Water Filtration System


1 National Aeronautics and Space Administration Water Filtration System NASA SUMMER OF INNOVATION UNIT Engineering—Design Process LESSON THEME This lesson challenges students to create GRADE LEVELS and test a water filtering system. The 7 – 9 activities in this lesson focus on water recovery and management. CONNECTION TO CURRICULUM Technology OBJECTIVES Students will TEACHER PREPARATION TIME Design and build a water filtration  hour 1 device  Test the device, make LESSON TIME NEEDED observations, and collect data 5 – 6 hours Complexity: Moderate  Collaborate as they analyze results and attempt to identify the best filter media to use ion devices, they will make modifications to their Based on their analysis and on study of other filtrat  model and repeat the process in an effort to produce the most effective filtration apparatus possible  their results to the larger community Compare individual results and communicate NATIONAL STAND ARDS National Science Education Standards (NSTA) Science as Inquiry Understanding of scientific concepts   An appreciation of “how we know” what we know in science  Skills necessary to become independent inquirers about the natural world s, and attitudes asso Dispositions to use the skills, abilitie  ciated with science Life Sciences  Organisms and environments Science in Technology Abilities of technological design  ISTE NETS and Performance Indicators for Students Creativity and Innovation  Apply existing knowledge to generate ne w ideas, products, or processes Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making  Plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project Research and Information Fluency Plan strategies to guide inquiry  Locate, organize, analyze, evaluat  e, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media ces and digital tools based on the  Evaluate and select information sour appropriateness to specific tasks  Process data and report results Technology Operations and Concepts  Understand and use technology systems  Select and use applications effectively and productively Aerospace Education Services Project

2 MANAGEMENT Safety—Remind students the importance of classroom and lab MATERIALS For the class: safety. Review the rules for smelling (wafting) in the science lab.  Triple beam balance (2 – 3) Students should wear eye protection during this activity. Materials Conductivity tester (3)  Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are required for this experiment. You Graduated cylinder (1 – 2)  can find MSDS at http://www.msdssearch.com/msdssearch.htm.  PH strips (3 – 4 per team) This activity requires proper clean up. Plastic cups (6 – 8 per team)   Newspaper Send a note home to parents telling them about the project  Sharpie marker  a week or two ahead of time. Include the materials list and For each conductivity tester: ask them to send in materials from this list. Multimeter (1 digital)  Students will work in teams of two or three and are  9-volt battery (1)  encouraged to think of their entire class as a single design Battery snap connector  team working cooperatively and learning from the efforts.  Electrical tape, black (15 cm) Discuss properties of liquids such as how different liquids   Wire stripper and materials interact, surface tension, and viscosity, so For each filtration device: students will know what to look for while making Plastic  water bottle observations.  Rubber band (2)  Review the scientific process and how to design an  10- by 10-cm section cheesecloth (4) effective experiment. Discuss ways students should have  10- by 10-cm section plastic wrap access to information-gathering and research equipment. (4)  Students should have room for small group and whole class  10- by 10-cm section window discussions. screen Filtered waste container   Utility knife CONTENT RESEARCH  Masking tape Paper clip (straightened)  The astronauts onboard the International Space Station (ISS) join For filter media (each student team) those of us on Earth in the recycling effort. This recycling is Cotton ball (10 – 15)  different from that which may take place in your home or school.  Coffee filter (6) The astronauts recycle their water. This includes the moisture they  Activated carbon (200 g) exhale and sweat, as well as the water they use to shower and  Gravel (200 g) shave. These wastewaters are purified and then used as drinking Sand (200 g)  water. The ISS uses filtration and temperature sterilization to Uncooked macaroni  (100 g) ensure the water is safe to drink. Water is checked often to ensure For the simulated wastewater it meets the water quality requirements and monitored closely for Vinegar (400 ml)   Food coloring (1 to 2 drops) bacteria, pollutants, and proper pH. The pH scale ranges from 0 to Sand (50 g)  14 and is a tool used by scientists to measure the strength of an Salt (1 tbsp)  acid or base. Proper pH balance of 7 is important to a human body. Hair (handful)   Dust (handful) Public water systems have to meet a pH level of 6.5 to 8.5. The Tap water (2 liters)  ISS water is required to be within the range of 6.0 to 8.5. The 2-liter beaker  recycled water on the ISS is sterile, and there is no odor or bad Stirring device  taste. Water recycling will be imperative for long-duration missions For each student team: such as on the ISS or possible trips to the Moon and Mars. A  Poster board spacecraft on a lengthy trip to the Moon and Mars would be limited  Markers to the amount of water it could carry because of weight restrictions.  Scissors In this experiment, you will create a nd test a water filtration system. Glue or tape  Aerospace Education Services Project 2

3 Key Concepts ogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water. The greater Acid: Any of a class of substances that yields hydr  the concentration of hydrogen ions produced, the more acidic the substance is. Acids are characterized by a sour taste and the ability to react with bases and certain metals to form salts. Base: Any of a class of substances that yields hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water. The  greater the concentration of hydroxide ions produced, the more basic the substance is. Bases are characterized by a bitter taste, a slippery feel, and the ability to react with acids to form salts.  Conductivity : Conductivity is a measure of a material’s c apacity to conduct electricity. Conductivity is a standard method to measure the purity of water, specifically the quantity of inorganic contaminants (which conduct electricity). Completely pure water will not conduct electrical current. Thus, the smaller the amount of current that flows through the treated wastewater, the lower the concentration of inorganic contaminants. The water recovered and purif ied by the Water Recovery System (WRS) on the ISS has an average conductivity of approximately 1 μ mho/cm, most of which is due to the residual iodine added to the water. : Internationally developed research facility with 16 partner countries International Space Station (ISS)  that was begun in 1998 and completed in 2011.  lets : Indicator used to determine whether a substance is acidic or basic. The pH scale Litmus Paper you determine the relative acidity of a substance. The pH scale ranges from 1 to 14 where 7 is neutral, greater than 7 is basic, and less than 7 is acidic. : The water recovered and purified by the WRS on the ISS has a pH of 4.5 to 7. This lower pH is  Water a result of the addition of iodine to the filtered water LESSON ACTIVITIES —Understand the design challenge and become familiar with the materials. Watch Introduce the Challenge cond newsbreak, “Where would a space explorer and discuss NASA’s KSNN™ 21st Century Explorer 30-se .) find water and oxygen?” (Download the newsbreak at http://ksnn.larc.nasa.gov —Design the team’s device and become familiar with the conductivity Design and Test a Filtration Device tester and pH strips. —Combine the best features of all of the teams devices. Design a Class Filtration Device —Summarize and reflect on results. Construct Posters —Share the outcome. Student Presentations All lesson activities can be found at http://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/topnav/materials/listbytype/Water_Filtration_Challenge.html ADDITIONAL RESOURCES: Filtration activity:  http://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/topnav/materials/listbytype/Cleaning_Water_Activity.html  NASA article on new filtration device in space with photographs: http://www.space.com/8141-nasa-test-medical-device-sick-astronauts-space.html Mission to Mars water filtration activity embedded in PowerPoint:  http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/test/speakersnotes/ITP/912/examples_spsci.html#Start  Clean Water; Where Does It Come From? Activity: http://virtualastronaut.tietronix.com/teacherportal/pdfs/WaterPurificationfortheISS.pdf Aerospace Education Services Project 3

4 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS What happened to the water as it passed through the different layers of the filter? What changes  Answers will occurred to the properties of the gray water as it was filtered (pH, appearance, odor)? vary.  d your gray water become “clean”? Did your gray Compare your filtered water to the clean water. Di water become clean? What properties told you it was or was not clean? Answers will vary.  Does this data support your hypothesis? Why or why not? Answers will vary. If you could build a water filtering system by using any of the materials available in the class, which  three materials would you use and in what order would you layer them? Why ? Answers will vary.  Based on your findings, what would you suggest to NASA scientists and engineers designing filtration systems and water recycling methods? Answers will vary. ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES Once the test and the Design and Evaluation Sheet are completed, instruct the students to discuss the results o or three designs, compete in a run-off and determine and what they have learned. If you elected to have tw the best design from the data collected. There may be time to complete posters during filtration so an additional day will not be needed. Each team can create a poster about their design and test results. Select two to three students to make a poster for the class-designed filtration device. ENRICHMENT Collect and filter other samples of water. (e.g., rain water, hand wash water, stream or pond water, etc.) • Try using other filter media such as Styrofoam™ pieces, potting soil, marbles, and popcorn. • • Ask the students to research how the water in your town is filtered/treated. Maybe take a field trip to he water treatment plant visiting to speak to your thewater treatment plant, or check into someone from t class. • Because weight is always an issue when launching into space (the heavier it is the more it costs to launch ng filter media). Hold a competition to see which team it), set a weight limit for the filtration device (includi has the purest water (lowest conductivity and most neutral pH) using the lightest filtration device. If equipment is available, instruct student teams to videotape, film, or photograph their work. This can then • be used to create an electronic diary and presentation of their filtration device and results. Instruct the teams to share their creation with the class. • Investigate other water treatment methods, such as desalination, and conduct classroom experiments using these methods. www.nasa.gov Aerospace Education Services Project 4

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