1 At A Glance: What We Know about The Effects of Service-Learning on College Students, Faculty, Institutions and Communities, 1993- 2000: Third Edition. "At A Glance" summarizes the findings of service-learning research in higher education over the past few years and includes an annotated bibliography. It is designed to provide a quick overview of where we are in the field today and a map to the literature. Janet S. Eyler, Dwight E.Giles, Jr., Christine M. Stenson, and Charlene J. Gray Vanderbilt University August 31, 2001 Funded by the Corporation for National Service Learn and Serve America National Service Learning Clearinghouse

2 I. What We Know: The Effects of Service-Learning On Students A. Personal Outcomes ♦ Service-learning has a positive effect on student personal development such as sense of personal efficacy, personal identity, spiritual growth, and moral development: Astin & Sax, 1998; Astin, Sax, & Avalos, 1999; ; Boss, 1994; Driscoll, Blackwell, 1996 (dissertation ) Holland, Gelmon, & Kerrigan, 1996; Eyler, Giles, & Braxton, 1997; Eyler & Giles, 1999; Fenzel & Leary, 1997; Freidus, 1997; Giles & Eyler, 1994; Gray, Ondaatje, Fricker, Geschwind, Goldman, Kaganoff, Robyn, Sundt, Vogelgesang, & Klein, 1998; Greene, 1996 (dissertation); Gorman, 1994; ; Jordan, 1994 (dissertation); Keen, & Keen, 1998; Kendrick, 1996; Loewen, Ikeda, 1999 (dissertation) Peterson, 1998; ; Ostrow, 1995; Markus, Howard, & King 1993; McMahon, 1998; 1998 (dissertation) Rhoads, 1997; Rockquemore & Schaffer 2000; Schmidt, 2000; Seibold, Rauner, 1995 (dissertation); ); Sledge, Shelburne, & Jones,1993 ; Vogelgesang & Astin, 2000; VCU, 1997; Wade & 1998 (dissertation Yarborough, 1996; Wang, 2000; Western Washington University, 1994. ♦ Service-learning has a positive effect on interpersonal development and the ability to work well with others, leadership and communication skills: Astin & Sax, 1998; Bacon, 1997 (dissertation); Dalton & Petrie, 1997; Driscoll, Holland, Gelmon, & Kerrigan, 1996; Eyler & Giles, 1999; Freidus, 1997; Giles & Eyler, 1994; Gray, et al., 1998; Juhn, Tang, Piessens, Grant, Johnson, & Murray, 1999; Keen, & Keen, 1998; Knee, 1999 (dissertation); McElhaney, 1998 (dissertation) Rauner, 1995 McMahon, 1998; Raskoff, 1997; Mabry, 1998; ; (dissertation); Seibold, 1998 (dissertation ); Sledge, Shelburne, & Jones, 1993; Peterson, Rhoads, 1997; 1998; Tarallo-Falk, 1995 (dissertation ); Vogelgesang & Astin, 2000; Wade &Yarborough, 1996; Zawacki, 1997 (dissertation ). B. Social Outcomes ♦ Service-learning has a positive effect on reducing stereotypes and facilitating cultural & racial understanding: Astin & Sax, 1998; Astin, Sax, & Avalos, 1999; Balazadeh, 1996; Barber, Higgins, Smith, Ballou, Dedrick, & Downing, 1997; Boyle-Baise, 1998; Boyle-Baise & Kilbane, 2000; Bringle & Kremer, 1993; Driscoll, Holland, Gelmon, & Kerrigan, 1996; Dunlap, 1997; Dunlap, 1998; Eyler, Giles & Braxton, 1997; Eyler & Giles, 1999; Fenzel & Leary, 1997; Giles & Eyler, 1994; Gray, et al. 1998; Greene & Diehm, 1995; Greene, 1996 (dissertation); Hones, 1997; Jordan, 1994 (dissertation); Keen & Keen, 1998; Kendrick, 1996; McElhaney, 1998 (dissertation); Myers-Lipton, 1996a; Myers-Lipton, 1996b; ; Potthoff, Dinsmore, Eifler, Stirtz, Walsh, & Ostrow, 1995; Pickron-Davis 1999 (dissertation) 1

3 Ziebarth, 2000; Rauner, 1995 (dissertation); Rhoads, 1997; Vogelgesang & Astin, 2000; Virginia Commonwealth University, 1997; Western Washington University, 1994. ♦ Service-learning may subvert as well as support course goals of reducing stereotyped thinking and facilitating cultural & racial understanding: Curran, 1999; Grady, 1998; Pickron-Davis 1999 (dissertation). Service-learning has a positive effect on sense of social responsibility and ♦ citizenship skills: Astin & Sax, 1998; Astin, Sax, & Avalos, 1999; Barber, Higgins, Smith, Ballou, Jeffrey, Dedrick, & Downing, 1997; Batchelder & Root, 1994; Dalton & Petrie, 1997; Driscoll, Holland, Gelmon, & Kerrigan, 1996; Eyler & Giles, 1999; Eyler, Giles & Braxton, 1997; Fenzel & Leary, 1997; Giles & Keen, & Keen, 1998; Kendrick, 1996; Eyler, 1994; Gray, et al. 1998; Johnson & Bozeman, 1998; McElhaney, 1998 (dissertation); Myers-Lipton, 1998; Nnakwe, 1999; Ostrow, 1995; Mabry, 1998; Rice & Brown, 1998; Sledge, Shelburne, & Jones, 1993; Rhoads, 1997; VCU, 1997. ♦ Service-learning has a positive effect on commitment to service: Astin & Sax, 1998; Astin, Sax, & Avalos, 1999; ), Driscoll, Holland, Blackwell, 1996 (dissertation Gelmon, & Kerrigan, 1996; Eklund-Leen, 1994 (dissertation); Eyler & Giles, 1999; Eyler, Giles & Braxton, 1997; Fenzel & Leary, 1997; Giles & Eyler, 1994; Greene, 1996 (dissertation); Keen, & Keen, 1998; Kolcross, 1997 (dissertation); Markus, Howard, King, 1993; McElhaney, 1998 (dissertation); Nnakwe, 1999; Oliver, 1997; Payne, 2000; Payne, & Bennett, 1999; Potthoff, Dinsmore, Eifler, Stirtz, Rauner, 1995 (dissertation); Rhoads, 1997; Smedick, 1996 (dissertation); Walsh, & Ziebarth, 2000; Stukas & Clary, 1998; Tartter, 1996; Western Washington University, 1994; Vogelgesang & Astin, 2000. ♦ Volunteer service in college is associated with involvement in community service after graduation: Smedick, 1996 (dissertation). Astin, Sax, & Avalos, 1999; 2

4 C. Learning Outcomes Students or faculty report that service-learning has a positive impact on ♦ students' academic learning: Blackwell, 1996 (dissertation ); Boss, 1994; Astin & Sax, 1998; Balazadeh, 1996; Burr, 1997 (dissertation ); Cohen & Kinsey, 1994; Driscoll, Holland, Gelmon, & Kerrigan, 1996; Eyler & Giles, 1999; Eyler, Root, & Giles, 1998; Fenzel & Leary, 1997; Foreman, 1996; Gelmon, Holland, and Shinnamon, 1998; Greene, 1996 (dissertation); Hall, 1996(dissertation); Jordan, 1996 (dissertation); Hesser, 1995; Knee, 1999; Markus, Howard & King, 1993; McElhaney, 1998 (dissertation); Miller, 1994; Oliver, 1997; Schmiede, 1995; Sledge, Shelburne, & Jones, 1993; McMahon, 1998; Strage, 2000; Tarallo-Falk, 1995 (dissertation ); Vogelgesang & Astin, 2000; VCU, 1997; Soukup, 1999; Ward, 2000; Western Washington University, 1994. ♦ Students or faculty report that service-learning improves students' ability to apply what they have learned in “the real world”: Bacon, 1997 (dissertation); Balazadeh, 1996; Cohen & Kinsey 1994; Eyler & Giles, 1999; Fenzel & Leary, 1997; Foreman, 1996; Gelmon, Holland, and Shinnamon, 1998; Gray, et al., 1998; Hall, 1996 (dissertation); Juhn, Tang, Piessens, Grant, Johnson, & Murray, 1999; Kendrick, 1996; Oliver, 1997; Markus, Howard, & King, 1993; McElhaney, 1998 (dissertation); McMahon, 1998; Miller, 1994; Nigro & Wortham, 1998; VCU, 1997. ♦ The impact of service-learning on student academic learning as measured by course grades or GPA is mixed: Some studies have shown a positive impact of community service on academic learning: Astin & Sax, 1998; Tartter, 1996; Vogelgesang & Astin, 2000. Other studies have shown a positive impact of service-learning on academic learning: Gray et al., 1998; Markus, Howard, & King, 1993; Strage, 2000; Vogelgesang & Astin, 2000. 3

5 Several studies show differences in academic learning between service- learning and non service-learning students, but calculate grades differently for these two groups of students: Balazadah, 1996; Berson & Younkin, 1998; Shastri, 1999. Some studies show no difference between service-learning and non- service- learning control groups in academic learning: Boss, 1994; Hudson, 1996; Kendrick, 1996; Miller, 1994; Parker-Gwin & Mabry, 1998. ♦ Service-learning participation has an impact on such academic outcomes as demonstrated complexity of understanding, problem analysis, critical thinking, and cognitive development: Batchelder & Root, 1994; Eyler & Giles, 1999; Eyler, Root, & Giles, 1998; Osborne, Hammerich, Hensley, 1998. ♦ The impact of service-learning on student cognitive moral development is mixed: Some studies find that service-learning contributes to moral development: Boss, 1994; Gorman, 1994. Other studies show no difference in moral development between service- learning and non- service-learning control groups: Cram, 1998; Fenzel & Leary, 1997; Greene, 1996. D. Career Development ♦ Service-learning contributes to career development Astin & Sax, 1998; Astin, Sax, & Avalos, 1999; Aultman, 1997 (dissertation) ; Driscoll, Holland, Gelmon, & Kerrigan, 1996; Fenzel & Leary, 1997; Greene & Diehm, 1995; Juhn, Tang, Piessens, Grant, Johnson, & Murray, 1999; Keen, & Keen, 1998; McElhaney, 1998 (dissertation); Sledge, Shelburne, & Jones, 1993; Smedick, 1996 (dissertation) ; Tartter, 1996; Vogelgesang & Astin, 2000; VCU, 1997; Western Washington University, 1994. 4

6 E. Relationship with Institution Students engaged in service-learning report stronger faculty relationships than ♦ those who are not involved in service-learning: Astin & Sax, 1998; Gray et al, 1998; Eyler & Giles, 1999. ♦ Service-learning improves student satisfaction with college: Astin & Sax, 1998; Berson & Younkin, 1998; Gray, et al., 1998. ♦ Students engaged in service-learning are more likely to graduate: Astin & Sax, 1998; Roose, Daphne, Miller, Norris, Peacock, White, & White, 1997. F. Processes examined in Qualitative Studies. There is a growing body of case studies that describe service-learning processes and contexts. Themes explored include: ♦ Citizenship development Dalton & Petrie, 1997; Smith, 1994. ♦ Dealing with diversity Boyle-Baise, 1998; Boyle-Baise & Kilbane 2000; Dunlap, 1998a; Hones, 1997; Pickron-Davis, 1999 (dissertation); Rockquemore & Schaffer, 2000; Skilton-Silvester & Erwin, 2000. Institutional support and cohesion ♦ Ward K., 1996. ♦ Transformations in orientations toward service and community Bacon, 1997(dissertation); Dunlap 1998b; Ostrow, 1995; Rockquemore & Schaffer 2000; Schmidt, 2000 (dissertation); Tarallo-Falk, 1995 (dissertation) ; Wade & Yarborough, 1996. ♦ Reflection and instructional processes Freidus, 1997; Hall, 1996 (dissertation) ; Hones, 1997; Ikeda, 2000; Ikeda, 1999 (dissertation) ; Schmiede, 1995. ♦ Self and identity Dunlap, 1997; Rhoads, 1997; Wang, 2000. 5

7 II. What We Know: The Effects of Particular Program Characteristics on Students A. Placement Quality Placement quality has a positive impact on student personal and interpersonal ♦ outcomes: Eyler & Giles, 1999; Mabry, 1998. B. Reflection Quality and quantity of reflective activities have an impact on student ♦ learning: Eyler & Giles, 1999; Gray, et al. 1998; Greene & Diehm, 1995; Ikeda, 1999 (dissertation) ; Loewen, 1998 (dissertation); Mabry, 1998. C. Application of service ♦ Application of service to academic content and vice versa has an impact on students, particularly learning outcomes: Boss, 1994; Batchelder & Root, 1994; Eyler & Giles, 1999; McElhaney, 1999. D. Duration and Intensity of Service ♦ Duration and intensity of service have an impact on student outcomes: Astin & Sax, 1998; Astin, Sax, & Avalos, 1999; Mabry, 1998. E. Exposure to Diversity ♦ Diversity has an impact on students, particularly personal outcomes, such as identity development & cultural understanding: . Eyler & Giles, 1999; Gray, et al., 1998 ; Pickron-Davis, 1999 (dissertation) 6

8 F. Community voice ♦ Community voice in a service-learning project has an impact on student cultural understanding: Eyler & Giles, 1999; Gray, et al., 1998. G. Feedback ♦ Receiving quality feedback from professors or clients has an impact on students’ self reported learning, use of skills taught in courses, and commitment to service: Greene, 1996; Greene & Diehm, 1995; Subramony, 2000. 7

9 III. What We Know: The Impact of Service-learning on Faculty Faculty using service-learning report satisfaction with quality of student A. learning: Balazadeh, 1996; Berson & Younkin, 1998; Cohen & Kinsey, 1994; Fenzel & Leary, 1997; Gelmon, Holland, & Shinnamon, 1998; Hesser, 1995; McMahon, 1998; Sellnow & Oster, 1997; Serow, Calleson, & Parker, 1996; Seibold, 1998 (dissertation ); Stanton, 1994; Ward S., 2000. Faculty using service-learning report commitment to research: B. Driscoll, Holland, Gelmon, & Kerrigan, 1996. C. Faculty report lack of resources as barrier to providing service-learning: Bergkamp, 1996 (dissertation); Burr, 1997 ( dissertation ); Gray, et al., 1998; Hammond, 1994; National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, 1995; Robinson & Barnett, 1996; Siscoe, 1997 (dissertation) ; Stanton, 1994; Wade & Yarborough, 1997; Ward K., 1996. D. Faculty increasingly integrate service-learning into courses : Burr, 1997 (dissertation ); Campus Contact, 1998; Gray, et al., 1998; Martin, 1994 (dissertation); Oliver, 1997; Robinson & Barnett, 1996; Sagaria & Burrows, 1995 ; Siscoe, 1997 (dissertation) ; Stanton, 1994; Ward K., 1996; Ward S., 2000. E. Lack of faculty reward is a barrier to service and service-learning partnerships: Euster and Weinbach, 1994. Berman, 1999 (dissertation); Bergkamp, 1996 (dissertation); 8

10 IV. What We Know: The Impact of Service-Learning on Colleges and Universities Colleges and universities report institutional commitment to service-learning A. curriculum: ; ; Berman 1999 (dissertation) ; Bringle & Bergkamp, 1996 (dissertation) Battaglia, 1995 (dissertation) ); Gray et al., 1998; Lelle, 1996 Dutton, 1993 (dissertation Hatcher, 1997; Campus Contact, 1998; (dissertation Mandell, 1995 (dissertation ); National Association of State Universities and Land Grant ); Colleges, 1995; Robinson & Barnett, 1996; Sagaria & Burrows, 1995; Oliver, 1997; Scott & Ludwigh, Siscoe, 1997 (dissertation ); Waring, 1995; Sellnow & Oster, 1997; Serow, Calleson, & Parker, 1996; ). 1995 (dissertation B. Colleges and universities report availability of service-learning programs: Battaglia, 1995 (dissertation) ; Bringle & Hatcher, 1997; Campus Contact; 1998; Dutton, 1993 (dissertation ), Gray et al., 1998; ); Mandell, 1995 (dissertation ); National Lelle, 1996 (dissertation Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, 1995; Robinson & Barnett, 1996; Sagaria & Burrows, 1995; Scott & Ludwigh, 1995; Sellnow & Oster, 1997; Serow, Calleson, & Parker, 1996; Siscoe, 1997 (dissertation ). C. Few colleges and universities require service-learning in the academic core: Antonio, Astin, & Cress, 2000; Gray et al., 1998; Sagaria & Burrows, 1995. D. Community service affects student retention: Astin & Sax, 1998; Roose, Daphne, Miller, Norris, Peacock, White, & White, 1997. E. Institutions report enhanced community relations: Battaglia, 1995 (dissertation) ; Driscoll, Holland, Gelmon, & Kerrigan, 1996; Gray et al., 1998. F. Lack of faculty reward is a barrier to service and service-learning partnerships: Berman, 1999; Bergkamp, 1996; Euster and Weinbach, 1994. 9

11 V. What We Know: The Impact of Service-Learning on Communities Satisfaction with student participation: A. Clarke, 2000 (dissertation); Cohen & Kinsey, 1994; Driscoll, Holland, Gelmon, & Kerrigan, 1996; Ferrari and Worrall, 2000; Foreman, 1996; Gelmon, Holland & Shinnamon, 1998; Gray, et al., 1998; Greene and Diehm, 1995; National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, 1995; Nigro & Wortham, 1998; Ward & Vernon, 1999. B. Service-learning provides useful service in communities: Clarke, 2000 (dissertation); Cohen & Kinsey, 1994; Bringle & Kremer, 1993; Driscoll, Holland, Gelmon, & Kerrigan, 1996; Gelmon, Holland & Shinnamon, 1998; Gray et al., 1998; Henderson & Brookhart, 1997; Nigro & Wortham, 1998; Ward & Vernon, 1999; Western Washington University, 1994. C. Communities report enhanced university relations: Driscoll, Holland, Gelmon, & Kerrigan, 1996; Gray, et al., 1998. Clarke, 2000 (dissertation); 10

12 Annotated Bibliography of Service-Learning Research, 1993-2000: Third Edition Janet S. Eyler, Dwight E. Giles, Jr., Christine M. Stenson, Charlene J. Gray Vanderbilt University : Explanation of terms used in tabled summaries - study employing surveys or measures subjected to statistical analysis Quantitative - study examining programs or processes using qualitative methods Qualitative - study that describes elements of or people involved in service or service-learning classes and programs Description study that examines the processes of growing and learning through service Process - Outcomes - study that predicts and tests for specific student, faculty, or community outcomes either between or within groups Evaluative - study evaluating a comprehensive service-learning program NR - sample size not reported - response rate (#%) Antonio, A. L., Astin, H. S. & Cress, C. H. (2000). Community Service in Higher Education: A Look at the Nation's Faculty. Review of Higher Education, 23(4), 373-397. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Description Sample Full-time faculty 143,816 Original Sample 33,986 (23%) Final Sample Study Design One shot Survey self-report Data Sources A national survey of faculty by The Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA yielded a sample of 33,986 faculty from full-time undergraduate teaching institutions. The survey assessed faculty behaviors related to and beliefs about community service. Demographic data, such as gender, race, ethnicity, academic rank, discipline, public or private institution, and type of institution, were also collected. Several behaviors associated with community service were evaluated via this survey, such as: whether or not faculty performed community service, and if they did, the number of service hours they completed; whether faculty advised students involved in community service; and whether or not faculty required community service in their courses. Beliefs linked to community service were examined via several questions: should community service should be a graduation requirement or be given weight in admissions decisions; did faculty aspire to provide community service personally or encourage students to become involved; should colleges be involved in solving social problems; and ought citizenship be cultivated in undergraduates? Eighty percent of the responding faculty engaged in some community service, and 40% of these respondents advised students involved in community service. Female faculty scored substantially higher than male faculty on measures of community service, engaging with social problems, and developing students' civic responsibility. Among ethnic groups, African American faculty showed the highest levels of commitment and involvement in community service. Lower ranking faculty also 11

13 reported relatively high rates of community service involvement, as did those with a humanistic orientation. Respondents differed by institutional setting on some measures. For instance, faculty at four-year colleges performed more community service than their university counterparts and placed a higher value on it. In addition, relative to university faculty, four-year college faculty were 44% more likely to endorse the goal of instilling a commitment to community service among students. Across institutions, higher ranking faculty, older faculty, and faculty with a strong intellectual orientation were the least likely to be involved in or committed to community service. The authors suggested that institutional culture may be a key factor in encouraging faculty to view community service as vital to their roles as professors. Astin, A. W., & Sax, L. J. (1998). How Undergraduates are Affected by Service Participation. Journal 39(3), 251-263. of College Student Development, Quantitative Methodology Purpose Description; Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample 11,822 Final Sample 3,450 (29%) Study Design Pre/post survey, Quasi-experimental Data Sources Survey self-report, Institutional records Civic responsibility; Educational attainment; Life skills Outcome Variables This national survey of 42 institutions was sponsored by Learn and Serve America (LSAHE). LSAHE programs engage students in tutoring, working with the homeless, the poor and the elderly; improving neighborhood environments and community health; and preventing crime. Using data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program Freshman (CIRP) Survey, SAT and ACT scores, and enrollment data, thirty-five student outcomes were measured in five student cohorts from 1990-1994. Follow-up surveys were also administered to students in 1995. Service participation was the independent variable and control variables included freshmen year pre-tests, service propensity, major, race, ethnicity, gender, and structural characteristics of the institution. Even when controlling for freshmen year pre-tests, service propensity, academic major, race, ethnicity, gender, and structural characteristics of the institution, all 35 student outcome measures were favorably influenced by service participation. These included academic outcomes (GPA, retention, degree completion, amount of interaction with faculty, and increase in knowledge); civic responsibility (commitment to life goals of helping others, promoting racial understanding); and life skills (critical thinking, interpersonal skills, leadership skills, social self-confidence, knowledge of different races or cultures, and conflict resolution skills). Increases in knowledge, civic responsibility and life skills were measured by student self-report. The analysis also indicated that the more time devoted to service the more positive the effect on students. Whether a student volunteered in high school was the most important predisposing factor for students to participate in college level service-learning. Other factors included leadership ability, 12

14 involvement in religious activities, commitment to participation in community action programs, tutoring other children, being a guest in a teacher's home, and being a woman. 13

15 Astin, A. W., Sax, L. J., & Avalos, J. (1999). Long Term Effects of Volunteerism During the Undergraduate Years. 22(2), 187-202. Review of Higher Education, Quantitative Methodology Description; Outcomes Purpose Sample Students and Alumni Original Sample 27,064 Final Sample 12,376 (45.7%) Pre/post survey Study Design Data Sources Survey self-report Behaviors; Values Outcome Variables For this study, students completed three surveys administered through the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) of the Learn and Serve Institutions. The first survey was conducted in 1985 with entering freshmen, the second survey was given four years later in 1989, and the third survey was administered to the now former students in 1994-95. Freshman scores on behavioral and value variables, as well as reasons for entering college were controlled for in data analysis. The independent variable was volunteerism. Results indicated that students who spent six or more hours a week in volunteering during their last year of college were almost twice as likely to perform volunteer work after college. Nine years after graduating, the frequency of volunteering still correlated with the amount of volunteering during high school. Volunteering was associated with the following thirteen behavioral and value outcomes: attending graduate school, donating money to the undergraduate college, frequency of socializing with diverse people, helping others in difficulty, developing a meaningful life philosophy, promoting racial understanding, participating in community action programs, participating in environmental cleanup, a sense of efficacy, highest degree earned, hours spent volunteering, career preparation, and degree aspirations. Bacon, N. A. (1997). The Transition from Classroom to Community Contexts for Writing. Unpublished Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. Methodology Qualitative Purpose Process Sample Students Original Sample 75 Final Sample 72 Study Design Case Study Data Sources Interviews; E-mail; Observations; Course evaluations; Papers This case study examined 72 students' experiences of writing for community organizations through a service-learning course at one university. Students' transitions from academic to non-academic writing were analyzed in order to understand their writing processes. This assessment of writing, learning environment, and outcomes was carried out over the course of two years. Several research questions guided this research project, namely: what is the relationship between students' proficiency in school writing tasks and their success as writers in the community and are they able to draw upon prior knowledge of writing; how do students draw upon the social milieu of the community organizations to 14

16 construct new knowledge about their topics and appropriate writing practices and discourse conventions; does the composition curriculum support this transition; and how do students’ experiences in turn affect the theory of writing that informs the curriculum? Data sources included group interviews, classroom observations, electronic mail, student papers, and course evaluations. Interviews were conducted with six students who were selected based upon their writing proficiency, the kinds of community writing (CSW) tasks they performed, and such demographic data as age, sex, and ethnicity. Interviews occurred at the beginning, middle, and end of the semester. In addition to student interviews, each of the course instructors and site supervisors was interviewed. Observations, email, and course evaluations were analyzed to frame the learning context and interactions. Finally, student papers were assessed for the development of writing skills. Results indicated that students' performance on community writing tasks was correlated to their academic writing capacity. Students who were strong academic writers performed in CSW tasks better than students who were poor academic writers. A second finding was that students succeeded in writing texts that met the community organization's needs. However, learning to write in new settings involved a complex interaction of knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and emerging identity. Students needed to construct a substantive body of knowledge and an awareness of the topic, comprehend the conventions of an unfamiliar genre, and gain an understanding of how community members worked together. A third finding was that the CSW course failed to provide sufficient support to students as they moved from academic to non-academic writing. This CSW course prompted one of the instructors to adjust her theory of writing and her curriculur goals. Balazadeh, N. (1996). Service-Learning and the Sociological Imagination: Approach and Assessment. Paper presented at the National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Faculty Development Symposium, Memphis, TN. Methodology Quantitative; Qualitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 84 Study Design One shot; Quasi-experimental Data Sources Grades; Essays Outcome Variables Learning; Cultural Awareness Undergraduate sociology students at Rust College, a historically black institution, were given the opportunity to connect with the elderly in institutional settings in order to promote a generational connection between the college and a local nursing home. During the 1995-96 academic year, students in three sociology courses participated in service-learning activities for one semester. Within each course, students elected a traditional program or a program that included this structured service-learning component (26 out of 84). Service-learning served as the independent variable. The service-learning component constituted 30 percent of the student's final grade and was a formal part of the curriculum. Overall, the instructor/researcher reported that students in service-learning had better grade performance than their peers who selected the standard option of instruction and grading. Ten of the 26 15

17 service-learning students received a course grade of "A", while eight of the 58 non service-learning students received an "A". Another ten of the 26 service-learning students received a course grade of "B", while nine of the 58 non-service-learning students received a "B". Grades in the control group were based upon different assignments and are thus are not comparable. Students’ self-assessment of learning was gleaned from their reflective essays and indicated that the experience expanded their sociological imagination. Included in the report are a course description, the evaluation instrument, a description of the service-learning experience, the required student journal entry form, student reflection paper outlines, and the final evaluation report form. Barber, B. R., Higgins, R. R., Smith, J K., Ballou, J. K., Dedrick, J., & Downing, K. (1997). Democratic Theory and Civic Measurement: A Report on the Measuring Citizenship Project. Paper presented at the Campus Compact, Denver. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students and Program participants Original Sample NR Final Sample 551 Study Design Pre/post survey Data Sources Whitman Center Measure Outcome Variables Civic skills This report discusses the results of a national study for which the Whitman Center Measure was administered to participants of 22 college, military, nonprofit, and high school service programs. The researchers gathered data from seven college service-learning programs (volunteers=202, non-volunteers 287), and 3 Public Allies programs (an affiliate of Americorps, n=62). The study included five historically black, colleges and universities (HBCUs). It sought to examine the effects of service- learning on civic skills. Researchers used the Whitman Center Measure to measure relatively subtle short term changes in action skills of respondents in their views on democracy, civic skills, alienation from local government and racial tolerance. The researchers found broad preferences for a participatory view of democracy for all service-learners, and a significant increase in self-estimation of civic skills among college service- learning volunteers. Service-learning volunteers also demonstrated small improvements in mean scores for religious tolerance, racial tolerance, and civic participation, while non-service-learning volunteers did not. Researchers also discovered a significant decrease in political alienation among youth in the Americorp-affiliated service program. African Americans were more significantly alienated from local government than whites on both pre and post scores, and women showed greater preference than men for a participatory view of democracy at both pre- and posttest. 16

18 Batchelder, T.H., and Root, S. (1994). Effects of an Undergraduate Program to Integrate Academic Learning and Service: Cognitive, Prosocial Cognitive, and Identity Outcomes. 17, 341-355. Journal of Adolescence, Quantitative Methodology Purpose Outcomes Sample Students 226 Original Sample 96 (42.5%) Final Sample Study Design Pre/post; Quasi-experimental Data Sources Survey-self report; Journals; Essays Outcome Variables Decision making processes; Level of reasoning; Occupational identity This research study at a private college compared service-learning students to a traditional class (48 students in each group) and controlled for pre-test differences. The researchers sought to examine the influence of service-learning and varieties of service- learning experiences (the independent variables) had on: student moral cognitions through the decision making process students used in response to needs; the level of reasoning used; and the development of occupational identity (the dependent variables). The study also tested the hypothesis that students' perceptions of characteristics of service- learning courses predicted positive changes in the dependent variables. Student journals were scored for prosocial decision-making, level of prosocial reasoning, and occupational identity processing. In addition, at the beginning and end of the semester students wrote for thirty minutes on their expected Responses to Situations (RS). Their responses were scored on eight dimensions that reflected higher order complex thinking. Finally, students completed an Evaluation of Service-learning (ESL). The study found significant gains for the service-learning students on complex cognitive variables, including a greater resolve to act in the face of acknowledged uncertainty and a greater awareness of the multiple dimensions and variability involved in dealing with social problems. Service-learning students also significantly increased their prosocial decision making, prosocial reasoning, and occupational identity processing skills. Both on-site supervision and academic factors, such as instruction, were important mediators of service-learning outcomes. The quality of instruction, measured through a combination of questions from the ESL, impacted students' awareness of obstacles to solutions and how to address problems. Likewise, the quality of on-site supervision affected students' complexity of thought and awareness of multiple solutions. 17

19 Battaglia, P. A. (1995). The Community Service and Adult Education Functions of Urban Two-Year Colleges: Promising Programs in Response to Inner City Problems. University of Wisconsin-Madison. Unpublished Dissertation, Quantitative; Qualitative Methodology Purpose Description; Process Sample Two-year urban colleges Original Sample 52 colleges; 14 districts 42 colleges (80.7%); 6 districts (42.8%) Final Sample One shot (descriptive portion); Case study, (process portion) Study Design Data Sources Survey-self report; Document analysis; Interviews This study used a mixed methodological approach to address two related questions. Why do urban two-year colleges assume responsibility for community service and adult education programs that respond to inner-city problems, and what are the internal and external institutional factors that constitute successful delivery of community development efforts by urban two-year colleges? To answer these questions, a survey was sent to the chief executive officer of 52 urban two-year colleges and 14 urban two-year college districts set in inner-city or downtown locations. Forty-two institutions and 6 districts responded. The survey questions focused on: a) the degree that these colleges' community service and adult education programs promoted community development; b) why institutions pursued the community development agenda; c) organizational factors that impacted successful programs, policies, and practices; and d) how institutions managed inter- and intra-group conflict. Results from this survey indicated that 56% of the institutions employ 1-5 administrators for community service programs, 50% manage this program under a decentralized control system, and 37% of institutions have offices that administer the program. Sixty-five percent of the faculty are involved in community service and 35% utilize program recipient satisfaction questionnaires as a form of evaluation. Sixty-seven percent of institutions reported that there were insufficient funds to operate the community service program. In addition, respondents ranked their top needs as being related to community & social development (school dropouts), physical/aesthetic needs (blighted neighborhoods), human resource development (underachievers), and economic development issues (inadequate vocational skills). They also ranked the top benefit to institutions for being involved in community service—that the institution can be a catalyst for social change through empowerment in education. The five leading urban two-year colleges that experts identified as providing 'exemplary' community service and adult education programs in response to urban issues were chosen for case study. The case study methodology included document reviews of college-printed materials/artifacts, and interviews with college administrators, senior level leaders, and stakeholders in the community. Case studies of the five institutions revealed that the degree of community development was closely correlated with the institutional mission, and that community service programs were offered in response to a broad range of urban needs. All five institutions had a focus on students who were low achievers, underachievers, and/or disadvantaged. Four of the five offered programs related to life-long learning, and professional and staff development. Three of the five institutions' community outreach programs addressed social issues such as crime and gangs. 18

20 The findings suggested that institutions with the most successful community development efforts are those that have the following organizational characteristics: presidential leadership that provides clear goals and priorities; a structure to support the programs; strategic planning that focuses on community development and mutual interaction; faculty committed and sensitive to needs of at risk learners; and academic support for students. Bergkamp, V. (1996). Fanning the Embers: Service Learning in Catholic Colleges and Universities. Unpublished Dissertation, University of St. Thomas. Methodology Qualitative Process Purpose Institutions Sample Original Sample 10 institutions Final Sample 7 institutions (70%) Study Design Case Study Data Sources Interviews; Document analyses; Observations Supported by a grant through the Association of Catholic Colleges and Universities, this qualitative study addressed how service-learning was conceptualized and implemented by faculty and staff in Catholic institutions of higher education. Seven institutions were selected for study in order to yield ranges within the following characteristics: sponsorship; geography; size; setting; student residence; Carnegie classification; ethnicity; and administration of service-learning programs. Research questions were framed around faculty and staff attitudes, how service-learning was administered, the role service- learning played in the liberal arts curriculum and in the overall Catholic higher educational system. Through participant observation and interviews with faculty and staff, Bergkamp adduced the meanings of the service-learning experience in Catholic Colleges. The first was that service was vital to the mission and culture of Catholic institutions. Second, the liberal arts tradition within Catholic universities wielded a strong influence toward service, and service-learning in turn supported the skills of reflection and critical thinking vital to the liberal arts education. Third, service projects were typically built upon individual efforts of faculty and staff within their communities. Often site selection was an informal process. Fourth, faculty and staff choose to be involved for personal reasons. A final theme that emerged was that service-learning supported the common good in its educational value to students. In addition to these themes, several tensions surfaced in the interviews. While service-learning seemed to be valuable for students in these institutions, resources were limited for program administration. Also, community service was typically not reflected in the faculty rewards system of tenure. A third tension revolved around where the service-learning program was housed: within student life or within academics. Pedagogical tensions also existed regarding how to implement service-learning. 19

21 Berman, G. L. (1999). Antecedents and Strategies for the Successful Implementation of Service Learning Programs in Higher Education. University Unpublished Dissertation, of Massachusetts, Boston. Methodology Quantitative; Qualitative Purpose Description Sample Full-time faculty Original Sample 105 Institutions 55 institutions (3 chosen for case study) Final Sample One shot; Case study Study Design Data Sources Survey self-report Outcome Variables Citizenship skills This largely descriptive dissertation project centered on the following questions: 1) what antecedents are necessary to effectively implement of service-learning programs in American institutions of higher education; 2) what factors are challenges or impediments to successful implementation; 3) how do different institutions respond to such challenges and manage implementation; 4) are there factors common to all successful implementations that can be transferred to other colleges and universities; and 5) who are the key players involved in such endeavors? These questions were operationalized into three suppositions. The first was that there are internal and external factors, or antecedents, that help to successfully implement service-learning programs in American colleges and universities. The second was that decision-making and problem-solving strategies also play a role in successful implementation. The third was that communication, collaboration and cooperation enhance the process and help bring successful implementation about. In addition to exploring these questions and hypotheses, this study examined whether institutional adherence to the principles laid out in the 1989 Wingspread Special Report, “Ten Principles of Good Practice for Combining Service and Learning,” contributed to the level of successful implementation at each college or university. In order to answer the questions above, the researcher used the service-learning questionnaire and a modified case-study approach. Surveys were mailed to a random sample of 105 institutions of the 522 members of the Campus Compact at Brown University, and 55 institutions responded. Three of the responding institutions were chosen for case study because they had had differing levels of success in implementing their service-learning programs and varied in their application level of the 10 Wingspread Principles. For the case study, administrators, faculty, staff, students, and community-agency liaisons were interviewed. Additional documentary material for analysis came from college catalogues, brochures, course syllabi, institutional records, and other internal and external documents. The findings are discussed in two sections. The first of these was devoted to laying out the survey data relating to how service-learning was managed at each of the responding institutions. Such data included where service-learning centers are housed, whether adequate resources were made available to faculty and staff involved in service-learning, approaches to problem solving, and adherence to the Wingspread Conference’s 10 principles. A discussion of each of the five research questions formed the next section. Antecedents necessary to effectively implement service-learning programs in colleges and universities included solid staffing and a tendency toward collaborative approach to problem solving, and rational and/or collegial modes of problem solving. Factors that were challenges or impediments to successful implementation included 20

22 chaotic institutional organization, poor staff and faculty training in service-learning theory and pedagogy, and lack of faculty incentives to engage in service-learning. Key players involved in successful service-learning programs tended to be organized into teams and/or have relationships throughout the university with all interested parties. Factors common to all successful service-learning programs were congruence with organizational goals, a clear articulation of mission, faculty driven plans for program implementation, creative means to integrate service with study, long-term goals and plans, and open communication systems. Berson, J. S., & Younkin, W. F. (1998). Doing Well by Doing Good: A Study of the Effects of a Service- Learning Experience on Student Success. Paper presented at the American Society of Higher Education, Miami, FL. Quantitative Methodology Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 286 Study Design One shot; Quasi-experimental Data Sources Survey-self report; Grades; Course evaluations; Interviews; College Records Outcome Variables Grades; Satisfaction; Attitudes; Faculty Expectations. This study’s sample consisted of 286 students in six community college taking courses in a range of disciplines. Each of the six courses had a control section that was taught traditional subject matter, and an experimental section that had a 20 hour per semester service-learning requirement. The courses were American History, Sociology, College Preparatory English, and Introduction to English Composition. Students self-selected into sections of these courses without knowledge of the service-learning requirement. Multiple measures were used to assess student success, such as grades, class attendance, course evaluations, and assignments. Data were collected through surveys, college records, focus groups and interviews. Faculty expectations were also assessed regarding outcomes, faculty reflections and students' attitudes about the course. Results indicated that service-learning students achieved significantly higher mean final course grades (.26 difference) when compared to the control group. However grade composition was not the same for each course. Service-learning subjects also reported a significantly greater level of satisfaction with the course, the instructor, the reading assignments, and the grading system. Service-learning faculty reported that class discussions were more stimulating, included more student involvement and were more challenging academically. 21

23 Berthiaume, J. L. (1999). Community Service Learning Perceptions of Selected Students Attending a University in the Southeast Region of the United States. Unpublished University of Southern Mississippi. Dissertation, Methodology Quantitative Description Purpose Sample Students NR Original Sample Final Sample 541 Study Design One shot Data Sources Survey self-report This project was designed to determine whether there was a relationship between university students’ perceptions of service-learning and the independent variables of residential environment, student academic classification, age, race, gender, and family status. In order to discover whether such relationships existed, the author developed a 48 item survey and administered it to 541 students at a university in the Southeastern region of the United States. A bivariate multiple regression did not find that residential environment (greek housing, on-campus dorms, and the like) significantly predicted student perceptions of student learning. A regression equation that included student academic classification, age, race, gender, and family status did predict student perception of service-learning. However, in this equation, gender was the only variable to achieve statistical significance. Female students were more apt to support service than male students. Since the analyses showed little in the way of statistical significance, the author concluded that not enough information existed to develop an accurate profile of those students who routinely engaged in community service projects. Blackwell, A. P. (1996). Students' Perceptions of Service Learning Participation in the College of Health and Human Sciences at The University of Southern Mississippi. Unpublished Dissertation, The University of Mississippi. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Description Sample Students Original Sample 150 Final Sample 142 (96%) Study Design One shot Data Sources Survey-self report T he purpose of this research project was to examine the perceptions of students regarding their involvement in service-learning and compare their perceptions based upon demographics, such as age, gender, classification, school affiliation, and outside employment. Two questions guided the study. Do students perceive that service-learning both enhances classroom learning and is a valuable component of their coursework, and, do students differ in their perceptions of service-learning based on age, gender, classification, school affiliation, or outside employment? 22

24 The sample (n=142) was drawn from both undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in courses with a service-learning component. Faculty administered the survey instrument to students following service experiences. The survey captured demographic variables, students' rationale for taking the course, number of hours volunteered, and perceptions of the effects of service-learning. Results indicated that students strongly supported the notion of service-learning in college. Eighty-five percent of students believed that service-learning should be incorporated into more classes. The majority of students also reported that service-learning strengthened understandings of class lectures and reading and made them more interested in seeking future volunteering opportunities. Ninety-three percent indicated that service-learning helped them grow intellectually and emotionally. The study found little difference in students' perceptions based upon age. However, female students consistently had higher scores than did male students, particularly in attitudes about dealing with people. Boss, J. A. (1994). The Effect of Community Service on the Moral Development of College Ethics Journal of Moral Development, 23(2), 183-198. Students. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 71 Study Design Pre/Post survey; Quasi-experimental Data Sources Survey-self report; Grades; DIT measurement scale Outcome Variables Moral development; Class participation; Learning In this study, one section of a two-section course was selected randomly to complete 20 hours of community service over the semester and to keep a journal as part of the course requirements. The other section formed the control group and had different assignments in place of the service requirement. The total sample was comprised of 71 students; 37 females and 34 males. The mean age was 20.3. The researcher hypothesized that moral development would increase more over the course of the semester for the community service group than for the control group. On post-test, students in the service-learning section scored significantly higher on their Defining Issues Test (DIT) scores than did the control group (pre- to post- mean gain was 8.61 for first group, 1.74 for the second). In the experimental group, 51% of the students were using principled moral reasoning compared to 13% in the control group. Grades were similar for both classes. Class participation through discussion was also positively correlated with the students' DIT test scores within the experimental group (p<0.01). Students in the experimental group also assigned higher ratings of their improvement as moral people in course evaluations. 23

25 Boyle-Baise, M. (1998). Community Service Learning for Multicultural Education: An Exploratory Study with Preservice Teachers. 31(2), 52- Equity and Excellence in Education, 60. Note For another report using some of these data, see Grady (1998) Methodology Qualitative Purpose Description Students Sample Original Sample NR 65 Final Sample Case study Study Design Interviews; Essays; Survey self-report Data Sources This interpretive case study focused on the meanings students took from a community service learning component of a multicultural education course. Subjects were 65 preservice elementary and secondary school teachers. Data sources included pre- and post-service questionnaires (containing mostly demographic data), 25 group interviews, projects from inquiry teams, and reflective essays. Two professors taught the sections and facilitated the field experiences, which were located in sites serving culturally diverse and low-income populations. The data were analyzed for themes using constant comparative analysis. Findings include the fact that many preservice teachers felt more aware of issues involved in teaching in culturally diverse classrooms and felt more comfortable with the prospect as a result of their service-learning experience. Another finding was that a critical concern for inequity was absent from students reflective pieces. Prospective teachers also needed more opportunities for reflection with service-learning. Boyle-Baise, M., & Kilbane, J. (2000). What Really Happens? A Look Inside Service-Learning for Multicultural Teacher Education. Michigan Journal of Community Service 7, Learning, 54-64. Methodology Qualitative Purpose Description Sample Students Original Sample 24 Final Sample 24 Study Design Case study Data Sources Interviews; Essays; Survey self-report; Observations This case study used ethnographic techniques to examine what happens, and what preservice teachers think about what happens, within a credited community service learning component for a multicultural education course. Subjects were 24 preservice teachers. Data included interviews of prospective teachers, reflective essays, and observations. One author served as participant observer and collected data while the other taught the course. Both analyzed all data to develop themes, first individually and then together. 24

26 Data analysis showed that though pre-service teachers "played it too safe" for multicultural education (i.e. their behaviors during service activities were “just enough to fit in” to the service context), service did challenge students’ deficit notions about those from lower SES groups and stereotypical views of those from other racial and ethnic groups. Overall, the authors concluded that service-learning aided in the preparation of teachers able to work in culturally diverse contexts. Bringle, R. G., & Hatcher, J. A. (2000). Institutionalization of Service-Learning in Higher Education. Journal of Higher Education, 71(3), 273-290. Methodology Quantitative Description Purpose Faculty Sample Original Sample NR Final Sample 176 Study Design One shot Data Sources Survey-self report Representatives from 179 institutions who attended the 1995 National Gathering—a service-learning forum for faculty and staff—and the 1995 Colloquium on National Service completed a measure based upon the Comprehensive Action Plan for Service-learning (CAPSL). CAPSL is a means for assessing the developmental status of service-learning among each constituency involved in service-learning projects (i.e. students, faculty, institutions, and the community). Respondents were asked to provide student and institutional demographics and prioritize ten activities ranging from planning to institutionalization. High numbers of these activities are an indication of the institutionalization of service-learning. Several hypotheses guided this study, these were that: faculty would rate such activities such as planning and awareness as having more evidence of being achieved than activities such as research and evaluation; institutionalization would occur faster in colleges and universities than in communities; and evidence of institutionalization would be associated with campus planning activities and with the presence of a centralized office that reports to an academic officer and supervises service-learning activities. These hypotheses were, for the most part, supported. Faculty felt that their institutions had progressed further in planning and awareness activities than in activities such as research and evaluation. There was greater institutionalization among those who attended a Campus Compact planning institute, established a central office, funded that office with university funds, and located the office under the chief academic officer. 25

27 Bringle, R.G.; & Kremer, J. F. (1993). Evaluation of an Intergenerational Service-Learning Project for Undergraduates. 19(5), 407-16. Educational Gerontology, Quantitative, Qualitative Methodology Outcomes Purpose Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 44 One shot; Quasi-experimental Study Design Data Sources Survey-self report; Interviews; Focus groups Attitudes Outcome Variables This research focused on service-learning and the elderly. Three groups of students formed the sample. Fourteen students received training and visited homebound elderly eight times as a part of an Intergenerational service-learning program. Another group of ten students were required to meet with an older person at least twice for a minimum of three hours per visit. A third group of students enrolled in an upper-level social psychology class without a service-learning requirement formed the control group (n=20). All students completed several measures at the end of the semester: a differential scale with contrasting descriptive concepts focused on perceptions of the elderly (awful-nice, powerful- powerless); a questionnaire evaluating attitudinal changes regarding the elderly; and a quiz called "Facts on Aging". Compared to the non service-learning group, both visitation groups had significantly more positive attitudes toward the elderly and toward their own aging process. Telephone interviews were also conducted with the elderly clients and the majority of their reactions were very positive. Overall, these clients found student visits to be quite helpful. Burr, K. L. (1997). Problems, Politics, and Possibilities of a Progressive Approach to Service Learning Unpublished Dissertation, Oklahoma in a Community College: A Case Study. State University. Methodology Qualitative Purpose Process Sample Students; Community members Original Sample NR Final Sample 8 Students (Community members NR) Study Design Case study Data Sources Survey-self report; Interviews; Journals This dissertation examined the impact of integrating a progressive approach to education incorporating experience, awareness, and service-learning for community college students in an architecture and construction course. Eight students enrolled in the course, for which they conducted an in-depth architectural study of the local downtown area. The primary research objective of this study was to determine if progressive education provided an effective learning methodology in the community college setting. The study also addressed problems that students and faculty had when they incorporated this new and different pedagogy, and political issues were examined relating to how the progressive and traditional approaches were received and implemented. 26

28 Interviews were conducted with students, during which they responded to questions about what they felt, experienced, and learned in the course. Focus groups with students were also conducted in order to understand student learning processes. Community and city leaders responded to a survey that addressed their reaction to the relevance and professionalism of the student project. The analysis yielded four key findings. The first was that students felt this progressive approach to education was effective. Students reported experiencing global learning because many means to gain knowledge were offered, and multiple applications for their learning were provided. Second, students in the course encountered problems with having insufficient time to complete necessary work during the summer session and in traveling long distances to service-sites. Furthermore, the researcher/instructor and the students struggled with how to conduct equitable assessments. Third, while the community and city leaders had positive responses to the project, the time constraints of the summer course made for problems with the city's schedule. Finally, the faculty member faced some challenges in obtaining support from the institution to implement a new and progressive model in a setting where traditional lecturing was the norm. Campus Compact (2000). Highlights and Trends in Student Service and Service Learning: Statistics from the 1999 Member and Faculty Survey. Campus Compact, Providence, RI. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Description Sample Colleges and Universities Original Sample 639 Final Sample 300 (47%) Study Design One shot Data Sources Survey-self report Of the estimated approximately 3,700 institutions of higher learning in the United States, 639, or 17 percent, are members of Campus Compact. Institutions that responded to the Compact’s 1999 member survey reported that the median number of service-learning courses offered on campuses in 1999 was 19, up from 16 in 1998. Approximately 75 percent of campuses offered at least one service-learning course in 1999. The survey also showed that 57 percent of responding institutions had a service- learning center or equivalent office on campus. In 1999, the median number of disciplines in which service-learning courses were offered at responding institutions was eight. It was offered most frequently by departments of education, psychology, and sociology. Responding campuses also reported that the median number of faculty members integrating service with academic study was sixteen. Statistics were compiled to show the scope of service on member campuses. From these, Campus Compact estimates that in its institutions in 1999 over 32 million hours of student service were performed, that over 600,000 students performed this service, that over 13,000 faculty were involved in service, and that over 11,000 service-learning courses were offered. 27

29 Furthermore, 80 percent of respondents stated that the number of students performing service increased in the past year, and that the average percentage of graduating seniors who participated in service on member campuses was 46 percent. Clarke, M. M. (2000). Evaluating the Community Impact of Service Initiatives: The 3-I Model. Peabody College, Vanderbilt University. Unpublished Dissertation, Methodology Quantitative; Qualitative Purpose Process; Evaluative Sample Community 1 service initiator; 40 community members; NR community Original Sample leaders Final Sample 1 service initiator; 28 community members (70%); NR community leaders Study Design Case study Data Sources Interview; Focus group; Observations; Survey, self-report; Document analysis This dissertation research project evaluated service-learning programs according to the 3-I Model. This model included three related dimensions (Initiator, Initiative, and Impact) of service-learning programs in order to evaluate the process of community impact. The Initiator dimension took several elements into account, such as goal setting, partnership development, shared understandings, and the development of a knowledge base. The Initiative dimension was concerned with the process of implementing the service initiative, as well as community involvement and participation. The Impact dimension centered on results along with intended outcomes and goals, and the how knowledge of impact influenced the Initiator dimension. In order to investigate whether these dimensions accurately represented the process of community impact and to confirm that the community received benefits from the service-learning projects, the researcher used both quantitative and qualitative methods. The 3-I Model was tested in a community in which many projects of a university service-learning program were underway. Evidence was gathered from six sources: 1) an interview with the service initiator; 2) a community focus group interview; 3) observations of community members participating in the service initiative; 5) a community survey with questions pertaining to the impact of the service; and 6) a review of extant data, such as newsletters, community records, lists of community participants, and community calendars. These multiple sources of evidence provided ample evidence that the community was favorably impacted by the service project. Survey respondents and community leaders felt that: they had a clear idea of why the university was involved with the community; they knew what the project goals were; the community helped set project goals; the university helped the community reach its own goals; the project worked well in the community and the community was well-served; the community/university bond was strengthened; the community gained access to new resources; additional student projects in the community would be welcome; and the project helped community residents become active in and feel a sense of control over the community. In addition, the model and evidence showed that the impact process and the impact outcomes were not separate, but intertwined. For instance, the initiator noted how the program had to be redesigned to 28

30 meet the communities perceived needs. The survey, focus group, observational and interview data show that the program did meet community needs, not just for service itself, but for involvement with the service-learning project in the planning and implementation phases. 29

31 Cohen, J. & Kinsey, D. F., (1994). Doing Good and Scholarship: A Service-Learning Study. Journalism 48(4), 4-14. Educator, Quantitative Methodology Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample 217 Final Sample 167 (76.9%) Study Design One shot Data Sources Survey-self report; Portfolios Outcome Variables Learning; Application (both self-reported) Two hundred twenty students enrolled in a journalism course were given the option of participating in a service-learning project for this study. They were then divided into experiential and non-experiential service project groups led by seminar leaders. Experiential service groups interacted directly with students in elementary and high school classrooms, while non-experiential service groups did not have direct contact with the community. Rather, they analyzed media for content or prepared public relations materials. Students attended a weekly seminar and were graded based on team effort. One hundred and sixty seven of the students completed a twelve-item questionnaire after completing their projects (88-experiential service; 79 non-experiential service) asking about reactions to and learning in the course. In addition to these data, researchers gathered and analyzed evaluations from site representatives, seminar leaders, and course instructors. Overall, nearly one-half of the students indicated that compared to traditional assignments, their projects were more useful in placing classroom material in a meaningful context. Three-fourths of the seminar leaders agreed. Eighty-four percent of the students rated the projects as "very" or "somewhat helpful," while 58% of the seminar leaders rated the projects as "very helpful." In addition, 69% of the students reported that projects helped them learn about the same amount as or more than they learned by doing other assignments. Even more seminar leaders (75%) than students had this positive reaction to projects. The experiential groups had significantly higher self reports that: their projects helped them develop a sense of the relationship of communication principles to the real world. They also reported that learning exercises were more effective and more learning occurred than in traditional courses, and that projects placed learning in a more meaningful context than did other assignments. In their evaluations, a significant number of students in experiential groups reported on their positive motivation to work on community projects and felt that such projects were an effective use of time. Evaluations from seminar leaders in experiential groups echoed those of the students. Site leaders unanimously encouraged institutions to continue in the formation of university/community relationships and all indicated interest in continuing community projects. 30

32 Cram, S. B. (1998). The Impact of Service Learning on Moral Development and Self-Esteem of Community College Ethics Students. University of Unpublished Dissertation, Iowa. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students 111 Original Sample Final Sample 65 (58%) Pre/post survey; Quasi-experimental Study Design Survey-self report Data Sources Moral development; Self-esteem Outcome Variables This study examined the extent to which service-learning impacted the growth of moral development and self-esteem (the dependent variables) among community college students in three ethics classes. Three sections of an ethics course taught by the same instructor were asked to participate. There were approximately 37 students in each section (n=111). For one section of the ethics course, the instructor incorporated service-learning into the course requirements. The other two sections did not participate in service-learning. For purposes of analysis, participation in service-learning served as the independent variable, while the control variables were age, GPA, gender, course load, and grades. Two questionnaires, the Defining Issues Test (DIT) and the Self-Esteem Questionnaire were administered at the beginning of the semester and again at its conclusion. No significant differences between service-learning and non-service-learning students were found for either moral development or increased self-esteem. College Students' Attitudes Towards Mental Retardation: A Pilot Study. Curran, J. M. (1999). Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Albuquerque, NM. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 152 Study Design Pre/post; Quasi-experimental Data Sources Survey self-report; Attitude measurement scales Outcome Variables Social attitudes These two related studies employed quasi-experimental designs to examine college students' attitudes toward people with mental retardation. College students enrolled in "Psychology of Mental Retardation," were assigned randomly to a service section (n=59) or a control group section (n=29). Students in the control groups completed an assignment designed to take 20 hours to complete. Those in the service group worked with people with mild to profound levels of mental retardation in group homes, day treatment programs, integrated day care, or residential school settings for 20 hours over the semester. Students kept reflective journals and filled out anonymous surveys about their experiences. 31

33 Data analysis revealed that both the experimental and control groups changed their attitudes significantly over the course of the semester on two of the four subscales of the Community Living Attitude Scale (CLAS-MR), empowerment and exclusivity. Respectively, these subscales measure feelings about whether persons with mental retardation should be allowed to make important life decisions, and whether they should be excluded from community life (to protect others from them). The latter subscale changed in a negative direction as students seemed to grow concerned with how to actually deal with persons with MR. However, students were more inclined to allow person with MR to make important life decisions. No pre- to posttest difference was found for the sheltering subscale (persons with MR should be sheltered from community life for their own protection) or the similarity subscale (persons with MR are like others in their life goals and basic human rights). There was a significant between-group difference at posttest on the exclusivity scale only. Service students were less negative about the need to exclude persons with MR from community life than the control group. A content analysis of the journals, however, revealed that service students had positive attitudes about the service experience and toward people with mental retardation. In a second study, the viewpoints of 48 students enrolled in the “Psychology of Mental Retardation," course were contrasted with those of 25 students taking a consumer economics course. These students also completed the CLAS-MR prior to and following the course and service experience. At pretest, there were no significant differences between the two groups on the exclusion, sheltering, or similarity subscales, but students taking the mental retardation course scored higher on the empowerment subscale. Attitudes of students who completed the Psychology of Mental Retardation Class changed significantly over the course of the semester. They were more positive toward empowerment, and less positive toward sheltering. They were also, however, more exclusive and their attitudes remained unchanged regarding similarity. The author notes that her course helped people overcome some stereotypical thinking as reflected in the changes in the empowerment subscale, but may have increased other student stereotypes, as those reflected in the exclusion subscales. As noted above, the service-learning experience did not affect scores on the CLAS-MR. Educational Record, 78(3-4), 18-24. Dalton, J. C. & Petrie, A. M. (1997). The Power of Peer Culture. Methodology Qualitative Purpose Process Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 7 Study Design Case study Data Sources Interviews; Focus groups Seven college students at Florida State University recognized on campus for exemplary character and service were interviewed about how college student peer groups both inhibit and encourage development of character and civic responsibility. Volunteering was highly regarded by respondents. The positive peer ethos around community service was an important source of motivation and promoted becoming more involved in its leadership. 32

34 33

35 Driscoll, A., Holland, B., Gelmon, S., & Kerrigan, S. (1996). An Assessment Model for Service- Learning: Comprehensive Case Studies of Impact on Faculty, Students, Michigan Journal of Community Service Community, and Institutions. 3, 66-71. Learning, Methodology Quantitative; Qualitative Purpose Process; Description; Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample 4 classes Final Sample 4 classes Study Design Pre/Post survey; Case study Data Sources Survey-self report; Interviews; Focus groups; Document analyses Varied by sample type Outcome Variables These researchers presented a comprehensive case study model of service-learning assessment at Portland State University as a response to the need to measure impact of service-learning among four constituencies: students, faculty, community agencies and institutions. These case studies blended qualitative and quantitative measures in order to determine the most effective and practical tools for measuring the impact of service-learning. Four service-learning courses served as the sample for this pilot study. Researchers identified multiple variables, indicators and measures to examine the hypothesis that participation in service-learning would have a positive impact on all four constituencies. They employed three methods of data collection: in-person assessments, independent reflection measures, and reviews of existing documentation. Preliminary findings supported the legitimacy of the predicted impact variables for students, community agencies, and faculty. Service-learning affected students in their: awareness and involvement in the community; personal development; academic achievement; and sensitivity to diversity. The impact on community agencies was evident in that they perceived an effect on their capacity to serve clients, received economic and social benefits, and were satisfied with student interactions. Finally, faculty members felt that community service experiences could be fertile ground for research and other scholarly work. 34

36 Dunlap, M. R. (1998a). Voices of Students in Multicultural Service-Learning Settings. Michigan 5, 56-67. Journal of Community Service Learning, Qualitative Methodology Purpose Process Sample Students Original Sample 44 30 (68%) Final Sample Case study Study Design Journals Data Sources Thirty journals with entries guided by semi-structured questions were analyzed for multicultural themes that emerged from the semester-long service-learning course "Introduction to Child Development: Social World of the Child." The researcher identified three predominant themes from these journals: 1) awareness of personal philosophy regarding racial issues; 2) concerns regarding specific multicultural or race-related incidents; and 3) resources that students relied upon to put their experiences into a larger perspective. Dunlap, M. R. (1998b). Adjustment and Developmental Outcomes of Students Engaged in Service Learning. Journal of Experiential Education, 21(3), 147-153. Methodology Qualitative Purpose Description Sample Students Original Sample 44 Final Sample 43 (97%) Study Design Case study Data Sources Journals This study analyzed reflection journals of students enrolled in a service-learning-based child- development course at Connecticut College. Forty-four students took the course, and 43 agreed to have their journals analyzed. Twenty-two of these journals were chosen randomly for study, yielding 407 pages of text for analysis. The “topical codes 2” method was utilized and required that each sentence be coded for major issues. Eighty five themes emerged, such as initial adjustments and rapport building, setting limits on child behavior, dealing with expectations of others, remembering childhood experiences, experiencing emotions related to service experience, have concern over child gender role development issues, and closure issues. Authors hope that exposing new students to previous students reflections on their experience will offer them examples of what it feels like to be a service learner. 35

37 Dunlap, M. R. (1997). The Role of the Personal Fable in Adolescent Service-Learning and Critical Reflection. 4, 56-63. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, Quantitative; Qualitative; Methodology Process; Description Purpose Sample Students Original Sample 44 Final Sample 27 (61%) Case study Study Design Content analysis of journals Data Sources This study explored the prevalence of the desire to accomplish a heroic mission among older adolescents. The 44 college students who made up the study sample served 2-4 hrs/week at a service site for 12 weeks of 16- week semester. Twenty-seven reflection journals were subject to a content analysis with 85 themes coded for. Results included the fact that 30% of these service-learning students saw themselves as heroes and desired to make a significant contribution to the quality of life for children and families; 50% expressed guilt over their level of privilege and opportunity; and 56% expressed awareness of the complexity of social problems within the community. Dutton, L. R. (1993). An Analysis of Practices in Academic Courses with a Service Learning Component at Institutions of Higher Education. Unpublished Dissertation, University of Missouri-Kansas City. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Description Sample Students, Faculty, Agencies Original Sample NR Final Sample 142 Courses; 28 Agencies; N/A Students Study Design One shot Data Sources Survey-self report This study was designed to assess and describe service-learning courses in the context of the standards set by the Wingspread Conference (1989). Toward that end, students, faculty, and community agencies were surveyed in two courses (spring or fall) with questions that asked them to evaluate the frequency with which recommended components were incorporated into the service-learning experience. Results from the survey indicated that agencies were adhering more closely to the standards than were faculty. However, all constituencies identified similar factors as being critical to the course. In particular, satisfaction was a function of class size for both faculty and students. Students were able to see that adherence to the national standards was inconsistent. Agencies reported that they had either limited contact with faculty or a great deal of it. 36

38 Eklund-Leen, S. J. (1994). A Study of the Relationship of Student Co-Curricular Activity, Intensity of Involvement and Other Selected Variables to Attitude and Estimated Behavior Unpublished Toward Community Involvement Among College Students. Dissertation, Kent State University. Quantitative Methodology Purpose Description Students Sample Original Sample NR 177 Final Sample One shot Study Design Survey-self report Data Sources This study explored the relationship between community college students' co-curricular activity involvement, student leadership roles, and community service participation. Intensity of involvement in student organizations was examined, as were attitudes, and estimates of behavior concerning community involvement (the dependent variable). The sample (n=177) was drawn from three populations in the following manner: 1) student leaders from college organizations were invited to participate; 2) student members of college organizations were randomly selected; and 3) students not involved in any college organizations were randomly selected. The author developed the Campus and Community Involvement Questionnaire for this study. It measured three scales: intensity of involvement; attitude toward community involvement; and plans for future involvement. Analysis revealed that there were significant differences between student leaders and both members and non-members of college organizations in the intensity of both co-curricular and curricular involvement in volunteer or community service work,. There were also significant relationships between intensity of involvement and attitude toward community involvement and intensity of involvement and estimates of future community involvement. While there were no significant differences between men and women, there were differences between African Americans and Whites, with the latter scoring higher on attitudes about and estimates of future community involvement. Ender, M. G., Martin, L., Cotter D. A. Kowalewski, B. M. & Defiore, J. (2000). Given an Opportunity to Reach Out: Heterogenous Participation in Optional Service- Learning Projects. Teaching Sociology, 28, 206-219. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Description Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 413 Study Design One shot Data Sources Survey-self report In this study, researchers offered students the option of performing a service or another project as a part of the course requirements in 11 sociology courses taught between 1993 and 1995. 37

39 Sociodemographic and other survey data were collected from the students on the last day of class. These were analyzed to determine whether there were significant relationships between choosing the service option and sex, prior service activities, employment status, residential status, and/or race/ethnicity. The only variable significantly related to choosing the service option was academic major, with social science students being less likely to choose service than other students. This finding may be due to the fact that many more of these students worked. There was also a significant interaction between employment status and residential status. Off-campus students who worked were less likely than other groups to choose a service option. In contrast to other studies, males were as likely to perform service as females, though they only comprised approximately 30% of the sample. Euster, G.L. & Weinbach, R. W. (1994). Faculty Rewards for Community Service Activities: An Journal of Social Work Education, 30(3), 317-24. Update. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Description Sample Deans; Program directors 115 Original Sample Final Sample 92 (80%) One shot Study Design Data Sources Survey-self report This study was a replication of a 1981 research project that examined the importance that deans and program directors placed on faculty activities, and especially participation in community service, in Social Work departments. Surveys from ninety-two deans ranked these faculty activities and assigned significance to them. Results indicated that there was a significant reduction from 1981 to 1992 in the priority placed on teaching and on unpaid workshop leadership. In 1981 teaching was ranked as first priority over publication of research. In 1992 it was ranked as a second priority with publication of research ranked as first. There was a slight but not significantly significant decline in the value deans and program directors placed on community service activities. Where's the Learning in Service-Learning? San Francisco, CA: Eyler, J. S. & Giles, D. E., Jr. (1999). Jossey-Bass, Inc. Methodology Quantitative; Qualitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample 2462 Final Sample 1535 (62%) Study Design Pre/Post; Quasi-experimental Data Sources Survey-self report; Problem-solving interviews; Attitude measurement scales; Interviews Outcome Variables Citizenship skills & attitudes; Personal development outcomes; Learning; Problem analysis; Critical Thinking; Cognitive development This book summarizes results of three studies designed to assess the impact of service-learning and alternative models of service-learning on college students. The data sets included: a pre- post-semester 38

40 survey of about 1500 students (1100 of whom participated in service-learning and 400 of whom did not) from 20 colleges and universities across the US; in-depth pre- and post-semester problem solving interviews with 66 students from 6 colleges and universities; and in-depth interviews of 65 college students from 6 other institutions that explore student views of the nature of reflection in service- learning. The first two studies were sponsored by FIPSE; the Corporation for National Service sponsored the last study. Analysis of the survey was performed using hierarchical multiple regressions controlling for SES, gender, previous service, minority status, the pre-test measure, and closeness to college faculty. Results were that service-learning had a positive impact on such outcomes as personal development, social responsibility, interpersonal skills, tolerance and stereotyping, learning, and application of learning. A second analysis, which examined the impact of program characteristics on outcomes using only the service-learning sample of 1100 students, showed that the quality of service-learning classes impacts outcomes significantly. Program characteristics such as a placement quality, link between the academic subject matter and service, written and oral reflection, diversity, and community voice were predictive of many student outcomes. In the problem solving interviews, students had the chance to demonstrate their analysis of a social problem linked to their service. Over the course of a semester, students in service-learning classes in which service and academic study were continuously and closely linked showed significantly more change in the complexity of their problem analysis, their assessment of the locus of problem and solution and in their critical thinking ability than did students in programs with little linkage between the service option and the course of study or students with no service options. Students in the well integrated service-learning courses were also more likely to apply subject matter knowledge to their problem analysis and to have well developed practical strategies for community action. In both the survey and the single interviews, students reported greater learning when they had higher quality experiences. The pre/post-semester interview data also support this finding. Eyler, J. S., Giles, D. E., Jr., & Braxton, J. (1997). The Impact of Service-Learning on College Students. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 4, 5-15. Quantitative Methodology Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample 2462 Final Sample 1535 Study Design Pre/post; Quasi-experimental Data Sources Survey self-report; Problem-solving interviews Outcome Variables Citizenship skills; Personal outcomes; Learning The Comparing Models for Service-learning FIPSE research project gathered data from over 1500 students at 20 colleges and universities. T-tests for independent samples compared service and non- service students on pre-test measures. Hierarchical linear multiple regression was used for analysis of service-learning impact over the semester. Group equivalence was achieved by statistically controlling for rival hypotheses to service-learning impact. 39

41 Though several studies were included in the project; this one examines the impact of service-learning on outcomes and pre-service differences. Students who chose service-learning differed from those who did not in the target attitudes, skills, values, and understanding of social issues. Participation in service- learning and closeness to faculty increased student's belief in personal efficacy, and that can solve problems. Service-learning was also predictive of a career of valuing people, of volunteering and of attempting to influence the political system. Service-learning was also predictive of: students’ post-test assessments of their political participation skills and their tolerance for others; students' ability to place themselves in someone else's shoes; and students’ ability to remain open to new ideas. Finally, service-learning may have also facilitated faculty-student relationships. Based on their findings, the authors recommend including service-learning in the core curriculum rather than keeping it a co-curricular option. Eyler, J. S., Root, S., & Giles, D. E. Jr. (1998). Service-Learning and the development of expert citizens: Service-learning and cognitive science. In R. G. B. & D. K. Duffy (Eds.), With Service in Mind: Concepts and Models for Service-Learning in Psychology. Washington DC: American Association for Higher Education. Methodology Qualitative Purpose Process; Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample 24 Final Sample 24 Study Design One shot; Quasi-experimental Data Sources Problem-solving interviews Outcome Variables Problem-solving capacity Twenty-four students from four colleges were interviewed for this study. Three students were not participating in service, seven were beginners or novices, seven were benchmark students who had been involved in extensive service and were leaders in community service, and seven students were involved in community service and a course-based service-learning program, the last two groups were considered community service "experts." The goal was to see if extensive participation in service and service- learning was associated with more complex problem solving capacity. In interviews, students were asked to identify and analyze causes of a social problem that came from their community service. Interviews were analyzed for dimensions of expertise from the expert/novice literature. Four dimensions emerged that differentiated novice and expert student responses to questions about community problems: 1) how elaborate representations of a community problem were and whether or not the problem was represented in historical terms; 2) attribution of the problems’ source/locus; 3) inclusiveness and depth of solution; and 4) sophistication of procedural knowledge. 40

42 Fenzel, L. M. & Leary, T. P. (1997). Evaluating Outcomes of Service-Learning Courses at a Parochial Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational College. Research Association, Chicago, IL. Methodology Quantitative; Qualitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students NR Original Sample 190 Final Sample Study Design One shot; Quasi-experimental Data Sources Survey self-report; Interviews; DIT; Social and Personality Responsibility measurement scale Outcome Variables Social responsibility; Moral development Two studies were conducted at a parochial college to address the benefits to students who performed service as part of their curricular studies. In the first study, 28 students in an introductory philosophy service-learning course were compared with 28 students in a course without service-learning. The data sources used to assess dependent variables of social responsibility and moral development were interviews, course evaluations, the Social and Personal Responsibility Scale (SPRS) and the Defining Issues Test (DIT). The independent variable was service-learning for the first study. In the second study, 134 students in six service-learning classes at different course levels (84 in 100 and 200 level courses, and 50 students in a 300 level course) completed questionnaires that rated their service experiences, the extent and quality of the training they received, whether service contributed to learning their course material, and the likelihood of their continuing service. Pretests indicated that 48% students had no previous service involvement, while 25% reported 1 or 2 prior service experiences, and 27% reported 3 or more previous service experiences. Results from the first study's quantitative analysis of the SPRS and DIT indicated that students in the service section did not show greater gains in attitudes toward personal and social responsibility or in moral judgment. However, content analysis of the interviews revealed that students felt more compassion toward the disadvantaged, were more commitment to community work, and held a greater belief that they could make a difference. This analysis also suggested that courses which include reflection as a central feature stimulate students' thinking about issues of justice and faith and can affect student plans about postgraduate school and work. In course evaluations, service-learning students also reported that they were more satisfied with their courses. In the second study, students enrolled in upper level courses reported integrating experience and philosophy through application of theory to real-life situations significantly more often than did students in lower level courses. Most of these upper level students had more experience with service as leaders. Seventy-six percent of students rated the community service component as "very good", and 69% of students reported interest in continuing their participation in service. 41

43 Ferrari, J. R., and Worrall, L. (2000). Assessments by Community Agencies: How “the Other Side” Sees Service-Learning. 7, 35- Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning 40. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Description Community Based Organization Supervisors Sample NR (for 135 students) Original Sample Final Sample 30 (for 109 students, 80.7%) Study Design One shot Data Sources Supervisory evaluations For this study researchers asked 30 supervisors at community based organizations (CBOs) to fill out performance evaluations of 135 upper division students enrolled in courses at a Midwestern university with a 20-25 hour service component. Students were aware that their performance was to be evaluated and that they would not be graded on the performance review. An exploratory factor analysis was performed and produced two useful factors. The first of these might be called student service skills. The items loading on this factor were: working relationship with client/s; appropriate respect for clients; sensitivity to client’s needs; presenting an appropriate image to clients; and constructive attitude about working with clients. The second factor could be labeled work skills, and the items loading on this factor were attendance; punctuality; dependability; and good quality work. The alphas for these factors showed high reliabilities at 0.91 and 0.87. The mean score per item was greater than or equal to 4.4, indicating a possible ceiling effect. A two by two ANOVA showed no interaction between or main effects for sex of supervisor or sex of student. A content analysis was performed on the four percent of evaluations that included written comments. Seven themes emerged from this analysis: 1) student was helpful to agency; 2) student was sensitive to clients’ needs; 3) student was friendly to clients and staff; 4) the students showed empathy toward clients; 5) student relationships with clients were appropriate and positive; 6) student was interested in providing services to clients; and 7) student was dedicated to his or her work. CBO supervisors, on the whole, were impressed with students’ helpfulness, sensitivity, friendliness, compassion, and actions. 42

44 Fitzgerald, T. M. (1996). The College Student Community Service Volunteer: High School Program, Locus of Control and Field Dependence-Independence. Unpublished Lehigh University. Dissertation, Methodology Quantitative Description Purpose Sample Students NR Original Sample Final Sample 71 One shot Study Design Survey self-report; Group Embedded Figures Test; Nowicki- Data Sources Strickland Adult Locus of Control Scale This quantitative, descriptive study investigated the high school community service experiences and current characteristics of students who performed community service in college. It was guided by five different questions about the relationships between: 1) types of high school community service programs and tendency to volunteer in college; 2) the academic majors of students who volunteered and measures of field dependence and field independence; 3) academic majors of students who volunteered and measures of locus of control; 4) types of college volunteer experiences and measures of field dependence and field independence; and 5) types of college volunteer experiences and measures of locus of control. The sample (n=71) included full-time day students that participated in community service at least twice during the school year and who agreed to participate in the study. At the end of the school year, data were gathered from a student demographic survey and two instruments. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) assessed academic majors, and the Nowicki- Strickland Adult Locus of Control Scale measured locus of control. Results indicated that more than three-fourths of student volunteers came from high schools with community service organizations. There were no significant differences in mean scores on the GEFT for student volunteers based upon academic major or by volunteer experience. Measures for locus of control also indicated no significant difference by academic major or by volunteer experience. Thus, the type of volunteer experience does not seem to be related to traits of field dependence or independence. Service-Learning in the Small Group Communication Class. Foreman, C. W. (1996). Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association, San Diego, CA. Methodology Qualitative Purpose Process Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 25-30 (not specified exactly) Study Design Case study Data Sources Journals In a case study of an experiential learning project, five community non-profit agencies were invited to a small-group communication class and asked to describe a "problem" they needed help solving. Most of 43

45 the problems were related to image, communication, or publicity. After listening to agency presentations, students selected one of the organizations to serve. Students were divided into small groups for this purpose. This study examined the value of service-learning for the groups in this class. To determine if students learned anything from the small group service experience, two written projects, a journal and a final reflection paper were given as assignments. In the journal writing assignment, students noted specific details about individual and group development. In the final paper assignment, students detailed specific lessons learned about small group communication. Faculty reported from their assessment of written works that most students learned by applying communication principles in the group experience. During the final class presentation, students presented their projects to representatives from community agencies. Students indicated an overwhelming positive response to the learning experience. Likewise, feedback from community agencies was positive in regard to the services provided. Reflection in Teaching: Development Plus. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting Freidus, H. (1997). of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL. Methodology Qualitative Purpose Process Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 5 Study Design Case study Data Sources Portfolios This case study was undertaken to explore the progress of one cohort of graduate students at Bank Street College of Education (New York) involved in a service-learning class, and aimed to document the ways in which the portfolio process facilitated reflective teaching. Portfolios included artifacts students found useful to their development, personal and theoretical themes linking these artifacts, and student presentations. Portfolios for the study were gathered from a subgroup of five 1996-97 candidates for graduation who had completed their supervised field work and were working full or part-time in school, daycare, or community service settings. As students reflected in discussion peer-group meetings about the portfolio process, several themes emerged: trust in self, in others, and in the process. Only when they began to feel safe were students willing to take risks. A second theme was synergy--as students bonded with each other, their energy provided support for one another. Third, students began to understand the development of the process. The findings suggest that reflective practice develops in the context of conversations that occur in an environment of trust. 44

46 Garbuio, J. A. B. (1999). Alternative Spring Break and Social Responsibility: Is There a Relationship? Unpublished Dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. Quantitative; Qualitative Methodology Description Purpose Sample Students; Alumni Original Sample 32 Students; 107 Alumni Final Sample 25 Students (78%); 21 Alumni (19.6%) Study Design One shot; Case study Data Sources Survey, self-report; Interviews This project focused on the relationship between social responsibility and an immersion service- learning experience. This experience was defined as an opportunity not simply to work in but also to live the life of a community for a period of time. Specifically, the author studied students involved in an Alternative Spring Break (ASB) program that worked with a group of Navaho Indians in Arizona. The researcher had four related questions: 1) how will the students (past and present) involved in a service-learning immersion experience (Alternative Spring Break) score on a measure intended to reveal where a student is in his or her development of social responsibility, and does the measure chosen accurately reflect these students’ level of social responsibility development; 2) is there a correlation between the phases of social responsibility and the type of participation in service-learning activities; 3) will pre and post-trip interviews reveal a subtle shift in language and thought processes related to social responsibility; and 4) how many students will use the reflection component of the (1998) Navaho Nation ASB, and will reflection lead to higher scores on the measure? In order to answer these questions, a mixed methodology was used. Olney and Grande’s "Scale of Social Responsibility Development” (SSRD), a measure derived from the developmental phases of Delve, was used to measure social responsibility, defined here as an understanding of the responsibilities inherent to citizenship, a grasp of social injustice and its causes, and a commitment to work towards social equity. It included three scales, Exploration, Realization, and Internalization. These scales reflect a continuum, or phases of growth. Demographic data and information regarding past service experience were also collected from the then current students and alumni. Most students also granted the researcher pre- and post-trip interviews. The sample consisted of 32 then current students and 107 alumni who participated in the ASB program with the Navaho group in Arizona. Results from the survey show that in answer to research question one, most students involved in the Navaho Nation had scores indicating that they had reached the “Internalization” level of social responsibility. This had been expected. Since these students had freely chosen to participate in an immersion service-learning experience, they were hypothesized to already have high scores on the SSRD. There was, however, a greater range of scores among the alumni sample. Analyses related to question two revealed that a correlation between the phases of social responsibility and the type of participation in service-learning activities did not exist. Those with more consistent community service experience did have higher social responsibility scores. However, the researcher did not indicate whether the differences were statistically significant. Interviews intended to answer research question three revealed that 15/18 students felt that the ASB experience confirmed their understandings and conceptions of citizenship, and 14 students felt that their ideas of social responsibility had changed. All in all, however, very little difference in pre- to post-trip attitudinal change was noted. In answer to 45

47 question four, 10 of the 18 students interviewed did not write in their reflective journals. There was not a difference in social responsibility scores between journal writers and those choosing not to write. Most participants noted that a closing session around the campfire served as a reflection experience. Gelmon, S. B., Holland, B. A., & Shinnamon, A. F. (1998). Health Professions Schools in Service to the Nation: Final Evaluation Report. San Francisco, CA: Community Campus Partnerships for Health. Methodology Qualitative Purpose Evaluative Institutions Sample 20 Original Sample Final Sample 17 (85%) Study Design Case studies Data Sources Surveys; Focus groups, Interviews; Direct observation; Activity Logs; Syllabus review; Journals; Vitae; Institutional reports and records This document reports the results of a long-term evaluative project of the Health Profession Schools In Service to the Nation Program (HPSISN). HPSISN was a multi-site, multi-year program created to explore service-learning as a tool for curricular reform for schools educating health professionals, and was sponsored by the Corporation for National Service and Pew Charitable Trusts. Grantees wrote progress reports at six month intervals, which were used as the basis for a case study for each site. These case studies were augmented with site visits, interviews, focus groups, observations, surveys, and document reviews. The evaluators of the HPSISN were asking five research questions: 1) how has the HPSISN project affected university-community partnerships with respect to service-learning in the health professions; 2) though the HPSISN program, how has the introduction of service-learning into health professions education affected the readiness of students for a career in the health professions; 3) to what extent have faculty embraced service-learning as an integral part of the mission of health professions education; 4) as a result of the HPSISN grant, how has the institution’s capacity to support service- learning in the health professions changed; and 5) what impact does service-learning in the health professions have on the community partners? Data collected to answer Question 1 reveal that the HPSISN project affected university-community partnerships positively when the community partners were granted authentic and specific roles to play in student learning and in the institution. In addition, students benefited when community partners were involved with orientation and preparation prior to service. Question 2 was harder to answer. The evaluation team found that students’ sense of self as a provider of health services was positively impacted by service-learning experiences. However, the evidence was unclear as to how much students learned about basic health systems from service-learning, and a majority of students reported that service-learning did not help them clarify their career goals. On investigating Question 3, the evaluators found that most faculty felt that service-learning had a largely positive impact on student learning and faculty-student interactions. Key to strong faculty 46

48 involvement was the organization of service-learning. The most successful programs had visible upper- level faculty leadership, and regular and sustained faculty development activities related to service- learning. The institutions’ capacities to support service-learning in the health professions (Question 4) changed in some sites more than others. HPSISN goals were advanced more effectively at institutions where there was broad-based commitment to service-learning among leadership and across the institution, and that had an infrastructure to support service-learning. Institutions that had strong definitions of service- learning appeared to have a better chance at sustaining their programs over time. Overall, data indicate that for Question 5, service-learning in the health professions has a positive effect on/for the community partners. Most partners felt that service-learning helped students see how classroom learning could be applied in the everyday world, and reported that the experience was more beneficial (economically and socially) than burdensome to the agency. Partners also experienced a heightened awareness of the university, in both positive and negative senses. While they reported being happy with the partnership, partners were sometimes dismayed by educational institutions’ bureaucratic and political natures. Overall, the evaluation found service-learning to be a powerful tool for influencing student attitudes toward the role of service in their lives. The service-learning experience was also fulfilling for faculty members and community partners. Challenges not easily overcome centered on issues of institutionalization, confusion over the distinction between service-learning and clinical training, and strategies for involving students and faculty not already inclined toward service. Giles, D. E., & Eyler, J. S. (1994). The Impact of a College Community Service Laboratory on Students' Personal, Social and Cognitive Outcomes. Journal of Adolescence, 17, 327-339. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample 72 Final Sample 72 (100%) Study Design Pre/post Data Sources Survey, self-report; Attitude scales Outcome Variables Social/personal responsibility; Perceptions of community participants This study examined changes in social and personal responsibility as the result of a service-learning experience. Seventy-two students in a course entitled "Community Service Laboratory" at Vanderbilt University spent the first five weeks of small seminar groups talking with representatives from social service agencies, and the final eight weeks volunteering three hours a week at these agencies. To uncover changes in social and personal responsibility as a result of this experience, students responded to surveys based upon the Social and Personal Scales from the Markus study (1993), and also responded to open-ended questions related to conceptions of issues that clients faced, and about 47

49 their own learning expectations and perceptions. These surveys were administered three times: at the beginning of the semester; five weeks after students site selection; and at the conclusion of the course. The surveys showed that students experienced significant increases in their beliefs that people can make a difference and that they should be involved in community service (particularly in leadership and politics), and in their commitment to perform volunteering activities. They also developed more positive perceptions of the people they worked with and an increased commitment to continue service. Religious Gorman, M. (1994). Service Experience and the Moral Development of College Students. Education, 89(3), 422-31. Quantitative Methodology Purpose Outcomes Students Sample NR Original Sample 70 Final Sample Pre/post; Quasi-experimental Study Design DIT Measurement Scale Data Sources Moral development Outcome Variables This study reported the impact of service-learning on the moral development of 70 undergraduate students involved in two different classes: one service-learning class (10-12 hours per week) and one non service-learning class. The Defining Issues Test (DIT) was used to determine the impact of service- learning on moral development. Students participating in the service-learning experience showed significantly higher rates of growth on the moral development measure than those who did not participate. Constructing the Other Through Community Service Learning. Grady, K. (1998). Bloomington: Unpublished manuscript, University of Indiana. For another article using some of these data, see Boyle-Baise Note (1998) Methodology Qualitative Purpose Description Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 65 Study Design Case study Data Sources Interviews; team report documents This exploratory study examined the reactions that 65 European American pre-service teachers had to a 20 hour community service learning (CSL) component of a multicultural education course. The project was designed to: 1) provide preservice teachers with experience in cross-cultural interaction; 2) give prospective teachers the chance to learn about low-income and ethnic minority communities; and 3) strengthen understanding of the course goals of heightening cultural consciousness, intercultural competence, and combating prejudice and discrimination. 48

50 Students were organized into twelve teams with four to six members each. Data collected were from 24 team interviews and team-written reports on the community agency in which groups worked. Four major conceptual categories were constructed from this data: poverty and poor parenting; we really are all the same; charity, not change; and reconstructing beliefs about the other. The analysis showed that community service learning in relationship to multicultural education both supported and subverted the goals of the course. For many of the preservice teachers, deficit notions about low-income families and families of color were reinforced. However, service-learning created a new awareness of diversity for a few of the students. The author concludes that differential power relationships and issues of privilege that come with being European American and middle class need to be carefully considered if service-learning is to facilitate the development of teachers sensitive to multicultural issues. Gray, M.J., Ondaatje, E. H., Fricker, R., Geschwind, S., Goldman, C. A., Kaganoff, T., Robyn, A., Coupling Service and Sundt, M., Vogelgesang, L., & Klein, S. P. (1998). Learning in Higher Education: The Final Report of the Evaluation of the Learn and Serve America, Higher Education Program. The RAND Corporation. Note: Study includes HERI data from Astin & Sax, 1998 Note Methodology Quantitative; Qualitative Purpose Evaluative, Description, Outcomes Sample Students; Community organizations; Institutions Original Sample HERI survey NR: Rand survey 3376 Students; 1245 Institutions; 1347 Community organizations Final Sample HERI survey 2171 Students (approximately 21%); Rand survey 1320 Students (21%); 930 Institutions (75%); 1347 Community organizations (67%) Study Design One shot Survey, self-report; Interviews; Journals; Direct observation Data Sources Outcome Variables Learning; Life skills; For this large study, data were gathered from multiple sources, namely: 930 Learn and Serve America, Higher Education (LSAHE) institutions over three years (1995-97); 847 community organizations (1995-96); and 3492 students. LSAHE is a program administered by the Corporation for National Service to help promote service. It administered grants to higher education institutions and a small number of community organizations to help them advance, develop and administer service programs. This report is a summary of findings about this initiative and focused on five questions. What work did LSAHE programs perform? How did participation in LSAHE impact service providers? What was the impact of the work performed by LSAHE programs on service recipients? What were the institutional impacts of LSAHE? What was the return on the LSAHE investment? Data from the Annual Accomplishments Survey, which was administered to institutions receiving funding, showed that the most common capacity-building activity undertaken was course development. Between 1995-97, there was an increase of 3000 service-learning courses offered. In addition, two- thirds of the LSAHE programs requested technical assistance from the corporation., Four out of five institutional respondents involved students in direct community service. On average 60 students per 49

51 program participated in course-based service-learning and 10 students per program participated in co- curricular service-learning for an average of 12 weeks a semester. Over 75% of the LSAHE grantee respondents created new service-learning courses, while a third of respondent institutions added service activities to their new student orientation programs during 1995-1997. Another survey for students conducted in the spring 1997 compared 725 service-learning students to 597 non-service-learning students. These two groups did not differ in their perceptions of the course impact. However, students who reported strong effects of service on their development were more likely than others to report that course content linked to their service experiences. The service-learning group had slightly higher grade point averages, were more satisfied with their courses than the non service-learning group, and reported that they engaged in some kind of reflection either through writing or discussion. Students who volunteered more than 20 hours per semester applied course principles to their service experiences and discussed these experiences in class, reaped the greatest gains on academic and life-skills outcomes In focus group interviews, community organizations gave high marks to student volunteers from LSAHE institutions, and these students were perceived as being more effective than other volunteers were. Ninety percent of the community respondents indicated that the benefits of working with student volunteers outweighed the costs. Greene, D., & Diehm, G. (1995). Educational and Service Outcomes of a Service Integration Effort. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 2, 54-62. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students; Community members Original Sample 40 Students; Community members NR Final Sample 40 Students (100%) Study Design Pre/post; Quasi-experimental Data Sources Survey, self-report; Interviews Outcome Variables Attitudes regarding health and aging; Community satisfaction Forty students in a survey course on human diseases participated in this quasi-experimental study that employed a between-group design and was intended to assess the effects of service-learning on perceptions of the elderly. Twenty four students elected to participate in the service-learning component and were randomly assigned to two groups: one group involved weekly journal writing with written feedback (n=11); the other group involved weekly journal with feedback only given as a check mark (n=13). Sixteen students with no service-learning were the control group. Students responded to entrance and exit surveys that measured the degree of stereotypical perception regarding elderly people in a nursing home. Service-learning students paired with an older adult for a weekly visit. Older adults also completed surveys. Service and non service-learning groups held similarly stereotypical views of the elderly at pretest. The posttest survey revealed that that 70.8% of the students involved in service-learning felt the experience broadened their perspectives on aging, and 50% of this group held less stereotypical images of the 50

52 elderly than at pretest.. An analysis of variance indicated that there was a significant difference between service-learning groups who received different types of feedback on their journals. That is to say, the students receiving written feedback had a significantly greater awareness of the contribution the older adults made to their learning than those who received only a check mark for completion. There was agreement between student respondents and elderly residents regarding how enjoyable and how great an educational opportunity the experience was. Greene, D. P. (1996). Moral Reasoning, Student Development, Reciprocity and Quality of Life in a Service Learning Experiment. Unpublished Dissertation, Colorado State University. Quantitative Methodology Outcomes Purpose Sample Students; Community members Original Sample NR Final Sample 98 Students Study Design Pre/post; Quasi-experimental Data Sources Survey, self-report Outcome Variables Moral development; Psychosocial development; Awareness of reciprocity This study investigated the effect of service-learning on students' moral and psychological development as well as its effects on service recipients in four occupational therapy programs. Two of these professional health programs incorporated service-learning and two programs did not (student n = 98). One of the service-learning groups focused on elderly adult issues and the other group focused on individuals with disabilities. A mix of research methods were used to examine the following hypotheses: 1) service-learning students will exhibit a significant gain in moral and psychosocial development; 2) service-learning students will demonstrate a greater involvement in the learning process than non-service students; 3) both service-learning students and service recipients will indicate an increased awareness of reciprocity; and 4) service-learning students will demonstrate a heightened awareness of social issues related to the population with whom they served and more frequently mention quality of life issues than non-serving students. All students responded to the following pre- and post-surveys; the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Inventory (SDTLI), the Sociomoral Reflection Measure (SRM), and the Stages of Concern Questionnaire (SCQ). Service learning students also wrote reflections in their journals after each site visit, while non-service students responded to essays regarding a social issue. In addition, service recipients responded to outcome, entrance, and exit surveys. Analysis of the three surveys indicated that compared to the non-service students, there was significant developmental and psychosocial changes in both service-learning student groups. However, service- learning did not significantly impact students' moral reasoning abilities or their development of mature relationships. Analysis of reflective journals revealed that: 1) students in the service-learning groups attached an ever-increasing importance to their service-learning experience; 2) there was an awareness of reciprocity between student groups and their service recipients; 3) service-learning students affirmed 51

53 the educational value of their experiences; and 4) service-learning students increased their awareness of diversity and quality of life issues for service recipients. 52

54 Hall, L. R. (1996). Transforming the "Empty Assignment Syndrome": A Study of Rhetorical Contexts for Service-Learning Composition Students. Unpublished Dissertation, Arizona State University. Methodology Qualitative Purpose Process Sample Students Original Sample 10 9 (90%) Final Sample Ethnographic case study Study Design Data Sources Student papers; Interviews; Observations; Questionnaires This qualitative study addressed the assumption that service linked with composition courses provides students with an opportunity to perform better than they would when writing 'empty assignments'. The following five related questions guided this research project. 1) What types of reflection do students engage in regarding their learning experiences in the community? 2) In what ways and to what degree do students incorporate ideas brainstormed in an Electronic Forum into their formal written assignments? 3) How effectively do students incorporate their experience into their formal texts? Do they, for example, synthesize their research and internship experience effectively to develop their main ideas? 4) Do students have more positive attitudes toward writing papers that could be read by a 'genuine' audience? Similarly do students' attitudes toward writing change during the semester? 5) Are students able to transfer what they learn from their research and writing in English 102 to their activities in their internship? To answer these questions, ten students from two freshman service-learning composition classes taught by the same instructor were invited to participate in this ethnographic study, and nine agreed. Students in these courses were required to tutor 'at risk' students for six to eight hours a week. Students received training in how to mentor and had follow-up trouble-shooting sessions with graduate interns. These interns were also involved in assessing students' written assignments. These included: summaries of articles on tutoring techniques and self esteem issues for 'at risk' children; a critical analysis of an argument on self esteem issues; recommendations on effective tutoring techniques to future students; and recommendations for techniques that improve children's self-esteem. The researcher was a participant-observer in both course sections. Data were collected from the following sources: rough drafts of papers, peer editing notes, final papers, teacher's evaluation sheets, free-writing exercises, pre- and post-interviews, classroom observations, pre- and post-questionnaires, and transcripts from instructor conferences with subjects and the researcher. The researcher found that student writing was affected by learning through tutoring experiences. Students performed better in their writing when they addressed “real” readers, such as future students, than when they addressed the instructor. Students' informal reflections focused mostly on their relationships with tutored students and on behavioral problems, while their formal papers focused on activities. They also demonstrated concern about helping to improve the tutored students' self-esteem. An additional finding was that the strategies that students learned through their tutor training proved to be valuable in developing strategies to work with the children. 53

55 Hammond, C. (1994). Integrating Service and Academic Study: Faculty Motivation and Satisfaction in Michigan Higher Education. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 1, 21-28. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Description Sample Faculty 250 Original Sample Final Sample 163 (65%) One shot Study Design Survey, self-report Data Sources A preliminary survey of Michigan colleges and universities asked administrators to identify faculty who used service-learning; twenty three institutions responded. A second survey was sent to 250 faculty asking them to identify characteristics of service-learning courses; support of service-learning; and a profile of faculty who used service-learning. Out of one hundred sixty three faculty who responded, 130 utilized service-learning. Results from an analysis of variance procedure indicated significant differences in faculty motivations for using service-learning. The strongest motivators for faculty were related to the curriculum, such as wishing to enhance course relevance or encourage self-directed learning. The relationship between the initial motivations of faculty to incorporate service and their satisfaction with such endeavors depended on three conditions: sufficient freedom, autonomy and control over work; a belief that such work has purpose; and feedback that indicated that their efforts were fruitful. Faculty reported concerns about the difficulties of coordinating people and many tasks; the increased time service requires; and the difficulty of adjusting pedagogy. Henderson, J. E. & Brookhart, S. M. (1997). Service-Learning for Aspiring School Leaders: An Exploratory Study. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL. Methodology Qualitative Purpose Description Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 35 Study Design Case study Data Sources Survey, self-report This paper presented findings of a study that examined the effects and extent of aspiring school administrators' involvement in a service-learning practicum. Thirty-five students in an educational leadership doctoral program completed this service-learning experience as a requirement of the program. Students were required to submit a report that described the dates, location, and descriptions of the practicum, the number of hours served, the number of people they estimated to have benefited directly and indirectly from their service, the anticipated benefits to the organization and its clients, the benefits 54

56 the students derived from the experience, and any problems or difficulties they encountered. All students worked in economically challenged areas, though their service sites and tasks varied widely. To analyze this data, the researchers developed coding categories and applied them to the student benefit and problems sections of the reports. They found that participation seemed to enhance aspiring school leaders' attitudes toward service-learning and enable these students to assess the benefits of service-learning to the organizations and individuals served. The most frequently encountered barriers students reported were time and client resistance. The authors hope this data will be useful to school administrators and future administrators who wish to understand the benefits and problems inherent to service-learning programs. Hesser, G. (1995). Faculty Assessment of Student Learning: Outcomes Attributed to Service-Learning and Evidence of Changes in Faculty Attitudes About Experiential Education. 2, 33-42. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, Methodology Qualitative; Quantitative Purpose Process; Description Sample Faculty Original Sample NR Final Sample 48 Study Design One shot Data Sources Survey, self-report; Interviews; Focus groups This exploratory study examined 48 faculty from 16 different disciplines in 11 colleges/universities to examine three suppositions: 1) liberal arts and disciplinary learning flow from field study and service- learning; 2) faculty have more positive attitudes than they once did concerning experiential education and field study; 3) changes in experiential education pedagogy can be explained by contextual changes in society and higher education. To examine these suppositions, faculty from five geographic regions took part in focus groups, agreed to be interviewed, and filled out brief questionnaires. Findings include the fact that through service- learning and field experiences professors perceived that, student learning increased, students gained an awareness of cultures different from their own, student problem solving skills increased, and students’ commitment to service was strengthened. Eighty three percent of faculty reported that service-learning improved the quality of learning in comparison to traditional courses. There was overwhelming support among faculty for the notions that service-learning supported liberal arts objectives and disciplinary learning, and that service-learning promoted problem solving skills and critical reflection. 55

57 Hones, D. F. (1997). Preparing Teachers for Diversity: A Service-Learning Approach. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL. Methodology Qualitative Process Purpose Sample Students 6 Original Sample Final Sample 3 (50%) Study Design Case study Data Sources Course evaluations; Interviews; Portfolios This study attempted to track the evolution of student thinking about diversity issues as a result of being enrolled in an introductory teacher education course entitled "Human Diversity, Power, and Opportunity in Social Institutions." This course required reading, writing, discussion, and a 10-week service-learning project in the community. The students enrolled in this course were mostly middle class, European Americans from small towns and suburbs in Michigan. Students volunteered in settings that brought them into contact with diverse ethnic, socioeconomic, and linguistic groups. Of the six students the teacher/researcher decided to focus on, three constructed exemplary stories using narrative analysis to describe how their lives were affected by their community experiences. For this study, the researcher decided to profile these three stories and code them for emergent themes. The stories revolved around the setting of someone whose background differed from their own, and discussed diversity and the roles the student played in the school and community served. The author suggested that the narrative is a form through which preservice teachers can better interpret the educational lives of diverse learners and their own roles in those lives. By linking their personal stories with those of children and adults in schools and communities, preservice teachers learned to recognize the needs, aspirations, and contributions of diverse Americans. Student also felt the experience enhanced their career development and heightened their awareness of diversity. Profile of Undergraduates in U. S. Horn, L. J., Premo, M. D., & MPR Associates. (1995). Berkeley, CA: MPR Postsecondary Education Institutions: 1992-1993. Associates. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Description Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 66,000 Study Design One shot Data Sources Interviews The US Department of Education conducted Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews that asked students to respond to a survey for the 1992-93 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study. The survey collected comprehensive information about enrollment patterns, student characteristics and educational aspirations, as well as community participation (n = 66,000). The sample included students 56

58 enrolled in public and private four-year and two-year institutions. It profiled what kinds of students performed community service and how often it was performed per week. Seventy one percent of the males and 67% of the females performed no service, and most of the rest volunteered between one to over five hours per week. Asian/Pacific Islanders (22.3%) and Hispanics (23.4%) volunteered in smaller percentages than did American Indian/Alaskan natives (35.6%), Blacks (28.7%) and Whites (32.8%). High income and high parental education levels were correlated with the likelihood of students performing service. Hudson, W. (1996). Combining Community Service and the Study of American Public Policy. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 2, 33-42. Quantitative Methodology Purpose Outcomes Students Sample NR Original Sample 51 Final Sample Study Design Pre/post; Quasi-experimental Data Sources Attitude scales Outcome Variables Attitudes; Values; Learning This study examined the impact of service-learning on attitudes, values, and learning for students (n = 32) enrolled in two sections of an American public policy course with a service requirement. A European politics course with no service requirement was used as a control group (n=19). The author hypothesized that at the end of the semester students in the public policy courses would score higher in their levels of concern for others and civic commitment than at pretest, and that public policy students would change more along these dimensions than students in the European politics course. Pre and post service measures were adopted from Markus, Howard and King to test these hypotheses. However, paired t-tests on pre- and post-course scores found no statistically significant differences on any items on the survey either for the experimental or control course. However, students' perception of how the course affected them increased for those in public policy when compared to the control group. Despite the lack of statistically significant results, the researcher perceived that service-learning students were more empowered. Ikeda, E. K. (2000). How Reflection Enhances Learning in Service-Learning Courses. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA. Note Same data as dissertation, below Methodology Qualitative Purpose Process Sample Students; Faculty Original Sample NR Final Sample 15 Faculty; 72 Students Study Design Case study Interviews; Focus groups Data Sources 57

59 This study researched the importance of structured reflection in service-learning courses. The study consisted of interviews with 15 service-learning faculty and 72 students from three different higher education institutions. Focus group interviews with were conducted with faculty to gather data about service-learning course designs, classroom practices, and faculty perceptions of student learning. Student interviews centered on: a) how students interpreted the service experience in relation to the connections between academic course material and the community work/service experience; b) the role reflection played in the course and in their personal and academic development; and c) the things they did in and out of class to help connect the service experience and the formal course content. Major themes that emerged from qualitative analysis of these data were the connection made between the service experience and the course material, and the role of reflection. The study found that structured, intentional reflection in service-learning courses was the only method teachers mentioned they used to connect the service experience to the academic course. All faculty felt it was key to a powerful learning experience. Types of reflection used included facilitated class discussions, and written journals and papers. Students reported enjoying the opportunity to exchange ideas and stories and felt that written reflection forced them to integrate course material and the service experience. Ikeda, E. K. (1999). How Does Service Enhance Learning? Toward an Understanding of the Process. Unpublished Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles. Note Same data as conference paper, above Methodology Qualitative Purpose Process Sample Students; Faculty NR Original Sample Final Sample 15 Faculty; 72 Students Case study Study Design Data Sources Interviews; Focus groups; Document analysis; Observations This qualitative research project focused on one overarching question--how does the service experience enhance the learning process in college level service-learning courses? Several sub-questions are embedded in this main question, including: what outcomes can be attributed to service-learning courses and how do these outcomes occur; what connections are made between course material and the service experience, and how are they made; and what tools are used to integrate service with classroom learning? To shed light on these issues an in-depth case study (document analysis, observation, formal and informal interviews with faculty and students) of a service-learning course at UCLA was conducted. In addition, individual and focus group interviews with other faculty and students at UCLA, Pepperdine University, and the University of Richmond augment this case study. The case study portion of the project was conducted with 16 students enrolled in a child development course required for education minors and cross-listed with psychology. All students taking this course performed service at an elementary school after school program. Most participants were female (3 males enrolled, and 2 58

60 stopped attending the class). The researcher observed the students in class and at the service site, took field notes and collected class assignments, the syllabus, and assignment sheets. Formal and informal interviews were conducted with 13 of the 16 students. In the second phase of the study, the researcher interviewed five service-learning faculty at each of three institutions, and performed structured interviews with focus groups comprised of two to nine students. All interviews were transcribed and they and the other documentary materials were coded for themes. Five themes emerged from the data: descriptions of the service site; the relationship between service and the course material; interactions and relationships with others; outcomes related to service-learning; and the role of reflection. Analysis showed that students made links between service and the course material mainly via structured reflection and critical analysis of social issues. Outcomes related to service-learning were an increased sense of efficacy; an increased awareness of the world; an increased awareness of personal values; and increased levels of classroom engagement. Itin, C. M. (1997). The Orientation of Social Work Faculty to the Philosophy of Experiential Education in the Classroom. Unpublished Dissertation, University of Denver. Methodology Quantitative; Qualitative Purpose Description; Process Sample Faculty Original Sample 816 Final Sample 242 (29.7%) Study Design One shot Data Sources Survey, self-report; Experiential Education Orientation Scale; Interviews; Document analysis; This dissertation employed a mixed methodology to explore the degree to which social work faculty felt that utilizing experiential pedagogy in the classroom was beneficial. The qualitative portion of the study focused on how faculty described their orientation to experiential education, and quantitative methods were used to explore the breadth of social work faculty to this philosophical orientation. A survey instrument, the Experiential Education Orientation Scale, was developed and sent to a stratified sample of 816 faculty who were members of the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE), and 242 responded. Results from the quantitative analysis, which measured six subscales (goals, relationships, place of content, roles of the teacher, roles of the student, and learning environment) indicated that there was not strong support for an orientation to experiential education among social work faculty. The most consistent predicting factors for such support were gender and years of practice prior to teaching. Women faculty were more likely to embrace the notions inherent to experiential pedagogies, as were those who had been practitioners prior to becoming faculty. Results from qualitative analysis revealed that social work faculty are philosophically interested in balancing content and process in their delivery method as well as integrating task and affective domains 59

61 in relationships. However, in terms of practice, they are most interested in covering a certain amount of content based upon the requirements of CSWE. 60

62 Jeffers, C. S. (2000). Between School and Community: Situating Service-Learning in University Art Galleries. 7, 109-116. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, Qualitative; Quantitative Methodology Process; Description Purpose Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 63 Case study; Pre/post Study Design Data Sources Survey, self report; Journals This study examined service-learning in a elementary art methods course. Preservice teachers served as facilitators for small groups of students exploring the university art gallery and used constructivist learning strategies with the youngsters. Analysis of the journals showed that students learned that: different people have different perspectives on art; all perspectives are valuable; learning at the galleries can be affected by variety of factors, including lighting and other environmental variables, the artwork displayed, and the people with whom the artwork is shared. They also learned about individual differences in learning styles, and about the importance of race, ethnicity, and class. Likert-type surveys showed that students gained much from the class. Though no significance tests were performed, there were positive gains in the pre- to post course means for items relating to student beliefs that: a) art should be integrated with other courses, such as science and math; b) art should be used to build relationships among all students; and c) art should be studies because it involves higher- order thinking. After the course, students were less likely to believe that art museums should provide tour guides or docents to lead students. Johnson, S. D., & Bozeman, M. (1998). Service Learning and the Development of Social Responsibility. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the Central States Communication Association, Chicago, IL. Methodology Qualitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 56 Study Design Pre/post; Quasi-experimental Data Sources Survey, self report; Measurement scales Outcome Variables Social responsibility This study made use of a developmental approach to student acquisition of social responsibility. Seven professors from seven institutions of higher education who teach service-learning courses were asked if they would be willing to have their students included in a study of social responsibility development via service-learning. Four professors at three institutions were included because they met the following criterion: they were teaching two sections of the same course with only one offering service-learning, or they were teaching a single course for which students could choose a service or non-service assignment. 61

63 The final sample was of 56 students, 25 of whom completed service-learning projects and 31 of whom did not. The instrument chosen for the study was the "Scale of Social Responsibility Development” (SSRD), a new measure derived from the developmental phases of Delve and developed by Olney and Grande. It included three scales, Exploration, Realization, and Activation (formerly Internalization). Analysis revealed that the scales were significantly correlated with one another, creating doubt over whether they were truly measuring different factors. Nonetheless, significant differences were found between pretest and posttest performance on all three scales for those who completed service-learning projects, but only on the "Activation" scale for the non-service-learning students. In addition, a significant and dramatic difference was found on the "Involvement" scale (constructed by combining "Realization" and "Activation" items) for service-learning students but not for the control group. Since the SSRD did not yield three clearly distinct scales with these data, it is impossible to determine if social responsibility developed in phases. However, since students who performed service-learning tasks showed a significant overall increase on the "Realization" and "Activation" scales, there is tentative support for the hypothesis that service-learning increases social responsibility--at least on a short-term basis. Jordan, K. L. (1994). The Relationship of Service Learning and College Student Development. Unpublished Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Methodology Quantitative; Qualitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample 300 116 (38.6%) Final Sample Study Design Pre/post; Quasi-experimental Survey, self-report; Journals; Document analysis; Data Sources Outcome Variables Civic responsibility; Respect for diversity; Knowledge of self; Skill development This study examined the relationship between student growth and development and service-learning participation along four dimensions: sense of civic or citizenship responsibility; respect for diversity; development of individual skills such as knowledge and academic concentration; and knowledge of self. Three hundred students from two Virginia Universities were invited to participate in the study. Fifty students from each school participated in community service learning with no reflection, while another fifty students representing each school participated in community service learning with reflection. Fifty students from each school were the control group with no community service involvement. Both qualitative and quantitative data were gathered from these students. All took a pre- and post- course instrument that measured the four dimensions of growth. Descriptive statistics and an analysis of variance were conducted on this data. Students were also required to write in journals and respond to a set of predetermined questions regarding service and volunteering. Journals were coded for evidence of change along the four dimensions of growth. 62

64 Data analysis was conducted on a final sample of 116 students. The dependent variables were the dimensions of growth described above, and the study controlled for race, gender, and previous community service. Participation in community service learning with the two levels of experience defined above was the independent variable. Results from the quantitative analysis did not reveal any significant difference between the groups. There was, however, a significant difference between genders. Students involved in service-learning and reflection indicated in their journals that their community service experiences contributed to increased development along three of the four dimensions of growth: respect for diversity; development of individual skills such as knowledge and academic concentration; and knowledge of self. Juhn, G., Tang, J., Piessens, P., Grant, U., Johnson, N., & Murray, H. (1999). Community Learning: The Reach for Health Nursing Program-Middle School Collaboration. Journal , 38(5), 215-221. of Nursing Education Quantitative; Qualitative Methodology Purpose Outcomes Sample Students; Faculty; Instructors Original Sample NR Final Sample 152 Students (Others NR) Study Design Pre/post; Quasi-experimental Data Sources Survey, self report; Focus groups; Interviews Career development; Communication; Interpersonal skills Outcome Variables This study evaluated a project that provided health education for middle schoolers by teachers with the assistance of nursing students and that also enabled middle schoolers to complete community service in health facilities with student nurses. In this manner, nursing students gained community service experience combined with a course on nursing in complex client situations. This course had two outreach components. In the first, nurses traveled to middle schools to teach them about HIV/AIDS and several basic health issues. In the second component, nursing students taught middle-school health instructors on how to train their students to complete weekly volunteer work at various health care sites. The nursing students also facilitated reflection and debriefed the middle-school students. To evaluate the program, qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Pre- and post-program surveys were administered to the participating nursing students (n=57), and a posttest was administered to a control group of nursing students (n=95). This survey measured nursing students expertise in various elements of school health, and confidence in working with adolescents, parents, teachers, school administrators, and others. Though the article does not test for significant pretest differences between the two groups, the reported pretest means of the treatment group were quite similar to the posttest means of the control group on most items. At posttest, participating nursing students rated their abilities to communicate with students and parents significantly higher than non-participants. In addition, nursing students pre- to posttest scores on these ratings increased significantly. The nursing student participants also showed increased skills, comfort with, and knowledge of working in school and community settings from pre- to posttest, and 63

65 scored significantly higher than non-participants at posttest. The qualitative data included focus groups and one-on-one interviews with nursing students and faculty as well as middle-school instructors. Nursing students were enthusiastic about the program and discussed their learning and increased confidence. Challenges to the nursing students, such as inadequate preparations for some elements of the program, were also discussed. . Bonner Foundation. Keen, C. & Keen, J. (1998). Bonner Student Impact Survey Methodology Quantitative; Qualitative Description Purpose Sample Students NR Original Sample 929 Final Sample One shot; Case study Study Design Data Sources Survey, self-report; Focus groups; Interviews These authors reported preliminary results from a student impact survey, focus groups, and interviews indicating that the Bonners Scholars Program (BSP) had strong and positive effects on students involved in service-learning by providing opportunities to cross racial and cultural boundaries. The Bonner Scholars Program selects students who are already active in service. Over 80% of the scholars reported that BSP affected their opportunity, capacity, or commitment to interact with compassion with those different than themselves. Students reported that service-learning positively impacted their motivation to serve others, their senses of personal efficacy and leadership effectiveness, and enhanced their career development process. The survey also documented how critical financial support is to its students. Michigan Kendrick, J. R. (1996). Outcomes of Service-Learning in an Introduction to Sociology Course. Journal of Community Service Learning, 2, 72-81. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 123 Study Design Pre/post; Quasi-experimental Data Sources Survey, self-report; Grades; Course evaluations; Attitude measurement scales Outcome Variables Social responsibility; Personal efficacy; Application Modeled after Markus, King, and Howard (1993) and Giles and Eyler (1994), this study examined effects of service-learning on students in two sections of the same course. Students were given extra credit for participation in service-learning at 20 hours per semester (60 students). Students who selected no service-learning were required to read the NY Times (63 students). The researcher used demographic information to control for effects on learning outcomes. Seventy-five percent of students 64

66 were freshmen; 63% were female; 86% were Caucasian. Service-learning was the independent variable and the dependent variables were social responsibility, personal efficacy, and application. Students in the service-learning section showed greater improvements than did the control section in measures of social responsibility, personal efficacy, and they also reported greater ability to apply course concepts to new situations. Compared to the control group, service-learning students indicated that it was more important to work toward equal opportunity and volunteer time to help others. The control group subjects showed a significant change in attitudes about their involvement in community, but were less likely to agree that they could make a difference. There was no significant difference between the service-learning and the control group in grades. Seventy-two percent of students from both groups showed low motivation for service-learning by either "disagreeing" or "strongly disagreeing" that they felt motivated to learn. Knee, R. T. (1999). Service-Learning in Social Work Education: Building Democracy Through Informed Citizenship. University of Denver. Unpublished Dissertation, Methodology Quantitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 208 Study Design Pre/post; Quasi-experimental Survey, self report Data Sources Outcome Variables Citizenship; Leadership abilities; Respect for diversity This quasi-experimental study used a comparison group design to discover whether undergraduate social work students participating in service-learning acquired citizenship skills, a respect for diversity, and leadership skills more readily than those who chose not to participate in service. The study period spanned from the Fall of 1995 through the Spring 1998 semesters. Students who selected the service-learning option (n=45) in this semester-long introductory social welfare course were required to complete 30 hours of community service at an institution of their choosing. However, the site needed to meet certain requirements, such as supervisors being able to meet with the students regularly and an opportunity for direct contact with clients. Students were required to keep records of their experiences and turn them in to the instructor, and to keep a journal. Entries were graded as to whether and how well they integrated personal experience with larger social issues. The control group (n=163) did an academic assignment intended to parallel the work the service- learning students were doing. Both groups participated in small group discussions. A 57 item questionnaire was developed specifically for this project and included demographic questions and questions pertaining to community life, personal characteristics, activities and interests, and course perspectives. Items measuring the dependent variables of citizenship, respect for diversity, leadership ability and perceptions of the learning activity were also included in the instrument. A total of 208 respondents completed the pre- and post-experience surveys. No differences were found between the two groups on the dependent variables at pretest. Differences between and within groups from pretest to posttest were measured by employing independent and paired t-tests. Neither groups 65

67 citizenship scores changed significantly over the course of the semester. However, leadership ability increased significantly for the service group but not the control group, and the service group had significantly higher ratings of the learning experience than did the control group. 66

68 Kollross, C. A. (1997). Service Learning and Citizenship: Is There a Connection? Unpublished Thesis. California State University, Long Beach. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 119 Study Design One shot Data Sources Survey, self-report Outcome Variables Citizenship This study examined the effect of service-learning on the development of citizenship in community college students. Students (n=119) in four different courses were compared. Two courses (Sociology and Psychology) required service-learning, and two courses (Economics and Statistics) offered students the option to participate in community service as extra credit. For this study, the definition of citizenship was based upon Myers-Lipton's three stage development of civic responsibility: stage 1) displaying concern about social issues; stage 2) expressing the belief in a sense of personal efficacy, or ability to make a difference; and stage 3) demonstrating the ability to act on concerns. The following hypotheses were examined in this study: 1) students in courses with a mandatory service-learning component will exhibit significantly develop their level of citizenship; 2) students in courses that merely encourage volunteer community service will exhibit no significant change in their development of citizenship; and 3) academic discipline will affect students' development of citizenship. Two questionnaires, The "Scale of Service Learning Involvement" and the "Attribute Range" that identified demographic information, were used to test these hypotheses. None of these hypotheses were supported. Service learning students did, however, indicate interest in future community service. The author asserts that the lack of support for these hypotheses may be explained by the confusion over definitions of citizenship because a large percentage of the community college students were foreign-born (approximately 60%). Other possible explanations might be that four different courses were compared to one another with different numbers of service hours and at different service sites. Lelle, M. A. (1996). The Community Service Mission of the Private Liberal Arts College: A Study at Albion College. Unpublished Dissertation, Michigan State University. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Description Sample Institutions; Faculty members Original Sample 250 Final Sample 178 (71.2%) Study Design One shot Data Sources Survey, self-report This study examined the role that a community service mission played at one private liberal arts college. Two related questions formed the thrust of the investigation: To what extent did the literature 67

69 support the notion that private liberal arts colleges historically have a community service mission, and to what extent did faculty support this mission? The investigator developed a survey that identified seven factors: service as requirement; curriculum- based service; college involvement in community issues; student and faculty contributions to community; college investment in community development; community access to college facilities; and service as part of well-rounded faculty life. These factors then served as the dependent variables for the current study: The independent variables consisted of demographics, as well as variables related to employment, community service, charitable giving, and faculty perceptions of the community. Of the 250 faculty members who were sent this survey, 178 responded. Survey questions revealed that one third of the faculty had not been involved in community service in the last year, while 40% performed more than 50 hours of community service in that period. About half of the faculty contributed less than $50 to charitable causes and 42% gave $50-$500 during the year. An ANOVA revealed that married faculty were significantly more likely to support the college's involvement in community issues. Also, administrators were significantly more likely than faculty to believe that students and faculty made a valuable contribution. Faculty with four to twelve years of seniority were significantly more likely to support community access to the college's facilities than those with less than four years of experience at the college. Respondents who donated more than $50 a year to charity were significantly more likely to support the college's investment in community development than those who contributed less. Finally, while faculty supported a strong curricular focus on service, they opposed the college's graduation requirement of service. Loewen, D. E. (1998). Reflection on the Service Experience of First Year College Students: A Content Analysis. Unpublished Dissertation, University of Iowa. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 295 Study Design One shot Data Sources Survey, self-report Outcome Variables Empathy; Empowerment; Effort-to-perform further service This dissertation examined differences in students' levels of empathy, empowerment, and effort-to- perform further service by several variables, including gender, amount of reflection performed, and service setting. Faculty from three Midwestern universities who taught a first level course that required community service were invited to participate in the study. They in turn, offered their students the opportunity to participate in the study (n = 295). Students were asked to respond to written reflections of their community service experiences at the conclusion of the semester. They also responded to a Service Experience Survey (SES). Content 68

70 analysis was conducted of written reflections from students based upon responses to three questions "What?", "Now what?", and "So What?" Results from the content analysis were supported by analysis of the SES and indicated that reflection had a significant effect upon students' levels of empathy and sense of empowerment. In addition, the content analysis revealed a significant gender/setting effect so that women who participated in community service in a direct setting were significantly likely to have higher empathy levels than men serving in a direct setting. The content analysis and SES also showed that gender had a significant effect in a participant's effort to perform further service. Mabry, J. B. (1998). Pedagogical Variations in Service-Learning and Student Outcomes: How Time, Contact and Reflection Matter. Michigan Journal of Community Service 5, 32-47. Learning, Quantitative Methodology Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample 232 Final Sample 144 (75%) Study Design Pre/post; Quasi-experimental Data Sources Survey, self-report Civic attitudes; Personal social values Outcome Variables This study assessed how student attitudes and values were affected by the amount and type of contact with service beneficiaries, and the frequency and types of reflection required. To understand these relationships, pre/post surveys were administered to students participating in service-learning in 23 different courses. Though 232 students completed the pretest, the final sample was 144 students, 68% of whom were female, and 84% of whom were White. There was no significant difference at pretest between those who completed both surveys and those who did not. At posttest, students were asked to indicate the number of hours of service they performed, the extent to which they had contact with those they served (from "not at all" to "all my service time"), the frequency with which they engaged in reflective activities(in and out of class) and the kinds of reflective activities that were required (written and/or discussion). They also self-reported on the impact service- learning had on their personal social values and civic attitudes, and on their perceptions of how the course influenced their civic attitudes and academic learning. Students' precourse personal social responsibility and civic attitudes varied significantly by socio- demographic characteristics. Women, Whites and those with previous volunteer experience scored significantly higher on both these precourse measures. An ANOVA showed that these groups’ social responsibility and civic attitude scores did not change significantly over the semester. However, men, nonwhites and those with the least service experience showed significant positive changes in their civic attitudes. Service-learning was also more effective when student had at least 15-20 hours of service, enjoyed frequent contact with beneficiaries of their service, engaged in weekly in-class reflection, wrote ongoing and summative reflections and had discussions about their service experiences with both instructors and site supervisors. 69

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72 Mandell, N. (1995). Integration of Community Service with Academic Courses in Connecticut Institutions of Higher Education. University of Unpublished Dissertation, Connecticut. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Description Sample Institutions 51 Original Sample Final Sample 38 (58.8%) for 682 courses One shot Study Design Survey, self-report Data Sources The purpose of this study was to assess the type and amount of community service performed by colleges and institutions in one state through an examination of courses that incorporated service. Chi- square analyses examined numerous hypotheses about higher education institutions along the following dimensions: public versus private four-year institutions, public two-year versus public four-year institutions, and public Ph.D.-granting versus public four-year non-Ph.D.-granting institutions. Institutional characteristics formed the independent variables. Dependent variables were various service characteristics, including three kinds of service sites, nine types of service performed, and 6 population groups served Survey data from 682 courses from 30 institutions revealed that 88% of the respondents were four- year institutions and 69.2% of those were public. The academic department that offered the greatest percentage of service-learning courses was Education at 34.4%; the Social and Behavioral Sciences had 15.4% of its courses linked with service. The mean number of hours of community service that a student performed was 119. Business Administration students demonstrated the highest mean at 174.3 hours followed by Social Work students with 161 mean hours. Most of the service performed was either in government or non-profit organizations with youth or the general community. Sixty four percent of students performed service in education; health care services were the next highest receivers of student time. More than 82% of all community service courses were internships, field experiences, or practica. Most of the students were not paid for their service (90.9%); their service was required by their courses (87.6%), or was required for their major (61.7%). Markus, G. B., Howard, J. P. F., & King, D. C. (1993). Integrating Community Service and Classroom Instruction Enhances Learning: Results From an Experiment. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 15(4), 410-419. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 89 Study Design Pre/post; Experimental Data Sources Survey, self-report; Attitude scales; Course evaluations; Grades Social and personal learning Outcome Variables 71

73 In an experimental study, two sections of an eight section American politics course were randomly selected to include service-learning. The other six sections were the control groups and used a traditional course format with discussion groups. Control groups wrote a longer term paper instead of performing service. All students had the same lectures and took the same exams. Students had no knowledge during course registration that there were treatment and control groups and there were no significant differences between these two groups prior to the study in their social and political beliefs and values. According to the course evaluations, students in treatment groups did not feel like they were being treated specially. Service-learning was the variable researchers hypothesized would impact grades and social attitudes. Results included the fact that at the end of the semester, service-learning students attached significantly increased importance to equal opportunity, volunteering, and finding a helping career. For the most part, control groups students did not show significant changes in these areas. However, participating in service-learning increased students’ intentions to help others in need. Service-learning students were also significantly more likely to self-report that they learned to apply principles, and had significantly better course grades. Martin, C. (1994). Faculty Perceptions Toward Service Learning Within a Large Public University. Unpublished Dissertation, Pepperdine University. Methodology Quantitative; Qualitative Purpose Description Sample Students Original Sample NR 69 Final Sample Study Design Case study Content analysis; Interviews Data Sources This study examined the perceptions that full-time university faculty at one California university had on the integration of service-learning into the curriculum (n=69). It explored how faculty defined service-learning, their attitudes and beliefs about service-learning, and what percentage of their coursework focused on service-learning. The faculty members completed a survey based on an interview constructed using the principles of Azjen & Fishbein's theory of reasoned action. Two independent raters then conducted content analysis. Results indicated that 68% of faculty engaged in service-learning activities with 33% of faculty devoting between ten to twenty percent of their coursework to these activities. Both women faculty and faculty undergoing the tenure process were more inclined towards including service-learning in their curriculum. The analysis demonstrated that school or department affiliations are related to the use of service- learning. For example, faculty who incorporated service-learning were from art, accounting and finance, anthropology, communications, criminal justice, elementary or bilingual education, health science, management, nursing, theater arts, health administration, and physics. Other faculty from departments of foreign language, economics, history, and psychology did not use service-learning. 72

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75 Mayhew, J. (2000). Service-Learning in Preservice Special Education: A Comparison of Two Paper presented at the Capitalizing on Leadership in Rural Approaches. Special Education: Making a Difference for Children and Families, Alexandria, VA. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students 179 Original Sample 179 (100%) Final Sample Pre/post Study Design Data Sources Survey, self report; Journals; Attitude measurement scales; Focus groups Outcome Variables Attitudes about disabled people This study compared two approaches to service-learning in an undergraduate human exceptionalities course. Each course section served as a treatment group. The “Unlimited Choice” section of 13 students designed and implemented their own service-learning project involving persons with disabilities, and the “Limited Choice” section of 16 students chose between 3 prearranged project sites. Students filled out the Scale of Attitudes toward disabled people (SADP) at the beginning and end of the semester. There was no significant difference between the groups on this measure, nor was there any change from pre- to posttest in either of the groups. Other quantitative data were obtained from the standard university course evaluation survey, while qualitative data came from student reflective journals and focus group interviews. Follow-up phone interviews were conducted with students not present for the focus groups. Interviews were recorded and transcribed, and then indexed using the Folio Views program. Questions centered around: a) connecting course content to service experience; b) personal growth from service; c) perceived benefit to others of service; d) influence on future plans; e) expectations about service; and f) suggestions for improvement. Themes that emerged from journal analysis included: a) feelings of the student; b) the impact of the exceptionality on the individual; c) educational practices; d) reaction to the exceptionality by society; e) connecting course content to service experience; and f) other perceived values of the service experience. Results suggest that students benefited from both approaches, but each approach had advantages and disadvantages. The course evaluation survey showed that students in the unlimited choice group responded more positively in the content and citizenship domains than the limited choice group. Class discussions about the service experience were a critical component of service-learning--the unlimited choice group commented on their value, and the limited choice group wished there had been more discussion. On the other hand, students in the limited choice group were able to make more specific connections between course concepts and the service experience, possibly because they served a more diverse population of children with disabilities. Most of the unlimited choice group students were able to devote their time to a single individual, which contributed to their satisfaction with the experience. Personal ownership, feelings of acceptance, development of relationships, and recognition of the value 74

76 of the service all contributed to student satisfaction with the experience. Selection of appropriate service sites also contributed to the quality of the experience for both groups. McElhaney, K. A. (1998). Student Outcomes of Community Service Learning: A Comparative Analysis of Curriculum-Based and Non Curriculum-Based Alternative Spring University of Michigan Break Programs. Unpublished Dissertation, Qualitative Methodology Outcomes Purpose Sample Students Original Sample 22 Final Sample 6 (27.2%) Study Design Case study Data Sources Interviews; Focus groups; Observations; Content analysis Outcome Variables Behaviors; Attitudes; Affect This qualitative case study examined how service-learning affected undergraduate students from a Midwestern university in two different kinds of Alternative Spring Break (ASB) programs. One ASB site was curriculum-based and focused on urban poverty while the other ASB site, which provided service to homeless women and children with HIV/AIDS, was not linked to a curriculum (n=22). The following research questions guided the study: 1) how does service-learning affect undergraduates; 2) what is the relationship between service-learning and outcomes; 3) what changes do service-learning students undergo; and 4) why does service-learning lead to these student outcomes and/or changes? Case study methodology guided the data collection strategies, which included: two student focus groups (one per site); 6 individual interviews of 6 key informants (three from each site); document analysis; and researcher observations. Focus groups were first conducted to identify potential informants for interviews and develop interview scripts. Interviews were guided by structured protocol and were tape recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for content. Drawing from Astin's student outcome typology, the researcher classified data as showing evidence of behavioral or psychological outcomes in two domains, cognitive and affective. Transcripts were coded for outcomes, domains, and type of service-learning (non-curriculum or curriculum-based). Results from the content analysis include the fact that both groups experienced more psychological than behavioral outcomes. Both groups also challenged previously held attitudes, values, and stereotypes. However, the curriculum-based group experienced a greater variety of outcomes, especially in the cognitive psychological domain. They increased their understanding of community issues, connected theory to practice, broadened their career and educational choices, learned problem- solving skills, displayed much knowledge of the history of the city in which they worked; and expressed a commitment to future service involvement . The non-curriculum-based group bonded with and befriended each other more often than did the curriculum-based group and learned more about group dynamics but had fewer learning outcomes. 75

77 In addition to content analysis, the researcher used a hurricane analysis to map outcomes from students' service-learning experiences. This analysis led the researcher to classify outcomes as either direct or indirect. Direct outcomes were immediately recognizable at the completion of the experience, while indirect outcomes emanated from the experience as well as from the direct outcomes. Some of the strongest outcomes from this analysis were: the ability to make friends; the challenging of previously held beliefs, attitudes, and values; the broadening of career and educational options; increased knowledge of issues; learning the power of collaboration to solve problems; and discovering new ways of learning. McMahon, R. (1998). Service-Learning: Perceptions of Preservice Teachers. Paper presented at the 27th Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA. Qualitative Methodology Purpose Process Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 56 Study Design Case study Data Sources Reaction papers; Journals This study used qualitative methods to garner information on the experience and perceptions of preservice teachers' regarding service-learning. Subjects were undergraduate students enrolled in a early childhood course required for education majors and taught by the researcher. Most of the subjects were female (91%) and elementary education majors (67%). Student’s volunteered for at least 10 hours at an organization serving children and/or adolescents. Students kept dialogue journals and participated in two reflection sessions. At the end of the semester, students contemplated involvement in community service by responding to a set of open-ended questions in the form of a narrative reaction paper. A selection of student reaction papers was analyzed by the instructor to identify key issues and themes in three broad areas of interest: 1) overall attitude; 2) learning that occurred; and 3) impact on life at the university. Next, either the instructor or a collegiate volunteer’s representative coded the data using the constant comparative method to clarify subthemes that fell under each rubric and to identify new themes. Reactions to journals and reflections sessions, difficulties experienced, and plans to continue volunteering were added as themes of interest. The findings of the two readers were synthesized and their analysis revealed a positive perspective on service-learning. Approximately 80% of the students saw the service experience as highly beneficial, 18% thought the experience had some merit, and 2% thought it was ineffectual. Students identified many benefits of service-learning, including: gaining knowledge of self; communication skills; caring; recognizing a need to improve certain skills; gaining awareness of communities; learning about children; clarifying choice of major; and illuminating or exemplifying information learned in university courses. Frustration and difficulties surrounding service were also mentioned in journals, as was a sometimes negative reaction to required service. 76

78 Miller, J. (1997). The Impact of Service-Learning Experiences on Students' Sense of Power. Michigan 4, 16-21. Journal of Community Service Learning, Methodology Quantitative Outcomes Purpose Sample Students Original Sample 451 Final Sample 327 (78%) Study Design Pre/post Data Sources Survey, self report Outcome Variables Efficacy This project examined whether students that self-selected to participate in an undergraduate community service learning course with diverse options for service would show an increased sense of their own power to impact the world. The students (n=327) completed a survey at the beginning and end of a semester that was geared toward perceptions of power to make a difference in the world. A hypothesis that students would report a greater sense of power following the experience was not supported. Indeed, students reported a significant loss in sense of power to impact the world. This effect was strongest for students in a particular section of the course, but held for all students. In addition, all demographic characteristics collected were significantly related to this loss of power in some fashion, including gender, ethnicity, major, year in school, GPA, membership in fraternities, and level of religious activity. Miller, J. (1994). Linking Traditional and Service-Learning Courses: Outcome Evaluation Utilizing Two Pedagogically Distinct Models. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 1, 29-36. Quantitative Methodology Purpose Outcomes Students Sample Original Sample 658 Final Sample 125 (19%) Study Design Pre/post; Quasi-experimental Data Sources Survey, self report Outcome Variables Personal and academic growth Students from two different classes were offered opportunity for enrollment in service-learning sections. Twenty-two students (out of 318) selected the service-learning option in a developmental psychology class (7%), and fourteen (out of 340) students selected the service-learning option in a social psychology class (4%). A sample of the remaining students in both classes were randomly selected as the control groups (n=89). Service-learning was the independent variable, which the researcher hypothesized would impact personal development, application, attitudes, and academic experience. A questionnaire was administered at beginning regarding demographics and expectations, and a survey at the conclusion of the course asked questions related to the hypotheses. Students who selected service-learning did not substantially differ demographically from the control group. Service-learning students did differ in that they had significantly higher expectations than their peers that the service-learning experience would be helpful and valuable, and would more positively 77

79 affect their educational experience. At posttest, service-learning students rated their experiences as being significantly more valuable than the control group, but did not differ in their reports concerning gains in personal development or in the final grades they received. They did, however, report an enhanced ability to apply concepts outside of classroom. Myers-Lipton, S. J. (1996a). Effect of a Comprehensive Service-Learning Program on College Students' Level of Modern Racism. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 3, 44-54. Study 1 of 3 (same sample, different measures) Note Quantitative Methodology Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 225 Study Design Pre/post; Quasi-experimental Data Sources Modern racism scale Outcome Variables Attitudes regarding modern racism The effects of a service-learning program on students’ levels of modern racism were assessed by comparing three groups of students using a quasi-experimental design with a nonequivalent control group. The experimental group were members of a highly selective two year program for juniors and seniors with a focus on service and community action. They performed 6 hours community service per week in concert with four three-credit classes, four one-credit service-learning labs, and two month-long summer service-learning experiences. They performed a total of over 200 hours of service. Eleven students finishing the course in 1993 (wave 1) and 14 students finishing the course in 1994 (wave 2) formed this Comprehensive Service Learning (CSL) group. There was also a control group of students (25 per wave) that performed service that was not linked to course work (the Service No Learning, or SNL group). A second control group of no-service (NS) students consisted of a random sample of 150 students. At pretest the three groups scored similarly on the Modern Racism Scale. However, at post-test, the CSL students showed a larger decrease in modern racism than the two control groups. Neither political orientation, gender, nor race were predictors of change for modern racism. 78

80 Myers-Lipton, Scott J. (1996b). Effect of Service-Learning on College Students' Attitudes toward International Understanding. 37(6), Journal of College Student Development, 659-68. Note Study 2 of 3 (same sample, different measures) Methodology Quantitative Purpose Outcomes Students Sample Original Sample NR 225 Final Sample Study Design Pre/post; Quasi-experimental International Understanding Scale Data Sources Attitudes regarding international understanding Outcome Variables See the previous entry for a discussion of the sample. The International Understanding Cognitive Scale developed by the Educational Testing Service was used as a pre- middle- and postcourse measure for this study. The scale consisted of several factors: concern for third world problems, a desire for international peace, a desire to be a member of an organization involved in global issues; a desire to find solutions to global problems and awareness of the prevalence of these problems; a belief in cooperation; and an attitude toward the United States. Even after controlling for student background variables and precourse differences in scores (where necessary), there was clear support for the hypothesis that CSL students would show larger positive changes in international understanding than SNL and NS students. Myers-Lipton, S. J. (1998). Effect of a Comprehensive Service-Learning Program on College Students' Civic Responsibility. 26, 243-258. Teaching Sociology, Study 3 of 3 (same sample, different measures) Note Methodology Quantitative Outcomes Purpose Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 225 Study Design Pre/post; Quasi-experimental Data Sources Civic Responsibility Scale; Locus of Control Scale; Civic Behavior Scale Outcome Variables Civic responsibility See Myers-Lipton (1996a) for a description of the study sample. This study hypothesized that students who are involved in service-learning will show larger increases in civic responsibility than students involved in non course-related community service and students not involved in community service. Three scales were used to test this hypothesis: the Civic Responsibility Scale, the Locus of Control Scale, and the Civic Behavior Scale. Independent and control variables included sex, race, political orientation, parents' education, and student group. A multiple regression indicated that the Wave Two CSL and SNL groups had similar levels of civic responsibility at pretest but that the Wave One CSL group had higher pretest scores than the SNL group. Both waves 79

81 of CSL and NSL groups scored more highly than NS groups at pretest. These differences in initial attitude were controlled for when analyzing pretest to posttest changes. Results of this analysis included the fact that CSL groups gained significantly in their locus of control, civic behavior, and concern for civic responsibility scores over the study period, while the SNL and NS students’ scores on these scales stayed the same or declined. Urban Community Service National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges. (1995). at AASCU and NASULGC Institutions: A Report on Conditions and Activities. Washington, DC. Quantitative Methodology Purpose Description Institutions Sample 290 Original Sample 186 (64%) Final Sample Study Design One shot Survey, self report Data Sources This study surveyed about 290 institutional members of either the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) or the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges (NASULGC) located in urban areas. The survey focused on service areas, commitment to community service, barriers to service, approaches for gaining community and institutional cooperation, and needs for professional association support. More than half of the members responded (n=186) and indicated five concerns: education, economic development, community development, health and human services, and cultural enrichment. Institutions of higher education placed a greater emphasis on health and human services and cultural enrichment than did their communities. Twelve percent of institutions had formal criteria regarding community service. Nearly 87 percent of the respondents indicated that their institution had offices or centers that directed community service. The remaining respondents indicated little coordination of service activities. Twenty-seven respondents noted lack of adequate resources for faculty to respond to community needs, as well as a lack of recognition of community service as a scholarly activity. Nigro, G., & Wortham, S. (1998). Service-learning through action research. In R. G. Bringle and D. K. Duffy (Eds.) Collaborating With the Community: Psychology and Service- Learning. Washington DC: American Association for Higher Education. Methodology Qualitative Purpose Process Sample Students Original Sample 4 Final Sample 4 Study Design Case study Course evaluations; Journals; Observations Data Sources 80

82 This study examined student research and community service in two action research projects. In the first project, two students assisted a community agency by drafting a survey regarding the nature of violence in schools and how it was being addressed. They then mailed the survey to all elementary and secondary schools in the county. In the second project, two students assisted teachers employing a new curriculum based upon Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences by observing and interviewing children and families affected by the curriculum. Several insights were gleaned by observing students and by soliciting evaluations of the course from the agency staff, teachers, and students. The latter valued the direct experience they gained in dealing with complex community problems and appreciated the control they had from taking initiative and thinking on their own. Agency staff and teachers appreciated receiving other perspectives and information about their own practices. Nnakwe, N. E. (1999). Implementation and Impact of College Community Service and its Effect on the Journal of Family and Social Responsibility of Undergraduate Students. Consumer Sciences, 91(2), 57-61. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 34 Study Design Pre/post Data Sources Attitude measurement scale Outcome Variables Commitment; Social responsibility Students in a required senior level nutrition course (n=34) participated in a service-learning project in community food banks serving homeless people. Before the project, students were trained by community outreach professionals on how to work with vulnerable populations and in how to administer the Radimer/Cornell food insecurity questionnaire. Students then worked in pairs at food- assistance sites. They also administered the Radimer/Cornell to older persons and others receiving food assistance to assess the prevalence of hunger and food insecurity. Students filled out a questionnaire designed to determine attitudes and knowledge about food insecurity and hunger at the beginning and the end of the semester. Posttest data showed significant increases in students’ concern, activism, and attitudes related to world hunger and homelessness. 81

83 Oliver, H. T. (1997). Taking Action in Rural Mississippi: Uniting Academic Studies and Community Paper presented at the Annual Service through Project D.R.E.A.M.S. International Conference of the International Partnership for Service-Learning, Kingston, Jamaica. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Description Sample Students; Faculty; Institutions Original Sample NR Final Sample 57 Study Design One shot Survey, self report Data Sources This paper describes an innovative service-learning program developed at Rust College in Holly Springs, Mississippi, a historically black college in a poor rural area. Project DREAMS (Developing Responsibility through Education, Affirmation, Mentoring, and Service) involves college student volunteers serving as tutors and mentors to elementary school students in two local school districts. In its inaugural year, the primary function of the program was to market and define service-learning, to identify and provide technical assistance to faculty, and to assure academic integrity. The program then began to implement service-learning across the curriculum and build service-learning community partnerships. Through a program impact survey, students responded that there was enhanced learning, and a deeper commitment to future service. Within the institution, five of six academic divisions have incorporated service-learning into individualized programs of instruction. In addition, 34% of the faculty have integrated a service-learning component into their courses. A majority of faculty believed that an incentive for incorporating service- learning into teaching should be offered. Osborne, R. E., Hammerich, S., & Hensley, C. (1998). Student Effects of Service-Learning: Tracking Change Across a Semester. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 5, 5-13. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 95 Study Design Pre/post; Experimental Data Sources Survey, self report Outcome Variables Self-worth; Cognitive complexity; Social behavior; Competence For this study, four sections of a pharmacy communications class were randomly assigned to service- learning or no service-learning conditions (for a total of 95 undergraduate students). Service-learning was the independent variable and was expected to positively impact participating students’ sense of self-worth, cognitive complexity level, social behavior, and sense of competence. Pre-tests indicated no significant difference between samples on scales measuring these elements. The Self Perception Scale, the Spontaneous Self Esteem Scale, the Remote Associations Test, the Texas Social Behavior 82

84 Inventory, the Cognitive Complexity Scale and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale were used to measure the impact of service-learning and were administered at the beginning and the end of the semester. Service-learning groups showed significant positive improvements when compared to no-service- learning groups on cognitive complexity, social competency; perceived ability to work with diverse others; and self worth in social situations. There was no significant change in the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, but service-learning students were more realistic about their sense of self-worth. Ostrow, J. M. (1995). Self-Consciousness and Social Position: On College Students Changing Their Minds about the Homeless. Qualitative Sociology, 18(3), 357-375. Qualitative Methodology Purpose Process Students Sample NR Original Sample NR Final Sample Study Design Case study Data Sources Journals For this study, the researcher performed a content analysis of journals collected over a period of four and a half years that were written by undergraduates who visited homeless people and then chronicled their experiences and thoughts. Students described their expectations in anticipation of visiting homeless shelters, then visited the homeless at emergency night shelters and soup kitchens. Afterword they wrote about how their attitudes shifted. Many students described a process of personal transformation as they began to understand the homeless people. They were hyperattentive to their own fears, and experienced a sense of being "on stage" while at the shelters. Their journals underscored the effect of self-consciousness among participants as a barrier between the homeless and themselves, as well as the role that social position plays as students struggle with this self-consciousness. Parker-Gwin, R. P. & Mabry, J. B. (1998). Service-Learning as Pedagogy and Civic Education: Teaching Sociology, Comparing Outcome for Three Models. 26, 276-291. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample 525 Final Sample 260 (49.5%) Study Design Pre/post; Quasi-experimental Data Sources Survey, self-report Outcome Variables Academic and civic outcomes For this study, pre- and postcourse surveys were administered to 260 students enrolled in three different types of service-learning courses at Virginia Tech to examine whether or not service-learning produced civic and academic outcomes. The first type of class used a “placement-service required” 83

85 model (n=60) for which students performed required service chosen by the professor to line up with course material. The second model, “placement-service optional” (n=121), offered service as an option, and service sites were chosen based on recommendations by the instructor and the Service-Learning Center. The third “consulting group” placement model required the class (n=79) to work in teams to complete one community project. The placement-service optional classes (12) and placement-service required classes (4) required reflection though student journaling, in-class discussions, electronic chat room use, and final reports. The five consulting group classes did not require any student reflection on how the courses and the service projects were related, but did require final reports. Pre- and post-surveys included Likert-type measures of personal social responsibility, the importance of community service, civic awareness, motives for volunteering, self-ratings of analytical and problem solving skills. The postcourse survey also included perceptions of course effects. Contrary to expectations, paired t-tests revealed that at the end of the semester, service-learning students rated the importance of community service significantly less favorably than at pretest, and students agreed significantly less with the statement that adults should give some time for the good of their community. These results, however, are specific to the type of service-learning course taken. Scores decreased on the measures only for students in courses requiring service-learning. A positive result was that students in the placement-service optional courses significantly decreased in self-oriented motives for volunteering. Students in the consulting model service-learning classes and in the placement-service optional classes also reported increases in their critical thinking ability over the semester. Payne, C. A. (2000). Changes in Involvement as Measured by the Community Service Involvement Preference Inventory. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 7, 41-53. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Outcomes Students Sample Original Sample 83 Final Sample 53 (64%) Study Design Pre/post Data Sources Attitude measurement scale Outcome Variables Commitment This study examined the ability of the newly revised Community Service Involvement Preference Inventory (CSIPI, formerly the Service-Learning Inventory) to gauge how students like to be involved in community service. Students registered in four sections of an elective service-learning class took the CSIPI at the beginning and at the end of one semester. They performed roughly 20 hours of service work in the ten week term. The four subscales of the CSIPI are: a) exploration--the affective nature of the apprehension common in new experiences; b) affiliation--a preference to participate with peers or in a group; c) experimentation- -an appreciation of the personal challenges of becoming involved in community service; and d) assimilation--a feeling of lifelong commitment and frequent contact with persons/groups being served. The author hypothesized that there would be a change in mean scores from the beginning to the end of the semester for all four preferences. Exploration and affiliation preferences, which the author 84

86 associates with egoism and lack of commitment, are theorized to change to experimentation and assimilation. Because of the new revision, the author set the alpha level for the two-tailed t-test p > 0.10. There was significant change from pre- to post test on two of the involvement performed at < .01), and assimilation (p < .10). There was no significant change in the preferences, exploration ( p affiliation preference, perhaps because there was little chance for group work. There was also no significant change in the exploration preference, perhaps because most students had already performed community service in the past. Payne, C. A. & Bennett, E. B. (1999). Service-Learning and Changes in Involvement Preferences Among Undergraduates. NASPA Journal, 37(1), 337-348. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Outcomes Students Sample Original Sample 100 87 (87%) Final Sample Study Design Pre/post Data Sources Attitude measurement scale Outcome Variables Commitment This study examined the ability of the Community Service Involvement Preference Inventory (CSIPI, formerly the Service-Learning Inventory) to measure how students prefer becoming involved in community service. Students registered in an elective service-learning class took the CSIPI at the beginning and at the end of one semester. They performed approximately 20 hours of service work in the ten week term. The four subscales (or preferences) of the CSIPI are: a) exploration--the affective nature of the apprehension common to all new experiences; b) affiliation--a preference to participate with peers or in a group; c) experimentation-- appreciating the personal challenges of becoming involved in community service; and d) assimilation--a feeling of lifelong commitment and frequent contact with persons/groups being served. Differences in means from the pre to the posttest reveal significantly more positive scores at posttest for the affiliation, experimentation, and assimilation preferences. This supports the notion that as students perform service, they gain a greater understanding of the needs of those served and form a greater propensity for future service. Peterson, E. A. (1998). What Can Adults Learn from Community Service? Lessons Learned from AmeriCorps. Community Education Journal, 25(1-2), 45-46. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Description Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample NR Study Design One shot Survey, self-report Data Sources 85

87 This abstract reported results of a University of South Carolina's AmeriCorps project survey that solicited the opinions of participating college students aged 19-22 and young adults aged 23-35. Through their community service, participants reported that their experiences built self-esteem, developed leadership skills, and fostered compassion. Pickron-Davis, M. C. (1999). Black Students in Community Service-Learning: Critical Reflections About Self and Identity. Unpublished Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. Methodology Qualitative Purpose Process Sample Students Original Sample 13 Final Sample 13 Study Design Case study Data Sources Observations Focus groups; Interviews The purpose of the this ethnographic case-study was to gain understanding of how 13 Black students enrolled in three service-learning courses subjectively experienced the in-class and fieldwork components of the course. Five questions guided the study: 1) who were the Black students that were drawn to service-learning courses; 2) what were the motivations of these students; 3) what were the subjective experiences of these students; 4) how did the stated and hidden curriculum influence Black students’ experiences of these courses; and 5) what did it mean to be a Black student enrolled in a service-learning course at the university being studied? The three service-learning courses under study required a commitment to work with primarily lower- class, Black middle-school students. Bi-weekly focus groups, informal interviews with faculty, audiotaped students interviews, and participant-observation of students in the service-learning courses and during service experiences provided the data for this study. Data were coded for themes, including implicit and explicit discussions of race and cultural difference in the classroom, developing cultural competencies for the service-site, and assumptions about service roles. Major findings include the facts that: critical dialogue in community service learning on race, racism, and cultural differences was often absent; Black students self-silenced when race was brought up in class; Black students navigated dual identities as students in the classroom and as role-models and service- providers in the schools; and Black students developed cultural competence to bridge the cultural differences they found in the predominantly Black, low income community in which they were serving. These competencies centered around language and code-switching and coming to understand urban issues. 86

88 Potthoff, D. E., Dinsmore, J., Eifler, K., Stirtz, G., Walsh, T., & Ziebarth, J. (2000). Preparing for Democracy and Diversity: The Impact of a Community-Based Field Action in Experience on Preservice Teachers' Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes. 22(1), 79-92. Teacher Education, Methodology Quantitative Purpose Description Sample Students; Faculty; Agencies 150 Students; 60 Faculty; 68 Agencies Original Sample 136 Students (91%); 26 Faculty (43%); 65 Agencies (95%) Final Sample Study Design One shot Data Sources Survey, self report This research study assessed the experience of teacher-education students enrolled in a course that placed them in a local human service program or agency for 50 hours of service. The course was taken concurrently with a developmental behavior course. Together these courses were intended to promote 26 growth objectives, including 10 knowledge objectives, 7 skill objectives, and 9 attitude objectives. These include understandings of the workings of local agencies and programs, people from a diversity of backgrounds, and the environmental and developmental factors affecting learning. In order to see if these growth objectives were met and to determine the level of preservice teacher involvement and satisfaction with the field experience, a 53 item Likert scale survey was developed and administered to students and faculty who teach methods and/or required courses in the teacher development sequence. Community agencies and programs that hosted the students filled out a modified but similar survey. Response rates were high for students and agencies (91% and 95% respectively) and low for the faculty (43%). Results indicate that the field experience plus the class helped foster much growth in students’ “warmth/caring,” “willingness to serve others,” and “empathy for persons different from self,” and other areas related to democracy and diversity. Though students, faculty and community agencies had different ratings of student growth in many cases, the community agencies estimates were more similar to the students’ self assessments than faculty assessments. The faculty assessments of growth were the lowest of the three and the student assessments of growth were the highest. Faculty were more likely to report that students did more clerical and less face-to-face work than students or the agencies reported students did. Faculty also had the lowest satisfaction levels with the field placement experience with an average of “somewhat satisfied” versus students and community agencies “very satisfied”. Results were also examined by placement category (disabled children, at-risk preschool, education programs, support, recreation, skill-building, and special-needs families). Preservice teachers working within the disabled, preschool, at-risk youth, and recreation program categories reported that their placement almost always involved direct contact with clients. Students in the at-risk and the disabled individuals category had the highest growth scores in such areas as: exposure to persons in abusive situations or who are disabled; understanding the environment and risk factors on human development; and the connections between behavior and learning. All seven placement subgroups, however, were satisfied with the program. 87

89 Raskoff, S. (1997). Group Dynamics in Service-Learning: Guiding Student Relations. Michigan Journal 4, 109-115. of Community Service Learning, Methodology Qualitative Process Purpose Sample Students 53 Original Sample Final Sample 25 (47%) Case study Study Design Interviews; Journals Data Sources This study examined the process of group work, individual reflection and supervision in service- learning. Eleven students from two courses, Women at Work, and Bureaucracy and Complex Organizations, were selected to participate in a service-learning project in conflict mediation. For this project, they worked at the middle school with the conflict resolution director, wrote weekly journals based on prompts, met together to discuss their experiences, and prepared a reflective paper for the course. Other students in the classes were required to write a paper and keep a journal if they participated in community service unrelated to the course. Twenty one (out of 42) students in this second group chose to be involved in community service. The author reported that analysis of students' notes and journals revealed a connection between group interpersonal dynamics and student motivation. Thus, student interactions, motivations, and experiences during service-learning affected whether students reported positive or negative experiences. Students in the service-learning group tended to include explicit references to other students in the group or to situations at the school. Results from the pre-experience surveys, interviews and debriefing meetings indicated that students' expectations should be identified early in the semester so that appropriate attention and intervention can be attempted. Rauner, J. S. (1995). The Impact of Community Service-Learning on Student Development, as Unpublished Dissertation, University of San Perceived by Student Leaders. Diego. Methodology Qualitative; Quantitative Purpose Process; Description Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 58 Study Design Pre/post; Quasi-experimental; Comparative case study Data Sources Survey, self report; Focus groups; Journals; Observations Outcome Variables Cross-cultural sensitivity Using a comparative case study approach, this study examined students’ experiences as community service leaders at two California universities over two years. Four case studies were analyzed with 58 participating students (14 per case study, per institution, per year). 88

90 Surveys, questionnaires, journals, focus group interviews, and observations were used to gather data concerning whether, how, and why student leaders changed their: self-perceptions; awareness of cultural diversity issues; moral judgements; decision making processes; learning; and relationships with other students, administrative leaders and community organizations. Students reported that they gained self-confidence by meeting time demands, facing complex situations, and increasing their organizational and communication skills. Through immersion in different community cultural settings, students reported that interacting with those being served had great impact because it forced them to confront their stereotypes and made them aware of the vast differences in physical environments and resources available to people. Cross analysis of the two programs indicated differences in program longevity, funding sources, and in the autonomy of student leaders. Students raised issues regarding the amount and type of advising that they received as well as the receptivity to input from the student leaders from the community agency. Student leaders also questioned whether or not they were able to influence other student volunteers. All students felt challenged to continue their involvement as citizens in their world. Rhoads, R. A. (1997). Explorations of the Caring Self: Rethinking Student Development and Liberal Learning. Paper presented at American Education Research Association, Chicago, IL. Methodology Qualitative Purpose Process; Description Sample Students Original Sample NR 374 Final Sample Study Design Case study Survey, self report; Interviews; Observations Data Sources This author hypothesized that if college students have a deep sense of caring for others, it is more likely that they will interact with others in a meaningful way. Thus, a means to foster a sense of self grounded in an ethic of caring via community service involvement is explored in this paper. The three objectives addressed in this work were: (1) to advance higher education's understanding of the varieties of learning experiences students have through involvement in community service; (2) to use theoretical discussions of the "caring self" (a combination of symbolic discussions and feminist explanations of self) as a means to interpret findings on community service involvement; and (3) to use interpretations of research to discuss the ideal of community and the role of higher education and community service in advancing community. Data for this paper were gathered over a 6-year period and included interviews, surveys, and observations of students participating in community service. Several themes emerged from reading this data and were member checked with the students. The themes relevant to the topic of identity exploration included making connections with the self, with community members, and with other volunteers. Students reported that they were rejuvenated by their interactions with other volunteers and that because they were connected to the community, they were able to put faces on the statistics 89

91 and policy discussions they heard about poverty, homelessness, and the like. It also challenged them to confront stereotypes they had about people and face racism head-on. 90

92 Rhodes, C. (1999). Psychosocial Changes in Student Development of College Sophomore Women Along Chickering's Seven Vectors with Service-Learning as an Institutional Unpublished Dissertation, Effect. Peabody College, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students 61 (21 experimental) Original Sample 17 experimental Final Sample Pre/post; Quasi-experimental Study Design Data Sources Survey, self report; Attitude measurement scales Career development; Interpersonal skills Outcome Variables This dissertation project focused on a service-learning program required of all students in their sophomore year at a small liberal arts college for women. The research had two objectives: 1) to illuminate how community service with reflection impacts psychosocial development; and 2) to determine if there were specific facets of service-learning that had a greater impact on student development than others. All sophomores at the college were invited to participate in the study, and 61 agreed to take part. Of these 61 students, 21 were taking the required service-learning course in the Fall semester and comprised the experimental group. The other 40 students were taking the course in the Spring and formed the control group. The service-learning course required 30 hours of community service and weekly reflection sessions. Service sites ranged from homeless shelters, to the Red Cross, to Big Brothers/Big Sisters. To answer the research questions, the control and treatment groups completed the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyles Inventory (SDTLI) at the beginning of the semester and the treatment group also completed it at the end of the semester. This measure was developed by Winston, Miller and Prince to assess whether college students have achieved developmental tasks typical to college students. These tasks and subtasks involve establishing and clarifying purpose, and developing mature interpersonal relationships. Students in the experimental group also completed a service-learning post survey developed by Eyler and Giles. This determined levels of placement quality, discussion, writing, application, community voice and diversity, learning, personal growth, interpersonal skills, specific skills, and social commitment. Data on previous community service, academic interests, and parental information were also collected. Analysis did not reveal significant differences from pre- to posttest on any of the SDTLI subscales. Analysis did reveal that past community service did have a significant effect on SDTLI scores (and 85% of the students in both groups had performed community service in the past). Specific aspects of the service-learning experience were also examined to see if they were related to student development, and it was found that the personal growth and interpersonal skills aspects of the course were positively related to the career planning posttest score. However, three aspects of the course negatively predicted posttest scores, e.g. 1) specific skill development was negatively related to developing peer relationships, 2) the relevance of the service to class work was negatively related to tolerance, and 3) community voice in service was negatively related to emotional autonomy. 91

93 Rice, K. L., & Brown, J. R. (1998). Transforming Educational Curriculum and Service Learning. Journal 21(3), 140-146. of Experiential Education, Methodology Quantitative; Qualitative Outcomes Purpose Sample Students 61 (21 experimental) Original Sample Final Sample 17 experimental Pre/post Study Design Attitude measurement scale; Course evaluations Data Sources Civic participation Outcome Variables This research project measured changes in students’ civic participation and social attitudes due to service-learning. Undergraduates at California State University at Monterey Bay enrolled in a required service-learning course completed the Student Service Assessment designed by Furco and his colleagues. In addition, responses to an open-ended question on course evaluations were coded for themes. These questions were either, what are the most useful concepts, skills, and abilities you learned in this course and why, or what was the most important thing you learned in this course. Results from the Student Service Assessment found that students scored significantly higher on the civic participation scale after engaging in the service-learning course and understood the communities they served more thoroughly. Four themes emerged from qualitative analysis of course evaluations: interactive skills; cognitive skills; content; and personal growth. Within these themes, it can be seen that over the course of the service-learning experience, students became advocates of community service, became personally and emotionally engaged, learned about their positions of privilege in society, and recognized the assumptions that they brought to the class. Service Learning and Community Colleges: Where We Are. AACC Robinson, G. & Barnett, L. (1996). Survey Report. Washington, DC: American Association of Community Colleges. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Description Sample Institutions Original Sample 1100 Final Sample 773 (70%) Study Design One shot Data Sources Survey, self report For this study, surveys were sent to the 1,100 member institutions of the American Association of Community Colleges regarding their use of service-learning, and 773 responded. The survey items centered on institutional profiles, volunteer community service activities, service-learning activities, student and faculty/staff participation in such activities, community service and service-learning program administration, the involvement of non-school organizations, and program development. 92

94 While 71% of the colleges indicated that service was a part of institutional mission and nearly half had an office or group that placed students in community service opportunities, only one in five promoted college-wide service projects. Thirty-one percent of community colleges surveyed offered service- learning, and 71% of those institutions reported that five or fewer faculty incorporated service-learning into the curriculum. Thirty-seven percent of institutions with service-learning offered specific courses in community service. Students performed up to 10 hours of service monthly through service-learning courses, primarily at health and social service agencies and K-12 schools. Community colleges reported that faculty support was the most important factor in making a service-learning program successful, while insufficient funding was the primary challenge to program sustainability. Rockquemore, K. A., & Schaffer, R. H. (2000). Toward a Theory of Engagement: A Cognitive Michigan Journal of Community Mapping of Service-Learning Experiences. Service Learning, 7, 14-25. Qualitative; Quantitative Methodology Process; Outcomes Purpose Students Sample Original Sample NR 120 (50 for qualitative) Final Sample Case Study; Pre/post Study Design Data Sources Journals; Attitude measurement scale Outcome Variables Attitude about equality of opportunity; Student efficacy This research project used grounded theory to analyze the reflective journals of 50 students enrolled in service-learning courses at a West Coast university enrolling affluent students. Students engaged in service activities in: food delivery; residential geriatric care; youth mentoring; public education; juvenile detention; free health services; free legal aid; homeless shelters; and after-school mentoring. The journal data showed that students went through three stages in the service-learning process: shock (at encountering poverty), normalization (adapting to the new surroundings), and engagement (seeking answers to why clients were in poverty and needed services). In addition to the analysis of journals, all students took a survey that measured changes in attitude about equality of opportunity in the US and students’ abilities to impact social problems. Though the researchers did not perform significance tests on these data, there was substantial positive increases over the semester in these attitudes. Roose, D., Daphne, J., Miller, A. G., Norris, W., Peacock, R., White, C., & White, G. (1997). Black Student Retention Study: Oberlin College. Oberlin College. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Description Sample Students Original Sample 305 Final Sample 170 (48%) Study Design One shot Survey, self report; Interviews Data Sources 93

95 This study examined 15 variables to see which ones were associated with retention, such as involvement in community service, changing majors, and summer employment. The data for this study were interviews conducted by telephone with African American students from 1987-1991 (final n = 170). For African-American students who had attended Oberlin, involvement in community service was the factor most strongly correlated with graduation in the entire study. Rosenbaum, V. M. (1997). Understanding College Age Volunteers' Behavior. Unpublished Dissertation, LeHigh University. Methodology Quantitative Description Purpose Students Sample Original Sample 302 Final Sample 181 (70%) Study Design One shot Data Sources Survey, self report This dissertation explored motives for volunteering and the relationship between motives and expectations for actual volunteer experiences. Specifically, the research questions this study attacked were: who volunteers, why do they volunteer, and what do they gain from volunteering? To answer these questions, students from five sociology courses were given a chance to perform 40 hours of community service and write an essay about this service during the semester in place of writing a paper. Of the 1058 students across three semesters, 21.5% volunteered, and 17% (n = 181) successfully completed the requirements. A control group of students who did not volunteer was also examined. The essays service-learning students wrote were guided by two general directions: describe your expectations about volunteering, and discuss why you volunteered. From these essays, six categories of motives for volunteering were identified and coded for: self-satisfaction; self-improvement/learning; social motivation; humanitarian/altruistic; pragmatic; and a functional category for negative statements. A personality instrument was also administered that identified the following personality factors: warmth, reasoning, liveliness, socially bold, sensitivity, abstractness, and apprehension. Results included the facts that females were significantly more likely to volunteer than males, and that male volunteers were significantly more warm than male controls. Students who volunteered also had significantly higher GPAs than those who did not volunteer. Many student volunteers were motivated by the intrinsic reward of self-satisfaction or by an extrinsic reward, grades. Other volunteers cited altruistic reasons for volunteering. The only significant personality factor differences between volunteers and non-volunteers was that the former considered themselves more religious than the control group and had significantly higher mean scores on the liveliness factor. 94

96 Sagaria, M.A.D., & Burrows, J. M. (1995). Higher Education Urban Community Service: From Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Periphery to Core? Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Description Sample Institutions Original Sample 55 Final Sample 42 (82%) Study Design One shot Data Sources Survey, self report Chief academic officers at 45 accredited colleges and universities in urban areas of Ohio were surveyed to examine three issues: 1) how much attention policy-making bodies within the institution pay to community service; 2) the place of community service in the curriculum and the faculty workload; and 3) how the external environment influences community service at the institution. Using Likert scales, respondents rated the significance of community service to ten functional areas of universities and colleges:1) community relations, 2) institutional mission, 3) institutional goals, 4) academic programs, 5) campus culture, 6) student services, 7) fundraising and grants, 8) student recruitment and retention, 9) state government relations, and 10) alumnae/ni relations. Chief academic officers rated community service as having "very high importance" to community relations, institutional mission, and institutional goals. However, community service was not discussed very often by institutional policymaking groups such as student life committees, the governing board of the school, or the president's cabinet. Community service was only "rarely" or "occasionally" (2.8 out of 5 points) part of course assignments, "rarely" a primary focus of assignments (1.9), and "never" to "rarely" a graduation requirement (1.7). Saunders, M. D. (1998). The Service Learner as Researcher: A Case Study. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 9(2), 55-67. Methodology Qualitative Purpose Description Sample Students Original Sample 9 Final Sample 9 Study Design Case study Data Sources Reports This case study describes one college-faculty member's research project based on the experiences of nine honors students involved in service-learning with children's organizations. Students served as participant-observers at an international conference on children's issues and interviewed delegates to the summit. Their field reports yielded a solid profile of healthful environments for children worldwide. Students felt their service-learning experience had contributed significantly to their ability to perform this research. 95

97 Schmidt, B. C. (2000). The Service Sojourn: Conceptualizing the College Student Volunteer Experience. Unpublished Dissertation, University of Utah. Qualitative Methodology Process Purpose Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 16 Case study Study Design Interviews Data Sources This qualitative study studied the experiences of 16 students from the University of Utah who participated in community service. These students were self-selecting and were performing service through a volunteer center at school. The following questions informed the ethnographic interviews. What common events occurred? How did students make sense of their experience? What, really, did students learn? Transcripts of 54 ethnographic interviews that focused on student descriptions of their service experience were coded using the QSR NUD*IST software program. Themes that emerged from this analysis included leaving familiar surroundings, the shock of a new environment, and efforts to adjust. The interpretive metaphor of a sojourn was used to interpret and discuss students' experience. Student interviewees reported several positive outcomes from their community service experiences, including gaining a better understanding of others, a matured sense of identity, a more complex worldview, and an enhanced sense of personal efficacy. Schmiede, A. (1995). Using Focus Groups in Service-Learning: Implications For Practice and Research. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 2, 63-71. Methodology Quantitative; Qualitative Purpose Description Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 15 Study Design Pre/post; Case study Data Sources Survey, self report; Focus groups; Interviews This study examined the value of focus groups as a methodology for service-learning research and as a means to encourage reflection. Ten students from a freshman community service laboratory were divided into two focus groups before their involvement in community service. Eight students in the upper-level internship class also participated as a focus group, but three of their responses were excluded from analysis. All students from both classes also responded to a pre- and post-survey as a part of the FIPSE study "Comparing Models of Service". Both focus group data and the open-ended questions on the FIPSE survey were analyzed using an open-ended coding scheme to establish the complexity of thinking involved in participants' attempts to problem-solve. 96

98 According to moderators and analysts who examined written survey responses, compared to students who just responded to the survey, forty percent of participants in the focus groups solved problems at a higher level of complexity, twenty-seven percent of the focus group participants responded at the same level of complexity, and thirty-three percent of focus group students had lower complexity ratings. The author suggests that focus groups as a methodology may be more effective in gathering data about problem-solving than open-ended surveys. Scott, J. A., & Ludwigh, M. (1995). Community Service at Urban Public Institutions: A Report on Conditions and Activities. Metropolitan Universities: An International Forum, 6(3), 55-70. Quantitative Methodology Purpose Description Sample Institutions Original Sample NR 186 Final Sample Study Design One shot Data Source Survey, self report This abstract described the results of a national survey of 186 public colleges and universities that indicated substantial community service at virtually all institutions. The piece discusses strategies to access resources and to expand the capabilities of service along principal areas of service activity and barriers to accomplishing the service component of the institutional mission. Sellnow, T.L. & Oster, L. K. (1997). The Frequency, Form, and Perceived Benefits of Service-learning Journal of the Association for in Speech Communication Departments. Communication Administration, 3, 190-197. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Description Sample Faculty Original Sample NR Final Sample more than 300 Study Design One shot Data Source Survey, self report This abstract recounted a study for which more than 300 university communication departments were surveyed to discover how educators perceived service-learning and whether communication departments made service-learning opportunities available for their students. The survey found widespread availability of service-learning opportunities for students in speech communication departments, reflecting the national trend across disciplines to emphasize service-learning at post- secondary educational institutions. 97

99 Serow, R. C., Calleson, D. C., Parker, L., & Morgan, L. (1996). Institutional Support for Service- Learning. 29(4), 220-25. Journal of Research and Development in Education, Quantitative Methodology Description Purpose Sample Institutions Original Sample 118 Final Sample 82 (70%) One shot Study Design Data Source Survey, self report The Commission on National Service for North Carolina sponsored this study to identify factors associated with support for service-learning among institutions of higher education. The researchers developed a variable that was an index of institutional support and involved training, evaluation of service-learning courses, and efforts to recruit volunteers. In order to discover the factors that impacted the index of institutional support, a two-stage multiple regression procedure was used. The variables that were expected to impact institutional support included enrollment numbers, public/private control, highest degree awarded, number of service-learning faculty, and the integration of service-learning into the academic core. The variables that predicted of institutional support for service-learning at a significant level included the number of faculty involved in using service-learning in their courses (.31 beta coefficient) and an emphasis on academic goals in service-learning courses (.37 beta coefficient). Public control and "other development goals" also showed significant beta coefficients. Shastri, A. (1999). Investigating Content Knowledge Gains in Academic Service-Learning: A Quasi- Paper presented at Experimental Study in an Educational Psychology Course. the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal, PQ Canada. Quantitative Methodology Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 64 Study Design Pre/post; Quasi-experimental Data Sources Grades; Class attendance Outcome Variable Final grade This research was designed to measure content knowledge gains made by 64 students enrolled in two sections of undergraduate educational psychology course. On section was randomly designated the service-learning group, and the other the control group. Both sections were taught by the same instructor. The experimental group (n= 31) performed 20 hours of community service in sites dealing with K-12 students and were required to keep triple-entry reflective journals and turn in a reflective paper. The control group (n=33) did library assignments designed to take similar time and effort. 98

100 When academic outcome measures were considered as total scores earned on quizzes, examinations, and written assignments, the results between the two groups were significant at the .05 probability level with a p-value of .013, with the service-learning group scoring higher. However, it is important to note that the difference between exam and quiz grades taken alone was not significant. In contrast, the grade differential on written assignments (graded by the researcher) was quite high when analyzed alone (p=0.001). Service-learning students also had much better attendance than the control group and had much lower ratings on the difficulty of the class as revealed in course evaluations. Siebold, M. L. (1998). An Assessment of a Community Service Program for Allied Health Students. Unpublished Dissertation, University of Sarasota. Methodology Quantitative; Qualitative Evaluation Purpose Students; Faculty Sample NR Original Sample Final Sample 56 Students; 6 Faculty One shot; Case study Study Design Data Sources The Community Service Student Survey; Group and individual interviews The purpose of this study was to evaluate a community service program at an allied health college. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected with the Community Service Student Survey and through student group and individual faculty interviews. The survey was guided by four research questions: how does the community service program compare with Kendall’s (1991) Principles of Good Practice for Combining Service and Learning ; how do students perceive community service participation; in what ways, if any, do student perceptions differ by demographic categories, prior service experience, and/or career goals; and how do faculty perceive the program's effectiveness? The group and individual interviews centered on service experiences, learning, personally meaningful experiences, and recommended program changes. The survey revealed that students felt the program reflected many of the Principles of Good Practice . For instance: programs involved personal responsibility and challenge; there was a high awareness of program goals; an abundance of service opportunities was available; there was a clear sense of the recipient organization's expectations; assessment of abilities and interests was individualized; entry into and exit from service programs was flexible; there was a diversity of programs; and finally, there was a strong and professional commitment to the extracurricular. Students identified two principles of the Principles of Good Practice that were sometimes violated: There was not always enough opportunity for reflection, and procedures for involvement could seem confusing to students. On the whole, students expressed satisfaction with and enjoyment of their involvement in community service even though mandated volunteerism bothered them. They identified personal development as the primary area influenced by their involvement in community service. In particular, service boosted motivation, confidence and identity development. There were no differences by gender, ethnicity, program, or past service experience on student perception of community service participation. For their part, faculty were in consensus in defining 99

101 academic goals for the program and were professionally and personally committed to community as a basic construct in education for the health professions. Siscoe, D. S (1997). Service Learning in 4-Year Public Colleges and Universities: Programs, Profiles, Problems, and Prospects. University of North Unpublished Dissertation, Texas. Methodology Quantitative Description Purpose Institutions Sample Original Sample 166 Final Sample 116 (69.8%) Study Design One shot Data Sources Survey, self report This study investigated involvement levels in service-learning programs and activities in four-year public colleges and universities that were members of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS). It described programs and established institutional profiles of SACS colleges that supported service-learning. It also identified the characteristics of service-learning that participating institutions shared. Finally, it explored future prospects for service-learning on these campuses. Of the 166 member schools of SACS, 116 presidents or chancellors agreed to participate in the study. A survey on service- learning and community service developed by the American Association for Community Colleges was adapted for this study and sent to all SACS members. The study found that 55 (47.4%) of the institutions had service-learning programs on campus during 1996. Roughly 36.3% of institutions with a Masters program had service- learning programs. Eighty- nine percent of the institutions with service-learning programs mentioned service in their mission statements and nearly half had service-learning offices. Of all success factors impacting service-learning programs, the factors identified most often were administrative support (41.8%) and faculty commitment (27.3%). The survey also revealed that 78% of these institutions employed discussion and reflection in their service-learning classes, and 74% of the service-learning courses required students to keep journals. The predominant types of service were in K-12 schools (87%) or social service agencies (92%). Respondents indicated that faculty were most motivated by praise (40%) or peer influence (36%). Forty-five percent of institutions required faculty service for tenure. Institutional leaders also identified insufficient funding (43%), lack of administrative support (16.4%), and faculty resistance (14.5%) as barriers to promoting service-learning. Finally, the author noted that 28 institutions without a current service-learning program (45.9%) indicated that they are interested in creating one. 100

102 Skilton-Silvester, E. & Erwin, E. K. (2000). Creating Reciprocal Learning Relationships Across Socially Constructed Borders. 7, 65- Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 75. Methodology Qualitative Purpose Process Sample Community; Students NR Original Sample Final Sample NR Case study Study Design Observation; Journals; Papers; Interviews Data Sources This paper addresses two issues, attrition in adult learning programs, and the need for to train teachers so they are effective with people different from themselves. The first author of this paper was the coordinator of a service-learning program called Project WRITE, in which mostly traditional age college students provided tutoring to adults over 55 who wanted help with basic literacy skills and mathematics. For the study, both authors were participant observers in two semesters of the class, read the same materials as the service-learning students, helped tutor the adults, and collected student papers and journals. Five African American female tutees and two tutors were also interviewed. To better understand whether good relationships help keep attrition levels low and to discover how students learn to be effective in dealing with difference, the data were coded for moments of adults and college students forming relationships and for reflective processes. Despite age differences, college students and adults did form caring relationships, and good relationships were often a reason for adults to come to class. The converse was also true. The ability to reflect in ways that transformed previous assumptions was also necessary to good service-learning experiences. Sledge, A. C., Shelburne, M., & Jones, R. (1993). Affective Domain Objectives in Volunteer Courses for Postsecondary Teachers. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid- South Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA. Methodology Quantitative; Qualitative Purpose Description Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 43 Study Design One shot; Case study Data Sources Survey, self report; Journals; Documents This paper discusses a program at Delta State University that included a course called “Volunteering in the Community.” This course required that students serve at a volunteer site for 30 to 48 hours per semester and attend weekly seminars covering such topics as socioeconomic aspects of the Delta region, the role of volunteers in helping agencies, social responsibility, and community resources. Students also kept journals reflecting on their experience and gave oral reports that required them to integrate their service experience with their lifelong goals and expectations. 101

103 Forty three students that completed the service-learning course were given a survey based on one developed at Brevard College. Over three hundred students that had completed less than the required 30 hours of service were not surveyed. Analysis of the survey indicated that: 1) the volunteer experience confirmed the choice of a major for approximately half the students and had no effect on 40 percent; 2) the most widely cited reasons for joining the volunteer program were a desire to help others, course credit, personal development, and career exploration; and 3) students reported improvements in self-confidence, the ability to work and learn independently, insight into their personal strengths and weaknesses, and a sense of personal achievement. Smedick, W. D. (1996). A Study of the Effect of a Volunteer Service Program at an Urban-Based Institution of Higher Education on the Current Level of Service Achieved by Alumni who had Participated in the Program. Unpublished Dissertation, Morgan State University. Quantitative; Qualitative Methodology Purpose Outcomes Sample Students (Alumni) Original Sample NR Final Sample 231 Study Design One shot Data Sources Survey, self report; Interviews Level of service involvement Outcome Variables This study examined if students who participated in community service learning at one institution of higher education institution would continue to provide volunteer service as alumni. Two hundred thirty one alumni were chosen randomly as the survey sample. Seventy of these were service-learning participants and 157 were non-service-learning participants. Participation in service-learning during college (the independent variable) was expected to predict the level of service following graduation (the dependent variable). To test this hypothesis, the "Volunteer Community Service Survey" was administered to the sample of alumni, and then a sub-sample of twenty alumni were interviewed as a follow up to the survey. Included in the analysis as control variables were gender, ethnicity, income level, and time elapsed since graduation. An ANOVA was performed to test the primary research question and its possible interaction with the income variable. Chi-Square Analyses of Independence were conducted to test the impact of the ethnicity, gender and time-elapsed-since graduation variables. Analysis of the survey revealed that, though not significant at the .05 level, there were several identifiable trends: 1) alumni who participated in service-learning were more service oriented than alumni who were non-participants; 2) females were more service oriented than males, and 3) African Americans were more service-oriented than Euro-Americans or Asian-Americans. One control variables was significant at the .05 level-- Alumni who had graduated 10 or more years previous to the study (time elapsed since graduation) were more service oriented than younger alumni. Income level had no effect on service orientation for alumni. Analysis from the 20 interviews performed indicated that participation in service-learning impacted career direction for alumni as well as fostering a value of life-long community service. 102

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105 Smith, M. (1994). Community Service-Learning: Striking The Chord of Citizenship. Michigan Journal 1, 37-43. of Community Service Learning, Methodology Qualitative Process Purpose Sample Students; Community service administrators; Faculty; Institutions Original Sample NR Final Sample 18 Students; 1 Community service administrator; 4 Faculty; 1 Institution Case study Study Design Interviews; Focus groups; Documents Data Sources This study examined how service-learning is incorporated into higher education settings. A pilot study was conducted by interviewing and holding focus groups with seven students from a mid-sized public university. Each student had completed a service-learning course. Interestingly, none of these students mentioned that one effect of service-learning was increased civic participation or responsibility, or citizenship. Then, a case study of an institution's community service learning program was conducted to identify intended student outcomes from service-learning participation among administrators (1), faculty members (4), community service administrators (1), and service-learning students (11). The following facts emerged from the individual and group interviews: the institutional administrator framed citizenship in a moral context, while two of the four faculty linked their intentions for service-learning participation to their religious backgrounds. One faculty member had not even considered service- learning as a way of promoting citizenship. Eleven students articulated deeply felt experiences when confronting social issues. However, they did not link their service-learning experience with citizenship. These two studies indicate that if civic responsibility and participation were to be priorities in higher education, institutions should not assume that students connect their service participation with these goals. Assessing Service-Learning in a Communication Curriculum. Soukup, P. A. (1999). Paper presented at the 85th Annual Meeting of the National Communication Association, Chicago, IL. Methodology Quantitative; Qualitative Purpose Description; Process Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 959 Study Design One shot Data Sources Survey, self report This study examined a communications curriculum utilizing service-learning to determine if the service- learning method was accomplishing its potential in six categories of service-learning objectives (intellectual, skills, affective development, moral and spiritual growth, community outcomes, and 104

106 college or university outcomes). This secondary analysis was of narrative and survey data collected between 1990-1993 and 1995-1999 by Santa Clara University's Eastside Project. Only data from students participating in service-learning placements along with communication courses was analyzed, yielding differing sample sizes for narrative evaluation data (n=577), and survey data (n=382). Though the Eastside project used several survey instruments, this author uses two, each of which contains demographic questions and Likert-type scale items regarding student opinion about the placement, service-learning, social issues, and people at the placement. A factor analysis of 1992-1993 survey data yielded five components: 1) the value of the experience and influence on students future behavior; 2) initial experience of placement; 3) connection to academics; 4) values of discussion groups; and 5) contact with clients. The 1995-1997 data (drawn from an instrument similar to the earlier surveys) yielded four components: 1) value of the experience and influence on students future behavior 2) connection to academics; 3) awareness of community and social issues; and 4) the initial experience of the placement. Results of an initial reading of the narrative evaluations yielded five themes: connecting with learning; student personal issues; empathy and relating to others; changes in outlook; and program feedback. Within these themes, the author noted that: 1) students make connections to their learning at different levels; 2) emotional growth from service-learning includes self-esteem, a sense of being appreciated, and a sense of satisfaction; 3) growth in empathy for those served and a recognition of personal differences and similarities often result from service-learning experiences; 4) a changed outlook on others, on education, and/or on life may result from the experience; and 5) areas that need improvement and elements of program failure are represented in student responses. The survey data reveal that: 1) the value of the service-learning experience and its influence on students' future behavior is noticeable; and 2) the connection with student academics is present though less prevalent than other assessment variables. In addition, applied courses such as journalism, reporting, and documentary video have more success with service-learning than do introductory courses. Stanton, T. K. (1994). The Experience of Faculty Participants in an Instructional Development Seminar on Service-Learning. 1, 7- Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 20. Methodology Qualitative Purpose Description Sample Faculty Original Sample 12 Final Sample 12 (100%) Study Design Case study Data Source Interviews; Documents This study assessed the impact that participating in an instructional development seminar at the Campus Contact Institute had on 12 faculty members. By analyzing data derived from document analysis and interviews, six faculty were labeled as “high implementers” who took specific actions in developing service-learning curriculum and instruction with advocacy of service-learning. Three faculty were labeled as “medium implementers” who refined or developed service-learning courses and 105

107 promoted it to other faculty. Three faculty were labeled as “low implementers” who took little or no action related to the institute’s goals. Results indicated that faculty are likely to successfully design, develop and teach a service-learning course, if they had: 1) intrinsic motivation to become acquainted with or deepen knowledge and skills related to service-learning pedagogy; 2) specific goals related to service-learning curriculum design; 3) participated in an intensive interactive seminar/workshop in which they gained an understanding of learning theory, explored models, and learned and practiced instructional strategies; 4) the perception that their institution placed value on teaching and buffered them from budgetary, promotional and other such pressures. Strage, A. (2000). Service-Learning: Enhancing Student Learning Outcomes in a College Level Lecture Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 7, 5-13. Course. Quantitative; Qualitative Methodology Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 477 Study Design One shot Data Sources Grades; Journals Learning Outcome Variables The performance of 477 students over five semesters was examined to determine if learning outcomes in a large required introductory child development course would be impacted by adding a service- learning requirement. For the first three semesters, students did no service but spent 10-15 hours doing structured observations of children in a preschool, and wrote up the experience. For the last two semesters, students instead spent 20 hours working with children at a preschool, elementary, middle, or high school. A total of 166 students completed the service-learning semesters. Grades on mid-terms and finals were compared between service-learning and non service-learning students using ANOVAs. The service-learning students scored significantly (4.9%) higher on course exams than non-service-learning students. However, the increase was not distributed evenly between the first through third exams. Service-learning students scored higher on the second midterm and the final, but their first mid-term scores did not differ from non-service-learning students. This gain in points is due to service-learning students scoring highly on the essay questions. There was no difference between the two groups on multiple choice questions. The final was a take-home, all essay exam. These results indicate that it took time for the positive academic effects of service-learning to manifest. Furthermore, the effects of service-learning on mastery of course material were best seen in student narratives. The researcher did a second set of ANOVAs to determine if site placement (preschool, elementary, middle or high school) impacted student learning. Site placement did not have an effect on the first midterm or the final, but scores of the essay portion of the second midterm did vary significantly by placement, with students serving at middle/high schools performing more poorly than others. 106

108 Journal entries suggested that students were making links between course material and service, and that the reflection on these links increased through the semester. 107

109 Stukas, A.A., Snyder, M., & Clary, E. G. (1999). The Effects of "Mandatory Volunteerism" on Intentions to Volunteer. 10(1), 59-64. Psychological Science, Quantitative Methodology Purpose Outcomes Students Sample Original Sample NR Study 1, 371; Study 2, 63 Final Sample Study Design Pre/post (both studies); Quasi-experimental (study 2) Survey, self-report Data Source Intentions to volunteer; Perceptions of control Outcome Variables In the first study, business student majors from the University of St. Thomas were required to enroll in a service-learning course and completed initial and follow-up surveys (n = 371). The survey included measures of prior volunteerism, and the extent to which students were involved in service simply because it was a course requirement. Results demonstrated that students with more service experience before the course were more likely to intend to volunteer in the future than were students who began with less experience. Another result was that the effects of experience on students’ intentions were moderated significantly by perceptions of external control to volunteer. The second study was quasi-experimental in design and compared the situational effects of mandatory and free choices to volunteer, and how these effects were moderated by perception of external control to volunteer. Sixty-three students from the University of Minnesota signed up and completed extra credit for a psychology course by participating in a study of leisure time activities. Students were initially told that they could choose between two activities-entertainment and volunteering. Then, half of the participants were randomly selected and told that they were forced to volunteer, while the other half were induced to volunteer through persuasion. Results indicated that participants who were less inclined to volunteer at pretest expressed greater future intentions to volunteer when they completed service that was chosen. Students who were inclined to serve at pretest reported greater future intentions to volunteer at posttest than those who felt less inclined to serve, regardless of whether they subsequently performed “required” or “voluntary” service. Michigan Subramony, M. V. (2000). The Relationship of Performance Feedback and Service-Learning. 7, 46-53. Journal of Community Service Learning, Note Same data as dissertation, below Methodology Quantitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample NR Final Sample 177 Study Design Pre/post; Quasi-experimental Data Sources Survey, self report; Attitude measurement scales Outcome Variables Personal outcomes; Learning; Commitment This study examined the impact of organizational feedback quality, client feedback quality, and students dispositions toward feedback and 2 sets of individual-differences variables (goal orientation 108

110 and feedback disposition) on key service-learning goals. The author put forth a path model predicting the relationship between performance feedback and student learning from community service experiences. This model hypothesized that students who were oriented toward learning, as opposed to performance, would seek more feedback, and that feedback seeking would predict learning. In addition, this goal orientation would predict student learning independent of feedback seeking. Finally, the combination of feedback seeking and amount of feedback was expected to positively impact learning. In order to test these hypotheses, 177 students from ten service-learning classes at six colleges and universities completed four instruments (see next entry for a description of these instruments). Results were mixed and included the facts that client feedback quality predicted student learning positively and significantly, but organizational feedback quality did not predict student learning. Feedback seeking also failed to predict student learning. Those students who had a learning goal orientation did have a high tendency to seek feedback while those with a performance goal orientation tended not to seek feedback. Learning and performance goal orientation did not predict student learning. Subramony, M. V. (1999). Two Studies of the Impact of Performance Feedback on Community Service Unpublished Dissertation, Central Michigan Learning Among College Students. University, Mount Pleasant. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students Original Sample Study 1, 40; Study 2, NR Final Sample Study 1, 38 (95%); Study 2, 177 Pre/post; Quasi-experimental Study Design Data Sources Survey, self report; Attitude measurement scales Personal outcomes; Learning; Commitment Outcome Variables This project consisted of two studies designed to examine the effect that receiving feedback had on student learning. In the first study, students' access to frequent written performance feedback from agency supervisors was manipulated. Thirty-eight service-learning students enrolled in a human services class with a 60 hour service-learning component. were randomly assigned to a performance feedback (experimental) condition and a no performance feedback (control) condition. In order to measure learning, the Feedback Disposition Instrument (FDI--feedback seeking/avoiding behavior), the Goal Orientation Instrument (GOI--likelihood of seeking challenge), and the Student Learning from Community Service (SLCS--use of knowledge, skills taught in courses, likelihood of volunteering in future, feeling it is important to help those in need) were developed. In Study One these instruments were administered both before and after the semester-long intervention. Students in the experimental group did not show significant improvements in SLCS over those in the control condition. However, those students who had a high tendency to seek feedback scored higher on the SLCS. In other words, they perceived that they had learned more than students with low scores on the Feedback Disposition Instrument. Study 2 examined the impact of organizational feedback quality, client feedback quality, student feedback seeking, and 2 sets of individual-differences variables (goal orientation and feedback 109

111 disposition) on SLCS. One hundred seventy-seven students enrolled in ten service-learning classes (with differing numbers of service hours) at six colleges and universities completed the SCLS, FDI, GOI, and another instrument, the Performance Feedback Instrument (PFI--how much and what types of feedback were available). Client feedback quality predicted SCLS positively and significantly. As in Study One, those students who had a high tendency to seek feedback scored higher on the SLCS. Learning and performance goal orientation did not predict SLCS scores. A model of the relationship between performance feedback and service-learning is proposed and discussed. Tarallo-Falk, J (1995). The Socialization of Medical Students in a Preventive Health Community Service Learning Experience. Harvard University. Unpublished Dissertation, Methodology Qualitative Purpose Process Sample Students (phase 1 and 2); Faculty (phase 2); Staff (phase 2) 27 Students (phase 1); 6 Students (Phase 2); NR Faculty and Original Sample Staff (phase 2) 26 Students (96.2% for phase 1); 1 Faculty member; 2 Staff Final Sample members Study Design Case study Data Sources Interviews; Focus groups; Course materials; Student papers; Records This qualitative study examined the impact that service-learning plays in the socialization process of medical students. It explored the institutionalization of one medical school service-learning course at Dartmouth Medical School. This program, called Partners in Health Education, placed students in public schools to work with teachers on the delivery of health education and prevention programs. Two research questions guided this study: What are medical students’ perceptions of their experiences in the Partners in Health Education service-learning program, and how do medical students think that these experiences influence their perspectives on their role as doctors? To answer these questions, multiple sources of data were collected in two different project phases. In Phase 1, 26 semi-structured interviews were conducted with second-year medical students who agreed to participate in the study. Six students were selected for re-interview in Phase 2, and one medical school faculty member and 2 administrative staff members were interviewed as well. Interviews were coded based upon theoretical concepts related to socialization, such as student culture and anticipatory socialization. Demographic data on the students were gathered, and document analyses were conducted on course materials, reports, and a grant application. Findings were summarized in four areas regarding the research questions. First, because the students in this study had chosen to perform service, the view that preexisting values and promote service was supported. Most students were involved in service for three reasons: social action, personal well being, and education. A second finding was that many of the volunteering medical students struggled with the institutionalization of service-learning as it moved from a student-led program to a program fully funded by the administration. They articulated concerns regarding service in the current curriculum, their desire to maintain influence over their own learning, a sense that service should be altruistic, and a frustration with the bureaucratization of service-learning. Third, many of the students had questions about the movement of the program to be fully institutionalized. These centered on issues of 110

112 leadership, communication, decision-making, roles, and training design. Fourth, every student articulated the influence that the service-learning program might have on his or her future role as a physician. Students also saw the connection between their service-learning experience and their academic work. Overall, the study's results imply that service-learning promotes learning through application and extension of relevant knowledge, an awareness of the social context of people's lives, and the development of professional and communication skills. City College Report to FIPSE. New York: City College Research Foundation. Tartter, V.C. (1996). Methodology Qualitative; Quantitative Purpose Outcomes Sample Students; Community Original Sample NR Final Sample 57 Students; 150 Elementary school students One shot Study Design Data Sources Survey, self report; GPA; Journals Student Learning; Career and academic choices Outcome Variables In a three-year study funded by FIPSE, 20 inner city undergraduates from New York City per year mentored and read to second graders, one-on-one, in a Harlem public school. The curriculum at City College supported students’ service-learning experiences by acquainting them with the classics and teaching an understanding of literacy. The college also aimed to support interest in independent studies and a life-long interest in community service. College students involved in the project indicated a greater commitment to community service, working with children, and/or education careers. The authors also reported that students involved in the first year improved their GPAs on average by .14. During the three-year study, the Harlem public school children's reading scores improved enough so that the school was removed from the city's critical list. Based upon changes in GPA, writing, students’ course selections, and indications of career choice, the researcher felt the program was a success. Service-Learning at Virginia Commonwealth University. Virginia Commonwealth University (1997). State Council for Higher Education in Virginia. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Description Sample Students Original Sample 255 Final Sample 166 (65%) Study Design One shot Data Source Survey, self-report This study was inspired by earlier studies performed at Vanderbilt, the University of Utah, and Virginia Tech. For it, students from 2 classes at the Medical College of Virginia (MCV) and 128 students from the main campus of Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) completed surveys at the end of one semester. In these surveys, students self-reported that through service-learning 111

113 experiences: 1) they linked subject matter and the service experience (74%-VCU; 63%-MCV) and were able to apply things learned in class to real problems (77%- VCU; 76%-MCV) through the broad range of experiences they were exposed to; 2) they were better able to understand and appreciate the community and diverse populations (83 %-VCU; 92%-MCV); 3) they critically reflected on their personal values and on citizenship (72 %-VCU; 73%-MCV); 4) they were able to explore areas of study (71 %-VCU; 53%-MCV); and 5) they gained a belief that through their actions, they could make a difference (58 %-VCU; 66%-MCV). Vogelgesang, L. J., and Astin, A. W. (2000). Comparing the Effects of Service-Learning and Community Service. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 7, 25- 34. Quantitative Methodology Description Purpose Sample Students Original Sample 22,236 Final Sample 19,268 to 20,254 Study Design Pre/post survey Data Sources Survey self-report Outcome Variables Behaviors; Values; Learning The data for this study were collected as part of the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP), which is sponsored by the Higher Education Research Institute (HERI). The CIRP collects data annually from freshman at institutions around the country using the Student Information Form (SIF). The College Student Survey (CSS) is generally administered four years after a student enters college and provides longitudinal follow-up data. This study uses 1998 CSS data, and data from the SIF administered in 1994 (and other years, when applicable). This study looked at two independent variables, generic community service, and coursed-based service and their effects on several variables. These included self reported: values and beliefs (commitment to increasing racial understanding, activism, and sense of efficacy); academic skills (GPA, growth in writing skills, and critical thinking skills; leadership aptitude (growth in interpersonal skills; leadership activities and leadership ability); and future plans (career choice and plans to engage in community service). Control variables included: pretest measures for most of the dependent variables; sex; high school volunteer work; tutoring; attending religious services; being a guest in a teacher’s home; commitment to participating in community action programs; desire to make money; and self-rated leadership ability. The researchers used a method of blocked, stepwise linear regression analysis to study changes in each of the dependent variables. Students with data missing for the pre- or posttest were dropped from analysis, yielding different final sample sizes for each variable. Findings included the fact that all eleven dependent variables changed significantly when service-learning or community service was performed. For some variables community service with no ties to coursework has a more positive impact than service-learning. Indeed, the self-efficacy and leadership outcomes would not show significant changes unless students were also participating in generic community service. 112

114 There are also some variables for which service-learning is a superior predictor of outcomes, including some affective measures (commitment to activism, and promoting racial understanding) and all three learning measures. Choosing a service related career is also impacted more positively by participating in service-learning than by performing generic community service. 113

115 Wade, R. C., Anderson, J. B., Yarbrough, D. B., Pickeral, T., Erickson, J. B., & Kromer, T. (1999). Novice Teachers' Experiences of Community Service-Learning. Teaching and 15(6), 667-684. Teacher Education, Methodology Quantitative Description Purpose Sample Recent alumni 622 Original Sample Final Sample 344 (55.3%) Study Design One shot Data Sources Survey, self report This study investigated beginning teachers' experiences with community service learning. All participants had recently graduated from schools that required multiple service-learning experiences and were in their first through fourth years of teaching. Surveys were sent out to 622 former students from four schools, and two of the schools conducted interviews with 15 recent alumni apiece. Survey and interview data indicated that approximately 30% of the novice teachers were implementing service-learning in their elementary, middle, or high-school classrooms, despite being busy and unsupported. In addition, 69% of these new teachers noted that were likely or very likely to implement service-learning in the future. The factors best predicting future service-learning activity included whether or not service-learning experiences in the teacher preparation program included responsibility for planning and implementation of service projects, and a general positive evaluation of service- learning experiences. Length of teaching experience, class size, and institutional support for service- learning were also important. Wade, R. C. & Yarborough, D. B. (1997). Community Service-Learning in Student Teaching: Toward the Development of an Active Citizenry. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 4, 42-55. Methodology Quantitative; Qualitative Purpose Description; Process Sample Students Original Sample ND Final Sample 255 Study Design One shot; Case study Data Source Survey, self-report; Interviews This study focused on three Midwest pre-service teacher-training programs and sought to study the impact of service-learning on students and cooperating teachers. Two hundred and fifty five members of these groups filled out a survey focused on these issues, and several interviews and case studies were conducted to understand how projects, relationships, and views of service-learning developed. Even though students generally enjoyed positive experiences in service-learning courses, the cooperating teachers were concerned with time and sometimes felt that service-learning affected classroom management negatively. Service-learning appeared to have a positive impact if: 1) student 114

116 teachers were the project initiators; 2) student teachers showed strong leadership; and 3) cooperating teachers were willing to take the back seat. Wade, R. C. & Yarbrough, D. B. (1996). Portfolios: A Tool for Reflective Thinking in Teacher Education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 12(1), 3-79. Quantitative; Qualitative Methodology Purpose Description; Process Students Sample Original Sample 287 Final Sample 212 (74%) Study Design One shot; Case study Survey, self-report; Interviews; Essays Data Source This article reports the results of an exploratory study that examined the efforts of 212 elementary education students to think reflectively via constructing portfolios based on their experiences in a community service learning program. Through interviews, essays, and survey data, the researchers found that the portfolio process facilitated reflective thinking in most, but not all, students. The survey data indicated that approximately 35% of students "agreed" or "strongly agreed" that they felt frustrated in trying to represent their learning in the portfolio. Sixty-five percent "strongly agreed" that they were initially confused as to how to create a portfolio. Struggling with the portfolio process was also a theme that emerged in interviews. The authors recommended encouraging student ownership of portfolios and discussed the importance of balancing individual expression with structure to balance the open-ended nature of portfolios. Service Learning: Is it Good for You? Wang, W. (2000). Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association Conference Roundtable, New Orleans, LA. Methodology Qualitative Purpose Description Sample Students Original Sample 4 Final Sample 4 Study Design Case study Data Sources Journals; Reports; Observations This study researched the relationship between elements of the service-learning pedagogy and several elements of student self-development. Four undergraduate students who participated in a career-based outreach program (CBOP) at the University of California, Los Angeles formed the researcher’s focus of observation. She served as participant observer at each of the lecture and discussion sections of the service-learning class. She also collected students' weekly field experience journals, class exercises, and final reports at the end of the semester, and performed interviews with each of the subjects. 115

117 All data were coded for themes using the QSR-NUDIST program. Three self-development outcomes emerged from the data analysis: a commitment to loving people and loving the community; self- empowerment; and the quest to find purpose and meaning. Course elements that were influential in contributing toward self-development of undergraduates included the role of the professor, lecture content, discussions, reflective journals, and the field experience. Ward, K. (1996). Service-Learning and Student Volunteerism: Reflections on Institutional Commitment. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 3, 55-65. Methodology Qualitative Process Purpose Students; Community agency personnel; Faculty; Administrators Sample Original Sample ND Final Sample 14 Students; 4 Community agency personnel; 11 Faculty; 10 Administrators Study Design Case study Data Source Interviews; Focus groups; Documents Because service-learning has been part of the national agenda for higher education since the late 1980s, this researcher decided to study the nature and level of institutional support for service-learning. Specifically, this investigation addressed three areas of concern: 1) how campus administrators support (or fail to support) service-learning on their campus; 2) how different groups (i.e. faculty, staff, community agencies, students) perceive support for service on their campus; and 3) the nature of the barriers to and support for service-learning and volunteerism on campus. To examine these issues, five case studies were completed. Data were collected via individual interviews, student focus groups, and document analysis. Subjects were students, faculty, service- learning staff, community service agency personnel and administrators associated with five very different institutions: a community college, a tribally controlled college, a four-year public liberal arts college, a four-year private liberal arts college, and a state university. All institutions were involved in both the Montana and the National Campus Contact. Interviews were guided by structured protocol, tape-recorded and transcribed. All data sources were analyzed for content. Findings included the fact that tightly coupled systems, i.e. those with shared governance that employ centralized decision making, were more apt to institutionalize service-learning than those with loosely coupled systems. In addition, faculty roles in advancing service were tenuous and varied significantly by campus. Lack of funding was mentioned frequently as a barrier to effective implementation of service-learning. All the senior administrators interviewed gave much verbal support to service-learning, although actual supportive activity varied greatly from campus to campus. Based on these findings, the author suggests that administrators, faculty, and students should be involved in planning for service- learning; the integration of service-learning and volunteerism should be clearly articulated; and service should be integrated into institutional structures. 116

118 Ward, K., & Vernon, A. (1999). Community Perspectives on Student Volunteerism and Service Paper presented at the 24th Annual Meeting of the Association for Learning. the Study of Higher Education, San Antonio, TX. Methodology Quantitative; Qualitative Purpose Description; Process Sample Agency personnel Original Sample NR Final Sample 95 Study Design One shot Data Sources Survey, self report; Interviews This two-phase study investigated community perceptions of students and faculty involved in service- learning and campus outreach initiatives. Four areas of focus informed the study: 1) how communities and campuses come together to engage in service activities; 2) how communities perceive the service mission of institutions of higher education; 3) whether community service agencies see service-learning students are a help or a hindrance; and 4) how to enhance partnerships between campuses and their communities. Phase one of the study was a survey of 65 directors of community service agencies in four towns in a rural Northwestern state. Questions included general background information on students and activities, the overall perception of the campus in question and higher education in general, and questions related to student service providers. Both open-ended and Likert-type scale questions were included in the survey. In the second phase, semi-structured follow-up interviews were conducted with 30 agency personnel from one community. These data and the responses to open-ended survey questions were examined for themes. Findings included the fact that the communities under study have positive perceptions of campuses in their area and of the students they worked with; the challenges of working with service- learning students included student inconsistency, unpreparedness, and need for training; and that agency personnel wanted more coordination and communication with professors. The authors provide the following concluding recommendations: 1) communication lines need to be opened between different parties involved in finding service opportunities for students; 2) campuses need to open their doors to community partners; 3) campuses and communities need to jointly approach issues associated with recruitment, training, and retention of service providers; and 4) guidelines need to be developed that clearly outline the purposes and expectations of different campus-based service initiatives. 117

119 Ward, S. (2000). Transforming the Instructor: Service-Learning Integrated Into a Community College Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of American Educational Curriculum. Research Association, New Orleans, LA. Methodology Qualitative Purpose Description Sample Faculty Original Sample NR Final Sample 49 Study Design One shot Data Sources Interviews This paper reports the results of interviews with nine instructors new to service-learning in 1997 and 40 new service-learning instructors the following year. These interviews revealed that faculty felt that students showed more depth and had a better understanding of course content and were more interested and enthusiastic in classroom participation as a result of service-learning experiences. Instructors reported that their own awareness of community problems had grown and felt that this was the most important outcome of students' experiences as well. Waring, A. L. (1995). Urging Students to Serve: Organizational Change in Three Universities. Unpublished Dissertation, Stanford University. Methodology Qualitative Purpose Process Institutions Sample 3 Original Sample 3 Final Sample Case study Study Design Data Source Interviews; Records; Documents This qualitative study investigated the dynamics of organizational change at three universities that were exerting efforts to support student involvement in community service. Brown University, Stanford University, and Georgetown University were selected for study because of their roles in the creation of Campus Compact. This study relied on three conceptions of what motivates organizational change: planning; political/conflict; and environmental forces. The five research questions driving this study were: 1) why is increasing student public service involvement deemed important at these three institutions, each of which is considered an exemplar in promoting such activity; 2) who supports student participation in service at these institutions, and how do they judge success; 3) what strategies are used to ensure that there will be sustained commitment to student participation in public service; 4) how broad-based is the support for public service among faculty, staff, and students; and 5) what can these institutions tell us about organizational change and institutionalization in complex organizations such as universities? To answer these questions, approximately 20 people were interviewed at each institution. Respondents held different roles in the university and included presidents, deans, directors of public service centers, faculty, administrators, and students. 118

120 Cross-case analyses revealed both similarities and differences between these universities' public service efforts. However, three efforts were common to the institutions to varying degrees: the universities sponsored public service programs such as direct service or international opportunities; academic programs with public service components were in place, and student-initiated public service programs were encouraged. As far as resources were concerned, all three public service centers relied upon a line item budget from the university. The public service centers at Brown and Stanford were also supported by endowments and were closely associated with their respective presidents. Student support for service revolved around a belief that students should help solve social problems as well as keep alive a commitments to American society. It was also evident that administrators affirmed the value of student service more than faculty did. At each institution there was a push to centralize efforts at organizing public service. Students from all three universities were strong supporters of public service, but faculty support was less evident. Organizational analyses indicated that the institutional culture shaped the direction of the public service centers. Georgetown’s center was influenced by its Jesuit heritage, Brown's vision for innovative education was visible in its service center, and Stanford’s center embodied a cultural expectation that all students be involved in service during college. It was also evident that each school president was acting as a change-agent for his or her institution, providing support for the concept that planning is a key driver of change. Reasons for change were more often related to planning than to politics and conflict. For instance, there were very few policy changes aimed at promoting or ensuring student involvement in community service, such as adjusting graduation requirements. The notion that environmental forces drove change was not well supported since the organizational actors paid limited attention to the environment as they created and designed public service programs. Western Washington University. (1994). Community Service Activity by Western Washington Students: Its Extent, Nature, and Impact on the Surrounding Community. Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA. Methodology Quantitative Purpose Description Sample Students Original Sample 2219 Final Sample 1513 (68%) Study Design One shot Data Source Survey, self report To document the extent and nature of community service activity both as part of course work and as non-course-based volunteer activities by Western Washington University students, a survey was sent to 2219 individuals who had received a bachelor's degree between Fall 1992 and Summer 1993. Over 1500 students replied. Almost half the respondents had participated in community service activities such as service-learning experiences that were course projects or internships, or had been involved in non-academic service projects. The most common service-learning activities were in social, health, and mental health services. 119

121 Based on this survey data, the University estimates that students at Western Washington engage in about 4,600 episodes of volunteer service during a typical school year, about half of those are internships, course-based projects, or non-academic service projects. Most variation in rates of course- based service-learning was explained by the different opportunities provided by different major fields. Graduates felt that their service-learning activities were extremely valuable in providing new awareness and personal self-improvement. The great majority of service-learning participants felt that the university should "definitely" or "probably" increase community service opportunities. Zawacki, K. G. (1997). Personal and Family Factors related to Service Learning in an Undergraduate Course on Diversity. Unpublished Dissertation, Michigan State University. Methodology Qualitative; Quantitative Purpose Process; Description Sample Students Original Sample 393 Final Sample 110 (27.9%) Study Design One shot Data Sources Focus groups; Survey, self report; Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status 2; Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment This study explored the significance of selected family and personal factors of students engaged in community service as part of an undergraduate course on U.S. diversity. Three groups of students were identified: Group 1, Service Learning related to course (n=31); Group 2, no service (N=39); and Group 3 (n=40), prior service not related to course. For the survey analysis, independent variables were service and prior service, and dependent variables were global identity, and parent and peer attachment. Students were surveyed at the end of the course and then two years later to see if there was change over time. Comparisons between groups were also made. Focus groups were used to investigate the relevance and contexts of family and identity issues. Survey results indicate significant differences between the groups' rate of responses, thus students who volunteered were more likely to cooperate in the study. In addition, female students were significantly more likely to volunteer, as were students whose mothers had a college degree or higher. Analyses indicated significant growth over a two year period for community service participants in the ideological scale of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status II (EOMIS-2), but no differences on the interpersonal subscale. A surprising finding was that there was significantly more variance in the attachment-to-parents measures for students with community service experience, perhaps suggesting that resilient (and other) students participate in community service. 120

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