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1 A Short History of Africa Chapter 1. The Races of Africa. ... 3 Chapter 2. The Kushit es : Meroe : Nubia. ... 5 Chapter 3. North Africa until the 7th Century A.D. : Carthage : Rome : The Vandals : Byzantium... 6 Chapter 4. North Afri ca : The Arabs. ... 9 Chapter 5. The Early Kingdoms of the Western and Central Sudan.11 Chapter 6. Eastern and Central Africa : The Swahili. ... 13 Chapter 7. The West African Forest Kingdoms. ... 15 Chapter 9. Portuguese Exploration and Colonisation... 18 The Slave Chapter 10. Trade. ... 20 Africa in the Early Years of the 19th Century. ... 22 Chapter 12. Chapter 12. ation 1770-1870. ... 25 European Explor Chapter 13. French and British Activities in Africa from the 1820s to 1880s. ... 27 Chapter 14. The "Scramble for Africa"... 30 Chapter 15. The Colonial Period. ... 34 The Africans become Independent. ... 36 Chapter 16. Chapter 18. After Independence: North Africa... 42 Chapter 19.After Independence: The Countries of the Sudan... 45 After Independence - West Africa... 48 Chapter 20. Chapter 22. After Independence: Central Africa. ... 59 Chapter 23.After Independence: Southern Central Africa. ... 64 Chapter 24. Southern Africa since 1965. ... 67 Map: Ancient Africa ... 71 th th Centuries ... 73 to 19 15 Map: Map: The Colonial Period ... 75 Map: After Independence ... 76

2 Foreword. This is a short history of Africa excluding Egypt, Ethiopia and (Dutch and British) South Africa, which are the subjects of sepa rate histories. Some of the history of these countries, however, is naturally mentioned in this history of the rest of Africa - but is kept to the minimum needed to make the rest comprehensible. This short history has been compiled from th e study of a number of works, including the Encyclopedia Britannica, the Encycloped ia Americana, Every-man's Encyclopedia, W.L.Langer's "Encyclopedia of World Hi story", other reference books such as Whitaker's Almanack and The Statesman's Year Book, “The Last Two Million Years" published by the Readers' Digest, and "Disco vering Africa's Past" by Basil Davidson.

3 Chapter 1. The Races of Africa. The two main races inhabiting Africa in early times were the Berbers of the The Berbers (and the equatorial Africa. Mediterranean coastlands and the Negroes of cially Caucasian, with “European" facial ancient Egyptians) were of Hamitic stock - ra Pygmies. The pygmies, and characteristics. The Negroes included the small-statured a third race - the rather yellow skinned Bushmen - may have been widely spread were driven from the most fruitful lands over central and southern Africa until they by the Negroes. The descendants of the Py gmies now inhabit the forests of central Africa. Only small numbers of Bushmen now survive, mainly in the Kalahari desert in the south. Between the northern coastlands and equatorial Africa is the Sahara desert. Until the e Sahara was a fertile grassland. It then end of the last Ice Age (about 8000 B.C.) th g habitable until about 2000 B.C. The early started to dry up, much of it remainin inhabitants of the Sahara were probably a mixture of Berbers and Negroes. Recently that cattle keeping was a major occupation in what discovered rock paintings show paintings also show that music and dancing appears to have been a peaceful life. The were important to these ancient Africans - as they are to the modern Negroes. Between about 4000 and 2000 B.C, as the dese rt spread, the peoples of the Sahara gradually emigrated to the north, east and south though some remained, learning to live with little water: their descendants ar e the Berber Tuareg of the desert today (whose men wear veils). ern and central Sudan. (The term Sudan Those who went South settled in the west relates to the wide strip of grassland stretching across Africa, south of the Sahara om the coast to the south by a belt of and Egypt. The western Sudan is separated fr mixed with other Negro tribes to form dense forest.) In the Sudan the newcomers the Bantu-speaking peoples, who gradually sp read into central, eastern and southern Africa. In the eastern Sudan, south of Egypt, another civilisation arose, starting about 1000 B.C. - that of the Kushites, probably a mi xture of Hamitic and Negro stock. Further east is Ethiopia. The Ethiopians were probably of Hamitic origin, mixed later with Arabs from Arabia. Historical times, that is when history is known with reasonable accuracy and some detail, started on widely diffe rent dates in the different regions of Africa, very roughly as follows:- Egypt - about 3000 B.C. Nush - about 1000 B.C. Berber North Africa - about 1000 B.C. Ethiopia - about A.D. 0 Western and Central Sudan - about A.D. 300. East Africa - about A.D. 700. The Forest lands south of the We stern Sudan - about A.D. 1000.

4 As mentioned in the foreword, Egypt and Ethiopia (and modern Dutch and British South Africa) are the subjects of separate histories. The following chapters deal with the early histories of the peop les in the other five regions

5 Chapter 2. The Kushites : Meroe : Nubia. During the time of ancient Egypt's glory - during the third and second millenia B.C. - the influence of Egyptian civilisation was strong in the land to the south, the eastern or Egyptian Sudan, often called Nubia an d known to the Egyptians as Kush. The northern Nubians, darker skinned than the Egyptians, may have originally come from Negroes. Egypt traded with , fought with, and to some Asia; those further south were extent ruled over these peoples. a, with its capital at Napata, flourished from the 11th A Kushite civilisation in Nubi century B.C; and at the same time Egypt en tered into a long pe riod of weakness and the Kushites began the conque st of Egypt, and in 715 divided rule. About 750 B.C. established there a Kushite dynasty (misleadingly known as the Ethiopian Dynasty). But about 50 years later the Kushites we re driver out of Egypt, after some invading Assyrians. tremendous battles, by The Kushite kings retired to th eir old capital at Napata, wh ere they continued to rule transferred their capital to Meroe, 300 until early in the 6th century B.C. They then situated in an area rich in iron ore. miles further south, perhaps because Meroe was The Kushite Kingdom of Meroe lasted for ei ght centuries, until ab out A.D. 320, when it was destroyed by the King of Axum, th e rising power in Ethiopia. The Kushite civilisation vanished completely. It was not until very recently that knowledge of it has been compiled, from inscriptions in tombs and the ruins of Meroe and Napata. The Meroitic writing has been partly deciphered, though the language is dead. d Sea ports to the east, and through Egypt The Kushites were great traders - from Re where their relations with th e Ptolemies in the last centuries B.C. were generally rkers; and their armies gained strength friendly. The Kushites were skilled iron wo from their horsed cavalry and their tami ng and use of the elephant. Meroe was a splendid city, with a magnificent palace and a beautifully decorated Temple of the Sun. About 200 years after the destruction of Meroe the Nubian descendants of the Kushites were converted to Christianity by missionary monks from Egypt (where at that time Christianity was widespread). There then existed for many centuries Christian kingdoms in Nubia, have led a comfortable life. where the people appear to Good farmers and craftsmen, they were al so greatly interested in learning. They developed a modified form of Greek writing suitable for their own language, and built schools and libraries. After the Moslem conquest of Egypt in th e 7th century (see chapter 4) the Nubian Christians continued on fr iendly terms with Egypt un til about 1250, when their kingdoms were invaded by Moslem Arab s and African neighbours who had been converted to Islam. By the 14th century this Nubian Christian civilisation had faded out.

6 Chapter 3. North Africa until the 7th Century A.D. : Carthage : Rome : The Vandals : Byzantium. , Algeria, Tuni North Africa in this history refers to what is now Morocco sia and Libya. In Roman times Mauretania (the land of th e Mauri - or Moors) coincided roughly with modern Morocco. It is not to be confused with present day Mauritania; which is further south. And the Roman name for part of what is now Tunisia and Algeria was Numidia. Western Libya was (and still is) called Tripolitania, and eastern Libya Cyrenaica. The Berbers of North Africa in ancient ti mes were largely noma dic, and never united re also many traders, engagi ng particularly in the trans- into a single state. There we Saharan trade with the peoples of the Sudan. The traders settled in towns, which often developed into kingdoms. During the second millenium B.C. Libyan chiefs periodically raided Egypt. Then, the power of the Pharaohs collapsed in the during the time of Egypt's weakness after 11th century B.C, Libyan mercenaries in th e Egyptian army established the Libyan Dynasty in Egypt, about 950 B.C. The dynast y lasted for two centuries (followed by a further period of confusio n in Egypt and its conquest by the Kushites). In the 7th century, B.C. the Greeks colonised Cyrenaica, building the city of Cyrene, which became famous for its intellectual life, notably its schools of philosophy and medicine. The Greeks continued to rule ther e until the Persians conquered Egypt and Cyrenaica towards the end of the 6th centur y. In the 330s B.C. the Persian Empire was destroyed by Alexander the Great; and on the division of Alexander's empire after his death Egypt and Cyrenaica passed to the Greek Ptolemies. Meanwhile in Tunisia the sea trading Semitic Phoenicians from Tyre (in Lebanon) had founded the colony of Carthage about 800 B.C. near the present day city of Tunis. By the 5th century Carthage had become the capital of a huge trading empire on the coasts and islands of the western and cent ral Mediterranean, in places, particularly Greek colonies. Sicily, rivalled by In Africa, Carthaginian trad ing ports extended all along the coast from Tunisia to Morocco, and their ships went through the St raits of Gibraltar and down the Atlantic coast in search of trade. (They also went as far as Britain, where they traded for tin from the Cornish mines.) They founded se ttlements on the west African coast in Senegal and Guinea. They also took part ill the trans-Saharan trade. By the 3rd century B.C. Carthage - a repu blic ruled by an aristocracy based on wealth - came into conflict with the rising power of Rome, which had taken over from the Greek colonies as Carthage's main rival in the central Mediterranean. Two long wars between Rome and Carthage ensued , from 264 to 241 B.C. and 219 to 201 (known as the Punic Wars). The result of the first war was the cession of Sicily to Rome. There was then a period of uneasy peace. Carthage ha d to deal with a revolt of her African mercenaries, who formed the bulk of the rank and file of her armies and had not been paid. Rome took advantage of this to seize Corsica and Sa rdinia. Then the Carthaginian Hamilcar

7 Barca, having quelled the mercenaries' revo lt, proceeded during the next ten years, until his death in 228 B.C, to build up an empire in Spain (where the Carthaginians were already established as traders) as a base for a land attack on Rome. perity. Her population is said to have Carthage was now at the height of her pros been about a million, fed from the very fertile surrounding district; and her trade and manufactures were thriving. In 221 B.C. Hamilcar’s son, the 26 year old Hannibal, became Commander-in-chief in Spain. As a child he had pledged to his fath er his dedication to the cause of revenge l with Rome and led an army of some against Rome. In 219 he picked a quarre 25,000 African and Spanish troops - and so me war elephants - through Gaul and across the Alps to Italy, raising an ar my of Gauls on the way as his ally. ed against vastly more numerous Roman For 14 years the brilliant Hannibal campaign forces without defeat; but without siege equipment he could not capture Rome. Meanwhile the Roman general Scipio had evicted the Carthaginians from Spain, and ca. Allied to the African King Massinissa of eastern in 204 B.C. he invaded Afri Numidia, Scipio defeated the Carthaginians. The oligarchy of Carthage recalled Hannibal from Italy, but with a hastily levied army he suffered his first and only defeat, at Zama in 202 B.C. This conclude d the Second Punic War and Carthage lost all except her African possessions to Rome. Hannibal became head of the Carthaginian government, so ably that Rome - which feared a Carthaginian recovery - forced hi m to be exiled. After many adventures, in which he acted as adviser to enemies of Ro me, he committed suicide, in 182 B.C, to avoid falling into Roman hands. Carthage's commercial ability, however, enabled her revival to continue, to the extent that she again became a source of fear and envy to Rome. In 149 B.C. Rome found an excuse for launching the Third Punic War, Carthage having been provoked into breaking a clause in the previous peac e treaty by the aggressive action of the now aged King Massinissa. Rome sent an army to Africa, and after a heroic resistance the city of Carthage fell in 146 B.C. The Romans totally destroyed the city, and the site was ploughed over and salted so that the land would remain infertile. tion survived, many to be Only about 50,000 of the popula sold to slavery. So ended the Carthaginian Empire, and all its possessions passed to Rome. From this time until early in the 5th century A.D. the whole of North Africa was under varying degrees of Roman rule or influence. Egypt was virtually a Roman dependency from 168 B.C, an d became formally a province of the Roman Empire after the defeat and suicide of Cleopatr a in 30 B.C. Cyrenaica became a Roman province in 74 B.C, after be one of the later Ptolemies. ing bequeathed to Rome by Tripolitania, after the defeat of Carthage, fell to Massinissa and was ruled by Numidian kings until annexed by Julius Caes ar in 46 B.C. Pezzan, the Libyan desert area where the native Garamantes had fo r several centuries dominated the Sahara caravan route, was conquered by Rome in 19 B.C. Numidia, under King Jugurtha (Massinissa’s grandson), gave Rome a lot of trouble in a war from 111 to 106 B.C. After Jugurtha’s defeat Numidia went thro ugh various vicissitudes until it finally became a Roman province. Mauretania appear s in history as a kingdom at the time of the Jugurthine war. Th e degree of Roman control was less here, with native kingdoms surviving as allies or subject states of Rome.

8 North Africa as a whole flou rished during the Roman pe riod. Roads and towns were the sustenance of th e Roman armies. The built, and Tunisia provided a granary for remaining Phoenicians from population was a mixture of the indigenous Berbers, the - who intermarried wi th the Africans. the Carthaginian era, and Roman colonists Carthage itself was rebuilt, the first colonists being sent there by Julius Caesar a hundred years after its destruction. It beca me the capital of Roman Africa; and in the early centuries A.D. it was a Roman/African centre of learning. Among those who worked there were the writer and philosoph er Apuleius and the Christian theologians Tertullian, Cyprian and Augustine, In the early history of Roman Christianity North Africa was more important than Rome. Another great city was Leptis Magna in Tripolitania. Originally the most important Phoenician settlement in Libya (when its name was Lepcis) it became in Roman times the largest city in Africa after Alexandria and Carthage. Its ruins are now the remains of many imposing Roman buildings. In Cyrenaica, Cyrene continued to be a leading city until it declined after repressive measures taken by the Romans against a Jewi sh revolt, in the course of which some of the city was destroyed, in A.D. 115. The Romans were not great traders, and do not seem to have taken much interest in the Sahara trade routes. However, it was during the Roman period, about A.D. 300, that the Arabian camel was introduced into North Africa. This greatly boosted the Saharan trade, the camel being much more efficient for desert transport than the horse or donkey. In the 3rd and 4th centuries the Roman Empire in Europe was increasingly threatened by the German trib es in the north. At the beginning of the 5th century vantage of a weakening of Roman defences one of these tribes - the Vandals took ad in western Europe, and swept through Gaul into Spain. From Spain a vast horde of Vandals, under their leader Gaiseric, set sa il for North Africa in A.D. 429 - and the "Roman peace" of the previo us centuries was broken. The Vandals by-passed much of Mauretania, which reverted to Berber chieftains, but went on through Numidia, Tunisia, Tripolit ania and Cyrenaica. After five years of warfare Gaiseric made terms with the Western Roman Emperor*, leaving only Carthage in Roman hands. In 439 Gaiseric seized Carthage, which he made the headquarters of a pirate fleet which domi nated the western Mediterranean. In 455 an expedition under Gaiseric looted Rome it self (and 20 years later another German tribe finally extinguished the Western Empire). The Vandal kingdom lasted for a hundred years, until in 533 th e Byzantine Emperor Justinian sent an army under his brilliant general Belisarius to re-conquer North Africa. Belisarius did so, and the Vandals th en disappear from history, having left little impression an Africa. Roman North Af rica, except for Maur etania, returned to Roman (Byzantine) rule until the coming of the Moslem Arabs in the 7th century. *The Roman Empire had by now split into two - the declining Western Empire with Rome as capital, and the Eastern, or Byzantine, Empire with its capital at Constantinople.

9 Chapter 4. North Africa : The Arabs. After the birth of Islam early in the 7th century the armies of the Semitic Arabs quickly conquered the whole of the Middle East, including Egypt in 642. Later in the st of North Africa, co century they went on from Egypt to the re nverting the Berbers as they went. By the end of the century the Arab empire had reached Morocco. The conversion was generally peaceful, the Ber bers readily accepting Islam. About the ted were Jewish communities (which had only section of the population not conver been in North Africa for several centuries) and which were tolerated and treated well by the Arabs. The Arab invasions, however, were not uno pposed. Byzantine resi stance resulted in hage; and further west, in Algeria, there the complete and final destruction of Cart the Berbers accepted Islam, there was a was considerable Berber opposition. Though long period of anarchy and warfare. with Berbers and led by the Berber Tariq, From Morocco the Arab armies, reinforced of the county between 710 and 720. Apart moved on to Spain and conquered most from some areas in the north the Moors, as they were called, remained masters of the Iberian peninsula until late in the 11th century, and were not finally driven out until the 15th century.* As time went on, and more came to Sp ain from Africa, the Moors in Spain became more Berber than Arab. Meanwhile in Morocco the Berber tribes united in a series of Moorish dynasties, under the first of which Fez was founded as the capital towards the end of the 8th century. Fez became - and still is - the great intellectual and religious centre of Morocco. When the Moors were finally expelled from Spain intellectual re fugees gathered in Fez. In the Arab world divisions soon appeared. Rival families fought for the Caliphate rious split between the Shiites and the (leadership of Islam), and there was a se Sunnites. The Shiites held that the head of Islam must be a descendant of Ali and his wife Fatima (Mohammed's nephew and daught er)**. There was also a third sect, the Kharijites, who held that the Caliph could be any believer fit for the office. They were at first numerous in North Africa, but few still remain. These family and religious rivalries are exemplified by events in Tunisia. At the end of the 8th century a dynasty was founded by the Aghlabids, who broke away from the ruling Abbasid Caliphate and extended th eir control over some of Algeria and Tripolitania. (The Aghlabids also conquered Sicily, which became another main outlet for Arab learning into Europe.) At the beginning of the 10th century the Aghlabids were overthrown by the Shiite Fatimids, wh o claimed descent from Fatima. (later in the century the Fatimids conquered Egypt and founded Cairo, from which they ruled for the next 200 years.) In the 11th century there was a renewal of Islamic energy in North Africa, accompanied by a further wave of Arab immi gration. And at this time there arose in the Sahara a sect of fanatical Berber Mosl ems, the Almoravids. In about 1060 they

10 founded Marrakesh and conquered Morocco, an d then went on to Spain where they Christian re-conquest. temporarily arrested the In the middle of the 12th century some even fiercer and more intolerant Berber Moslems issued from the region of the Atlas mountains in western and central ey extinguished the powe Morocco - the Almohades. Th r of the Almoravids, and extended their empire in Nort h Africa from Morocco as far as Tripolitania. (Cyrenaica in these times was generally tied to the fortunes of Egypt.) The Almohades also followed in the footsteps of the Almoravids in Spain, from which they were not expelled until the middle of the 13th century (leaving the whole Iberian peninsula in Christian hands except for Granada in the south). The empire of the Almohades in Africa then declined and gradually broke up. Separate dynasties were established in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Tripolitania. *In the middle of the 8th century the state of Cordoba, in Andalusia in southern Spain, was founded by Abd al Rahman, son of an Arabian prince and a Berber princess. In the following centuries Cordob a became the centre of a renaissance in art, science and literature in which, while Europe was in a state of virtual intellectual stagnation the,Arabs led the.western world. Cordoba became the leading intellectual centre of Europe where students came from far and wide to study medicine, mathematics, science, philosophy and musi c under Moslem Chri stian and Jewish professors. ** The split still exists; but the great majori ty are Sunnites. The Shiites are strong only in Persia and southern Iraq.

11 Chapter 5. The Early Kingdoms of the Western and Central Sudan. In early times the peoples of the western and central Sudan were subject to many outside influences - from the Egyptians, the Kushites, the Carthaginians - but mainly tlands. The links were the trade routes from the Berbers of the North African coas across the Sahara. The Berber trade was largely for gold from th e district south of the western Sudan, in The greatly increased trade after the exchange for salt and manufactured goods. introduction of the camel about A.D. 700 le d to the formation of Berber states south west of the Sahara. This helped to caus e a greater degree of co-ordination between the Negro tribes and the creation of the fi rst large West African kingdom, probably some time in the 4th century A.D. This was ancient Ghana, formed by the Soninke western Sudan north of the headwaters of people who lived in the grasslands of the a was - rather confusingly in present-day the Senegal and Niger rivers. (Ancient Ghan Mali, and a quite different land from modern Ghana.) for seven centuries, re aching its peak in The empire of Ghana dominated West Africa the 11th century. Based on the gold trade, the Kings of Ghana were immensely rich, and powerful. King Tunka Manin, who ruled in the middle of the 11th century, had a magnificent court in his stone-built capital of Kumbi Saleh, and is said to have been able to field an army of 200,000 men. Ghana, however, was unable to withstand Mo slem invasions in the second half of the 11th century. The Moslem Arabs had been in filtrating the settlements in the Sahara oases since the 7th century. Then, in th e 1070s, Ghana was attacked by the armies Almoravids retired or of the Almoravids of Morocco. Though the were driven out, after destroying Kumbi Saleh, Ghana was permanently weakened. In the course of the next 150 years it was absorbed and it s place as the leading West African power taken by the Kingdom of Mali. Mali, of the Mandinka people, was the great empire in West Africa for about two the middle of the 15th. Its territories centuries, from the middle of the 13th to extended well beyond those of ancient Gh ana. It rose to prominence under Mari- Djata (the Lion Prince) and was at the height of its power under the Emperor Kankan Musa early in the 14th century. On the way to a pilgrimage to Mecca, Kankan Musa exchanged greetings and pres ents on equal terms with the Mameluke Sultan of Egypt. (The kings of Mali had em braced Islam - and so became members of a world civilisation.) Mali was famous for the wealth of its rulers, the peace and order in its territories, and for its learned men - influenced by Islamic studies in law, government and business affairs. These advances made society more complex - and more divided. At the bottom were those who had lost the right to be treated as free men, either through some serious offence or by capture in war. They were "rightless persons" or "permanent servants' and subject to sale, in effect slaves, but it was usually a form of slavery which was tolerant and allowed them to work in much the same way as other people.

12 The pre-eminence of Mali was followed by th at of the Songhay people of the central Sudan, with their capital at Gao. The Songhay had her trading connections with the Berbers for many centuries, and their King s of Gao had accepted Islam early in the d then to Mali; but 11th century. At various times they had been subject to Ghana, an threw off the over-lordship of Mali, and towards the end of the 14th century they then their power increased as that of Mali declined. Their prosperity grew as gold began to come from the forest coun try south of Gao (modern Ghana). The main founder of the Songhay Empire of Gao was Sunni (King) Ali, a warrior king who reigned from about 1464 to 1492. He tr ansformed a small trading kingdom into a large empire, including in his domains the rich trading centre Timbuktu, which had been one of the main citi es of Mali. In the Songhay times Timbuktu became a n throughout the Moslem world. renowned centre of learning, know Under Askia Mohammed (c 1493-1528) the empi re expanded further, becoming as source of weakness in the empire, though, extensive as Mali had been at its peak. A een the Moslem traders of the towns and was a conflict of beliefs and interests betw the country people who remained true to their old Songhay religion.** conflict with the Sultan of Morocco, who Late in the 16th century Songhay came into in 1590 sent an army across the Sahara to seize the sources of gold. The Moroccans captured and looted Gao and Timbuktu, send ing back much gold - and slaves - but they failed to win control of the trade routes to the south. Twenty years later the Moroccan leader in Timbuktu threw off allegiance to the Sultan, and the "Niger Moors" remained as rulers there for near ly 200 years quarrelling among themselves and oppressing the Negro tribes. The Song hay Empire was destroyed, and so was the culture of Timbuktu. ana, Mali and Songhay there were many As well as the three great empires of Gh other kingdoms in the grasslands of the Sudan. One was Kanem-Bornu, around Lake Chad; and between Kanem-Bornu and the Song hay - in the central and western part of present-day northern Nige ria - were the many city states of the Hausa people. Kanem-Bornu and the Hausa kingdoms were created in about the 10th century, and like the other empires in the Sudan were dependent for their prosperity on the Berber trade. Kanem-Bornu reached its zenith at about the same time as Songhay. The Hausa cities were noted for their leather goods and textiles. The most famous of them was the walled city of Kano. The Haus a political and social organisation was much influenced by the penetration of Islam in the 13th-14th centuries. Another people who succeeded in remain ing independent of the great Sudanese empires were the Mossi, who occupied the basin of the upper Volta, south of the bend in the Niger river. They are said to have a line of kings who have ruled for a thousand years. **Each African people had its own religion. Most of them believed in a single God in Heaven who made the world, and also in le sser gods and spirits. They also believed in the power of evil, as the work of witc hcraft. The 'witch doctors' were fighters against evil anti-witchcraft specialists.

13 Chapter 6. Eastern and Central Africa : The Swahili. Along the east coast of Africa an Indian Ocean trade conducted by Bantu-speaking it received a great impetus from the peoples existed about 2000 years ago; and Arabs after the rise of Islam in the 7th century. The Bantu-speaking Africans were called Swahili by the visiting Arabs; and the name remained attached to them and to their descendants of mixed Bantu-Arab stock, and to their language - now the common language of East Africa. In the 9th-10th centuries the Swahili adopted Islam; and, as the Moslem power and influence spread to all the lands bordering the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean, so a string of trading city states arose on th e east coast of Africa, from Somalia in the north to Mozambique in the south. By the 13th century these citi es were entering a golden age of prosperity, which lasted throughout the 14th and 15th centur ies. Ships from all over the eastern world China, were welcomed in their harbours, - India, Malaysia, Indonesia, and as far as rcelain and beads in exchange for gold and bringing silk and cotton cloth, pottery, po ivory. of these ports were Mogadishu (in Among the most important and powerful a (in Kenya), Zanzibar and Kilwa (in Tanzania). The Somalia), Malindi and Mombas most famous and imposing was Kilwa, situated on a small island. Kilwa became the main centre of the East African gold and ivory trade. A finely built city was presided over by the King of Kilwa in his luxurious cliff-top palace. From the wealth derived from control of the gold trade the King minted a currency of his own. Much of the gold for this trade came from the inland people of Zimbabwe - the Shona tribes of the Bantu-sp eaking peoples. This export trade may have started in ona had probably b about the 10th century, by when the Sh een settled in the Zimbabwe region for a thousand years, ra ising crops and cattle and becoming skilled miners and iron workers. Between the 12th to 14th centuries they built the city of Great Zimbabwe, of which the surrounding stone wall, probably completed about 1400, still survives. In the 15th century the Shona started on a policy of political expansion. Their King Mutota moved his capital from Great Zi mbabwe northwards, where he conquered other peoples and acquired the royal titl e Mwana Mutapa**. He, and then his son Matope added to the Shona kingdom all th e land from the edge of the Kalahari desert in the west to Mozambique in the east, excluding the Swahili cities on the 1490, civil wars broke out and the empire coast. After Matope's death in about became divided into two - one under the Mw ana Mutapa in the no rth, and one in the south ruled from Great Zimbabwe by another Shona dynasty. It was under this dynasty - the Rozvis, who ruled for over th ree centuries - that some of the largest buildings in Great Zimbabwe were constructed. In the north-east in the 16th century the Somalis spread southwards beyond Mogadishu, and transferred their capital to Harar (now in Ethiopia). In the 17th century they - and the Ethiopians were harassed by the Gallas, another Hamitic people with an infusion of Negro blood, who inhabit nort hern Kenya and some of

14 south eastern Ethiopia. Though driven by the Somalia from Somalia, the Gallas so that it broke up into a nu mber of small states, Zeila weakened the Kingdom of Adel becoming a dependency of Yemen. During this period there were many other Ba ntu kingdoms in central Africa (present- day Zaire, Uganda, Zambia and Angola). The Kingdoms of Luba and Lunda in the in trade with the west coast as well as grasslands of the upper Congo basin joined with the east. The farming people of the Kingdom of Kazembe, in Katanga in southern Zaire, appear to have led an un troubled existence until the middle of the 19th century - and contributed much to Afri can culture in art, music and dancing. The Katanga region was noted for copper pr oduction, and the Malawi on the western shore of Lake Nyasa were famous for iron smelting. In the East African highlands around Lakes Victoria and Tanganyika were the Kingdoms of Buganda, Rwanda and Burundi. In Angola two large kingdoms had been formed by about 1400 - the kingdoms of Kongo (along the lower Congo river) and Ndongo. To complete the picture of East Africa, the early inhabitants of the island of Madagascar (the Malagasy) are thought to ha ve been of Polynesian and Indonesian origin. Later, Indians, Arabs and Swahili arrived, and slaves from Africa. A tribal organisation probably continued until late in the 16th century, when small kingdoms h centuries Madagascar was the haunt of began to be formed. In the 17th and 18t many pirates. Apart from all these African kingdoms ther e were many peoples in Africa who had not reached this stage of political organi sation, or saw no necessity for it. Among these, in East Africa, were the Kikuyu of the Kenya highlands and the Luo of Kenya and Uganda, and the nomadic Masai of Kenya and Tanganyika. *The Hamitic Somalis are thought to have come from Yemen in southern Arabia in perhaps the 8th century A.D. They settled in the Zeila area, on th e Gulf of Aden, and their history was greatly influenced by neighbouring Ethiopia. By the 13th century ngdoms, of which the strongest was the they had formed a number of Moslem ki Kingdom of Adel. In the following two cent uries there were many wars between the Somali states and Ethiopia, resulting in most of them, but not Adel, becoming vassals of the Ethiopians. ** From this term was derived the Euro pean name Monomatapa for the Shona empire.

15 Chapter 7. The West African Forest Kingdoms. In the thick forest belt south of the western Sudan grasslands movement was rs, and the Negro tribes here in early times tended to difficult except along the rive remain small and scattered. The forest al so protected them from the Sudanese empires to the north, whose mi litary strength was based on their cavalry. The first known organized forest kingdoms were formed in about the 11th century A.D. by the Yoruba and the Edo people s of western Nigeria. The Yoruba lived in their forest cities (the farmers preferred to live in towns rather than in villages near their land), of which the chief was Ife. Perhaps as early as 1200 Ife began to become famous for the work of its sculptors in bronze and terra-cotta. In the 17th century many of the Yoruba became united under the central government of the city of Oyo; and by the end of the century the empire of Oyo included much of Nigeria. The empire was powerful for over a hundred years. The Yoruba of Oyo were basica lly farmers, but their craftsmen were proficient in spinning, dyeing and metalwork. The Edo people were centred on Benin City in southern Nigeria, which rose to importance under some enterprising and powerful kings in the 14th and 15th centuries. The Benin empire reached its peak in the 16th century, when the Kings of Benin established close relations with the Po rtuguese - the first Europeans to explore the West African coast. An ambassador from Benin visi ted Portugal (about 1510), and Portuguese missionaries tried to introduce Christianity into Benin, but without much success. More succe ssful was the development of an ocean trade (an th the Portuguese and the Dutch. Pepper innovation on the west coast), mainly wi change for European manufactures. Benin and dyed cotton goods were exported in ex City was a walled city 25 miles round, wi th wide streets and spacious wooden houses. Like Ife earlier, Benin was remarkable for its bronze sculptures. es, productive and prosperous, never In south eastern Nigeria the Ibo trib to remain organised into a vast number amalgamated into a single state, preferring of self-governing villages. The Benin empire began to decline in the 17th century; and in the 19th century the empire of Oy o disintegrated through invasions by its neighbours and revolts by some of its subject kingdoms. Meanwhile two other powerful states arose to the west of them – Dahomey** and Ashanti. Dahomey became an independent kingdom about 1625, and reached the height of its power some 200 years later, in the middle of the 19th century. It became notorious for its "customs", which included human slaughter on a grand scale on the death of a king, to provide him with wives and attendants in the spirit world; and Dahomey played a large part in the slav e trade (see chapter 10). Another curious institution was the training of women as soldiers. The women’s regiments were the elite of the Dahomeyan army. The Ashanti were groups of the Akan peoples, who from about 1200 formed a number of forest states. They had a well developed community culture, with the emphasis on music and dancing. By abou t 1400 there were several strong Akan states, and it was they who produced th e gold which led to the prosperity of

16 Songhay to their north. Later, when th e European traders began to arrive, the ld - to European merchants established Ashanti found another outlet for their go along the coast to the south (to become known to Europeans as the gold coast). At the end of the 17th centur y the Ashanti groups, hither to divided, succeeded in wer and prosperity grew. In the 18th uniting; and for the next 200 years their po nded their domains to the north, into the century, to protect their trade, they exte grasslands; and early in the 19th century th ey conquered the tribes in the coastal belt to the south. The early Ashanti kings were great conquero rs; and as the empire grew the kings in the later part of the 18th century and early 19th were also reformers. They modernised the system of government to k eep up with changing conditions, and they selected men to help them based on ability irrespective of rank - or colour; Europeans were employed in many importan t posts. There was a federal police force, and civil servants with regular pay and pens ions. Kumasi, the capita l, was a fine city, kept spotlessly clean; and Ashanti wa s famous for its wood carvings. * South of the forest belt there is a narrow strip of open land along the sea coast. **Rather confusingly Dahomey is now modern Benin - a different land from the old Benin empire.

17 Chapter 8. North Africa from the 15th to 19th Centuries. The 15th and 16th centuries in North Africa were a period of struggles between dynasties, insurrections, raids, and near anarchy. During this period, too, the hold in the ports of the Mediterranean Spaniards and Portuguese obtained a foot coast. In 1415 the Portuguese captured Ceuta in Morocco; and the Spaniards took Morocco in 1496. In 1578, however, a Oran in Algeria in 1409 and Melilla in Morocco ended in disaster, in which the Portuguese crusade against the Moors in King of Portugal and the flower of the Portuguese nobility were killed. 1590, that the Sultan of Moro cco, Ahmed al Mansur, sent It was shortly after this, in an army across the Sahara which led to the destruction of the Songhay Empire (see were acquired. The reign of Ahmed al chapter 5), and from which great riches Mansur (1578-1603) is regarded as a "golden age" in Moroccan history. In the 16th century Spain and Portugal were confronted in the Mediterranean by the Ottoman Turks, who had taken over the lead ership of the Moslem world. After taking the remains of the Byzantine Empire) the Constantinople in 1453 (and so obliterating Turks conquered the whole of the Middle East (including Egypt in 1517), advanced far into south-eastern Europe, and domi nated the eastern Mediterranean. From North African coast as far as Algiers by Egypt they extended their Empire along the after being opposed for a time by the Spaniards in the end of the 16th century, Tunisia. Until early in the 19th century North Africa, except for Morocco, then remained under Turkish suzerainty. But the Turks did not take much interest in ruling their vassal states in North Africa, interfering little in the feuds of the native dynasties and tribes provided that they paid their taxes - and the money to pay the taxes came mainly from piracy in the Mediterranean. For some 300 years the headquarters of the notorious pirates of the Barbary (Berber) co ast was at Algiers, which survived many bombardments and blockades by th e European trading nations. Morocco also took part in the piracy, extending it into the Atlantic. By the 18th century the native rulers in Algeria, Tunisia, Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, though nominally subject to the Sultan of Turkey, were virtually independent.

18 Chapter 9. Portuguese Exploration and Colonisation. organisation set Soon after the capture of Ceuta in 1415 th e Portuguese, under an e the pioneers in European exploration to up by Prince Henry (the Navigator),becam the western coasts of Africa and the search for a sea route round Africa to the East. The trade route to the East through the Me diterranean and overland to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean had for long been domina ted by the Arabs - and was also subject pirates of the Mediterranean. to interference by the Barbary In the first half of the 15th century the Portuguese discovered the Atlantic island of Madeira, the Azores and the Cape Verde Islands. All were uninhabited, and the Portuguese annexed them. In 1446 they land ed and established trading posts in the Senegal district of West Africa. In the so the Congo estuary in uth west they reached 1482, and later made settlements in Angola, with the Kingdoms with access to trade uguese Vasco da Gama sailed round the of Kongo and Ndongo. In 1497-98 the Port the East African ports Malindi and Mombasa south of Africa and on to India, calling at on the way. When da Gama returned to Portugal he described the great wealth of the Swahili al sent fleets to ca cities; and subsequently the Kings of Portug pture and loot these cities. The Swahili trading community was largely ruined, and some of the cities were abandoned. But some survived, as did the Sw ahili culture; and at the end of the 17th century the Portuguese were expelled from the East African ports north of Mozambique by Arabs from Oman in south eastern Arabia. Portuguese activity in Benin and Morocco in the 16th century has already been this century they tried, from settlements mentioned (see previous chapters). Also in on the Mozambique coast, to gain control of the gold mines of Zimbabwe - unsuccessfully in the Rozvi Kingdom of sout hern Zimbabwe, but with more success in the northern Kingdom of the Mwana Mutapa s. In 1573 they persuaded the King to me mines and permission to settle along the Zambezi give them possession of so ers wanted more, and gradually increased river in northern Mozambique. But the settl their influence over the affairs of the kingdom. In 1628-29, with hired African soldiers, they defeated the King's forces, and a new trea ty made him a puppet of the Portuguese. The same thing happened in Angola. At first on friendly terms with the King of ons culminated in a war of conquest. This went on Ndongo*, the settlers' ambiti intermittently from about 1580 to 1670, by when Ndongo was a broker kingdom; but resistance continued, and Portuguese pene tration of the interior was very slow. The Kingdom of Kongo suffered the same fate. At first an ally of Portugal, Kongo later became a target for military invasi on - about 1665, when the King of Kongo was captured and killed, and the in dependence of Kongo was ended. One of the motives in these Portuguese conquests was the procurement of slaves. When the Portuguese first landed in West Africa in 1446 they brought back, not only gold, but a few slaves; and during the rest of the 15th century the trade for slaves in return for European goods expanded partly to relieve Portugal's limited resources of manpower.

19 The sale of slaves was no new custom in Afri ca (nor in Europe). In Africa there were “rightless persons" who where subject to sale ; and at first these were the people sold to Portugal, where they beca me household servants or we re trained as craftsmen. Their lot in Portugal was probably little worse than that of the free, but poor, Portuguese. A big change in the nature and extent of the slave trade, however, came after the discovery of America and the begi nning of European colonisation there in the 16th century. * In Ndongo the King's title was Ngola - which the Portuguese mistook for the name of the country; hence Angola.

20 Chapter 10. The Slave Trade. The European colonists in America soon found the need for imported labour to work on the sugar plantations an d in the mines, and later on the tobacco and cotton plantations. The Spaniards started using Ne gro slave labour in their West Indian colonies early in the 16th century; and th e Portuguese in the middle of the century started sending slaves from Africa to Braz il. Other European nations soon joined in this lucrative trade, and the sl ave trade became big business. The trade went on until the 19th century, with Europeans of many countries taking part in it - notably the British, French, Dutch and Danes as well as the Spaniards and Portuguese. The British first engaged in the trade as agents prov iding slaves for the Spanish colonies in 1562 - over 50 years be fore slavery itself was introduced into British North America. The traders operated from "factories" and forts established along the African coast, mainly in West Africa, from where they exchanged European goods for gold, ivory and slaves. By the end of the 18th century there were some 40 of these factories - which sometimes changed hands as the nati ons competed with each other in the trade. Altogether they were exporting perhaps between 70,000 and 80,000 slaves annually. The procurement of the slaves was sometime s by raids into the interior, or even actual wars, but more usually by trading agreements with the local native rulers or by providing them with military help against their African enemies. As the trade expanded some African chiefs continued it with reluctance, but found it difficult to withdraw. Some of the main European commo dities supplied in ex change were guns and gunpowder - and if an African chief sto pped getting the guns he would be at the mercy of more unscrupulous neighbours. s the voyage to America. The slaveship One of the worst features of the trade wa owners, in search of a bigger profit, packed more and more slaves into their vessels llowed no room to stand, or even to - often on shelves across the holds which a three weeks to two months or more, kneel. The voyage lasted anything from depending on the weather; and fever and h unger were often suffered in addition to the appalling living conditions. Large numbers died before arrival. It has been estimated that the total number of African slaves who reached America and the West Indies in the co urse of the trade was about 9 to 10 million. It may well have been more; and this does not includ e those who died on the voyage or those who were killed in Africa in slaving raids or wars. Probably between a half and two thirds of the total came from West Africa , most of the others from Angola and the Congo, some from Mozambique. Apart from the actual loss of manpower , the slave trade in hibited social and economic progress in the African regions mo st affected. The trade degraded political life, and encouraged the cont inuation of slavery in Africa; and while the European nations were organising and inventing new means of production these Africans were depending economically upon a trade which was totally unproductive - and which, by the loss of the fittest members of th e community, curtailed production.

21 Until late in the 17th century no one in Europe or the colonies seemed to see e trade. Then the lead was taken by the Quakers in anything wrong in the slav England and North America in protesting against it. But it was another 100 years the efforts of William Wilberforce, began before the British parliament, due mainly to to consider abolition of the trade. It took Wilberforce 20 years to get Parliament to in the trade. Denmark had already done agree; and in 1807 Britain ceased to engage so. The other European nations followed, some less willingly than others. By 1850 the trade was almost ended. The last slave ship sailed in the 1880s. e Americans (who became independent in Long before this both the British and th 1783) started settlements in Africa for freed slaves the British in Sierra Leone in 1787, the Americans in Liberia ("the land of the free") in 1822. Both ventures, which ssociations, suffered a number of setbacks some financial were organised by private a and some through the resentment of the local tribes due to the privileged status given to the ex-slaves. The British base was Freetown, and British control was clared an independent republic in 1847. gradually extended inland. Liberia was de Slavery itself was abolished by the Europe an and American nati ons at various times during the 19th century - by Britain in all her colonies in 1533, by the United States in 1865 after the American Civil War, by Br azil (independent of Portugal since 1822) in 1888. In Brazil the number ntially reduced during the s of slaves had been substa 19th century, from nearly 2 million to about 700,000 at the time of abolition. The subsequent history of the Negroes in the Americas is pa rt of the history of those countries rather than of Af rica. Their contribution to Western music, singing and dancing has been notable - for instance jazz and Negro spirituals, the latter made world famous by the great American Negr o singer Paul Robeson. And American ber of world champions in boxing and Negroes have provided a remarkable num athletics. On the political side, one episode before th e abolition of the slave trade and slavery, should be mentioned. This was in the French colony of Saint Domingue in the West Indies. During the Napoleonic Wars the slaves in Saint Domingue, led by Toussaint 1804 established the Negro nation of L'Ouverture**, expelled the French and in Haiti. In the 19th century, while the Atlantic slav e trade was dwindling, another slave trade grew up in East Africa. The Arabs who ruled in Zanzibar and other places an the east coast (see previous chapter), raided far into the interior for sl aves, in partnership with the Swahili traders. Some were sold to Arabian dealers, some to the French for work in the Indian Ocean islands, some even to North America. However, by the 1880s this trade, like the Atla ntic trade, had ceased. * Manpower it includes women. Though th e slaves were mainly male, there were many women. * Toussaint L'Ouverture, reputed to be the son of an African chief, was brought to Saint Domingue as a slave and rose to the position of superintendent of other Negroes on the plantation. He joined in a rebellion in 1791, and later raised and disciplined a Negro army. He led a further insurrection in 1796. His armies defeated a French force sent by Napoleon, but Toussa int L'Ouverture was captured and died in a French prison.

22 Chapter 12. Africa in the Early Years of the 19th Century. In the early part of the 19th century the political situation in the different countries and regions of Africa was on e of varying degrees of independence; and the social Organisation still varied from the kingdom to the tribal. The following is a brief summary of the position. North Africa. ince the mid-7th century). There was was ruled by the Filali dynasty (s Morocco considerable trade with European nations - the French, British, Dutch - in spite of some high-handed treatment of European emissaries. Th e possession of Ceuta had which also still held Melilla. passed from Portugal to Spain, was under nominal Turkish suzerainty. Algiers was still the main centre of the Algeria ken from Spain by the Turks. Barbary pirates. Oran had been ta was ruled by Beys, originally appo inted by the Turks, but becoming Tunisia hereditary in the 18th century. They paid tribute to the Sultan, but were otherwise pean powers piracy was abandoned as a independent. Under pressure from the Euro main occupation about 1820. was virtually independent in the 18th century, but the Turks re-asserted Tripolitania their authority in 1835 after a civil war. Piracy was still rampant at the beginning of the 19th century. rol, and more or less in a state of was practically free from Turkish cont Cyrenaica se of a Moslem reli anarchy. In the 1840s it became the main ba gious reform group, the Senussi. Their leader, Mohammed Ben Al i as-Senusi, preached a return to the simplicity of early Islam. power was seized in the first decade of the 19th century by the Albanian (In Egypt Mohammed Ali, whose descendants ruled until late in the century. West Africa. The Forest and Coastal Lands:- re, Nigeria consisted of a large number On the disintegration of the Oyo Empi Nigeria. of states and communities, mainly of th e Yoruba, Ibo and Hausa peoples. At the beginning of the 19th century the Hausa states were conquered by the Fulani, a lighter-skinned people with mixed Negroid and Hamitic fe atures, who had penetrated into Nigeria and the central Sudan from th e west. (They are thought to be descended from the rulers of' the ancien t kingdom of Tekrur, in the Senegal river area, which in the 10th to 15th centuries sometimes rivall ed the empires of Ghana and Mali.) The Fulani, ardent Moslems, set up emirates in northern Nigeria. Th eir religious centre was Sokoto.

23 Ashanti and Dahomy st Africa, The conquest of the were the main kingdoms in We al rivalry with the British stations an the coastal tribes brought the Ashanti into politic coast early in the 19th century. After several armed conflicts an uneasy peace in the coastal area (which they called the Gold Coast) ensued, with British influence increasing. and Sierra Leone ; and on the lave states of Liberia Further west were the ex-s "bulge” of West Africa -there were French settlements an the coast of Senegal, which . The British and French had for long had started about 1650, and British in Gambia were inhabited by and Ivory Coast “Senegambia”. Guinea fought for supremacy in mixtures of peoples - Fulani and Mandinka in Guinea, and Mandinka, Mossi and Akan in Ivory Coast. The Sudan. In the central Sudan the kingdom of Kanem-Bornu , which had reached its peak in the 16th century, fell to the Fulani in ab out 1808, but was soon reconquered from which had reigned for 1000 years, was them. However, the ruling dynasty, extinguished. In the Western Sudan politic al power had reverted from the "Niger Moors" to various tribes of the Mandinka (the original founders of ancient Mali). East and South Africa. and Tanganyika ) was controlled by The Swahili area of the East African coast (Kenya the Arabs from Oman. In 1832 the Sultan of Oman transferred his court to Zanzibar; and the Sultans of Zanzibar extended their influence alon g the coast from Mogadishu to the Portuguese-controlled territory of Mozambique. , Rwanda and Burundi , and the Kikuyu, Masai Inland were the kingdoms of Buganda and Luo tribes. Buganda was one of the most advanced kingdoms in East Africa. The people lived a peaceful and orderly existence in spacious dwellings - which, in the re constructed of grass and reeds. absence of suitable stone or clay, we the Rozvi kingdom was destroyed an d Great Zimbabwe devastated in In Zimbabwe 1830 by an invasion from the south, caused by the northern movement of the Bantu Zulu people who had formed a nation in Natal. The Zulus then founded a Matabele (Zulu) kingdom among the Shona of Zimbabwe.* was still divided into many small Somali states. (Ethiopia. During the 18th Somalia and the first half of the 19th century the power of the Kings of Ethiopia dwindled, and the country was in a continual state of turmoil.) basin were largely controlled by the Portuguese. Both Angola and the Congo territories had suffere d very severely from the slave trade. e Hova, the lightest coloured of the . By the end of the 18th century th Madagascar acy over most of the island. The French peoples of the island, had established suprem had intermittently held stations there and exerted considerable influence; but the Hova Queen Ranavalona, who reigned from 1828 to 1861, pursued a policy of excluding all Europeans, and fo reign commerce almost ceased. As with the political and social organisation, the way of life in Africa also varied, basically between the more advanced pe oples of the coastlands and the less

24 advanced in the interior but perhaps the latter had the benefit of a calmer and more unhurried existence in which the community spirit prospered. Educationally, Islam played a prominent part in the lands in which it was and to a lesser extent West Africa. For predominant - the north, the east coast, many centuries Arabic was the language of business and le arning for Moslem Africans, and the Arabic script their medium of writing; but at some time between the 16th and 18th centuries Africans began to write their own languages, using the purposes, appeared in Swahili, Hausa, Arabic letters. Books, at first for religious Mandinka, Fulani and Yoruba. Apart from the Christian Nubian kingdoms in the 6th to 13th centuries, Christianity - until the coming of the Portuguese - played little part in African history (except in Ethiopia which has been basically Christian since the 4th century, and in Egypt where there are still a million or more Christians of the Coptic Church). European missionaries started activiti es in Africa in about 1500, but Christianity did not become at all widespread until the later part of the 19th century. The Africans' love of music continued una bated. Various instruments were played, but pride of place was taken by the drum. It was used for many different purposes, including dancing, drama, ceremonies, an d sending messages. The royal drums were often an important symbol of kingship, through which the king communicated with his ancestors. Some of these drums measured 12 feet across. * The Zulus later came into conflict with both the British and Dutch in South Africa. The Dutch had first settled in South Africa in 1652, and the colony had been taken over by Britain in 1806. During the mid-19t h century both the British and the Boers (the Dutch South Africans) advanced from the original Cape Colony eastwards and northwards, the Transvaal and Orange Free State being occupied by Boers dissatisfied with British rule.

25 Chapter 12. European Exploration 1770-1870. Africa by Europeans, in sear ch of geographical and other Exploration of the interior of knowledge of the continent, and not start until- late in the 18th century. Previous expeditions for any distance into the interior - mainly by the Portuguese in the south - had been basically in search of trad e or of slaves for the slave trade. The new phase of exploration, starting in the 1770s, was fraught with many difficulties peculiar to Africa. The tropical climate and diseases of central and west Africa were a great hazard to the European; the tribes of the interior, seeing in every were naturally often hostile; and in Moslem European an emissary of the slave trade, areas the European had to contend with Mosl em fanaticism. A high proportion of the early explorers died or were killed. - James Bruce, who went through Ethiopia Some of the earliest were two Scotsmen the Blue Nile in 1770-72; and Mungo Park, and the Sudan and traced the course of 05) to find the source of the Niger. In who was drowned on his second attempt (in18 died in 1798 near Lake Mwera in northern the south- east the Portuguese de Lacerda Zambia, having reached there from the Zamb ezi; and in the first decade of the 19th century two half-caste Portuguese crosse d southern Africa from Angola to the Zambezi. tions explored nort hern Nigeria, the Between 1820 and 1834 several British expedi first expedition starting from Tripoli and going to Nigeria via the Kingdom of Kanem- Bornu. Later expeditions reached northern Nigeria from the west and south. The leaders were the Naval Commander Hugh Clapperton and - af ter his death from dysentery - his ex-servant - Richard Lander, who also died after being wounded in an affray with Africans. Clappert on was the first European to publish descriptions of the Hausa states from personal experience. the Scotsman Major Laing in 1826. He was The first European to reach Timbuktu was murdered on leaving it. Two years later the Frenchman René Caillié, having learned to speak Arabic, disguised himself as an Arab and joined a Mandinka caravan hed Timbuktu, stayed there for two weeks, travelling inland from Senegal. He reac van crossing the Sahara to Morocco - becoming the first and then joined another cara European to return alive from Timbuktu. The first non-Africans to penetrate far into central Africa were Arabs from Zanzibar, one of whom crossed the continent to Ben guela in Angola in 1848. Then came the best-known of all explorers of Africa, the Scottish doctor and missionary David Livingstone. In 24 years (1849-1873) of trav els over a third of the continent - from vastly increased European knowledge of the south to the equator - he not only central Africa, but by his inte rest in the Africans and thei r welfare, his kindness and gentlemanly behaviour towards them, he wa s trusted and revered by them wherever he went. His journeys were unhurried, allowi ng time for meticulous observation and often delayed by fever or dysentery - and sometimes by slav e traders, against whom he raised a strong feeling in Europe which greatly contributed to the final extinction of the trade. Amongst Livingstone's achievements were th e crossing of the Kalahari desert, the crossing of central Africa in both directions, an d the discovery of Victoria Falls and

26 Lake Nyasa*. In a search for the source of the Nile, starting in 1866, he was out of met at Ujiji on Lake Tanganyika by the contact with Europeans for four years until Welshman Henry Horton Stanley, journalist and explorers who had been commissioned by an American newspaper to find him. Still exploring, Livingstone died of dysentery in 1873. His body and a ll his instruments and papers were carried by his faithful African port ers 700 miles to Zanzibar. Meanwhile detailed exploration of the land between Timbuktu and Lake Chad had been carried out by the German Heinrich Ba rth in the 1850s; and the British Richard Burton, John Hanning Speke, Samuel Baker and James Grant, in expeditions in the north-east in the 1850s and 1860s solved th e problem of the sources of the Nile. In the later part of the century interest in Africa had been so inspired by the example of Livingstone and other pioneers that it became almost crowde d with explorers and missionaries. * On his journey along the west coast of Lake Nyasa, Livingstone was appalled at the activities of the Arab slave tr aders among the Malawi tribes.

27 Chapter 13. French and British Activities in Africa from the 1820s to 1880s. In the 1820s the main European colonies in Africa were Portuguese Mozambique and Angola in the south, the French settlement in coastal Senegal, and the British to South Africa) in Sierra Leone, the Gold Coast and. possessions (in addition Gambia. e French in Algeria. Though Then the first big step in Eu ropean colonisation was by th still under nominal Turkish suzerainty, Algeria was in practice ruled by local chiefs. insulted the French consul; and after failing to get an apology One of these, in 1827, the French sent an expeditionary force wh ich captured Algiers in 1830. After some indecision as to what to do next, the French embarked on a policy of further conquest. Though strongly opposed by some of the Algerian chiefs, the conquest of Algeria was virtually completed towards the end of the 1840s - and the Barbary ench colonists were settled there. pirates at last quelled. Some 40,000 Fr French rule was later extended into the Algerian Sahara, and a policy of "assimilation' of Alge ria to France adopted. In 1881, by when there were nearly a became politically part 400,000 European settlers, Algeri of metropolitan France. In 1881, also, the French in vaded Tunisia from Algeria, and established a French protectorate there. Elsewhere in North Africa - Morocco remained independent, with the European powers, chiefly Spain, France and Britain, from the middle of the century rivalling each other in spreading their influence. Th eir foothold on the e Spaniards extended th north coast in the 1860s. the Senussi increased. By the 1880s they In Cyrenaica and Tripolitania the power of had over 100 monasteries in North Africa and elsewhere. They were basicallv fluence, but there were oppo peaceable and a civilising in sed to Europeans as being incompatible with Islam - and also to th e Turks as not fulfilling its precepts. The Turks had to accept the authority of the Senussi over the Bedouin tribes of the desert. West Africa. In Senegal the French started an advance in to the interior in the 1850s, and Senegal became an important base for further expa nsion into the Sudan and the extension of French influence in West Africa generall y. The French also started moving into Dahomey from the coast in the 1880s. The British throughout the 19th century were involved in a series of minor wars in the Gold Coast with the Ashanti, who were not resigned to British influence, in the coastal area. After an invasion of this area by the Ashanti in 1873, a British punitive expedition destroyed the capi tal, Kumasi, and forced the Ashanti to agree to refrain from further invasion of the coast.

28 In Nigeria the British - in order to stop th e slave trade through th e port of Lagos, and Dahomey, captured Lagos in 1851, and it to stop aggression from the King of became a British colony in 1861. British influe nce then spread in the Yoruba area of wars which had efforts to stop the civil Nigeria, and the British made engulfed the country since the breaking up of the Oy o empire. In the 1880s Nigeria became a British protectorate. Further south - on the equator the French in 1849 founded a colony for freed slaves at Libreville in Gabon; and in the 1870S they started adva ncing into the interior of this region. e French acquired from the lo On the other side of Africa th cal sultan the port of Obok in Somalia in 1862. Egypt and the Eastern Sudan. In 1869 European interest in Africa became focussed on Egypt, with the opening of the Suez Canal (built under the directio n of the French dipl omat and engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps). Egypt at this time, though still nominally under Turkish suzerainty, was ruled by the Khedive (viceroy) Ismail, great grandson of Mohammecl Ali. Ismail had many ambitious schemes, one of which was the conquest of the southern part of the Egyptian (or Easter n) Sudan and the suppression of the slave trade there. The northern part had been conquered by Mohnmmed Ali. In 1870 Ismail commissioned the British expl orer Samuel Baker to carry out this conquest with Egvptian troops - which he did: and on the completion of Baker's 4- of the British General year contract Ismail obtained the services Gordon as Governor of the Sudan. Ismail's foreign adventures, public works schemes, and personal extravagance brought Egypt to financial co llapse in 1875; and after an international investigation her finances were placed under the joint control of Britain and France. A nationalist movement then arose, and several years of turmoil culminated in 1882 in serious riots, which resulted in Britain putting down the Nationalists by force. The Khedive’s authority was restored, but Britain now effectively ruled Egypt. The Liberal government in Br itain did not wish to perpetuate this control, and intended to withdraw British troops as soon as order and good government was restored; but this policy was thwarted by ev ents in the Sudan. General Gordon, after 5 years as Governor, during which he estab lished firm military control and did much to suppress the slave trade, resigned in 1879; and the Sudan reverted to an oppressive Egyptian rule. In 1881 there was a formidable revolt led by Mohammed Ahmed of Dongola, who claimed to be the Mahdi, or Messiah, destined to conquer the world for Islam. An Egyptian army under the British Colonel Hicks was sent in 1883 to suppress the Mahdi - and was wiped out. The British government, reluctant to exte nd British involvement, persuaded the Egyptian government to abandon the Sudan, and sent Gordon there to evacuate the Egyptian garrisons. Gordon began trying to arrange for the future settlement and welfare of the Sudan after th e evacuation; but his ideas were rejected by the Mahdi - who then besieged the capital, Khartoum. Inspired by Gordon, the Egyptian troops held out for 10 months; but in 1885 Khartoum fell, and Gordon and the garrison and many of the inhabitants were massacred.

29 This disaster caused a demand in Britain for retribution and the restoration of British prestige. The British withdrawal from Egypt was indefinitely postponed.

30 Chapter 14. The "Scramble for Africa". Until the 1870s only Portugal, Britain and France of the European nations had made any substantial colonisation in Africa. And. the French and British advances had been al policies varying with the government or regime in rather spasmodic, their coloni its representatives in Africa. power, and with the enterprise of In the 1870s, however, the outlook of the European nations towards African colonisation changed. This was partly due to the greater knowledge of the continent nt increased opportunities for trade and obtained from exploration, and conseque access to valuable raw materials; and partly due to efforts to protect the explorers and missionaries and to suppress slavery and the remnants of the slave trade. But it was also due to a new spirit of national prestige, stemming largely from the unification of both Germany and Italy in the period 1859-1870; and perhaps to some extent due to the rise of a sentiment that it was the duty of the "superior" white man t the Africans - a sentiment which ignored the fact that to civilise, educate and conver , and that the Africans might well be the white man was not necessarily superior much happier, and certainly pref erred, to be left alone. in which the European nations competed The result was the “scramble for Africa", there. One of the earliest targets was Tunisia, where with each other for colonies Italy had greatly extended her commercial in terests and hoped to gain control of the country but, as already mentioned, was fo restalled by the French in 1881. The French people were no very ardent co lonists; but France’s policy, after her humiliating defeat by Prussia in 1870, had become one of vast colonial expansion, partly to restore her international presti ge. Bismarck, the creator of Germany, did rred to pressure by German commercial interests, and not want colonies, but defe Germany joined in the competition. There then followed, in 1884-85, a remarkable international conference in Berlin at which rules were drawn up for colonisation in Africa. There were many provisions in main one being that all signatories had the Act emanating from the conference, the to notify the others of any intended action to take possession of any part of the - and in effect to obtain the approval of African coast or to penetrate into the interior the other signatories. In this way, although there were international disputes and 'incidents', Africa was carved up by the European nations without armed conflict between them. One of the first agreements ar ising from the Berlin conference was the recognition of the "Congo Free State" as the personal posse ssion of King Leopol d II of the Belgians. (Belgium had been an independent countr y since 1830). The enterprising Leopold, seeing the possibilities of central Africa open ed up by the explorat ions of Livingstone, Stanley and others, had called an internat ional conference in 1876 to co-ordinate further exploration and suppr ess the slave trade. (This was the forerunner of the Berlin conference eight years later.) An international association was formed - largely Belgian - and Leopold engaged Stanley to es tablish trading posts in the Congo area and make treaties with the African chiefs. Stanley spent 5 years doing this. The international aspect of the operations so on evaporated, and Leopold financed the enterprise from his private fortune - henc e the award of the Congo Free State as his

31 personal property. Early in the 1900s mismanagement and ill-treatment of the Africans in the Congo Free State led to international concern, particularly in Britain and the United States. The re sult was that in 1908 the Belgi an government took over the colony, and the worst of the abuses were removed. In general, the period from 1885 to abou t 1920 was one of invasion, conquest and/or negotiations with African rulers by the European powers in their chosen and allotted areas, and the setting up of colonial rule. The only African states to survive as independent were Ethiop ia and Liberia. In some of the more powerful and organised African countries re sistance was fierce and prol onged, but in the end they uipment of the invaders. Another cause succumbed to the superior weapons and eq of the defeat of the Africans was that there was no unity amongst them - either between different states, or within each state. Some countries comprised several different African peoples, with one ruling and oppressing the others. The Europeans could often recruit African soldie rs for their invading armies. Altogether some 40 colonies or protecto rates were formed. Taking in turn the European nations involved:- France was the most active co lonial power, and acquired the largest area of territory. cluded Algeria an d Tunisia in the north; Senegal, By 1900 her African empire in the West African coastlands; French French Guinea, Ivory Coast and Dahomey in West Africa which took in nearly all the Sahara and western Sudan; French Equatorial Africa which co mprised Gabon, some of the Congo and central Sudan (modern Chad); French Somaliland (Djibouti), and the island of Madagascar. France did not achieve this without a numbe r of severe struggles, particularly in Dahomey, and in the Lake Chad area wh ere they met with resistance from the before the French had won control in the Senussi. It was well into the 20th century resistance by the Hova dynasty was not western and central Sudan. In Madagascar finally overcome until 1896. The last stage of French colonization wa s in Morocco, where France, Spain, Germany, over the Sultan. Even Britain and Italy competed for influence tually, in 1912, the country became a French protectorate, ex cept for the Spanish possessions in the north - around Ceuta and Melilla. Resistance by the Riff tribes co ntinued. A prolonged rising by them in the 1920s was suppresse d, but guerilla action went on into the 1940s. Britain completed her occupati Coast, Gambia and Sierra on of Nigeria, the Gold Leone in West Africa, and acquired Kenya, Nyasaland*, Uganda, Zanzibar (where the Arab Sultan accepted a British protectora te) and British Somaliland in the east. In the Gold Coast there were two more wars wi th the Ashanti before it became a British colony in 1902. In Somaliland a Moslem Somali leader, nicknamed the "Mad Mullah" by the British, caused a lot of trouble by raids against the British forces during the first 20 years of the 20th century. In Egypt a British-officered Egyptian army defended the frontier with the Sudan for 10 years against the Mahdi’s successor until Britain decided on re-conquest to end this nuisance and to deliver the Sudanese from tyranny. In 1896-98 the re-conquest was achieved by a British/Egyptian army under Lord Kitchener. The eastern Sudan came under the joint control of Britain and Egypt - and Britain continued to rule

32 Egypt until 1922. (By a British unilateral de claration Egypt then became formally powers reserved to Britain, including the future of the independent, but with certain Sudan. The last British troops left Egypt in 1956, leaving the Sudan a separate state, independent of Egypt.) ality in political affairs in the 1880s and In British South Africa the dominant person early 1890a was Cecil Rhodes who had visions of British dominion from Cape Colony to Cairo. He was alarmed at the threat to the route to the north by German infiltration in South West Africa on one side and the Boers of the Transvaal on the 1885 asked for protection against Boer other; and when the Bechuana tribes in aggression, Britain proclaimed Bechuanala nd (modern Botswana) to be a British protectorate. Rhodes later turned his attention to the land north of the Transvaal - ancient tween the Shona an Zimbabwe - then divided be d the Zulus (with whom Britain had already had a serious conflict in 1879 ). The British now intervened in a Shona-Zulu war, defeating the Zulus; but some years were faced with a later, in 1896, they formidable rising of both peoples, which they suppressed. The whole area was given the two protectorates of Northern and the name Rhodesia, separated in 1911 into Southern Rhodesia, north and south of the Zambezi. Northern Rhodesia is modern Zambia, Southern Rhodesia modern Zimbabwe** Returning to the “scramble" - Germany acquired the Cameroons and Togo, South West Africa (Namibia) and Tanganyika. To the latter were joined Rwanda and Burundi, to form German East Africa. In the first decade of the 20th century the Hottentots and the Herero tribes in South West Africa and the African tribes In Tanganyika all rebelled, unsuccessfully, against German rule. Italy, after being disappointe Eritrea (north of Ethiopia) d in Tunisia, was ‘awarded' and Italian Somaliland. Not content with th is she embarked in 1887 on an attempt to conquer Ethiopia. After establishing a sort of protectorate, with the terms of which the Emperor of Ethiopia did not agree, the Italians invaded the country again in 1896, only to be disastrously defeated at Adowa. Still in search of a greater African empire, Italy invaded Tripolitania in 1911. Th e Turks, attacked by a league of Balkan countries, withdrew from Tripolitania to meet the menace nearer home - and Italy conquered Tripolitania and Cyrenaica; but they had great difficulty with the Senussi, who were not finally subdued until the early 1930s. In 1934 Tripolitania and Cyrenaica were united to form the Italian colony of Libya. r possession of Mozambique and Angola, Portugal, as well as being confirmed in he was awarded “Portuguese" Guinea. Portugal also still possessed the Cape Verde Islands and Madeira. Spain kept her ancient posse ssions - in northern Morocco, the Canary Islands and the island of Fernando Po (which she obtained from Portugal in the 18th century). To Fernando Po she added the nearby mainland area of Rio Muni, to form Spanish Guinea; and along the north-west coas t she acquired the Spanish Sahara. *Nyasaland was ancient Malawi, Uganda la rgely the ancient Ki ngdom of Buganda. Britain acquired both mainly by peac eful agreement with the Africans.

33 **The history of Rhodesia, while it was Rhodesia, is included in the history of South Africa. (After the Boer War of 1899-1902, the Boer Transvaal and Orange Free State became British colonies, and in 1910 were united with Cape Colony and Natal to form the British dominion, the Union of South Africa.)

34 Chapter 15. The Colonial Period. The colonial period lasted for different le ngths of time in the different colonies, ending with most African states obtain ing independence in the 1950s and 1960s. The peak of the colonial era was roughly the first half of the 20th century - a period which included the two world wars. On the outbreak of the First World War th e German colonies in Africa were invaded by Allied forces - the Cameroons and Togo by the British and French, German East Africa by British imperial armies (includ ing Indian and South African), and South kly defeated in Togo and ricans. The Germans were quic West Africa by the South Af South West Africa, in the Cameroons by 1916 . In East Africa the campaigns went on throughout the war. anyika became a British mandate under the League of At the end of the war Tang can mandate, and the Cameroons and Togo Nations, South West Africa a South Afri itain and France (the British shares being administered were each divided between Br by the neighbouring colonies Nigeria and the Gold Coast respectively). Rwanda and Burundi were detached from Tangan yika and became Belgian mandates, administered as part of the Congo Free State. European-officered Afri can regiments took part in a ll these campaigns, and fought loyally for their “mother" countries. For in stance, battalions of the Nigeria Regiment fought with distinction in the British campaigns in the Cameroons and East Africa, and Algerian and Senega lese levies fought on the wester n front in Europe as citizens of France. s made in industrial Between the two world wars good progress wa development. This benefited the Africans when they later beca me independent, but did not benefit them very such at the time. The profits largely went to European companies, which relied uiting this labour varied. Sometimes it on cheap African labour. The means of recr tter sometimes by a contract system which was by force, sometimes voluntary, the la often caused the African worker to be away from his home for long periods. And, although tribal conflicts were to a large extent eliminated, the Africans became involved, as we have seen, in the wars be tween the European powers. So it cannot be supposed that the Africans were entire ly happy under the colonial system. But they did receive the benefits of education - in missionary and government schools* - and the establishment of me dical services. And some European modernisation made a big difference - for instance to the forest-bound villager in West Africa whose vista was transformed by European road building. Throughout this period there was a gradual build-up of a new spirit of nationalism among the African peoples, particularly in the more advanced countries of North Africa, but also in the rest of Africa, led by the better ed ucated Africans. In effect they were copying the nation alism of their European ma sters, and saw no reason why the Africans in each colony should no t become free nations like those in Europe. This movement, however, made little progress until after the Second World War. Before that war the status qu o in north-east Africa wa s challenged by Mussolini's Italy. Mussolini was obsessed with the idea of winning an important place in the

35 world for Italy, and with the determin ation to wipe out the memory of the 1896. In 1935 the Italians invaded Ethiopia humiliating defeat by the Ethiopians in from Eritrea and Somaliland, and quickly overran the country. Ethiopia was then joined with the other two colonies to form Italian East Africa. of France in 1940, Italy entered the war In the Second World War, after the collapse on the side of Germany; and the war then spread to Africa, with Italian offensives from Libya against British-controlled Egypt and from Italian East Africa into British Somaliland. In East Africa the Italian invasion was soon halted; and a counter-offensive by a British Commonwealth force (including Indians, South Africans, East Africans and an Ethiopian revolt, was ov erwhelmingly successful. The West Africans), assisted by independence was restored, and Eritrea campaign was over by May 1941. Ethiopian and Italian Somaliland came under British administration. In the north a fluctuating desert war, in which British Commonwealth forces were opposed by the Italians and Germans, cont inued until late in 1942, with Libya the battlefield. Then the British drove the German/Italian armies back across Tripolitania into Tunisia. Here they were joined by an Anglo-American army which had landed in Morocco and Algeria. By Ma h Africa of German and y 1943 they had cleared Nort Italian troops; and in July the Allies, from their bases in North Africa, invaded Sicily, and later Italy. The position of the French colonies, afte r the collapse of France, was complicated. Her North African and West African colonies remained under the "Vichy" government, but French Equatorial Africa opted for Gen eral de Gaulle and became an important Free French force conquered the Fezzan in base of the 'Free French'. From Chad a Libya in 1942-43. After the war all the pre-war French colo nies were once more under the French s resignation in 1946. Madagascar, which government, headed by de Gaulle until hi ntrol during the war, to prevent it from had been taken by the British from Vichy co falling to the Japanese, was retu rned by Britain to France. Libya, no longer an Italian colony, remained under a British/ French administration for several years, and then - in 1951 - it became, by a decision of the United Nations, an independent kingdom under Idris I, the leader of the Senussi. * In the early days of the colonial pe riod education was provided mainly by missionary schools; but after the Second Wo rld War there was a great expansion of state education. For example, in 1950, in Nigeria there were some 9000 primary schools, 100 secondary, over 100 teacher tr aining colleges, and a University College at Ibadan. In the much smaller Senegal (a tenth the population of Nigeria) there were 200 primary schools and some secondar y schools, teacher training colleges and technical colleges. In Kenya there were separate primary and secondary schools for Europeans, Africans, In dians, and Arabs.

36 Chapter 16. The Africans become Independent. After the Second World War nationalist movements in Africa quickly gained momentum. This was largely due to the war itself, and its effects. Many thousands of Africans had fought In the Allied armies, expanding their outlook and their knowledge of international affairs; and the war had been to some extent an anti- nts of the Axis powers. And many more racist war - against the racist governme Africans had by now received the beginnings of a modern education and begun to take an interest in political matters. In many parts of Africa outstanding leaders arose - such men as Kwame Nkrumah of the Gold Coast, Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya, Julius Nyerere of Tanzania, Sékou Touré of (French) Guinea, Houphouet- Boigny of Ivory Coast. Moreover the status of the two great colonial powers in Africa - France and Britain - lonialism. France had been defeated, and had changed, and also their attitude to co her south-east Asian colonial empire, after the war soon had serious troubles in itain had withdrawn from her Empire in which she abandoned altogether in 1954. Br India In 1917, and British opinion was becoming favourable to political concessions towards self-government in her colonies and protectorates. The first moves came in the north. After their withdrawal from south-east Asia the French were faced with nationalist unrest in Morocco and Tunisia which they were unable to subdue, and both were granted independence in 1956 - the year in which the British left the (Egyptian) Sudan to be an independent nation. The greatest blow to France, though, was a Moslem revolt in Algeria, regarded as part of France, and where there were over a million European settlers. For four years, 1954-58, huge numbers of French tr oops were sent to Al geria to crush the French government de rebellion, but failed to do go. In 1958 the cided to negotiate, whereupon the settlers and French military leaders in Algeria seized power. To a wave of public enthusiasm, to govern restore the situation de Gaulle came back, on France. But the war went on; and in 1962, with the approval of a referendum in France, the independence of Algeria was ac cepted. Nearly a milli on settlers moved to France. Meanwhile France had launched, in 1958, a “Community of Af rican nations" to include all the remaining French territories in Africa. (De Gaulle had probably hoped that Algeria would fit into this.) In the Community each state was to be self- governing, but closely linked to France in foreign, strategic, financial and economic affairs. The following became members : Senegal, Gabon, Chad, Congo, Central African Republic, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Upper Volta, Ivory Coast, Benin (Dahomey), and Malagasy (Madagascar) *. Guinea did not join, and became independent. Two years later all members of the Community became fully independent - whereupon six of them withdr ew from the Community (Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Upper Volta, Ivory Coast, and Benin). The organs of government in the Comm unity later dropped into abeyance, but French influence remained dominant. Th e ex-mandates Togo and Cameroon also

37 became independent in 1960, and remain ed territories associated with the ritory associated wi th France" and fully Community. French Somaliland became a "ter independent as the Republic of Djibouti in 1977. In all these ex-French African states, except those in North Africa, French is still an official language - and it is also much spoken in ex-French North Africa. The first Negro state to gain independence was the British colony, the Gold Coast, which became independent Ghana in 1957 unde r the leadership of Nkrumah (and the British part of the Togo mandate was adde d to Ghana). The other British possessions Sierra Leone, and The Gambia - followed between 1960 and in West Africa - Nigeria, 1965. (Gambia took the name "The Gambia" after independence.) entual complete independence was Progress towards self-government and ev ates where there were few white settlers probably smoother in these West African st than it was in some of the climatically more salubrious territories in East Africa, where there were significant numbers of Europeans and Asians who were apprehensive of their future under African rule. For inst ance, in Kenya there were some 40-50,000 whites, about the same number of Arabs, and nearly 200,000 Indians or Pakistanis who had originally been imported for work on railway building. ence was granted to all the British Nevertheless, between 1960 and 1964 independ possessions in East Africa : British Soma liland (which was united with ex-Italian Somaliland to form the new state of Soma lia), Tanzania**, Uganda, Kenya, Malawi, and Zambia. In Kenya Britain had been co nfronted during most of the 1950s by a terrorist Organisation, the Mau Mau, a Kiku yu secret society ex pressing resentment against the European settlers and against th e restrictions on allotment of land to Africans. te of Bechuanaland became independent In South Africa the British protectora Botswana in 1966; and two other tribal te rritories - Basutoland and Swaziland - which were surrounded by the Union of South Africa and had become British protectorates in 1868 and 1902 respectively, also gained independence, Basutoland (as Lesotho) in 1966, Swaziland in 1968. In 1960 the Union of South Africa became a republic, and in 1961 withdrew from the British Commonwealth. The former British co lonies and protectorates Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, The Gambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland all remained in the Commonwealth. The situation in Southern Rhodesia was more difficult. Britain's plans for her independence with majority rule (in effe ct African rule) were bitterly opposed by most of the ¼ million or so white settlers. Failing to reach any agreement on the question, the white Rhodesians in 1965 de clared Rhodesia to be an independent Dominion, within the Commonwealth. Negotiations and discussions - and internal troubles - continued for 15 years, until in 1980 Rhodesia became the independent African nation Zimbabwe - staying in the British Commonwealth. The remaining territory in southern Africa, South West Africa or Namibia, is still administered by South Africa, which would like to incorporate it into the republic - against the ruling of th e United Nations.

38 dependent Zaire in 1960. Rwanda The Congo Free State became in Belgian Africa. d became separate states in 1962. and Burundi were detached from it, an were reluctant to give up thei r African empire; but in all three The Portuguese colonies - Mozambique, Angola and Guinea -Bissau (Portuguese Guinea) - they were faced with continuous warfare from the ea rly 1960s onwards against the guerillas of tions. In 1974-75 Portugal African resistance organiza abandoned the struggle, and all three became independent. granted independence to Spanish Guin ea in 1968 - under the name Equatorial Spain Guinea; and in 1975 the Spanish Sahara ca me under the joint control of Morocco and Mauritania. So, between 1951 (Libya) and 1980 (Zimbabwe) colonial Africa ceased to exist. Instead there were (apart from Egypt, Ethiopia*** and South Africa) 43 independent - had been independent in 1950; and the countries, of which only one - Liberia unsolved problem Namibia. *Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Upper Volta, Ivory, Benin and Guinea are parts of what was French West Africa; Gabon, Ch ad, Congo and Central African Republic parts of what was French Equatorial Africa. ** Tanzania consisted of Tanganyika and Za nzibar. They were granted independence separately; but in Zanzibar the African ma jority rebelled against and overthrew the Arab Sultan and elected to join with Tanganyika. ***The ex-Italian colony of Eritrea was jo ined, by a United Na tions decision, to Ethiopia in a federation, and was later (in 1962) incorporated in Ethiopia as a province of that country.

39 Chapter 17. After Independence: General. The newly independent African nations fa ced many problems, particularly those g a national state. nt experience of bein countries - the great majority - with no rece One awkward problem was that the boundaries of the new states often bore little or no relation to racial or tribal divisions. The boundaries had mainly come about as a result of the "scramble” for Africa", an d had been drawn afte r bargaining between nsideration for tribal organisation. When the European powers concerned with little co independence was gained these artificial boundaries were accepted, because there ining independence was no other practicable way of obta without prolonged discussion, negotiation and stri fe. There was some talk of federation in West Africa, so the ex-French colonies, but it came to nothing. uniting the ex-British and al There were nevertheless many frontier disputes and small wars; but the "Organisation of African Unity", which was formed in 1963 by representatives of ttle them. The OAU aimed to help towards some 30 of the new states, helped to se independence those which had not yet, at that time, achieved it, and to improve economic, political and cultural conditions throughout Africa. Its permanent headquarters was established at Addis Ab aba, in Ethiopia. The new states also became members of the United Nations; indeed, African countries number about 30% of the whole. Another difficult problem facing particular ly the East African countries, was the position of the European and Asia n minorities in the new order. Nearly all the new nations became republi cs. The few exceptions were the Kingdoms of Lesotho and Swaziland in the south, and Morocco and Libya in the north, but Libya became a republic later. And, in the other direction, the Central African Republic later changed to the Central African Empire. With little experience of de s been an inevitable trend mocratic government, there ha in many states towards autocratic rule. Military coups and dictatorships have been frequent, and Communist interference by th e Soviet Union in some areas has added to the problems. The remaining chapters of this history will give some general information about all the states (populations and other statis tics are estimates in the mid 1970s) and a brief history of each since independence . They are grouped as follows; and some notes are here given regarding previous names, to assist in identification North Africa Morocco Algeria Tunisia Libya - Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. The Countries of the Sudan Mauritania - part of French West Af rica. Not to be confused with Roman Mauretania, which was roughly modern Morocco.

40 Mali - part of French West Africa. In ro ughly the same positi on as ancient Mali from which it has taken its name. Niger - part of French West Africa. Chad - part of French Equatorial Af rica. Named after Lake Chad, includes much of ancient Kanem-Bornu. Sudan - Nubia, Egyptian or Eastern Sudan. West Africa. Liberia Nigeria - includes an cient Oyo and Benin. ent Ghana, whose ent land from anci Ghana - Ashanti, Gold Coast. A differ name it has taken. Sierra Leone The Gambia - Gambia. Senegal - part of French West Africa. Africa. A different land from ancient Benin - Dahomey, part of French West Benin. Ivory Coast - part of French West Africa. Upper Volta - part of French West Africa. Guinea - French Guinea, part of French West Africa. Togo - Togoland. Guinea-Bissau - Portuguese Guinea. East Africa. Somalia - British and Italian Somaliland. Djibouti - French Somaliland, Terri tory of the Afars and Issas. Kenya Uganda - Buganda, Bunyoro and other kingdoms. Tanzania - Tanganyika and Zanzibar. Mozambique Malagasy - Madagascar. Central Africa. Central African Empire - Ce ntral African Republic, part of French Equatorial Africa. Cameroon - Cameroons. Congo - ancient Kongo, part of French Equatorial Africa. Different from the 'Belgian Congo'. Gabon - part of French Equatorial Africa. Equatorial Guinea - Spanish Guinea. Zaire - Congo Free State, Belgian Cong o. (Includes ancient Lunda, Luba, Kazembe. Rwanda & Burundi - ancient kingdoms, th en part of German East Africa, then part of the Belgian Congo. Southern Central Africa Zambia - Northern Rhodesia. Includes some of Central ancient Monomatapa Malawi - Ancient Malawi, then Nyasaland. Angola - parts of ancient Kongo and Ndongo. Southern Africa Zimbabwe - ancient Zimb abwe, then Southern Rhodesia, then Rhodesia. Botswana - Bechuanaland.

41 Lesotho - Basutoland. Swaziland. Namibia - (German) So uth West Africa. Note. The Central African Empi re has recently (1979) reverted to being the Central African Republic.

42 Chapter 18. After Independence: North Africa. Resumed independence in 1956 Morocco. Berber 35%, foreign population about Population – 16 ½ million. Arab 65%, 100,000. Density of population - about 90 per square mile. Religion - Moslem. Language - Arabic (official), Berber, French, Spanish. Literacy - 15%. Exports - Phosphates and othe r minerals, citrous fruits. Main towns - Rabat Capital. Seaport. 435,000. ic centre of the country. Casablanca 1,370,000 Port. Econom ntre. Ancient capital. Marrakesh 330,000 Tourist ce 320,000 Sacred ci Fez ty. Ancient university. One-time capital Meknes 300,000 Agricultural centre. One-time capital. Tangier 185,000 Port and commercial city. Held by Portugal 1471- 1662. Later a centre of the Barbary pirates. (Ceuta-and Melilla still belong to Spain.) the Sultan Sidi Mohammed assumed the On Morocco's resumption of independence his death in 1961 his son became King Hassan II. A title King Muhammad V. On constitution providing for representative government was adopted by referendum in 1965 the King suspended parliament. In 1962; but after serious disturbances in which he kept considerable powers. 1970 he brought in a new constitution; in Discontent with the monarchy led to attempted coups by military officers in 1971 and 1972. The King survived, an d brought in another consti tution, also approved by referendum. Morocco has kept aloof from the conflicts in the Middle East, and her economy has made progress - Morocco is the world's thir d largest producer of phosphates, and her tourist industry has increased. Became independent (from France) in 1962. Algeria Population - 15 million. Arab/Berber. Density of population - about 18 per square mile. Religion - Moslem. Language - Arabic (official), French, Berber.

43 Literacy - 15%. Exports - Oil, natural gas, wine, fruit. Main towns – Capital. Se Algiers 1,000,000 aport. Industrial centre. Oran 400,000 Seaport. Former French naval station. Constantine 250,000 On attaining independence a leader of the Nationalists, Ben Bella, became President, litary coup in 1965. Colo nel Boumédienne came to but he was deposed by a mi power, and remained President until his de ath in 1978. His government maintained a neutral foreign policy, but Soviet influence increased. The mass exodus of French colonists after independence weakened Algerian huge deposits of oil and natural gas helped recovery. economy, but the discovery of . Became independent (from France) in 1956. Tunisia Population – 5 ½ million. Arab/Berber. Density of population - about 90 per square mile. Religion - Moslem. Language - Arabic (official), French. Literacy - 30%. Exports - Olive oil, mine, phosphates. Main towns – 500,000 Capital. Seaport. Near ruins of Carthage. Tunis Sfax 200,000 Bizerta Seaport. 100,000 On becoming independent an elected Assembly abolished the monarchy and deposed the Bey, and Habib Bourguiba, a Nationalist leader, became President of the Tunisian Republic. He still is. He is immensely popu lar and has ruled with farsightedness and moderation - in both internal and foreign affairs, including his attitude towards sia has been one of the most stable states in the Arab Israel. Under his guidance Tuni world. Became independent in 1951. Libya. Population – 2 ½ million. Arab/Berber. Density of population - about 4 per square mile. Religion - Moslem. Language - Arabic (official), Italian, English.

44 Literacy - 25-30% Exports - Oil. Main towns – Tripoli 400,000. In Tripolitania. Benghazi In Cy renaica. Joint capitals. 200,000. A new capital is being built at Beida, in Cyrenaica. Like Algeria, Libya contains a high proportion of desert. A sparsely populated country - with its inhabitants about a third nomadic - Libya was the first ex-colonial African to 1969 it was a monarchy under King state to become independent . From 1951 Idris, the Senussi leader. He was then overthrown by a military, coup, and the Libyan Arab Republic has since then been ruled by a left-wing military regime led by Colonel Gaddafi. Gaddafi expelled foreigners and aligned Libya with the more militant Arab countries in the Arab-Israeli confrontation. The international position of Libya, hi therto of little consequence, has been transformed by the discovery of vast o il reserves, and Libya has become one of Western Europe's most impo rtant sources of oil.

45 Chapter 19. After Independence: The Countries of the Sudan. Independent (from France) 1960. Mauritania. Arab/Berber 80%, Negro 20%. Population – 1 ½ million. Density of population - 3-4 -per square mile. Religion - Moslem. Language - French and Arabic (official), tribal dialects. Literacy - 1-5%. Exports - Iron ore. Main town – Capital. Nouakchott 50,000 Much of this sparsely populated country is part of the Sahara desert. Many of the people are nomadic. After independence there was prolonged fr iction with Morocco, owing to Moroccan claims to some of northern Mauritania - where there are large iron ore deposits which have become the basis of Mauritania 's prosperity. Agreement to share these resources, and to share in a partition of the Spanish Sahara (see below) was eventually reached. Copper deposi ts are also being exploited. The President of the "Islamic Republic of Mauritania" was Mokhtar Oald Daddah until ressive, and appeared stable except for 1978. His government was economically prog some discontent amongst the Negro minority . However, in 1978 Daddah was ousted by a military coup. A military government took over and suspended the constitution. This Spanish colony about 100, 000 square miles of desert with Spanish Sahara. about 60,000 inhabitants, mainly nomadi c - was taken over in 1975, with Spanish agreement, by Morocco and Mauritania. Saharan guerillas, based in the Algerian Sahara, continue to aim at making the territory independent. Independent (from France) 1960. Mali. Population - 6 million. Berbers, Tuareg, Negroes the latter the majority (Bambara, Fulani and other tribes). Density of population - about 13 per square mile. Religion - about 60% Moslem, 30% tribal, 2% Christian. Language - French (official), tribal dialects. Literacy - 5%

46 Exports - Groundnuts, cotton, dried fish. Main towns – Bamako 400,000 Capital. Caravan centre 9,000 on the edge of the Sahara. Timbuktu After independence Mali, under President Modibo Keita, pursued a strongly left-wing socialist course, assisted largely by Chinese Communists. In 1968 Keita was A young army officer, Youssa Traoré, overthrown by a (bloodless) military coup. became head of state and brought in a more conservative policy. In 1978 the government became mainly civilian, with Traoré still President. Independent (from France) 1960. Niger. Population - 4 million. Nomadic Tuaregs in the north, various Negro tribes in the south, Hausa the most numerous. Density of population - about 8 per square mile. Religion 85% Moslem, the remainder tribal and some Christians. Language - French (official), Hausa and other tribal dialects. Literacy - 5%. Exports - Groundnuts. (Urani um recently discovered). Main town – 100,000 Niamey Capital. Under its first President, Diori Hamani, Niger kept close ties with France and was ver, the army seized power and military politically relatively stable. In 1974, howe government followed, with Colonel Kounché as President. Although the majority of the people are Haus a, there appears to be no inclination to unite with the Hausa of northern Nigeria. Independent (from France) 1960. Chad. Population - 4 million. About half Negro, half Sudanic (an Arab Negro mixture). Density of population – about 8 per square mile. Religion - about 50% Moslem, 40% tribal, 5% Christian. Language - French (official), Arabic, tribal dialects. Literacy - 10%. Exports - Cotton. Main town – Fort Lamy (now Ndjamene) 170,000 Capital.

47 The people of Chad are a mixture of many tribes, and the country is very much n, between the Moslems of the north and the Negroes, divided, by race and religio including Christians, of the south. The first President, Francois Tombalbaye, a 1962. This was followed by prolonged Christian, instituted one-party rule in warfare between the govern ment, assisted by French troops, and the arabic- forces were withdrawn in 1972. speaking Moslem guerillas. The French In 1975 President Tombalbaye was killed in a military coup, the constitution was suspended, and a military council took over. Since then a state of civil war has existed between north and south. An independent republic 1956. Sudan. Population - 18 million. Arab/Nubian in the north (about 65% of the population), Negroes in the south. Density of population - about 18 per square mile. Religion - 70% Moslem (including all the north), the remainder tribal, with some Christians. Language - Arabic (official), English, French, tribal dialects. Literacy - 10-15%. Exports - Cotton. Main towns – Khartoum Capital. 250,000 Omdurman 160,000. The Republic of the Sudan is the largest (in area) country in Africa. Like its division between th e Arab north and the neighbour, Chad, there is a marked racial Negro south. The first 13 years of indepe ndence was a period of instability and recurrent crises; and there was also conti nual strife between the government and the six million Negroes who wished to break away from the Arab north. (A factor in that es of the Arab slave trade.) desire may have been their memori In 1969 democracy was abandoned after a m ilitary coup. All parties were dissolved, and a revolutionary, council, headed by Gener al Nimeri, brought in a period of firm government Nimeri survived an attempted Communist coup in 1971; and in 1972 he ended the war in the south by granting regional autonomy, within a unified Sudanese state, to the southern Negro provinces.

48 Chapter 20. After Independence - West Africa. Independent since 1847. Liberia. Population – 1 ¾ million. Nearly all indigenous of many tribes. Only about 3-5% descendants of American ex-slaves. Density of population - about 40 per square mile. Religion – 90% tribal; some Christians and Moslems. Language - English (official), tribal dialects. Literacy - 10%. Exports - Rubber, iron ore. Main town – 150,000 Capital. Monrovia The constitution of the Republic of Liberia is modelled on that of the United States. The government has always b een dominated by the descen dants of the American ex- slaves for whom the state was founded, though they form a tiny minority of the population. In the 1920s Liberia was rescued financia lly by the American Firestone Rubber rubber plantations. Liberia is Company, which started large also remarkable for its "flag of convenience" merchant fleet; some 15% of the world's tonnage is registered under the Liberian flag. 1971 was William Tubman, who favoured The President of Liberia from 1944 to giving the tribal majority more say in the country's affairs - but democracy remains largely nominal. maining in the Commonwealth. Independent (of Britain) 1960, re Nigeria. Population - 80 million. Main tribal groups - Hausa/Fulani 18%, lbo 16%. Yoruba 14%. Density of population - about 220 per square mile. Religion - Tribal 43%, Moslem 38% (over 30 million), Christian 19%. Language - English (official), Hausa (official in the north), and several hundred other tribal languages and dialects. Literacy - 25%

49 Exports - Groundnuts, palm oil, cocoa, hi des, and recently oil now tenth among the world's oil producing countries. Main towns – Lagos 1,000,000 Capital. lbadan Capital of western province. 750,000 Kano 350,000 Capital of Kano province in the north. Nigeria is easily the most populous state in Africa. The three main groups of people e-colonial history see previous ). The Hausa/Fulani of the are widely divergent. (For pr north are rigidly Moslem, and are less "m odernised' than the rest; the Yoruba ghly developed; the lbo of the east are country of the south-west is the most hi land for work in the north and west. On enterprising, and many have left their home attaining independence all three distrusted each other. The result was that the federal constitution, which allowed a considerable degree of self-government to each of the three, wa s overthrown in 1966 by an lbo military coup - followed by a second coup, this ti me by the Christian northerner, Sandhurst trained General Gowon. Organisation, none of which would be Gowon tried to impose a 12 state federal powerful enough to domi nate; whereupon the lbos seceded and declared the independent state of Biafra in the east. A violent civil war ensu ed, lasting until 1970, when Biafra collapsed. It is thought that about a million people died in the war. Gowan then resumed his plan for political reconstruction - and economic progress. In ria's boom in oil production. the latter he was helped by Nige Gowan's military government was overthro wn in 1975, when he was ousted by another coup - and retired to live in Britai n. His plan for a fede ral Organisation was implemented by his successors, and increased to 19 states, but military government continued, with further coups and attempted coups; and jealousy between the three tribal groups remains. Independent (of Britain) 1957, remaining in the Commonwealth. Ghana. Population - 10 million. Almost all Sudanese Negroes of various tribes, Ashanti about 15% Density of population - about 110 per square mile. Religion - Over 40% Christian, about 12% Moslem, the rest tribal. Language - English (official), Asante. Literacy - 25%. Exports - Cocoa (the world’s largest producer), timber, gold. Main towns – Accra 700,000 Capital. Kumasi 350,000 Old Ashanti capital.

50 On independence, Kwame Nkrumah* became prime minister, and President in 1960, when Ghana became a republic, still within the British Commonwealth. pment, and for the unity Nkrumah had grandiose plans for Ghana's economic develo of all Africa - under himself. He became increasingly dictatorial and made Ghana a lines. This alienated his supporters, and his schemes one-party state on Communist posed by a military coup and went into ruined Ghana financially. In 1966 he was de exile in Guinea. The army restored civil government in 1969, providing for a president without executive power and an elected national assembly. After a further military coup in 1971, military government was resumed, and continued after yet another coup rn to civil rule was promised in 1979. (bloodless like its predecessors) in 1978. A retu maining in the Commonwealth. Independent (of Britain) 1961, re Sierra Leone. Population - 3 million. Some descendants of freed slaves (called Creoles and a mixture of many tribes. Density of population - about 110 per square mile. Religion - mainly tribal, about 30% Moslem, 5% Christian. Language - English (official), tribal dialects. Literacy - 10%. Exports - Diamonds, bauxite. Main town – Freetown Capital. 275,000 After a military coup in 1967 and a short peri od of military dictatorship, Sierra Leone returned to civilian government in 1968 wi th Dr Siaka Stevens as prime minister. Guinea, he defeated another attempted With the help of troops from neighbouring Sierra Leone became a republic, remaining coup by right-wing army leaders. In 1971 in the British Commonwealth, with Stevens as President. A referendum in 1978 approved a new constitution, with a one- party system. Before independence in 1961 political power had passed from the Creole minority to the tribal peoples, the two chief tribal groups being the Mendez of the south and the there is political jealousy. Temnes of the north, between whom Independent (of Britain) 1965, re maining in the Commonwealth. The Gambia. Population – ½ million. Mandinka and other West African peoples. Density of population - about 125 per square mile. Religion - about 60%. Moslem, 10% Christian, the rest tribal. Language - English (official), tribal dialects.

51 Literacy 10%. Exports - Groundnuts. Main town – Banjul (formerly, Bathurst) 50,000 Capital. in 1970 became a republic, still in the Five years after independence, The Gambia Commonwealth. The smallest African state (200 miles long and 20 miles wide), it is largely dependent on trade with and aid fr om Britain. Progress is being made in e tourist Industry is expanding. diversification of production, and th The Gambia is virtually surrounded by ex-French Senegal, with which it co-operates far resisted moves for a federation with in defence and foreign affairs - but has so ime minister on independence, is the Senegal. Sir Dawda Jawara, who became pr r. The Gambia has been the most stable President, with considerable executive powe politically of the ex-British colonies of West Africa. Independent (of France) 1960. Senegal. Population - 5 million. Various West African peoples - Wolof, Yandinka, Fulani. Density of population - about 6 per square mile. Religion - about 80% Moslem, some Christian and some tribal. Language - French (official), tribal dialects. Literacy - 10%. Exports - Groundnuts, phosphates. Main town – 700,000 Capital. Seaport. Dakar Formerly the seat of government of French West Africa. In the Second World War British and Free French naval forces failed to take Dakar from the Vichy French. After a brief federation with Mali, Senegal became a separate re public with Leopold Senghor as President, which he still is. Senghor, a poet, has emphasised in his writings the distinctive character of African culture. Senegal has been one of the more stable of the new African nations. Independent (of France) :1960 Benin. Population – 3 ½ million. Dahomeyans and other West African peoples. Density of population - about 75 per square mile. Religion - mainly tribal, about 15% Roman Catholic and 15% Moslem. Language - French (official), tribal dialects. Literacy - 10%.

52 Exports - Palm oil, groundnuts, coffee. Main towns – Porto Novo 100,000 Capital. Seaport. Cotonou 150,000 One of the poorer of the new nations, the Republic of Benin has suffered - probably even more than any of the other states - from a series of political crises and military s in the first ten years. It remains under coups. There were nine different government military rule. Independent (of France) 1960. Ivory Coast. d other West African peoples. Population – 6 ½ million. Akan an Density of population - about 50 per square mile. Religion - about 60% Tribal, 25% Moslem, 15% Roman Catholic. Language - French (official), tribal dialects. Literacy - 20%. Exports - Coffee, timber, cocoa, bananas. Main towns – Abidjan 800,000 Capital and seaport. Bouake 200 000. Felix Houphouet-Boigny, who succeeded in br inging many improvements to the lot of the Africans under French co lonial rule in the 1940s and 1950s, has been President since independence. He has maintained clos e ties with France, and under his rather authoritarian but practical rule the Ivor y Coast has enjoyed an economic boom - exemplified by the magnificent modern buildings in Abidjan. Houphouet-Boigny, placing economics before politics, has stated his view that reconciliation with South Africa is more likely to lead to ch anging the apartheid system there than is force - a view which has incurred the criticism of many African leaders. Independent (of France) 1960. Upper Volta. Population – 5 ½ million. Mossi and other tribes. Density of population - about 55 per square mile. Religion - mainly tribal, about 20 % Moslem, and a few Christians. Language - French (official), tribal dialects. Literacy - 5-10%. Exports - Livestock, cotton, groundnuts.

53 Main town – Ouagadougou Capital. 150,000 Upper Volta, like Benin, is on e of the poorer of the new states. Economic crisis and e of the government in 1966. After a austerity led to discontent and the collaps military coup, General Lamizana became Pr esident and the National Assembly was dissolved. Since then varying degrees of military rule have continued, with Lamizana still President. Independent (of France) 1958. Guinea. Population - 5 million. Fulani, Malinke (Mandinka) and other tribes. Density of population - about 50 per square mile. Religion - 65% Moslem, 30% Tribal, a few Christians. Language - French (official), tribal dialects. Literacy 10-15%. Exports - Bauxite, iron ore, bananas. Main town – Conakry 250,000 Capital. Guinea, the only French-ruled West African territory whic h did not join the French Community in 1958, became in dependent under the presidency of Samory Touré, a ssistance ceased, and Touré turned to the Marxist and ardent nationalist. French a Soviet Union and China for aid. Touré, a close friend of Nkrumah of Gh ana - for a short time there was a union between the two countries - gave Nkrumah political asylum in Guinea when he was overthrown in Ghana ad of state in Guinea, until in 1966. Nkrumah became joint he his death in 1972. In recent years Touré has shown signs of seeking closer ties with the West in economic development. Independent (of France) 1960. Togo. Population – 2 ¼ million. Many tribal groups, Hamitic types in the north. Density of population - about 100 per square mile. Religion - mainly tribal, about 20% Christian, 7% Moslem. Language - French (official), tribal dialects. Literacy - 5-10%. Exports - Phosphates, coffee, cocoa, cotton.

54 Main town – Lomé Capital. 230,000 After the First World War the German colo ny of Togolancl was divided between France and Britain as mandates. French an d British administration continued after the Second World War. In 1956 British Togo land voted for integration with Ghana, French Togoland became independent in and became part of independent Ghana. 1960 as the Republic of Togo. The first Pr esident was assassinated in 1963, and after was imposed in 1967, since when General several military coups direct military rule Eyadema has been Head of State. campaigned for unification with ex-British The largest tribal element, the Ewe, have Togoland. Independent (of Portugal) 1974. Guinea-Bissau. Population - ¾ million. Fulani, Mandinka and other tribes. Density of population - about 50 per square mile. Religion - mainly tribal, about 35% Moslem, 2% Christian. Guinea Creole, tribal dialects. Language - Portuguese (official), Literacy - 10%. Exports - Groundnuts, coconuts. Main town – Bissau 70,000 Capital. After becoming independent Guinea-Bissau became a one-party Socialist state with leanings towards the Soviet Union. Th e one party is the African Party for Independence in Guinea and Cape Verde Isla nds (PAIGC). It aims at unification with the Cape Verde Islands. These also achi eved Independence from Portugal as a separate republic, in 1975. *Nkrumah was the son of a goldsmith and wa s educated at Catholic mission schools. He then went to a teachers' training colle ge, and subsequently to university in the United States.

55 Chapter 21. After Independence: East Africa. Independent (of Britain) 1960. Somalia. Population – 3 ¼ million. Somalis, Gallas. Density of population - about 13 per square mile. Religion - Moslem. Language - Arabic, Italian, English (all official), Somali. Exports Bananas, livestock. Main town – Mogadishu 220,000 Capital and seaport. A democratic regime existed until 1969, wh en the President was assassinated and the army took over. A Revolutionary Co uncil under General Siyad has ruled since then, the only legal political Organisation being the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party. Many Somalis inhabited the Ogaden region of Ethiopia, and also northern Kenya. This has been the basis of a "greater Somalia” movement, which culminated in war hiopians, with assistance with Ethiopia. In 1978 the Et from the Soviet Union and Cuban forces, drove the Somalis from the Ogaden. the very ancient monarchy was en ded in 1974, when the Emperor was (In Ethiopia deposed. Since then Ethiopia has come under strong Soviet influence.) of Aden, formerly French Somaliland, This small territory on the Gulf Djibouti. French influence is the remains. The became independent of France in 1977. The capital port, Djibouti. (F or a time the territory was population is about 350,000. known as that of the Afars and the Issas.) Although incorporated into Ethiopia, Eritrean guerillas have for many years Eritrea. struggled for independence, and by 1977 some 80% of the country was controlled by them. The Eritreans, numbering about 1 ½ million, are mainly agriculturists, some nomadic. Like the Somalis, most are of Arab origin, some Negro. Many are Coptic Christians (the religion of Ethiopia since the 4th century), many Moslems. Independent (of Britain) 1963, remaining in the Commonwealth. Kenya. Population - 12 million. Kikuyu, Tuo and other tribes; some British and Asians. Density of population - about 50-55 per square mile. Religion - about 50% tribal, 33% Chri stian, some Moslems and Hindus. Language - Swahili (official), English, tribal dialects. Literacy - 20-25%.

56 Exports - Coffee, tea, oil, maize. Main towns – Nairobi 500,000 Capital. Seaport. 250,000 Mombasa Jomo Kenyatta*, leader of the Kikuyu, be came the country's first President, and remained President until his death in 1978 wh en in his late 80s. Kenya is a one-party republic within the British Commonwealth; and Kenyatta’s conservative policy, which included co-operation with the whites, earned him the reputation of a wise ruler, a friend of Britain, and a bulwark against Communism. Kenya has been stable and prosperous, and the tourist industry has flourished; but there have been tensions caused by the expulsion of Asians, and discontent among the other tribes, particularly the Tuo, du e to the Kikuyu monopoly of power. *Kenyatta was born in 1891, son of a farm er and grandson of a magician. He was educated at a Scottish missi on school. He was for 15 years in Britain, returning in n Union, an Organisa tion pressing for 1946 to Kenya where he led the Kenya Africa reforms. He was imprisoned and exiled by the British for complicity - which he denied - in the Mau Mau rebellion. He was allowed to return in 1961. Independent (of Britain) 1962, re maining in the Commonwealth. Uganda. Population - 11 million. Baganda and other tribes. Density of population - about 120 per square mile. Religion - about 50% Christian (roughly equal Roman Catholic and Protestant), 6%.Moslem, the rest tribal. Language - Swahili (official), English, tribal dialects. Literacy - 20%. Exports - Coffee, cotton, tea. Main town – Kampala 330,000 Capital. Uganda consists of what were, in pre-colonial times, four kingdoms, of which the most powerful were Buganda in the sout h and Bunyoro, often at war with each other. On independence a fe deral constitution gave Buganda, then the strongest kingdom, considerable control of its own affairs. Its ruler was the Kabaka Mutesa (known as King Freddie), who became Pr esident of the Republic of Uganda. In 1966 Mutesa was deposed , in a brief re volution, by Milton Obote, the prime minister and a northener of the Lango trib e. Mutesa fled from the country. Obote abolished the old kingdoms and the fede ral system, and became President. He Introduced socialist reforms - and was hi mself overthrown in 1971 by the army led by General Amin, another northener and a Moslem.

57 Amin declared himself Head of State, susp ended parts of the constitution, and ruled easingly autocratic, and in 1979 he was in through a Defence Council. He became incr Tanzanian troops. A his turn removed and exiled by another re volution assisted by e holding of elections. the government pending th military commission took over Uganda is potentially prosperous, but be ing landlocked is dependent on good relations with Kenya, through which her exports move by rail to the coast. Independent (of Britain) 1961, re maining in the Commonwealth. Tanzania. Population - 15 million. 99% tribes of Bantu descent. Density of population - about 40 per square mile. Religion - about 30% Moslem, 25% Christian, the rest tribal. Language - English and Swahili (both official). Literacy - 15-20%. Exports - Sisal, coffee, cotton, diamonds. Main towns – 350,000 Capital. Dar-es-Salam Zanzibar 70,000. Tanganyika became independ ent in 1961 and a republic wi thin the Commonwealth in 1962, with Julius Nyerere* as President. In 1963 Tanganyika was joined by Zanzibar to form Tanzania. y Socialist state. Tanzania is a poor Under Nyerere Tanzania became a one-part country, and Nyerere set about achieving Ta nzanian self-reliance by co-operative rural development, known as Ujamaa villages . By the 1970s a high proportion of the population lived in them. supported the independence movements in In foreign affairs Nyerere has strongly Portuguese Mozambique and Angola and oppo sed the rule of Amin in Uganda and the "U.D.I." regime in Rhodesia. For the latter he blamed Britain, with which for a time he broke off diplomatic relations. Ny erere seems to be one of the most firmly seated African heads of state. * Nyerere was born in 1922. He is a Roma n Catholic. He completed his education at Edinburgh University and became a school master. In the mid-1950s he created the “Tanganyika African National Union" and worked for African independence. (TANU is now the one political party in Tanzania). Nyerere has a high intellectual reputation - and one for wisdom, modera tion and austerity. Independent (of Portugal) 1975. Mozambique. Population - 10 million. 98% Bantu, 1½%, European. Most of the Portuguese left before independence. Density of population - about 33 per square mile. Religion - about 12% Moslem, 12% Christian, the rest tribal.

58 Language - Portuguese, tribal dialects. Literacy - 15%. Exports - Cashew nuts, cotton, Sugar, Main town - Lourenco Marques (now Maputo) 500,000 Capital. The Nationalist revolt against the Portuguese was led by the Marxist Liberation Front power was concentrated in FRELIMO; and (FRELIMO). On achieving independence all its president, Samora Machel, became Pr esident of the People's Republic of Mozambique. Machells policy is one of extr eme Socialism, including the abolition of private ownership and widespread nationa lisation. The basis of the economy is agriculture. Independent (of France) 1960. Malagasy. Population - 8 million. Polynesian, Arab, and Negro, also some French, Chinese and Indians. Density of population - about 35 per square mile. Religion - about 50% tribal, 40% Christian, 5-10% Moslem. Language - Malagasy, French (bot h official), tribal dialects. Literacy - 40%. Exports - Coffee, cl oves, vanilla. Main town – 400,000 Capital. Tananarive The first President, Philibert Tsiranana, was popular and maintained a stable political situation until there was a left -wing rebellion in 1972. He then resigned and handed over to the army. The newly appointed ately assassinated. President was immedi After a period of martial law, a new consti tution was brought in at the end of 1975, with the civilian element increased. Th e President since then has been (Naval) Captain Ratsiraka. The economy is based almost wholly an agricu lture - but Malagasy is also the world's largest producer of graphite.

59 Chapter 22. After Independence: Central Africa. Independent (of France) 1960. Central African Republic. Population - 3 million. Many different tribes, including some pygmies. Many came from the north, to escape the Eu ropean and Arab slave traders. Density of population - about 12 per square mile. Religion - about 35% Roman Catholic, 5-10% Moslem, the rest tribal. Language - French (official), Sango - a common language among the tribes. Literacy - 10%. Exports - Coffee, cotton, diamonds. Main town – 250,000 Bangui Capital. The first president, Davi d Dacko, was deposed in 1966 by a military coup, and spended the constitution, dissolved the Colonel Bokassa became President. He su In 1971 Bokassa proclaimed himself National Assembly, and ruled by decree. Emperor and introduced a "parliamentary monarchy', the country being re-named the Central African Empire. Bokassa accumula ted all power to hims elf - as Emperor, Head of State, Prime Minister and head of all important ministries. Later Bokassa’s delusions of grandeur and acts of cruelty led to his overthrow in ntral African Republic, and Dacko once 1979. The country became once more the Ce more the President. Independent of France (and Britain) 1960-61. Cameroon. Population – 7 ½ million. Fulani and many other tribes; in the north mainly Sudanic Bantu and agricultural. and pastoral, in the south Density of population - about 40 per square mile. Religion - about 33% Christian (the majority Roman Catholic), 20% Moslem, the rest tribal. Language - French and English (both official), tribal dialects. Literacy - 15%. Exports - Coffee, cocoa. Main towns – Yaounee 300,000 Capital. Douala 450,000 Seaport.

60 After the First World War the German colony of the Cameroons was divided between administered by Nige ria. When both the Britain and France, the British part being French Cameroons and Nigeria became inde pendent in 1960, the northern part of the British Cameroons opted by referendum to a, and the southern be part of Nigeri part opted for union with the French Came roons. The resulting Federal Republic of Cameroon was 90% ex-French and 10% (i n the west) ex-British. In 1972 local me the United Republic of Cameroon. autonomy was abolished and the country beca The French-speaking Pr esident Ahidjo has been president since independence; he ar term. Under him (and a one-party was re-elected in 1975 for a fourth 5-ye s of eastern dominati system) the union, in spite of western fear on, seems to have strife has been avoided. worked satisfactorily, and tribal Independent (of France) 1960. Congo. Population - 2 million. Various Bantu tribes and about 12,000 pygmies. Density of population - about 15 per square mile. Religion - about 50% tribal, 50% Christian (mainly Roman Catholic). Language - French (official), tribal dialects. Literacy - 20%. Exports - Timber, oil. Main town – 300,000 Capital. Brazzaville In the early years of independence the go vernment was Communist in doctrine; but resentment at the close ties with Communist countries led to the government's Ngouabi became President. A new overthrow by the army in 1968. General constitution in 1970, ho wever, remained strongly Social ist, with the leader of the new Congolese Labour Party to be automati cally president, and the country renamed the Congo People's Republic. There was frequent friction with the anti-Communist government of “the other Congo" - Zaire. In 1977 President Ngouabi was assassinated, and the government was taken over by a military committee. Independent (of France) 1960. Gabon. Population - 1 million. Many tribes, the most numerous being the Fang, once known for their ferocity and cannibalism. Density of population - about 10 per square mile. Religion - about 50% Roman Catholic, 50% tribal; a very few Moslems. Language - French (official), Fang and other tribal dialects.

61 Literacy - 30%. Exports - Oil, timber, manganese, Main town – 250,000 Capital. Libreville Mineral and oil resources have made Gabon one of the most prosperous of the new African states. President M’ ba and his successor Presid ent Bongo (President since 1967) have both kept close ties with Fran ce. The government is virtually in the dissolve the National Assembly at will. hands of the president, who has the power to In foreign affairs Bongo maintains a policy of co-operation with France, and no extremes - similar to that of Houphouet- Boigny in the Ivory Coast. In 1973 Bongo, influencecl by Gadaffi of Libya, was converted to Islam - but relations with left-wing Libya soon cooled off. in western Europe early in the 20th (Lambaréné in Gabon became well known the French theolo gian and missionary century with the establishment there by surgeon Albert Schweitzer of a hospital to fight leprosy and sleeping sickness.) Independent (of Spain) 1968. Equatorial Guinea. Population - 300,000. The Fang tribe the majority. Density of population - 25-30 per square mile. Religion - about 70% nominally Roman Cath olic (see below), some Protestant, some tribal. Language - Spanish (official), Fang and other tribal dialects. Literacy - 10%. Exports - Cocoa. Main towns 60,000 Capital. In Fernando Po. Malabo 30,000 In Rio Muni. Bata Equatorial Guinea consists of the island of Fernando Po and the mainland area of Rio Muni. The first president wa s Francisco Macias Nguema - after whom Fernando Po was renamed Macias Nguema. A one-party political system was introduced, and Macias assumed dictatorial powers. He adopted anti-Spanish policies, which led to all Spanish residents to Spain in 1969-71. disorders and the evacuation of nearly Later, in 1975-76, most of the Nigerian labour force wh ich largely worked the cocoa plantations was repatriated to Nigeria af ter allegations of bad treatment. The economy became mainly dependent on aid from Communist countries. In 1976 President Macias was deposed by his nephew Colonel Teodoro Nguema, and a revolutionary military council took over. In recent years Roman Catholicism has b een repressed, and C hurches and Church schools closed.

62 Independent (of Belgium) 1960. Zaire. Population - 25 million. Some 200 different tribes, mostly Bantu, some Sudanic, in the north; about 100,000 pygmies. Density of population - about 27 per square mile. Religion - about 40% Christian (predominantly Roman Catholic), a few Moslems, the rest tribal. Language - French (official), tribal dialects, Swahili. Literacy – XX Exports - Copper, other minerals, diamonds, coffee, palm oil. Main town – Kinshasa 2,000,000 Capital. Independence was rather hastily grante d by Belgium due to extremist anti- colonialism and world opinion, and was followed by chaos, the Africans having had little opportunity to take part in the administration under Belgian rule. Tribal rivalries revived, Belgian settler s were driven out, and mineral-ri ch Katanga, led by Tshombe, broke away from the new republic. In 1964 it was re-united with Tshombe as prime minister; but in 1965 the army, led by Co lonel Mobutu, seized power and Tshombe was exiled. use of force and the help of American Mobutu became President, and, by the Various subsequent revisions of the economic aid, order was restored by 1968. constitution centralised power in Mobutu’s hands, with a one-party political system. Continuing extensive American aid has made Zaire stable and prosperous - and an the United States. anti-Communist ally of Mobutu is still the President - and respect for Mobutu has become virtually the official religion. Independent (of Belgium) 1962. Rwanda. Population - 4 million. Mainly the Hutu tribe, some Tutsi, and some Twa pygmies. Density of population - about 400 per square mile (with Burundi the highest in Africa). Religion - over 60% Christian, the rest tribal. Language - Kinyarwanda (the native language) and French (both official). Literacy - 10% Exports - Coffee, tin ore, tea. Main town –

63 Xigali 100,000 Capital. The ancient kingdoms of Rwanda and Burund i became part of German East Africa in e of Rwada-Urundi after the the colonial period, and then became the Belgian mandat First World War, attached to the Belgia n Congo. They were detached from the Zaire, and resumed th eir ancient status Belgian Congo when it became independent as the separate states of Rwanda and Burundi. In the centuries before the co rst occupied mainly by the lonial period Rwanda was fi pygmies, then by the Bantu Hutus, and in the 15th century was conquered by the ordship over their predecesso rs. (The Tutsi, thought to Tutsi, who imposed an over-l have come from Ethiopia, are the world's tallest people, averaging nearly 7 feet.) In 1959 the Tutsi monarchy was overthrown by a Hutu revolt. In 1961 a referendum under United Nations supervision abolished the monarchy, and Rwanda became a republic under a Hutu one-party presidential regime. Though still afflicted by Tutsi tribal disturbances, Rwanda became a more stable, but under-de veloped, country. Independent (of Belgium) 1962. Burundi. Population - nearly 4 million. About 85% Hutu, 14% Tutsi, 1% Twa. Density of population - nearly 400 per square mile. Religion - over 50% Roman Catholic, a few Moslems, the rest tribal. Language - Kirundi (a Bantu language) and French (both official), Swahili. Literacy - 10%. Exports - Coffee, cotton. Main town - Bujumbura Capital. 100,000 Burundi has a history similar to Rwanda, except that the Tutsi minority have retained power over the Hutu majority. On independ ence the Tutsi monarc hy ruled, but was overthrown in 1966 by the army, and Buru ndi became a republic. The government was again overthrown by the army in 1976, and a Supreme Revolutionary Council took over. Tribal conflict between the ruling Tutsi and the much more numerous Hutu farmers continues.

64 Chapter 23. After Independence: Southern Central Africa. maining in the Commonwealth. Independent (of Britain) 1964, re Zambia. Population – 4 ¾ million. Bantu tribes. Some British and other Europeans. Density of population - about 16 per square mile. Religion - about 15% Christian, some Moslems and Hindus, the rest tribal. Language - English (official), tribal dialects. Literacy - 15-20%. world's second largest copper producer, Exports - Copper and other minerals. (The after the United States.) Main town – Tusaka 500,000 Capital. Zambia, then Northern Rhodesia, was joined in 1953 in Before the end of British rule Nyasaland (now Malawi ). The Federation, a Federation with Southern Rhodesia and however, was bitterly opposed by the Zambia n nationalists, led by Kenneth Kaunda*, who saw in it an attempt to sustain a white-dominated society based largely on Zambia's mineral wealth. Yielding to African pressure, Br itain dissolved the Federation in 1963, and Zambia became an independent republic within the British Commonwealth in 1964, with Kaunda as President. e white community in Rhodesia in 1965 The Declaration of Independence by th complicated affairs for Zambia. Kaunda strongly opposed white rule - in South Africa as well as Rhodesia - but Zambia's economy was closely linked with that of Rhodesia, odesia hurt Zambia as well. However, and international “sanctions" against Rh Zambia survived, and Kaunda supports the new regime in Zimbabwe - and continues to be hostile to the regime in South Africa. In 1972 Kaunda abolished all political part ies except his own. He has extended government control over the economy; and to lessen Zambia's dependence on her southern neighbours a 1000 mile railway is being built - with assistance from Communist China to Dar-es-Salaam in Tanzania. *Kaunda was born in 1924, son of an African Christian mi ssionary. He was a schoolmaster in the 1940s, and in the 1950s the founder of nationalist political organizations. Since becoming President of Zambia he has acquired international prestige in the politics of south-eastern Africa. Independent (of Britain) 1964, re maining in the Comonwealth. Malawi. Population - 5 million. Bantu tribes.

65 Density of population - about 110 per square mile. Religion - about 40% Christian (mainly Roman Catholic or Presbyterian), a few Moslems, the rest tribal. Language - English (official), tribal dialects. Literacy - 15%. Exports - Tobacco, tea, sugar, groundnuts. Main towns – 100,000 Lilongwe Capital. 200,000 Commercial and industrial centre. Blantyre In 1963 Malawi (then Nyasaland) seceded fr om the Federation with the Rhodesians, and became the independent republic of Malawi within the British Commonwealth, nda*. In 1970 Dr. Banda became President under the leadership of Dr. Hastings Ba for life. He survived much internal unrest, and strengthened his autocratic rule, proclaiming a one-party state. Dr. Banda has pursued a realistic policy of co-operation with the white rulers of South Africa and Rhodesia, an attitude which has been much criticised by many African leaders. His relations with Kaunda of Zambia and Nyerere of Tanzania have been extremely unfriendly. * Dr. Banda (born 1905) took degrees in philosophy and medicine in the United States, and practised as a doctor in Englan d for many years, returning to Nyasaland in 1958. For a short time he was imprison ed by the British for his nationalist activities. Independent (of Portugal) 1975. Angola. Population - 6 million. Mainly Bantu tribes. Density of population - about 12 per square mile. al, many Roman Catholics. Religion - the majority trib Language - Portuguese (official), tribal dialects. Literacy - 5%. Exports - Coffee, oil, diamonds, iron ore. Main town – Luanda 500,000 Capital. years of rebellion against Portugal's Independence was gained in 1975, after 14 repressive rule - and in th e midst of civil war for supremacy among several rival nationalist groups. In 1976 Ru ssian/Cuban military assistan ce enabled the "Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola" (M PLA) to defeat its rivals - which were supported by South Africa and the Un ited States. The MPLA established a government, and started a period of re construction. Some Cuban troops were

66 withdrawn, but Cuban technicians remained . The white population had been greatly reduced by a mass exodus during the wars.

67 Chapter 24. Southern Africa since 1965. Independent (of Britain) 1980, re maining in the Commonvealth. Zimbabwe. Population – 6 ½ million. Mainly the Shona* and Matabele* Bantu tribes; about ¼ million whites, chiefly British; some Asians. Density of population - 45-50 per square mile. Religion - about 15% Christian, the rest tribal. Language - English (official), tribal dialects. Literacy - XX Exports - Tobacco, copper, asbestos. Main towns – Salisbury 500,000 Capital. In Mashonaland. Bulawayo 300,000. In Matabeleland. During the period after the white Rhodesians, led by Ian Smith, proclaimed a Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965, economic "sanctions" were imposed by the United Nations; but this failed to bring down the "illegal" regime. Further negotiations with Britain pr oved fruitless, and in 1970 Rh odesia declared itself a republic. Ten years later agreement with Britain was at last reached, Ian Smith finally accepting the principle of majority rule. Elections for an Assembly of 20 European and 80 African members were then held under British supervision. Front" parties, led by Robert Mugabe The result was that the two African "Popular and Joshua Nkomo (both of whom had for many years campaigned for African independence), gained 77 of the 80 Af rican seats. Mugabe’s party had 57 and Nkomo’s 20, the latter including 15 of the 16 seats representing Matabeleland. ish Commonwealth. Mugabe became prime Zimbabwe became a Republic in the Brit a Methodist minister and a Matabele, as minister, and he nominated Canaan Banana, President. Mugabe is attempting to obtain the co-ope ration of all sectio ns of the community, including the whites. *For the pre-British history of Zimbabwe - which resulted in the division of the country between the Sh ona and the Matabele - see previous. Matabeleland is in the west, Mashonaland in the east. For the British conquest see previous. Commonwealth. Independent (of Britain) 1966, re maining in the Botswana. Population - 3 million. Bechuana tribes (Bantu), some Bushmen. Density of population - 3 to 4 per square mile. Religion - about 15% Christian, 85% tribal.

68 Language - English (official), Setswana. Literacy – 20% Exports - Cattle, beef, diamonds. Main town – 50,000 Capital. Gaborone Bechuanaland became a British protectorate in 1885. After South Africa by the Bechuana leader s) left the British (incorporation into which had been resisted Commonwealth in 1961, Bechuanaland was given its own constitution by Britain; and in 1966 it became the independent Repub lic of Botswana within the British Commonwealth. Sir Seretse Khama became Pr esident. The son of an African chief, he had studied law in Britain and married an Englishwoman. almost entirely dependent on cattle raising - there are Botswana’s economy has been about 4 times as many cattle as people and has much relied on British financial aid. Mineral extraction is now making progress. Friendly relations are maintained with South Africa, Botswana's main trading partner. Independent (of Britain) 1966, re maining in the Commonwealth. Lesotho. Population - 11 million. Basutos (Bantu). Density of population - about 100 per square mile. Religion – 70% Christian (40% Roman Catholic), the rest tribal. Language - English and Sesotho (both official). Literacy - 50%. Exports - Diamonds, wool, mohair, livestock. Main town – Maseru 45,000 Capital. Basutoland became a British protectora te in 1868 when the Basutos, fearing annexation by the Boers of South Africa, asked Britain for protection. It became independent in 1966 as the Kingdom of Le sotho, in the British Commonwealth. The paramount chief Moshoeshoe II became Ki ng, and Chief Leabua Jonathan prime minister. There was a crisis in 1970 when the King tr ied to increase his power and was exiled; but after a few months he was allowed to return. Lesotho has generally kept friendly relations with South Africa, which geographically surrounds it and upon which it is economically dependent; but relations have at times been strained by Jonathan's criticism of South Africa's racial policy of apartheid.

69 Swaziland. Independent (of Britain) 1968, re Commonwealth. maining in the Population – ½ million. 95% Swazi (Bantu), about 10,000 Europeans. Density of population - about 75 per square mile. Religion – 60% Christ ian, 40% tribal. Language - English and Siswati (both official). Literacy - 25-30%. Exports - Sugar, iron ore, wood pulp. Main town – Mbabane Capital. 25,000 In the 19th century the Swazi people sought British protection against the Zulus; and a government representing the Swaz i, the British, and the Boers of the Transvaal, was established. After the British-Boer War Swaziland became a British protectorate. In 1968 it became an independent kingdom in the British Commonwealth. Sobhuza II, paramount chie f since 1898, became King. He exercises considerable legislative an d judicial authority. Swaziland is free of the tribal friction prevalent in so many African states, and has maintained friendly relations with South Africa. A mountainous and pleasant land, and rich in minerals, Swaziland has attracted many white settlers, who own much of the land. Rider Haggard wrote “King Solomon’s Mines” here (based on the Zimbabwe ruins) Namibia. Population - ¾ million. Various tribes, including Ovambo, Herero and Nama. About 100,000 whites, mainly of German or South African descent. About 20,000 Bushmen. Density of population - 2 to 3 per square mile. Religion – 40% Christia n, the rest tribal. Language - Afrikaans, English (both official), German, tribal dialects. Literacy – 30% Exports - Diamonds and other minerals. Main towns - Windhoek 50,000 Capital. Walis Bay 20,000 Seaport. After the German defeat in the First Wo rld War, South West Africa became a mandate administered by South Africa.

70 After the Second World War, South Africa - and the Europeans in South West Africa - favoured incorporation in South Africa. The United Nations refused this; and the status of South West Afri ca - re-named Namibia by the United Nations in 1968 - remained in dispute. South Africa's continued administration of the territory was ruled by the United Nations in 1971 to be illegal. The U.N. ai med at independence for Namibia by the end of 1978. Shortly before th at date South Africa cond ucted elections in Namibia without U.N. supervision. The resulting Assembly was not recognised by the U.N. nor by the nationalist group SWAPO (South We st Africa People's Organisation) which boycotted the election. Th e dispute continues.

71 Map – Ancient Africa

72

73 th th Map: 15 to 19 Centuries

74

75 Map: The Colonial Period

76 Map: After Independence

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