2,758 103 19 ... 1,205 9,617 8,350 19,154 12 4 1 2,467 2,503 21,657 3,333 6,461 31,450 Total 2 017 January ... 100 891 728 1,717 1 (s) 1 (s) 220 222 1,939 269 524 2,732 R (s) 792 624 1,513 1 (s) 1 99 196 199 1,712 254 471 2,437 February ... R March ... 100 856 736 2,720 1,691 1 (s) 2 (s) 216 220 1,910 275 535 512 269 2,557 1,776 203 April ... 97 784 689 1,569 1 (s) 2 (s) 207 2,668 562 284 1,821 215 1 1,606 724 785 99 May ... 211 (s) 2 (s) (s) 2,643 June ... 97 767 711 1,572 1 (s) 208 212 1,784 291 567 2 R R R 216 732 1,614 1 (s) 2 (s) 783 219 1,833 300 590 2,722 100 July ... August ... 101 797 713 1,607 1 (s) 2 (s) 220 223 1,831 304 569 2,704 99 September ... (s) 772 690 1,559 1 (s) 2 204 207 1,765 285 522 2,572 R (s) 100 821 721 1,638 1 (s) 2 October ... 214 217 1,855 283 536 2,673 R R R 100 861 750 535 1,708 1 (s) 1 (s) 216 219 1,927 271 November ... 2,733 2,832 563 274 (s) 1,995 226 1 934 223 December ... 103 (s) 736 1,769 1 R 13 Total ... 1,195 9,844 8,552 22 19,563 4 1 2,547 2,587 22,149 3,358 6,487 31,994 R R R R (s) January ... 98 2,829 942 799 (s) 1,836 1 513 1 218 221 2 2,057 260 018 R R R R (s) 846 663 February ... 1,601 1 (s) 200 203 94 1,804 245 1 464 2,514 R R R R 262 214 511 218 2,756 March ... 99 (s) 901 767 1,983 1,765 1 (s) 2 R R R R R 2,586 1 (s) 2 (s) 208 211 1,621 April ... 257 97 498 856 670 1,832 R R R R R R 213 735 1,666 1 (s) 3 (s) 835 217 1,884 278 576 2,738 99 May ... R R R R R 95 808 1 (s) 3 (s) 210 214 1,621 1,835 278 June ... 556 2,669 719 R R R R R 98 1,667 1 (s) 3 (s) 219 223 July ... 1,890 290 833 575 739 2,755 R R R R R 3 97 1,750 1 (s) August ... (s) 221 225 1,975 306 839 578 815 2,858 R R R R R 1 277 (s) 207 1,629 709 204 824 (s) 518 2,631 1,836 September ... 97 2 R R R R R R 2 101 1,770 1 (s) October ... (s) 214 218 1,987 276 857 510 814 2,774 R R R R R R 262 912 101 1,723 1 (s) 2 (s) 211 214 1,936 713 November ... 532 2,731 R R R R R R 948 721 December ... 1,769 1 (s) 2 (s) 218 221 1,990 260 103 515 2,766 R R R R R R R 10,401 Total 8,864 ... 13 4 25 1 2,549 2,593 32,606 23,010 3,252 1,178 6,344 20,417 2,115 266 523 2,904 997 808 January ... 1,898 1 (s) 2 96 (s) 214 217 019 2 a of See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary. electricity retail sales. See Note 1, "Electrical System Energy Losses," at end b section. Includes non-combustion use of fossil fuels. c n R=Revised. NA=Not available. – =No data reported. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillio See Table 10.2b for notes on series components and estimation. d Btu. Natural gas only; excludes the estimated portion of supplemental gaseous Notes: uels. See Note 3, "Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of Section 4. f in Data are estimates, except for coal totals; hydroelectric power • e • 1949–1978 and 1989 forward; solar; wind; and electricity retail sales. e Th Does not include biofuels that have been blended with petroleum—biofuels al industrial sector includes industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industri re included in "Biomass." a f e electricity-only plants. See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Us Includes coal coke net imports, which are not separately displayed. See Sectors," at end of Section 7. See Note 2, "Energy Consumption Data an ables 1.4a and 1.4b. d • T g Conventional hydroelectric power. Surveys," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to h of Solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity net generation in the industrial sector, both Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District independent rounding. • u tility-scale and distributed (small-scale). See Tables 10.2b and 10.5. Columbia. i Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by electric utilities and, Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#consumptio n eginning in 1996, other energy service providers. (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and month ly b j data beginning in 1973. Total losses are calculated as the primary energy consumed by the electric Sources: See end of section. p ower sector minus the energy content of electricity retail sales. Total losses are llocated to the end-use sectors in proportion to each sector’s share of total a Monthly U. 41 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

52 Sector Energy 2.5 Transportation Figure Consumption (Quadrillion Btu) By Major Source, 1949–2018 30 Petroleum 25 20 15 10 5 Renewable Energy Natural Gas 0 1950 2000 2015 2010 2005 1995 1990 1985 1980 1975 1970 1965 1960 1955 By Major Source, Monthly 2.5 Petroleum 2.0 1.5 1.0 Natural Gas 0.5 Renewable Energy 0.0 J FMAMJ J ASONDJ FMAMJ J ASONDJ FMAMJ J ASOND 2017 2019 2018 Total, January Total, Monthly 3 3.0 2.5 2.286 2.255 2.226 2.0 2 1.5 1.0 1 0.5 2018 2017 2019 0.0 JFMAMJJASOND 0 2018 2017 2019 Page: Web y/data/monthly/#consumption. http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg Source: Table 2.5. Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U. 2019 April Review 42

53 T able 2.5 Transportation Sector Energy Consumption (Trillion Btu) a Primary Consumption Electrical Renewable b Energy System Fossil Fuels Electricity Energy Retail Total f c d e Losses Sales Primary Petroleum Total Total Biomass Coal Natural Gas 950 Total 1,564 130 6,690 8,383 ... 8,383 23 86 8,492 1 NA 955 Total ... 421 254 8,799 9,474 NA 9,474 20 56 9,550 1 960 Total 1 359 10,125 10,560 NA 10,560 10 26 10,596 ... 75 12,399 965 Total 517 11,866 12,399 NA 16 10 24 12,432 1 ... 970 Total ... 7 745 15,310 16,062 NA 16,062 11 26 16,098 1 NA 975 Total 1 595 17,615 18,210 ... 18,210 10 24 18,245 1 g 980 Total ... 1 ( ) 650 19,009 19,659 NA 19,659 11 27 19,697 g 1 985 Total ( ) 519 19,472 19,992 50 20,041 14 32 20,088 ... g 990 Total 60 ( ) 679 21,626 22,305 1 22,366 16 37 22,419 ... g 112 1 ( ) 724 22,920 23,644 ... 23,757 17 38 23,812 995 Total g 000 Total ... 25,649 ( ) 672 2 26,321 135 26,456 18 42 26,516 g 142 2 ( ) 658 25,379 26,037 ... 26,179 20 43 26,242 001 Total g 002 Total ... 25,879 ( ) 699 2 26,578 170 26,747 19 42 26,808 g 25,950 ... 2 ( ) 627 003 Total 26,577 230 26,807 23 51 26,881 g 25 2 004 Total ... 54 ( ) 602 26,856 27,458 290 27,748 27,827 g 2 ( ) 624 27,217 27,840 339 28,180 26 56 28,261 ... 005 Total g ... ( ) 625 27,518 28,143 475 006 Total 25 54 28,697 2 28,618 g 28,728 ( ) 663 27,462 28,126 602 007 Total 28 60 28,815 2 ... g ... 825 ( ) 692 25,823 26,515 2 27,340 26 56 27,422 008 Total g 009 Total 2 ( ) 715 24,857 25,572 935 26,507 27 56 26,589 ... g 010 Total 1,075 ( ) 719 25,105 25,824 2 26,899 26 55 26,980 ... g 1,159 2 ( ) 734 24,629 25,362 ... 26,521 26 54 26,601 011 Total g 012 Total ... 25 ( ) 780 24,114 24,894 1,160 26,054 2 51 26,129 g 2 013 Total ... ( ) 887 24,364 25,252 1,284 26,536 26 53 26,614 g 2 014 Total ( ) 760 24,729 25,489 1,302 26,791 26 53 26,871 ... g 015 Total 1,334 ( ) 745 25,085 25,830 2 27,164 26 51 27,241 ... g 104 2 ( ) 85 1,993 2,078 January ... 2,182 2 4 2,189 016 g February ... 1,941 ( ) 73 2,014 107 2,121 2 4 2,127 g 116 ( ) 65 2,164 2,229 2,345 2 4 2,351 March ... g April ... 2,150 ( ) 57 2,093 110 2,260 2 4 2,266 g 2,229 ( ) 54 2,174 May ... 123 2,351 2 4 2,357 g 2,366 June ... 2 ( ) 55 2,182 2,237 122 2,359 4 g 2,301 2,241 60 ( ) 2,437 July ... 4 2 2,430 129 g 2,324 ( ) 61 2,263 August ... 132 2,456 2 4 2,462 g 2,120 54 ( ) September ... 2,304 4 2 2,298 123 2,174 g October ... ( ) 53 2,144 2,197 124 2,321 2 4 2,327 g November ... ( ) 60 2,068 2,128 2,251 2 4 2,257 124 g 129 ( ) 79 2,130 2,209 2,338 2 5 2,345 December ... g Total ... ( ) 757 25,513 26,270 1,443 27,713 26 50 27,788 g R 2,226 2 ( ) 86 2,027 2,113 107 January ... 2,219 2 4 017 g 1,940 ( ) 69 1,871 February ... 101 2,041 2 4 2,047 R R g 2,379 118 4 2 2,373 2,255 March ... 2,181 ( ) 75 g R 2,260 57 2,085 2,142 117 2 4 ( ) 2,266 April ... g 2,232 129 ( ) 56 2,288 May ... 2,417 2 4 2,423 g 2,266 ( ) 56 2,210 June ... 129 2,395 2 4 2,401 g R R R R 63 2,238 July ... 2,301 125 2,432 2,426 2 4 () g R ( ) 62 2,292 2,354 131 2,491 2,485 2 4 August ... g 2,176 ( ) 57 2,119 September ... 120 2,296 2 4 2,302 R g 2,397 2 4 2,404 2,274 2,215 60 October ... 123 ( ) g R 2,287 4 2,280 2,092 120 69 ( ) 2 November ... 2,161 R g 2,234 December ... 90 2,144 ( ) 120 2,354 2 5 2,361 g R 27,942 ... ( ) 799 25,705 26,503 1,439 Total 26 50 28,017 g R R 2 () 95 018 2,035 January ... 2,130 117 2,248 3 5 2,255 g 4 February ... 2,053 ( ) 78 1,871 1,949 98 2,047 2 R g R 119 2,206 2,286 ( ) 2,405 2 4 80 2,411 March ... g April ... 2,133 ( ) 68 2,201 110 2,312 2 4 2,318 g R 2,331 ( ) 60 2,270 May ... 126 2,456 2 4 2,462 R R g 2,303 4 2 60 2,423 121 2,242 ( ) June ... 2,430 g R R 69 2,302 2,501 2,371 124 ( ) 2,495 2 4 July ... g 2,409 ( ) 68 2,341 August ... 128 2,537 2 4 2,544 R g R 2,312 4 September ... 2 ( ) 63 2,129 2,306 2,193 113 g R 2,216 () 67 4 October ... 2,283 122 2,405 2 2,411 g 2,124 2,324 ( ) 78 November ... 2,202 116 2,318 2 4 R R R g 86 2 December ... 2,365 () 4 2,160 2,245 119 2,372 R R g R R Total 26,031 26 28,316 1,413 52 ... 28,394 () 26,903 873 g 2,171 108 2,279 98 2 4 2,286 2 ( ) 2,074 019 January ... a See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary. section. g b Beginning in 1978, the small amounts of coal consumed for transportation a re See Table 10.2b for notes on series components. c Natural gas only; does not include supplemental gaseous fuels—see Note 3, reported as industrial sector consumption. Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of Section 4. Data are for natural gas " R=Revised. NA=Not available. • Notes: Data are estimates, except for coal totals through 1977; and electrici ty onsumed in the operation of pipelines (primarily in compressors) and small c retail sales beginning in 1979. • See Note 2, "Energy Consumption Data an a d mounts consumed as vehicle fuel—see Table 4.3. d • to Does not include biofuels that have been blended with petroleum—biofuels Surveys," at end of section. Totals may not equal sum of components due Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of • independent rounding. a re included in "Biomass." Includes non-combustion use of lubricants. e Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by electric utilities and, Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#consumptio n eginning in 1996, other energy service providers. b f Total losses are calculated as the primary energy consumed by the electric (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and month ly ower sector minus the energy content of electricity retail sales. Total losses are p data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section. a llocated to the end-use sectors in proportion to each sector’s share of total lectricity retail sales. See Note 1, "Electrical System Energy Losses," at end of e Monthly U. 43 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

54 Sector Consumption Figure 2.6 Electric Power Energy (Quadrillion Btu) By Major Source, 1949–2018 24 Coal 20 16 12 Nuclear Electric Power 8 Natural Gas 4 Renewable Energy Petroleum 0 1955 1985 1980 1975 1970 1965 1960 1950 2005 2015 2010 2000 1995 1990 By Major Source, Monthly 1.8 Coal 1.2 Natural Gas Nuclear Electric Power 0.6 Renewable Energy Petroleum 0.0 J FMAMJ J ASONDJ FMAMJ J ASONDJ FMAMJ J ASOND 2019 2018 2017 By Major Source, January 2019 Total, January 4 3.457 Coal 1.057 3.269 3.201 3 Natural Gas 0.860 2 Nuclear Electric Power 0.771 Renewable Energy 0.546 1 Petroleum 0.021 0 2017 2018 2019 0.8 0.6 0.0 0.2 1.2 1.0 0.4 y/data/monthly/#consumption. http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg Page: Web 2.6. Table Source: 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U. 44

55 T able 2.6 Electric Power Sector Energy Consumption (Trillion Btu) a Primary Consumption b Renewable Energy Fossil Fuels Elec- tricity Hydro- Nuclear Net electric Electric Natural Petro- Total Bio- Geo- c f d e Imports Power Power Gas Primary mass leum thermal Solar Wind Total Coal Total 2,199 651 472 3,322 0 1,346 NA NA 1 5 1,351 6 4,679 950 Total ... NA ... 1,194 471 5,123 0 1,322 NA NA NA 3 1,325 14 6,461 1 955 Total 3,458 NA 4,228 553 6,565 6 1,569 (s) NA 1,785 2 1,571 15 8,158 960 Total 1 ... ... 5,821 2,395 722 8,938 43 1 2 NA NA 3 2,031 (s) 11,012 965 Total 2,026 970 Total 7,227 4,054 2,117 13,399 239 2,600 6 NA NA 4 2,609 7 16,253 1 ... NA ... 3,166 15,191 1,900 3,122 34 NA 3,240 2 3,158 21 20,270 975 Total 1 8,786 ... 12,123 3,778 2,634 18,534 2,739 2,867 53 NA NA 4 2,925 71 24,269 1 980 Total 985 Total ... 3,135 1,090 18,767 4,076 2,937 97 (s) (s) 14 3,049 140 26,032 1 14,542 g 4 3,309 1,289 20,859 6,104 3,014 161 16,261 29 317 3,524 8 990 Total 30,495 1 ... 995 Total ... 17,466 4,302 755 22,523 7,075 3,149 138 5 33 422 3,747 134 33,479 1 000 Total 5,293 20,220 2 1,144 26,658 7,862 2,768 144 5 57 453 3,427 115 38,062 ... 001 Total ... 5,458 1,276 26,348 8,029 2,209 142 6 70 337 2,763 75 37,215 2 19,614 105 ... 961 26,511 8,145 2,650 147 6 5,767 380 3,288 72 38,016 002 Total 2 19,783 ... 20,185 5,246 1,205 26,636 7,960 2,749 146 5 113 397 3,411 22 38,028 2 003 Total 004 Total ... 5,595 1,201 27,101 8,223 2,655 148 6 142 388 3,339 39 38,701 2 20,305 6 005 Total 6,015 1,222 27,974 8,161 2,670 147 20,737 178 406 3,406 85 39,626 2 ... 006 Total ... 20,462 6,375 637 27,474 8,215 2,839 2 5 264 412 3,665 63 39,417 145 2 ... 20,808 7,005 648 28,461 8,459 2,430 145 6 341 423 3,345 107 40,371 007 Total 9 008 Total 6,829 459 27,801 8,426 2,494 146 20,513 546 435 3,630 112 39,969 2 ... 009 Total ... 18,225 7,022 382 25,630 8,355 2,650 146 9 721 441 3,967 116 38,069 2 2 010 Total 19,133 7,528 370 27,031 8,434 2,521 148 12 923 459 4,064 89 39,619 ... 149 2 18,035 7,712 295 26,042 8,269 3,085 ... 17 1,167 437 4,855 127 39,293 011 Total 2 012 Total ... 15,821 9,287 214 25,322 8,062 2,606 148 40 1,339 453 4,586 161 38,131 16,451 2 013 Total ... 8,376 255 25,082 8,244 2,529 151 83 1,600 470 4,833 197 38,357 2 014 Total 16,427 8,362 295 25,085 8,338 2,454 151 165 1,726 530 5,026 182 38,629 ... 015 Total ... 9,926 276 24,341 8,337 2,308 148 228 1,776 525 4,985 227 37,890 2 14,138 170 January ... 23 2,012 759 235 12 13 799 44 475 21 3,267 016 1,190 2 970 712 22 1,704 687 222 11 186 43 482 17 2,889 February ... 20 March ... 768 18 1,552 692 251 12 765 202 43 533 18 2,794 24 April ... 750 741 19 1,510 656 238 11 26 192 39 506 15 2,687 May ... 234 830 19 1,712 696 12 31 174 40 491 18 2,918 863 June ... 1,211 20 2,232 703 213 12 32 150 41 448 21 3,404 1,001 36 July ... 24 2,622 736 197 12 1,176 163 44 451 24 3,833 1,422 August ... 1,415 1,188 24 2,627 748 180 36 125 45 399 23 3,797 12 1,195 944 20 2,158 685 150 12 33 151 41 388 16 3,247 September ... 12 October ... 767 16 1,830 635 159 1,046 29 188 37 426 18 2,909 November ... 923 683 18 1,623 682 173 13 25 179 42 432 20 2,757 December ... 692 20 1,958 750 207 13 22 213 46 501 17 3,225 1,245 146 12,996 10,301 244 23,542 8,427 2,459 ... 328 2,094 505 5,531 227 37,727 Total 017 January ... 1,207 681 21 1,909 765 245 13 19 183 46 505 22 2 3,201 912 587 16 1,515 665 217 11 23 195 41 487 17 2,684 February ... 13 March ... 693 17 1,639 681 268 929 39 230 45 595 17 2,932 April ... 842 646 13 1,501 593 269 12 43 227 39 590 15 2,700 May ... 722 19 1,708 641 297 12 52 207 40 607 15 2,971 967 June ... 11 877 19 2,015 701 277 56 182 42 569 18 3,303 1,118 12 1,115 18 2,460 746 243 1,326 52 147 44 498 18 3,722 July ... August ... 1,251 1,054 18 2,322 757 200 12 50 125 45 432 20 3,531 12 886 17 1,942 712 175 1,040 47 164 40 438 15 3,108 September ... 2,960 October ... 951 796 16 1,763 690 167 11 44 233 40 496 11 495 42 222 12 2,874 31 11 November ... 968 687 17 1,672 697 188 14 31 226 45 522 14 3,255 December ... 1,111 810 27 1,948 771 205 ... 37,241 192 6,235 510 2,341 486 147 2,752 8,419 22,395 218 9,555 12,622 Total R R R R 3,457 1,222 018 809 60 January ... 2,091 781 235 13 31 247 45 571 14 2 R R R 234 723 15 1,603 678 February ... 12 38 222 41 547 12 865 2,840 R R R 1,634 2,943 251 15 593 44 47 13 238 March ... 701 840 779 15 R R R R 252 April ... 729 15 10 1,512 618 11 57 246 38 605 768 2,746 R R R R 3,125 898 879 14 May ... 1,791 704 279 13 64 217 42 615 14 R R R R 13 71 3,411 224 43 607 2,060 15 June ... 729 1,061 256 981 19 R R R R 63 3,759 19 2,500 758 220 13 1,273 147 43 487 15 July ... 1,207 R R R R 13 1,231 19 2,456 756 196 1,206 64 180 42 495 17 3,724 August ... R R R R 13 1,021 19 September ... 2,115 677 171 1,076 59 165 37 445 11 3,249 R R R R 2,951 October ... 466 918 10 922 15 195 1,854 621 172 12 48 40 R R R R 669 779 16 979 1,775 November ... 203 36 207 39 498 9 13 2,950 R R R R 1,052 3,126 767 December ... 1,835 749 217 14 29 228 41 530 11 17 R R R R Total ... 38,280 12,037 6,459 10,949 243 152 23,229 8,441 2,673 154 607 2,530 495 771 225 13 860 33 232 43 546 14 3,269 019 2 January ... 21 1,938 1,057 a See "Primary Energy Consumption" in Glossary. al Data are for fuels consumed to produce electricity and useful therm • Notes: b d See Table 10.2c for notes on series components. • output. The electric power sector comprises electricity-only an c e Natural gas only; excludes the estimated portion of supplemental gaseous combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whos uels. See Note 3, "Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of Section 4. f • Se e primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. d Note 2, "Energy Consumption Data and Surveys," at end of section. y Totals ma • Conventional hydroelectric power. e • not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. Geograph Solar photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal electricity net generation in the ic e coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. lectric power sector. See Tables 10.2c and 10.5. f Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#consumptio Net imports equal imports minus exports. n g (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and month ly Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data are or electric utilities and independent power producers. f data beginning in 1973. R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Sources: See end of section. Monthly U. 45 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

56 T able 2.7 U.S. Government Energy Consumption by Agency, Fiscal Years (Trillion Btu) Fiscal Agri- Veterans Trans- Postal b c d a e f Interior Justice NASA HHS Energy Total Defense GSA Other DHS Affairs culture portation Service Year 975 ... 9.5 1,360.2 – – 50.4 22.3 6.5 9.4 5.9 13.4 1 19.3 27.1 10.5 1,565.0 30.5 1 9.3 1,183.3 – – 50.3 20.6 6.7 9.4 5.7 12.4 30.0 19.5 25.0 11.2 1,383.4 976 ... 5.9 977 ... 1,192.3 – – 51.6 20.4 6.9 9.5 8.9 12.0 32.7 20.4 25.9 11.9 1,398.5 1 1 978 ... 9.1 1,157.8 – – 50.1 20.4 6.5 9.2 5.9 11.2 30.9 20.6 26.8 12.4 1,360.9 1 979 ... 1,175.8 – – 49.6 19.6 6.4 10.4 6.4 11.1 29.3 19.6 25.7 12.3 1,375.4 9.2 5.7 1 1,183.1 – – 47.4 18.1 6.0 8.5 8.6 10.4 27.2 19.2 24.8 12.3 1,371.2 980 ... 1 981 ... 7.9 1,239.5 – – 47.3 18.0 6.7 7.6 5.4 10.0 27.9 18.8 24.0 11.1 1,424.2 5.8 1 1,264.5 – – 49.0 18.1 6.4 7.4 7.6 10.1 27.5 19.1 24.2 11.6 1,451.4 982 ... 1 983 ... 7.4 1,248.3 – – 49.5 16.1 6.2 7.7 5.5 10.3 26.5 19.4 24.1 10.8 1,431.8 1 7.9 984 ... 1,292.1 – – 51.6 16.2 6.4 8.4 6.4 10.6 27.7 19.8 24.6 10.7 1,482.5 1 985 ... 1,250.6 – – 52.2 20.7 6.0 7.8 8.2 10.9 27.8 19.6 25.1 13.1 1,450.3 8.4 11.2 986 ... – – 46.9 14.0 6.2 6.9 8.6 1,222.8 28.0 19.4 25.0 10.8 1,406.7 1 6.8 987 ... 7.3 1,280.5 – – 48.5 13.1 6.6 6.6 8.1 11.3 28.5 19.0 24.9 11.9 1,466.3 1 1 988 ... 1,165.8 – – 49.9 12.4 6.4 7.0 9.4 11.3 29.6 18.7 26.3 15.8 1,360.3 7.8 7.7 1 1,274.4 – – 44.2 12.7 6.7 7.1 8.7 12.4 30.3 18.5 26.2 15.6 1,464.7 989 ... 1 990 ... 9.6 1,241.7 – – 43.5 17.5 7.1 7.4 7.0 12.4 30.6 19.0 24.9 17.5 1,438.0 1 991 ... 1,269.3 – – 42.1 14.0 6.2 7.1 8.0 12.5 30.8 19.0 25.1 18.1 1,461.7 9.6 7.5 1 1,104.0 – – 44.3 13.8 6.8 7.0 9.1 12.6 31.7 17.0 25.3 15.7 1,294.8 992 ... 1 993 ... 9.3 1,048.8 – – 43.4 14.1 7.2 7.5 9.1 12.4 33.7 19.4 25.7 16.2 1,246.8 7.9 1 9.4 977.0 – – 42.1 14.0 7.5 994 ... 10.3 12.6 35.0 19.8 25.6 17.1 1,178.2 17.1 1,128.5 25.4 18.7 36.2 10.2 12.4 1 995 ... 9.0 926.0 – – 47.3 13.7 6.1 6.4 9.1 996 ... 1 44.6 1,107.7 17.7 26.8 19.6 36.4 11.5 12.1 4.3 6.6 14.5 – – 904.5 1 997 ... 880.0 – – 43.1 14.4 7.9 6.6 12.0 12.0 40.8 19.1 27.3 20.8 1,091.2 7.4 15.8 1 837.1 – – 31.5 14.1 7.4 6.4 7.9 11.7 39.5 18.5 27.6 19.5 1,037.1 998 ... 1 999 ... 7.8 810.7 – – 27.0 14.4 7.1 7.5 15.4 11.4 39.8 22.6 27.5 19.8 1,010.9 7.8 2 7.4 779.1 – – 30.5 17.6 8.0 000 ... 19.7 11.1 43.3 21.2 27.0 20.3 993.1 8.5 2 001 ... 7.4 787.2 – – 31.1 18.4 43.4 9.5 19.7 10.9 17.8 27.7 20.7 1,002.3 2 002 ... 837.5 – – 30.7 17.5 8.0 8.2 17.7 10.7 41.6 18.3 27.7 18.4 1,043.4 7.2 22.7 2 895.1 18.3 31.9 18.5 10.1 7.3 7.7 10.8 50.9 5.5 30.6 22.7 1,132.3 003 ... 2 004 ... 7.0 960.7 23.5 31.4 18.3 8.8 8.7 17.5 9.9 50.5 5.2 29.9 20.4 1,191.7 8.6 2 7.5 933.2 18.9 29.6 18.4 9.6 005 ... 18.8 10.3 53.5 5.0 30.0 23.2 1,166.4 29.3 1,076.4 4.6 843.7 20.9 2 006 ... 6.8 51.8 17.1 32.9 18.2 9.3 8.1 23.5 10.2 2 20.7 1,090.2 21.0 30.0 5.6 45.8 10.6 7.5 9.9 19.1 31.5 17.1 864.6 6.8 007 ... 19.0 2 910.8 21.7 32.1 18.8 10.3 7.1 6.5 10.8 47.1 7.7 29.0 22.4 1,143.2 008 ... 2 009 ... 6.6 874.3 18.6 31.1 18.6 10.8 7.9 16.5 10.2 44.2 4.3 29.9 21.8 1,094.8 1,112.7 2 010 ... 6.8 889.9 21.2 31.7 18.8 10.4 7.3 15.7 10.1 43.3 5.7 30.2 21.8 10.1 30.6 6.7 43.0 1,114.1 21.4 2 011 ... 8.3 890.3 20.3 33.1 18.5 10.5 7.3 13.9 6.7 2 6.7 828.5 20.1 30.3 16.3 10.0 012 ... 15.1 8.9 40.8 5.6 29.7 20.5 1,039.3 10.5 2 013 ... 7.3 749.5 18.9 28.9 16.4 41.9 6.2 15.3 8.7 5.3 29.9 20.4 959.3 6.2 2 6.3 730.6 18.5 29.4 17.0 9.5 014 ... 15.6 8.3 43.0 5.2 31.4 20.6 941.5 19.8 945.8 6.0 30.7 44.0 2 015 ... 6.2 734.5 17.9 30.1 16.3 9.0 6.8 16.2 8.4 30.3 15.6 6.4 8.7 15.8 28.9 18.1 709.2 6.2 016 ... 6.0 2 43.9 19.5 917.2 8.5 8.8 915.1 29.1 6.7 43.7 8.6 15.5 5.9 19.7 14.9 28.8 19.2 707.9 6.3 017 ... 2 a Data include energy consumed at foreig • differ from those in Tables A1–A6. For 1975 and 1976, the U.S. Government’s fiscal year was July 1 through n J une 30. Beginning in 1977, the U.S. Government’s fiscal year is October 1 installations and in foreign operations, including aviation and ocean bunkerin g, t hrough September 30 (for example, fiscal year 2014 is October 2013 through or primarily by the U.S. Department of Defense. U.S. Government energy use f Totals may not equ • eptember 2014). S al electricity generation and uranium enrichment is excluded. b U.S. Department of Homeland Security. sum of components due to independent rounding. c General Services Administration. n Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#consumptio d U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (Excel and CSV files) for all annual data beginning in 1975. e y National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficienc f e and Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management Program. Se Includes all U.S. government agencies not separately displayed. See h d http://ctsedwweb.ee.doe.gov/Annual/Report/Report.aspx, "A-1 Total Site-Delivere ttp://ctsedwweb.ee.doe.gov/Annual/Report/AgencyReference.aspx for agency list. Energy Use in All End-Use Sectors, by Federal Agency (Billion Btu)". – – =Not applicable. Notes: • Data in this table are developed using conversion factors that often / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 46

57 T able 2.8 U.S. Government Energy Consumption by Source, Fiscal Years (Trillion Btu) Petroleum Purchased Other Motor Fiscal Mobility Elec- Natural Steam Aviation f a c e b d g Gasoline tricity Fuels Gas Gasoline Year and Other Total Total Jet Fuel Coal LPG Fuel Oil 975 ... 63.2 166.2 22.0 376.0 707.4 5.6 1 1,174.2 0.0 141.5 5.1 1,565.0 77.9 60.4 1 151.8 11.6 329.7 610.0 4.7 71.3 1,016.4 .0 139.3 4.6 1,383.4 976 ... 1 977 ... 68.4 141.2 8.8 348.5 619.2 4.1 61.4 1,042.1 .0 141.1 5.7 1,398.5 1 978 ... 144.7 6.2 332.3 601.1 3.0 60.1 1,002.9 .0 141.0 6.4 1,360.9 66.0 59.1 1 148.9 4.7 327.1 618.6 3.7 65.1 1,013.1 .0 141.2 7.1 1,375.4 979 ... 1 980 ... 63.5 147.3 4.9 307.7 638.7 3.8 56.5 1,011.6 .2 141.9 6.8 1,371.2 53.2 1 142.2 4.6 351.3 653.3 3.5 65.1 1,066.0 .2 144.5 6.2 1,424.2 981 ... 1 982 ... 68.6 146.2 3.6 349.4 672.7 3.7 53.1 1,082.5 .2 147.5 6.2 1,451.4 151.5 1 983 ... 62.4 147.8 2.6 329.5 673.4 3.8 1,060.8 .2 51.6 9.0 1,431.8 1 984 ... 157.4 1.9 342.9 693.7 3.9 51.2 1,093.6 .2 155.9 10.1 1,482.5 65.3 1,054.3 985 ... 1.9 292.6 705.7 3.8 50.4 149.9 .2 167.2 13.9 1,450.3 1 64.8 986 ... 63.8 140.9 1.4 271.6 710.2 3.6 45.3 1,032.1 .3 155.8 13.7 1,406.7 1 1 987 ... 145.6 1.0 319.5 702.3 3.6 43.1 1,069.5 .4 169.9 13.9 1,466.3 67.0 41.2 1 144.6 6.0 284.8 617.2 2.7 60.2 951.9 .4 171.2 32.0 1,360.3 988 ... 1 989 ... 48.7 152.4 .8 245.3 761.7 3.5 41.1 1,052.4 2.2 188.6 20.6 1,464.7 1 990 ... 159.4 .5 245.2 732.4 3.8 37.2 1,019.1 2.6 193.6 19.1 1,438.0 44.3 34.1 1 154.1 .4 232.6 774.5 3.0 45.9 1,044.7 6.0 192.7 18.3 1,461.7 991 ... 1 992 ... 51.7 151.2 1.0 200.6 628.2 3.0 35.6 868.4 8.4 192.5 22.5 1,294.8 34.5 1 152.9 .7 187.0 612.4 3.5 38.3 838.1 5.8 193.1 18.6 1,246.8 993 ... 1,178.2 994 ... 35.0 143.9 .6 198.5 550.7 3.2 29.5 782.6 7.7 190.9 18.2 1 1,128.5 184.8 8.4 735.9 31.9 3.0 522.3 178.4 .3 18.2 1 995 ... 31.7 149.4 27.6 3.1 513.0 170.5 .2 147.3 23.3 996 ... 1 18.7 1,107.7 20.1 184.0 714.4 1 997 ... .3 180.0 475.7 2.6 39.0 697.6 14.5 183.6 19.2 1,091.2 22.5 153.8 666.8 998 ... .2 174.5 445.5 3.5 43.0 140.4 5.9 181.4 18.8 1,037.1 1 23.9 2.4 21.2 137.4 .1 162.1 444.7 1 41.1 650.4 .4 180.0 21.5 1,010.9 999 ... 2 22.7 133.8 .2 171.3 403.1 000 ... 43.9 621.0 1.8 193.6 20.2 993.1 2.5 2 001 ... 18.8 133.7 .2 176.9 415.2 3.1 42.5 638.0 4.8 188.4 18.6 1,002.3 16.9 2 002 ... 133.7 .2 165.6 472.9 2.8 41.3 682.8 3.2 188.3 18.5 1,043.4 46.3 2 135.5 .3 190.8 517.9 3.2 18.1 758.4 3.3 193.8 23.2 1,132.3 003 ... 2 004 ... 17.4 135.3 .2 261.4 508.2 2.9 44.1 816.9 3.1 197.1 22.0 1,191.7 3.4 2 17.1 135.7 .4 241.4 492.2 005 ... 48.8 786.1 5.6 197.6 24.3 1,166.4 196.7 2.1 703.6 1,076.4 18.2 2 006 ... 23.5 132.6 .6 209.3 442.6 2.7 48.3 20.4 723.7 2.9 194.9 16.7 2 007 ... 1,090.2 131.5 .4 212.9 461.1 2.7 46.5 2 008 ... 1,143.2 17.7 196.1 3.6 775.4 49.0 2.3 525.4 198.4 .4 129.6 20.8 48.3 2 131.7 .3 166.4 505.7 3.2 20.3 723.9 10.1 191.3 17.7 1,094.8 009 ... 2 010 ... 20.0 130.1 .4 157.8 535.8 2.5 51.3 747.7 3.0 193.7 18.2 1,112.7 1,114.1 2 011 ... 18.5 124.7 .9 166.5 533.6 2.0 52.7 755.8 2.7 193.2 19.1 50.1 22.5 187.2 3.1 694.4 1,039.3 2 012 ... 15.9 116.2 .4 148.6 493.5 1.7 1.9 2 14.3 122.5 .7 140.0 424.0 013 ... 46.6 613.2 2.8 184.7 21.8 959.3 414.3 2 014 ... 13.5 125.6 .3 133.5 594.8 1.8 44.9 3.6 182.1 21.9 941.5 1.8 2 12.6 122.2 .3 134.4 418.9 015 ... 46.8 602.2 3.7 184.3 20.9 945.8 184.5 582.2 21.4 917.2 3.6 2 016 ... 10.2 115.4 .3 129.7 403.9 1.7 46.5 181.7 1.5 3.9 400.1 133.9 .3 115.1 9.1 017 ... 2 582.3 23.0 915.1 46.4 g a ut Other types of energy used in facilities. Primarily includes chilled water, b For 1975 and 1976, the U.S. Government’s fiscal year was July 1 through . also includes small amounts of renewable energy such as wood and solar thermal une 30. Beginning in 1977, the U.S. Government’s fiscal year is October 1 J t Data in this table are developed using conversion factors that ofte Notes: • hrough September 30 (for example, fiscal year 2014 is October 2013 through n n Data include energy consumed at foreig eptember 2014). S differ from those in Tables A1–A6. • b g, Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. installations and in foreign operations, including aviation and ocean bunkerin c or Distillate fuel oil, including diesel fuel; and residual fuel oil, including Navy primarily by the U.S. Department of Defense. U.S. Government energy use f pecial. electricity generation and uranium enrichment is excluded. S al Totals may not equ • d Liquefied petroleum gases, primarily propane. sum of components due to independent rounding. e n Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#consumptio Includes E10 (a mixture of 10% ethanol and 90% motor gasoline) and E15 (a ixture of 15% ethanol and 85% motor gasoline). (Excel and CSV files) for all annual data beginning in 1975. m f y Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficienc Other types of fuel used in vehicles and equipment. Primarily includes and Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management Program. Se e lternative fuels such as compressed natural gas (CNG); liquefied natural gas a LNG); E85 (a mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% motor gasoline); B20 (a mixture of ( al http://ctsedwweb.ee.doe.gov/Annual/Report/Report.aspx, "A-5 Historical Feder 2 Energy Consumption and Cost Data by Agency and Energy Type (FY 1975 0% biodiesel and 80% diesel fuel); B100 (100% biodiesel); hydrogen; and to ethanol. Present)". m Monthly U. 47 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

58 Energy Consumption by Sector Note Electrical System Energy Losses. Electrical system energy losses are calculated as the difference between total 1. sales consumption the electric power sector (see Table 2.6) and the total energy content of electricity retail by primary Tables 7.6 and A6). Most of these losses occur at steam ‐ electric power plants (see and nuclear) in the (conventional of into heat energy mechanical energy to turn electric generators. The loss is a thermodynamically necessary conversion a of the steam ‐ electric cycle. Part of the energy input ‐ to ‐ output losses is result of imputing fossil energy feature for hydroelectric, inputs solar thermal, equivalent geothermal, and wind energy sources. In addition to photovoltaic, conversion other losses include power plant use of electricity, transmission and distribution of electricity from losses, Total plants to end ‐ use consumers called "line losses"), and unaccounted ‐ for electricity. losses are allocated power (also end ‐ use sectors the proportion to each to in sector's share of total electricity sales. Overall, about two thirds of total is lost in conversion. Currently, of electricity generated, approximately 5% is lost in plant use and 7% is input lost energy in and distribution. transmission Most Energy Consumption Data Note Surveys. 2. of the data in this and section of the Monthly Energy Review (MER) are from a group of energy ‐ related surveys, typically called "supply surveys," conducted by the U.S. Energy developed (EIA). Supply surveys are directed to suppliers and marketers of specific energy sources. Information Administration measure the quantities of specific energy sources produced, or the They quantities market, supplied to the or both. The statistics from EIA's supply surveys are integrated to data yield the summary consumption obtained published in this section (and in Section of the MER. 1) Users of EIA's energy consumption statistics should be aware of a second group of energy ‐ related surveys, typically types surveys." Consumption surveys gather information on the of energy consumed by end users called "consumption energy, along of with the characteristics of those end users that can be associated with energy use. For example, the “Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey” belongs to the consumption survey group because it collects information directly from end users (the manufacturing establishments). There are important differences between the supply and consumption surveys need to be taken into account in any analysis that uses both data sources. For information on that of those differences, see “Energy Consumption by End ‐ Use Sector, A Comparison Measures by Consumption and Supply ‐ DOE/EIA 1990. 6, April DC, Washington, Administration, Information Energy U.S. 0533, Surveys,” Table Sources 2.2 Coal by Residential sector coal consumption data from Table 6.2 are converted to Btu by 1949–2007: multiplying the residential and commercial sectors coal consumption heat content factors in Table A5. Natural Gas 1949–1979: Residential sector natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption data from Table 4.3 are Table converted to Btu by multiplying by the natural gas end ‐ use sectors consumption heat content factors in A4. 1980 forward: Residential sector natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption data from Table 4.3 converted are to Btu by multiplying by the natural gas end ‐ use sectors consumption heat content factors in Table A4. sector portion of supplemental gaseous fuels data in residential Btu is estimated using the method described in The Note 3, “Supplemental Gaseous Fuels,” at the end of Section 4. Residential sector natural gas (excluding supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption is equal to residential sector natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption minus the residential sector portion of supplemental gaseous fuels. Petroleum 1949 forward: Table 3.8a. Fossil Fuels Total is consumption fuels residential sector consumption values for the sum the 1949–2007: Residential sector total fossil of petroleum. and gas, natural coal, / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 48

59 2008 Residential sector total fossil fuels consumption is the sum of the residential sector consumption values forward: natural gas and petroleum. for Renewable Energy forward: Table 10.2a. 1949 Total Primary Energy Consumption forward: Residential sector total primary energy 1949 consumption is the sum of the residential sector consumption for fossil fuels and renewable energy. values Electricity Retail Sales 1949 Residential sector electricity retail sales from Table 7.6 forward: are converted to Btu by multiplying by the heat content factor in Table A6. electricity Electrical System Energy Losses forward: Total electrical system energy losses are equal to electric power sector total primary 1949 consumption energy from Table 2.6 minus total electricity retail sales from Table 7.6 (converted to Btu by multiplying by the electricity heat are content in Table A6). Total electrical system energy losses factor allocated to the sector in residential proportion to the residential sector’s share of total electricity retail sales from Table 7.6. See Note 1, "Electrical System Energy Losses." Total Energy Consumption 1949 forward: Residential sector total energy consumption is the sum of the residential sector consumption values for electrical total primary energy, electricity retail sales, and system energy losses. Table 2.3 Sources Coal 1949 forward: Commercial sector coal consumption data from Table 6.2 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the consumption A5. Table content residential and commercial sectors coal in heat factors Natural Gas 1949–1979: Commercial sector natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption data from Table 4.3 are use converted by multiplying by the natural gas end ‐ to sectors consumption heat content factors in Table A4. Btu 1980 forward: Commercial sector natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption data from Table 4.3 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the natural gas end ‐ use sectors consumption heat content factors in Table A4. in The commercial sector portion of supplemental gaseous fuels data Btu is estimated using the method described in Note 3, “Supplemental Gaseous Fuels,” at the end of Section 4. Commercial sector natural gas supplemental (excluding consumption is equal to commercial sector natural gas (including supplemental gaseous gaseous fuels) fuels) supplemental the commercial sector portion of minus gaseous fuels. consumption Petroleum 1949–1992: Table 3.8a. 1993–2008: The commercial sector share of motor gasoline consumption is equal to commercial sector motor gasoline consumption Table 3.7a divided by motor gasoline product from supplied from Table 3.5. Commercial sector fuel ethanol (including denaturant) consumption is equal to total fuel ethanol (including denaturant) consumption from Table 10.3 multiplied by the commercial sector share of motor gasoline consumption. Commercial sector petroleum Table consumption from (excluding biofuels) consumption is equal to commercial sector petroleum (including biofuels) commercial minus 3.8a consumption. denaturant) (including ethanol fuel sector Monthly U. 49 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

60 2009 forward: Commercial sector fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption is equal to total fuel ethanol (minus consumption from Table 10.3 multiplied by the commercial sector share of motor gasoline consumption denaturant) is 1993–2008 sources above). Commercial sector petroleum (excluding biofuels) consumption equal to commercial (see petroleum (including biofuels) consumption sector from Table 3.8a minus commercial sector fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption. Fossil Fuels Total the Commercial sector total fossil fuels consumption is sum of the commercial sector consumption 1949 forward: for coal, natural gas, and petroleum. values Renewable Energy Table 10.2a. 1949 forward: Total Primary Energy Consumption forward: Commercial sector total primary 1949 consumption is the sum of the commercial sector consumption energy values for fossil fuels and renewable energy. Electricity Retail Sales 1949 forward: Commercial sector electricity retail sales from Table 7.6 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the content factor electricity in Table A6. heat Electrical System Energy Losses forward: Total electrical system 1949 losses are equal to electric power sector total primary energy consumption energy from Table 2.6 minus total electricity retail sales from Table 7.6 (converted to Btu by multiplying by the electricity heat system content in Table A6). Total electrical factor energy losses are allocated to the commercial sector in proportion to from the commercial sector’s share of total electricity retail sales Table 7.6. See Note 1, "Electrical System Energy Losses." Total Energy Consumption for values consumption 1949 sector forward: Commercial sector total energy consumption is the sum of the commercial total energy, electricity retail sales, and electrical system energy losses. primary Sources Table 2.4 Coal forward: Coke plants coal consumption from Table 6.2 1949 is converted to Btu by multiplying by the coke plants coal consumption heat content factors in Table A5. Other industrial coal consumption from Table 6.2 is converted to Btu by consumption multiplying the other industrial coal by heat content factors in Table A5. Industrial sector coal consumption consumption is equal to coke plants coal and other industrial coal consumption. Natural Gas 1949–1979: Industrial sector natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption data from Table 4.3 are A4. converted Btu by multiplying by the natural gas end ‐ use sectors consumption heat content factors in Table to 1980 forward: Industrial sector natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption data from Table 4.3 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the natural gas end ‐ use sectors consumption heat content factors in Table A4. The industrial sector portion of supplemental gaseous fuels data in Btu is estimated using the method described in Note 3, 4. “Supplemental Gaseous Fuels,” at the end of Section Industrial sector natural gas (excluding supplemental gaseous consumption minus gaseous fuels) fuels) consumption is equal to industrial sector natural gas (including supplemental supplemental of portion sector industrial the fuels. gaseous / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 50

61 Petroleum Table 3.8b. 1949–1992: The sector share of motor gasoline consumption is industrial equal to industrial sector motor gasoline 1993–2008: from consumption Table 3.7b divided by motor gasoline product supplied from Table 3.5. Industrial sector fuel ethanol denaturant) consumption is equal (including total fuel ethanol (including denaturant) consumption from Table 10.3 to the industrial sector share of motor gasoline consumption. Industrial sector petroleum (excluding biofuels) multiplied by consumption is equal to industrial sector petroleum (including biofuels) consumption from Table 3.8b minus industrial sector fuel ethanol (including denaturant) consumption. 2009 Industrial sector fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption is equal to total fuel forward: ethanol (minus consumption from Table 10.3 multiplied by the denaturant) industrial sector share of motor gasoline consumption (see 1993–2008 sources above). Industrial sector petroleum (excluding biofuels) consumption is equal to industrial sector industrial petroleum biofuels) consumption from Table 3.8b minus (including sector fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption. Coal Coke Net Imports 1949 forward: Coal coke net imports are equal to coal coke imports from Table 1.4a minus coal coke exports from Table 1.4b. Fossil Fuels Total values 1949 forward: Industrial sector total fossil fuels consumption is the sum of the industrial sector consumption for coal, gas, and petroleum, plus coal coke net imports. natural Renewable Energy 1949 forward: Table 10.2b. Total Primary Energy Consumption forward: Industrial sector total primary energy consumption is the 1949 sum of the industrial sector consumption values for fossil fuels renewable energy. and Electricity Retail Sales 1949 forward: Industrial sector electricity retail sales from Table 7.6 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the in electricity content factor heat Table A6. Electrical System Energy Losses 1949 forward: Total electrical system energy losses are equal to electric power sector total primary energy consumption total from Table 2.6 minus electricity retail sales from Table 7.6 (converted to Btu by multiplying by the electricity heat are content in Table A6). Total electrical system energy losses factor allocated to the sector in industrial proportion to the industrial sector’s share of total electricity retail sales from Table 7.6. See Note 1, "Electrical System Energy Losses." Total Energy Consumption forward: Industrial sector total energy consumption is the sum of the industrial sector consumption values 1949 for electrical total primary energy, electricity retail sales, and system energy losses. Table 2.5 Sources Coal the 1949–1977: Transportation sector coal consumption data from Table 6.2 are converted to Btu by multiplying by factors content heat consumption coal sector industrial other A5. Table in Monthly U. 51 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

62 Natural Gas 4.3 forward: sector natural gas consumption data from Table Transportation are converted to Btu by multiplying 1949 the by natural gas end ‐ use sectors consumption heat content factors in Table A4. Petroleum 1949–1992: Table 3.8c. The transportation sector share of motor gasoline consumption is equal to transportation sector motor 1993–2008: product from Table 3.7c divided by motor gasoline supplied from Table 3.5. Transportation sector consumption gasoline ethanol (including denaturant) consumption is equal to total fuel ethanol (including denaturant) consumption from fuel Table multiplied by the transportation sector share 10.3 of motor gasoline consumption. Transportation sector petroleum (excluding biofuels) consumption is equal to transportation sector petroleum (including biofuels) consumption Table 3.8c minus transportation sector fuel ethanol (including denaturant) consumption. from Transportation 2009–2011: sector fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption is equal to total fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption from Table 10.3 multiplied by the transportation sector share of motor gasoline consumption (excluding (see sources above). Transportation sector petroleum 1993–2008 biofuels) consumption is equal to: transportation sector petroleum (including biofuels) consumption from Table 3.8c; minus transportation sector fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption; minus biodiesel consumption (calculated using biodiesel data from U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), EIA ‐ 22M, "Monthly Biodiesel Production Survey"; and biomass ‐ based diesel EIA 815, ‐ and Report," "Monthly fuel data from EIA ‐ 810, "Monthly Refinery Report," EIA ‐ 812, "Monthly Product Pipeline Bulk and Blender Report” (the data are converted to Btu by multiplying by Terminal heat content factor the in biodiesel A1); minus other renewable diesel fuel and other renewables fuels consumption from Table 10.4. Table forward: Transportation sector fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption is equal to total fuel ethanol (minus 2012 denaturant) from Table 10.3 multiplied by the transportation sector share of motor consumption gasoline consumption 1993–2008 sources above). Transportation sector petroleum (excluding biofuels) consumption is equal to: (see transportation sector petroleum (including biofuels) consumption from Table 3.8c; minus transportation sector fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption; minus biodiesel consumption from Table 10.4; minus other renewable diesel and fuel other renewables fuels consumption from Table 10.4. Fossil Fuels Total sector total fossil fuels consumption is the sum of the Transportation transportation sector consumption 1949–1977: coal, natural for and petroleum. values gas, 1978 forward: Transportation sector total fossil fuels consumption is the sum of the transportation sector consumption values for natural gas and petroleum. Renewable Energy 1981 forward: Table 10.2b. Total Energy Consumption Primary equal sector total primary energy 1949–1980: is Transportation to transportation sector fossil fuels consumption consumption. 1981 forward: Transportation sector total primary energy consumption is the sum of the transportation sector fuels consumption values for fossil and renewable energy. Electricity Retail Sales by Btu multiplying by the 1949 forward: Transportation sector electricity retail sales from Table 7.6 are converted to heat electricity A6. Table in factor content / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 52

63 Electrical System Energy Losses electric forward: electrical system energy losses are equal to Total power sector total primary energy consumption 1949 Table 2.6 from minus total electricity retail sales from Table 7.6 (converted to Btu by multiplying by the electricity heat factor in Table A6). Total electrical system energy losses are allocated to the content transportation sector in proportion the transportation sector’s share of total electricity retail sales from Table 7.6. See Note 1, "Electrical System Energy to Losses." Total Energy Consumption forward: Transportation sector total energy consumption is the sum of 1949 the transportation sector consumption values total primary energy, electricity retail sales, and electrical system energy losses. for Sources Table 2.6 Coal forward: Electric power sector coal consumption data 1949 Table 6.2 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the from electric power sector coal consumption heat content factors in Table A5. Natural Gas 1949–1979: Electric power sector natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption data from Table 4.3 are converted to Btu by multiplying by the natural gas electric power sector consumption heat content factors in Table A4. (including Table data consumption fuels) gaseous supplemental gas natural sector power from 1980 forward: Electric 4.3 converted to Btu by multiplying by the natural gas electric power sector consumption heat content factors in are fuels Table The electric power sector portion of supplemental gaseous A4. data in Btu is estimated using the method described in Note 3, “Supplemental Gaseous Fuels,” at the end of Section 4. Electric sector natural power gas (excluding supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption is equal to electric power sector natural gas (including supplemental gaseous fuels) consumption minus the electric power sector portion of supplemental gaseous fuels. Petroleum 1949 forward: Table 3.8c. Fossil Fuels Total 1949 forward: Electric power sector total fossil fuels consumption is the sum of the electric power sector consumption values coal, natural gas, and petroleum. for Nuclear Electric Power multiplying forward: Nuclear electricity net generation data from Table 7.2a are converted 1949 to Btu by by the nuclear heat rate factors in Table A6. Renewable Energy 1949 forward: Table 10.2c. Electricity Net Imports imports 1949 Electricity net imports are equal to electricity forward: from Table 1.4a minus electricity exports from Table 1.4b. Total Primary Energy Consumption forward: Electric power sector total primary energy 1949 is the sum of the electric power sector consumption renewable energy, plus electricity net imports. for fuels, nuclear electric power, and consumption values fossil Monthly U. 53 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

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65 3. Petroleum

66 Figure Petroleum Overview 3.1 (Million Per Barrels Day) Overview, 1949–2018 25 20 Products Supplied 15 Net Imports 10 Total Field Production [a] 5 0 1990 1950 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1955 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Liquids Field Production, 1949–2018 12 10 8 Crude Oil [b] 6 4 Natural Gas Liquids 2 0 1965 2015 2010 2000 1995 1990 1985 1980 1975 1970 1960 1955 1950 2005 Overview, January–March Total Field Production [a], Monthly 20 2017 2018 2019 25 16 20.5 20.2 19.5 20 16.5 12 14.2 15 12.6 8 10 4 4.3 5 2017 2019 2018 3.0 1.1 0 0 JFMAMJJASOND Products Supplied Net Imports Total Field Production [a] liquids gas natural field Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg y/data/monthly/#petroleum. Web [a] Crude oil, including lease condensate, and 3.1. Table production. Source: lease Includes [b] condensate. 56 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U.

67 T able 3.1 Petroleum Overview (Thousand Barrels per Day) a Field Production Trade Renew- b,c able Crude Oil Fuels Natural Petroleum Process- Adjust- 48 Net Ex- Im- Stock and Oxy- ing Products Gas e f g i d c c,j h Imports States ports ments Change ports Total Alaska Total Supplied genates Gain Liquids 5,407 0 5,407 499 1 NA 2 850 305 545 -56 -51 6,458 950 Average ... 5,906 ... 0 6,807 771 7,578 NA 34 1,248 368 880 (s) -37 8,455 1 955 Average 6,807 202 7,034 7,035 929 7,965 NA 146 1,815 2 1,613 -83 -8 9,797 960 Average 1 ... ... 7,774 1 7,804 1,210 9,014 NA 220 2,468 187 2,281 -8 -10 11,512 965 Average 30 970 Average 9,408 229 9,637 1,660 11,297 NA 359 3,419 259 3,161 103 -16 14,697 1 ... 209 ... 8,375 1,633 10,007 NA 460 6,056 191 5,846 32 41 16,322 975 Average 1 8,183 ... 6,980 1,617 8,597 1,573 10,170 NA 597 6,909 544 6,365 140 64 17,056 1 980 Average 985 Average ... 1,825 8,971 1,609 10,581 NA 557 5,067 781 4,286 -103 200 15,726 1 7,146 8,018 990 Average 1,773 7,355 1,559 8,914 NA 683 5,582 857 7,161 107 338 16,988 1 ... 995 Average 774 5,076 1,484 6,560 1,762 8,322 NA 1 8,835 949 7,886 -246 496 17,725 ... 2 ... 4,851 970 5,822 1,911 7,733 NA 948 11,459 1,040 10,419 -69 532 19,701 000 Average 001 Average ... 963 5,801 1,868 7,670 NA 903 11,871 971 10,900 325 501 19,649 2 4,839 984 ... 5,744 1,880 7,624 NA 957 11,530 985 10,546 -105 529 19,761 002 Average 4,759 2 ... 4,675 974 5,649 1,719 7,369 NA 974 2 1,027 11,238 56 509 20,034 003 Average 12,264 004 Average 4,533 908 5,441 1,809 7,250 NA 1,051 ... 1,048 12,097 209 542 20,731 2 13,145 k ... 4,320 864 5,184 1,717 6,901 NA 989 13,714 1,165 12,549 2 146 509 20,802 005 Average 006 Average 2 4,345 741 5,086 1,739 6,825 NA 994 13,707 1,317 12,390 59 537 20,687 ... 13,468 007 Average 722 5,074 1,783 6,857 NA 996 4,352 1,433 12,036 -152 640 20,680 2 ... 008 Average ... 4,317 683 5,000 1,784 6,783 NA 993 12,915 1,802 11,114 195 803 19,498 2 2 009 Average 4,704 645 5,349 1,910 7,259 746 979 11,691 2,024 9,667 107 228 18,771 ... 1,068 2 4,878 600 5,478 2,074 7,552 907 ... 11,793 2,353 9,441 39 253 19,180 010 Average 2 011 Average ... 5,093 561 5,654 2,216 7,870 1,016 1,076 11,436 2,986 8,450 -129 345 18,887 1,059 2 012 Average ... 5,976 526 6,502 2,408 8,909 964 10,598 3,205 7,393 147 308 18,487 2 013 Average 6,952 515 7,467 2,606 10,073 1,002 1,087 9,859 3,621 6,237 -139 429 18,967 ... 014 Average ... 496 8,759 3,015 11,773 1,055 1,081 9,241 4,176 5,065 267 394 19,100 2 8,262 4,738 ... 9,431 3,342 12,773 1,095 1,062 9,449 483 4,711 429 322 19,534 015 Average 8,948 2 ... 8,341 490 8,831 3,509 12,340 1,158 1,118 2 5,261 4,795 130 406 19,687 016 Average 10,055 017 8,324 516 8,840 3,395 12,235 1,187 January ... 10,745 5,645 5,101 746 407 19,323 2 1,139 February ... 8,570 513 9,083 3,633 12,716 1,173 1,063 10,033 6,461 3,573 -128 538 19,190 March ... 12,826 526 9,140 3,685 1,179 1,112 10,184 6,054 4,130 -602 211 20,060 8,614 April ... 8,559 9,085 3,682 12,767 1,142 1,146 10,322 6,277 4,045 -70 426 19,595 525 10,729 May ... 9,168 3,771 12,939 1,179 1,135 508 6,232 4,498 181 496 20,066 8,660 June ... 8,611 463 9,074 3,807 12,881 1,191 10,325 6,252 4,073 -802 454 20,561 1,159 8,807 423 9,230 3,822 13,052 1,193 1,101 9,954 6,291 3,663 -369 741 20,119 July ... 1,113 August ... 451 9,244 3,764 13,007 1,222 8,793 10,112 5,665 4,447 -363 100 20,251 September ... 9,013 482 9,495 3,731 13,226 1,180 1,010 9,752 6,289 3,464 -315 446 19,641 October ... 9,703 4,020 13,723 1,214 1,081 9,741 7,086 2,655 -1,180 137 19,990 9,196 507 9,876 November ... 10,103 4,106 14,209 1,268 1,146 510 7,144 2,732 -596 356 20,307 9,593 December ... 9,528 512 10,040 3,969 14,009 1,240 1,126 9,935 7,136 2,799 -927 222 20,323 6,376 8,857 494 9,352 3,783 13,134 1,198 1,111 10,144 ... 3,768 -370 376 19,958 Average E E E E 018 508 January ... 9,995 3,825 9,487 13,819 1,204 1,123 10,274 6,615 3,659 -500 155 20,461 2 E E E E 513 February ... 10,248 4,023 9,735 14,271 1,221 1,117 9,580 6,844 2,736 -140 134 19,619 E E E E 9,949 10,461 4,173 March ... 14,635 1,206 1,096 9,821 7,105 2,716 -444 477 20,573 512 E E E E 14,735 9,978 10,475 4,260 497 1,199 1,114 10,364 7,730 2,634 78 337 19,941 April ... E E E E 1,119 9,968 10,464 4,321 14,785 1,223 May ... 10,228 7,517 2,712 206 723 20,357 496 E E E E 10,706 10,222 June ... 10,672 4,326 14,998 1,257 1,129 451 7,801 2,905 -108 308 20,705 E E E E 163 20,621 646 2,349 7,827 July ... 10,176 10,541 1,170 395 1,273 10,936 4,411 15,347 E E E E 21,302 1,191 7,043 1,287 15,895 August ... 3,389 10,897 10,432 428 620 11,325 4,570 161 E E E E 1,211 16,102 10,999 4,631 11,470 19,951 471 561 1,336 September ... 2,273 7,611 9,885 1,140 E E E E 8,018 11,559 4,580 487 16,139 1,219 1,110 9,417 11,072 1,399 -500 406 20,774 October ... RE E RE RE R 11,429 11,926 4,571 16,497 1,239 1,158 9,213 8,669 545 -192 497 917 20,548 November ... RE E RE RE R 39 496 December ... 11,961 4,479 1,222 16,440 1,210 9,022 8,250 772 11,465 874 20,479 RE E RE RE R 15,311 479 10,962 4,349 10,483 Average 1,230 1,140 9,928 7,588 2,340 45 ... 477 20,453 R R R RE R RE R RE R R R RE R 11,375 16,416 4,545 1,110 11,871 9,693 496 8,104 1,190 1,589 January ... 260 019 409 2 20,452 RE RE RE RE RE RE RE RE RE RE RE RE RE 1,118 553 16,596 4,571 8,077 12,025 614 8,630 -510 491 February ... 1,058 11,534 20,449 E E E E E E E E E E E E E 12,110 1,120 1,073 16,616 8,869 4,506 7,742 1,127 484 -445 11,626 198 March ... 20,579 E E E E E E E E E E E E E 490 7,971 12,001 20,495 9,078 -222 1,081 16,541 1,143 3-Month Average ... 1,108 11,511 400 4,540 E E E E 9,723 6,855 2 018 3-Month Average ... 511 20,238 259 9,902 -369 10,234 4,007 3,047 14,241 1,210 1,112 6,039 19,536 10,330 1,106 1,180 12,588 3,569 9,019 519 8,501 ... 017 3-Month Average 2 380 10 4,291 a an increase. The current month stock change estimate is based on the chang e Crude oil production on leases, and natural gas liquids (hydrocarbon gas from the previous month’s estimate, rather than the stocks values shown in Tab le l iquids and a small amount of finished petroleum products) production at natural as processing plants. Excludes what was previously classified as "Field 3.4. Includes crude oil stocks in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, but exclude g s distillate fuel oil stocks in the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve. See Table 3.4 . P roduction" of finished motor gasoline, motor gasoline blending components, and j er An adjustment for crude oil, hydrogen, oxygenates, renewable fuels, oth o ther hydrocarbons and oxygenates; these are now included in "Adjustments." b d hydrocarbons, motor gasoline blending components, finished motor gasoline, an Includes lease condensate. c Petroleum Supply Monthly, distillate fuel oil. See EIA’s M Appendix B, "PS Once a month, data for crude oil production, total field production, and djustments are revised going back as far as the data year of the U.S. Energy a Explanatory Notes," for further information. k s Derived from the 2004 petroleum stocks value that excludes crude oil stock Petroleum Supply Annual nformation Administration’s (EIA) last published I s on leases (1,628 million barrels), not the 2004 petroleum stocks value that include Petroleum Supply —these revisions are released at the same time as EIA’s PSA) ( crude oil stocks on leases (1,645 million barrels). M onthly. Once a year, data for these series are revised going back as far as 10 R=Revised. E=Estimate. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 500 barrels per da y ears—these revisions are released at the same time as the PSA. y d and greater than -500 barrels per day. United States excluding Alaska and Hawaii. e Notes: • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independe nt Renewable fuels and oxygenate plant net production. f Refinery and blender net production minus refinery and blender net inputs. Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. • rounding. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Exc ee Table 3.2. el S g and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da ta Includes Strategic Petroleum Reserve imports. See Table 3.3b. h Net imports equal imports minus exports. beginning in 1973. i A negative value indicates a decrease in stocks and a positive value indicates Sources: See end of section. Monthly U. 57 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

68 Refinery Production Net and Figure 3.2 and Blender Net Inputs Barrels per (Million Day) Net Inputs and Net Production, 1949–2018 24 18 Total Net Production Total Net Inputs 12 Crude Oil Net Inputs [a] 6 Other Net Inputs [b] 0 1990 1955 1950 2015 2010 2005 2000 1995 1965 1980 1985 1975 1970 1960 Net Production, Selected Products, 1949–2018 12 10 8 Motor Gasoline [c] 6 4 Distillate Fuel Oil [d] Jet Fuel [e] 2 Residual Fuel Oil 0 1965 1970 2010 2015 2005 1960 2000 1950 1995 1990 1985 1980 1975 1955 Net Production, Selected Products, Monthly Net Inputs and Net Production, Monthly 25 12 Total Net Motor Gasoline [c] Production 20 9 Total Net Inputs 15 Crude Oil Net Inputs [a] 6 Distillate Fuel Oil [d] 10 3 5 Jet Fuel [e] Other Net Inputs [b] Residual Fuel Oil 0 0 JFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASOND JFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASOND 2017 2019 2017 2018 2018 2019 [a] blended Includes lease condensate. oil. fuel distillate into kerosene 2005, fuel in [b] Natural gas liquids and other liquids. Beginning ‐ only. jet [e] type includes Beginning blended into motor gasoline. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg y/data/monthly/#petroleum. [c] in 1993, ethanol includes fuel includes biodiesel) (including fuel diesel renewable 2009, in Beginning [d] 3.2. Table Source: 58 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U.

69 T able 3.2 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs and Net Production (Thousand Barrels per Day) b a Refinery and Blender Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Resid- Distil- Propane/Propylene ual late Natural Motor Other Fuel Fuel Gas Jet Pro- Gaso- Other Crude Pro- Propy- f k j c g e i d h Oil Oil lene Total Oil line pane Total Total Total Liquids Liquids Fuel ducts i 5,739 ( ) 19 6,018 1,093 NA NA NA 80 ... 950 Average 2,735 1,165 947 6,019 1 259 119 955 Average 345 32 7,857 1,651 NA NA NA 7,480 155 3,648 1,152 1,166 7,891 1 ... 960 Average ... 8,067 455 61 8,583 1,823 NA NA NA 212 241 4,126 908 1,420 1 8,729 1 ... 9,043 618 88 9,750 2,096 NA NA NA 293 523 4,507 736 1,814 9,970 965 Average E E 239 121 11,754 2,454 970 Average 184 763 55 10,870 345 827 5,699 706 2,082 12,113 1 ... E E 12,442 710 72 13,225 2,653 238 179 1 60 975 Average 311 871 6,518 1,235 2,097 13,685 ... E E 1 462 81 14,025 2,661 980 Average 202 13,481 72 273 330 999 6,492 1,580 2,559 14,622 ... E E 12,002 509 681 13,192 2,686 1 223 ... 72 295 391 1,189 6,419 882 2,183 13,750 985 Average 1 990 Average ... 13,409 467 713 14,589 2,925 299 105 404 499 1,488 6,959 950 2,452 15,272 1 995 Average 13,973 471 775 15,220 3,155 352 151 503 654 1,416 7,459 788 2,522 15,994 ... 583 000 Average 380 849 16,295 3,580 366 217 15,067 705 1,606 7,951 696 2,705 17,243 2 ... 001 Average ... 15,128 429 825 16,382 3,695 352 204 556 667 1,530 8,022 721 2,651 17,285 2 2 002 Average 14,947 429 941 16,316 3,592 347 225 572 671 1,514 8,183 601 2,712 17,273 ... 229 2 15,304 419 791 16,513 3,707 341 ... 570 658 1,488 8,194 660 2,780 17,487 003 Average 2 004 Average ... 15,475 422 866 16,762 3,814 341 243 584 645 1,547 8,265 655 2,887 17,814 2 005 Average 15,220 441 1,149 16,811 3,954 311 229 540 573 1,546 8,318 628 2,782 17,800 ... 241 2 15,242 501 1,238 16,981 4,040 302 ... 543 627 1,481 8,364 635 2,827 17,975 006 Average 2 007 Average ... 15,156 505 1,337 16,999 4,133 330 232 562 655 1,448 8,358 673 2,728 17,994 207 2 14,648 485 2,019 17,153 4,294 312 ... 519 630 1,493 8,548 620 2,561 18,146 008 Average 2 009 Average ... 14,336 485 2,082 16,904 4,048 291 246 537 623 1,396 8,786 598 2,431 17,882 278 2 010 Average ... 14,724 442 2,219 17,385 4,223 282 560 659 1,418 9,059 585 2,509 18,452 2 011 Average 14,806 490 2,300 17,596 4,492 270 282 552 619 1,449 9,058 537 2,518 18,673 ... 012 Average ... 509 1,997 17,505 4,550 276 277 553 630 1,471 8,926 501 2,487 18,564 2 14,999 623 ... 2,211 18,019 4,733 284 281 564 496 1,499 9,234 467 2,550 19,106 013 Average 15,312 2 ... 15,848 511 2,214 18,574 4,916 306 281 2 653 1,541 9,570 435 2,537 19,654 014 Average 587 015 Average 16,188 517 2,119 18,824 4,983 283 276 ... 615 1,590 9,754 417 2,527 19,886 2 559 016 Average ... 16,187 536 2,238 18,961 4,834 307 280 587 632 1,650 9,995 418 2,550 2 20,079 2 January ... 16,118 649 1,102 17,870 4,785 298 266 564 355 1,614 9,281 485 2,488 19,009 017 413 February ... 2,011 18,091 4,657 282 262 544 587 1,603 9,507 482 2,492 19,154 15,493 March ... 16,048 519 2,213 18,780 4,793 295 291 586 678 1,674 9,802 406 2,539 19,892 April ... 478 1,918 19,351 5,019 298 303 601 857 1,735 9,855 417 2,614 20,497 16,954 622 484 2,173 19,879 5,216 324 298 17,222 908 1,713 10,126 408 2,644 21,014 May ... June ... 17,204 473 2,491 20,168 5,284 333 282 615 915 1,764 10,270 406 2,689 21,328 July ... 446 2,241 20,005 5,162 312 295 607 877 1,817 10,164 390 2,695 21,106 17,317 August ... 16,981 2,340 19,801 5,044 309 280 589 834 1,764 10,176 453 2,644 20,914 480 477 September ... 2,201 18,267 4,560 278 235 513 606 1,665 9,778 459 2,338 19,277 15,460 October ... 16,061 593 2,391 19,045 4,972 303 291 520 1,611 10,129 442 2,454 20,126 594 16,840 731 1,848 19,418 5,362 315 301 616 348 1,671 10,220 408 2,556 20,564 November ... 642 December ... 750 1,450 19,475 5,408 332 311 17,274 341 1,784 10,104 373 2,590 20,600 Average ... 16,590 566 2,031 19,187 5,024 307 285 592 628 1,702 9,954 427 2,563 20,298 2 018 16,599 629 1,206 18,435 5,010 296 304 600 394 1,690 9,519 467 2,478 19,558 January ... 568 February ... 634 1,715 18,281 4,584 295 274 15,932 409 1,690 9,800 462 2,453 19,397 March ... 16,665 556 1,915 19,136 4,825 295 276 571 631 1,784 10,052 403 2,538 20,232 593 497 2,302 19,564 5,119 307 286 16,766 800 1,798 9,964 450 2,546 20,678 April ... 21,004 May ... 16,989 454 2,442 19,885 5,213 300 292 591 853 1,808 10,130 415 2,585 348 10,326 1,893 875 609 5,406 2,712 21,559 June ... 17,666 457 2,307 20,430 286 323 2,732 444 10,166 1,894 870 607 286 320 5,256 20,194 2,396 442 17,355 July ... 21,363 604 504 2,320 20,436 5,369 310 293 17,612 880 1,955 10,243 391 2,790 21,627 August ... September ... 16,986 565 2,045 19,596 5,230 296 294 590 650 1,856 9,926 429 2,644 20,736 20,410 October ... 16,409 686 2,205 19,300 5,036 279 294 574 460 1,691 10,299 397 2,527 746 10,240 20,766 2,563 450 November ... 17,152 1,769 1,709 19,607 5,350 294 314 608 395 313 17,409 732 1,474 19,615 5,576 303 December ... 615 372 1,856 10,020 440 2,561 20,825 16,968 Average ... 575 2,005 19,547 5,168 301 293 594 634 1,808 10,059 424 2,595 20,687 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R 16,785 297 681 9,735 1,407 2,452 18,873 1,771 5,252 19,983 2 019 292 January ... 589 398 374 RE RE RF RE RE F RE RE RE RE RE RF 2,120 1,695 19,613 434 296 574 595 4,815 NA NA 9,786 February ... 18,555 15,840 2,587 E E F E F E E F E E E E 521 18,959 643 2,439 1,731 15,987 10,007 March ... 330 4,907 NA NA 2,414 533 20,032 E E E E E E E E E E E E 2,481 1,734 19,885 485 343 561 1,984 4,997 NA NA 3-Month Average ... 9,845 16,216 18,804 603 1,609 443 2,491 2 018 3-Month Average ... 16,414 605 19,740 18,628 4,814 295 285 580 481 1,722 9,790 ... 017 3-Month Average 585 1,768 18,252 4,748 292 273 566 2 15,900 484 1,631 9,531 457 2,507 19,358 a d See "Refinery and Blender Net Inputs" in Glossary. fuel is included in the products from which it was blended—gasoline, kerosene, an b distillate fuel oil. Beginning in 2005, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in "Oth See "Refinery and Blender Net Production" in Glossary. er c Includes lease condensate. Products.") d j Finished motor gasoline. Through 1963, also includes aviation gasoline an d Ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, and natural gasoline (pentanes or lus). p special naphthas. Beginning in 1993, also includes fuel ethanol blended into mot e Unfinished oils (net), other hydrocarbons, and hydrogen. Beginning in 1981, gasoline. k a s, lso includes aviation and motor gasoline blending components (net). Beginning in Asphalt and road oil, kerosene, lubricants, petrochemical feedstock petroleum coke, still gas (refinery gas), waxes, and miscellaneous product s. 993, also includes oxygenates (net), including fuel ethanol. Beginning in 2009, 1 o a lso includes renewable diesel fuel (including biodiesel). Through 1964, also includes kerosene-type jet fuel. Beginning in 1964, als f Beginning in 2009, includes renewable diesel fuel (including biodiesel) includes finished aviation gasoline and special naphthas. Beginning in 2005, als o lended into distillate fuel oil. includes naphtha-type jet fuel. b g R=Revised. E=Estimate. F=Forecast. NA=Not available. Propane and propylene. Through 1983, also includes 40% of "Butane- • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independe Notes: ropane Mixtures." P nt h Ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, and refinery olefins (ethylene, Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. • rounding. ropylene, butylene, and isobutylene). Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Exc p el i and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da ta Beginning in 1965, includes kerosene-type jet fuel. (Through 1964, k erosene-type jet fuel is included with kerosene in "Other Products.") For beginning in 1973. 1 Sources: See end of section. 952–2004, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. (Through 1951, naphtha-type jet Monthly U. 59 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

70 3.3a Petroleum Figure Trade: Overview Overview, January 2019 25 20.5 20 15 9.7 10 8.1 Million Barrels per Day 5 2.5 1.6 1.3 0 Products Supplied Imports from Persian Net Imports Imports from OPEC Total Imports Exports Gulf Imports From OPEC and Persian Gulf as Share of Total Imports, 1960–2018 80 60 OPEC 40 Percent Persian Gulf 20 0 2015 2010 2005 2000 1990 1995 1970 1960 1965 1985 1975 1980 Net Imports as Share of Products Supplied, 1949–2018 75 50 Percent 25 0 1985 2005 2010 2015 1980 1995 2000 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1990 Countries. Exporting Petroleum the of OPEC=Organization Note: y/data/monthly/#petroleum. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg 3.3a. Source: Table Energy Administration Information S. U. 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / 60

71 T able 3.3a Petroleum Trade: Overview As Share of As Share of Products Supplied Total Imports Imports Imports Imports From From From Imports Imports Imports Persian Persian Persian Net From From Products Net From b b a a b a Gulf Gulf Gulf OPEC Imports Supplied OPEC OPEC Imports Imports Exports Imports Percent Thousand Barrels per Day 6,458 NA NA 850 1 545 950 Average NA NA 13.2 8.4 NA NA ... 305 955 Average ... NA NA 1,248 368 880 8,455 NA 1 14.8 10.4 NA NA NA 1 ... 326 1,233 1,815 202 1,613 9,797 3.3 12.6 18.5 16.5 17.9 68.0 960 Average 3.1 965 Average 1,439 2,468 187 2,281 11,512 359 12.5 21.4 19.8 14.5 58.3 1 ... 970 Average ... 184 1,294 3,419 259 3,161 1 1.3 8.8 23.3 21.5 5.4 37.8 14,697 1 ... 1,165 3,601 6,056 209 5,846 975 Average 7.1 22.1 37.1 35.8 19.2 59.5 16,322 1 980 Average ... 1,519 4,300 6,909 544 6,365 17,056 8.9 25.2 40.5 37.3 22.0 62.2 1 985 Average 311 1,830 5,067 781 4,286 15,726 2.0 11.6 32.2 27.3 6.1 36.1 ... 11.6 990 Average 4,296 8,018 857 7,161 16,988 1,966 25.3 47.2 42.2 24.5 53.6 1 ... 995 Average ... 1,573 4,002 8,835 949 7,886 1 8.9 22.6 49.8 44.5 17.8 45.3 17,725 2 ... 2,488 5,203 11,459 1,040 10,419 000 Average 12.6 26.4 58.2 52.9 21.7 45.4 19,701 2 001 Average ... 2,761 5,528 11,871 971 10,900 19,649 14.1 28.1 60.4 55.5 23.3 46.6 2 002 Average 2,269 4,605 11,530 984 10,546 19,761 11.5 23.3 58.3 53.4 19.7 39.9 ... 20,034 2 2,501 5,162 12,264 1,027 11,238 ... 12.5 25.8 61.2 56.1 20.4 42.1 003 Average 2 004 Average ... 2,493 5,701 13,145 1,048 12,097 20,731 12.0 27.5 63.4 58.4 19.0 43.4 20,802 2 ... 2,334 5,587 13,714 1,165 12,549 005 Average 11.2 26.9 65.9 60.3 17.0 40.7 2,211 2 006 Average ... 20,687 5,517 13,707 1,317 12,390 10.7 26.7 66.3 59.9 16.1 40.2 2 007 Average 2,163 5,980 13,468 1,433 12,036 20,680 10.5 28.9 65.1 58.2 16.1 44.4 ... 008 Average ... 5,954 12,915 1,802 11,114 19,498 12.2 30.5 66.2 57.0 18.4 46.1 2 2,370 ... 9.0 4,776 11,691 2,024 9,667 18,771 009 Average 25.4 62.3 51.5 14.4 40.9 2 1,689 8.9 010 Average 4,906 11,793 2,353 9,441 19,180 1,711 25.6 61.5 49.2 14.5 41.6 2 ... 011 Average ... 1,861 4,555 11,436 2,986 8,450 18,887 9.9 24.1 60.6 44.7 16.3 39.8 2 2 012 Average 2,156 4,271 10,598 3,205 7,393 18,487 11.7 23.1 57.3 40.0 20.3 40.3 ... 10.6 013 Average 3,720 9,859 3,621 6,237 18,967 2,009 19.6 52.0 32.9 20.4 37.7 2 ... 014 Average ... 1,875 3,237 9,241 4,176 5,065 2 9.8 16.9 48.4 26.5 20.3 35.0 19,100 2 ... 1,507 2,894 9,449 4,738 4,711 015 Average 7.7 14.8 48.4 24.1 15.9 30.6 19,534 2 016 Average ... 1,766 3,446 10,055 5,261 4,795 19,687 9.0 17.5 51.1 24.4 17.6 34.3 2 017 2,085 3,793 10,745 5,645 5,101 19,323 10.8 19.6 55.6 26.4 19.4 35.3 January ... 18.0 February ... 10,033 6,461 3,573 19,190 10.5 3,445 52.3 18.6 20.1 34.3 2,013 March ... 1,956 3,593 10,184 6,054 4,130 20,060 17.9 50.8 20.6 19.2 35.3 9.8 2,100 3,743 10,322 6,277 4,045 April ... 10.7 19.1 52.7 20.6 20.3 36.3 19,595 May ... 1,968 3,669 10,729 6,232 4,498 20,066 9.8 18.3 53.5 22.4 18.3 34.2 June ... 3,567 10,325 6,252 4,073 20,561 8.9 17.3 50.2 19.8 17.8 34.5 1,836 8.9 3,399 9,954 6,291 3,663 20,119 1,796 16.9 49.5 18.2 18.0 34.1 July ... August ... 1,345 3,163 10,112 5,665 4,447 20,251 6.6 15.6 49.9 22.0 13.3 31.3 19,641 1,370 2,880 9,752 6,289 3,464 September ... 7.0 14.7 49.7 17.6 14.1 29.5 2,655 7,086 48.7 32.4 15.3 13.3 9,741 15.8 7.5 19,990 October ... 1,491 3,154 48.6 30.8 2,732 20,307 7.7 15.0 9,876 7,144 13.5 15.7 November ... 1,555 3,044 29.6 14.7 48.9 14.5 7.2 20,323 2,799 7,136 9,935 2,939 1,460 December ... 13.8 8.7 1,746 3,366 10,144 6,376 3,768 19,958 ... 16.9 50.8 18.9 17.2 33.2 Average 018 January ... 1,591 3,009 10,274 6,615 3,659 20,461 7.8 14.7 50.2 17.9 15.5 29.3 2 February ... 6,844 2,740 9,580 2,736 19,619 7.9 14.0 48.8 13.9 16.2 28.6 1,554 8.4 2,843 9,821 7,105 2,716 20,573 1,738 13.8 47.7 13.2 17.7 29.0 March ... April ... 1,899 3,523 10,364 7,730 2,634 19,941 9.5 17.7 52.0 13.2 18.3 34.0 20,357 May ... 1,573 2,737 10,228 7,517 2,712 7.7 13.4 50.2 13.3 15.4 26.8 June ... 3,041 10,706 7,801 2,905 20,705 7.2 14.7 51.7 14.0 13.9 28.4 1,487 7.2 2,971 10,176 7,827 2,349 20,621 1,489 14.4 49.3 11.4 14.6 29.2 July ... August ... 1,599 2,857 10,432 7,043 3,389 21,302 7.5 13.4 49.0 15.9 15.3 27.4 19,951 1,645 2,996 9,885 7,611 2,273 September ... 8.2 15.0 49.5 11.4 16.6 30.3 6.7 45.3 13.1 29.0 16.6 October ... 1,563 2,729 9,417 8,018 1,399 20,774 7.5 1,567 29.3 2.6 17.0 13.2 November ... 44.8 2,703 9,213 8,669 545 20,548 7.6 13.7 3.8 44.1 12.3 6.0 20,479 772 8,250 9,022 2,516 1,237 December ... 27.9 20,453 15.9 ... 1,578 2,888 9,928 7,588 2,340 Average 7.7 14.1 48.5 11.4 29.1 R R R R R R R R R R R R 20,452 1,589 1,298 2 6.3 2,542 12.4 019 47.4 9,693 7.8 January ... 13.4 8,104 26.2 RE RE RE RE RE RE NA 8,077 NA 553 February ... 20,449 NA NA 42.2 8,630 2.7 NA NA E E E E E E NA 43.1 NA NA NA 20,579 1,127 NA NA 5.5 8,869 March ... 7,742 E E E E E E 20,495 NA 9,078 ... 7,971 1,108 3-Month Average NA NA NA 44.3 5.4 NA NA 29.0 16.5 15.1 48.9 14.2 8.1 20,238 9,902 3,047 6,855 ... 2 018 3-Month Average 2,868 1,630 10.3 6,039 18.5 52.9 22.0 19.5 35.0 10,330 19,536 4,291 2 017 3-Month Average ... 2,018 3,616 a Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and receipts from U.S. territories. he Neutral Zone (between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia). el t Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Exc b and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da ta See "Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)" in Glossary. beginning in 1973. S ee Table 3.3c for notes on which countries are included in the data. R=Revised. E=Estimate. NA=Not available. m Sources: • 1949–1975: Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Petroleu n Statement, Annual, annual reports. • 1976–1980: U.S. Energy Informatio Notes: • For the feature article "Measuring Dependence on Petroleum Statement, Annual, Administration (EIA), Energy Data Reports, al annu Monthly Energy Review, mported Oil," published in the August 1995 I 1981–2017: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual, annual reports, an reports. • s d ee http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/pdf/historical/imported_oil.pdf. Beginning in October 1977, data include Strategic Petroleum Reserve imports. • month EIA, 2018 and 2019: • unpublished revisions. ly Petroleum Supply Monthly, ta Weekly Petroleum Status Report ee Table 3.3b. • Annual averages may not equal average of months due to da S reports; and, for the current two months, • U.S. geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District data system calculations. i system and ndependent rounding. Monthly Energy Review f Columbia. U.S. exports include shipments to U.S. territories, and imports include o Monthly U. 61 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

72 Type 3.3b Petroleum Trade: Imports and Exports by Figure (Million Barrels per Day) Imports Overview, 1949–2018 15 Crude Oil 10 5 Petroleum Products 0 1960 1950 1955 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Exports Overview, 1949–2018 6 4 2 Petroleum Products Crude Oil 0 1990 1965 1985 1980 1975 1970 2015 2010 2005 2000 1995 1950 1955 1960 Exports, Selected Products, Monthly Imports, Selected Products, Monthly 2.0 0.35 Distillate Fuel Oil [b] Propane 0.30 Distillate Fuel Oil [b] 1.5 Residual Fuel Oil 0.25 Propane 0.20 1.0 0.15 Motor Gasoline [a] 0.10 0.5 Jet Fuel [c] Residual Fuel Oil Motor Gasoline [a] 0.05 Jet Fuel [c] 0.00 0.0 J FMAMJ J ASOND J FMAMJ J ASOND J FMAMJ J ASOND JFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASOND 2017 2018 2019 2018 2019 2017 into [a] Includes fuel ethanol blended gasoline. motor kerosene Includes [c] jet fuel only. type ‐ blended [b] Includes renewable diesel fuel (including biodiesel) into y/data/monthly/#petroleum. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg distillate oil. fuel Sources: 3.3e. and 3.3b Tables 62 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U.

73 T able 3.3b Petroleum Trade: Imports by Type (Thousand Barrels per Day) Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids a Crude Oil Propane/Propylene Jet Residual Motor Distillate f e g c b d Total Total Other Total Propane Propylene Total SPR Gasoline Fuel Fuel Oil Fuel Oil e 487 7 NA NA – – (s) ( ) 1 329 27 950 Average ... – – 850 e 782 12 NA NA – – ... ( ) 13 417 24 1,248 1 955 Average – – 34 – – 35 NA NA NA 4 1,015 27 637 62 1,815 960 Average 1 ... 1 – – 1,238 36 NA NA NA 21 81 28 946 119 2,468 965 Average ... 970 Average – – 1,324 147 NA NA 26 58 144 67 1,528 150 3,419 1 ... 133 ... 155 NA NA 60 185 4,105 184 1,223 70 6,056 975 Average – – 1 ... 44 5,263 142 NA NA 84 1 80 140 939 120 6,909 980 Average 226 985 Average 118 3,201 200 NA NA 67 ... 39 381 510 501 5,067 1 235 990 Average ... 27 5,894 278 NA NA 115 197 108 342 504 695 8,018 1 192 995 Average 7,230 193 95 6 102 – 106 265 187 662 8,835 1 ... 000 Average ... 8 9,071 295 154 7 161 256 162 427 352 897 11,459 2 001 Average ... 9,328 344 140 6 145 250 148 454 295 1,051 11,871 2 11 199 002 Average 9,140 267 137 8 145 16 107 498 249 1,069 11,530 2 ... 003 Average ... – 9,665 333 159 9 168 271 109 518 327 1,041 12,264 2 004 Average 209 77 10,088 325 198 11 2 305 127 496 426 1,377 13,145 ... 374 005 Average 10,126 329 219 14 233 52 190 603 530 1,562 13,714 2 ... 006 Average ... 8 10,118 365 201 26 2 360 186 475 350 1,854 13,707 228 2 ... 7 10,031 304 162 20 007 Average 276 217 413 372 1,856 13,468 182 2 008 Average ... 19 9,783 213 162 23 185 275 103 302 349 1,891 12,915 2 009 Average 56 9,013 225 126 21 147 194 81 223 331 1,623 11,691 ... 121 2 – 9,213 228 93 29 ... 179 98 134 366 1,574 11,793 010 Average 2 011 Average ... – 8,935 179 82 28 110 183 69 105 328 1,637 11,436 31 2 ... – 8,527 126 85 012 Average 116 170 55 44 256 1,421 10,598 84 2 013 Average ... – 7,730 155 103 24 127 182 45 225 1,438 9,859 2 014 Average – 7,344 195 89 19 108 143 94 49 173 1,242 9,241 ... 015 Average ... 7,363 200 104 19 124 156 132 71 192 1,335 9,449 2 – 180 016 Average 7,850 147 120 22 142 – 147 59 205 1,468 10,055 2 ... 017 January ... – 8,478 204 217 28 245 287 132 35 176 1,433 2 10,745 – 7,877 202 194 24 218 257 147 36 225 1,289 10,033 February ... March ... 169 8,165 111 140 29 198 123 51 221 1,314 10,184 – 154 8,204 118 89 24 113 – 183 42 146 1,475 10,322 April ... May ... – 8,487 125 102 21 123 169 126 37 241 1,545 10,729 June ... 8,089 105 95 23 119 155 119 23 177 1,657 10,325 – July ... 152 7,915 114 87 26 113 140 23 174 1,436 9,954 – 161 7,923 115 97 25 122 – 173 24 159 1,558 10,112 August ... September ... – 7,324 120 117 19 136 170 199 41 204 1,694 9,752 186 7,681 134 125 15 139 – 230 33 151 1,327 9,741 October ... November ... – 7,674 180 163 20 183 223 194 10 209 1,385 9,876 198 – 7,782 282 176 23 December ... 240 151 32 187 1,261 9,935 160 196 156 32 10,144 23 1,448 189 Average ... – 7,969 151 133 2 018 – 8,012 290 212 15 227 260 131 19 234 1,327 10,274 January ... 231 February ... 7,493 284 175 23 198 – 93 33 167 1,280 9,580 March ... – 7,616 157 150 23 173 217 95 38 234 1,463 9,821 168 8,244 91 131 10 141 – 88 33 190 1,550 10,364 April ... May ... – 7,825 122 114 20 135 158 150 62 259 1,654 10,228 20 June ... – 8,480 90 85 105 135 154 42 214 1,591 10,706 July ... 7,923 144 100 20 120 156 151 35 213 1,553 10,176 – 159 8,000 175 99 22 121 – 152 82 237 1,626 10,432 August ... September ... – 7,589 172 110 14 124 172 181 94 227 1,451 9,885 192 7,312 161 127 15 141 – 116 42 223 1,370 9,417 October ... 9,213 November ... – 7,490 227 151 13 164 222 103 29 142 1,001 180 206 1,152 9,022 268 105 15 29 December ... – 7,099 190 190 195 154 17 137 175 7,757 – ... Average 9,928 1,420 211 45 127 R R R R R R R R R R R – 15 290 223 7,520 2 019 100 308 45 January ... 187 207 1,241 9,693 RE RE RE RE RE RE RE NA 8,630 362 NA NA 176 NA February ... 175 – 46 6,663 160 E E E E E E E March ... – 55 6,731 NA 163 NA NA 145 187 NA 8,869 196 E E E E E E E 275 164 49 – 9,078 156 6,982 NA 196 NA NA NA 3-Month Average ... 2 107 1,360 213 30 236 199 20 179 242 7,714 – ... 018 3-Month Average 9,902 017 3-Month Average ... – 8,183 171 183 27 10,330 247 134 2 41 207 1,347 210 a hydrocarbons and oxygenates, and miscellaneous products. Through 1964, als Includes lease condensate. o b "SPR" is the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, which began in October 1977. includes kerosene-type jet fuel. Beginning in 1964, also includes finished aviatio n hrough 2003, includes crude oil imports by SPR only; beginning in 2004, includes T gasoline and special naphthas. Beginning in 1981, also includes motor gasolin e c blending components. Beginning in 2005, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. rude oil imports by SPR, and crude oil imports into SPR by others. c ta Propane and propylene. Through 1983, also includes 40% of "Butane- R=Revised. E=Estimate. NA=Not available. – – =Not applicable. – =No da ropane Mixtures" and 30% of "Ethane-Propane Mixtures." P reported. (s)=Less than 500 barrels per day. d nt Ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, natural gasoline (pentanes plus), Notes: • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independe nd refinery olefins (ethylene, propylene, butylene, and isobutylene). Through rounding. • a Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 983, also includes plant condensate and unfractionated stream. 1 el Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Exc e Beginning in 1965, includes kerosene-type jet fuel. (Through 1964, ta and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da k erosene-type jet fuel is included with kerosene in "Other.") For 1956–2004, also beginning in 1973. m ncludes naphtha-type jet fuel. (Through 1955, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in i Sources: • 1949–1975: Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Petroleu Motor Gasoline." Beginning in 2005, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in "Other.") Statement, Annual, n • U.S. Energy Informatio 1976–1980: " annual reports. f al annu Administration (EIA), Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement, Annual, Finished motor gasoline. Through 1955, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. reports. 1981–2017: T hrough 1963, also includes aviation gasoline and special naphthas. Through Petroleum Supply Annual, annual reports, an d EIA, • ly 980, also includes motor gasoline blending components. 1 unpublished revisions. month 2018 and 2019: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly, • g ta Asphalt and road oil, aviation gasoline blending components, kerosene, reports; and, for the current two months, da Weekly Petroleum Status Report l system and Monthly Energy Review data system calculations. ubricants, petrochemical feedstocks, petroleum coke, unfinished oils, waxes, other Monthly U. 63 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

74 T able 3.3c Petroleum Trade: Imports From OPEC Countries (Thousand Barrels per Day) Vene- Total Saudi a b d g e c f d Nigeria Angola Ecuador Algeria Other Libya Kuwait Iraq Arabia zuela OPEC a b c e f 960 Average ( ) 22 ... 182 () () ( ) 84 911 34 1,233 1 () f b c a () () ( ) 16 74 42 ... ( ) 158 994 155 1,439 1 965 Average c b f 48 () 1 ( ) – 970 Average ... 8 ( ) 30 989 172 1,294 47 b ... 282 1 ( ) 57 2 16 232 762 715 702 832 3,601 975 Average b 857 980 Average ( ) 27 28 27 554 488 1,261 481 577 4,300 1 ... b ... 187 1 ( ) 67 46 21 985 Average 293 168 605 439 1,830 4 b ... 280 1 ( ) 49 518 86 990 Average 800 1,339 1,025 199 4,296 – b c ... 234 – () 1 ( ) 995 Average 218 – 627 1,344 1,480 98 4,002 b c 2 000 Average () 225 ( ) 620 272 – 896 1,572 1,546 72 5,203 ... b c 885 () 001 Average ( ) 795 250 – 278 1,662 1,553 105 5,528 2 ... b c 264 2 () 002 Average ( ) 459 ... – 621 1,552 1,398 83 4,605 228 b c 382 2 () ... ( ) 003 Average 220 – 867 1,774 1,376 61 5,162 481 c b ... 452 () 2 ( ) 656 250 20 1,140 1,558 1,554 70 5,701 004 Average b c 56 005 Average () 2 ( ) 531 243 ... 1,166 1,537 1,529 47 5,587 478 b c ... 657 ( ) () 2 006 Average 553 185 87 1,114 1,463 1,419 38 5,517 c 5,980 ... 670 508 2 ( ) 484 181 117 1,134 1,485 1,361 39 007 Average 210 2 ... 548 513 221 627 008 Average 103 988 1,529 1,189 26 5,954 493 2 009 Average ... 460 185 450 182 79 809 1,004 1,063 50 4,776 2 010 Average 510 393 212 415 197 70 1,023 1,096 988 3 4,906 ... 011 Average ... 346 206 459 191 15 818 1,195 951 16 4,555 2 358 ... 441 233 180 476 305 61 012 Average 1,365 960 9 4,271 2 242 281 013 Average 216 236 341 328 59 115 1,329 806 10 3,720 2 ... 014 Average ... 110 154 215 369 311 6 92 1,166 789 23 3,237 2 015 Average 229 108 136 231 2 204 7 81 1,059 827 12 2,894 ... 132 016 166 334 252 205 10 126 1,054 702 74 3,054 2 January ... February ... 174 133 246 245 289 5 274 1,029 773 63 3,230 March ... 172 264 365 123 – 290 1,309 846 59 3,576 147 10 242 182 349 199 137 243 1,154 788 48 3,354 April ... May ... 102 161 230 571 177 75 297 1,171 787 93 3,665 June ... 128 223 434 135 – 252 1,104 748 97 3,303 183 265 July ... 234 390 323 5 299 1,053 933 75 3,769 191 August ... 169 159 253 488 156 22 181 1,147 773 78 3,427 September ... 157 213 448 275 4 168 1,211 825 119 3,575 155 – 122 203 508 154 296 232 1,025 741 49 3,330 October ... November ... 300 174 250 434 228 27 247 1,003 849 49 3,560 32 102 236 590 254 202 246 1,014 789 25 3,491 December ... Average ... 182 168 239 424 210 16 235 1,106 796 69 3,446 3,793 2 January ... 232 118 247 622 105 31 332 1,345 749 10 017 251 234 64 141 413 February ... 22 223 1,338 751 9 3,445 30 219 544 193 3,593 21 278 764 1,173 342 March ... 30 332 84 180 811 101 45 3,743 1,160 857 21 April ... 153 619 230 105 May ... 196 3,669 66 767 1,132 294 87 174 June ... 178 212 587 162 38 320 1,045 663 108 3,567 254 July ... 108 189 166 756 206 241 795 686 37 3,399 215 35 296 193 456 87 229 397 739 606 125 3,163 August ... September ... 145 171 223 502 127 59 292 676 620 65 2,880 176 124 163 708 119 144 441 591 562 127 3,154 October ... November ... 120 77 193 611 117 72 470 780 558 47 3,044 172 December ... 149 253 605 78 73 323 719 513 55 2,939 ... 189 135 207 604 145 65 334 955 674 58 3,366 Average 76 018 234 71 161 699 100 January ... 349 744 528 46 3,009 2 February ... 119 34 123 617 177 38 386 667 472 107 2,740 79 10 136 721 131 107 153 760 559 187 2,843 March ... 3,523 April ... 208 169 225 834 107 87 275 904 632 84 872 118 2,737 112 559 May ... 134 102 162 588 49 40 182 643 847 267 75 92 421 173 147 June ... 193 3,041 43 288 485 63 44 188 876 625 117 2,971 243 July ... 83 198 146 183 421 19 66 1,039 592 109 2,857 August ... September ... 200 73 172 485 36 61 113 1,043 708 106 2,996 2,729 October ... 178 94 111 377 – 32 182 1,108 570 76 392 2,703 November ... 162 28 196 101 (s) 180 1,001 563 81 192 2,516 95 576 930 177 121 16 226 – 183 December ... 901 586 2,888 108 189 56 79 521 177 94 176 ... Average January ... 98 106 631 770 181 60 21 429 238 2 019 8 2,542 a Algeria joined OPEC in 1969. For 1960–1968, Algeria is included in "Total – =No data reported. (s)=Less than 500 barrels per day. in N on-OPEC" on Table 3.3d. • See "Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)" Notes: b Glossary. Petroleum imports not classified as "OPEC" on this table are included o Angola joined OPEC in January 2007. For 1960–2006, Angola is included in n ry Total Non-OPEC" on Table 3.3d. Table 3.3d. • The country of origin for petroleum products may not be the count " c of origin for the crude oil from which the products were produced. For exampl Ecuador was a member of OPEC from 1973–1992, and rejoined OPEC in e, refined products imported from West European refining areas may have bee n ovember 2007. For 1960–1972 and 1993–2007, Ecuador is included in "Total N produced from Middle East crude oil. on-OPEC" on Table 3.3d. N • Includes imports for the Strateg ic d Through 1970, includes half the imports from the Neutral Zone between of • Petroleum Reserve, which began in October 1977. Totals may not equal sum • K uwait and Saudi Arabia. Beginning in 1971, imports from the Neutral Zone are U.S. geographic coverage is the 5 0 components due to independent rounding. states and the District of Columbia. r eported as originating in either Kuwait or Saudi Arabia depending on the country Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Exc r el eported to U.S. Customs. e Libya joined OPEC in 1962. For 1960 and 1961, Libya is included in "Total ta and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1960 and monthly da N beginning in 1973. on-OPEC" on Table 3.3d. f Nigeria joined OPEC in 1971. For 1960–1970, Nigeria is included in "Total s. • 1960–1972: Bureau of Mines, annual report Minerals Yearbook, Sources: Petroleum Statemen Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, 1973–1975: t, N on-OPEC" on Table 3.3d. • g annual reports. 1976–1980: Includes these countries for the dates indicated: Congo-Brazzaville (June • Annual, U.S. Energy Information Administratio n Petroleum Statement, Annual, (EIA), Energy Data Reports, 018 forward), Equatorial Guinea (May 2017 forward), Gabon (1975–1994 and July s. 2 annual report • 2 annual reports. 9: 2018 and 201 • Petroleum Supply Annual, 016 forward), Indonesia (1962–2008 and January–November 2016), Iran (1960 1981–2017: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly, f EIA, orward), Qatar (1961–2018), and United Arab Emirates (1967 forward). monthly reports. / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 64

75 T able 3.3d Petroleum Trade: Imports From Non-OPEC Countries (Thousand Barrels per Day) Nether- United U.S. Virgin Total a Russia Mexico Brazil Canada Colombia Norway Other Islands Kingdom Non-OPEC lands ... 1 120 42 16 NA NA – (s) NA NA 581 1 960 Average – ... 323 51 48 1 – – (s) – 606 1,029 965 Average 1 970 Average ... 2 766 46 1 39 – 3 11 189 1,027 2,126 42 1 ... 5 846 9 71 19 17 14 14 406 1,052 2,454 975 Average 980 Average 2 3 455 4 533 1 144 1 176 388 903 2,609 ... 32 1 61 770 23 816 58 ... 8 310 247 913 3,237 985 Average 1 990 Average ... 49 934 182 755 55 102 45 189 282 1,128 3,721 1 995 Average 8 1,332 219 1,068 15 273 25 383 278 1,233 4,833 ... 000 Average 343 51 1,807 342 1,373 30 2 72 366 291 1,581 6,257 ... 341 2 82 1,828 296 1,440 43 ... 90 324 268 1,631 6,343 001 Average 2 002 Average ... 116 1,971 260 1,547 66 393 210 478 236 1,649 6,925 270 2 108 2,072 195 1,623 87 ... 254 440 288 1,766 7,103 003 Average 2 004 Average ... 104 2,138 176 1,665 101 244 298 380 330 2,008 7,444 151 2 ... 156 2,181 196 1,662 005 Average 233 410 396 328 2,413 8,127 196 2 006 Average ... 2,353 155 1,705 174 193 369 272 328 2,446 8,190 2 007 Average 200 2,455 155 1,532 128 142 414 277 346 1,839 7,489 ... 008 Average ... 2,493 200 1,302 168 102 465 236 320 1,416 6,961 2 258 563 009 Average 2,479 276 1,210 140 108 309 245 277 1,307 6,915 2 ... 010 Average ... 272 2,535 365 1,284 108 89 612 256 253 1,112 6,887 2 2 011 Average 253 2,729 433 1,206 100 113 624 159 186 1,077 6,881 ... 012 Average 75 226 2,946 433 1,035 99 2 477 149 12 874 6,327 ... 54 2 151 3,142 389 919 89 ... 460 147 – 786 6,138 013 Average 2 014 Average ... 160 3,388 318 842 85 45 330 117 – 720 6,004 2 015 Average 215 3,765 395 758 57 61 371 123 – 811 6,554 ... 016 57 168 4,084 499 710 2 58 395 115 – 566 6,653 January ... 61 February ... 4,211 507 539 73 148 436 71 – 790 6,836 March ... 112 3,870 569 657 30 143 329 141 – 574 6,425 April ... 3,549 386 788 54 89 509 149 – 784 6,468 160 44 3,548 570 676 63 110 435 106 – 964 6,516 May ... June ... 200 3,437 583 739 59 113 485 168 1 966 6,751 43 158 3,451 536 733 July ... 109 539 92 – 1,102 6,763 534 3,809 6,895 274 31 886 – 141 499 49 672 August ... 421 124 67 500 3,784 154 September ... 595 6,624 850 – 132 October ... 346 614 107 75 491 89 – 861 6,369 199 3,587 189 419 368 697 74 38 November ... 137 – 779 6,732 4,032 334 December ... 397 606 60 11 4,017 121 – 631 6,302 126 Average ... 167 3,780 483 669 60 76 441 122 (s) 812 6,610 361 017 4,285 345 730 75 134 206 143 – 673 6,952 January ... 2 February ... 240 4,098 401 607 80 34 331 96 – 700 6,588 379 March ... 4,147 338 630 48 12 229 120 – 689 6,590 680 April ... 168 3,892 417 – 62 86 308 123 844 6,579 May ... 4,159 424 810 49 73 401 167 – 847 7,061 132 June ... 122 3,837 334 784 72 503 126 – 779 6,759 202 64 3,824 357 668 45 376 358 113 – 752 6,555 July ... August ... 258 4,023 388 581 74 186 448 67 – 924 6,950 118 3,984 374 430 93 250 450 149 – 1,024 6,872 September ... October ... 230 3,976 270 654 51 71 355 83 – 897 6,587 43 228 4,046 337 841 November ... 38 384 61 – 854 6,832 4,373 December ... 166 6,995 363 767 59 7 389 88 – 784 362 6,778 814 – 111 389 79 62 682 4,054 224 ... Average 386 2 4,424 512 669 69 57 272 80 – 797 7,265 January ... 018 February ... 187 4,259 477 713 51 56 297 110 – 692 6,840 91 March ... 84 4,191 364 784 6,978 90 356 94 – 925 122 4,269 282 632 64 184 243 205 – 840 6,841 April ... 7,492 May ... 123 4,452 437 608 80 72 491 180 – 1,049 7,665 June ... 283 4,545 240 876 53 85 439 151 – 994 43 319 4,157 179 July ... 164 7,205 1,041 – 454 166 681 39 4,233 334 935 67 248 515 175 – 1,028 7,575 August ... September ... 77 4,034 229 771 44 74 519 207 – 935 6,889 138 230 4,144 229 718 89 October ... 271 106 – 763 6,688 November ... 93 4,327 259 601 49 136 254 155 – 638 6,510 94 4,279 333 635 49 92 271 132 – 620 6,506 December ... 7,040 Average ... 171 4,276 334 719 63 94 375 146 – 862 100 569 380 4,628 800 142 January ... 019 7,150 122 321 2 88 – a states and the District of Columbia. Through 1992, may include imports from republics other than Russia in the Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Exc el ormer U.S.S.R. See "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)" in Glossary. f and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1960 and monthly da ta NA=Not available. – =No data reported. (s)=Less than 500 barrels per day. beginning in 1973. • Notes: See "Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)" in G lossary. Petroleum imports not classified as "OPEC" on Table 3.3c are included s. annual report Minerals Yearbook, Bureau of Mines, 1960–1972: • Sources: • n this table. o 1973–1975: • Petroleum Statemen t, The country of origin for petroleum products may not be the country Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Annual, annual reports. • 1976–1980: U.S. Energy Information Administratio n o f origin for the crude oil from which the products were produced. For example, r (EIA), Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual report s. efined products imported from West European refining areas may have been 9: 2018 and 201 • Petroleum Supply Annual, p roduced from Middle East crude oil. • • annual reports. Includes imports for the Strategic EIA, 1981–2017: etroleum Reserve, which began in October 1977. monthly reports. Totals may not equal sum of • P Petroleum Supply Monthly, EIA, omponents due to independent rounding. U.S. geographic coverage is the 50 • c Monthly U. 65 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

76 T able 3.3e Petroleum Trade: Exports by Type (Thousand Barrels per Day) Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Crude Distillate Jet Residual Motor d e c a f b Total Total Propane Other Fuel Oil Oil Fuel Oil Gasoline Fuel d 44 34 4 95 ( ) 68 NA 58 305 950 Average 1 ... ... 32 67 NA 12 (s) 1 93 69 368 955 Average 95 960 Average 8 27 NA 8 (s) 37 51 71 202 1 ... ... 3 10 NA 21 965 Average 2 41 108 187 1 3 1 970 Average 2 13 27 6 14 54 154 259 1 ... 975 Average ... 6 1 13 26 2 2 15 158 209 1 980 Average 1 3 10 21 1 1 33 197 544 ... 287 ... 10 67 48 64 13 985 Average 197 225 781 1 204 55 990 Average 109 28 41 43 109 211 287 857 1 ... 995 Average ... 95 183 38 59 26 104 136 12 949 1 144 000 Average 173 53 78 32 50 139 46 1,040 ... 2 001 Average ... 20 119 31 45 29 133 191 433 971 2 15 002 Average 9 112 55 67 ... 124 177 479 2 984 2 003 Average ... 12 107 37 59 20 125 197 506 1,027 2 004 Average 27 110 28 45 40 124 205 497 1,048 ... 005 Average ... 138 37 60 53 136 251 496 1,165 2 32 142 006 Average 215 45 68 41 25 283 544 1,317 2 ... 007 Average ... 27 268 42 70 41 127 330 569 1,433 2 2 008 Average 29 528 53 101 61 172 355 555 1,802 ... 009 Average 69 44 587 85 139 2 195 415 574 2,024 ... 84 2 42 656 109 164 ... 296 405 706 2,353 010 Average 2 011 Average ... 47 854 124 249 97 479 424 835 2,986 2 012 Average 67 1,007 171 314 132 409 388 886 3,205 ... 013 Average 156 134 1,134 302 468 2 373 362 994 3,621 ... 163 2 351 1,101 423 703 ... 442 364 1,052 4,176 014 Average 2 015 Average ... 465 1,176 615 966 168 476 326 1,161 4,738 175 2 591 1,179 799 1,211 ... 635 298 1,171 5,261 016 Average 5,645 017 January ... 711 1,156 1,100 1,456 174 820 217 1,111 2 1,288 February ... 1,146 1,237 947 1,441 178 718 453 6,461 6,054 1,323 317 630 175 1,486 973 1,192 930 March ... 1,478 6,277 April ... 1,128 1,355 203 657 313 1,144 916 May ... 859 6,232 1,206 276 622 172 1,347 1,510 1,098 June ... 1,604 756 1,249 235 707 363 1,229 6,252 865 July ... 220 1,750 795 1,282 712 342 1,029 6,291 956 198 1,380 716 1,232 817 605 218 1,215 5,665 August ... September ... 1,463 1,196 923 1,442 129 671 330 1,057 6,289 148 1,413 1,044 1,431 1,720 734 388 1,251 7,086 October ... November ... 1,544 1,358 936 1,495 201 1,090 228 1,227 7,144 175 1,522 1,408 1,002 1,515 December ... 1,027 259 1,230 7,136 1,404 Average ... 1,158 914 1,381 184 749 308 1,192 6,376 2 018 1,342 1,119 894 1,481 187 1,066 264 1,156 6,615 January ... February ... 175 1,053 913 1,430 894 332 1,355 6,844 1,605 244 1,150 951 1,452 1,671 951 340 1,296 7,105 March ... April ... 1,756 1,457 939 1,678 235 886 321 1,397 7,730 235 1,306 1,002 1,749 2,005 685 376 1,160 7,517 May ... June ... 2,200 1,458 868 1,628 215 686 375 1,239 7,801 1,677 2,139 1,308 1,093 July ... 267 825 343 1,270 7,827 1,641 1,015 1,070 366 699 7,043 223 August ... 1,749 1,295 1,255 267 857 1,640 878 1,310 2,116 September ... 167 7,611 295 1,316 920 1,586 2,326 1,037 295 1,163 8,018 October ... November ... 2,609 1,450 1,077 1,654 200 1,085 253 1,417 8,669 2,511 December ... 1,377 1,103 1,597 220 987 264 1,294 8,250 972 Average ... 2,004 1,301 1,602 222 888 316 1,254 7,588 R R R R R R R R R 1,249 2 January ... 8,104 2,575 254 019 866 988 1,340 1,572 247 RE RE NA NA 3,033 NA NA February ... NA NA NA 8,077 E E March ... 7,742 2,835 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA E E NA NA 7,971 NA 3-Month Average NA NA ... NA 2,807 NA 919 1,455 018 3-Month Average ... 1,537 1,109 2 203 973 311 1,266 6,855 1,462 1,008 922 1,194 325 1,239 6,039 176 2 017 3-Month Average ... 723 a Includes lease condensate. s. Beginning in 1964, also includes finished aviation gasoline and special naphtha b Through 1983, also includes 40% of "Butane-Propane Mixtures." Beginning in 1981, also includes motor gasoline blending components. Beginnin g T in 2005, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. hrough 2012, also includes propylene. c R=Revised. E=Estimate. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 500 barrels per day. Ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, and natural gasoline (pentanes Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independe nt lus). Through 2012, also includes refinery olefins (ethylene, propylene, butylene, p • a nd isobutylene). rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. d Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Exc Beginning in 1965, includes kerosene-type jet fuel. (Through 1964, kerosene- el t ta ype jet fuel is included with kerosene in "Other.") For 1953–2004, also includes and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da aphtha-type jet fuel. (Through 1952, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in the beginning in 1973. n Sources: roducts from which it was blended: motor gasoline, kerosene, and distillate fuel p • m Petroleu Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, 1949–1975: o annual reports. Statement, Annual, n il. Beginning in 2005, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in "Other.") U.S. Energy Informatio 1976–1980: • e Petroleum Statement, Annual, Administration (EIA), Energy Data Reports, annu al Finished motor gasoline. Through 1952, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. EIA, annual reports, an d 1981–2017: T hrough 1963, also includes aviation gasoline and special naphthas. Through reports. Petroleum Supply Annual, • Petroleum Supply Monthly, month 980, also includes motor gasoline blending components. 1 unpublished revisions. • 2018 and 2019: ly EIA, f ta da Weekly Petroleum Status Report reports; and, for the current two months, Asphalt and road oil, kerosene, lubricants, petrochemical feedstocks, data system calculations. Monthly Energy Review etroleum coke, unfinished oils, waxes, other hydrocarbons and oxygenates, and p system and m iscellaneous products. Through 1964, also includes kerosene-type jet fuel. / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 66

77 T able 3.3f Petroleum Trade: Exports by Country of Destination (Thousand Barrels per Day) Nether- Singa- South United lands pore Korea Kingdom India Japan Mexico Other Total Canada Brazil China NA 4 NA 62 18 6 NA NA 12 NA 202 ... 34 1 960 Average 3 26 NA NA 40 27 10 1 NA 12 NA 187 965 Average ... NA ... 31 NA NA 69 33 15 7 NA 12 NA 259 970 Average 1 NA ... 6 22 NA 1 27 1 23 NA NA 7 NA 209 975 Average 42 980 Average 4 108 – 1 32 28 23 6 2 7 335 544 1 ... 24 ... – 2 108 61 44 74 27 14 424 781 985 Average 3 1 ... 2 91 – 6 92 89 1 15 60 11 438 857 990 Average 54 995 Average 16 73 2 3 76 125 ... 46 57 14 505 949 1 33 000 Average ... 28 110 3 3 90 358 42 36 20 10 342 1,040 2 001 Average ... 112 6 3 62 274 45 67 14 13 352 971 2 23 23 002 Average 106 14 3 74 254 26 81 11 12 380 984 2 ... 003 Average ... 27 141 24 7 69 228 15 51 10 6 447 1,027 2 36 004 Average 158 13 11 63 209 27 41 12 14 464 1,048 2 ... 005 Average ... 39 181 12 11 56 268 25 43 16 21 492 1,165 2 83 006 Average 159 11 8 58 255 42 45 21 28 607 1,317 2 ... 007 Average ... 46 189 14 14 54 279 81 71 16 9 660 1,433 2 2 008 Average 54 264 13 10 54 333 131 77 18 17 830 1,802 ... 322 2 55 223 44 30 58 ... 192 115 23 33 928 2,024 009 Average 2 010 Average ... 123 233 52 10 88 448 165 128 13 19 1,073 2,353 2 011 Average 157 351 73 17 79 570 248 121 15 35 1,320 2,986 ... 565 2 166 416 85 36 89 ... 239 115 16 41 1,435 3,205 012 Average 2 013 Average ... 179 549 129 41 117 532 274 136 13 36 1,616 3,621 559 2 217 809 89 70 150 ... 241 124 46 53 1,817 4,176 014 Average 4,738 015 Average ... 188 955 191 78 166 690 226 122 65 89 1,968 2 84 2 016 January ... 243 1,030 239 237 737 183 124 126 70 1,902 4,977 February ... 929 266 107 318 633 249 209 59 52 1,923 4,934 189 March ... 162 242 135 228 891 253 157 75 74 2,034 5,092 840 86 April ... 272 178 210 791 331 918 98 130 1,953 5,195 228 May ... 241 975 218 198 359 773 313 154 163 108 2,239 5,739 June ... 1,064 95 181 208 887 301 104 122 117 2,107 5,437 251 July ... 262 1,058 192 205 196 848 75 92 89 1,880 5,226 329 360 964 92 133 151 863 298 75 91 123 1,947 5,097 August ... September ... 211 864 110 138 322 970 258 229 117 139 2,082 5,439 October ... 904 252 133 226 967 225 104 99 73 1,729 4,985 273 November ... 177 928 243 54 165 994 239 157 37 2,051 5,426 381 263 748 213 134 383 1,199 315 210 91 95 1,924 5,574 December ... Average ... 260 935 203 140 250 880 265 147 108 92 1,980 5,261 1,120 2 270 809 333 102 323 January ... 155 252 124 89 2,067 5,645 017 February ... 317 827 611 249 379 980 306 306 159 93 2,233 6,461 883 312 794 387 193 323 March ... 268 291 128 187 2,288 6,054 405 6,277 2,297 167 251 192 152 909 191 377 April ... 452 885 May ... 957 384 166 249 887 320 125 197 170 2,383 6,232 393 292 936 272 211 256 1,087 414 237 175 184 2,188 6,252 June ... July ... 410 980 208 140 316 1,125 269 188 137 195 2,324 6,291 167 824 354 239 264 1,022 415 162 179 152 1,889 5,665 August ... September ... 476 872 531 235 463 1,074 261 174 240 175 1,789 6,289 312 October ... 492 655 773 393 1,133 264 278 150 211 2,426 7,086 November ... 999 499 217 390 1,377 194 143 257 316 2,308 7,144 444 322 918 576 200 468 1,365 391 182 116 288 2,309 7,136 December ... Average ... 395 871 447 200 350 1,081 251 210 176 186 2,209 6,376 6,615 2 January ... 357 923 508 161 354 1,364 289 206 74 145 2,235 018 1,097 394 1,008 608 190 301 February ... 269 233 144 179 2,421 6,844 208 135 246 282 2,548 594 212 321 7,105 1,275 March ... 420 864 338 214 426 355 April ... 1,028 7,730 2,967 336 236 200 377 1,252 303 568 264 291 977 340 1,030 348 279 2,825 7,517 292 May ... June ... 411 907 679 413 289 1,020 409 243 499 303 2,629 7,801 July ... 353 959 545 217 503 1,336 312 121 433 231 2,816 7,827 1,104 362 841 130 301 433 August ... 289 182 457 273 2,671 7,043 429 September ... 376 944 72 276 585 1,176 7,611 191 406 304 2,852 102 8,018 2,483 267 598 201 465 1,386 497 418 1,016 584 October ... 785 8,669 November ... 387 1,067 71 287 1,442 531 333 422 255 3,089 1,094 372 718 425 728 360 205 931 460 162 8,250 2,794 December ... 277 453 Average ... 396 959 375 1,211 362 209 384 269 2,694 7,588 645 446 147 3,001 871 465 365 8,104 48 619 1,187 2 019 January ... 309 s. NA=Not available. – =No data reported. • 1960–1972: Bureau of Mines, Minerals Yearbook, annual report Sources: • Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent Petroleum Statemen Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, 1973–1975: • t, Annual, U.S. geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of • ounding. r • annual reports. U.S. Energy Information Administratio n 1976–1980: (EIA), Energy Data Reports, C olumbia. annual report s. Petroleum Statement, Annual, EIA, 1981–2017: 9: 2018 and 201 • annual reports. Petroleum Supply Annual, • Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Excel EIA, monthly reports. Petroleum Supply Monthly, a nd CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1960 and monthly data eginning in 1981. b Monthly U. 67 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

78 Figure 3.4 Petroleum Stocks Overview, 1949–2018 2.5 2.0 Total 1.5 Crude Oil 1.0 Billion Barrels Petroleum Products 0.5 0.0 1955 1950 2015 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 SPR and Non-SPR Crude Oil Stocks, 1949–2018 1,000 SPR 750 500 Non-SPR Million Barrels 250 0 1990 2015 2010 2005 2000 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1995 Overview, Monthly Selected Products, Monthly 2.5 300 Motor Gasoline 250 Total 2.0 200 1.5 Distillate Fuel Oil Crude Oil 150 1.0 Billion Barrels Million Barrels 100 Propane Petroleum Products 0.5 Jet Fuel [a] 50 Residual Fuel Oil 0.0 0 JFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASOND J FMAM J J ASOND J FMAM J J ASOND J FMAM J J ASOND 2017 2019 2018 2018 2017 2019 Includes Web http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg y/data/monthly/#petroleum. [a] Page: kerosene ‐ type jet fuel only. at Stocks are 3.4. Table Source: period. of end Notes: • SPR=Strategic Petroleum Reserve. • 68 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U.

79 T able 3.4 Petroleum Stocks (Million Barrels) Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids a Crude Oil Propane/Propylene Non- Residual Distillate Propy- Jet Motor f j i e d g c,d b h Total SPR Total Total Propane Total lene SPR Other Fuel Oil Gasoline Fuel Oil Fuel h 248 1 72 NA NA NA 2 950 Year ( ) 116 41 104 583 ... – – 248 ... 266 266 111 NA NA NA – – 3 165 39 123 715 955 Year 1 7 ... – – 240 240 138 NA 1 NA 23 7 195 45 137 785 960 Year NA 965 Year – – 220 220 155 NA NA NA 35 19 175 56 176 836 1 ... 28 ... 276 195 NA NA 44 74 276 209 54 181 1,018 970 Year – – 1 ... – – 271 271 209 NA NA 82 1 30 235 74 181 1,133 975 Year 133 980 Year 108 358 466 205 NA NA ... 137 42 261 92 189 1,392 1 71 985 Year ... 493 321 814 144 NA NA 39 82 40 223 50 165 1,519 1 104 990 Year 323 908 132 NA NA 49 586 52 220 49 156 1,621 1 ... 995 Year ... 592 303 895 130 NA NA 43 100 40 202 37 158 1,563 1 000 Year ... 286 826 118 NA NA 41 88 45 196 36 159 1,468 2 541 128 001 Year 312 862 145 NA NA 66 550 42 210 41 158 1,586 2 ... 002 Year ... 599 278 877 134 NA NA 53 113 39 209 31 144 1,548 2 003 Year 50 638 269 907 137 NA NA 2 101 39 207 38 140 1,568 ... 111 004 Year 286 961 126 NA NA 55 676 40 218 42 146 1,645 2 ... 005 Year ... 685 308 992 136 NA NA 2 117 42 208 37 148 1,682 57 2 ... 689 296 984 144 NA 006 Year 62 125 39 212 42 157 1,703 NA 2 007 Year ... 697 268 965 134 NA NA 52 106 39 218 39 146 1,648 55 2 702 308 1,010 146 NA NA ... 127 38 214 36 149 1,719 008 Year 2 009 Year ... 727 307 1,034 166 NA NA 50 113 43 223 37 142 1,758 4 2 ... 727 312 1,039 164 46 010 Year 49 120 43 219 41 145 1,772 223 2 011 Year ... 696 308 1,004 149 48 7 55 127 41 34 146 1,725 2 012 Year 695 338 1,033 135 63 5 68 152 40 231 34 154 1,779 ... 013 Year ... 327 1,023 128 40 5 45 125 37 228 38 149 1,728 2 696 174 014 Year 361 1,052 136 72 6 78 691 38 240 34 151 1,825 2 ... 015 Year ... 695 449 1,144 161 91 5 96 194 40 235 42 164 1,982 2 016 Year 2 695 485 1,180 166 77 7 84 200 43 239 41 161 2,030 ... 017 6 695 507 1,202 170 53 2 59 165 43 261 39 174 2,053 January ... 51 February ... 525 1,220 163 47 3 695 154 44 254 38 177 2,049 March ... 692 539 1,230 152 40 4 44 148 42 240 38 181 2,030 April ... 524 1,213 155 38 4 43 153 45 244 37 182 2,028 689 May ... 50 517 1,201 154 46 4 170 44 242 37 184 2,034 684 61 502 1,181 152 57 4 679 190 41 238 33 175 2,010 June ... July ... 679 483 1,162 151 64 5 68 206 41 233 31 174 1,998 79 460 1,139 148 74 5 679 230 40 227 33 171 1,987 August ... September ... 674 470 1,143 137 71 5 76 229 44 223 34 168 1,978 5 669 460 1,129 130 73 October ... 78 231 42 216 30 164 1,941 1,923 163 30 225 41 216 75 November ... 5 70 661 453 1,114 133 5 ... 663 422 1,084 146 62 December 67 190 41 237 29 167 1,895 2 018 January ... 664 420 1,084 141 46 5 51 157 43 248 32 174 1,879 44 424 1,089 139 39 5 665 142 43 253 33 178 1,876 February ... March ... 665 423 1,089 130 34 4 38 139 40 240 35 188 1,862 35 April ... 664 435 121 1,099 4 39 145 41 240 32 186 1,864 May ... 433 1,093 115 44 4 48 163 41 242 32 183 1,870 660 60 415 1,075 120 56 4 660 181 41 240 30 180 1,867 June ... July ... 660 409 1,069 127 60 4 64 196 41 234 29 176 1,872 4 660 407 1,067 132 67 August ... 70 213 42 236 28 174 1,892 79 1,932 225 47 240 29 178 75 4 September ... 660 416 1,076 137 5 79 124 1,087 432 655 October ... 225 1,916 176 29 232 42 84 209 449 1,098 126 74 6 80 650 39 230 30 178 1,910 November ... 1,091 December ... 649 442 42 140 64 7 71 189 246 28 176 1,912 R R R R R R R R R R 649 51 019 758 449 166 2 41 1,098 261 29 January ... 184 140 1,920 RE RE RE RE RE RE RE RF RE RE RE NA 649 453 1,102 1,894 136 February ... NA 251 51 28 154 181 42 E F E E E E E E E E E 128 234 March ... 29 649 41 453 1,102 1,880 158 NA NA 188 54 a j Asphalt and road oil, aviation gasoline blending components, kerosen e, Includes lease condensate. b s, "SPR" is the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, which began in October 1977. lubricants, petrochemical feedstocks, petroleum coke, unfinished oils, waxe miscellaneous products, oxygenates, renewable fuels, and other hydrocarbon C rude oil stocks in the SPR include non-U.S. stocks held under foreign or s. c o Through 1964, also includes kerosene-type jet fuel. Beginning in 1964, als ommercial storage agreements. c includes finished aviation gasoline and special naphthas. Beginning in 2005, als o All crude oil stocks other than those in “SPR.” d includes naphtha-type jet fuel. Beginning in 1981, includes stocks of Alaskan crude oil in transit. e R=Revised. E=Estimate. F=Forecast. NA=Not available. – – =Not applicable. Excludes stocks in the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve. Beginning in • Notes: • Stocks are at end of period. 2 009, includes renewable diesel fuel (including biodiesel) blended into distillate fuel Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. o il. • Geographic coverage is the 50 state s f Propane and propylene. Through 1983, also includes 40% of "Butane- and the District of Columbia. P ropane Mixtures" and 30% of "Ethane-Propane Mixtures." el Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Exc g ta and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da Ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, natural gasoline (pentanes plus), beginning in 1973. a nd refinery olefins (ethylene, propylene, butylene, and isobutylene). Through Petroleu Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, 1949–1975: • Sources: 983, also includes plant condensate and unfractionated stream. 1 m h • n U.S. Energy Informatio 1976–1980: annual reports. Beginning in 1965, includes kerosene-type jet fuel. (Through 1964, Statement, Annual, k Administration (EIA), Energy Data Reports, erosene-type jet fuel is included with kerosene in "Other.") For 1952–2004, also annu Petroleum Statement, Annual, al • reports. i ncludes naphtha-type jet fuel. (Through 1951, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in EIA, annual reports, an Petroleum Supply Annual, d 1981–2017: Petroleum Supply Monthly, month ly 2018 and 2019: • unpublished revisions. he products from which it was blended—gasoline, kerosene, and distillate fuel oil. t EIA, B reports; and, for the current two months, Weekly Petroleum Status Report da ta eginning in 2005, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in "Other.") i Monthly Energy Revie w Includes finished motor gasoline and motor gasoline blending components; system, Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System, and data system calculations. xcludes oxygenates. Through 1963, also includes aviation gasoline and special e aphthas. n Monthly U. 69 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

80 Type 3.5 Petroleum Products Supplied by Figure (Million Barrels per Day) Total Petroleum and Motor Gasoline, 1949–2018 24 Total Petroleum 18 12 Motor Gasoline [a] 6 0 1985 2005 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1950 1990 1995 2000 2015 2010 Selected Products,1949–2018 12 Motor Gasoline [a] 9 6 Distillate Fuel Oil [b] 3 Jet Fuel [c] Residual Fuel Oil Propane 0 1980 1975 1970 1965 1960 1955 1950 1990 1985 2015 2010 2005 2000 1995 Total, January–March Selected Products, Monthly 25 12 Motor Gasoline [a] 20.495 20.238 19.536 20 9 15 6 Distillate Fuel Oil [b] 10 3 Jet Fuel [c] Residual Fuel Oil 5 Propane 0 JFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASOND 0 2017 2018 2019 2018 2019 2017 fuel in jet fuel 2005, Beginning only. [c] kerosene type includes [a] Beginning in 1993, includes ‐ ethanol blended into motor gasoline. [b] Beginning in 2009, includes renewable diesel fuel (including biodiesel) Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg y/data/monthly/#petroleum. fuel oil. into blended distillate Table Source: 3.5. 70 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U.

81 T able 3.5 Petroleum Products Supplied by Type (Thousand Barrels per Day) Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Resid- Distil- Propane/Propylene Avia- Asphalt and late ual tion Petro- Motor Road Fuel Gaso- Fuel leum Gaso- Pro- Propy- Kero- Jet Lubri- e f b a c d Oil Oil Oil line Coke line pane Fuel lene cants sene Total Total Other Total E E E d 146 1 13 180 158 234 108 ( ) 323 106 2,616 41 1,517 250 6,458 1,082 950 Average ... E E E ... 251 192 22 1,592 273 404 254 320 116 3,463 67 1,526 366 8,455 955 Average 1 154 E E E 1,872 960 Average 302 33 ... 419 621 371 271 117 3,969 149 1,529 435 9,797 1 161 386 E E E 267 523 ... 45 368 568 841 602 120 129 4,593 202 1,608 657 11,512 1 965 Average 2,126 E E 55 2,540 263 727 1 55 782 1,224 967 970 Average 136 5,785 212 2,204 866 14,697 ... 447 E E 137 ... 730 2,851 60 790 1,352 1,001 159 39 6,675 247 2,462 982 16,322 419 975 Average 1 E E 35 2,866 1 742 980 Average 72 813 1,590 1,068 158 159 6,579 237 2,508 1,460 17,056 ... 396 E E 425 2,868 1 985 Average 810 ... 72 883 1,721 1,218 114 145 6,831 264 1,202 909 15,726 27 E E 483 24 3,021 1 812 ... 105 917 1,705 1,522 43 164 7,235 339 1,229 1,225 16,988 990 Average E E 995 Average 3,207 ... 938 21 157 1,096 2,100 1,514 54 156 7,789 365 852 1,180 17,725 1 486 E E ... 3,722 67 1,011 20 224 1,235 2,434 1,725 000 Average 166 8,472 406 909 1,255 19,701 2 525 E E 72 3,847 ... 932 19 210 1,142 2,200 1,655 001 Average 153 8,610 437 811 1,325 19,649 2 519 E E 512 18 3,776 1,248 1,015 2 233 002 Average 2,295 1,614 43 151 8,848 463 700 1,342 19,761 ... E E 2 16 3,927 003 Average 977 503 238 1,215 2,205 1,578 55 140 8,935 455 772 1,448 20,034 ... E E 64 4,058 004 Average 1,021 17 255 1,276 2,264 1,630 537 141 9,105 524 865 1,525 20,731 2 ... E E 546 19 4,118 2 986 005 Average 243 1,229 ... 1,679 70 141 9,159 515 920 1,489 20,802 2,146 E E 521 18 4,169 2 947 ... 268 006 Average 2,135 1,633 54 137 9,253 522 689 1,557 20,687 1,215 E E 983 ... 494 17 4,196 1,235 2 007 Average 252 2,191 1,622 32 142 9,286 490 723 1,487 20,680 E E 2 15 3,945 008 Average 924 417 230 1,154 2,044 1,539 14 131 8,989 464 622 1,317 19,498 ... E E 009 Average 3,631 ... 893 14 267 1,160 2,127 1,393 18 118 8,997 427 511 1,175 18,771 2 360 ... 1,432 15 3,800 852 308 1,160 2,265 010 Average 20 131 8,993 376 535 1,251 19,180 2 362 12 011 Average 15 3,899 851 301 1,153 2,241 1,425 355 125 8,753 361 461 1,240 18,887 2 ... 012 Average ... 340 14 3,741 862 312 1,175 2,297 1,398 5 114 8,682 360 369 1,165 18,487 2 013 Average 2,501 323 12 3,827 969 307 1,275 2 1,434 5 121 8,843 354 319 1,227 18,967 ... 9 014 Average 12 4,037 870 297 1,167 2,442 1,470 327 126 8,921 347 257 1,151 19,100 2 ... 015 Average ... 343 11 3,995 865 297 1,162 2,552 1,548 6 138 9,178 349 259 1,153 19,534 2 2 016 Average 351 11 3,877 833 297 1,130 2,536 1,614 9 130 9,317 345 326 1,170 19,687 ... 1,588 2 183 9 3,736 1,320 333 1,653 3,049 January ... 24 136 8,507 419 540 1,133 19,323 017 February ... 242 9 3,935 935 371 1,306 2,655 1,517 9 128 9,008 229 279 1,180 19,190 March ... 10 4,127 892 313 1,205 2,729 1,676 2 143 9,325 180 319 1,288 20,060 260 2 April ... 3,763 737 308 1,044 2,524 1,644 11 128 9,295 292 283 1,338 19,595 316 May ... 367 12 3,955 548 331 879 2,451 1,669 3 131 9,550 345 357 1,227 20,066 June ... 17 3,964 544 306 850 2,479 1,762 2 120 9,772 278 349 1,345 20,561 475 1,734 13 3,642 637 298 935 2,588 443 1 116 9,595 451 287 1,251 20,119 July ... August ... 543 14 4,004 604 278 882 2,249 1,762 1 92 9,752 294 346 1,195 20,251 September ... 10 3,921 802 269 1,071 2,347 1,627 14 114 9,378 346 302 1,137 19,641 444 1,751 9 4,011 618 315 933 2,614 411 1 123 9,357 174 323 1,214 19,990 October ... November ... 308 11 4,157 956 317 1,273 2,902 1,685 3 122 9,110 395 394 1,219 20,307 1,756 12 3,975 1,048 338 1,385 3,118 209 1 94 9,247 384 314 1,214 20,323 December ... 19,958 Average ... 351 11 3,932 803 314 1,117 2,643 1,682 5 121 9,327 316 342 1,228 1,232 340 359 8,742 105 4,394 20,461 2 018 January ... 204 10 40 1,391 315 1,706 3,451 1,586 202 105 1 1,599 3,119 1,404 300 1,105 3,962 7 219 February ... 8,817 19,619 1,306 282 March ... 13 4,169 989 332 1,321 3,069 1,718 1 134 9,446 288 223 1,280 20,573 233 1,634 13 4,154 814 286 1,100 2,830 242 1 99 9,187 300 409 1,072 19,941 April ... May ... 370 12 4,273 495 304 799 2,543 1,707 8 111 9,550 312 312 1,159 20,357 1,854 475 15 3,954 499 330 830 2,632 June ... 1 133 9,798 354 249 1,240 20,705 919 July ... 471 16 3,958 614 305 336 2,806 1,772 1 127 9,640 337 1,157 20,621 August ... 14 4,173 636 316 952 2,889 1,856 1 120 9,748 449 312 1,234 21,302 508 1,700 (s) September ... 9 4,007 711 301 1,011 2,841 388 73 9,118 420 362 1,032 19,951 October ... 396 16 4,378 836 263 1,099 2,935 1,662 4 110 9,273 420 305 1,274 20,774 3,306 255 7 4,128 1,007 300 1,307 November ... 1,769 1 136 9,247 275 320 1,104 20,548 1,496 20,479 1,181 December ... 179 12 4,028 1,194 301 404 3,426 1,667 2 92 9,219 269 Average 1,711 20,453 1,189 322 333 9,319 112 5 2,987 1,161 305 857 4,134 12 329 ... R R R R R R R R R R R R R R January ... 3,671 4,355 1,629 1,109 26 1,405 113 019 8,743 206 286 300 304 11 2 1,705 20,452 RF F RE RE RF RE F RF RE F RE RE RE 1,642 February ... 6 4,051 NA NA 140 240 8,873 1,670 310 238 3,547 1,396 6 20,449 E E F E F E E F E F F E F 261 20,579 3,216 11 1,786 1,251 8 143 4,211 NA NA 9,260 March ... 219 1,086 212 E E E E E E E E E E E E E 8,962 1,481 1,687 4,211 NA NA 14 9 132 3,476 235 271 ... 252 3-Month Average 1,247 20,495 20,238 282 286 1,271 2 018 3-Month Average ... 218 10 4,182 1,163 316 1,480 3,216 1,635 14 115 9,008 228 ... 017 3-Month Average 2 1,201 19,536 383 278 8,945 136 12 1,596 2,816 1,391 338 1,053 3,932 10 a y) Beginning in 2009, includes renewable diesel fuel (including biodiesel) as unfinished oils, and other products (from both primary and secondary suppl b s reclassified as gasoline blending components. Beginning in 1983, also include lended into distillate fuel oil. b crude oil burned as fuel. Beginning in 2005, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. Propane and propylene. Through 1983, also includes 40% of "Butane- R=Revised. E=Estimate. F=Forecast. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 50 ropane Mixtures" and 30% of "Ethane-Propane Mixtures." P 0 c barrels per day and greater than -500 barrels per day. Ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, natural gasoline (pentanes plus), a nd refinery olefins (ethylene, propylene, butylene, and isobutylene). Through m Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of petroleu Notes: • consumption and is synonymous with the term "petroleum consumption" in Table 983, also includes plant condensate and unfractionated stream. 1 s d m 3.7a–3.8c. See Note 1, "Petroleum Products Supplied and Petroleu Beginning in 1957, includes kerosene-type jet fuel. For 1952–2004, also • Totals may not equal sum of components du Consumption," at end of section. i ncludes naphtha-type jet fuel. (Through 1951, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in e Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the Distri to independent rounding. t he products from which it was blended—gasoline, kerosene, and distillate fuel oil. ct • of Columbia. eginning in 2005, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in "Other.") B e Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Exc el Finished motor gasoline. Through 1963, also includes special naphthas. ta and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da B eginning in 1993, also includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. f Petrochemical feedstocks, still gas (refinery gas), waxes, and miscellaneous beginning in 1973. p roducts. Beginning in 1964, also includes special naphthas. Beginning in 1981, Sources: See end of section. lso includes negative barrels per day of distillate and residual fuel oil reclassified a Monthly U. 71 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

82 Products Petroleum Figure 3.6 Heat Content of Type Supplied by Total, 1949–2018 50 40 30 20 Quadrillion Btu 10 0 1990 1985 1950 1965 1970 2015 2010 2005 2000 1995 1980 1955 1960 1975 Petroleum Products Supplied as Share of Total Energy Consumption, 1949–2018 50 40 30 Percent 20 10 0 2015 1995 1985 1980 1970 2000 2005 2010 1990 1965 1950 1955 1960 1975 By Product, March 2019 2.0 1.451 1.5 1.0 0.752 Quadrillion Btu 0.5 0.349 0.314 0.250 0.054 0.042 0.041 0.027 0.002 0.001 0.0 Hydrocarbon Distillate Residual Asphalt and Jet Fuel [b] Kerosene Lubricants Motor Petroleum Aviation Other [d] Gasoline Gasoline [c] Road Oil Coke Fuel Oil [a] Fuel Oil Gas Liquids Includes [a] renewable diesel fuel (including biodiesel) blended into separately All displayed. products petroleum not [d] fuel oil. distillate Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg y/data/monthly/#petroleum. ‐ type fuel only. jet kerosene Includes [b] Tables Sources: 3.6. and 1.1 ethanol into motor gasoline. fuel Includes [c] blended 2019 72 Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U. April

83 T able 3.6 Heat Content of Petroleum Products Supplied by Type (Trillion Btu) a Petro- Asphalt HGL Aviation Residual Kero- Lubri- Motor Distillate Jet leum and f b e g c d cants Gasoline Fuel Oil Other Gasoline Total Propane Fuel Oil Total sene Fuel Coke Road Oil e 435 199 2,300 NA 343 ( ) 1 668 236 950 Total 90 3,482 546 13,315 ... 5,015 955 Total 615 354 3,385 NA 592 301 662 258 6,640 147 3,502 798 17,255 1 ... 259 ... 298 3,992 NA 912 739 563 734 7,631 328 3,517 947 19,919 1 960 Total 965 Total ... 890 222 4,519 NA 1 1,215 553 286 8,806 444 3,691 1,390 23,246 1,232 1 ... 1,082 100 5,401 1,095 1,689 1,973 544 301 11,091 465 5,057 1,817 29,521 970 Total 304 975 Total 71 6,061 1,107 1,845 2,047 329 1,014 12,798 542 5,649 2,071 32,732 1 ... 980 Total ... 962 64 6,110 1,142 2,180 2,190 329 354 12,648 522 5,772 3,073 34,205 1 1 985 Total 1,029 50 6,098 1,236 2,309 2,497 236 322 13,098 582 2,759 1,945 30,925 ... 88 1 1,170 45 6,422 1,284 2,309 3,129 ... 362 13,872 745 2,820 2,589 33,552 990 Total 1 995 Total ... 1,178 40 6,812 1,534 2,849 3,132 112 346 14,794 802 1,955 2,499 34,519 2 000 Total 1,276 36 7,927 1,734 3,288 3,580 140 369 16,127 895 2,091 2,636 38,366 ... 001 Total ... 35 8,170 1,598 2,960 3,426 150 338 16,345 961 1,861 2,793 38,296 2 1,257 334 002 Total 34 8,020 1,747 3,076 3,340 90 1,240 16,790 1,018 1,605 2,816 38,363 2 ... 003 Total ... 1,220 30 8,341 1,701 2,968 3,265 2 309 16,949 1,000 1,772 3,043 39,010 113 2 ... 1,304 31 8,642 1,791 3,047 3,383 133 313 17,316 1,148 1,990 3,205 40,511 004 Total 144 005 Total 1,323 35 8,745 1,721 2,878 3,475 ... 312 17,358 1,125 2,111 3,122 40,627 2 2 006 Total ... 1,261 33 8,831 1,701 2,841 3,379 111 303 17,511 1,141 1,581 3,276 40,268 2 007 Total 1,197 32 8,858 1,729 2,912 3,358 67 313 17,428 1,072 1,659 3,134 40,029 ... 30 2 1,012 28 8,346 1,620 2,727 3,193 ... 291 16,799 1,017 1,432 2,788 37,662 008 Total 2 009 Total ... 873 27 7,657 1,624 2,791 2,883 36 262 16,711 937 1,173 2,483 35,833 41 2 878 27 8,011 1,624 2,976 2,963 ... 291 16,632 831 1,228 2,645 36,522 010 Total 2 011 Total ... 859 27 8,211 1,614 2,899 2,950 25 276 16,175 801 1,058 2,621 35,903 7,898 2 012 Total ... 25 827 1,649 2,992 2,901 11 254 16,085 802 849 2,474 35,118 2 013 Total 783 22 8,051 1,785 3,267 2,969 11 268 16,332 786 731 2,583 35,804 ... 014 Total ... 22 8,492 1,634 3,172 3,042 19 280 16,473 772 590 2,430 36,084 2 793 16,941 ... 8,402 1,627 3,331 3,204 13 305 21 776 595 2,435 36,855 015 Total 832 2 ... 853 20 8,170 1,586 3,289 3,350 18 2 17,238 771 751 2,553 37,303 016 Total 289 017 38 1 667 197 338 279 January ... 26 1,333 80 105 209 3,080 2 4 February ... 45 1 635 140 261 241 1 22 1,274 39 49 196 2,765 March ... 301 2 737 143 295 (s) 27 1,461 34 62 237 3,208 53 April ... 63 650 120 268 280 (s) 23 1,409 54 53 239 3,040 2 25 May ... 706 105 266 293 1 2 1,496 66 69 226 3,225 75 June ... 95 3 684 98 258 300 22 1,481 51 66 240 3,199 (s) 91 2 650 111 283 305 (s) 22 1,503 86 56 231 3,228 July ... (s) August ... 2 714 105 244 310 112 17 1,528 56 67 221 3,271 September ... 88 1 677 123 250 277 2 21 1,422 64 57 204 3,062 October ... 1 716 111 288 308 (s) 23 1,466 33 63 224 3,207 85 22 November ... 718 146 306 287 1 2 1,381 73 74 217 3,142 61 December ... 43 2 710 165 340 309 (s) 18 1,448 73 61 224 3,228 Total ... 849 21 8,263 1,564 3,403 3,481 11 267 17,201 708 784 2,667 37,656 7 018 42 1 785 203 381 279 January ... 20 1,370 68 66 227 3,246 2 February ... 41 1 639 151 311 254 (s) 18 1,248 35 50 217 2,813 March ... 2 744 157 332 302 (s) 25 1,480 55 43 236 3,268 48 April ... (s) 2 718 127 296 278 18 1,393 55 77 192 3,077 48 1 2 763 95 273 300 76 21 1,496 59 61 215 3,267 May ... June ... 95 2 683 95 274 315 (s) 24 1,486 65 47 222 3,213 (s) 3 707 109 303 312 97 24 1,510 64 66 215 3,299 July ... 3,416 August ... 104 2 745 113 314 326 (s) 22 1,527 85 61 228 3,085 185 68 77 1,382 13 (s) 289 298 September ... 77 1 692 116 292 322 131 782 3 81 October ... 1,453 3,327 234 59 80 21 1 301 3,153 51 1 713 150 351 November ... (s) 25 1,402 50 60 198 79 December ... 37 2 719 178 378 293 (s) 17 1,444 51 218 3,240 3,833 38,401 Total ... 797 22 8,689 1,626 2,588 3,541 11 248 17,191 743 738 R R R R R R R R R R R 778 203 2 407 019 286 January ... 5 205 21 42 1,370 2 54 3,229 59 RE RE RE RE F F F RE F RE F RE F 45 2,945 1 42 653 1,256 179 1 346 53 261 February ... 264 24 E E F E F F E F E E F F E 314 42 349 250 129 1,451 3,282 27 March ... 41 54 1 752 2 E E E E E E E E E E E E E 142 861 149 1,102 7 511 4,076 3-Month Total ... 719 141 72 4 9,456 2,183 130 ... 680 159 157 4,097 2 018 3-Month Total 9,326 5 2,168 511 1,024 835 7 63 4,068 153 217 642 9,053 480 74 2,039 4 136 ... 017 3-Month Total 2 815 6 900 a also includes negative barrels per day of distillate and residual fuel oil reclassifie Hydrocarbon gas liquids. d b Beginning in 2009, includes renewable diesel fuel (including biodiesel) as unfinished oils, and other products (from both primary and secondary suppl y) reclassified as gasoline blending components. Beginning in 1983, also include s lended into distillate fuel oil. b c crude oil burned as fuel. Beginning in 2005, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. Propane and propylene. Through 1983, also includes 40% of "Butane- R=Revised. E=Estimate. F=Forecast. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0 .5 P ropane Mixtures" and 30% of "Ethane-Propane Mixtures." d trillion Btu and greater than -0.5 trillion Btu. Ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, natural gasoline (pentanes plus), nd refinery olefins (ethylene, propylene, butylene, and isobutylene). Through m a Notes: Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of petroleu • 983, also includes plant condensate and unfractionated stream. 1 s consumption and is synonymous with the term "petroleum consumption" in Table e m Beginning in 1957, includes kerosene-type jet fuel. For 1952–2004, also 3.7a–3.8c. See Note 1, "Petroleum Products Supplied and Petroleu i ncludes naphtha-type jet fuel. (Through 1951, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in Totals may not equal sum of components du • Consumption," at end of section. e ct • t Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the Distri he products from which it was blended—gasoline, kerosene, and distillate fuel oil. to independent rounding. of Columbia. B eginning in 2005, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in "Other.") f Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Exc Finished motor gasoline. Through 1963, also includes special naphthas. el and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da eginning in 1993, also includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. ta B g Petrochemical feedstocks, still gas (refinery gas), waxes, and miscellaneous beginning in 1973. roducts. Beginning in 1964, also includes special naphthas. Beginning in 1981, p Sources: See end of section. Monthly U. 73 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

84 by Figure 3.7 Petroleum Sector Consumption By Sector, 1949–2018 16 Transportation 12 8 Industrial [a] Million Barrels per Day 4 Residential and Commercial [a] Electric Power 0 1960 1955 1950 2005 2000 1995 2015 2010 1990 1985 1980 1975 1970 1965 By Sector, January 2019 16 13.254 12 8 5.653 Million Barrels per Day 4 0.816 0.613 0.115 0 Residential Industrial [a] Electric Power Transportation Commercial [a] Sector Shares, 1949 and 2018 1949 2018 80 69 60 54 40 Percent 28 25 20 10 6 3 3 2 1 0 Electric Power Transportation Industrial Commercial Residential a and Web Page: of http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg y/data/monthly/#petroleum. number plants power ‐ electricity ‐ small [a] Includes combined ‐ heat ‐ and 3.7a–3.7c. Tables Sources: plants. only / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 74

85 T able 3.7a Petroleum Consumption: Residential and Commercial Sectors (Thousand Barrels per Day) a Residential Sector Commercial Sector b b HGL HGL Distillate Kero- Distillate Kero- Motor Residual Petroleum c,d sene Fuel Oil Gasoline Fuel Oil Fuel Oil Coke sene Propane Total Total Propane 390 104 1 662 123 28 23 52 NA 185 411 950 Average ... 168 ... 144 179 885 177 38 562 69 NA 209 519 955 Average 1 24 1 736 217 171 1,123 232 58 23 35 NA 243 590 960 Average ... 965 Average 805 275 161 1,242 251 74 26 40 NA 281 672 1 ... ... 102 392 144 1,419 276 970 Average 30 45 NA 311 764 1 883 24 975 Average 365 78 1,293 276 92 850 46 NA 214 653 1 ... 980 Average ... 617 222 51 890 243 63 20 56 NA 245 626 1 985 Average 815 514 224 77 1 297 68 16 50 NA 99 530 ... 990 Average ... 252 31 742 252 73 6 58 0 100 489 1 460 11 995 Average 282 36 743 225 78 426 10 (s) 62 385 1 ... 000 Average ... 424 395 46 865 230 107 14 23 (s) 40 415 2 2 001 Average 427 375 46 849 239 102 15 20 (s) 30 406 ... 002 Average 101 404 384 29 817 209 2 8 24 (s) 35 376 ... 112 2 438 389 34 861 233 ... 9 32 (s) 48 434 003 Average 2 004 Average ... 433 364 41 839 221 108 10 23 (s) 53 416 94 2 402 366 40 809 210 ... 10 24 (s) 50 389 005 Average 343 006 Average ... 335 318 32 685 189 88 7 26 (s) 33 2 337 2 007 Average ... 342 345 21 708 181 87 4 32 (s) 33 2 008 Average 354 394 10 758 181 113 2 24 (s) 31 351 ... 009 Average ... 391 13 680 187 99 2 28 (s) 31 348 2 276 2 010 Average 378 14 658 185 100 266 28 (s) 27 343 2 ... 011 Average ... 248 351 9 608 186 2 2 24 (s) 23 336 102 2 ... 228 281 4 513 168 96 1 21 (s) 14 300 012 Average 108 013 Average 233 331 4 568 163 ... (s) 22 (s) 11 304 2 2 014 Average ... 253 349 7 609 169 114 1 29 (s) 3 318 d 2 262 318 5 584 171 106 1 015 Average 204 (s) 2 483 ... 125 016 306 359 1 666 229 January ... (s) 188 (s) 3 546 2 February ... 319 346 2 667 239 121 (s) 200 (s) 3 564 110 316 8 535 158 211 1 204 (s) 2 476 March ... April ... 192 291 3 485 144 101 (s) 199 (s) 2 447 126 168 292 6 466 May ... 102 1 205 0 2 435 209 94 89 396 8 269 1 119 394 1 (s) June ... 1 290 8 421 92 101 122 208 (s) 1 404 July ... August ... 95 280 1 376 71 98 (s) 211 0 1 381 0 September ... 150 293 10 453 112 102 2 206 1 423 2 0 198 2 105 153 14 301 520 460 October ... 204 171 2 228 303 2 532 November ... 106 (s) 201 (s) 480 591 December ... 358 329 16 703 268 115 2 202 (s) 3 467 518 154 7 107 1 203 (s) 2 Average ... 206 306 R R 248 560 (s) 178 19 3 128 3 717 2 017 January ... 332 367 R 273 February ... 507 2 (s) 189 1 204 598 111 7 318 (s) 2 558 173 113 325 196 (s) 2 484 232 March ... April ... 192 300 2 493 143 105 (s) 195 (s) 2 444 May ... 133 290 2 425 99 101 (s) 200 (s) 1 402 123 165 304 1 470 June ... 106 (s) 205 (s) 1 436 387 July ... 101 312 (s) 413 76 109 (s) 201 (s) 1 400 398 (s) August ... 132 268 1 1 98 93 (s) 205 2 278 11 421 99 97 132 197 (s) 1 396 September ... October ... 168 297 1 465 125 104 (s) 196 (s) 1 427 R November ... 259 346 3 608 193 121 (s) 191 (s) 2 508 261 350 370 1 721 December ... 129 (s) 194 (s) 3 587 2 (s) 461 Average ... 205 315 4 524 153 110 1 196 R R R 415 647 183 2 018 January ... 416 4 (s) 31 3 863 310 145 221 671 1 373 296 February ... (s) 539 2 (s) 185 130 (s) 369 (s) 591 166 129 222 198 (s) 2 495 March ... R 158 212 340 1 472 554 119 (s) 193 (s) 2 April ... 94 126 302 6 434 May ... 105 1 200 0 1 401 391 June ... 101 314 1 416 75 110 (s) 206 0 1 202 386 1 (s) 0 July ... 91 330 (s) 422 68 115 (s) 336 (s) 414 58 117 77 204 0 1 380 August ... R September ... 110 330 (s) 441 82 115 (s) 191 (s) 1 390 R October ... 228 3 576 170 120 344 (s) 194 (s) 2 487 135 304 387 1 692 227 November ... (s) 194 (s) 2 558 R 193 (s) 3 December ... 403 400 2 637 805 301 140 (s) 123 161 573 4 353 215 ... Average (s) 195 1 2 482 816 613 (s) 183 3 149 275 3 20 427 369 January ... 019 2 a • Notes: • For total petroleum consumption by all sector Data are estimates. s, Commercial sector fuel use, including that at commercial combined-heat-and- see petroleum products supplied data in Table 3.5. Petroleum products supplied is ower (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants. p b m an approximation of petroleum consumption and is synonymous with the ter Hydrocarbon gas liquids. c "petroleum consumption" in Tables 3.7a–3.8c. See Note 1, "Petroleum Produc Finished motor gasoline. Through 1963, also includes special naphthas. ts Supplied and Petroleum Consumption," at end of section. eginning in 1993, also includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. B al Totals may not equ • d There is a discontinuity in this time series between 2014 and 2015 due to a Geographic coverage is th sum of components due to independent rounding. e • hange in the method for allocating motor gasoline consumption to the end-use c 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Exc s ectors. Beginning in 2015, the commercial and industrial sector shares of motor el g asoline consumption are larger than in 2014, while the transportation sector share ta and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da beginning in 1973. i s smaller. R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 500 barrels per day and greater Sources: See end of section. han -500 barrels per day. t Monthly U. 75 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

86 able 3.7b Petroleum Consumption: Industrial Sector T (Thousand Barrels per Day) a Industrial Sector b Asphalt HGL and Distillate Motor Petroleum Residual g c e,f d Road Oil Coke Gasoline Fuel Oil Fuel Oil Other Propane Kerosene Lubricants Total Total 617 328 180 132 43 131 41 NA 250 1,822 ... 950 Average 1 100 254 466 NA 212 116 47 173 67 686 1 2,387 955 Average ... 366 ... 476 NA 333 78 48 198 149 689 435 2,708 1 960 Average 302 202 368 NA 470 80 62 179 541 689 657 3,247 965 Average 1 ... ... 447 577 256 699 89 70 150 203 1 866 3,808 970 Average 708 975 Average 419 630 302 863 58 68 116 246 658 982 4,038 1 ... ... 1 516 1,293 87 82 82 234 586 1,460 4,842 396 980 Average 621 261 ... 569 1,408 21 75 114 526 326 909 4,065 985 Average 1 425 ... 483 541 576 1,364 6 84 1 325 179 1,225 4,304 990 Average 97 995 Average 486 532 723 1,727 7 80 105 328 147 1,180 4,594 1 ... 79 ... 563 724 1,923 8 86 525 361 105 1,255 4,903 2 000 Average 001 Average ... 519 611 654 1,713 11 2 155 390 89 1,325 4,892 79 2 ... 512 566 754 1,801 7 78 163 383 83 1,342 4,934 002 Average 003 Average ... 551 701 1,691 12 72 171 375 96 1,448 4,918 2 503 423 ... 790 1,778 14 73 195 570 108 1,525 5,222 004 Average 2 537 ... 546 594 749 1,666 19 72 187 404 123 1,489 5,100 2 005 Average 006 Average ... 594 789 1,710 14 71 198 425 104 1,557 5,193 2 521 161 007 Average 595 787 1,744 6 73 494 412 84 1,487 5,056 2 ... 008 Average ... 417 637 619 1,510 2 67 131 394 84 1,317 4,559 2 2 009 Average 360 509 650 1,617 2 61 128 363 57 1,175 4,272 ... 010 Average ... 547 675 1,781 4 61 140 310 52 1,251 4,509 2 362 138 011 Average 586 693 1,781 2 58 355 295 59 1,240 4,513 2 ... 012 Average ... 340 602 790 1,912 1 2 136 319 30 1,165 4,559 53 2 ... 323 601 830 2,056 1 57 142 295 21 1,227 4,722 013 Average 59 014 Average 327 648 697 1,972 1 ... 114 290 18 1,151 4,581 2 f 64 015 Average ... 343 555 732 2,121 1 1,153 2 140 295 15 4,687 2 016 631 1,082 2,466 (s) 63 132 326 22 1,126 4,961 January ... 195 230 685 2,323 (s) 69 140 305 13 1,362 5,128 February ... 1,068 306 254 2,180 1 67 142 760 26 1,107 4,747 March ... 663 301 506 552 2,004 (s) 61 139 231 33 1,205 4,480 April ... May ... 394 565 1,982 1 62 143 218 22 1,075 4,342 444 482 146 461 1,900 1 68 June ... 185 23 1,159 4,473 508 146 July ... 554 2,023 1 53 331 259 28 1,103 4,418 472 August ... 524 517 566 1,924 (s) 58 147 371 21 1,261 4,822 September ... 628 2,028 2 58 144 223 17 1,171 4,654 439 572 417 138 624 2,143 2 61 October ... 272 24 1,175 4,803 569 140 November ... 727 2,104 (s) 56 596 436 21 1,101 4,765 310 December ... 195 557 945 2,323 3 54 141 329 21 1,201 4,824 289 351 548 710 2,117 1 61 142 ... 23 1,170 4,700 Average R R R 539 1,150 2,546 2 2 017 64 131 360 34 1,133 January ... 4,992 183 R R 242 652 870 2,220 1 60 138 180 17 1,180 February ... 4,690 R R 760 2,284 (s) 67 143 139 21 1,288 260 4,949 March ... 748 R R 316 634 2,113 (s) April ... 143 265 18 1,338 60 4,731 477 147 367 482 2,054 (s) 61 610 293 22 1,227 4,781 May ... R R 22 475 2,062 (s) 56 150 221 433 1,345 June ... 4,850 519 R R 397 370 508 2,160 (s) 54 147 18 1,251 July ... 4,840 443 R R 150 547 515 1,882 (s) 43 543 247 21 1,195 August ... 4,628 R R 444 590 690 1,966 1 September ... 54 144 301 19 1,137 4,656 R R 526 2,207 (s) October ... 58 144 138 20 1,214 616 4,809 411 R R 57 695 798 2,427 (s) 308 140 347 28 1,219 5,222 November ... December ... 209 509 877 2,609 (s) 44 142 337 21 1,214 5,086 143 ... 351 572 686 2,211 1 56 Average 269 22 1,228 4,854 R R R 204 2 701 1,136 2,881 5,529 4 49 134 303 22 1,232 January ... 018 892 (s) 5,062 1,306 17 153 575 135 49 2,607 February ... 219 R R 63 2,563 145 249 14 1,280 (s) 5,259 March ... 233 815 712 R 242 April ... 1,072 25 260 141 47 4,763 (s) 2,363 634 614 R R 52 730 384 2,129 1 370 May ... 287 19 1,159 147 4,893 R R 475 17 495 398 2,201 (s) 62 151 305 4,946 1,240 June ... R R R July ... 471 488 1,157 466 2,353 (s) 4,980 60 148 282 20 622 19 1,234 August ... 508 5,413 491 2,428 (s) 56 150 397 R R 559 140 1,032 September ... 388 22 585 369 2,389 (s) 34 4,960 R R R R 696 19 396 October ... 390 142 52 5,432 (s) 1,274 2,463 627 R 777 1,104 November ... 255 5,147 552 20 2,775 (s) 63 142 234 R R 425 221 43 (s) 2,877 947 5,094 179 December ... 142 1,181 25 R R Average 329 600 676 5,126 1 ... 53 143 289 20 1,189 2,502 3,086 134 236 019 809 2 19 1,109 5,653 1,120 3 January ... 53 206 a also includes negative barrels per day of distillate and residual fuel oil reclassifie d Industrial sector fuel use, including that at industrial combined-heat-and-power ( CHP) and industrial electricity-only plants. as unfinished oils, and other products (from both primary and secondary suppl y) b Hydrocarbon gas liquids. reclassified as gasoline blending components. Beginning in 1983, also include s c crude oil burned as fuel. Beginning in 2005, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. Propane and propylene. Through 1983, also includes 40% of "Butane- R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 500 barrels per day and great ropane Mixtures" and 30% of "Ethane-Propane Mixtures." P er d than -500 barrels per day. Ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, natural gasoline (pentanes plus), Data are estimates. • Notes: For total petroleum consumption by all sector • s, a nd refinery olefins (ethylene, propylene, butylene, and isobutylene). Through 983, also includes plant condensate and unfractionated stream. see petroleum products supplied data in Table 3.5. Petroleum products supplied is 1 e an approximation of petroleum consumption and is synonymous with the ter Finished motor gasoline. Through 1963, also includes special naphthas. m "petroleum consumption" in Tables 3.7a–3.8c. See Note 1, "Petroleum Produc B eginning in 1993, also includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. ts f Totals may not equ • Supplied and Petroleum Consumption," at end of section. There is a discontinuity in this time series between 2014 and 2015 due to a al hange in the method for allocating motor gasoline consumption to the end-use c sum of components due to independent rounding. e Geographic coverage is th • ectors. Beginning in 2015, the commercial and industrial sector shares of motor s 50 states and the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Exc el asoline consumption are larger than in 2014, while the transportation sector share g i s smaller. and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da ta g Petrochemical feedstocks, still gas (refinery gas), waxes, and miscellaneous beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section. roducts. Beginning in 1964, also includes special naphthas. Beginning in 1981, p / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 76

87 T able 3.7c Petroleum Consumption: Transportation and Electric Power Sectors (Thousand Barrels per Day) a Transportation Sector Electric Power Sector b HGL Distillate Distillate Jet Residual Petroleum Lubri- Residual Motor Aviation c h e f,g i d cants Fuel Oil Coke Fuel Oil Fuel Oil Gasoline Gasoline Fuel Oil Fuel Propane Total Total e 108 226 2 64 ( ) 1 2,433 950 Average 3,356 15 NA 192 207 ... 524 955 Average 192 372 9 154 70 3,221 440 4,458 15 NA 191 206 1 ... 367 ... 418 13 371 68 3,736 161 5,135 10 NA 231 241 1 960 Average 965 Average ... 120 514 23 602 67 4,374 336 6,036 14 NA 1 316 302 1 ... 55 738 32 967 66 5,589 332 7,778 66 9 853 928 970 Average 975 Average ... 998 31 992 70 6,512 310 8,951 107 1 1,280 1,388 1 39 608 980 Average 1,311 13 1,062 77 6,441 35 9,546 79 2 1,069 1,151 1 ... 985 Average ... 27 1,491 21 1,218 71 1 342 9,838 40 3 435 478 6,667 1 ... 24 1,722 16 1,522 80 7,080 443 10,888 45 14 507 566 990 Average 7,674 995 Average 21 1,973 13 1,514 76 ... 397 11,668 51 37 247 334 1 2 000 Average ... 20 2,422 8 1,725 81 8,370 386 13,012 82 45 378 505 2 001 Average 19 2,489 10 1,655 74 8,435 255 12,938 80 47 437 564 ... 002 Average ... 2,536 10 1,614 73 8,662 295 13,208 60 80 287 427 2 18 249 003 Average 2,629 13 1,578 68 8,733 16 13,286 76 79 379 534 2 ... 004 Average ... 17 2,783 14 1,630 69 2 321 13,720 52 101 382 535 8,887 2 ... 19 2,858 20 1,679 68 8,948 365 13,957 54 111 382 547 005 Average 9,029 006 Average 18 3,017 20 1,633 67 ... 395 14,178 35 97 157 289 2 2 007 Average ... 17 3,037 16 1,622 69 9,093 433 14,287 42 78 173 293 2 008 Average 15 2,738 29 1,539 64 8,834 402 13,621 34 70 104 209 ... 009 Average 344 14 2,626 20 1,393 57 8,841 2 13,297 33 63 79 175 ... d 8,824 15 2,764 2 6 1,432 70 ... 389 13,500 38 65 67 170 010 Average 2 011 Average ... 15 2,849 7 1,425 67 8,591 338 13,292 30 66 41 137 8,525 2 14 2,719 7 1,398 61 ... 291 13,015 25 41 33 99 012 Average 2 013 Average ... 12 2,804 7 1,434 65 8,679 253 13,255 26 59 34 119 2 014 Average ... 12 2,928 7 1,470 67 8,778 195 13,456 39 57 41 137 g 2 11 2,974 7 1,548 74 015 Average 8,835 202 13,651 33 54 41 128 ... 016 January ... 2,645 8 1,449 72 8,334 248 12,763 40 53 34 127 2 7 31 11 1,534 79 8,881 128 13,361 8 55 39 126 February ... 2,721 10 2,892 7 1,547 76 9,027 311 13,869 22 58 22 102 March ... April ... 14 7 1,566 70 8,837 392 13,821 21 63 23 107 2,936 13,978 May ... 7 1,578 70 9,069 275 2,968 26 57 24 107 11 June ... 12 3,113 6 1,723 78 9,253 285 14,469 23 61 29 114 July ... 3,027 7 1,720 61 9,224 351 14,402 26 63 43 132 12 August ... 14 6 1,722 66 9,329 254 14,564 24 66 41 131 3,172 14,115 September ... 7 1,635 67 9,133 205 3,057 21 62 29 111 11 October ... 10 3,039 7 1,610 70 8,757 13,777 20 39 30 89 284 12 2,916 7 1,632 64 8,892 258 13,781 27 49 25 101 November ... 252 December ... 2,830 7 1,653 61 8,940 10 13,754 30 53 29 112 Average ... 11 2,944 7 1,614 70 8,973 271 13,889 26 57 31 113 R 2 9 2,588 8 1,588 72 8,198 476 017 12,939 30 58 28 116 January ... R R 13,297 7 1,517 68 8,680 234 February ... 2,781 25 49 26 99 9 R R 273 2,948 7 1,676 76 8,986 March ... 13,978 26 41 24 91 10 R R 2,930 7 1,644 68 8,957 239 April ... 13,855 21 27 24 72 11 14,355 3,088 7 1,669 70 9,203 307 12 25 52 26 104 May ... R R 17 30 3,134 7 1,762 64 9,417 296 14,696 23 57 June ... 110 R R 3,074 7 1,734 62 9,247 242 July ... 14,377 22 54 26 101 13 R R 294 3,206 6 1,762 49 9,397 14 14,728 20 47 30 97 August ... September ... 10 3,078 6 1,627 61 9,037 254 14,073 22 45 27 95 R 274 3,079 7 1,751 65 9,017 9 14,203 23 36 27 86 October ... R R 11 65 2,985 8 1,685 8,779 341 November ... 13,875 24 47 24 96 8,911 12 2,806 8 1,756 50 December ... 239 13,782 50 46 51 147 101 29 47 26 14,018 7 290 1,682 8,988 Average ... 11 2,976 64 R R 209 8,424 56 1,586 9 2,801 328 10 January ... 018 2 106 56 166 13,095 13,255 8 1,599 56 8,497 239 2,849 20 49 24 93 February ... 7 R R 13 186 8 1,718 71 9,103 March ... 14,147 20 39 21 80 3,048 R 359 3,146 8 1,634 53 8,853 13 14,065 23 40 24 87 April ... R R May ... 12 3,298 7 59 9,203 266 1,707 14,551 26 25 26 78 R R 3,257 7 1,854 71 9,442 202 15 14,847 26 49 30 105 June ... R R 16 3,289 7 1,772 68 9,289 288 July ... 14,730 21 54 28 103 R R 3,394 August ... 14 105 52 8 1,856 64 9,393 262 31 14,991 22 3,208 9 September ... 14,056 105 33 51 20 306 8,786 39 1,700 7 R R 59 16 29 3,262 8 1,662 8,936 256 October ... 14,199 22 29 80 R 40 90 November ... 7 26 3,020 9 1,769 72 8,911 273 14,061 24 R R 12 354 8,884 49 1,667 2,875 93 December ... 22 47 23 13,851 9 1,711 266 113 34 44 35 14,160 8,981 60 8 3,122 12 ... Average 49 13,254 250 8,425 60 1,629 10 33 33 115 2,870 11 January ... 2 019 h a Electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS al Fuel oil nos. 1, 2, and 4. Through 1979, data are for gas turbine and intern e combustion plant use of petroleum. Through 2000, electric utility data also includ 2 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to 2 he public. Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only; beginning in 1989, data t small amounts of kerosene and jet fuel. i Fuel oil nos. 5 and 6. Through 1979, data are for steam plant use re for electric utilities and independent power producers. of a b il petroleum. Through 2000, electric utility data also include a small amount of fuel o Hydrocarbon gas liquids. c no. 4. Beginning in 2009, includes renewable diesel fuel (including biodiesel) b lended into distillate fuel oil. R=Revised. NA=Not available. d m There is a discontinuity in this time series between 2009 and 2010 due to a For total petroleu • Transportation sector data are estimates. • Notes: 5. consumption by all sectors, see petroleum products supplied data in Table 3. hange in data sources. c e Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of petroleum consumption and Beginning in 1957, includes kerosene-type jet fuel. For 1952–2004, also is i ncludes naphtha-type jet fuel. (Through 1951, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in er synonymous with the term "petroleum consumption" in Tables 3.7a–3.8c. Oth et t he products from which it was blended—gasoline, kerosene, and distillate fuel oil. measurements of consumption by fuel type or sector may differ. For example, j B fuel product supplied may not equal jet fuel consumed by U.S-flagged aircraft. Se e eginning in 2005, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in "Other" on Table 3.7b.) f Note 1, "Petroleum Products Supplied and Petroleum Consumption," at end Finished motor gasoline. Through 1963, also includes special naphthas. of eginning in 1993, also includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. B section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent roundin g. g • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. There is a discontinuity in this time series between 2014 and 2015 due to a hange in the method for allocating motor gasoline consumption to the end-use c el Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Exc and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da s ectors. Beginning in 2015, the commercial and industrial sector shares of motor ta g beginning in 1973. asoline consumption are larger than in 2014, while the transportation sector share Sources: See end of section. s smaller. i Monthly U. 77 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

88 ‐ Figure Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption by End ‐ Use Sector, 1949 2018 3.8a Btu) (Quadrillion Residential and Commercial [a] Sectors, Selected Products 3 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 1 Residual Fuel Oil HGL [b] Kerosene 0 1980 1965 1970 1975 2015 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 1950 1955 1960 Industrial [a] Sector, Selected Products 4 3 HGL [b] 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 1 Asphalt and Road Oil 0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 1950 1955 Transportation Sector, Selected Products 20 Motor Gasoline [c] 15 10 5 Distillate Fuel Oil [d] Jet Fuel [e] 0 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 1950 [a] Includes combined ‐ heat ‐ and ‐ power plants and a small number of electricity ‐ approximation an is supplied products Petroleum Note: of petroleum synonymous consumption” “petroleum term the with is and consumption plants. only measurements Other by 3.7a–3.8c. Tables in fuel type or liquids. Hydrocarbon [b] consumption of gas jet equal example, not [c] Beginning in For 1993, includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. differ. may sector may supplied product fuel jet fuel aircraft. flagged ‐ U.S. by consumed fuel [d] Beginning in 2009, includes renewable diesel (including biodiesel) oil. blended into distillate fuel y/data/monthly/#petroleum. http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg Page: Web 2005, includes kerosene in Beginning [e] fuel ‐ type jet only. 3.8a–3.8c. Tables Sources: 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U. 78

89 Figure Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption by End ‐ Use Sector, Monthly 3.8b (Quadrillion Btu) Residential and Commercial [a] Sectors, Selected Products 0.15 Distillate Fuel Oil 0.10 0.05 HGL [b] Motor Gasoline 0.00 J FMAMJ J ASONDJ FMAMJ J ASONDJ FMAMJ J ASOND 2019 2017 2018 Industrial [a] Sector, Selected Products 0.4 0.3 HGL [b] 0.2 Distillate Fuel Oil 0.1 Asphalt and Road Oil 0.0 J FMAMJ J ASONDJ FMAMJ J ASONDJ FMAMJ J ASOND 2017 2018 2019 Transportation Sector, Selected Products 1.8 Motor Gasoline [c] 1.2 Distillate Fuel Oil [d] 0.6 Jet Fuel [e] 0.0 J FMAMJ J ASONDJ FMAMJ J ASONDJ FMAMJ J ASOND 2019 2017 2018 [a] Includes combined ‐ heat ‐ and ‐ power plants and a small number of electricity ‐ petroleum of approximation an is supplied products Petroleum Note: and consumption synonymous only plants. is with the term consumption” “petroleum in Tables 3.7a–3.8c. Other measurements of consumption by fuel type or liquids. gas Hydrocarbon [b] For [c] Includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. differ. may sector equal not may supplied product fuel jet example, jet fuel aircraft. flagged ‐ U.S. by consumed fuel [d] Includes distillate into blended biodiesel) (including renewable diesel Web y/data/monthly/#petroleum. oil. http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg fuel Page: type only. jet fuel [e] Includes kerosene ‐ Tables Sources: 3.8a–3.8c. Monthly 79 2019 April Review Energy U. / Administration Information Energy S.

90 T able 3.8a Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption: Residential and Commercial Sectors (Trillion Btu) a Residential Sector Commercial Sector b b HGL HGL Distillate Kero- Distillate Kero- Motor Residual Petroleum c,d sene Fuel Oil Gasoline Fuel Oil Fuel Oil Coke sene Propane Total Total Propane 829 146 1 1,322 262 39 47 100 NA 424 872 950 Total ... 347 ... 202 371 1,767 377 54 1,194 133 NA 480 1,095 955 Total 1 51 1 1,568 305 354 2,227 494 81 48 67 NA 559 1,248 960 Total ... 965 Total 1,713 385 334 2,432 534 103 54 77 NA 645 1,413 1 ... ... 143 549 298 2,725 587 970 Total 61 86 NA 714 1,592 1 1,878 49 975 Total 512 161 2,479 587 129 1,807 89 NA 492 1,346 1 ... 980 Total ... 1,316 311 107 1,734 518 88 41 107 NA 565 1,318 1 985 Total 1,083 1,092 314 159 1,565 631 95 33 96 NA 228 1 ... 990 Total ... 352 64 1,394 536 102 12 111 0 230 991 1 978 22 995 Total 395 74 1,373 478 109 904 18 (s) 141 769 1 ... 000 Total ... 904 555 95 1,553 490 150 30 44 (s) 92 807 2 2 001 Total 907 526 95 1,528 508 143 31 37 (s) 70 789 ... 002 Total 141 859 537 60 1,456 444 2 16 45 (s) 80 725 ... 157 2 931 544 70 1,546 496 ... 19 60 (s) 111 842 003 Total 2 004 Total ... 923 512 85 1,519 470 152 20 45 (s) 122 810 131 2 853 513 84 1,450 447 ... 22 46 (s) 116 762 005 Total 2 006 Total ... 709 446 66 1,221 400 123 15 48 (s) 75 662 381 2 ... 721 484 44 1,249 007 Total 121 9 60 (s) 75 648 21 2 008 Total ... 750 553 1,324 384 158 4 45 (s) 71 662 2 009 Total 582 547 28 1,157 395 139 4 52 (s) 71 662 ... 5 010 Total 529 29 1,120 391 140 562 52 (s) 62 650 2 ... 011 Total ... 523 492 19 1,033 391 142 3 44 (s) 54 635 2 2 012 Total 482 395 8 885 355 135 1 39 (s) 31 562 ... 151 2 491 463 8 963 344 ... 1 40 (s) 24 561 013 Total 2 014 Total ... 533 489 14 1,036 357 160 2 54 1 8 581 d 2 551 445 10 1,007 360 148 1 015 Total 376 1 4 890 ... 15 016 55 43 (s) 98 41 January ... (s) 29 (s) 1 86 2 February ... 53 39 (s) 92 40 13 (s) 29 (s) 1 84 13 38 1 77 28 38 (s) 32 (s) (s) 74 March ... April ... 33 33 (s) 67 25 12 (s) 30 (s) (s) 67 23 30 35 1 66 May ... 12 (s) 32 0 (s) 67 (s) (s) 32 (s) 11 15 31 53 1 58 June ... 21 July ... 35 1 58 16 12 (s) 33 (s) (s) 62 22 12 33 (s) 50 13 17 (s) 33 0 (s) 58 August ... September ... 26 34 2 61 19 12 (s) 31 0 (s) 63 27 37 36 3 75 October ... 13 (s) 31 0 72 (s) November ... 39 35 (s) 75 30 12 (s) 30 (s) (s) 73 14 39 3 106 48 64 (s) 32 (s) 1 94 December ... Total ... 435 429 14 878 326 150 2 375 (s) 4 857 44 2 January ... 59 44 3 106 017 15 (s) 28 (s) 1 89 79 33 12 34 (s) 27 (s) (s) 72 1 February ... 44 (s) 39 41 March ... (s) 76 (s) 31 (s) 13 31 80 April ... 34 (s) 68 25 12 (s) 30 (s) (s) 67 33 12 34 (s) 59 18 24 (s) 31 (s) (s) 61 May ... June ... 29 35 (s) 64 21 12 (s) 31 (s) (s) 65 13 37 (s) 55 14 18 (s) 32 (s) (s) 58 July ... August ... 24 32 (s) 56 18 11 (s) 32 (s) (s) 61 (s) September ... 23 32 2 57 17 11 (s) 30 (s) 59 October ... 35 (s) 65 22 12 (s) 31 (s) (s) 66 30 14 40 (s) 85 33 45 (s) 29 (s) (s) 77 November ... December ... 63 44 (s) 107 47 15 (s) 30 (s) 1 93 323 Total ... 432 440 8 881 154 1 361 (s) 4 843 R 103 1 29 (s) 2 018 January ... 74 49 1 6 129 56 17 February ... (s) 26 (s) (s) 76 48 40 (s) 88 36 14 (s) 31 (s) 15 30 84 (s) 44 40 March ... 76 (s) (s) 39 (s) 76 27 14 37 29 (s) (s) 71 April ... 17 May ... 22 36 1 59 61 13 (s) 31 0 (s) 13 17 36 (s) 54 June ... 13 (s) 31 0 (s) 57 58 July ... 16 39 (s) 56 12 14 (s) 32 0 (s) 14 56 (s) 40 August ... 0 (s) 54 10 14 (s) 32 13 19 38 (s) 57 14 September ... (s) 29 (s) (s) 57 82 October ... 41 41 1 (s) 30 14 (s) 30 (s) 76 39 53 45 (s) 97 November ... 16 (s) 29 (s) (s) 85 1 101 (s) December ... 72 48 (s) 120 54 17 (s) 30 877 4 1 173 339 (s) 957 8 495 454 ... Total 361 120 97 (s) 29 1 18 49 1 4 51 66 January ... 019 2 a For total heat content of petroleum consumptio Notes: • Data are estimates. • n Commercial sector fuel use, including that at commercial combined-heat-and- by all sectors, see data for heat content of petroleum products supplied in Tab le ower (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants. p b Hydrocarbon gas liquids. 3.6. Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of petroleum consumptio n c c. and is synonymous with the term "petroleum consumption" in Tables 3.7a–3.8 Finished motor gasoline. Through 1963, also includes special naphthas. of See Note 1, "Petroleum Products Supplied and Petroleum Consumption," at end eginning in 1993, also includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. B d • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent roundin section. g. There is a discontinuity in this time series between 2014 and 2015 due to a Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. • c hange in the method for allocating motor gasoline consumption to the end-use ectors. Beginning in 2015, the commercial and industrial sector shares of motor s el Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Exc g asoline consumption are larger than in 2014, while the transportation sector share ta and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da s smaller. beginning in 1973. i R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu and greater than Sources: See end of section. 0.5 trillion Btu. - / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 80

91 T able 3.8b Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption: Industrial Sector (Trillion Btu) a Industrial Sector b Asphalt HGL and Residual Motor Petroleum Distillate g e,f c d Road Oil Coke Fuel Oil Fuel Oil Gasoline Propane Other Kerosene Total Lubricants Total ... 698 NA 156 274 94 435 90 1,416 546 3,960 950 Total 1 251 1 615 991 NA 323 241 103 332 147 1,573 798 5,123 955 Total ... 960 Total 734 1,016 NA 507 161 107 381 328 1,584 947 5,766 1 ... 342 ... 1,150 NA 712 165 137 890 444 1,582 1,390 6,813 1 965 Total 970 Total ... 1,082 1,226 359 953 185 155 288 446 1,624 1,817 7,776 1 975 Total 1 1,339 422 1,161 119 149 223 540 1,509 2,071 8,127 ... 1,014 158 980 Total 1,324 725 1,763 181 182 962 516 1,349 3,073 9,509 1 ... 985 Total ... 1,029 1,119 797 1,871 44 166 218 575 748 1,945 7,714 1 990 Total 1,832 1,170 1,150 807 1 12 186 185 714 411 2,589 8,251 ... 178 1 1,178 1,130 1,013 2,328 15 ... 200 721 337 2,499 8,586 995 Total 2 000 Total ... 1,276 1,199 1,016 2,571 16 190 150 796 241 2,636 9,074 2 001 Total 1,257 1,299 916 2,278 23 174 295 858 203 2,793 9,179 ... 308 002 Total 1,203 1,055 2,383 14 172 1,240 842 190 2,816 9,169 2 ... 003 Total ... 1,220 1,169 981 2,249 24 2 323 825 220 3,043 9,233 159 2 ... 1,304 1,213 1,109 2,364 004 Total 161 371 937 249 3,205 9,832 28 2 005 Total ... 1,323 1,262 1,049 2,205 39 160 354 894 281 3,122 9,641 156 2 1,261 1,258 1,105 2,244 30 ... 374 938 239 3,276 9,776 006 Total 2 007 Total ... 1,197 1,256 1,102 2,285 13 161 302 910 193 3,134 9,451 4 2 ... 1,012 1,348 870 1,976 008 Total 150 245 870 194 2,788 8,587 009 Total 2 ... 873 1,073 910 2,077 4 135 238 805 130 2,483 7,818 2 010 Total 878 1,153 946 2,298 7 136 260 694 120 2,645 8,191 ... 127 2 859 1,236 970 2,255 4 ... 254 663 135 2,621 8,155 011 Total 2 012 Total ... 827 1,271 1,109 2,451 2 118 252 717 70 2,474 8,183 1 2 ... 783 1,266 1,162 2,644 013 Total 125 263 663 48 2,583 8,377 653 8,140 2 014 Total ... 793 1,366 975 2,514 3 131 210 41 2,430 f 2 832 1,170 1,025 2,729 2 142 015 Total 258 663 34 2,435 8,263 ... 016 January ... 113 129 270 (s) 12 21 62 4 208 731 2 40 21 44 119 235 (s) 12 115 55 2 235 718 February ... March ... 52 119 90 234 (s) 13 22 59 5 205 709 April ... 11 88 64 208 (s) 21 43 6 215 653 60 22 May ... 67 212 (s) 12 80 42 4 199 652 81 June ... 96 88 53 198 (s) 22 35 4 208 664 12 97 59 66 217 (s) July ... 23 50 6 205 666 10 August ... 108 93 67 206 (s) 11 23 71 4 233 748 September ... 99 72 214 (s) 11 22 42 3 210 687 87 October ... 12 102 74 233 (s) 22 52 5 217 728 86 10 103 84 219 (s) 62 21 80 4 197 697 November ... December ... 40 100 112 253 (s) 10 22 63 4 222 715 135 ... 853 1,157 997 2,700 2 Total 262 653 52 2,553 8,368 R R January ... 38 278 97 137 2 017 (s) 12 20 69 7 209 730 (s) 45 105 93 215 February ... 10 20 32 3 196 625 R R (s) 248 90 738 237 4 27 22 13 March ... 53 134 April ... 83 73 221 (s) 11 22 49 3 239 690 63 12 109 57 219 (s) 75 23 56 4 226 725 May ... June ... 95 90 50 210 (s) 10 23 41 4 240 713 R R 733 66 60 232 (s) 10 23 76 3 231 91 July ... 8 112 98 61 200 (s) August ... 23 48 4 221 714 10 September ... 88 79 206 (s) 102 22 56 4 204 691 October ... 110 63 240 (s) 11 23 27 4 224 722 85 R 21 120 92 251 (s) 10 61 64 5 217 752 November ... December ... 43 91 104 280 (s) 8 22 65 4 224 737 8,571 Total ... 849 1,205 960 2,799 1 125 264 610 50 2,667 1 2 January ... 42 125 135 313 018 9 21 58 4 227 801 256 (s) 8 19 27 3 217 664 93 96 41 February ... R 23 12 (s) 272 97 127 48 March ... 769 48 236 3 8 671 48 106 73 242 (s) April ... 21 48 5 192 R May ... 76 215 131 46 224 (s) 10 23 55 4 736 721 (s) June ... 95 86 46 224 11 23 57 3 222 R 249 July ... 97 741 87 55 (s) 11 23 54 4 215 R (s) 23 11 228 817 4 76 August ... 104 111 58 259 21 (s) 4 185 710 6 68 September ... 77 101 64 246 R R 4 74 22 10 (s) 75 125 816 81 October ... 265 234 51 198 715 4 43 November ... 12 96 89 290 (s) 22 R 722 (s) 218 5 43 22 8 313 113 76 37 December ... 8,882 46 650 264 116 1 3,154 947 1,265 797 2,588 ... Total 2 4 810 45 21 10 (s) 337 205 133 145 42 January ... 019 a also includes negative barrels per day of distillate and residual fuel oil reclassifie d Industrial sector fuel use, including that at industrial combined-heat-and-power CHP) and industrial electricity-only plants. ( as unfinished oils, and other products (from both primary and secondary suppl y) b reclassified as gasoline blending components. Beginning in 1983, also include Hydrocarbon gas liquids. s c Propane and propylene. Through 1983, also includes 40% of "Butane- crude oil burned as fuel. Beginning in 2005, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu and greater tha n P ropane Mixtures" and 30% of "Ethane-Propane Mixtures." d Ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, natural gasoline (pentanes plus), -0.5 trillion Btu. • For total heat content of petroleum consumptio Notes: • Data are estimates. n a nd refinery olefins (ethylene, propylene, butylene, and isobutylene). Through le by all sectors, see data for heat content of petroleum products supplied in Tab 1 983, also includes plant condensate and unfractionated stream. e 3.6. Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of petroleum consumptio n Finished motor gasoline. Through 1963, also includes special naphthas. c. B eginning in 1993, also includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. and is synonymous with the term "petroleum consumption" in Tables 3.7a–3.8 f There is a discontinuity in this time series between 2014 and 2015 due to a See Note 1, "Petroleum Products Supplied and Petroleum Consumption," at end of c hange in the method for allocating motor gasoline consumption to the end-use g. section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent roundin Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. ectors. Beginning in 2015, the commercial and industrial sector shares of motor • s Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Exc asoline consumption are larger than in 2014, while the transportation sector share el g i ta s smaller. and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da g Petrochemical feedstocks, still gas (refinery gas), waxes, and miscellaneous beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section. roducts. Beginning in 1964, also includes special naphthas. Beginning in 1981, p Monthly U. 81 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

92 T able 3.8c Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption: Transportation and Electric Power (Trillion Btu) Sectors a Transportation Sector Electric Power Sector b HGL Lubri- Aviation Distillate Motor Jet Residual Residual Petroleum Distillate e f,g d c i h Total Total Propane Gasoline Fuel Oil Gasoline Fuel Oil Coke cants Fuel Fuel Oil Fuel Oil e 199 ( ) 3 ... 950 Total 141 4,664 1,201 6,690 32 NA 440 472 1 480 ... 1,009 791 13 301 155 6,175 955 Total 8,799 32 NA 439 471 1 354 844 960 Total 892 19 739 152 7,183 298 10,125 22 NA 530 553 1 ... 965 Total ... 222 1,093 32 1,215 149 8,386 770 11,866 29 NA 693 722 1 970 Total 1 1,569 44 1,973 147 10,716 761 15,310 141 19 1,958 2,117 ... 100 ... 711 2,121 43 2,029 155 12,485 975 Total 17,615 226 2 2,937 3,166 1 71 1,398 980 Total 2,795 18 2,179 172 12,383 64 19,009 169 5 2,459 2,634 1 ... 985 Total ... 50 3,170 30 2,497 156 12,784 786 19,472 85 7 998 1,090 1 1,016 990 Total 3,661 23 3,129 176 13,575 45 21,626 97 30 1,163 1,289 ... 1 108 ... 40 4,191 18 3,132 168 14,576 911 23,036 1 81 566 755 995 Total 2 000 Total ... 36 5,159 12 3,580 179 15,933 888 25,787 175 99 871 1,144 2 001 Total 35 5,286 14 3,426 164 16,013 586 25,524 170 103 1,003 1,276 ... 677 002 Total 5,387 14 3,340 162 16,437 34 26,051 127 175 659 961 2 ... 003 Total ... 30 5,584 18 3,265 150 16,565 571 26,184 161 175 869 1,205 2 2 004 Total 31 5,925 19 3,383 152 16,901 740 27,150 111 211 879 1,201 ... 16,958 2 35 6,068 28 3,475 151 ... 837 27,553 114 231 876 1,222 005 Total 2 006 Total ... 33 6,390 27 3,379 147 17,088 906 27,972 73 203 361 637 2 007 Total 32 6,411 22 3,358 152 17,066 994 28,034 89 163 397 648 ... 16,510 2 28 5,792 40 3,193 141 ... 926 26,630 73 146 240 459 008 Total 2 009 Total ... 27 5,537 28 2,883 127 16,422 791 25,814 70 132 181 382 d 370 ... 27 5,826 2 9 2,963 155 16,320 892 26,191 80 137 154 010 Total 148 2 ... 27 5,997 10 2,950 011 Total 15,877 776 25,785 64 138 93 295 85 2 012 Total ... 25 5,736 10 2,901 135 15,795 671 25,274 52 77 214 255 77 2 013 Total ... 22 5,894 9 2,969 143 16,030 581 25,648 55 123 2 014 Total 22 6,154 9 3,042 149 16,209 447 26,032 82 118 95 295 ... g 015 Total 6,251 9 3,204 163 ... 16,308 463 26,419 70 112 94 276 2 21 2,097 January ... 1 255 14 1,306 48 472 7 9 7 23 016 1 2 2 454 1 252 14 1,302 2,048 5 9 7 22 February ... 23 March ... 516 1 272 14 1,415 2 2,280 4 10 4 18 61 April ... 2 507 1 266 13 1,340 74 2,203 4 11 4 19 May ... 13 529 1 277 1,421 54 2,297 5 10 5 19 2 June ... 2 1 293 14 1,403 54 2,304 4 11 5 20 537 2,370 July ... 1 302 11 1,445 68 539 5 11 8 24 2 August ... 2 565 1 303 12 1,462 2,395 4 12 8 24 50 2 527 1 278 12 1,385 39 2,244 4 11 5 20 September ... 55 October ... 542 1 283 13 1,372 2 2,268 4 7 6 16 November ... 2 503 1 278 12 1,349 49 2,192 5 8 5 18 December ... 504 1 291 12 1,401 49 2,259 5 9 6 20 2 Total 20 6,197 10 3,350 154 16,601 623 26,956 55 118 71 244 ... 93 January ... 462 1 279 14 1,284 1 2,134 5 10 5 21 2 017 February ... 1 448 1 241 12 41 1,972 4 8 5 16 1,228 R 2 526 1 295 14 1,408 53 2,298 5 7 5 17 March ... R 1,358 April ... 506 1 280 12 2 45 2,203 4 5 4 13 May ... 2 550 1 293 13 1,442 60 2,361 5 9 5 19 R 2,338 541 1 300 12 1,428 56 4 10 6 19 3 June ... R R 548 1 305 12 1,448 47 July ... 2,363 4 10 5 18 2 R R 2 9 572 1 310 1,472 57 August ... 2,423 4 8 6 18 48 531 1 277 11 1,370 1 2,239 4 8 5 17 September ... R October ... 1 549 1 308 12 1,412 53 16 2,337 4 6 5 R R 4 64 17 8 1,331 4 November ... 2 2,211 515 1 287 12 309 47 December ... 2 500 1 10 9 1,396 2,264 9 8 27 R 97 27,143 66 218 665 16,576 55 Total ... 21 6,248 10 3,481 142 R R 21 10 30 2,152 January ... 41 1,320 10 60 279 1 500 1 018 2 February ... 459 1 254 10 1,202 42 1,969 3 8 4 15 1 March ... 36 544 1 302 13 1,426 2,325 4 7 4 15 2 68 543 1 278 10 1,342 2 2,244 4 7 4 15 April ... R May ... 2 52 588 1 300 11 1,442 14 2,396 5 4 5 June ... 38 562 1 315 13 1,432 2 2,363 5 8 6 19 R July ... 3 19 587 1 312 13 1,455 56 2,426 4 10 6 R 6 9 4 2,470 1,472 19 August ... 2 605 1 326 12 51 58 2,242 4 9 6 19 7 September ... 1 554 1 289 1,332 R 5 4 2,338 50 1,400 11 292 1 582 3 October ... 15 6 5 16 November ... 1 521 1 301 13 1,351 51 2,240 4 7 293 4 December ... 2 513 1 17 9 1,392 69 2,279 4 8 R Total 243 92 73 27,443 612 16,567 132 3,541 11 6,559 22 ... 77 11 019 January ... 2 512 1 286 2 1,320 49 2,181 6 9 6 21 a combustion plant use of petroleum. Through 2000, electric utility data also includ e Electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 2 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to 2 small amounts of kerosene and jet fuel. i of Fuel oil nos. 5 and 6. Through 1979, data are for steam plant use t he public. Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only; beginning in 1989, el petroleum. Through 2000, electric utility data also include a small amount of fu d ata are for electric utilities and independent power producers. b oil no. 4. Hydrocarbon gas liquids. c Beginning in 2009, includes renewable diesel fuel (including biodiesel) R=Revised. NA=Not available. of lended into distillate fuel oil. b Transportation sector data are estimates. Notes: • • For total heat content d petroleum consumption by all sectors, see data for heat content of petroleu m There is a discontinuity in this time series between 2009 and 2010 due to a n products supplied in Table 3.6. Petroleum products supplied is an approximatio c hange in data sources. e m of petroleum consumption and is synonymous with the term "petroleu Beginning in 1957, includes kerosene-type jet fuel. For 1952–2004, also i consumption" in Tables 3.7a–3.8c. Other measurements of consumption by fu ncludes naphtha-type jet fuel. (Through 1951, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in el he products from which it was blended—gasoline, kerosene, and distillate fuel oil. type or sector may differ. For example, jet fuel product supplied may not equal j et t B eginning in 2005, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in "Other" on Table 3.8b.) fuel consumed by U.S.-flagged aircraft. See Note 1, "Petroleum Products Supplie d f Totals may not equal sum of • Finished motor gasoline. Through 1963, also includes special naphthas. and Petroleum Consumption," at end of section. B eginning in 1993, also includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. components due to independent rounding. • 0 Geographic coverage is the 5 g states and the District of Columbia. There is a discontinuity in this time series between 2014 and 2015 due to a el c hange in the method for allocating motor gasoline consumption to the end-use Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#petroleum (Exc s ta ectors. Beginning in 2015, the commercial and industrial sector shares of motor and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da beginning in 1973. asoline consumption are larger than in 2014, while the transportation sector share g s smaller. i Sources: See end of section. h Fuel oil nos. 1, 2, and 4. Through 1979, data are for gas turbine and internal / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 82

93 Petroleum Note Petroleum Products Supplied and Petroleum Consumption. Total petroleum products supplied is the sum of 1. products the for each petroleum product, crude oil, unfinished oils, and gasoline blending components. This supplied products supplied for non ‐ combustion use in the industrial includes and transportation sectors (see also petroleum 1.11a and Tables In general, except for crude oil, product supplied of each product is computed as follows: field 1.11b). plus renewable fuels and oxygenate plant net production, plus refinery and blender production, production, plus net net receipts, plus adjustments, minus stock change, minus refinery and blender net inputs, minus exports. imports, plus oil product supplied is the sum of crude oil burned on leases and at pipeline pump stations as reported on Form Crude 813, "Monthly Crude Oil Report." Prior to 1983, crude oil burned on leases and used at pipeline pump stations was EIA ‐ as either distillate or residual fuel oil reported and included as product supplied for these products. Petroleum was and supplied (see Tables 3.5 and 3.6) is an approximation of petroleum consumption is synonymous with the product Consumption" in "Petroleum Tables 3.7a–3.8c. term 2. Petroleum Survey Respondents. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) uses a number of sources Note to maintain the survey respondent lists. On a regular basis, survey managers review such industry and methods as the Oil & Gas Journal and Oil Daily for information on facilities or companies starting up or closing down publications sources are augmented by articles in operations. newspapers, communications from respondents indicating Those received status, and information in from survey systems. changes supplement routine frames maintenance and to provide more thorough coverage, To a comprehensive frames investigation is conducted every 3 years. This investigation in the reassessment and recompilation of the results complete frame for each survey. The effort also includes the evaluation of impact of potential frame changes on the the series of data from these respondents. The results historical this frame study are time usually implemented in of January to provide a full under the same frame. year Note 3. Historical Petroleum Data. Detailed information on petroleum data through 1993 can be found in Notes 1–6 60 and 61 on the July pages 2013 Monthly Energy Review (MER) at in http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/ data/monthly/archive/00351307.pdf. The notes discuss: added Note 1, "Petroleum Survey Respondents": In 1993, EIA numerous companies that produce, blend, store, or surveys. import oxygenates to the monthly Note "Motor Gasoline": In 1981, 2, EIA its universe to include nonrefinery blenders and separated blending expanded from finished motor gasoline as a reporting category. In 1993, EIA made adjustments to finished motor components product supplied data to more accurately account for fuel ethanol and gasoline motor gasoline blending components blended into finished motor gasoline. Note "Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils": In 1981, EIA eliminated the requirement to report crude 3, oil in pipelines or burned on leases as either or residual fuel oil. distillate Note 4, "Petroleum New Stock Basis": In 1975, 1979, 1981, and 1983, EIA added numerous respondents to bulk terminal and surveys; pipeline it in 1984, EIA made changes in the reporting of natural gas liquids; and in 1993, EIA changed how collected bulk terminal and pipeline stocks of oxygenates. These changes affected stocks reported and stock change calculations. Note 5, "Stocks of Alaskan Crude Oil": In 1981, EIA began to include data for of Alaskan crude stocks oil in transit. Note 6, "Petroleum Data Discrepancies": In 1976, 1978, and 1979, there are some small discrepancies between data in the MER and the Petroleum Supply Annual . Table 3.1 Sources Mines, of Bureau reports. annual , Annual , Statement Petroleum Surveys, Industry Mineral 1949–1975: Monthly U. 83 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

94 1976–1980: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement , Annual , annual U.S. reports. Petroleum Supply Annual ( PSA ), annual reports. 1981–2001: EIA, PSA, annual reports, and unpublished revisions; Petroleum Supply Monthly , monthly reports; forward: EIA, 2002 crude oil production from: data production, and adjustments (based revisions on to crude oil production, total field EIA 914, "Monthly Crude Oil, Lease Condensate, and ‐ Gas Production Report"; state government agencies; Form Natural Department of the Interior, Bureau of Safety and Environmental U.S. and predecessor agencies; and Form Enforcement, ‐ "Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Report"); and, for the current two EIA 182, Weekly months, Status Report Petroleum Monthly Energy system data system and calculations. data Review 3.2 Sources Table Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, 1949–1975: Petroleum Statement , Annual , annual reports; and U.S. Energy (EIA) estimates. (For 1967–1975, refinery Administration blender net production estimates for Information and are equal to “Propane/Propylene Production at Refineries for Chemical Use”; and estimates for propane are propylene to total propane/propylene minus equal propylene.) 1976–1980: Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement, Annual, annual reports, and estimates. (Refinery and EIA, production estimates for propylene are equal to “Propane/Propylene Production at Refineries for Chemical blender net and estimates for propane are equal to total propane/propylene minus propylene.) Use”; unpublished Petroleum Supply Annual , annual reports, 1981–2017: EIA, estimates. and 1981–1985, revisions, (For and blender net production estimates for propylene are equal to “Propane/Propylene Production at Refineries refinery Use”; and estimates for propane are equal to total propane/propylene minus propylene. For 1986– for Petrochemical refinery and blender net production estimates for propylene are created using the 1989 annual 1988, propylene share “Net Refinery Production of Propane/Propylene”; and estimates for propane are equal to total propane/propylene of minus propylene.) and, 2019: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly, monthly 2018 and for the current two months, Weekly Petroleum reports; Status Report data system, Short ‐ Term Integrated Forecasting System, and Monthly Energy Review data system calculations. Sources Table 3.5 Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Petroleum Statement , Annual , annual reports; 1949–1975: and U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates. (For 1949–1966, supplied estimates for total propane/propylene product are created using sales and shipments data from Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Sales of Liquefied Petroleum and Ethane, annual Gases Shipments reports, Liquefied Petroleum and Gases and Ethane, annual reports– of annual rates of sales and shipments are applied to the 1967 total propane/propylene product supplied value to growth create historical annual estimates. For 1949–1966, product supplied estimates for propylene are created using the 1967 annual share of total propane/propylene propylene are and estimates for propane equal to total product supplied; minus propylene. For 1967–1975, product supplied estimates for propylene are equal to propylene propane/propylene refinery blender net production from Table 3.2; and estimates for propane are equal and to total propane/propylene minus propylene.) Reports, Energy 1976–1980: EIA, Petroleum Statement, Annual, Data annual reports, and estimates. (Product supplied estimates propylene are equal to propylene refinery and blender net production from Table for 3.2; and estimates for propane are equal to propane/propylene minus propylene.) total 1981–2017: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual , annual reports, unpublished revisions, and estimates. (For 1981–1992, product supplied estimates for propylene are equal to propylene refinery and blender net production from Table 3.2; propylene. minus propane/propylene total propane to equal are supplied product 1993–2009, For and estimates for / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 84

95 estimates propylene are equal to propylene refinery and blender net production from Table 3.2, plus propylene for from imports 3.3b; and estimates for propane are equal to total propane/propylene minus propylene.) Table current EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly, monthly reports; and, for the and two months, Weekly Petroleum 2018 2019: Energy Report system, Short ‐ Term Integrated Forecasting System, and Monthly data Review data system Status calculations. 3.6 Table Sources Asphalt and Road Oil supplied data in thousand barrels per day for asphalt and Product oil are from Table 3.5, and are converted to road by multiplying by the asphalt and road oil heat content factor in Table A1. trillion Btu Aviation Gasoline to data in thousand barrels per day for aviation Product gasoline are from Table 3.5, and are converted supplied trillion multiplying by the aviation gasoline (finished) by content factor in Table A1. Btu heat Distillate Fuel Oil Product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for distillate fuel oil are from Table 3.5, and are 1949–2008: trillion Btu by multiplying by the distillate fuel oil heat content factors in Table A3. converted to Consumption data for biodiesel are calculated using biodiesel data from U.S. Energy Information 2009–2011: Administration EIA ‐ 22M, “Monthly Biodiesel Production Survey”; and biomass ‐ based diesel fuel data from EIA ‐ 810, (EIA), and Refinery Report,” EIA ‐ 812, “Monthly Product Pipeline Report,” EIA ‐ 815, “Monthly Bulk Terminal and “Monthly Report” (the data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the biodiesel heat content factor in Table Blender A1). data for other renewable diesel fuel are set equal to refinery and blender net inputs data from EIA ‐ 810, Consumption and Report,” and EIA ‐ 815, “Monthly Bulk Terminal “Monthly Blender Report” (the data are converted to Btu by Refinery in multiplying the other renewable diesel fuel heat content factor by A1). Product supplied Table for distillate fuel data oil from Table 3.5, minus consumption data for biodiesel and other renewable diesel fuel, are converted to Btu by Total multiplying the distillate fuel oil heat content factors in Table A3. by distillate fuel oil product supplied is the sum of values for distillate fuel oil (excluding biodiesel and other renewable diesel fuel), biodiesel, and other renewable diesel fuel. 2012 forward: Consumption data for biodiesel are from Table 10.4. Consumption data for other renewable diesel fuel are set equal to refinery and blender net inputs data from EIA ‐ 810, “Monthly Refinery Report,” and EIA 815, “Monthly ‐ Terminal and Blender Report” (the data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the other renewable diesel fuel heat Bulk factor in Table A1). Product supplied data for distillate fuel oil from Table 3.5, minus consumption data for content other renewable diesel and fuel, are converted biodiesel Btu by multiplying by the distillate fuel to heat content oil factors in Table A3. Total distillate fuel oil product supplied is the sum of the values for distillate fuel oil (excluding fuel), other renewable diesel biodiesel biodiesel, and other renewable diesel fuel. and Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL)—Propane (Including Propylene) propane supplied data Product thousand barrels per day for (including propylene) are from Table 3.5, and are in converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the propane/propylene heat content factor in Table A1. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL)—Total Prior to the current two months, product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for the component products of HGL gasoline, normal butane, isobutane, natural (ethane, and refinery olefins—ethylene, propylene, butylene, and propane, sources from the isobutylene) PSA, PSM, and earlier publications (see are for Table 3.5). These data are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the appropriate heat content factors in Table A1. Total HGL product supplied is the sum of the in trillion Btu for data the HGL component products. For the current two months: Note that "liquefied petroleum gases" ("LPG") below include ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, and refinery olefins (ethylene, propylene, and isobutylene), but exclude natural gasoline. butylene, System Forecasting Integrated Term ‐ Short EIA's from are LPG for day per Product supplied data in thousand barrels Monthly U. 85 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

96 (STIFS). STIFS model results are used in EIA's Short ‐ Term Energy Outlook , which is accessible on the Web at (The multiplying These are converted to trillion Btu by data by the previous year's https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/steo/.) Product heat content factor (derived using LPG component heat content factors in Table A1). quantity ‐ weighted LPG data in thousand barrels per day for natural gasoline are from STIFS, and are converted to trillion Btu by supplied HGL by natural gasoline heat content factor in Table A1. Total product supplied is the sum of the data in multiplying the Btu for LPG and natural gasoline. trillion Jet Fuel Product data in thousand barrels per day for kerosene ‐ type jet fuel and, through 2004, naphtha ‐ type jet fuel supplied the PSA, PSM, and earlier publications (see sources for Table 3.5). These data are converted to trillion Btu by are from by the appropriate heat content factors in Table A1. multiplying Total fuel product supplied is the sum of the data in jet for kerosene ‐ type and Btu naphtha ‐ type jet fuel. trillion Kerosene from data in thousand barrels per day for kerosene are supplied Table 3.5, and are converted to trillion Btu by Product Table by the kerosene heat content factor in multiplying A1. Lubricants Product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for lubricants are from Table 3.5, and are converted to trillion Btu by factor the lubricants heat content in Table A1. multiplying by Motor Gasoline supplied data in thousand barrels per day for motor gasoline are from Table 3.5, and are converted to trillion Product Btu multiplying by the motor gasoline heat content factors in Table A3. by Other Petroleum Products to the Prior two months, product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for "other" petroleum products are current from the PSA, PSM, and earlier publications (see sources for Table 3.5). "Other" petroleum products include petrochemical special naphthas, still gas (refinery gas), waxes, and miscellaneous products; beginning in feedstocks, 1981, also includes negative barrels per day of distillate and fuel oil reclassified as unfinished oils, and other residual products (from both primary and secondary supply) reclassified as gasoline blending components; beginning in 1983, also crude oil burned as fuel; and beginning in includes 2005, also includes naphtha ‐ type jet fuel. These data are heat converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the appropriate content factors in MER Table A1. Total "Other" petroleum product supplied is the sum of the data in trillion Btu for the individual products. total estimating first by calculated is supplied products petroleum "Other" For the current two months, total petroleum (product supplied data in thousand barrels products day supplied for total petroleum from Table 3.5 are converted per to trillion Btu by multiplying by the total petroleum consumption heat content factor in Table A3), and then subtracting data in trillion Btu (from Table 3.6) for asphalt and road oil, oil, aviation gasoline, distillate fuel jet fuel, kerosene, total oil. HGL, lubricants, motor gasoline, petroleum coke, and residual fuel Petroleum Coke Product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for petroleum coke are from Table 3.5, and are to trillion converted Btu by multiplying by the petroleum coke content factors in Table A3. heat Residual Fuel Oil Product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for residual fuel oil are from Table 3.5, and are converted to trillion oil Btu by multiplying by the residual fuel heat content factor in Table A1. Total Petroleum the products (except "Propane") shown in in trillion Btu for Total petroleum products supplied is the sum of the data 3.6. Table / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 86

97 Tables Sources 3.7a–3.7c data for 1949–1972 are the following sources: Petroleum consumption from Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Petroleum Statement, 1949–1959: , annual reports, and U.S. Energy Annual (EIA) estimates. Information Administration EIA, State Energy Data System. 1960–1972: the data beginning in 1973 are derived from data for "petroleum products supplied" from Petroleum consumption following sources: Petroleum Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Statement Annual , annual reports. 1973–1975: Surveys, EIA, Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement Annual , annual reports. 1976–1980: Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) 1981–2017: EIA, annual reports, and unpublished revisions. , 2018 and 2019: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) , monthly reports. by energy ‐ use allocation procedures 1973, individual product are as follows: Beginning in Asphalt and Road Oil is consumption of asphalt and road oil All assigned to the industrial sector. Aviation Gasoline All consumption of aviation gasoline is assigned to the transportation sector. Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate fuel oil consumption is assigned the sectors as follows: to Distillate Fuel Oil, Electric Power Sector See sources for Table For 1973–1979, electric utility consumption of distillate fuel oil is assumed to be the amount 7.4b. of petroleum (minus small amounts of kerosene and kerosene ‐ type jet fuel deliveries) consumed in gas turbine and oil distillate of consumption utility electric fuel is internal combustion plants. For 1980–2000, assumed to be the plus light oil (fuel oil nos. 1 amount 2, of small amounts of kerosene and jet fuel) consumed. and Distillate Fuel Oil, End-Use Sectors, Annual Data The aggregate end ‐ use amount is total distillate fuel oil product supplied minus the amount consumed by the electric allocated power The end ‐ use total consumed annually is sector. to the individual end ‐ use sectors (residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation) in proportion to each sector's share of sales as reported in EIA's Fuel Oil and Form Kerosene Sales (Sales) report series (DOE/EIA ‐ 0535), which is based primarily on data collected by ‐ EIA 821, "Annual based Fuel and Kerosene Sales Report" (previously Form EIA ‐ 172). Shares for the current year are Oil on the most recent Sales report. notes Following on are the individual sector groupings: Beginning in 1979, the residential sector sales total is directly from the Sales reports. Through 1978, each year's sales into subtotal the heating plus industrial category is split of residential, commercial, and industrial (including farm) in proportion to the 1979 shares. the Beginning 1979, in commercial sector sales total is directly from the Sales reports. Through 1978, each year's sales commercial, and industrial (including farm) in residential, subtotal of the heating plus industrial category is split into to proportion shares. 1979 the Monthly U. 87 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

98 Beginning 1979, the industrial sector sales total is the sum of the sales for industrial, farm, oil company, off ‐ highway in and diesel, other uses. Through 1978, each year's sales subtotal of the heating plus industrial category is split into all and 1979 shares, the this estimated industrial in industrial (including farm) commercial, proportion to and residential, diesel, to oil company, off ‐ highway added and all other uses. is portion transportation sector sales total is the sum of the sales for railroad, vessel bunkering, on ‐ The diesel, and highway for all years. military uses Distillate Fuel Oil, End-Use Sectors, Monthly Data and commercial sector monthly consumption is estimated by allocating the annual estimates, which Residential sector described above, into the months in proportion to each month's share of are year's sales of No. 2 heating oil. (For the of the current year, the residential and commercial month consumption increase from the each same month in the year is based on the percent increase in that month's No. 2 heating oil sales from the same month in the previous The years' No. 2 heating oil sales totals are from the following sources: for 1973–1980, the Ethyl previous year.) Monthly Report of Heating Corporation, Sales for 1981 and 1982, the American Petroleum Institute, Monthly Report Oil ; Form Heating Oil Sales and for 1983 forward, EIA, EIA ‐ 782A, "Refiners'/Gas Plant Operators' Monthly Petroleum of ; Sales Report," No. 2 Fuel Oil Sales to End Users and for Resale. Product portion highway use is allocated The transportation into the months in proportion to each month's share of the year's Administration's for highway use as reported by the Federal Highway total Table MF ‐ 25, "Private and Commercial sales ‐ of Highway Special Fuels by Months." Beginning in 1994, the sales Use for ‐ highway ‐ use data are no longer available as a monthly series; the 1993 data are used for allocating succeeding year's totals into months. A fuel oil "balance" is calculated as total distillate fuel oil product supplied minus the amount consumed distillate by the electric power sector, residential sector, commercial sector, and for highway use. Industrial sector monthly consumption is estimated by multiplying each month's distillate fuel oil "balance" by the annual annual consumption share of the industrial distillate fuel oil "balance." Total transportation sector monthly consumption is estimated as total distillate fuel oil product supplied minus the by amount consumed the residential, commercial, industrial, and electric power sectors. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL)—Propane (Including Propylene) and Total that "liquefied petroleum gases" ("LPG") below include ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, and refinery Note (ethylene, butylene, and isobutylene), but propylene, exclude natural gasoline. olefins annual shares of LPG total consumption that are The estimated to be used by each sector are applied to each month's LPG consumption to create total sector consumption estimates. The annual sector shares are calculated as monthly described below. sector LPG consumption: Through 2002, residential sector LPG consumption is estimated by applying Annual residential average of the the residential shares for 2003–2008 to the combined residential and commercial propane sales. state Beginning in 2003, residential sector LPG consumption is assumed to equal propane retail sales to the residential sector and to retailers. sales sector LPG consumption: Through 2002, commercial sector LPG consumption is equal to the Annual commercial residential and commercial propane sales combined residential sector LPG consumption. Beginning in 2003, minus commercial sector LPG consumption is assumed equal commercial sector propane sales. to Annual transportation sector LPG consumption: Through 2009, transportation sector LPG consumption is assumed to equal transportation portion of propane sales for internal the combustion engines (these sales are allocated between the transportation and industrial sectors using data for special fuels used on highways provided by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration). Beginning in 2010, transportation sector LPG consumption is from Mode.” a within Type Fuel by Use Energy Sector Table “Transportation 37, EIA, Annual Energy Outlook , / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 88

99 Annual sector LPG consumption: Industrial sector LPG is estimated as the difference between LPG total industrial consumption and the sum of the estimated LPG by the residential, commercial, and transportation product supplied The industrial sector LPG consumption includes LPG used by chemical plants sectors. as raw materials or solvents and used in the production of synthetic rubber; refinery fuel use; as synthetic natural gas feedstock and use in secondary use recovery projects; all farm use; LPG sold to gas utility companies for distribution through the mains; and a portion of the use LPG as an internal combustion engine fuel. of Sources creating the annual consumption estimates for annual sector shares are: of EIA's "Sales of Liquefied Petroleum Gases and Ethane" reports, based primarily on data collected by Form 1973–1982: Gases." ‐ "Sales of Liquefied Petroleum 174, EIA the collection of data estimates for 1983 are based on 1982 end ‐ use consumption because 1983: End ‐ use consumption under EIA ‐ 174 was discontinued Form after data year 1982. 1984–2007: American Petroleum Institute (API), "Sales of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases," table on data sales of natural gas liquids and liquefied refinery gases by end use. EIA adjusts the to remove quantities of natural gasoline and to estimate withheld values. and 2009: Propane consumption is from API, “Sales of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases,” table on 2008 of by end use. EIA adjusts the data to estimate withheld values. Other LPG consumption is from EIA, PSA, sales propane reports, and is annual allocated to the industrial sector. Propane consumption is from API, “Sales of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases,” table 2010 on forward: Energy odorized propane by end use; and EIA, Annual sales Outlook , Table 37, “Transportation Sector Energy Use by of Fuel Type Within a Mode.” EIA adjusts the data estimate withheld values. Other LPG consumption is from EIA, PSA, to and is allocated to annual the industrial sector. reports, equal propane Residential (including propylene) consumption is sector to residential sector LPG consumption. Commercial sector propane (including propylene) consumption is equal to commercial sector LPG consumption. to equal propylene) consumption is transportation sector LPG consumption. sector propane (including Transportation Industrial sector propane (including propylene) consumption is equal to propane (including propylene) product supplied sources from the PSA, PSM, and earlier publications (see for Table 3.5), minus propane (including propylene) sectors. transportation and commercial, residential, consumption in the total sector Industrial HGL Product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for natural gasoline are from consumption: consumption PSM, and earlier publications (see sources the for Table 3.5). Industrial sector total HGL PSA, is the sum of industrial sector LPG consumption and gasoline product supplied. natural Jet Fuel Through 1982, small amounts of kerosene ‐ type jet fuel were consumed by the electric power sector. Kerosene ‐ type jet fuel deliveries to the electric power sector as reported on Form FERC ‐ 423 (formerly Form FPC ‐ 423) were used as estimates of this consumption. Through 2004, all remaining jet fuel (kerosene ‐ type naphtha ‐ type) is and assigned to the jet transportation sector. Beginning in 2005, kerosene ‐ type fuel is assigned to the transportation sector, while naphtha ‐ type fuel is classified under "Other Petroleum Products," which is assigned to the industrial sector. (Note: Petroleum jet is an approximation of petroleum consumption products supplied synonymous with the term "petroleum and is in Tables 3.7a–3.8c. Other measurements consumption" of consumption by fuel type or sector may differ. For example, jet fuel product supplied may not equal jet fuel consumed by U.S. ‐ flagged aircraft.) Kerosene Kerosene product supplied is allocated to the individual ‐ use sectors (residential, commercial, and industrial) in end proportion to ‐ each sector's share of sales as reported in EIA's Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales (Sales) report series (DOE/EIA collected data 821, "Annual Fuel Oil Form ‐ by 0535), which is based primarily on EIA Report" Sales Kerosene and Form (previously 172). ‐ EIA Monthly U. 89 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

100 Beginning 1979, the residential sector sales total is directly from the Sales reports. Through 1978, each year's sales in called is allocated to the residential, commercial, and industrial "heating" sectors in proportion to the 1979 category shares. sales year's each 1978, Through reports. total directly from the Sales sales is sector commercial the 1979, in Beginning called "heating" is allocated to the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors in proportion to the 1979 category shares. for in 1979, the industrial sector sales total is the sum of the sales Beginning industrial, farm, and all other uses. Through each year's sales category 1978, called "heating" is allocated to the residential, commercial and industrial sectors in proportion the 1979 shares, and the estimated industrial (including farm) portion is added to all other uses. to Lubricants consumption of lubricants is allocated to the The industrial and transportation sectors for all months 1973–2009: to proportions developed from annual sales of lubricants to the two sectors from U.S. Department of according Lubricating Census Bureau, Current Industrial Reports , "Sales of and Industrial Oils and Greases." The U.S. Commerce, 1973 are to 1973 and 1974; the 1975 shares are applied to 1975 and shares 1976; and the 1977 shares are applied applied to 1977 through 2009. 2010 The consumption of lubricants in the industrial sector is estimated by EIA based on Kline & Company data forward: finished lubricant demand for on marine and railroad) industrial use. The (less consumption of lubricants in the sector is estimated by EIA based on Kline & Company data transportation on finished lubricant demand for consumer total, commercial total, marine, and railroad use. Estimates for lubricant consumption 2010 forward are not from compatible with data before 2010. Motor Gasoline The total monthly consumption of motor gasoline is allocated to the sectors in proportion to aggregations of annual sales created on the basis of the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, categories ‐ Highway Tables MF ‐ 21, MF ‐ 24, and MF Statistics 25, as follows: , Through 2014, commercial sales are the sum of sales for public non ‐ highway use and miscellaneous use. Beginning in ‐ 2015, sales are the sum of sales for public non commercial highway use, lawn and garden use, and miscellaneous use. For all years, industrial sales are the sum of sales for agriculture, construction, and "industrial and commercial" (as use classified in the Highway Statistics ). Through 2014, transportation sales are the sum of sales for highway use (minus the sales of special fuels, which are fuel) distillate diesel use. marine for sales and primarily of fuel and are accounted for in the transportation sector Beginning 2015, transportation in sales are the sum of sales for use (minus the sales of special fuels, which are highway primarily diesel fuel and are accounted for in the transportation sector of distillate fuel) and sales for boating use and recreational vehicle use. Petroleum Coke Portions of petroleum coke are consumed by the commercial electric power sector (see sources for Table 7.4b) and the sector (see sources for Table 7.4c). The remaining petroleum coke is assigned to the industrial sector. Residual Fuel Oil Residual fuel oil consumption is assigned the sectors as follows: to Residual Fuel Oil, El ectric Power Sector See sources for Table 7.4b. For 1973–1979, electric utility consumption of residual fuel oil is assumed to be the amount 1980–2000, of petroleum consumed in steam ‐ electric power plants. For electric utility consumption of residual fuel oil is nos. amount 4, 5, of heavy oil (fuel oil assumed to be the consumed. 6) and / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 90

101 Residual Fuel Oil, End-Use Sectors, Annual Data end ‐ use amount is total residual fuel oil product supplied minus the amount consumed by the electric The aggregate sector. end ‐ use total consumed annually is allocated to the individual end ‐ use sectors (commercial, power The as and in proportion to each sector's share of sales transportation) reported in EIA's industrial, Oil and Kerosene Fuel (Sales) report series (DOE/EIA ‐ 535), which is based primarily on data collected by Form EIA ‐ 821, "Annual Fuel Oil Sales Kerosene ‐ Sales Report" (previously Form EIA 172). Shares for the current year are based on the most recent Sales and report. notes on the are Following groupings: sector individual in 1979, commercial sales data are directly from the Sales reports. Through 1978, each year's Beginning sales subtotal of plus industrial category is allocated to the commercial heating industrial sectors in proportion to the 1979 the and shares. Through uses. other all and company, oil industrial, for sales of the are data sales industrial 1979, in Beginning sum category each year's sales subtotal the heating plus industrial is allocated to the commercial and industrial 1978, of in proportion to the 1979 shares, and the estimated industrial portion is added to oil company and all other uses. sectors Transportation are the sum of sales for railroad, vessel bunkering, and military uses for all years. sales Residual Fuel Oil, End-Use Sectors, Monthly Data monthly consumption is estimated by allocating sector annual estimates, which are described above, Commercial the the months in proportion to each month's share of the year's sales of No. 2 heating oil. (For each month of the into increase the consumption current from the same month in the previous year year, percent is on the based increase in month's No. 2 heating oil sales from the same month in the previous year.) The years' No. that heating oil sales totals 2 are from the following sources: for 1973–1980, the Ethyl Corporation, Report of Heating Oil Sales ; for 1981 and Monthly 1982, the American Petroleum Institute, Monthly Report of Heating Oil Sales ; and for 1983 forward, EIA, Form EIA ‐ 782A, Fuel "Refiners'/Gas Operators' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report," No. 2 Plant Oil Sales to End Users and for Resale. A residual fuel oil "balance" is calculated as total residual fuel oil product minus the amount consumed by the supplied electric power sector, commercial sector, and by industrial combined ‐ heat ‐ and ‐ power plants (see sources for Table 7.4c). monthly Transportation sector consumption is estimated by multiplying each month's residual fuel oil "balance" by the annual consumption share of the annual residual fuel transportation "balance." oil minus industrial sector monthly consumption is estimated as total residual fuel oil product the amount Total supplied the commercial, transportation, and by electric power sectors. consumed Other Petroleum Products of all remaining petroleum products is assigned to the industrial sector. Consumption Other petroleum products include petrochemical feedstocks, special naphthas, still gas (refinery gas), waxes, and miscellaneous products. Beginning in includes negative 1981, barrels per day of distillate and residual also fuel oil reclassified as unfinished oils, and other products (from both primary and secondary supply) reclassified as gasoline blending components. Beginning in 1983, also crude oil burned as fuel. Beginning in 2005, also includes naphtha ‐ type jet fuel. includes Sources Table 3.8a Distillate Fuel Oil commercial sector consumption data in thousand Residential barrels per and day for distillate fuel oil are from Table 3.7a, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the distillate fuel oil heat content factors in Table A3. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL)—Pr opane (Including Propylene) Residential and commercial sector consumption data in thousand barrels day for HGL are from Table 3.7a, and are per the by multiplying by Btu A1. Table in factor content heat propane/propylene converted to trillion Monthly U. 91 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

102 Kerosene Residential commercial sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for kerosene are from Table 3.7a, and and converted kerosene to trillion Btu by multiplying by the heat content factor in Table A1. are Motor Gasoline Commercial consumption data in thousand barrels per day for sector motor gasoline are from Table 3.7a, and are to trillion Btu by multiplying by the motor gasoline heat content factors in Table A3. converted Petroleum Coke 1949–2003: sector consumption data in thousand barrels per Commercial for petroleum coke are from Table 3.7a, day are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the total petroleum coke heat content factor in Table A1. and from Table sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for petroleum coke are 2004 forward: Commercial 3.7a, are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the marketable petroleum coke heat content factor in Table A1. and Residual Fuel Oil Commercial sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for residual fuel oil are from Table 3.7a, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the residual fuel oil heat content factor in Table A1. Total Petroleum Residential sector total petroleum consumption is the sum of the data in trillion Btu for the petroleum products shown under "Residential Sector" in Table 3.8a. Commercial sector total petroleum consumption is the sum of the data in trillion Btu for the petroleum products shown under "Commercial Sector" in Table 3.8a. Sources Table 3.8b Asphalt and Road Oil Industrial sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for asphalt and road oil are from Table 3.7b, and are road trillion Btu by multiplying by the asphalt and oil heat content factor in Table A1. converted to Distillate Fuel Oil sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for distillate fuel oil are from Table 3.7b, and are Industrial trillion Btu by multiplying by converted the distillate fuel oil heat content factors in Table A3. to Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL)—Propane (Including Propylene) sector consumption data in thousand barrels per Industrial for HGL are from Table 3.7b, and are converted to trillion day Btu by multiplying by the propane/propylene heat content factor in Table A1. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL)—Total Industrial sector consumption data for HGL are calculated by subtracting HGL consumption data in trillion Btu for the residential 3.8a), commercial (Table 3.8a), and transportation (Table 3.8c) sectors from total HGL consumption (Table (Table 3.6). Kerosene sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for kerosene are from Table 3.7b, and Industrial are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the kerosene content factor in Table A1. heat Lubricants Industrial sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for lubricants are from Table 3.7b, and are converted to heat trillion by multiplying by the lubricants Btu content factor in Table A1. Motor Gasoline Industrial sector data in thousand barrels per day for motor gasoline are from Table 3.7b, and are consumption by Table in factors content heat gasoline motor the by multiplying A3. converted to trillion Btu / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 92

103 Other Petroleum Products Industrial "Other" petroleum data are equal to the "Other" petroleum data in Table 3.6. sector Petroleum Coke sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for petroleum coke are from Table 3.7b, Industrial 1949–2003: to trillion Btu by multiplying by the are total petroleum coke heat content factor in Table A1. converted and forward: Industrial sector consumption data for petroleum coke are calculated by subtracting petroleum coke 2004 data in trillion Btu for the commercial (Table 3.8a) and electric power (Table 3.8c) sectors from total consumption coke petroleum consumption (Table 3.6). Residual Fuel Oil consumption data in thousand barrels per day for residual fuel oil are from Table 3.7b, and are Industrial sector to trillion Btu by multiplying by the residual fuel oil heat content converted factor in Table A1. Total Petroleum sector total petroleum consumption is the sum of the data in trillion for the petroleum products shown in Industrial Btu Table 3.8b. 3.8c Sources Table Aviation Gasoline sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for aviation gasoline are from Table 3.7c, and are Transportation trillion Btu by multiplying by the aviation gasoline (finished) heat content factor in Table A1. converted to Distillate Fuel Oil, Electric Power Sector power sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for distillate fuel oil are from Table 3.7c, and are Electric trillion Btu by multiplying by the distillate fuel oil heat content factors in Table A3. converted to Distillate Fuel Oil, Transportation Sector Transportation sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for distillate fuel oil are from Table 1949–2008: are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the distillate fuel oil heat content factors 3.7c, in Table A3. and biodiesel data for biodiesel are calculated using data from U.S. Energy Information 2009–2011: Consumption (EIA), EIA ‐ 22M, “Monthly Biodiesel Production Survey”; and biomass ‐ Administration diesel fuel data from EIA ‐ 810, based “Monthly Refinery Report,” EIA ‐ 812, “Monthly Product Pipeline and EIA ‐ 815, “Monthly Bulk Terminal and Report,” Blender Report” (the data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the biodiesel heat content factor in Table A1). for other renewable diesel fuel are set equal Consumption to data refinery and blender net inputs data from EIA ‐ 810, “Monthly Refinery Report,” and EIA ‐ 815, “Monthly Bulk Terminal and Blender Report” (the data are converted to Btu by diesel multiplying the other renewable by fuel heat content factor in Table A1). Transportation sector distillate fuel oil consumption data from Table 3.7c, minus consumption data for biodiesel and other renewable diesel fuel, are converted to Btu by multiplying by the distillate fuel heat content factors in Table A3. Total transportation sector distillate fuel oil consumption the sum of is for distillate fuel oil (excluding biodiesel and other renewable diesel fuel), the values other renewable and diesel fuel. biodiesel, forward: Consumption data for biodiesel are from Table 10.4. 2012 Consumption data for other renewable diesel fuel are set equal to refinery and blender net inputs data EIA ‐ 810, “Monthly Refinery from and EIA Report,” 815, “Monthly ‐ Bulk Terminal and Blender Report” (the data are converted to Btu by multiplying by the other renewable diesel fuel heat Table content in Table A1). Transportation sector distillate fuel oil consumption data from factor 3.7c, minus consumption data for biodiesel and other renewable diesel fuel, are converted to Btu by multiplying by the distillate fuel distillate oil heat content factors in Table A3. Total transportation sector fuel oil consumption is the sum of the values fuel. diesel renewable other and biodiesel, fuel), diesel renewable other and biodiesel for distillate fuel oil (excluding Monthly U. 93 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

104 Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL)—Propane (Including Propylene) Transportation sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for HGL are from Table 3.7c, and are converted to by multiplying by the propane/propylene heat content factor in Table A1. trillion Btu Jet Fuel sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for kerosene ‐ type jet fuel and, through 2004, Transportation the ‐ naphtha fuel (see sources for Table 3.7c) are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by type appropriate heat jet content factors in Table A1. Total transportation jet fuel consumption is the sum sector of the data in trillion Btu for kerosene ‐ and naphtha ‐ type jet fuel. (Note: Petroleum products supplied is an approximation of petroleum type of is synonymous with the consumption "petroleum consumption" in Tables 3.7a–3.8c. Other measurements and term consumption by fuel type or sector differ. For example, jet fuel may product supplied may not equal jet fuel consumed by U.S. ‐ flagged aircraft.) Lubricants Transportation sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for lubricants are from Table 3.7c, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the lubricants heat content factor in Table A1. Motor Gasoline 3.7c, Table from are gasoline motor for day barrels are and Transportation per sector consumption data in thousand converted trillion Btu by multiplying by the motor gasoline heat content factors in Table A3. to Petroleum Coke Electric power sector consumption data in thousand barrels 1949–2003: per day for petroleum coke are from Table 3.7c, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the total petroleum coke heat content factor in Table A1. coke are from Table barrels consumption data in thousand per day for petroleum 2004 forward: Electric power sector 3.7c, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the marketable petroleum coke heat content factor in Table A1. Residual Fuel Oil Transportation and electric power consumption data in thousand barrels per day for residual fuel oil are from Table 3.7c, and are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the residual fuel oil heat content factor in Table A1. Total Petroleum sector total petroleum consumption is the sum of the data in trillion Btu for the petroleum products Transportation sector shown under "Transportation Sector" in Table 3.8c. Electric power total petroleum consumption is the sum of the the for Btu products shown under "Electric Power Sector" in Table petroleum data in trillion 3.8c. / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 94

105 4. Natural Gas

106 Natural Gas 4.1 Figure (Trillion Feet) Cubic Overview, 1949–2018 65 55 Consumption 45 35 Dry Production 25 15 Net Imports 5 -5 2000 1995 1990 1980 1975 1970 1965 1950 1985 1955 2015 2010 2005 1960 Consumption by Sector, 1949–2018 12 10 Industrial 8 Electric Power 6 Residential 4 Commercial 2 Transportation 0 1975 1965 1960 1955 1950 1995 2000 2005 2010 1990 2015 1985 1980 1970 Consumption by Sector, Monthly Overview, Monthly 3.0 7.5 6.5 Electric Power 2.5 Dry Production 5.5 2.0 4.5 Consumption 1.5 3.5 Industrial 2.5 1.0 Commercial 1.5 Residential 0.5 Transportation 0.5 Net Imports 0.0 -0.5 J FMAM J J ASOND J FMAM J J ASOND J FMAM J J ASOND JFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASOND 2017 2019 2018 2017 2018 2019 http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg Web Page: y/data/monthly/#naturalgas. 4.1 Tables Sources: and 4.3. / Administration Information Energy S. U. 2019 April Review Energy Monthly 96

107 T able 4.1 Natural Gas Overview (Billion Cubic Feet) Trade Net Supple- Storage mental Gross Marketed Gaseous With- Balancing Net Dry Gas With- Consump- Production NGPL b e f d g h c a Fuels drawals tion drawals Item Production Production Imports (Wet) Exports Imports i i 8,480 6,022 260 ... 950 Total NA 0 26 -26 -54 -175 5,767 1 6,282 i i ... 9,405 377 -20 9,029 NA 11 31 955 Total -68 -247 8,694 1 11,720 i i 11 12,771 543 ... 12,228 NA 156 960 Total 144 -132 -274 11,967 1 15,088 i i 17,963 456 16,040 753 1 15,286 NA 965 Total 26 430 -118 -319 15,280 ... i i 970 Total 21,921 906 1 21,014 NA 821 70 751 -398 -228 21,139 ... 23,786 i i 953 20,109 872 975 Total 19,236 NA 21,104 73 880 -344 -235 19,538 1 ... 980 Total ... 21,870 20,180 777 19,403 155 985 49 936 23 -640 19,877 1 55 985 Total 17,270 816 16,454 126 950 19,607 894 235 -428 17,281 ... 1 j ... 21,523 18,594 784 17,810 123 1,532 86 1,447 -513 307 1 19,174 990 Total 2,841 995 Total 23,744 19,506 908 18,599 110 ... 1 2,687 415 396 22,207 154 2 000 Total ... 24,174 20,198 1,016 19,182 90 3,782 244 3,538 829 -306 23,333 2 001 Total 24,501 20,570 954 19,616 86 3,977 373 3,604 -1,166 99 22,239 ... 002 Total ... 19,885 957 18,928 68 4,015 516 3,499 467 65 23,027 2 23,941 680 003 Total 19,974 876 19,099 68 3,944 24,119 3,264 -197 44 22,277 2 ... 004 Total ... 23,970 19,517 927 18,591 60 2 854 3,404 -114 461 22,403 4,259 2 ... 23,457 18,927 876 18,051 64 4,341 729 3,612 52 236 22,014 005 Total 4,186 006 Total 23,535 19,410 906 18,504 66 ... 724 3,462 -436 103 21,699 2 2 007 Total ... 24,664 20,196 930 19,266 63 4,608 822 3,785 192 -203 23,104 2 008 Total 25,636 21,112 953 20,159 61 3,984 963 3,021 34 2 23,277 ... 3,751 2 26,057 21,648 1,024 20,624 65 ... 1,072 2,679 -355 -103 22,910 009 Total 2 010 Total ... 26,816 22,382 1,066 21,316 65 3,741 1,137 2,604 -13 115 24,087 3,469 2 28,479 24,036 1,134 22,902 60 ... 1,506 1,963 -354 -94 24,477 011 Total 25,538 012 Total ... 29,542 25,283 1,250 24,033 61 3,138 1,619 1,519 -9 -66 2 1,572 2 013 Total ... 29,523 25,562 1,357 24,206 55 2,883 1,311 546 38 26,155 -283 2,695 1,181 1,514 -254 26,593 2 014 Total ... 31,405 27,498 1,608 25,890 60 2 015 Total 28,772 1,707 27,065 59 2,718 1,784 935 -547 -268 27,244 ... 32,915 January ... 274 2,435 155 2,280 5 016 169 105 741 -40 3,092 2 2,823 163 2,654 147 2,163 5 252 2,311 89 411 -16 2,652 February ... March ... 2,825 2,442 155 2,287 5 241 195 46 53 -34 2,356 178 April ... 150 2,211 5 241 2,362 63 -171 -25 2,084 2,679 1,966 2,768 2,412 154 2,259 5 248 188 60 -337 -21 May ... June ... 2,628 2,312 147 2,165 5 242 183 59 -229 1 2,001 July ... 2,409 153 2,256 5 265 189 76 -139 -11 2,187 2,721 262 2,390 152 2,238 5 2,723 214 48 -130 48 2,208 August ... September ... 2,626 2,297 146 2,151 5 238 202 37 -270 25 1,948 231 2,365 151 2,214 5 2,720 176 55 -316 -32 1,925 October ... 2,159 November ... 2,678 2,307 147 2,161 5 231 228 3 39 -48 2,866 December ... 2,747 2,358 150 2,207 5 281 251 30 688 -63 26,592 27,444 671 Total ... 32,592 28,400 1,808 -216 57 3,006 2,335 340 2 017 2,749 2,355 154 2,202 5 292 272 20 687 -1 2,913 January ... February ... 255 2,146 140 2,005 5 255 (s) 292 38 2,339 2,505 281 2,431 159 2,272 5 2,812 272 9 281 -45 2,523 March ... April ... 2,703 2,355 154 2,201 5 238 247 -9 -236 -31 1,931 244 2,430 159 2,271 5 2,787 254 -10 -348 -28 1,891 May ... June ... 2,693 2,370 155 2,215 5 240 253 -14 -287 -11 1,909 6 July ... 2,764 2,479 162 2,317 251 248 2 -155 -29 2,140 August ... 2,478 162 2,316 6 248 247 1 -201 -28 2,093 2,781 September ... 229 2,434 159 2,275 5 250 -21 -323 -17 1,920 2,767 244 2,550 166 2,384 6 2,907 281 -37 -254 -69 2,030 October ... November ... 2,884 2,535 165 2,370 6 244 288 -45 90 -66 2,355 278 2,635 172 2,463 6 3,006 299 -22 707 -72 3,083 December ... 27,126 Total ... 33,357 29,197 1,906 27,291 66 3,042 3,168 -125 254 -360 R R E E E -10 2 018 January ... 896 2,959 3,310 2,586 171 3 2,415 6 304 301 E E R R E 6 -36 2,701 February ... 2,724 2,385 163 2,222 42 241 276 467 R E R E E 285 292 -18 2,485 274 2,773 March ... 6 3,048 15 2,673 188 R E E E R 2,337 2,960 -32 April ... -35 279 244 5 2,413 -14 185 2,598 E E R R E 273 2,521 5 229 3,082 -44 -423 2,713 -11 193 2,047 May ... E R R E E -31 188 2,453 6 230 261 2,641 -349 2,955 -29 2,050 June ... E E E R R 2,784 198 July ... 2,585 5 249 306 -56 -186 -1 3,108 2,346 E E E R R 239 3,180 2,640 6 311 -72 -235 2,845 -28 205 2,311 August ... R R E R E R E -334 199 6 216 2,790 301 3,135 -85 2,591 September ... -18 2,159 E E E -88 306 217 October ... 6 3,272 -53 2,909 206 -291 2,703 2,276 R RE RE R RE November ... 337 213 6 2,657 2,689 198 -55 2,855 -124 3,233 205 RE RE RE R R R R 362 200 December ... 2,755 5 2,970 257 -7 3,352 -104 320 2,955 R R RE RE RE R R R R -169 32,734 2,295 30,439 68 Total 2,914 ... 3,605 -691 37,008 323 29,970 E E E 2,951 2,746 3,352 2 3,387 -4 709 -69 363 January ... 204 294 019 5 a Gases withdrawn from natural gas, crude oil, coalbed, and shale gas wells. . Table 4.3. See Note 7, "Natural Gas Consumption, 1989–1992," at end of section n I ncludes natural gas, natural gas plant liquids, and nonhydrocarbon gases; but R=Revised. E=Estimate. (s)=Less than 0.5 billion cubic feet and greater tha xcludes lease condensate. e -0.5 billion cubic feet. NA=Not available. b • Notes: See Note 8, "Natural Gas Data Adjustments, 1993–2000," at end of Gross withdrawals minus repressuring, nonhydrocarbon gases removed, and ia Through 1964, all volumes are shown on a pressure base of 14.65 ps v section. • ented and flared. See Note 1, "Natural Gas Production," at end of section. c Natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) production, gaseous equivalent. This data (pounds per square inch absolute) at 60 e Fahrenheit; beginning in 1965, th ° Fahrenheit. pressure base is 14.73 psia at 60 • Totals may not equal sum ° of s eries was previously called "Extraction Loss." See Note 2, "Natural Gas Plant • L s iquids Production," at end of section. components due to independent rounding. Geographic coverage is the 50 state d Marketed production (wet) minus NGPL production. and the District of Columbia (except Alaska, for which underground storage is e excluded from "Net Storage Withdrawals" through 2012). See Note 3, "Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of section. f Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#naturalgas (Exc Net withdrawals from underground storage. For 1980–2017, also includes net el ithdrawals of liquefied natural gas in above-ground tanks. See Note 4, "Natural w ta and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da beginning in 1973. as Storage," at end of section. G g Imports and Exports: Table 4. • Sources: • Table 4.2. Consumption: 3. See Note 5, "Natural Gas Balancing Item," at end of section. Beginning in Calculated as consumption minus dry gas productio • n, 1 980, excludes transit shipments that cross the U.S.-Canada border (i.e., natural Balancing Item: g supplemental gaseous fuels, net imports, and net storage withdrawals. • All Othe r as delivered to its destination via the other country). h Natural Ga Data: 1949–2017— s See Note 6, "Natural Gas Consumption," at end of section. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), i March 201 Natural Gas Monthly, Through 1979, may include unknown quantities of nonhydrocarbon gases. annual reports. Annual, EIA, 9, 2018 forward— j For 1989–1992, a small amount of consumption at independent power Table 1. roducers may be counted in both "Other Industrial" and "Electric Power Sector" on p Monthly U. 97 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

108 T able 4.2 Natural Gas Trade by Country (Billion Cubic Feet) a Imports Exports Trinidad and c c c b b b c b,e b b b,d b Other Canada Tobago Japan Qatar Mexico Nigeria Other Total Total Algeria Egypt Canada Mexico 0000000003 023026 ... 950 Total 1 0 1 0 (s) 0 0 0 0 11 11 0 20 0 31 955 Total ... 11 ... 109 0 47 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 6 0 11 960 Total 1 156 ... 0 405 0 52 0 0 0 0 456 18 0 8 0 26 1 965 Total ... 1 779 0 (s) 0 0 0 0 821 11 44 15 0 70 970 Total 1 953 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 948 10 53 9 0 73 975 Total 1 5 ... 86 797 0 102 0 0 0 0 985 (s) 45 4 0 49 1 980 Total 985 Total ... 926 0 0 0 0 0 0 950 (s) 53 2 0 55 1 24 0 990 Total 1,448 0 0 0 0 0 84 1,532 17 53 16 0 86 1 ... 995 Total ... 18 2,816 0 7 0 0 0 0 2,841 28 65 61 0 154 1 000 Total 12 47 3,544 0 2 13 46 99 21 3,782 73 66 106 0 244 ... 001 Total ... 3,729 0 10 38 23 98 14 3,977 167 66 141 0 373 2 65 4,015 ... 0 2 8 35 151 8 3,785 189 63 263 0 516 002 Total 27 2 ... 53 3,437 0 0 50 14 378 2 3,944 271 66 343 0 680 003 Total 11 004 Total 120 3,607 0 0 12 12 462 ... 4,259 395 62 397 0 854 2 46 005 Total ... 97 3,700 73 9 8 3 439 11 4,341 358 65 305 0 729 2 2 006 Total 17 3,590 120 13 57 0 389 0 4,186 341 61 322 0 724 ... 18 007 Total 3,783 115 54 95 18 448 77 4,608 482 47 292 2 822 2 ... 008 Total ... 0 3,589 55 43 12 3 267 15 3,984 559 39 365 0 963 2 2 009 Total 0 3,271 160 28 13 13 236 29 3,751 701 31 338 3 1,072 ... 190 2 0 3,280 73 30 42 46 ... 81 3,741 739 33 333 32 1,137 010 Total 2 011 Total ... 0 3,117 35 3 2 91 129 92 3,469 937 18 499 52 1,506 0 2 012 Total ... 0 2,963 3 (s) 34 112 26 3,138 971 14 620 14 1,619 2 013 Total 0 2,786 0 1 3 7 70 17 2,883 911 0 661 0 1,572 ... 014 Total ... 2,635 0 1 0 0 43 16 2,695 770 13 729 3 1,514 2 0 2,718 ... 0 1 0 0 71 20 2,626 701 8 1,054 20 1,784 015 Total 0 2 January ... 0 262 0 (s) 0 0 12 2 274 70 0 99 0 169 016 0 February ... 242 0 (s) 0 0 10 0 252 62 0 97 3 163 0 March ... 0 232 0 (s) 0 0 9 0 241 81 0 103 10 195 0 237 0 (s) 0 0 5 0 241 63 0 105 10 178 April ... 248 May ... 0 (s) 0 0 5 0 243 63 0 116 10 188 0 June ... 0 234 0 (s) 0 0 8 0 242 51 0 116 16 183 July ... 259 0 (s) 0 0 6 0 265 50 0 123 16 189 0 0 254 0 (s) 0 0 8 0 262 55 0 136 23 214 August ... September ... 0 236 0 (s) 0 0 3 0 238 61 0 127 13 202 October ... 226 0 (s) 0 0 6 0 231 43 0 130 3 176 0 231 November ... 0 (s) 0 0 6 3 222 75 0 134 20 228 0 December ... 0 272 0 (s) 0 0 9 0 281 97 11 119 23 251 Total ... 0 2,918 0 1 0 0 84 3 3,006 771 11 1,405 148 2,335 10 017 0 279 0 (s) 3 0 January ... 0 292 99 11 136 27 272 2 February ... 0 246 0 (s) 0 0 8 0 255 88 4 130 34 255 March ... 276 0 (s) 0 0 5 0 281 100 0 140 33 272 0 0 233 0 (s) 0 0 5 0 238 81 7 130 29 247 April ... May ... 0 239 0 (s) 0 0 5 0 244 64 4 139 47 254 0 234 0 (s) 0 0 5 0 240 67 4 159 24 253 June ... 248 July ... 0 245 0 (s) 0 0 5 0 251 60 0 150 39 0 247 35 4 66 248 142 August ... 0 240 0 (s) 0 0 8 September ... 250 70 0 0 136 44 229 0 227 0 (s) 0 0 2 140 7 68 0 2 0 0 (s) 0 242 0 October ... 244 281 66 November ... 237 0 (s) 0 0 6 0 244 74 0 145 69 288 0 0 266 0 1 3 0 8 0 278 81 14 139 65 299 December ... Total ... 0 2,965 0 1 6 0 70 0 3,042 917 53 1,684 513 3,168 14 2 January ... 0 287 0 (s) 0 0 018 3 304 92 4 147 58 301 1 February ... 0 233 0 241 0 0 7 0 77 7 141 52 276 March ... 268 0 (s) 0 0 4 3 274 68 0 161 63 292 0 0 241 0 (s) 0 0 3 0 244 63 11 142 64 279 April ... May ... 0 227 0 (s) 0 0 2 0 229 40 13 152 68 273 3 0 228 0 (s) 0 0 June ... 0 230 52 10 163 37 261 249 306 64 171 0 July ... 0 243 0 1 0 0 5 13 58 R 174 10 66 239 0 5 0 0 1 0 233 0 August ... 311 60 R R 0 213 0 (s) 0 0 3 September ... 216 301 71 17 159 54 0 0 October ... 0 212 (s) 0 0 6 0 217 65 3 157 80 306 21 80 146 (s) November ... 0 210 0 0 0 3 0 213 90 337 R R R 362 0 12 0 3 98 (s) 0 243 0 December ... 14 100 149 257 R R R R 3 Total ... 0 0 3 2,836 3,605 0 66 6 2,914 843 122 1,862 778 14 163 0 99 363 0 280 0 January ... 019 2 0 (s) 12 3 294 87 a Korea in 2009–2011, 2016–2018; Spain in 2010–2011, 2016–2018; Taiwan in Includes re-exports. b 2015, 2017 and 2018; Thailand in 2017; Turkey in 2015–2018; United Ara As liquefied natural gas. b c Emirates in 2016–2018; and United Kingdom in 2010, 2011, 2017 and 2018. By pipeline, except for small amounts of: liquefied natural gas (LNG) imported f rom Canada in 1973, 1977, 1981, and 2013 forward; LNG exported to Canada in R=Revised. (s)=Less than 500 million cubic feet. 007 and 2012 forward; compressed natural gas (CNG) imported from Canada in 2 n. See Note 9, "Natural Gas Imports and Exports," at end of sectio • Notes: s Through 1964, all volumes are shown on a pressure base of 14.65 psia (pound 2 014 forward; CNG exported to Canada in 2013 forward; and LNG exported to • Fahrenheit; beginning in 1965, the pressure bas ° per square inch absolute) at 60 M exico beginning in 1998. See Note 9, "Natural Gas Imports and Exports," at end e f section. o Fahrenheit. is 14.73 psia at 60 to Totals may not equal sum of components due • ° d • independent rounding. Australia in 1997–2001 and 2004; Brunei in 2002; Equatorial Guinea in 2007; ct U.S. geographic coverage is the 50 states and the Distri ndonesia in 1986 and 2000; Malaysia in 1999 and 2002–2005; Norway in I of Columbia. 008–2016; Oman in 2000–2005; Peru in 2010 and 2011; United Arab Emirates in 2 Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#naturalgas (Exc el 996–2000; United Kingdom in 2018; Yemen in 2010–2015; and Other ta 1 and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da ( unassigned) in 2004–2015. beginning in 1973. e Argentina in 2016–2018; Bahames in 2017 and 2018; Barbados in s Sources: • 1949–1954: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimate based on Bureau of Mines, Minerals Yearbook, "Natural Gas" chapte 2 016–2018; Brazil in 2010–2012, and 2014–2018; Chile in 2011, 2016–2018; China r. • • 1972–1987: EIA, For Federal Power Commission data. n 2011, 2016–2018; Colimbia in 2018, Dominican Republic in 2016–2018; Egypt in i 1955–1971: m 015–2018; France in 2018; Greece in 2018; India in 2010–2012, 2016–2018; ." FPC-14, "Annual Report for Importers and Exporters of Natural Gas 2 I , srael 2018; Italy in 2016–2018; Jamaica 2018; Jordan in 2016–2018; Kuwait in • 1988–2017: EIA, EIA 2018 forward: • annual reports. Natural Gas Annual, Natural Gas Monthly, March 2019, Tables 4 and 5; and U.S. Department of Energ y, 2 016–2018; Lithuania in 2017; Malta in 2017 and 2018; Netherlands in 2017 and Office of Fossil Energy, "Natural Gas Imports and Exports." 2 018; Pakistan in 2017 and 2018; Panama in 2018; Poland in 2017 and 2018; ortugal in 2012, 2016, 2017–2018; Russia in 2007; Singapore in 2018; South P / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 98

109 T able 4.3 Natural Gas Consumption by Sector (Billion Cubic Feet) End-Use Sectors Industrial Transportation d Electric Other Industrial Pipelines Resi- Power Vehicle and Dis- Com- Lease and b c f,g a e Total CHP Total Non-CHP Total Total tribution Sector dential Plant Fuel mercial Fuel h 388 1,198 ( ) 2,498 2,498 3,426 126 928 126 629 5,767 ... 950 Total 1 NA h 629 1 955 Total ( ) 3,411 3,411 4,542 245 NA 245 1,153 8,694 ... 2,124 1,131 h 1,020 1,237 ... ( ) 4,535 4,535 5,771 347 NA 347 1,725 11,967 1 960 Total 3,103 h 501 1,156 ... ( ) 5,955 5,955 7,112 1,444 NA 501 2,321 15,280 965 Total 1 3,903 h 1 2,399 1,399 970 Total ( ) 7,851 7,851 9,249 722 NA 722 3,932 21,139 ... 4,837 h 4,924 2,508 1,396 975 Total ( ) 6,968 6,968 8,365 583 NA 583 3,158 19,538 1 ... h 635 1,026 ... ( ) 7,172 7,172 8,198 2,611 NA 635 3,682 19,877 1 980 Total 4,752 h 4,433 2,432 966 6,867 ( ) 5,901 5,901 1 504 NA 504 3,044 17,281 985 Total ... i i i i ... 4,391 5,963 2,623 7,018 8,255 660 (s) 660 1,236 3,245 1,055 19,174 990 Total 1 9,384 ... 3,031 1,220 1,258 6,906 8,164 4,850 700 5 705 4,237 22,207 995 Total 1 000 Total ... 4,996 3,182 1,151 1,386 6,757 8,142 9,293 642 13 655 5,206 23,333 2 2 ... 4,771 3,023 1,119 1,310 6,035 7,344 8,463 625 15 640 5,342 22,239 001 Total 002 Total ... 3,144 1,113 1,240 6,287 7,527 8,640 667 15 682 5,672 23,027 2 4,889 591 ... 1,122 1,144 6,007 7,150 8,273 3,179 18 610 5,135 22,277 003 Total 2 5,079 ... 4,869 3,129 1,098 1,191 6,066 7,256 8,354 566 21 587 5,464 22,403 2 004 Total 005 Total ... 2,999 1,112 1,084 5,518 6,601 7,713 584 23 607 5,869 22,014 2 4,827 7,669 006 Total 2,832 1,142 1,115 5,412 6,527 4,368 584 24 608 6,222 21,699 2 ... 007 Total ... 4,722 3,013 1,226 1,050 5,604 2 7,881 621 25 646 6,841 23,104 6,655 2 ... 4,892 3,153 1,220 955 5,715 6,670 7,890 648 26 674 6,668 23,277 008 Total 7,443 009 Total 3,119 1,275 990 5,178 6,167 4,779 670 27 697 6,873 22,910 2 ... 010 Total ... 4,782 3,103 1,286 1,029 5,797 6,826 8,112 674 29 703 7,387 24,087 2 2 011 Total 4,714 3,155 1,323 1,063 5,931 6,994 8,317 688 30 718 7,574 24,477 ... 7,226 2 4,150 2,895 1,396 1,149 6,077 ... 8,622 731 30 761 9,111 25,538 012 Total 2 013 Total ... 4,897 3,295 1,483 1,170 6,255 7,425 8,909 833 30 863 8,191 26,155 ... 2 014 Total 5,087 3,466 1,512 1,145 6,501 7,646 9,158 700 35 735 8,146 26,593 2 015 Total 4,613 3,202 1,576 1,222 6,300 7,522 9,098 678 39 718 9,613 27,244 ... 016 January ... 503 133 103 618 721 854 78 4 82 774 3,092 2 879 3 690 95 568 663 789 67 126 70 690 2,652 February ... 414 455 298 133 99 564 663 796 59 4 63 745 2,356 March ... April ... 328 128 95 525 620 749 52 3 55 719 2,084 233 49 May ... 131 98 515 613 744 171 4 52 804 1,966 194 June ... 123 138 126 101 489 590 716 50 3 53 970 2,001 July ... 135 131 107 509 616 748 55 4 58 1,140 2,187 106 August ... 100 130 108 519 628 758 55 4 59 1,151 2,208 140 48 September ... 125 101 503 604 729 142 3 52 915 1,948 110 October ... 187 191 129 99 523 623 48 4 51 744 1,925 751 380 281 126 99 556 654 780 54 3 57 662 2,159 November ... 862 December ... 463 128 104 630 734 794 73 4 76 671 2,866 Total ... 4,347 3,110 1,545 1,209 6,519 7,729 9,274 687 42 729 9,985 27,444 2 017 831 479 126 107 628 735 861 78 4 83 660 2,913 January ... 63 February ... 115 97 554 650 765 359 4 66 569 2,339 579 March ... 580 372 130 103 594 697 827 68 4 72 672 2,523 April ... 212 126 99 533 632 758 51 4 55 627 1,931 279 759 178 130 102 527 629 199 50 4 54 700 1,891 May ... June ... 124 138 127 104 510 615 741 50 4 54 851 1,909 July ... 134 133 112 512 624 757 56 4 61 1,082 2,140 107 August ... 770 137 133 108 529 638 56 4 60 1,022 2,093 104 747 145 130 103 513 616 115 51 4 55 859 1,920 September ... October ... 205 201 137 104 553 657 794 54 4 58 773 2,030 832 322 136 104 593 696 468 63 4 67 666 2,355 November ... 3,083 December ... 822 487 141 115 647 761 903 83 4 87 785 49 722 9,514 7,949 6,693 1,257 27,126 9,266 1,564 770 Total ... 4,412 3,164 R E E E R E R R R 548 2 018 January ... 4 976 785 3,310 139 115 88 656 92 771 910 E E E R R E R 817 75 689 588 2,701 128 3 420 687 February ... 101 72 701 E E R E E R R R 656 727 870 107 74 143 4 620 77 755 414 2,773 March ... E R R R R E R E E 687 62 439 299 826 139 104 4 April ... 66 707 582 2,337 R E R R E E E R 556 162 660 May ... 806 54 145 4 104 58 853 168 2,047 E E R R R E E R 532 2,050 June ... 639 119 780 140 55 4 142 107 58 952 R E R R E E E R 543 135 655 July ... 804 2,346 62 149 4 112 66 1,236 105 R R E E RE E R R 99 113 658 152 810 141 62 545 4 August ... 65 1,195 2,311 R E E E R R E R September ... 108 538 145 647 112 796 149 57 4 2,159 61 1,045 E E R R E R R E 564 2,276 October ... 255 895 235 64 156 107 4 61 827 671 R R R E R E E R E 382 72 595 November ... 756 880 75 727 114 613 4 153 2,689 R R E R R R E E E 914 117 744 639 770 756 2,970 459 79 December ... 4 158 83 E R R R RE R R R RE E 4,982 798 3,481 10,626 1,754 1,310 6,977 8,287 Total 10,041 ... 841 43 29,970 E E E E 683 120 158 3,387 551 946 January ... 2 019 4 834 90 94 961 803 a of All commercial sector fuel use, including that at commercial • See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end Through 1964, all volumes are shown on a pressure base of 14.6 • 5 ombined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants. See Table c Section 7. psia (pounds per square inch absolute) at 60 .4c for CHP fuel use. 7 ° Fahrenheit; beginning in 1965, th e b Industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and a small number of industrial ° Totals may not equal sum pressure base is 14.73 psia at 60 Fahrenheit. of • e lectricity-only plants. • components due to independent rounding. Geographic coverage is the 50 state s c All industrial sector fuel use other than that in "Lease and Plant Fuel" and and the District of Columbia. CHP." " Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#naturalgas (Exc el d Natural gas consumed in the operation of pipelines, primarily in compressors. ta and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da eginning in 2009, includes line loss, which is known volumes of natural gas that B beginning in 1973. re the result of leaks, damage, accidents, migration, and/or blow down. a Residential, Commercial, Lease and Plant Fuel, Other Industri Sources: • al e Total Pipelines and Distribution: 1949–2017— and Natural gas used as fuel in the delivery of natural gas to consumers. U.S. Energy Informatio n d annual reports and unpublishe Natural Gas Annual (NGA), Administration (EIA), B eginning in 2009, includes line loss, which is known volumes of natural gas that revisions. le re the result of leaks, damage, accidents, migration, and/or blow down. March 2019, Tab Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), EIA, 2018 forward— a f Other Industrial CHP: Table 7.4c. • 2. The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and : Other Industrial Non-CHP • c • Industrial Tota l: ombined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose Calculated as other industrial total minus other industrial CHP. p rimary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. 0 Vehicle Fuel: 199 • Calculated as lease and plant fuel plus other industrial total. g Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data are and 1991— EI 1992–1998— EIA, NGA 2000, (November 2001), Table 95. A, "Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1999" (October 1999), Table 1 0, or electric utilities and independent power producers. f h Included in "Non-CHP." and "Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 2003" (February 2004), Tab le i For 1989–1992, a small amount of consumption at independent power 10. Data for compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas in gasoline-equivalent gallons were converted to cubic feet by multiplying by the mot roducers may be counted in both "Other Industrial" and "Electric Power Sector." p or e ee Note 7, "Natural Gas Consumption, 1989–1992," at end of section. S gasoline conversion factor (see Table A3) and dividing by the natural gas end-us R=Revised. E=Estimate. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 500 million cubic sectors conversion factor (see Table A4). 1999–2017— EIA, NGA, annual reports . EIA, NGM, March 2019, Table 2. : Transportation Total • f 2018 forward— eet. Electric Pow Data are for natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous • Calculated as pipelines and distribution plus vehicle fuel. Notes: • er Table 7.4b. l, Calculated as the sum of residentia Total Consumption: uels. See Note 3, "Supplemental Gaseous Fuels," at end of section. f Sector: • commercial, industrial total, transportation total, and electric power sector. • See Note 8, "Natural Gas Data Adjustments, 1993–2000," at end of section. Monthly U. 99 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

110 T able 4.4 Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Volumes in Billion Cubic Feet) Change in Working Gas Natural Gas in Underground Storage, From Same Period Previous Year End of Period Storage Activity a b,c Volume Withdrawals Injections Net Total Working Gas Base Gas Percent ... 1 NA NA NA NA 175 230 -54 950 Total NA 955 Total 863 505 1,368 40 ... 437 505 -68 1 8.7 960 Total ... NA NA 2,184 NA NA 713 844 -132 1 7.2 965 Total 1,242 3,090 83 1,848 960 1,078 -118 ... 1 970 Total ... 2,326 1,678 4,004 257 18.1 1,459 1,857 -398 1 7.9 975 Total 3,162 2,212 5,374 162 ... 1,760 2,104 -344 1 1 980 Total ... 3,642 2,655 6,297 -99 -3.6 1,910 1,896 14 1 985 Total 3,842 2,607 6,448 -270 -9.4 2,359 2,128 231 ... 990 Total 555 3,868 3,068 6,936 1 22.1 1,934 2,433 -499 ... -453 1 4,349 2,153 6,503 ... -17.4 2,974 2,566 408 995 Total 2 000 Total ... 4,352 1,719 6,071 -806 -31.9 3,498 2,684 814 1,185 2 4,301 2,904 7,204 ... 68.9 2,309 3,464 -1,156 001 Total 2 002 Total ... 4,340 2,375 6,715 -528 -18.2 3,138 2,670 468 6,866 2 ... 4,303 2,563 003 Total 187 7.9 3,099 3,292 -193 -113 2 004 Total ... 4,201 2,696 6,897 133 5.2 3,037 3,150 2,635 6,835 55 3,002 2 005 Total ... 4,200 3,057 -2.3 -61 2 006 Total 4,211 3,070 7,281 435 16.5 2,493 2,924 -431 ... -6.2 007 Total 2,879 7,113 -191 4,234 3,325 3,133 192 2 ... 008 Total ... 4,232 2,840 7,073 2 -1.4 3,374 3,340 34 -39 2 ... 4,277 3,130 7,407 009 Total 10.2 2,966 3,315 -349 290 2 010 Total ... 4,301 3,111 7,412 -19 -.6 3,274 3,291 -17 351 2 4,302 3,462 7,764 ... 11.3 3,074 3,422 -348 011 Total 2 012 Total ... 4,372 3,413 7,785 -49 -1.4 2,818 2,825 -7 -523 2 ... 4,365 2,890 7,255 013 Total -15.3 3,702 3,156 546 014 Total 2 4,365 ... 3,141 7,506 251 8.7 3,586 3,839 -253 2 015 Total 4,372 3,667 8,038 525 16.7 3,100 3,638 -539 ... 016 531 4,369 2,938 7,307 2 22.1 795 66 729 January ... February ... 4,369 2,534 6,904 869 52.2 515 111 403 March ... 4,360 2,486 6,847 1,015 69.0 264 215 49 April ... 2,646 7,009 852 47.5 130 294 -164 4,364 4,366 2,966 7,332 679 29.7 74 402 -329 May ... June ... 4,369 3,186 7,555 539 20.4 94 316 -222 July ... 4,369 3,318 7,687 394 13.5 150 283 -133 285 6.2 -124 162 August ... 4,369 3,441 7,811 200 8,074 351 88 3,705 4,369 September ... -262 91 2.5 -308 October ... 4,371 4,013 70 1.8 78 387 8,384 3,977 4,372 November ... 35 178 213 1.3 50 8,349 3,297 7,677 -370 -10.1 762 87 676 4,380 December ... Total ... 4,380 3,297 7,677 -370 -10.1 3,325 2,977 348 -316 017 4,378 2,622 7,000 January ... -10.8 787 2 675 113 February ... 4,377 2,337 6,715 -197 -7.8 422 137 285 4,378 2,063 6,440 -424 -17.0 449 175 274 March ... -230 April ... 4,379 2,291 6,670 -354 -13.4 122 352 -341 May ... 4,385 2,627 7,011 -340 -11.5 90 430 386 -281 June ... 4,354 2,907 7,261 -279 -8.8 105 4,356 3,054 7,410 -264 -8.0 154 303 -150 July ... August ... 4,355 3,250 7,605 -191 -5.6 158 353 -196 -138 4,355 3,567 7,923 September ... -3.7 103 419 -317 -196 October ... 4,354 3,816 8,170 -247 -4.9 131 378 4,353 3,709 8,062 -267 -6.7 285 199 86 November ... December ... 4,360 3,033 7,392 -264 -8.0 785 91 695 7,392 Total ... 4,360 3,033 -264 -8.0 3,590 3,337 254 896 141 2 018 January ... 4,357 2,141 6,498 -481 -18.4 1,037 -664 6,030 1,673 4,357 467 February ... 599 -28.4 133 285 March ... 4,353 1,391 -672 -32.6 449 164 5,744 -864 5,778 1,427 April ... 4,350 -32 256 224 -37.7 R R -778 1,848 6,200 -423 May ... 4,352 -29.6 66 489 6,550 June ... 4,354 2,196 -711 -24.5 88 436 -349 R R July ... -186 362 2,382 4,354 6,736 -672 -22.0 175 R R R -235 407 -19.5 -632 172 6,973 August ... 2,618 4,355 R R September ... 2,951 4,356 7,307 -616 -17.3 130 464 -334 7,594 -580 -15.2 October ... 131 422 -291 3,237 4,357 4,356 November ... 205 213 418 -18.3 -678 7,387 3,031 R R R R R R R 191 December ... 511 4,361 -324 2,709 7,070 -10.7 320 R R R R R R R -10.7 4,361 3,999 ... Total 7,070 3,676 -324 2,709 323 1,995 709 804 -6.8 -146 6,360 95 4,365 January ... 019 2 a beginning in 1973. For total underground storage capacity at the end of each calendar year, see Storage Activity: 1949–1975— U.S. Energy Informatio • Sources: n N ote 4, "Natural Gas Storage," at end of section. b Table Administration (EIA), Natural Gas Annual 1994, Volume 2, For 1980–2017, data differ from those shown on Table 4.1, which includes 9. 1976–1979— 1. iquefied natural gas storage for that period. EIA, Natural Gas Production and Consumption 1979, Table l c EIA, 1980–1995— 1. Table 1 Positive numbers indicate that withdrawals are greater than injections. Historical Natural Gas Annual 1930 Through 2000, monthly issues. 201 5 N 1996–2014— EIA, Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), egative numbers indicate that injections are greater than withdrawals. Net ithdrawals or injections may not equal the difference between applicable ending w forward— EIA, NGM, March 2019, Table 8. • All Other Dat a: annual issues. 1975 an s tocks. See Note 4, "Natural Gas Storage," at end of section. 1954–1974— American Gas Association, Gas Facts, d R=Revised. NA=Not available. d Federal Energy Administration (FEA), Form FEA-G318-M-0, "Undergroun 1976— Notes: • Through 1964, all volumes are shown on a pressure base of 14.65 8, Gas Storage Report," and Federal Power Commission (FPC), Form FPC- ° Fahrenheit; beginning in 1965, the sia (pounds per square inch absolute) at 60 p "Underground Gas Storage Report." 1977 and 1978— EIA, Form FEA-G318-M- 0, Totals may not equal sum of • Fahrenheit. ° ressure base is 14.73 psia at 60 p n "Underground Gas Storage Report," and Federal Energy Regulatory Commissio • Geographic coverage is the 50 states c omponents due to independent rounding. (FERC), Form FERC-8, "Underground Gas Storage Report." 1979–1995— EIA , a Form EIA-191, "Underground Gas Storage Report," and FERC, Form FERC- nd the District of Columbia (except Alaska, which is excluded through 2012). 8, Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#naturalgas (Excel EIA, NGA, annual report 1996–2017— "Underground Gas Storage Report." s. 2018 forward— EIA, NGM, March 2019, Table 8. a nd CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly data / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 100

111 Natural Gas Note Natural Gas Production. Final annual data are from the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Natural 1. Annual Gas . (NGA) the two most recent months presented are estimated. Some of data for earlier months are also estimated for the Data For a discussion of computation and or estimation procedures, computed. EIA's Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) . see considered preliminary until data publication of the are NGA. Preliminary monthly data are gathered Monthly after reports to the Interstate Oil Compact Commission and the U.S. Minerals from Service. Volumetric data are Management necessary, to a standard pressure base of 14.73 psia converted, as per inch absolute) at square 60° Fahrenheit. (pounds there are major changes, data are not revised until after publication of the NGA. Unless between annual in the NGA and the sum of preliminary monthly data (January–December) are Differences data to the months to create proportionally final monthly data. allocated 2. Note Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production. Natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) production is the reduction in volume gas gas resulting from the removal of natural gas liquid constituents at natural processing plants—these of natural plant liquids are gas to petroleum supply. natural transferred data are from EIA's Natural Gas Annual Annual , they are estimated on the basis of the type and quantity of (NGA) where products extracted the gas stream and the calculated volume of such products at standard conditions. For a liquid from explanation of the calculations used to derive estimated NGPL production, see the NGA. detailed preliminary Through 2006, data are estimated on the basis of NGPL production as an annual percentage of monthly Beginning in 2007, preliminary monthly data are estimated on the basis of marketed NGPL production production. Form EIA ‐ 816, "Monthly Natural reported Gas Liquids Report." on are revised and Monthly considered final after publication of data data the NGA. Final monthly are estimated by allocating annual NGPL production data to the months on the basis of total natural gas marketed production data from the NGA. Supplemental Gaseous Fuels. Supplemental gaseous fuels are any substances that, introduced into or Note 3. with commingled natural gas, increase the volume available for disposition. Such substances include, but are not limited to, propane ‐ air, refinery gas, coke oven gas, still gas, manufactured gas, biomass gas, and air or inert gases added for Btu stabilization. Annual data beginning with 1980 are from EIA's Natural Gas Annual (NGA) . Unknown quantities of supplemental gaseous fuels are included in consumption data for 1979 and earlier years. Monthly data are considered preliminary until publication of the NGA. Monthly estimates are based on the annual ratio of supplemental gaseous fuels to after sum of dry gas production, net imports, and net withdrawals from storage. The ratio the to is the monthly sum applied monthly the three elements to compute a supplemental gaseous fuels figure. of the total amount of supplemental gaseous fuels consumed is known for Although forward, the amount consumed 1980 by each energy ‐ use sector is estimated by EIA. These estimates are used to create (without supplemental natural gas fuels) data for Tables 1.3, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, gaseous and 2.6 (note: to avoid double ‐ counting in these tables, supplemental gaseous fuels are accounted for in their primary energy category: "Coal," "Petroleum," or "Biomass"). It is assumed that supplemental fuels are commingled with natural gas consumed gaseous by residential, commercial, the other industrial, electric power sectors, but are not commingled with natural gas used for lease and plant fuel, pipelines and and distribution, or vehicle fuel. The estimated consumption of supplemental gaseous fuels by each sector (residential, commercial, other industrial, and electric power) is calculated as that sector's gas consumption (see Table 4.3) natural the the sum of natural divided gas consumption by by residential, commercial, other industrial, and electric power sectors (see Table 4.3), and then multiplied by total supplemental gaseous fuels consumption (see Table 4.1). For estimated sectoral consumption of supplemental gaseous fuels in Btu, the and commercial, residential, other industrial A4), Table (see factors conversion Sectors" Use ‐ "End power electric the and values in cubic feet are multiplied by the Monthly U. 101 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

112 values cubic feet are multiplied by the "Electric Power Sector" conversion factors (see Table A4). Total supplemental in fuels in Btu is calculated as the sum of the Btu values consumption for the sectors. gaseous period may not equal the quantity derived storage at the end of a Note reporting 4. Natural Gas Storage. Natural gas in or subtracting net injections or withdrawals from the quantity adding in storage at the end of the previous period. by and withdrawal data from the FERC ‐ 8/EIA ‐ 191 survey may be adjusted to correspond to data from Form EIA ‐ Injection 176 publication of for (NGA) Gas Annual . EIA's Natural underground storage capacity, which includes both active and inactive fields, at the Total of each calendar year end (first year data were available), 1975 in billion cubic feet, was: since underground storage capacity, including active and inactive fields (billion cubic feet) Total Year ‐ Year ‐ 1 Year ‐ 2 Year ‐ 3 Year ‐ 4 ‐ 5 Year ‐ 6 Year ‐ 7 Year ‐ 8 Year 9 Year ‐ 0 Decade 6,890 6,544 6,678 6,929 6,280 1970s 7,434 7,805 7,985 8,043 8,087 8,145 8,124 8,124 1980s 8,120 7,915 1990s 7,794 7,993 7,932 7,989 8,043 7,953 7,980 8,332 8,179 8,229 2000s 8,182 8,207 8,206 8,255 8,268 8,330 8,402 8,499 8,656 8,241 P 8,849 8,991 9,173 9,233 9,231 9,239 9,261 8,764 9,240 2010s P=Preliminary from monthly Through underground storage data are collected the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Form 1990, ‐ 8 (interstate data) and EIA Form EIA ‐ 191 (intrastate data). Beginning FERC in 1991, all data are collected on the revised Form EIA ‐ 191. Injection and withdrawal data from the EIA ‐ 191 survey may be adjusted to correspond to data from Form of ‐ following publication 176 EIA's NGA. EIA The final monthly and annual storage and withdrawal data for 1980–2017 include both underground and liquefied natural (LNG) storage. Annual data on LNG additions and withdrawals are from Form EIA ‐ 176. Monthly data gas are estimated the ratio of each month's by underground computing storage additions and withdrawals to annual underground storage additions and withdrawals and applying the ratio to the annual LNG data. gas Note 5. Natural Gas Balancing Item. The balancing item for natural represents the difference between the sum of the components of natural gas supply and the sum of components of natural gas disposition. The differences may be Reporting problems. reporting the to due differences include problems due to quantities lost or to the data effects of net of conversions of flow data metered at varying temperature and pressure bases and converted result a standard to and pressure base; the effect of variations in company accounting and billing practices; differences temperature imbalances cycle and calendar period time frames; and billing resulting from the merger of data reporting between that vary in scope, format, definitions, and type of respondents. systems Note Natural Gas Consumption. 6. data Natural gas consumption include for the following: "Residential statistics Sector": residential deliveries; "Commercial Sector": commercial deliveries, including to commercial combined ‐ heat ‐ and ‐ power (CHP) and commercial electricity ‐ only plants; "Industrial Sector": lease and plant fuel use, and other industrial and deliveries, including to industrial CHP industrial electricity ‐ only plants also includes the relatively small amount of non and combustion natural gas consumption for ‐ pipelines use (see Tables 1.11a and 1.11b); "Transportation Sector": distribution and vehicle fuel use; and "Electric Power Sector": electric utility and independent power producer use. use, data for series other than "Other Industrial CHP" and Final "Electric Sector" are from Power Natural Gas Annual EIA's (NGA) . Monthly data are considered preliminary until after publication of the NGA. For more detailed information on the methods of estimating preliminary and final monthly data, see EIA's Natural Gas Monthly . Note Natural Gas Consumption, 1989–1992. Prior to 1993, 7. deliveries to nonutility generators not separately were collected natural gas companies on Form EIA ‐ 176, "Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and from power electric Disposition." As a result, for 1989–1992, those volumes are probably included in both the industrial and in counted ‐ double and sectors 1993, In consumption. total delivered as reported to feet cubic trillion 0.28 was generators. nonutility / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 102

113 Note Natural Gas Data Adjustments, 1993–2000. For 1993–2000, the original data for natural gas delivered to 8. consumers (now "Other Industrial" in Table 4.3) included deliveries to both industrial users and independent industrial (IPPs). These data were adjusted to remove the estimated consumption at IPPs from "Other Industrial" producers power include it with electric utilities under "Electric Power Sector." (To estimate the monthly IPP consumption, the and for Other Industrial CHP in Table 4.3 was used.) pattern monthly 1996–2000, monthly data for several natural gas series shown in EIA's Natural Gas Navigator (see For reconciled cons_sum_dcu were not and _nus_m.htm) http://www.eia.gov/dnav/ng/ng_ to be consistent with updated the final annual data in EIA's Natural Gas Annual . In the Monthly Energy Review , monthly data for these series were adjusted that the monthly data sum to the final annual values. The Table 4.1 data series (and years) so that were adjusted are: Gross Withdrawals (1996, 1997), Marketed Production (1997), NGPL Production (1997, 1998, and 2000), Dry Gas Production (1996, 1997), Supplemental Gaseous Fuels (1997–2000), Balancing Item (1997–2000), and Total Fuel Consumption (1997–2000). The Table 4.3 data series (and years) that were adjusted are: Lease and Plant (1997– Pipelines 2000), Industrial (1997–2000), Total and Distribution (2000), Total Transportation (2000), and Total Consumption (1997–2000). Note 9. Natural Gas Imports and Exports. The United States imports natural gas via pipeline from Canada and Mexico; via (LNG) Indonesia, Guinea, Equatorial Egypt, Brunei, Australia, Algeria, from tanker and imports liquefied gas natural Malaysia, Norway, Oman, Peru, Qatar, Trinidad and Nigeria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. In addition, Tobago, the amounts of LNG arrived from Canada small in 1973 (667 million cubic feet), 1977 (572 million cubic feet), 1981 (6 million cubic feet), 2013 (555 million cubic feet), 2014 (132 million cubic feet), 2015 (437 million cubic feet), 2016 (924 million cubic 2017 (1,569 million cubic feet), 2018 (1,885 million cubic feet), feet), and 2019 (78 million cubic feet). Also, small amounts of compressed natural gas (CNG) were imported from Canada in 2014 forward. The United States exports exports natural gas via pipeline to Canada and Mexico; and LNG via tanker to Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Brazil, Chile, China, Columbia, Dominican Republic, Egypt, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Lithuania, Malta, Netherlands, Panama, Poland, Portugal, Russia, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, United Arab Pakistan, United Kingdom. Also, small amounts of LNG have gone Emirates, to Mexico since 1998 and to Canada and in and 2007 been Small amounts of CNG 2012 have forward. exported to Canada since 2013. Annual and final monthly data are from the annual EIA Form FPC ‐ 14, "Annual Report for Importers and Exporters of by Natural which requires data to be reported Gas," month for the calendar year. Preliminary monthly data are EIA estimates. For a discussion of estimation procedures, see EIA's Natural Gas Monthly . EIA's revised U.S. Imports and Exports of Natural Gas . after publication of Preliminary data are Monthly U. 103 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

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115 5. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resource Development

116 Figure 5.1 Crude Oil and Indicators Natural Gas Resource Development Rotary Rigs in Operation by Type, 1949–2018 9 8 7 6 5 Total 4 Thousand Rigs 3 2 Natural Gas 1 Crude Oil 0 1965 2000 1995 1990 1985 1980 1975 1970 2010 2015 2005 1950 1955 1960 Rotary Rigs in Operation by Type, Monthly Active Well Service Rig Count, Monthly 2.5 3.0 Total 2.5 2.0 2.0 Crude Oil 1.5 1.5 1.0 1.0 Thousand Rigs Thousand Rigs 0.5 0.5 2019 2018 2017 Natural Gas 0.0 0.0 JFMAMJJASOND JFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASOND 2018 2019 2017 Total Wells Drilled by Type, 1949–2010 100 90 80 Natural Gas Wells 70 Crude Oil Wells 60 50 40 Thousand Wells 30 20 Dry Wells 10 0 1995 1990 1985 1980 1975 1970 1960 1965 2000 2005 2010 1955 1950 rgy/data/monthly/#crude. http://www.eia.gov/totalene Page: Web 5.2. and 5.1 Tables Sources: / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 106

117 T able 5.1 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Drilling Activity Measurements (Number of Rigs) a Rotary Rigs in Operation Active By Type By Site Well Service b c Offshore Crude Oil Natural Gas Total Onshore Rig Count ... NA NA NA NA 2,154 NA 950 Average 1 955 Average 1 NA NA NA NA 2,686 NA ... 1 ... NA NA NA NA 1,748 NA 960 Average 965 Average ... NA NA NA NA 1,388 NA 1 1 970 Average ... NA NA NA NA 1,028 NA 1 975 Average 1,554 106 NA NA 1,660 2,486 ... 980 Average NA 2,678 231 1 NA 2,909 4,089 ... 1 ... 1,774 206 NA NA 1,980 4,716 985 Average 1 990 Average ... 902 108 532 464 1,010 3,658 1 ... 622 101 323 385 723 3,041 995 Average 2 000 Average ... 778 140 197 720 918 2,692 153 2 001 Average 1,003 ... 217 939 1,156 2,267 2 002 Average 717 113 137 691 830 1,830 ... 003 Average ... 108 157 872 1,032 1,967 2 924 004 Average 1,095 97 165 1,025 1,192 2,064 2 ... 005 Average ... 1,287 94 2 1,184 1,381 2,222 194 2 ... 1,559 90 274 1,372 1,649 2,364 006 Average 007 Average ... 1,695 72 297 1,466 1,768 2,388 2 2 008 Average ... 1,814 65 379 1,491 1,879 2,515 2 009 Average 1,046 44 278 801 1,089 1,722 ... 010 Average 591 1,514 31 2 943 1,546 1,854 ... 2 ... 1,846 32 984 887 1,879 2,075 011 Average 2 012 Average ... 1,871 48 1,357 558 1,919 2,113 2 ... 1,705 56 1,373 383 1,761 2,064 013 Average 2,024 014 Average ... 1,804 57 1,527 333 1,862 2 750 35 1,481 943 015 Average 978 226 2 ... 1,061 509 100 408 23 486 ... 016 Average 2 1,099 2 017 January ... 24 542 140 683 659 724 February ... 744 1,125 150 593 20 19 634 154 789 1,159 770 March ... April ... 833 20 685 166 853 1,176 May ... 871 22 714 178 893 1,219 June ... 909 22 747 184 931 1,235 1,215 July ... 931 22 765 189 953 930 17 August ... 947 1,192 183 764 922 18 752 187 940 1,212 September ... October ... 901 21 741 180 922 1,207 173 November ... 20 738 891 911 1,222 911 19 748 182 930 1,187 December ... 1,187 Average ... 856 20 703 172 876 750 187 January ... 937 1,183 919 18 2 018 969 788 17 952 February ... 180 1,232 13 799 188 989 1,246 976 March ... 1,276 995 16 817 193 1,011 April ... 1,046 198 845 20 May ... 1,026 1,293 June ... 1,037 19 861 193 1,056 1,321 861 1,032 18 July ... 187 1,050 1,326 August ... 1,031 19 864 184 1,050 1,338 864 20 1,033 September ... 1,053 187 1,347 21 1,041 October ... 1,063 1,334 192 870 November ... 1,055 22 884 193 1,077 1,319 24 1,077 880 1,054 December ... 198 1,294 1,013 Average ... 19 841 190 1,032 1,292 866 1,295 21 January ... 199 1,065 2 019 1,044 R 1,299 1,029 February ... 195 1,048 853 20 1,023 193 830 22 1,001 March ... NA 1,043 195 848 21 1,023 ... 3-Month Average NA 1,220 2 018 3-Month Average ... 951 16 781 185 966 742 2 017 3-Month Average ... 722 21 593 148 1,128 a and working every day of the month. Rotary rigs in operation are reported weekly on Fridays. Monthly data are R=Revised. NA=Not available. a verages of 4- or 5-week reporting periods. Multi-month data are averages of the Note: Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. r eported weekly data over the covered months. Annual data are averages of 52- or Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#crude (Excel an 5 d 3-week reporting periods. Published data are rounded to the nearest whole ta CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da n umber. b beginning in 1973. Sum of rigs drilling for crude oil, rigs drilling for natural gas, and other rigs (not hown) drilling for miscellaneous purposes, such as service wells, injection wells, ., s Rotary Rigs in Operation: Baker Hughes, Inc • Sources: e nd stratigraphic tests. Therefore, "Total" values may not equal the sum of "Crude a Houston, TX, "North America Rig Count," used with permission. Se Activ e • http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=79687&p=irol-reportsother. il" and "Natural Gas." "Total" values may not equal the sum of "Onshore" and O d, " Well Service Rig Count: Assoc. of Energy Service Companies, Friendswoo Offshore" due to independent rounding. c TX. See https://www.aesc.net/aesc-rig-counts.html. The number of rigs doing true workovers (where tubing is pulled from the well), o r doing rod string and pump repair operations, and that are, on average, crewed Monthly U. 107 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

118 T able 5.2 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Exploratory and Development Wells Wells Drilled Total Development Exploratory Total Crude Natural Natural Crude Crude Natural Footage Total Total Dry Dry Total Dry Oil Oil Oil Gas Gas Gas Drilled Thousand Number Feet 31,744 8,292 10,306 22,229 3,008 6,507 950 Total 23,812 3,439 14,799 42,050 157,358 ... 1,583 1 431 2,236 874 11,832 14,942 28,196 3,392 8,620 40,208 1 4,266 20,452 55,150 226,182 955 Total ... 30,432 ... 868 9,515 11,704 20,937 4,281 8,697 33,915 22,258 5,149 18,212 45,619 192,176 1 960 Total 1,321 18,065 946 8,005 9,466 17,119 3,967 8,221 29,307 515 4,482 16,226 38,773 174,882 965 Total 1 ... ... 757 1 6,162 7,396 12,211 3,534 4,869 20,614 12,968 4,011 11,031 28,010 138,556 970 Total 477 975 Total 982 1,248 7,129 9,359 15,966 6,879 6,517 29,362 16,948 8,127 13,646 38,721 180,494 1 ... 32,959 ... 9,081 12,957 31,182 15,362 11,704 58,248 2,099 17,461 20,785 71,205 316,943 980 Total 1 1,777 ... 1,680 1,200 8,954 11,834 33,581 13,124 12,257 58,962 35,261 14,324 21,211 70,796 314,409 1 985 Total 990 Total ... 811 3,652 5,241 12,061 10,435 4,593 27,089 12,839 11,246 8,245 32,330 156,044 1 778 17,992 995 Total 558 2,024 3,152 7,678 7,524 2,790 570 8,248 8,082 4,814 21,144 117,156 1 ... 000 Total ... 288 657 1,341 2,286 7,802 16,394 2,805 27,001 8,090 17,051 4,146 29,287 144,425 2 001 Total ... 1,052 1,733 3,142 8,531 21,020 2,865 32,416 8,888 22,072 4,598 35,558 180,141 2 357 25,487 002 Total 844 1,282 2,384 6,517 16,498 2,472 258 6,775 17,342 3,754 27,871 145,159 2 ... 003 Total ... 350 997 1,297 2,644 7,779 19,725 2,685 30,189 8,129 20,722 3,982 32,833 177,239 2 004 Total ... 1,671 1,350 3,404 8,406 22,515 2,732 33,653 8,789 24,186 4,082 37,057 204,279 2 383 39,880 005 Total 2,141 1,462 4,142 10,240 26,449 3,191 539 10,779 28,590 4,653 44,022 240,307 2 ... 006 Total ... 646 2,456 1,547 4,649 12,739 30,382 3,659 46,780 13,385 32,838 5,206 51,429 282,675 2 45,887 007 Total 2,794 1,582 5,184 12,563 29,925 3,399 808 13,371 32,719 4,981 51,071 301,515 2 ... 008 January ... 88 208 144 440 1,111 2,321 272 3,704 1,199 2,529 416 4,144 25,306 2 3,588 February ... 107 419 1,080 2,261 247 230 1,162 2,491 354 4,007 24,958 82 March ... 66 216 127 409 1,132 2,363 271 3,766 1,198 2,579 398 4,175 26,226 April ... 189 130 387 1,177 2,415 281 3,873 1,245 2,604 411 4,260 26,920 68 240 206 124 418 1,317 2,449 88 4,006 1,405 2,655 364 4,424 27,947 May ... June ... 63 195 139 397 1,428 2,540 299 4,267 1,491 2,735 438 4,664 28,739 July ... 163 171 413 1,439 2,695 344 4,478 1,518 2,858 515 4,891 29,140 79 379 165 144 376 1,448 2,735 67 4,562 1,515 2,900 523 4,938 28,942 August ... September ... 52 166 164 382 1,488 2,667 355 4,510 1,540 2,833 519 4,892 28,960 373 243 173 496 1,549 2,841 80 4,763 1,629 3,084 546 5,259 31,505 October ... 29,276 November ... 97 192 160 449 1,361 2,418 334 4,113 1,458 2,610 494 4,562 445 December ... 67 172 132 371 1,206 2,196 313 3,715 1,273 2,368 4,086 26,222 ... 897 2,345 1,715 4,957 15,736 29,901 3,708 49,345 16,633 32,246 5,423 54,302 334,141 Total 009 January ... 171 99 350 1,192 2,253 250 3,695 1,272 2,424 349 4,045 28,077 2 80 62 3,111 88 275 991 1,925 195 February ... 1,053 2,050 283 3,386 25,440 125 2,848 March ... 88 293 867 1,771 210 146 926 1,917 298 3,141 25,304 59 April ... 36 68 93 197 755 1,396 205 2,356 791 1,464 298 2,553 21,406 May ... 90 80 217 584 1,136 156 1,876 631 1,226 236 2,093 20,055 47 2,290 June ... 75 210 804 1,297 189 91 848 1,388 264 2,500 16,301 44 July ... 40 100 101 241 789 1,188 2,194 829 1,288 318 2,435 13,543 217 49 84 88 221 867 1,372 August ... 2,446 916 1,456 295 2,667 15,970 207 September ... 61 71 96 228 945 1,170 207 2,322 1,006 1,241 303 2,550 15,547 October ... 79 78 212 966 1,167 222 2,355 1,021 1,246 300 2,567 17,261 55 2,263 November ... 85 206 931 1,133 199 83 969 1,216 284 2,469 16,236 38 December ... 34 98 84 216 894 1,074 213 928 1,172 297 2,397 16,424 2,181 Total ... 605 1,206 1,055 2,866 10,585 2,470 29,937 11,190 18,088 3,525 32,803 231,562 16,882 2 010 January ... 55 91 81 227 898 1,264 169 2,331 953 1,355 250 2,558 15,304 February ... 71 67 182 871 1,096 144 2,111 915 1,167 211 2,293 16,862 44 216 85 88 232 1,062 1,224 59 2,502 1,121 1,309 304 2,734 15,102 March ... April ... 49 78 77 204 1,173 1,152 249 2,574 1,222 1,230 326 2,778 17,904 1,208 48 107 86 241 1,282 May ... 255 2,745 1,330 1,315 341 2,986 17,987 3,188 100 392 19,408 June ... 61 1,350 90 251 1,385 1,250 302 2,937 1,446 July ... 105 254 1,386 1,443 390 3,219 1,432 1,546 495 3,473 20,847 46 103 3,150 August ... 94 254 1,434 1,402 314 104 1,490 1,506 408 3,404 22,923 56 September ... 57 73 88 218 1,374 1,358 268 3,000 1,431 1,431 356 3,218 23,037 October ... 87 117 279 1,502 1,463 283 3,248 1,577 1,550 400 3,527 22,123 75 263 114 103 279 1,400 1,352 62 3,015 1,462 1,466 366 3,294 24,561 November ... December ... 57 92 70 219 1,317 1,379 243 2,939 1,374 1,471 313 3,158 23,189 ... Total 669 1,105 1,066 2,840 15,084 15,591 3,096 33,771 15,753 16,696 4,162 36,611 239,247 Notes: • For 1960–1969, data are for well completion ic • Data are estimates. Natural Gas Exploratory and Development Wells," at end of section. • Geograph coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. eports received by the American Petroleum Institute during the reporting year; for r Through 1989, d ll other years, data are for well completions in a given year. a • Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#crude (Excel an hese well counts include only the original drilling of a hole intended to discover or t CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da ta urther develop already discovered crude oil or natural gas resources. Other drilling f beginning in 1973. ctivities, such as drilling an old well deeper, drilling of laterals from the original a il, Gulf Publishing Company, World O Sources: • 1949–1965: I), w American Petroleum Institute (AP 1966–1969: • "Forecast-Review" issue. ell, drilling of service and injection wells, and drilling for resources other than rude oil or natural gas are excluded. Beginning in 1990, a new well is defined as Quarterly Review of Drilling Statistics for the United States, annual summaries an d c monthly reports. ) he first hole in the ground whether it is lateral or not. Due to the methodology used t U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA • 1970–1989: o estimate ultimate well counts from the available partially reported data, the t computations based on well reports submitted to the API. • 1990 forward: EI A ounts shown on this page are frequently revised. See Note, "Crude Oil and c computations based on well reports submitted to IHS, Inc., Denver, CO. EIA while Data for 2011 forward in this table have been removed evaluates methodology. estimation the and data the of quality the / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 108

119 Crude Oil and Natural Ga s Resource Development Three Oil and Natural Gas Exploratory and Development Wells. well types are considered in the Monthly Note. Crude Review (MER) drilling statistics: “completed for crude oil,” Energy “completed for natural gas,” and “dry hole.” Wells that productively encounter both crude oil and natural gas are categorized as “completed for crude oil.” Both development wells and exploratory wells (new field wildcats, new pool tests, and extension tests) are included in the the statistics. other classes of wells drilled in connection with All search for producible hydrocarbons are excluded. If a lateral is drilled at the same time as the original hole it is not counted separately, but its footage is included. Prior to the March 1985 MER, drilling statistics consisted of completion data for the above types and classes of wells as Due reported the American Petroleum Institute (API) during a given month. to time lags between the date of well to completion and the date of completion reporting to the API, as ‐ reported well completions proved to be an inaccurate drilling activity. During 1982, for example, as ‐ reported of well completions rose, while the number of actual indicator fell. Consequently, the statistics drilling completions published since the March 1985 MER are U.S. Energy Information estimates produced by statistically imputing well Administration counts (EIA) and footage based on the partial data available from the API. These estimates are subject to continuous revision as new data, some of which pertain to earlier information months and years, become available. Additional about the EIA estimation methodology may be found in published article feature a Completions,” Well “Estimating MER. 1985 March the in Monthly U. 109 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

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121 6. Coal

122 Figure 6.1 Coal Short (Million Tons) Overview, 1949–2018 1,400 Production 1,200 Consumption 1,000 800 600 400 200 Net Exports 0 2010 2005 2000 1995 1990 1985 1975 1980 1965 1960 2015 1950 1955 1970 Consumption by Sector, 1949–2018 1,200 Electric Power 1,000 800 600 400 200 Industrial[a] Residential, Commercial[a] and Transportation[b] 0 1975 1970 1960 2015 2010 2005 2000 1995 1965 1990 1985 1980 1950 1955 Overview, Monthly Electric Power Sector Consumption, Monthly 80 80 Production 60 60 40 Consumption 40 20 20 Net Exports 2019 2018 2017 0 0 JFMAMJJASOND J FMAMJ J ASOND J FMAMJ J ASOND J FMAMJ J ASOND 2019 2018 2017 included in “Industrial.” Includes [a] combined ‐ heat ‐ power (CHP) plants and a small number of Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalene Web rgy/data/monthly/#coal. electricity ‐ only ‐ plants. 6.2. and are 6.1 Tables Sources: [b] For 1978 forward, small amounts of transportation sector use 112 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U.

123 T able 6.1 Coal Overview (Thousand Short Tons) Losses and Trade Waste Coal Unaccounted Stock b e,f a c d,e Supplied for Imports Change Net Imports Production Consumption Exports 950 Total 560,388 NA 365 29,360 ... 27,829 9,462 494,102 1 -28,995 955 Total ... 490,838 NA 337 54,429 1 -3,974 -6,292 447,012 -54,092 1 ... 434,329 NA 262 37,981 -37,719 -3,194 1,722 398,081 960 Total 965 Total 51,032 526,954 NA 184 1 -50,848 1,897 2,244 471,965 ... 71,733 1 612,661 NA 36 ... -71,697 11,100 6,633 523,231 970 Total 1 975 Total ... 654,641 NA 940 66,309 -65,369 32,154 -5,522 562,640 1 980 Total 829,700 NA 1,194 91,742 -90,548 25,595 10,827 702,730 ... 985 Total 92,680 883,638 NA 1,952 1 -90,727 -27,934 2,796 818,049 ... 105,804 1 1,029,076 3,339 2,699 ... -103,104 26,542 -1,730 904,498 990 Total 1 995 Total ... 1,032,974 8,561 9,473 88,547 -79,074 -275 632 962,104 58,489 2 1,073,612 9,089 12,513 ... -45,976 -48,309 938 1,084,095 000 Total 2 001 Total ... 1,127,689 10,085 19,787 48,666 -28,879 41,630 7,120 1,060,146 9,052 2 002 Total ... 1,094,283 39,601 16,875 -22,726 10,215 4,040 1,066,355 2 003 Total 1,071,753 10,016 25,044 43,014 -17,970 -26,659 -4,403 1,094,861 ... 004 Total ... 11,299 27,280 47,998 -20,718 -11,462 6,887 1,107,255 2 1,112,099 -19,482 005 Total 13,352 30,460 49,942 1,131,498 -9,702 9,092 1,125,978 2 ... 006 Total ... 1,162,750 14,409 36,246 49,647 -13,401 42,642 8,824 1,112,292 2 2 007 Total 1,146,635 14,076 36,347 59,163 -22,816 5,812 4,085 1,127,998 ... 008 Total 81,519 1,171,809 14,146 34,208 2 -47,311 12,354 5,740 1,120,548 ... 59,097 2 1,074,923 13,666 22,639 ... -36,458 39,668 14,985 997,478 009 Total 2 010 Total ... 1,084,368 13,651 19,353 81,716 -62,363 -13,039 182 1,048,514 2 011 Total 1,095,628 13,209 13,088 107,259 -94,171 211 11,506 1,002,948 ... 012 Total 125,746 1,016,458 11,196 9,159 2 -116,586 6,902 14,980 889,185 ... 117,659 2 984,842 11,279 8,906 ... -108,753 -38,525 1,451 924,442 013 Total 2 014 Total ... 1,000,049 12,090 11,350 97,257 -85,907 -2,601 11,101 917,731 73,958 2 896,941 9,969 11,318 ... -62,640 40,704 5,452 798,115 015 Total 731,071 016 Total ... 728,364 10,138 9,850 60,271 -50,421 -45,441 2,452 2 1,161 68,006 -6,368 7,385 2 017 January ... 68,414 1,027 743 -6,642 2,383 4,246 -6,296 64,389 February ... 6,908 612 916 52,381 53,325 March ... 64,335 560 8,013 -7,453 1,096 3,436 975 7,236 48,565 1,898 2,198 -6,744 493 651 58,754 April ... May ... 1,053 7,243 -6,190 -2,116 3,536 55,202 62,115 696 66,229 -5,351 651 7,317 -6,666 June ... 2,592 63,099 777 July ... 907 956 7,177 -6,221 -10,088 -6,473 74,214 62,966 8,573 70,582 901 839 -7,734 -5,767 -713 70,229 August ... 62,891 801 513 8,894 -8,381 -2,349 -1,378 59,039 September ... October ... 66,368 630 582 9,159 -8,577 1,847 2,137 54,436 November ... 64,345 668 368 9,552 -9,185 2,135 -1,663 55,357 63,003 December ... 63,220 1,003 408 9,495 -9,087 -5,516 -2,352 -89,176 774,609 9,951 7,777 96,953 ... -26,033 4,562 716,856 Total 018 January ... 61,937 1,013 500 8,772 -8,273 -13,394 -842 68,913 2 February ... 60,235 834 349 9,022 -8,673 -1,077 3,576 49,897 March ... 65,467 909 518 9,426 -8,908 5,496 3,213 48,759 44,777 April ... 58,032 714 494 11,092 -10,598 2,350 1,020 3,174 -9,102 9,645 544 771 61,196 May ... -2,004 51,695 59 60,173 June ... 61,557 789 509 10,138 -9,629 -7,514 July ... 62,945 878 692 9,532 -8,840 68,018 -10,463 -2,572 1,376 -8,632 -9,569 10,052 484 907 69,301 August ... 67,895 -1,695 62,417 807 263 9,483 -9,220 -2,446 September ... 58,145 R R R R R 5,306 719 304 10,681 October ... -10,377 66,384 -1,438 52,858 R R R R R 8,872 400 November ... -8,472 62,718 -1,515 494 887 56,154 R R R R R -973 60,044 -2,886 -8,018 8,916 898 December ... 871 63,333 R R R R R 115,632 Total 10,098 5,954 -109,678 ... -34,865 3,479 755,523 687,328 R R R R R RF R -6,128 625 62,479 -8,661 January ... 9,285 019 659 2 60,066 778 February ... 55,140 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA March ... 52,657 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3-Month Total 170,276 NA NA NA ... NA ... 018 3-Month Total 2 27,221 -25,854 5,947 167,569 1,367 -8,975 2,756 187,639 -1,026 -20,392 197,138 2,918 173,712 6,979 2 017 3-Month Total 22,307 1,915 ... a Beginning in 2001, includes a small amount of refuse recovery (coal quantities lost or to data reporting problems. ecaptured from a refuse mine and cleaned to reduce the concentration of r R=Revised. NA=Not available. F=Forecast. n d oncombustible materials). For methodology used to calculate production, consumption, an • Notes: b 3, stocks, see Note 1, "Coal Production," Note 2, "Coal Consumption," and Note Waste coal (including fine coal, coal obtained from a refuse bank or slurry Data values preceded by "F" are derived fro d "Coal Stocks," at end of section. • m am, anthracite culm, bituminous gob, and lignite waste) consumed by the electric g ower and industrial sectors. Beginning in 1989, waste coal supplied is counted as p the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s Short-Term Integrated Forecastin Totals may n ot supply-side item to balance the same amount of waste coal included in System. See Note 4, "Coal Forecast Values," at end of section. • a " equal sum of components due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is Consumption." c Net imports equal imports minus exports. A minus sign indicates exports are the 50 states and the District of Columbia. reater than imports. d Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#coal (Excel an g d ta CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da A negative value indicates a decrease in stocks and a positive value indicates a n increase. See Table 6.3 for stocks data coverage. beginning in 1973. e In 1949, stock change is included in "Losses and Unaccounted for." Sources: See end of section. f The difference between calculated coal supply and disposition, due to coal Monthly U. 113 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

124 T able 6.2 Coal Consumption by Sector (Thousand Short Tons) End-Use Sectors Commercial Industrial Other Industrial Electric Power Trans- Resi- Coke e,f a d b c Sector Total Total CHP Total Non-CHP Other Total dential CHP portation Plants h g ( ) 1 63,021 950 Total ... ( ) 120,623 120,623 224,637 63,011 91,871 494,102 51,562 63,021 104,014 g h ( ) 32,852 32,852 107,743 ... ( ) 110,096 35,590 217,839 16,972 143,759 447,012 1 955 Total 110,096 h g ( ) 1 16,789 16,789 81,385 960 Total ( ) 96,017 96,017 177,402 3,046 176,685 398,081 ... 24,159 g h ... ( ) 11,041 11,041 95,286 200,846 ( ) 105,560 105,560 965 Total 655 244,788 471,965 1 14,635 g h ... ( ) 7,090 7,090 96,481 90,156 ( ) 90,156 970 Total 186,637 298 320,182 523,231 1 9,024 g h 63,646 ( ) 6,587 6,587 83,598 ... ( ) 63,646 975 Total 147,244 24 405,962 562,640 1 2,823 h h g 702,730 ( ) 5,097 5,097 66,657 1 ( ) 60,347 60,347 127,004 980 Total ( ) 569,274 ... 1,355 g h h 75,372 6,068 6,068 41,056 985 Total ( ) 75,372 1,711 116,429 ( ) ( ) 693,841 818,049 ... 1 h f 1,345 1,191 4,189 5,379 38,877 27,781 48,549 76,330 115,207 1 () 990 Total 782,567 904,498 ... h 995 Total ... 755 1,419 3,633 5,052 33,011 29,363 43,693 73,055 106,067 1 ( ) 850,230 962,104 h 65,208 1,547 2,126 3,673 28,939 28,031 37,177 454 94,147 2 ( ) 985,821 1,084,095 ... 000 Total h ... 481 1,448 2,441 3,888 26,075 25,755 39,514 65,268 91,344 2 ( ) 964,433 1,060,146 001 Total h 34,515 533 1,405 2,506 3,912 23,656 26,232 ... 60,747 84,403 002 Total ( ) 977,507 1,066,355 2 h 003 Total ... 551 1,816 1,869 3,685 24,248 24,846 36,415 61,261 85,509 2 ( ) 1,005,116 1,094,861 h 35,582 512 1,917 2,693 4,610 23,670 26,613 ... 62,195 85,865 2 ( ) 1,016,268 1,107,255 004 Total h 005 Total ... 378 1,922 2,420 4,342 23,434 25,875 34,465 60,340 83,774 2 ( ) 1,037,485 1,125,978 h 2 006 Total ... 290 1,886 1,050 2,936 25,262 34,210 59,472 82,429 22,957 ( ) 1,026,636 1,112,292 h 79,331 1,927 1,247 3,173 22,715 22,537 34,078 56,615 353 2 ( ) 1,045,141 1,127,998 ... 007 Total i h 2 ( ) 2,021 1,485 3,506 22,070 21,902 32,491 54,393 76,463 008 Total ( ) 1,040,580 1,120,548 ... i h ... 2 ( ) 1,798 1,412 3,210 15,326 19,766 25,549 45,314 60,641 009 Total ( ) 933,627 997,478 i h 24,638 2 ( ) 1,720 1,361 3,081 21,092 010 Total 24,650 49,289 70,381 ... ( ) 975,052 1,048,514 i h 2 011 Total ... 1,002,948 ( ) 1,668 1,125 21,434 22,319 23,919 46,238 67,671 2,793 ( ) 932,484 h i 2 1,450 595 2,045 20,751 20,065 22,773 42,838 63,589 012 Total ( ) 823,551 889,185 ... ( ) h i ... 1,356 595 1,951 21,474 19,761 23,294 013 Total 64,529 43,055 ( ) 857,962 924,442 2 ( ) i h ( ) 1,063 824 1,887 21,297 19,076 23,870 014 Total 64,243 ... ( ) 851,602 917,731 2 42,946 i h 2 ( ) 798 706 1,503 19,708 16,984 21,475 38,459 58,167 015 Total ( ) 738,444 798,115 ... i h 34,849 683 500 1,183 16,485 14,720 20,129 016 Total 51,333 ( ) ( ) 678,554 731,071 ... 2 i h 2 ( ) 71 65 136 1,431 1,264 1,579 2,844 4,274 017 ( ) 63,595 68,006 January ... i h 53 ( ) 58 111 1,368 1,077 1,778 2,854 4,222 February ... ( ) 48,048 52,381 h i 4,274 61 126 1,438 1,141 1,695 2,836 ( ) ( ) 48,925 53,325 66 March ... i h ( ) 42 29 71 1,441 1,008 1,688 4,137 April ... ( ) 44,358 48,565 2,696 i h 2,702 39 27 66 1,482 1,043 1,658 May ... 4,184 ( ) ( ) 50,952 55,202 i h ( ) 40 27 67 1,402 1,045 1,665 2,710 4,111 June ... ( ) 58,920 63,099 i h 2,769 47 21 68 1,494 1,042 1,728 4,264 ( ) ( ) 69,882 74,214 July ... i h 70,229 ( ) 43 19 62 1,528 1,050 1,707 2,757 4,285 August ... ( ) 65,883 h i ( ) 65 4,194 2,725 1,734 59,039 54,780 September ... 991 ( ) 45 20 1,469 i h 42 34 76 1,470 1,098 1,694 ( ) 4,261 ( ) 50,099 54,436 October ... 2,791 h i 4,250 ( ) 43 95 1,457 1,077 1,716 2,793 52 November ... ( ) 51,013 55,357 i h ( ) 66 54 119 1,559 1,139 1,647 2,787 4,346 December ... ( ) 58,538 63,003 i h 17,538 ... ( ) 610 451 1,061 12,975 20,289 33,264 50,801 Total ( ) 664,993 716,856 h i 71 018 January ... 141 ( ) 70 68,913 1,458 1,245 1,463 2,708 4,166 2 ( ) 64,606 i h 54 55 109 1,288 1,111 1,632 ( ) 4,031 ( ) 45,757 49,897 February ... 2,742 h i 4,216 ( ) 53 104 1,482 1,140 1,594 2,734 51 March ... ( ) 44,439 48,759 i h ( ) 45 23 69 1,549 1,016 1,543 2,558 4,107 April ... ( ) 40,601 44,777 i h 1,041 ( ) 41 21 61 1,596 May ... 1,511 2,552 4,148 ( ) 47,485 51,695 h i 60,173 1,465 2,556 4,021 1,567 63 ( ) June ... 56,089 ( ) 42 21 989 h i 978 1,592 55 8 47 ( ) 68,018 July ... 63,851 ( ) 4,112 2,520 1,542 i h 942 ( ) 49 9 58 1,569 August ... 1,575 2,517 4,086 67,895 ( ) 63,751 h i 977 September ... ( ) 51 9 59 1,577 1,534 2,511 4,088 ( ) 53,998 58,145 R R h i R R R R R 42 76 1,549 933 October ... 1,780 () 2,713 34 4,262 ( ) 48,520 52,858 R R h R i R R R R November ... ( ) () 48 87 39 4,278 1,701 51,789 1,558 1,018 2,720 56,154 i R R R R R R R h 60,044 85 4,350 38 47 () 2,720 55,610 1,642 ( ) 1,078 1,630 December ... R R h R i R R R R Total ... ( ) ( ) 587 18,312 380 49,863 967 636,498 12,468 31,551 19,083 687,328 h i F F F F F F 60,066 55,885 1,099 1,352 ( ) 73 2,755 15 4,107 58 () 1,656 January ... 2 019 h a Commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and a small number of Included in "Industrial Non-CHP." i d c Beginning in 2008, residential coal consumption data are no longer collecte ommercial electricity-only plants, such as those at hospitals and universities. S ee Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). R=Revised. F=Forecast. S ection 7. b • Notes: CHP monthly values are from Table 7.4c; electric power sector month All commercial sector fuel use other than that in "Commercial CHP." ly c Industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and a small number of industrial m values are from Table 7.4b; all other monthly values are estimates derived fro lectricity-only plants. See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use of collected quarterly and annual data. See Note 2, "Coal Consumption," at end e ectors," at end of Section 7. S • section. Data values preceded by "F" are derived from EIA’s Short-Ter m d Integrated Forecasting System. See Note 4, "Coal Forecast Values," at end All industrial sector fuel use other than that in "Coke Plants" and "Industrial of Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent roundin g. C HP." section. • e The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat- Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. • Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#coal (Excel an nd-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is d a t o sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da ta f Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data are beginning in 1973. or electric utilities and independent power producers. Sources: See end of section. f g Included in "Commercial Other." / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 114

125 T able 6.3 Coal Stocks by Sector (Thousand Short Tons) End-Use Sectors a Residential Industrial Electric Producers and Power and b c,d Coke Plants Total Total Total Other Commercial Sector Distributors 26,182 NA 2,462 1 950 Year 42,991 45,453 31,842 77,295 ... 16,809 955 Year ... NA 998 13,422 15,880 29,302 30,300 41,391 71,691 1 22,759 960 Year 666 11,122 11,637 NA 23,425 51,735 75,160 ... 1 78,640 ... NA 353 10,640 13,122 23,762 24,115 54,525 1 965 Year 1 970 Year ... NA 300 9,045 11,781 20,826 21,126 71,908 93,034 1 975 Year 12,108 233 8,797 8,529 17,326 17,559 110,724 140,391 ... 11,951 1 24,379 NA 9,067 ... 21,018 21,018 183,010 228,407 980 Year 1 985 Year ... 33,133 NA 3,420 10,438 13,857 13,857 156,376 203,367 8,716 1 33,418 NA 3,329 ... 12,044 12,044 156,166 201,629 990 Year 169,083 995 Year ... 34,444 NA 2,632 5,702 8,334 8,334 126,304 1 140,282 2 000 Year ... 31,905 NA 1,494 4,587 6,081 6,081 102,296 ... 35,900 181,912 2 001 Year 138,496 7,516 NA 1,510 6,006 7,516 2 002 Year 43,257 NA 1,364 5,792 7,156 7,156 141,714 192,127 ... 003 Year 4,718 38,277 NA 905 2 5,623 5,623 121,567 165,468 ... 4,842 2 41,151 NA 1,344 ... 6,186 6,186 106,669 154,006 004 Year 2 005 Year ... 34,971 NA 2,615 5,582 8,196 8,196 101,137 144,304 6,506 2 36,548 NA 2,928 ... 9,434 9,434 140,964 186,946 006 Year 192,758 007 Year ... 33,977 NA 1,936 5,624 7,560 7,560 151,221 2 ... 2 008 Year 34,688 498 2,331 6,007 8,338 8,836 161,589 205,112 2 009 Year 47,718 529 1,957 5,109 7,066 7,595 189,467 244,780 ... 4,525 2 49,820 552 1,925 ... 6,451 7,003 174,917 231,740 010 Year 2 011 Year ... 51,897 603 2,610 4,455 7,065 7,668 172,387 231,951 4,475 2 46,157 583 2,522 ... 6,997 7,581 185,116 238,853 012 Year 200,328 013 Year ... 45,652 495 2,200 4,097 6,297 6,792 147,884 2 7,285 151,548 197,727 2 014 Year ... 38,894 449 2,640 4,196 6,836 015 Year 2 238,431 6,618 195,548 4,382 2,236 394 35,871 ... 7,012 192,990 016 Year ... 25,309 360 2 3,637 5,312 5,672 162,009 1,675 2 186,622 156,214 5,434 5,082 3,503 1,579 352 24,974 January ... 017 343 1,483 3,370 4,853 5,196 160,502 190,868 25,170 February ... March ... 25,190 335 1,388 3,236 4,624 4,959 161,815 191,964 April ... 25,169 333 1,467 3,256 4,723 5,056 163,937 194,162 May ... 24,350 331 1,547 3,275 4,822 5,153 162,542 192,045 186,694 June ... 23,430 329 1,626 3,295 4,921 5,250 158,014 332 3,357 176,606 July ... 25,465 145,811 1,641 5,330 4,998 24,226 335 1,655 3,419 5,075 5,409 141,204 170,839 August ... 168,490 September ... 23,430 337 1,670 3,482 5,152 5,489 139,571 328 October ... 23,459 1,686 3,402 5,088 5,416 141,463 170,338 November ... 23,705 319 1,702 3,322 5,024 5,343 143,424 172,472 137,687 4,960 166,956 December ... 23,999 310 1,718 3,242 5,270 F 4,772 153,562 1,648 298 24,769 3,124 January ... 018 2 5,070 123,723 F February ... 1,578 26,594 287 3,008 4,586 4,873 121,019 152,485 F 1,508 275 26,775 4,400 March ... 157,982 126,532 4,675 2,892 F 1,544 26,558 269 April ... 2,890 4,434 4,703 129,071 160,332 F 1,580 May ... 25,142 263 158,328 2,889 4,469 4,732 128,454 F 1,616 June ... 150,814 24,524 257 2,888 4,504 4,761 121,529 F 110,794 July ... 4,866 4,606 2,926 1,681 140,351 259 24,691 F 2,966 August ... 22,574 261 1,746 4,711 4,972 104,172 131,719 F 1,811 129,273 100,781 September ... 5,079 23,413 263 4,816 3,005 R R R R R R F 24,198 105,209 259 October ... 1,809 3,105 5,173 4,914 134,580 R R R R F R R 104,324 5,250 4,996 133,064 November ... 3,188 23,490 1,808 255 R R F R R R R 132,092 23,978 3,270 ... December 5,328 102,786 1,807 5,077 250 F F F F F F 125,963 2 1,741 99,201 5,132 240 5,372 21,391 3,390 January ... 019 a Through 1979, data are for the residential and commercial sectors. Beginning s are from Table 7.5; producers and distributors monthly values are estimate n 2008, data are for the commercial sector only. derived from collected annual data; all other monthly values are estimates derive i d b Data values preceded by "F" are derived fro Through 1979, data are for manufacturing plants and the transportation sector. from collected quarterly values. • m g the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s Short-Term Integrated Forecastin For 1980–2007, data are for manufacturing plants only. Beginning in 2008, data Totals may n re for manufacturing plants and coal transformation/processing plants. a ot • System. See Note 4, "Coal Forecast Values," at end of section. c The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-and- is Geographic coverage • equal sum of components due to independent rounding. p the 50 states and the District of Columbia. ower (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#coal (Excel an lectricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. e d d CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da Excludes waste coal. Through 1998, data are for electric utilities only. ta beginning in 1973. B eginning in 1999, data are for electric utilities and independent power producers. Sources: See end of section. R=Revised. NA=Not available. F=Forecast. Notes: • Stocks are at end of period. • Electric power sector monthly values Monthly U. 115 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

126 Coal 1. Note Production. Preliminary monthly estimates of national coal production are the sum of weekly estimates Coal in U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) and published the Weekly Coal Production report. by the developed week extends into a new month, production is allocated on a When daily basis and added to a month. the appropriate data based on Association of American estimates (AAR) are showing the number of railcars loaded Weekly Railroads coal during the week by with Class I and certain other railroads. the weekly coal production model converted AAR data into short tons of coal by using the Through 2001, average number short tons of coal per railcar loaded reported in the “Quarterly Freight Commodity Statistics” from the of Transportation Board. If an average coal per railcar loaded was not available for a specific railroad, the Surface tonnage was used. To derive the average of total weekly production, the national estimate total rail tonnage for the week was by the ratio of quarterly production shipped by rail and total quarterly production. Data for the corresponding divided of previous years were used to derive this ratio. This method ensured that the seasonal variations were quarter the production in preserved estimates. 2002 From 2014, the weekly coal production model used statistical auto regressive methods to estimate through production as a function of railcar loadings of coal, heating degree ‐ days, and cooling degree ‐ days. On national coal of each week, EIA received from the AAR data for the previous week. The latest weekly national Thursday data for degree ‐ days and cooling degree ‐ days were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric heating Prediction Center. Administration’s Climate in 2015, the revised weekly coal production model uses statistical auto regressive methods to estimate Beginning EIA production as a function of railcar loadings of coal. national receives coal AAR data on Thursday each week for of prior week car loadings. The weekly coal model is run and a national level coal production estimate is obtained. From there, ‐ level estimates are calculated using historical state production share. The state estimates are then state to various regional ‐ level estimates. The aggregated after model is weekly every quarter coal preliminary coal data refit available. are preliminary quarterly data become available, the monthly and weekly estimates are adjusted When conform to the to quarterly figures. The adjustment procedure uses historical state ‐ level production data, the methodology for can which be seen in the documentation http://www.eia.gov/coal/production/weekly/. Initial located estimates of annual at production published in January of the following year are based on preliminary production data covering the first nine months quarters) and weekly/monthly estimates for the fourth quarter. All quarterly, monthly, and weekly (three are production adjusted to conform to the final annual figures the production data published in Monthly Energy Review in the fall of the following year. Note 2. Coal Consumption. Forecast data (designated by an “F”) are derived from forecasted values shown in EIA’s Short ‐ Coal Term Energy Outlook (DOE/EIA ‐ 0202) table titled “U.S. Supply, Consumption, and Inventories.” The monthly estimates March, are based on the quarterly values, which are released in June, September, and December. The estimates are quarterly as collected data become available from the data sources. Sector ‐ specific information follows. revised Commercial—Through 2007, coal consumption by the residential and commercial sectors is reported to EIA Residential and the for two sectors combined; EIA estimates the amount consumed by the sectors individually. To create the estimates, it assumed that is occupied coal ‐ heated housing unit consumes fuel at the same Btu rate as an oil ‐ heated housing first an unit. Then, for the years in which data are available on the number of occupied housing by heating source (1973– units 1981 and subsequent odd ‐ numbered years), residential consumption of coal is estimated using the following steps: a ratio created of the number of occupied housing units heated by coal to the number of occupied housing units heated is by that oil; then multiplied by the Btu quantity of ratio consumed is by the residential sector to derive an estimate of oil the Btu quantity of coal consumed by the residential sector; and, finally, the amount estimated as the residential sector consumption subtracted from the residential and commercial is sectors’ combined consumption to derive the commercial sector’s estimated consumption. Beginning in 2008, residential coal consumption data are not collected by directly taken are data consumption coal commercial EIA, and data. reported from / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 116

127 Industrial Plants—Through 1979, monthly coke plant consumption data were taken directly from reported data. Coke 1980–1987, For plant consumption estimates were derived by proportioning reported quarterly data by using the coke year ‐ of ‐ quarterly consumption data in 1979, the last monthly in which monthly data were reported. Beginning ratios to 1988, monthly coke plant consumption estimates are derived in from the reported quarterly data by using monthly raw steel production data from the American Iron and Steel Institute. The ratios are the of raw steel ratios monthly open hearth and basic oxygen from furnaces as a proportion of production process quarterly production from those the kinds furnaces. Coal coke consumption values also include the relativity small amount consumed for non ‐ combustion of (See 1.11a and Tables 1.11b). use Other—Through 1977, monthly consumption data for the other Industrial sector (all industrial users minus industrial were derived by plants) using reported data coke to modify baseline consumption figures from the most recent U.S. Annual Survey of Manufactures or Census of Manufactures. For 1978 and 1979, monthly estimates were Bureau Census from data reported on Forms EIA ‐ 3 and EIA ‐ 6. For 1980–1987, monthly figures were estimated by derived quarterly data by using proportioning the ratios of monthly ‐ to ‐ quarterly consumption data in 1979, the last year in which data were reported on Form EIA ‐ 3. Beginning in 1988, monthly consumption for the other monthly is estimated from reported quarterly data by using ratios derived from industrial production industrial sector published by the Board indices of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Indices for six major industry groups as are the basis for calculating the ratios: food manufacturing, which is North American Industry used NAICS (NAICS) Classification 311; paper manufacturing, NAICS 322; chemical manufacturing, System 325; code petroleum and coal products, 324; non ‐ metallic NAICS mineral products manufacturing, NAICS 327; and primary metal NAICS 331. The monthly ratios are computed as the monthly sum of the weighted indices as manufacturing, by of the quarterly sum of the weighted indices a using the 1977 proportion as the weights. Through proportion 2007, quarterly consumption data for the other sector were derived by adding beginning stocks at industrial manufacturing plants to current receipts and subtracting ending stocks at manufacturing plants. In this calculation, current receipts are the greater of either reported receipts from manufacturing plants (Form EIA ‐ 3) or industrial reported shipments to the other sector (Form EIA ‐ 6), agriculture, thereby ensuring that forestry, fishing, where construction included were data consumption consumption quarterly 2008, in Beginning appropriate. and totals other industrial coal include data for manufacturing and mining only. Over time, surveyed coal for to for agriculture, forestry, fishing, and construction dwindled consumption about 20–30 thousand short tons data annually. 2008, EIA consolidated its programs by eliminating Therefore, agriculture, forestry, fishing, and in construction as surveyed sectors. Electric Power Sector—Monthly consumption data for electric power plants are taken directly from reported data. Note Coal Stocks. Coal stocks data are reported by major 3. end ‐ use sector. Forecast data (designated by an “F”) are derived from forecasted values shown in EIA’s Short ‐ Term Energy Outlook (DOE/EIA ‐ 0202) table titled “U.S. are Coal Supply, Consumption, and Inventories.” The monthly estimates based on the quarterly values (released in or March, September, and December) June, annual values. The estimates are revised as collected data become available from the data sources. Sector ‐ specific information follows. Distributors—Through 1997, quarterly stocks at producers and distributors were taken directly Producers and reported data. Monthly data were estimated by from one ‐ third of the current quarterly change to indicate using the monthly change in stocks. in 1998, end ‐ of ‐ Beginning year stocks are taken from reported data. Monthly stocks are by a model. estimated Commercial—Through 1979, stock Residential for the and residential and commercial sector were taken estimates directly from reported data. For 1980–2007, stock estimates were not collected. Beginning in 2008, quarterly data commercial residential) stocks (excluding are collected on Form EIA ‐ 3 (data for “Commercial and Institutional Coal Users”). reported data. Beginning stocks at coke plants were taken directly monthly from Industrial Coke Plants—Through 1979, Monthly U. 117 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

128 coke plant stocks are estimated by using one ‐ third of the current quarterly change to indicate 1980, monthly in the stocks. Quarterly stocks are taken directly in data reported on Form EIA ‐ 5. change from modify to stocks Industrial the other industrial sector were derived by using reported data 1977, Other—Through for figures a one ‐ time Bureau of Mines survey of consumers. For 1978–1982, monthly estimates were baseline from by judgmentally proportioning reported quarterly data based on representative seasonal patterns of supply and derived estimated in 1983, other industrial coal stocks are Beginning as indicated above for coke plants. demand. Quarterly stocks are taken directly from data reported on Form EIA ‐ 3 and therefore include only manufacturing industries; data for agriculture, fishing, mining, and construction stocks are not available. forestry, Sector—Monthly stocks data at Electric electric power plants are taken Power directly from reported data. Note 4. Coal Values . Forecast Data values preceded by “F” in this section are forecast values. They are derived from EIA’s driven Short Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The model is Term primarily by data and assumptions about key ‐ macroeconomic variables, the world oil price, and weather. The coal forecast relies on other variables as well, such as alternative fuel prices (natural gas and oil) and power generation by sources other than fossil fuels, including nuclear and power. if adjustments, make staff their on based appropriate, hydroelectric Each month, EIA and review the model output knowledge developments in the coal industry. of model results are The STIFS monthly in EIA’s Short ‐ Term Energy Outlook , which is accessible on the Web at published http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/steo/. Sources Table 6.1 Production 1977: U.S. Department of the Interior, 1949–September of Mines, Minerals Yearbook and Minerals Industry Bureau Surveys . October 1977 forward: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Weekly Coal Production . Waste Coal Supplied 1989–1997: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 867, Nonutility Power Producer Report.” “Annual 1998–2000: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 860B, “Annual Electric Generator Report—Nonutility.” 2001–2003: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 906, “Power Plant Report,” and Form EIA ‐ 3, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report—Manufacturing Plants,” and predecessor forms. 2004–2007: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 906, “Power Plant Report,” Form EIA ‐ “Combined Heat and Power Plant Report,” and Form EIA ‐ 3, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and 920, Quality Report—Manufacturing Plants,” and predecessor forms. 2008 forward: Form EIA ‐ 923, “Power Plant Operations EIA, Report,” and Form EIA ‐ 3, “Quarterly Survey of Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Coal Users” (formerly called, “Quarterly of Non ‐ Survey Coal Data”); and, for Electric forecast values, Sector EIA, Short ‐ Term Integrated Forecasting System. Imports and Exports 1949 forward: U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, Monthly Reports IM 145 (Imports) and EM 545 (Exports). Stock Change data forward: Calculated from 1950 in Table 6.3. Losses and Unaccounted for minus exports, stock change, and waste supplied, 1949 forward: Calculated as the sum of production, imports, and coal consumption. Consumption forward: 1949 6.2. Table / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 118

129 Table 6.2 Sources Residential and Commercial Total 2007, coal consumption by the residential Through commercial sectors combined is reported to the U.S. Energy and Information Administration (EIA). EIA estimates the sectors individually using the method described in Note 2, “Consumption,” at the end of Section 6. Data for the residential and commercial sectors combined are from: 1949–1976: U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), Bureau of Mines (BOM), Minerals Yearbook . January–September 1977: DOI, BOM, Form 6 ‐ 1400, “Monthly Coal Report, Retail October Dealers—Upper Lake Docks.” 1977– 1979: Form EIA ‐ 2, “Monthly Coal Report, Retail Dealers—Upper Lake Docks.” EIA, Form EIA ‐ 6, “Coal Distribution 1980–1997: Report,” quarterly. EIA, 7000 Report— Mine Safety and Health Administration, Form Quality ‐ 2, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and DOI, 1998–2007: Coke Plants.” Commercial Total in 2008, coal consumption by the commercial (excluding residential) sector is reported to EIA. Data for Beginning total EIA commercial consumption are from: 2008 forward: EIA, Form ‐ 3, “Quarterly Survey of Industrial, Commercial, and Coal values, forecast for Sector and, Data”); Institutional Coal Users” (formerly called, “Quarterly Survey of Non ‐ Electric EIA, Term ‐ Short (STIFS). System Forecasting Integrated Commercial CHP 1989 forward: Table 7.4c. Commercial Other Calculated as “Commercial Total” forward: minus “Commercial CHP.” 1949 Industrial Coke Plants 1977: DOI, BOM, Minerals Yearbook 1949–September Minerals Industry Surveys . and October 1977–1980: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 5/5A, “Coke and Coal Chemicals—Monthly/Annual Supplement.” 1981–1984: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 5/5A, “Coke Plant Report—Quarterly/Annual Supplement.” 1985 forward: EIA, Form EIA–5, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report—Coke Plants”; and, for forecast values, EIA, STIFS. Other Industrial Total 1949–September 1977: DOI, BOM, Minerals Yearbook and Minerals Industry Surveys . Consumption October 1977–1979: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 3, “Quarterly Coal and Quality Report—Manufacturing Plants,” and predecessor forms. and Form EIA ‐ 3, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report—Manufacturing 1980–1997: EIA, Plants,” predecessor forms and Form EIA ‐ “Coal Distribution Report,” quarterly. 6, predecessor EIA, Form EIA ‐ 3, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report—Manufacturing Plants,” and 1998–2007: EIA ‐ 6A, “Coal Distribution Report,” annual, forms, Form Form EIA ‐ 7A, “Coal Production Report,” annual. and 2008 forward: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 3, “Quarterly Survey of Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Coal Users” (formerly called, “Quarterly Survey of Non ‐ Electric annual; and, for Production “Coal 7A, ‐ EIA Form and Data”) Coal Sector Report,” STIFS. forecast values, EIA, Other Industrial CHP 1989 forward: Table 7.4c. Monthly U. 119 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

130 Other Industrial Non-CHP minus forward: as “Other Industrial Total” Calculated “Other Industrial CHP.” 1949 Transportation DOI, BOM, Minerals Yearbook. 1949–1976: Coal 1977: DOI, BOM, Form 6 ‐ 1400, “Monthly Report, Retail Dealers—Upper Lake Docks.” October– January–September 1977: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 6, “Coal Distribution Report,” quarterly. December Electric Power 1949 Table 7.4b. forward: 6.3 Sources Table Producers and Distributors U.S. Department of the (DOI), Bureau of Mines (BOM), Form 6 ‐ 1419Q, “Distribution of 1973–1979: Bituminous Interior Coal and Lignite Shipments.” 1980–1997: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA ‐ 6, “Coal Distribution Report,” U.S. quarterly. 1998–2007: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 6A, “Coal Distribution Report,” annual. (formerly Users” Coal Institutional and Commercial, Industrial, of Form Survey 3, ‐ EIA “Quarterly EIA, forward: 2008 called, “Quarterly Survey of Non ‐ Electric Sector Coal Data”); (data for “Commercial and Institutional Coal Users”); and, for forecast values, EIA, STIFS. Residential and Commercial 1949–1976: DOI, BOM, Minerals Yearbook . 1400, Lake Dealers—Upper Report, Coal “Monthly Retail Docks.” January–September 1977: DOI, BOM, Form 6 ‐ October EIA, Form EIA ‐ 2, “Monthly Coal Report, Retail Dealers—Upper Lake Docks.” 1977–1979: 2008 Form EIA ‐ 3, “Quarterly Survey of forward: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Coal Users” (formerly EIA, . STIFS Survey of Non ‐ Electric Coal Data); and, for forecast values, EIA, called “Quarterly Industrial Coke Plants 1949–September 1977: DOI, BOM, Minerals Yearbook and Minerals Industry Surveys . 5/5A, October 1977–1980: EIA, Form EIA ‐ “Coke and Coal Chemicals—Monthly/Annual.” 1981–1984: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 5/5A, “Coke Plant Report—Quarterly/Annual Supplement.” 1985 EIA, Form EIA ‐ 5, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report—Coke Plants” and, for forecast forward: values, EIA, STIFS. Industrial Other 1977: DOI, BOM, 1949–September Minerals Yearbook and Minerals Industry Surveys . October 1977–2007: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 3, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report—Manufacturing Plants,” and predecessor forms. 2008 forward: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 3, “Quarterly of Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Coal Users” (formerly Survey of Survey “Quarterly called, Coal Sector Electric ‐ Non Data”); STIFS. EIA, values, forecast for and, Electric Power Table forward: 1949 7.5. / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 120

131 7. Electricity

132 Overview Figure 7.1 Electricity Kilowatthours) (Billion Overview, 2018 5,000 4,018 3,802 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 146 144 58 14 13 0 Exports Industrial Direct Use [c] Retail Sales [b] Imports Commercial Electric Power Trade Net Generation [a] End Use Net Generation [a] by Sector, 1989–2018 Net Generation [a] by Sector, Monthly 5,000 500 Total [d] Total [d] 400 4,000 Electric Power 300 3,000 Electric Power 200 2,000 100 1,000 Industrial Industrial 0 JFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASOND 0 2015 1990 2000 2005 2010 1995 2017 2019 2018 Trade, 1949–2018 80 60 Imports 40 20 Exports 0 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Data commercial sector. facilities. scale ‐ utility for are [d] Includes [a] sales y/data/monthly/#electricity. http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg Page: Web [b] Electricity retail to ultimate customers reported by electric utilities Source: 7.1. Table and other energy service providers. Glossary. [c] See “Direct Use” in 122 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U.

133 T able 7.1 Electricity Overview (Billion Kilowatthours) a Net Generation Trade End Use f T&D Losses and Indus- Electric Com- mercial Power Unaccounted Net Retail Direct trial e e b e c h d i g Imports Sector Sales Exports for Use Total Total Imports Sector Sector ... 1 NA 5 334 2 (s) 2 44 291 NA 291 950 Total 329 955 Total 547 NA 3 550 5 (s) 4 58 497 NA 497 1 ... 5 ... NA 4 759 5 1 756 76 688 NA 688 1 960 Total 965 Total ... 1,055 NA 3 1,058 4 4 (s) 104 954 NA 954 1 970 Total 1 NA 3 1,535 6 4 2 145 1,392 NA 1,392 ... 1,532 6 975 Total NA 3 1,921 11 5 1,918 180 1,747 NA 1,747 1 ... 980 Total ... 2,286 NA 3 2,290 25 4 21 216 2,094 NA 2,094 1 1 985 Total 2,470 NA 3 2,473 46 5 41 190 2,324 NA 2,324 ... d 18 2,901 6 1 131 3,038 ... 16 2 203 2,713 125 2,837 990 Total 1 995 Total ... 3,194 8 151 3,353 43 4 39 229 3,013 151 3,164 2 000 Total 3,638 8 157 3,802 49 15 34 244 3,421 171 3,592 ... 001 Total 16 3,580 7 149 3,737 39 2 22 202 3,394 163 3,557 ... 16 2 3,698 7 153 3,858 37 ... 21 248 3,465 166 3,632 002 Total 2 003 Total ... 3,721 7 155 3,883 30 24 6 228 3,494 168 3,662 23 2 3,808 8 154 3,971 34 ... 11 266 3,547 168 3,716 004 Total 2 005 Total ... 3,902 8 145 4,055 44 19 25 269 3,661 150 3,811 43 2 ... 3,908 8 148 4,065 006 Total 24 18 266 3,670 147 3,817 3,890 2 007 Total ... 4,005 8 143 4,157 51 20 31 298 3,765 126 2 008 Total 3,974 8 137 4,119 57 24 33 286 3,734 132 3,866 ... 18 2 3,810 8 132 3,950 52 ... 34 261 3,597 127 3,724 009 Total 2 010 Total ... 3,972 9 144 4,125 45 19 26 264 3,755 132 3,887 15 2 3,948 10 142 4,100 52 ... 37 255 3,750 133 3,883 011 Total 3,832 012 Total ... 3,890 11 146 4,048 59 12 47 263 3,695 138 2 58 11 4,066 150 69 3,868 143 3,725 256 12 2 013 Total ... 3,904 53 2 13 144 4,094 67 13 3,937 244 3,765 139 3,903 ... 014 Total 015 Total ... 3,919 13 146 4,078 76 9 67 244 3,759 141 3,900 2 E 6 339 1 12 353 7 (s) January ... 26 321 016 12 333 2 E February ... 301 1 12 314 5 1 5 11 297 11 308 E 5 1 12 304 6 1 291 12 286 12 297 March ... E April ... 281 1 11 293 5 (s) 4 17 270 11 280 E (s) 304 1 12 317 6 May ... 5 26 285 11 296 E 7 June ... 354 1 12 342 1 6 32 330 368 12 E 398 13 412 8 1 7 34 372 13 385 July ... 1 E 395 13 410 7 1 7 August ... 381 23 13 394 1 E 8 12 351 5 1 5 1 337 September ... 12 348 338 E 300 1 12 313 6 (s) 5 10 297 October ... 11 308 E 6 1 12 297 6 (s) 284 14 277 11 289 November ... E December ... 332 1 12 345 5 1 5 28 311 322 12 3,902 Total ... 3,918 13 146 4,077 73 6 67 241 3,762 140 E 7 (s) 343 7 19 318 12 12 330 2 017 January ... 330 1 E 6 290 11 1 278 February ... 287 11 5 276 8 1 E March ... 1 12 318 6 1 305 20 291 5 12 303 E 6 April ... 282 1 11 294 284 1 4 15 273 11 E 1 310 1 12 323 5 May ... 4 23 292 11 303 E 12 June ... 345 1 12 358 6 1 5 23 329 341 E 404 380 13 6 368 29 5 1 July ... 390 1 13 E 370 1 13 384 7 August ... 6 17 360 1 13 373 E 11 September ... 323 1 11 336 5 1 5 7 322 333 E 1 308 1 12 320 4 October ... 3 13 300 311 11 E November ... 298 1 12 310 4 1 3 19 283 295 11 E 312 325 13 1 4 33 5 December ... 340 1 13 353 ... Total 144 66 9 56 4,034 226 3,723 141 3,864 13 3,877 E 374 340 26 4 1 5 12 13 1 360 January ... 018 2 353 E 294 4 11 306 5 1 1 11 288 11 299 February ... E March ... 308 1 12 321 6 4 22 292 1 12 304 E April ... 289 1 11 302 5 2 3 19 274 285 11 E 310 May ... 1 12 340 5 1 4 34 298 327 12 E 1 359 1 12 372 5 June ... 4 32 333 345 12 E July ... 398 1 13 413 5 1 4 35 370 382 13 E 1 378 391 13 408 August ... 394 1 13 22 6 5 E 1 4 357 12 1 344 September ... 344 12 332 16 3 E 304 12 October ... 313 1 316 326 4 1 3 13 12 E 12 12 November ... 309 1 298 322 4 1 3 27 286 E 21 3 1 4 337 1 323 December ... 320 12 13 307 E 13 144 4,178 3,802 Total ... 4,018 277 146 58 14 44 3,946 F F F E 13 358 13 336 1 344 January ... 019 1 26 4 5 2 323 a Electricity net generation at utility-scale facilities. Does not include distributed in 1996, other energy service providers. i small-scale) solar photovoltaic (PV) generation shown on Table 10.6. See Note 1, Use of electricity that is 1) self-generated, 2) produced by either the sam ( e a entity that consumes the power or an affiliate, and 3) used in direct support of “ Coverage of Electricity Statistics,” at end of section. b s Electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS service or industrial process located within the same facility or group of facilitie 2 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to that house the generating equipment. Direct use is exclusive of station use. 2 E=Estimate. NA=Not available. F=Forecast. (s)=Less than 0.5 billio n he public. Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only; beginning in 1989, data t a kilowatthours. re for electric utilities and independent power producers. c 2, • Notes: Commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only See Note 1, "Coverage of Electricity Statistics," and Note "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at end of section. p lants. d Industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only Data values preceded by "F" are derived from the U.S. Energy Informatio n • ty lants. Through 1988, data are for industrial hydroelectric power only. Administration’s Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System. See Note 3, "Electrici p e ts Electricity transmitted across U.S. borders. Net imports equal imports minus Forecast Values," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of componen Geographic coverage is the 50 states and th xports. e due to independent rounding. • e f Transmission and distribution losses (electricity losses that occur between the District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Exc p oint of generation and delivery to the customer). See Note 1, "Electrical System el E nergy Losses," at end of Section 2. and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da ta g Data collection frame differences and nonsampling error. beginning in 1973. h Sources: See end of section. Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers by electric utilities and, beginning Monthly U. 123 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

134 Generation Figure 7.2 Electricity Net Kilowatthours) (Billion Total (All Sectors), Major Sources, 1949–2018 2,500 Coal 2,000 1,500 Natural Gas 1,000 Nuclear Electric Power 500 Renewable Energy Petroleum 0 1955 1980 2015 2010 2005 2000 1995 1950 1990 1985 1975 1970 1960 1965 Total (All Sectors), Major Sources, Monthly Electric Power Sector, Major Sources, 2018 200 1,600 1,366 Natural Gas 1,400 1,139 150 1,200 1,000 807 100 Coal 800 679 600 50 400 Renewable Energy [a] Nuclear Electric 200 Power Petroleum 23 0 0 J FMAMJ J ASONDJ FMAMJ JASONDJ FMAMJ JASOND Renewable Natural Coal Nuclear Electric Petroleum Energy [a] Power Gas 2017 2018 2019 Commercial Sector, Major Sources, 2018 Industrial Sector, Major Sources, 2018 10 100 94.0 8.3 80 8 60 6 40 4 28.0 2.3 20 2 8.2 7.5 1.4 1.3 0.3 0.2 0 0 Other Gases [b] Petroleum Hydroelectric Coal Natural Gas Wood Petroleum Coal Waste Natural Gas Power [c] power. [a] Conventional hydroelectric power, hydroelectric wood, waste, geothermal, solar, and Conventional [c] ‐ Note: are for Data scale wind. facilities. utility furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste derived fossil Web Blast [b] y/data/monthly/#electricity. http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg Page: from ‐ 7.2a Tables fuels. Sources: 7.2c. 124 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U.

135 T able 7.2a Electricity Net Generation: Total (All Sectors) (Sum of Tables 7.2b and 7.2c; Million Kilowatthours) Renewable Energy Fossil Fuels Conven- Biomass Hydro- tional electric Hydro- Nuclear Pumped Petro- Natural Other Geo- electric Electric c j h a d g b e i f leum Power thermal Solar Gas Wind Wood Gases Waste Coal Total Storage Power f 154,520 33,734 44,559 NA 0 1 ( ) 100,885 390 NA NA NA NA 334,088 950 Total ... f 276 NA 95,285 NA 0 ... ( ) 116,236 37,138 NA NA NA 550,299 301,363 955 Total 1 f 403,067 47,987 157,970 NA 518 1 ( ) 149,440 140 NA 33 NA NA 759,156 960 Total ... f ... 570,926 64,801 221,559 1 3,657 965 Total ( ) 196,984 269 NA 189 NA NA 1,058,386 NA f ... 704,394 184,183 372,890 NA 21,804 1 ( ) 250,957 136 220 525 NA NA 1,535,111 970 Total f 303,153 289,095 299,778 NA 172,505 975 Total ( ) 852,786 18 174 3,246 NA NA 1,920,755 ... 1 f 275 ... 346,240 NA 251,116 980 Total ( ) 279,182 245,994 158 5,073 NA NA 2,289,600 1 1,161,562 f ... 1,402,128 100,202 291,946 NA 383,691 1 985 Total 284,311 743 640 9,325 11 6 2,473,002 ( ) k 1 ... 1,594,011 126,460 372,765 10,383 990 Total -3,508 292,866 32,522 13,260 15,434 367 2,789 3,037,827 576,862 1 995 Total ... 1,709,426 74,554 496,058 13,870 673,402 -2,725 310,833 36,521 20,405 13,378 497 3,164 3,353,487 2 000 Total 1,966,265 111,221 601,038 13,955 753,893 -5,539 275,573 37,595 23,131 14,093 493 5,593 3,802,105 ... 001 Total ... 124,880 639,129 9,039 768,826 -8,823 216,961 35,200 14,548 13,741 543 6,737 3,736,644 2 1,903,956 264,329 002 Total 94,567 691,006 11,463 780,064 -8,743 1,933,130 38,665 15,044 14,491 555 10,354 3,858,452 2 ... 003 Total ... 1,973,737 119,406 649,908 15,600 763,733 2 275,806 37,529 15,812 14,424 534 11,187 3,883,185 -8,535 2 ... 1,978,301 121,145 710,100 15,252 788,528 -8,488 268,417 38,117 15,421 14,811 575 14,144 3,970,555 004 Total -6,558 005 Total 2,012,873 122,225 760,960 13,464 781,986 ... 270,321 38,856 15,420 14,692 550 17,811 4,055,423 2 2 006 Total ... 1,990,511 64,166 816,441 14,177 787,219 -6,558 289,246 38,762 16,099 14,568 508 26,589 4,064,702 2 007 Total 2,016,456 65,739 896,590 13,453 806,425 -6,896 247,510 39,014 16,525 14,637 612 34,450 4,156,745 ... -6,288 2 1,985,801 46,243 882,981 11,707 806,208 ... 254,831 37,300 17,734 14,840 864 55,363 4,119,388 008 Total 2 009 Total ... 1,755,904 38,937 920,979 10,632 798,855 -4,627 273,445 36,050 18,443 15,009 891 73,886 3,950,331 -5,501 2 1,847,290 37,061 987,697 11,313 806,968 ... 260,203 37,172 18,917 15,219 1,212 94,652 4,125,060 010 Total 2 011 Total ... 1,733,430 30,182 1,013,689 11,566 790,204 -6,421 319,355 37,449 19,222 15,316 1,818 120,177 4,100,141 2 -4,950 012 Total ... 1,514,043 23,190 1,225,894 11,898 769,331 276,240 37,799 19,823 15,562 4,327 140,822 4,047,765 2 013 Total 1,581,115 27,164 1,124,836 12,853 789,016 -4,681 268,565 40,028 20,830 15,775 9,036 167,840 4,065,964 ... 014 Total ... 30,232 1,126,609 12,022 797,166 -6,174 259,367 42,340 21,650 15,877 17,691 181,655 4,093,606 2 1,581,710 21,703 ... 13,117 797,178 -5,091 249,080 41,929 28,249 1,333,482 15,918 24,893 190,719 4,077,601 015 Total 2 1,352,398 ... 1,352,398 28,249 1,333,482 13,117 797,178 -5,091 249,080 41,929 21,703 15,918 24,893 190,719 4,077,601 2 015 Total January ... 113,459 2,361 110,044 1,195 72,525 -312 25,615 3,600 1,795 1,332 1,486 18,466 352,719 2 016 3,406 92,705 98,552 1,062 65,638 -399 24,139 2,209 1,708 1,243 2,242 20,138 313,685 February ... March ... 72,173 1,801 103,890 1,197 66,149 -384 27,390 1,809 1,315 2,617 21,939 304,390 3,403 72,113 1,839 98,876 1,132 62,732 -452 25,878 2,967 1,811 1,209 2,880 20,799 292,894 April ... 3,187 May ... 110,430 1,053 66,576 -321 25,486 1,958 1,909 1,342 3,425 18,848 316,784 81,695 June ... 116,034 1,977 131,395 1,043 67,175 -497 23,237 3,414 1,794 1,251 3,473 16,303 367,781 July ... 2,322 151,554 1,077 70,349 -784 21,455 3,658 1,840 1,311 3,945 17,618 411,887 136,316 19,570 2,335 154,760 1,064 71,526 -902 135,635 3,722 1,860 1,324 3,969 13,589 409,701 August ... September ... 114,138 1,926 125,603 1,020 65,448 -715 16,368 3,407 1,757 1,327 3,635 16,404 351,484 October ... 1,571 102,898 913 60,733 -561 17,339 3,176 1,693 1,353 3,191 20,335 312,945 99,194 3,391 November ... 93,942 1,013 65,179 -607 18,808 1,869 1,891 1,364 2,767 19,406 297,062 86,940 December ... 118,747 2,035 96,364 1,037 71,662 -753 22,528 3,615 1,944 1,454 2,424 23,146 345,343 ... 1,239,149 24,205 1,378,307 12,807 805,694 -6,686 267,812 40,947 21,813 15,826 36,054 226,993 4,076,675 Total 26,788 2 115,333 2,065 95,473 1,046 73,121 -435 January ... 3,505 1,948 1,383 2,030 19,840 343,190 017 February ... 86,822 1,597 82,694 977 63,560 -508 23,643 3,186 1,694 1,239 2,555 21,198 289,652 March ... 1,649 95,022 1,060 65,093 -521 29,272 3,457 1,854 1,385 4,245 24,993 317,935 89,365 April ... 29,390 1,277 88,418 1,001 56,743 -439 3,149 1,755 1,337 4,696 24,613 294,325 81,335 32,384 1,818 98,067 1,055 61,313 -423 92,777 3,189 1,859 1,283 5,663 22,450 322,518 May ... June ... 107,508 1,902 117,317 992 67,011 -568 30,222 3,439 1,795 1,214 6,175 19,809 357,916 26,491 1,806 146,994 1,048 71,314 -759 127,697 3,703 1,813 1,355 5,753 15,960 404,386 July ... 384,342 August ... 119,488 1,734 141,209 1,134 72,384 -638 21,851 3,753 1,808 1,345 5,434 13,621 17,855 335,861 5,115 1,297 1,696 3,294 19,067 68,098 -606 September ... 98,203 1,637 118,112 1,060 65,995 320,376 18,284 3,306 1,717 1,229 4,821 -463 25,306 October ... 89,775 1,528 106,852 999 1,795 3,430 -478 66,618 1,001 94,883 1,658 90,986 November ... 20,565 310,315 24,082 3,409 1,289 22,377 2,719 111,373 1,096 73,700 -656 106,546 3,738 1,877 1,571 3,389 24,575 353,452 December ... Total ... 1,205,835 21,390 1,296,415 12,469 804,950 -6,495 300,333 41,152 21,610 15,927 53,286 254,303 4,034,268 -547 2 January ... 118,939 6,243 110,046 994 74,649 018 25,596 3,759 1,854 1,407 3,407 26,862 374,324 64,790 February ... 81,922 1,518 96,002 990 25,533 -315 3,379 1,761 1,326 4,113 24,096 306,115 25,951 1,459 104,933 1,064 67,033 -490 80,612 3,535 1,870 1,414 5,203 27,283 320,982 March ... April ... 73,383 1,546 99,446 940 59,133 -377 27,490 3,096 1,766 1,246 6,249 26,783 301,739 -390 85,311 1,437 116,107 1,000 67,320 May ... 30,434 3,550 1,744 1,434 7,070 23,603 339,694 7,804 1,369 372,398 1,787 130,823 24,376 June ... 101,509 1,827 3,573 1,010 69,688 -433 27,955 1,436 412,542 16,014 6,938 1,798 3,690 24,014 -644 72,456 1,105 167,250 1,892 115,477 July ... -747 407,981 115,216 1,914 162,377 1,225 72,282 August ... 21,400 3,570 1,797 1,429 6,981 19,530 356,728 September ... 96,742 1,874 142,772 1,001 64,725 -603 18,665 3,284 1,635 1,388 6,469 17,977 1,766 21,147 1,347 5,223 325,563 October ... 87,452 1,473 124,171 930 59,397 -492 18,781 3,277 -343 322,409 93,005 1,652 107,109 933 63,948 November ... 22,176 3,284 1,752 1,397 3,958 22,457 96,825 December ... 1,737 106,978 998 71,657 -522 23,728 3,414 1,825 1,535 3,188 24,825 337,334 66,604 274,952 4,177,810 21,354 41,411 16,728 Total ... 1,146,393 24,572 1,468,013 12,191 807,078 -5,905 291,724 994 118,935 2,136 101,019 January ... 019 2 357,690 25,165 3,652 1,456 1,755 3,529 24,544 -323 73,701 a generation. See Table 10.6. Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal j ynfuel. r, Includes batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfu s b miscellaneous technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable was te Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, jet fuel, kerosene, other etroleum, waste oil, and, beginning in 2011, propane. p (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). c k y; Through 1988, all data except hydroelectric are for electric utilities onl Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. d s. hydroelectric data through 1988 include industrial plants as well as electric utilitie Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from s, Beginning in 1989, data are for electric utilities, independent power producer ossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas. f e Pumped storage facility production minus energy used for pumping. commercial plants, and industrial plants. f Through 1989, hydroelectric pumped storage is included in "Conventional NA=Not available. ydroelectric Power." H Notes: • ty Data are for utility-scale facilities. See Note 1, "Coverage of Electrici g Wood and wood-derived fuels. Statistics," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to h of Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District • Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, independent rounding. Columbia. gricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes a n on-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and el Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Exc ire-derived fuels). t and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da ta i beginning in 1973. Electricity net generation from solar thermal and photovoltaic (PV) energy at u tility-scale facilities. Does not include distributed (small-scale) solar photovoltaic Sources: See end of section, “Table 7.2b Sources” and “Table 7.2c Sources.” Monthly U. 125 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

136 T able 7.2b Electricity Net Generation: Electric Power Sector (Subset of Table 7.2a; Million Kilowatthours) Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Biomass Conven- Hydro- tional Hydro- electric Nuclear electric Pumped Natural Other Petro- Electric Geo- f h c b a e d j i g Power Storage Power leum Gases Gas thermal Waste Wood Wind Solar Total Coal f 33,734 44,559 NA 0 1 950 Total 95,938 390 NA NA NA NA 329,141 ... 154,520 ( ) f 37,138 95,285 NA 0 ... ( ) 112,975 276 NA NA NA NA 547,038 1 955 Total 301,363 f 140 NA 157,970 NA 518 ... ( ) 145,833 47,987 33 NA NA 755,549 960 Total 1 403,067 f 570,926 64,801 221,559 NA 1 965 Total ( ) 193,851 269 NA 189 NA NA 1,055,252 ... 3,657 f 704,394 184,183 372,890 NA 21,804 970 Total ( ) 247,714 136 220 525 NA NA 1,531,868 1 ... f 174 299,778 NA 172,505 ... ( ) 300,047 18 289,095 3,246 NA NA 1,917,649 1 975 Total 852,786 f 1,161,562 245,994 346,240 NA 251,116 ( ) 1 276,021 275 158 5,073 NA NA 2,286,439 980 Total ... f ... 100,202 291,946 NA 383,691 985 Total ( ) 281,149 743 640 9,325 11 6 2,469,841 1 1,402,128 k 990 Total 1,572,109 118,864 309,486 621 576,862 -3,508 ... 7,032 11,500 15,434 367 2,789 2,901,322 1 289,753 995 Total ... 305,410 68,146 419,179 1,927 673,402 -2,725 1 7,597 17,986 13,378 497 3,164 3,194,230 1,686,056 2 ... 1,943,111 105,192 517,978 2,028 753,893 -5,539 271,338 8,916 20,307 14,093 493 5,593 3,637,529 000 Total 001 Total ... 119,149 554,940 586 768,826 -8,823 213,749 8,294 12,944 13,741 543 6,737 3,580,053 2 1,882,826 9,009 ... 607,683 1,970 780,064 -8,743 260,491 89,733 13,145 14,491 555 10,354 3,698,458 002 Total 2 1,910,613 ... 1,952,714 113,697 567,303 2,647 763,733 -8,535 271,512 9,528 13,808 14,424 534 11,187 3,721,159 2 003 Total 004 Total ... 114,678 627,172 3,568 788,528 -8,488 265,064 9,736 13,062 14,811 575 14,144 3,808,360 2 1,957,188 267,040 005 Total 116,482 683,829 3,777 781,986 -6,558 1,992,054 10,570 13,031 14,692 550 17,811 3,902,192 2 ... 006 Total ... 1,969,737 59,708 734,417 4,254 787,219 2 286,254 10,341 13,927 14,568 508 26,589 3,908,077 -6,558 2 ... 1,998,390 61,306 814,752 4,042 806,425 -6,896 245,843 10,711 14,294 14,637 612 34,450 4,005,343 007 Total 253,096 008 Total 42,881 802,372 3,200 806,208 -6,288 1,968,838 10,638 15,379 14,840 864 55,363 3,974,349 2 ... 009 Total ... 1,741,123 35,811 841,006 3,058 798,855 -4,627 271,506 10,738 15,954 15,009 891 73,886 3,809,837 2 2 010 Total 1,827,738 34,679 901,389 2,967 806,968 -5,501 258,455 11,446 16,376 15,219 1,206 94,636 3,972,386 ... -6,421 2 1,717,891 28,202 926,290 2,939 790,204 ... 317,531 10,733 15,989 15,316 1,727 120,121 3,948,186 011 Total 2 012 Total ... 1,500,557 20,072 1,132,791 2,984 769,331 -4,950 273,859 11,050 16,555 15,562 4,164 140,749 3,890,358 013 Total 2 ... 1,567,722 24,510 1,028,949 4,322 789,016 -4,681 265,058 12,302 16,918 15,775 8,724 167,742 3,903,715 2 014 Total 1,568,774 28,043 1,033,172 3,358 797,166 -6,174 258,046 15,027 17,602 15,877 17,304 181,496 3,937,003 ... 015 Total ... 26,505 1,237,656 3,715 797,178 -5,091 247,636 14,563 17,823 15,918 24,456 190,547 3,919,294 2 1,340,993 17,823 ... 3,715 797,178 -5,091 247,636 14,563 26,505 1,237,656 15,918 24,456 190,547 3,919,294 015 Total 2 1,340,993 January ... 112,624 2,217 101,786 344 72,525 -312 25,464 1,202 1,490 1,332 1,458 18,447 339,200 2 016 February ... 91,909 90,849 299 65,638 -399 24,006 1,183 1,424 1,243 2,201 20,118 301,122 2,079 1,135 March ... 95,849 360 66,149 -384 27,226 1,695 1,491 1,315 2,571 21,920 291,262 71,346 April ... 71,419 1,745 91,257 317 62,732 -452 25,735 1,501 1,209 2,831 20,781 280,548 883 80,935 1,814 102,482 313 66,576 -321 25,355 947 1,585 1,342 3,375 18,832 303,879 May ... 1,094 June ... 123,043 351 67,175 -497 23,125 1,847 1,516 1,251 3,418 16,290 354,445 115,197 July ... 135,420 2,186 142,558 346 70,349 -784 21,337 1,242 1,534 1,311 3,886 17,605 397,635 August ... 2,210 145,610 332 71,526 -902 19,458 1,313 1,557 1,324 3,908 13,579 395,328 134,762 16,279 1,822 117,197 346 65,448 -715 113,347 1,168 1,474 1,327 3,584 16,391 338,260 September ... October ... 98,474 1,450 94,754 234 60,733 -561 17,229 952 1,406 1,353 3,147 20,318 300,073 November ... 1,737 85,907 351 65,179 -607 18,721 1,066 1,577 1,364 2,729 19,388 284,282 86,275 1,234 December ... 88,088 318 71,662 -753 22,390 1,908 1,628 1,454 2,389 23,122 332,044 117,955 Total ... 1,229,663 22,710 1,279,380 3,912 805,694 -6,686 266,326 13,420 18,183 15,826 35,497 226,790 3,918,078 2 017 114,572 1,947 86,885 349 73,121 -435 26,635 1,189 1,646 1,383 2,011 19,822 329,751 January ... 23,513 February ... 1,491 75,045 308 63,560 -508 86,158 1,061 1,423 1,239 2,526 21,179 277,548 March ... 88,688 1,519 86,855 358 65,093 -521 29,126 1,216 1,544 1,385 4,200 24,968 304,996 April ... 1,179 80,578 300 56,743 -439 29,221 975 1,465 1,337 4,646 24,591 281,892 80,743 May ... 32,205 1,720 90,021 350 61,313 -423 977 1,554 1,283 5,605 22,429 309,762 92,141 30,083 1,793 108,833 324 67,011 -568 106,825 1,093 1,515 1,214 6,109 19,791 344,617 June ... July ... 127,019 1,687 137,841 369 71,314 -759 26,363 1,239 1,513 1,355 5,690 15,948 390,204 21,741 1,610 132,376 360 72,384 -638 118,810 1,271 1,508 1,345 5,374 13,611 370,387 August ... 323,400 September ... 97,560 1,543 110,219 346 68,098 -606 18,978 1,088 1,422 1,297 5,059 17,840 4,771 1,229 1,436 1,083 65,995 18,171 307,760 25,283 October ... 89,114 1,427 98,826 326 -463 24,059 -478 20,421 1,163 1,496 1,289 3,372 297,585 November ... 90,347 1,543 86,819 352 66,618 1,286 22,255 -656 73,700 102,457 2,582 105,860 December ... 383 339,547 24,552 3,358 1,571 1,564 -6,495 ... 1,197,838 20,039 1,196,754 4,126 804,950 Total 298,711 13,641 18,084 15,927 52,723 254,074 3,877,450 2 018 January ... 118,151 6,050 101,254 329 74,649 -547 25,462 1,316 1,567 1,407 3,375 26,834 360,468 25,399 81,226 1,413 88,169 326 64,790 -315 February ... 1,155 1,500 1,326 4,072 24,070 293,720 67,033 March ... 79,910 1,352 96,975 346 1,582 -490 25,806 1,172 1,414 5,151 27,253 308,123 27,346 1,442 91,456 334 59,133 -377 72,769 872 1,492 1,246 6,183 26,755 289,228 April ... May ... 84,660 1,333 107,960 360 67,320 -390 30,283 1,125 1,471 1,434 6,995 23,578 326,710 -433 100,873 1,699 122,324 330 69,688 June ... 27,818 1,206 1,526 1,369 7,712 24,353 359,105 114,811 15,995 398,473 6,861 July ... 1,436 1,760 158,158 363 72,456 -644 23,882 1,216 1,530 393 393,724 19,510 6,900 1,429 1,527 1,169 21,277 -747 72,282 153,127 1,803 114,554 August ... 64,725 17,957 September ... 96,121 1,757 134,147 319 -603 18,547 1,047 1,390 1,388 6,393 343,548 312,618 21,122 October ... 86,881 1,366 115,791 259 59,397 -492 18,652 1,032 1,489 1,347 5,165 298 22,431 3,918 1,397 1,002 22,032 -343 63,948 98,296 1,555 92,407 November ... 1,485 309,038 323,498 24,799 December ... 96,172 1,619 98,001 342 71,657 -522 23,576 1,020 1,542 1,502 3,156 3,998 274,656 4,018,253 Total ... 1,138,535 23,148 1,365,658 807,078 -5,905 290,080 13,333 18,102 16,695 65,882 3,616 343,679 1,225 24,428 -323 73,701 377 109,631 2,021 100,364 1,414 January ... 019 2 25,137 1,472 a Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal generation. See Table 10.6. j Includes batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfu ynfuel. r, s b miscellaneous technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable was te Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, jet fuel, kerosene, other etroleum, waste oil, and, beginning in 2011, propane. (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). p k c Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. re Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data a d for electric utilites and independent power producers. Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from f NA=Not available. ossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas. e • Notes: Pumped storage facility production minus energy used for pumping. ty Data are for utility-scale facilities. See Note 1, "Coverage of Electrici f • The electric power sector comprises electricity-on ly Through 1989, hydroelectric pumped storage is included in "Conventional Statistics," at end of section. ydroelectric Power." e H and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whos g ls • Tota Wood and wood-derived fuels. primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. h may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, ic Geograph • coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. a gricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Exc el n on-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da t ta ire-derived fuels). i Electricity net generation from solar thermal and photovoltaic (PV) energy at beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section. tility-scale facilities. Does not include distributed (small-scale) solar photovoltaic u / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 126

137 T able 7.2c Electricity Net Generation: Commercial and Industrial Sectors (Subset of Table 7.2a; Million Kilowatthours) b a Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Biomass Hydro- Biomass Petro- Petro- Natural Other Natural electric h j d c f e d k g f c e i leum Power Gases Waste Gas Wood Total Waste Coal Total Gas Coal leum NA NA NA NA NA NA 1 NA NA 4,946 NA NA 4,946 950 Total ... NA ... NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3,261 NA NA 3,261 1 955 Total NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3,607 NA NA 3,607 960 Total 1 ... ... NA NA 1 NA NA NA NA NA NA 3,134 NA NA 3,134 965 Total NA 970 Total NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3,244 NA NA 3,244 1 ... NA ... NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3,106 NA NA 3,106 975 Total 1 NA ... NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3,161 NA NA 3,161 1 980 Total 985 Total ... NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3,161 NA NA 3,161 1 NA 60,007 990 Total 589 3,272 812 5,837 21,107 7,008 796 9,641 2,975 25,379 949 130,830 1 ... 995 Total ... 71,717 379 5,162 1,519 8,232 22,372 6,030 1 11,943 5,304 28,868 900 151,025 998 2 ... 1,097 432 4,262 1,985 7,903 22,056 5,597 78,798 11,927 4,135 28,652 839 156,673 000 Total 001 Total ... 438 4,434 1,007 7,416 20,135 5,293 79,755 8,454 3,145 26,888 596 149,175 2 995 9,493 ... 4,310 1,053 7,415 21,525 4,403 79,013 431 3,825 29,643 846 152,580 002 Total 992 2 ... 1,206 423 3,899 1,289 7,496 19,817 5,285 2 12,953 4,222 27,988 715 154,530 003 Total 78,705 004 Total 1,340 499 3,969 1,562 8,270 19,773 ... 78,959 11,684 3,248 28,367 797 153,925 2 5,967 005 Total ... 1,353 375 4,249 1,657 8,492 19,466 5,368 72,882 9,687 3,195 28,271 733 144,739 2 2 006 Total 1,310 235 4,355 1,599 8,371 19,464 4,223 77,669 9,923 2,899 28,400 572 148,254 ... 77,580 007 Total 189 4,257 1,599 8,273 16,694 4,243 1,371 9,411 1,590 28,287 631 143,128 2 ... 008 Total ... 1,261 142 4,188 1,534 7,926 15,703 3,219 76,421 8,507 1,676 26,641 821 137,113 2 2 009 Total 1,096 163 4,225 1,748 8,165 13,686 2,963 75,748 7,574 1,868 25,292 740 132,329 ... 2,258 2 1,111 124 4,725 1,672 8,592 18,441 ... 81,583 8,343 1,668 25,706 869 144,082 010 Total 2 011 Total ... 1,049 89 5,487 2,315 10,080 14,490 1,891 81,911 8,624 1,799 26,691 917 141,875 2 012 Total ... 883 196 6,603 2,319 11,301 12,603 2,922 86,500 8,913 2,353 26,725 948 146,107 2 013 Total 839 124 7,154 2,567 12,234 12,554 2,531 88,733 8,531 3,463 27,691 1,346 150,015 ... 014 Total ... 255 7,227 2,681 12,520 12,341 1,934 86,209 8,664 1,282 27,239 1,367 144,083 2 595 9,401 ... 7,471 2,637 12,595 10,896 1,552 88,355 191 1,410 27,318 1,243 145,712 015 Total 509 2 ... 509 191 7,471 2,637 12,595 10,896 1,552 2 9,401 1,410 27,318 1,243 145,712 015 Total 88,355 016 43 9 605 212 1,022 793 January ... 7,653 851 130 2,392 93 12,497 2 135 February ... 45 9 570 192 967 750 121 7,133 763 115 2,217 92 11,597 46 4 579 210 1,011 781 102 7,462 837 142 2,266 108 12,117 March ... 7,067 April ... 551 205 961 670 87 6 815 128 2,079 106 11,386 24 May ... 20 6 607 218 1,019 740 138 7,341 740 119 2,238 106 11,886 June ... 5 692 202 1,089 814 125 7,661 692 99 2,310 76 12,248 23 127 9 831 216 1,263 873 24 8,165 731 104 2,408 90 12,989 July ... August ... 26 7 859 215 1,298 847 118 8,291 732 92 2,398 89 13,075 September ... 4 700 206 1,114 762 101 7,706 674 65 2,231 76 12,111 29 7,527 October ... 617 202 1,021 693 117 5 679 88 2,220 86 11,851 27 November ... 35 8 521 210 927 630 124 7,514 662 69 2,323 104 11,852 December ... 42 9 598 208 1,015 750 118 7,678 720 117 2,375 108 12,283 9,103 ... 383 82 7,730 2,496 12,706 1,412 91,197 8,895 1,269 27,458 1,134 145,890 Total 2 017 January ... 41 14 681 213 1,098 720 104 7,907 696 126 2,308 89 12,341 February ... 8 597 188 963 632 98 7,052 668 115 2,118 83 11,142 32 March ... 120 10 652 214 1,071 644 7,515 702 131 2,239 95 11,868 33 93 5 574 202 976 573 20 7,266 701 146 2,169 88 11,457 April ... May ... 19 7 619 225 1,069 616 91 7,428 704 155 2,205 80 11,686 104 6 718 207 1,135 662 21 7,765 668 124 2,340 73 12,164 June ... 12,956 July ... 25 7 786 222 1,227 653 112 8,367 679 115 2,457 79 8,067 12,754 82 1,202 2,475 93 774 116 655 August ... 23 9 766 218 2,204 11,354 86 1,107 7,191 715 75 615 72 September ... 27 7 701 202 October ... 661 11,537 85 2,217 84 673 7,366 94 637 1,079 197 6 24 108 8 611 207 1,020 610 29 7,453 649 121 2,261 91 11,710 November ... December ... 35 24 674 218 1,114 651 113 8,242 713 99 2,446 95 12,790 7,669 Total ... 329 112 8,042 2,515 13,060 1,239 91,619 8,343 1,383 27,440 1,012 143,758 2,435 2 018 January ... 44 NM 673 199 1,124 744 148 8,119 665 112 87 12,732 February ... 9 635 179 1,008 664 96 7,197 665 112 2,218 82 11,387 32 97 9 651 199 1,063 676 26 7,307 718 122 2,358 89 11,796 March ... April ... 22 9 634 190 1,040 591 94 7,356 607 119 2,222 85 11,471 632 19 9 644 195 1,070 May ... 96 7,503 640 125 2,420 78 11,915 114 680 12,144 7,793 120 68 2,359 615 June ... 21 8 706 193 1,148 73 2,465 113 742 8,271 121 641 194 821 12 25 July ... 1,251 12,819 633 12,989 30 10 831 196 1,269 August ... 100 8,419 832 106 2,391 74 September ... 29 9 749 179 1,148 592 108 7,876 682 103 2,229 65 12,031 115 7,707 99 671 80 2,241 11,876 October ... 24 8 673 197 1,070 547 27 12,357 82 2,279 127 634 8,172 84 572 1,014 184 641 13 November ... 106 656 12,723 85 2,386 135 8,292 623 December ... 29 11 685 197 1,114 1,270 94,012 8,193 1,403 28,002 948 146,239 Total ... 327 154 8,343 2,304 13,318 7,531 95 84 12,842 1,169 198 717 8,587 15 35 January ... 019 2 617 620 2,296 100 a Commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only fossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas. i lants. p Conventional hydroelectric power. b j Wood and wood-derived fuels. Industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only k Includes photovoltaic (PV) energy, wind, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitc h, lants. p c Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal 1, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous technologies, and, beginning in 200 d non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, an s ynfuel. d ic Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, jet fuel, kerosene, other tire-derived fuels). Does not include distributed (small-scale) solar photovolta etroleum, waste oil, and, beginning in 2011, propane. p generation shown on Table 10.6. e NA=Not available. NM=Not meaningful. Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. f • Notes: Data are for utility-scale facilities. See Note 1, "Coverage of Electrici ty Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, a gricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes to See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants In • Statistics," at end of section. Totals may not equal sum of componen ts Energy-Use Sectors," at end of section. n on-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and • • t ire-derived fuels). e Geographic coverage is the 50 states and th due to independent rounding. g Includes a small amount of conventional hydroelectric power, geothermal, District of Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Exc o ther gases, solar photovoltaic (PV) energy, wind, wood, and other, which are not el and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da ta eparately displayed. Does not include distributed (small-scale) solar photovoltaic s g beginning in 1973. eneration. shown on Table 10.6. h Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from Sources: See end of section. Monthly U. 127 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

138 for Generation Electricity Fuels Combustible Selected of Figure 7.3 Consumption Coal by Sector,1989–2018 Petroleum by Sector,1989–2018 300 1.2 Total [a] 1.0 250 Total [a] 0.8 200 Electric Power 150 0.6 Million Barrels Electric Power 100 0.4 Billion Short Tons 0.2 50 Industrial Industrial 0.0 0 2015 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Natural Gas by Sector,1989–2018 Other Gases [b] by Sector,1989–2018 200 12 Total [a] 10 150 8 100 6 Total [a] Trillion Btu 4 Trillion Cubic Feet Electric Power Industrial 50 Electric Power 2 Industrial 0 0 2015 2010 2005 2000 1990 1995 1995 2015 2010 2005 2000 1990 Waste by Sector,1989–2018 Wood by Sector,1989–2018 750 400 Total 300 Total [a] 500 Electric Power Industrial 200 Trillion Btu Trillion Btu 250 100 Electric Power Industrial Commercial 0 0 1990 1995 2000 2010 2015 2005 2000 2005 2010 2015 1995 1990 Note: sector. for utility ‐ scale commercial facilities. Data are [a] Includes http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg [b] Blast furnace gas, and other y/data/monthly/#electricity. and waste gases derived from Page: Web manufactured 7.3a Tables fossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas. Sources: 7.3c. ‐ 128 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U.

139 T able 7.3a Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation: (Sum of Tables 7.3b and 7.3c) Total (All Sectors) Petroleum Biomass Natural Other Distillate Residual Other Petroleum g h b a e c i f d j e Waste Wood Total Other Coal Fuel Oil Coke Fuel Oil Gases Gas Liquids Thousand Thousand Thousand Billion Barrels Cubic Feet Trillion Btu Short Tons Thousand Barrels Short Tons 91,871 NA 69,998 NA NA 75,421 629 NA 5 NA ... 1 950 Total 5,423 NA ... 69,862 NA NA 75,274 1,153 5,412 3 NA NA 955 Total 1 143,759 ... 176,685 3,824 84,371 NA NA 88,195 1,725 NA 2 NA NA 1 960 Total 965 Total 244,788 4,928 110,274 NA NA 115,203 2,321 NA 3 NA NA 1 ... NA ... 311,381 NA 636 338,686 3,932 24,123 1 2 NA 970 Total 320,182 1 ... 405,962 38,907 467,221 NA 70 506,479 1 NA (s) 2 NA 975 Total 3,158 980 Total 569,274 29,051 391,163 NA 179 ... 3,682 NA 3 2 NA 1 421,110 985 Total ... 693,841 14,635 158,779 NA 231 174,571 3,044 NA 8 7 NA 1 k 990 Total 792,457 18,143 190,652 437 1,914 ... 3,692 112 442 211 36 1 218,800 995 Total ... 860,594 19,615 95,507 680 3,355 132,578 4,738 133 480 316 42 1 000 Total ... 31,675 143,381 1,450 3,744 195,228 5,691 126 496 330 46 2 994,933 5,832 001 Total 31,150 165,312 855 3,871 216,672 972,691 97 486 228 160 2 ... 002 Total ... 987,583 23,286 109,235 1,894 6,836 168,597 6,126 131 605 257 191 2 003 Total 206,653 1,014,058 29,672 142,518 2,947 6,303 2 5,616 156 519 249 193 ... 5,675 004 Total 20,163 142,088 2,856 7,677 203,494 1,020,523 135 344 230 183 2 ... 005 Total ... 1,041,448 20,651 141,518 2,968 8,330 2 6,036 110 355 230 173 206,785 2 ... 1,030,556 13,174 58,473 2,174 006 Total 110,634 6,462 115 350 241 172 7,363 2 007 Total ... 1,046,795 15,683 63,833 2,917 6,036 112,615 7,089 115 353 245 168 2 008 Total 1,042,335 12,832 38,191 2,822 5,417 80,932 6,896 97 339 267 172 ... 67,668 2 934,683 12,658 28,576 2,328 4,821 ... 7,121 84 320 272 170 009 Total 2 010 Total ... 979,684 14,050 23,997 2,056 4,994 65,071 7,680 90 350 281 184 52,387 2 934,938 11,231 14,251 1,844 5,012 ... 7,884 91 348 279 205 011 Total 204 012 Total ... 825,734 9,285 11,755 1,565 3,675 40,977 9,485 103 390 290 2 1,681 2 013 Total ... 860,729 9,784 11,766 4,852 47,492 8,596 115 398 298 200 2 014 Total 853,634 14,465 14,704 2,363 4,412 53,593 8,544 110 431 314 200 ... 015 Total ... 12,438 14,124 2,363 4,044 49,145 10,017 106 407 313 204 2 739,594 10,017 015 Total 12,438 14,124 2,363 4,044 49,145 739,594 106 407 313 204 2 ... 016 January ... 61,983 1,258 1,049 165 342 4,179 786 7 32 25 2 17 50,516 920 1,131 178 330 3,877 702 6 31 24 15 February ... March ... 3,306 698 678 119 362 758 6 30 25 16 39,864 3,330 644 687 90 382 39,065 735 6 25 26 16 April ... May ... 45,032 808 752 102 370 3,514 819 6 27 26 17 June ... 707 864 123 380 3,594 986 6 30 25 17 63,186 July ... 4,289 810 1,348 129 400 1,158 6 32 26 18 74,132 4,325 769 1,274 187 419 73,798 1,168 6 34 26 18 August ... September ... 62,335 640 856 124 376 3,500 932 6 31 25 17 2,879 636 929 64 250 54,537 761 5 28 24 16 October ... November ... 48,076 830 734 107 307 3,204 679 6 29 26 16 336 64,847 943 893 159 December ... 3,672 686 6 32 27 17 360 74 10,170 9,662 43,671 4,253 1,548 11,195 199 305 Total ... 677,371 2 017 63,460 940 846 151 368 3,775 679 6 31 27 16 January ... 2,928 February ... 714 724 104 277 47,985 587 6 28 24 14 March ... 48,840 814 738 105 265 2,984 690 6 31 26 16 2,317 658 718 103 168 44,279 647 6 27 25 15 April ... May ... 50,898 808 811 94 329 3,357 720 6 28 26 16 16 June ... 58,852 707 908 148 350 3,512 873 6 26 30 July ... 689 811 93 344 3,312 1,105 6 33 26 17 69,769 August ... 3,211 655 930 124 300 1,043 6 33 26 17 65,761 3,004 692 820 110 276 54,713 878 6 29 24 15 September ... October ... 50,015 731 844 100 228 2,816 792 6 29 24 15 3,054 751 711 129 293 50,882 686 6 30 25 15 November ... 16 December ... 58,457 1,548 1,581 285 292 4,875 806 6 33 26 9,508 71 364 304 9,707 190 1,547 3,490 39,144 10,442 Total ... 663,911 January ... 018 2 10,790 16 26 32 6 804 349 619 3,273 5,155 64,517 2,743 578 676 114 275 45,655 717 6 29 25 14 February ... March ... 44,388 629 666 114 245 2,636 771 6 30 27 16 246 40,554 711 716 102 April ... 2,757 727 6 26 15 25 May ... 47,470 839 810 131 161 2,587 872 6 31 25 16 3,388 815 898 114 312 56,031 972 6 31 26 16 June ... 16 July ... 63,805 686 874 131 344 3,408 1,255 6 32 25 30 7 1,216 3,454 327 724 26 16 August ... 63,710 145 948 6 14 23 28 1,064 3,356 316 142 992 641 53,945 September ... 141 2,680 October ... 48,488 695 895 190 914 5 28 24 15 15 27 5 777 2,888 24 November ... 51,720 759 766 129 247 25 29 6 764 3,116 299 183 691 55,549 December ... 745 16 Total 2,063 184 301 351 69 10,855 43,802 3,311 12,205 12,977 635,833 ... 5 1,008 255 312 3,854 January ... 1,031 019 854 2 31 24 16 55,769 a tire-derived fuels). Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal j s s Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneou ynfuel. b Fuel oil nos. 1, 2, and 4. For 1949–1979, data are for gas turbine and internal technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste (municipal solid was te ombustion plant use of petroleum. For 1980–2000, electric utility data also include c from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). k s mall amounts of kerosene and jet fuel. Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data a re c Fuel oil nos. 5 and 6. For 1949–1979, data are for steam plant use of for electric utilities, independent power producers, commercial plants, and industri al p plants. etroleum. For 1980–2000, electric utility data also include a small amount of fuel il no. 4. o NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. d ty Jet fuel, kerosene, other petroleum liquids, waste oil, and, beginning in 2011, Notes: • Data are for utility-scale facilities. See Note 1, "Coverage of Electrici Data are for fuels consumed to produce electricity • p ropane. Statistics," at end of section. . e ll Data also include fuels consumed to produce useful thermal output at a sma Petroleum coke is converted from short tons to barrels by multiplying by 5. f • Totals may n Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. number of electric utility combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants. ot g Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from is Geographic coverage • equal sum of components due to independent rounding. the 50 states and the District of Columbia. f ossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas. h el Wood and wood-derived fuels. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Exc i ta and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, gricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes beginning in 1973. a Sources: See “Table 7.3b Sources” at end of section and sources for Table 7.3 on-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and n c. Monthly U. 129 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

140 T able 7.3b Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation: (Subset of Table 7.3a) Electric Power Sector Petroleum Biomass Natural Other Distillate Residual Other Petroleum g h b a e c i f d j e Waste Coke Fuel Oil Wood Fuel Oil Total Other Coal Gases Gas Liquids Thousand Thousand Thousand Billion Trillion Btu Thousand Barrels Barrels Short Tons Cubic Feet Short Tons 91,871 NA 69,998 NA NA 75,421 629 NA 5 NA ... 1 950 Total 5,423 NA ... 69,862 NA NA 75,274 1,153 5,412 3 NA NA 955 Total 1 143,759 ... 176,685 3,824 84,371 NA NA 88,195 1,725 NA 2 NA NA 1 960 Total 965 Total 244,788 4,928 110,274 NA NA 115,203 2,321 NA 3 NA NA 1 ... NA ... 311,381 NA 636 338,686 3,932 24,123 1 2 NA 970 Total 320,182 1 ... 405,962 38,907 467,221 NA 70 506,479 1 NA (s) 2 NA 975 Total 3,158 980 Total 569,274 29,051 391,163 NA 179 ... 3,682 NA 3 2 NA 1 421,110 985 Total ... 693,841 14,635 158,779 NA 231 174,571 3,044 NA 8 7 NA 1 k 990 Total 781,301 16,394 183,285 25 1,008 204,745 3,147 6 106 180 (s) 1 ... 4,094 ... 18,066 88,895 441 2,452 119,663 847,854 18 106 282 2 1 995 Total 000 Total ... 982,713 29,722 138,047 403 3,155 183,946 5,014 19 126 294 1 2 001 Total ... 29,056 159,150 374 3,308 205,119 5,142 9 116 205 109 2 961,523 5,408 002 Total 21,810 104,577 1,243 5,705 156,154 975,251 25 141 224 137 2 ... 003 Total ... 1,003,036 27,441 137,361 1,937 5,719 195,336 4,909 30 156 216 136 2 004 Total 195,809 1,012,459 18,793 138,831 2,511 7,135 2 5,075 27 150 206 131 ... 5,485 005 Total 19,450 138,337 2,591 7,877 199,760 1,033,567 24 166 205 116 2 ... 006 Total ... 1,022,802 12,578 56,347 1,783 6,905 2 5,891 28 163 216 117 105,235 2 ... 1,041,346 15,135 62,072 2,496 007 Total 107,316 6,502 27 165 221 117 5,523 2 008 Total ... 1,036,891 12,318 37,222 2,608 5,000 77,149 6,342 23 159 242 122 2 009 Total 929,692 11,848 27,768 2,110 4,485 64,151 6,567 21 160 244 115 ... 62,477 2 971,245 13,677 23,560 1,848 4,679 ... 7,085 20 177 249 116 010 Total 2 011 Total ... 928,857 10,961 13,861 1,655 4,726 50,105 7,265 18 166 241 133 35,937 2 820,762 9,000 11,292 1,339 2,861 ... 8,788 19 171 250 132 012 Total 130 013 Total ... 855,546 9,511 11,322 1,488 4,189 43,265 7,888 41 187 251 2 14,132 2 014 Total ... 848,803 14,052 2,157 4,039 50,537 7,849 29 220 266 127 2 015 Total 735,433 12,056 13,893 2,086 3,789 46,978 9,322 29 215 268 127 ... 015 Total ... 12,056 13,893 2,086 3,789 46,978 9,322 29 215 268 127 2 735,433 738 016 1,232 1,032 148 318 4,001 61,714 2 17 22 11 2 January ... February ... 50,255 895 1,115 162 310 3,722 657 1 17 21 10 March ... 345 682 665 103 3,176 711 2 16 21 10 39,599 690 April ... 674 74 368 3,216 627 2 13 22 10 38,852 May ... 44,777 790 743 65 348 772 2 13 22 11 3,336 62,912 691 855 93 360 June ... 937 2 16 22 11 3,437 July ... 73,840 792 1,337 96 380 4,124 1,104 2 17 22 11 August ... 749 1,265 168 398 4,172 1,114 2 19 23 11 73,508 September ... 3,368 622 848 99 360 883 2 17 21 10 62,072 2,738 617 917 44 232 54,293 714 1 14 20 10 October ... November ... 47,848 807 723 90 285 3,047 632 2 15 22 10 3,517 917 881 142 315 64,570 638 2 17 23 11 December ... Total ... 674,239 9,421 11,056 1,284 4,018 41,853 9,590 20 191 261 126 352 2 January ... 63,179 907 832 131 017 3,629 629 2 17 24 11 21 16 2 542 2,797 262 81 693 714 9 February ... 47,731 March ... 789 726 89 245 2,830 642 2 18 22 10 48,581 April ... 2,192 637 707 90 152 600 2 14 21 9 44,059 3,227 784 802 77 313 50,667 673 2 14 22 10 May ... June ... 58,625 686 899 131 330 3,366 823 2 16 22 10 3,151 663 804 76 322 69,531 1,051 2 17 22 11 July ... 22 August ... 65,528 627 922 107 278 3,047 991 2 18 11 September ... 54,487 665 812 94 260 2,870 831 2 15 21 10 October ... 709 833 81 210 2,675 744 2 15 21 10 49,781 2,904 729 691 112 274 50,652 638 2 16 21 10 November ... December ... 58,212 1,509 1,557 265 275 4,707 754 2 18 22 11 121 Total ... 661,033 9,398 10,299 1,332 3,273 37,394 8,917 21 195 262 334 2 January ... 64,230 5,070 3,237 594 018 10,571 753 2 17 23 10 2 15 22 10 664 89 264 557 2,631 672 February ... 45,403 10 23 16 2 724 2,518 233 96 654 606 March ... 44,138 2,629 686 706 84 231 40,338 679 2 12 22 10 April ... May ... 47,235 809 801 108 148 2,459 824 2 16 22 10 96 June ... 55,806 785 883 11 293 3,231 922 2 17 23 3,234 648 866 92 326 63,568 1,201 2 17 22 11 July ... 11 August ... 63,479 685 937 131 312 3,312 1,162 2 16 22 10 3,211 20 14 2 1,014 299 September ... 53,725 605 981 133 21 173 2,544 865 1 14 10 October ... 48,289 669 884 124 November ... 10 21 14 1 726 2,761 234 113 754 724 51,496 282 10 December ... 55,309 710 676 169 2,966 711 2 15 22 1,828 12,044 124 262 181 21 10,252 42,067 3,128 12,553 633,016 ... Total 298 237 10 21 17 2 799 3,713 993 995 55,533 January ... 2 019 a j Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal s Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneou ynfuel. s technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste (municipal solid was te b Fuel oil nos. 1, 2, and 4. For 1949–1979, data are for gas turbine and internal from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). k Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data a re c ombustion plant use of petroleum. For 1980–2000, electric utility data also include for electric utilities and independent power producers. s mall amounts of kerosene and jet fuel. c NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Fuel oil nos. 5 and 6. For 1949–1979, data are for steam plant use of Data are for utility-scale facilities. See Note 1, "Coverage of Electrici Notes: ty • p etroleum. For 1980–2000, electric utility data also include a small amount of fuel . Statistics," at end of section. • Data are for fuels consumed to produce electricity o il no. 4. d Data also include fuels consumed to produce useful thermal output at a sma ll Jet fuel, kerosene, other petroleum liquids, waste oil, and, beginning in 2011, • The electr ropane. ic number of electric utility combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants. p e Petroleum coke is converted from short tons to barrels by multiplying by 5. power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP ) f Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or g s Totals may not equal sum of component • Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from electricity and heat, to the public. e f ossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas. due to independent rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and th h Wood and wood-derived fuels. District of Columbia. i Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Exc el Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da gricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes a ta beginning in 1973. on-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and n t Sources: See end of section. ire-derived fuels). / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 130

141 T able 7.3c Consumption of Selected Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation: Commercial and Industrial Sectors (Subset of Table 7.3a) a b Industrial Sector Commercial Sector Biomass Biomass Natural Other Natural c e c f d h d e f i g Wood Coal Coal Waste Petroleum Other Petroleum Waste Gas Gases Gas Billion Thousand Thousand Billion Thousand Trillion Thousand Trillion Btu Btu Cubic Feet Barrels Short Tons Cubic Feet Barrels Short Tons 517 990 Total 953 28 15 10,740 13,103 417 104 335 16 36 1 ... 995 Total ... 569 649 43 21 12,171 1 601 114 373 13 40 12,265 2 ... 514 823 37 26 000 Total 10,459 640 107 369 10 45 11,706 2 001 Total ... 532 1,023 36 15 10,636 10,530 654 88 370 7 44 2 002 Total 477 834 33 18 11,855 11,608 685 106 464 15 43 ... 003 Total 10,424 582 894 38 19 10,440 2 668 127 362 13 46 ... 6,919 2 377 766 33 19 7,687 ... 566 108 194 5 41 004 Total 2 005 Total ... 377 585 34 20 7,504 6,440 518 85 189 5 46 5,066 2 347 333 35 21 7,408 ... 536 87 187 3 45 006 Total 2 007 Total ... 361 258 34 19 5,089 5,041 554 88 188 4 41 5,075 2 008 Total ... 369 33 20 166 3,617 520 73 179 5 39 2 009 Total 317 190 34 23 4,674 3,328 520 62 160 4 42 ... 010 Total ... 172 39 24 8,125 2,422 555 70 172 8 55 2 314 572 011 Total 137 47 31 5,735 2,145 347 74 182 7 57 2 ... 012 Total ... 307 279 63 33 4,665 2 633 84 219 8 54 4,761 2 ... 513 335 67 36 4,670 3,892 642 74 210 11 50 013 Total 2,594 014 Total 202 462 72 36 4,629 ... 623 81 210 11 54 2 2 015 Total ... 163 260 70 35 3,999 1,907 625 77 191 10 58 2 016 12 14 3 3 258 164 44 5 14 1 4 January ... February ... 14 13 3 3 248 142 42 5 1 4 13 14 March ... 6 3 252 124 44 5 13 1 4 3 April ... 78332061064251314 May ... 68432491704351415 June ... 77432661514541415 154 11 5 3 285 7 48 4 15 1 5 July ... August ... 8 10 5 3 282 143 49 4 15 1 5 87432541254541415 September ... October ... 87432371354341414 November ... 10 4 3 3 218 146 44 4 14 1 11 3 4 13 1 15 4 45 142 4 266 December ... 12 534 1,701 3,021 34 46 116 111 ... Total 10 53 169 53 2 017 11 22 4 3 270 124 47 4 14 1 4 January ... February ... 117 14 4 3 245 42 4 13 1 4 9 139 16 4 3 250 9 45 4 14 1 4 March ... April ... 6 10 4 3 214 115 43 4 13 1 4 114 16 4 3 224 6 44 4 14 1 4 May ... June ... 6 14 4 3 221 132 46 4 14 1 4 230 July ... 7 16 5 3 5 145 49 4 15 1 August ... 20 5 3 227 143 47 5 15 1 5 7 September ... 119 15 4 3 218 42 4 13 1 4 8 127 14 4 3 227 7 43 4 14 1 4 October ... November ... 8 16 4 3 222 135 44 4 14 1 4 134 33 4 3 236 9 49 4 15 1 4 December ... 49 Total ... 95 204 50 34 2,783 1,545 541 49 169 8 1 4 15 4 48 152 274 3 2 018 January ... 12 68 4 3 3 96 42 4 13 243 1 February ... 9 16 4 14 4 43 104 243 3 4 14 8 March ... 4 1 111 16 4 3 210 6 44 4 14 1 3 April ... 4 May ... 6 20 4 3 230 108 44 4 15 1 219 June ... 6 19 4 3 138 46 4 14 1 3 230 7 28 5 3 July ... 146 48 4 15 1 3 4 116 1 14 5 49 August ... 223 9 25 5 3 (s) 212 125 46 4 13 3 September ... 8 21 5 2 October ... 4 1 13 4 45 118 191 3 4 18 7 102 48 4 1 14 4 November ... 7 24 4 3 216 December ... 4 4 14 1 49 8 22 4 3 232 127 Total 48 1,444 170 8 42 2,723 32 552 52 292 94 ... 3 4 14 4 50 115 226 1 4 25 10 January ... 019 2 a technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste (municipal solid was Commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only te from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). p lants. b Industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. p lants. ty Data are for utility-scale facilities. See Note 1, "Coverage of Electrici • Notes: c Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal Statistics," at end of section. to See Note 2, “Classification of Power Plants In • ynfuel. Energy-Use Sectors,” at end of section. • e Data are for fuels consumed to produc s d • electricity. Through 1988, data are not available. Totals may not equal sum of Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, jet fuel, kerosene, other Geographic coverage is the 50 state etroleum, waste oil, and, beginning in 2011, propane. s • components due to independent rounding. p e Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. and the District of Columbia. f Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, el Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Exc gricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes a and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1989. m on-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and n U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), For 1989–1997: Sources: • 1998–2000: • m EIA, For ire-derived fuels). t EIA-867, "Annual Nonutility Power Producer Report." g Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from EIA-860B, "Annual Electric Generator Report—Nonutility." • 2001–2003: , EIA er EIA, Form EIA-906, "Pow 2004–2007: • Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report." ossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas. f h Plant Report," and Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Repor t." Wood and wood-derived fuels. i Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous • 2008 forward: EIA, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Monthly U. 131 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

142 of Thermal Useful and Output Generation Electricity Figure 7.4 Consumption for Selected Combustible Fuels Petroleum by Sector,1989–2018 Coal by Sector,1989–2018 1.2 350 300 Total [a] Total [a] Electric Power 0.9 250 200 0.6 150 Electric Power Million Barrels Billion Short Tons 100 0.3 Industrial 50 Industrial 0 0.0 2000 2005 2010 2015 1990 1995 1990 2015 2010 2005 2000 1995 Natural Gas by Sector,1989–2018 Other Gases [b] by Sector,1989–2018 400 14 Total [a] 12 300 10 8 200 Total [a] Industrial 6 Trillion Btu Trillion Cubic Feet Electric Power 4 Electric Power 100 Industrial 2 0 0 2005 1995 1990 2015 2010 2000 2000 2005 2010 2015 1990 1995 Waste by Sector,1989–2018 Wood by Sector,1989–2018 1.6 500 Total [a] Total 400 1.2 300 Industrial 0.8 200 Trillion Btu Electric Power Quadrillion Btu 0.4 100 Industrial Commercial Electric Power 0 0.0 2005 2000 1995 2010 1990 2015 2000 2005 2010 2015 1995 1990 Data Note: sector. for utility ‐ scale facilities. are [a] Includes commercial manufactured y/data/monthly/#electricity. [b] Blast furnace gas, and other http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg and waste gases derived from Page: Web Sources: 7.4c. ‐ fossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas. 7.4a Tables 132 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U.

143 T able 7.4a Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation (Sum of Tables 7.4b and 7.4c) and Useful Thermal Output: Total (All Sectors) Petroleum Biomass Natural Other Distillate Residual Other Petroleum g h b a e c i f d j e Coke Liquids Fuel Oil Gas Fuel Oil Gases Other Coal Total Wood Waste Thousand Thousand Thousand Billion Trillion Btu Thousand Barrels Barrels Short Tons Cubic Feet Short Tons 91,871 NA 69,998 NA NA 75,421 629 NA 5 NA ... 1 950 Total 5,423 NA ... 69,862 NA NA 75,274 1,153 5,412 3 NA NA 955 Total 1 143,759 ... 176,685 3,824 84,371 NA NA 88,195 1,725 NA 2 NA NA 1 960 Total 965 Total 244,788 4,928 110,274 NA NA 115,203 2,321 NA 3 NA NA 1 ... NA ... 311,381 NA 636 338,686 3,932 24,123 1 2 NA 970 Total 320,182 1 ... 405,962 38,907 467,221 NA 70 506,479 1 NA (s) 2 NA 975 Total 3,158 980 Total 569,274 29,051 391,163 NA 179 ... 3,682 NA 3 2 NA 1 421,110 985 Total ... 693,841 14,635 158,779 NA 231 174,571 3,044 NA 8 7 NA 1 k 990 Total 811,538 20,194 209,081 1,332 2,832 ... 4,346 288 1,256 257 86 1 244,765 995 Total ... 881,012 21,697 112,168 1,322 4,590 158,140 5,572 313 1,382 374 97 1 000 Total ... 34,572 156,673 2,904 4,669 217,494 6,677 356 1,380 401 109 2 1,015,398 ... 6,731 33,724 177,137 1,418 4,532 234,940 001 Total 263 1,182 263 229 2 991,635 6,986 002 Total 24,749 118,637 3,257 7,353 183,409 1,005,144 278 1,287 289 252 2 ... 003 Total ... 1,031,778 31,825 152,859 4,576 7,067 224,593 6,337 294 1,266 293 262 2 2 004 Total 1,044,798 23,520 157,478 4,764 8,721 229,364 6,727 353 1,360 282 254 ... 7,021 005 Total 24,446 156,915 4,270 9,113 231,193 1,065,281 348 1,353 289 237 2 ... 006 Total ... 1,053,783 14,655 69,846 3,396 8,622 2 7,404 341 1,399 300 247 131,005 2 ... 1,069,606 17,042 74,616 4,237 007 Total 132,389 7,962 329 1,336 304 239 7,299 2 008 Total ... 1,064,503 14,137 43,477 3,765 6,314 92,948 7,689 300 1,263 328 212 2 009 Total 955,190 14,800 33,672 3,218 5,828 80,830 7,938 259 1,137 333 228 ... 75,231 2 1,001,411 15,247 26,944 2,777 6,053 ... 8,502 262 1,226 346 237 010 Total 2 011 Total ... 956,470 11,735 16,877 2,540 6,092 61,610 8,724 282 1,241 340 261 5,021 2 ... 845,066 9,945 13,571 2,185 012 Total 50,805 10,371 302 1,273 355 252 1,318 2 013 Total ... 879,078 10,277 14,199 2,212 6,338 58,378 9,479 305 376 236 2 014 Total 871,741 15,107 16,615 2,908 5,695 63,106 9,410 304 1,378 395 236 ... 015 Total ... 12,924 16,136 3,008 5,188 58,009 10,952 290 1,351 398 237 2 756,226 10,952 015 Total 12,924 16,136 3,008 5,188 58,009 756,226 290 1,351 398 237 2 ... 016 January ... 63,607 1,303 1,185 215 427 4,840 888 25 116 32 20 2 February ... 425 1,045 1,263 238 4,669 794 23 110 31 18 52,019 854 March ... 762 175 447 3,910 736 26 110 33 19 41,297 April ... 40,280 681 783 131 455 823 25 100 33 20 3,871 46,297 876 818 166 466 May ... 912 25 105 33 20 4,190 June ... 64,539 768 928 179 480 4,274 1,082 25 109 30 20 July ... 860 1,426 186 502 4,981 1,260 25 113 31 21 75,604 1,273 August ... 1,350 230 520 4,983 803 25 115 32 22 75,232 September ... 63,592 674 915 174 451 1,027 24 106 29 20 4,016 55,798 674 1,017 112 342 October ... 853 23 104 31 19 3,514 November ... 49,331 877 808 153 406 3,867 769 24 110 33 19 4,327 982 977 214 431 66,362 785 26 132 34 20 December ... Total ... 693,958 10,278 12,231 2,173 5,352 51,441 11,322 296 1,330 383 238 449 2 January ... 64,930 987 943 207 017 4,381 781 26 121 35 19 741 February ... 17 30 108 23 678 3,412 347 148 790 49,183 March ... 846 825 139 355 3,584 787 25 119 33 19 50,132 2,829 687 787 146 242 45,408 736 24 110 31 18 April ... May ... 52,034 836 878 136 406 3,881 813 26 112 31 19 4,087 726 973 183 441 60,005 968 24 116 30 19 June ... July ... 70,971 710 870 129 430 3,861 1,209 25 122 31 21 3,780 August ... 66,975 988 163 390 678 1,145 25 124 31 21 September ... 723 894 139 352 3,517 975 24 111 28 18 55,817 3,386 758 919 139 314 51,238 889 25 115 30 18 October ... November ... 52,142 797 873 164 373 3,696 782 25 118 32 18 5,629 1,678 1,769 340 368 59,743 913 26 125 33 19 December ... 226 Total ... 678,578 10,168 11,508 2,033 4,467 46,043 10,677 299 1,400 375 18 120 34 65,921 5,475 3,578 711 421 11,870 914 26 2 018 January ... 31 112 24 815 3,206 338 161 747 608 February ... 46,922 17 3,110 673 748 153 307 45,631 875 26 116 34 18 March ... April ... 41,662 742 790 144 323 3,293 824 24 111 31 17 174 May ... 48,567 876 894 31 225 3,069 969 24 115 18 3,937 852 1,037 158 378 57,119 1,072 25 116 30 19 June ... 19 July ... 64,876 734 940 191 416 3,944 1,362 26 120 30 1,323 3,960 180 19 395 30 121 27 August ... 64,743 767 1,036 110 171 389 3,887 1,166 24 17 27 September ... 55,025 683 1,091 October ... 18 31 114 25 1,015 3,221 264 180 991 729 49,496 November ... 31 113 24 883 18 52,856 816 854 165 312 3,396 278 19 32 120 26 874 3,766 376 801 810 56,735 December ... Total 217 1,388 302 12,091 372 ... 649,554 13,766 13,507 2,666 4,144 50,660 31 January ... 1,230 1,132 308 380 4,568 57,043 2 019 969 26 120 18 a non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, an d Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal s tire-derived fuels). ynfuel. j b Fuel oil nos. 1, 2, and 4. For 1949–1979, data are for gas turbine and internal s Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneou technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste (municipal solid was te ombustion plant use of petroleum. For 1980–2000, electric utility data also include c from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). mall amounts of kerosene and jet fuel. s k c Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data a re Fuel oil nos. 5 and 6. For 1949–1979, data are for steam plant use of p al etroleum. For 1980–2000, electric utility data also include a small amount of fuel for electric utilities, independent power producers, commercial plants, and industri plants. il no. 4. o d NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Jet fuel, kerosene, other petroleum liquids, waste oil, and, beginning in 2011, • p ropane. Notes: Data are for utility-scale facilities. See Note 1, "Coverage of Electrici ty e to Petroleum coke is converted from short tons to barrels by multiplying by 5. • Statistics," at end of section. Totals may not equal sum of components due f of Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District • Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. independent rounding. g Columbia. Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from el f ossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Exc h ta and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da Wood and wood-derived fuels. i Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, beginning in 1973. gricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes c. Sources: See “Table 7.4b Sources” at end of section and sources for Table 7.4 a Monthly U. 133 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

144 T able 7.4b Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation (Subset of Table 7.4a) and Useful Thermal Output: Electric Power Sector Petroleum Biomass Natural Other Distillate Residual Other Petroleum g h b a e c i f d j e Coke Liquids Fuel Oil Gas Fuel Oil Gases Other Coal Total Wood Waste Thousand Thousand Thousand Billion Barrels Cubic Feet Short Tons Short Tons Trillion Btu Thousand Barrels 950 Total 5,423 69,998 NA NA 75,421 629 NA 5 NA 1 NA 91,871 ... NA 143,759 69,862 NA NA 75,274 1,153 5,412 3 NA NA 955 Total 1 ... ... 176,685 3,824 84,371 NA NA 88,195 1,725 NA 2 NA NA 1 960 Total 965 Total 244,788 4,928 110,274 NA NA 115,203 2,321 NA 3 NA NA 1 ... NA ... 311,381 NA 636 338,686 3,932 24,123 1 2 NA 970 Total 320,182 1 ... 405,962 38,907 467,221 NA 70 506,479 1 NA (s) 2 NA 975 Total 3,158 980 Total 569,274 29,051 391,163 NA 179 ... 3,682 NA 3 2 NA 1 421,110 985 Total ... 693,841 14,635 158,779 NA 231 174,571 3,044 NA 8 7 NA 1 k 990 Total 782,567 16,567 184,915 26 1,008 ... 3,245 11 129 188 (s) 1 206,550 995 Total ... 850,230 18,553 90,023 499 2,674 122,447 4,237 24 125 296 2 1 000 Total ... 30,016 138,513 454 3,275 185,358 5,206 25 134 318 1 2 985,821 ... 5,342 29,274 159,504 377 3,427 206,291 001 Total 15 126 211 113 2 964,433 5,672 002 Total 21,876 104,773 1,267 5,816 156,996 977,507 33 150 230 143 2 ... 003 Total ... 1,005,116 27,632 138,279 2,026 5,799 196,932 5,135 41 167 230 140 2 2 004 Total 1,016,268 19,107 139,816 2,713 7,372 198,498 5,464 58 165 223 138 ... 5,869 005 Total 19,675 139,409 2,685 8,083 202,184 1,037,485 84 185 221 123 2 ... 006 Total ... 1,026,636 12,646 57,345 1,870 7,101 2 6,222 65 182 231 125 107,365 2 ... 1,045,141 15,327 63,086 2,594 007 Total 109,431 6,841 61 186 237 124 5,685 2 008 Total ... 1,040,580 12,547 38,241 2,670 5,119 79,056 6,668 61 177 258 131 2 009 Total 933,627 12,035 28,782 2,210 4,611 66,081 6,873 55 180 261 124 ... 64,055 2 975,052 13,790 24,503 1,877 4,777 ... 7,387 52 196 264 124 010 Total 2 011 Total ... 932,484 11,021 14,803 1,658 4,837 51,667 7,574 50 182 255 143 2,974 2 ... 823,551 9,080 12,203 1,339 012 Total 37,495 9,111 54 190 262 143 139 2 013 Total ... 857,962 9,598 12,283 1,489 4,285 44,794 8,191 60 207 262 2 014 Total 851,602 14,235 15,132 2,208 4,132 52,235 8,146 44 251 279 137 ... 015 Total ... 12,193 14,929 2,131 3,907 48,787 9,613 44 244 281 136 2 738,444 9,613 015 Total 12,193 14,929 2,131 3,907 48,787 738,444 44 244 281 136 2 ... 016 January ... 62,135 1,240 1,058 149 329 4,093 774 4 21 23 12 2 February ... 321 910 1,143 176 3,832 690 3 20 22 11 50,661 745 March ... 680 111 357 3,265 691 4 19 24 11 39,948 April ... 39,159 631 688 75 376 719 3 15 24 11 3,272 45,082 796 757 65 354 May ... 804 3 16 24 12 3,391 June ... 63,250 697 866 94 368 3,499 970 4 18 23 12 July ... 797 1,345 97 389 4,186 1,140 4 20 24 12 74,237 1,151 August ... 1,277 169 408 4,241 754 4 21 24 12 73,890 September ... 62,385 627 859 100 370 915 4 19 22 11 3,436 54,621 623 932 45 244 October ... 744 3 16 22 11 2,818 November ... 48,179 813 735 92 295 3,116 662 4 18 24 11 3,614 930 901 151 326 65,006 671 4 21 25 12 December ... Total ... 678,554 9,510 11,242 1,322 4,138 42,763 9,985 45 224 281 139 362 2 January ... 63,595 916 856 147 017 3,728 660 4 20 26 12 22 730 18 3 569 2,872 272 87 697 10 February ... 48,048 March ... 794 733 90 256 2,898 672 4 21 24 11 48,925 2,255 640 716 90 162 44,358 627 4 17 22 10 April ... May ... 50,952 789 812 78 324 3,297 700 4 17 24 11 3,435 690 910 133 340 58,920 851 4 18 24 11 June ... July ... 69,882 667 815 77 332 3,220 1,082 4 20 24 12 3,118 August ... 65,883 630 109 289 932 1,022 4 21 23 12 September ... 675 822 95 270 2,942 859 4 18 22 11 54,780 2,746 713 847 82 221 50,099 773 4 18 22 10 October ... November ... 51,013 734 707 113 285 2,979 666 4 19 23 11 4,828 1,536 1,585 276 286 58,538 785 4 21 24 12 December ... 132 Total ... 664,993 9,481 10,464 1,375 3,399 38,318 9,266 46 229 280 623 344 10,780 785 11 4 20 25 5,141 3,294 2 018 January ... 64,606 11 23 18 4 2,690 273 90 674 561 45,757 February ... 701 2,584 611 664 97 242 44,439 755 4 19 25 11 March ... April ... 40,601 691 715 86 242 2,700 707 4 15 23 11 108 May ... 47,485 817 813 23 155 2,512 853 4 18 11 3,261 791 895 97 296 56,089 952 4 19 24 12 June ... 12 July ... 63,851 652 876 93 335 3,298 1,236 4 20 23 3,379 322 1,195 12 132 24 19 4 August ... 63,751 690 947 17 10 3,270 133 1,045 4 307 21 September ... 53,998 609 994 48,520 11 23 17 4 895 2,612 183 126 898 674 October ... November ... 2,823 23 16 3 756 11 51,789 728 767 114 243 55,610 11 24 18 4 3,095 292 228 696 714 December ... 744 Total 280 215 46 10,626 136 ... 636,498 12,680 12,231 1,927 3,233 43,005 23 249 1,021 1,014 55,885 4 January ... 019 11 2 834 3,816 20 307 a tire-derived fuels). Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal j s ynfuel. Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneou s b Fuel oil nos. 1, 2, and 4. For 1949–1979, data are for gas turbine and internal technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste (municipal solid was te from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). c ombustion plant use of petroleum. For 1980–2000, electric utility data also include k s re Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data a mall amounts of kerosene and jet fuel. c for electric utilities and independent power producers. Fuel oil nos. 5 and 6. For 1949–1979, data are for steam plant use of etroleum. For 1980–2000, electric utility data also include a small amount of fuel p NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. il no. 4. ty o Notes: Data are for utility-scale facilities. See Note 1, "Coverage of Electrici • d • Jet fuel, kerosene, other petroleum liquids, waste oil, and, beginning in 2011, The electric power sector comprises electricity-on ly Statistics," at end of section. e and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whos ropane. p e Tota ls primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. • Petroleum coke is converted from short tons to barrels by multiplying by 5. f ic may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. • Geograph g Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. el f Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Exc ossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas. h Wood and wood-derived fuels. and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da ta i Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, beginning in 1973. gricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes a Sources: See end of section. on-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and n / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 134

145 T able 7.4c Consumption of Selected Combustible Fuels for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output: Commercial and Industrial Sectors (Subset of Table 7.4a ) a b Industrial Sector Commercial Sector Biomass Biomass Natural Natural Other c f c i f d d e h e g Wood Gases Petroleum Waste Coal Other Gas Waste Petroleum Coal Gas Billion Thousand Thousand Billion Thousand Trillion Thousand Btu Cubic Feet Cubic Feet Barrels Barrels Short Tons Short Tons Trillion Btu 1,055 1,191 2,056 46 28 27,781 36,159 ... 275 1,125 41 8 6 1 990 Total 995 Total ... 1,419 1,245 78 40 29,363 1 1,258 290 1,255 38 9 5 34,448 2 1,386 ... 1,615 85 47 28,031 000 Total 1,547 331 1,244 35 10 8 30,520 2 001 Total ... 1,448 1,832 79 25 25,755 26,817 1,310 248 1,054 27 10 1 2 002 Total 1,405 1,250 74 26 26,232 25,163 1,240 245 1,136 34 9 2 ... 2 003 Total 1,816 1,449 58 29 24,846 26,212 1,144 253 1,097 34 10 3 ... 2 004 Total 1,917 2,009 72 34 26,613 ... 1,191 295 1,193 24 9 4 28,857 2 005 Total ... 1,922 1,630 68 34 25,875 27,380 1,084 264 1,166 34 9 4 1,115 2 1,886 935 68 36 25,262 22,706 ... 277 1,216 33 10 2 006 Total 2 007 Total ... 1,927 752 70 31 22,537 22,207 1,050 268 1,148 36 9 8 13,222 2 ... 2,021 671 66 34 21,902 008 Total 955 239 1,084 35 0 6 2 009 Total ... 1,798 521 76 36 19,766 14,228 990 204 955 35 8 2 2 010 Total 1,720 437 86 36 24,638 10,740 1,029 210 1,029 47 9 1 ... 2 011 Total 333 87 43 22,319 9,610 1,063 232 1,057 43 9 4 ... 1,668 1,149 012 Total 457 111 45 20,065 12,853 1,450 249 1,082 47 8 1 2 ... 013 Total ... 1,356 887 118 47 19,761 12,697 1,170 246 1,109 67 6 9 2 2 014 Total 1,063 758 119 47 19,076 10,112 1,145 260 1,122 70 7 2 ... 2 015 Total 798 622 116 47 16,984 8,600 1,222 246 1,103 70 7 3 ... 679 016 75 68 11 4 1,397 January ... 103 22 95 5 6 2 February ... 75 10 4 1,282 788 95 20 89 5 5 49 22 March ... 10 4 1,275 624 99 21 90 6 5 74 46 26 9 4 1,076 573 April ... 22 85 5 6 95 37 22 10 4 1,178 May ... 98 22 89 5 6 776 June ... 46 21 11 4 1,243 754 101 21 91 3 6 107 July ... 45 13 4 1,321 749 46 21 92 3 6 August ... 49 28 14 4 1,292 714 108 21 93 4 7 564 50 16 11 4 1,157 September ... 101 20 86 3 6 4 5 88 20 99 6 680 1,126 10 16 50 October ... 60 November ... 9 6 5 91 20 99 704 1,093 4 47 December ... 46 10 4 1,280 667 104 22 111 5 5 75 8,273 683 404 127 48 14,720 Total 1,209 251 1,100 54 7 0 ... 2 017 January ... 71 68 14 4 1,264 584 107 22 100 5 5 97 43 12 4 1,077 496 58 20 89 4 5 February ... March ... 66 50 12 4 1,141 637 103 21 98 5 5 550 42 24 10 4 1,008 April ... 99 20 93 4 5 95 May ... 39 34 11 4 1,043 550 102 22 3 5 June ... 27 13 4 1,045 625 104 20 97 3 6 40 July ... 30 15 4 1,042 611 112 21 101 3 6 47 108 45 15 4 1,050 618 43 22 102 3 6 August ... September ... 45 35 13 4 991 539 103 20 92 3 5 104 33 13 4 1,098 607 42 21 97 4 5 October ... November ... 52 38 12 4 1,077 679 104 21 98 5 5 713 66 88 14 4 1,139 December ... 115 22 103 5 5 1,257 5 48 6 47 1,166 253 7,209 Total ... 610 516 154 12,975 2 4 14 186 70 January ... 018 22 5 5 100 115 904 1,245 February ... 50 13 4 1,111 54 101 20 93 4 4 466 March ... 51 44 13 4 1,140 482 107 22 97 5 5 4 April ... 45 38 12 555 1,016 104 20 95 5 4 520 37 12 4 1,041 41 104 20 97 4 5 May ... 640 June ... 36 13 4 989 42 107 21 97 3 5 22 58 4 3 978 100 July ... 47 112 14 4 588 942 4 14 50 49 August ... 3 5 102 23 113 531 977 51 42 13 3 September ... 576 108 21 93 3 4 4 96 5 October ... 42 39 13 4 933 570 107 21 1,018 5 November ... 48 62 12 4 511 114 21 96 5 5 5 December ... 47 67 13 4 1,078 604 117 22 101 12,468 44 155 706 587 47 ... Total 255 1,167 5 5 1,310 6,949 2 14 21 120 672 1,099 4 99 80 58 January ... 019 5 5 i a Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneou s Commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only technologies, and, beginning in 2001, non-renewable waste (municipal solid was te lants. p b from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). Industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only Notes: • Data are for utility-scale facilities. See Note 1, "Coverage of Electrici ty p lants. c See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants In Statistics," at end of section. to • Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and coal ynfuel. s Energy-Use Sectors," at end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of d components due to independent rounding. Distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, jet fuel, kerosene, other s Geographic coverage is the 50 state • p etroleum, waste oil, and, beginning in 2011, propane. and the District of Columbia. e Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Exc el Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. f Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1989. m • 1989–1997: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), For a gricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes Sources: 1998–2000: • m EIA, For EIA-867, "Annual Nonutility Power Producer Report." on-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and n t ire-derived fuels). EIA-860B, "Annual Electric Generator Report—Nonutility." • , EIA 2001–2003: g 2004–2007: • Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report." EIA, Form EIA-906, "Pow er Blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste gases derived from ossil fuels. Through 2010, also includes propane gas. Plant Report," and Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Repor t." f h • 2008 forward: Wood and wood-derived fuels. EIA, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Monthly U. 135 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

146 7.5 Sector Power Electric Figure Stocks of Coal and Petroleum: Coal, 1949–2018 250 200 150 100 Million Short Tons 50 0 1955 1975 2015 2010 2005 2000 1995 1950 1990 1960 1965 1970 1985 1980 Total Petroleum, 1949–2018 200 150 100 Million Barrels 50 0 1985 1980 1975 1970 1965 1960 1950 1955 2015 2010 2005 2000 1995 1990 Coal, Monthly Total Petroleum, Monthly 180 40 160 140 30 120 100 20 80 Million Barrels 60 Million Short Tons 10 40 2019 2018 2019 2017 2017 2018 20 0 0 JFMAMJJASOND JFMAMJJASOND utility ‐ sale Note: Data are for facilities. y/data/monthly/#electricity. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg 7.5. Source: Table Energy Administration Information S. U. 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / 136

147 T able 7.5 Stocks of Coal and Petroleum: Electric Power Sector Petroleum c d b e e,f a Other Liquids Total Residual Fuel Oil Coal Distillate Fuel Oil Petroleum Coke Thousand Short Tons Thousand Barrels Thousand Barrels Thousand Short Tons 950 Year ... 31,842 NA NA NA NA 10,201 1 955 Year ... 41,391 NA NA NA NA 13,671 1 960 Year 51,735 NA NA NA NA 19,572 ... 1 965 Year ... 54,525 NA NA NA NA 25,647 1 970 Year ... 71,908 NA NA NA 239 39,151 1 1 975 Year ... 110,724 16,432 108,825 NA 31 125,413 1 980 Year 183,010 30,023 105,351 NA 52 135,635 ... 985 Year 57,304 156,376 16,386 1 NA 49 73,933 ... 1 ... 156,166 16,471 67,030 NA 94 83,970 990 Year 1 995 Year ... 126,304 15,392 35,102 NA 65 50,821 g 40,932 2 ... 102,296 15,127 24,748 NA 211 000 Year 2 001 Year ... 138,496 20,486 34,594 NA 390 57,031 52,490 2 002 Year ... 141,714 17,413 25,723 800 1,711 ... 19,153 121,567 003 Year 779 53,170 1,484 25,820 2 2 004 Year 106,669 19,275 26,596 879 937 51,434 ... 005 Year 27,624 101,137 18,778 2 1,012 530 50,062 ... 2 ... 140,964 18,013 28,823 1,380 674 51,583 006 Year 2 007 Year ... 151,221 18,395 24,136 1,902 554 47,203 2 ... 161,589 17,761 21,088 1,955 739 44,498 008 Year 2 009 Year ... 189,467 17,886 19,068 2,257 1,394 46,181 2 010 Year ... 174,917 16,758 16,629 2,319 1,019 40,800 ... 2 011 Year 172,387 16,649 15,491 2,707 508 37,387 2 012 Year 185,116 16,433 12,999 2,792 495 34,698 ... 013 Year 12,926 147,884 16,068 2 2,679 390 33,622 ... 2 ... 151,548 18,309 12,764 2,432 827 37,643 014 Year 2 015 Year ... 195,548 17,955 12,566 2,363 1,340 39,586 2 January ... 187,203 17,930 12,020 2,357 1,320 38,907 016 February ... 187,064 17,662 11,645 2,337 1,323 38,262 March ... 191,553 17,501 11,733 2,335 1,240 37,768 193,185 April ... 37,693 1,181 2,169 11,982 17,637 37,495 1,071 2,189 12,094 17,856 192,417 May ... June ... 36,519 905 2,197 11,936 17,859 182,086 2,183 July ... 168,119 17,726 11,696 858 35,897 35,464 August ... 158,908 17,820 11,595 2,150 780 156,567 September ... 35,476 768 2,145 11,640 17,852 18,017 11,630 2,184 813 35,893 160,932 October ... November ... 170,277 18,324 11,953 2,227 833 36,668 December ... 162,009 17,855 11,789 2,195 845 36,064 2 017 January ... 156,214 17,718 11,858 2,186 768 35,601 160,502 17,588 11,744 2,168 756 35,277 February ... 36,099 March ... 161,815 17,336 12,681 2,157 785 36,187 April ... 163,937 17,362 12,439 2,168 844 35,439 May ... 772 2,143 162,542 17,265 12,170 158,014 17,082 11,993 2,133 742 34,916 June ... July ... 145,811 17,150 11,740 2,143 724 34,655 August ... 141,204 17,091 11,531 2,129 749 34,497 139,571 September ... 16,844 11,382 2,120 798 34,334 141,463 16,806 11,292 2,128 862 34,537 October ... 34,796 November ... 143,424 16,980 11,381 2,140 859 2,008 864 33,612 December ... 137,687 16,356 10,930 1,842 2 018 14,989 30,109 721 123,723 January ... 9,676 30,685 February ... 121,019 15,223 10,137 1,878 689 15,143 March ... 126,532 30,710 717 1,881 10,102 129,071 15,064 10,032 1,884 710 30,527 April ... May ... 128,454 15,176 9,927 1,950 715 30,628 June ... 121,529 14,860 9,871 1,846 583 29,491 643 1,806 9,356 110,794 July ... 14,800 29,178 27,863 607 1,737 8,694 14,396 104,172 August ... September ... 576 1,729 8,434 14,430 100,781 27,476 14,468 27,088 517 1,630 8,404 105,209 October ... 27,269 546 1,625 8,206 14,706 104,324 November ... 1,619 ... 8,557 December 541 14,906 27,787 102,786 14,912 529 1,624 8,399 27,579 99,201 January ... 019 2 a s Anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite; excludes waste • Stock primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. Totals may not equal sum of components due are at end of period. oal. c • to b of Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District • independent rounding. Fuel oil nos. 1, 2 and 4. For 1973–1979, data are for gas turbine and internal ombustion plant stocks of petroleum. For 1980–2000, electric utility data also c Columbia. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electricity (Exc el i nclude small amounts of kerosene and jet fuel. c ta Fuel oil nos. 5 and 6. For 1973–1979, data are for steam plant stocks of and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da etroleum. For 1980–2000, electric utility data also include a small amount of fuel beginning in 1973. p o • 1949–September 1977: il no. 4. 4, Federal Power Commission, Form FPC- Sources: d ry • "Monthly Power Plant Report." Jet fuel and kerosene. Through 2003, data also include a small amount of October 1977–1981: Federal Energy Regulato aste oil. Commission, Form FPC-4, "Monthly Power Plant Report." • 1982–1988: U.S . w e Petroleum coke is converted from short tons to barrels by multiplying by 5. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-759, "Monthly Power Pla nt f • Distillate fuel oil and residual fuel oil. Beginning in 1970, also includes Report." d EIA, Form EIA-759, "Monthly Power Plant Report," an 1989–1997: etroleum coke. Beginning in 2002, also includes other liquids. • , Form EIA-867, "Annual Nonutility Power Producer Report." 1998–2000: p EIA g Through 1998, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1999, data are ic Form EIA-759, "Monthly Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-860B, "Annual Electr • or electric utilities and independent power producers. EIA, Form EIA-906, "Power Pla nt f Generator Report—Nonutility." 2001–2003: NA=Not available. m EIA, Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report," and For 2004–2007: • Report." Data are for utility-scale facilities. See Note 1, "Coverage of Electricity • Notes: EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report." m EIA, For 2008 forward: • EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." S tatistics," at end of section. • The electric power sector comprises electricity-only a nd combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose Monthly U. 137 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

148 Use Electricity End 7.6 Figure (Billion Kilowatthours) Retail Sales [a] by Sector, January 2019 Electricity End Use Overview,1989–2018 160 5,000 133.0 Total 4,000 120 111.6 Retail Sales [a] 3,000 78.0 80 2,000 40 1,000 Direct Use [b] 0.7 0 0 Industrial Transportation [d] Residential Commercial [c] 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Retail Sales [a] by Sector, 1949–2018 2,000 Residential 1,500 Commercial [c] 1,000 Industrial 500 Transportation [d] 0 1995 1980 1975 1970 1965 1960 1955 1950 1990 1985 2015 2010 2005 2000 Retail Sales [a] Total, January Retail Sales [a] by Sector, Monthly 400 200 340 Commercial [c] 323 318 Residential 300 100 200 Industrial 100 Transportation [d] 0 JFMAMJ JASONDJFMAMJ JASONDJFMAMJ JASOND 0 2017 2018 2019 2019 2018 2017 to authorities. [a] Electricity retail sales ultimate customers reported by utilities and public to sales other and sales, departmental Transportation [d] other energy service providers. railways. sales to railroads and sector, including in Use” “Direct See Glossary. [b] y/data/monthly/#electricity. http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg Page: Web lighting, inter ‐ Table Source: 7.6. [c] Commercial sector, including public street and highway 138 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U.

149 T able 7.6 Electricity End Use (Million Kilowatthours) a Retail Sales Total Total Transpor- e f b d c g Commercial Residential Direct Use Industrial tation Retail Sales End Use E E 291,443 950 Total 146,479 ... 6,793 72,200 NA 291,443 1 65,971 E E 128,401 1 102,547 259,974 955 Total 5,826 496,748 NA 496,748 ... E E 688,075 159,144 324,402 960 Total 3,066 201,463 NA 688,075 ... 1 E E 291,013 1 231,126 428,727 965 Total 2,923 953,789 NA 953,789 ... E E ... 466,291 1,392,300 352,041 570,854 1 3,115 1,392,300 NA 970 Total E E 1 975 Total 468,296 687,680 588,140 2,974 1,747,091 NA 1,747,091 ... 980 Total 815,067 717,495 558,643 1 3,244 2,094,449 NA 2,094,449 ... 1 ... 793,934 689,121 836,772 4,147 2,323,974 NA 2,323,974 985 Total 1 990 Total ... 924,019 838,263 945,522 4,751 2,712,555 124,529 2,837,084 1 ... 1,042,501 953,117 1,012,693 4,975 3,013,287 150,677 3,163,963 995 Total 2 000 Total ... 1,192,446 1,159,347 1,064,239 5,382 3,421,414 170,943 3,592,357 2 001 Total ... 1,201,607 1,190,518 996,609 5,724 3,394,458 162,649 3,557,107 3,631,650 2 002 Total ... 1,265,180 1,204,531 990,238 5,517 3,465,466 166,184 ... 168,295 3,493,734 6,810 1,012,373 1,198,728 3,662,029 2 003 Total 1,275,824 2 1,291,982 1,230,425 1,017,850 7,224 3,547,479 168,470 3,715,949 ... 004 Total 005 Total ... 1,359,227 1,275,079 1,019,156 7,506 3,660,969 150,016 3,810,984 2 7,358 006 Total 1,351,520 1,299,744 1,011,298 ... 3,669,919 146,927 3,816,845 2 1,027,832 007 Total ... 1,392,241 1,336,315 3,890,231 8,173 3,764,561 125,670 2 2 ... 1,380,662 1,336,133 1,009,516 7,653 3,733,965 132,197 3,866,161 008 Total 2 009 Total ... 1,364,758 1,306,853 917,416 7,768 3,596,795 126,938 3,723,733 2 010 Total ... 1,445,708 1,330,199 971,221 7,712 3,754,841 131,910 3,886,752 3,882,600 2 011 Total ... 1,422,801 1,328,057 991,316 7,672 3,749,846 132,754 2 3,832,306 012 Total ... 1,374,515 1,327,101 985,714 7,320 3,694,650 137,657 2 1,394,812 1,337,079 985,352 7,625 3,724,868 143,462 3,868,330 ... 013 Total 014 Total ... 1,407,208 1,352,158 997,576 7,758 3,764,700 138,574 3,903,274 2 7,637 015 Total 1,404,096 1,360,752 986,508 ... 3,758,992 141,168 3,900,160 2 015 Total 986,508 ... 1,404,096 1,360,752 2 7,637 3,758,992 141,168 3,900,160 E 320,890 130,972 110,410 78,848 660 January ... 2 11,921 332,811 016 E February ... 115,959 103,452 76,748 646 296,806 11,078 307,884 E March ... 100,227 105,739 79,237 609 285,812 297,388 11,576 E 269,531 280,418 78,647 10,886 88,244 595 April ... 102,045 E 94,198 May ... 296,087 284,708 11,379 81,491 108,437 581 E June ... 125,211 120,363 83,672 329,878 631 11,759 341,637 E 648 87,076 130,038 154,409 July ... 384,739 12,567 372,172 E August ... 135,019 89,101 631 381,192 12,673 393,865 156,442 E 129,363 123,493 83,259 637 336,752 11,661 348,413 September ... E 81,597 October ... 101,508 112,963 11,350 613 296,681 308,031 E 277,317 105,060 78,421 592 93,244 11,268 288,585 November ... E December ... 121,281 110,172 78,616 653 310,722 322,448 11,726 3,762,462 3,902,306 7,497 Total ... 1,411,058 1,367,191 976,715 139,844 E 330,270 12,093 318,177 667 78,809 109,488 129,212 January ... 017 2 E 74,534 February ... 100,968 99,640 635 275,777 286,669 10,892 E 11,643 March ... 103,096 107,173 80,530 645 291,444 303,087 E 90,725 283,989 11,188 272,801 April ... 102,589 78,899 589 E 83,134 May ... 98,281 109,872 583 11,478 291,871 303,348 E 11,967 340,550 328,583 June ... 122,543 120,013 85,399 628 E 367,613 380,376 12,763 630 87,806 129,277 149,900 July ... E 12,558 360,263 640 89,134 128,481 142,007 August ... 372,820 E 11,213 321,726 618 83,540 118,789 118,779 September ... 332,939 E 299,539 11,353 310,892 626 82,815 113,287 102,811 October ... E 104,973 79,456 283,347 598 98,321 November ... 294,802 11,455 E 122,005 109,306 80,242 664 312,216 12,512 324,728 December ... Total ... 1,378,648 1,352,888 984,298 7,523 3,723,356 141,114 3,864,470 E January ... 148,978 2 018 12,468 352,876 114,618 76,061 751 340,408 E 299,129 February ... 113,383 102,001 71,948 643 287,975 11,154 E 303,833 March ... 106,939 107,886 76,811 625 292,262 11,572 E April ... 11,258 285,156 273,898 608 75,241 102,922 95,128 E 81,461 May ... 103,395 112,597 591 298,044 309,728 11,684 E 81,527 345,173 11,961 333,212 628 121,578 129,478 June ... E 130,916 July ... 153,031 85,041 382,289 640 369,629 12,661 E 12,830 390,578 377,748 686 89,632 134,479 152,951 August ... E 648 September ... 121,581 81,192 331,881 128,459 11,859 343,741 E 636 304,157 81,023 115,861 106,638 October ... 315,807 11,649 E 104,622 297,574 November ... 103,372 76,927 622 285,543 12,032 E 12,451 307,171 660 76,213 107,678 122,620 319,622 December ... E 953,076 7,738 143,579 3,945,507 1,376,741 Total ... 3,801,928 1,464,373 E 12,608 111,613 323,300 664 78,033 335,908 132,989 January ... 019 2 a Electricity retail sales to ultimate customers reported by electric utilities that house the generating equipment. Direct use is exclusive of station use. g nd, beginning in 1996, other energy service providers. a The sum of "Total Retail Sales" and "Direct Use." b E=Estimate. NA=Not available. Commercial sector, including public street and highway lighting, See Note 1, "Coverage of Electricity Statistics," at end of sectio Notes: • nterdepartmental sales, and other sales to public authorities. n. i c g. Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent roundin Industrial sector. Through 2002, excludes agriculture and irrigation; • • b eginning in 2003, includes agriculture and irrigation. Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. d Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#electrici Transportation sector, including sales to railroads and railways. ty e The sum of "Residential," "Commercial," "Industrial," and "Transportation." (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 an d f Use of electricity that is 1) self-generated, 2) produced by either the same monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section. ntity that consumes the power or an affiliate, and 3) used in direct support of a e ervice or industrial process located within the same facility or group of facilities s Monthly U. 139 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

150 Electricity Note 1. Coverage of Electricity Statistics. Data in Section 7 cover the following: 1984, data for electric utilities also include institutions (such as universities) and military facilities that Through electricity primarily for their own use; beginning in 1985, data for electric utilities exclude institutions and generated facilities. Beginning in 1989, military data for the commercial sector include institutions and military facilities. generation, consumption, and stocks data in Section 7 are for utility ‐ scale facilities—those with a combined The Data capacity of 1 megawatt or more. generation exclude distributed (small ‐ scale) facilities—those with a nameplate combined nameplate capacity of less than generator distributed 1 For data on megawatt. solar photovoltaic (PV) generation in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors, see Table 10.6. Note Classification of Power Plants into Energy ‐ Use Sectors. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) 2. and plants (both electricity ‐ only and combined ‐ heat ‐ classifies ‐ power plants) into energy ‐ use power sectors on based the Industry Classification System North which replaced American the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system (NAICS), in 1997. Plants with a NAICS code of 22 are assigned to the Electric Power Sector. Those with NAICS codes beginning with (agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting); 21 (mining, 11 including oil and gas extraction); (construction); 31– 23 33 (manufacturing); 2212 (natural gas distribution); and 22131 (water supply and irrigation systems) are assigned to the Commercial Industrial Sector. Those with all other codes are assigned to the Sector. Form EIA ‐ 860, "Annual Electric Generator asks respondents to indicate the primary purpose of Report," facility by assigning a NAICS code from the the at http://www.eia.gov/survey/form/eia_860/instructions.pdf. list 3. Electricity Forecast Values. Data values preceded by Note in this section are forecast values. They are derived "F" EIA's Short ‐ Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). STIFS is driven primarily by data and assumptions about from variables, key macroeconomic energy prices, and weather. The electricity forecast relies on additional variables such as sources prices (natural gas and oil) and power generation by alternative other than fossil fuels, including nuclear, fuel model hydroelectric power. Each month, EIA staff review the renewables, output and make adjustments, if and appropriate, based on their knowledge of developments in the electricity industry. The model results are published monthly in EIA's Short ‐ Term Energy Outlook, which is accessible on the Web at STIFS http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/steo/. 7.1 Sources Table Net Generation, Electric Power Sector forward: Table 7.2b. 1949 Net Generation, Commercial and Industrial Sectors 1949 forward: Table 7.2c. Trade 1977: Unpublished Federal Power Commission 1949–September data. October 1977–1980: Unpublished Economic Administration (ERA) data. Regulatory 1981: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Emergency Operations, "Report on Electric Energy Exchanges 1982). with and Mexico for Calendar Year 1981," April 1982 (revised June Canada Across International Borders . Electricity Exchanges 1982 and 1983: DOE, ERA, 1984–1986: DOE, ERA, Electricity Transactions Across International Borders . 1987 and 1988: DOE, ERA, Form ERA ‐ 781R, "Annual Report of International Electrical Export/Import Data." International of Report "Annual Fossil 781R, ‐ FE Form Energy, Data." Export/Import Electrical 1989: DOE, / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 140

151 1990–2000: Energy Board of Canada; and DOE, Office of Electricity Delivery and National Reliability, Form Energy ‐ "Annual Report of 781R, Electrical Export/Import Data." FE International 2011: National Energy Board of Canada; DOE, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Form 2001–May predecessor form; and California Independent System and ‐ "Monthly Electricity Imports and Exports Report," 781R, OE Operator. 2011–2015: National Energy Board of Canada; California Independent System Operator; and EIA estimates for June transfers. Texas forward: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 111, "Quarterly Electricity Imports and Exports Report"; 2016 and for forecast values, EIA Short ‐ Term Forecasting System (STIFS). Integrated T&D Losses and Unaccounted for forward: Calculated as the sum of total net generation 1949 imports minus end use and exports. and End Use Table 7.6. 1949 forward: 7.2b Sources Table 1949–September 1977: Federal Power Commission, Form FPC ‐ 4, "Monthly Power Plant Report." FPC October Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Form 1977–1981: ‐ 4, "Monthly Power Plant Report." U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA ‐ 759, "Monthly Power Plant Report." 1982–1988: 867, 1989–1997: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 759, "Monthly Power Plant Report," and Form EIA ‐ "Annual Producer Power Nonutility Report." "Annual Form EIA ‐ 759, "Monthly Power Plant Report," and Form EIA ‐ 860B, 1998–2000: EIA, Electric Generator Report— Nonutility." Form EIA 2001–2003: 906, EIA, "Power Plant Report." ‐ 2004–2007: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 906, "Power Plant Report," and Form EIA ‐ 920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report." 923, Plant EIA, Form EIA ‐ "Power Operations Report". forward: 2008 Table 7.2c Sources Industrial Sector, Hydroelectric Power, 1949–1988 4, 1949–September 1977: Federal Power Commission (FPC), Form FPC ‐ "Monthly Power Plant Report," for plants with generating capacity exceeding 10 megawatts, and FPC, Form FPC ‐ 12C, "Industrial Electric Generating Capacity," for all other plants. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Form FPC ‐ 4, "Monthly Power October 1977–1978: Plant Report," for FERC, plants generating capacity exceeding 10 megawatts, and with Form FPC ‐ 12C, "Industrial Electric Generating Capacity," for all other plants. exceeding 1979: FERC, Form FPC ‐ 4, "Monthly Power Plant Report," for plants with generating capacity 10 megawatts, and U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates for all other plants. period 1974–1979. of 1980–1988: Estimated by EIA as the average generation over the 6 ‐ year All Data, 1989 Forward Power Nonutility "Annual 867, ‐ EIA Form EIA, 1989–1997: Report." Producer Monthly U. 141 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

152 1998–2000: Form EIA ‐ 860B, "Annual Electric Generator Report—Nonutility." EIA, EIA, EIA ‐ 906, "Power Form Plant Report." 2001–2003: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 906, "Power 2004–2007: Report," and Form EIA ‐ 920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report." Plant forward: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 923, "Power Plant Operations Report". 2008 Sources 7.3b Table 1977: Federal Power Commission, Form FPC ‐ 4, "Monthly Power Plant Report." 1949–September FPC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Form 1977–1981: ‐ 4, "Monthly Power Plant Report." October U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form 1982–1988: EIA ‐ 759, "Monthly Power Plant Report." 1989–1997: Form EIA ‐ 759, "Monthly Power Plant Report," and Form EIA ‐ 867, EIA, Producer "Annual Power Nonutility Report." EIA, Form EIA ‐ 759, "Monthly Power 1998–2000: Plant Report," and Form EIA ‐ 860B, "Annual Electric Generator Report— Nonutility." 2001–2003: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 906, "Power Plant Report." and 2004–2007: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 906, "Power Plant Report," and Form EIA ‐ 920, "Combined Heat Power Plant Report." 923, Report". EIA, Form EIA ‐ "Power Plant Operations forward: 2008 Sources Table 7.4b Report." Plant 1949–September 1977: Federal Power Commission, Form FPC ‐ 4, "Monthly Power October Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Form FPC ‐ 4, "Monthly Power Plant Report." 1977–1981: EIA 1982–1988: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form U.S. ‐ 759, "Monthly Power Plant Report." 1989–1997: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 759, "Monthly Power Plant Report," and Form EIA ‐ 867, Nonutility Power Producer "Annual Report." 1998–2000: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 759, "Monthly Power Plant Report," and Form EIA ‐ 860B, "Annual Electric Generator Report— Nonutility." 2001–2003: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 906, "Power Plant Report." ‐ 2004–2007: EIA, Form EIA 906, "Power Plant Report," and Form EIA ‐ 920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report." 2008 forward: EIA, EIA ‐ 923, "Power Plant Operations Form Report". 7.6 Sources Table Retail Sales, Residen tial and Industrial 1977: 1949–September Power Commission, Form FPC ‐ 5, "Monthly Statement of Electric Operating Revenue and Federal Income." October 1977–February 1980: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Form FPC ‐ 5, "Monthly Statement of Electric Operating Revenue and Income." March 1980–1982: FERC, FPC ‐ 5, "Electric Utility Company Monthly Statement." Form Information Administration Energy 1983: U.S. Monthly Company Utility "Electric 826, ‐ EIA Form (EIA), Statement." / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 142

153 1984–2003: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 861, "Annual Electric Utility Report." EIA, Electric Power Monthly ( 2004 ), March 2019, Table 5.1. forward: EPM Retail Sales, Commercial estimation are estimates. See 1949–2002: Data methodology at http://www.eia.gov/state/seds /sep_use/notes/use_elec.pdf. 2003: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 861, "Annual Electric Utility Report." 2004 EIA, EPM, March forward: 2019, Table 5.1. Retail Sales, Transportation 1949–2002: Data are estimates. See estimation methodology at http://www.eia.gov/state/seds /sep_use/notes/use_elec.pdf. 2003: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 861, "Annual Electric Utility Report." 2004 forward: EIA, EPM March 2019, Table 5.1. Direct Use, Annual 1989–1997: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 867, "Annual Nonutility Power Producer Report." Form EIA ‐ 860B, "Annual Electric Generator 1998–2000: Report—Nonutility." EIA, Table Electric Power 2001–2017: Annual 2017, December 2018, EIA, 2.2. 2018: Sum of estimates. monthly Direct Use, Monthly 1989 forward: Annual shares are calculated as annual direct use divided by annual commercial and industrial net are generation (on Table 7.1). Then monthly direct use estimates calculated as the annual share multiplied by the net industrial used. is share annual 2017 the 2018, For values. generation monthly commercial and Monthly U. 143 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

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155 8. Nuclear Energy

156 8.1 Figure Overview Nuclear Energy Electricity Net Generation,1957–2018 5 Total 4 3 2 Trillion Kilowatthours Nuclear Electric Power 1 0 1995 1980 1965 1970 1975 1985 1990 1960 2000 2005 2010 2015 Nuclear Share of Electricity Net Generation,1957–2018 25 20 15 Percent 10 5 0 2015 1965 2000 1960 1990 1985 1980 1975 2005 2010 1970 1995 Nuclear Electricity Net Generation–January Capacity Factor, Monthly 80 120 74.649 73.701 73.121 100 60 80 60 40 Percent 40 Billion Kilowatthours 20 20 2017 2018 2019 0 JFMAMJJASOND 0 2017 2018 2019 http://www.eia.gov/totalene rgy/data/monthly/#nuclear. Web Page: 7.2a Sources: Tables 8.1. and Information / Administration Energy S. U. 2019 April Review Energy Monthly 146

157 T able 8.1 Nuclear Energy Overview Nuclear Share Net Summer Total Operable Capacity of of Electricity Nuclear Electricity b,c d a,b Capacity Factor Net Generation Units Operable Units Net Generation Number Million Kilowatts Million Kilowatthours Percent 1 957 Total ... 1 0.055 10 (s) NA 1 ... 3 .411 518 .1 NA 960 Total 1 965 Total ... 13 .793 3,657 .3 NA 1 970 Total ... 20 7.004 21,804 1.4 NA 1 57 975 Total ... 37.267 172,505 9.0 55.9 1 980 Total 71 51.810 251,116 11.0 56.3 ... 985 Total 383,691 96 79.397 1 15.5 58.0 ... 1 ... 112 99.624 576,862 19.0 66.0 990 Total 1 995 Total ... 109 99.515 673,402 20.1 77.4 2 ... 104 97.860 753,893 19.8 88.1 000 Total 89.4 001 Total ... 104 98.159 768,826 20.6 2 20.2 90.3 780,064 2 002 Total ... 104 98.657 ... 003 Total 2 19.7 87.9 763,733 99.209 104 2 104 99.628 788,528 19.9 90.1 ... 004 Total 005 Total ... 104 99.988 781,986 19.3 89.3 2 006 Total ... 104 100.334 787,219 19.4 89.6 2 2 007 Total ... 104 100.266 806,425 19.4 91.8 d 91.1 ... 104 100.755 806,208 19.6 2 008 Total 2 009 Total ... 104 101.004 798,855 20.2 90.3 19.6 2 010 Total ... 104 101.167 806,968 91.1 c 89.1 19.3 101.419 790,204 011 Total ... 104 2 2 ... 104 101.885 769,331 19.0 86.1 012 Total 2 013 Total ... 100 99.240 789,016 19.4 89.9 19.5 2 014 Total ... 99 98.569 797,166 91.7 2 ... 99 98.672 797,178 19.6 92.3 015 Total 2 016 January ... 99 98.921 72,525 20.6 98.5 February ... 99 98.921 65,638 20.9 95.3 98.921 21.7 89.9 66,149 March ... 99 99 88.1 April ... 62,732 21.4 98.921 21.0 66,576 98.921 99 90.5 May ... 94.2 18.3 67,175 99 June ... 100.043 100.043 July ... 100 70,349 17.1 94.5 96.1 August ... 100 100.043 71,526 17.5 September ... 90.9 18.6 65,448 100.043 100 99.565 60,733 19.4 81.7 99 October ... November ... 99 99.565 65,179 21.9 90.9 December ... 99 99.565 71,662 96.7 20.8 Total ... 99 99.565 805,694 19.8 92.3 2 017 January ... 99 99.610 73,121 21.3 98.7 63,560 February ... 99 99.610 94.9 21.9 20.5 65,093 99 March ... 99.610 87.8 99.610 56,743 19.3 79.1 99 April ... May ... 99 99.610 61,313 19.0 82.7 June ... 99 99.610 67,011 18.7 93.4 July ... 99 99.629 71,314 17.6 96.2 18.8 August ... 99 99.629 72,384 97.6 20.3 68,098 99.629 94.9 99 September ... 20.6 65,995 99.629 99 October ... 89.0 21.5 66,618 99 November ... 99.629 92.9 99 20.9 99.4 73,700 99.629 December ... ... 99 99.629 804,950 20.0 92.2 Total E E 99.653 100.7 99 January ... 2 018 19.9 74,649 E E 99 64,790 21.2 99.653 96.7 February ... E E 20.9 67,033 99 March ... 99.653 90.4 E E 19.6 99 April ... 82.4 99.653 59,133 E E 99 67,320 99.653 19.8 May ... 90.8 E E June ... 18.7 69,688 99.653 97.1 99 E E July ... 72,456 99 17.6 99.653 97.7 E E 72,282 August ... 99.653 97.5 99 17.7 E E 18.1 90.4 99.200 64,725 98 September ... E E October ... 98 99.200 80.5 59,397 18.2 E E 19.8 November ... 98 99.355 63,948 89.4 E E 21.2 71,657 99.355 98 December ... 96.9 E E 19.3 Total ... 92.6 98 807,078 99.355 E E 019 January ... 98 2 99.360 73,701 20.6 99.7 a methodology. For an explanation of the method of calculating the capacity facto r, Total of nuclear generating units holding full-power licenses, or equivalent ermission to operate, at end of period. See Note 1, "Operable Nuclear Reactors," p see Note 2, "Nuclear Capacity," at end of section. t end of section. a E=Estimate. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.05%. b 1, At end of period. • For a discussion of nuclear reactor unit coverage, see Note Notes: c et Nuclear electricity n • "Operable Nuclear Reactors," at end of section. For the definition of "Net Summer Capacity," see Note 2, "Nuclear Capacity," a t end of section. Beginning in 2011, monthly capacity values are estimated in two g. generation totals may not equal sum of components due to independent roundin Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. • teps: 1) uprates and derates reported on Form EIA-860M are added to specific s Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#nuclear (Exc m el onths; and 2) the difference between the resulting year-end capacity (from data r and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1957 and monthly da ta eported on Form EIA-860M) and final capacity (reported on Form EIA-860) is beginning in 1973. a llocated to the month of January. d Beginning in 2008, capacity factor data are calculated using a new Sources: See end of section. Monthly U. 147 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

158 Uranium Figure 8.2 Overview Production and Trade, 1949–2018 75 Purchased Imports 50 Domestic Production Exports Sales 25 Million Pounds Uranium Oxide 0 19501955196019651970197519801985199019952000200520102015 Inventories, End of Year 1981–2017 250 200 Total 150 100 Electric Plants 50 Million Pounds Uranium Oxide Domestic Supplies 0 2015 2010 1995 2005 2000 1985 1990 Average Prices, 1981–2017 60 40 Domestic Purchases 20 Purchased Imports Dollars[a] per Pounds Uranium Oxide 0 2005 1985 1990 1995 2000 2010 2015 Page: rgy/data/monthly/#nuclear. http://www.eia.gov/totalene [a] Prices Web are not adjusted for inflation. See “Nominal Dollars” in Glossary. See 8.2. Table Source: Glossary. in Oxide” “Uranium Note: / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 148

159 T able 8.2 Uranium Overview Average Price Inventories Electric Plant Purchases Loaded Into Domestic b From Domestic U.S. Nuclear Concentrate Domestic Purchased Purchased Export Domestic Electric a c b Suppliers Reactors Production Plants Purchases Suppliers Imports Imports Total Sales d Million Pounds Uranium Oxide per Pound Uranium Oxide Dollars 950 ... NA 5.5 0.0 NA NA NA NA NA 1 NA 0.92 NA 1 7.6 .0 NA NA 5.56 NA NA NA NA 955 ... 1 960 ... 35.28 36.0 .0 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1 965 ... 8.0 .0 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 20.88 NA 1 .0 4.2 NA NA 25.81 NA NA – – NA 970 ... 1 975 ... 23.20 1.4 1.0 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1 3.6 5.8 NA NA 43.70 NA NA NA NA 980 ... 1 981 ... 38.47 6.6 4.4 32.6 NA NA NA 159.2 32.90 34.65 27.1 1 982 ... 26.87 17.1 6.2 NA NA NA 174.8 27.23 38.37 1 983 ... 8.2 3.3 24.2 NA NA NA 191.8 26.16 38.21 21.16 160.2 984 ... 2.2 22.5 NA 25.0 12.5 185.2 21.86 32.65 1 14.88 985 ... 11.31 11.7 5.3 21.7 NA 23.7 153.2 176.9 20.08 31.43 1 1 986 ... 13.5 1.6 18.9 NA 27.0 144.1 171.1 20.07 30.01 13.51 25.4 1 15.1 1.0 20.8 NA 12.99 137.8 163.2 19.14 27.37 987 ... 1 988 ... 13.13 15.8 3.3 17.6 NA 19.3 125.5 144.8 19.03 26.15 1 989 ... 13.1 2.1 18.4 NA 22.2 115.8 138.1 16.75 19.56 13.84 26.4 1 23.7 2.0 20.5 NA 8.89 102.7 129.1 12.55 15.70 990 ... 1 991 ... 7.95 16.3 3.5 26.8 34.6 20.7 98.0 118.7 15.55 13.66 25.2 1 23.3 2.8 23.4 43.0 5.65 92.1 117.3 11.34 13.45 992 ... 13.14 993 ... 3.06 21.0 3.0 15.5 45.1 24.5 81.2 105.7 10.53 1 994 ... 10.30 8.95 86.9 65.4 21.5 1 40.4 22.7 17.7 36.6 3.35 22.3 11.11 995 ... 6.04 41.3 9.8 1 13.7 58.7 72.5 10.20 51.1 996 ... 1 46.2 13.81 13.15 80.0 66.1 13.9 23.7 11.5 45.4 6.32 1 997 ... 43.0 17.0 19.4 48.2 40.4 65.9 106.2 11.81 12.87 5.64 70.7 1 43.7 15.1 21.6 38.2 4.70 65.8 136.5 11.19 12.31 998 ... 1 999 ... 4.61 47.6 8.5 21.4 58.8 68.8 58.3 127.1 10.55 11.88 51.5 2 3.98 44.9 13.6 24.3 000 ... 56.5 54.8 111.3 9.84 11.45 52.7 2 001 ... 2.64 46.7 11.7 27.5 9.51 48.1 55.6 103.8 10.45 e,E 48.7 2.34 52.7 15.4 22.7 57.2 2 53.5 102.1 10.05 10.35 002 ... e,E 003 ... 10.84 2.00 53.0 13.2 21.7 62.3 39.9 45.6 85.5 10.59 2 37.5 2 66.1 13.2 28.2 50.1 2.28 57.7 95.2 12.25 11.91 004 ... 13.98 005 ... 2.69 65.5 20.5 27.3 58.3 29.1 64.7 93.8 14.83 2 19.31 18.54 64.8 106.6 77.5 29.1 51.7 27.9 18.7 2 006 ... 4.11 112.4 33.13 18.5 45.5 31.2 81.2 14.8 54.1 34.18 2 007 ... 4.53 43.43 41.30 110.0 83.0 27.0 51.3 20.4 17.2 3.90 008 ... 2 57.1 49.4 111.5 3.71 58.9 23.5 17.6 009 ... 26.8 84.8 41.23 44.53 2 44.88 010 ... 4.23 55.3 23.1 16.2 44.3 24.7 86.5 111.3 47.01 2 19.8 16.7 54.4 53.41 54.00 112.1 89.8 22.3 50.9 2 011 ... 3.99 2 97.6 23.3 49.5 21.5 18.0 56.2 4.15 012 ... 56.51 51.44 120.9 23.3 113.1 013 ... 4.66 57.4 18.9 2 42.6 21.3 134.4 48.27 52.51 44.03 132.7 114.0 18.7 50.5 20.5 56.5 20.0 2 43.99 014 ... 4.89 121.1 43.03 25.7 19.6 47.4 14.3 64.2 135.5 42.95 2 015 ... 3.34 50.7 2.92 016 ... 2 128.0 144.6 41.64 40.45 41.7 18.8 17.2 16.7 P P P P 14.0 19.0 45.5 142.7 14.0 38.57 123.7 42.1 2.44 017 ... 2 37.09 P NA NA 2 NA NA NA 018 ... NA 1.47 NA NA NA a See "Uranium Concentrate" in Glossary. d Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly#nuclear (Excel an b Import quantities through 1970 are reported for fiscal years. Prior to 1968, the CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949. 1949–1966: Sources: • U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction Offic tomic Energy Commission was the sole purchaser of all imported uranium oxide. A e, s. Report No. GJO-100, annual report rade data prior to 1982 were for transactions conducted by uranium suppliers T Statistical Data of the Uranium Industry, nly. For 1982 forward, transactions by uranium buyers (consumers) have been • 1967–2002: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Uranium Indust ry o EIA, "Domestic Uranium Productio 2003–2015: • annual reports. ncluded. Buyer imports and exports prior to 1982 are believed to be small. Annual, n i c al Does not include any fuel rods removed from reactors and later reloaded. Report," annual reports; and EIA, "Uranium Marketing Annual Report," annu d 2016 forward: Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. EIA, "Domestic Uranium Production Report 4th Quart er reports. • e Value has been rounded to avoid disclosure of individual company data. 2018" (February 2019), Table 1; and EIA, "2017 Uranium Marketing Annual Repor t" P=Preliminary. E=Estimate. NA=Not available. – – =Not applicable. (May 2018), Tables 5, 18, 19, 21, and 22. Note: See "Uranium Oxide" in Glossary. Monthly U. 149 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

160 Nuclear Energy Note Operable Nuclear Reactors. A reactor is defined as operable when it possesses a full ‐ power license 1. the from Commission or its predecessor, the Atomic Regulatory Commission, or equivalent permission to operate, Nuclear Energy the end of the year or month shown. The definition includes units retaining full ‐ power at licenses long, non ‐ during them shutdowns that for a time rendered unable to generate electricity. routine 2. Nuclear Capacity. Nuclear generating units may have more than one type of net capacity rating, including the Note following: Net Summer Capacity—The steady hourly output that generating supply equipment is expected to (a) to load, system Auxiliary auxiliary power, as demonstrated by test at the time of summer peak exclusive demand. of power of a typical nuclear power plant is about 5% of gross generation. (b) Net Design Capacity or Net Design Electrical Rating (DER)—The nominal net electrical output of a unit, specified by the utility and used for plant design. Through 2007, the monthly capacity factors are calculated as the monthly nuclear electricity net generation divided by that the maximum possible nuclear electricity net generation for month. The maximum possible nuclear electricity net the generation is the number of hours in month (assuming changes for adjustment no with days, hour ‐ 24 from or to Daylight Time) multiplied by the net summer capacity of operable nuclear generating units at the end of the Savings percentage. That fraction is then multiplied by 100 to obtain a Annual capacity factors are calculated as the month. nuclear annual electricity net generation annual by the maximum possible nuclear electricity net generation (the divided sum of the monthly values for maximum possible nuclear electricity net generation). For the methodology used to calculate capacity factors beginning in 2008, see U.S. Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Monthly , Appendix C notes on “Average Capacity Factors.” Table 8.1 Sources Total Operable Units and Net Summe r Capacity of Operable Units from various sources, primarily U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Reactor Programs, 1957–1982: Compiled Central Station Nuclear Electric “U.S. Units: Significant Milestones.” Generating 1983 forward: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA ‐ 860, “Annual Electric Generator Report,” and predecessor forms; Form EIA ‐ 860M, “Monthly Update to the Annual Electric Generator Report”; and monthly updates as list https://www.eia.gov/nuclea r/generation/index.html appropriate. for a See of operable units. Nuclear Electricity Net Generation and Nucl ear Share of Electricity Net Generation 1957 forward: Table 7.2a. Capacity Factor Calculated by EIA using the 1973–2007: method described above in Note 2. Electric Annual the to Update “Monthly 860M, ‐ EIA Form Report”; Generator 2008 forward: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 860, “Annual EIA Electric Operations Plant “Power 923, ‐ Report.” Form and Report”; Generator / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 150

161 9. Energy Prices

162 Prices Petroleum Figure 9.1 Crude Oil Prices, 1949–2018 120 100 80 60 Composite Refiner Acquisition Cost 40 Dollars [a] per Barrel 20 Domestic First Purchase Price 0 1950 2000 2005 2010 2015 1985 1995 1990 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 Composite Refiner Acquisition Cost, Monthly 75 50 25 Dollars [a] per Barrel 0 J FMAMJ J ASONDJ FMAMJ JASONDJ FMAMJ J ASOND 2017 2018 2019 Refiner Prices to End Users: Select Products, January 2019 3.0 2.624 2.5 2.195 1.960 1.855 2.0 1.827 1.472 1.5 1.0 0.756 0.5 0.0 Dollars [a] per Gallon (Excluding Taxes) Finished Residual Fuel No.2 Kerosene-Type No.2 Finished Motor Propane Aviation Gasoline Diesel Fuel Jet Fuel Oil Fuel Oil (Consumer Gasoline Grade) Glossary. Web Page: in rgy/data/monthly/#prices. http://www.eia.gov/totalene [a] Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See “Nominal Dollars” Tables Sources: 9.7. and 9.5 9.1, 152 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U.

163 T able 9.1 Crude Oil Price Summary a per Barrel) (Dollars b Refiner Acquisition Cost Domestic First F.O.B. Cost Landed Cost e d c Composite Domestic Imported of Imports Purchase Price of Imports 2.51 NA 1 NA NA NA ... 950 Average NA 1 2.77 NA NA NA NA NA ... 955 Average 960 Average 2.88 NA NA NA NA NA 1 ... ... 2.86 NA NA NA NA NA 1 965 Average E E E NA NA 2.96 1 3.46 970 Average ... 3.18 3.40 1 975 Average 7.67 11.18 12.70 8.39 13.93 10.38 ... 980 Average 33.67 21.59 32.37 1 24.23 33.89 28.07 ... 1 ... 24.09 25.84 26.67 26.66 26.99 26.75 985 Average 1 990 Average ... 20.03 20.37 21.13 22.59 21.76 22.22 1 ... 14.62 15.69 16.78 17.33 17.14 17.23 995 Average 28.26 000 Average ... 26.72 26.27 27.53 29.11 27.70 2 22.95 2 001 Average ... 21.84 20.46 21.82 24.33 22.00 ... 22.51 002 Average 24.65 24.10 23.71 23.91 22.63 2 2 003 Average 27.56 25.86 27.69 29.82 27.71 28.53 ... 004 Average 36.07 36.77 33.75 2 38.97 35.90 36.98 ... 2 ... 50.28 47.60 49.29 52.94 48.86 50.24 005 Average 2 006 Average ... 59.69 57.03 59.11 62.62 59.02 60.24 2 ... 66.52 66.36 67.97 69.65 67.04 67.94 007 Average 2 008 Average ... 94.04 90.32 93.33 98.47 92.77 94.74 2 009 Average ... 56.35 57.78 60.23 59.49 59.17 59.29 2 010 Average ... 74.71 74.19 76.50 78.01 75.86 76.69 2 011 Average 95.73 101.66 102.92 100.71 102.63 101.87 ... 012 Average 101.00 94.52 99.78 2 100.72 101.09 100.93 ... 2 ... 95.99 96.56 96.99 102.91 98.11 100.49 013 Average 2 014 Average ... 87.39 85.65 88.16 94.05 89.56 92.02 2 ... 44.39 41.91 45.38 49.94 46.38 48.39 015 Average 29.99 016 January ... 27.02 23.67 27.36 32.17 27.48 2 February ... 28.53 26.66 30.28 27.04 24.68 25.52 33.82 32.24 35.29 32.06 29.74 31.87 March ... 35.90 39.30 35.43 32.73 35.59 April ... 37.71 42.88 May ... 41.02 38.31 40.73 44.77 40.88 45.96 43.96 41.92 43.55 47.57 44.13 June ... 43.26 41.48 41.05 38.76 40.71 July ... 44.88 38.26 40.40 44.18 41.21 42.70 40.46 August ... September ... 40.55 38.28 40.81 44.47 40.86 42.73 October ... 45.00 42.36 48.66 44.76 46.85 43.97 November ... 41.65 40.12 42.59 46.10 41.80 44.06 December ... 47.12 44.52 46.74 50.45 46.72 48.66 40.66 Average ... 38.29 36.37 38.56 42.41 38.75 47.05 51.81 49.99 48.12 44.62 48.19 2 017 January ... 49.41 45.91 48.08 53.15 49.38 51.24 February ... March ... 46.39 44.09 46.26 50.60 46.53 48.65 April ... 47.23 43.60 46.00 51.34 47.47 49.47 46.15 May ... 43.92 45.19 49.58 47.21 48.47 42.17 41.34 43.85 46.26 44.03 45.25 June ... July ... 43.42 42.09 44.82 47.59 44.76 46.27 August ... 44.96 44.18 46.93 48.76 47.62 48.22 49.80 50.78 47.17 51.07 50.46 46.50 September ... 53.71 51.11 47.22 49.12 October ... 52.67 51.40 57.75 November ... 55.19 52.11 56.10 58.92 56.30 December ... 53.68 59.53 57.44 61.10 56.96 56.98 49.12 Average ... 48.05 45.58 48.50 52.05 50.68 63.13 2 018 January ... 62.25 55.73 58.19 66.08 59.39 61.71 57.94 64.68 February ... 61.20 53.42 56.73 64.03 March ... 60.68 53.35 56.32 56.75 60.80 64.42 61.25 67.14 April ... 63.50 58.53 60.61 62.95 66.16 May ... 71.31 65.15 69.00 66.08 68.31 June ... 62.80 63.09 65.48 69.55 66.85 July ... 65.43 62.35 67.00 70.28 66.77 73.31 67.68 August ... 62.64 61.35 64.11 69.45 65.48 63.55 September ... 61.56 63.69 71.04 66.42 69.15 61.84 67.74 73.08 October ... 65.18 60.19 70.97 R R 59.01 54.40 62.47 47.15 55.65 November ... 44.62 R R December ... 47.72 35.82 38.65 53.25 42.80 48.83 R R 60.95 61.41 67.04 ... 64.37 58.87 56.31 Average R R R R R R 51.88 47.23 53.73 47.85 49.19 January ... 019 2 47.59 E E E 58.36 57.41 NA 56.30 NA NA February ... a Annu • period of reporting; beginning in 1981, they reflect the period of loading. al Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. b See Note 1, "Crude Oil Refinery Acquisition Costs," at end of section. e. averages are the averages of the monthly prices, weighted by volum c Geographic coverage is the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, th e See Note 2, "Crude Oil Domestic First Purchase Prices," at end of section. • d See Note 3, "Crude Oil F.O.B. Costs," at end of section. Virgin Islands, and all U.S. Territories and Possessions. e Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices (Excel an See Note 4, "Crude Oil Landed Costs," at end of section. d R=Revised. NA=Not available. E=Estimate. CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da ta Domestic first purchase prices and refinery acquisition costs for the • Notes: beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section. urrent two months are preliminary. F.O.B. and landed costs for the current three c Through 1980, F.O.B. and landed costs reflect the • onths are preliminary. m Monthly U. 153 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

164 T able 9.2 F.O.B. Costs of Crude Oil Imports From Selected Countries a (Dollars per Barrel) Selected Countries Persian Gulf Total United Saudi Total c b c Venezuela Angola Colombia Mexico Nigeria Nations Kingdom Non-OPEC Arabia OPEC d 973 Average W W – 7.81 3.25 ... 5.39 3.68 5.43 4.80 1 – 975 Average ... 10.97 – 11.44 11.82 10.87 1 11.04 10.88 11.34 10.62 – 1 ... 33.45 W 31.06 35.93 28.17 34.36 24.81 28.92 32.21 32.85 980 Average 985 Average 22.04 26.30 – 25.33 28.04 1 27.64 23.64 23.31 25.67 25.96 ... 20.36 1 20.23 20.75 19.26 22.46 ... 23.43 19.55 18.54 20.40 20.32 990 Average 1 995 Average ... 16.58 16.73 15.64 17.40 W 16.94 13.86 W 15.36 16.02 2 000 Average 27.90 29.04 25.39 28.70 24.62 27.21 24.45 24.72 25.56 26.77 ... 001 Average 18.98 23.25 24.25 18.89 24.85 2 23.30 18.01 18.89 19.73 21.04 ... 23.92 2 24.09 24.64 21.60 25.38 ... 24.50 20.13 23.38 22.18 22.93 002 Average 2 003 Average ... 28.22 28.89 24.83 29.40 25.03 28.76 23.81 25.17 25.36 26.21 34.08 2 37.26 37.73 31.55 38.71 ... 37.30 31.78 33.08 33.95 33.58 004 Average 2 005 Average ... 52.48 51.89 43.00 55.95 47.96 54.48 46.39 47.21 49.60 45.79 56.09 2 ... 62.23 59.77 52.91 65.69 006 Average 66.03 55.80 56.02 59.18 55.35 64.10 2 007 Average ... 67.80 61.35 76.64 W 69.96 67.93 69.93 69.58 62.69 2 008 Average 95.66 91.17 84.61 102.06 93.03 96.33 88.06 91.44 93.15 87.15 ... 009 Average ... 57.90 56.47 64.61 57.87 65.63 55.58 59.53 58.53 57.16 2 57.07 W 010 Average 72.56 72.46 80.83 76.44 78.18 70.30 75.65 75.23 73.24 2 ... 011 Average ... 111.82 100.21 100.90 115.35 107.08 – 97.23 106.47 105.34 98.49 2 2 012 Average 111.23 106.43 101.84 114.51 106.65 – 100.15 105.45 104.39 95.71 ... 013 Average 101.16 107.71 101.24 98.40 110.06 2 W 97.52 100.62 100.57 93.67 ... 95.60 2 W 80.75 86.55 W ... – 84.51 94.03 89.76 82.95 014 Average 2 015 Average ... W 47.52 44.90 W 47.53 – 40.73 46.95 43.25 41.19 2 016 W W 24.12 W 26.24 – 20.73 25.73 25.05 22.66 January ... February ... 27.46 24.91 24.50 37.83 – 22.57 26.58 27.01 23.35 W – 30.47 29.01 W 34.14 35.33 27.31 32.32 31.37 28.35 March ... April ... W 33.57 30.79 W 37.13 – 29.07 35.67 34.08 31.92 May ... 39.00 39.04 W 42.44 W 36.65 40.55 40.51 37.04 W – 41.64 42.27 48.79 45.16 49.56 39.33 43.77 43.73 40.22 June ... July ... 45.00 36.91 39.99 W 42.11 – 35.69 40.91 39.61 38.09 42.48 W 36.80 38.73 W August ... – 37.56 40.44 40.44 36.78 40.01 40.37 36.95 – 42.31 W 38.44 40.36 W September ... 37.18 40.37 44.66 40.38 – 47.10 W 42.91 40.59 W October ... 45.17 November ... 39.80 39.55 W 42.50 W 38.39 41.40 42.31 38.33 W December ... 44.75 45.27 45.34 W 48.79 W 47.95 47.44 42.34 W 39.30 ... 42.68 35.28 36.22 46.20 W 34.71 38.76 38.51 34.81 Average 2 017 January ... – 47.92 45.50 W W – 45.94 47.61 47.30 43.25 – 46.97 45.91 W 51.03 W 45.69 50.01 49.11 43.63 February ... March ... W 46.05 42.10 W 48.54 – 42.47 47.78 46.83 41.73 50.00 W 46.76 44.32 W April ... W 43.71 48.93 47.16 41.46 44.70 May ... W 44.85 W 47.95 – 42.27 47.14 46.08 42.66 June ... 41.30 41.86 48.88 45.41 – 39.16 44.45 43.52 40.28 W July ... – 44.44 44.33 50.26 46.94 41.72 45.95 45.40 40.39 W – 47.16 46.33 52.18 49.33 W 45.41 48.06 48.32 41.38 August ... September ... – W 48.06 W 53.41 – 49.22 51.74 52.36 43.26 – 52.69 49.01 58.58 55.44 – 52.51 50.92 53.93 44.21 October ... November ... – W 54.66 W 60.22 W 55.88 59.12 58.89 48.57 62.09 – W 55.32 W December ... – 58.27 60.36 61.52 49.87 49.55 50.16 45.60 W 51.30 43.30 54.77 Average ... W 48.34 46.66 51.34 64.12 63.50 62.07 W 65.03 58.75 61.24 W January ... 018 2 W 55.72 56.74 W 63.19 W 59.66 61.90 61.07 49.79 W February ... March ... – W 56.73 W 65.04 W 56.84 61.90 60.90 49.09 68.33 April ... W 65.95 57.68 W 53.73 W 63.17 66.05 66.09 W W 63.32 W 70.57 – 66.56 69.66 70.07 58.99 May ... 59.81 June ... W W 64.46 W 71.32 W 64.82 70.18 69.44 59.84 July ... W 68.32 66.21 – 70.62 – 62.93 70.30 67.64 67.29 68.31 69.96 63.09 W W 70.91 57.46 August ... W 63.08 68.94 68.15 W 72.90 W W 72.05 71.80 56.39 W September ... W W 73.93 W 74.73 W 68.44 74.61 73.26 54.31 October ... R R R R R R W November ... 62.73 W 53.25 – 63.76 64.87 60.68 63.76 36.18 R R R R R R R 58.31 50.04 December ... – 46.66 52.70 55.33 – 52.64 W 28.95 R R R R R R R 62.83 Average ... 74.44 62.51 61.35 65.76 71.41 66.75 68.62 71.65 51.43 W W 54.31 53.27 – January ... 019 2 49.38 56.54 54.82 44.70 W a costs related to insurance and transportation. See "F.O.B. (Free on Board)" in Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. b e Values for th • Glossary, and Note 3, "Crude Oil F.O.B. Costs," at end of section. Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and he Neutral Zone (between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia). t Through 1980, prices reflect the period • current two months are preliminary. of c See "Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)" in Glossary g. reporting; beginning in 1981, prices reflect the period of loadin ot Annual averages are averages of the monthly prices, including prices n or exact years of each country’s membership. On this table, "Total OPEC" for all • f k" published, weighted by volume. • y ears includes Algeria, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Cargoes that are purchased on a "netbac basis, or under similar contractual arrangements whereby the actual purchase pric U nited Arab Emirates, and Venezuela; Angola is included in "Total OPEC" 2007 e f d is not established at the time the crude oil is acquired for importation into the Unite orward; Gabon is included in "Total OPEC" 1974–1995 and July 2016 forward; cuador is included in "Total OPEC" 1973–1992 and 2008 forward; Indonesia is n States, are not included in the published data until the actual prices have bee E ncluded in "Total OPEC" 1973–2008 and 2016. e determined and reported. • U.S. geographic coverage is the 50 states and th i d District of Columbia. Based on October, November, and December data only. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices (Excel an d R=Revised. – =No data reported. W=Value withheld to avoid disclosure of CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. ndividual company data. i • Sources: See end of section. Notes: The Free on Board (F.O.B.) cost at the country of origin excludes all / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 154

165 T able 9.3 Landed Costs of Crude Oil Imports From Selected Countries a per Barrel) (Dollars Selected Countries Persian United Saudi Total Total Gulf c c b OPEC Kingdom Non-OPEC Arabia Nations Mexico Venezuela Colombia Canada Angola Nigeria d W 1 W 973 Average 9.08 5.37 – 5.99 5.91 6.85 5.64 5.33 ... – ... 12.84 – 12.61 12.70 12.50 11.81 12.36 12.64 12.70 12.70 975 Average 1 – ... 1 30.11 W 31.77 37.15 29.80 35.68 25.92 30.59 33.56 33.99 980 Average 34.76 985 Average 27.39 25.71 – 25.63 28.96 24.72 28.36 24.43 25.50 26.86 26.53 1 ... ... 21.82 20.48 22.34 19.64 23.33 990 Average 22.65 20.31 20.55 21.23 20.98 1 21.51 17.91 995 Average 16.65 17.45 16.19 18.25 16.84 17.66 14.81 16.78 16.61 16.95 1 ... 000 Average ... 29.57 26.69 29.68 26.03 30.04 26.58 29.26 26.05 26.77 27.29 27.80 2 25.32 001 Average 20.72 25.88 19.37 26.55 20.98 25.13 19.81 20.73 21.52 22.17 2 ... 002 Average ... 25.43 22.98 25.28 22.09 26.45 24.77 26.35 21.93 24.13 23.83 23.97 2 30.62 003 Average 26.76 30.55 25.48 31.07 27.50 30.14 25.70 27.54 27.70 27.68 2 ... 004 Average ... 39.62 34.51 39.03 32.25 40.95 37.11 39.28 33.79 36.53 36.84 35.29 2 005 Average 50.31 54.31 44.73 53.42 43.47 57.55 2 55.28 47.87 49.68 51.36 47.31 ... 006 Average 59.19 64.85 53.90 62.13 53.76 68.26 2 67.44 57.37 58.92 61.21 57.14 ... 70.78 2 71.27 60.38 70.91 62.31 78.01 ... 72.47 66.13 69.83 71.14 63.96 007 Average 2 008 Average ... 98.18 90.00 93.43 85.97 104.83 94.75 96.95 90.76 93.59 95.49 90.59 62.14 2 61.32 57.60 58.50 57.35 68.01 ... 63.87 57.78 62.15 61.90 58.58 009 Average 2 010 Average ... 80.61 72.80 74.25 72.86 83.14 79.29 80.29 72.43 78.60 78.28 74.68 116.43 2 ... 114.05 89.92 102.57 101.21 011 Average 108.83 118.45 100.14 108.01 107.84 98.64 W 2 012 Average ... 114.95 84.24 107.07 102.45 116.88 108.15 101.58 107.74 107.56 95.05 2 013 Average 110.81 84.41 103.00 99.06 112.87 102.60 111.23 99.34 102.53 102.98 91.99 ... W 014 Average 81.30 88.29 87.48 102.16 94.91 99.25 86.88 95.30 93.10 84.67 2 ... 015 Average ... 51.73 41.99 49.53 45.51 54.70 49.78 W 42.87 49.43 47.44 44.09 2 016 2 34.83 26.32 26.23 24.82 W 30.96 – 21.64 30.85 28.94 26.33 January ... 31.86 February ... 24.62 26.32 25.19 39.44 33.04 W 23.49 30.91 29.63 25.43 March ... 36.68 29.31 33.38 29.65 42.86 36.19 W 28.83 34.84 34.02 30.35 April ... 34.19 36.71 31.91 W 39.75 – 31.20 38.00 36.80 34.42 40.91 May ... 43.46 38.43 42.28 39.67 W W 38.14 42.56 42.48 39.55 49.14 45.90 41.97 43.88 42.50 51.05 49.06 – 40.04 44.70 44.70 42.65 June ... July ... 47.04 39.41 40.90 40.30 48.46 43.80 W 37.00 42.77 41.78 40.48 43.67 37.84 40.78 39.34 50.20 49.43 W 38.66 42.74 42.46 39.01 August ... 39.60 September ... 46.15 38.62 43.43 38.86 49.91 44.22 – 38.11 43.31 42.62 48.88 41.79 45.50 42.64 45.65 41.61 – 46.95 W 43.44 43.44 October ... November ... 39.81 42.97 40.20 52.80 47.04 W 39.53 45.68 44.98 40.52 49.08 50.38 43.34 48.83 45.84 55.62 53.63 W 45.69 49.38 49.07 44.83 December ... Average ... 44.65 36.27 38.86 36.64 48.11 42.14 W 35.50 41.20 40.54 37.09 54.74 2 January ... – 44.70 49.17 46.35 017 50.40 W 47.53 49.35 49.22 45.76 46.57 February ... W 44.97 49.66 54.42 52.27 – 46.28 50.92 50.48 46.26 March ... 43.00 48.29 42.97 W 50.36 W 43.91 49.58 48.91 44.03 W 50.18 43.05 48.38 44.65 W W W 44.53 49.03 48.47 44.31 April ... May ... W 44.24 45.92 45.51 51.83 49.17 W 43.50 47.37 47.36 45.23 50.36 50.74 41.76 44.89 42.36 June ... 47.97 W 40.88 46.86 45.77 42.67 48.22 41.60 – 42.25 50.20 47.48 46.91 43.36 46.72 45.17 50.89 July ... 45.41 49.55 49.71 46.16 W 51.43 46.86 48.56 43.18 52.23 August ... 53.18 September ... 45.14 52.43 49.63 57.99 55.03 W 50.98 52.93 53.53 47.42 56.59 58.34 45.68 53.95 50.28 59.35 W W 53.05 55.14 55.71 48.21 October ... November ... 61.03 51.16 59.52 55.47 64.27 61.66 62.24 57.19 59.63 59.83 53.67 63.52 W 51.15 61.58 56.01 67.20 December ... – 58.80 61.48 62.13 53.90 51.26 Average ... 54.17 44.93 50.60 47.73 56.48 52.56 56.11 47.02 51.42 46.67 2 018 66.55 51.20 63.25 59.85 69.15 64.81 W 62.79 63.94 64.83 54.64 January ... 65.30 February ... 48.23 62.55 57.37 69.60 W 68.19 55.98 63.21 62.93 52.91 March ... 70.27 47.01 63.59 56.99 70.59 66.77 W 57.72 63.72 63.56 51.07 69.44 52.22 66.34 58.62 W W 73.82 63.51 67.09 66.99 56.36 April ... 61.72 May ... W 58.19 70.63 64.03 79.38 71.28 W 67.45 70.85 71.50 65.81 72.88 W 62.95 72.17 70.65 71.49 June ... 76.28 58.57 70.64 65.38 71.62 63.67 – 72.56 W 66.82 71.20 58.99 75.55 July ... 70.54 62.54 72.41 56.78 68.79 64.18 W 72.79 75.45 64.12 71.58 70.44 60.79 August ... September ... 75.83 52.35 73.88 69.79 W 72.56 W 70.73 72.26 72.45 58.76 October ... W 47.93 73.27 74.79 W 73.75 W 69.31 72.24 72.19 57.35 R R R R R R R R W – 38.56 28.06 66.20 63.36 64.52 68.03 65.13 66.13 November ... 55.70 R R R R R R R R R 58.20 53.89 54.71 December ... 48.63 56.72 W 59.65 30.69 – 62.21 21.62 R R R R R R R R R R 69.40 54.26 71.93 62.43 63.54 67.24 66.78 Average 73.28 73.42 67.60 48.33 ... 55.65 56.32 57.75 52.00 W 58.36 W 43.64 55.66 38.44 – January ... 019 2 a Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. ly reflect the period of loading. • Annual averages are averages of the month b Cargoes that a Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and prices, including prices not published, weighted by volume. re • ts purchased on a "netback" basis, or under similar contractual arrangemen t he Neutral Zone (between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia). c whereby the actual purchase price is not established at the time the crude oil is See "Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)" in Glossary d acquired for importation into the United States, are not included in the publishe f or exact years of each country’s membership. On this table, "Total OPEC" for all data until the actual prices have been determined and reported. ic ears includes Algeria, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, • U.S. geograph y U nited Arab Emirates, and Venezuela; Angola is included in "Total OPEC" 2007 coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. d f orward; Gabon is included in "Total OPEC" 1974–1995 and July 2016 forward; Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices (Excel an E cuador is included in "Total OPEC" 1973–1992 and 2008 forward; Indonesia is CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. October 1973–September 1977: n, i ncluded in "Total OPEC" 1973–2008 and 2016. Federal Energy Administratio • Sources: d • October 1977–Decembe r Based on October, November, and December data only. Form FEA-F701-M-0, "Transfer Pricing Report." R=Revised. – =No data reported. W=Value withheld to avoid disclosure of 1977: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form FEA-F701-M- 0, i ndividual company data. 8, Petroleum Marketing Annual 200 EIA, 1978–2007: • "Transfer Pricing Report." • 2008 forward: • Table 22. See "Landed Costs" in Glossary, and Note 4, "Crude Oil Landed EIA, Notes: le April 2019, Tab Petroleum Marketing Monthly, 22. Values for the current two months are preliminary. • osts," at end of section. C Through 1980, prices reflect the period of reporting; beginning in 1981, prices • Monthly U. 155 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

166 T able 9.4 Retail Motor Gasoline and On-Highway Diesel Fuel Prices a (Dollars per Gallon, Including Taxes) Platt’s / Bureau of Labor Statistics Data U.S. Energy Information Administration Data Motor Gasoline by Grade Regular Motor Gasoline by Area Type Leaded On-Highway Unleaded Reformulated Unleaded Conventional b c d e Regular Gasoline Areas Regular Gasoline Areas Premium All Areas Diesel Fuel All Grades – – ... NA NA NA 0.268 – – – – – – 1 950 Average 955 Average ... .291 1 NA NA – – – – – – – – NA 1 ... .311 NA NA NA – – – – – – – – 960 Average 965 Average NA .312 NA NA 1 – – – – – – – – ... NA 1 .357 NA NA ... – – – – – – – – 970 Average 1 975 Average ... .567 NA NA NA – – – – – – – – 1 980 Average 1.191 1.245 NA 1.221 – – – – – – – – ... – – 985 Average 1.202 1.340 1.196 1.115 – – – – – – 1 ... 990 Average ... 1.149 1.164 1.349 1 NA NA NA NA 1.217 1 ... – – 1.147 1.336 995 Average 1.103 1.163 1.111 1.109 1.205 2 000 Average ... – – 1.510 1.693 1.563 1.462 1.543 1.484 1.491 1.531 2 – – 1.461 1.657 ... 1.384 1.498 1.420 1.401 001 Average 2 002 Average ... – – 1.358 1.556 1.441 1.313 1.408 1.345 1.319 1.777 2 ... – – 1.591 003 Average 1.638 1.516 1.655 1.561 1.509 ... 2 004 Average – – 1.880 2.068 1.923 1.812 1.937 1.852 1.810 2 005 Average – – 2.295 2.491 2.338 2.240 2.335 2.270 2.402 ... 006 Average ... 2.589 2.805 2.635 2.533 2.654 2.572 2.705 2 – – 2.767 007 Average 2.801 3.033 2.849 – – 2.857 2.796 2.885 2 ... 008 Average ... – – 3.266 3.519 3.317 3.213 3.314 3.246 3.803 2 2 009 Average – – 2.350 2.607 2.401 2.315 2.433 2.353 2.467 ... 010 Average 2.836 – – 2.788 3.047 2 2.742 2.864 2.782 2.992 ... 3.577 2 – – 3.527 3.792 ... 3.476 3.616 3.521 3.840 011 Average 2 012 Average ... – – 3.644 3.922 3.695 3.552 3.757 3.618 3.968 2 013 Average – – 3.526 3.843 3.584 3.443 3.635 3.505 3.922 ... 014 Average 3.425 – – 3.367 3.713 2 3.299 3.481 3.358 3.825 ... 2.510 2 – – 2.448 2.866 ... 2.334 2.629 2.429 2.707 015 Average 2 016 January ... – – 1.967 2.455 2.034 1.843 2.170 1.949 2.143 February ... 1.767 2.248 1.833 1.681 1.936 1.764 1.998 – – – – 1.958 2.411 2.021 1.895 2.124 1.969 2.090 March ... April ... – – 2.134 2.585 2.196 2.027 2.293 2.113 2.152 May ... – – 2.264 2.710 2.324 2.199 2.413 2.268 2.315 2.303 2.366 2.423 June ... – – 2.363 2.807 2.422 2.497 – – July ... 2.157 2.287 2.405 2.239 2.411 2.702 2.225 2.351 August ... 2.155 2.629 2.218 2.119 2.300 2.178 – – 2.161 2.269 2.682 – – September ... 2.208 2.394 2.219 2.339 October ... 2.243 2.719 2.304 2.186 2.382 2.249 2.454 – – November ... 2.105 2.187 2.675 2.246 2.343 2.182 2.439 – – – – 2.230 2.698 2.289 2.192 2.385 2.254 2.510 December ... Average ... – – 2.142 2.610 2.204 2.070 2.296 2.143 2.304 2.409 2 – – 2.351 2.815 January ... 2.285 2.482 2.349 2.580 017 February ... – – 2.299 2.793 2.360 2.227 2.467 2.304 2.568 2.386 – – 2.323 2.827 March ... 2.243 2.498 2.325 2.554 2.417 April ... – – 2.418 2.909 2.479 2.579 2.340 2.583 May ... 2.386 2.894 2.448 2.303 2.577 2.391 2.560 – – June ... 2.337 2.859 2.400 2.257 2.536 2.347 2.511 – – July ... – – 2.281 2.800 2.344 2.486 2.300 2.496 2.211 – – 2.374 2.883 August ... 2.297 2.557 2.380 2.595 2.436 September ... – – 2.630 3.120 2.688 2.570 2.802 2.645 2.785 – – 2.484 2.996 2.545 2.430 2.663 2.505 2.794 October ... November ... – – 2.548 3.056 2.608 2.474 2.751 2.564 2.909 December ... – – 2.459 2.985 2.521 2.388 2.663 2.477 2.909 2.911 2.408 ... 2.415 2.650 2.586 2.333 2.469 Average – – 018 2 2.555 3.018 2.738 2.467 2.596 3.042 2.539 – – January ... – – 2.575 3.091 2.632 2.488 2.795 2.587 3.046 February ... March ... – – 2.572 3.101 2.631 2.488 2.808 2.591 2.988 April ... – – 2.737 3.258 2.795 2.652 2.978 2.757 3.096 May ... – – 2.907 3.423 2.963 2.808 3.096 2.901 3.244 – – 2.914 3.440 2.970 2.802 3.078 2.891 3.253 June ... 3.233 July ... – – 2.873 3.399 2.930 2.770 3.015 2.849 3.218 2.983 2.768 2.919 2.836 August ... – – 2.862 3.384 2.930 September ... 3.400 3.262 2.836 2.979 2.769 2.873 – – 2.785 2.887 3.431 2.945 – – 3.017 2.860 3.365 October ... November ... – – 2.671 3.251 2.733 2.561 2.829 2.647 3.300 3.123 December ... – – 2.414 3.015 2.479 2.263 2.581 2.366 2.794 2.735 3.178 2.719 2.904 2.631 3.270 – – ... Average 2.289 2.980 019 January ... – – 2 2.874 2.352 2.145 2.464 2.248 2.495 2.223 2.901 2.353 2.412 2.997 2.309 – – February ... 2.516 2.443 2.673 3.079 2.564 – – 3.076 March ... 2.620 a states and the District of Columbia. Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. b Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices (Excel an The 1981 average (available in Web file) is based on September through d D CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da ecember data only. ta c beginning in 1973. Also includes grades of motor gasoline not shown separately. d 3 Sources: Motor Gasoline by Grade, Monthly Data: October 197 • Any area that does not require the sale of reformulated gasoline. e ity —U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), forward U.S. C "Reformulated Gasoline Areas" are ozone nonattainment areas designated by Average Gasoline Prices. • Motor Gasoline by Grade, Annual Dat a: t he U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that require the use of reformulated 197 51st Edition. 4 — Platt’s Oil Price Handbook and Oilmanac, 1974, g asoline (RFG). Areas are reclassified each time a shift in or out of an RFG 1949–1973 p forward —calculated by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) as simp le rogram occurs due to federal or state regulations. Regular Motor Gasoline by Area Typ averages of the BLS monthly data. • e: NA=Not available. – – =Not applicable. EIA, calculated as simple averages of weighted weekly estimates from "Week ly • Notes: See Note 5, "Motor Gasoline Prices," at end of section. • See "Motor asoline Grades," "Motor Gasoline, Conventional," "Motor Gasoline, Oxygenated," , U.S. Retail Gasoline Prices, Regular Grade." G EIA On-Highway Diesel Fuel: • Geographic coverage: for calculated as simple averages of weighted weekly estimates from "Weekly Reta a nd "Motor Gasoline, Reformulated" in Glossary. • il c olumns 1–4, current coverage is 85 urban areas; for columns 5–7, coverage is the On-Highway Diesel Prices." 5 0 states and the District of Columbia; for column 8, coverage is the 48 contiguous / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 156

167 T able 9.5 Refiner Prices of Residual Fuel Oil a per Gallon, Excluding Taxes) (Dollars Residual Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Oil Sulfur Content Less Sulfur Content Average Greater Than 1% Than or Equal to 1% Sales for Sales to Sales for Sales to Sales to Sales for End Users Resale Resale End Users End Users Resale 978 Average ... 0.293 0.314 0.245 0.275 0.263 0.298 1 980 Average .608 .675 .479 .523 .528 .607 ... 1 985 Average ... .610 .644 .560 .582 .577 .610 1 990 Average .372 ... .472 .505 1 .400 .413 .444 1 995 Average .383 .436 .338 .377 .363 .392 ... 2 ... .627 .708 .512 .566 .566 .602 000 Average 2 001 Average ... .523 .642 .428 .492 .476 .531 2 ... .546 .640 .508 .544 .530 .569 002 Average .698 003 Average ... .728 .804 .588 .651 .661 2 .739 2 004 Average ... .764 .835 .601 .692 .681 1.168 .842 1.115 ... 005 Average 1.048 .971 .974 2 2 006 Average 1.202 1.342 1.085 1.173 1.136 1.218 ... 007 Average 1.314 1.406 1.436 2 1.350 1.350 1.374 ... 2 ... 1.918 2.144 1.843 1.889 1.866 1.964 008 Average 2 009 Average ... 1.337 1.413 1.344 1.306 1.342 1.341 2 ... 1.756 1.920 1.679 1.619 1.697 1.713 010 Average 2 011 Average ... 2.389 2.736 2.316 2.257 2.336 2.401 ... 2 012 Average 2.548 3.025 2.429 2.433 2.457 2.592 2 013 Average 2.363 2.883 2.249 2.353 2.278 2.482 ... 2 ... 2.153 2.694 1.996 2.221 2.044 2.325 014 Average 2 015 Average ... .971 1.529 .999 1.227 .996 1.285 2 January ... .477 W .502 .641 .499 .710 016 February ... .475 NA .508 .606 .504 .632 March ... .582 NA .555 .672 .558 .693 .734 .614 W .633 April ... .782 .616 .729 .723 .868 .722 .922 W May ... June ... .983 .825 .911 .823 W .850 .948 July ... .876 W .834 .835 1.030 .990 August ... .842 W .811 .924 .815 .846 September ... 1.076 .854 1.059 .855 W October ... W .935 1.091 .938 1.115 .961 November ... 1.040 NA .907 .908 1.106 .920 1.024 W 1.031 1.206 1.030 1.230 December ... Average ... .736 1.138 .746 .897 .745 .945 2 January ... 1.099 W 1.121 1.249 1.119 1.309 017 February ... 1.174 W 1.115 1.243 1.121 1.291 March ... 1.103 1.239 W 1.075 1.186 1.077 W 1.039 1.147 1.039 1.201 1.038 April ... May ... .986 W 1.047 1.153 1.043 1.213 .995 June ... .937 W 1.195 1.129 .991 1.026 W 1.040 1.154 1.039 1.211 July ... 1.204 August ... 1.042 W 1.081 1.142 1.079 1.314 September ... 1.150 W 1.137 1.295 1.138 1.249 1.178 W 1.153 October ... 1.304 1.176 1.413 November ... 1.302 W 1.277 1.384 1.279 W 1.249 1.254 December ... 1.484 1.249 1.447 Average ... 1.112 W 1.117 1.237 1.116 1.287 2 018 January ... 1.301 W 1.311 1.476 1.310 1.507 1.319 February ... 1.221 W 1.415 1.325 1.490 1.227 W 1.306 1.386 1.302 1.452 March ... April ... 1.311 W 1.349 1.438 1.348 1.504 May ... 1.462 W 1.501 1.615 1.500 1.667 1.643 1.558 1.553 W 1.487 1.731 June ... 1.581 1.709 1.583 W July ... 1.543 1.767 1.764 August ... 1.499 W 1.552 1.680 1.549 1.761 September ... 1.520 W 1.561 1.696 1.560 1.816 1.875 1.703 1.620 1.700 October ... W November ... 1.827 1.556 1.731 1.562 W 1.360 1.293 W 1.608 1.467 December ... 1.252 1.295 1.587 1.662 1.463 Average ... 1.397 W 1.466 1.472 January ... 1.332 W 1.304 1.413 019 2 1.305 a estimates. See Note 6, "Historical Petroleum Prices," at end of sectio n. Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. • NA=Not available. W=Value withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company ata. d d Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices (Excel an CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1978 and monthly da ta Sales for resale are those made to purchasers other than ultimate Notes: • onsumers. Sales to end users are those made directly to ultimate consumers, beginning in 1982. c 7. i ncluding bulk consumers (such as agriculture, industry, and electric utilities) and Table 1 Sources: • 1978–2007: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Annual 2007, EIA, Petroleum Marketing Monthly, April 2019, Table 16. Values for the current month are preliminary. ommercial consumers. • • 2008 forward: c • Through 1982, prices are U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Monthly U. 157 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

168 T able 9.6 Refiner Prices of Petroleum Products for Resale a (Dollars per Gallon, Excluding Taxes) Finished Kerosene- Finished No. 2 No. 2 Propane (Consumer Motor Aviation Type Fuel Diesel b Kerosene Fuel Oil Jet Fuel Grade) Gasoline Gasoline 978 Average ... 0.434 0.537 0.386 0.404 0.369 0.365 1 0.237 1 ... .941 1.128 .868 .864 .803 .801 .415 980 Average 985 Average .794 .835 1.130 1 .874 .776 .772 .398 ... 1 ... .786 1.063 .773 .839 .697 .694 .386 990 Average 1 995 Average ... .626 .975 .539 .580 .511 .538 .344 2 000 Average .963 1.330 .880 .969 .886 .898 .595 ... 001 Average .821 .886 1.256 .763 2 .756 .784 .540 ... 2 ... .828 1.146 .716 .752 .694 .724 .431 002 Average 2 003 Average ... 1.002 1.288 .871 .955 .881 .883 .607 2 ... 1.288 1.627 1.208 1.271 1.125 1.187 .751 004 Average 2 005 Average ... 1.670 2.076 1.723 1.757 1.623 1.737 .933 1.961 2 006 Average ... 1.969 2.490 2.007 1.834 2.012 1.031 2 007 Average 2.182 2.758 2.171 2.249 2.072 2.203 1.194 ... 008 Average ... 3.342 3.020 2.851 2.745 2.994 1.437 2 2.586 009 Average 1.767 2.480 1.719 1.844 1.657 1.713 .921 2 ... 010 Average ... 2.165 2.874 2.185 2 2.147 2.214 1.212 2.299 2 ... 2.867 3.739 3.014 3.065 2.907 3.034 1.467 011 Average 012 Average ... 2.929 3.919 3.080 3.163 3.031 3.109 1.033 2 2 013 Average ... 2.812 3.869 2.953 3.084 2.966 3.028 1.048 2 014 Average 2.618 3.687 2.763 2.882 2.741 2.812 1.165 ... 015 Average 1.735 1.726 2.764 1.592 2 1.565 1.667 .555 ... 2 January ... 1.187 2.122 1.022 1.183 .976 1.015 .460 016 February ... 1.046 1.908 1.017 1.155 .948 1.043 .470 1.335 2.230 1.100 1.208 1.070 1.189 .497 March ... April ... 1.476 2.457 1.155 1.193 1.113 1.251 .458 May ... 1.613 2.528 1.311 1.327 1.291 1.432 .511 1.531 1.404 1.445 .497 2.591 June ... 1.643 1.428 1.297 1.354 2.505 1.490 July ... .476 1.426 1.305 .453 August ... 1.508 2.405 1.408 1.307 1.440 1.313 1.471 1.402 1.366 2.506 1.514 September ... 1.341 .494 2.551 1.471 1.580 1.443 1.592 .608 1.568 October ... November ... 1.427 2.433 1.406 1.485 1.386 1.469 .588 December ... 1.585 2.462 1.511 1.685 1.606 .703 1.507 Average ... 1.454 2.404 1.295 1.383 1.239 1.378 .523 2 017 January ... 1.627 2.614 1.561 1.761 1.560 1.636 .788 .792 February ... 1.625 2.592 1.592 1.657 1.553 1.641 1.581 .671 1.495 1.580 March ... 1.634 2.618 1.520 1.723 2.724 1.545 1.572 1.499 1.627 .641 April ... May ... 1.668 2.620 1.459 1.481 1.447 1.552 .631 2.552 June ... 1.574 1.360 1.378 1.375 1.465 .585 1.621 2.608 1.436 1.468 1.392 1.533 .634 July ... .742 August ... 1.711 2.710 1.587 1.630 1.522 1.681 1.809 1.668 .864 1.847 September ... 1.826 2.893 1.771 1.704 2.716 .942 1.852 1.730 October ... 1.805 1.695 .997 November ... 1.806 2.841 1.795 1.961 1.781 1.936 1.841 2.034 1.846 2.691 1.720 December ... 1.918 .991 1.603 .800 ... 1.689 2.682 Average 1.730 1.600 1.691 2 018 January ... 1.849 2.900 1.969 2.209 1.990 2.042 .990 February ... 1.823 2.893 1.911 2.088 1.889 1.972 .889 March ... 1.889 2.904 1.893 1.969 1.848 1.952 .827 .792 2.099 1.982 April ... 2.054 3.085 2.032 2.075 2.205 2.175 .867 2.258 2.143 2.205 3.181 May ... .807 June ... 2.135 3.138 2.152 2.145 2.089 2.203 .854 July ... 2.148 3.111 2.140 2.133 2.079 2.192 2.118 2.169 .907 2.203 2.114 2.148 3.085 August ... 2.214 September ... 2.136 3.124 2.214 2.246 2.282 .951 .948 October ... 2.090 3.099 2.296 2.437 2.281 2.379 2.098 2.130 2.762 .826 2.100 1.732 2.206 November ... R R R 1.514 1.794 1.796 1.954 1.811 .798 2.463 December ... Average 1.980 3.006 ... 2.073 2.160 2.002 2.130 .877 2.395 1.789 1.813 2.021 1.822 .775 1.483 January ... 019 2 a Information Administration (EIA) estimates. See Note 6, "Historical Petroleu Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. m b Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the Distri ct Prices," at end of section. See Note 5, "Motor Gasoline Prices," at end of section. • of Columbia. R=Revised. d Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices (Excel an Notes: Sales for resale are those made to purchasers other than ultimate • ta CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1978 and monthly da onsumers. Sales to end users are shown in Table 9.7; they are sales made c beginning in 1982. d irectly to ultimate consumers, including bulk consumers (such as agriculture, 4. i Values • ndustry, and electric utilities) and residential and commercial consumers. Table EIA, 1978–2007: • Sources: Petroleum Marketing Annual 2007, EIA, 2008 forward: April 2019, Table 4. f or the current month are preliminary. • Through 1982, prices are U.S. Energy Petroleum Marketing Monthly, • / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 158

169 T able 9.7 Refiner Prices of Petroleum Products to End Users a (Dollars per Gallon, Excluding Taxes) No. 2 Finished Propane Kerosene- No. 2 Finished Motor Type Diesel Aviation (Consumer Fuel b Gasoline Fuel Jet Fuel Oil Grade) Gasoline Kerosene 978 Average ... 0.484 0.516 0.387 0.421 0.400 0.377 1 0.335 1 ... 1.035 1.084 .868 .902 .788 .818 .482 980 Average 985 Average .796 .912 1.201 1 1.030 .849 .789 .717 ... 1 ... .883 1.120 .766 .923 .734 .725 .745 990 Average 1 995 Average ... .765 1.005 .540 .589 .562 .560 .492 2 000 Average 1.106 1.306 .899 1.123 .927 .935 .603 ... 001 Average 1.045 1.032 1.323 .775 2 .829 .842 .506 ... 2 ... .947 1.288 .721 .990 .737 .762 .419 002 Average 2 003 Average ... 1.156 1.493 .872 1.224 .933 .944 .577 2 ... 1.435 1.819 1.207 1.160 1.173 1.243 .839 004 Average 2 005 Average ... 1.829 2.231 1.735 1.957 1.705 1.786 1.089 1.998 2 006 Average ... 2.682 2.128 2.244 1.982 2.096 1.358 2 007 Average 2.345 2.849 2.165 2.263 2.241 2.267 1.489 ... 008 Average ... 3.273 3.052 3.283 2.986 3.150 1.892 2 2.775 009 Average 1.888 2.442 1.704 2.675 1.962 1.834 1.220 2 ... 010 Average ... 2.301 3.028 2.201 2 2.462 2.314 1.481 3.063 2 ... 3.050 3.803 3.054 3.616 3.193 3.117 1.709 011 Average 012 Average ... 3.154 3.971 3.104 3.843 3.358 3.202 1.139 2 2 013 Average ... 3.049 3.932 2.979 3.842 3.335 3.122 1.028 2 014 Average 2.855 3.986 2.772 W 3.329 2.923 1.097 ... 015 Average W 2.003 W 1.629 2 2.016 1.819 .481 ... 2 January ... 1.505 W 1.038 W 1.450 1.198 .377 016 February ... 1.332 W 1.032 W 1.407 1.185 .409 1.552 W 1.133 W 1.555 1.317 .481 March ... April ... 1.725 W 1.187 W 1.631 1.386 .472 May ... 1.869 W 1.342 W 1.733 1.555 .533 W .514 1.464 1.961 1.661 1.861 June ... W W 1.393 W 1.804 July ... .491 1.577 1.814 .460 August ... 1.754 1.330 W NA 1.577 W 1.601 W 1.394 W 1.788 September ... 1.805 .507 W 1.506 W 1.941 1.706 .599 1.819 October ... November ... 1.759 W 1.426 W 1.787 1.599 .557 December ... W 1.849 W 1.539 1.997 1.718 .666 W Average ... 1.730 1.319 W 1.716 1.511 .498 .774 2 017 January ... 1.900 W 1.584 W NA 1.747 2.033 1.615 W 1.755 .814 W February ... 1.862 1.904 W 1.554 W 1.909 1.699 .657 March ... April ... 1.997 W 1.595 W 2.081 1.747 .652 May ... 1.963 W 1.492 2.637 NA .650 1.693 June ... 1.906 W 1.434 2.600 1.739 1.618 .611 1.871 W 1.478 2.621 1.728 1.665 .667 July ... .768 August ... 1.952 W 1.613 2.579 1.904 1.792 1.959 2.703 1.795 2.044 .895 W September ... 2.154 W .972 1.982 2.048 W 2.042 October ... 1.743 1.011 November ... 2.122 W 1.831 W 2.134 2.047 2.037 W 1.869 W 2.034 December ... 2.263 1.028 1.629 Average ... 1.976 W W 2.010 1.811 .772 2.206 2 018 January ... 2.108 W 2.012 W .971 2.144 2.127 W 1.970 W 2.365 2.107 .948 February ... .842 March ... 2.160 W 1.924 W 2.484 2.076 2.486 2.201 W .839 April ... 2.315 W 2.080 2.368 2.478 3.219 2.221 W 2.494 May ... .916 .883 June ... 2.469 W 2.196 3.292 2.413 2.340 .956 July ... 2.442 W 2.176 W 2.436 2.316 .989 2.327 2.499 2.421 3.272 August ... W 2.183 3.189 September ... 2.428 W 2.257 2.612 2.388 1.062 W 2.500 .988 2.696 October ... 2.441 W 2.349 2.282 W 2.162 .876 W 2.205 November ... 2.431 R 2.222 W 1.852 1.981 1.973 December ... .794 W 3.113 2.380 2.256 .925 ... Average 2.303 W 2.119 2.624 1.960 2.195 W 1.827 .756 1.855 January ... 019 2 a m Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. Information Administration (EIA) estimates. See Note 6, "Historical Petroleu b Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the Distri See Note 5, "Motor Gasoline Prices," at end of section. • ct Prices," at end of section. of Columbia. R=Revised. NA=Not available. W=Value withheld to avoid disclosure of Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices (Excel an i ndividual company data. d Sales to end users are those made directly to ultimate consumers, Notes: • CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1978 and monthly da ta beginning in 1982. ncluding bulk consumers (such as agriculture, industry, and electric utilities) and i 2. esidential and commercial consumers. Sales for resale are shown in Table 9.6; r 1978–2007: Table EIA, • Sources: Petroleum Marketing Annual 2007, • Petroleum Marketing Monthly, April 2019, Table 2. 2008 forward: Values for t hey are sales made to purchasers other than ultimate consumers. EIA, • t he current month are preliminary. • Through 1982, prices are U.S. Energy Monthly U. 159 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

170 Retail of Electricity Prices Figure 9.2 Average per (Cents [a] Kilowatthour) By Sector, 1960–2018 14 Residential 12 Commercial 10 Transportation 8 Industrial 6 Other [b] 4 2 0 2015 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 1965 2010 1970 1960 By Sector, Monthly Residential 14 12 Commercial 10 Transportation 8 Industrial 6 4 2 0 J FMAM J J A SOND J FMAM J J A SOND J FMAM J J A SOND 2018 2019 2017 By Sector, January 2019 Total, January 15 12 10.47 10.29 10.13 12.47 10 12 10.29 9.80 8 9 6 6.58 6 4 3 2 0 0 Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation 2019 2018 2017 adjusted Dollars” “Nominal Note: See Includes taxes. inflation. Glossary. in [a] Prices are not for interdepartmental rgy/data/monthly/#prices. http://www.eia.gov/totalene Page: Web [b] Public street and highway lighting, sales, other sales 9.8. Table Source: to public authorities, agricultural and irrigation, and transportation including and railways. railroads 160 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U.

171 T able 9.8 Average Retail Prices of Electricity a per Kilowatthour, Including Taxes) (Cents c e b d Industrial Transportation Residential Other Total Commercial ... 2.60 1 1.10 NA 1.90 1.80 960 Average 2.40 965 Average ... 2.40 2.20 1.00 NA 1.80 1.70 1 970 Average ... 2.20 2.10 1.00 NA 1.80 1.70 1 975 Average 3.50 3.50 2.10 NA 3.10 2.90 ... 1 980 Average ... 5.40 5.50 3.70 NA 4.80 4.70 1 985 Average ... 7.39 7.27 1 NA 6.09 6.44 4.97 1 990 Average ... 7.83 7.34 4.74 NA 6.40 6.57 1 995 Average 8.40 7.69 4.66 NA 6.88 6.89 ... 000 Average 4.64 8.24 7.43 2 NA 6.56 6.81 ... 2 ... 8.58 7.92 5.05 NA 7.20 7.29 001 Average 2 002 Average ... 8.44 7.89 4.88 NA 6.75 7.20 2 ... 8.72 8.03 5.11 7.54 – – 7.44 003 Average 7.61 004 Average ... 8.95 8.17 5.25 7.18 – – 2 – – 2 005 Average ... 9.45 8.67 5.73 8.57 8.14 8.90 – – 9.54 6.16 9.46 10.40 006 Average ... 2 2 007 Average 10.65 9.65 6.39 9.70 – – 9.13 ... 008 Average 6.96 11.26 10.26 2 10.71 – – 9.74 ... 2 ... 11.51 10.16 6.83 10.66 – – 9.82 009 Average 2 010 Average ... 11.54 10.19 6.77 10.56 – – 9.83 2 ... 11.72 10.24 6.82 10.46 – – 9.90 011 Average 2 012 Average ... 11.88 10.09 6.67 10.21 – – 9.84 2 013 Average ... 12.13 10.26 6.89 10.55 – – 10.07 014 Average 2 ... 12.52 10.74 7.10 10.45 – – 10.44 2 015 Average 12.65 10.64 6.91 10.09 – – 10.41 ... 016 6.44 11.99 10.08 2 9.52 – – 9.97 January ... February ... 12.14 10.25 6.42 9.61 – – 10.00 March ... 12.56 10.23 6.46 9.56 – – 10.00 12.43 10.19 6.44 9.53 – – 9.83 April ... May ... 12.79 10.31 6.57 9.28 – – 10.06 June ... 12.73 10.66 7.03 9.75 – – 10.52 9.84 7.23 10.68 12.68 July ... 10.70 – – – – 10.04 7.23 10.76 12.88 August ... 10.81 10.68 – – 10.00 7.14 10.77 12.87 September ... 9.62 October ... 12.46 10.55 6.73 – – 10.15 10.10 November ... 12.75 10.32 6.66 9.22 – – December ... 10.09 – – 9.49 6.67 10.17 12.23 ... 12.55 10.43 6.76 9.63 – – 10.27 Average 017 January ... 12.21 10.21 6.59 9.39 – – 10.13 2 12.79 February ... – – 10.48 6.63 9.50 10.28 12.89 10.46 6.71 9.49 – – 10.28 March ... 10.07 April ... 12.72 10.40 6.60 9.46 – – 10.34 May ... 13.07 10.59 6.78 9.61 – – – – 10.18 7.19 11.01 13.20 10.83 June ... 13.08 10.97 7.31 10.12 – – 10.95 July ... August ... 13.15 11.01 7.22 10.06 – – 10.91 September ... 13.28 11.03 7.17 9.99 – – 10.86 9.57 October ... 12.80 6.91 10.78 – – 10.40 12.94 10.49 6.73 9.50 – – 10.28 November ... December ... 12.45 10.28 6.54 9.35 – – 10.17 Average ... 12.89 10.66 6.88 9.68 – – 10.48 – – 10.47 12.25 10.49 9.44 6.96 2 018 January ... February ... 10.65 10.48 – – 9.84 6.81 12.66 10.40 March ... 12.99 10.49 6.66 9.43 – – 12.88 April ... 6.58 10.23 – – 9.48 10.44 6.82 May ... 13.15 10.50 9.46 – – 10.41 10.79 – – 10.16 7.18 June ... 13.04 10.82 11.03 – – 10.19 7.34 10.98 13.13 July ... 11.02 – – 9.69 7.21 August ... 13.28 11.00 – – 10.70 13.01 7.09 10.30 September ... 10.68 – – 9.84 6.91 10.75 12.87 October ... 10.46 6.88 10.43 – – 9.72 10.56 12.95 November ... – – 10.27 December ... 12.47 10.33 6.65 9.72 Average 12.89 10.66 6.93 9.77 – – 10.58 ... 019 January ... 12.47 10.29 6.58 9.80 – – 2 10.29 a Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Price" in Glossary. B (Class A utilities are those with operating revenues of $2.5 million or more; Class b utilities are those with operating revenues between $1 million and $2.5 million.) F or Commercial sector. For 1960–2002, prices exclude public street and highway 1980–1982, data are for selected Class A utilities whose electric operatin g ighting, interdepartmental sales, and other sales to public authorities. l c Industrial sector. For 1960–2002, prices exclude agriculture and irrigation. revenues were $100 million or more during the previous year. For 1983, data a re d Transportation sector, including railroads and railways. s for a selected sample of electric utilities. Beginning in 1984, data are for a censu e Public street and highway lighting, interdepartmental sales, other sales to of electric utilities. Beginning in 1996, data also include energy service provide rs ublic authorities, agriculture and irrigation, and transportation including railroads of See Note 7, "Electricity Retail Prices," at end • selling to retail customers. p section for plant coverage, and for information on preliminary and final value s. a nd railways. NA=Not available. – – =Not applicable. Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. • Notes: Beginning in 2003, the category "Other" has been replaced by • d Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices (Excel an CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1960 and monthly da " Transportation," and the categories "Commercial" and "Industrial" have been ta Prices are calculated by dividing revenue by sales. Revenue may not • edefined. r beginning in 1976. 5, c orrespond to sales for a particular month because of energy service provider Federal Power Commission, Form FPC- 1960–September 1977: Sources: • illing and accounting procedures. That lack of correspondence could result in b Octobe "Monthly Statement of Electric Operating Revenues and Income." • r Prices include Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), For 1977–February 1980: m u ncharacteristic increases or decreases in the monthly prices. • FPC-5, "Monthly Statement of Electric Operating Revenues and Income." • h Marc s tate and local taxes, energy or demand charges, customer service charges, e FERC, Form FERC-5, "Electric Utility Company Monthly Statemen t." nvironmental surcharges, franchise fees, fuel adjustments, and other 1980–1982: iscellaneous charges applied to end-use customers during normal billing ic U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-826, "Electr 1983: • m Utility Company Monthly Statement." al EIA, Form EIA-861, "Annu o • perations. Prices do not include deferred charges, credits, or other adjustments, 1984–2010: EIA, 2011 forward: uch as fuel or revenue from purchased power, from previous reporting periods. s Electric Power Industry Report." • ly, Electric Power Month • March 2019, Table 5.3. Through 1979, data are for Classes A and B privately owned electric utilities only. Monthly U. 161 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

172 Generating Plants Electric Figure 9.3 Cost of Fossil ‐ Fuel Receipts at Taxes) Including (Dollars [a] per Million Btu, Costs, 1973–2018 25 Residual Fuel Oil 20 15 10 Natural Gas 5 Coal 0 1975 1990 1985 2015 2010 2005 2000 1980 1995 Costs, Monthly 20 Residual Fuel Oil 15 10 5 Natural Gas Coal 0 J FMAM J J A SOND J FMAM J J A SOND J FMAM J J A SOND 2017 2018 2019 By Fuel Type January 2019 January 2018 January 2017 20 15.96 14.12 15 13.02 11.33 11.31 11.25 10 5.02 4.11 4.01 5 2.38 2.14 2.10 2.09 2.08 2.07 0 Petroleum Coke Distillate Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Oil Natural Gas Coal in Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalene “Nominal See Dollars” rgy/data/monthly/#prices. inflation. [a] Prices are not adjusted for Glossary. 9.9. Table Source: 2019 April Review Energy Monthly 162 / Administration Information Energy S. U.

173 T able 9.9 Cost of Fossil-Fuel Receipts at Electric Generating Plants a (Dollars per Million Btu, Including Taxes) Petroleum e f b c d Distillate Fuel Oil Coal All Fossil Fuels Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Natural Gas Total 973 Average 0.41 0.79 NA ... 0.80 0.34 0.48 1 NA 975 Average ... .81 2.01 NA NA 2.02 .75 1.04 1 980 Average 1.35 4.27 NA NA 4.35 2.20 1.93 ... 1 985 Average ... 1.65 4.24 NA NA 4.32 3.44 2.09 1 990 Average ... 1.45 3.32 5.38 1 3.35 2.32 1.69 .80 1 995 Average ... 1.32 2.59 3.99 .65 2.57 1.98 1.45 2 000 Average 1.20 4.29 6.65 .58 4.18 4.30 1.74 ... .78 2 1.23 3.73 6.30 ... 3.69 4.49 1.73 001 Average g 002 Average 3.73 ... 1.25 2 5.34 .78 3.34 3.56 1.86 2 ... 1.28 4.66 6.82 .72 4.33 5.39 2.28 003 Average 2.48 004 Average ... 1.36 4.73 8.02 .83 4.29 5.96 2 3.25 2 005 Average ... 1.54 7.06 11.72 1.11 6.44 8.21 13.28 6.94 6.23 7.85 1.69 1.33 3.02 2 006 Average ... 2 007 Average 1.77 8.64 14.85 1.51 7.17 7.11 3.23 ... 008 Average 2.11 2.07 13.62 21.46 2 10.87 9.01 4.12 ... 2 ... 2.21 8.98 13.22 1.61 7.02 4.74 3.04 009 Average 2 010 Average ... 2.27 12.57 16.61 2.28 9.54 5.09 3.26 2 ... 2.39 18.35 22.46 3.03 12.48 4.72 3.29 011 Average 2 012 Average ... 2.38 21.03 23.49 2.24 12.48 3.42 2.83 23.03 2 ... 2.34 19.26 013 Average 2.18 11.57 4.33 3.09 ... 014 Average 2 2.37 18.30 21.88 1.98 11.60 5.00 3.31 2 015 Average 2.22 9.89 14.06 1.84 6.74 3.23 2.65 ... 016 8.90 2.12 7.08 2 1.38 4.56 3.02 2.52 January ... February ... 2.11 5.77 8.78 1.30 3.66 2.70 2.36 March ... 2.17 5.63 9.46 1.41 3.62 2.23 2.21 2.16 7.53 9.97 1.35 4.53 2.42 2.31 April ... May ... 2.16 9.07 10.76 1.32 5.70 2.39 2.31 June ... 2.10 8.93 12.22 1.41 6.13 2.67 2.39 2.11 1.47 12.08 6.38 2.97 11.72 2.55 July ... August ... 2.95 5.24 1.75 11.41 8.55 2.52 2.11 2.55 September ... 2.12 8.42 11.29 2.07 5.23 3.07 8.75 October ... 2.07 2.51 3.13 5.85 1.98 12.04 9.03 12.01 2.26 6.24 3.02 2.47 2.08 November ... December ... 2.08 9.65 12.22 2.07 5.93 3.96 2.82 10.90 Average ... 2.11 8.45 2.47 1.65 5.24 2.87 2.88 2 January ... 2.09 11.25 13.02 2.14 7.80 4.11 017 February ... 2.06 10.77 12.98 2.00 6.37 3.56 2.63 2.66 March ... 2.07 11.42 12.35 2.06 7.66 3.35 April ... 2.08 2.65 3.38 10.64 13.00 2.00 7.01 2.09 10.69 12.22 2.05 6.69 3.48 2.70 May ... June ... 2.07 10.48 11.56 2.11 6.18 3.29 2.64 9.99 July ... 2.06 3.21 11.82 2.09 5.97 2.64 2.05 10.03 12.95 2.08 6.31 3.13 2.56 August ... 2.56 September ... 2.02 10.06 14.52 2.10 6.42 3.16 2.54 3.13 October ... 2.03 10.61 14.11 2.31 6.88 8.04 2.62 2.49 14.61 10.28 2.04 November ... 3.35 2.80 December ... 2.04 13.60 14.63 2.17 8.90 3.63 11.00 2.06 ... Average 3.37 2.65 7.10 2.13 13.22 3.50 January ... 2.07 11.33 15.96 2.38 11.32 5.02 018 2 February ... 2.07 11.51 15.00 2.43 8.26 3.61 2.79 March ... 2.04 12.10 14.91 2.54 7.69 3.18 2.57 April ... 2.07 12.21 16.07 2.56 8.08 3.13 2.58 3.04 2.56 10.31 May ... 2.05 12.82 16.78 2.41 13.85 June ... 9.14 2.61 3.11 2.73 16.91 2.05 2.06 13.76 16.40 2.71 8.12 3.29 2.73 July ... August ... 2.06 14.38 16.76 2.79 8.22 3.28 2.69 September ... 2.05 13.92 2.94 8.85 3.11 2.62 17.35 October ... 2.05 14.52 17.66 2.48 10.29 3.39 2.71 2.06 15.27 16.20 2.21 9.47 4.16 3.01 November ... 3.25 December ... 2.12 13.58 14.27 2.03 9.17 4.73 16.09 2.54 9.27 3.55 ... 2.06 12.98 Average 2.80 January ... 019 14.12 2 11.31 2.08 8.41 4.01 2.98 2.10 a commercial and industrial sectors. Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. b NA=Not available. For 1973–2001, electric utility data are for heavy oil (fuel oil nos. 5 and 6, and • Notes: Receipts are purchases of fuel. • Yearly costs are averages mall amounts of fuel oil no. 4). s of c • al For this table, there are sever For 1973–2001, electric utility data are for light oil (fuel oil nos. 1 and 2). monthly values, weighted by quantities in Btu. d For all years, includes residual fuel oil and distillate fuel oil. For 1990 forward, in breaks in the data series related to what plants and fuels are covered. Beginning a e 2013, data cover all regulated generating plants; plus unregulated plants whos lso includes petroleum coke. For 1973–2012, also includes jet fuel, kerosene, and total fossil-fueled nameplate generating capacity is 50 megawatts or more for coa aste oil. For 1983–2012, also includes other petroleum, such as propane and l, w d and 200 megawatts or more for natural gas, residual fuel oil, distillate fuel oil, an r efined motor oil. e Electric Power Month petroleum coke. For data coverage before 2013, see EIA, Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. For ly, s” 973–2000, data also include a small amount of blast furnace gas and other gases 1 Appendix C, Form EIA-923 notes, “Receipts and cost and quality of fossil fuel Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. erived from fossil fuels. d section. • f Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices (Excel an Weighted average of costs shown under "Coal," "Petroleum," and "Natural d as." CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. G g Sources: See end of section. Through 2001, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 2002, data also nclude independent power producers, and electric generating plants in the i Monthly U. 163 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

174 Natural 9.4 Figure Gas Prices Feet) (Dollars [a] per Thousand Cubic Wellhead and Citygate, 1949–2018 10 City Gate 8 6 4 Wellhead 2 0 1970 1965 1960 1955 1950 2015 1990 1985 2010 2005 2000 1980 1975 1995 Consuming Sectors,1967–2018 16 Residential [b] 12 Transportation 8 Commercial [b] 4 Industrial [b] Electric Power [b] 0 2010 2015 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 1980 1975 1970 Consuming Sectors, Monthly 20 Residential [b] 15 Commercial [b] 10 5 Industrial [b] Electric Power [b] 0 J FMAM J J A SOND J FMAM J J A SOND J FMAM J J A SOND 2017 2018 2019 Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalene in Glossary. “Nominal See inflation. rgy/data/monthly/#prices. Dollars” [a] Prices are not adjusted for taxes. Includes [b] Table Source: 9.10. 164 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U.

175 T able 9.10 Natural Gas Prices a (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) b Consuming Sectors c d e Industrial Residential Commercial Transportation Electric Power City- j Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Wellhead Vehicle Fuel gate h i,k h h i f h g i i h of Sector Price of Sector Price Price Price of Sector Price Price of Sector Price 1 0.07 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 950 Average ... 955 Average .10 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1 ... NA ... NA NA NA NA NA .14 NA NA NA NA 1 960 Average 965 Average ... .16 NA NA 1 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1 ... .17 NA 1.09 NA .77 NA .37 NA NA .29 NA 970 Average 975 Average ... NA 1.71 NA 1.35 NA .96 NA NA .77 96.1 1 .44 2.56 980 Average NA 3.68 NA 3.39 NA 1.59 NA NA 2.27 96.9 1 ... 985 Average ... 2.51 3.75 6.12 NA 5.50 1 3.95 68.8 NA 3.55 94.0 NA 1 ... 1.71 3.03 5.80 99.2 4.83 86.6 2.93 35.2 3.39 2.38 76.8 990 Average 76.7 995 Average 1.55 2.78 6.06 99.0 5.05 ... 2.71 24.5 3.98 2.02 71.4 1 2 000 Average ... 3.68 4.62 7.76 92.6 6.59 63.9 4.45 19.8 5.54 4.38 50.5 2 001 Average 4.00 5.72 9.63 92.4 8.43 66.0 5.24 20.8 6.60 4.61 40.2 ... e 002 Average 4.12 7.89 97.9 6.63 77.4 4.02 22.7 5.10 ... 3.68 83.9 2 2.95 5.89 ... 5.85 9.63 97.5 8.40 78.2 4.88 22.1 6.19 5.57 91.2 2 003 Average 004 Average ... 5.46 6.65 10.75 97.7 2 78.0 6.53 23.6 7.16 6.11 89.8 9.43 2 ... 7.33 8.67 12.70 98.1 11.34 82.1 8.56 24.0 9.14 8.47 91.3 005 Average 80.8 006 Average 6.39 8.61 13.73 98.1 12.00 ... 7.87 23.4 8.72 7.11 93.4 2 2 007 Average ... 6.25 8.16 13.08 98.0 11.34 80.4 7.68 22.2 8.50 7.31 92.2 2 008 Average 7.97 9.18 13.89 97.5 12.23 79.7 9.65 20.4 11.75 9.26 101.1 ... 009 Average 77.8 3.67 6.48 12.14 97.4 10.06 2 5.33 18.8 8.13 4.93 101.1 ... 77.5 2 4.48 6.18 11.39 97.4 9.47 ... 5.49 18.0 6.25 5.27 100.8 010 Average 2 011 Average ... 3.95 5.63 11.03 96.3 8.91 67.3 5.13 16.3 7.48 4.89 101.2 E 8.10 2 2.66 4.73 10.65 95.8 ... 65.2 3.88 16.2 8.04 3.54 95.5 012 Average 2 013 Average ... NA 4.88 10.32 95.7 8.08 65.8 4.64 16.6 9.76 4.49 94.9 8.90 2 014 Average ... NA 5.71 10.97 95.5 5.19 65.8 5.62 15.9 NA 94.6 2 015 Average NA 4.26 10.38 95.6 7.91 65.7 3.93 14.8 NA 3.38 94.6 ... 016 January ... 3.39 8.28 96.0 6.75 70.4 3.62 15.4 NA 3.18 95.1 2 NA NA 95.8 6.86 69.4 3.58 15.8 NA 2.83 95.2 3.48 February ... 8.36 15.5 NA 95.6 7.08 66.7 3.02 9.19 NA 2.33 95.7 March ... 3.49 NA 3.22 9.65 95.6 6.98 65.0 14.6 NA 2.52 95.9 April ... 3.00 May ... 3.44 11.62 95.4 7.32 60.2 2.90 14.7 NA 2.49 96.0 NA 2.89 NA 14.43 95.7 7.72 58.0 3.84 14.7 NA 2.77 95.7 June ... July ... NA 4.42 16.56 95.9 8.14 56.9 14.3 NA 3.07 95.4 3.57 NA 4.33 17.60 95.8 8.30 54.7 3.59 14.7 NA 3.07 95.6 August ... September ... NA 16.78 96.0 8.28 56.2 3.74 14.6 NA 3.18 95.7 4.60 3.87 October ... 13.74 95.9 7.96 59.9 4.19 14.5 NA 3.23 95.4 NA November ... NA 3.90 10.77 96.0 7.67 63.5 14.6 NA 3.14 95.5 3.86 NA 3.96 9.06 96.0 7.27 68.2 4.27 15.0 NA 4.15 95.4 December ... 7.28 ... NA 3.71 10.05 95.8 Average 64.8 3.51 14.9 NA 2.99 95.6 2 017 January ... NA 4.21 9.32 95.9 7.58 70.5 4.87 15.0 NA 4.31 94.6 February ... 4.13 10.01 95.8 7.89 69.0 4.56 14.9 NA 3.72 95.5 NA March ... NA 9.86 95.7 7.68 67.7 3.94 14.9 NA 3.51 95.6 3.84 4.13 April ... 11.34 95.2 8.04 65.0 4.20 14.5 NA 3.50 96.0 NA May ... NA 4.42 13.26 95.5 8.31 60.8 4.03 13.9 NA 3.61 96.8 June ... 4.82 16.06 94.4 8.75 58.2 4.06 14.5 NA 3.40 96.0 NA July ... 57.2 4.73 17.86 95.8 8.81 3.93 14.6 NA 3.32 95.1 NA 55.9 4.61 18.22 95.6 8.76 NA 3.79 14.2 NA 3.24 95.6 August ... September ... NA 4.52 16.92 96.1 8.52 56.2 3.84 13.7 NA 3.27 95.1 October ... 4.03 13.36 96.4 7.97 61.5 3.79 14.2 NA 3.24 95.2 NA November ... 65.8 3.97 10.15 96.0 7.51 3.85 14.5 NA 3.50 94.9 NA 69.1 4.00 9.29 96.5 7.42 NA 4.21 15.0 NA 3.81 94.8 December ... Average ... NA 4.16 10.91 95.9 7.88 65.4 4.10 14.5 NA 3.51 95.4 R 87.6 January ... NA 4.29 8.91 96.1 7.43 71.2 4.48 2 14.9 NA 5.35 018 R 7.82 NA 3.99 9.64 96.0 February ... 69.1 4.86 14.6 NA 3.74 86.8 3.71 88.2 3.32 NA 15.0 4.02 68.4 NA 7.74 95.9 9.78 March ... R R R 65.3 3.90 88.5 14.7 NA 3.25 7.66 95.6 April ... NA 3.64 10.04 R R 4.13 85.4 NA May ... NA 13.8 3.15 3.81 59.7 8.46 94.8 13.64 R R 8.65 4.46 16.51 95.7 57.4 June ... 3.78 NA 13.7 NA 3.21 87.7 R R 84.9 July ... NA 3.41 4.71 17.92 95.8 8.93 56.0 3.76 13.7 NA 3.67 4.84 18.63 95.6 8.74 54.8 NA 13.9 NA 3.39 86.1 August ... R R NA 4.70 17.32 96.2 8.64 56.5 3.75 September ... 13.7 NA 3.21 86.7 R R 3.50 NA 13.7 96.5 88.4 4.04 October ... NA 61.0 4.07 12.26 7.71 96.4 9.43 4.29 NA November ... 14.2 88.8 4.32 NA 4.51 66.5 7.35 R R 4.74 4.89 NA December ... NA 5.46 9.63 96.2 14.3 7.77 91.6 68.8 R R 87.3 3.68 NA 14.2 4.20 65.6 NA 7.83 96.0 10.53 4.21 ... Average 019 NA 91.1 4.16 NA 13.3 5.04 70.0 7.75 96.3 9.43 4.09 January ... 2 a j Much of the natural gas delivered for vehicle fuel represents deliveries to Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. b See Note 8, "Natural Gas Prices," at end of section. fueling stations that are used primarily or exclusively by fleet vehicles. Thus, th e c Commercial sector, including commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) prices are often those associated with the cost of gas in the operation of fle et vehicles. nd commercial electricity-only plants. See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants a k er I Percentages exceed 100% when reported natural gas receipts are great nto Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7. d Industrial sector, including industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and n than reported natural gas consumption—this can occur whe ic i ndustrial electricity-only plants. See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into combined-heat-and-power plants report fuel receipts related to non-electr E nergy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7. generating activities. e The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and R=Revised. NA=Not available. E=Estimate. al ombined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose c Notes: • Prices are for natural gas, plus a small amount of supplement gaseous fuels. • rimary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. Prices are intended to include all taxes. See Note 8, "Natur al p T hrough 2001, data are for electric utilities only; beginning in 2002, data also Gas Prices," at end of section. • Wellhead annual and year-to-date prices a re i nclude independent power producers. simple averages of the monthly prices; all other annual and year-to-date prices a re f See "Natural Gas Wellhead Price" in Glossary. 0 Geographic coverage is the 5 • volume-weighted averages of the monthly prices. g states and the District of Columbia. See "Citygate" in Glossary. h Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#prices (Excel an d Includes taxes. i ta The percentage of the sector’s consumption in Table 4.3 for which price data CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da beginning in 1976. a re available. For details on how the percentages are derived, see Table 9.10 Sources: See end of section. s ources at end of section. Monthly U. 165 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

176 Energy Prices Note Crude Oil Refinery Acquisition Costs. Beginning with January 1981, refiner acquisition costs of crude oil are 1. data on U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Form EIA ‐ 14, "Refiners' Monthly Cost Report." from collected Regulatory previously published from data collected on Economic Administration (ERA) Form ERA ‐ 49, costs Those were "Domestic Oil Entitlements Program Refiners Monthly Report." Form ERA ‐ 49 was discontinued with the decontrol Crude accordance crude January 28, 1981. Crude oil purchases and costs are defined for Form EIA ‐ 14 in oil with of on used for Form ERA ‐ 49. The respondents the two forms are also conventions for the same. However, due to essentially different the interpretations of filing requirements and a different method for handling prior period possible care be taken when comparing the data collected on the two forms. adjustments, must average cost of crude oil is the refiner price paid by refiners for crude The acquisition booked into their refineries in oil with accepted accounting procedures generally and consistently and historically applied by the refiners accordance continental Domestic crude oil is that oil produced in United States or from the outer shelf as defined in concerned. the Section 1331. Imported USC oil is either 43 crude oil reported on Form ERA ‐ 51, "Transfer Pricing Report," or any that oil that is not domestic oil. The composite cost is the weighted average of domestic and imported crude oil costs. crude oil Strategic costs and volumes reported on Form ERA ‐ 49 excluded unfinished oils but included the Petroleum Crude 1, Crude oil costs and volumes reported on Reserve Federal Energy Administration (FEA) Form FEA ‐ P110 ‐ M ‐ (SPR). Cost Allocation Report," included unfinished oils Monthly excluded SPR. Imported averages derived from "Refiners' but ERA ‐ 49 exclude oil purchased for SPR, whereas the composite averages derived from Form ERA ‐ 49 Form include SPR. of the prices derived from Form EIA ‐ 14 include either unfinished oils or SPR. None 2. Crude Oil Domestic First Purchase Prices. The average domestic first purchase price represents the average Note domestic at which all domestic crude oil is purchased. Crude oil first purchase prices were derived price as follows: for weighted average domestic first purchase values as reported 1949–1973, state agencies and calculated by the Bureau by of Mines; for 1974 and 1975, weighted averages of a sample survey of major first purchasers' purchases; for 1976 forward, weighted averages of all first purchasers' purchases. The series data was previously called "Actual Domestic Wellhead Price." Note 3. Crude Oil F.O.B. Costs. F.O.B. literally means "Free on Board." It denotes a transaction whereby the seller it makes product available with an agreement on a given port at a given price; the is the responsibility of the buyer to arrange for the and insurance. transportation Note 4. Crude Oil Landed Costs. The landed cost of imported crude oil from selected countries does not represent the total of all imported crude. Prior to April 1975, imported cost crude costs to U.S. company ‐ owned refineries in the Caribbean were not included in the landed cost, and costs of crude oil from countries that export only small amounts to the United States were also excluded. Beginning in April 1975, however, coverage was expanded to include U.S. company ‐ refineries in the Caribbean. Landed costs do not include supplemental fees. owned 5. Motor Gasoline Prices. Several Note published of motor gasoline different prices are series in this section. U.S. city retail prices of motor gasoline by grade are calculated monthly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics during the average the development Consumer Price Index (CPI). These prices include all federal, state, and local taxes paid at of of the time Prior to 1977, prices were collected in 56 urban sale. areas. From 1978 forward, prices are collected from a new sample of service stations in 85 urban areas selected to represent all urban consumers—about 80 percent of the total U.S. population. service stations are selected initially, and The on replacement basis, in such a a way that they represent the habits of the CPI population. Service stations purchasing in the current sample include those providing all types of service (i.e., full ‐ , mini , and self ‐ serve). ‐ Regular motor gasoline prices by area type are determined by EIA retail in weekly survey of a motor gasoline outlets (Form EIA ‐ 878, "Motor Gasoline Price Survey"). Prices include all federal, state, and local taxes paid at the time of sale. is A representative sample of outlets by geographic area and size randomly selected from a sampling frame of approximately 115,000 retail weighted of averages motor simple are prices annual and Monthly outlets. gasoline / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 166

177 weekly from "Weekly U.S. Retail Gasoline Prices, Regular Grade." For more information on the survey estimates see methodology, Weekly Petroleum Status Report , Appendix B, "Weekly Petroleum Price Surveys" section. EIA, survey of gasoline for resale and to end users are determined by EIA in a monthly finished motor prices of Refiner gas plant operators (Form EIA ‐ 782A). The prices do not include any federal, refiners or local taxes paid at the and state, of sale. Estimates of prices prior to January 1983 are based on Form FEA P302 ‐ M ‐ 1/EIA ‐ 460, "Petroleum Industry time ‐ Report for Product and Monthly Prices," exclude all federal, state, or local taxes paid the time of sale. Sales for also at those made to purchasers who are other ‐ than ‐ ultimate consumers. Sales to end users are sales made directly resale are the of the product, including bulk consumers (such as agriculture, consumer industry, and to and residential and utilities) consumers. commercial 6. Historical Petroleum Prices. Starting in January 1983, Form EIA ‐ 782, "Monthly Note Product Sales Petroleum 10 previous surveys. Every attempt was made to continue the most important price replaced However, Report," series. through December 1982 and those published published since January 1983 do prices not necessarily form continuous data due to changes in survey forms, definitions, instructions, populations, samples, processing systems, and series procedures. To provide historical data, continuous series were generated for annual data 1978–1982 and for statistical data and 1982 by estimating the prices that would have 1981 been published had monthly EIA 782 survey ‐ and Form been in operation at that time. This form of estimation was performed after system detailed adjustment was made for sales type matching and for discontinuity due to other factors. An important and between the product difference present prices is the and distinction between wholesale and previous resale and between retail and end user. The resale to category include sales among resellers. However, sales to bulk consumers, such as utility, industrial, and continues to previously included in the wholesale category, are now counted as made end users. The end ‐ commercial accounts continues to category include retail user through company ‐ owned and operated outlets but also includes sales to sales consumers such the as agriculture, industry, and electric utilities. Additional information may be found in bulk Time Series for the "Estimated EIA ‐ 782," a feature article by Paula Weir, Historic printed in the December 1983 [3] Petroleum Marketing Monthly , by EIA. published Note 7. Electricity Retail Prices. Average annual retail prices of electricity have the following plant coverage: Through 1979, data are for Classes A and B privately owned electric utilities only. For 1980–1982, annual data are for annual selected Class A utilities whose electric operating revenues were $100 or more during million previous year. For the 1983, annual data are for a selected sample of electric utilities. Beginning in 1984, data are for a census of electric energy utilities. in 1996, annual data also include Beginning service providers selling to retail customers. Average monthly retail prices of electricity have the following plant coverage: Through 1985, monthly data are derived from selected privately owned electric utilities and, therefore, are not national averages. Beginning in 1986, monthly data based on a sample of publicly and privately owned electric utilities. Beginning in 1996, monthly data also are energy service providers selling include customers. to retail monthly data are from Form EIA ‐ 861M Preliminary (formerly Form EIA ‐ 826), "Monthly Electric Power Industry Report," is a monthly collection of data from approximately 450 of the largest publicly and privately owned electric utilities which as well as a census of energy service providers with retail the deregulated states; a model is then applied to sales in to estimate for collected entire universe of U.S. electric data utilities. Preliminary annual data are the sum of the the monthly revenues divided by the sum of the monthly sales. When final annual data become available each year from Form ‐ 861, "Annual Electric Power Industry Report," their ratios to the preliminary Form EIA ‐ 861M values are used to EIA final derive monthly values. adjusted to Natural Gas Prices. Natural gas prices Note are intended 8. include all taxes. Instructions on the data collection forms specifically direct that all federal, state, billed and taxes, surcharges, and/or adjustments local to consumers are to be included. However, sales and other taxes itemized on more than 3,000 consumers' bills are sometimes excluded by the reporting utilities. Delivered ‐ to ‐ consumers prices for 1987 forward represent natural gas delivered and sold to residential, commercial, industrial, vehicle fuel, the include not do They consumers. power electric and natural of price Monthly U. 167 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

178 gas delivered on behalf of third parties to residential, commercial, industrial, and vehicle fuel customers except for in the residential and commercial sectors for 2002 forward. Volumes of natural gas delivered on behalf of states certain Natural EIA, in available is consumption the data shown in Table 4.3. Additional information in included are parties third , Appendix C. Gas Monthly 9.1 Sources Table Domestic First Purchase Price U.S. Department of the Interior 1949–1976: Bureau of Mines (BOM), Minerals Yearbook, "Crude Petroleum and (DOI), Petroleum Products" chapter. 1977: Federal Energy Administration, based on Form FEA ‐ P124, "Domestic Crude Oil Purchaser's Monthly Report." 1978–2009: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Petroleum Marketing Annual 2009, Table 1. U.S. 2019, Monthly , April Table 1. Petroleum Marketing EIA, forward: 2010 F.O.B. and Landed Cost of Imports October 1973–September 1977: Federal Energy Administration, Form FEA ‐ F701 ‐ M ‐ 0, "Transfer Pricing Report." M October–December EIA, Form FEA ‐ F701 ‐ 1977: ‐ 0, "Transfer Pricing Report." 1978–2009: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Annual 2009, Table 1. , 2010 forward: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Monthly April 2019, Table 1. Refiner Acquisition Cost 1968–1973: EIA estimates. The cost of domestic crude oil was derived by adding estimated transportation costs to the reported domestic first purchase price. The cost of imported crude oil was derived by adding an estimated average transport cost based on the published "Average Freight Rate Assessment" to the average "Free ocean Alongside Ship" published by the U.S. Census Bureau. value Petroleum BOM, Minerals Yearbook , "Crude and Petroleum Products" chapter. DOI, 1974–1976: January–September, FEA, based on Form FEA ‐ P110 ‐ M ‐ 1, "Refiners' Monthly Cost Allocation Report." 1977: October–December, EIA, based on Form FEA ‐ P110 ‐ M ‐ 1, "Refiners' Monthly Cost Allocation Report." 1977: 1978–2009: Petroleum Marketing Annual 2009, Table 1. EIA, EIA, Petroleum Marketing Monthly , April 2019, Table 1. 2010 forward: Sources Table 9.2 1973–September 1977: Federal Energy Administration, October FEA ‐ F701 ‐ M ‐ 0, "Transfer Pricing Report." Form October 1977–December 1977: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form FEA ‐ F701 ‐ M ‐ 0, "Transfer Pricing Report." Petroleum Marketing 1978–2009: EIA, 2009, Table 21. Annual 2010 forward: EIA, Petroleum Marketing Monthly , April 2019, Table 21. Table 9.9 Sources ‐ FPC Form for Fuels of Quality and Cost of Report "Monthly 423, 1973–September 1977: Federal Power Commission, / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 168

179 Electric Utility Plants." October 1977–December 1977: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Form FERC ‐ 423, "Monthly Report of Cost and Quality Fuels for Electric Utility Plants." of 1978 and 1979: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form FERC ‐ 423, "Monthly Report of Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants." issues. Electric Power Monthly , May EIA, 1980–1989: 1990–2000: EIA, Electric Power Monthly , March 2003, Table 26. Table 2001–2007: EIA, Electric Power Monthly , October 2008, 4.1; Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Form EIA, FERC "Monthly Report of Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants"; and 423, Form EIA ‐ 423, "Monthly Cost ‐ of Fuels and Quality Electric Plants Report." for 2008 forward: EIA, Electric Power Monthly , February 2019, Table 4.1; and Form EIA ‐ 923, "Power Plant Operations Report." Table 9.10 Sources All Prices Except Vehicle Fuel and Electric Power 1949–2015: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Natural Gas Annual (NGA), annual reports and unpublished revisions. (NGM), Monthly Table 3. 2019, March 2016 forward: EIA, Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price NGA, EIA, 1989–2013: reports. annual Electric Power Sector Price 1967–1972: EIA, NGA, annual reports. Table NGA 2000, 1973–1998: 96. EIA, 2004, NGM, November 1999–2002: Table 4. EIA, 2003–2007: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Form FERC ‐ 423, "Monthly Report of Cost and Quality of Fuels for Plants Report." for and EIA, Form EIA ‐ 423 "Monthly Cost and Quality of Fuels Electric Electric Utility Plants," "Power 2008 forward: Form EIA ‐ 923, Plant Operations Report." Percentage of Residential Sector Natural 1989–2013: EIA, Form EIA ‐ 176, "Annual Report of and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition." Calculated as the amount of natural gas delivered to residential consumers minus the amount delivered for the total account of others, and then divided by the amount delivered to residential consumers. total 2014 forward: EIA, Form 857, "Monthly Report of Natural Gas ‐ Purchases and Deliveries to Consumers." EIA Percentage of Commercial Sector 1987–2015: EIA, annual reports. Calculated as the total amount of natural gas delivered to commercial consumers NGA, total the to by divided then and others, delivered of commercial amount minus the amount delivered for the account consumers. 2019, March NGM, EIA, forward: 2016 3. Table Monthly U. 169 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

180 Percentage of Industrial Sector 1982–2015: EIA, NGA, annual reports. Calculated as the total amount of natural gas delivered to industrial consumers minus the amount delivered for the account of others, and then divided by the total amount delivered to industrial consumers. March 2016 forward: EIA, NGM, 2019, Table 3. Percentage of Electric Power Sector Calculated by EIA as the quantity of natural gas receipts by electric utilities reported on Form FERC ‐ 423, 1973–2001: "Monthly Report of Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants" (and predecessor forms) divided by the quantity (for –1988, 1973 see of natural gas consumed by the electric power sector 7.3b; Table ), MER ( Review Energy Monthly for 1989–2001, see MER, Table 7.4b). 2002–2007: Calculated by EIA as the quantity of natural gas receipts by electric utilities and independent power and producers reported on Form FERC ‐ 423, "Monthly Report of Cost Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants," and EIA ‐ 423, "Monthly Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Plants Report," divided by the quantity of natural gas consumed by the power sector (see electric MER, Table 7.4b). 2008 forward: Calculated by EIA as the quantity of natural gas receipts by electric utilities and independent power producers reported on Form EIA of quantity the by divided Report," Operations Plant "Power gas consumed ‐ 923, natural 7.4b). Table MER, (see sector power electric the by / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 170

181 10. Renewable Energy

182 10.1 Renewable Energy Figure Consumption (Quadrillion Btu) Major Sources, 1949–2018 6 Biomass [a] 4 Hydroelectric Power [b] 2 Solar [a] Wind [a] 0 2005 1955 2000 2015 2010 1950 1995 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 By Source, 2018 By Sector, 2018 3 8 2.7 2.5 6.5 2.4 2.3 6 2 4 1.0 2.6 1 2 1.4 0.5 0.8 0.2 0.3 0 0 Wind [a] Solar [a] Waste [a] Geothermal [a] Hydroelectric Wood [a] Biofuels [a] Industrial Transportation Electric Commercial Residential Power [b] Power Compared With Other Resources, 1949–2018 100 Fossil Fuels 80 60 40 20 Nuclear Electric Power Renewable Energy 0 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 1950 y/data/monthly/#renewable. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg [a] See Table 10.1 for definition. Sources: 10.1–10.2c. and 1.3 power. hydroelectric Conventional Tables [b] / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 172

183 T able 10.1 Renewable Energy Production and Consumption by Source (Trillion Btu) a Consumption Production Total Biomass Total Biomass Hydro- Renew- Renew- Bio- Bio- Geo- electric able able h g e b c i j f k d Wood thermal Waste Wind Power fuels Total Total Solar fuels Energy Energy NA 1,562 2,978 1 NA NA NA 1,562 NA NA 1,562 2,978 950 Total ... 1,415 ... 1,424 2,784 1,360 NA NA NA 1,424 NA NA 1,424 2,784 1 955 Total NA 1,320 NA 2,928 1,608 (s) NA NA 1,320 NA NA 1,320 2,928 960 Total 1 ... ... NA 1,335 3,396 2,059 2 NA NA 1,335 NA NA 1,335 3,396 1 965 Total ... 970 Total 4,070 2,634 6 NA NA 1,429 2 NA 1,431 4,070 1 NA 1,431 NA 1,497 4,687 3,155 34 NA NA ... 2 NA 1,499 4,687 1 975 Total 1,499 2,474 ... 5,428 2,900 53 NA NA 2,475 2 NA 2,475 5,428 980 Total 1 NA ... 93 3,016 6,084 2,970 97 (s) (s) 2,687 236 93 3,016 6,084 1 985 Total 2,216 ... 6,040 3,046 171 59 29 2,735 408 111 2,735 6,040 111 990 Total 1 ... 198 3,099 6,557 3,205 152 68 33 2,370 531 200 3,101 6,559 1 995 Total ... 63 233 3,006 6,102 2,811 164 2 57 2,262 511 236 3,008 6,104 000 Total 001 Total 2 2,624 5,162 2,242 164 62 70 2,006 364 253 2,622 5,160 ... 254 1,995 ... 5,731 2,689 171 60 105 2,705 402 303 2,701 5,726 002 Total 2 308 ... 401 2,805 5,942 2,793 173 58 113 2,002 401 403 2,806 5,944 2 003 Total 004 Total ... 2,996 6,063 2,688 178 58 142 2,121 389 498 3,008 6,075 2 486 R 2,137 3,101 6,221 2,703 181 58 178 561 403 574 3,114 005 Total 6,234 2 ... 006 Total ... 716 3,212 6,586 2,869 181 61 264 2,099 397 766 3,262 6,637 2 R 007 Total 3,472 6,510 2,446 186 2 66 341 2,089 413 983 3,485 6,523 ... 970 R R 2,059 ... 7,192 2,511 192 74 546 008 Total 435 1,357 3,851 3,868 7,175 2 1,374 R ... 1,570 3,957 452 7,625 2,669 200 78 721 1,935 2 1,553 3,940 7,608 009 Total R R R 2,217 8,314 2,539 208 4,553 91 923 1,868 468 1,821 4,506 010 Total 8,267 ... 2 R R R 4,704 2 9,300 3,103 212 011 Total 112 1,168 2,213 462 1,934 4,609 ... 9,204 2,029 R R R 1,929 4,547 1,890 8,886 2,629 212 2 159 1,340 2,151 467 012 Total 4,508 ... 8,847 4,816 2 013 Total ... 1,981 9,418 2,562 214 225 1,601 2,338 496 2,014 4,848 9,451 2 014 Total 2,103 5,020 9,766 2,467 214 337 1,728 2,401 516 2,077 4,994 9,740 ... R R R 015 Total 9,729 2,321 212 4,992 427 1,777 2,312 518 2,153 4,983 ... 9,720 2 2,161 R 193 January ... 876 236 18 26 170 425 42 173 408 859 016 185 2 176 404 865 223 17 35 186 40 173 395 855 February ... 181 R 425 942 253 18 43 203 190 44 187 416 March ... 933 186 R 175 396 392 892 239 16 48 192 174 43 175 887 April ... May ... 18 420 902 235 55 174 181 43 193 417 899 189 June ... 189 859 215 17 56 151 183 40 192 415 853 421 R R 163 871 198 17 196 62 July ... 189 41 202 432 872 431 August ... 198 437 822 181 18 61 191 42 205 438 823 125 R 187 413 789 151 17 55 151 180 39 193 412 787 September ... R 49 421 October ... 836 160 18 194 188 180 41 196 417 831 November ... 192 423 835 174 18 41 179 183 43 195 421 833 December ... 464 941 208 19 37 214 209 45 204 457 935 203 R R R 570 10,428 2,472 210 2,275 ... 2,096 2,230 503 2,287 5,020 5,081 10,368 Total R January ... 904 445 926 247 18 017 34 183 196 45 181 422 2 197 February ... 176 398 867 218 16 40 195 40 168 383 852 177 R R R 63 1,023 270 18 442 230 194 43 191 429 March ... 1,010 197 April ... 183 412 997 271 18 69 227 183 41 185 408 993 May ... 432 1,035 298 17 81 207 188 41 202 431 1,034 197 R R R 183 991 278 16 87 192 188 40 199 428 June ... 992 427 R July ... 196 439 932 244 18 83 147 197 41 196 434 927 R 80 450 874 201 18 203 125 199 41 205 445 869 August ... R 164 September ... 852 176 17 74 421 183 38 190 411 842 192 R October ... 201 438 924 168 17 68 233 190 40 196 427 914 191 50 222 921 905 426 194 42 November ... 203 443 17 189 200 43 195 439 940 49 20 206 December ... 205 458 959 226 R R R 210 2,767 11,301 5,204 2,344 ... Total 5,084 2,304 495 2,285 2,343 777 11,181 R 203 198 451 1,002 236 18 50 247 January ... 44 191 437 2 989 018 R R 182 17 417 949 235 February ... 58 222 186 41 165 391 924 R R 200 448 1,033 239 18 March ... 76 251 198 44 191 433 1,018 253 April ... 190 429 1,034 89 17 247 190 41 179 411 1,016 R R R 447 1,063 280 19 201 100 217 198 41 199 437 1,053 May ... June ... 200 445 1,051 258 18 107 225 196 40 193 429 1,036 R 100 210 459 946 221 19 July ... 148 203 40 200 442 930 203 943 448 205 40 180 August ... 212 464 958 197 19 99 874 428 193 September ... 18 854 408 182 36 190 166 90 172 R 18 October ... 204 451 912 173 41 76 195 196 196 433 894 908 421 207 187 41 192 November ... 198 440 928 204 18 58 R R R R 20 50 953 219 970 229 454 436 200 December ... 191 43 202 R R R R R 2,279 492 2,533 951 218 11,518 2,688 11,722 2,357 5,332 5,128 2,389 ... Total 232 January ... 954 423 2 178 41 203 195 55 19 226 979 448 019 a j Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge wast For hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, wind, and biomass waste, e, agricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also include roduction equals consumption. For biofuels, production equals total biomass p s nputs to the production of fuel ethanol and biodiesel. For wood, through 2015, i non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, an d roduction equals consumption; beginning in 2016, production equals consumption p tire-derived fuels). k Fuel ethanol (minus denaturant), biodiesel, other renewable diesel fuel, an d p lus densified biomass exports. b Total biomass inputs to the production of fuel ethanol and biodiesel. other renewable fuels consumption; plus losses and co-products from th e c production of fuel ethanol and biodiesel. Wood and wood-derived fuels, biomass waste, and total biomass inputs to the p R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. roduction of fuel ethanol and biodiesel. d s, Hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, wind, and biomass. Production data are estimates. Consumption data are estimate • Notes: e except for hydroelectric power in 1949–1978 and 1989 forward, and wind. e Conventional hydroelectricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying • Se Note, "Renewable Energy Production and Consumption," at end of sectio b y the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6). n. f g. Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent roundin • Geothermal electricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying by the Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. t • otal fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6), and geothermal heat pump and el Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#renewable (Exc d irect use energy. g Solar photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal electricity net generation (converted and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da ta o Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6), and solar beginning in 1973. t t n hermal direct use energy. Production: • Tables 10.2a–10.4 and U.S. Energy Informatio Sources: h t." Administration, Form EIA-63C, "Densified Biomass Fuel Repor Wind electricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total • Tables 10.2a–10.2c. ossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6). f Consumption: i Wood and wood-derived fuels. Monthly U. 173 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

184 able 10.2a Renewable Energy Consumption: Residential and Commercial Sectors T (Trillion Btu) a Residential Sector Commercial Sector Biomass Biomass Hydro- electric Geo- Geo- Fuel e b c f i g d h j,k d Power Ethanol Wind Waste Solar thermal Wood Wood Total Total Solar thermal Total NA NA 1,006 1,006 NA NA NA NA 19 NA NA 19 19 1 950 Total ... NA NA 775 775 NA NA NA NA 15 NA NA 15 15 1 955 Total ... 12 ... 627 627 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 12 12 960 Total 1 NA ... NA NA 468 468 NA NA NA NA 1 NA NA 9 9 965 Total 9 970 Total NA NA 401 401 NA NA NA NA 8 NA NA 8 8 1 ... 8 ... 425 425 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 8 8 975 Total 1 NA ... NA NA 850 850 NA NA NA NA 21 NA NA 21 21 1 980 Total 985 Total ... NA 1,010 1,010 NA NA NA NA 24 NA (s) 24 24 1 NA – 990 Total 55 580 640 1 3 (s) 6 66 28 (s) 94 98 1 ... 995 Total ... 7 63 520 589 1 5 (s) 1 72 40 (s) 113 119 – 2 ... 9 58 420 486 1 8 1 – 71 47 (s) 119 128 000 Total 001 Total ... 55 370 435 1 8 1 – 67 25 (s) 92 101 2 9 69 ... 380 443 (s) 9 1 – 53 26 (s) 95 105 002 Total 10 2 ... 13 52 400 465 1 11 1 2 71 29 1 101 114 003 Total – 004 Total 14 51 410 475 1 12 ... – 70 34 1 105 120 2 1 005 Total ... 16 50 430 496 1 14 2 – 70 34 1 105 121 2 R 006 Total 2 53 380 451 1 14 18 3 – 65 36 1 103 120 ... R 70 55 420 497 1 14 4 – 22 31 2 103 007 Total 122 2 ... R ... 26 58 470 555 1 15 6 – 73 34 2 109 2 131 008 Total R 2 33 60 504 597 1 17 009 Total 8 (s) 73 36 3 112 137 ... R 2 37 65 541 642 1 19 ... 12 (s) 72 36 3 111 142 010 Total R R ... 20 40 71 524 635 (s) 20 2 (s) 69 43 3 115 011 Total 155 R R 2 79 438 557 (s) 20 012 Total 33 1 61 45 3 108 40 162 ... 013 Total ... 91 572 703 (s) 20 41 1 70 47 3 120 182 2 40 R 76 579 ... 728 (s) 20 52 1 109 47 4 127 200 014 Total 40 2 R j 2 128 513 680 (s) 20 015 Total 1 79 47 ... 26 152 230 40 57 016 3 8 38 49 (s) 2 January ... (s) 7 4 2 13 19 2 3 February ... 3 10 35 48 (s) 2 4 (s) 7 4 2 12 18 3 13 38 54 (s) 2 5 (s) 7 4 2 13 20 March ... R (s) 15 37 54 (s) 2 6 April ... 7 4 2 13 20 3 May ... 3 16 38 57 (s) 2 6 (s) 7 4 2 13 21 R 17 37 June ... 57 (s) 2 6 (s) 7 4 2 13 21 3 R 6 17 38 59 (s) 2 3 (s) 7 4 2 14 22 July ... August ... 3 17 38 58 (s) 2 6 (s) 7 4 2 14 22 September ... 15 37 55 (s) 2 6 (s) 7 4 2 13 20 3 (s) October ... 38 55 (s) 2 5 13 7 4 2 13 20 3 November ... 3 11 37 51 (s) 2 4 (s) 7 4 2 13 19 December ... 10 38 51 (s) 2 4 (s) 7 4 2 13 19 3 R R 2 40 161 448 649 Total 20 62 1 84 48 26 158 242 ... 2 017 January ... 3 10 37 50 (s) 2 4 (s) 7 4 2 14 20 February ... 11 33 47 (s) 2 4 (s) 7 4 2 12 18 3 (s) 16 37 56 (s) 2 6 3 7 4 2 13 21 March ... R April ... 3 18 36 7 57 (s) 2 (s) 7 4 2 13 22 R R 23 20 37 3 60 (s) 2 8 (s) 7 4 2 13 May ... 8 3 20 36 59 (s) 2 June ... (s) 7 4 2 13 23 R 2 2 4 7 (s) 8 23 July ... 3 13 21 37 61 (s) 2 23 (s) 7 4 2 13 8 August ... 3 20 37 60 (s) 3 September ... 12 21 2 4 7 (s) 7 2 (s) 57 36 18 7 37 56 (s) 2 6 (s) 16 4 2 13 21 3 October ... R 3 (s) 13 36 51 (s) 2 5 7 4 2 13 20 November ... (s) 12 37 52 (s) 2 5 3 7 4 2 13 20 December ... R R Total ... 40 156 193 433 666 2 20 76 1 84 48 25 255 2 2 018 January ... 3 12 44 59 (s) 5 (s) 7 4 2 13 21 (s) 13 40 56 (s) 2 6 3 7 4 2 12 20 February ... R March ... 3 18 44 8 66 NM 2 (s) 7 4 2 13 23 R R (s) 21 43 3 67 April ... 2 9 (s) 7 4 2 12 23 7 4 25 13 (s) 2 May ... 3 23 44 70 NM 2 10 June ... 25 (s) 4 2 13 7 3 23 43 69 NM 2 10 2 NM 71 44 24 3 July ... 25 13 2 4 7 (s) 10 2 25 3 23 44 70 NM August ... 10 (s) 7 4 2 13 66 September ... 3 20 43 (s) 2 9 (s) 7 3 2 12 23 13 23 2 October ... 3 18 44 65 NM 2 8 (s) 7 4 R NM 4 7 (s) 6 60 43 15 2 3 November ... 21 13 2 2 6 3 13 44 61 (s) December ... (s) 7 4 2 13 21 R R 40 96 20 2 517 273 153 25 44 Total ... 780 84 224 2 January ... 22 13 2 4 7 (s) 6 2 NM 62 2 019 45 3 14 a Commercial sector, including commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) s agricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also include nd commercial electricity-only plants. See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants a d non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, an nto Energy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7. I tire-derived fuels). j b The fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) portion of motor fuels, such as E1 0, Geothermal heat pump and direct use energy. c Distributed (small-scale) solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation in the consumed by the commercial sector. k a There is a discontinuity in this time series between 2014 and 2015 due to r esidential sector (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate e actors in Table A6) and distributed solar thermal energy in the residential, change in the method for allocating motor gasoline consumption to the end-us f el c ommercial, and industrial sectors. See Table 10.5. sectors. Beginning in 2015, the commercial and industrial sector shares of fu d Wood and wood-derived fuels. ethanol consumption are larger than in 2014, while the transportation sector sha re e Conventional hydroelectricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying is smaller. R=Revised. NA=Not available. NM=Not meaningful. – =No data reported . y the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6). b f Geothermal heat pump and direct use energy. Beginning in December 2018, (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Notes: Residential sector data are estimates. Commercial sector data a • re a lso includes geothermal electricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying • Totals ma y y the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6). b estimates, except for hydroelectric power, wind, and biomass waste. g • Solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity net generation in the commercial sector ic Geograph not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table ( Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#renewable (Exc A el 6), both utility-scale and distributed (small-scale). See Table 10.5. h and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da ta Wind electricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total beginning in 1973. ossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6). f i Sources: See end of section. Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 174

185 T able 10.2b Renewable Energy Consumption: Industrial and Transportation Sectors (Trillion Btu) a Industrial Sector Transportation Sector Biomass Biomass Hydro- Losses electric and Co- Bio- Fuel Fuel Geo- c h,i f i,k g d m e b l j products Power Total Ethanol Waste Wood Total Ethanol Total Wind Solar thermal diesel ... 69 NA NA NA 532 NA 1 NA 532 602 NA NA NA 950 Total NA 955 Total 38 NA NA NA 631 NA NA NA 631 669 NA NA NA 1 ... NA ... NA NA NA 680 NA NA 39 680 719 NA NA NA 1 960 Total 965 Total ... 33 NA 1 NA 855 NA NA NA 855 888 NA NA NA NA 1 ... 34 NA NA NA 1,019 NA NA NA 1,019 1,053 NA NA NA 970 Total NA 975 Total NA NA NA 1,063 NA NA 32 1,063 1,096 NA NA NA 1 ... 980 Total ... 33 NA NA NA 1,600 NA NA NA 1,600 1,633 NA NA NA 1 1 985 Total 33 NA NA NA 1,645 230 1 42 1,918 1,951 50 NA 50 ... 1 1 31 2 (s) – 1,442 192 ... 49 1,684 1,717 60 NA 60 990 Total 1 995 Total ... 55 3 (s) – 1,652 195 2 86 1,934 1,992 112 NA 112 2 000 Total 42 4 (s) – 1,636 145 1 99 1,881 1,928 135 NA 135 ... 108 001 Total 5 (s) – 1,443 129 3 33 1,681 1,719 141 1 142 2 ... 002 Total ... 39 5 (s) – 1,396 146 3 130 1,676 1,720 168 2 170 2 2 003 Total 43 3 (s) – 1,363 142 4 168 1,678 1,725 228 2 230 ... 6 2 33 4 (s) – 1,476 132 ... 201 1,815 1,852 286 3 290 004 Total 2 005 Total ... 32 4 (s) – 1,452 148 7 227 1,834 1,871 327 12 339 2 006 Total 29 4 1 – 1,472 130 10 280 1,892 1,926 442 33 475 ... 10 2 16 5 1 – 1,413 145 ... 369 1,937 1,958 557 45 602 007 Total 2 008 Total ... 17 5 1 – 1,339 143 12 519 2,012 2,035 786 39 825 13 2 18 4 2 – 1,178 154 ... 603 1,948 1,972 894 41 935 009 Total 2 010 Total ... 16 4 3 – 1,409 168 17 727 2,320 2,343 1,041 33 1,075 2,401 2 011 Total ... 17 4 4 (s) 1,438 165 17 756 2,375 1,045 113 1,159 R 2 22 4 7 (s) 1,462 159 17 711 2,349 012 Total 2,383 1,045 115 1,160 ... 013 Total ... 4 9 (s) 1,489 187 18 709 2,403 2,449 1,072 182 1,284 2 33 2,484 ... 11 1 1,495 190 14 757 2,456 4 1,093 181 1,302 014 Total 12 2 i i 4 14 (s) 1,476 190 2 18 015 Total 2,460 2,491 ... 1,110 191 1,334 13 776 016 1 (s) 1 (s) 127 15 January ... 66 209 212 88 13 104 2 1 February ... 1 (s) 1 (s) 119 15 1 63 197 200 90 15 107 March ... (s) (s) 2 121 16 2 67 206 210 96 17 116 1 April ... 1 2 (s) 115 15 1 61 193 196 89 18 110 (s) 66 May ... 2 (s) 121 15 2 (s) 204 207 97 23 123 1 June ... 1 (s) 2 (s) 121 13 66 202 205 97 21 122 2 1 (s) 2 (s) 124 14 2 69 208 211 99 27 129 July ... 2 August ... (s) 2 (s) 124 14 1 70 209 213 101 28 132 September ... 1 (s) 2 (s) 117 13 1 66 197 200 94 26 123 October ... (s) 2 (s) 120 15 2 68 204 207 96 25 124 1 67 November ... 1 (s) 122 15 1 (s) 206 208 95 26 124 1 December ... 1 (s) 1 (s) 143 16 2 71 231 234 100 26 129 Total ... 12 4 19 1 1,474 174 18 801 2,467 2,503 1,143 266 1,443 1 017 1 (s) 1 (s) 132 15 January ... 71 220 222 91 13 107 2 February ... 1 (s) 1 (s) 118 14 1 63 196 199 84 14 101 March ... (s) 2 (s) 129 15 2 70 216 220 96 19 118 1 April ... 1 (s) 2 (s) 123 14 64 203 207 94 21 117 1 2 (s) 2 (s) 127 14 1 69 211 215 100 25 129 May ... June ... 1 (s) 2 (s) 128 12 2 67 208 212 100 25 129 2 (s) 2 (s) 133 13 1 68 216 219 99 24 125 July ... 131 August ... 1 (s) 2 (s) 134 13 2 71 220 223 103 26 123 67 22 96 207 120 204 2 13 September ... 1 (s) 2 (s) October ... (s) 123 22 99 217 214 70 2 14 128 (s) 2 1 71 1 (s) 129 15 2 (s) 216 219 97 21 120 1 November ... December ... 1 (s) 1 (s) 135 15 2 71 223 226 97 21 120 168 ... 13 4 22 1 1,539 Total 18 821 2,547 2,587 1,156 253 1,439 2 018 January ... 1 (s) 1 (s) 131 15 2 70 218 221 98 18 117 February ... 1 (s) 1 (s) 122 14 1 63 200 203 81 14 98 2 (s) 2 (s) 128 15 1 69 214 218 96 20 119 March ... April ... 1 (s) 2 (s) 126 14 1 66 208 211 88 20 110 14 1 (s) 3 (s) 128 May ... 2 69 213 217 103 21 126 214 121 3 22 98 June ... 1 (s) 210 (s) 127 12 2 69 22 223 219 72 2 13 132 (s) 3 (s) 1 July ... 101 124 13 128 1 (s) 3 (s) 134 August ... 2 73 221 225 104 23 2 September ... 1 (s) (s) 124 13 1 66 204 207 91 21 113 218 122 22 99 October ... 1 (s) 2 (s) 128 15 2 70 214 (s) 94 214 211 68 2 14 127 2 1 November ... (s) 116 19 133 119 December ... 1 (s) 2 (s) 15 2 68 218 221 97 21 1,413 242 1,150 2,593 2,549 823 18 168 1,540 1 25 4 ... 13 Total 214 67 1 15 131 (s) 2 217 90 16 108 (s) 1 January ... 2 019 a j l. Losses and co-products from the production of fuel ethanol and biodiese Industrial sector, including industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and i ndustrial electricity-only plants. See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into e Does not include natural gas, electricity, and other non-biomass energy used in th nergy-Use Sectors," at end of Section 7. E or production of fuel ethanol and biodiesel—these are included in the industrial sect b Conventional hydroelectricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying consumption statistics for the appropriate energy source. k The fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) portion of motor fuels, such as E10 an b d y the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6). c E85, consumed by the transportation sector. Geothermal heat pump and direct use energy. d l is Solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity net generation in the industrial sector Although there is biodiesel use in other sectors, all biodiesel consumption ( assigned to the transportation sector. converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table m Beginning in 2009, includes other renewable diesel fuel and other renewab le 6), both utility-scale and distributed (small-scale). See Table 10.5. A e fuels consumption. See "Renewable Diesel Fuel (Other)" and "Renewable Fue ls Wind electricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total (Other)" in Glossary. f ossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6). f n Wood and wood-derived fuels. R=Revised. NA=Not available. – =No data reported. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillio g Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, Btu. gricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes in a • Notes: Industrial sector data are estimates, except for hydroelectric power on-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and 1949–1978 and 1989 forward, and wind. Transportation sector data are estimate s, n ire-derived fuels). t except for biodiesel beginning in 2012. • ts Totals may not equal sum of componen h • due to independent rounding. Geographic coverage is the 50 states and th e The fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) portion of motor fuels, such as E10, onsumed by the industrial sector. District of Columbia. c i There is a discontinuity in this time series between 2014 and 2015 due to a Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#renewable (Exc el hange in the method for allocating motor gasoline consumption to the end-use and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da ta c beginning in 1973. ectors. Beginning in 2015, the commercial and industrial sector shares of fuel s Sources: See end of section. e thanol consumption are larger than in 2014, while the transportation sector share s smaller. i U. 175 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S.

186 T able 10.2c Renewable Energy Consumption: Electric Power Sector (Trillion Btu) Hydro- Biomass Geo- electric b c d a e f Total Wood Wind Solar Waste Total thermal Power 5 ... NA NA 1 1,346 NA 5 1,351 950 Total NA 955 Total ... 1,322 NA NA NA 1 NA 3 1,325 3 1 ... 1,569 (s) NA NA 2 NA 2 1,571 960 Total 965 Total NA 2,026 2 NA 1 3 NA 3 2,031 ... NA 1 2,600 6 NA ... 1 2 4 2,609 970 Total 1 975 Total ... 3,122 34 NA NA (s) 2 2 3,158 1 980 Total 2,867 53 NA NA 3 2 4 2,925 ... 985 Total 8 2,937 97 (s) (s) 1 7 14 3,049 ... g 29 ... 3,014 161 4 1 129 188 317 3,524 990 Total 1 995 Total ... 3,149 138 5 33 125 296 422 3,747 57 2 2,768 144 5 ... 134 318 453 3,427 000 Total 2 001 Total ... 2,209 142 6 70 126 211 337 2,763 105 2 ... 2,650 147 6 002 Total 150 230 380 3,288 2,749 2 003 Total ... 113 146 5 167 230 397 3,411 2 004 Total 2,655 148 6 142 165 223 388 3,339 ... 005 Total ... 147 6 178 185 221 406 3,406 2 2,670 182 006 Total 145 5 264 2,839 231 412 3,665 2 ... 007 Total ... 2,430 145 6 341 186 237 423 3,345 2 2 008 Total 2,494 146 9 546 177 258 435 3,630 ... 009 Total 721 2,650 146 9 2 180 261 441 3,967 ... 923 2 2,521 148 12 ... 196 264 459 4,064 010 Total 2 011 Total ... 3,085 149 17 1,167 182 255 437 4,855 2 012 Total 2,606 148 40 1,339 190 262 453 4,586 ... 013 Total 1,600 2,529 151 83 2 207 262 470 4,833 ... 1,726 2 2,454 151 165 ... 251 279 530 5,026 014 Total 2 015 Total ... 2,308 148 228 1,776 244 281 525 4,985 170 2 235 12 13 January ... 21 23 44 475 016 February ... 222 11 20 186 20 22 43 482 March ... 251 12 24 202 19 24 43 533 506 15 39 April ... 238 11 26 192 24 491 40 24 31 12 234 May ... 16 174 448 June ... 213 32 150 18 23 41 12 163 451 44 24 20 36 12 197 July ... 12 36 125 21 24 45 399 180 August ... September ... 150 12 33 151 19 22 41 388 16 October ... 12 29 188 159 22 37 426 November ... 18 173 13 25 179 24 42 432 207 13 22 213 21 25 46 501 December ... 5,531 Total ... 2,459 146 328 2,094 224 281 505 505 2 017 January ... 245 13 19 183 20 26 46 February ... 217 487 41 11 23 195 18 22 268 13 39 230 21 24 45 595 March ... April ... 269 12 43 227 17 22 39 590 May ... 297 12 52 207 17 24 40 607 11 June ... 277 56 182 18 24 42 569 243 12 52 147 20 24 44 498 July ... 432 August ... 200 12 50 125 21 23 45 40 438 September ... 175 12 47 164 18 22 496 22 18 233 44 11 167 October ... 40 495 November ... 188 12 222 19 23 42 31 45 24 21 226 31 14 205 December ... 522 229 2,752 147 486 2,341 ... 280 510 6,235 Total 018 January ... 235 13 31 247 20 25 45 571 2 February ... 234 12 38 222 18 23 41 547 March ... 238 13 47 251 19 25 44 593 605 April ... 252 11 57 246 15 23 38 64 13 279 May ... 42 615 23 18 217 256 13 71 224 19 24 43 607 June ... July ... 220 13 63 147 20 23 43 487 August ... 196 13 64 180 24 42 495 19 September ... 171 13 59 165 17 21 37 445 172 12 48 195 17 23 40 466 October ... 498 November ... 203 13 36 207 16 23 39 217 29 14 530 228 18 24 December ... 41 495 280 215 2,530 607 154 2,673 ... Total 6,459 43 2 019 January ... 225 13 33 232 20 546 23 a Conventional hydroelectricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying tire-derived fuels). g Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data a b y the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6). re b Geothermal electricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying by the for electric utilities and independent power producers. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. otal fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6). t c • Notes: The electric power sector comprises electricity-only an Solar photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal electricity net generation in the d combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whos e lectric power sector (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat e ls Tota • primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. ate factors in Table A6). See Table 10.5. r d • Geograph may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. Wind electricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total ic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. f ossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6). e Wood and wood-derived fuels. el Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#renewable (Exc f and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949 and monthly da ta Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, gricultural byproducts, and other biomass. Through 2000, also includes a beginning in 1973. n Sources: Tables 7.2b, 7.4b, and A6. on-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 176

187 T able 10.3 Fuel Ethanol Overview d Consump- Trade Losses tion Net Stock Dena- Feed- and Co- Minus c d,f e h d,g d d a b Consumption Stocks Production Change Imports turant stock products Denaturant Mbbl MMgal TBtu Mbbl Mbbl Mbbl Mbbl MMgal TBtu TBtu TBtu TBtu Mbbl NA 13 40 1,978 83 7 NA NA 6 1,978 83 7 7 ... 981 Total 1 ... 93 42 294 14,693 617 52 NA NA NA 14,693 1 52 51 985 Total 617 990 Total 111 49 356 17,802 748 63 NA NA NA 17,802 748 63 62 1 ... -207 ... 647 32,325 1,358 115 387 2,186 86 32,919 1,383 117 114 995 Total 198 1 ... 233 99 773 38,627 1,622 138 116 2 -624 39,367 1,653 140 137 000 Total 3,400 001 Total 253 108 841 42,028 1,765 150 ... 4,298 898 41,445 1,741 148 144 2 315 002 Total ... 307 130 1,019 50,956 2,140 182 306 6,200 1,902 49,360 2,073 176 171 2 003 Total ... 168 1,335 66,772 2,804 238 292 5,978 -222 67,286 2,826 240 233 2 400 6,002 004 Total 201 1,621 81,058 3,404 289 3,542 482 24 84,576 3,552 301 293 2 ... 005 Total ... 550 227 1,859 92,961 3,904 331 3,234 5,563 -439 96,634 4,059 344 335 2 8,760 006 Total 280 2,326 116,294 4,884 414 17,408 683 3,197 130,505 5,481 465 453 2 ... 007 Total ... 907 368 3,105 155,263 6,521 553 10,457 10,535 1,775 163,945 6,886 584 569 2 14,226 008 Total 518 4,433 221,637 9,309 790 12,610 1,286 3,691 230,556 9,683 821 800 2 ... 009 Total ... 1,503 602 5,688 260,424 10,938 928 4,720 16,594 2,368 262,776 11,037 936 910 2 2 010 Total 1,823 726 6,506 316,617 13,298 1,127 -9,115 17,941 1,347 306,155 12,858 1,090 1,061 ... -24,365 2 1,904 754 6,649 331,646 13,929 1,181 ... 18,238 297 306,984 12,893 1,093 1,065 011 Total 2 012 Total ... 1,801 709 6,264 314,714 13,218 1,120 -5,891 20,350 2,112 306,711 12,882 1,092 1,064 2 013 Total 1,805 707 6,181 316,493 13,293 1,126 -5,761 16,424 -3,926 314,658 13,216 1,120 1,092 ... -18,371 2 1,938 755 6,476 340,781 14,313 1,212 ... 18,739 2,315 320,095 13,444 1,139 1,111 014 Total 2 015 Total ... 1,998 774 6,636 352,553 14,807 1,254 -17,632 21,596 2,857 332,064 13,947 1,181 1,153 108 2 January ... 172 66 617 30,452 1,279 016 -2,294 23,347 1,751 26,407 1,109 94 92 103 February ... 162 63 586 28,810 1,210 -2,024 23,171 -176 26,962 1,132 96 93 March ... 67 601 30,957 1,300 110 -2,612 22,730 -441 28,786 1,209 102 100 175 April ... 159 557 28,208 1,185 100 -2,919 21,336 -1,394 26,683 1,121 95 93 61 20,962 May ... 586 30,346 1,275 108 -1,627 66 -374 29,093 1,222 104 101 171 June ... 172 66 567 30,443 1,279 108 -1,045 21,284 322 29,076 1,221 103 101 July ... 68 570 31,469 1,322 112 -1,641 21,381 97 29,731 1,249 106 103 178 August ... -1,924 69 564 31,856 1,338 113 21,198 -183 30,115 1,265 107 105 180 -2,315 65 544 30,048 1,262 107 170 20,713 -485 28,218 1,185 100 98 September ... October ... 175 67 563 31,006 1,302 110 -2,946 20,113 -600 28,660 1,204 102 100 November ... 67 559 30,706 1,290 109 -3,074 19,463 -650 28,282 1,188 101 98 173 -2,583 71 606 32,680 1,373 116 185 19,758 295 29,802 1,252 106 104 December ... Total ... 2,072 798 6,920 366,981 15,413 1,306 -27,002 19,758 -1,838 341,817 14,356 1,216 1,187 -2,844 2 185 71 600 32,887 1,381 117 January ... 22,679 2,921 27,122 1,139 96 94 017 February ... 165 63 545 29,307 1,231 104 -3,605 23,195 516 25,186 1,058 90 87 115 182 70 603 32,393 1,361 March ... -3,023 23,981 786 28,584 1,201 102 99 105 -1,918 97 100 1,245 1,177 28,031 -310 23,671 April ... 167 64 545 29,639 May ... 69 562 31,863 1,338 113 -2,831 22,855 -816 29,848 1,254 106 104 180 -2,045 66 543 30,794 1,293 110 173 21,770 -1,085 29,834 1,253 106 104 June ... July ... 177 68 559 31,384 1,318 112 -2,553 21,167 -603 29,434 1,236 105 102 -2,029 70 577 32,672 1,372 116 184 21,186 19 30,624 1,286 109 106 August ... September ... 173 66 535 30,701 1,289 109 -1,757 21,507 321 28,623 1,202 102 100 182 October ... 70 536 32,212 1,353 115 -2,419 21,663 156 29,637 1,245 105 103 November ... 71 523 32,631 1,371 116 -2,069 23,203 1,540 29,022 1,219 103 101 184 -4,175 71 529 32,952 1,384 117 186 23,043 -160 28,937 1,215 103 101 December ... Total ... 2,138 819 6,657 379,435 15,936 1,349 -31,268 23,043 3,285 344,882 14,485 1,226 1,199 i 115 January ... 182 69 504 32,428 1,362 018 -2,104 24,229 2 1,181 29,143 1,224 104 102 1,240 -5,298 105 24,335 106 24,115 1,013 86 84 February ... 166 63 441 29,519 69 181 March ... 1,199 100 101 28,546 -1,452 22,883 -5,122 114 1,353 32,216 484 -3,866 65 462 30,532 1,282 108 172 23,256 373 26,293 1,104 93 92 April ... May ... 181 69 487 32,215 1,353 114 -2,280 22,636 -620 30,555 1,283 109 106 1,341 June ... 180 68 473 31,924 29,071 113 -3,609 21,880 -756 1,221 103 101 -2,487 72 519 33,496 1,407 119 188 22,802 922 30,087 1,264 107 105 July ... 108 August ... 190 72 527 33,773 1,418 120 -2,638 22,833 31 31,104 1,306 111 471 96 94 1,133 September ... 173 66 26,972 30,667 1,288 109 -2,106 24,422 1,589 23,675 103 105 1,235 29,413 -747 -3,714 115 1,360 32,380 450 69 182 October ... 112 98 November ... 177 68 470 31,514 1,324 -3,384 23,679 4 28,126 1,181 100 23,338 113 1,333 31,736 1,218 101 103 29,002 -341 -3,075 December ... 178 68 518 i 16,061 Total ... 2,152 819 5,806 382,400 -39,682 23,338 1,359 290 342,428 14,382 1,217 1,193 548 1,128 26,866 95 93 -3,048 112 1,327 1,688 31,601 2 019 January ... 177 67 25,026 a i Derived from the preliminary 2017 stocks value (23,048 thousand barrels), n ot Total corn and other biomass inputs to the production of undenatured ethanol the final 2017 value (23,043 thousand barrels) that is shown under "Stocks." u sed for fuel ethanol. b Losses and co-products from the production of fuel ethanol. Does not include NA=Not available. atural gas, electricity, and other non-biomass energy used in the production of fuel n n Mbbl = thousand barrels. MMgal = million U.S. gallons. TBtu = trillio • Notes: • Fuel ethanol data in thousand barrels are converted to million gallons b y e thanol—these are included in the industrial sector consumption statistics for the Btu. a multiplying by 0.042, and are converted to Btu by multiplying by the approxima ppropriate energy source. te c ot Through 1980, data are n • The amount of denaturant in fuel ethanol produced. heat content of fuel ethanol—see Table A3. d or Includes denaturant. available. For 1981–1992, data are estimates. For 1993–2008, only data f e Through 2009, data are for fuel ethanol imports only; data for fuel ethanol s. feedstock, losses and co-products, and denaturant are estimate xports are not available. Beginning in 2010, data are for fuel ethanol imports re Beginning in 2009, only data for feedstock, and losses and co-products, a e m • See "Denaturant," "Ethanol," "Fuel Ethanol," and "Fuel Ethanol Minu inus fuel ethanol (including industrial alcohol) exports. estimates. s f Stocks are at end of period. Denaturant" in Glossary. • to Totals may not equal sum of components due g Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District • independent rounding. of A negative value indicates a decrease in stocks and a positive value indicates Columbia. n increase. a h el Consumption of fuel ethanol minus denaturant. Data for fuel ethanol minus Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#renewable (Exc enaturant are used to develop data for "Renewable Energy/Biomass" in Tables and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1981. d 0.1–10.2b, as well as in Sections 1 and 2. 1 Sources: See end of section. Monthly U. 177 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

188 T able 10.4 Biodiesel and Other Renewable Fuels Overview Biodiesel Other Trade Losses and Co- Renew- Feed- Net Stock able prod- e b d c a f Change stock Imports Exports Stocks Consumption Production Imports Fuels ucts MMgal TBtu Mbbl Mbbl Mbbl TBtu Mbbl Mbbl MMgal TBtu TBtu TBtu Mbbl Mbbl ... (s) 204 9 1 81 41 40 1 NA 244 10 1 NA 001 Total 2 NA ... 1 (s) 250 10 1 197 57 140 NA NA 390 16 2 NA 002 Total 2 003 Total 2 (s) 338 14 2 97 113 -17 NA NA 322 14 2 NA 2 ... NA ... 666 28 4 101 128 -27 (s) NA 639 27 3 NA 004 Total 4 2 ... 12 (s) 2,162 91 12 214 213 2 NA NA 2,163 91 12 NA 005 Total 1 006 Total 32 (s) 5,963 250 32 1,105 856 ... NA NA 6,213 261 33 NA 2 250 007 Total ... 63 1 11,662 490 62 3,455 6,696 -3,241 NA NA 8,422 354 45 NA 2 NA 008 Total 1 16,145 678 87 7,755 16,673 -8,918 88 NA 7,228 304 39 NA 2 ... g ... 67 1 12,281 516 66 1,906 6,546 -4,640 711 711 2 7,663 322 41 – 009 Total 010 Total ... 1 8,177 343 44 564 2,588 -2,024 672 -39 6,192 260 33 (s) 2 44 h 2,005 2 23,035 967 123 890 1,799 -908 125 011 Total 1,028 21,099 886 113 1 2 ... 012 Total ... 128 2 23,588 991 126 853 3,056 -2,203 1,984 -20 21,406 899 115 1 2 013 Total 2 176 2 32,368 1,359 173 8,152 4,675 3,477 3,810 1,825 34,020 1,429 182 30 ... 014 Total 1,974 165 2 30,452 1,279 163 4,578 2 2,604 3,131 -679 33,735 1,417 181 28 ... 2,091 2 163 2 30,080 1,263 161 8,399 ... 6,308 3,943 813 35,575 1,494 191 33 015 Total 2 016 January ... 14 (s) 2,490 105 13 248 42 206 4,222 279 2,416 101 13 3 February ... (s) 2,504 105 13 287 49 238 4,133 -89 2,831 119 15 2 14 331 (s) 2,861 120 15 565 234 16 4,167 34 3,159 133 17 3 March ... April ... 16 (s) 2,856 120 15 969 246 723 4,358 192 3,388 142 18 3 335 18 (s) 3,222 135 17 1,117 May ... 782 4,091 -268 4,272 179 23 3 17 June ... 17 (s) 3,205 135 1,630 220 1,410 4,726 635 3,980 167 21 3 July ... (s) 3,331 140 18 1,681 250 1,431 4,443 -283 5,045 212 27 3 18 August ... 18 3,385 142 18 1,873 235 1,638 4,265 -177 5,201 218 28 3 (s) 4,227 September ... 3,206 135 17 1,835 150 1,685 (s) -38 4,929 207 26 3 17 October ... 19 (s) 3,433 144 18 1,822 114 4,690 463 4,678 196 25 3 1,708 19 (s) 3,408 143 18 2,184 143 2,041 5,314 624 4,825 203 26 3 November ... 2,588 December ... (s) 3,425 144 18 2,668 80 19 6,398 1,083 4,929 207 26 3 Total ... 203 3 37,327 1,568 200 16,879 2,098 14,781 6,398 2,455 49,653 2,085 266 34 2 017 12 (s) 2,208 93 12 241 42 199 6,397 (s) 2,407 101 13 3 January ... 490 February ... (s) 2,238 94 12 549 59 12 6,475 78 2,650 111 14 3 March ... 15 (s) 2,761 116 15 650 136 514 6,189 -286 3,561 150 19 3 398 (s) 3,020 127 16 681 283 16 5,706 -484 3,901 164 21 3 April ... May ... 18 (s) 3,242 136 17 948 239 709 4,909 -797 4,748 199 25 3 226 18 (s) 3,344 140 18 1,736 June ... 1,510 5,052 144 4,711 198 25 4 19 2 24 5,405 186 4,424 353 July ... 19 (s) 3,560 150 1,217 1,670 453 August ... (s) 3,559 149 19 1,582 387 1,195 5,356 -49 4,803 202 26 2 19 105 (s) 3,507 147 19 205 100 19 4,849 -507 4,119 173 22 2 September ... October ... 19 (s) 3,515 148 19 386 217 169 4,485 -364 4,047 170 22 2 49 19 (s) 3,523 148 19 222 November ... 173 4,233 -252 3,948 166 21 1 469 December ... 19 (s) 3,515 148 19 504 35 35 4,268 3,949 166 21 2 2,228 ... 206 3 37,993 1,596 204 9,374 Total 7,146 4,268 -2,130 47,269 1,985 253 30 i 018 January ... 16 (s) 2,945 124 16 246 102 144 4,557 18 -193 3,282 138 2 2 43 (s) 2,996 126 16 146 103 16 4,924 367 2,672 112 14 3 February ... 3 March ... 19 (s) 3,493 147 19 457 255 202 4,916 -8 3,702 155 20 20 91 4,681 -235 2 3,670 154 April ... 18 (s) 3,344 140 18 308 217 164 3,905 -424 4,257 382 325 19 149 3,538 (s) 19 May ... -57 2 21 21 (s) 3,718 156 20 296 275 20 3,845 -412 4,150 174 22 1 June ... 1 July ... 21 (s) 3,892 163 21 157 259 -102 3,583 -262 4,052 170 22 169 August ... 22 (s) 4,028 22 281 263 18 3,412 -172 4,217 177 23 1 190 21 (s) 3,850 162 21 277 September ... 87 3,360 -52 3,989 168 21 1 1 22 3,647 October ... 22 (s) 4,039 170 22 468 188 280 169 287 4,032 153 2 19 3,633 409 4,056 260 156 416 20 159 3,783 (s) 21 November ... 536 2 December ... 22 (s) 3,991 168 21 21 61 475 4,684 628 3,838 161 i 1,460 45,141 -65 2,453 4,684 3,913 234 1,832 43,616 3 237 21 242 1,896 Total ... 308 72 2 16 125 2,971 692 5,377 236 January ... 18 144 3,427 (s) 2 019 19 a and disposition. Total vegetable oil and other biomass inputs to the production of h b el iodiesel—calculated by multiplying biodiesel production by 5.433 million Btu per Derived from the final 2010 stocks value for bulk terminals and biodies arrel. See "Biodiesel Feedstock" entry in the "Thermal Conversion Factor Source production plants (977 thousand barrels), not the final 2010 value for bulk termina ls b ocumentation" at the end of Appendix A. D only (672 thousand barrels) that is shown under “Stocks.” i b Losses and co-products from the production of biodiesel. Does not include ot Derived from the preliminary 2017 stocks value (4,750 thousand barrels), n atural gas, electricity, and other non-biomass energy used in the production of the final 2017 value (4,268 thousand barrels) that is shown under “Stocks.” n d b iodiesel—these are included in the industrial sector consumption statistics for the NA=Not available. – =No data reported. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu an greater than -0.5 trillion Btu, or less than 500 barrels and greater than -500 barrels . a ppropriate energy source. c n • Mbbl = thousand barrels. MMgal = million U.S. gallons. TBtu = trillio Notes: Net imports equal imports minus exports. d Biodiesel data in thousand barrels are converted to million gallons b • Btu. y Stocks are at end of period. Includes biodiesel stocks at (or in) refineries, ipelines, and bulk terminals. Beginning in 2011, also includes stocks at biodiesel p multiplying by 0.042, and are converted to Btu by multiplying by 5.359 million B tu • Throug h roduction plants. p per barrel (the approximate heat content of biodiesel—see Table A1). e 2000, data are not available. Beginning in 2001, data not from U.S. Energ y A negative value indicates a decrease in stocks and a positive value indicates • Totals may not equ a al n increase. Information Administration (EIA) surveys are estimates. f sum of components due to independent rounding. Geographic coverage is th e Other renewable diesel fuel and other renewable fuels consumption. See • 50 states and the District of Columbia. " Renewable Diesel Fuel (Other)" and "Renewable Fuels (Other)" in Glossary. g In 2009, because of incomplete data coverage and differing data sources, a el Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#renewable (Exc and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 2001. " Balancing Item" amount of 733 thousand barrels (653 thousand barrels in January 2 009; 80 thousand barrels in February 2009) is used to balance biodiesel supply Sources: See end of section. / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 178

189 T able 10.5 Solar Energy Consumption (Trillion Btu) b c b a Solar Energy Distributed Utility-Scale Solar Energy d e Electricity Electricity Electric Power Residential Industrial Commercial Industrial Commercial f j h k i g Sector Total Total Heat Total Total Sector Sector Sector Sector Sector 985 Total ... NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1 (s) (s) (s) NA 1 ... 55 (s) (s) (s) (s) 55 – – 4 4 59 990 Total 995 Total 1 63 (s) (s) (s) 1 63 – – 5 5 68 ... 58 2 57 (s) 1 (s) 1 ... – – 5 5 63 000 Total 2 001 Total ... 55 (s) 1 (s) 1 56 – – 6 6 62 2 002 Total 53 1 1 (s) 2 54 – – 6 6 60 ... 003 Total 53 51 1 1 (s) 2 2 – – 5 5 58 ... 53 2 50 1 1 (s) 2 ... – – 6 6 58 004 Total 2 005 Total ... 49 1 2 (s) 3 52 – – 6 6 58 R 5 51 2 2 3 1 ... 56 – – 5 5 61 006 Total R R – ... 4 1 7 007 Total 60 2 – 6 6 2 66 53 R 008 Total ... 54 4 6 1 11 74 66 (s) – 9 9 2 R R 2 009 Total ... 55 5 (s) 82 15 69 78 – 9 9 R R R 2 12 3 9 24 79 (s) (s) 12 12 010 Total 91 ... 56 R R R R (s) 4 011 Total 37 ... 95 1 58 17 18 20 112 2 13 R R R R 41 32 7 2 59 012 Total 118 1 (s) 40 ... 59 159 20 3 013 Total 31 38 9 78 138 61 (s) 83 86 225 ... 2 014 Total ... 62 47 49 11 107 169 4 (s) 165 168 337 2 R R R 195 65 53 14 132 015 Total ... 4 (s) 228 232 63 427 2 3 016 January ... 3 5 13 1 9 12 (s) (s) 2 14 26 February ... 6 4 1 11 14 (s) (s) 20 21 35 4 March ... 19 8 5 2 14 (s) (s) 24 24 43 5 21 9 5 2 16 6 (s) (s) 26 27 48 April ... May ... 6 10 6 2 17 24 (s) (s) 31 32 55 R 24 7 10 6 2 18 (s) (s) 32 32 56 June ... R July ... 7 11 6 2 18 25 1 (s) 36 36 62 R 18 7 10 6 2 August ... 24 1 (s) 36 37 61 55 September ... 6 9 5 2 16 22 (s) (s) 33 34 R 29 29 (s) 49 20 (s) 14 2 5 8 October ... 5 (s) 16 12 1 4 7 4 November ... (s) 41 26 25 (s) 4 1 11 15 6 (s) 22 22 37 December ... 4 R R R 5 ... 98 57 19 174 Total 237 63 (s) 328 333 570 R 017 January ... 3 6 4 1 11 15 (s) (s) 19 19 2 34 16 7 4 1 13 4 (s) (s) 23 24 40 February ... R R (s) 5 2 18 March ... 24 6 (s) 39 39 63 11 69 April ... 6 12 6 2 20 26 (s) (s) 43 43 R 7 May ... 52 81 13 7 2 22 29 (s) (s) 52 R R R 56 30 1 (s) 7 57 223 87 714 June ... 7 1 7 2 24 30 (s) 52 53 83 July ... 14 R R R 7 223 30 August ... (s) 50 50 1 80 713 R R 6 12 7 2 21 27 (s) (s) 47 47 September ... 74 24 5 11 6 2 18 October ... (s) (s) 44 44 68 R November ... 4 8 5 1 14 50 19 (s) (s) 31 31 R 31 14 49 1 31 (s) (s) 18 December ... 4 8 5 R R R 486 491 221 5 777 286 Total ... (s) 65 128 71 22 R 18 15 1 5 8 4 January ... 018 2 50 31 31 (s) (s) (s) 9 6 1 16 20 4 (s) 38 38 58 February ... R March ... 5 13 7 2 22 28 (s) (s) 47 48 76 31 April ... 6 15 8 25 2 1 (s) 57 58 89 R R 100 7 16 9 2 28 34 1 (s) 64 65 May ... 28 7 17 9 2 June ... 35 1 (s) 71 72 107 17 10 100 64 63 (s) 1 36 29 July ... 7 3 R 64 (s) 1 35 28 2 9 16 7 August ... 99 64 25 90 6 14 8 2 September ... 31 1 (s) 59 60 R 22 5 13 7 2 October ... 27 (s) (s) 48 48 76 36 36 (s) (s) 22 18 58 2 November ... 4 10 6 16 20 December ... 4 9 5 1 50 29 (s) (s) 29 R R R 1 607 614 951 338 Total ... 6 66 158 90 24 272 34 55 18 21 January ... 019 (s) 2 4 (s) 10 6 2 33 a i Data are estimates for distributed (small-scale) facilities (combined generator Industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-on ly n plants. See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at ameplate capacity less than 1 megawatt). b See "Photovoltaic Energy" and "Solar Thermal Energy" in Glossary. end of Section 7. c j S Data are for utility-scale facilities (combined generator nameplate capacity of 1 Electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAIC to egawatt or more). m 22 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, d the public. Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only; beginning in 1989, da ta Solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation at distributed (small-scale) are for electric utilities and independent power producers. acilities connected to the electric power grid (converted to Btu by multiplying by the f k ar ossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6). Data are the sum of "Distributed Solar Energy Total" and "Utility-Scale Sol f e Energy Total." Solar photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal electricity net generation at u tility-scale facilities (converted to Btu by multiplying by the fossil fuels heat rate n R=Revised. NA=Not available. – =No data reported. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillio f actors in Table A6). Btu. f Solar thermal direct use energy in the residential, commercial, and industrial d Notes: • Distributed (small-scale) solar energy data for all years, an ectors for all end uses, such as pool heating, hot water heating, and space ls s utility-scale solar energy data for the current two years, are estimates. • Tota eating. ic • Geograph h may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. g coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Data are the sum of "Distributed Solar Energy Heat" and "Distributed Solar nergy Electricity." E el Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#renewable (Exc h Commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1984. lants. See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at p Sources: See end of section. e nd of Section 7. Monthly U. 179 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

190 T able 10.6 Solar Electricity Net Generation (Million Kilowatthours) b b a c Utility-Scale Solar Generation Solar Generation Distributed Electric Power Industrial Commercial Commercial Industrial Residential d e f Sector Sector Total Sector Total Sector Total Sector Sector 11 NA NA NA NA 11 NA 11 NA ... 985 Total 1 R R R 4 18 33 – – 367 367 ... 400 1 990 Total 12 R R R R 20 30 58 – – 497 ... 497 554 1 995 Total 7 R R R R – 59 110 – ... 493 493 13 603 000 Total 2 39 R R R R 47 71 ... 134 – – 543 543 001 Total 676 2 16 R R R R ... 84 158 – – 555 555 002 Total 713 56 2 19 R R R R – 98 185 – ... 534 534 22 719 003 Total 2 65 R R R R 121 – 81 229 ... – 575 575 004 Total 804 2 27 R R R R ... 40 182 344 – – 005 Total 550 550 894 2 121 R R R R – 59 266 501 177 – 508 508 006 Total 1,009 2 ... R R R R 83 375 2 007 Total ... 708 – – 250 612 612 1,315 R R R R 2 401 133 008 Total 1,137 (s) – 864 864 603 2,002 ... R R R R 891 179 810 1,529 (s) – 539 891 009 Total 2,420 2 ... R R R R 1,237 2 274 010 Total 2,411 ... 2 1,206 1,212 900 3,623 5 R R R R 011 Total 1,358 447 ... 3,825 84 7 1,727 1,818 2,020 5,643 2 R R R R 148 2,058 742 012 Total 6,151 2 14 4,164 4,327 3,351 10,478 ... R R ... 3,217 9,036 4,024 891 2 8,132 294 17 8,724 013 Total 17,167 2 014 Total 4,947 5,146 1,139 11,233 371 16 17,304 17,691 28,924 ... 015 Total 416 6,999 5,689 1,451 14,139 2 21 24,456 24,893 39,032 ... 26 2 520 346 113 980 January ... 1 1,458 1,486 2,465 016 February ... 622 398 124 1,145 39 2 2,201 2,242 3,386 March ... 520 171 1,525 44 2 2,571 2,617 4,143 835 46 566 186 1,703 951 2 2,831 2,880 4,583 April ... May ... 1,058 616 206 1,879 48 3 3,375 3,425 5,304 1,928 1,099 623 206 June ... 53 3 3,418 3,473 5,401 3,945 July ... 1,146 640 214 2,000 55 3 3,886 5,945 3,908 3 58 1,942 209 620 1,113 August ... 5,911 3,969 1,735 5,370 September ... 989 190 48 2 3,584 3,635 556 4,743 3,191 3,147 2 42 1,552 493 884 October ... 174 November ... 393 139 1,257 36 2 2,729 2,767 4,024 726 December ... 1 387 128 1,167 33 2,389 2,424 3,591 653 18,812 ... 10,595 6,158 2,060 529 27 35,497 36,054 54,866 Total 2 017 January ... 703 420 123 1,246 17 1 2,011 2,030 3,276 27 458 137 1,384 789 2 2,526 2,555 3,939 February ... March ... 1,147 629 197 1,972 42 3 4,200 4,245 6,218 46 1,283 699 213 2,195 April ... 4 4,646 4,696 6,891 770 May ... 1,415 53 239 2,423 4 5,605 5,663 8,086 June ... 777 241 2,487 61 5 6,109 6,175 8,662 1,469 July ... 58 808 252 2,555 5 5,690 5,753 8,308 1,495 55 788 246 2,480 1,446 5 5,374 5,434 7,914 August ... September ... 1,293 709 223 2,225 52 4 5,059 5,115 7,340 47 632 201 1,990 1,157 4 4,771 4,821 6,811 October ... November ... 904 502 156 1,561 34 3 3,372 3,409 4,970 1,472 841 492 138 December ... 29 3 3,358 3,389 4,861 2,364 7,685 13,942 77,276 53,286 52,723 42 521 ... 23,990 Total 4 5,022 547 146 1,615 28 922 3,375 3,407 January ... 2 018 35 1,762 599 1,008 February ... 154 5,875 4,113 4,072 5 7 220 2,427 45 813 5,151 5,203 7,630 1,394 March ... 2,736 1,596 900 240 57 8 6,183 6,249 8,984 April ... May ... 1,758 986 266 3,010 65 9 6,995 7,070 10,080 June ... 1,793 999 267 3,060 81 11 7,712 7,804 10,863 3,147 1,839 1,032 276 July ... 68 9 6,861 6,938 10,085 9,999 6,981 6,900 11 August ... 1,762 989 268 3,018 70 September ... 10 6,393 6,469 9,150 1,545 890 245 2,681 66 October ... 7,624 5,223 5,165 8 50 2,400 223 786 1,391 1,914 5,873 November ... 1,114 624 176 34 6 3,918 3,958 591 3,188 4,962 December ... 1,025 3,156 159 1,774 28 4 ... 96,147 66,604 Total 65,882 17,146 9,756 2,641 29,543 629 92 January ... 168 1,938 647 31 1,122 5 3,616 3,652 5,590 019 2 a Data are estimates for solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation at d Distributed (small-scale) solar generation data for all years, an • Notes: mall-scale facilities (combined generator nameplate capacity less than 1 s ls Tota • utility-scale solar energy data for the current two years, are estimates. • Geograph ic m egawatt) connected to the electric power grid. may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. b See "Photovoltaic Energy" and "Solar Thermal Energy" in Glossary. coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. c Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#renewable (Exc el Solar photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal electricity net generation at tility-scale facilities (combined generator nameplate capacity of 1 megawatt or and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1984. u m ore). Calculated a Sources: s • Distributed Solar Generation: 1989–2013— d Commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only distributed solar energy consumption (see Table 10.5) divided by the total foss il U.S. Energy Informatio lants. See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at n fuels heat rate factors (see Table A6). p 2014 forward— monthly reports, Tables 1.1, 1.2.C , Administration (EIA), nd of Section 7. e Electric Power Monthly, e Industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only 1.2.D, and 1.2.E. • Utility-Scale Solar Generation: 1984–1988— EIA, For m lants. See Note 2, "Classification of Power Plants Into Energy-Use Sectors," at EIA, Form EIA-759, "Month p EIA-759, "Monthly Power Plant Report." 1989–1997: ly nd of Section 7. er Power Plant Report," and Form EIA-867, "Annual Nonutility Power Produc e f m EIA, Form EIA-759, "Monthly Power Plant Report," and For 1998–2000: Report." Electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 2 EIA-860B, "Annual Electric Generator Report—Nonutility." 2001–2003: EIA, For m 2 category whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to 2004–2007: nt EIA, Form EIA-906, "Power Pla EIA-906, "Power Plant Report." he public. Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only; beginning in 1989, data t 8 a re for electric utilities and independent power producers. 200 Report," and Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report." forward: R=Revised. NA=Not available. – =No data reported. (s)=Less than 0.5 million l: Tota • EIA, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report." k Calculated as distributed solar generation plus utility-scale solar generation. ilowatthours. / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 180

191 Renewable Energy Note. Energy Production and Consumption. In Tables 1.1, 1.3, and 10.1, renewable energy consumption Renewable multiplying of: hydroelectricity net generation (converted to Btu by conventional by the total fossil fuels heat consists factors in Table A6); geothermal electricity net generation (converted to rate by multiplying by the total fossil fuels Btu rate factors in Table A6), and geothermal heat pump and geothermal direct use energy; solar thermal and heat electricity net generation (converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table photovoltaic solar thermal direct use energy; wind electricity net generation (converted to and A6), multiplying by by the total Btu fuels heat rate factors in Table A6); wood and wood ‐ derived fuels consumption; biomass waste (municipal solid fossil agricultural biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, from byproducts, and other biomass) consumption; fuel waste ethanol (minus denaturant), biodiesel, and other renewable fuels consumption; and losses and co products from the ‐ fuel ethanol and biodiesel. In Tables 1.1, 1.2, and 10.1, renewable energy production is assumed to equal production of for all renewable energy sources except biofuels and wood. consumption production comprises biomass inputs Biofuels to the production of fuel ethanol and biodiesel. Wood production is the sum wood consumption and densified of biomass exports. Table Sources 10.2a Residential Sector, Geothermal 1989–2011: Annual estimates by the U.S Energy Information Administration (EIA) based on data from Oregon Institute of Geo ‐ Heat Center. Technology, Annual estimates assumed 2012 EIA to forward: be equal to that of 2011. by (For 1989 forward, monthly estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of in the year days and then multiplying by the number of days in the month.) Residential Sector, Solar 1989 forward: Residential sector solar consumption is the sum of the values for "Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: and use Table from sectors) industrial commercial, residential, the in energy Heat" (which includes direct solar thermal 10.5 "Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Residential Sector" from Table 10.5. and Residential Sector, Wood Annual estimates are 1949–1979: from EIA, Estimates of U.S. Wood Energy Consumption from 1949 to 1981 , Table A2. 1980–2008: Annual estimates are based on EIA, Form EIA ‐ 457, "Residential Energy Consumption Survey"; and National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration regional heating degree ‐ day data. and 2009 forward: Annual estimates based on EIA, Form ‐ 457, “Residential Energy Consumption Survey”; and residential wood consumption growth rates from EIA's Annual Energy Outlook data system. (For 1973 forward, monthly estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and multiplying by the number of days in the month.) then tal Renewable Energy Residential Sector, To Residential sector total renewable energy consumption 1949–1988: equal to residential sector wood consumption. is 1989 forward: Residential sector total renewable energy consumption is the sum of the residential sector consumption values geothermal, solar, for and wood. Commercial Sector, Hydroelectric Power 1989 forward: Commercial sector hydroelectricity net generation data from EIA, Form EIA ‐ 923, "Power conventional the total fossil fuels heat by rate Btu to converted multiplying by Plant Operations Report," and predecessor forms, are A6. Table in factors Monthly U. 181 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

192 Commercial Sector, Geothermal Heat Pump and Direct Use Energy Annual estimates by EIA based on data from Oregon Institute of Technology, Geo ‐ Heat Center. 1989–2011: be forward: Annual estimates assumed by EIA to equal to that of 2011. 2012 1989 forward, monthly estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year (For and days then by the number of multiplying in the month.) Commercial Sector, Geothermal Electricity Net Generation 2018 forward: Commercial sector geothermal electricity net generation data from EIA, Form December ‐ 923, “Power EIA Plant Operations Report,” are converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6. Commercial Sector, Geothermal Total 1989–November 2018: Commercial sector geothermal total consumption is equal to commercial sector heat pump and direct energy. use the forward: Commercial sector geothermal total consumption is sum of the commercial sector values December 2018 geothermal heat pump and direct use for and geothermal electricity net generation. energy, Commercial Sector, Solar Commercial sector solar consumption is the 1989 forward: of the values for "Distributed Solar Energy sum Consumption: Electricity, Commercial Sector" from Table 10.5 and "Utility ‐ Scale Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Table Commercial from Sector" 10.5. Commercial Sector, Wind 2009 forward: Commercial sector wind electricity net generation data from EIA, Form EIA ‐ 923, "Power Plant Operations Report," are converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6. Commercial Sector, Wood EIA, 1949–1979: Annual estimates are from Estimates of U.S. Wood Energy Consumption from 1949 to 1981 , Table A2. 1980–1983: estimates are from EIA, Estimates of U.S. Wood Energy Consumption 1980 –1983 , Table ES1. Annual estimate assumed by EIA to be equal to that of 1983. 1984: Annual EIA. interpolated by Annual estimates 1985–1988: 1973–1988, monthly estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and (For then by the number of days in the month.) multiplying consumption Monthly/annual commercial sector combined ‐ heat ‐ and ‐ power (CHP) wood 1989 data are from forward: Form EIA, ‐ "Power Plant Operations Report," and EIA predecessor 923, forms. Annual estimates for commercial sector non ‐ CHP wood consumption are based on EIA, Form EIA ‐ 871, "Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey" (for 2014 the annual estimates are based on commercial sector wood consumption growth rates from EIA's Annual forward, Energy data Outlook system). For 1989 forward, monthly estimates for commercial sector non ‐ CHP wood consumption are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of sum days the month. Commercial sector total wood consumption is the in of commercial sector CHP and non ‐ wood CHP consumption. Commercial Sector, Biomass Waste 1989 forward: Table 7.4c. Commercial Sector, Fuel Ethanol (Minus Denaturant) 1981 forward: The commercial sector share of motor gasoline consumption is equal to commercial sector motor sector Commercial 3.5. Table from supplied product 3.7a gasoline motor by divided gasoline consumption from Table / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 182

193 fuel (minus denaturant) consumption is equal to fuel ethanol ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption from Table 10.3 by the commercial sector share of motor gasoline consumption. Note that there is a discontinuity in this time multiplied consumption to gasoline the end ‐ use a change in the method for allocating motor series between 2014 and 2015 due to sectors; in 2015, the commercial and industrial sector shares beginning of fuel ethanol consumption are larger than in 2014, while the transportation sector share is smaller. Commercial Sector, Total Biomass Commercial sector total biomass consumption 1949–1980: equal to commercial sector wood consumption. is 1981–1988: Commercial sector total biomass consumption is the sum of the commercial sector consumption values for wood fuel ethanol (minus denaturant). and Commercial sector total biomass consumption is the sum 1989 of the commercial forward: sector consumption values waste, and for wood, ethanol (minus denaturant). fuel Commercial Sector, Total Renewable Energy 1949–1988: Commercial sector total renewable energy consumption is equal to commercial sector total biomass consumption. the sector total renewable energy consumption is 1989–2007: Commercial sum of the commercial sector consumption values for conventional hydroelectric power, geothermal, and total biomass. 2008: Commercial sector total renewable energy consumption is the sum of the sector values consumption commercial conventional and solar, geothermal, power, hydroelectric for total biomass. 2009 Commercial sector total renewable energy is the sum of the commercial sector consumption values for forward: and power, geothermal, solar, wind, conventional total biomass. hydroelectric Sources Table 10.2b Industrial Sector, Hydroelectric Power forward: Industrial sector conventional hydroelectricity net 1949 generation data from Table 7.2c are converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6. Industrial Sector, Geothermal 1989–2009: Annual estimates by the U.S. Energy Information (EIA) based on data from Oregon Institute Administration of Technology, Geo ‐ Heat Center. to 2010 forward: Annual estimates assumed by EIA be equal to that of 2009. estimates (For forward, monthly 1989 are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year multiplying by the number of days in the month.) and then Industrial Sector, Solar forward: Industrial 1989 solar consumption is the sum of the values for "Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: sector Electricity, Industrial Sector" from Table 10.5 and "Utility ‐ Scale Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Industrial Sector" from Table 10.6. Industrial Sector, Wind 2011 forward: Industrial sector wind electricity net generation data from EIA, Form EIA ‐ 923, "Power Plant Operations total Report," are converted to Btu by multiplying by the fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6. Industrial Sector, Wood 1981, Estimates Table A2. U.S. Wood of Energy Consumption from 1949 to 1949–1979: Annual estimates are from EIA, Monthly U. 183 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

194 1980–1983: estimates are from EIA, Estimates of U.S. Wood Energy Consumption 1980 –1983, Table ES1. Annual Table Annual is from EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990 , estimate 1. 1984: and 1986: Annual estimates by EIA. 1985 interpolated 2. Table , United 1987 During States the in Biofuels of Estimates EIA, from is estimate Annual 1987: Consumption Annual interpolated by estimate EIA. 1988: 1973–1988, monthly estimates are created by dividing (For annual estimates by the number of days in the year and the multiplying by the number of days in the month.) then consumption ‐ power (CHP) wood and data are from EIA, combined ‐ heat ‐ 1989 Monthly/annual industrial sector forward: EIA 923, "Power Plant Operations Report," and predecessor forms. Annual estimates for industrial sector non ‐ CHP Form ‐ consumption are based on EIA, Form EIA ‐ 846, "Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" (for 2015 forward, the wood annual are assumed by EIA to be estimates that equal 2014). For 1989 to forward, monthly estimates for industrial of non ‐ CHP wood consumption are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and sector multiplying by the sector number of days in the month. Industrial then total wood consumption is the sum industrial of CHP and non ‐ CHP wood consumption. sector Industrial Sector, Biomass Waste estimate is calculated as 1981: waste consumption (from Annual EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 199 0, total 8) minus electric power sector waste consumption (from MER Table Table 10.2c). 1982 and 1983: Annual estimates are calculated as total waste consumption (based on Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990 , Table 8) consumption minus electric power waste (from MER, Table 10.2c). sector 1984: Annual estimate is calculated as total waste consumption (from EIA , Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990 , Table minus electric power sector waste consumption (from MER, Table 10.2c). 8) EIA. 1986: Annual estimates interpolated by 1985 and (from as estimate is calculated , total waste consumption 1990 EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption Annual 1987: Table 8) minus electric power sector waste consumption (from MER, Table 10.2c). 1988: estimate interpolated Annual by EIA. (For 1973–1988, monthly estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days in the month.) 1989 forward: Monthly/annual industrial sector combined ‐ heat ‐ and ‐ power (CHP) consumption data are from Table consumption waste CHP ‐ non sector Annual in presented information on based are 7.4c. estimates for industrial Government Associates, Resource Recovery Yearbook and Advisory and Methane Yearbook, Recovery information by the U.S. Environmental provided Agency, Landfill Methane Outreach Program (for 2014 forward, the Protection annual estimates are assumed by EIA to be equal to that of 2013). For 1989 forward, monthly estimates for industrial sector ‐ CHP waste consumption are non created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and of then multiplying by number the days in the month. Industrial sector total waste consumption is the sum of industrial sector and non ‐ CHP waste consumption. CHP hanol (Minus Denaturant) Industrial Sector, Fuel Et forward: The industrial sector share of motor gasoline 1981 consumption is equal to industrial sector motor gasoline consumption from Table 3.7b divided by motor gasoline product supplied from Table 3.5. Industrial sector fuel ethanol (minus (minus denaturant) consumption is equal to fuel ethanol denaturant) consumption from Table 10.3 multiplied by the that there is a Note discontinuity in this time series between industrial sector share of motor gasoline consumption. / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 184

195 2014 2015 due to a change in the method for allocating motor gasoline consumption to the end ‐ use sectors; and larger in the commercial and industrial sector shares of fuel ethanol consumption are 2015, than in 2014, beginning the transportation sector share smaller. while is Industrial Sector, Biomass Losses and Co-products forward: Calculated as fuel ethanol losses and co ‐ products from Table 10.3 plus biodiesel 1981 losses and co ‐ products 10.4. from Table Industrial Sector, Total Biomass sector total biomass consumption is equal to industrial sector wood consumption. 1949–1980: Industrial forward: Industrial 1981 sector total biomass consumption is the sum of the industrial sector consumption values for waste, fuel ethanol (minus denaturant), and biomass losses and co ‐ products. wood, Industrial Sector, Total Renewable Energy 1949–1988: sector total renewable energy consumption is the sum of the industrial sector consumption Industrial for conventional hydroelectric power and total biomass. values Industrial sector total renewable energy consumption is the sum of the industrial sector consumption 1989–2009: for conventional hydroelectric power, geothermal, and total biomass. values 2010: sector total Industrial the consumption is the sum renewable of energy industrial sector consumption values for hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and total biomass. conventional Industrial sector total renewable energy consumption is forward: the sum of the industrial sector 2011 consumption values for conventional hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, wind, and total biomass. Transportation Sector, Fuel Ethanol (Minus Denaturant) forward: The transportation sector share of motor gasoline consumption is equal to transportation sector motor 1981 product from Table 3.7c divided by motor gasoline supplied from Table 3.5. Transportation sector gasoline consumption ethanol (minus denaturant) consumption is equal to fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) fuel consumption from Table 10.3 multiplied by the that transportation share of motor gasoline consumption. Note sector there is a discontinuity in this series between time 2014 and 2015 due to a change in the method for allocating motor gasoline consumption to the end ‐ use sectors; beginning in 2015, the commercial and industrial sector shares of fuel ethanol consumption larger are sector 2014, while the transportation share is smaller. than in Transportation Sector, Biodiesel forward: Table 10.4. Transportation sector 2001 biodiesel consumption is assumed to equal total biodiesel consumption. Other Renewable Fuels Transportation Sector, forward: 2009 10.4. Table Transportation Sector, Total Renewable Energy 1981–2000: Transportation sector total renewable energy consumption is equal to transportation sector fuel ethanol (minus consumption. denaturant) sector total renewable energy 2001–2008: is Transportation the sum of the transportation sector consumption consumption values for fuel ethanol (minus denaturant) and biodiesel. renewable 2009 forward: Transportation sector total energy consumption is the sum sector of the transportation biodiesel, denaturant), (minus ethanol fuel for values consumption fuels. renewable other and Monthly U. 185 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

196 Table Sources 10.3 Feedstock Calculated as fuel ethanol production (in thousand barrels) minus denaturant, and then multiplied by the 1981 forward: ethanol fuel factor—see Table A3. feedstock Losses and Co-products forward: Calculated as fuel ethanol feedstock denaturant minus fuel ethanol production. 1981 plus Denaturant Data in thousand barrels for petroleum denaturant in fuel ethanol produced are estimated as 2% of fuel 1981–2008: by these data are converted to Btu by multiplying 4.645 million Btu per barrel (the estimated production; ethanol ‐ weighted factor of natural gasoline and conventional motor gasoline used as denaturant). quantity U.S. 2009–2017: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA), annual reports, Table 1. Data thousand barrels for net production of natural gasoline at renewable in fuels and oxygenate plants are multiplied by ‐ 1; these are converted to Btu by multiplying by 4.620 million Btu per barrel (the approximate heat content data of natural in thousand barrels for net production gasoline). of Data conventional motor gasoline and motor gasoline blending components at renewable fuels and oxygenate plants are multiplied by ‐ 1; these data are converted to Btu by multiplying 5.222 million Btu per barrel (the approximate by heat content of motor gasoline blending components). Total denaturant is the sum of the values for natural gasoline, conventional motor gasoline, and motor gasoline blending components. 2018 and 2019: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) , monthly reports, Table 1. Data in thousand barrels for net plants oxygenate and fuels at gasoline renewable multiplied are production of natural by 1; these data are converted to ‐ thousand multiplying by 4.620 million Btu per barrel (the approximate heat content of natural gasoline). Data in Btu by net barrels of conventional motor gasoline and motor gasoline blending components for at renewable fuels production and oxygenate plants are by ‐ 1; these multiplied data are converted to Btu by multiplying by 5.222 million Btu per barrel (the heat content of motor gasoline blending components). Total approximate denaturant is the sum of the values for natural gasoline, conventional motor gasoline, and motor gasoline blending components. Production equal Fuel ethanol production is assumed to 1981–1992: fuel ethanol consumption—see sources for "Consumption." consumption 1993–2004: Calculated as fuel ethanol plus fuel ethanol stock change minus fuel ethanol net imports. These differ slightly from the original production data from EIA, Form EIA ‐ 819, "Monthly Oxygenate Report," and data which predecessor form, were not reconciled and updated to be consistent with final balance. the 2005–2008: EIA, Form EIA ‐ "Monthly Oxygenate Report." 819, 2009–2017: EIA, PSA, annual reports, Table 1, data for net production of fuel ethanol at renewable fuels and oxygenate plants. and fuels renewable at ethanol fuel of production net for EIA, 1, Table reports, monthly PSM, 2019: and 2018 data oxygenate plants. Trade, Stocks, and Stock Change 1992–2017: EIA, PSA, annual reports, Table 1. 2018 and 2019: EIA, PSM, monthly reports, Table 1. Consumption interpolated values for 1982, 1983, 1985, 10; and Table 1981–1989: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990 , 1986, 1988. and / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 186

197 1990–1992: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biomass Energy Consumption 1992 , Table D2; and interpolated value for 1991. motor PSA, annual reports, Tables 2 and 16. Calculated as 10% of oxygenated finished gasoline field EIA, 1993–2004: 2), plus fuel ethanol (Table refinery input (Table 16). production adjustments blending gasoline motor Tables 1 and 15. Calculated as components annual PSA, EIA, 2005–2008: reports, plus finished motor gasoline adjustments (Table 1), plus fuel ethanol refinery and blender net inputs (Table (Table 1), 15). EIA, PSA, annual reports, Table 1. Calculated as fuel 2009–2017: refinery and blender net inputs minus fuel ethanol ethanol adjustments. 2018 and 2019: EIA, PSM, monthly reports, Table 1. Calculated as fuel ethanol refinery and blender net inputs minus fuel adjustments. ethanol Consumption Minus Denaturant Calculated as fuel ethanol consumption minus the forward: amount of denaturant in fuel ethanol consumed. 1981 in fuel ethanol consumed Denaturant estimated by multiplying denaturant in fuel ethanol produced by the fuel is ethanol consumption ‐ to ‐ production ratio. Table 10.4 Sources Biodiesel Feedstock 2001 forward: Calculated as biodiesel production in thousand barrels multiplied by 5.433 million Btu per barrel (the the biodiesel factor—see "Biodiesel Feedstock" entry in feedstock "Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation" at the end of Appendix A). Biodiesel Losses and Co-products forward: Calculated as 2001 feedstock minus biodiesel production. biodiesel Biodiesel Production 2001–2005: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Commodity Credit Corporation, data Bioenergy Program records. Annual are from quarterly data. Monthly data are estimated by dividing the annual data by the number of days in the derived and then multiplying by the number of days in the month. year U.S. Department of Commerce, 2006: Oils: Bureau, U.S. and Census Production, Consumption, and "M311K—Fats data for soybean oil consumed in methyl esters (biodiesel). In addition, the U.S. Energy Information Stocks," Administration (EIA) estimates that 14.4 million gallons of yellow grease were consumed in methyl esters (biodiesel). 2007: U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census "M311K—Fats Bureau, and Oils: Production, Consumption, and Stocks," data for all fats and oils consumed in methyl esters (biodiesel). EIA, 2008: Monthly Biodiesel Production Report , December 2009 (release date October 2010), Table 11. Monthly data multiplied for are estimated based on U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, M311K data, 2008 by the EIA value's share 2008 the annual M311K 2008 annual value. of 2009 and 2010: EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report , monthly reports, Table 1. 2011–2017: Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) , annual reports, Table 1, data for renewable fuels EIA, except fuel ethanol. for monthly reports, Table 1, data renewable fuels except fuel 2019: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) , 2018 and ethanol. Biodiesel Trade codes: 2001–2011: For imports, U.S. Department of Agriculture, data for the following Harmonized Tariff Schedule "Fatty 3824.90.40.20, 3824.90.40.30, and 2010); June through (data Mixture" Animal/Vegetable Esters Monthly U. 187 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

198 "Biodiesel/Mixes" for July 2010–2011). For exports, U.S. Department of Agriculture, data for the following (data (data B 3824.90.40.00, "Fatty Substances Animal/Vegetable/Mixture" codes: through 2010); and Schedule "Biodiesel <70%" (data for 2011). (The data above are converted from 3824.90.40.30, to gallons by dividing by pounds these categories include products 7.4.) Although biodiesel other (such as than coprocessed with petroleum biodiesel and products destined for soaps, cosmetics, and other items), biodiesel is the largest component. In the feedstocks; absence other reliable data for biodiesel trade, EIA sees these data as good substitutes. of PSA, annual reports, Tables 25 and 31, 2012–2017: EIA, biomass ‐ based for diesel fuel. data and 2019: Tables EIA, PSM, monthly reports, 2018 37 and 49, data for biomass ‐ based diesel fuel. Biodiesel Stocks and Stock Change Biodiesel EIA, biodiesel data from EIA ‐ 22M, "Monthly 2009 forward: Production Survey"; and biomass ‐ based diesel fuel data from EIA ‐ 810, "Monthly Refinery Report," EIA ‐ 812, "Monthly Product Pipeline Report," and EIA ‐ 815, "Monthly Bulk Terminal Blender Report." and Biodiesel Consumption plus as biodiesel production Calculated biodiesel net imports. 2001–2008: and February 2009: EIA, PSA, January Table 1, data for refinery and blender net inputs of renewable fuels except fuel ethanol. biodiesel March forward: Calculated as biodiesel production plus 2009 net imports minus biodiesel stock change. Other Renewable Fuels 2009 Consumption data for "Other Renewable Diesel Fuel" are set equal to refinery and blender net inputs forward: data from EIA, EIA ‐ 810, “Monthly Refinery Report,” and EIA ‐ 815, “Monthly Bulk Terminal and Blender Report” (data are fuel converted Btu by multiplying by the other renewable diesel to heat content factor Table A1). in Consumption data for “Other Renewable Fuels” are set equal to refinery and blender net inputs data from EIA, EIA ‐ 810, “Monthly Refinery are (data Report” Blender the by multiplying by Btu to converted Report,” and EIA ‐ 815, “Monthly Bulk Terminal and other fuels heat content factor renewable Table A1). "Other Renewable Fuels" in Table 10.4 is calculated as other in fuels diesel fuel consumption plus other renewable consumption. renewable 10.5 Sources Table Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Heat Annual Data estimates by the U.S. Energy Information 1989–2009: (EIA) based on EIA, Form EIA ‐ 63A, Annual "Annual Administration Solar Thermal Collector/Reflector Shipments Report." Solar energy consumption by solar thermal non ‐ electric applications (mainly in the residential sector, but with some in the commercial and industrial sectors) is based on assumptions about the stock of equipment in place and other factors. Annual estimates 2010 on commercial sector solar forward: thermal growth rates from EIA's Annual Energy based Outlook (AEO) data system. (Annual estimates are subject to revision when a new AEO is released.) Monthly Data months Monthly estimates for each year are obtained by allocating a given year's annual value to the 1989–2013: in of that year. Each month's allocator is the average that month's "Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, January—5%; follows: as March—8%; are rounded, when allocators, The 2015. and February—6%; Total" values in 2014 August—10%; November—7%; October—9%; September—9%; and July—10%; June—10%; May—10%; April—9%; December—7%. / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 188

199 2014 Once all 12 months of "Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Total" data are available for a forward: estimates year, they are used as allocators and applied to the annual estimate in order to derive monthly for that given year’s allocators. for the current Initial use the previous monthly estimates year. year Electricity, Residential Sector Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: sector 2014, monthly and annual data for residential distributed (small ‐ scale) solar photovoltaic generation in Beginning from EIA, Electric Power Monthly , Table 1.2.E. Those data are converted to consumption data in Btu by multiplying are in total fossil fuels heat rate factors the MER Table A6. by for earlier Backcasts are developed as periods follows: Annual Data 1989–2003: Annual growth rates are calculated based on distributed (small ‐ scale) solar electricity consumption in all is estimated using information on shipments of sectors. solar panels from EIA, Form EIA ‐ 63B, "Annual Consumption Shipments Report," and assumptions about the stock Cell/Module of equipment in place and other factors. Photovoltaic The growth data are applied to more recent to create historical annual estimates. rates 2004–2008: Annual growth rates based on commercial sector solar photovoltaic growth rates from EIA's Annual Energy create Outlook (AEO) data system are applied to more recent data to historical annual estimates. (Annual estimates are subject to revision when a new AEO is released.) photovoltaic Annual Energy EIA's from rates growth 2009–2013: Annual growth rates based on residential sector solar Outlook data system are applied to more recent data to create historical annual estimates. (Annual estimates are (AEO) revision when a new AEO is released.) subject to Monthly Data 1989–2013: See "Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Heat, Monthly Data." Electricity, Commercial Sector Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: in 2014, monthly and annual data for Beginning commercial sector distributed (small ‐ scale) solar photovoltaic generation are from EIA, Electric Power Monthly , Table 1.2.C. Those data are converted to consumption data in Btu by multiplying the total fossil fuels heat rate factors by in MER Table A6. Backcasts for earlier periods are developed as follows: Annual Data Annual growth rates based on EIA, Form 1989–2003: EIA ‐ 63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report," applied are to more recent data to create historical annual estimates. (See "Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Sector" sources above for details.) Residential sector growth rates based on commercial solar photovoltaic growth rates from 2004–2013: Annual EIA's Annual Energy Outlook data system are applied to more recent data (AEO) to create historical annual estimates. (Annual estimates are subject to revision when a new AEO is released.) Monthly Data 1989–2013: See "Distributed Solar Energy Heat, Monthly Data." Consumption: Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Industrial Sector Beginning in 2014, monthly and annual data for industrial sector distributed (small ‐ scale) solar photovoltaic generation data are from EIA, Electric Power Monthly , Table 1.2.D. Those are converted to consumption data in Btu by multiplying A6. rate heat fuels in MER Table by the total fossil factors earlier for Backcasts as developed are periods follows: Monthly U. 189 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

200 Annual Data Annual growth rates based on EIA, Form EIA ‐ 63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report," 1989–2003: annual applied to more recent data to create historical estimates. (See "Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: are Residential Sector" sources above for Electricity, details.) 2004–2013: Annual growth rates based on commercial sector solar photovoltaic growth rates from EIA's Annual Energy (AEO) data system are applied to more Outlook recent data to create historical annual estimates. (Annual estimates are subject to revision when a new AEO is released.) Monthly Data 1989–2013: See "Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Heat, Monthly Data." umption: Electricity, Total Distributed Solar Energy Cons forward: Distributed (small ‐ scale) solar energy consumption for 1989 electricity is the sum of the distributed solar total energy consumption (for electricity) values for the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. Distributed Solar Energy Consumption: Total sum forward: Distributed (small ‐ scale) solar energy consumption total is the 1989 of distributed solar energy consumption values for heat and total electricity. Utility-Scale Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Commercial Sector from data photovoltaic Form EIA, 2008 forward: Commercial sector solar generation and solar thermal electricity net by EIA "Power Plant Operations Report," are converted to Btu by multiplying 923, the total fossil fuels heat rate factors ‐ in Table A6. Utility-Scale Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Industrial Sector 2010 forward: Industrial sector solar photovoltaic and solar thermal electricity net generation data from EIA, Form EIA ‐ 923, "Power Plant Operations Report," are converted to Btu by multiplying by the total fossil fuels heat rate factors in Table A6. Utility-Scale Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Electric Power Sector 1984 solar forward: Electric power sector photovoltaic and solar thermal electricity net generation data from Table 7.2b are to Btu by multiplying the total fossil converted fuels heat rate factors in Table A6. Utility-Scale Solar Energy Consumption: Electricity, Total 1984 forward: Utility ‐ scale solar energy consumption for total electricity is the sum of the utility ‐ scale solar energy commercial, consumption (for electricity) values for the industrial, and electric power sectors. Solar Energy Consumption: Total distributed solar energy consumption total 1984 forward: Total solar energy consumption is the sum of the values for consumption. energy solar scale ‐ utility total and / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 190

201 11. International Petroleum

202 World Overview Figure 11.1a Crude Oil Production Day) per (Million Barrels World Production, 1973–2018 World Production, Monthly 90 100 World 80 World 60 60 Non-OPEC Non-OPEC 40 OPEC 30 OPEC Persian Gulf 20 Nations Persian Gulf Nations 0 JFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASOND 0 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 1975 1980 2019 2018 2017 Selected Producers, Monthly Selected Producers, 1973–2018 14 12 12 Saudi Arabia 10 Russia United States 10 Saudi Arabia 8 United States 8 6 6 Russia Iran Iran 4 4 China China 2 2 0 JFMAMJ JASONDJFMAMJ JASONDJFMAMJ JASOND 0 1980 1995 2005 2010 2015 1975 1990 1985 2000 2017 2018 2019 ” is “Persian Arabia Nations. in Notes: • OPEC is the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. Gulf • included Saudi and The Arabia, and Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi are Bahrain, Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/ Nations data/monthly/#international. Persian Gulf from Neutral Zone the United the Production Arab Emirates. Kuwait between 11.1b. and 11.1a Tables Sources: 192 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U.

203 Selected Countries Figure 11.1b World Crude Oil Production by Day) per (Million Barrels Selected Non-OPEC and OPEC Countries January 2018 4.131 January 2019 Canada 3.887 3.763 China 3.812 0.634 Egypt 0.586 1.953 Mexico 1.647 1.650 Norway 1.488 10.550 Russia 10.973 1.020 United Kingdom 1.115 9.995 United States 11.871 1.282 Algeria 1.192 1.632 Angola 1.572 0.322 Congo 0.327 0.513 Ecuador 0.524 0.200 Gabon 0.200 4.617 Iran 3.401 4.445 Iraq 4.865 2.760 Kuwait 2.800 1.092 Libya 0.907 2.140 Nigeria 1.940 10.205 Saudi Arabia 10.095 3.181 United Arab Emirates 3.371 1.710 Venezuela 1.261 02468101214 Petroleum Exporting Countries. Organization the is the Note: OPEC of data/monthly/#international. http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/ Page: Web and 11.1a Tables Sources: 11.1b. 193 2019 April Review Energy U. / Administration Information Energy S. Monthly

204 T able 11.1a World Crude Oil Production: Selected OPEC Members (Thousand Barrels per Day) Congo United Total Ecua- Saudi Vene- (Brazza- Arab a a b Angola Iraq Kuwait Algeria Libya Nigeria Gabon Iran OPEC zuela dor Arabia Emirates ville) R 162 29,276 209 150 5,861 2,018 3,020 2,175 2,054 7,596 1,533 3,366 1,097 ... 1 973 Average 35 R 983 37 161 223 5,350 2,262 2,084 1,480 1,783 ... 1,664 2,346 7,075 25,612 1 975 Average 165 R 2,055 65 204 175 1,662 2,514 1,656 1,787 150 9,900 1,709 2,168 ... 25,151 980 Average 1 1,106 R 1,036 231 120 1,193 172 2,250 1,433 1,023 1,059 1,495 3,388 1 1,677 985 Average 15,358 ... 281 R 1,180 475 165 285 270 3,088 2,040 1,175 1,375 1,810 6,410 2,117 2,137 990 Average 22,527 1 ... R 1,993 188 392 365 3,643 560 2,057 1,390 646 8,231 2,233 2,750 ... 25,616 995 Average 1,162 1 R 1,227 709 201 396 368 3,686 579 2,062 1 2,001 8,218 2,278 2,938 996 Average 26,079 ... 1,401 R 1,259 714 253 388 370 3,664 1,155 2,007 ... 2,132 8,362 2,316 3,280 997 Average 27,399 1 1,446 R ... 1,226 735 265 375 352 3,634 2,150 2,085 1,390 2,153 8,389 2,345 3,167 1 28,351 998 Average R 999 Average ... 1,177 745 270 373 331 3,557 2,508 1,898 1,319 2,130 7,833 2,169 2,826 1 27,237 R 2 746 280 395 315 3,696 2,571 2,079 1,410 2,165 8,404 2,368 3,155 000 Average 28,965 ... 1,214 R 1,367 742 255 412 270 3,724 2,390 1,998 1,265 2,256 8,031 2,205 3,010 001 Average 28,106 2 ... R ... 1,349 896 249 393 251 3,444 2,023 1,894 1,319 2,118 7,634 2,082 2,604 2 26,469 002 Average R 2,136 1,516 903 247 411 241 3,743 1,308 ... 1,421 2,275 8,775 2,348 2,335 003 Average 27,865 2 R 004 Average ... 1,582 1,052 235 528 239 4,001 2,011 2,376 1,515 2,329 9,101 2,478 2,557 2 30,371 R 1,651 1,239 229 532 266 4,139 1,878 2,529 1,692 2,627 9,550 2,535 2,565 2 31,795 ... 005 Average R ... 1,699 1,398 242 536 237 4,028 1,996 2,535 1,736 2,440 9,152 2,636 2,511 2 31,488 006 Average R 007 Average ... 1,708 1,724 207 511 244 3,912 2,086 2,464 1,787 2,350 8,722 2,603 2,490 2 31,153 R 2,375 ... 1,705 1,951 233 505 248 4,050 008 Average 2,586 1,803 2,165 9,261 2,821 2,510 2 32,550 R 2 009 Average ... 1,585 1,877 268 486 242 4,037 2,391 2,350 1,696 2,208 8,250 2,520 2,560 30,791 R 4,080 2 010 Average ... 1,540 1,909 340 486 246 2,399 2,300 1,710 2,408 8,900 2,570 2,410 31,596 R 2 288 500 241 4,054 2,626 2,530 485 2,474 9,458 2,849 2,500 011 Average 31,579 ... 1,540 1,756 R 9,832 504 230 3,387 2,983 2,635 1,432 2,457 260 2,994 2,500 1,532 32,822 ... 1,787 2 012 Average R 1,803 239 526 220 3,113 3,054 2,650 978 2 9,693 2,938 2,500 013 Average 31,754 ... 1,462 2,307 R 1,742 233 556 220 3,239 3,368 2,642 530 1,420 9,735 3,010 2,500 ... 31,803 014 Average 2 2,347 R 1,429 1,802 238 543 213 3,293 4,045 33,070 484 2,171 10,168 3,149 2,500 2 015 Average ... 2,784 R 1,350 1,798 218 534 210 3,652 4,467 2,931 451 2,159 10,240 3,245 2,400 016 33,882 2 January ... R 10,240 540 210 3,792 4,217 2,891 441 2,120 214 3,025 2,400 1,350 33,460 February ... 1,793 R 1,798 198 552 210 4,093 4,217 2,911 401 10,240 3,050 2,400 March ... 33,640 1,350 1,993 R 1,793 188 555 210 4,173 4,467 2,681 1,350 2,010 10,240 3,060 2,400 April ... 33,765 411 R 1,350 1,818 195 556 210 4,162 4,347 2,891 366 1,673 10,340 3,240 2,300 33,675 May ... R June ... 1,330 1,823 203 550 210 4,150 4,397 2,891 411 1,811 10,540 3,270 2,280 34,093 R 217 545 210 4,224 4,407 2,931 391 1,764 10,670 3,290 2,220 July ... 34,275 1,350 1,829 R 1,694 212 549 210 4,226 4,452 2,941 331 1,833 10,640 3,320 2,210 August ... 34,195 1,350 R 1,350 1,768 188 560 210 4,210 4,472 2,941 391 1,726 10,600 3,350 2,200 34,193 September ... R 631 1,618 176 552 200 4,312 4,557 2,941 1,350 1,854 10,590 3,330 2,190 October ... 34,528 R November ... 1,350 1,698 168 544 220 4,356 4,637 2,951 661 1,984 10,640 3,360 2,180 34,976 R 1,684 197 544 220 4,450 4,677 2,951 701 1,668 10,540 3,360 2,150 34,719 1,350 December ... R Average ... 1,348 1,770 198 548 211 4,151 4,444 2,905 466 1,871 10,461 3,243 2,277 34,119 R 017 January ... 1,340 1,658 190 536 200 4,467 4,553 2,812 759 1,849 10,020 3,205 2,100 2 33,891 R 2,752 1,340 1,688 198 535 185 4,405 4,433 February ... 769 1,869 10,040 3,185 2,090 33,691 R March ... 1,316 1,630 160 531 190 4,392 4,418 2,742 669 1,730 9,992 3,165 2,090 33,227 R 33,361 4,413 1,780 2,080 3,145 10,022 April ... 1,306 1,700 171 528 210 4,464 614 2,742 R 1,306 10,093 3,165 2,080 1,900 33,851 May ... 2,742 1,660 200 533 200 4,464 4,463 859 R 929 2,752 4,478 4,445 200 540 257 1,306 June ... 34,236 1,690 2,030 3,185 10,293 1,945 R 2,022 278 541 210 4,495 4,488 2,742 1,084 1,670 10,243 3,185 2,030 34,480 1,306 July ... R 1,306 1,690 270 536 200 4,431 4,513 2,742 969 2,027 10,183 3,185 2,025 34,258 August ... R September ... 1,306 1,670 273 529 200 4,490 4,553 2,762 1,004 2,038 10,233 3,185 2,010 34,434 R 4,403 1,256 1,695 299 526 200 4,439 October ... 2,772 1,039 2,021 10,204 3,175 1,960 34,175 R 4,333 November ... 1,276 1,600 310 521 190 4,532 34,018 2,742 1,059 2,065 10,174 1,890 3,145 R 999 1,640 321 520 200 4,596 4,393 2,732 1,306 2,099 10,105 3,165 1,710 33,967 December ... R 4,454 Average ... 1,306 1,666 244 531 199 4,469 33,967 2,753 897 1,946 10,134 3,174 2,007 R 4,445 January ... 1,282 1,632 322 513 200 4,617 018 2,760 1,092 2,140 10,205 3,181 1,710 2 34,275 R February ... 1,272 1,622 333 513 200 4,624 4,485 2,760 1,067 2,110 10,145 3,141 1,670 34,118 R 2,080 10,095 1,630 3,121 33,873 March ... 1,232 1,592 371 511 200 4,538 4,495 2,770 1,062 R April ... 4,455 4,515 190 517 1,587 1,232 33,780 370 1,600 3,131 10,105 2,060 1,082 2,760 R May ... 1,592 365 516 200 4,462 4,505 1,262 1,067 1,880 10,165 3,111 1,545 2,760 33,606 R 4,589 June ... 1,282 1,562 342 517 200 4,508 33,679 2,770 827 1,810 10,465 3,151 1,485 R 4,619 July ... 1,292 1,572 332 523 180 4,428 2,850 747 1,860 10,525 3,181 1,450 33,735 R 34,016 August ... 1,282 1,582 347 530 200 4,271 4,690 2,850 1,067 1,930 10,465 3,221 1,405 R 2,850 3,221 10,565 1,157 4,715 4,151 200 519 342 1,602 1,242 34,141 2,030 1,371 September ... R October ... 1,572 337 514 200 4,151 4,745 2,850 1,157 1,990 10,765 3,271 1,341 34,311 1,242 R 2,850 1,622 307 515 180 3,451 4,785 1,242 1,227 2,000 11,045 3,411 1,321 34,117 November ... R December ... 1,242 1,592 307 519 200 3,351 4,815 2,850 957 2,010 10,545 3,451 1,291 33,281 R 4,254 Average ... 1,259 1,594 340 517 196 4,613 2,807 1,042 1,991 10,425 3,216 1,484 33,909 1,192 January ... 019 1,261 1,940 907 2,800 4,865 3,401 32,606 200 524 3,371 327 1,572 2 10,095 a Except for the period from August 1990 through May 1991, includes about years. R=Revised. o ne-half of the production in the Kuwait-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone. Kuwaiti Neutral Data are for crude oil and lease condensate; they exclude natural ga • Notes: s Z one output was discontinued following Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait on August 2, • plant liquids. 1 to 990, but was resumed in June 1991. As of July 2015 all Neutral Zone production Monthly data are often preliminary figures and may not average the annual totals because of rounding or because updates to the prelimina s offline. Data for Saudi Arabia include approximately 150 thousand barrels per ry i d ay from the Abu Safah field produced on behalf of Bahrain. monthly data are not available. b Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#internation See “Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)” in Glossary. al (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. n Tables 11.1a and 11.1b, countries are classified as "OPEC" or "Non-OPEC" in O Sources: See end of section. a ll years based on their status in the most current year. For example, Equatorial uinea joined OPEC in May 2017 and is thus included in "Total OPEC" for all G / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 194

205 T able 11.1b World Crude Oil Production: Persian Gulf Nations, Non-OPEC, and World (Thousand Barrels per Day) a Selected Non-OPEC Producers Persian Total Non- Gulf United United Former a b OPEC Nations States Kingdom U.S.S.R. China Russia Canada Mexico Egypt Norway World R 1,090 1 465 32 8,324 – – 2 9,208 973 Average 26,403 55,679 ... 20,668 1,798 165 R 1,430 1,490 235 705 189 9,523 1 12 8,375 975 Average 27,216 52,828 ... 18,934 – – R 1,435 2,114 595 1,936 486 11,706 – – 1,622 8,597 ... 34,407 59,558 1 980 Average 17,961 R 2,530 2,505 887 2,745 773 11,585 – – 1,471 8,971 ... 38,607 53,965 985 Average 1 9,630 R 15,278 1,553 1 873 2,553 1,630 10,975 – – 1,820 7,355 990 Average 37,970 60,497 ... 2,774 R 17,208 1,805 2,990 920 2,711 2,766 – – 5,995 2,489 6,560 995 Average 36,818 62,434 1 ... R 2,568 3,131 922 2,944 3,091 – – 5,850 1,837 6,465 ... 37,739 63,818 996 Average 1 17,367 R 18,095 1,922 3,200 856 3,104 3,142 – – 5,920 2,518 6,452 1 38,406 65,806 997 Average ... R 998 Average 1,981 3,198 834 3,160 3,011 – – 5,854 2,616 6,252 ... 38,681 67,032 1 19,337 R 6,079 1,907 3,195 852 2,998 3,019 – – 18,667 2,684 5,881 999 Average 38,730 65,967 1 ... R ... – – 19,897 1,977 3,249 768 3,104 3,222 2 6,479 2,275 5,822 000 Average 39,562 68,527 R 2 2,029 3,300 720 3,218 3,226 – – 6,917 2,282 5,801 001 Average 40,026 68,132 ... 19,114 R 7,408 2,171 3,390 715 3,263 3,131 – – 17,824 2,292 5,744 002 Average 40,821 67,290 2 ... R ... 19,154 2,306 3,409 713 3,459 3,042 – – 8,132 2,093 5,649 2 41,595 69,460 003 Average R 8,805 2,398 3,485 673 3,476 2,954 – – 20,906 1,845 5,441 004 Average 42,225 72,595 ... 2 R ... 21,644 2,369 3,609 623 3,423 2,698 – – 9,043 1,649 5,184 2 42,074 73,869 005 Average R 006 Average ... 21,377 2,525 3,673 616 3,345 2,491 – – 9,247 1,490 5,086 2 42,134 73,621 R 9,437 2,628 3,736 608 3,143 2,270 – – 20,904 1,498 5,074 2 42,178 73,331 ... 007 Average R ... 22,301 2,579 3,790 633 2,839 2,182 – – 9,357 1,391 5,000 2 41,751 74,301 008 Average R 009 Average ... 20,898 2,579 3,796 649 2,646 2,067 – – 9,495 1,328 5,349 2 42,329 73,121 R – – 21,736 2,741 4,078 636 2,621 1,871 ... 9,694 1,233 5,478 2 43,291 74,887 010 Average R 011 Average ... 23,102 2,901 4,052 637 2,600 1,760 – – 9,774 1,026 5,654 2 43,329 74,908 R R 012 Average ... 23,394 3,138 4,074 642 2,593 1,612 – – 9,922 6,502 888 43,561 2 76,382 R 76,449 23,037 2 013 Average ... 3,325 4,164 645 2,562 1,533 – – 10,054 801 7,467 44,695 R 2 4,208 645 2,469 1,562 – – 10,107 787 8,759 ... 46,559 78,362 014 Average 23,582 3,613 R 893 4,278 686 2,302 1,610 – – 10,253 3,677 9,431 ... 47,685 80,755 015 Average 2 24,989 R 26,054 3,877 4,166 671 2,294 1,657 – – 10,485 1,003 9,197 2 47,826 81,708 016 January ... R 9,055 662 2,247 1,675 – – 10,485 1,014 4,150 25,704 47,427 80,886 3,797 February ... R 3,767 4,091 661 2,249 1,632 – – 10,522 987 9,081 47,185 80,825 March ... 26,070 R 1,666 3,429 4,039 665 2,210 80,029 – – 10,450 989 8,866 46,263 April ... 26,180 R May ... 3,977 663 2,207 1,608 – – 10,440 991 8,824 45,560 79,235 26,539 2,811 R 897 4,038 660 2,213 1,480 – – 10,453 3,112 8,671 June ... 45,838 79,931 26,807 R 27,081 3,657 3,941 659 2,192 1,762 – – 10,254 980 8,635 46,374 80,650 July ... R 841 3,878 653 2,179 1,603 – – 10,316 3,855 8,670 August ... 45,912 80,107 27,138 R 27,072 3,849 3,892 647 2,146 1,430 – – 10,729 826 8,519 46,233 80,426 September ... R October ... 27,259 3,893 3,784 645 2,135 1,766 – – 10,826 760 8,787 47,043 81,572 R November ... 27,493 82,632 3,918 635 2,105 1,785 – – 10,832 948 8,888 4,135 47,656 R 3,968 3,937 626 2,067 1,706 – – 10,830 961 8,778 December ... 47,371 82,091 27,527 R 10,551 26,748 3,679 3,983 654 2,187 1,648 – – ... 933 8,831 46,723 80,842 Average R R 26,622 4,097 3,855 630 2,054 1,653 – – 2 970 8,840 017 47,277 January ... 81,168 10,733 R R 4,137 3,803 622 2,051 1,693 – – February ... 945 9,083 47,471 26,360 81,162 10,713 R R 26,254 3,917 3,843 613 2,053 1,745 – – 10,654 943 9,140 80,354 47,127 March ... R R 9,085 622 2,046 1,738 – – 10,603 915 3,577 46,564 3,863 79,925 26,331 April ... R R 3,690 3,822 630 2,053 1,636 – – 10,543 930 9,168 46,658 May ... 80,509 26,472 R R 26,698 3,793 3,947 631 2,042 1,576 – – 10,543 937 9,074 46,803 June ... 81,039 R R 912 3,832 628 2,020 1,653 – – 10,546 26,698 9,230 47,105 3,990 81,585 July ... R R 26,599 4,154 3,760 636 1,962 1,584 – – 10,507 831 9,244 80,974 46,716 August ... R R September ... 26,768 3,950 3,779 644 1,761 1,473 – – 10,503 885 9,495 81,172 46,738 R R – – 3,902 47,218 81,393 1,576 9,703 944 10,530 October ... 26,528 1,933 3,769 638 R R – – 979 10,103 1,520 48,027 10,543 82,045 1,896 November ... 26,461 4,230 3,820 634 R R 3,764 4,287 26,536 December ... 741 47,834 81,801 10,040 10,553 – – 1,567 1,903 635 R R – – ... 26,528 3,977 3,821 630 1,981 1,618 10,580 911 9,352 81,094 47,126 Average E R R January ... 26,708 4,131 3,763 634 1,953 – – 10,550 1,020 1,650 9,995 2 47,970 018 82,245 R R E 10,552 February ... 4,284 3,753 639 1,919 1,598 – – 26,655 1,007 10,248 48,312 82,430 R E R 48,299 26,529 4,309 3,758 639 1,888 1,549 – – 10,566 950 March ... 10,461 82,172 R E R April ... 26,466 3,996 3,774 645 1,911 1,544 81,813 10,562 1,077 – – 10,475 48,033 R E R May ... 26,503 4,206 3,761 647 1,891 1,348 – – 10,569 992 48,004 10,464 81,610 R R E 10,663 48,578 953 82,257 10,672 June ... 26,993 4,188 3,857 614 1,871 1,517 – – R E R 3,732 1,003 10,814 – – 1,556 637 4,311 27,113 July ... 48,988 82,723 10,936 1,865 R R E 11,325 83,179 August ... 27,017 4,520 3,768 645 1,841 1,535 – – 10,811 927 49,163 E R R 83,195 11,470 September ... 27,002 49,054 3,694 643 1,849 1,335 – – 10,964 902 4,174 R E R R R 27,282 84,305 – – 11,014 1,043 October ... 1,511 11,559 4,450 3,789 636 49,994 1,785 R R R RE – – 10,972 4,512 3,779 641 1,720 1,525 27,042 November ... 1,037 11,926 50,440 84,557 R RE R R 26,512 84,074 4,513 3,845 1,733 1,535 – – 11,051 1,086 635 11,961 50,793 December ... R R RE R R 1,852 82,883 4,301 3,773 638 1,517 – – 10,759 1,000 Average 10,962 ... 48,974 26,819 E 82,410 – – 10,973 1,115 26,082 3,812 3,887 586 January ... 11,871 1,647 49,804 1,488 2 019 a • Monthly data are often preliminary figures and may not average plant liquids. See "Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)" in Glossary. to the annual totals because of rounding or because updates to the prelimina ry O n Tables 11.1a and 11.1b, countries are classified as "OPEC" or "Non-OPEC" in Data for countries may not sum to World tota ls ll years based on their status in the most current year. For example, Equatorial • a monthly data are not available. G e U.S. geographic coverage is the 50 states and th • uinea joined OPEC in May 2017 and is thus included in "Total OPEC" for all due to independent rounding. y District of Columbia. ears. b Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#internation al Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and t he Neutral Zone (between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia). (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section. R=Revised. – – =Not applicable. E=Estimate. Notes: Data are for crude oil and lease condensate; they exclude natural gas • Monthly U. 195 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

206 Countries OECD in Figure 11.2 Petroleum Consumption Barrels per Day) (Million Overview, 1973–2018 OECD Total, January 120 60 100 47.194 47.146 45.708 80 40 World 60 OECD 40 20 United States 20 OECD Europe Japan 0 0 2000 2015 2010 2005 1995 1990 1985 1980 1975 2018 2019 2017 By Selected OECD Countries January 2018 1.590 January 2019 France 1.696 2.204 Germany 2.435 1.163 Italy 1.096 1.441 United Kingdom 1.528 2.360 Canada 2.223 4.257 Japan 4.060 2.704 South Korea 2.678 20.461 United States 20.452 25 0 10 15 5 20 and for the Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/ Economic Cooperation data/monthly/#international. Organization Note: OECD is Development. Source: 11.2. Table 196 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U.

207 T able 11.2 Petroleum Consumption in OECD Countries (Thousand Barrels per Day) OECD South Other United United a b d c France Germany World Canada Japan Italy OECD OECD Europe Kingdom States Korea 17,308 3,324 2,341 15,879 1,729 1 281 2,068 1,768 41,913 57,237 2,601 ... 973 Average 4,949 2,252 2,957 1,855 1,911 14,314 1,779 4,621 311 16,322 1,885 39,232 56,198 1 975 Average ... 2,256 1 1,934 1,725 14,995 1,873 4,960 537 17,056 2,449 41,870 63,113 980 Average ... 3,082 552 ... 1,705 1,617 12,769 1,514 4,436 2,651 15,726 2,699 37,696 58,176 985 Average 1 1,753 ... 1,827 2,682 1 1,776 13,789 1,722 5,223 1,048 16,988 2,968 41,738 66,660 990 Average 1,868 995 Average 1,915 2,882 1,942 1,816 14,899 1,799 5,581 2,008 17,725 3,453 45,465 69,861 1 ... 2,101 ... 1,920 1,852 15,216 1,853 5,587 2,922 18,309 3,486 46,552 71,913 996 Average 1 1,943 ... 1,962 2,917 1,934 1,810 15,354 1,940 5,545 2,255 18,620 3,577 47,292 73,129 1 997 Average 998 Average ... 2,923 1,943 1,792 15,653 1,931 5,348 1,917 18,917 3,649 47,415 73,950 1 2,040 5,486 999 Average 2,836 1,891 1,811 15,558 2,016 2,034 2,084 19,519 3,750 48,414 75,604 1 ... 000 Average ... 2,001 2,767 1,854 1,765 15,399 2,008 5,361 2,135 19,701 3,850 48,454 77,147 2 001 Average ... 2,054 2,807 1,835 1,747 15,585 2,029 5,269 2,132 19,649 3,796 48,459 77,921 2 002 Average ... 2,710 1,870 1,739 15,546 2,040 5,314 2,149 19,761 3,800 48,610 78,648 2 1,991 2,175 ... 1,860 1,759 15,670 2,155 5,296 2,679 20,034 3,767 49,096 80,273 003 Average 2 2,001 ... 2,008 2,648 1,829 1,789 15,774 2,233 5,159 2,155 20,731 3,976 50,029 83,411 2 004 Average 005 Average ... 2,624 1,781 1,819 15,856 2,326 5,164 2,191 20,802 4,039 50,378 84,645 2 1,990 5,038 006 Average 2,636 1,777 1,805 15,905 2,322 1,991 2,180 20,687 4,051 50,183 85,847 2 ... 007 Average ... 1,975 2,407 1,729 1,751 15,637 2 4,904 2,240 20,680 4,190 50,064 87,257 2,412 2 ... 1,935 2,533 1,667 1,729 15,489 2,324 4,667 2,142 19,498 4,134 48,254 86,824 008 Average 4,266 009 Average 2,434 1,544 1,649 14,763 2,269 1,859 2,188 18,771 4,020 46,278 85,860 2 ... 010 Average ... 1,818 2,467 1,544 1,624 14,731 2,380 4,340 2,269 19,180 3,920 46,819 88,693 2 2 011 Average 1,778 2,392 1,494 1,582 14,256 2,408 4,353 2,259 18,887 4,121 46,284 89,489 ... 2,453 2 1,736 2,389 1,370 1,534 13,791 ... 4,631 2,322 18,487 4,162 45,845 90,827 012 Average 2 013 Average ... 1,714 2,435 1,260 1,512 13,606 2,429 4,487 2,328 18,967 4,073 45,891 92,259 1,266 2 014 Average ... 1,691 2,374 1,518 13,529 2,387 4,261 2,348 19,100 3,988 45,613 93,874 2 015 Average 1,691 2,368 1,274 1,556 13,828 2,417 4,142 2,473 19,534 3,966 46,359 95,861 ... 016 January ... 2,274 1,092 1,490 12,895 2,462 4,365 2,670 19,063 3,996 45,450 NA 2 1,565 19,847 1,677 1,639 13,862 2,426 4,650 2,726 1,226 4,175 47,685 NA February ... 2,440 1,714 2,448 1,236 1,535 13,914 2,395 4,376 2,509 19,728 4,072 46,994 NA March ... April ... 1,658 1,265 1,608 13,996 2,352 3,943 2,493 19,340 3,999 46,123 NA 2,451 2,550 May ... 1,230 1,546 13,618 2,396 3,550 2,259 19,328 3,915 45,356 NA 1,657 June ... 1,575 2,286 1,286 1,651 14,036 2,483 3,531 2,519 19,846 4,043 46,458 NA July ... 2,372 1,289 1,548 14,051 2,492 3,750 2,448 19,776 3,989 46,505 NA 1,677 August ... 1,697 1,235 1,605 14,583 2,623 3,831 2,660 20,275 4,063 48,034 NA 2,425 2,617 September ... 1,303 1,643 14,547 2,549 3,693 2,399 19,757 3,998 47,161 NA 1,733 October ... 1,662 2,431 1,221 1,591 14,282 2,438 2,507 19,650 3,896 46,522 NA 3,748 1,560 2,475 1,190 1,593 14,075 2,481 4,128 2,755 19,659 4,062 47,159 NA November ... 4,567 December ... 2,347 1,271 1,561 14,058 2,558 1,654 2,818 19,984 4,129 48,114 NA Average ... 1,652 2,383 1,237 1,583 13,992 2,471 4,010 2,605 19,687 4,027 46,793 96,934 2 017 1,737 2,342 1,132 1,450 13,491 2,373 4,148 2,597 19,323 3,778 45,708 NA January ... 2,664 February ... 1,184 1,658 13,885 2,349 4,533 2,421 19,190 4,062 46,683 NA 1,704 March ... 1,708 2,577 1,235 1,497 14,102 2,398 4,250 2,599 20,060 4,113 47,523 NA April ... 2,438 1,149 1,634 13,833 2,182 3,786 2,451 19,595 4,064 45,911 NA 1,624 3,500 2,492 1,234 1,519 14,214 2,435 1,669 2,521 20,066 4,148 46,884 NA May ... June ... 1,746 2,495 1,324 1,634 14,713 2,460 3,469 2,492 20,561 4,166 47,861 NA July ... 2,498 1,302 1,592 14,611 2,487 3,583 2,565 20,119 4,009 47,374 NA 1,728 August ... 3,693 2,500 1,233 1,589 14,548 2,583 2,548 20,251 4,129 47,751 NA 1,712 3,624 2,475 1,283 1,650 14,964 2,498 1,847 2,611 19,641 4,085 47,424 NA September ... October ... 1,622 2,416 1,294 1,569 14,489 2,504 3,596 2,564 19,990 3,922 47,064 NA 4,093 2,556 1,240 1,632 14,552 2,586 1,676 2,680 20,307 4,097 48,315 NA November ... NA December ... 1,692 2,309 1,220 1,603 14,165 2,475 4,497 2,721 20,323 4,086 48,266 47,233 1,236 4,054 19,958 2,584 3,894 2,445 14,298 1,584 98,458 Average ... 1,705 2,460 20,461 NA 1,441 13,323 2,360 4,257 2,704 1,163 4,041 47,146 2 018 January ... 1,590 2,204 NA 48,043 4,167 19,619 2,686 4,556 2,377 14,639 1,702 1,301 2,511 1,784 February ... 4,031 2,396 1,281 1,573 14,339 2,236 1,759 2,502 20,573 4,206 47,887 NA March ... April ... 1,699 2,340 1,270 1,634 14,164 2,253 3,604 2,544 19,941 4,051 46,556 NA 2,408 1,657 2,263 1,261 1,561 14,011 May ... 3,437 2,559 20,357 4,137 46,908 NA June ... 1,714 2,310 1,292 1,655 14,465 2,371 3,238 2,537 20,705 4,157 47,473 NA 3,504 2,338 1,339 1,554 14,836 2,548 1,789 2,511 20,621 4,120 48,140 NA July ... NA August ... 1,713 2,364 1,262 1,633 14,710 2,538 3,599 2,484 21,302 4,081 48,714 NA 3,496 46,992 4,057 19,951 2,455 2,590 September ... 1,704 2,329 1,284 1,653 14,443 20,774 NA 47,920 4,040 2,274 3,623 2,636 14,573 1,536 1,317 2,346 1,825 October ... R R November ... 1,643 2,323 1,251 1,674 14,179 2,515 3,862 47,604 2,432 20,548 4,070 NA R R R R R R December ... 2,195 1,202 NA 1,618 47,075 13,642 1,578 2,309 4,198 3,848 2,599 20,479 R R R R R 2,325 1,704 ... 99,983 2,523 3,780 2,429 4,081 Average 14,274 1,601 20,453 1,268 47,538 13,805 019 January ... 1,696 2,435 1,096 1,529 2 2,223 4,060 2,678 20,452 3,975 47,194 NA a Notes: • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independe nt Data are for unified Germany, i.e., the former East Germany and West G U.S. geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District • rounding. ermany. of b Columbia. "OECD Europe" consists of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, G al ermany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#internation ortugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom; for 1984 P (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. f r orward, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia; and, for 2000 forward, Chile, East Germany, Forme Sources: • United States: Table 3.1. • S Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Mexico, Poland, South Korea, Non-OEC D lovenia. c "Other OECD" consists of Australia, New Zealand, and the U.S. Territories; for Countries, U.S. Territories, and U.S. Energy Informatio World: 1973–1979— n • Administration (EIA), International Energy Database. n 1 984 forward, Mexico; for 2000 forward, Chile, Estonia, and Israel; and, for 2016 Countries Other Tha OEC • D EIA, International Energy Statistics (IES). orward, Latvia. f United States: 1980–2008— d The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Countries, and U.S. Territories: 2009 forward— EIA, IES. 9 World: 200 • • EIA, International Energy Statistics Database. forward— c r onsists of "OECD Europe," Canada, Japan, South Korea, the United States, and All Othe " Data:— International Energy Agency (IEA), Quarterly Oil Statistics and Energ y Other OECD." various issues. Balances in OECD Countries, R=Revised. NA=Not available. Monthly U. 197 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

208 OECD in Stocks Countries Petroleum Figure 11.3 (Billion Barrels) Overview, End of Year, 1973–2018 OECD Stocks, End of Month, January 5 5 4.667 4.434 4.430 OECD 4 4 3 3 2 2 United States OECD Europe 1 1 Japan 0 0 1985 1990 1980 1975 2019 2017 2018 2015 2010 2005 2000 1995 Selected OECD Countries, End of Month January 2018 0.167 January 2019 France 0.161 0.283 Germany 0.276 0.125 Italy 0.124 0.083 United Kingdom 0.083 0.186 Canada 0.192 0.560 Japan 0.554 0.225 South Korea 0.201 1.879 United States 1.920 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 0.0 Organization the Cooperation Economic for and Development. is OECD Note: data/monthly/#international. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/ 11.3. Source: Table Energy Administration Information S. U. 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / 198

209 T able 11.3 Petroleum Stocks in OECD Countries (Million Barrels) United United OECD Other South b a c d Kingdom States Europe OECD Korea France Canada OECD Japan Italy Germany ... 152 181 973 Year 156 1,070 140 303 NA 1,008 67 2,588 1 201 375 975 Year 187 143 165 1,154 174 225 NA 1,133 67 2,903 1 ... 980 Year ... 243 1 170 168 1,464 164 495 NA 1,392 72 3,587 319 1 ... 139 277 156 131 1,154 112 500 13 1,519 119 3,417 985 Year 990 Year 1,221 143 280 171 103 1 143 572 64 1,621 126 3,748 ... 132 1 155 302 162 101 1,260 ... 631 92 1,563 122 3,799 995 Year 1 996 Year ... 154 303 152 103 1,265 127 651 123 1,507 126 3,800 1 997 Year 161 299 147 100 1,277 144 685 124 1,560 123 3,913 ... 998 Year 139 169 323 153 104 1,362 1 649 129 1,647 120 4,045 ... 141 1 160 290 148 101 1,263 ... 629 132 1,493 113 3,771 999 Year 2 000 Year ... 170 272 157 100 1,326 143 634 140 1,468 126 3,836 154 2 165 273 151 113 1,316 ... 634 143 1,586 120 3,954 001 Year 2 002 Year ... 170 253 156 104 1,284 155 615 140 1,548 111 3,854 1,327 2 ... 179 273 153 100 003 Year 165 636 155 1,568 104 3,956 1,329 2 004 Year 177 267 154 101 ... 154 635 149 1,645 107 4,020 2 005 Year 185 283 151 95 1,382 168 612 135 1,682 112 4,090 ... 006 Year ... 283 153 103 1,416 169 631 152 1,703 112 4,182 2 182 621 007 Year 275 152 92 1,401 163 180 143 1,648 119 4,096 2 ... 008 Year ... 179 279 148 93 1,443 162 629 135 1,719 122 4,211 2 2 009 Year 175 284 146 89 1,435 157 591 155 1,758 116 4,213 ... 010 Year 184 168 287 143 83 1,395 2 590 165 1,772 118 4,224 ... 178 2 165 281 135 80 1,341 ... 592 167 1,725 116 4,119 011 Year 2 012 Year ... 162 288 126 80 1,350 174 594 181 1,779 106 4,184 2 013 Year 167 290 125 78 1,356 170 580 185 1,728 110 4,127 ... 014 Year 193 168 284 119 78 1,359 2 581 197 1,825 113 4,268 ... 188 2 168 285 117 81 1,468 ... 582 228 1,982 108 4,556 015 Year 2 016 January ... 171 287 120 83 1,509 187 580 219 2,014 110 4,618 February ... 289 123 81 1,519 183 564 233 2,018 107 4,623 169 184 289 120 77 1,504 166 560 236 2,024 109 4,616 March ... April ... 171 286 126 77 1,503 180 566 230 2,035 110 4,624 1,510 167 289 123 81 May ... 169 574 235 2,051 112 4,649 2,049 238 573 175 1,501 82 288 167 121 116 4,653 June ... July ... 290 4,707 118 2,066 238 577 186 1,523 75 125 169 August ... 287 130 80 1,508 186 585 233 2,066 114 4,692 167 September ... 185 285 127 78 1,490 587 239 2,051 113 4,665 167 190 287 128 77 1,474 163 587 238 2,053 112 4,653 October ... November ... 166 283 126 80 1,479 190 573 238 2,056 105 4,641 1,471 ... 162 285 124 82 December 183 562 230 2,030 115 4,592 2 017 January ... 166 285 129 82 1,510 185 562 238 2,053 120 4,667 187 166 285 131 82 1,513 February ... 556 236 2,049 119 4,659 134 March ... 168 280 1,506 81 185 546 238 2,030 121 4,627 April ... 283 131 84 1,513 181 558 240 2,028 121 4,643 165 May ... 180 280 132 81 1,491 572 238 2,034 125 4,640 167 183 277 134 81 1,483 165 566 236 2,010 121 4,599 June ... July ... 170 279 131 80 1,481 188 577 240 1,998 118 4,602 186 278 131 80 1,468 170 582 240 1,987 117 4,581 August ... September ... 165 274 128 78 1,444 186 571 244 1,978 114 4,536 1,424 165 273 125 79 October ... 184 575 241 1,941 117 4,483 1,923 235 4,457 185 110 November ... 164 271 125 82 1,430 574 80 4,409 109 1,895 231 563 189 1,423 125 279 166 ... December 560 2 283 125 83 1,468 186 167 225 1,879 116 4,434 January ... 018 February ... 165 278 130 80 1,463 184 545 230 1,876 117 4,415 192 March ... 280 126 79 166 539 213 1,862 117 4,377 1,455 April ... 168 277 129 79 1,456 186 553 207 1,864 115 4,380 1,446 168 277 128 81 May ... 190 559 202 1,870 116 4,384 1,867 June ... 168 278 125 83 1,443 190 549 210 4,372 113 82 4,392 July ... 167 278 133 1,450 190 557 207 1,872 116 August ... 4,418 115 1,892 202 567 200 1,443 81 132 277 165 561 273 125 77 1,417 195 165 200 1,932 114 4,419 September ... R R 162 271 125 75 1,399 194 573 202 119 1,916 4,403 October ... November ... 160 269 124 74 1,393 190 578 211 1,910 111 4,393 R R 1,406 ... 160 271 125 75 192 565 206 1,912 124 December 4,404 83 1,437 192 554 201 1,920 126 276 4,430 019 2 January ... 161 124 a Through December 1983, the data for Germany are for the former West e Petroleum stocks include crud Notes: • Stocks are at end of period. • oil (including strategic reserves), unfinished oils, natural gas liquids, and refine d ermany only. Beginning with January 1984, the data for Germany are for the G products. • s In the United States in January 1975, 1981, and 1983, numerou nified Germany, i.e., the former East Germany and West Germany. u b "OECD Europe" consists of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, g respondents were added to bulk terminal and pipeline surveys, thereby affectin G subsequent stocks reported. New-basis end-of-year U.S. stocks, in million barrel s, ermany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, would have been 1,121 in 1974, 1,425 in 1980, and 1,461 in 1982. ortugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom; for 1984 P • Totals ma y • not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. ic f orward, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia; and, for 2000 forward, U.S. geograph lovenia. S coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. c Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#internation al "Other OECD" consists of Australia, New Zealand, and the U.S. Territories; for (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. 984 forward, Mexico; for 2000 forward, Chile, Estonia, and Israel; and, for 2016 1 U.S. Territories: 198 Table 3.4. • United States: • Sources: orward, Latvia. f 3 d e. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) forward— U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Databas onsists of "OECD Europe," Canada, Japan, South Korea, the United States, and c il Quarterly O International Energy Agency (IEA), All Other Data: 1973–1982— • various issues. Statistics and Energy Balances, IEA, Monthly Oil and Ga " s Other OECD." 1983— Statistics Database. 1984 forward— IEA, Monthly Oil Data Service, April 11, 2019 . R=Revised. NA=Not available. Monthly U. 199 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

210 International Petroleum 11.1a and Tables 11.1b Sources United States Table 3.1. All Other Countries and World, Annual Data , 8. Table 1973–1979: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA ), International Energy Annual 1981 Database, Statistics Energy EIA, forward: 1980 International 2019. April All Other Countries and World, Monthly Data Petroleum adjustments. EIA and (OGJ), Weekly 1973–1980: Intelligence (PIW), Oil & Gas Journal sources. other and OGJ, PIW, industry 1981–1993: Energy April Database, Statistics 2019. International EIA, forward: 1994 / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 200

211 12. Environment

212 12.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions Figure From Energy Consumption by Source Dioxide) Carbon (Million of Metric Tons Total [a], Monthly Total [a], 1973–2018 600 8,000 6,000 400 4,000 200 2,000 0 JFMAMJ JASONDJFMAMJ JASONDJFMAMJ JASOND 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2017 2019 2018 By Major Source, 1973–2018 By Major Source, Monthly 3,000 250 Petroleum 200 Petroleum 2,000 Natural Gas 150 Coal [b] 100 Natural Gas 1,000 Coal [b] 50 0 JFMAMJ JASONDJFMAMJ JASONDJFMAMJ JASOND 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2017 2018 2019 By Major Source, January 2019 Total [a], January 600 508 494 477 500 Petroleum 199 400 300 Natural Gas 185 200 100 Coal [b] 110 0 2017 2018 2019 100 150 200 250 0 50 http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg y/data/monthly/#environment. Web [a] Excludes emissions from biomass energy consumption. Page: Source: [b] imports. net coke coal Includes 12.1. Table 202 2019 April Review Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U.

213 T able 12.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source a (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide ) Petroleum Kero- Residual Aviation Distillate Petroleum Motor Jet Natural Lubri- c e f d h,i g b cants Gasoline Gasoline Coal Fuel Coke Fuel Oil Fuel Oil Other Total Total HGL Gas sene ... 1,207 1,179 6 480 76 155 32 13 911 1 506 97 2,330 4,715 973 Total 54 975 Total 1,181 1,046 5 442 70 146 24 11 911 51 442 93 2,195 4,421 1 ... 13 ... 1,061 4 446 80 156 24 1,436 900 49 452 129 2,253 4,750 1 980 Total 985 Total ... 1,638 929 3 445 83 178 1 12 930 55 216 86 2,025 4,593 17 1 ... 1,821 1,026 3 470 76 223 6 13 988 70 221 114 2,184 5,038 990 Total 13 995 Total 1,186 3 498 91 222 8 1,913 1,042 76 152 107 2,212 5,321 1 ... 996 Total ... 1,995 1,207 3 524 97 232 9 12 1,062 80 152 125 2,297 5,510 1 1 997 Total 2,040 1,214 3 534 95 234 10 13 1,073 80 143 131 2,317 5,582 ... 12 1 2,064 1,193 2 537 91 238 ... 14 1,105 93 158 116 2,367 5,635 998 Total 1 999 Total ... 2,062 1,198 3 555 100 245 11 14 1,125 97 148 119 2,417 5,687 2 000 Total 2,156 1,246 3 579 104 254 10 14 1,133 87 162 106 2,452 5,864 ... 13 001 Total 1,193 2 597 94 243 11 2,088 1,149 90 145 125 2,467 5,759 2 ... 002 Total ... 2,095 1,231 2 586 96 237 6 12 1,181 97 125 121 2,464 5,803 2 2 003 Total 2,136 1,196 2 610 93 231 8 11 1,186 96 138 134 2,510 5,854 ... 10 2 2,160 1,201 2 632 95 240 ... 12 1,209 107 155 136 2,596 5,969 004 Total 2 005 Total ... 2,182 1,183 2 639 90 246 10 12 1,208 106 164 135 2,613 5,990 2 006 Total 2,147 1,170 2 645 85 240 8 11 1,216 106 122 147 2,582 5,911 ... 5 2 2,172 1,246 2 647 89 238 ... 12 1,208 100 129 143 2,573 6,002 007 Total 2 008 Total ... 2,140 1,255 2 610 85 226 2 11 1,139 93 111 126 2,404 5,811 3 2 1,876 1,233 2 555 83 204 ... 10 1,126 87 91 107 2,268 5,388 009 Total 5,586 010 Total ... 1,986 1,292 2 583 86 210 3 11 1,110 82 96 115 2,297 2 209 2 011 Total ... 1,876 1,311 2 592 80 2 10 1,077 79 82 114 2,247 5,446 2 012 Total 1,657 1,372 2 569 84 206 1 9 1,071 79 66 110 2,197 5,237 ... 013 Total ... 1,409 2 573 92 210 1 10 1,086 77 57 116 2,224 5,363 2 1,718 1,095 ... 2 606 87 216 1 10 1,440 76 46 108 2,247 5,411 014 Total 1,714 2 ... 1,480 1,483 1 598 91 227 1 2 1,125 76 47 112 2,290 5,265 015 Total 11 016 123 169 (s) 49 9 18 (s) January ... 90 7 5 10 189 482 2 1 February ... 103 145 (s) 48 8 18 (s) 1 90 6 3 12 185 433 83 128 (s) 50 8 19 (s) 1 98 7 5 9 197 410 March ... 93 April ... (s) 46 6 19 (s) 1 113 5 7 10 188 383 81 May ... 92 107 (s) 47 7 20 (s) 1 98 5 5 9 191 391 June ... 109 (s) 47 6 21 (s) 1 97 4 5 10 191 426 125 1 119 (s) 45 7 21 (s) 145 100 6 6 9 195 460 July ... August ... 144 120 (s) 48 6 21 (s) 1 101 8 5 11 202 468 September ... 106 (s) 47 7 20 (s) 1 96 5 4 10 189 419 123 94 October ... (s) 50 7 20 (s) 1 105 6 5 11 195 409 109 November ... 97 117 (s) 48 7 20 (s) 1 93 9 4 9 190 406 December ... 129 156 (s) 51 9 21 (s) 1 96 7 5 10 200 485 1 ... 1,354 1,494 1 576 88 237 11 1,144 76 59 120 2,313 5,172 Total 2 017 January ... 125 159 (s) 48 10 20 (s) 1 88 8 8 10 193 477 February ... 127 (s) 45 7 17 (s) 1 85 4 4 9 172 396 96 1 137 (s) 52 8 21 (s) 98 97 3 5 11 199 435 March ... April ... 89 105 (s) 46 7 20 (s) 1 93 5 4 12 188 383 R 404 102 103 (s) 49 7 21 (s) 1 99 6 5 10 199 May ... (s) 116 104 (s) 48 6 21 June ... 1 98 5 5 11 196 416 8 100 1 4 452 199 (s) 11 July ... 136 116 (s) 46 7 22 (s) 5 5 1 10 202 445 101 August ... 129 114 (s) 50 6 22 R 10 4 6 94 1 (s) 20 7 (s) 104 108 September ... 403 48 190 October ... 110 (s) 51 8 22 (s) 1 97 3 5 11 197 408 100 91 November ... (s) 51 8 20 (s) 1 128 7 6 10 195 425 102 December ... 116 168 (s) 50 9 22 (s) 1 7 5 11 201 485 96 Total ... 1,316 1,474 1 584 90 1 10 1,140 70 61 126 2,330 5,131 247 R 018 11 January ... 126 180 (s) 56 20 1 1 90 7 5 11 201 2 508 R 1 91 147 (s) 45 8 18 (s) 83 3 4 11 174 413 February ... R March ... (s) 89 151 (s) 53 9 21 1 98 5 3 12 203 444 R (s) 82 127 (s) 51 7 20 April ... 1 93 5 6 8 191 402 R 10 409 May ... 95 111 (s) 54 6 21 (s) 1 99 6 5 202 R 22 6 48 (s) 111 110 99 June ... 420 197 11 4 6 1 (s) R R R 6 50 7 22 (s) 1 100 5 10 202 128 454 (s) 124 July ... R R 126 (s) 53 8 August ... (s) 1 101 8 5 10 209 460 124 23 September ... 117 (s) 49 8 20 (s) 107 92 8 5 8 190 415 (s) R R 97 124 (s) 55 8 21 (s) October ... 96 8 5 11 205 1 427 R R 93 146 (s) 51 9 21 (s) 1 5 5 9 194 103 444 November ... R R 472 110 162 (s) 51 10 21 (s) 1 96 5 6 10 200 December ... R R R 251 Total 1,259 1,630 2 616 99 ... 1 9 1,140 73 58 121 2,369 5,268 20 11 56 (s) 185 110 January ... 019 2 494 199 9 5 5 91 1 (s) a Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons of carbon R=Revised. (s)=Less than 0.5 million metric tons. y quivalent by multiplying by 12/44. e Data are estimates for carbon dioxide emissions from energ • Notes: b e consumption, plus the relatively small amount of emissions from th Includes coal coke net imports. c at non-combustion use of fossil fuels. See "Section 12 Methodology and Sources" Natural gas, excluding supplemental gaseous fuels. d end of section. See "Carbon Dioxide" in Glossary. Distillate fuel oil, excluding biodiesel. See Note 1, "Emissions of • • e e • Hydrocarbon gas liquids. Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases," at end of section. Data exclud f 2, emissions from biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7 and Note Finished motor gasoline, excluding fuel ethanol. g Aviation gasoline blending components, crude oil, motor gasoline blending "Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," at c omponents, petrochemical feedstocks, special naphthas, still gas, unfinished oils, • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independe nt end of section. Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. • rounding. axes, and miscellaneous petroleum products. w h Includes electric power sector use of geothermal energy and non-biomass nt Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#environme aste. See Table 12.6. w (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. i Sources: See end of section. Excludes emissions from biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7. Monthly U. 203 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

214 by 12.2 Carbon Dioxide Emissions Figure From Energy Consumption Sector Carbon of Dioxide) (Million Metric Tons Residential Sector by Major Source, 1973–2018 Total [a] by End-Use Sector [b], 1973–2018 1,000 2,500 Transportation Industrial 2,000 750 1,500 Retail Electricity [b] 500 Residential 1,000 Commercial Natural Gas 250 500 Petroleum 0 0 2005 2000 1995 1990 1985 1980 1975 2015 2010 2015 2010 1995 2000 1980 1975 1985 2005 1990 Commercial Sector by Major Source, 1973–2018 Industrial Sector by Major Source, 1973–2018 1,000 1,000 Retail Electricity [b] 750 750 Retail Electricity [b] Natural Gas 500 500 Petroleum 250 250 Natural Gas Coal Petroleum 0 0 1980 2005 2015 2010 2000 1995 1990 1975 1985 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 1980 1975 Transportation Sector by Major Source, 1973–2018 Electric Power Sector by Major Source, 1973–2018 2,500 2,500 Petroleum 2,000 2,000 1,500 1,500 Coal 1,000 1,000 500 500 Natural Gas Natural Gas Petroleum 0 0 1980 2010 2015 2005 2010 1990 1995 2000 1985 1975 2005 2000 2015 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 electricity sales. retail energy biomass [a] consumption. Excludes emissions from Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg y/data/monthly/#environment. Web power are [b] Emissions from sector energy consumption in the electric 12.2–12.6. Tables Sources: sector’s total of allocated to the end ‐ use sectors in proportion to each share / 2019 Review Energy Monthly April Administration Information Energy S. U. 204

215 T able 12.2 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Residential Sector a (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide ) Petroleum Retail Distillate Natural d e b f c Fuel Oil Gas Electricity HGL Total Total Coal Kerosene 16 ... 264 973 Total 36 9 199 435 907 1 147 975 Total ... 6 266 132 32 1 176 419 867 12 1 ... 3 256 96 20 8 124 529 911 980 Total 985 Total 20 4 241 80 1 11 111 553 909 ... 22 1 3 238 72 ... 5 98 624 963 990 Total 1 995 Total ... 2 263 66 25 5 96 678 1,039 1 996 Total 2 284 68 30 6 104 710 1,099 ... 997 Total 29 2 270 64 1 7 99 719 1,090 ... 27 1 1 247 56 ... 8 91 759 1,097 998 Total 1 999 Total ... 1 257 60 33 8 102 762 1,122 35 2 1 271 66 ... 7 108 805 1,185 000 Total 2 001 Total ... 1 259 66 33 7 106 805 1,171 34 2 ... 1 265 63 002 Total 4 101 835 1,203 1 2 003 Total ... 68 276 34 5 108 847 1,232 2 004 Total 1 264 67 32 6 106 856 1,227 ... 005 Total ... 262 62 32 6 101 897 1,261 2 1 5 006 Total 237 52 28 1 85 869 1,191 2 ... 007 Total ... 1 257 53 31 3 86 897 1,241 2 2 008 Total NA 266 55 35 2 91 877 1,234 ... 009 Total 35 NA 259 43 2 2 79 819 1,157 ... 33 2 NA 259 41 ... 2 77 874 1,210 010 Total 2 011 Total ... NA 255 38 31 1 71 823 1,149 2 012 Total NA 225 35 25 1 61 757 1,043 ... 013 Total 29 NA 267 36 2 1 66 768 1,100 ... 31 2 NA 278 39 ... 1 71 766 1,115 014 Total 2 015 Total ... NA 253 40 28 1 69 714 1,037 3 2 NA 48 4 January ... (s) 7 65 120 016 February ... NA 38 4 2 (s) 6 52 96 March ... NA 25 3 2 (s) 5 41 71 2 37 5 60 April ... NA 18 2 (s) 58 43 4 (s) NA May ... 2 2 11 75 June ... NA 7 2 (s) 4 65 2 (s) 93 84 4 2 2 6 NA July ... August ... 6 1 2 (s) 3 83 92 NA September ... (s) 6 2 2 4 64 74 NA NA 10 3 2 (s) 5 49 64 October ... November ... NA 21 3 2 (s) 5 43 69 NA 44 5 2 (s) 7 62 113 December ... Total ... NA 239 32 27 1 60 683 982 3 2 January ... NA 46 4 017 (s) 7 63 116 NA February ... 32 81 3 2 (s) 5 44 32 3 2 (s) 5 45 83 NA March ... April ... NA 15 2 2 (s) 5 39 59 (s) May ... 11 2 2 NA 4 45 60 June ... NA 7 2 2 (s) 4 58 69 NA 6 1 2 (s) 4 77 86 July ... 80 August ... NA 6 2 2 (s) 4 70 65 September ... NA 6 2 2 (s) 4 55 11 46 4 (s) 2 2 NA October ... 62 77 NA 26 November ... 3 (s) 6 46 3 60 7 (s) 3 5 45 NA December ... 112 R R 28 ... NA 242 32 1 60 645 Total 947 R 2 018 January ... NA 54 5 (s) 9 3 72 135 NA 38 4 3 (s) 6 49 92 February ... 87 March ... NA 36 3 3 (s) 6 45 3 40 5 (s) 2 24 69 NA April ... 2 9 NA May ... 47 60 4 (s) 2 1 71 June ... NA 7 2 (s) 4 61 (s) 4 2 1 6 NA July ... 77 86 4 August ... NA 5 1 3 (s) 74 83 71 September ... NA 6 1 2 (s) 4 61 68 6 49 14 NA 3 3 (s) October ... 4 NA 3 (s) 7 50 89 November ... 33 R 8 (s) 3 5 57 NA December ... 108 42 R R R 1 31 33 274 1,018 NA 679 ... Total 65 (s) NA 2 52 5 3 019 8 61 122 January ... a y Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons of carbon • Notes: Data are estimates for carbon dioxide emissions from energ e n. consumption. See "Section 12 Methodology and Sources" at end of sectio quivalent by multiplying by 12/44. b • See Note 1, "Emissions of Carbon Dioxid e • Natural gas, excluding supplemental gaseous fuels. See "Carbon Dioxide" in Glossary. c and Other Greenhouse Gases," at end of section. • Data exclude emissions fro Distillate fuel oil, excluding biodiesel. m d Hydrocarbon gas liquids. n biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7 and Note 2, "Accounting for Carbo e ls Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," at end of section. • Emissions from energy consumption (for electricity and a small amount of Tota ic • may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. u seful thermal output) in the electric power sector are allocated to the end-use Geograph s coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. ectors in proportion to each sector’s share of total electricity retail sales. See Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#environme ables 7.6 and 12.6. T nt f Excludes emissions from biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7. (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 million metric tons. Sources: See end of section. Monthly U. 205 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

216 T able 12.3 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Commercial Sector a ) (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide Petroleum Motor Natural Distillate Residual Petroleum Retail b c g d e f Fuel Oil Gasoline Electricity Coke Fuel Oil Gas Kerosene Total Coal Total HGL 15 141 1 9 5 6 NA 52 120 334 609 973 Total ... 47 ... 136 43 8 4 6 14 39 100 333 583 975 Total 1 NA 1 11 141 38 6 3 8 NA 44 98 412 662 980 Total ... 985 Total 13 132 46 6 2 7 NA 18 79 480 704 1 ... ... 8 142 39 6 1 990 Total 0 18 73 566 793 1 12 (s) 995 Total 164 35 7 2 1 11 11 56 620 851 1 ... 996 Total ... 12 171 35 8 2 2 (s) 11 57 643 883 1 (s) 997 Total 174 32 8 2 3 12 9 54 686 926 1 ... 998 Total ... 9 164 31 7 2 3 (s) 7 50 724 947 1 (s) 999 Total 165 32 9 2 2 10 6 51 735 960 1 ... 000 Total ... 9 173 36 9 2 3 (s) 7 58 783 1,022 2 001 Total 3 9 164 37 9 2 2 (s) 6 57 797 1,027 ... 002 Total 3 9 170 32 9 1 2 (s) 6 52 795 1,026 ... 4 2 8 173 36 10 1 ... (s) 9 60 796 1,037 003 Total 2 004 Total ... 10 170 34 10 1 3 (s) 10 58 815 1,053 2 005 Total 9 163 33 8 2 3 (s) 9 55 841 1,069 ... 3 2 6 154 29 8 1 ... (s) 6 47 835 1,043 006 Total 2 007 Total ... 7 164 28 8 1 4 (s) 6 46 861 1,078 (s) 2 ... 8 171 28 10 008 Total 3 (s) 6 47 849 1,075 7 2 009 Total ... 169 29 9 (s) 3 (s) 6 47 784 1,007 2 010 Total 7 168 29 9 (s) 3 (s) 5 46 804 1,025 ... (s) 011 Total 171 29 9 (s) 3 6 4 45 768 990 2 ... 012 Total ... 4 157 26 9 (s) 3 (s) 2 40 731 932 2 2 013 Total 4 179 25 10 (s) 3 (s) 2 39 736 958 ... 4 2 4 190 26 10 (s) ... (s) 1 41 736 970 014 Total 2 015 Total ... 3 176 26 9 (s) 25 (s) (s) 61 692 932 2 016 (s) 28 3 1 (s) 2 (s) (s) 6 55 89 January ... 2 February ... 23 3 1 (s) (s) (s) (s) 6 46 75 March ... (s) 16 2 1 (s) 2 (s) (s) 5 43 65 2 13 2 1 (s) (s) (s) (s) 5 43 61 April ... 63 May ... (s) 9 2 1 (s) 2 0 (s) 5 49 63 4 (s) (s) (s) 1 1 2 74 8 June ... (s) July ... 7 1 1 (s) 2 (s) (s) 4 70 82 (s) 2 8 1 1 (s) (s) 0 (s) 4 71 83 August ... September ... (s) 8 1 1 (s) 2 0 (s) 4 61 73 2 11 2 1 (s) (s) 0 (s) 5 54 70 October ... 48 November ... (s) 15 2 1 (s) 2 (s) (s) 5 69 December ... (s) 25 4 1 (s) 2 (s) (s) 7 56 88 (s) ... 2 171 24 9 Total 25 (s) (s) 59 662 894 2 017 January ... (s) 26 3 1 (s) 2 (s) (s) 6 53 86 2 20 2 1 (s) (s) (s) (s) 5 44 68 February ... 73 March ... (s) 20 2 1 (s) 2 (s) (s) 5 47 2 60 1 (s) 12 2 (s) (s) 5 44 April ... (s) (s) 1 1 10 (s) May ... 64 50 4 (s) (s) 2 June ... 8 2 1 (s) 2 (s) (s) 4 57 69 (s) 2 7 1 1 (s) (s) (s) (s) 4 66 78 July ... August ... (s) 8 1 1 (s) 2 (s) (s) 4 63 75 2 8 1 1 (s) (s) (s) (s) 4 55 67 September ... October ... (s) 11 2 1 (s) 2 (s) (s) 4 51 67 November ... 18 (s) 2 1 (s) 2 (s) (s) 5 49 72 (s) 27 3 1 (s) 2 (s) (s) 6 53 87 December ... R Total ... 2 174 24 10 (s) 24 (s) (s) 58 633 866 93 2 January ... (s) 30 4 1 (s) 2 (s) (s) 7 56 018 (s) (s) 23 3 1 February ... 2 (s) (s) 5 44 72 March ... 46 5 (s) 74 (s) (s) 23 2 1 (s) 2 5 (s) (s) 2 (s) 1 16 (s) April ... 2 64 43 2 (s) 9 1 1 (s) May ... 0 (s) 4 51 64 1 June ... (s) 8 1 69 (s) 2 0 (s) 4 57 (s) (s) 7 1 1 July ... 2 0 (s) 4 66 77 65 77 August ... (s) 8 1 1 (s) 2 0 (s) 4 R (s) 69 1 September ... (s) 8 1 58 2 (s) (s) 4 2 (s) 13 2 1 (s) October ... (s) (s) 5 53 71 1 November ... (s) 21 3 77 (s) 2 (s) (s) 6 50 1 83 December ... (s) 25 4 (s) 2 (s) (s) 7 50 R R 25 638 Total ... 2 191 11 (s) 24 (s) (s) 60 891 (s) (s) (s) 7 52 89 1 2 4 30 (s) January ... 019 2 a y Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons of carbon Data are estimates for carbon dioxide emissions from energ • Notes: consumption. See "Section 12 Methodology and Sources" at end of sectio e n. quivalent by multiplying by 12/44. b e See "Carbon Dioxide" in Glossary. Natural gas, excluding supplemental gaseous fuels. • See Note 1, "Emissions of Carbon Dioxid • c m Data exclude emissions fro • and Other Greenhouse Gases," at end of section. Distillate fuel oil, excluding biodiesel. d Hydrocarbon gas liquids. biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7 and Note 2, "Accounting for Carbo n e Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," at end of section. Tota ls • Finished motor gasoline, excluding fuel ethanol. f may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. ic Geograph Emissions from energy consumption (for electricity and a small amount of • coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. seful thermal output) in the electric power sector are allocated to the end-use u ectors in proportion to each sector’s share of total electricity retail sales. See s nt Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#environme (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. T ables 7.6 and 12.6. g Sources: See end of section. Excludes emissions from biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7. R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 million metric tons. / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 206

217 T able 12.4 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Industrial Sector a (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide ) Coal Petroleum Retail Coke Elec- Net Natural Kero- Residual Petroleum Motor Lubri- Distillate e d h b c g f tricity Imports Gasoline sene Fuel Oil Coke cants Fuel Oil Gas Other Total Total HGL Coal 1 371 -1 536 106 28 11 7 18 53 142 97 463 515 1,884 973 Total ... 975 Total 336 2 440 97 27 9 6 ... 51 115 93 413 490 1,680 1 16 980 Total ... 289 -4 430 96 54 13 7 11 49 103 129 461 601 1 1,776 1 ... 256 -2 363 81 55 3 6 15 54 57 86 358 583 1,558 985 Total 13 990 Total 1 435 84 46 1 7 258 67 32 114 363 638 1,695 1 ... 995 Total ... 233 7 492 82 58 1 7 14 68 25 107 362 659 1,752 1 1 996 Total 227 3 508 86 59 1 6 14 72 25 125 389 678 1,804 ... 7 1 224 5 509 88 58 1 ... 15 70 22 131 392 694 1,824 997 Total 1 998 Total ... 219 8 500 88 56 2 7 14 80 16 116 379 706 1,811 1 999 Total 208 7 480 86 57 1 7 11 85 14 119 381 704 1,780 ... 11 000 Total 7 486 87 58 1 7 211 77 17 106 364 719 1,787 2 ... 001 Total ... 204 3 444 94 51 2 6 21 79 14 125 392 667 1,712 2 2 002 Total 188 7 453 88 52 1 6 22 79 13 121 382 654 1,684 ... 6 2 190 6 435 85 48 2 ... 23 78 15 134 391 672 1,694 003 Total 2 004 Total ... 190 16 438 88 52 2 6 26 85 17 136 413 674 1,732 2 005 Total 183 5 406 92 48 3 6 25 82 20 135 410 672 1,677 ... 6 2 179 7 408 91 47 2 ... 26 85 16 147 421 650 1,664 006 Total 2 007 Total ... 175 3 418 91 50 1 6 21 83 13 143 408 662 1,666 6 2 168 5 419 98 38 (s) ... 17 78 13 126 375 642 1,608 008 Total 2 009 Total ... 131 -3 395 78 38 (s) 5 16 73 9 107 327 550 1,400 342 2 010 Total ... 153 -1 427 84 43 1 5 17 68 8 115 587 1,508 2 011 Total 146 1 438 90 39 (s) 5 17 65 9 114 340 574 1,498 ... 012 Total ... (s) 455 93 50 (s) 4 17 70 5 110 349 543 1,489 2 141 65 ... 472 92 53 (s) 5 17 -2 3 116 351 542 1,508 013 Total 145 2 ... 143 -2 488 100 45 (s) 5 2 64 3 108 339 543 1,511 014 Total 14 015 Total 129 -2 487 85 53 (s) 5 ... 65 2 112 340 502 1,456 2 17 016 January ... 10 (s) 46 8 6 (s) (s) 1 6 (s) 10 32 2 126 39 10 (s) 42 8 5 (s) (s) 1 5 (s) 12 33 34 119 February ... 6 March ... 43 9 4 (s) (s) 1 (s) (s) 9 30 32 115 10 April ... 9 (s) 40 6 4 (s) (s) 1 4 (s) 10 27 33 109 May ... (s) 40 6 4 (s) (s) 1 4 (s) 9 25 37 111 9 1 (s) 38 6 3 (s) (s) 9 3 (s) 10 25 44 116 June ... July ... 9 (s) 40 4 4 (s) (s) 2 5 (s) 9 24 47 121 August ... (s) 41 7 4 (s) (s) 2 7 (s) 11 31 47 127 9 September ... 9 39 7 4 (s) (s) 1 4 (s) 10 27 41 117 (s) 5 October ... 40 7 4 (s) (s) 1 (s) (s) 11 30 39 118 9 November ... 9 -1 42 8 4 (s) (s) 1 (s) 9 30 36 117 8 10 (s) 46 7 5 (s) (s) 1 6 (s) 10 31 40 127 December ... 5 ... 113 -2 497 84 51 (s) Total 17 64 4 120 345 473 1,426 2 017 January ... 9 (s) 46 7 6 (s) (s) 1 7 (s) 10 32 38 125 R (s) 41 8 4 (s) (s) 1 3 (s) 9 26 33 February ... 109 9 1 March ... (s) 44 10 5 (s) (s) 9 3 (s) 11 31 35 119 April ... 9 (s) 41 6 4 (s) (s) 1 5 (s) 12 29 34 112 2 (s) 41 8 4 (s) (s) 9 6 (s) 10 30 38 117 May ... 116 June ... 9 (s) 40 7 3 (s) (s) 2 4 (s) 11 27 41 2 5 45 29 124 11 (s) 7 July ... 9 (s) 41 (s) 4 (s) 2 (s) (s) 4 7 41 (s) 9 August ... 44 122 28 10 (s) 5 September ... (s) 40 7 4 (s) (s) 1 5 (s) 10 29 39 116 9 1 (s) 42 8 4 (s) (s) 9 3 (s) 11 28 37 117 October ... November ... 9 (s) 44 9 5 (s) (s) 1 6 (s) 10 32 37 123 (s) 10 (s) 48 7 5 (s) December ... 1 6 (s) 11 31 39 128 (s) Total ... 112 -3 509 88 52 351 5 18 60 3 126 461 1,429 1 2 (s) 49 9 6 (s) (s) 9 6 (s) 11 34 37 129 January ... 018 February ... 9 (s) 44 7 5 (s) (s) 1 3 (s) 11 27 31 110 R March ... 9 (s) 47 9 5 (s) (s) 2 5 (s) 12 33 33 121 R (s) 9 (s) 44 8 4 (s) April ... 1 5 (s) 8 27 31 111 37 43 119 May ... 9 (s) 30 10 3 (s) (s) 2 5 (s) 10 11 (s) 6 2 (s) (s) 3 42 (s) 9 June ... 6 117 38 28 July ... 2 (s) 43 6 4 (s) (s) 9 5 (s) 10 28 43 122 R (s) August ... 9 (s) 43 8 4 (s) 2 7 (s) 10 32 43 128 R R (s) (s) 43 7 4 (s) September ... 1 7 (s) 8 28 9 38 118 R R 5 125 11 37 34 (s) 7 1 (s) (s) 9 44 (s) October ... 9 R R (s) 9 (s) 47 7 5 (s) November ... 1 4 (s) 9 28 37 121 4 December ... 10 (s) 49 6 (s) (s) 1 6 (s) 10 28 36 122 R R R R (s) 110 -3 Total 538 92 56 4 18 63 3 121 357 ... 442 1,444 36 130 019 7 (s) 1 (s) 4 (s) 9 9 January ... (s) 11 34 2 52 a R=Revised. (s)=Less than 0.5 million metric tons and greater than -0.5 millio n Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons of carbon e quivalent by multiplying by 12/44. metric tons. b Notes: • Data are estimates for carbon dioxide emissions from energ y Natural gas, excluding supplemental gaseous fuels. c e consumption, plus the relatively small amount of emissions from th Distillate fuel oil, excluding biodiesel. d non-combustion use of fossil fuels. See "Section 12 Methodology and Sources" at Hydrocarbon gas liquids. e See Note 1, "Emissions of Finished motor gasoline, excluding fuel ethanol. end of section. See "Carbon Dioxide" in Glossary. • • f Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases," at end of section. e • Data exclud Aviation gasoline blending components, crude oil, motor gasoline blending c omponents, petrochemical feedstocks, special naphthas, still gas, unfinished oils, 2, emissions from biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7 and Note axes, and miscellaneous petroleum products. at "Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," w g nt Emissions from energy consumption (for electricity and a small amount of end of section. • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independe u Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. • rounding. seful thermal output) in the electric power sector are allocated to the end-use Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#environme s ectors in proportion to each sector’s share of total electricity retail sales. See nt ables 7.6 and 12.6. T (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. h Sources: See end of section. Excludes emissions from biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7. Monthly U. 207 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

218 T able 12.5 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Transportation Sector a (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide ) Petroleum Retail Elec- Jet Natural Aviation Residual Distillate Motor Lubri- e c f d b g tricity HGL Total Coal Total Fuel Oil cants Fuel Gasoline Fuel Oil Gasoline Gas (s) 39 6 163 3 152 6 886 57 1 2 1,315 973 Total ... 1,273 ... 32 5 155 3 145 6 889 56 1,258 2 1,292 1 975 Total (s) h ... 34 4 204 1 155 6 ( ) 110 1,363 2 1,400 1 980 Total 881 h 6 ( ) 28 3 232 2 178 1 985 Total 62 1,391 3 1,421 ... 908 h 990 Total ( ) 36 3 268 1 223 7 967 80 1,548 3 1,588 1 ... h ... 38 3 307 1 222 6 ( ) 72 1,637 3 1,679 1 995 Total 1,026 h 6 ( ) 39 3 327 1 232 1 1,046 67 1,681 3 1,724 996 Total ... h 997 Total ( ) 41 3 341 1 234 6 1,055 56 1,698 3 1,742 1 ... h 7 ( ) 35 2 352 1 238 998 Total 1,088 53 1,741 3 1,779 1 ... h ... 245 ( ) 36 3 365 1 1 7 1,113 52 1,786 3 1,826 999 Total h 000 Total 2 ( ) 36 3 377 1 254 7 1,119 70 1,830 4 1,870 ... h 001 Total ( ) 35 2 387 1 243 6 1,125 46 1,810 4 1,849 2 ... h 1,156 37 2 394 1 237 6 ( ) 53 1,849 4 1,890 002 Total ... 2 h 2 ( ) 33 2 408 1 231 003 Total 1,159 45 1,853 5 1,891 ... 6 h 004 Total ( ) 32 2 433 1 240 ... 1,180 58 1,921 5 1,957 2 6 h ... 246 ( ) 33 2 444 2 2 6 1,180 66 1,946 5 1,984 005 Total h 2 006 Total ( ) 33 2 467 2 240 5 1,187 71 1,974 5 2,012 ... h 6 ( ) 35 2 469 1 238 007 Total 1,183 78 1,977 5 2,018 2 ... h ... 226 ( ) 37 2 424 3 2 5 1,119 73 1,852 5 1,893 008 Total h 2 009 Total ( ) 38 2 400 2 204 5 1,107 62 1,782 5 1,825 ... h 210 2 ( ) 38 2 423 1 ... 6 1,089 70 1,800 5 1,843 010 Total h 011 Total ... 4 ( ) 39 2 431 1 209 6 1,057 61 1,766 2 1,809 h 2 012 Total ... 1,728 ( ) 41 2 411 1 206 5 1,051 53 4 1,774 h 2 ( ) 47 2 416 1 210 5 1,066 46 1,745 4 1,797 ... 013 Total h ... 40 2 435 1 216 6 ( ) 35 1,771 4 1,815 2 014 Total 1,077 h 6 ( ) 40 1 441 1 227 2 1,083 37 1,796 4 1,839 015 Total ... h 016 ( ) 5 (s) 33 (s) 18 1 87 4 143 (s) 148 2 January ... h February ... 4 (s) 32 (s) 18 1 ( ) 2 139 (s) 143 86 h 159 ( ) 3 (s) 36 (s) 19 1 94 5 155 (s) March ... h April ... 3 (s) 36 (s) 19 (s) 89 6 150 (s) 153 ( ) h 94 3 (s) 37 (s) 20 (s) May ... 4 156 (s) 159 ( ) h June ... 3 (s) 38 (s) 21 1 ( ) 4 156 (s) 160 93 h ( ) 3 (s) 37 (s) 21 (s) 96 5 161 (s) 164 July ... h 97 3 (s) 39 (s) 21 (s) ( ) 4 162 (s) 166 August ... h ( ) 3 (s) 36 (s) 20 (s) 92 3 152 (s) 155 September ... h October ... ( ) 3 (s) 38 (s) 20 (s) 91 4 154 (s) 157 h ( ) 3 (s) 35 (s) 20 (s) 89 4 148 (s) 152 November ... h December ... 4 (s) 35 (s) 21 (s) ( ) 4 153 (s) 157 93 h Total ... 237 ( ) 40 1 431 1 6 1,102 49 1,827 4 1,871 h 2 017 ( ) 5 (s) 33 (s) 20 1 85 7 145 (s) 150 January ... h (s) ( ) 4 (s) 32 (s) 17 82 3 134 (s) 138 February ... h March ... 37 ( ) 4 (s) (s) 21 1 93 4 156 (s) 160 h ( ) 3 (s) 35 (s) 20 (s) 90 4 149 (s) 153 April ... h (s) ( ) 3 (s) 38 (s) 21 96 5 160 (s) 163 May ... h June ... 21 ( ) 3 (s) 37 (s) (s) 95 4 158 (s) 162 h (s) ( ) 3 (s) 38 (s) 22 96 4 160 (s) 164 July ... h August ... ( ) 3 (s) 40 (s) 22 (s) 98 5 164 (s) 168 h (s) 91 155 (s) 152 4 (s) 37 September ... 20 ( ) 3 (s) h 22 October ... 38 ( ) 3 (s) (s) (s) 94 4 159 (s) 162 h (s) 154 36 (s) 88 (s) 5 150 November ... 20 ( ) 4 (s) h 159 (s) 154 4 93 (s) 22 (s) 35 (s) 5 ( ) December ... h 5 ( ) 42 1 436 1 247 ... 1,099 52 1,842 4 1,888 Total h January ... 2 ( ) 5 (s) 35 (s) 20 (s) 87 3 146 (s) 151 018 h February ... (s) ( ) 4 (s) 32 (s) 18 (s) 80 3 134 138 h March ... 3 ( ) 4 (s) 38 (s) 21 (s) 95 158 (s) 162 h (s) ( ) 4 (s) 38 (s) 20 89 5 153 (s) 157 April ... h May ... ( ) 3 (s) 41 (s) 21 (s) 95 4 163 (s) 166 h 164 161 June ... (s) ( ) 3 (s) 39 (s) 22 (s) 95 3 h (s) (s) July ... 165 ( ) 4 169 41 (s) 22 (s) 97 4 h 4 ( ) August ... 172 (s) 168 4 97 (s) 23 (s) 43 (s) h 20 156 ( ) 3 (s) 39 (s) September ... (s) 88 5 153 (s) h October ... 163 ( ) 4 (s) 41 (s) 21 (s) 93 4 159 (s) h (s) 152 4 90 21 (s) 37 (s) 4 ( ) November ... (s) 157 h (s) December ... 92 ( ) 5 (s) 36 21 (s) 5 155 (s) 160 h 4 Total ... 1,915 ( ) 46 2 461 1 251 5 1,099 48 1,866 h 20 (s) 2 ( ) 88 4 5 149 (s) 154 019 (s) 36 (s) January ... a (s)=Less than 0.5 million metric tons. Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons of carbon Notes: • Data are estimates for carbon dioxide emissions from energ e y quivalent by multiplying by 12/44. b consumption, plus the relatively small amount of emissions from th Natural gas, excluding supplemental gaseous fuels. e c non-combustion use of fossil fuels. See "Section 12 Methodology and Sources" Distillate fuel oil, excluding biodiesel. at d • • See Note 1, "Emissions end of section. Hydrocarbon gas liquids. See "Carbon Dioxide" in Glossary. of e Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases," at end of section. Finished motor gasoline, excluding fuel ethanol. e Data exclud • f Emissions from energy consumption (for electricity and a small amount of emissions from biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7 and Note 2, "Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," at u seful thermal output) in the electric power sector are allocated to the end-use nt • Totals may not equal sum of components due to independe end of section. ectors in proportion to each sector’s share of total electricity retail sales. See s ables 7.6 and 12.6. T rounding. • Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. g Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#environme Excludes emissions from biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7. nt h Beginning in 1978, the small amounts of coal consumed for transportation are (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. eported as industrial sector consumption. r Sources: See end of section. / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 208

219 T able 12.6 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Electric Power Sector a (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide ) Petroleum Non- Biomass Residual Natural Petroleum Geo- Distillate d e c b Waste Gas thermal Coke Fuel Oil Fuel Oil Total Total Coal ... 812 199 20 1 254 276 NA NA 1,286 973 Total 2 975 Total ... 824 172 17 1 231 248 NA NA 1,244 (s) 1 ... 1,137 200 12 1 194 207 NA NA 1,544 980 Total 985 Total 1 1,367 166 6 1 79 86 NA NA 1,619 ... 92 1 1,548 176 7 3 ... 102 (s) 6 1,831 990 Total 1 995 Total ... 1,661 228 8 8 45 61 (s) 10 1,960 1 996 Total 1,752 205 8 8 50 66 (s) 10 2,033 ... 997 Total 56 1,797 219 8 10 1 75 (s) 10 2,101 ... 82 1 1,828 248 10 13 ... 105 (s) 10 2,192 998 Total 1 999 Total ... 1,836 260 10 11 76 97 (s) 10 2,204 69 2 1,927 281 13 10 ... 91 (s) 10 2,310 000 Total 2 001 Total ... 1,870 290 12 11 79 102 (s) 11 2,273 18 2 ... 1,890 306 9 002 Total 52 79 (s) 13 2,288 ... 2 003 Total 69 1,931 278 12 18 98 (s) 11 2,319 2 004 Total 1,943 297 8 22 69 99 (s) 11 2,350 ... 005 Total ... 319 8 24 69 101 (s) 11 2,416 2 1,984 55 006 Total 338 5 21 28 1,954 (s) 12 2,358 2 ... 007 Total ... 1,987 372 6 17 31 54 (s) 11 2,425 2 2 008 Total 1,959 362 5 15 19 39 (s) 12 2,373 ... 009 Total 14 1,741 373 5 13 2 33 (s) 11 2,158 ... 12 2 1,828 399 6 14 ... 32 (s) 11 2,270 010 Total 2 011 Total ... 1,723 409 5 14 7 26 (s) 11 2,170 2 012 Total 1,511 493 4 9 6 19 (s) 11 2,034 ... 013 Total 6 1,571 444 4 13 2 23 (s) 11 2,050 ... 7 2 1,569 444 6 12 ... 26 (s) 11 2,050 014 Total 2 015 Total ... 1,350 527 5 11 7 24 (s) 11 1,913 1 2 114 42 1 1 January ... 2 (s) 1 159 016 February ... 93 38 (s) 1 1 2 (s) 1 133 1 73 41 (s) March ... (s) 2 (s) 1 117 (s) 114 April ... 72 39 (s) 1 (s) 2 1 (s) 129 1 2 (s) 1 (s) 44 82 May ... (s) 172 June ... 116 53 1 2 (s) 1 (s) July ... 2 201 1 (s) 1 1 (s) 62 136 August ... 63 (s) 1 1 2 (s) 1 201 135 September ... (s) 50 (s) 1 2 (s) 1 167 114 (s) 41 (s) 1 100 1 (s) 1 143 October ... November ... 88 36 (s) 1 (s) 2 (s) 1 127 (s) 37 (s) 1 119 2 (s) 1 158 December ... Total ... 1,241 547 4 12 6 22 (s) 11 1,821 1 2 January ... 115 36 (s) 017 (s) 2 (s) 1 154 31 February ... 87 (s) 121 1 (s) 1 (s) 1 1 (s) 1 (s) 37 (s) 1 128 89 March ... April ... 80 34 (s) (s) (s) 1 (s) 1 117 2 May ... 38 (s) 1 (s) 92 (s) 1 133 June ... 107 47 (s) 1 (s) 2 (s) 1 156 R 188 127 59 (s) 1 (s) 2 (s) 1 July ... 1 119 56 (s) August ... (s) 2 (s) 1 178 149 September ... 99 47 (s) 1 (s) 1 (s) 1 October ... 42 1 (s) 1 (s) 1 (s) 91 135 131 92 36 (s) November ... (s) 1 (s) 1 1 (s) 2 1 1 1 43 106 December ... 152 1 Total 1,206 507 4 10 5 19 (s) 11 1,743 ... R 5 43 2 1 2 117 (s) 1 018 165 2 January ... R 83 38 (s) 1 (s) 1 (s) 1 February ... 123 R (s) 80 41 (s) 1 March ... 1 (s) 1 124 R R April ... 114 73 39 (s) 1 (s) 1 (s) 1 1 (s) 135 1 (s) (s) (s) 47 86 May ... R (s) 101 52 (s) 1 2 (s) 1 156 June ... R July ... 115 68 (s) 1 (s) 2 (s) 1 186 R R August ... 1 115 65 (s) 1 (s) 2 (s) 183 R 2 57 (s) 1 (s) 98 (s) 1 157 September ... October ... 88 49 (s) 1 (s) 1 (s) 1 139 R November ... 94 41 (s) 1 (s) 1 (s) 1 137 R 100 144 1 (s) (s) 1 (s) 1 December ... 41 R R ... Total 581 6 21 (s) 11 1,150 1,763 5 9 (s) 149 (s) 2 1 1 1 46 101 January ... 019 2 a Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons of carbon n. consumption. See "Section 12 Methodology and Sources" at end of sectio e • quivalent by multiplying by 12/44. • e See Note 1, "Emissions of Carbon Dioxid See "Carbon Dioxide" in Glossary. b Data exclude emissions fro Natural gas, excluding supplemental gaseous fuels. and Other Greenhouse Gases," at end of section. • m c biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7 and Note 2, "Accounting for Carbo n Distillate fuel oil, excluding biodiesel. d Tota Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion," at end of section. • Municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels. ls hrough 1994, also includes blast furnace gas, and other manufactured and waste • T ic may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. Geograph coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. g ases derived from fossil fuels. e Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#environme nt Excludes emissions from biomass energy consumption. See Table 12.7. R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 million metric tons. (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. Notes: • Data are estimates for carbon dioxide emissions from energy Sources: See end of section. Monthly U. 209 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

220 T able 12.7 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Consumption a ) (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide By Sector By Source Electric Biomass Fuel Trans- Indus- Bio- Com- Resi- b e d f c g dential diesel portation mercial Power trial Waste Ethanol Total Total Wood 109 143 NA NA 143 33 1 (s) NA (s) 143 ... 1 973 Total ... 140 (s) NA NA 1 40 1 100 NA (s) 141 975 Total 141 980 Total 232 (s) NA NA 232 80 2 150 NA (s) 232 1 ... ... 95 14 3 NA 270 985 Total 2 168 3 1 270 1 252 8 990 Total 24 4 NA 237 54 208 147 4 23 237 1 ... 995 Total ... 222 30 8 NA 260 49 9 166 8 28 260 1 10 996 Total 32 6 NA 266 51 229 170 6 30 266 1 ... 997 Total ... 222 30 7 NA 259 40 10 172 7 30 259 1 998 Total ... 30 8 NA 242 36 9 160 8 30 242 1 205 9 999 Total 29 8 NA 245 37 208 161 8 30 245 1 ... 000 Total ... 212 27 9 NA 248 39 9 161 9 29 248 2 2 001 Total 188 33 10 (s) 231 35 9 147 10 31 231 ... 002 Total 36 187 36 12 (s) 235 2 9 144 12 35 235 ... 38 2 188 36 16 (s) 240 ... 9 141 16 37 240 003 Total 2 004 Total ... 199 35 20 (s) 255 38 10 151 20 36 255 40 2 200 37 23 1 261 ... 10 150 23 37 261 005 Total 266 006 Total ... 197 36 31 2 266 36 9 151 33 38 2 146 2 007 Total ... 196 37 39 3 276 39 9 41 39 276 2 008 Total 193 39 55 3 290 44 10 139 57 40 290 ... 009 Total ... 41 62 3 288 47 10 125 64 41 288 2 182 10 010 Total 42 73 2 325 51 208 149 74 42 325 2 ... 011 Total ... 208 42 73 8 331 2 11 151 80 40 331 49 2 ... 202 42 73 8 325 41 10 153 80 42 325 012 Total 54 013 Total 219 45 75 13 353 ... 11 158 87 43 353 2 2 014 Total ... 225 47 76 13 361 54 12 158 88 49 361 2 015 Total 217 47 79 14 357 48 13 157 90 48 357 ... 4 2 18 4 6 1 29 January ... 1 13 7 4 29 016 February ... 17 4 6 1 28 3 1 13 7 4 28 4 4 7 1 29 17 1 13 8 4 29 March ... April ... 16 4 6 1 28 3 1 12 7 4 28 30 17 4 7 2 May ... 4 1 13 8 4 30 8 13 1 3 2 7 29 29 4 4 June ... 17 4 4 7 2 31 18 1 13 9 4 31 July ... August ... 18 4 7 2 31 4 1 13 9 4 31 3 17 4 7 2 29 September ... 1 12 8 4 29 4 October ... 17 4 2 29 7 1 13 8 3 29 3 4 7 2 30 17 1 13 8 4 30 November ... December ... 20 4 7 2 33 4 1 15 9 4 33 20 Total ... 209 46 81 356 42 14 155 98 47 356 6 7 4 30 1 4 30 3 1 14 2 017 January ... 18 4 16 February ... 27 4 7 12 1 3 27 1 6 March ... 4 7 1 30 3 1 14 8 4 30 18 3 4 7 2 29 17 1 13 8 4 29 April ... May ... 18 4 7 2 30 3 1 13 9 4 30 3 4 7 2 30 18 1 13 9 4 30 June ... July ... 18 4 7 2 31 3 1 14 8 4 31 32 August ... 19 4 7 2 3 1 14 9 4 32 September ... 3 7 2 29 3 1 13 8 4 29 17 3 4 7 2 30 18 1 13 8 4 30 October ... November ... 18 4 7 2 30 3 1 14 8 4 30 3 4 7 2 31 19 1 14 8 4 31 December ... 360 Total ... 214 45 82 19 360 41 14 161 98 47 8 14 1 4 31 31 4 2 018 January ... 19 4 7 1 7 13 1 4 28 1 6 4 17 February ... 28 4 1 7 1 31 4 4 13 8 4 31 19 March ... April ... 18 4 6 1 29 4 1 13 7 3 29 May ... 19 4 7 2 31 4 1 13 9 4 31 31 18 4 7 2 June ... 4 1 13 8 4 31 31 July ... 19 4 7 2 31 4 1 14 9 4 1 August ... 32 4 9 14 4 19 4 7 2 32 4 3 6 2 29 18 1 13 8 3 29 September ... 31 October ... 18 4 7 2 31 4 1 13 8 4 November ... 18 4 7 1 30 4 1 13 8 4 30 31 19 4 7 2 December ... 4 1 14 8 4 31 161 97 46 365 14 49 Total ... 221 45 82 18 365 January ... 019 2 30 14 7 4 30 1 4 6 1 4 19 a NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 million metric tons. Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons of carbon Notes: • Carbon dioxide emissions from biomass energy consumption a re quivalent by multiplying by 12/44. e b Wood and wood-derived fuels. excluded from the energy-related carbon dioxide emissions reported in Table s c s Municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, 12.1–12.6. See Note 2, "Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomas Energy Combustion," at end of section. • 2 gricultural byproducts, and other biomass. a Data are estimates. See "Section 1 d y. See "Carbon Dioxide" in Glossar • Methodology and Sources" at end of section. Fuel ethanol minus denaturant. e at Commercial sector, including commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) • See Note 1, "Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases," a nt Totals may not equal sum of components due to independe • nd commercial electricity-only plants. end of section. f Industrial sector, including industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. • rounding. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#environme nt i ndustrial electricity-only plants. g The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-and- (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual and monthly data beginning in 1973. Sources: See end of section. ower (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell p lectricity, or electricity and heat, to the public. e / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 210

221 Environment Note Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases. Greenhouse gases are those gases—such as water 1. carbon vapor, (CO2), methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur dioxide ‐ to solar are ‐ wave) radiation but opaque to long transparent wave (infrared) radiation, thus hexafluoride—that (short long ‐ wave radiant energy preventing leaving Earth's atmosphere. The net effect is a of absorbed from trapping a tendency to warm the planet's surface. radiation and related carbon dioxide emissions account for about 98% of U.S. ‐ CO2 emissions. The vast majority of CO2 Energy from fossil fuel combustion, come smaller amounts from the emissions with ‐ combustion use of fossil fuels, as well non as electricity generation using geothermal energy and non ‐ biomass waste. Other sources of CO2 emissions include from processes, such as cement limestone production. Data in the U.S. Energy Information Administration's industrial and Energy Review (MER) Tables Monthly are estimates for U.S. (EIA) 12.1–12.6 CO2 emissions from energy consumption, non ‐ combustion use of fossil fuels (excluded are estimates for CO2 emissions from biomass energy the plus which appear in MER Table 12.7). consumption, as U.S. estimates for emissions of CO2 from all sources, annual well as for emissions of other greenhouse gases, see For EIA's Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Report at http://www.eia.gov/environment/emissions/ghg_report/. Note Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions 2. combustion of biomass to produce energy are excluded from the energy ‐ related CO2 emissions reported in from the 12.1–12.6, but appear in Tables MER Table 12.7. According MER to current international convention (see the on Climate Change's "2006 Intergovernmental IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories"), carbon Panel biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy released related emissions. The release of carbon from through ‐ biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced the uptake of carbon when the by feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net over some period of time. (This is not to say that biomass energy is carbon ‐ neutral. Energy inputs are emissions produce required order to grow, fertilize, and harvest the feedstock and to in and process the biomass into fuels.) However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy ‐ related emissions. For example, the clearing of forests for biofuel crops could result in an initial release agriculture. of carbon that is not fully recaptured in subsequent use of the land for To the potential net emissions, the international convention for greenhouse gas inventories is to report biomass reflect on in the category "agriculture, forestry, and other land use," usually based estimates of net changes emissions in stocks time. carbon over indirect accounting of CO2 emissions in biomass can potentially lead to confusion This accounting for and from understanding the flow of CO2 emissions within energy and non ‐ energy systems. In recognition of this issue, reporting of CO2 emissions from biomass combustion alongside other energy ‐ related CO2 emissions offers an alternative accounting treatment. It is important, however, to avoid misinterpreting emissions from fossil energy and biomass as energy sources necessarily additive. Instead, the combined total of direct CO2 emissions from biomass and energy ‐ related emissions implicitly assumes that none of the carbon emitted was previously or CO2 subsequently reabsorbed in sinks or that other emissions sources terrestrial offset any such sequestration. Section 12 Methodology and Sources To estimate carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption for the Monthly Energy Review (MER) , Tables 12.1– 12.7, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) uses the following methodology and sources: Step 1. Determine Fuel Consumption sectoral (residential, commercial, coke plants, Coal—Coal other industrial, transportation, electric power) consumption by data in thousand short tons are from MER Table 6.2. Coal sectoral consumption data are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying A5. Table MER in factors content heat coal the Monthly U. 211 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

222 Coal Net Imports—Coal coke net imports data in trillion Btu are derived from coal coke imports and exports data in Coke Tables and 1.4b. MER 1.4a supplemental gaseous fuels)—Natural gas sectoral Gas data in (excluding trillion Btu are from MER Natural consumption 2.2–2.6. Tables oil, road and asphalt data in thousand barrels per day for supplied) (product consumption sectoral and Petroleum—Total jet gasoline, fuel oil, hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGL), distillate fuel, kerosene, lubricants, motor gasoline, aviation coke, and petroleum fuel oil are from MER Tables 3.5 and 3.7a–3.7c. For the component products of HGL residual propane/propylene, normal butane/butylene, isobutane/isobutylene, (ethane/ethylene, and gasoline) and natural petroleum" (aviation gasoline blending components, crude oil, motor gasoline blending components, naphthas "other use, petrochemical feedstock use, other oils for petrochemical feedstock special naphthas, still gas, unfinished oils, for and miscellaneous petroleum products), consumption (product supplied) data in thousand barrels per day are waxes, from Petroleum EIA's Supply (PSA) , Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) , Annual and earlier publications (see sources for Table 3.5). Petroleum consumption data by MER product are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the petroleum heat content factors in MER Tables A1 and A3. Biomass—Sectoral consumption data in trillion Btu for wood, biomass waste, fuel ethanol (minus denaturant), and biodiesel from MER Tables 10.2a–10.2c. are Step 2. Remove Biofuels From Petroleum Step Oil—Beginning in 2009, the distillate fuel oil data (for total and transportation sector) in Fuel 1 include Distillate other renewable diesel fuel, which and are non ‐ fossil renewable fuels. biodiesel To remove the biodiesel portion from distillate fuel oil, 2009–2011: data for biodiesel consumption (calculated using data from EIA, EIA 22M, 810, “Monthly Biodiesel Production Survey”) and biomass ‐ based diesel fuel data (from EIA ‐ ‐ Report,” EIA ‐ 812, “Monthly Product Pipeline Report,” “Monthly and EIA ‐ 815, “Monthly Bulk Terminal and Refinery Blender Report”) are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the biodiesel heat content factor in MER Table A1, and then from the distillate fuel oil consumption values. To subtracted remove the other renewable diesel fuel portion from distillate fuel oil, data for refinery and blender net inputs (from EIA ‐ 810, “Monthly Refinery Report,” and EIA ‐ 815, “Monthly Terminal and Blender Report”) are converted to trillion Bulk Btu by multiplying by the other renewable diesel heat content factor in MER Table A1, and then subtracted from the distillate fuel oil consumption values. fuel Table 2012 forward: To remove the biodiesel portion from distillate fuel oil, data for biodiesel consumption (from MER the from subtracted 10.4) is values. consumption oil fuel distillate To the other renewable diesel fuel portion remove fuel oil, data for refinery and blender net inputs (from EIA ‐ 810, “Monthly Refinery Report,” and from EIA ‐ 815, distillate “Monthly Terminal and Blender Report”) are converted to trillion Btu by Bulk multiplying by the other renewable diesel fuel heat content factor in MER Table A1, and then subtracted from the distillate fuel oil consumption values. (for Motor in 1993, the motor gasoline data Gasoline—Beginning total, commercial sector, industrial sector, and transportation sector) in Step 1 include fuel ethanol, a non ‐ fossil renewable fuel. To remove the fuel ethanol portion from motor gasoline, trillion data in Btu for fuel ethanol consumption (from MER Tables 10.2a, 10.2b, and 10.3) are subtracted the motor gasoline consumption values. (Note that about 2% of fuel ethanol is fossil ‐ based petroleum from petroleum make the fuel ethanol undrinkable. For 1993–2008, to denaturant is double counted in the PSA denaturant, product supplied statistics, in both the original product category—e.g., natural gasoline—and also in the finished motor petroleum gasoline for this time period for MER Section 12, category; denaturant is removed along with the fuel ethanol from motor gasoline, but left in the original product. Beginning in 2009, petroleum denaturant is counted only in the petroleum denaturant time this for gasoline; motor for MER Section period 12, PSA/PSM product supplied statistics for motor in gasoline.) left is / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 212

223 Step 3. Remove Carbon Sequestered by Non-Combustion Use following have industrial non ‐ combustion uses as chemical feedstocks and other products: coal, natural gas, fuels The and road oil, distillate fuel oil, hydrocarbon gas liquids (ethane/ethylene, propane/propylene, normal asphalt isobutane/isobutylene, and natural gasoline), lubricants (which have butane/butylene, industrial and transportation ‐ uses), naphthas for petrochemical feedstock use, other oils non combustion feedstock use, petroleum for petrochemical residual fuel oil, special naphthas, still coke, gas, waxes, and miscellaneous petroleum products. In the non ‐ combustion of these fuels, some of the carbon is sequestered, and is thus subtracted from the fuel consumption values in Steps use 1 2. and of Estimates non ‐ annual associated carbon sequestration use are developed and by EIA using the combustion detailed methodology in "Documentation for Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2008 " at e/1605/ggrpt/documentation/pdf/0638_2008.pdf. https://www.eia.gov/environment/archiv obtain monthly estimates of non ‐ combustion use and associated carbon sequestration, monthly patterns for To industrial and product supplied data series consumption For are coal non ‐ combustion used. use, the monthly pattern coke plants coal consumption from MER Table 6.2 is used. For natural gas, the monthly pattern for other industrial for ‐ CHP natural gas consumption from MER Table 4.3 is used. For distillate fuel oil, petroleum coke, and non residual fuel oil, monthly patterns for industrial consumption from MER Table 3.7b are used. For the other petroleum products, the patterns for product supplied from the PSA and PSM are used. See Tables 1.11a and 1.11b for estimates of the monthly non ‐ combustion fuel uses. fossil Emissions From Energy Consumption Step 4. Determine Carbon Dioxide dioxide (CO2) emissions data in million metric tons are calculated by Carbon consumption values in trillion multiplying Btu from Steps 1 and 2 (minus the carbon sequestered in non ‐ combustion use in Step 3) the CO2 emissions factors at by http://www.eia.gov/environment/archiv e/1605/ggrpt/excel/CO2_coeffs_09_v2.xls. calculated for coal Coal—CO2 emissions for each sector are (residential, commercial, coke plants, other industrial, transportation, power). Total coal emissions are the sum of the sectoral coal emissions. electric Net Imports—CO2 emissions for coal coke net Coal imports are calculated. Coke emissions for Natural natural gas are calculated for each Gas—CO2 sector (residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power). Total natural gas emissions are the sum of the sectoral natural gas emissions. Petroleum—CO2 are calculated for each petroleum product. Total emissions petroleum emissions are the sum of the product emissions. Total HGL emissions are the sum of the emissions for the component products (ethane/ethylene, propane/propylene, normal butane/butylene, isobutane/isobutylene, and natural gasoline); residential, commercial, by MER from Btu trillion in and transportation sector HGL emissions are estimated values multiplying consumption Tables and 3.8c by the propane emissions factor; industrial sector HGL emissions are estimated as total HGL 3.8a by emissions emissions the other sectors. minus CO2 Non ‐ Biomass Waste—Annual Geothermal emissions data and biomass for geothermal and non ‐ waste are EIA estimates based on Form EIA ‐ 923, "Power Plant Operations Report" (and predecessor forms). Monthly estimates are year created by dividing the annual data by the number of days in the and then multiplying by the number of days in the month. (Annual those estimates for the current year are set equal to previous of the year.) Biomass—CO2 for wood, biomass waste, fuel ethanol (minus denaturant), and biodiesel are calculated for emissions of Total emissions each for each biomass fuel are the sum sector. the sectoral emissions. The following factors, in million metric tons CO2 per quadrillion Btu, are used: wood—93.80; biomass waste—90.70; fuel ethanol—68.44; and MER biodiesel—73.84. 1973–1988, the biomass portion of waste in For Tables 10.2a–10.2c is estimated as 67%; for 1989–2000, the biomass portion of waste is estimated as 67% in 1989 to 58% in 2000, based on the biogenic shares of to Solid Biogenic and Non ‐ Waste total municipal solid waste shown in EIA's "Methodology for Allocating Municipal at 1 Table Energy," Biogenic a/monthly/pdf/historical/msw.pdf. http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/dat Monthly U. 213 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

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225 Appendices

226 Appendix A: British Therma l Unit Conversion Factors conversion factors presented in the following tables can be used to estimate the heat content in British The thermal units (Btu) of a given amount of energy measured in physical units, such thermal barrels or cubic feet. For example, as 10 barrels of asphalt has a heat content of approximately 66.36 Btu million Btu (10 barrels x 6.636 million per barrel = 66.36 million Btu). The heat content rates (i.e., thermal conversion factors) provided in this section represent the gross (or higher or upper) energy of the fuels. Gross heat content rates are applied content in all Btu calculations for the Monthly Energy Review and are commonly used in energy calculations in the United States; net (or lower) heat content rates are typically used to in European energy calculations. The difference between the two rates is the amount of energy that is consumed vaporize that is created water during the combustion process. Generally, the difference ranges from 2% to 10%, can wood, unseasoned as such fuels, Some on 40% than more be depending content. the specific fuel and its hydrogen and different their gross and net heat content rates. See “Heat Content” in “British Thermal Unit (Btu)” in the Glossary for more information. In general, the annual thermal conversion factors presented in Tables A2 through A6 are computed from final annual data or from the best available data and labeled “preliminary.” Often, the current year’s factors are labeled “estimate,” year’s previous the to equal to available become data until values and are set The calculate the factors. source of each follows which in A6 Table factor is described in the section entitled “Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation,” this appendix. Table A1. Approximate Heat Content of Petroleum and Other Liquids (Million Btu per Barrel, Except as Noted) Heat Content Commodity Heat Content Commodity 6.636 Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) Asphalt and Road Oil Aviation Gasoline (Finished) 5.048 Through 2006 5.253 5.222 Aviation Gasoline Blending Components 5.048 Beginning in 2007 Biodiesel 5.359 Oxygenates (e 4.247 xcluding Fuel Ethanol) Crude Oil–see Table A2 Petrochemical Feedstocks Distillate Fuel Oil–see Table A3 for averages 5.248 Naphtha Less Than 401°F 15 ppm sulfur and under 5.770 Other Oils Equal to or Greater Than 401°F 5.825 817 Petroleum Coke–see Table A3 for averages Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm sulfur 5. 6.024 Greater than 500 ppm sulfur 5. 825 Total, through 2003 a Catalyst, beginning in 2004 Fuel Ethanol–see Table A3 6.287 Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids 5.719 Marketable, beginning in 2004 Ethane/Ethylene 5.418 Plant Condensate 3.082 b b Propane/Propylene 3.836 Renewable Fuels Except Fuel Ethanol 5.494 5.359; 4.326 Residual Fuel Oil 6.287 Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene 3. 974 Special Naphthas 5.248 c c 4.620 Still Gas Natural Gasoline (Pentanes Plus) 6.000 6.287; a Hydrogen 6.287 Unfinished Oils 5.825 5.670 Unfractionated Stream Jet Fuel, Kerosene Type 5.418 5.537 5.355 Waxes Jet Fuel, Naphtha Type Kerosene 5.670 Miscellaneous Products 5.796 Hydrocarbons 5.825 Lubricants 6.065 Other Motor Gasoline (Finished)–see Tables A2/A3 a Per residual fuel oil equivalent ba rrel (6.287 million Btu per barrel). b is used for “Biomass-Based Dies Fuels”; however, a el Fuel” and “Other Renewable The biodiesel heat content factor, 5.359 million Btu per barrel, factor of 5.494 million Btu per barrel is used for “Other Renewable Diesel Fuel.” c ctor is 6.287 million Btu Through 2015, the still gas heat content factor is 6.000 million Btu per fuel oil equivalent barrel; beginning in 2016, the fa per residual fuel oil equivalent barrel. Note: The values in this table are for gross heat contents. See "Heat Content" in Glossary. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#appendices. ce Documentation,” which follows Table A6. Sources: See “Thermal Conversion Factor Sour / U. S. Energy Information Administration Monthly Energy Review April 2019 216

227 able A2. Approximate Heat Content of Petroleum Production, Imports, and Exports T (Million Btu per Barrel) Exports Imports Petroleum Products Production Petroleum Products Crude Motor Total Total Motor Crude Natural Gas Crude a b a a c Total Total Oil Oil Oil Plant Liquids Gasoline Products Gasoline Products 6.080 1 4.522 5.943 5.253 6.263 5.800 5.800 5.253 5.751 5.766 950 ... 5.768 955 ... 5.800 4.406 5.924 5.253 6.234 6.040 5.800 5.253 5.765 1 5.253 1 960 ... 5.800 4.295 5.911 5.834 6.161 6.021 5.800 5.253 5.835 5.800 1 5.872 5.253 6.123 5.997 4.264 5.253 5.742 5.743 5.800 965 ... 970 ... 5.800 4.146 5.822 5.253 6.088 5.985 5.800 5.253 5.811 5.810 1 1 975 ... 5.800 3.984 5.821 5.253 5.935 5.858 5.800 5.253 5.747 5.748 5.748 1 5.800 3.914 5.812 5.253 980 ... 5.796 5.800 5.253 5.841 5.820 5.821 1 981 ... 5.800 3.930 5.818 5.253 5.659 5.775 5.800 5.253 5.837 982 ... 1 5.253 5.820 5.829 5.253 5.800 5.775 5.664 5.826 3.872 5.800 5.800 1 5.825 5.253 5.677 5.774 3.839 5.253 5.800 5.800 5.800 983 ... 984 ... 5.800 3.812 5.823 5.253 5.613 5.745 5.800 5.253 5.867 5.850 1 1 985 ... 5.800 3.815 5.832 5.253 5.572 5.736 5.800 5.253 5.819 5.814 5.624 1 5.800 3.797 5.903 5.253 986 ... 5.808 5.800 5.253 5.839 5.832 5.858 1 987 ... 5.800 3.804 5.901 5.253 5.599 5.820 5.800 5.253 5.860 5.900 5.253 1 988 ... 5.800 3.800 5.840 5.842 5.618 5.820 5.800 5.253 5.833 1 3.826 5.906 5.253 5.641 5.800 5.800 5.253 5.869 5.857 989 ... 5.833 990 ... 5.800 3.822 5.934 5.253 5.614 5.849 5.800 5.253 5.838 1 5.948 1 991 ... 5.800 3.807 5.253 5.636 5.873 5.800 5.253 5.827 5.823 5.623 1 5.800 3.804 5.953 5.253 992 ... 5.877 5.800 5.253 5.774 5.777 5.693 5.681 1 993 ... 5.800 3.801 5.954 5.253 5.539 5.866 5.800 5.253 1 5.704 5.253 5.800 5.835 5.416 5.253 5.950 3.794 5.800 994 ... 5.693 1 5.253 5.800 5.830 5.345 5.692 5.703 5.938 3.796 5.800 995 ... 5.253 5.800 996 ... 1 5.678 5.663 5.253 5.800 5.828 5.373 5.253 5.947 3.777 1 997 ... 3.762 5.954 5.253 5.333 5.836 5.800 5.253 5.663 5.678 5.800 5.833 1 3.769 5.953 5.253 5.314 5.800 5.800 5.253 5.505 5.539 998 ... 1 999 ... 5.800 3.744 5.942 5.253 5.291 5.815 5.800 5.253 5.530 5.564 5.823 2 3.733 5.959 5.253 5.309 5.800 5.800 5.253 5.529 5.542 000 ... 5.641 001 ... 5.800 3.735 5.976 5.253 5.330 5.838 5.800 5.253 5.637 2 2 002 ... 5.800 3.729 5.971 5.253 5.362 5.845 5.800 5.253 5.517 5.519 2 003 ... 3.739 5.970 5.253 5.381 5.845 5.800 5.253 5.628 5.630 5.800 5.853 2 3.724 5.981 5.253 5.429 5.800 5.800 5.253 5.532 5.539 004 ... 2 005 ... 5.800 3.724 5.977 5.253 5.436 5.835 5.800 5.253 5.504 5.513 5.431 2 5.800 3.712 5.980 5.253 006 ... 5.836 5.800 5.219 5.415 5.423 2 5.483 5.222 5.985 3.701 5.800 007 ... 5.471 5.465 5.188 5.800 5.857 5.459 5.591 5.800 3.706 5.990 5.222 008 ... 5.861 5.800 5.215 5.587 2 009 ... 2 5.677 5.674 5.221 5.800 5.878 5.509 5.222 5.988 3.692 5.800 5.545 2 5.800 3.674 5.989 5.222 010 ... 5.892 5.800 5.214 5.601 5.604 5.222 2 011 ... 5.800 3.672 6.008 5.526 5.538 5.905 5.800 5.216 5.530 5.501 2 5.800 3.683 6.165 5.222 012 ... 6.035 5.800 5.217 5.520 5.526 5.482 5.470 2 013 ... 5.800 3.714 6.010 5.222 5.497 5.899 5.800 5.216 3.723 5.800 5.929 5.222 6.035 5.800 014 ... 2 5.518 5.406 5.369 5.218 5.222 5.319 015 ... 5.717 3.744 6.065 2 5.504 5.941 5.682 5.218 5.279 6.053 5.184 2 016 ... 5.722 3.714 5.245 5.222 5.491 5.929 5.724 5.218 6.050 5.151 2 017 ... 5.723 3.699 5.258 5.222 5.489 5.930 5.738 5.221 P P P P P P P P P P 5.222 5.264 2 018 ... 5.222 5.705 5.721 3.683 5.938 6.067 5.490 5.099 E E E E E E E E E E 5.264 6.067 5.938 3.683 5.490 5.705 5.099 019 ... 2 5.222 5.721 5.222 a Includes lease condensate. b Excludes fuel ethanol, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), and other oxygenates blended into motor gasoline. c but excludes fuel ethanol and oth er Through 2005, excludes fuel ethanol, MTBE, and other oxygenates blended into motor gasoline. Beginning in 2006, includes MTBE, xygenates blended into motor gasoline. o P=Preliminary. E=Estimate. Note: The values in this table are for gross heat contents. See "Heat Content" in Glossary. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#appendices (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data begi nning in 1949. Sources: See "Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation," which follows Table A6. 217 S. Energy Information Administration / U. Monthly Energy Review April 2019

228 T able A3. Approximate Heat Content of Petroleum Consumption and Fuel Ethanol (Million Btu per Barrel) a Fuel Motor Consumption by Sector Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Distillate l Petroleum Gas Ethano Gasoline Fuel Oil Coke Liquids (Finished) Trans- Feed- Consump- Consump- Consump- Consump- stock porta- Fuel Electric Com- Resi- Indus- g j d,e k b,c h f b i b b,c tion tion tion tion tion Factor trial Power mercial Ethanol dential Total 1 5.473 5.817 5.953 5.461 6.254 5.649 5.825 4.011 5.253 6.024 NA NA 950 ... 5.825 955 ... 5.781 5.881 5.407 6.254 5.591 5.469 4.011 5.253 6.024 NA NA 1 1 960 ... 5.417 5.781 5.818 5.387 6.267 5.555 5.825 4.011 5.253 6.024 NA NA 1 965 ... 5.760 5.748 5.386 6.267 5.532 5.825 4.011 5.253 6.024 NA NA 5.364 g 5.825 5.708 5.595 5.393 6.252 5.503 5.260 1 3.779 5.253 6.024 NA NA 970 ... 1 975 ... 5.253 5.649 5.513 5.392 6.250 5.494 5.825 3.739 5.253 6.024 NA NA 5.825 1 5.751 5.366 5.441 6.254 5.479 5.321 3.746 5.253 6.024 3.563 6.586 980 ... 6.562 981 ... 5.283 5.693 5.299 5.433 6.258 5.448 5.825 3.715 5.253 6.024 3.563 1 5.247 6.539 3.563 6.024 5.253 3.678 5.825 5.415 6.258 5.423 1 982 ... 5.266 5.698 1 983 ... 5.591 5.254 5.416 6.255 5.406 5.825 3.633 5.253 6.024 3.563 6.515 5.140 984 ... 5.825 5.657 5.207 5.418 6.251 5.395 1 3.677 5.253 6.024 3.563 6.492 5.307 5.825 1 5.598 5.199 5.423 6.247 5.387 5.263 3.676 5.253 6.024 3.563 6.469 985 ... 1 986 ... 5.268 5.632 5.269 5.426 6.257 5.418 5.825 3.710 5.253 6.024 3.563 6.446 5.825 1 5.594 5.233 5.429 6.249 5.403 5.239 3.734 5.253 6.024 3.563 6.423 987 ... 1 988 ... 5.257 5.597 5.228 5.433 6.250 5.410 5.825 3.719 5.253 6.024 3.563 6.400 d 3.747 989 ... 5.194 5.549 5.219 5.438 6.240 5.410 5.825 1 5.253 6.024 3.563 6.377 1 990 ... 5.553 5.253 5.442 6.244 5.411 5.825 3.712 5.253 6.024 3.563 6.355 5.145 991 ... 5.825 5.528 5.167 5.441 6.246 5.384 1 3.708 5.253 6.024 3.563 6.332 5.094 5.825 1 5.513 5.168 5.443 6.238 5.378 5.124 3.722 5.253 6.024 3.563 6.309 992 ... h b b b b 3.709 5.504 5.412 6.230 993 ... 5.363 5.825 5.102 1 5.217 6.024 3.563 6.287 5.177 f 994 ... 5.095 5.512 5.149 5.413 6.213 5.353 1 5.820 3.730 5.214 6.024 3.563 6.264 5.336 1 5.060 5.475 5.121 5.409 6.187 995 ... 5.820 3.718 5.204 6.024 3.563 6.242 6.220 5.114 5.416 6.194 5.333 5.820 3.708 5.211 6.024 3.563 1 996 ... 4.995 5.430 5.410 5.119 5.387 4.986 997 ... 1 6.198 6.198 3.563 6.024 5.205 3.704 5.820 5.332 1 998 ... 5.136 5.406 6.210 5.344 5.819 3.697 5.203 6.024 3.563 6.176 4.972 5.361 3.706 999 ... 5.091 5.406 6.204 5.323 5.819 5.287 5.202 6.024 3.563 6.167 1 4.899 000 ... 4.905 5.312 5.056 5.415 6.188 5.321 5.819 3.692 5.201 6.024 3.563 6.159 2 001 ... 2 5.321 5.141 5.405 6.199 5.340 5.819 3.685 5.201 6.024 3.563 6.151 4.934 5.819 2 5.289 5.092 5.403 6.172 5.318 4.883 3.671 5.199 6.024 3.563 6.143 002 ... 2 003 ... 4.918 5.312 5.143 5.400 6.182 5.335 5.819 3.688 5.197 6.024 3.563 6.106 i 004 ... 4.949 5.323 5.144 5.407 6.134 5.339 5.818 3.677 5.196 2 5.982 3.563 6.069 2 005 ... 5.359 5.179 5.408 6.126 5.351 5.818 3.674 5.192 5.982 3.563 6.032 4.913 5.803 2 5.295 5.158 5.405 6.038 5.333 4.883 3.644 5.185 5.987 3.563 5.995 006 ... 2 007 ... 4.830 5.269 5.121 5.376 6.064 5.303 5.784 3.641 5.142 5.996 3.563 5.959 3.645 2 5.155 5.146 5.342 6.013 5.278 5.780 4.769 5.106 5.992 3.563 5.922 008 ... c c 4.661 5.215 5.014 2 5.319 5.987 5.901 5.230 5.781 3.595 5.089 6.017 3.563 009 ... 3.561 6.059 5.880 3.600 5.778 5.217 5.956 5.315 5.067 2 010 ... 4.661 5.193 4.977 3.560 6.077 5.063 3.543 5.776 5.900 5.315 4.951 5.174 4.654 011 ... 2 5.208 5.859 5.774 2 5.124 4.903 5.306 5.925 5.190 4.711 3.559 5.062 6.084 3.560 5.838 012 ... 5.817 013 ... 4.645 5.052 4.861 5.302 5.892 5.172 5.774 3.579 5.060 6.089 3.559 2 5.014 2 014 ... 4.661 4.868 5.300 5.906 5.176 5.773 3.558 5.059 6.100 3.558 5.797 5.169 2 4.718 5.049 4.830 5.302 5.915 015 ... 5.773 3.576 5.057 6.085 3.558 5.776 5.055 3.543 5.755 3.558 6.104 5.773 2 016 ... 4.628 5.020 4.864 5.303 5.885 5.177 E E E RE 6.132 5.053 3.527 5.772 5.893 5.305 5.169 4.838 5.735 5.008 3.556 4.609 017 ... 2 E P P P RE P E E P P P 4.577 6.116 4.987 5.715 4.748 3.553 5.310 3.516 5.904 2 5.144 018 ... 5.772 5.054 E E E E E E E E RE E E 5.054 5.310 3.553 3.516 4.577 5.772 6.116 2 019 ... 5.144 4.748 5.694 4.987 5.904 a ges of the petroleum products included in Petroleum products supplied, including natural gas plant liquids and crude oil burned directly as fuel. Quantity-weighted avera ach category are calculated by using heat content values for individual products shown in Tables A1 and A3. e b Beginning in 1993, includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. c Beginning in 2009, includes renewable diesel fuel (including biodiesel) blended into distillate fuel oil. d Electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell electr icity, or electricity and heat, to the p power producers. ublic. Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only; beginning in 1989, data are for electric utilities and independent e ; they exclude other liquids. Electric power sector factors are weighted average heat contents for distillate fuel oil, petroleum coke, and residual fuel oil f There is a discontinuity in this time series between 1993 and 1994; beginning in 1994, the single constant factor is replaced b y a quantity-weighted factor. uantity-weighted averages of the sulfur-content categories of distillate fuel oil are calculated by using heat content values s Q hown in Table A1. Excludes renewable diesel f uel (including biodiesel) blended into distillate fuel oil. g y a quantity-weighted factor. There is a discontinuity in this time series between 1966 and 1967; beginning in 1967, the single constant factor is replaced b Q uantity-weighted averages of the major components of hydrocarbon gas liquids are calculated by using heat content values shown in Table A1. h Through 1992, excludes oxygenates. Beginning in 1993, includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline; and for 1993–2006, also includes methyl tertiary butyl e ther (MTBE) and other oxygenates blended into motor gasoline. i There is a discontinuity in this time series between 2003 and 2004; beginning in 2004, the single constant factor is replaced b y a quantity-weighted factor. uantity-weighted averages of the two categories of petroleum coke are calculated by using heat content values shown in Table A1 Q . j Includes denaturant (petroleum added to ethanol to make it undrinkable). Fuel ethanol factors are weighted average heat conten ts for undenatured ethanol (3.539 components—see Tables A1 and A3 for m illion Btu per barrel) and products used as denaturant (natural gasoline, finished motor gasoline, and motor gasoline blending actors). The factor for 2009 is used as the estimated factor for 1980–2008. f k Corn input to the production of undenatured ethanol (million Btu corn per barrel undenatured ethanol), used as the factor to es timate total biomass inputs to the p roduction of undenatured ethanol. Observed ethanol yields (gallons undenatured ethanol per bushel of corn) are 2.5 in 1980, 2. 666 in 1998, 2.68 in 2002, 2.78 in 2008, an d 2 . Undenatured ethanol is assumed to have a .82 in 2012; yields in other years are estimated. Corn is assumed to have a gross heat content of 0.392 million Btu per bushel g ross heat content of 3.539 million Btu per barrel. R=Revised. P=Preliminary. E=Estimate. NA=Not available. Note: The heat content values in this table are for gross heat contents. See "Heat Content" in Glossary. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#appendices (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data begi nning in 1949. Sources: See "Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation," which follows Table A6. 2019 U. S. Energy 218 Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review April

229 T able A4. Approximate Heat Content of Natural Gas (Btu per Cubic Foot) a Consumption Production End-Use Electric Power b c Total Imports Exports Marketed Dry Sector Sectors 1 950 ... 1,119 1,035 1,035 1,035 1,035 – – 1,035 1 955 ... 1,120 1,035 1,035 1,035 1,035 1,035 1,035 1,035 1,035 1,035 1,035 1,035 1,035 960 ... 1 1,107 1 1,101 1,032 1,032 1,032 1,032 1,032 1,032 965 ... 1,031 970 ... 1,102 1,031 1,031 1,031 1,031 1,031 1 1 975 ... 1,095 1,021 1,020 1,026 1,021 1,026 1,014 1 980 ... 1,098 1,026 1,024 1,035 1,026 1,022 1,013 1,103 1,035 1,027 1,014 1,011 1,027 1,025 1 981 ... 1,107 1,011 1,018 1,028 1,036 1,026 1,028 982 ... 1 1,115 1,031 1,031 1,030 1,031 1,024 1,010 983 ... 1 1,030 984 ... 1,109 1,031 1,010 1,035 1,031 1,005 1 1 985 ... 1,112 1,032 1,031 1,038 1,032 1,002 1,011 1,008 1 986 ... 1,110 1,030 1,029 1,034 1,030 997 1,032 1,031 1,112 987 ... 1 999 1,011 1,031 1,031 1 1,109 1,029 1,029 1,028 1,029 1,002 1,018 988 ... c 989 ... 1,107 1,031 1,032 1 1,028 1,031 1,004 1,019 1,029 990 ... 1,105 1,029 1 1,027 1,029 1,012 1,018 1 1,108 1,030 1,031 1,025 1,030 1,014 1,022 991 ... 1,018 992 ... 1,110 1,030 1,031 1,025 1,030 1,011 1 993 ... 1,027 1,027 1,025 1,016 1,106 1,027 1,020 1 1,025 1,028 1,022 1,011 1 1,105 1,029 1,028 994 ... 1,021 1,026 1,021 1,027 1,026 1,106 1,011 995 ... 1 1,011 1,022 1,026 1,020 1,027 1,026 996 ... 1 1,109 1 997 ... 1,026 1,027 1,020 1,026 1,023 1,011 1,107 1 1,109 1,031 1,033 1,024 1,031 1,023 1,011 998 ... 1 999 ... 1,107 1,027 1,028 1,022 1,027 1,022 1,006 2 000 ... 1,107 1,025 1,026 1,021 1,025 1,006 1,023 2 001 ... 1,105 1,028 1,029 1,026 1,028 1,023 1,010 2 1,103 1,024 1,025 1,020 1,024 1,022 1,008 002 ... 2 003 ... 1,103 1,028 1,029 1,025 1,028 1,025 1,009 2 004 ... 1,104 1,026 1,026 1,027 1,026 1,025 1,009 1,104 1,025 1,028 1,028 1,009 1,028 2 005 ... 1,028 1,009 1,025 1,028 1,028 1,028 1,028 2 1,103 006 ... 1,009 2 007 ... 1,102 1,027 1,027 1,027 1,025 1,027 2 1,025 1,009 1,027 1,027 1,027 1,027 1,100 008 ... 009 ... 1,101 1,025 1,025 1,025 1,025 1,025 1,009 2 1,023 2 1,098 1,023 010 ... 1,022 1,023 1,025 1,009 2 011 ... 1,142 1,022 1,022 1,021 1,022 1,025 1,009 1,022 1,025 1,024 1,091 012 ... 1,025 1,024 1,009 2 2 1,025 1,027 1,101 013 ... 1,028 1,009 1,025 1,027 2 014 ... 1,116 1,032 1,033 1,029 1,032 1,025 1,009 2 1,009 1,025 1,037 1,035 1,037 1,124 015 ... 1,038 2 1,009 1,025 1,037 1,034 1,039 1,037 1,128 016 ... 017 ... 1,025 1,036 1,034 1,037 2 1,036 1,129 1,009 RP E P P E E RP 1,038 1,009 1,025 2 018 ... 1,036 1,129 1,033 1,036 E E E RE RE E E 1,036 1,025 1,129 1,036 019 ... 2 1,009 1,033 1,038 a Consumption factors are for natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels. b Residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation sectors. c icity, or electricity and heat, to the Electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell electr p ublic. Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only; beginning in 1989, data are for electric utilities and independent p ower producers. R=Revised. P=Preliminary. E=Estimate. – – =Not applicable. Note: The values in this table are for gross heat contents. See "Heat Content" in Glossary. nning in 1949. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#appendices (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data begi Sources: See "Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation," which follows Table A6. / S. Energy 219 Information Administration U. Monthly Energy Review April 2019

230 T able A5. Approximate Heat Content of Coal and Coal Coke (Million Btu per Short Ton) Coal Coal Coke Consumption Industrial Sector Residential Waste Electric Imports and and Power Coal Commercial d a c b e,f Exports Sector Supplied Sectors Total Production Coke Plants Imports Exports Other 1 25.090 NA 24.461 26.798 24.820 23.937 24.989 25.020 26.788 24.800 950 ... 24.056 955 ... NA 24.373 26.794 24.821 25.201 24.982 25.000 26.907 24.800 1 1 960 ... 24.906 NA 24.226 26.791 24.609 23.927 24.713 25.003 26.939 24.800 1 965 ... NA 24.028 26.787 24.385 23.780 24.537 25.000 26.973 24.800 24.775 22.573 1 NA 23.203 26.784 22.983 23.842 23.440 25.000 26.982 24.800 970 ... 1 975 ... 22.897 NA 22.261 26.782 22.436 21.642 22.506 25.000 26.562 24.800 21.295 1 NA 22.543 26.790 22.690 22.415 21.947 25.000 26.384 24.800 980 ... 24.800 981 ... 22.308 NA 22.474 26.794 22.585 21.085 21.713 25.000 26.160 1 NA 22.239 982 ... 1 21.674 24.800 26.223 25.000 21.194 22.712 26.797 22.695 1 983 ... NA 22.775 26.798 22.691 21.133 21.576 25.000 26.291 24.800 22.052 21.101 1 NA 22.844 26.799 22.543 22.010 21.573 25.000 26.402 24.800 984 ... 1 985 ... 21.870 NA 22.646 26.798 22.020 20.959 21.366 25.000 26.307 24.800 21.084 1 NA 22.947 26.798 22.198 21.913 21.462 25.000 26.292 24.800 986 ... 1 987 ... 21.922 NA 23.404 26.799 22.381 21.136 21.517 25.000 26.291 24.800 22.360 1 988 ... 21.823 NA 23.571 26.799 20.900 21.328 25.000 26.299 24.800 b e 1 10.391 23.650 26.800 22.347 989 ... 20.898 21.307 25.000 26.160 24.800 21.765 20.779 990 ... 9.303 23.137 26.799 22.457 21.822 21.197 25.000 26.202 24.800 1 1 991 ... 21.681 10.758 23.114 26.799 22.460 20.730 21.120 25.000 26.188 24.800 20.709 1 10.396 23.105 26.799 22.250 21.682 21.068 25.000 26.161 24.800 992 ... 24.800 993 ... 21.418 10.638 22.994 26.800 22.123 20.677 21.010 25.000 26.335 1 23.112 11.097 21.394 994 ... 24.800 1 26.329 25.000 20.929 20.589 22.068 26.800 21.950 995 ... 25.000 20.880 24.800 20.543 26.180 26.800 23.118 11.722 21.326 1 996 ... 1 26.174 24.800 25.000 20.870 20.547 22.105 26.800 23.011 12.147 21.322 20.830 1 22.494 26.800 22.172 20.518 12.158 25.000 26.251 24.800 21.296 997 ... 998 ... 21.418 12.639 21.620 27.426 23.164 20.516 20.881 25.000 26.800 24.800 1 1 999 ... 21.070 12.552 23.880 27.426 22.489 20.490 20.818 25.000 26.081 24.800 22.433 2 21.072 12.360 25.020 27.426 000 ... 20.511 20.828 25.000 26.117 24.800 a 2 001 ... 24.800 20.772 12.169 24.909 27.426 22.622 20.337 20.671 25.000 25.998 27.426 002 ... 2 20.673 12.165 22.962 24.800 22.562 20.238 20.541 25.000 26.062 20.387 2 22.242 27.425 22.468 20.082 12.360 25.000 25.972 24.800 20.499 003 ... 004 ... 20.424 12.266 22.324 27.426 22.473 19.980 20.290 25.000 26.108 24.800 2 2 005 ... 20.348 12.093 22.342 26.279 22.178 19.988 20.246 25.000 25.494 24.800 22.050 2 20.310 12.080 22.066 26.271 006 ... 19.931 20.181 25.000 25.453 24.800 24.800 2 007 ... 20.340 12.090 22.069 26.329 22.371 19.909 20.168 25.000 25.466 c 20.208 25.399 25.000 19.713 22.304 26.281 23.035 19.979 12.121 24.800 2 008 ... 24.800 25.633 25.000 19.521 21.823 26.334 22.852 12.076 19.963 009 ... 2 19.741 19.623 2 11.960 22.611 26.295 21.846 20.173 19.870 25.000 25.713 24.800 010 ... 25.645 011 ... 20.142 11.604 22.099 26.299 21.568 19.341 19.600 25.000 24.800 2 2 012 ... 20.215 11.539 21.300 28.636 21.449 19.211 19.544 23.128 24.551 24.800 21.600 2 20.182 11.103 21.233 28.705 013 ... 19.174 19.513 22.379 24.605 24.800 22.187 19.611 19.290 28.458 21.307 21.525 24.800 25.032 2 014 ... 20.146 11.474 2 11.527 24.800 25.048 22.633 19.482 19.146 21.258 28.526 20.699 19.880 015 ... 28.608 24.800 016 ... 19.977 11.496 20.078 2 21.055 19.153 19.459 22.327 25.655 2 20.802 24.800 24.628 21.489 19.303 017 ... 20.025 11.438 19.467 28.673 18.981 RP P RP RP RP RP RP RP RP RP 2 018 ... 18.911 20.150 20.415 10.778 24.290 19.268 19.266 28.608 24.800 20.735 RE RE RE RE RE E RE RE RE RE 20.735 20.150 24.290 019 ... 19.266 18.911 24.800 19.268 20.415 10.778 2 28.608 a ncentration of noncombustible Beginning in 2001, includes a small amount of refuse recovery (coal recaptured from a refuse mine, and cleaned to reduce the co aterials). m b Waste coal (including fine coal, coal obtained from a refuse bank or slurry dam, anthracite culm, bituminous gob, and lignite w aste) consumed by the electric power and coal included in "Consumption." ndustrial sectors. Beginning in 1989, waste coal supplied is counted as a supply-side item to balance the same amount of waste i c Through 2007, used as the thermal conversion factor for coal consumption by the residential and commercial sectors. Beginning in 2008, used as the thermal c onversion factor for coal consumption by the commercial sector only. d Includes transportation. Excludes coal synfuel plants. e icity, or electricity and heat, to the Electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category whose primary business is to sell electr ublic. Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only; beginning in 1989, data are for electric utilities and independent p p ower producers. f Electric power sector factors are for anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, waste coal, and, beginning in 1 998, coal synfuel. R=Revised. P=Preliminary. E=Estimate. NA=Not available. Note: The values in this table are for gross heat contents. See "Heat Content" in Glossary. nning in 1949. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#appendices (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data begi Sources: See "Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation," which follows Table A6. 2019 220 U. S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review April

231 T able A6. Approximate Heat Rates for Electricity, and Heat Content of Electricity (Btu per Kilowatthour) a for Electricity Net Generation Approximate Heat Rates b Fossil Fuels Noncombustible j Total of Heat Content Natural Renewable g,i f,g e k h c d Gas Fossil Fuels Electricity Petroleum Nuclear Coal Energy 1 3,412 NA NA NA 14,030 – – 14,030 950 ... 11,699 NA NA NA 3,412 11,699 – – 1 955 ... 1 NA NA NA 10,760 11,629 10,760 3,412 960 ... 1 965 ... NA NA NA 10,453 11,804 10,453 3,412 NA 1 970 ... NA NA 10,494 10,977 10,494 3,412 1 NA NA NA 10,406 11,013 10,406 3,412 975 ... 3,412 980 ... NA NA NA 10,388 10,908 10,388 1 10,453 NA 3,412 NA NA 10,453 11,030 1 981 ... 11,073 10,454 NA NA NA 982 ... 1 3,412 10,454 1 NA NA 10,520 10,905 10,520 3,412 NA 983 ... 984 ... NA NA NA 10,440 10,843 10,440 3,412 1 1 985 ... NA NA NA 10,447 10,622 10,447 3,412 1 986 ... NA NA NA 10,446 10,579 10,446 3,412 3,412 1 987 ... NA NA NA 10,419 10,442 10,419 1 NA NA 988 ... NA 3,412 10,324 10,602 10,324 1 NA NA NA 10,432 10,583 10,432 3,412 989 ... 1 990 ... NA NA NA 10,402 10,582 10,402 3,412 NA 1 NA NA 991 ... 10,436 10,484 10,436 3,412 1 NA NA NA 10,342 10,471 10,342 3,412 992 ... 3,412 993 ... NA NA NA 10,309 10,504 10,309 1 10,316 3,412 NA NA NA 10,316 994 ... 10,452 1 10,507 10,312 3,412 NA 1 NA NA 10,312 995 ... 10,340 10,503 10,340 NA NA NA 996 ... 1 3,412 10,494 10,213 NA NA 997 ... 1 NA 3,412 10,213 1 NA NA 10,197 10,491 10,197 3,412 NA 998 ... 10,226 NA NA NA 1 10,450 10,226 3,412 999 ... 2 000 ... NA NA NA 10,201 10,429 10,201 3,412 b 2 001 ... 10,378 10,742 10,051 3,412 10,333 10,443 10,333 10,442 3,412 10,173 9,533 10,641 10,314 10,173 2 002 ... 2 10,297 10,610 9,207 10,125 10,422 10,125 3,412 003 ... 2 004 ... 10,331 10,571 8,647 10,016 10,428 10,016 3,412 8,551 2 005 ... 10,631 10,373 9,999 10,436 9,999 3,412 2 10,351 10,809 8,471 9,919 10,435 9,919 3,412 006 ... 3,412 007 ... 10,375 10,794 8,403 9,884 10,489 9,884 2 9,854 11,015 9,854 8,305 10,452 3,412 10,378 2 008 ... 9,760 8,160 10,923 10,459 009 ... 2 3,412 9,760 10,414 3,412 2 010 ... 10,415 10,984 8,185 9,756 10,452 9,756 2 3,412 9,716 10,464 9,716 8,152 10,829 10,444 011 ... 10,479 2 012 ... 10,498 10,991 8,039 9,516 9,516 3,412 3,412 9,541 9,541 2 013 ... 10,459 10,713 7,948 10,449 3,412 9,510 10,459 10,814 10,428 014 ... 2 9,510 7,907 3,412 2 015 ... 10,495 10,687 7,878 10,458 9,319 9,319 2 10,459 3,412 9,232 9,232 7,870 10,811 10,493 016 ... 10,459 10,465 017 ... 2 10,834 7,812 3,412 9,213 9,213 E E E E E E 10,459 3,412 9,213 7,812 10,465 2 018 ... 10,834 9,213 E E E E E E 3,412 2 10,465 9,213 019 ... 10,459 10,834 9,213 7,812 a The values in columns 1–6 of this table are for net heat rates. See "Heat Rate" in Glossary. b for all fossil-fueled plants at electric utilities and Through 2000, heat rates are for fossil-fueled steam-electric plants at electric utilities. Beginning in 2001, heat rates are e lectricity-only independent power producers. c Includes anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, and, beginning in 2002, waste coal and coal synfuel. d Includes distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, jet fuel, kerosene, petroleum coke, and waste oil. e Includes natural gas and supplemental gaseous fuels. f Includes coal, petroleum, natural gas, and, beginning in 2001, other gases (blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other manufactu red and waste gases derived from foss il uels). f g e energy (hydro, geothermal, solar The fossil-fuels heat rate is used as the thermal conversion factor for electricity net generation from noncombustible renewabl as the thermal conversion factor for wood hermal, photovoltaic, and wind) to approximate the quantity of fossil fuels replaced by these sources. Through 2000, also used t are available from surveys. nd waste electricity net generation at electric utilities; beginning in 2001, Btu data for wood and waste at electric utilities a h Used as the thermal conversion factor for nuclear electricity net generation. i Technology-based geothermal heat rates are no longer used in Btu calculations in this report. For technology-based geothermal heat rates for 1960–2010, see the A nnual Energy Review 2010, Table A6. j See "Heat Content" in Glossary. k s, and electricity imports and exports. The value of 3,412 Btu per kilowatthour is a constant. It is used as the thermal conversion factor for electricity retail sale E=Estimate. NA=Not available. – – =Not applicable. nning in 1949. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#appendices (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data begi Sources: See "Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation," which follows this table. / S. Energy 221 Information Administration U. Monthly Energy Review April 2019

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233 Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation Approximate Content of Petroleum and Natural Gas Liquids Heat The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) adopted the thermal conversion factor of 6.636 million Asphalt . (Btu) per barrel as estimated by the Bureau of Mines and first thermal published in the Petroleum British units . Annual, 1956 Statement, Blending Components . Assumed by EIA to be Aviation million Btu Gasoline 5.048 barrel or equal to the thermal per factor for Aviation Gasoline (Finished) . conversion Gasoline (Finished) . EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 5.048 million Btu per barrel as adopted by Aviation Bureau American of Mines from the Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation publication Competition and Growth in the Markets 1947–1985 Energy a 1968 release of historical and projected statistics. , of Propane Mixture . EIA adopted ‐ the Bureau of Mines calculation 4.130 million Btu per barrel based on an Butane mixture of 60% normal butane and 40% propane. See Normal Butane/Butylene and Propane/Propylene . assumed Oil Exports . • 1949–2014: Assumed by Crude to 5.800 million Btu per barrel or be equal to the thermal conversion EIA for crude oil factor produced in the United States. See Crude Oil Production . • 2015 forward: Calculated annually by based on conversion of American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity ranges of crude oil exports as reported EIA in trade from the U.S. Census Bureau. Specific gravity (SG) = 141.5 / (131.5 + API gravity). The higher heating value (HHV) in data 2 (7.801796 per barrel = SG * ‐ 1.3213 * SG million Btu ). Oil Imports . Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for each type of crude oil Crude imported by the quantities imported. Thermal conversion factors for each type were calculated on a foreign weighted (API) country by determining the average American Petroleum Institute basis, gravity of crude oil from each imported foreign country from Form ERA ‐ 60 in 1977 and converting average API gravity to average Btu content by using National Bureau Standards, Miscellaneous Publication No. 97, Thermal Properties of Petroleum Products , 1933. of conversion Production . Crude • 1949–2014: EIA adopted the thermal Oil factor 5.800 million Btu of per barrel as reported in a Bureau of Mines internal memorandum, “Bureau of Mines Standard Average Heating Values of Various annually Fuels, January 3, 1950.” • 2015 forward: Calculated Adopted by EIA based on conversion of American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity ranges of crude oil production 914, as reported on Form EIA ‐ “Monthly Crude Oil, Lease 141.5 Condensate, and Natural Gas Production Report.” Specific gravity (SG) = / (131.5 + API gravity). The higher 2 heating (HHV) in million Btu per barrel = SG * (7.801796 ‐ 1.3213 * SG value ). Fuel Oil Consumption . • 1949–1993: EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.825 Distillate Btu Mines per barrel as reported in a Bureau of internal memorandum, “Bureau of Mines Standard Average million Values of Various Fuels, Adopted January 3, 1950.” • 1994 forward: Calculated by Heating the as quantity ‐ EIA annual average of the conversion factors for Distillate weighted Oil, 15 ppm Sulfur and Under (5.770 million Btu per Fuel barrel), Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater Than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur (5.817 million Btu per barrel), and Distillate Fuel Oil, (5.825 500 ppm Sulfur Greater Than million Btu per barrel). Fuel Oil, 15 ppm Sulfur and Under . Distillate adopted the thermal conversion factor of 5.770 million Btu per barrel EIA (137,380 Btu per gallon) for U.S. conventional diesel from U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne National Laboratory, “The Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Greenhouse Model” version GREET1_2013, (GREET), 2013. October Fuel Oil, Greater Than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur . EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 5.817 Distillate million Btu per barrel (138,490 Btu per gallon) for low ‐ sulfur diesel from Department of Energy, Argonne Laboratory, “The U.S. Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model” (GREET), version GREET1_2013, October 2013. Oil, Greater Than 500 ppm Sulfur . EIA Distillate adopted Fuel the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.825 million Btu per barrel as reported in a Bureau of Mines internal memorandum, “Bureau of Mines Standard Average Heating of Values January Various Fuels, 3, 1950.” Adopted Ethane/Ethylene . EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 3.082 million Btu per barrel as in California the 1942. April Issue, First , Industry Petroleum and World Oil published Monthly U. 223 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

234 Ethane ‐ Mixture . EIA calculation of 3.308 million Btu per barrel based on an assumed mixture of 70% ethane Propane 30% See Ethane/Ethylene and Propane/Propylene . and propane. Industry • 1949–1966: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Mineral Gas Surveys, Hydrocarbon Liquids. and Petroleum Products, 1956,” Table “Crude Petroleum footnote, of 4.011 million constant Btu per barrel. 4 value 1967 forward: Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for all hydrocarbon gas • consumed the (see Table A1) weighted by quantities consumed. The component products of hydrocarbon gas liquids are (including ethylene), propane liquids ethane propylene), butane (including butylene), isobutane (including normal isobutylene), butane ‐ propane mixtures, ethane ‐ propane mixtures, and natural gasoline (pentanes plus). For (including quantities are from EIA, Energy Data Reports, “Petroleum Statement, Annual,” Table 1. For 1981 1967–1980, consumed consumed are from EIA, Petroleum quantities Annual , Table 2. forward, Supply . Hydrogen by EIA to be 6.287 million Btu per barrel or equal to the thermal conversion factor for Residual Fuel Assumed . Oil adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 3.974 million Btu per barrel as Isobutane/Isobutylene EIA . in the California Oil World and Petroleum Industry , published First Issue, April 1942. Fuel, Kerosene ‐ Type . EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.670 million Btu per barrel for Jet Fuel, Commercial” as published by the Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation in the report Competition and “Jet American Energy Markets 1947–1985 , Growth a 1968 release of historical and in projected statistics. Fuel, Naphtha ‐ Type . EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.355 million Btu per barrel for Jet Military” as “Jet by the Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation in the report Competition and Fuel, Growth in published American Energy Markets 1947–1985 , a 1968 of historical release and projected statistics. Kerosene . EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.670 million Btu per barrel as reported in a Bureau Mines internal memorandum, “Bureau of Mines Standard Average Heating Values of Various Fuels, Adopted of 3, 1950.” January conversion adopted the thermal factor of . EIA Lubricants million per barrel as estimated by the Bureau of 6.065 Btu and first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1956 . Mines Miscellaneous Products . EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 5.796 million Btu per barrel as by the estimated Bureau of Mines and first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1956 . Motor Gasoline Blending Components . • 1949–2006: EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of Corporation 5.253 Btu per barrel for “Gasoline, Motor Fuel” as published by the Texas Eastern Transmission million in Appendix V of Competition and Growth in Markets 1947 ‐ 1985, a 1968 release American of historical and projected Btu statistics. • 2007 forward: EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 5.222 million Btu per barrel (124,340 per gallon) for gasoline blendstock from U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne National Laboratory, “The Greenhouse Gases, (GREET), Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model” version GREET1_2013, October 2013. Motor Gasoline Exports . • 1949–2005: EIA adopted the of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.253 million Btu Bureau Corporation by of V Appendix in per barrel for “Gasoline, Motor Fuel” as published Transmission the Texas Eastern Competition Growth in American Energy Markets 1947–1985 , a 1968 release of historical and and projected statistics. 2006 forward: Calculated by EIA as the annual quantity ‐ weighted average of the conversion factors • gasoline for blendstock and the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) blended into motor gasoline exports. The factor for gasoline blendstock is 5.253 million Btu per barrel in 2006 and 5.222 million Btu barrel beginning in 2007 (see Motor per Components ). For MTBE, Gasoline EIA adopted the thermal Blending conversion factor of 4.247 million Btu per barrel (101,130 Btu per gallon) from U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne National Laboratory, “The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model” (GREET), version GREET1_2013, October 2013. Motor Gasoline (Finished) Consumption. • 1949–1992: EIA adopted the of Bureau Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.253 Btu per barrel for “Gasoline, Motor Fuel” as published by the Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation in million 1947 of Competition and Growth in American Markets Appendix ‐ 1985, a 1968 V historical and projected release of • 1993–2006: Calculated by EIA as statistics. the annual quantity ‐ weighted average of the conversion factors for gasoline blendstock and the oxygenates blended into motor gasoline. The factor for gasoline blendstock is 5.253 million The Btu barrel (the motor gasoline factor used for previous years). per for fuel ethanol are factors shown in Table A3 (see Fuel Ethanol, Denatured ). The following factors for other oxygenates are from U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne and National Laboratory, “The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, Energy Use in Transportation Model” (GREET), (MTBE): 4.247 million tertiary butyl ether version GREET1_2013, October 2013—methyl Btu (101,130 barrel per Btu per 224 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. /

235 gallon); amyl methyl ether (TAME): 4.560 million Btu per barrel (108,570 Btu per gallon); ethyl tertiary butyl tertiary (ETBE): ether million Btu per barrel (104,530 Btu per gallon); methanol: 2.738 million Btu per barrel (65,200 Btu 4.390 butanol: 4.555 million Btu per barrel (108,458 Btu per gallon). per and gallon); Calculated by EIA forward: as the 2007 • ‐ weighted average of the conversion factors for gasoline blendstock and annual ethanol blended into motor quantity fuel The factor for gasoline blendstock is 5.222 million Btu per barrel (124,340 Btu gallon), which is from the gasoline. per model (see above). factors GREET The fuel ethanol are shown in Table A3 (see Fuel Ethanol, Denatured ). for Imports. • 1949–2006: EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.253 million Motor Gasoline per for “Gasoline, Motor Fuel” as published by the Texas barrel Eastern Transmission Corporation in Appendix V of Btu and Competition in American Energy Markets 1947–1985 , a 1968 release of historical and projected statistics. Growth gallon) forward: EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 5.222 million Btu per barrel (124,340 Btu per for • 2007 from U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne blendstock Laboratory, “The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated gasoline National Emissions, Energy Use in Transportation Model” (GREET), version GREET1_2013, October 2013. and conversion Plant Liquids Production . Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal factors for Natural Gas gas plant liquid produced natural by the quantities produced. each weighted Gasoline . EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 4.620 Natural million per barrel as estimated by the Bureau Btu Petroleum Mines first published in the and Statement, Annual 1956. of Butane/Butylene. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor Normal 4.326 million Btu per barrel as of the California Oil World and Petroleum in Industry , First Issue, April published 1942. Hydrocarbons . Assumed by EIA to be 5.825 million Btu per barrel or equal to the thermal conversion factor for Other . Unfinished Oils (Excluding Fuel Ethanol) . EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 4.247 million Btu per barrel Oxygenates Btu per gallon) for methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) (101,130 Energy, Department of U.S. Argonne National from “The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model” (GREET), version Laboratory, October 2013. GREET1_2013, Naphtha Less Than 401 Degrees Fahrenheit . Assumed by EIA to be Petrochemical million Feedstocks, Btu per 5.248 barrel or equal to the thermal factor for conversion Special Naphthas . Petrochemical Feedstocks, Other Oils Equal to or Greater Than 401 Degrees Fahrenheit . Assumed by EIA to be 5.825 million per barrel or equal to the thermal conversion factor for Distillate Fuel Oil . Btu Petrochemical Feedstocks, Still Gas . Assumed by EIA to be equal to the thermal conversion factor for Still Gas . barrel Petroleum Coke, Catalyst . Assumed by EIA to be 6.287 million Btu per or equal to the thermal conversion factor for Residual Fuel Oil . Petroleum Coke, Marketable . EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 5.719 million Btu per barrel, calculated by dividing Btu 28,595,925 per ton for petroleum coke (from U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne National short “The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model” (GREET), version Laboratory, 2013) by 5.0 barrels per short ton (as given in the Bureau of Mines Form 6 ‐ 1300 ‐ M and successor EIA GREET1_October forms). Coke, Total . • 1949–2003: EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of Petroleum million Btu per barrel as 6.024 reported in Btu per short ton in the Bureau of Mines internal memorandum, “Bureau of Mines Standard Average Bureau of Various Fuels, Adopted January 3, 1950.” The Heating of Mines calculated Values by dividing this factor million Btu per short ton, as given in 30.120 the referenced Bureau of Mines internal memorandum, by 5.0 barrels per short ton, as given in the Bureau of Mines Form 6 ‐ 1300 ‐ M and successor EIA forms. • 2004 forward: Calculated by EIA as the quantity annual weighted of the conversion factors for Petroleum average Coke, Catalyst (6.287 million Btu per ‐ and Petroleum Coke, Marketable (5.719 barrel) Btu per barrel). million Petroleum Consumption, Commercial Sector . Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for all petroleum products consumed by the commercial sector weighted by the estimated quantities the commercial sector. The consumed of petroleum by products consumed by the commercial sector are quantities estimated in the State Energy Data System—see documentation at http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/s ep_use/notes/use_petrol.pdf. Petroleum Consumption, Electric Power Sector . Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for distillate sector power electric the by consumed oil fuel residual and by weighted fuel oil, petroleum coke, Monthly U. 225 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

236 the consumed by the electric power sector. Data are from Form EIA ‐ 923, “Power Plant Operations Report,” quantities predecessor forms. and Consumption, Industrial Sector . Calculated annually by as the average of the thermal conversion factors Petroleum EIA all petroleum products consumed by the industrial sector weighted by the estimated for quantities consumed by the sector. The quantities of petroleum products consumed by the industrial sector are estimated in the State industrial Energy System—see documentation at http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/sep_use/notes/use_petrol.pdf. Data Residential Sector . Calculated Petroleum annually by EIA Consumption, as the average of the thermal conversion factors for all petroleum products consumed by the residential sector weighted by the estimated quantities consumed sector residential sector. The quantities of petroleum products by consumed by the residential the are estimated in the State Energy Data System—see documentation at http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/sep_use/notes/use_petrol.pdf. Petroleum Consumption, Total . Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for all petroleum products consumed weighted the quantities consumed. by Petroleum Consumption, Transportation Sector . Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for all petroleum products consumed by the transportation sector weighted by the estimated quantities quantities consumed by the transportation sector. The of petroleum products consumed by the transportation sector estimated in the State Energy Data System—see documentation at are ep_use/notes/use_petrol.pdf. http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/s Products Exports . Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal Petroleum conversion factors for each exported weighted by product the quantities exported. petroleum Products Imports . Calculated annually Petroleum EIA as the average by the thermal conversion factors for each of the imported weighted by quantities imported. petroleum product Condensate . Estimated to be 5.418 million Plant Btu per barrel by EIA from data provided by McClanahan Consultants, Inc., Houston, Texas. Propane/Propylene . EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 3.836 million Btu barrel as per the California Oil World and Petroleum Industry, First Issue, April 1942. published in Fuels Except Renewable Fuel Ethanol . For “Biomass ‐ Based Diesel Fuel” and “Other Renewable Fuels,” EIA assumed the thermal conversion factor to be 5.359 million Btu per barrel or equal to the thermal conversion factor for Biodiesel . For “Other Renewable Diesel Fuel,” EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 5.494 million Btu per barrel (130,817 Btu per gallon) for renewable diesel II (UOP ‐ HDO) from U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne National Laboratory, “The Energy and Emissions, (GREET), Model” Transportation in Use Greenhouse Gases, Regulated version GREET1_2013, October 2013. million Oil . EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 6.287 Btu per barrel as reported in the Bureau of Residual Fuel internal Mines “Bureau of Mines Standard Average Heating Values of Various Fuels, Adopted January 3, memorandum, 1950.” the . EIA Road Oil Bureau of Mines adopted thermal conversion factor of 6.636 million Btu per barrel, which was published assumed be equal to that of Asphalt and was first to by the Bureau of Mines in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1970 . conversion Special Naphthas . EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal factor of 5.248 million Btu per barrel, which was assumed to be equal to that of the total gasoline (aviation and motor) factor was and first published in the Petroleum Annual, 1970 . Statement, Btu . • 1949–2015: EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines estimated thermal conversion factor of 6.000 million Still per Gas barrel, published first forward: in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1970 . • 2016 Assumed by EIA to be 6.287 million Btu per barrel or equal to the thermal conversion factor for Residual Fuel Oil. Total Exports . Calculated annually by EIA as the average Petroleum of the thermal conversion factors for crude oil and each petroleum product exported weighted by the quantities exported. See Crude Oil Exports and Petroleum Products Exports . Total Petroleum Imports . Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for each type of the See Crude Oil weighted imported product petroleum quantities by imported. crude oil and Petroleum and Imports Products . Imports 226 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. /

237 Unfinished EIA assumed the thermal conversion factor to be 5.825 million Btu per barrel or equal to that for Oils . Fuel and first published it in EIA’s Annual Report to Congress, Volume 3, 1977 . Distillate Oil per barrel or equal to that million be 5.418 EIA Btu . assumed the thermal conversion factor to Stream Unfractionated Condensate and first published it in EIA’s Annual for Report to Congress, Volume 2, 1981 . Plant adopted the thermal conversion factor of 5.537 million Btu EIA per barrel as estimated by the Bureau of . Waxes and first published in the Petroleum Statement, Mines 1956 Annual, . Heat Content of Biofuels Approximate estimated the thermal conversion factor for biodiesel to be 5.359 million Btu per barrel, or 17,253 Btu per Biodiesel. EIA pound. Feedstock. EIA used soybean oil input to the production of biodiesel (million Btu soybean oil per barrel Biodiesel as the factor to estimate total biomass inputs to the biodiesel) 7.65 of EIA assumed that biodiesel. pounds of production oil are needed to produce one gallon soybean of biodiesel, and 5.433 million Btu of soybean oil are needed to produce 5.483 of biodiesel. EIA also assumed that soybean oil has a gross heat content of 16,909 Btu per pound, or one barrel Btu per barrel. million 3.539 (Undenatured). EIA adopted the thermal conversion of million Btu per barrel published in Ethanol factor Flexibility for Future Fuels,” a paper presented by William J. Piel of the ARCO Chemical Company at the “Oxygenate Conference on Reformulated Gasolines and Clean Air Act Implementation, National DC, October 1991. Washington, Ethanol (Denatured). • 1981–2008: EIA used the 2009 factor. • 2009 forward: Calculated by EIA as Fuel the annual ‐ average of the thermal conversion factors for weighted undenatured ethanol (3.539 million Btu per barrel), quantity gasoline used as denaturant (4.620 million Btu per barrel), and conventional natural motor gasoline and motor blending components used as denaturant (5.253 million Btu per barrel). The quantity of ethanol consumed is gasoline Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) and Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM), Table 1, data for renewable fuels from and EIA’s net production of fuel ethanol. The quantity of oxygenate natural plant as denaturant is from PSA/PSM, gasoline used 1, data for renewable fuels Table oxygenate plant net production of natural gasoline, multiplied by ‐ 1. The and quantity of conventional motor gasoline and motor gasoline blending components used as denaturant is from PSA/PSM, 1, data for renewable fuels and oxygenate plant net Table production conventional motor of gasoline and gasoline blending components, multiplied by ‐ 1. motor Feedstock. Fuel EIA used corn input to the production Ethanol of undenatured ethanol (million Btu corn per barrel undenatured ethanol) as the annual factor to estimate total biomass inputs to the production of undenatured ethanol. used EIA ethanol observed ethanol yields (in gallons the undenatured following per bushel of corn) from U.S. Department Agriculture: 2.5 in 1980, 2.666 in 1998, 2.68 in 2002; and from University of Illinois at Chicago, Energy of and Resources Center, “2012 Corn Ethanol: Emerging Plant Energy and Environmental Technologies”: 2.78 in 2008, 2.82 2012. EIA estimated the ethanol yields in other years. EIA also assumed that corn has a gross heat content of in million Btu per bushel. 0.392 Heat of Natural Content Gas Approximate Gas Consumption, Electric Power Sector . Calculated Natural annually by EIA by dividing the heat content of natural gas by the electric power sector by the quantity consumed. Data are from Form consumed ‐ 923, “Power Plant EIA Operations Report,” and predecessor forms. . Consumption, End ‐ Use Sectors Calculated annually by Natural Gas EIA by dividing the heat content of natural gas consumed by the end ‐ use sectors (residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation) by the quantity consumed. The heat content of natural gas consumed by the end ‐ use sectors is calculated as the total heat content of natural gas consumed the heat minus natural gas consumed by the electric power sector. The quantity of natural gas content of by the end ‐ use sectors is calculated as the total consumed quantity of natural gas consumed minus the quantity of natural gas consumed by the electric power sector. are from Form EIA ‐ 176, “Annual Report Data of Natural and Supplemental Supply and Disposition”; and Form EIA ‐ 923, Gas “Power Plant Operations Report,” and predecessor forms. Natural Gas Consumption, Total . • 1949–1962: EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 1,035 Btu per cubic foot published as estimated by the Bureau of Mines and first in the Petroleum 1956 Annual, Statement, . • 1963– conversion thermal and (AGA) Association Gas American the by annually calculated factor 1979: EIA adopted the Monthly U. 227 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

238 published Gas Facts , an AGA annual publication. • 1980 forward: Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the total heat in of content gas consumed by the total quantity consumed. natural gas to • 1949–1972: Assumed Gas EIA to be equal Exports the thermal conversion factor for dry natural . Natural by (see Natural Gas Consumption, Total ). • 1973 forward: Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the heat consumed natural gas exported by the quantity exported. For 1973–1995, data are from Form FPC ‐ 14, “Annual Report content of Importers and Exporters of Natural Gas.” Beginning in 1996, data are from for Department of Energy, Office of U.S. Energy, Natural Gas Imports and Exports . Fossil Gas Imports . • 1949–1972: Assumed by EIA to be equal to the thermal conversion factor for dry natural gas Natural consumed Natural Gas Consumption, Total ). • 1973 forward: Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the (see heat 1973–1995, content natural gas imported by the quantity imported. For data are from Form FPC ‐ 14, “Annual Report of Importers and Exporters of Natural Gas.” Beginning in 1996, data are from U.S. Department of Energy, Office of for . Natural Gas Imports and Exports Fossil Energy, Gas Production, Dry . Natural Assumed by EIA to be equal to the thermal conversion factor for dry natural gas consumed. See Natural Gas Consumption, Total . Production, Marketed . Calculated Natural by EIA by Gas dividing the heat content of dry natural gas annually produced (see Natural Gas Production, Dry ) and natural gas liquids produced (see Natural Gas Liquids Production ) by total quantity of marketed natural gas produced. the Heat of Coal and Content Coal Coke Approximate Coke Imports and Exports . EIA Coal the Bureau of Mines estimate of 24.800 million Btu per short ton. adopted Consumption, Electric Power Sector . Calculated annually by EIA by Coal the heat content of coal consumed by dividing the electric power sector by the quantity consumed. Data are from Form EIA Operations 923, Plant “Power Report,” ‐ predecessor forms. and Calculated Industrial Sector, Coke Coal Plants . • 1949–2011: Consumption, annually by EIA based on the reported volatility (low, medium, or high) of coal received by coke plants. (For 2011, EIA used the following volatility factors, in million per short ton: low Btu volatile—25.652.) volatile—26.680; volatile—27.506; and high medium Data are from EIA ‐ 5, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report—Coke Plants,” and predecessor forms. • 2012 forward: Form coke by EIA by dividing the heat content of coal received by annually plants by the quantity received. Calculated Through June 2014, are from data Form EIA ‐ 5, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report—Coke Plants”; beginning July 2014, data are from Form EIA ‐ 3, in “Quarterly Survey of Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Coal Users” (formerly called “Quarterly Survey of Non ‐ Electric Sector Coal Data”). annually Coal Consumption, Industrial Sector, Other . • 1949–2007: Calculated by EIA dividing the by heat content of coal received by manufacturing plants by the quantity received. Data are from Form EIA ‐ 3, “Quarterly Coal Consumption Calculated forward: 2008 annually • and Quality Report—Manufacturing Plants,” and predecessor forms. by by dividing the heat content of coal received by manufacturing, gasification, and EIA by the liquefaction plants received. Data are from Form EIA ‐ 3, “Quarterly Survey of Industrial, quantity and Institutional Coal Users” Commercial, (formerly called “Quarterly Survey of Non Electric Sector Coal Data”). ‐ Coal Consumption, Residential and Commercial Sectors . • 1949–1999: Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the heat content coal received by the residential and commercial sectors by of the quantity received. Data are from Form EIA ‐ 6, “Coal Distribution Report,” and predecessor forms. • 2000–2007: Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the heat content of coal consumed by commercial combined ‐ heat ‐ and ‐ power (CHP) plants by the quantity consumed. Data are from Form ‐ EIA 923, “Power Plant Operations Report,” and predecessor forms. • 2008 forward: Calculated annually by EIA dividing the heat content of coal received by commercial and institutional users by received. by quantity the Data from Form EIA ‐ 3, “Quarterly Survey of Industrial, Commercial, are and Institutional Coal Users” (formerly called “Quarterly Survey of Non ‐ Sector Coal Data”). Electric Coal Consumption, Total . Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the total heat content of coal consumed by all sectors by the total quantity consumed. Coal Exports . • 1949–2011: Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the heat content of steam coal and metallurgical coal exported by the quantity exported. Data are from U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, “Monthly by forward: 2012 Calculated annually Report EM 545,” and predecessor forms. • the dividing by EIA of content heat 228 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. /

239 steam and metallurgical coal exported by the quantity exported. The average heat content of steam coal is derived coal receipts from Form EIA ‐ 3, “Quarterly Survey of Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Coal Users” (formerly from data of Non ‐ Electric Sector Coal Data”), and Form EIA ‐ 923, “Power called Survey “Quarterly Report.” Operations Plant 2014, the average heat content of metallurgical coal is derived from receipts data from Form Through EIA ‐ 5, June Coal Consumption and Quality Report—Coke Plants”; beginning in July 2014, the average heat content of “Quarterly coal is derived from receipts data from Form EIA ‐ 3, “Quarterly Survey metallurgical Industrial, Commercial, and of Coal Survey Users” (formerly called “Quarterly of Non ‐ Electric Sector Coal Data”). Data for export quantities Institutional from Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, “Monthly Report EM 545.” are U.S. . Imports 1949–1963: Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the heat content of coal Coal • by the quantity imported Data are from U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, “Monthly Report IM 145,” and imported. 2012 forms. • 1964–2011: Assumed by EIA to 25.000 million Btu per short ton. • forward: Calculated predecessor be EIA by dividing the heat by content of coal imported (received) annually by the quantity imported (received). Data are and EIA ‐ 3, “Quarterly Survey of Industrial, Commercial, Institutional Coal Users” (formerly called “Quarterly from Form of Non ‐ Electric Sector Coal Data”); Form EIA ‐ 5, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report—Coke Plants” Survey through June 2014); and Form EIA ‐ 923, “Power Plant (data Report.” Operations . • 1949–2011: Calculated annually by EIA by Production dividing the heat content of domestic coal (excluding Coal coal) received by the quantity received. waste Data are from Form EIA ‐ 3, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Transformation/Processing Coal Plants and Commercial and Institutional Users”; Form EIA ‐ 5, Report—Manufacturing and Coal Consumption and Quality Report—Coke Plants”; Form EIA ‐ 923, “Power Plant Operations Report”; and “Quarterly Calculated • 2012 forward: predecessor annually by EIA by dividing the heat content of domestic coal (excluding forms. received and exported by the quantity received and exported. Data are from Form EIA ‐ 3, waste coal) Survey “Quarterly Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Coal Users” (formerly called “Quarterly Survey of Non ‐ Electric Sector of Coal Data”); Form EIA ‐ 5, “Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report—Coke Plants” (data through June 2014); Form EIA ‐ 923, “Power Plant Operations Report”; U.S. Department of U.S. Census Bureau, “Monthly Report EM 545”; Commerce, and predecessor forms. consumed Supplied . • 1989–2000: Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the heat content of waste Waste Coal by coal the quantity consumed. Data are from Form EIA 860B, “Annual Electric Generator Report—Nonutility,” and predecessor ‐ form. • 2001 forward: Calculated by EIA by dividing the heat content of coal received (or consumed) by the waste quantity received (or consumed). Receipts data are from Form EIA ‐ 3, “Quarterly Survey of Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Coal Users” (formerly called “Quarterly Survey of Non ‐ Electric Sector Coal Data”), and predecessor forms. Consumption are from Form EIA ‐ 923, “Power Plant Operations data and predecessor forms . Report,” Heat Approximate for Electricity Rates Coal. • 2001 forward: Net annually by Generation, EIA by using fuel consumption and net Electricity Calculated data reported on Form EIA ‐ generation “Power Plant Operations Report,” and predecessor forms. The computation 923, for all electric utilities and electricity ‐ only data power producers using anthracite, bituminous coal, includes independent subbituminous lignite, and beginning in 2002, waste coal and coal coal, synfuel. Electricity Net Generation, Natural Gas. • 2001 forward: Calculated annually by EIA by using fuel consumption and net Operations reported on Form EIA ‐ 923, “Power Plant Report,” and predecessor forms. The computation generation data data for all electric utilities includes and independent electricity ‐ only power producers using natural gas and fuels. supplemental gaseous Net Generation, Noncombustible Renewable Energy. Electricity There is no generally accepted practice for measuring the thermal conversion rates for power plants that generate electricity from hydro, geothermal, solar thermal, photovoltaic, wind energy sources. Therefore, EIA calculates and to a factor that is equal rate the annual average heat factor for fossil ‐ fueled power plants in the United States (see “Electricity Net Generation, Total Fossil Fuels”). rate By using that factor it is possible to evaluate fossil fuel requirements for replacing those during periods of sources interruption, such See as E droughts. for more information. Appendix Electricity Net Generation, Nuclear. • 1957–1984: Calculated annually by dividing the total heat content consumed in nuclear units by the total (net) electricity generated by nuclear generating units. The generating heat content and electricity generation were reported on FERC ‐ 1, “Annual Report Form of Major Electric Utilities, Licensees, and Others”; Form EIA ‐ 412, “Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities”; and predecessor forms. For 1982, the factors were published in Expenses and 1983 For 215. page , 1982 Plants Electric Selected for 1984, EIA, Historical Plant Cost and Annual Production Monthly U. 229 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

240 the were published in EIA, Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses 1991 , Table 13. • 1985 forward: factors annually by EIA by using the heat rate data reported on Form EIA ‐ 860, “Annual Electric Generator Report,” Calculated forms. predecessor and Net Generation, Petroleum. • 2001 forward: Calculated annually Electricity by EIA by using fuel consumption and net data Report,” reported on Form EIA ‐ 923, “Power Plant Operations generation and predecessor forms. The computation includes for all electric utilities and electricity ‐ only independent data power producers using distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, jet fuel, kerosene, petroleum coke, and waste oil. Electricity Net Generation, Total Fossil Fuels. • 1949–1955: The weighted annual average heat rate for fossil ‐ fueled steam ‐ electric power plants in the United States, as published by EIA in Thermal ‐ Electric Plant Construction Cost and . Expenses—1978 Production Annual and Cost Construction Plant Electric ‐ Steam and Expenses—1981 Production Annual • 1956–1988: The weighted annual average heat rate for fossil fueled steam ‐ electric power plants in the United States, ‐ as published in EIA, Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses 1991 , Table 9. • 1989–2000: Calculated annually EIA by EIA by using heat rate data reported on Form ‐ 860, “Annual Generator Report,” and Electric predecessor forms; and Form net generation data reported on EIA ‐ 759, “Monthly Power Plant Report.” The computation includes data for all by electric steam ‐ electric plants using fossil fuels. • 2001 forward: Calculated annually utility EIA by using fuel consumption and net generation data reported on Form EIA ‐ 923, “Power Plant Operations Report,” and predecessor utilities forms. The computation includes data for all electric and electricity ‐ only independent power producers using gas, furnace (blast gases gas, and other manufactured propane and waste gases coal, petroleum, natural gas, and other fuels). fossil from derived 230 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. /

241 Appendix B: Metric Conver sion Factors, Metric Prefixes, and Other Physical Conversion Factors in presented in the Monthly Energy Review and Data other U.S. Energy Information Administration publications are expressed predominately in units that historically have been used in the United States, such as British thermal units, cubic barrels, feet, and short tons. The metric conversion factors presented in Table B1 can be used calculate the to metric ‐ unit equivalents of values expressed in U.S. Customary units. For example, 500 short tons are the equivalent of tons). metric 453.6 = ton tons/short metric 0.9071847 x 453.6 metric tons (500 short tons of any unit subdivisions may be derived by and multiples In the metric system of weights and measures, the names of deka, combining the name of the unit with prefixes, such as hecto, and kilo, meaning, respectively, 10, 100, 1,000, and deci, centi, and milli, meaning, respectively, one ‐ tenth, one ‐ hundredth, and one ‐ thousandth. Common metric prefixes can found in be Table B2. The conversion factors presented in Table can be used to calculate equivalents in various physical units commonly B3 gallons/barrel = of 420 U.S. gallons (10 barrels x 42 used in energy analyses. For example, 10 barrels are the equivalent 420 gallons). Monthly U. 231 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

242 Table B1. Metric Conversion Factors Equivalent in U.S. Unit Metric Units Type of Unit Mass 1 short ton (2,000 lb) metric tons (t) 0.907 184 7 = = metric tons (t) 1.016 047 1 long ton a 1 pound (lb) = 0.453 592 37 kilograms (kg) b = 0.384 647 ) O 1 pound uranium oxide (lb U kilograms uranium (kgU) 3 8 1 ounce, avoirdupois (avdp oz) grams (g) 28.349 52 = 3 olume V ) cubic meters (m 0.158 987 3 = 1 barrel of oil (bbl) 3 3 1 cubic yard (yd cubic meters (m 0.764 555 = ) ) 3 3 ) cubic meters (m 0.028 316 85 1 cubic foot (ft ) = 1 U.S. gallon (gal) 3.785 412 = liters (L) 29.573 53 1 ounce, fluid (fl oz) = milliliters (mL) 3 1 cubic inch (in 16.387 06 = ) milliliters (mL) a Length kilometers (km) = 1.609 344 1 mile (mi) a 1 yard (yd) = 0.914 4 meters (m) a 1 foot (ft) = 0.304 8 meters (m) a centimeters (cm) = 2.54 1 inch (in) Area hectares (ha) = 0.404 69 1 acre 2 2 2.589 988 square kilometers (km ) = ) 1 square mile (mi 2 2 square meters (m 0.836 127 4 = ) ) 1 square yard (yd 2 2 a ) = 1 square foot (ft square meters (m 0.092 903 04 ) 2 a 2 square centimeters (cm 1 square inch (in ) = 6.451 6 ) a c Energy oules (J) = 1,055.055 852 62 j 1 British thermal unit (Btu) a 1 calorie (cal) j oules (J) = 4.186 8 a = 3.6 megajoules (MJ) 1 kilowatthour (kWh) d a F) º 32 degrees Fahrenheit ( º degrees Celsius ( C) Temperature = 0 a F) º 212 degrees Fahrenheit ( º degrees Celsius ( C) 100 = [a] Exact conversion. [b] Calculated by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. [c] The Btu used in this table is the International T able Btu adopted by the Fifth International Conference on Properties of Steam, London, 1956. lsius (ºC) exactly, subtract 32, then multiply by 5/9. [d] To convert degrees Fahrenheit (ºF) to degrees Ce Most metric units belong to the the right of the decimal for ease of reading. • Spaces have been inserted after every third digit to • Notes: tric ton are accepted for use with the SI units. For more in formation about the SI units, International System of Units (SI), and the liter, hectare, and me see http://physics.nist/gov/cuu/Units/index.html. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#appendices. Sources: • General Services Administ ration, Federal Standard 376B, Preferred Metric Units for General Use by the Federal Government U.S. Department of Commerce, National In stitute of Standards and Technology, Special (Washington, DC, January 1993), pp. 9–11, 13, and 16. • Publications 330, 811, and 814. • American National Standards Institute/Institute of Elec trical and Electronic Engineers, ANSI/IEEE Std268-1992, pp. 28 and 29. / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 232

243 Table B2. Metric Prefixes Unit Multiple Symbol Unit Subdivision Prefix Prefix Symbol -1 10 d deka da deci 1 10 -2 centi c 10 hecto h 2 10 -3 m milli kilo k 10 3 10 -6 micro mega M 10 6  10 -9 giga n 10 G nano 9 10 -12 tera pico p 10 T 12 10 -15 femto P 10 peta f 15 10 -18 10 E a atto exa 18 10 -21 z zepto Z zetta 10 21 10 -24 yocto Y 10 yotta y 24 10 Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#appendices. Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, The International System of Units (SI) , NIST Special Publication 330, 1991 Editi on (Washington, DC, August 1991), p.10. Table B3. Other Physical Conversion Factors Equivalent in Final Units Original Unit Energy Source a Petroleum 42 1 barrel (bbl) U.S. gallons (gal) = a Coal = pounds (lb) 1 short ton 2,000 a 2,240 pounds (lb) = 1 long ton a 1,000 = 1 metric ton (t) kilograms (kg) b Wood 1.25 1 cord (cd) shorts tons = a 3 128 = ) cubic feet (ft 1 cord (cd) [a] Exact conversion. [b] Calculated by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Web Page: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#appendices. rce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Source: U.S. Department of Comme Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical and C-21. Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices , NIST Handbook 44, 1994 Edition (Washington, DC, October 1993), pp. B-10, C-17, Monthly U. 233 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

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245 Appendix C: Population, U.S. Gross Domestic Product, and U.S. Gross Output able C1. Population, U.S. Gross Domestic Product, and U.S. Gross Output T a Population U.S. Gross Domestic Product U.S. Gross Output United States b as Share of World Billion Billion World United States Implicit Price Billion c Chained (2012) Nominal Nominal Deflator d e d Million People Percent (2012 = 1.00000) Dollars Dollars Dollars 950 ... 152.3 2,557.6 6.0 1 2,289.5 0.13095 579.3 299.8 1 955 ... 165.9 2,782.1 6.0 425.5 2,871.2 .14819 804.6 1 960 ... 180.7 3,043.0 5.9 542.4 3,260.0 .16638 1,008.7 1 965 ... 3,350.8 5.8 742.3 4,170.8 .17798 1,359.8 194.3 1 205.1 3,713.4 5.5 1,073.3 4,951.3 .21677 1,908.6 970 ... 1 975 ... 216.0 4,089.0 5.3 1,684.9 5,644.8 .29849 3,063.7 1 227.2 4,445.4 5.1 2,857.3 6,759.2 .42273 5,476.0 980 ... 6,048.2 981 ... 229.5 4,526.7 5.1 3,207.0 6,930.7 .46273 1 1 982 ... 231.7 4,607.1 5.0 3,343.8 6,805.8 .49132 6,187.5 1 983 ... 4,688.4 5.0 3,634.0 7,117.7 .51056 6,645.8 233.8 984 ... 4,767.4 4.9 4,037.6 7,632.8 .52898 7,328.6 1 235.8 985 ... 237.9 4,849.6 4.9 4,339.0 7,951.1 .54571 7,796.9 1 1 986 ... 4,933.9 4.9 4,579.6 8,226.4 .55670 8,053.7 240.1 1 242.3 5,020.6 4.8 4,855.2 8,511.0 .57046 8,731.6 987 ... 1 988 ... 244.5 5,108.1 4.8 5,236.4 8,866.5 .59059 9,458.5 R 1 5,198.4 989 ... 4.7 5,641.6 9,192.1 .61374 10,092.1 246.8 990 ... 249.6 5,286.8 4.7 5,963.1 9,365.5 .63671 10,649.2 1 1 991 ... 253.0 5,370.1 4.7 6,158.1 9,355.4 .65825 10,830.4 1 256.5 5,454.6 4.7 6,520.3 9,684.9 .67325 11,415.4 992 ... 12,033.0 993 ... 259.9 5,536.5 4.7 6,858.6 9,951.5 .68920 1 10,352.4 7,287.2 4.7 263.1 12,828.3 .70392 1 994 ... 5,616.7 13,649.2 .71868 10,630.3 7,639.7 4.7 5,695.3 1 266.3 995 ... 14,465.1 1 996 ... 269.4 5,776.1 8,073.1 11,031.4 .73183 4.7 1 .74445 15,393.3 11,521.9 8,577.6 4.7 5,854.9 272.6 997 ... R 9,062.8 5,932.5 1 4.6 275.9 12,038.3 .75283 16,216.8 998 ... 4.6 999 ... 279.0 6,009.6 17,272.3 9,630.7 12,610.5 .76370 1 2 000 ... 282.2 6,086.1 4.6 10,252.3 13,131.0 .78078 18,623.9 18,888.3 2 001 ... 285.0 6,162.8 4.6 10,581.8 13,262.1 .79790 4.6 19,178.3 .81052 10,936.4 2 002 ... 287.6 6,239.6 13,493.1 2 290.1 6,316.8 4.6 11,458.2 13,879.1 .82557 20,141.2 003 ... 21,690.2 004 ... 292.8 6,394.0 4.6 12,213.7 14,406.4 .84780 2 2 005 ... 295.5 6,471.4 4.6 13,036.6 14,912.5 .87421 23,512.9 2 006 ... 298.4 6,550.5 4.6 13,814.6 15,338.3 .90066 24,931.4 15,626.0 .92486 26,238.5 14,451.9 2 007 ... 301.2 6,631.0 4.5 .94285 304.1 15,604.7 2 008 ... 4.5 6,712.5 26,989.2 14,712.8 24,919.5 2 009 ... 306.8 6,793.5 4.5 14,448.9 15,208.8 .95004 6,872.7 26,422.4 .96111 15,598.8 14,992.1 4.5 309.3 010 ... 2 27,999.5 011 ... 311.6 6,951.2 4.5 15,542.6 15,840.7 .98118 2 29,186.8 012 ... 313.9 7,030.1 4.5 16,197.0 16,197.0 1.00000 2 30,291.3 16,495.4 1.01755 16,784.9 4.4 2 013 ... 316.1 7,109.6 2 1.03680 31,705.3 16,899.8 17,521.7 4.4 7,188.4 318.4 014 ... 18,219.3 1.04789 32,086.1 17,386.7 2 015 ... 320.7 7,267.0 4.4 32,776.4 17,659.2 18,707.2 1.05935 2 016 ... 323.1 7,345.8 4.4 2 34,445.6 1.07948 18,050.7 19,485.4 4.4 7,424.2 325.1 017 ... R R R 20,494.1 18,566.4 1.10382 NA 018 ... 4.4 7,503.8 327.2 2 a (June 2000). 1990–1999— DOC, U.S. Census Bureau, "Time Series of Intercens Gross output is the value of gross domestic product (GDP) plus the value of al 2000–2009— i State Population Estimates" (April 2002). ntermediate inputs used to produce GDP. DOC, U.S. Census Burea u, b "Intercensal Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Region s, Resident population of the 50 states and the District of Columbia estimated for 2010 forward— s DOC, U.S. Censu States, and Puerto Rico" (September 2011). J uly 1 of each year. c Bureau, "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United State s, The gross domestic product implicit price deflator is used to convert nominal Regions, States, and Puerto Rico" (December 2018). • World Population: 195 0 d ollars to chained (2009) dollars. d DOC, U.S. Census Bureau, International Database (September 2018 forward— See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. ). e • See "Chained Dollars" in Glossary. n Calculated as U.S. populatio United States as Share of World Population: divided by world population. • U.S. Gross Domestic Product: 194 9 R=Revised. NA=Not available. forward— DOC, Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), National Income and Produ ct U.S. geographic coverage is the 50 states and • • Data are estimates. Notes: • t he District of Columbia. : U.S. Gross Output Accounts (December 2018), Tables 1.1.5, 1.1.6, and 1.1.9. Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#appendices e DOC, BEA, GDP by industry (Historical) data (November 2018); thes 1949–1996— n. ( Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949. data have been adjusted by EIA based on BEA’s 2012 comprehensive revisio United States Population: 1949–1989— • Sources: U.S. Department of 1997 forward— DOC, BEA, GDP by Industry data (November 2018). C ommerce (DOC), U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports Series P-25 Monthly U. 235 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

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247 Appendix D: Estimated Primary Energy e United States, Consumption in th Selected Years, 1635-1945 able D1. Estimated Primary Energy Consumption in the United States, T Selected Years, 1635–1945 (Quadrillion Btu) Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Conventional Biomass Electricity Natural Hydroelectric Net a b Gas Petroleum Coal Total Wood Total Power Total Imports 635 ... NA – – – – NA – – (s) (s) – – 1 (s) 1 NA – – – – NA 645 ... 0.001 0.001 – – 0.001 – – 1 655 ... NA – – – – NA – – .002 .002 – – .002 1 665 ... – – – – NA – – .005 .005 – – .005 NA – – 1 – – – – NA NA .007 .007 – – .007 675 ... 1 685 ... NA – – – – NA – – .009 .009 – – .009 – – 1 NA – – – – NA 695 ... .014 .014 – – .014 – – 1 705 ... NA – – – – NA .022 .022 .022 – – 1 715 ... – – – – NA – – .037 .037 – – .037 NA .056 725 ... – – NA – – – – .056 – – .056 1 NA 735 ... NA – – – – NA – – .080 .080 – – .080 1 1 745 ... – – – – NA – – .112 .112 – – .112 NA – – 1 – – – – NA NA .155 .155 – – .155 755 ... 1 765 ... NA – – – – NA – – .200 .200 – – .200 1 775 ... – – – – NA – – .249 .249 – – .249 NA – – 1 – – – – NA NA .310 .310 – – .310 785 ... 1 795 ... NA – – – – NA – – .402 .402 – – .402 NA 1 NA – – – – 805 ... – – .537 .537 – – .537 .714 .714 1 815 ... NA – – – – NA – – .714 – – 825 ... 1 .960 .960 – – .960 – – NA – – – – NA – – 1.305 835 ... NA – – 1 NA – – 1.305 – – 1.305 – – NA 845 ... 1 – – 1.757 1.757 1.757 – – NA – – 1 850 ... – – – – 0.219 – – 2.138 2.138 – – 2.357 0.219 – – 1 – – – – .421 .421 2.389 2.389 – – 2.810 855 ... 1 860 ... .518 – – 0.003 .521 – – 2.641 2.641 – – 3.162 .642 1 .632 – – .010 865 ... – – 2.767 2.767 – – 3.409 – – 1 870 ... 1.048 – – .011 1.059 2.893 2.893 – – 3.952 – – 1 – – .011 1.451 1.440 2.872 2.872 – – 4.323 875 ... 1 880 ... 2.054 – – .096 2.150 – – 2.851 2.851 – – 5.001 2.962 1 2.840 0.082 .040 885 ... – – 2.683 2.683 – – 5.645 2.515 0.022 890 ... 4.475 .156 .257 4.062 – – 7.012 2.537 1 5.265 895 ... 4.950 .147 .168 1 .090 2.306 2.396 – – 7.661 6.841 .252 .229 7.322 .250 2.015 2.265 900 ... – – 9.587 1 1 905 ... 13.212 – – 2.229 1.843 .386 10.983 .610 .372 10.001 14.261 16.565 12.714 .540 1.007 910 ... .539 1.765 2.304 – – 1 17.734 1 915 ... 13.294 .673 1.418 15.385 .659 1.688 2.347 0.002 1.610 18.993 2.676 .813 15.504 920 ... .003 21.344 2.348 .738 1 .668 1 14.706 1.191 4.280 20.177 925 ... 1.533 2.201 .004 22.382 21.468 1 13.639 1.932 5.897 930 ... .752 1.455 2.207 .005 23.680 18.228 1 10.634 1.919 5.675 935 ... .806 1.397 2.203 .005 20.436 .880 1.358 25.205 2.238 1 .007 12.535 7.760 22.960 2.665 940 ... a 29.953 1.261 2.703 .009 32.665 10.110 3.871 15.972 945 ... 1 1.442 a Circular No. 641, Fuel Wood Used in the United States 1630–1930, February 194 2. There is a discontinuity in the "Wood" time series between 1945 (in this table) This source estimates fuelwood consumption in cords per decade, which we re nd 1949 (in Table 10.1). Through 1945, data are for fuelwood only; beginning in a converted to Btu using the conversion factor of 20 million Btu per cord. The annu 949, data are for wood and wood-derived fuels. 1 al b Electricity transmitted across U.S. borders. Net imports equal imports minus e average value for each decade was assigned to the fifth year of the decade on th e assumption that annual use was likely to increase during any given decade and th xports. e average annual value was more likely to reflect mid-decade yearly consumptio n NA=Not available. – – =Not applicable. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. 5 than use at either the beginning or end of the decade. Values thus begin in 163 See Tables 1.3 and Notes: • For years not shown, data are not available. • and are plotted at 10-year intervals. 1 0.1 for continuation of these data series beginning in 1949. • See Note, 1850–1945— Energy in the America n Electricity Net Imports: • Table VII. " Geographic Coverage of Statistics for 1635–1945," at end of section. e Energy in th Economy, 1850–1975, Fossil Fuels: Energy in the American Economy, 1850–1975, Table Sources: • re American Economy, 1850–1975, Tables I and VI. Electricity net imports a • assumed to equal hydroelectric consumption minus hydroelectric production (da ta Energy in the American Economy, V II. Conventional Hydroelectric Power: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Wood: 1635–1845— • Table II. 850–1975, 1 are converted to Btu by multiplying by 3,412 Btu per kilowatthour). Monthly U. 237 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

248 Note. Geographic Coverage of Statistics for 1635–1945 . D1 presents estimates of U.S. energy consumption by energy source for a period that begins a century and a half Table the the original 13 colonies formed a political union and continues through decades during which the United before was still expanding territorially. States The question thus arises, what exactly is meant by “U.S. consumption” of an energy source for those years when the United States did not formally exist or consisted of less territory than is now encompassed by the 50 states and the District Columbia? of The documents used assemble the to estimates, and (as far as possible) the sources of those documents, were reviewed carefully clues to geographic coverage. For most energy sources, the extent of coverage expanded more rapidly than for District defined as all the official states and the the of Columbia. Estimates or measurements of consumption of nation, each energy source generally appear to follow settlement patterns. That is, they were made for areas of the continent even that settled enough to have economically significant consumption were though those areas were not to become states for years. The wood data series, for example, begins in 1635 and includes 12 of the original colonies (excepting Georgia), as well as Maine, Vermont, and the area that would become the District of Columbia. By the time the series reaches the rest of the continental states are all included, although the last of the 48 states to achieve statehood 1810, not do so did Likewise, the coal data series begins until 1850 1912. but includes consumption in areas, such as Utah in Washington (state), which were significant coal producing regions but had not yet attained statehood. and No (Note: data were available on state ‐ level historical coal consumption. The coal data shown in Table 1945 D1 describe through The i.e., production plus imports apparent exports. consumption, geographic coverage for coal was therefore minus based on a tally of coal ‐ producing states listed in various historical issues of Minerals Yearbook . It is likely that coal was consumed states where it was not mined in in significant quantities.) energy source, the extent of coverage can be By as follows: • Coal—35 coal ‐ producing states by 1885. summarized • Natural Gas—All 48 contiguous states, the District of Columbia, and Alaska by 1885. • Petroleum—All 48 contiguous • states, District of Columbia, and Alaska by 1885. the Conventional Hydroelectric for 1890 Power—Coverage and 1895 is but probably the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia. Coverage for 1900–1945 is the 48 uncertain, the and states contiguous 48 Wood—All . 1810 by Columbia of District contiguous states, and the District of Columbia. • / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 238

249 Approaches for Deriving Appendix E: Alternative Energy Contents of Noncombustible Renewables data on most energy sources in physical units, such as barrels and cubic feet, in order to calculate total compiles EIA converts To sum data for different energy sources, EIA consumption. the data to the common unit of energy primary thermal units (Btu), a measure that is based on the British of energy resources to heat and power. conversion thermal renewables are resources from which energy is extracted without burning or combusting fuel. They Noncombustible noncombustible hydroelectric, geothermal, solar, and wind energy. When renewables are used to generate include 1 there is no fuel combustion and, therefore, no set Btu conversion electricity, for factors energy sources. However, the are several possible approaches for converting that electricity to Btu. Three of these approaches are described there below. Fossil Fuel Equivalency Approach Sections 1, 2, and 10 of the Monthly Energy Review , EIA calculates total primary energy consumption for In electricity in Btu by applying noncombustible a fossil fuel equivalency factor. Under that approach, the renewable consumption of noncombustible renewable primary electricity can be viewed as the sum of energy captured energy “transformed into electricity” and an for fossil fuel equivalency." "adjustment The adjustment for fossil fuel equivalency is equal to the difference between total primary consumption of noncombustible for electricity generation in Btu (calculated using the fossil fuels heat rate in Table A6) and renewables captured energy of that electricity (calculated the 3,412 using the constant factor of Btu per kWh). The fossil conversion fuels heat rate is equal to the thermal efficiency across fossil fuel ‐ fired generating stations based on net generation. The fossil equivalency adjustment represents the energy that would have fuel been consumed if electricity had been generated by fossil fuels. By using that factor, it is possible, for example, to evaluate fossil fuel requirements for replacing electricity generation during periods of interruptions, such as droughts. Captured Energy Approach Captured energy (Tables E1a and E1b) reflects the primary energy captured for economic use and does not include direct losses. it is the net energy available for Thus, consumption after transformation of a noncombustible renewable into electricity. In other words, captured energy is the energy measured as the "output" of a unit, such as generating electricity from a wind turbine or solar The captured energy approach is often used to show the economically plant. no from apart energy specific ‐ resource the is for market significant energy transformations in the United States. There its site ‐ specific energy conversion, and there is immediate, its no opportunity cost to substantive continued 2 exploitation. Incident Energy Approach Incident energy is the mechanical, radiation, or thermal energy that is measurable as the "input" of the device. EIA defines "incident energy" for noncombustible renewables as the gross energy that first an energy conversion strikes device: penstock For hydroelectric, the energy contained in the water passing through the  (a closed for carrying water conduit to the turbines)  For geothermal, the energy contained in the hot fluid at the surface of the wellbore  wind, the energy contained in the For wind that passes through the rotor disc panel or contained energy in the sunlight that strikes the  For solar, the mirror collector Monthly U. 239 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

250 The incident energy approach to converting noncombustible renewable electricity to Btu could, in theory, be used to useful “losses” that are due to the inability account to convert 100% of incident energy to a for form of energy. EIA does not publish total primary energy consumption estimates based on the incident energy approach because it would be difficult obtain accurate estimates of input energy without to creating undue burden on survey respondents. Few renewable electricity power plants track cumulative input energy due to its lack of economic significance or other of purpose. addition, estimated energy efficiencies In renewable conversion technologies vary significantly across 3 site ‐ specific configurations, and environmental factors. technologies, 1 form Direct use of noncombustible renewables in the (e.g., of heat solar thermal heating) is estimated separately and is measured in Btu. 2 There is an initial opportunity cost when a facility is first built: water behind a dam might flood land that could have been used for other purposes, or a solar panel plant. the of operation the during change does sunlight. But that is a “fixed” opportunity cost that not used have could that area an shade might the 3 Based on EIA research conducted in 2016, engineering estimates of conversion efficiencies for noncombustible renewables range from less than 20% for solar are photovoltaics and geothermal to 90% for large ‐ scale hydroelectricity plants. Those estimates notional indications of the energy output as a percent of energy operating normal the on within operating equipment typical technology. that for range each technology based input at 2019 April Review 240 Energy Monthly / Administration Information Energy S. U.

251 T able E1a. Noncombustible Renewable Primary Energy Consumption: Conventional Hydroelectric Power, Geothermal, and Wind (Trillion Btu) a b c Geothermal Wind Conventional Hydroelectric Power Adjustment Trans- Trans- Adjustment Adjustment Trans- for Fossil for Fossil formed formed formed for Fossil Direct Total Total Total Into Fuel Into Into Fuel Fuel Primary Consump- Primary Primary f g d,i g j f d,e f h d,i Electricity Electricity Equivalence Equivalence Equivalence Electricity Energy tion Energy Energy 950 ... 344 1,071 1,415 1 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1 955 ... 397 963 1,360 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1 960 ... 1,098 1,608 NA (s) (s) (s) NA NA NA 510 1 1 1,387 2,059 NA 1 672 2 NA NA NA 965 ... 1 970 ... 856 1,777 2,634 NA 2 4 6 NA NA NA 23 1 2,120 3,155 NA 11 1,034 34 NA NA NA 975 ... 1 980 ... 953 1,948 2,900 NA 17 35 53 NA NA NA 40 1 981 ... 900 1,858 2,758 NA 19 59 NA NA NA 1 982 ... 2,200 3,266 NA 17 34 51 NA NA NA 1,066 983 ... 1,144 3,527 NA 21 43 64 (s) (s) (s) 1 2,383 81 984 ... 3,386 NA 26 54 2,279 (s) (s) (s) 1 1,107 985 ... 970 2,000 2,970 NA 32 1 97 (s) (s) (s) 66 1 1,003 2,068 3,071 NA 35 73 108 (s) (s) (s) 986 ... 76 987 ... 1,772 2,635 NA 37 863 112 (s) (s) (s) 1 1 988 ... 771 1,563 2,334 NA 35 71 106 (s) (s) (s) i i e 1 2,837 9 989 ... 50 102 162 928 71522 1,909 108 990 ... 2,047 3,046 10 53 999 171 10 19 29 1 1 991 ... 986 2,030 3,016 11 54 112 178 10 21 31 112 1 1,754 2,617 12 55 864 179 10 20 30 992 ... 31 993 ... 957 1,935 2,892 13 57 116 186 10 21 1 994 ... 36 24 12 173 107 53 1 13 2,683 1,796 888 46 33 995 ... 1,061 3,205 14 1 92 152 11 22 2,145 1,185 996 ... 1 2,405 33 22 11 163 99 49 15 3,590 1 997 ... 2,424 3,640 16 50 100 167 11 22 34 1,216 100 1 2,194 3,297 18 50 1,103 168 10 21 31 998 ... 1 999 ... 1,090 2,177 3,268 19 51 101 171 15 31 46 96 2 1,871 2,811 21 48 940 164 19 38 57 000 ... 70 001 ... 740 1,502 2,242 22 47 95 164 23 47 2 1,787 2 002 ... 902 2,689 24 49 98 171 35 70 105 2 003 ... 1,851 2,793 27 49 97 173 38 75 113 941 98 2 1,773 2,688 30 51 916 178 48 93 142 004 ... 2 005 ... 922 1,781 2,703 34 50 97 181 61 117 178 50 2 987 1,882 2,869 37 006 ... 95 181 91 173 264 341 223 118 95 50 41 1,602 2,446 186 2 007 ... 845 192 546 46 51 96 1,642 2,511 189 357 2 008 ... 869 2 933 721 469 252 200 95 51 54 2,669 1,736 009 ... 52 2 888 1,651 2,539 60 010 ... 97 208 323 600 923 64 2 011 ... 1,090 2,013 3,103 97 52 212 410 758 1,168 53 2 943 1,686 2,629 64 012 ... 95 212 480 860 1,340 97 1,029 573 1,601 214 2 013 ... 916 1,646 2,562 64 54 885 214 97 54 64 2,467 014 ... 2 1,582 1,728 1,108 620 64 1,777 015 ... 850 1,471 2,321 2 54 94 212 651 1,127 54 2,096 1,321 774 92 64 2,472 1,559 914 016 ... 2 210 2,767 54 2 017 ... 1,025 1,742 1,475 64 92 210 868 2,343 R 938 218 2,533 97 57 018 ... 64 2,688 1,692 995 1,595 2 a heat rate factors (see Table A6). Conventional hydroelectricity net generation. Through 1989, also includes h h ydroelectric pumped storage. Geothermal heat pump and direct use energy. b i re Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data a Geothermal heat pump and direct use energy; and geothermal electricity net al eneration. g for electric utilities, independent power producers, commercial plants, and industri c plants. Wind electricity net generation. d j y, Electricity net generation in kilowatthours (kWh) multiplied by 3,412 Btu/kWh, Direct consumption of energy; and energy used to generate electricit calculated as electricity net generation in kilowatthours multiplied by the total foss il he heat content of electricity (see Table A6). t e fuels heat rate factors (see Table A6). Through 1988, data are for electric utilities and industrial plants. Beginning in 989, data are for electric utilities, independent power producers, commercial 1 R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. Notes: Geothermal direct consumption data are estimates. • Totals may n • lants, and industrial plants. p ot f • Geographic coverage is equal sum of components due to independent rounding. Equals the difference between the fossil-fuel equivalent value of electricity and t he captured energy consumed as electricity. The fossil-fuel equivalent value of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. lectricity equals electricity net generation in kilowatthours multiplied by the total e s Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#appendice ossil fuels heat rate factors (see Table A6). The captured energy consumed as f (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949. 1, lectricity equals electricity net generation in kilowatthours multiplied by 3,412 e Sources: Conventional Hydroelectric Power and Wind: Tables 7.2a, 10. • tu/kWh, the heat content of electricity (see Table A6). Tables 7.2a, 10.1, 10.2a, 10.2b, and A6. Geothermal: • and A6. B g Electricity net generation in kilowatthours multiplied by the total fossil fuels Monthly U. 241 2019 April Review Energy / Administration Information Energy S.

252 T able E1b. Noncombustible Renewable Primary Energy Consumption: Solar and Total (Trillion Btu) b a Solar Total c d Distributed Utility-Scale Adjustment Adjustment Adjustment for Fossil for Fossil for Fossil Transformed Total Total Transformed Fuel Fuel Fuel Primary Into Primary Into Direct Captured i f i g g e g f,h j Equivalence Equivalence Equivalence Electricity Energy Electricity Energy Consumption Energy NA 1 NA NA 950 ... NA 344 1,071 1,415 NA NA 955 ... NA NA NA NA NA NA 397 963 1,360 1 960 ... 1 NA NA NA NA 510 1,098 1,608 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 965 ... 673 1,388 2,061 1 NA NA 970 ... NA NA NA NA 858 1,781 2,639 1 NA 975 ... NA NA NA NA NA NA 1,045 2,143 3,188 1 NA 980 ... NA NA NA NA 970 1,983 2,953 NA 1 981 ... NA NA NA NA NA NA 920 1,898 2,817 1 NA 982 ... NA 1,082 NA NA NA NA 1 2,234 3,316 1 983 ... NA NA NA NA 1,165 2,426 3,591 NA NA NA (s) NA (s) (s) 984 ... 1,133 2,334 3,467 1 NA (s) 985 ... NA (s) (s) NA 1,002 2,066 3,068 1 NA 986 ... NA NA NA (s) (s) (s) 1,038 2,141 3,179 1 (s) 987 ... NA (s) (s) NA 900 1,847 2,747 NA 1 988 ... NA NA NA (s) (s) (s) 807 1,634 2,441 1 h 989 ... 52 (s) (s) 1 1 2 54 1,047 2,029 3,075 1 990 ... (s) (s) 1 3 59 1,128 2,177 3,305 55 3 1 (s) (s) 2 56 62 1,120 2,166 3,286 991 ... 1 992 ... 58 (s) (s) 1 3 63 1,000 1,889 2,889 3 1 (s) (s) 2 60 65 1,099 2,075 3,173 993 ... 2,960 994 ... 62 (s) (s) 2 3 67 1,029 1,931 1 2,263 1 995 ... 63 (s) (s) 2 3 68 1,196 3,458 2 (s) (s) 63 996 ... 1 3,856 2,531 1,325 69 4 R 2 997 ... 62 3,909 1 1 3 68 1,358 2,551 (s) 2 1 (s) 998 ... 1 61 3,564 2,319 1,245 67 3 66 1 (s) 1 2 3 60 1,237 2,313 3,550 999 ... 2 000 ... 57 (s) 1 3,096 3 63 1,087 2,009 2 2 2 55 (s) 1 001 ... 4 62 890 1,648 2,538 3,025 2 002 ... 53 1 1 2 4 60 1,066 1,960 2 2,028 1,109 4 1 1 58 3,138 2 003 ... 51 R 2 004 ... 50 1 3,067 2 2 4 58 1,097 1,969 3,120 2,001 2 005 ... 49 1 2 2 4 58 1,119 R 61 51 2 3 2 3 006 ... 1,218 3,375 2,157 2 R R 007 ... 53 2 3,038 524 2 66 1,110 1,928 R 4 6 3 74 1,217 2,107 3,323 2 008 ... 54 7 R 009 ... 3,668 2,315 78 2 3 10 1,353 5 55 6 R R R 8 15 4 2 3,761 91 1,390 010 ... 2,371 56 8 R R R R 11 2,903 13 24 6 58 112 1,692 011 ... 4,595 2 R R R R R R 26 38 012 ... 59 159 15 1,635 21 2,705 2 4,339 31 2 61 28 50 013 ... 55 225 1,726 2,877 4,602 2,963 108 68 62 38 4,746 1,783 337 2 014 ... 60 R R R 85 84 48 63 2 015 ... 2,922 1,814 427 4,737 147 R R R R 5,348 2 016 ... 3,291 63 570 109 123 210 2,056 64 R R R R 309 182 139 82 65 3,758 2,339 6,097 777 017 ... 2 R R R R 3,942 171 101 2,448 951 66 386 018 ... 6,390 227 2 a h Solar thermal direct use energy; and solar photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal re Through 1988, data are for electric utilities only. Beginning in 1989, data a e al for electric utilities, independent power producers, commercial plants, and industri lectricity net generation. b plants. Conventional hydroelectricity net generation; geothermal heat pump and direct i Direct consumption of energy; and energy used to generate electricit se energy; geothermal electricity net generation; wind electricity net generation; u y, olar thermal direct use energy; and solar photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal calculated as electricity net generation in kilowatthours multiplied by the total foss il s lectricity net generation. fuels heat rate factors (see Table A6). e j c Distributed (small-scale) facilities (electric generators have a combined Direct consumption of energy plus captured energy consumed as electricit y, y which is calculated as electricity net generation in kilowatthours (kWh) multiplied b g enerator nameplate capacity of less than 1 megawatt). d 3,412 Btu/kWh, the heat content of electricity (see Table A6). Utility-scale facilities (combined generator nameplate capacity of 1 megawatt R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu. o r more). e Beginning in 1989, data for distributed solar and total captured energ Notes: • y Solar thermal direct use energy. f s. Electricity net generation in kilowatthours (kWh) multiplied by 3,412 Btu/kWh, are estimates. For the current year, data for utility-scale solar are estimate he heat content of electricity (see Table A6). Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent roundin • t g. g Equals the difference between the fossil-fuel equivalent value of electricity and Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of Columbia. • Web Page: See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#appendice he captured energy consumed as electricity. The fossil-fuel equivalent value of s t lectricity equals electricity net generation in kilowatthours multiplied by the total e (Excel and CSV files) for all available annual data beginning in 1949. • Tables 7.2a, 10. Total: Tables 10.5, 10.6, and A6. Solar: • Sources: 1, ossil fuels heat rate factors (see Table A6). The captured energy consumed as f e 10.2a, 10.2b, 10.5, 10.6, and A6. lectricity equals electricity net generation in kilowatthours multiplied by 3,412 tu/kWh, the heat content of electricity (see Table A6). B / 2019 April Review Energy Monthly Administration Information Energy S. U. 242

253 Glossary

254 Alcohol: The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH(3) ‐ (CH(2))n ‐ OH series alcohol). methanol ethanol , and tertiary butyl See Fuel ethanol . (e.g., , Alternative Alternative ; fuels, for transportation applications, include the following: methanol denatured fuel: or other alcohols , fuel mixtures containing 85 percent and more by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, ethanol ; other alcohols with motor gasoline or other fuels; natural gas ; liquefied petroleum gas ( propane ); hydrogen ; and materials fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological fuels; ( biofuels such as soy diesel fuel ); coal liquid ‐ derived other electricity from solar energy ); and "... any fuel the Secretary determines, by rule, is electricity (including not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental substantially term "alternative benefits." The does not include alcohol or other blended portions of primarily petroleum ‐ based fuel" ethers, fuels oxygenates or extenders, i.e., MTBE , ETBE, other used and the 10 ‐ percent ethanol portion of gasohol . as Alternative ‐ fuel vehicle (AFV): A vehicle designed to operate on an alternative fuel (e.g., compressed natural gas , methane blend, or electricity ). The vehicle could be either a dedicated vehicle designed to operate exclusively on fuel or a nondedicated vehicle designed to operate on alternative fuel and/or a traditional fuel. alternative highest rank of coal ; used primarily for residential and commercial space heating. It is Anthracite: The hard, brittle, a lustrous coal, often referred to and as hard coal, containing a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low black than volatile matter. percentage moisture content of fresh ‐ mined anthracite generally is less of 15 percent. The The heat content of anthracite ranges 22 to 28 million from Btu per short ton on a moist, mineral ‐ matter ‐ free basis. The ‐ heat of anthracite coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu per short ton, on the as content received basis (i.e., containing both inherent moisture and mineral Note: Since the 1980's, anthracite refuse matter). or mine waste has been used for steam ‐ electric power generation. This fuel typically has a heat content of 15 million Btu per ton or less. Anthropogenic: Made or generated by a human or caused by human activity. The term is used in the context of global climate change to refer to gaseous result the are that potentially other as well as activities, human of emissions climate ‐ activities, such as deforestation. altering obtained dark brown ‐ to ‐ black Asphalt: ‐ like material A by petroleum processing and containing bitumens as cement the predominant component; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates with blended make asphalt to cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Materials. ASTM: American Society for Testing and The Aviation gasoline blending Naphthas that components: will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates ( alcohols , oxygenates. and as , hydrogen , hydrocarbons other See ethers ), butane , and natural gasoline . Oxygenates are reported Aviation gasoline finished . , finished: gasoline, Aviation A with mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons or without small quantities of complex additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel specifications are provided in on ASTM Specification D 910 and Military Specification MIL ‐ G ‐ 5572. Note: Data blending components are not counted in data on finished aviation gasoline. Barrel (petroleum): A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. Gallons. Base The quantity of natural gas needed to gas: maintain adequate reservoir pressures and deliverability rates throughout the withdrawal season. Base gas usually is not withdrawn and remains in the reservoir. All natural gas native to depleted reservoir is included a the base gas volume. in Biodiesel: A fuel typically from soybean, canola, or other vegetable oils; animal fats; and recycled grease. It can made U.S. fuel Energy Information Administration diesel or distillate fuel oil . For serve as a substitute for petroleum ‐ derived / 2019 U. S. Energy Information Administration Monthly 244 Energy Review April

255 reporting, it is a fuel composed of mono ‐ alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, designated and meeting the requirements of ASTM (American Society for Testing & Materials) D 6751. B100, primarily for blending components produced from biomass (plant) feedstocks, used fuels Liquid and Biofuels: See Biodiesel and Fuel ethanol . transportation. Produced by biological processes of living organisms. Note: EIA uses Biogenic: the term “biogenic” to refer only to material of biological origin. organic nonfossil renewable Organic nonfossil material of biological origin constituting a energy source. See Biodiesel , Biofuels , Biomass: . fuels Densified biomass , Fuel ethanol , and Wood and wood ‐ derived , Biomass waste ‐ based diesel fuel: Biodiesel and other renewable diesel fuel or diesel fuel blending components derived Biomass petroleum biomass but excluding renewable diesel fuel coprocessed with feedstocks. See Renewable diesel fuel from , . (other) “Biomass product. discarded a or of biological origin that is a byproduct material fossil ‐ non Organic waste: Biomass municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural crop byproducts, waste” includes and other biomass solids, straw, liquids, and gases; but excludes wood and wood ‐ derived fuels (including black liquor biofuels feedstock, ), biodiesel , and fuel ethanol . Note: EIA “biomass waste” data also include energy crops grown for energy production, which would not normally constitute waste. specifically A dense coal , usually black, sometimes dark brown, often with well ‐ defined bands of bright and Bituminous coal: used primarily as fuel material, in steam ‐ electric power dull generation, with substantial quantities also used for in power applications heat manufacturing and to make coke . Bituminous coal is the most abundant coal in and mining regions. active Its moisture content usually is less than 20 percent. U.S. The heat content of bituminous coal ranges from 21 30 million to Btu per short ton on a moist, mineral ‐ matter ‐ free basis. The heat content of bituminous coal in the United States averages 24 million Btu per short ton, on the as ‐ received basis consumed (i.e., containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). A byproduct of Black the paper production liquor: process, alkaline spent liquor that can be used as a source of in energy. spent liquor is removed from the digesters Alkaline the process of chemically pulping wood. After evaporation, the residual "black" liquor is burned as a fuel in a recovery furnace that permits the recovery of certain basic chemicals. liquid of pound 1 of temperature the raise to 1 by water British thermal unit (Btu): The quantity of heat required degree at the temperature at which water has its greatest density (approximately 39 degrees Fahrenheit). Fahrenheit Heat content . See See British thermal unit . Btu: factor: A conversion Btu for converting energy data between one unit of measurement and British thermal factor convert (Btu) . Btu conversion factors are generally used to units energy data from physical units of measure (such as barrels cubic feet , or short tons ) into the energy ‐ equivalent measure , of Btu. (See http://www.eia.gov/totalenerg for y/data/monthly/#appendices further information on Btu conversion factors.) gas streams, gas H refinery ): A straight ‐ chain or branch ‐ chain hydrocarbon extracted from natural or (C Butane 10 4 in designated is and butane normal and isobutane includes It pressure. is which and gaseous at standard temperature ASTM D1835 and Gas Processors Association specifications for commercial butane. Specification gas H and A branch ‐ chain saturated (paraffinic) hydrocarbon extracted from both natural ): (C Isobutane 10 4 refinery gas streams, which is gaseous at standard temperature and pressure. It is a colorless gas that boils at a Paraffinic temperature 11 degrees Fahrenheit. See of hydrocarbons . Normal Butane (C and H A straight ‐ chain saturated (paraffinic) hydrocarbon extracted from both natural gas ): 10 4 a gas colorless a is It pressure. and temperature boils at refinery gas streams, which is gaseous at standard that hydrocarbons Paraffinic See Fahrenheit. . degrees 31 of temperature S. Energy Information Administration / U. Monthly Energy Review April 2019 245

256 Butylene (C H ): An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from refinery or petrochemical processes, which is gaseous at 8 4 temperature pressure. Butylene is used in the production of gasoline and and various petrochemical standard See Olefinic hydrocarbons . products. (olefins) factor: The ratio of the electrical energy produced by a Capacity generating unit for a given time to the period of power energy that could have been produced at continuous full ‐ operation during the same period. electrical dioxide (CO Carbon ): A colorless, odorless, non ‐ poisonous gas that is a normal part of Earth's atmosphere. Carbon 2 dioxide is a product of fossil ‐ fuel combustion as well as other processes. It is considered a greenhouse gas as it traps and energy) radiated by the Earth into the atmosphere thereby contributes heat (infrared to the potential global for . The global warming potential (GWP) of other greenhouse gases is measured in relation to that of warming carbon dioxide, which by international scientific convention is assigned a value of one (1). prices A measure Chained to express real prices . Real dollars: are those used that have been adjusted to remove the effect of changes in the purchasing power of the dollar; they usually reflect buying power relative to a reference year. Prior 1996, real prices were expressed in constant dollars, a measure based on the weights of goods and services in a to year, single recent year. In 1996, the U.S. a of Commerce introduced the chained ‐ dollar measure. usually Department new measure is based on the average weights of goods and services The successive pairs of years. It is “chained” in because the second year in each pair, with its weights, becomes first the year of the next pair. The advantage of using the chained ‐ dollar measure is that it is more closely related to any given period and is therefore subject to less distortion time. over , Cost , insurance freight . CIF: See A point or measuring station at which a Citygate: distribution gas utility receives gas from a natural gas pipeline company or transmission system. Climate change: A term used to refer to all forms of climatic inconsistency, but especially to significant change from "climate one climatic condition to another. In some cases, prevailing change" has been used synonymously with the in changes warming "; scientists, however, tend to use the term in a wider sense inclusive of natural " term global climate, including climatic cooling. composition, whose rock black ‐ brownish or Coal: of consists moisture, inherent including black A readily combustible by more 50 percent by weight and more than 70 percent volume than material. It carbonaceous formed from of is remains that have been compacted, hardened, chemically altered, and metamorphosed by heat and pressure plant and time. See Anthracite , Bituminous coal , Lignite , Subbituminous coal , Waste coal , geologic Coal synfuel . over Coal A solid carbonaceous residue coke: derived from low ‐ ash, low ‐ sulfur bituminous coal from which the volatile as constituents driven off by baking in an oven at temperatures are high as 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit so that the fixed carbon and residual ash are fused together. Coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace. Coke from coal is grey, hard, and porous and has a heating value of 24.8 million Btu per ton. When Note: disposition. and use future collected are for data coal Coal stocks: Coal quantities that are held in storage for particular reporting period (month, quarter, or a year), stocks are commonly measured as of coal the last day of the period. synfuel: Coal ‐ based Coal fuel that has been processed by a coal synfuel plant ; and coal ‐ based fuels such as solid and pellets, or extrusions, which are formed from fresh or recycled coal binding materials. briquettes, Coal plant : A plant engaged in the chemical transformation of coal synfuel into coal synfuel . Coke: See Coal coke Petroleum coke . and Coking coal: Bituminous coal suitable for making coke. See Coal coke . from a single heat (CHP) plant: A plant designed to produce both heat and electricity Combined heat and power "cogenerator" that was used by EIA in the past. CHP better source. Note: This term is being used in place of the term / U. S. Energy Information Administration Monthly Energy Review April 2019 246

257 describes the facilities because some of the plants included do not produce heat and power in a sequential fashion as a result, do not meet the legal definition of cogeneration specified in the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act and, (PURPA). An energy ‐ consuming sector that consists of sector: service ‐ Commercial facilities and equipment of: providing federal, state, and local governments; and other private and public organizations, such as religious, social, businesses; groups. The commercial sector includes institutional living quarters. It also includes sewage treatment or fraternal sector Common uses of energy associated with this include space heating, water heating, air facilities. conditioning, cooking, and running a wide variety of lighting, other equipment. Note: This sector includes generators refrigeration, produce electricity and/or useful thermal output primarily to support the activities of the above ‐ mentioned that . establishments. See End ‐ use sectors and Energy ‐ use sectors commercial installation of The equipment for Completion: permanent the production of oil or gas. If a well is equipped to produce only oil or gas from one zone or reservoir, the definition of a well (classified as an oil or gas well) and well the definition of a completion are identical. if a well is equipped to However, produce oil and/or gas separately from more one reservoir, a well is not synonymous with a completion. than hydroelectric power: Hydroelectric power generated from flowing water that is not created by Conventional pumped storage . hydroelectric motor . gasoline: See Motor gasoline conventional Conventional A factor for converting data between Conversion factor: one unit of measurement and another (such as between short tons and British thermal units , or between barrels and gallons). See Btu conversion factor and Thermal conversion (See http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/#appendices. . factor seller freight (CIF): A Cost, sales transaction in which the insurance, pays for the transportation and insurance of the goods to the port of destination specified by the buyer. Crude A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains oil: facilities. atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating liquid Depending upon the characteristics at crude stream, of it may also include: (1) small the in amounts of hydrocarbons that exist gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but are liquid at atmospheric pressure after being recovered from oil well (casing head) gas the in separators and are subsequently commingled with lease crude stream without being separately measured. Lease condensate recovered as a liquid from natural gas wells in lease or field separation facilities and later mixed as such oil, the with produced nonhydrocarbons of amounts small (2) the sulfur into crude stream is also included; and metals; and (3) drip gases, and liquid hydrocarbons produced various from tar sands, oil sands, gilsonite, and oil shale. Liquids produced at natural gas processing plants are excluded. Crude oil is refined to produce a wide array of petroleum products, including heating oils; gasoline, diesel and jet fuels; lubricants; asphalt; ethane, and propane, butane; and many other products used for their energy or chemical content. Crude f.o.b. price: The oil ‐ price actually charged crude the oil oil producing country’s port of loading. Includes at deductions for any rebates and discounts or additions of premiums, where applicable. It is the actual price paid with no adjustment for credit terms. exists that liquid hydrocarbons mixture A condensate): of in Crude oil (including lease in phase underground passing reservoirs remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after and through surface separating facilities. Included are lease condensate and liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, gilsonite, and oil shale. Drip gases are also other included, but topped crude oil (residual oil) and unfinished oils are excluded. Where identifiable, liquids produced at natural gas processing plants and mixed with crude oil are likewise excluded. Crude landed cost: The price of crude oil at the oil port of discharge, including charges associated with the purchase, transporting, and insuring of a cargo from the purchase point to the port of discharge. The does not include cost charges incurred at the discharge (e.g., import tariffs or fees, wharfage charges, and demurrage). port refineries. The total crude oil put into input: processing refinery units at Crude oil S. Energy Information Administration / U. Monthly Energy Review April 2019 247

258 Crude oil stocks: Stocks of crude oil and lease condensate held at refineries, in pipelines, at pipeline terminals, and on leases. oil used directly: Crude oil consumed as fuel by crude oil pipelines and on crude oil leases. Crude from one or more oil zones or reservoirs. Wells oil oil well: A well completed for the production of crude Crude both natural crude oil and gas are classified as oil wells. producing foot (natural gas): The amount of natural gas contained at standard temperature and pressure (60 degrees Cubic long. edges foot one are inch) in a cube whose per standard pounds 14.73 and Fahrenheit square degree Normals: Simple arithmetic averages of monthly or annual days over a long period of time Degree Day the 30 ‐ year period 1961–1990). The averages may be simple degree day normals or population ‐ weighted (usually normals. degree day Days, Cooling (CDD): A measure of how Degree warm a location is over a period of time relative to a base temperature, commonly specified as 65 degrees Fahrenheit. The most measure is computed for each day by subtracting the base temperature (65 degrees) from the average of the day’s high and low temperatures, with negative set equal values zero. Each day’s cooling degree days are summed to create a cooling degree day to analysis for a specified reference period. Cooling degree days are used in energy as an indicator of air measure requirements energy use. conditioning or Days, Heating (HDD): A measure of how Degree a location is cold a period of time relative to a base over for commonly specified as 65 degrees Fahrenheit. The measure is computed temperature, each day by most temperatures average of the day’s high and low subtracting from the base temperature (65 degrees), with the negative values set equal to zero. Each day’s heating days are summed to create a heating degree day degree a specified reference period. Heating measure days are used in energy for analysis as an indicator of space degree heating energy requirements or use. Degree Days, Population ‐ weighted: Heating or cooling degree days weighted by the population of the area which in the degree days are recorded. To compute state population ‐ weighted degree days, each state is divided into from weights one to nine climatically homogeneous divisions, which are assigned based on the ratio of the population of total the to division the readings day Degree state. the of population for division are multiplied by the each population weight for each division those products are then summed to arrive at the state corresponding and ‐ weighted degree day figure. To compute national population ‐ weighted degree days, the nation is divided population states, Census regions, each comprising from three to eight nine into which are assigned weights based on the ratio the population population of the region to the total of of the nation. Degree day readings for each region are and multiplied the corresponding population weight for each region by those products are then summed to arrive at the national population ‐ weighted degree day figure. Denaturant: Petroleum, typically natural gasoline or conventional motor gasoline , added to fuel ethanol to make it from unfit for human consumption. Fuel ethanol is denatured, usually prior to transport the ethanol production facility, Fuel See denaturant. percent volume 5 to ethanol Fuel and ethanol by adding 2 minus . denaturant fuel: Raw biomass, primarily wood, Densified has biomass been condensed into a homogenously sized, energy ‐ that dense product, such as wood pellets, intended for use as fuel. It is mainly used for residential and commercial space heating and electricity generation. as the for utility electric the by specified output of a nuclear unit electrical net nominal The net: rating, Design electrical purpose of plant design. Development well: A well drilled within the proved area of an oil or gas reservoir to the depth of a stratigraphic horizon known to be productive. distillate such of blends or operation refining petroleum oils obtained in fuel distillate of composed A fuel: Diesel fuel and vehicles. specific gravity are higher for diesel fuels boiling The fuel oils with residual fuel oil used in motor point gasoline. for than / U. S. Energy Information Administration Monthly Energy Review April 2019 248

259 Direct use: Use of electricity that (1) is self ‐ generated, (2) is produced by either the same entity that consumes the an affiliate, and (3) is used in direct support of a service or industrial process located within the same facility or power or facilities that of house the group equipment. Direct use is exclusive of station use . generating fuel oil: A general classification for one of the petroleum fractions produced in conventional distillation Distillate includes diesel fuels operations. and fuel oils. Products known as No. 1, It No. 2, and No. 4 diesel fuel are used in on ‐ highway diesel such as those in trucks and automobiles, as well as off ‐ highway engines, such as those in engines, and agricultural railroad Products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. locomotives 4 fuel oils are used primarily machinery. for space heating and electricity generation . Dry hole: An exploratory or development found to be incapable of producing either oil or gas in well sufficient quantities to justify completion as oil or gas well. an Dry natural gas production: See Natural gas (dry) production . E85: A fuel containing a mixture of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent motor gasoline . power Electric plant: station containing prime movers, electric generators, and auxiliary equipment for converting A chemical, energy. and/or fission energy into electric mechanical, electricity power sector: An energy ‐ consuming that consists of ‐ only and combined ‐ heat ‐ and ‐ power (CHP) Electric sector whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and plants the public ‐ i.e., North American heat, Industry to 22 plants. See also Combined heat and power (CHP) plant , Electricity ‐ only plant , Electric Classification utility , System power and producer . Independent electricity Any entity that generates, transmits, Electric or distributes utility: and recovers the cost of its generation, assets and operations, either directly or indirectly, through cost ‐ based rates set by a separate transmission distribution or regulatory (e.g., State Public Service Commission), or is owned by a governmental unit or the consumers that authority owned serves. Examples of these entities include: investor ‐ entity entities, public power districts, public utility the districts, municipalities, rural electric cooperatives, and state and federal agencies. Electric utilities may have Federal and Energy Commission approval for interconnection agreements Regulatory wholesale trade tariffs covering either cost ‐ of ‐ service market ‐ based rates under the authority of the Federal Power Act. See Electric power sector . and/or losses: Electrical system energy energy of amount The and of distribution transmission, generation, during lost ‐ electricity, plant and unaccounted for uses. including A form of energy characterized by the presence and motion of elementary charged particles generated by Electricity: friction, or chemical change. induction, electric energy produced by of electric energy, or the amount Electricity generation: The process of producing commonly other forms of energy, (MWh). expressed in kilowatthours (kWh) or megawatthours transforming produced Electricity gross: The total amount of electric energy generation, by generating units and measured at the generating terminal in kilowatthours (kWh) or megawatthours (MWh). at consumed energy electric (the use electricity generation station less gross of amount The net: generation, Electricity Electricity the generating station(s) for station service or auxiliaries). Note: required for pumping at hydroelectric as pumped generation. gross from deducted is and service station for electricity regarded ‐ storage plants is Electricity plant: A plant designed to produce electricity only. only See also Combined heat and power (CHP) plant . Electricity retail sales: The amount of electricity sold to customers purchasing electricity for their own use and not for resale. , End use sectors: The residential , commercial , industrial and transportation sectors of the economy. work by the capability of doing measured (potential energy) or the conversion of Energy: The capacity for doing work as this capability to motion (kinetic energy). Energy has several forms, some of which are easily convertible and can be fuels that are Most of the world’s convertible energy comes from fossil work. changed to another form useful for / 249 S. Energy Information Administration U. Monthly Energy Review April 2019

260 burned to produce heat that is then used as a transfer medium to mechanical or other means in order to accomplish energy is usually measured in kilowatthours, while heat energy is usually measured in British thermal tasks. Electrical units. heat The use of energy as a source of Energy or consumption: power manufacturing or as an input in the process. provider: An Energy energy entity that provides service service to a retail or end ‐ use customer. Energy use sectors: A group of major energy ‐ consuming components of U.S. society developed to measure and analyze in EIA are: residential , to commercial , industrial , transportation , and energy referred The sectors most commonly use. electric . power Ethane (C H gas ): A straight ‐ chain saturated (paraffinic) hydrocarbon extracted predominantly from the natural 6 2 stream, which is gaseous at standard temperature and pressure. It is a colorless gas that boils at a temperature of ‐ 127 hydrocarbons degrees See Paraffinic Fahrenheit. . Ethanol (C from H OH): A colorless, flammable alcohol . Ethanol is typically produced biologically clear, 5 2 agricultural from Ethanol wood. or crops biomass feedstocks such as agricultural crops and cellulosic residues can be produced chemically from ethylene . See Biomass , Fuel ethanol , and Fuel ethanol minus also . denaturant organic oxygen, and , hydrogen carbon, to a group of chemical compounds composed of applied term generic A Ether: characterized by an oxygen atom attached to two carbon atoms (e.g., methyl tertiary butyl ether ). at ): An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from H refinery or petrochemical processes, which is gaseous (C Ethylene 4 2 standard temperature and pressure. Ethylene is used as a petrochemical feedstock for many chemical applications and Olefinic the production of consumer goods. See hydrocarbons (olefins) . Exploratory A well drilled to find and produce oil or well: an area previously considered an unproductive area, gas in find a new reservoir in a known to (i.e., one previously found to be producing oil or gas in another reservoir), or to field extend the limit of a known oil or gas reservoir. from Exports: of goods Shipments within the 50 states and the District of Columbia to U.S. possessions and territories or to foreign countries. Federal Energy Administration (FEA): predecessor of the U.S. Energy Information Administration. A sales, with jurisdiction over interstate electricity Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC): The Federal agency certification. pipeline gas and rates, pipeline wholesale rates, hydroelectric licensing, natural gas pricing, oil electric an independent regulatory agency within the U.S. Department of Energy and is FERC successor to the Federal is the Power Commission. the Commission (FPC): The predecessor agency Federal of Power Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The Federal was It 1920. 10, June on Act Power under the Federal Water Congress Act an by created was Commission Power of with regulating the charged power and natural gas originally industries. It was abolished on September 30, 1977, electric when the U.S. Department of Energy was created. Its functions were divided between the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, an independent regulatory agency. the First purchase price: The price for domestic crude oil reported by the company that owns oil crude the first time it is removed the lease boundary. from processing plants. gas burned in flares on the base site or at gas gas: Natural Flared natural (free on board): A sales transaction in which the seller F.O.B. the product available for pick up at a specified port makes or terminal at a specified price and the pays for the subsequent transportation and insurance. buyer Footage drilled: Total footage for wells in various categories, as reported any specified period, for includes (1) the deepest total depth (length of well bores) of all wells drilled from the surface, (2) the total of all bypassed footage drilled in connection with reported wells, and (3) all new footage drilled for directional sidetrack wells. Footage reported for directional sidetrack wells reported is for footage as include which bore, common the in footage does not 250 2019 U. S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review April

261 the original well. In the case of old wells drilled deeper, the reported footage is that which was drilled below the total depth the old well. of U.S.S.R.: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) . Former See , such as petroleum coal , and crust from decayed An organic material, energy source formed in fuel: the Earth’s Fossil gas . natural fueled steam electric power plant: An electricity generation plant in which the prime mover is a turbine rotated Fossil ‐ pressure steam produced in a boiler high by heat from burning fossil fuels. by percent 1 than (less anhydrous be must States in the United ethanol use. fuel for Fuel intended Ethanol ethanol: Fuel Fuel ethanol is denatured (made unfit for human consumption), usually prior to transport from the ethanol water). gasoline by adding 2 to 5 volume percent petroleum, typically natural or conventional motor production facility, . Fuel ethanol used principally gasoline is for blending in low concentrations with motor gasoline as an oxygenate or In octane high concentrations, it is used to fuel alternative ‐ fuel vehicles specially designed for its use. See enhancer. minus Alternative vehicle , Denaturant , E85 , Ethanol , Fuel ethanol fuel denaturant , and Oxygenates . ‐ Fuel ethanol minus denaturant: An unobserved quantity of anhydrous, biomass ‐ derived, undenatured ethanol for fuel The quantity is obtained by subtracting the estimated denaturant volume from fuel ethanol volume. Fuel use. as denaturant is counted as renewable energy , while denaturant is counted nonrenewable fuel . See ethanol minus , Ethanol , Fuel , Nonrenewable Denaturant ethanol , Oxygenates , and Renewable energy . fuels operation: Operation of Full a nuclear generating unit at 100 percent of its design capacity. Full ‐ power power operation commercial operation. precedes blend of finished motor gasoline Gasohol: containing alcohol A (generally ethanol but sometimes methanol) at a . oxygenated gasoline, Motor See volume. percent by 10 and percent 5.7 between concentration zones A well completed for production of natural gas from one Gas more gas well: or reservoirs. Such wells contain or no completions for the of crude oil. production for used and Hot water steam extracted from geothermal reservoirs in the earth’s crust or energy: Geothermal geothermal heat pumps, water or electricity generation. heating, Global warming: An increase in the near ‐ surface temperature of the Earth. Global warming has occurred in the is distant past as the result of natural influences, but the term today most often used to refer to the warming some greenhouse of emissions anthropogenic increased of result a Climate See . gases scientists predict will occur as change . relative potential (GWP): An index used to compare the radiative forcing of different gases without Global warming radiative the changes in atmospheric concentrations. GWPs are calculated as directly the ratio of the calculating forcing that would result from the emission of one kilogram of a greenhouse gas to that from the emission of one kilogram of carbon dioxide over a fixed period of time, such as 100 years. carbon Greenhouse Those gases, such as water vapor, gases: dioxide , nitrous oxide, methane , hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride, that are transparent to solar (short ‐ wave) radiation but opaque to long ‐ wave (infrared) radiation, thus preventing long ‐ wave radiant energy from leaving Earth's atmosphere. The net a effect is radiation trapping of absorbed and a tendency to warm the planet's surface. services (GDP): The total value of goods and product produced by labor and property located in the Gross domestic (that As long as the labor and United property are located in the United States, the supplier States. is, the workers and, for property, the owners) may be U.S. residents or residents of either foreign countries. internal GT/IC: turbine and Gas combustion plants. Heat content: The amount of heat energy available to be released by the transformation or use of a specified physical of natural gas, or a (e.g., a ton of coal, a barrel of a kilowatthour of electricity, a cubic foot unit of an energy form oil, in expressed commonly is energy Heat Note: ). Btu ( units thermal British pound of steam). The amount of heat S. Energy Information Administration / U. Monthly Energy Review April 2019 251

262 content of combustible energy forms can be expressed in terms of either gross heat content (higher or upper heating net heat content (lower heating value), depending upon whether or not the available heat energy includes or value) or the energy used to vaporize water (contained in the original energy form excludes or created during the combustion uses U.S. Energy Information Administration typically gross heat content values. process). The rate: A Heat of generating station thermal efficiency commonly stated as Btu per kilowatthour . Note: Heat measure rates can be expressed as either gross or net heat rates, depending whether the electricity output is gross or net as rates are typically expressed net heat rates. generation. Heat An organic chemical Hydrocarbon: of hydrogen and carbon in the gaseous, liquid, or solid phase. The compound molecular structure of hydrocarbon compounds varies from the simplest (methane, the primary constituent of natural gas ) to the very and very complex. heavy Hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGL): A group of hydrocarbons including ethane , propane , normal butane , isobutane , and , natural gasoline , and their associated olefins , including ethylene propylene , butylene , and isobutylene . As marketed reports EIA olefins. and (NGL) liquids gas natural all represents products, HGL production HGL from refineries of liquefied refinery gases , or LRG) and natural gas plants ( natural Excludes gas plant liquids , or NGPL). ( liquefied natural gas (LNG). See hydrocarbons (olefins) . Olefinic Hydroelectric power: The production of electricity from the kinetic energy of falling water. Hydroelectric power plant: A plant in driven which turbine generators are the by falling water. Hydroelectric pumped storage: that is generated during peak load periods by using water previously Hydroelectricity do to available is capacity excess generating pumped into an elevated storage reservoir during off ‐ peak periods when the reservoir through a from conduit to can be released capacity is needed, the water so. When additional generating plant turbine located in a power generators at a lower level. Hydrogen (H): The lightest of all gases, hydrogen occurs chiefly in combination with oxygen in water. It also exists in petroleum acids, bases, alcohols , , and other hydrocarbons . Imports: of Receipts of goods into the 50 states and the District Columbia from U.S. possessions and territories or from foreign countries. instrumentality or or entity legal other that Independent power producer: A corporation, person, agency, authority, is electric and that public, not an primarily the by owns or operates facilities for the generation of electricity for use . utility all Industrial An energy ‐ consuming sector that consists of facilities and equipment used for producing, sector: or assembling goods. The industrial sector encompasses the following types of activity: manufacturing processing, (NAICS NAICS codes 31 ‐ 33); agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting code 11); ( and mining, including oil gas extraction (NAICS code 21); and construction (NAICS code 23). Overall energy use in this sector is largely for process heat and conditioning, cooling and powering machinery, with lesser amounts used for facility heating, air and lighting. Fossil as fuels are also used raw material inputs to manufactured products. Note: This sector includes generators that to ‐ above the support mentioned See activities. industrial produce electricity and/or useful thermal output primarily End sectors and Energy use sectors . use injected gas): Natural gas Injections into storage reservoirs. (natural Isobutane (C H extracted A branch ‐ chain saturated (paraffinic) hydrocarbon ): from both natural gas and refinery gas 4 10 streams, which is gaseous at standard temperature and pressure. It is a colorless gas that boils at a temperature of 11 degrees See Paraffinic hydrocarbons . Fahrenheit. Isobutylene (C H is ): A branch ‐ chain olefinic hydrocarbon from refinery or petrochemical processes, which recovered 8 4 gaseous at standard temperature and pressure. Isobutylene is used in the production of gasoline and various hydrocarbons petrochemical products. See Olefinic (olefins) . Isopentane (C by fractionation hydrocarbon of natural gasoline or obtained chain H ‐ ): A saturated branched 12 5 pentane. normal of isomerization 2019 U. S. Energy Information Administration 252 / Monthly Energy Review April

263 Jet fuel: A refined petroleum product used in jet aircraft engines. See Jet fuel , Kerosene ‐ type , and Jet fuel , Naphtha ‐ . type fuel, ‐ type: A kerosene ‐ based product having a maximum distillation temperature of 400 degrees Jet kerosene 10 at ‐ percent recovery point and a final maximum the Fahrenheit 572 degrees Fahrenheit of and meeting point boiling Specification D 1655 and ASTM Military Specifications MIL ‐ T ‐ 5624P and MIL ‐ T ‐ 83133D (Grades JP ‐ 5 and JP ‐ 8). It is used and military turbo jet and turbo prop aircraft engines. commercial for naphtha ‐ type: A fuel, in the heavy Jet fuel naphtha boiling range having an average gravity of 52.8 degrees API, 20% to 90% distillation temperatures of 290 degrees to 470 degrees Fahrenheit, and meeting Military Specification MIL ‐ T ‐ 5624L 4). It is used primarily for military turbojet and turboprop ‐ aircraft engines because it has a lower freeze (Grade JP point other aviation fuels and meets engine requirements at high altitudes and speeds. than light petroleum Kerosene: distillate that is used in space heaters, cook stoves, and water heaters and is suitable for A of 400 degrees when burned in wick ‐ fed lamps. as Kerosene has a maximum distillation temperature use a light source Fahrenheit at the 10 ‐ percent recovery point, a final boiling point of 572 degrees Fahrenheit, and a minimum flash point of degrees Fahrenheit. Included are No. 1 ‐ K and No. 2 ‐ K, the two grades recognized by ASTM Specification D 3699 100 as all other as well of kerosene called range or stove oil, which have properties similar to those of No. 1 fuel oil. grades ‐ fuel, kerosene type . See Jet A unit of electrical power equal to 1,000 watts . Kilowatt: A Kilowatthour measure of electricity defined as a unit of (kWh): work or energy, measured as 1 kilowatt (1,000 watts) of power expended for 1 hour. One kilowatthour is equivalent to 3,412 Btu. See Watthour . Landed The dollar ‐ per ‐ barrel price of crude oil at the port of discharge. Included are the charges associated with costs: purchase point to the port of discharge. Not included are transporting, and insuring of a cargo from the purchase, the charges incurred at the discharge port (e.g., import tariffs or fees, wharfage charges, and demurrage charges). in Lease and plant fuel: Natural gas used in well, field, and lease operations (such as gas used drilling operations, heaters, dehydrators, and field compressors) and used fuel in natural gas processing plants. as non and associated at facilities field or separators lease from recovered hydrocarbons Light ‐ Lease condensate: liquid associated gas wells. Mostly pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons. Normally enters the crude oil stream after natural production. electric ‐ steam for fuel as exclusively almost to as brown coal , used rank referred coal, of often lowest The Lignite: generation. It is brownish ‐ black and has a high inherent moisture content, sometimes as high as 45 percent. power heat content of lignite ranges from 17 9 to The million Btu per short ton on a moist, mineral ‐ matter free basis. The ‐ million of lignite consumed in the United States heat averages 13 content Btu per short ton, on the as ‐ received basis (i.e., containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). has Liquefied natural gas (LNG): Natural gas (primarily methane) that been liquefied by reducing its temperature to ‐ 260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure. hydrocarbon isobutane and , normal , propane primarily gases, of butane , Liquefied petroleum gases (LPG): A group gases derived crude oil refining or natural gas processing. These from may be marketed individually or mixed. They can or transportation of convenience (without cryogenic refrigeration) for requiring pressurization through liquefied be storage. Excludes ethane and olefins . Note: In some EIA publications, LPG includes ethane and marketed refinery olefin used streams, in accordance with definitions prior to January 2014. Liquefied refinery gases (LRG): Hydrocarbon gas liquids produced in refineries from processing of crude oil and unfinished . They oils through are retained in the liquid state pressurization and/or refrigeration. The reported categories include ethane , propane , normal butane , isobutane , and refinery olefins ( ethylene , propylene , butylene , and isobutylene ). Low power testing: The period of time between a nuclear generating unit’s initial fuel loading date and the issuance of the unit’s design during that period is 5 percent of its operating (full ‐ power) license. The maximum level of operation rating. thermal S. Energy Information Administration / U. Monthly Energy Review April 2019 253

264 Lubricants: Substances used to reduce friction between bearing surfaces or as process materials either incorporated into materials used as processing aids in the manufacturing of other products or as carriers of other materials. other lubricants be produced either from distillates or residues. Other may substances may be added to impart Petroleum or certain required properties. Excluded are byproducts of lubricating oil improve refining, such as aromatic extracts derived extraction or tars derived from deasphalting. Included are solvent grades of lubricating oils from spindle oil to from all oil and those used in greases. Lubricant categories are paraffinic and naphthenic. cylinder Marketed (natural gas): See Natural gas marketed production . production (CH Methane colorless, flammable, odorless hydrocarbon gas which is ): the A major component of natural gas . It is 4 an important source of hydrogen in various industrial processes. Methane is a greenhouse gas. See Greenhouse also . gases Methanol (CH OH ): A light, volatile alcohol eligible for gasoline blending. See Motor gasoline blending and Oxygenates . 3 ) gasoline COCH ): An ether intended for gasoline blending. See Motor (( CH tertiary Methyl ether ( MTBE ) butyl 3 3 3 blending Oxygenates . and Miscellaneous petroleum products: All finished petroleum products not classified elsewhere—for example, petrolatum, refining byproducts (aromatic extracts and tars), absorption oils, ram ‐ jet fuel, petroleum rocket lube synthetic natural gas feedstocks, and specialty oils. fuels, gasoline blending Motor Naphtha (e.g., straight ‐ run components: gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. These components include xylene) reformulated gasoline blendstock (RBOB) but exclude oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and natural gasoline. Note: Oxygenates the are as individual components and are included in reported total for other hydrocarbons, hydrogens, and oxygenates. Motor gasoline, conventional: Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated motor gasoline Note: This category excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as categories. other blendstock. well Conventional motor gasoline can be leaded or as unleaded; regular, midgrade, or premium. See gasoline grades . Motor Motor gasoline (finished): A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of spark additives, to form a fuel suitable for use in blended ‐ ignition engines. Motor gasoline, as defined in ASTM Specification D 4814 or Federal Specification VV ‐ G ‐ 1690C, is characterized as having a boiling range of 122 to 158 recovery point. percent 90 the at Fahrenheit degrees 374 to 365 to degrees Fahrenheit at the 10 percent recovery point Motor includes conventional gasoline; all types of oxygenated gasoline, including gasohol ; and reformulated gasoline but excludes aviation gasoline. Note: Volumetric data on gasoline, , components, such as oxygenates are not blending in data on finished motor gasoline until the blending components are blended into the gasoline. See Motor counted , conventional ; Motor gasoline , oxygenated ; and Motor gasoline , reformulated . gasoline gasoline grades: Motor The classification of gasoline by octane ratings. Each type of gasoline (conventional, regular, reformulated) is classified by three oxygenated, and midgrade, and premium. Note: Gasoline sales grades: are reported by grade in accordance with their classification at the time of sale. In general, automotive octane requirements are lower at high altitudes. Therefore, in some areas of the United States, such as the Rocky Mountain the points octane more lower. States, the octane ratings for gasoline grades or may be 2 Regular Gasoline having an antiknock index, i.e., octane rating, Gasoline: greater than or equal to 85 and . than 88 . Note: Octane requirements may vary by altitude. See Motor gasoline grades less rating, Midgrade Gasoline: Gasoline having an antiknock index, i.e., octane greater than or equal to 88 and less than or equal to 90. Note: Octane requirements may vary by See altitude. Motor gasoline grades . Premium Gasoline having an antiknock index, i.e., octane rating, greater than 90. Gasoline: Note: Octane requirements may vary by altitude. Motor gasoline grades . See Motor gasoline, oxygenated: Finished motor gasoline, other than reformulated gasoline, having an oxygen content the of 2.7 percent or higher by weight and required by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to be sold in as carbon monoxide by EPA areas designated Oxygenated Note: areas. nonattainment (CO) excludes gasoline 2019 U. 254 S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review April

265 oxygenated fuels program reformulated gasoline (OPRG) and reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate Data on gasohol that has at least 2.7 percent oxygen, by weight, and is intended for sale inside CO blending (RBOB). areas are included in data on oxygenated gasoline. Other data on gasohol are included nonattainment data in on conventional gasoline. gasoline, reformulated: Finished motor gasoline formulated for use in motor vehicles, the composition and Motor properties of which meet the requirements of the reformulated gasoline regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under Section 211(k) of the Clean Air Act. Note: This category includes oxygenated fuels program reformulated (OPRG) but excludes reformulated gasoline gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB). gasoline retail Motor Motor gasoline prices calculated each month by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) in prices: conjunction with the construction of the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Those prices are collected in 85 urban areas the all urban consumers ‐ about 80 percent of represent total U.S. population. The service stations are selected to selected and on a replacement basis, in such a way that they represent the purchasing habits of the CPI initially, of types current (i.e., service population. Service stations in the all sample include those providing full mini ‐ , and self ‐ ‐ , service). (total): For stock level data, a sum including Motor motor gasoline stocks plus stocks of motor gasoline finished components but excluding blending stocks of oxygenates. gasoline See Methyl tertiary butyl ether . MTBE: by the United States, NAICS A coding system developed jointly American Industry Classification System): (North the Mexico Canada, to classify businesses and industries according to and type of economic activity in which they are engaged. NAICS replaces the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes. For additional information on NAICS, go to http://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/. Naphtha: A generic term applied to a refined or partially refined fraction with an approximate boiling petroleum 400 122 degrees and degrees Fahrenheit. range between Gas: A gaseous mixture Natural hydrocarbon compounds, primarily methane , used as a fuel for electricity generation of and in a variety of ways in buildings, and as raw material input and fuel for industrial processes. the Natural gas, dry: Natural gas which remains after: (1) liquefiable hydrocarbon portion has been removed from the have gases nonhydrocarbon of gas stream (i.e., gas after lease, field, and/or plant separation); and (2) any volumes also is gas natural render to quantity Dry Note: unmarketable. gas the been removed where they occur in sufficient known consumer ‐ grade natural gas. The parameters for measurement are cubic feet at 60 degrees Fahrenheit and as per square inch absolute. 14.73 pounds . (dry) production: The process of producing consumer Natural grade natural gas gas Natural gas withdrawn from ‐ reservoirs is reduced volumes used by at the production (lease) site and by processing losses. Volumes used at the production include (1) the volume returned to reservoirs site in cycling, repressuring of oil reservoirs, and conservation operations; and (2) vented natural gas and flared natural gas . Processing losses include (1) water nonhydrocarbon (e.g., gases vapor, carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen sulfide, and nitrogen) removed from the gas stream; and (2) gas converted to liquid form, such as lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids . Volumes of dry withdrawn from gas storage reservoirs are not considered part of production. Dry natural gas production gas gas marketed equals natural production less natural gas plant liquids production. , liquids (NGL): Natural group of hydrocarbons including ethane gas propane , normal butane , isobutane , and natural A gasoline . Generally include natural gas plant liquids and all liquefied refinery gases except olefins . See Paraffinic hydrocarbons . for used gas less reservoirs, natural gas production from Gross gas of withdrawals Natural production: marketed reservoir repressuring ; nonhydrocarbon gases removed in treating and processing operations; and quantities of vented natural gas and flared natural gas . that gas natural in hydrocarbons gas natural at liquids as separated are Natural gas plant liquids (NGPL): Those 255 S. Energy Information Administration / U. Monthly Energy Review April 2019

266 processing, fractionating, and cycling plants. Products obtained include ethane , liquefied petroleum gases propane , normal butane and isobutane ), and natural gasoline . Component products may be fractionated or ( Lease mixed. and plant condensate are excluded. Note: Some EIA publications categorize NGPL condensate as production, in accordance with definitions field production to January 2014. prior used gas wellhead price: The wellhead price of natural gas Natural calculated by dividing the total reported value at the is the total quantity produced as reported by the appropriate agencies of individual by producing states and wellhead Minerals Management Service. U.S. price includes all the The costs prior to shipment from the including lease, gathering and compression costs, in addition to state production, severance, and similar charges. gasoline: A commodity product commonly traded in natural gas liquids (NGL) markets that comprises liquid Natural liquid (mostly pentanes and hexanes) and generally remains at ambient temperatures and hydrocarbons atmospheric Natural gasoline is equivalent to pentanes plus . pressure. Net capacity: The maximum output, commonly expressed in kilowatts (kW) or megawatts (MW), that summer can supply to system generating as demonstrated by a multi ‐ hour test, equipment at the time of summer peak load, demand (period of 1 through June September 30). This output reflects a reduction in capacity due to electricity use for station or auxiliaries. service zone: A 6,200 square ‐ mile area shared equally between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia under a 1992 agreement. Neutral Neutral zone contains an estimated 5 billion barrels of oil and 8 trillion cubic The feet of natural gas. dollars: A measure used to express Nominal price . nominal Nominal price: The price paid for a product or service at the time of the transaction. Nominal prices are those that dollar; they reflect buying remove the effect of changes the purchasing power of the have not been adjusted to in power in the year in which the transaction occurred. Non ‐ waste: Material of non ‐ biological origin that is a byproduct or a discarded product. “Non ‐ biomass waste” biomass solid waste from non ‐ biogenic sources, such as municipal plastics, and tire ‐ derived fuels. includes Non ‐ combustion use: Fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, and petroleum products) that are not burned to release energy and instead directly as construction materials, chemical, feedstocks, used lubricants, solvents, waxes, and other products. Nonhydrocarbon gases: Typical nonhydrocarbon gases that may be present in reservoir natural gas are carbon dioxide , nitrogen. helium, hydrogen sulfide, and such or "renewed," . coal and , gas natural , oil crude as Nonrenewable fuels: Fuels that cannot be easily made (paraffinic) ): A straight ‐ chain saturated H hydrocarbon extracted from both natural gas and butane Normal (C 10 4 gas streams, which is gaseous at standard temperature and pressure. It is a colorless gas that boils at a refinery 31 degrees Fahrenheit. of See Paraffinic hydrocarbons . temperature Nuclear electric power (nuclear power): Electricity generated by the use the thermal energy released from the of in nuclear fuel of a reactor. fission Nuclear electric power A single ‐ unit or multiunit facility in which heat produced in one or more reactors by the plant: fissioning of nuclear fuel is used to drive one or more steam turbines. and controlled, initiated, be can reaction chain apparatus a fission at sustained nuclear An a in which Nuclear reactor: rate. A reactor includes fuel (fissionable material), moderating material to control the rate of fission, a heavy ‐ specific protect vessel to house reactor components, shielding to pressure personnel, a system to conduct walled away heat monitoring the reactor, and instrumentation for from and controlling the reactor's systems. OECD: Organization for Economic See Cooperation and Development . Offshore: That geographic area that lies seaward of the coastline. In general, the coastline is the line of ordinary low water along with that portion of the coast the line marking the the with contact direct in sea or that is open water. inland of limit seaward / 2019 U. S. Energy Information Administration Monthly Energy Review April 256

267 Oil: See Crude oil . hydrocarbons (olefins): Unsaturated hydrocarbon compounds with the general formula CnH2n containing at Olefinic crude one ‐ to ‐ carbon double ‐ bond. Olefins are produced at carbon oil refineries and petrochemical plants and are least naturally occurring constituents of oil and natural gas. Sometimes referred to as alkenes not or unsaturated Excludes aromatics. hydrocarbons. See Olefins: hydrocarbons (olefins) . Olefinic See the Petroleum Organization Exporting Countries . OPEC: of unit (nuclear): In Operable the United States, a nuclear generating unit that has completed low ‐ power testing and been a full ‐ power operating license by the Nuclear Regulatory issued or Commission, equivalent permission to operate. for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD): An international organization helping governments Organization globalized the economic, and governance challenges of a economy. Its membership comprises about 30 tackle social countries. With active relationships with some 70 other countries, non ‐ governmental organizations (NGOs) and member society, it has civil a reach. For details about global the organization, see http://www.oecd.org. of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC): An intergovernmental organization Organization stated whose objective is to "coordinate and unify the petroleum policies member countries." It was created at the Baghdad of Conference on September 10–14, 1960. Current and former members (with years membership) include Algeria of forward), (2007 forward), Congo ‐ Brazzaville (2018 forward), Angola Ecuador (1973–1992 and 2007 forward), (1969 Guinea (2017 forward), Gabon (1974–1995 and 2016 forward), Equatorial Indonesia (1962–2008 and 2016), Iran (1960 (1960 forward), Kuwait (1960 forward), Libya Iraq forward), Nigeria (1971 forward), Qatar (1961– forward), (1962 Saudi 2018), forward), forward), United Arab Emirates (1967 and Venezuela (1960 forward). (1960 Arabia hydrocarbons: Materials received by a refinery and consumed as a raw material. Includes hydrogen, coal tar Other Excludes natural gas used for fuel or hydrogen gilsonite. feedstock. derivatives, gasoline in that oxygen blend. Ethanol , increase the amount of Oxygenates: Substances which, when added to gasoline, Methyl Butyl Ether (MTBE) , Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and methanol are common oxygenates. Tertiary aggregations Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts. Geographic Districts: of the 50 states and the PAD were districts The 1950. five for the Petroleum Administration for Defense in into Columbia of District districts Petroleum originally for economic and geographic reasons as instituted Administration for War (PAW) Districts, which were established in 1942. with Paraffinic Saturated hydrocarbon compounds hydrocarbons: the general formula C H single containing only 2n+2 n bonds. Sometimes referred to as alkanes or natural gas liquids . gas a in gas natural from extracted and pentanes mostly , hydrocarbons heavier, Pentanes plus: A mixture of liquid processing Pentanes plus is equivalent to natural gasoline . plant. refined petroleum fractions, principally from refined or partially Petrochemical Chemical feedstocks derived feedstocks: in the manufacturing of chemicals, synthetic for rubber, and a variety of plastics. use Petroleum: A broadly defined class of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures. Included are crude oil, lease condensate, unfinished oils, refined products obtained from the processing of crude oil, and natural gas plant liquids. Note: compounds, Volumes of finished petroleum products include nonhydrocarbon such as additives and detergents, after they have been blended into the products. thermal Petroleum A residue high in carbon content and low in hydrogen that is the final product of coke: the condensation process in cracking. This product in is reported decomposition or as marketable coke catalyst The conversion is 5 coke. barrels (of 42 U.S. gallons each) per short ton. See Petroleum coke , Catalyst and Petroleum coke, marketable . Petroleum coke, catalyst: The carbonaceous residue that is deposited on the catalyst used in many catalytic operations (e.g., catalytic cracking). Carbon is is catalyst The catalyst. the deactivating thus catalyst, the on deposited reactivated 257 S. Energy Information Administration / U. Monthly Energy Review April 2019

268 by burning off the carbon producing heat and carbon dioxide ( CO2 ). The carbonaceous residue is not recoverable as a See Petroleum coke . product. coke, Petroleum Those grades of coke produced in delayed or fluid cokers that may be recovered as marketable: Marketable petroleum coke pure may be relatively carbon. or further purified by as calcining. See Petroleum sold is . coke See Products (petroleum) . Petroleum consumption: supplied imports: Imports Petroleum petroleum into the 50 states and the District of Columbia from foreign countries and of Rico, the Virgin Islands, and other U.S. territories and possessions. Included are imports from Puerto for the Petroleum Reserve and withdrawals from warehouses for onshore consumption, offshore bunker Strategic bonded and military use. Excluded are receipts of foreign petroleum into bonded warehouses use, into U.S. territories and and U.S. Foreign Trade Zones. products: Products obtained from the processing of crude oil (including lease condensate), Petroleum gas, and natural hydrocarbon compounds. Petroleum products include unfinished oils, hydrocarbon gas liquids, aviation gasoline, other kerosene, gasoline, ‐ type jet fuel, kerosene ‐ type jet fuel, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petrochemical motor naphtha special naphthas, lubricants, feedstocks, waxes, petroleum coke, asphalt, road oil, still gas, and miscellaneous products. Petroleum stocks, at primary: individual products, quantities that are held For refineries, in pipelines, and at bulk that have terminals capacity of 50,000 barrels or more, or that are in transit thereto. Stocks held by product retailers a and resellers, as well as tertiary stocks held at the point of consumption, are excluded. of individual products Stocks estimates gas processing plants are excluded from individual product estimates but are included in other oils at held and total. of fuel: Gas consumed in the operation pipelines, primarily in compressors. Pipeline at plants in hydrocarbons at inlet separators or scrubbers recovered natural gas processing Liquid condensate: Plant pressure and ambient temperatures. Mostly pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons. atmospheric it Energy in the form that Primary is first accounted for in a statistical energy balance, before any energy: secondary or tertiary forms of energy. For example, to coal can be converted to synthetic gas, which transformation electricity be converted to electricity ; in this example, coal is primary energy, synthetic gas is secondary energy, and can energy. See Primary energy production and Primary energy consumption . is tertiary energy consumption : Consumption of primary energy . The U.S. Energy Information Administration includes the Primary following U.S. primary energy consumption: in coal consumption; coal coke net imports; petroleum consumption —excluding petroleum products ( supplied ); dry natural gas supplemental gaseous fuels —consumption; nuclear electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the nuclear plants heat rate ); conventional hydroelectricity net generation to Btu using the average heat rate of (converted fossil ‐ fuel fired plants); geothermal electricity net generation (converted Btu using the average annual heat rate of fossil ‐ fueled fired plants ), geothermal heat pump energy and to thermal solar generation the using Btu to (converted net electricity photovoltaic and geothermal direct ‐ use energy; average heat rate of fossil ‐ fueled fired plants), and solar annual ‐ use energy; wind direct electricity net generation thermal derived to Btu using the average annual heat rate of fossil ‐ fueled fired plants); wood and wood ‐ (converted fuels consumption; biomass waste consumption; fuel ethanol and biodiesel consumption; losses and co ‐ products from the production fuel ethanol and of biodiesel; and electricity net imports (converted to Btu using the electricity heat content of 3,412 Btu per kilowatthour). Primary energy consumption also includes all non ‐ combustion use of fossil fuels. See Total included coal—are from Coal sources—e.g. energy other from produced coke in energy consumption . Energy sources primary consumption only if their energy energy as content has not been included part of the original energy already source. As a result, U.S. primary energy consumption does include net imports of coal coke, but it does not include the coal coke from domestic coal. produced The Primary production: Production of primary energy . energy U.S. Energy Information Administration includes the following in U.S. primary energy production: coal production, waste coal supplied, and coal refuse recovery; crude oil and lease condensate production; natural gas plant liquids production; dry natural gas —excluding supplemental ); generation (converted to Btu using the nuclear plants heat rate net gaseous fuels — production; nuclear electricity 258 2019 U. S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review April

269 conventional hydroelectricity net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil ‐ fueled plants heat rate); geothermal net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil ‐ fueled plants heat rate), and geothermal heat pump energy electricity net geothermal use energy; solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity direct generation (converted to Btu using the and fueled plants heat rate), and solar thermal direct use energy; fossil electricity net generation (converted to Btu ‐ wind fossil ‐ fueled plants heat rate); wood and wood ‐ the fuels production; biomass waste consumption; and using derived feedstock. biofuels mover: The engine, turbine, water wheel, or similar Prime that drives an electric machine or, for reporting generator; a device that converts energy to electricity directly. purposes, supplied (petroleum Approximately represents consumption of petroleum products because it measures Product ): disappearance of these products from primary sources, i.e., refineries, natural gas ‐ processing plants, blending the plants, pipelines, and bulk terminals. In general, product supplied of each product in any given period is computed as production, plus follows: refinery production, plus imports, plus field unaccounted ‐ for crude oil (plus net receipts when calculated on a PAD District basis) minus stock change, minus crude oil losses, minus refinery inputs, and minus exports. (C Propane from H A straight ‐ chain saturated (paraffinic) hydrocarbon extracted natural gas or refinery gas streams, ): 3 8 is gaseous which standard temperature and pressure. It is a colorless gas that boils at a temperature of ‐ 44 degrees at It includes all products designated in ASTM Specification Fahrenheit. D1835 and Gas Processors Association specifications See for (HD ‐ 5) propane. commercial Paraffinic hydrocarbons . at gaseous H ): An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from refinery or petrochemical processes, which is (C Propylene 6 3 and pressure. Propylene is standard important temperature petrochemical feedstock. See Olefinic hydrocarbons an (olefins) . Real dollars: These are dollars that have been adjusted for inflation. Real A price that has been adjusted to remove the price: changes in the purchasing power of the effect dollar. Real of are prices, in constant dollars, usually reflect which buying power relative to a base year. expressed Refiner acquisition cost of crude oil: The cost of crude oil to the refiner, including transportation and fees. The domestic average of and imported crude oil costs. is the cost weighted composite Refinery and blender net inputs: Raw materials, unfinished oils , and blending components processed at refineries, or inputs gross are Included . products petroleum finished produce to terminals storage blended at petroleum refineries or of oil , natural gas liquids , other hydrocarbon crude materials, , oxygenates (excluding fuel hydrogen ethanol ), and raw fuels (including fuel ethanol). Also included are net inputs of unfinished oils, renewable motor gasoline blending , and aviation gasoline blending components . Net inputs are calculated as gross inputs minus gross components Negative net inputs indicate gross inputs are less than production. gross production. Examples of negative net inputs produced gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) at refineries for shipment to include reformulated terminals, and unfinished oils produced and added blending inventory in advance of scheduled maintenance of a to refinery crude oil distillation unit. production: blender net Refinery Liquefied refinery and gases, and finished petroleum products produced at a refinery storage or petroleum terminal blending facility. Net production equals gross production minus gross inputs. Negative net indicates gross production is less than gross inputs for a finished petroleum product. Examples of production production include reclassification of one finished product negative to net another product, or finished reclassification of finished product to unfinished oils a or blending components. Refinery gas: Still gas as refinery fuel. consumed Refinery (petroleum): An installation that manufactures finished petroleum products from crude oil, unfinished oils, natural liquids, other hydrocarbons, and alcohol. gas A surface mine: s