logan diversity index

Transcript

1 iNdEx numbers refer to figures and tables. Boldface ; cohabitation, ments, 259, 260 specific co - mation by cohort; academic performance, 394 – ; divorce, - 252; educa 248 251, horts 4 01. See also education tional attainment, 377, 379 ; aging of population, 115, 116, ACS (American Community education gender gap, 240; el - See also 123, 270. elderly See American Com Survey). - 274 ; family derly population, agricultural workers, 345, 347, munity Survey (ACS) - patterns, 238; homeowner 348 adult children: caregiving for el - ship, 188, 204; household 189, Alderson, Arthur S., 230 n 16 derly parents, 289; contact headship, 196, 197; marriage, American Community Survey - and support from elderly par 242, ; in metropolitan ar - 243 (ACS): BA degree achieve - ents, 286 –89; elderly parents 424, eas, - 430 ; in micro 428, ment, 376; description of, living with, 284; living with 429 ; in mixed politan areas, 1–2; elderly, 272, 298; family parents, 195, 204 neighborhoods, ; poverty 447 patterns, 239; grandparents, adulthood, transition to, 190, - 288 among elderly, ; remar 292; high-skill immigration, 24 4. See also young adults riage, - 255 ; residential disper 307, 327; homeownership, advanced degrees: gender gap, sion of, 418; residential inte - 184; income segregation, 210, 377–80; wages and earnings, gration analysis, 421, 422; 211; local move rates, 160; re - 33, 32, 31, See also . - MA de 35 154, residential mobility, 149, marriage, 253; residential mo - gree recipients; PhD degree 156 –59, 164 – 65, 168 –70, bility, 139; unauthorized im - recipients 171, ; segregation, 18, 419, 172 migrants, 354 affluence, segregation of, 212, 438, 439 – 43 437, - American Indians: child pov 219, 221, 223, 225, 214, assets, rates of return, 84 –86 er t y, 262, 263; children’s liv - 226 assimilation, 354, 417, 421, ing arrangements, 259, 260 ; affordable housing, 205, 210 448– 49 cohabitation, 248 ; divorce, blacks See African Americans. 49 n Associated Press, 179 251, 252; education gender age group and cohort analyses: Atkinson, Anthony B., 126, - gap, 377, 379 ; elderly popula ; educa - 247 cohabitation, 9 n 133 243 - ; re tion, 274 ; marriage, tional attainment, 382–84; Atlanta, Ga., segregation in, ; residen - marriage, 254, 255 81, - 82; home home equity, 443 tial integration analysis, 421, ownership rates, 80, 91–92, Autor, David, 36, 40, 391 422 200, 201; household income, Annual Social and Economic 132 ; immigration, 114, Baby Boomers: cohabitation, Supplement (ASES, “March 322–23; marriage, 241 ; ; fam 283; description of, 183 - supplement”), 25, 105, 106 – mortgage delinquency, 81, ily changes, 271; homeowner - 7, 116 83; negative home equity ship, 183–90, 200, 201; apprenticeships, 400 status, 80 –81; racial-ethnic household headship, 194 –99, 31 n Armour, Philip, 134 n 21, 135 differences in median age, 202, 204; household launches, Armstrong, J. E., 394 274; residential mobility, 17, 193; labor market effects, ASES (Annual Social and Eco - ; unemploy 169 153, 149, - - 349–51; median income ef nomic Supplement), 25, 105, 44, ment, 45 ; wages and fects of aging population, 116, 10 6 –7, 116 earnings, 38–39; wealth 123, 124; retirement, 17, 115, Asian Americans: child poverty, shifts, 91–93, 96. See also 116, 123, 124, 186, 351 262 ; children’s living arrange - housing and household for - 457

2 458 Index Census Bureau, 25, 107, 227, 172 ; segregation, 18, 171, Bachmeier, James D., 13–14, Amer See also 7, 422–23. n 300 - 226 –27, 220, 219, 214 –16, n 14 341, 368 – 69 ican Community Survey - 419, 437– 43; stock owner See BA degree recipients. college (ACS); Current Population ship, 89; unemployment, 16, graduates Survey (CPS) 44, ; wages and earnings, 45 banks and banking, 60 – 61, 64, n census tracts, 229 5, 419–20, 31, 19, 38; wealth, 17, 86 –91, 98 422–23 96, 279 Bean, Frank D., 13–14, 341, Central American immigrants, black women: college education, 365, 366 358 357, 356, 355, 353 –54, 14, 377, 383–85; labor force Berends, Mark, 410 n 17 Charles, Maria, 380 participation, 392; poverty, Bernstein, Jared, 36 Cherlin, Andrew, 244, 253 11; renter households, 202 n 21 “Beveridge Curve,” 56 - Chicago, Ill.: immigrant com Blau, David, 278 9 n Bhagwati, Jagdish, 55 munities, 420; segregation in, n Blau, Francine, 135 27, 391, Bianchi, Suzanne M., 237, 249, 442 410 11 n 1 299 n childbearing, 256–58 Bloomberg Business Week, 270 birth control, 391 356 child care, 291–95, blue-collar jobs, 400 – 401 Bischoff, Kendra, 9–10, 208, childlessness, 256 Bound, John, 12–13, 306, 318 221 child outcomes: of children Bowen, William, 380 –81, 387 263; 262, blacks: child poverty, raised by grandparents, 294 – bracero program, 347, 348, children’s living arrange - 95; educational outcomes and 415 ; cohabitation, 260 ments, 259, parental unemployment, 44; Bradley, Karen, 380 248 ; college education, 377, and family patterns, 238, Braga, Breno, 318 391– 387, 383, 384 –85, 386, 256 – 63; of unauthorized Brown, Susan K., 13–14, 341 92; Democratic Party support, Mexican immigrants, 342, Brown v. Board of Education, ; di- 282 19; disabilities, 280, 359– 65 n 229 2 vorce, 251; education gender - children: future population pro Buchmann, Claudia, 14 –15, gap, 377, 383–84; elderly liv - jections, 131 ; homeownership 375, 392, 408, 410 21 n ing arrangements, 283, 287 ; among families with, 193; liv - Bureau of Labor Statistics - 274 ; em elderly population, ing arrangements, 258– 63, 4, 63– 64. (BLS), 25, 55 n See 38; family 31, ployment rates, 264; poverty rates, 4, 238, also - Current Population Sur patterns, 238, 264; grandpar - 259– 61; proportion in metro - vey (CPS) enthood, 290, 292–93, 296 ; politan areas and income seg - Burkhauser, Richard V., 7–8, - 82; home 81, home equity, regation, 223–24, 225, 226; 105, 108, 133 n 9, 11, 13, ownership, 80, 89, 187– 87, residential mobility, 153, 149, 134 n 31 n 18, 21, 135 200, - 204; household head 88, - ; residential segrega 170 167, Burtless, Gary, 126, 127, ship, 195–97, 202, 204; tion, 208, 211, 217–18 29 135 n household income, 86, 87, Chilean nationals, H-1B visas, Bush, George W., homeowner - 115, 128 ; incarceration rates, 315 ship promotion, 182 38, 393–94; marriage, 240, China, postsecondary school en - business cycle, 41– 47, 48, 108. 242, ; median age, 274; in 243 321 rollment, 318, recessions See also 424, metropolitan areas, 428, Chinese immigrants: educa - 430 ; in micropolitan areas, 310 tional level, ; high-skill California: metropolitan area ; in mixed neighborhoods, 429 immigrants, 308; legal perma - diversity in, 431; unauthorized ; mortgage delinquency, 447 ; science nent residents, 344 Mexican immigrants, 348 89; 87, 82; net worth, 86, 81, and engineering PhDs, 325, Canadian PhDs, 327 population statistics, 115, 124, 442, 327; segregation, 4 41, Card, David, 36 128, 131, 415; poverty among 443 ; visa allocations, 314 Career Academies, 49 ; poverty elderly, 279, 288 Chinese Student Protection Act caregiving, 289 rates, 11, 20 n 4; remarriage, (CSPA) of 1992, 314 - Case-Schiller housing price in 255 254, - ; residential integra 317 Chinese students, 316, dex, 151 tion analysis, 421; residential Chingos, Matthew, 387 Casper, Lynne, 237, 249, 251 154, 149, mobility, 139, 153, Ch i noy, E ly, 4 0 0 C corporations, 108 156 –59, 164 – 66, 168 –70,

3 Index 459 coresidence: Asian Americans, 403– 4; student loans, 64, 91; circular migration, 353, 359 - 197; children living with par transitions leading to, 384 – - in See class-based segregation. ents, 195, 204; cohort differ - See 90; wage premium, 377. come segregation - ences, 196, 198; cultural dif also - college attendance; col clerical workers, 24, 40 ferences, 194; Hispanics, 197; lege graduates Clinton, Bill, homeownership and homeownership rates, college graduates: cohabitation, promotion programs, 182 - 192, 193; and household head 249, 250 ; country of origin, - cohabitation: and child out ship rates, 195; intergenera - ; demand for, 317; divorce, 326 comes, 238, 256 –58; children tional, 283, 284, 297 276, 252; elderly, 275, 283; 258 involved in, ; elderly, CPI-U-RS (Consumer Price In - - employment rates, 31 ; finan 283–84; gender differences, dex Research Series Using cial support for children’s col - 248, - ; Great Re 250 249, 247, n 4, 106, Current Methods), 55 - lege education, 288, 289 ; geo cession’s impact on rates, 193; 120 graphic concentration, 329 ; and intergenerational bonds, CPS (Current Population Sur - 293 grandparenthood, 291, ; 261, 271; and poverty, 259, See Current Population vey). homeownership rates, 191, 262 ; racial-ethnic differences, Survey (CPS) 192 ; household headship, 187, 262 247– 49, ; trends, 260, craft occupations, 40, 41 198, 199 ; immigrants, 307, 237, 246 –51, 263– 64 credentialing, 49 309, 335– 329, 323, 313, 310, 6, 353 n Cohn, D’Vera, 337 credit cards, 79 36, 355 ; income segregation, See age group cohort analysis. credit rating agencies, 98 219, 220, 224; increase in and cohort analyses cross-country comparison, of - number of, 221; living ar collective bargaining, 50 college completion rates, 404, rangements of widows, ; 286 college attendance: African 407 406, location of degree attainment, ; cohabitation, 386 Americans, 443 Cubans, 439, 442, 4 41, 334 323 ; marital status, - ; mar ; divorce, - 250 ; employ 252 n 2 Cumberworth, Erin, 266 riage, 244, - 271; mor t 245, ment rates, 31 - ; grandparent Current Population Survey - gage delinquency, 83; remar - hood, 293 ; household head (CPS): Annual Social and Eco - ; residential 257 riage, 256, 198, 199 ; immigrants, ship, nomic Supplement, 25, 105, mobility, 149, 153, 169 ; tem - 309, 355 ; living arrange - 329, 106 –7, 116; description of, 2; - ; unem 325 porary residents, ; marital 286 ments of widows, household income trends, 65, ; wages and 44, 45 ployment, status, ; marriage, 245 ; 334 106, 107; incarceration, 393; 33, 35, 39, earnings, 31, 32, mortgage delinquency, 83; income inequality, 102–3 n 25– 275, 318. See also educational rates of, 386 –87; residential 26, 106; labor market shifts attainment, gender disparities mobility, 153, 149, ; 169 since 1980, 23, 25; residential in trends, 349; unemployment, mobility, 139– 40, 154, 160 443 4 41, Colombians, 439, 442, 31, ; wages and earnings, 44 25 n Currie, Janet, 411 communication, 141, 343 35 32, 33, cyclical unemployment, 41– communities, residential inte - college completion rates, gender 47 gration analysis, 422–23 educational disparities in. See community colleges, 49 attainment, gender disparities D a ly, M a r y, 126 Community Reinvestment Act in See also data sources, 1–2. specific (CRA) of 1977, 182 college education: admissions sources computers, 36 and entry, 384 –86, 403– 4; debt, consumer: class compari- STEM See computer science. admittance of women, 394 – - son, 76; Great Recession’s im fields - 95; Asian Americans, 240; en pact, 64; leverage analysis, Congressional Budget Office, 48 rollment trends, 318–22; 83–84; middle class, 17, 79– conservatives and conservatism, 383 fields of study, 380 –81, ; 80; trends, 17, 64, 71, 75, 19 foreign-born students, 306; 95 construction, employment immigrants, 323–26; parental 76, debt-equity ratio, 71, 75, growth, 40–41 - financial support, 288; path 79, 90, 93, 95 Consumer Price Index Research ways to completion, 381–86; debt-to-income ratio, 75, 76, Series Using Current Methods policy considerations, 408; re - 79, 90, 95 4, 106, 120 n (CPI-U-RS), 55 ; selectivity of, 257 marriage,

4 460 Diversity and Disparities 401; housing instability ef - - 265–66; inequality relation decennial census: description of, fects, 167; neighborhood - ship, 3, 17–18; literature re 1; elderly, 272, 298; home - effects, 209, 210, 218; routes - view, 417, 418–20; of metro - ownership, 184; income seg through system, See also . 389 politan and micropolitan - regation, 210, 211; marital sta college education; high schools areas, 423–34; theoretical tus, 240 educational attainment: and co - - perspectives and methodol decomposition approaches, habitation rates, 249, ; and 250 ogy, 417–18, 420 –23; trends, 113 –16 divorce rates, 252; elderly, 3–4, 423–34 defined benefit (DB) pension 275–76, 296; employment Diversity Immigration Visa Pro - plans, 62, 64 31, rates by, 36; family 32–33, 8 n gram, 337 defined contribution (DC) structure effects, 238; and divorce: of couples cohabitating plans, 62, 64, 75 grandparenthood, 290–91; before marriage, 246; elderly, Democratic Party, 19 and high-skill immigration, 282, ; and financial sup - 285 demographic analyses: elderly, 318; homeownership effects, port of adult children, 288; - 272–80, 296–97; future in 200, 192 , 191, 83, 188–89, grandparent support during, come distribution trends, 201; and household headship, 295; Great Recession’s impact 123–25; future projections, - 199, 197–98, 202; immi on rates, 193; highly educated 131 ; grandparents, 290 –91; - 323–24; and in 313, grants, women, 392; and marriage household income, 114 –16, come segregation, 218, 224, rate, 251–52; racial-ethnic 355 ; in - 123–25; immigrants, 225; intergenerational trans - differences, 251–53; trends, come inequality, 121, 124 –25; mission, 329; and marriage 251– 53, 263 labor market since 1980, 37– 245, rates, 239– 40, 244, doctoral degrees. - PhD de See 39; legal permanent residents, 264 – 65; measurement of, gree recipients ; political effects, 19; resi- 355 219; of movers vs. nonmovers, Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform - dential mobility, 155; unau - 149 ; and negative home eq and Consumer Protection Act thorized Mexican immigrants, ; of parents and chil 81 u it y, - of 2010, 97 354 –55 dren’s college completion Dominicans, 438–39, 442, 4 41, DeNavas-Walt, Carmen, 107 rates, 401–3; and parent’s fi - 443 Denver, Colo., segregation in, nancial support of adult chil - DREAM Act, 359 443 289 dren, 287, ; policy consid - dual-earner families, 258–59, Depression Babies: description erations, 49; and remarriage, 261 ; homeownership 183 of, 256; and residential mobility, chances, - 201; homeow n 200, 153, ; trends, 349, 375– 169 E-1 visas, 333 187, ership trends, 185, 186, 77; unauthorized immigrant Early Childhood Longitudinal 19 0, 188, 189, 191, 192 children, 359– 65; and unem - Study: Kindergarten Class of 12, 182 n deregulation, 55 45 ; wages and 44, ployment, 1998–1999 (ECLS-K), 397– Dinardo, Jonathan, 36 32–33, 34, 31, earnings by, 98 DiPrete, Thomas A., 14 –15, 36 35, Earned Income Tax Credit 375, 380, 381, 392, 399, 400, educational attainment, gender (EITC), 50 4 08, 410 n 20, 21 disparities in, 375– 414; by age See earnings. wages and earnings disabilities, individuals with: el- - and cohort, 382–84; BA de Echo Boomers. See Generation Y derly, 280, 281, 282, 283, - gree, 376 –77; and college ad ECLS-K (Early Childhood Lon - ; 284, 297; immigrants, 356 missions competition, 403– 4; gitudinal Study: Kindergarten residential mobility, 153, 149, college completion rates, Class of 1998–1999), 397–98 170 384 –90; by field of study, economic growth, 27–28, 348– discrimination, 216, 366 380 – 81, - ; as global phe 383 49 Displaced Persons Act of 1948, 406, ; nomenon, 404, 407 economy, performance trends 312 graduate degrees, 377–80; in - since 1980, 23 383, dissimilarity index, 380, troduction, 14 –15, 375; and education: college readiness, 419, 436, 4 41– 43 437, 439, parental educational attain - 404 –8; funding inequality, diversity: definition of, 3, 416; ment, 401–3; pathways to - 210; gender differences in aca of elderly, 270, 273–75, 296; completion, 381–86; policy demic performance, 394 – of family patterns, 237, 238,

5 461 Index Federal Reserve Board: house - by occupation and industry, - considerations, 408; profes hold wealth definition, 62; - 39– 41; racial-ethnic differ sional degrees, 377–80; Survey of Consumer Finance 38; regional differ 31, ences, - racial-ethnic differences, 377, (SCF), 61, 62– 63, 64, 71, 80, 31 - ences, ; and residential mo 379 ; reasons for, 390 – 401; 25; Survey of Financial 102–3 n 150, bility, 169, 171, 149, transitions leading to college Characteristics of Consumers ; trends across groups 173 –74 graduation, 384 –90; trends, (SFCC), 62 and with time periods, 30 –36; 4, 39, 275, 375–77 female-headed households: child women, 29, 116 –17, 120, 122, educational services, employ - outcomes, 258; children living See also 125, 130, 276 –7 7. un - ment in, 41 258 in, ; increase in number employment Education Longitudinal Study of, 221; measurement of, 219; engineering. See STEM fields (ELS), 395 262 ; racial- 261, poverty, 238, entropy index, 418, 424 –25, 444 EITC (Earned Income Tax ethnic differences, 260, ; 262 ethnic composition. racial- See Credit), 50 residential segregation by in - ethnic composition Elder, Glen, 393 220 come, 219, ethnic differences. racial- See elderly, 270 –305; cohabitation, Feng, Shuaizhang, 108, 133 8, n ethnic differences 246; data sources, 272, 298– 9 ethnic enclaves, 418 99; definition of, 271; demo - fertility, 349 ethnic stratification model, 418, graphic analysis, 272–80, FHA (Federal Housing Admin - 420, 421 296 –97; diversity of, 270, istration), 97, 181 Eunice Kennedy Shriver Na - 273–75, 296; family context fields of study, 380 –81, 383 tional Institute of Child Health and living arrangements, 344, Filipinos, 325, 439, 4 41, and Human Development, - 280 –86, 292–93, 297; fore 442, 443 299 n 1, 450 1 n closures, 179 n 49; intergenera - - finance, insurance, and real es 310 European immigrants, tional ties, 286 –89; introduc - tate industry, 41 European PhDs, 327 tion, 11–12, 270 –71; marital financial crisis (2007–2008), 1. executive compensation, 37, 49, - ; population statis 285 status, Great Recession See also 50 131, 270, 272–73; resi - tics, - financial industry: compensa extracurricular activities, 398 153, dential mobility, 149, tion, 37, 49; deregulation of, ; residential segregation by 169 41 182; employment in, F-1 visas, 316, 326 219, income, 220 ; resources stock See financial securities. fair housing laws, 204 of, 270 –71. - Depres See also ownership family income segregation. See sion Babies; grandparents; re - - financial support, of adult chil income segregation tirement and retired people; dren from parents, 286 –88 family patterns, 237– 69; and Wa r B abies Finn, Michael, 327 child outcomes, 256 – 63, electoral districts, 19 1 Fischer, Claude, 229 n 265– 66; data sources, 239; ELS (Education Longitudinal 21 n food stamps, 49, 134 diversity of, 237, 238, 265– Study), 395 foreclosures: during Great 66; elderly, 280 –86, 292–93, employment, generally. See la- Recession, 6, 61, 63, 80, 82, 297; high-skill immigrants, bor market and employment 151; policy considerations, 328–29; introduction, 237– employment-population ratio, 97–98; and residential 39; polarization along racial- 25, 31, 32 26, mobility, 160, 163, 165, 166, ethnic and class lines, 238, - employment rates: by educa 168 265– 66; trends, 263– 65, 36; el - 31, tional level, 32–33, foreign-born population. See im - 271. See also cohabitation; derly, 276 –78, 296; gender migrants and immigration marriage; traditional families differences, 29, 31–34, 36 – 401(k) plans, 75 family reunification, 312, 348, 37, 116 –17, 276 –77; Great 1 n Fox, Lindsay, 229 359 Recession’s impact, 63; His - Freddie Mac, 97, 98 Fannie Mae, 97, 98 - panics, 29–30, 31, 38; immi Freeman, Richard, 338 n 6 14 n Farkas, George, 410 grants, 38, 312–16, 356 - ; in 1 Fulchettore, Gallo, 299 n Farrell, Chad R., 15–16, 415 come effects, 116 –17; and full-time employment, 116, 119, Federal Housing Administration income inequality, 122–23; 130, 276 –77 120, (FHA), 97, 181 and income segregation, 218;

6 462 Diversity and Disparities 15 n H-1C visas, 337 GI bill, 181, 392–93 Gallup, 400 H-1 visas, 314, 315 Gini coefficient, 67, 68– 69, - gateway communities: descrip H-2A visas, 345, 346 109 –11, 218 tion of, 420 –21; diversity, H-2B visas, 345, 346 “glass ceiling,” 55 n 10 424, 423, 426 –31, 434; mixed n 11 Hahn, Markus, 133 globalization, 36, 37 - neighborhoods, 446, 447 ; pol Hall, Matthew, 353 global neighborhoods, 18, 420 - icy considerations, 449; segre Hanson, Gordon, 327 Golden, Joseph, 318 437, 439, gation, 436, 4 41 - HARP (Home Affordable Refi Goldin, Claudia, 392, 395, GDP (gross domestic product), nance Program), 98 410 15, 18, 25 n 348 Hart-Celler Act of 1965, 312, “good jobs,” 41, 50 gender differences: academic 347– 48, 415 grades, 394 –95 performance, 394 – 401; care - Hawaii: micropolitan diversity, graduate degrees. See advanced giving for elderly parents, 289; 431 degrees 248, cohabitation, 247, 249, Health and Retirement Study grandparent families: immi- ; employment, 3, 29, 31– 250 (HRS), 272, 277, 290, 298 grants, 259; poverty, ; 262 34, 36 –37, 116 –17, 276 –77; health care costs, 55 n 5 racial-ethnic differences, 259, 291 ; immi- grandparenthood, 356 health insurance, ; trends, 258, 259 262 260, grants’ labor market out - health services, employment grandparents: demographics, comes, 354 –55; marriage growth, 40, 41 290 –91; role of, 271, 289–96, rates, 241, ; popula 245 243, - health status, 280, 294 –95 297; unauthorized immigrant tion statistics, 18; poverty highly skilled workers: supply status and grandchild’s educa - among elderly, 280; remar - and demand, 36, 37; women, tional achievement, 364 – 65 riage, 253 –54, 255 ; retire - high-skill immi 391. - See also “Great Boom,” 27–28 ment patterns, 277–78; un - gration Great Depression, 181 employment, 44, 45 ; wages High School and Beyond (HSB), Great Recession: dates of, 150 – and earnings, 18, 29, 31–34, 395 51; financial impact, 4; geo - 35, See also - edu 36 –37, 392. high school dropouts: cohab - graphic mobility effects, 4; cational attainment, gender ; cohort 250 itation, 249, household income, 16, 105, disparities in analysis, 9; divorce, 252; 108–9, 118–21, 125; immi- General Social Survey (GSS), - employment rates, 31 ; grand gration effects, 2; income in - 200, 401 - parenthood, 291, 293 ; home equality, 109–11; racial di- Generation X: description of, ; ownership rates, 19 0, 192 vide, 86 –91; recovery, 183 ; homeownership chances, 198, household headship, 187, 48– 49; residential mobility, 200, 201; homeownership 309, 199 ; immigrants, 307, 139, 141– 42, 143, 144 – 46, trends, 183, 184, 185, 186, ; income segregation, 329, 355 150 – 67; social effects of, 2; 188–89; household headship, 218, 220 219, - ; living arrange unemployment, 42– 47, 48; 194 –99, 202; household ments of widows, 286 ; marital young adults, 17 launches, 193 334 status, ; marriage, 244, green cards, 312–14, 330 Generation Y: description of, 245 ; mortgage delinquency, Grogger, Jeff, 327 ; homeownership chances, 183 83; population trends, 349, gross domestic product (GDP), ; homeownership trends, 200 352 351, ; remarriage, 256, 348 184 – 85, 189; house 17, - 183, 149, ; residential mobility, 257 group-centric research, 418 hold headship, 194 –99, 204. 169 44 153, ; unemployment, ; group quarters, elderly living in, young adults See also wages and earnings, 29, 31, 287, 286, 297 284, 281, geocentric studies, 418–19 32, 33, 35, 275, 366 GSS (General Social Survey), geographic or regional analyses: - high school graduates: cohabita 200, 401 employment rates, ; high- 31 tion, - 250 ; divorce, 252 ; el Guatemalans, 439, 4 41, 442, ; 329 skill immigrants, 328, 283; employ derly, 275, 276, - 443 200 homeownership chances, ; ment rates, 31 ; financial residential mobility, 141, support for children’s college H-1A visas, 314 168, 159, 149, 14 4 – 47, 148, 289 education, 288, - ; grand H-1B visas, 314 –16, 318, 322, 44, 45 ; ; unemployment, 170 ; homeowner 293 parenthood, - 345, 326 –27, 330, 332, 346 wages and earnings, 30, 31, 38

7 Index 463 - sion’s impact, 62– 63; house parenthood, 290, 292, 293, ship rates, 80; household hold headship analysis, 82; 81, ; home equity, 296 ; immi- 199 198, headship, 190 –99; measurement of, 89, 88, homeownership, 80, 355 ; living grants, 329, 309, 181, 190; middle class, 77; ra - - 204; household head 188, 91, arrangements of widows, 286 ; 89; 87–88, cial differences, ship, 196, 197; household 196, ; marriage, 334 marital status, and residential mobility, 148, ; 89, 115, 87, income, 128 ; mortgage delinquency, 245 149, 150, 151, 152 , 156, 158 – ; median marriage, 240, 243 83; optimism of, 400; popula - - 59, 172 ; social and eco 170, age, 274; in metropolitan ar - tion trends, 275, 276, 3 49, nomic benefits of, 181; trends, ; in micro 430 428, 424, eas, - ; residen - 257 ; remarriage, 352 16, 62– 63, 80, 181–82; politan areas, 429 ; in mixed tial mobility, 169 ; 153, 149, wealthy Americans, 77; young ; mortgage 447 neighborhoods, ; wages and 44 unemployment, adults, 4 delinquency, 81, 82; net 33, 35, 32, 31, earnings, 28, Home Owners Loan Act of 88, worth, 89, 91; political 39, 391 1933, 181 participation, 19; population high schools: college readiness, Home Owners Loan Corpora - statistics, 115, 123, 124, 128, 408; coursework, 394 –97; tion (HOLC), 181 221; poverty among el 131, - grades, 394 –97; graduation hours of work, 355–57 279, derly, ; poverty rates, 288 trends, 375; policy consider - - hous See household formation. n ; 255 20 4; remarriage, 254, ations, 408; technical educa - ing and household formation Republican Party’s difficulty tion, 49; transition to college, by cohort attracting, 19; residential dis - 386 –90. See also high school n household headship, 132 3, persion of, 418; residential in - - dropouts; high school gradu 190–99, 202–4, 205 tegration analysis, 421, 422; ates household income. See income, residential mobility, 149, 154, high-skill immigration, 306 – household 156 –59, 164 – 65, 166, 168 – 40; age at entry, 322–23; housing, as reason for local 70, 171, 172 ; segregation, 18, country of origin and degree 171, moves, 155, 173 –74 226 –27, 219, 215–16, 220, attainment, 325–26; data housing and household forma - 419, 438– 43; unemployment, sources, 307, 330 –31; educa - tion by cohort, 181–208; Gen - 45 44, - 16, ; wages and earn tion level at immigration, eration Y, 17; homeownership 38 ; wealth, 17, 31, ings, 29, 323–24; geographic concen - - trends, 182–90, 204; house 86 –91, 96, 279 - 329 tration, 328, ; introduc hold headship, 190 –99, 202– 5 Hlavac, Marek, 4 –5, 23, 55 n tion, 12–13, 306 –7; labor - 4, 205; intergenerational de HOLC (Home Owners Loan market determinants of, 317– cline in housing status, Corporation), 181 22, 330; marriage and family 199–204, 205; introduction, Holzer, Harry J., 4 –5, 23, 41, formation, 328–29; pathways 181–82; trends, 4 n 5, 55 n 13, 56 n 18 55 to entry, 322–28; persistence housing bubble, 63, 74, 79, 80, Home Affordable Refinance and stay rates, 326 –28; policy 96, 182 Program (HARP), 98 considerations, 309–17, 330 – housing market: discrimination, home equity: age differences, 31; trends, 307–9; U.S. 216; during Great Recession, ; Hispanics, 96; middle 94 93, higher education enrollment, 80 –83, 141; subprime mort - class, - 79; older Ameri 78, 324 –25 gage crisis, 61, 97, 182, 227 - cans, 278–79; racial differ 12 n Hirsch, Barry, 55 housing prices: during Great Re- ences, 89, 73, ; trends, 71, 90 262, Hispanics: child poverty, cession, 61, 74, 80, 81–82, 151; 74 –75, 82, 95; by wealth - 263; children’s living arrange during housing bubble, 63, 74, class, 6, 76, 77 260 ; cohabitation, ments, 259, 79, 182; spatial patterns, 209 home equity loans, 60, 79, 98 ; definition of, 248 247– 49, housing vouchers, 210 homelessness, 205 282 ; di- 299; disabilities, 280, Hoxby, Caroline, 403 homemakers, 390 vorce, 251; education gender HRS (Health and Retirement homeownership: age or cohort gap, 377, 379 ; elderly living Study), 272, 277, 290, 298 comparisons, 91–92, 182–90, ; elderly arrangements, 287 HSB (High School and Beyond), ; Generation Y, 17; 191, 192 population, 274, 275; employ - 395 - government programs to in 38; ment rates, 29–30, 31, Hughes, Lauren, 425–26, 450 1 n - crease, 181–82; Great Reces family patterns, 238; grand -

8 464 Diversity and Disparities ment of, 210 –12, 227–28; and incarceration, 38, 393–94 I-94 status, 345 metropolitan characteristics, income, household, 105–38; Iceland, John, 15–16, 415 - 216 –21; research methodol class comparison, 71; data - IIMMLA (Immigration and In ogy, 210 –11; trends, 17, 212– sources, 105–8; decomposi- tergenerational Mobility in 16, 225 –26 tion of factors accounting for Metropolitan Los Angeles), - India: postsecondary school en trends, 114 –21, 125–27; and 360 321 rollment, 318, demographic changes, 114 – immigrants and immigration: Indian (Asian) immigrants: edu - 16, 123–25; and earnings age of entry, 322–23; child ; high- cational level, 310 - changes, 116 –18; and employ 262 ; c h i ld re n’s poverty, 261, - skilled immigrants, 308; seg ment changes, 116 –17; future ; living arrangements, 259, 260 4 41, 442, ; 443 regation, 440, projections, 123–25; Great cohabitation, 246 – 47, 248, visa allocations, 314 Recession’s impact, 16, 105, 250 ; college education, 323– Ameri - See Indians, American. 108–9, 118–21, 125; and 26; community typology, 420 – can Indians homeownership rates, 80; in - 21; country of origin, 275, industry, labor market outcomes - troduction, 7–8, 105– 6; mea 325–26, 341; definition 310, by, 39 – 41 4, 13; n surement of, 132–34 ; of, 337 355 n 2; demographics, inequality: definition of, 3; di- model for shifts in, 111–13; divorce, 252, 253; educational versity relationship, 3, 17–18; and mortgage delinquency, 81, 313 ; elderly popu attainment, - income See also trends, 3– 4. 83; and negative home equity, lation, 274 –75; employment inequality 81 87– ; racial differences, 86, ; family 356 rates, 38, 312–16, inflation, 26, 120 128 88, 90, ; and residential patterns, 238, 265; grandpar - information technology (IT), mobility, ; 149, 153, 170 ; Great 295, ents, 293, 296 318 ; 129 sources of, 116 –18, Recession effects, 2; home - Inside Higher Ed Survey of Col - 66, trends, 63, 64, 65, 96, 69, 200, ownership chances, 201; - lege and University Admis See also 105– 6, 108–11, 125. integration theories, 354; labor sions Officers, 403 wages and earnings ; demand, 4; marital status, 334 institutions, labor market trend income, per capita and income marriage, 240 – 46, 265; in effects, 37 segregation, 220 219, 424 ; re - metropolitan areas, Integrated Public Use Microdata income inequality, 105–38; data ; 257 marriage, 254, 255, 256, Series (IPUMS), 25, 239, 272, sources, 105–8; decomposi- residential mobility, 148, 149, 393, 409 n 8 tion of factors accounting for ; residential segrega - 153, 170 integration, residential, 415–56; trends, 121–24; demographic tion by income, 219, 220 ; definitions, 416 –17; diversity factors, 121, 124 –25; and trends, 2, 307–9, 341; U.S. - trends, 423–34; future pro earnings changes, 121–23; and 7, 341, 347– n law, 309–17, 337 jections, 449; immigrant com - employment changes, 122–23; 48, 365, 367 n 9, 415. See also munity context, 420 –21; in - and income segregation, 219, naturalization and naturalized troduction, 15–16, 415–16; 220, 225, 226; introduction, citizens; visas; specific groups literature review, 418–20; 7–8, 105– 6; measurement of, Immigration Act of 1990, 314 - mixed neighborhood preva 218; metropolitan area differ - - Immigration and Intergenera lence and stability over time, ences and income segregation, tional Mobility in Metropoli- 444 – 48; segregation trends, 217; model for shifts in, 111– tan Los Angeles (IIMMLA), 435– 44; theoretical perspec - 13; racial-ethnic issues, 17– 360 tives and methodology, 417– 18; trends, 4, 67, 68– 69, 96, Immigration and Nationality 18, 420 –23 105– 6, 108–11, 123, 125, Act of 1952, 312, 314 intergenerational coresidence, 221, 342 Immigration and Nationality 283, 284, 297 income segregation, 208–33; Act of 1965 (Hart-Celler Act), intergenerational relationships, changes over time, 211–25; 312, 347– 48, 415 grandparents 286 – 89. See also data sources, 210; definition Immigration Reform and Con - Internal Revenue Service (IRS), - of, 211; future research oppor trol Act (IRCA) of 1986, 365, 61, 105, 106, 107–9 tunities, 227; impacts of, 227; 367 9 n - International Social Survey Pro - importance of, 209–10; intro Immigration Restriction Act of gramme (ISSP), 286 duction, 9–10, 208; measure - 1921, 337 n 7

9 Index 465 Lee, Barrett A., 15–16, 415, L-1 visas, 315–16, 326, 333 international trade, 343 425–26 labor demand, 36 –37, 48, 317–18 interracial households, 449 Lee, Jennifer, 341 laborers, employment distribu - interracial marriage, 242, 264 legal permanent residents 40 tion, 142 , interstate migration, 141, ; la - 355 (LPR): demographics, labor force participation: during 143, 145, 166 bor market outcomes, 353– “Great Boom” of 1990s, 27; investments, 75 59; from Mexico, 342, 343– 27, 278, 391–92 women, 135 n IPUMS (Integrated Public Use 45, 348, 353–59; pathways to, labor market and employment: Microdata Series), 25, 239, 312–14; STEM workers, 326 Baby Boomers’ impact, 349– 272, 393, 409 n 8 Legewie, Joscha, 399 51; high-skill immigrants, IRAs, 75 LEHD (Longitudinal Employer 317–22, 330; job creation, 49; IRCA (Immigration Reform and 18 n Household Dynamics), 56 job growth trends, 348– 49; Control Act) of 1986, 365, 29 n Lerman, Robert, 56 job quality, 49; job vacancy n 9 367 less-educated workers: EITC rates, 47; low-skill immi- 46, IRS (Internal Revenue Service), expansion to, 50; employment grants, 4; polarization of, 36, 61, 105, 106, 107–9 rates, 38–39, 44; homeowner - 40; supply and demand in, Irwin, Douglas, 324 192 ; immigrants, 307, ship, - 36 –37, 48, 317–22; unauthor ISSP (International Social Sur - ; labor demand for, 36; la 309 - ized Mexican immigrants, vey Programme), 286 bor market gains since 1980, 353–59; women, 3, 24. See ; 24; unemployment, 16, 45 - also employment rates; occu J-1 exchange visitor visas, 316, See wages and earnings, 29. pational analyses 326, 333 high school dropouts; high also labor market trends since 1980, Jacobs, Jerry, 380 –81 school graduates 23–59; business cycle effects, Japanese Americans and immi- less-skilled work and workers, 41– 47, 48; data sources, 25; 4 41, grants, 327, 439, 442, 342, 349–52 demographic breakdown, 37– 443 leverage, 83–84, 95 39; introduction, 4 –5, 23–25; 9 Jargowsky, Paul A., 230 n Lichter, Daniel, 419 outcomes by occupation and Jasso, Guillermina, 357 life-cycle changes, as reason for industry, 39– 41; policy impli- Jenkins, Stephen, 108, local move, 155, 171, 173 –74 - cations, 48–50; regional dif 134 20 n life expectancy, 273 ferences, 37–39; trend causes, job creation, 49 n 1 Lincoln, William, 322, 337 36 –37; trends across groups job growth trends, 348– 49 liquid assets as percentage of and within time periods, 30 – job quality, 49 - household wealth: age differ 36, 48– 49; trends overall, 47 46, job vacancy rates, ; middle class, ences, 93, 94 25–30, 47 Johnson, Lyndon B., immigra - ; racial differences, 90 78 ; labor supply, 36 –37, 48, 318– tion policy, 347 ; by wealth 73, trends, 71, 74 22 Jurajda, Stepan, 135 n 30 class, 75, 77 76, Larrimore, Jeff, 7–8, 25, 105, living arrangements: of chil - 107, 108, 113, 123, 133 n 13, 27, 30, n Kahn, Lawrence, 135 dren, 258– 63, 264; of elderly, 31 18, 21, 22, 135 n n 134 11 n 391, 410 287, 280 –86, - 297; of grand Las Vegas, Nev., local move Katz, Lawrence, 36, 410 n 15, - parents, 292–93. See also co rates, 160 18, 25 residence; family patterns Latin American immigrants, Kearney, Melissa, 36 local moves and movers: charac - 307–8, 310 . Hispanics See also Kenny, Charles, 270 teristics of, 147–50; definition Latinos. See Hispanics n 20 Kerm, Philippe Van, 134 of, 140; Great Recession’s im - 9 n Lawrence, Robert, 55 n 1 Kerr, William, 322, 327 pact, 150 –54, 166 – 67; by laws and legislation, 19. See also Khatiwada, Ishwar, 119 metropolitan area, 160 – 66; specific legislative acts Kimmel, Michael, 398 racial differences, 156 –59; Lazarus, Emma, 415 Kleykamp, Meredith, 393 reasons for, 154 –56, 171, Leach, Mark A., 13–14, 341 Kopczuk, Wojciech, 135 n 31 173 –74 ; during recessions, - Learning the Hard Way: Masculin 443 442, 4 41, Koreans, 327, 143; regional variation, 144 – ity, Place, and the Gender Gap in Koretz, Daniel, 410 17 n 46, 159; trends, 139, 141– 42 (Mor r is), 398 Education n Kuziemko, Ilyana, 410 15, 18

10 466 Diversity and Disparities masculine identity, 397, 398– male-headed households: chil - Logan, John R., 1, 20 2, 3, n 400, 401 258 ; poverty, dren living in, 229 n 1, 299 n 1, 420, 4 47 math coursework and testing, 261, 262 ; racial-ethnic differ - - Longitudinal Employer House 394 –97 260, 262 ences, hold Dynamics (LEHD), Mayer, Susan, 210 391 managerial workers, 40, 56 n 18 McCarran-Walter Act of 1952, Mann, Alison, 380, 381 Longitudinal Tract Data Base 347 manufacturing: decline of, 24, n 7 (LT DB), 450 McLanahan, Sara, 251 221, 351, 368 10, n 30, 40, 41, Los Angeles, Calif., segregation McManus, Patricia, 410 n 20 400; income segregation and in, 4 41– 42 McPherson, Michael, 387 percentage of workers employed Lowell, Lindsay, 314, 315, 328 Measurement of Economic and in, 218, 219, 220, 224, 226 - low-income households: afford Social Performance (MESP), - March Current Population Sur able housing, 205, 210; 62 vey, 25, 105, 106 –7, 116 Earned Income Tax Credit media, 346–47 - marginal membership integra (EITC), 50; homeownership income, median income. See tion, 354 - rates, 182; mortgage delin household marital status: by citizenship quency, 82, 97; rent as per - Medicaid, 49 ; status, 334 ; elderly, 285 centage of income, 205. See 248, men: cohabitation, 247, 200, homeownership chances, also income segregation ; employment rates, 116 – 250 201; and residential mobility, low-skill immigrants and immi- 130, 17, 119–20, 276 –77; 170 153, 149, gration: age analysis, 322; ; less- grandparenthood, 291 See also marketable wealth, 62. ; de - country of origin, 310 - ; life ex 350 skilled workers, net worth mand for, 4; trends, 307–8, pectancy, 273; marital status 241 ; ben - marriage: age analysis, - 309 . See also unauthorized im of elderly population, 285 ; efits of, 239, 265; and child migrants ; 243, 241, 245 marriage rates, outcomes, 238, 258; of cou - low-wage workers, demand for, 255, remarriage, 253 –54, ples cohabitating before, 246; 36 ; residential mobility, 257 149, educational differences, 239– LPR (legal permanent resi- ; wages and earnings, 170 153, - 40, 244, 245, 264 – 65; educa dents). See legal permanent 29, 116 –17, 119, 130, 275–76. tion as sorting mechanism, residents (LPR) gender differences See also - ; gender dif 238; elderly, 285 LTDB (Longitudinal Tract Data MESP (Measurement of Eco - 241, ferences, 245 243, ; Great Base), 450 7 n nomic and Social Perfor - Recession’s impact on, 193; Lu, Bo, 246 ma nce), 62 high-skill immigrants, 328– 1 n Luo, Ye, 299 metropolitan areas: definition 29; immigrants, 240 – 46, of, 230 n 8, 422; diversity - 265; income effects, 115; in MacLean, Alair, 393 trends, 423–34; immigrant terracial marriage, 242, 264; MacLeod, Jay, 410 n 19 community context, 422–23; promotion by government, Macunovich, Diane, 135 n 27 income segregation, 216 –25; 239; racial-ethnic differences, MA degree recipients: age of en - local move rates, 160 – 66; 240, 241– 42, 245– 46, 253, try for immigrants, ; 323 mixed neighborhoods, 444 – 265; remarriages, 253–56, 326 country of origin, 325, ; 48; segregation studies, 419; 263, 271, 288, 295; “serial,” distribution by immigration segregation trends, 435– 44 256; trends, 237, 239, 240 – 313 status, ; entry visa status, Mexican Americans and immi - divorce 46, 263– 65. See also ; gender disparities, 335–36 grants: immigration trends, The (Cher - Marriage-Go-Round 382 ; geographic con - 378–80, - 274, 341, 343– 46; segrega lin), 253 ; immigrants centration, 329 442, 443 ; visa tion, 439, 4 41, married couples: children living ; loca 309 - vs. other workers, - His See also allocations, 314. with, 260 ; earnings- 258, tion of degree attainment, panics; unauthorized immi- - household income growth cor 323 ; marital status, 334 ; tem - grants relation, 118; homeownership porary residents, 325 ; U.S. - Mexico: “push” factors influenc ; mortgage delin - 81 rates, 80, university education, 324 – - ing unauthorized immigra ; negative home eq - quency, 81 26 tion, 346 – 47 262 261, ; poverty, 81 u it y, Maestas, Nicole, 277

11 Index 467 National Bureau of Economic 147–54; racial-ethnic differ - Meyer, Bruce, 135 n 30 Research (NBER), 143, 150 149, 153 –54, 156 –59, ences, micropolitan areas: definition National Education Longitudi - ; 172 168 –70, 16 4 – 66, 171, of, 422; diversity, 423–34; nal Study (NELS), 386 –90, reasons for local moves, 154 – - immigrant community con 395 171, 173 –74 ; and reces - 56, - text, 422–23; mixed neigh National Housing Act of 1934, - sions, 142– 43; regional differ borhoods, 444; segregation, 181 ences, 141, 144 – 47, 148, 149, 419, 435 – 4 4 National Institute of Aging, 159, 168, 170 ; trends, 3, 4, - middle class: American conno 299 n 1 16, 17, 139, 140 – 42 - tations, 60; economic situa National Institutes of Health mobility, social, 37, 354 tion, 17; income, 109 (NIH), 318 more-educated workers: labor middle class, Great Recession’s National Longitudinal Study of market gains since 1980, 24; impact on, 60 –104; data the High School Class of 1972 retirement age, 39; supply and sources, 61– 62; debt, 79–80; (NLS-72), 395 demand for, 29, 37. See also employment, 63; housing National Science Foundation college graduates market, 62– 63, 80 –83; intro - (NSF), 327, 337 n 3, 380 25 n Moretti, Enrico, 411 duction, 5–7, 60 – 61; policy National Survey of College Morgan, Philip, 266 n 2 considerations, 96 –98; racial Graduates (NSCG), 307, 323, Morris, Edward, 398 inequality, 86 –91; research 325, 327–28 mortgage crisis, 61, 96, 182, methodology, 61– 62; stock National Survey of Families and 227 market, 63; wages and earn - Households (NSFH), 286 – mortgages: age analysis, 91, 93; ings, 63– 64; wealth changes, 87 ; debt 77 class comparison, 75, 64 – 65, 83–86, 95–96; See Native Americans. American trends, 63, 74 –75, 80, 95; de - wealth inequality rise, 65–75, Indians 81, linquency and defaults, 83–86; wealth portfolio com - native communities: definition 82–83, 97; Home Affordable position analysis, 75–80 424, of, 420; diversity, 423, - Refinance Program, 98; mid middle-skill occupations, 40, - 426 –31; mixed neighbor dle class, 76, 79–80, 95; 391 hoods, 446, 447 ; segregation, - predatory lending, 61, 97; ra 31 Midwest: employment rates, ; 4 41 437, 439, - cial differences, 90, 91; regu homeownership chances, 200 ; nativity, definition of, 239 latory reform, 96 –98; securi- manufacturing employment naturalization and naturalized tization of, 60, 97; subprime decline, 40; residential mobil- - citizens: assimilation, 354; en - market, 61, 97, 182, 227; un ; unem 168, ity, 144 – 47, 170 - ; labor 335, 336 try visa status, derwater status, 6, 7, 80 –82, 45 ; wages and ployment, 44, market outcomes, 353–59; 98; underwriting, 182 31, earnings, 30, 38, 39 likelihood of those entering mobility, residential mov i n g. See 143, 145, 142 , migration, 141, with temporary visas, 326; Moving to Opportunity (MTO) immigrants and See also 166. Mexican immigrants, 360 – 61 prog ram, 179 n 52, 210 immigration; mobility, resi - - NBER (National Bureau of Eco n 30 Mulligan, Casey B., 135 dential nomic Research), 143, 150 multigenerational families, 11 Mihm, Steven, 55 n negative home equity, 6, 7, 80 – 237 military service, 392–93 82, 98 multivariate analysis, of home - Generation Y See Millennials. - neighborhoods: composition ef ownership chances, 199–204 minimum wage, 37, 50 fects studies, 209–10; local Myers, Dowell, 191–92, 193 mining, employment in, 41 moves between, 155, 166 – 67, mixed neighborhoods, 444 – 48 ; median income 171, 173 –74 NAEP (National Assessment of mobility, residential, 139–80; computation, 211–12; poverty Education Progress), 403 consequences of increase in, 4; preferences for, rates, 20 n NAFTA (North American Free 166 – 67; data sources, 139– 209 Trade Agreement) professional 40; and Great Recession, 139, Neighborhood Stabilization Pro - 332 workers, 141– 42, 143, 14 4 – 46, 150 – gram, 167 NASDAQ, 1 67; introduction, 8, 139– 40; NELS (National Education Lon - - National Assessment of Educa by metropolitan area, 160 – gitudinal Study), 386 –90, 395 tion Progress (NAEP), 403 66; mover characteristics,

12 468 Diversity and Disparities - Pacific Islanders, residential in H-1A program, 314; immi- net worth: age analysis, 91, 92, tegration analysis, 421–22 grants, 309, 312 93; definition of, 62; elderly, Panel Study of Income Dynam - - 278; Great Recession’s im ics (PSID), 62, 82, 287 O-1 visas, 316, 332 pact, 65; leverage impact, 83– 4 n panethnicity, 450 Oberlin College, 394 - 84; middle class, 95–96; nega - parents and parenting: educa occupational analyses: by immi- 68, 87–88 ; tive or zero, 65, tional attainment and chil - grant legal status, 356 ; immi- racial-ethnic differences, 86 – dren’s college completion 325– grants, 308–9, 311–12 , 89, 91; rates of return, 84 – - rates, 401–3; educational in 26, 355; labor market 86; trends, 65, 67, 93–95, 66, vestment, 401–3; financial outcomes, 39– 41 182; young adults, 17 support of adult children, 287, occupational sex segregation, new immigrant destinations, - ; support for children’s ac 289 391 420, 421 ademic performance, 397–98, OECD (Organization for New Immigrant Survey (NIS), 408 Economic Cooperation and 331, 357 part-time employment, 119, 406, Development), 404, New York City: immigrant 130, 277 120, 407 communities, 420; residential Pascoe, C. J., 410 19 n Office of Management and Bud - integration, 416; segregation n Passel, Jeffrey, 337 6, 353 get (OMB), 230 8, 422 n in, 442 pension accounts: age differ - n Offner, Paul, 55 13 New York Times, 98 94 ences, 93, ; middle class, offshoring, 36, 330 16 Nielsen, Francois, 230 n 78–79; racial differences, 89, oil crisis, 26 NIH (National Institutes of ; share of households with, 90 older workers: labor market Health), 318 73, 74, 75, 95; by 95; trends, - participation, 39; unemploy NIS (New Immigrant Survey), 77 ; wealth 76, wealth class, 45 ment, 44, ; wages and earn - 331, 357 measurement, 62, 64 See also - . ings, 38 Baby Boom NLS-72 (National Longitudinal per capita income, and income ers; elderly; retirement and Study of the High School Class segregation, 219, 220 retired people of 1972), 395 - permanent residency, immi OMB (Office of Management nonlabor income, 118, 120, 129, grant pathways to, 312–14, 8, 422 n and Budget), 230 131 326 72 . See also one percent, 69–71, nonmarital childbearing, 256 Personal Responsibility and wealthy Americans nonmarital fatherhood, 38 - Work Opportunity Reconcili OPEC (Organization of the North American Free Trade ation Act (PRWORA) of - Petroleum-Exporting Coun Agreement (NAFTA) profes - 1996, 239 t r ies), 26 332 sional workers, Pew Research, 256 operators, employment distribu - Northeast: employment rates, PhD degree recipients: age of tion, 40 ; homeownership chances, 31 entry for immigrants, 323 ; optimism, 60, 400 ; residential mobility, 200 country of origin, 326 ; distri- ORG (Outgoing Rotation 168, 144 – 47, 160, 170, bution by immigration status, Groups), 25 44, 12; unemployment, 175 n ; entry visa status, 313 335– Organization for Economic Co - 45 ; wages and earnings, 31, 38 36 ; gender disparities, 378– operation and Development NSCG (National Survey of Col - 382 - 381, 80, ; geographic con 407 406, (OECD), 404, lege Graduates), 307, 323, centration, 329 ; immigrants 1 Orrenius, Pia, 337 n 325, 327–28 vs. other workers, ; loca 309 - Outgoing Rotation Groups - NSF (National Science Founda tion of degree attainment, (ORG), 25 n tion), 327, 337 3, 380 ; marital status, 334 ; stay 323 outpost areas: description of, NSFH (National Survey of Fam - rates, 327; temporary resi- 420 –21; diversity, 423, 424, ilies and Households), 286 – ; U.S. university 325 dents, 426 –31; mixed neighbor - 87 education, 324 –26; wages and 446, ; segregation, 447 hoods, nurses: country of origin, 326 ; earnings, 318 439, 436, 437, 4 41 entry visa status, ; Fili- 335–36 physicians: country of origin, overstays, visa, 342, 345, pino immigrants, 325; geo - ; geographic concentra 326 - 14 n 368 graphic concentration, ; 329

13 Index 469 16 4 – 66, 168 –70, 171, 172 ; gree attainment, 377–80, ; immigrants, 309, tion, 329 - residential segregation by in 382 309 ; 381, ; immigrants, ; J-1 visas, 316; visa prefer - 312 come, 214 –16, 226 –27; un - labor demand for, 36; marital ence, 313 employment, 16, 44, 45 ; ; women, 391 334 status, 9 Piketty, Thomas, 107, 133 n 31, wages and earnings, 29, PSID (Panel Study of Income polarization of labor market, 36, 38–39; wealth, 16 –17, 86 – Dynamics), 62, 82, 287 40 specific racial or See also 91, 96. public administration, 41 policy considerations: foreclo - ethnic group public transfers, 120 –21, 123, - sures, 97–98; gateway com racialization, 354 129, 131 munities, 449; gender dispari- rank-order information theory public use microdata area ties in educational attainment, index, 212 ( PU M A), 17 7 n 35 - 404 –8; high-skill immigra rates of return, 84 –86, 95–96 Public Use Microdata Series tion, 309–17, 330 –31; job reading, 395 (PUMS), 184, 299 training, 49; middle class, real earnings and wages: Great 442, 4 41, Puerto Ricans, 439, 96 –98; minority-white in - Recession’s impact, 63– 64; 443 come gap, 125; unauthorized measurement of, 25; trends, Mexican immigration, 343, 26, 63– 64, 69 Qian, Yue, 266 n 1 365–66 Reardon, Sean F., 9–10, 208, n 1, 237 Qian, Zhenchao, 11, 19 political participation, 19 221 Queensborough Community political power, 210 recessions: 1980s, 23; 1990s, College (QCC), 416 ; chil 131 population: by age, - 23, 27; household income 7, 3 47, 415 n quotas, 337 dren, 131 ; economic- - changes, 118–21; and residen population growth imbalance, tial mobility, 142– 43; unem - race, measurement of, 299 348– 49; elderly, 131, 270, ployment during, 41– 47, 48. racial-ethnic composition: el- ; gender, 18; high 274 272–73, See also Great Recession derly population, 273–74; school dropouts, 349, 351, redistricting, 19 ; mi– 428 metropolitan areas, 352 ; high school graduates, reemployment services, 49 429 - ; residen cropolitan areas, - ; and in 352 3 49, 276, 275, refugees, 337 n 8 tial integration analysis, 421– come segregation, 219, 220, See regional analyses. geographic 22; trends, 3, 128 224, 225; measurement of, or regional analyses racial-ethnic differences: child 218; minorities, 115, 124, remarriage, 253–56, 263, 271, poverty, 261– 63; children’s 131, 415 128, 288, 295 living arrangements, 259, poverty: children, 4, 238, 259– renter households, 191–92, 202, 260 ; cohabitation, 247– 49, 61; cohort analysis, 184; el - 205 ; disabilities, 280; di- 260, 262 derly, 278–80, 281, 288, 284, Republican Party, 19 vorce, 251–53; educational at - - 296 –97; female-headed house Reserve Officers’ Training ; elderly tainment, 377, 379 - ; grand 262 261, holds, 238, Corps (ROTC), 393 living arrangements, 283, - 296 parents, 294, ; and home - inte residential integration. See 287 ; employment rates, 31, ownership chances, 201; 200, gration, residential 38; family patterns, 238, and household headship, 202; seg See residential segregation. - 265–66; grandparenthood, 149, and residential mobility, regation, residential 290, 292–93; homeowner - 158 – 59, 167, 156, 150, 152 , retail trade, 41 ship, 80, 186 –88; household ; segregation of, 212, 172 170, retirement and retired people: - headship, 195–97; income in 216, 219, 221, 223, 225 214, Baby Boomers, 17, 115, 116, equality, 17–18; income predatory lending, 61, 97, 204 - 123, 124 –25, 186, 351; em trends, 115; marriage, 240, 129 private investment income, - ployment, 277–78; homeown 253, 241– 42, 245– 46, 265; Proctor, Bernadette, 107 ; 356 ership, 204; immigrants, median age, 274; mortgage n productivity, labor, 49, 55 6 149, residential mobility, 148, 81, 82; negative delinquency, professionals: age of entry for 153, 170 ; retirement age, 39; 81 home equity, ; poverty ; distri- immigrants with, 323 Social Security, 62, 129, 131, ; re - among elderly, 279, 288 bution by immigration status, See 276 –77; women, 277–78. - marriage, 254; residential mo ; employment distribution, 313 pension accounts also bility, 149, 153 –54, 156 –59, 40 - ; gender disparities in de

14 470 Diversity and Disparities Sommers, Christina Hoff, 408 inition of, 416 –17; literature wealthy rich Americans. See 31 n Song, Jae, 135 review, 419; measurement of, Americans n Song, Xi, 299 1 419; theoretical perspectives The Rise of Women: The Growing n 13 Sorensen, Elaine, 55 and methodology, 417–18, Gender Gap in Education and sorting, 217, 238 420 –23; trends, 4, 18, 435– What It Means for American The South: employment rates, See also income segregation 4 4. (DiPrete and Buch Schools - ; metropolitan area diversity 31 segregation of affluence, 212, mann), 408 in, 431; residential mobility, 214, 219, 221, 223, 225, 226 “Roaring Nineties,” 27–28 170 ; 168, 144 – 47, 160, 163, segregation of poverty, 212, 1, Rosenbaum, Emily, 8–9, 19 n ; wages 45 44, unemployment, 214, 216, 219, 221, 223, 225 181 31, and earnings, 38 Seltzer, Judith A., 11–12, 270 Rosenbaum, James, 408 Soviet Scientists Immigration September 11, 2001, 1 Rosenzweig, Mark, 324 Act of 1992, 314 Servicemen’s Readjustment Act ROTC (Reserve Officers’ Train - spatial assimilation model, 417, of 1944 (GI bill), 181, 392–93 ing Corps), 393 418, 420, 448– 49 service sector, 36, 40, 351 Roubini, Nouriel, 55 n 11 spatial resource distribution ef - SFCC (Survey of Financial rural areas, residential mobility, fects, 209, 210 - Characteristics of Consum 153, 149, 170 spouses’ earnings, 118, 122–23 ers), 62 - SSI (Supplemental Security In Sharp, Greg, 450 n Saez, Emmanuel, 107, 133 9, 131 come), 129, shift-share analysis, 105, 111–13 n 135 31 standardized test scores, 394, Silent Generation. See - Depres safety net, grandparents as, 271, 403 sion Babies; War Babies 291, 297 Standard & Poor’s (S&P), 98 n 13, 134 n 18 Simon, Kosali, 133 - sales workers, employment dis - Standard & Poor’s (S&P) 500 in Singapore nationals, H-1B visas, 40 tribution, dex, 63 315 344, 439, Salvadorans, 4 41, Stanley, Marcus, 392–93 S i nger, Aud rey, 420 442, 443 Statistics of Income (SOI), 61, single-parent families, 237, 264. same-sex families, 237 106, 107– 8 See also - female-headed house SC (Survey of Consumers), 272, Statue of Liberty, 415 holds; male-headed households 287, 288, 298–99 tradi stay-at-home mothers. See - single persons: elderly, 285 ; SCF (Survey of Consumer Fi- tional families - home equity, 81, 82; home nance), 61, 62– 63, 64, 71, 80, STEM fields: foreign-born em - ownership rates, 80; mortgage 25 102–3 n ; gender 311, ployment in, 312 delinquency, ; population 81 Schmitt, John, 25 segregation, 381; high-skill trends, 240, 263; poverty school enrollment, and and resi- - immigrants in, 308–9; loca 261 rates, 149, 153, dential mobility, tion of degrees attained by SIPP (Survey of Income and 170 . See also education foreign-born workers in, 323– Program Participation), 353– - science, high school course 24; optional practical training, 54 STEM work, 395–97. See also 316; stay rates of foreign-born skill-biased technological fields workers, 327; wages and earn - change, 36, 37, 317 S corporations, 108 320 ings, 318, 319, Smith, Jessica, 107 second-generation immigrants, stepfamilies, 238, 253, 271, 288 SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition educational attainment, 360– stock market, 60, 63, 96 Assistance Program), 134 n 21 64 stock ownership: age differ - social mobility, 37, 354 sectoral training programs, 49 ; middle class, ences, 93, 94 131, Social Security, 62, 129, securitization of mortgage ; racial differences, 89, 90 ; 78 276 –77 loans, 60, 97 74 ; by wealth trends, 73, Social Security Administration, - SED (Survey of Earned Doctor 77 76, class, 75, 327 ates), 327, 337 n 3 Stoll, Michael A., 8, 139 social structure, definition of, 2 segmented assimilation, 354, structural unemployment, 44 – SOI (Statistics of Income), 61, 417 47 106, 107– 8 segregation, residential: benefits student loans, 64, 91 Solomon, Barbara Miller, 395 - 5; class issues, 17; def n of, 450

15 Index 471 US2010 Project, 2, 16, 18 Turner, Sarah, 12–13, 306, 318, student visas, 316 –17 U.S. Census Bureau, 25, 107, 380 – 81 n 1, Stults, Brian J., 20 n 3, 229 227, 3 0 0 n See also 7, 422–23. n 299 1 American Community Survey UI (unemployment insurance), subprime mortgage loans, 61, (ACS); Current Population 131 129, 49, 120 –21, 97, 182, 227 Survey (CPS) unauthorized immigrants, 341– Sum, Andrew, 119 74; and children’s educational - Supplemental Nutrition Assis vacated property, 167 outcomes, 353, 359– 65, 366; tance Program (SNAP), Valetta, Robert G., 126 data sources, 353–54, 360; 134 n 21 Van Hook, Jennifer, 13–14, definition of, 342; demograph - Supplemental Security Income n 341, 368 14 - ics, 354 –55; educational at (SSI), 129, 131 verbal tests, 394 - tainment, 309; factors ex Survey of Consumer Finance 131, 129, veterans benefits, plaining growth of, 346 –53; (SCF), 61, 62– 63, 64, 71, 80, 181 introduction, 13–14, 341– 43; n 102–3 25 4 41, 442, 443 Vietnamese, labor market outcomes, 353– Survey of Consumers (SC), 272, Vietnam War, 377 59; outcomes of, 341– 42; 287, 288, 298–99 visas: overstays, 342, 345, pathways to entry, 342; policy Survey of Earned Doctorates n 368 14; student, 316 –17; considerations, 343, 365– 66; n 3 (SED), 327, 337 temporary, 314 –16, 326 –28, trends, 343– 46, 365 Survey of Financial Characteris - 342, 345– 46 332–33, - unemployment: 1990s, 27; fore tics of Consumers (SFCC), casts, 48; Great Recession’s 62 wages and earnings: age group impact, 63– 64; by immigrant Survey of Income and Program analysis, 38–39; college grad - - legal status, 355, 356 ; and in Participation (SIPP), 353–54 33, 39, 275, 35, uates, 31, 32, 219, come segregation, 218, 318; by educational level, 31, 220, 224; racial-ethnic differ - Taiwanese PhDs, 327 32–33, 35, 36; elderly, 34, ences, 16, 44, 45 ; during re - Tannery, Frederick, 135 n 30 275–76; gender differences, cessions, 42– 47, 48; and resi- tax reform, 19 36 –37, 18, 29, 31–34, 35, dential mobility, 149, 151– 53, teachers, 390 392; geographic or regional 158–59, 160, 163– 65, 156, Tea Party, 19 differences, 30, 38; Great 31, 166, ; trends, 172 168, 169, technical education, 49 Recession’s impact, 63– 64; 16, 221 technical workers, employment high school dropouts, 29, 31, unemployment insurance (UI), 40 distribution, 32, 33, 35, 275, 366; high 129, 49, 120 –21, 131 temporary visas, 314 –16, 326 – 32, school graduates, 28, 31, 321 UNESCO, 28, 332–33, 342, 345– 46 39, 391; high-skill im 33, - 35, unincorporated business equity, third-generation immigrants, migration effects, 322; house - 78, 76, 73, 93, 90, 94, educational attainment, 364– hold income effects, 116 –18; 102 22 n 65 measurement of, 25; Mexican unions and unionization, 37, 50, time assistance, 289–95 or Central American immi- 356 TN visas, 332 ; grants by legal status, 358 United Kingdom: grandparent top-coding, 25, 107 racial-ethnic differences, 29, study, 291 n Torrecilha, Ramon, 300 3 38–39; STEM fields, 318, 31, - See college educa universities. - traditional families: children liv 319 –20 ; trends across groups tion ing in, 258; decline of, 237; and with time periods, 30 –36; University of Michigan: Health immigrants, 259; poverty, trends overall since 1980, 25– and Retirement Study, 272, 259, 262 261, ; racial-ethnic 30; unauthorized immigrant 277, 290, 298; Institute for 260, differences, 262, 263, impact, 346, 355–57; women, Social Research, combined 264 29, 36, 116 –17, 120, 122, public use files, 272; Survey of training programs, 49 275–76, 391; young 130, 125, Consumers, 272, 287, 288, transportation, 41, 141, 343 - real earn adults, 17. See also 298–99 Treas, Judith, 300 n 3 ings and wages unmarried childbearing, 256– - (Wil Truly Disadvantaged The Waite, Linda, 299 n 1 58 son), 215

16 472 Diversity and Disparities 248, women: cohabitation, 247, dren’s living arrangements, War Babies: description of, ; 183 ; economic and social 250 248 ; cohabitation, - 260 ; col homeownership chances, 200, - pressures, 18; elderly popula 388 ; lege attendance rates, 201; homeownership trends, tion, 273; employment rates, college completion rates, 186, 184, 187, 189, 185, 188, 29, 116 –17, 120, 122, 125, 384 –85, ; disabilities, 389 191, 19 0, 192 ; household - 276 –77; grandparent 130, 282 ; divorce, 251; education 203 headship, 202, hood, 291 ; homeownership gender gap, 377, 382, 383– Ward, Russell, 286 200 ; household head - chances, - 84; elderly living arrange Washington, D.C., segregation ship, 202; labor demand for, 287 - ; elderly pop ments, 283, in, 442, 443 36 –37; labor force participa - ; employment ulation, 274 Watson, Tara, 218 n - 27, 278, 391–92; la tion, 135 rates, 31 ; family patterns, wealth: age group shifts, 91–93, bor market gains, 3, 24; less- 238, 264; grandparenthood, 96; distribution across income 350 skilled workers, ; life 290, 292, 296 ; homeowner - classes, 69–71, 72 ; elderly, - expectancy, 273; marital sta ship, 80, ; 88, 89, 87, 186 278–80; Great Recession’s ; tus of elderly population, 285 196, 202; household headship, impact, 64 – 65; middle class, 241, marriage rates, ; 245 243, 87, household income, 86, 64 – 65, 83–86; portfolio poverty among elderly, 279– 128 ; marriage, 241– 42, 115, composition, 71–79; racial- 80; remarriage, 253–54, 255, 244; median age, 274; in 243, ethnic differences, 16 –17, 257 ; retirement patterns, 428, metropolitan areas, 424, 86 –91, 96; trends, 64 – 65, 277–78; wages and earnings, ; in micropolitan areas, 430 See also 93; young adults, 4. 29, 36, 116 –17, 120, 122, 429 ; in mixed neighborhoods, net worth See 275–76, 391. 130, 125, ; mortgage delinquency, 447 wealth inequality: 1983–1989, also black women; gender dif - 81 ; 81 ; negative home equity, 64 – 65; Great Recession’s rise ferences neighborhood poverty rates, in, 65–75; and leverage, 83– women’s rights movement, 391 88, 20 n 4; net worth, 86, 87, 84; middle class, 65–75, 83– workers’ compensation (WC), 89; population statistics, 2, 86; trends, 93; between 131 129, - 128, 131 ; poverty among el younger and older adults, working parents, 258–59, 261 279, 288 ; remarriage, derly, income in 278 –79. - See also “working poor,” 261 255 - 254, ; residential integra equality World Top Incomes Database, tion analysis, 421; residential wealthy Americans: segregation 96 mobility, 149, 156 – 59, 154, 219, 221, 223, 214, of, 212, World War II, 390 –91, 393 16 4 – 66, 168 –70, 171 ; resi- 225, 226; wealth composition, dential segregation by income, 75–79; wealth trends, 69–71, Yahirun, Jenjira J., 11–12, 270 216; segregation, 437, 438, 72 young adults: economic situa - 440, ; stock owner - 442 439, 129, 131, 239 welfare, - tion, 17; employment, 44; fu 44, ship, 89; unemployment, - well-being, of children and fam ture population projects, 131 ; 45 ; wages and earnings, 19, ily environment, 259– 63, homeownership, 183; living 38 ; wealth, 86 –91, 96, 31, 265– 66 with parents, 195, 204; mar - 279 ; 31 West: employment rates, riage, 240, 244; residential wholesale trade, 41 homeownership chances, 200 ; ; wages mobility, 149, 153, 169 widows and widowers, 282–83, metropolitan area diversity in, - and earnings, 17. See also Gen 286, 285, 287 431; residential mobility, eration Y 11 n Wilkins, Roger, 133 168, 170 ; 144 – 47, 160, 163, Yu, Zhou, 191–92, 193 Williamson, Jaffrey, 324 45 44, unemployment, ; wages 1 n Wilson, James, 299 and earnings, 31, 38 1 n Zavodny, Madeline, 337 Wilson, William Julius, 215, Where Are All the Good Jobs Going? n 2, 420, 4 47 Zhang, Charles, 20 224 ( Holzer), 41 zoning, 209, 418 Wimer, Christopher, 266 2 n “white fl ight,” 216 Wolff, Edward N., 5–7, 60, 64 - ; chil 262 whites: child poverty,

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