Equity Literacy for All

Transcript

1 Schools can commit Equity to a more robust multiculturalism by putting equity, rather Lıteracy than culture, at the center of the diversity conversation. FOR ALL Paul C. Gorski food or music, but that’s about it. I them. The Multicultural Curriculum and Katy Swalwell don’t see the purpose.” Initiative was his brainchild, his baby. Then Cynthia, who had remained Jonathan decorated his office door feel like a visitor in my own quiet through most of the hourlong with quotes about diversity and his school—that hasn’t changed,” discussion, slammed her fist on the office walls with artwork depicting Samantha said, confusion and table, exclaiming, “That multicultural diverse groups of youth. “We see despair in her voice. We were initiative means nothing. There’s diversity as our greatest asset. That’s I at the tail end of a focus group racism at this school, and nobody’s what this initiative is all about. What discussion with African American doing anything about it!” we aim to do here,” he explained with students at Green Hills High, a pre- We found ourselves only a few measured intensity, “is to celebrate dominantly white, economically moments later in our next scheduled the joys of diversity.” When we shared diverse school. We had been invited to focus group, surrounded by the with Jonathan the concerns raised conduct an equity assessment, exam- school’s power brokers: the prin- by the African American students, ining the extent to which Green Hills cipal, assistant principals, deans, and he appeared confused and genuinely was an equitable learning environment department chairs. Still taken—maybe that concerned. “They said ?” he asked, for all. We had asked Samantha and —by what we had shaken even a little before interrupting a member of his a small group of her classmates how heard from the young women and leadership team who had begun to they would characterize their school’s men who felt fairly powerless at Green defend the initiative. “Maybe it’s time two-year-old Multicultural Curriculum Hills, we asked the administrators to rethink this.” Initiative, touted by school adminis- about the purpose of the Multicultural Beyond Artwork trators as a comprehensive effort to Curriculum Initiative. and Celebrations infuse a multicultural perspective into After a brief silence, Jonathan, the If we’ve learned anything working all aspects of school life. principal, leaned back in his chair. with schools across the United States, “I’m invisible,” Sean added, “but We had observed him over the past it’s this: When it comes to education hyper visible. Maybe twice a year also few days interacting with students, equity, the trouble is not a lack of there’s a program about somebody’s and it was clear he cared deeply about DUCATIONAL L E E AD E RSHIP / M ARCH 2015 34 Gorski.indd 34 1/29/15 7:48 PM

2 cultural programs or diversity multi positions like “Diversity Director.” Cynthia’s shoes. Imagine a world in initiatives in schools. Nor is it nec- The trouble lies in how so many which, as a result of something over essarily a lack of educators who, diversity initiatives avoid or whitewash which you have no control—say, your like Jonathan, appreciate and even issues. It lies in the equity serious racial identity, sexual orientation, champion diversity. In virtually every space between what marginalized stu- or home language—you’re made to school we visit, we see attempts at dents like Cynthia say their schools feel alienated or invisible at school. multi culturalism: corridors lined need to do to help them feel less mar- Imagine that when you occasionally with flags, student-designed posters ginalized and what many of the adults see little shimmers of yourself reflected r epresenting the national or ethnic in those schools are comfortable doing in the curriculum, your identity or origins of families in the community, in the name of multiculturalism. culture is reduced to a stereotype—to anti-bullying programs, or faculty To better grasp this, put yourself in a sari, taco, or polka. Imagine the © RAFAEL LOPEZ/THEiSPO T ASCD WWW . ORG 35 ASCD / . Gorski_REV.indd 35 2/3/15 6:52 PM

3 glimmer of excitement you might feel proficiency, culturally relevant cultural illusion of multicultural learning even about the possibility that, when the pedagogy, and culturally responsive as they guarantee a lack of sophisti- teacher mentions Martin Luther King teaching. And despite the fact that cated multicultural learning. Jr., a real conversation about racism or social scientists debunked the concept are What we suggesting is that poverty might ensue, only to find that in the early 1970s, the “culture of at the heart of a curriculum that is I even he has been sanitized down to poverty” remains the dominant meaningfully multicultural lie prin- . Imagine experiencing have a dream framework in U.S. education circles for ciples of equity and social justice— racism, sexism, or class inequality in understanding the lives of low-income purposeful attention to issues like the present while hearing about it in students. racism, homophobia, sexism, and school only in the past tense. Of course, some focus on culture economic inequality. Without this What would it feel like, given those is warranted. Culture is an important - core, what we do in the name of multi circumstances, to be pressed into par- of student experience to con- aspect culturalism can border on exploitative: sider in efforts to create a meaningfully multicultural curriculum and a more equitable school. Moreover, some of these frameworks, including cultural t the heart of a curriculum A that is relevance and cultural responsiveness, are rooted in principles of equity lie principles meaningfully multicultural (Ladson-Billings, 1995). The chal- and social justice. of equity lenge is to retain principles of equity as central aspects of a multi cultural cur- riculum that is truly meaningful, even if—especially if—it feels easier or safer ticipating in celebrations of diversity to home in on more simplistic notions asking students and families who while nobody tends to your alienation? of culture. experience these inequalities to allow That’s what many schools’ diversity students and families who don’t expe- Embracing Equity Literacy efforts feel like for students of color, rience them to grow their knowledge, In our own teaching, as well as in our low-income students, English language while the inequalities themselves go work with schools and school districts, learners, and other students whose un There’s racism at this addressed. we embrace a framework for both voices historically have been omitted school, and nobody’s doing anything multi cultural curriculum development from school curriculums. Meanwhile, about it! and bigger efforts to create equitable this brand of multiculturalism does Overcoming the “Culture” Fetish classrooms and schools. We call this little to help students whose voices In her article, “It’s Not the Culture of . Its central framework equity literacy historically have been honored at Poverty, It’s the Poverty of Culture,” tenet is that any meaningful approach school become aware of and question Gloria Ladson-Billings (2006) explains to diversity or multiculturalism relies their privilege. In both cases, we’re how culture fetishism undermines more on teachers’ understandings of doing a disservice to our students. education equity. “Culture,” she equity and inequity and of justice and To be clear, we’re not suggesting explains, “is randomly and regularly injustice than on their understanding that something is inherently wrong used to explain everything” (p. 104). of this or that culture (Gorski, 2013). with celebrating diversity. We’re not It’s used, in effect, as a stand-in for It relies, as well, on teachers’ abilities necessarily suggesting that schools race, class, language, and other issues to cultivate in students a robust under- abandon the diversity parade or the that aren’t as comfortably discussed as standing about how people are treated multicultural art festival. Our concern broad, vague “cultures.” by one another and by institutions, is that, all too often, these sorts of Many of the most popular frame- in addition to a general appreciation initiatives mask, rather than address, works for creating more inclusive of diversity (Swalwell, 2011). The serious equity concerns. They become classrooms and curriculums con- equity, rather than idea is to place un distinctly multicultural when we tinue this culture fetish. In addition , at the center of the diversity culture don’t offer them alongside more to multi culturalism, we have conversation. serious curricular (and institutional) inter cultural and cross-cultural edu- Key to developing equity literacy for attention to issues like racism and cation, cultural competence and educators and students is cultivating homophobia because they present the RSHIP E / M ARCH 2015 36 DUCATIONAL L E AD E Gorski.indd 36 1/29/15 7:48 PM

4 four abilities (Gorski, 2013). These depending on contextual factors. feel an urgency to avoid the kind of include the ability to What we can say is that, rather than well-intended complacency we found even subtle forms of Recognize n a list of facts or historical figures that at Green Hills High. bias, discrimination, and inequity. everyone should know (as in E. D. The good news is that there are bias, discrimination, n Respond to Hirsch’s “cultural literacy” lists), an many powerful models for what a and inequity in a thoughtful and equi- equity literacy curriculum focuses on curriculum oriented around equity lit- table manner. essential questions like these: What eracy looks like in practice (see “Great Redress n bias, discrimination, and makes something equitable or inequi- inequity, not only by responding table? What (local, regional, global) to interpersonal bias, but also by equities exist? How have they in studying the ways in which bigger changed over time, and why? What social change happens. individual and collective responsi- bias-free and Cultivate and sustain n bilities do we have to address them? discrimination-free communities, These questions require both evidence which requires an understanding that and ethics to debate. They fit well with doing so is a basic responsibility for the inquiry approach to education everyone in a civil society. promoted by recent curriculum Part of the difficulty frameworks, such as the with implementing a College, Career, and Civic curriculum that grows Life (C3) framework. these abilities in As we plan cur- young people riculum for our is that we students and educators must work to develop first grow them in our own skills and ourselves. We might knowledge related to start by ensuring that equity literacy, it’s useful professional development to keep the following five related to multiculturalism principles in mind. focuses not only on cultural competence or diversity awareness, Principle 1. Equity literacy is but also on recognizing sexism important in every subject area. and ableism, for example; not on a When we teach with and for equity mythical “culture of poverty,” but on literacy, we’re not abandoning content. responding to economic inequality; Rather, we’re teaching content (when and not on how to help marginalized feasible) through an equity lens. One students fit into school cultures they of our favorite resources for teaching experience as alienating, but on how through an equity literacy lens is Eric to redress the alienation by making Rethinking Gutstein and Bob Peterson’s changes in our own practices and Mathematics (Rethinking Schools, 39). Equity Literacy Resources,” p. policies. 2013). In it, these educators provide Teacher-led organizations around the We recognize this is a daunting multiple examples of teaching math United States have developed rich task, and we understand the pressure in a way that develops students’ math- databases of curriculums that can (and here’s one more thing I need of feeling ematical abilities while also helping should) be modified for local contexts. to squeeze into an already packed them see math as a powerful analytical Nobody needs to start from scratch. workday . But then we remember Cyn- tool for addressing social problems. Five Guiding Principles thia’s exhortation: “There’s racism at For instance, students can develop It can be difficult to paint a precise this school, and nobody’s doing any- formulas for how best to calculate a picture of what an equity literacy thing about it!” We don’t have control living wage, examine historical trends curriculum looks like because, like over everything, but to the extent that in wealth and poverty, or map income all curriculums, it will look different we do influence the curriculum, we data in their own communities. Their 37 ASCD / . ASCD . ORG WWW Gorski.indd 37 1/29/15 7:48 PM

5 findings can become fertile ground for Principle 3. Students of all ages are rich discussions, deliberations, and primed for equity literacy. debates about the nature of economic Did we mention that the Park Fixers inequality. were 3rd graders? The most common Many initiatives rebuke we hear when we talk about Principle 2. The most effective equity equity literacy goes something like present the illusion literacy approach is integrative and My students are too young to talk this: interdisciplinary. If you’re thinking about that stuff. of multicultural It’s easy to see how equity literacy the same thing, consider this: Even naturally favors interdisciplinary preschool-age children have been even as learning inquiry. As we see in the math exposed to socializing messages about they guarantee a example above, students would themselves and one another—often also engage with reading, writing, even at school. Many students already lack of sophisticated speaking, history, and civics. knowingly experience bias and dis- Science, technology, engineering, crimination, and those who don’t often multicultural learning. and the arts similarly could be tapped learn that it’s impolite to mention any as students grapple with real-world distinctions. For example, researchers equity issues in their communities. have found that children as young Sánchez (2014) describes an inter- as three or four already differentiate disciplinary project in which teams racial categories—they’re not, as we of students at a high-poverty school Teachers considering similar may want to believe, “color-blind” examined challenges in their racially approaches shouldn’t feel discouraged (Olson, 2013; Winkler, 2009). segregated and economically strained if students don’t see the fruits of So when we say or think that stu- community. One group, the Park their efforts within the school year. dents are “too young” to talk about Fixers, was frustrated “with having As Schultz (2008) notes, “spec- issues like racism, it’s important that insufficient and unsafe equipment tacular things happen along the way” we stop and reflect on whom, exactly, for students to play on during recess” when students are engaged in this we’re trying to protect. Are we pro- 185). Group members were also (p. kind of work; the process is just as tecting the students who are expe- concerned that the children who lived important—if not more important— riencing racial bias by sidestepping in an adjacent low-income housing than the actual outcome of their conversations about race, even as we project had no place to play. efforts. ask them to celebrate diversity? With guidance from teachers, the By engaging students in this way, In our experience, the younger we Park Fixers applied a wide variety the teachers modeled equity literacy. start, the better. By integrating issues of skills and an impressive depth of They acknowledged what the stu- of equity into the content at young knowledge to address this community dents knew all along—that they were ages, we help all students develop challenge they had identified. The targets of bias and inequity. What the skills and language they need to students used video and still photog- was happening to their park wasn’t explore complex and controversial raphy to document the conditions happening to the parks in wealthier issues in a community of people who of the park. They used language arts neighborhoods. The teachers also may disagree about what’s going on or and math skills to craft community helped strengthen students’ equity what should be done about it. Equally surveys, distribute them, and analyze lessons about literacy by integrating important, we demonstrate to stu- the results. They practiced com- math, writing, and other subjects with dents who are the targets of bias and munication skills by composing and an opportunity to apply academic inequity that their experiences matter, sending letters to several key com- skills to redress this inequity. Culti- and we offer them an opportunity to munity members. They even worked vating equity literacy is most effective challenge their peers’ mis perceptions. with an urban design specialist who when it’s integrated into the broader As a result, they may experience helped them capture their vision for a curriculum rather than segregated the more celebratory, surface-level new park in blueprints. Finally, they into disconnected activities and when multicultural initiatives as safer and delivered both oral and written reports it’s a schoolwide commitment rather more legitimate. Meanwhile, students to their teachers that incorporated all than isolated in one or two teachers’ who enjoy more privileged identities the material they had gathered. classrooms. become better able to interpret the L E AD E RSHIP / M ARCH 2015 E 38 DUCATIONAL Gorski.indd 38 1/29/15 7:48 PM

6 stereotypes and biases that feed any Principle 5. Teaching for equity misperceptions they might have about literacy is a political act—but not more Great Equity Literacy the more marginalized people in their so than not teaching for equity literacy. Resources communities. Another common rebuke we hear is that teaching for equity literacy intro- Here are some of our favorite—and Principle 4. Students from all duces views about social justice into free—resources for an equity literacy backgrounds need equity literacy. the curriculum that don’t belong in curriculum: Many of the common examples of school. But is teaching about poverty equity literacy in action come from or sexism more political than pre- EdChange (www.edchange.org/ high-poverty schools serving large tending that poverty and sexism don’t multi cultural/teachers.html) percentages of students of color exist by omitting them from the cur- and nonnative speakers of English. riculum? How might we explain the Education for Liberation Lab Un fortunately, this can lead some not politics of teaching about these liberation.org/resources/ (www.ed people to believe that white and issues when many of our students lab) wealthy students wouldn’t benefit are experiencing them even within , from a curriculum informed by equity school? How can we prepare youth to GLSEN (http://glsen.org/educate/ literacy. In fact, these students may be active participants in a democracy resources/curriculum) have the steepest learning curves without teaching them about the most when it comes to learning about bias, formidable barriers to an authentic New York Collective of Radical discrimination, and inequity. Tradi- democracy? Educators (www.nycore.org/ tional forms of multicultural education According to Hess and McAvoy curricula) that focus on celebrating diversity (2014), there’s no silver bullet for rather than equity can reinforce their engaging students in discussions about SoJust (www.sojust.net) misunderstandings by feeding the important and often controversial assumption that celebrating diversity issues, but rather a series of factors Teachers for Social Justice (www is enough—that everybody is starting .teachersforjustice.org/search/ that teachers must weigh to introduce label/all%20curriculum) on a level playing field. these issues ethically and responsibly. A growing body of research pro- It’s important for teachers to consider Teaching Economics As If People vides helpful examples of how to when to withhold or disclose their Mattered (www.teachingeconomics engage more privileged students in an personal views and how to frame .org) equity literacy curriculum (Swalwell, issues in relation to their students, the 2013). In one elite K–8 private school, subject matter they’re teaching, and Teaching for Change (www teachers meet regularly in professional community. the change.org) for .teaching development study groups focused on Ultimately, Hess and McAvoy con- race, gender, and social class to design clude, classrooms should directly Teaching Tolerance (www curriculum and share their work. engage students in answering the .tolerance.org/classroom-resources) While the 8th grade teachers have should we live together? question, How asked their students to examine real- It’s a nonpartisan question like its Zinn Education Project (http:// world historical and contemporary we live do empirical cousin, How zinned project.org) wealth gap data, the 4th grade teachers together? but a deeply political one are inviting their students to share, in that’s essential in a diverse society journal entries, what they know about based on democratic principles and being rich and poor, and the kinder - sometimes invite students to brag committed to equity. garten teacher is designing a simple about their material possessions. The A More Meaningful Investment simulation of unequal distribution of teachers’ ultimate goal is to help stu- As Cynthia taught us (“There’s racism resources. dents do more than simply “be nice” at this school, and no one’s doing The teachers are also compiling to people with less privilege; they want anything about it!”), students who a list of formal and informal ways their students to understand the issues feel marginalized in our schools may that class advantage goes unchecked involved and commit to working experience what we thought to be at their school—for example, how toward a society with less economic meaningful multicultural curriculums morning meeting questions can inequality. 39 ASCD / WWW . ASCD . ORG Gorski.indd 39 1/29/15 7:48 PM

7 in democratic education. New York: www.tolerance at .org/blog/why-our- Routledge. students-need-equity-literacy as a purposeful avoidance of a more Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a Swalwell, K. (2013). Educating activist serious reality. When we invest our theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. allies: Social justice pedagogy with the multi cultural energies in surface-level , American Educational Research Journal suburban and urban elite . New York: cultural exchanges, fantasies of color- (3), 465–491. 32 Routledge. blindness, or celebrations of white- Ladson-Billings, G. (2006). It’s not the Winkler, E. N. (2009). Children are not washed heroes while ignoring the culture of poverty, it’s the poverty of colorblind: How young children learn culture: The problem with teacher race. (3), 1–8. PACE, 3 actual inequities many of our students education. Anthropology and Education face, we demonstrate an implicit com- Quarterly, 37 (2), 104–109. plicity with those inequities. Psy- Olson, K. R. (2013). Are kids racist? ([email protected] Paul C. Gorski We can avoid these pitfalls by Retrieved from www chology Today. .org) is associate professor of Inte- building our multicultural curriculum .psychologytoday.com/blog/developing- grative Studies at George Mason Uni- minds/201304/are-kids-racist efforts, not around cultural awareness versity, Fairfax, Virginia, and founder of Sánchez, L. (2014). Fostering wide- or cultural diversity, but around the EdChange (www.edchange.org). His awakeness: Third-grade community most recent book, coauthored with cultivation of equity literacy in both activists. In P. Gorski and J. Landsman Seema Pothini, is Case Studies on E L  ourselves and our students. (Eds.), The poverty and education reader Diversity and Social Justice Education (pp. 183–194). Sterling, VA: Stylus. (Routledge, 2014). Katy Swalwell Spectacular things Schultz, B. (2008). References ([email protected]) is an assistant happen along the way: Lessons from an Reaching and teaching Gorski, P. (2013). professor in the School of Education New York: Teachers urban classroom. students in poverty: Strategies for erasing at Iowa State University. She is the College Press. . New York: Teachers the opportunity gap Educating Activist Allies: Social author of Swalwell, K. (2011, December 21). Why College Press. Justice Pedagogy with the Suburban and our students need “equity literacy” [blog Hess, D., & McAvoy, P. (2014). The (Routledge, 2013). Urban Elite Teaching Tolerance post]. Retrieved from political classroom: Evidence and ethics YOUR DESIGN EDUCATION MASTER OPPORTUNITIES YOUR Master of Arts in Educational Technology LEARN MORE: and Online Learning www.tesc.edu/heavin VISIT Master of Arts in Educational Leadership CALL (866) 540-9378 > Flexible ways to earn college credit Convenient courses offered exclusively online > Practitioner-based learning through applied > experiences Programs aligned with ISLLC standards > Thomas Edison State College is one of the 11 senior public colleges and universities in New Jersey, and is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (267) 284-5000. 40 DUCATIONAL L E E AD E RSHIP / M ARCH 2015 Gorski.indd 40 1/29/15 7:52 PM

Related documents

untitled

untitled

E E q u i t t y , s o c c i a l d e e t e r m m i n a n t t s a n d d p u b b l ic Th Th is is b b oo oo k k wa wa s s co co mm d is is si si on on ed ed b b y y th th e e De De pa pa rt rt me me nt n...

More info »
2018 Investment Company Fact Book

2018 Investment Company Fact Book

2018 Investment Company Fact Book A Review of Trends and Activities in the Investment Company Industry 58th edition www.icifactbook.org

More info »
Handbook on Securities Statistics

Handbook on Securities Statistics

HANDBOOK HANDBOOK ON SECURITIES STATISTICS • • • • • • • • • € • • BANK FOR • INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS BANK CENTRAL EUROPEAN INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND EUROSYSTEM 2015 INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

More info »
Market Charts

Market Charts

Market Charts Turning data into knowledge Second Quarter 2019 All data shown in the charts as of Q1 2019 and reflect the most recent information Please see disclosures for the risks associated with th...

More info »
Government Finance Statistics Manual 2014

Government Finance Statistics Manual 2014

MANUAL GOVERNMENT FINANCE STATISTICS MANUAL 2014 2014 INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

More info »
the minneapolis plan to end too big to fail final

the minneapolis plan to end too big to fail final

THE MINNEAPOLIS PLAN TO END TOO BIG TO FAIL DECEMBER 2017

More info »
MSCI Feb19 GIMIMethod

MSCI Feb19 GIMIMethod

INDEX METHODOLOGY MSCI GLOBAL INVESTAB LE MARKET INDEXES METHODOLOGY Index Construction Objectives, Guiding Principles and Methodology for the MSCI Global Investable Market Indexes 2019 February FEBRU...

More info »
GARE Resource Guide

GARE Resource Guide

RESOURCE GUIDE Advancing Racial Equity and Transforming Government A Resource Guide to Put Ideas into Action RACIALEQUITYALLIANCE.ORG

More info »
The Rate of Return on Everything, 1870–2015

The Rate of Return on Everything, 1870–2015

FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF SAN FRANCISCO WORKING PAPER SERIES –2015 The Rate of Return on Everything, 1870 Òscar Jordà Reserve Bank of San Francisco Federal University of California, Davis Katharina Knol...

More info »
bain report private equity report 2019

bain report private equity report 2019

GLOBAL PRIVATE EQUITY REPORT 2019

More info »
2018 ccaf exp horizons

2018 ccaf exp horizons

EXPANDING HORIZONS rd THE 3 EUROPEAN ALTERNATIVE FINANCE INDUSTRY REPORT Tania Ziegler Rotem Shneor Kieran Garvey Karsten Wenzlaff Nikos Yerolemou Rui Hao Bryan Zhang With the support of:

More info »
ArtsEquityToolkit

ArtsEquityToolkit

Arts & Equity Toolkit A project of the Neighbourhood Arts Network neighbourhoodartsnetwork.org Created by An initiative of Skye Louis & Leah Burns

More info »
Microsoft Word   1 Table ot Contents etc.doc

Microsoft Word 1 Table ot Contents etc.doc

Our cities, our health, our future Acting on social determinants for health equity in urban settings Report to the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health from the Knowledge Network on Urban S...

More info »
Microsoft Word   Freddie Mac Underserved Markets Plan 201812 Clean Public.docx

Microsoft Word Freddie Mac Underserved Markets Plan 201812 Clean Public.docx

Freddie Mac Duty to Serve Underserved Markets Plan For 2018-2020

More info »
2018 Green Cincinnati Plan

2018 Green Cincinnati Plan

2018 2018 Green Cincinnati Plan Adopted May 2018 1

More info »
Final rule: Home Mortgage Disclosure (Regulation C)

Final rule: Home Mortgage Disclosure (Regulation C)

BILLING CODE: 4810- -P AM BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 1003 12 CFR Part Docket No. CFPB -0019 -2014 RIN 3170- AA10 Home Mortgage Disclosure (Regulation C) AGENCY: Consumer Financial Protect...

More info »
IWMF Global Report

IWMF Global Report

Global Report on the Status of Women in the News Media INTERNATIONAL WOMEN’S MEDIA FOUNDATION

More info »
GARE LibrariesReport Issue Paper April 2018

GARE LibrariesReport Issue Paper April 2018

ISSUE BRIEF Advancing Racial Equity in Public Libraries Case Studies from the Field RACIALEQUITYALLIANCE.ORG

More info »
Reply Annual Report 2017

Reply Annual Report 2017

reply annual financial report 2017 REPLY ANNUAL FINANCIAL REPORT 2017

More info »