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1 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES UNITED NATIONS E-GOVERNMENT SURVEY 2018 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES i

2 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES ii

3 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Department of Economic and Social Affairs UNITED NATIONS E-GOVERNMENT SURVEY 2018 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES UNITED NATIONS New York, 2018 publicadministration.un.org i

4 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs The Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat is a vital interface between global policies in the economic, social and environmental spheres and national action. The Department works in three main interlinked areas: (i) it compiles, generates and analyses a wide range of economic, social and environmental data and information on which States Members of the United Nations draw to review common problems and to take stock of policy options; (ii) it facilitates the negotiations of Member States in many intergovernmental bodies on joint course of action to address ongoing or emerging global challenges; and (iii) it advises interested Governments on the ways and means of translating policy frameworks developed in United Nations conferences and summits into programmes at the country level and, through technical assistance, helps build national capacities. Disclaimers The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The designations “developed” and “developing” economics are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily imply a judgment about the state reached by a particular country or area in the development process. The term “country” as used in the text of this publication also refers, as appropriate, to territories or areas. The term “dollar” normally refers to the United States dollar ($). The views expressed are those of the individual authors and do not imply any expression of opinion on the part of the United Nations. Copyright © United Nations, 2018 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission. ST/ESA/PAD/SER.E/212 Sales no.: E.18.II.H.2 ISBN: 978-92-1- 123208-0 eISBN: 978-92-1- 047227-2 United Nations E-Government Surveys: 2018 Gearing E-Government to support transformation towards sustainable and resilient societies 2016 E-Government for Sustainable Development 2014 E-Government for the Future We Want 2012 E-Government for the People 2010 Leveraging E-Government at a Time of Financial and Economic Crisis 2008 From E-Government to Connected Governance 2005 From E-Government to E-Inclusion 2004 Towards Access for Opportunity 2003 World Public Sector Report: E-Government at the Crossroads 2001 Benchmarking E-Government: A Global Perspective Website: publicadministration.un.org Layout at the United Nations, Nairobi Printed at the United Nations, New York ii

5 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Foreword To fulfil the far-reaching potential of the transformative 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, technologies must be used innovatively to ensure that the Sustainable Development Goals are met on time. We are at a critical juncture, in the middle of a digital revolution that is not just about technologies, but also about the centrality of people and the planet. We are witnessing the simultaneous proliferation of big data, artificial intelligence, data science, blockchain, robotics and other frontier and fast- emerging technologies. These frontier technologies are building on and amplifying one another, affecting everything from our food systems, water and sanitation, energy, to education, health care and social services. In particular, digital government has ushered in significant and enduring changes in the way people live and interact with each other, their environment, and public services. The 2018 Survey highlights a persistent positive global trend towards higher levels of e-government development. It examines how digital technologies and innovations are impacting the public sector and changing people’s everyday lives. As evidenced by the survey assessment and case studies, exploiting digital government has far-reaching potential for countries, not just in improving institutional processes and workflows for greater efficacy and effectiveness of public service delivery, but also in ensuring inclusion, participation and accountability to leave no one behind. However, connectivity and access to new technologies remain elusive for some regions and countries, especially the most vulnerable, in particular the African countries, the least developed countries, small island developing States and the landlocked developing countries. In addition, there is a need to consider the inherent new and unprecedented risks. Without careful design application and oversight, artificial intelligence tools could harm vulnerable populations, reinforce existing inequalities, widen digital divides and adversely affect jobs and economies, as well as privacy, denial of service and other cybersecurity issues – also examined in the 2018 Survey. It is therefore also important to develop a tailored capacity training programme to create new public policy, science ethic and data scientist professions to strengthen institutional capacities of countries in deploying digital government and digital services. LIU Zhenmin Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs United Nations iii

6 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Acknowledgements The 2018 United Nations E-Government Survey is the product of collective efforts of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), Division for Public Institutions and Digital Government (DPIDG), formerly named as the Division for Public Administration and Development Management (DPADM), working together with UN Regional Commissions and other UN agencies, as well as several international experts, researchers and related organizations. In particular, the following are acknowledged for their specific roles in its production. Preparation of the publication was undertaken by a group of senior e-government researchers and advisers under the guidance of Vincenzo Aquaro, the Chief of Digital Government Branch and Marion Barthélemy, former Director of DPADM and then reviewed and finalized under the overall guidance of Vincenzo Aquaro and Stefan Schweinfest, Officer-in-Charge of DPIDG. The Data Management Team was overseen by Vincenzo Aquaro. Deniz Susar, Governance and Public Administration Officer, managed the data collection, Survey research and analytical work, with support from Stella Simpas, Rosanne Greco, Madeleine Losch and Enkel Daljani, Programme Assistants, and Lydia Gatan, Staff Assistant. Wai Min Kwok, Senior Governance and Public Administration Officer, Elida Reci, Governance and Public Administration Officer and Arpine Korekyan, Governance and Public Administration Officer, provided support in the data analysis and verification. The 2018 Survey included considerable contribution in data collection and preparation of chapters from experts from the following UN organisations and academia: International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and the United Nations University Operating Unit on Policy-Driven Electronic Governance (UNU-EGOV). Chapter 1 was prepared by Jeremy Millard, with substantive contributions of Vincenzo Aquaro and Wai Min Kwok, with Arpine Korekyan acting as focal point (FP) and final peer reviewer for that chapter. David Le Blanc, Chief of Institution for SDGs Branch, Aranzazu Guillán Montero, Senior Governance and Public Administration Officer and Maria Stefania Senese, Governance and Public Administration Officer provided cases and inputs to the chapter. Chapter 2 was prepared by Kim Andreasson, with Wai Min Kwok as FP and peer-reviewer; Chapter 3 by Atsuko Okuda, Chief of Information and Communications Technology and Development Section; Sanjay Srivastava, Chief, Disaster Risk Reduction Section; Keran Wang, Chief, Space Applications Section; Siope Vakataki ‘Ofa, Economic Affairs Officer, of ICTDRRD of ESCAP, with Peride Blind, Governance and Public Administration Officer, as FP and final peer reviewer. Chapter 4 was prepared by Mr. Marco Obiso, Head, Mr. Maxim Kushtuev, Project administrator and Miss Grace Acayo, Cybersecurity & GCI Consultant, of International Telecommunication Union (ITU), with the substantive contribution of Deniz Susar as FP and final peer reviewer; Chapter 5 by Vincenzo Aquaro, Arpine Korekyan and Deniz Susar, with Deniz Susar also as FP; Chapter 6 by Deniz Susar, with Arpine Korekyan as FP; Chapter 7 by Delfina Soares, Head, UNU-EGOV; Demetrious Sarantis, Postdoctoral Fellow and Mariana Lameiras, Postdoctoral Fellow, of UNU-EGOV, Demetrios, with the substantive contribution of Vincenzo Aquaro and Deniz Susar; the latter also as FP; Chapter 8 by Wendy Carrara, with Elida Reci as FP and substantive contribution from Dinand Tinholt, Vice President, Capgemini Consulting (ICT Mega Trends), Vincenzo Aquaro and Deniz Susar. The Annexes and the Methodology section were drafted by Vincenzo Aquaro and Deniz Susar, supported by external consultants Elena Garuccio, serving as a Data Statistician, and assisted by Enkel Daljani. Beth Flanders, Lydia Debbie Gatan undertook the editorial revision of the Survey with Rachael Purcell Research Assistant and Huichun Li Team Assistant providing invaluable support. The 2018 Survey benefited from the advice and guidance of experts who took part in two Expert Group Meetings (EGM) to review the Survey’s themes and methodology; from the outcomes of iv

7 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES an external Ex-Post-Facto evaluation report titled “Adapting the Sustainable Development Goals” UN E-Government Survey for the period 2001-2016” carried out by Edward M. Roche, Director of Scientific Intelligence Barraclough New York LLC; and from an informal advisory working group established by DPIDG in support of the preparation for the Survey. The first EGM was organized by DPIDG in New York in May 2017 with the support of Dinand Tinholt, Vice President, Capgemini Consulting (ICT Mega Trends), who acted under his personal capacity, while the other was organized by UNU-EGOV in Guimarães, Portugal, in June 2017. The New York EGM experts were: Dennis Anderson, Chairman and Professor of Management and Information Technology at St. Francis College, New York City, United States; Kim Andreasson, Managing Director of DAKA advisory, Sweden; Wendy Carrara, Principal Consultant, Capgemini Consulting, France; Sara Fernandes, Special Advisor, UNU-EGOV, Portugal; Haidar Fraihat, Director of Technology for Development Division at UN-ESCWA, Lebanon; Driss Ketani, Associate Professor of Computer Science, Al Akhwayn University, Morocco; Ashok Kumar, Director, eGovernment Leadership Centre, National University of Singapore; Jeremy Millard, Director of Third Millennium Governance and Chief Policy, United Kingdom; Theresa Pardo, Director, Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany, United States; Oleg Petrov, Program Coordinator for ICT at the World Bank, Russia; Edward Roche, Evaluation Consultant for the eGovernment Survey for the period 2003-2016, United States; Fadi Salem, Research Fellow, MBR School of Government (formerly Dubai School of Government), United Arab Emirates; Dinand Tinholt, Vice President, Capgemini Consulting (ICT Mega Trends), the Netherlands; Barbara-Chiara Ubaldi, Project Manager, Digital Government, OECD, Italy; Zheng Lei, Director, Lab for Digital and Mobile Governance, Fudan University, China. The Guimarães EGM experts were: Aleksandr Riabushko, Government Fellow, UNU-EGOV, Portugal; Antonio Tavares, Associate Professor, University of Minho and Adjunct Associate Professor, UNU- EGOV, Portugal; Delfina Soares, Assistant Professor, University of Minho and Adjunct Assistant Professor, UNU-EGOV, Portugal; Demetrios Sarantis, Postdoctoral Fellow, UNU-EGOV, Portugal; Ibrahim Rohman, Research Fellow, UNU-EGOV, Portugal, Irfanullah Arfeen, Postdoctoral Fellow, UNU-EGOV, Portugal; João Álvaro Carvalho, Professor, University of Minho and Adjunct Professor, UNU-EGOV, Portugal; João Martins, Academic Fellow, UNU-EGOV, Portugal; Linda Veiga, Associate Professor, University of Minho and Adjunct Associate Professor, UNU-EGOV, Portugal; Luis Barbosa, Associate Professor, University of Minho and Head ad Interim, UNU-EGOV, Portugal; Mariana Lameiras, Postdoctoral Fellow, UNU-EGOV, Portugal; Mario Peixoto, Editorial Assistant, UNU-EGOV, Portugal; Morten Meyerhoff Nielsen, Academic Fellow, UNU-EGOV, Portugal; Nuno Carvalho, Postdoctoral Fellow, UNU-EGOV, Portugal; Nuno Lopes, Postdoctoral Fellow, UNU-EGOV, Portugal; Sara Fernandes, Special Adviser, UNU-EGOV, Portugal; Soumaya Ben Dhaou, Research Fellow, UNU-EGOV, Portugal; and Tiago Silva, Academic Fellow, UNU-EGOV, Portugal. The members of the Informal Advisory Working Group were: Kim Andreasson (Sweden); Dennis Anderson (United States); Wendy Carrara (France); Driss Ketani (Morocco); Ashok Kumar (Singapore); Jeremy Millard (United Kingdom); Theresa Pardo (United States); Fadi Salem (Syria); Dinand Tinholt (The Netherlands); Zheng Lei (China). Telecommunication infrastructure data and education data were respectively provided by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Enkel Daljani, Desalegn Biru and Nosipho Dhladhla updated and maintained the data assessment platform and the online database platform. v

8 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES United Nations interns who assisted in research and data collection and verification, collecting case studies, and formatting the Survey, included: Abdussalam Naveed, Aikanysh Saparalieva, Aly El-Samy, Cansu Uttu, Carlos Baeta, Cherif Aboueich, Chunyu Guo, Danning He, Diren Kocakusak, Dominika Zak, Hasan Shuaib, Isabella Arce, Ivan Spirydonau, Matthew Carneiro, Mina Koutsorodi, Nargiza Berdyyeva, Niccolò Guerrieri, Nikola Lipovac, Olivia Lin, Roseta Alvarez Roig, Sen Li, Svenja Stabler, Tala Khanji, Thomas de Clercq, Wu Yingji, Xiaoyang Xu, Yiming Chang, Yini Gao, and Yuchen Yang. Engaging United Nations Volunteers in the Survey The 2018 edition continued to engage United Nations Online Volunteers (UNVs) in order to cover most primary languages of the 193 UN Member States. Since the Survey won the UN Volunteer Award in 2013, the 2018 edition was able to attract 197 volunteers with knowledge of 66 languages from 92 countries. Over the course of four months, volunteers completed 393 research surveys. Deniz Susar provided overall coordination throughout the data collection process and with the assistance of Enkel Daljani, Rosanne Greco, Lydia Gatan, Madeleine Losch and Stella Simpas, coordinated the UNVs, which were engaged in four teams. Special thanks also go to the following UN staff members who, under the supervision of DPIDG, reviewed a number of countries: Aarao Benchimol, Aisha Jeelaan, Alexandra Bettencourt, Aranzazu Guillan Montero, Benedicte Niviere, Flor Velazco-Juarez, Iwona Gardon, Laura Marrocchi, Madoka Koide, Said Maalouf, Said Maalouf, Saw Htoo, Sovanna Sun and Victoria Kim. UN staff members, with the support of interns completed a comprehensive second stage data assessment and review. Vincenzo Aquaro, Deniz Susar and Elena Garuccio worked together to update the statistical methodology. Elena Garuccio conducted the statistical regressions and data correlation analysis. The following UNVs reviewed the national portals of the Member States: Abraham Andriamarelaza Ratsizafy, Adama Kindo, Adasena Cojocaru, Adoración Hernández López, Agnieszka Kazmierska, Agnieszka Krukowska, Ahmad Khalid Slimankhil, Ahmed Yesuf, Ajna Uzuni, Aleksandar Cosic, Aleksandra Starcevic, Alexandra Sarinova, Amel Aït-Hamouda, Amirjon Abdukodirov, Amruta Pujari, Ana Carolina Tomé Pires, Ana Kurkhuli, Anait Akopyan, Anbar Jayadi, Andreea Madalina Dinel, Andrle Jiri, Anja Vuksanovic, Anna Sanosyan, Anne Kristine GIltvedt, Annette Sagri, Anta Badji, Ayhan Onder, Bahiru Mekonnen, Batzaya Bayasgalan, Beatrice Nkundwa, Begmyrat Bayryyev, Belynda Howell Rendon, Bladimir Diaz Borges, Bogdana Storozuk, Britta Sadoun, Cai NI, Carolina González Domínguez, Charles Banda, Christy Box, Claudia Torres, Dace Abola, Debora Cerro Fernandez, Dewi Gayatri Suwadji, Dina Tarek, Doaa Badr, Douglas Kibowen, Doukessa Lerias, Edie Vandy, Edwina Fung, Elena Burés, Elena Panova, Elvia Angelica Erosa Mercado, Emperatriz Nieves, Ertem Vehid, Etoh Kokou Sitsofe, Evgeny Bachevsky, Eyasu Shishigu, Fatima Jaffery, Tieu Ngoc Diem Quynh, Feren Calderwood, Francois Kasanda Kanku, Gabriella Zsótér, Ghadeer Khader, Gudrun Helga Johannsdottir, Gulnar Bayramova, Guy Nicolas Nahimana, Hilda Sucipto, Huyen Le Thi, Huyen Nga Le, Hyejun Kim, Idrees Bangash, Inês Godinho, Irene Castillo, Irina Langeler, Iryna Parkhomenko, Isabelle Plante, Ivana Spirovska Paccoud, Jawwad Zaki, Jennifer Wang, Jing Li, Jocelyne Pitos, Jonathan Bentsen, Jorge Diaz, Joyce Paul, Karolina Trojanowicz, Kiia Strömmer, Klara Tomazic, Kristyn Alldredge, Kyaw Zan Linn, Laura Donati, Lea Lavut, Loïc Druenne, Lora Nielsen, Loraine Fernandes, Lorena Belenky, Lucas Foganholo,Luciana Batista Esteves, Lydia Sawyer, Mafalda Prista Leao, Maia Baghaturia, Mansi Majithia, Maria Capogreco, Maria Gigourtaki, Mariana Fonseca Viegas, Marija Batic, Marina Teixeira, Mario Fernando Valenzuela Cruz, Markhabokhon Rakhimova, Marta Chowaniak, Marta Kusnierska, Maryam Navi, Matea Beslic, Md. Ershadul Karim, Menna T-Allah Yasser Nabil, Michaela Kytlicova, Michèle Andriamparany, Milena Melo, Mine Seyda Ozkavak, Minhui Hou, Minkyung Shin, Mohamad Mzanar, Mohammed Alrushoodi, Mounia Malki, Mourifie Adou, Muhammad Tukur Shehu, Nafiseh Jafarzadeh, Nasrin Moghaddam, Neil Deleon, Nidya Astrini, Nina Hurson, Nozomi Ushijima, Nupoor Prasad, Nusaibah Jaber Abuelhaija, Olaya vi

9 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Álvarez, Olga Kuzmina, Olga Shumilo, Olga Sokorova, Oyundari Batsaikhan, Papa Birame Tall, Paula Babot, Pema Tenzin, Peme Paco, Pietari Pikkuaho, Pooja Panwar, Preethi Jayaram, Rabab Saleh, Rafat Haddad, Rajeev K.C., Ramin Maleki, Raquel Esther Jorge Ricart, Raymond Selorm Mamattah, Reham Haroun Younes, Reinaldo Gonzalez, Renata Svincicka, Robert Oichi, Rose Santos, Sabina Magar, Sagorika Roy, Sandra Just, Seleshi Yalew, Sezen Bayazeid, Shamsul Alam Roky, Silvia Laracca, Sirivanh Fujimoto, Solomon Tesfay Ghebrehiwet, Stephen Michael Agada, Susanne John, Svetla Y. McCandless, Sylvia Fodor, Tadoa Bruno Yonli, Tamara Adaeva, Tasneem Ali Qurrah, Thamashi De Silva, Thanood Mahnorath, Thawatchai Khanawiwat, Toyin Akinfolarin, Tuija von der Pütten, Umer Farooq, Umesha Weerakkody, Valentin Mihai Popovici, Vazgen Tadevosyan, Veronika Komaromi, Victoria Kovalenko, Volha Shyshlova, Waleed Anwar, Wojciech Malecki, Xian Guan, Xiaodan Huang, Xiaoxu Wu, Xoliswa Saila, Yilin Yang, Yosra Mubark Yousif Mohamed, Yuming Han, Zafirah Singham, Zhuolin Li, Zigeng Huang, Zixi Liu. The 2018 edition also engaged a number of UNVs, UN Staff and UN Interns in the pilot study of local e-Government development by conducting a review of a select list of city portals. These researchers include: Abby El-Shafei, Aleksandr Riabushko, Alexandra Bettencourt, Aliya Abdikadirova, Anni Haataja, Arpine Korekyan, David Lung’aho, Debbie Gatan, Dimitrios Sarantis, Elida Reci, Enkel Daljani, Guillermina Cledou, Ibrahim Rohman, Irfanullah Arfeen, Jan-Willem Lammens, Karolina Trojanowicz, Madeleine Losch, Mário Peixoto, Mengyuan He, Minkyung Shin, Monika Halinarova, Nele Leosk, Nozomi Ushijima, Rosanne Greco, Said Maalouf, Selen Ozdogan, Soumaya Ben Dhao, Stella Simpas, Thamashi De Silva, Thanood Mahnorath, Tiblet Kelemwork, Vincenzo Aquaro, and Zafirah Singham. vii

10 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Acronyms Average Annual Loss AAL Agency for e-Government and Information and Knowledge AGESIC Society of Uruguay AI Artificial Intelligence ARC African Risk Capacity CCRP SCP Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Segregated Portfolio Company CEPA Committee of Experts on Public Administration CRED Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters DRM Disaster Risk Management EGDI E-Government Development Index EM-DAT The International Disaster Database EPI E-Participation Index ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific ESCWA United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia Frequently Asked Questions FAQ G2B Government-to-Business G2C Government-to-Citizen Gross National Income GNI Human Capital Index HCI ICT Information Communication Technologies ITU International Telecommunication Union LAC Latin America and the Caribbean MSQ Member State Questionnaire NGO Non-Government Organization NITA National Telecommunications and Information Administration O&E Outbreak and Epidemic Response OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OGD Open Government Data OSI Online Service Index OSQ Online Service Questionnaire PPP Public-Private Partnerships Randomized Controlled Trial RCT viii

11 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Rich Site Summary RSS SDG Sustainable Development Goals SIDS Small Island Developing States SMS Short Message Service Telecommunication Infrastructure Index TII Unique Identification Authority of India UIDAI UN/CEFACT United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and E-business UNDESA United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs UNECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe UNESCAP United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund UNOOSA United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs UNOSSC United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation WPSR World Public Sector Report WSIS World Summit on the Information Society Extreme Climate Facility XCF ix

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13 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Contents iii Foreword Acknowledgements iv Acronyms viii About the Survey xxix Executive Summary xxiii Chapter 1 Mobilizing e-government to build resilient societies: preconditions 1 and enabling environment 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Preconditions for e-government to accelerate the building of sustainability and resilience 2 14 1.3 E-government strategies for sustainability and resilience 20 1.4 Challenges, risks and vulnerabilities 22 1.5 Conclusions References: 24 Chapter 2 E-government for leaving no one behind 27 27 2.1 Introduction 28 2.2 E-service delivery 2.3 Digital divides 34 2.4 Digital literacy 39 2.5 Emerging divides: migrants, restrictions on access, and net neutrality 40 2.6 Conclusion 42 43 References 47 Chapter 3 E-resilience through e-government: global and regional perspectives 3.1 Introduction: Impact of Natural Disasters and Role of Policy and ICT in Disaster Risk Management 47 53 3.2 E-resilience and its linkages to ICT and E-government 3.3 Emerging uses of artificial intelligence, social media, space technology applications and geospatial information for e-resilience 56 3.4 Mainstreaming e-resilience within e-government framework 60 3.5 Conclusions and Policy Recommendations 61 References 64 Chapter 4 Building the resilience of e-government 67 4.1. Introduction: Need for a resilient e-government system 67 4.2. Global view in cybersecurity 68 4.3. Designing a secure e-government system 71 4.4. Conclusion 80 References 81 Chapter 5 Global trends in e-government 83 5.1 Introduction 83 83 5.2 E-government rankings in 2018 xi

14 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES 5.3 Progress in online service delivery 96 107 5.4 Trends in Open Government Data 109 5.5 Trends in mobile service delivery 110 5.6 E-participation: public engagement for innovative public e services delivery 5.7 Conclusions 122 References 125 Chapter 6 Regional development and country groupings performance 127 6.1. Introduction 127 6.2. Regional rankings 127 6.3 The situation in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) 142 6.4 Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs) 143 6.5 The situation in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) 144 6.6 Conclusion 148 References 149 Chapter 7 Improve cities resilience and sustainability through e-government 151 assessment 7.1. Introduction 151 152 7.2. Local Level e-Government 154 7.3 Current Status of Local Online Services: a Pilot Study 7.4. Using Local e-Government to Advance SDG implementation 171 7.5. Conclusion 173 References 175 Chapter 8 Fast-evolving technologies in e-government: Government Platforms, Artificial Intelligence and People 177 8.1. Introduction 177 8.2. Harnessing fast evolving technologies 178 8.3. Deep Dive into a cluster of new technology revolving around data 183 8.4. Deep dive into a cluster of new technology revolving around AI and Robotics 187 8.5. Harnessing technology for societal resilience 189 8.6. Conclusion 193 References 195 Annexes 198 xii

15 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Boxes 1.1 Compendium of national institutional arrangements for implementing the 2030 3 Agenda for Sustainable Development 6 1.2 Tax Administration Division, Republic of Korea (2018 UNPSA Winner) 1.3 Policy integration for the Sustainable Development Goals 7 1.4 Santiago: Ingredients for a smart sustainable city 10 1.5 Prime Ministry Communication Center (B MER), Turkey 12 13 1.6 The United Nations Public Service Forum and Awards Ceremony 1.7 Ghana: remote access to Wifi and Internet services 14 1.8 USA: Text4Baby SMS support service for new and expectant mothers 15 18 1.9 Portugal: the modernization of public services 19 1.10 MOOCs: Massive Open Online Courses - a global phenomenon 31 2.1 Mexico: Automated SMS communication nudges users towards healthy habits 2.2 Rwanda: Drones to improve health care 32 2.3 Bangladesh: Digital financial inclusion initiatives 33 2.4 Asia-Pacific: E-government for women toolkit 37 39 2.5 Portugal: Citizen Spots combat the digital divide 40 2.6 Europe: Developing digital skills 2.7 Finland: Blockchain for identity management and financial inclusion 41 3.1 Disaster Response and Recovery: Impact of Cyclone Winston on Fiji in 2016 51 3.2 Disaster Communications Management, Prevention and Response in Madagascar and Uganda 52 3.3 Disaster Risk Prevention, Reduction and Response: DHMS Weather Monitoring and Early Warning in Bhutan and E-resilience in Japan 55 57 3.4 Disaster Preparedness: Sensor Detection for Early Warning: The Cases of Chile and Sri Lanka 57 3.5 Disaster Preparedness and Response: Artificial Intelligence using Social Media 3.6 Disaster Risk Prevention, Reduction and Preparedness: Socio-economic Information to Supplement Drought Data 58 3.7. Using Spatial Technologies and Science-Based Modelling in Disaster Risk Management: Perspectives from Africa and the Caribbean 39 3.8. Global-level initiatives of disaster risk management and ICT 60 3.9. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP): Linking disaster risk management with e-resilience 61 4.1 ITU Global Cybersecurity Index 69 4.2 Data Protection Act of Switzerland 74 4.3 National Cyber Security Strategy of the United Kingdom 75 4.4 The National Computer Emergency Response Team of the United Arab Emirates 77 4.5. Information Security Policy in Georgia 77 5.1 e-Ghana and e-Transform projects 85 5.2 Belarus e-government development 90 5.3 Uruguay: Democratizing access to all government services 99 5.4 E-participation activities in Finland 118 5.5 E-participation activities in Brazil 120 5.6 Internet Voting in Estonia 121 121 5.7 Digital Malta Strategy 2014-2020 xiii

16 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES 6.1 UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) work on selected areas in ICTs 134 134 6.2 Case Study on Mauritius’ Vision 2030 Blueprint 6.3 Case Study on Agenda Uruguay Digital 2020 136 137 6.4 Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) 6.5 Case Study on the Republic of Korea’s e-Government Master Plan 2020 137 6.6 The World Government Summit 138 6.7 UN-ESCWA and eGovernment in the Arab Region 139 6.8 Case Study on Denmark’s Digital Strategy 2016-2020 141 6.9 European Union Digital Single Market 141 6.10 Small Island Developing States (SIDS) Symposium, Nassau, Commonwealth of the Bahamas (26-27 February 2017) 145 7.1 Local e-Government Assessment Efforts 154 7.2 Helsinki: Helsinki Region Infoshare 165 7.3 Amsterdam: Solar Cycle Path 166 7.4 Seoul: smart bins for waste management improvement 167 168 7.5 Bogota: Geographic Information Services 7.6 Sydney: Community Consultation 168 7.7 Tallinn City Office Response 171 8.1. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) : whitepapers on Blockchain 182 8.2 Government as an API 184 8.3 Global Pulse Initiative 186 8.4 Streamlining the use of Earth Observation 187 8.5 Europe rolls out an integrated approach to Artificial intelligence 188 8.6 AI for Good Global Summit 189 8.7 Process Innovation Insight 190 8.8 AI and deep machine learning for early diagnosis of brain diseases 191 192 8.9 United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) xiv

17 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Figures 2.1 Individuals using the Internet 28 29 2.2 Mobile subscriptions in developed and developing countries 2.3 Channel versus relative cost unit 29 2.4 Number of country websites with information about specific programmes/initiative to benefit vulnerable groups and communities 30 2.5 Number of countries with specific online government services available to vulnerable groups. 31 2.6 English language dominance 36 39 2.7 Educational access 3.1 Number of reported natural disaster occurrences by region, between 2000 and 2017, per million inhabitants 48 3.2 Total number of deaths from natural disasters ((2000 - 2017), by major regions. 48 49 3.3 Number of reported natural disasters (2000-2017), top 20 economies 49 3.4 Total damages from natural disasters (USD billion) (2000 - 2017) by major regions 51 3.5 AAL figures for Pacific Island countries by hazard type. 3.6 E-resilience guiding principle 54 3.7 Disaster Management Cycle 54 3.8 Percentage of countries with e-government sites that share updates and information 55 on electricity or power outage. 4.1 Percentage of countries with CII protection included in their legislation or cyber security strategy. 70 4.2 Five Pillars of ITU-s Global Cybersecurity Agenda 71 4.3 Total number of Member States with laws related to cybercrime in 2017 72 4.4 Percentage of countries with Access to Information Act 73 4.5 Personal data protection legislation available online 73 74 4.6 Countries with cybersecurity legislation online 76 4.7 Countries with cybersecurity legislation online 4.8 Regional view of CERT/CIRT/CSIRT 77 5.1 Number of countries grouped by E-Government Development Index (EDGI) in 84 2016 and 2018 88 5.2 Breakdown of EGDI Indices comparting data from 2014, 2016 and 2018 5.3 Regional averages with maximum and minimum values of EGDI in 2018 92 5.4 Regional distribution by EGDI level, 2018 93 5.5 Correlation between EGDI and Income groups and GDP 94 5.6 Distribution of OSI values by income groups, 2018 95 5.7 EGDI and its component indices for 2014 and 2018 96 5.8 Trends in transactional services online 100 5.9 Number of countries offering new transactional services assessed in 2018 survey 100 5.10 Types of online services by sector, 2016 and 2018 101 5.11 Changes in sector-specific online service provision, percentage 102 5.12 Services provided via email, SMS or RSS, percentage of countries in each region, 2018 102 5.13 Online services provided for vulnerable groups, 2016 and 2018 103 5.14 The aspects of governance assessed on websites, by EGDI level group, 2018 105 5.15 Number of countries offering tools related to e-procurement out of 193 countries, 105 2016 and 2018 xv

18 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES 5.16 Government vacancies online, 2016 and 2018 106 5.17 Availability of basic, advanced and very advanced services on national e-government portals by country income 107 5.18 Countries with Open Government Data Portal and/or Catalogues in 2014, 2016 and 2018 108 108 5.19 Functionalities of Open Government Data Portals, 2018 109 5.20 Trends in open government data, by sector, 2016 and 2018 5.21 Trends in Mobile Apps and SMS Services usage by sectors in 2016 and 2018 110 5.22 Mobile Services Delivery by Sector 110 5.23 Trends in fixed broadband subscriptions in 2016 and 2018 111 5.24 Trends in active wireless-broadband subscriptions in 2016 and 2018 111 5.25 Trends in mobile phone subscriptions in 2016 and 2018 112 5.26 Number of countries grouped by EPI levels in 2016 and 2018 113 5.27 Distribution of 62 countries with Very-High EPI level by region, 2018 (compared with the regions’ percentage in total 193 countries) 116 5.28 Number of countries offering archived information in 2016 and 2018, by sector 118 5.29 Number of countries with online engagement tools on national portals and their usage 119 5.30 Number of countries providing online services in partnership with civil society or private sector, by region, 2016 and 2018 120 128 6.1 Breakdown of E-Government Development Index (EGDI) per geographical region 6.2 Contributors to the EGDI Improvements 129 129 6.3 Comparison of the standard deviation of EGDI, OSI, HCI and TII 6.4 Breakdown of change in countries’ EGDI categories per geographical region from 2016 to 2018 130 6.5 Percentage of countries grouped by E-Government Development index (EGDI) level and geographical regions 131 6.6 Amount spent on mobile broadband as percentage of GNI per capita against the percentage 132 of subscriptions per geographical region 6.7 Transactional services per geographical region 133 6.8 World Average v. Average EGDI levels for LDCs, LLDCs, SIDS for 2014-2018 146 6.9 Granular breakdown of 2018 e-Government Development Index (EGDI) and its components per grouping 147 6.10 Percentage of Countries Represented per bloc based on E-Government Development 148 Index (EGDI) levels 7.1 Percentage of cities in each cluster 160 7.2 City–Country Online Services Index cross classification in 2018 161 7.3 Performance of cities per region 162 7.4 Implementation of Technology indicators in municipalities’ websites 163 7.5 Implementation of Content Provision indicators in municipalities’ websites 164 7.6 Implementation of Participation indicators in municipalities’ websites 167 169 7.7 Implementation of Services Provision indicators in municipalities’ websites xvi

19 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Tables 34 2.1 A selection of digital divides - from access to useful usage. 3.1 Top 10 Member States with the highest commitment to cybersecurity. 50 53 3.2 E-resilience and Role for ICT in Disaster Risk Management 4.1 Top 10 Member States with the highest commitment to cybersecurity. 70 79 4.2 Global cybersecurity activities 5.1 Countries grouped by EGDI levels 86 89 5.2 Leading countries in e-government development 96 5.3 Countries grouped by Level of Online Service Index (OSI), 2018 99 5.4 Trends in transactional online services 5.5 Online services provided to vulnerable groups, regional distribution, 2018 103 5.6 Summary of assessed e-participation features 113 5.7 Top 10 Performers in 2018 114 5.8 Countries grouped by E-participation Index levels 114 5.9 Countries that have advanced more than 30 positions in the 2018 EPI ranking 117 6.1 Top 10 countries for e-government in Africa 135 136 6.2 Top 10 countries in e-government in the Americas 6.3 Top 10 countries for e-government in Asia 138 6.4 Level of e-government development in Gulf Cooperation Council member states 138 6.5 Level of e-government development in European Union member states 140 6.6 Top 10 countries for e-government in Oceania 142 6.7 Top 10 countries for e-government - Least Developed Countries (LDC) 143 6.8 Top 10 countries for e-government - Landlocked Developing Countries 144 6.9 Top 10 countries for e-government - Small Island Developing States 145 7.1 LOSI – Criteria and Indicators 156 7.2 Pilot Cities Profile 157 7.3 Ranking of cities 159 7.4 Percentage of indicators per criteria that scored by percentage of cities. 162 183 8.1 Definitions xvii

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21 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES About the Survey Background The Survey ”) is issued 2018 United Nations E-Government Survey (hereinafter referred to as “the at the time of key rapid technological changes, with Member States in the third year of the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Survey provides new analysis and evidence to further utilize the potential of e-government to support the 2030 Agenda. This particular edition examines how governments can use e-government and information technologies to build sustainable and resilient societies. Scope and purpose Since 2001, the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) has published United Nations E-Government Survey . Following on past editions, and now in its tenth edition, the Survey the provides an analysis of progress in using e-government. Survey The is the only global report that assesses the e-government development status of all Member States of the United Nations. The assessment rates the e-government performance of countries relative to one another, as opposed to being an absolute measurement. It recognizes that each country should decide upon the level and extent of its e-government initiatives in keeping with its own national development priorities and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. The Survey measures e-government effectiveness in the delivery of public services and identifies patterns in e-government development and performance as well as countries and areas where the potential of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and e-government has not yet been fully exploited and where capacity development support might be helpful. It serves as a development tool for countries to learn from each other, identify areas of strength and challenges in e-government and shape their policies and strategies in this area. It is also aimed at facilitating and informing discussions of intergovernmental bodies, including the United Nations General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and the High Level Political Forum, on issues related to e-government and development and to the critical role of ICTs in development. Survey is mainly intended for policy makers, government officials, academia, civil society, private The sector and other practitioners and experts in the areas of public administration, e-government, and ICTs for development. Structure and methodology The Survey is composed of an analytical part and of data on e-government development contained in the annexes of the publication, providing a snapshot of relative rankings of e-government Survey focuses on a specific theme and sub- development of all Member States. Every edition of the themes that are of particular interest to Member States and the international community at large. The methodology for the analytical part of the Survey is based on a literature review and an analysis of the Survey’ s data. Innovative practices are also collected to illustrate how ICTs are being used to transform public administration and institutions in support of sustainable development. In addition, during the preparatory process of the publication, expert group meetings are organized to solicit views and inputs from world-renowned scholars and practitioners. xix The Survey

22 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES The methodological framework for the collection and assessment of the Survey’s data on e-government development is based on a holistic view of e-government that incorporates three important dimensions that allow people to benefit from online services and information: the adequacy of telecommunication infrastructure, the ability of human resources to promote and use ICTs, and the availability of online services and content. The Survey tracks progress of e-government development via the E-Government Development Index (EGDI). The EGDI, which assesses e-government development at the national level, is a composite index based on the weighted average of three normalized indices. One-third is derived from a Telecommunications Infrastructure Index (TII) based on data provided by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), one-third from a Human Capital Index (HCI) based on data provided by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and one-third from the Online Service Index (OSI) based on data collected from an independent survey questionnaire, conducted by UNDESA, which assesses the national online presence of all 193 United Nations Member States. The survey questionnaire assesses a number of features related to online service delivery, including whole-of-government approaches, open government data, e-participation, multi-channel service delivery, mobile services, usage up- take, digital divide as well as innovative partnerships through the use of ICTs. This data is collected by a group of researchers under the supervision of UNDESA through a primary research and collection endeavour. As a composite indicator, the EGDI is used to measure the readiness and capacity of national institutions to use ICTs to deliver public services. This measure is useful for government officials, policy makers, researchers and representatives of civil society and the private sector to gain a deeper understanding of the relative position of a country in utilizing e-government for the delivery of public services. The methodological framework has remained consistent across Survey periods while its components have been updated to reflect new trends in e-government as well as new indicators Survey for telecommunications and human capital. The 2004 and 2005 editions of the captured the state of a country’s readiness for e-government. However, in 2008, as ‘readiness’ was not deemed to adequately reflect the need for concrete implementation on the ground, the publication changed its focus from assessing readiness to assessing actual development. In 2014, ‘e-government maturity’ was viewed as obsolete since e-government goals and targets are constantly evolving to deliver and surpass what the public expects (UNDESA, 2014). 1 ’s data is presented both at the end of the publication and online Survey The 2018 . This includes data relative to the EGDI by country (in alphabetical order), by region and by countries in special situations, i.e. Small Island Developing States (SIDS), Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs), Least Developed Countries (LDCs). The publication then presents information about the Online Service Index and its components; the Telecommunication Infrastructure Index and its components; and the Human Capital Index and its components. Information about the E-Participation Index (EPI) is also contained in the data tables. Further comprehensive information about the methodology of the 2016 Survey is available in the Annexes. Preparatory process of the 2018 Survey The preparatory process of the 2018 Survey has included a number of activities. The first was to 2 outsource an external evaluation of the eGovernment Survey for the period 2003-2016 . This evaluation took a look at the history of the e-Government Survey and answered a number of questions aimed at evaluating the overall program. It then summarized a number of observations, and made recommendations for going forward, setting the scene for a more in-depth methodological xx

23 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES review. Further, two Expert Group Meetings (EGMs) (in New York and in Guimarães, Portugal) were organized to allow experts in the field of digital government to exchange views on challenges, identify emerging issues and areas from a sustainable development perspective, and reflect/review/ update the current methodology of the Survey. The work started at the EGMs was continued until December 2017 through consultation with an Informal Advisory Working Group comprised of 10 international experts and practitioners from academia, private sector and civil society, who served in their personal capacity. For the Online Service Index (OSI) values for 2018, a total of 206 online United Nations Volunteer (UNV) researchers from 89 countries with coverage of 66 languages assessed each country’s national website in the native language using the Survey’s Online Service Questionnaire. In addition, all United Nations Member States were requested (through the Member State Questionnaire) to provide information regarding their website addresses (URL) for different government ministries and the national portal(s). One hundred (100) Member States (comprising 51.8% of UN membership) returned the completed questionnaires, and the appropriate submitted sites were then utilized during the verification process. What was changed in the 2018 edition compared to 2016 To improve the methodology and take into account the lessons learned from the previous editions, the inputs and feedback received by Member States, the recommendations from the external evaluation, the outcomes of the EGMs and the latest technological and policy development, a limited number of changes were introduced in the 2018 Survey as summarized below: The questionnaire to assess the government portals, Online Service Questionnaire (OSQ), was expanded to include the main principles of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Leaving No One Behind, with a particular focus on Goal 16, namely accountability, effectiveness, inclusiveness, openness and trustworthiness. • In regard to the OSQ, further automated tools were used to assess accessibility and presentation of websites in smart phones and on other small-screen devices. • For the first time, the list of the OSQ areas assessed in this edition of the UN E-Government Survey was added in the Annexes. • An updated and detailed Member States Questionnaire (MSQ) was launched in 2017 to gather further detailed information about the efforts of governments in e-government development. • The MSQ and the list of 100 responding Member States were added in the Annexes. • A pilot Local Online Service Index (LOSI) has been created and a pilot analysis and ranking, covering 40 cities worldwide, was added. • The list of the LOSI indicators assessed in this edition was added in the Annexes. • The sub-indicator of Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) entitled “Wireless broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants” was replaced by “Active mobile-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants” due to incontinuity of data collection for the latter by ITU. References: 1 See, for reference, https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb 2 Edward M. Roche (2017). Evaluation of the UN E-Government Survey for the period 2003-2016 . [online] Available at: http:// workspace.unpan.org/sites/Internet/Documents/UNPAN97454.pdf xxi

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25 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Executive Summary 2018 UN E-Government Survey, with the overall theme “gearing e-government to support The transformation towards sustainable and resilient societies”, is published as the implementation of the 2030 Agenda advances to its third year and the 2018 High-level political forum (HLPF) focuses on transformation towards sustainable and resilient societies. Shocks of various kinds can derail progress towards realizing the vision of the 2030 Agenda. Strengthening resilience is at the heart of all sustainable development goals (SDGs) and is thus essential for sustainable progress. Strengthening resilience by ensuring that people, societies, and institutions have the resources, capacities and knowledge to limit, anticipate, absorb and adapt to shocks, underpins all the SDGs. Governments are responsible for pursuing policies to build resilience 2018 United Nations E-Government Survey considers the ways and assist those most affected. The in which, using digital technology, governments can and are responding to shocks emanating from natural or man-made disasters and various types of other crises. The Survey acknowledges the progressive reliance on digital technologies in managing emergency responses, performing essential functions, and swiftly recovering from crises. For example, governments are ramping up their use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), open data, e-government services, and cutting- edge technologies such as Artificial Intelligence and blockchain to hasten response and strengthen resilience. Mobilizing e-government to build resilient societies: preconditions and enabling environment The Survey highlights the many and complex opportunities for deploying e-government to build resilient societies and sets out the necessary preconditions, as well as outlines ways in which e-government can advance the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals. Basic services such as health, education, water and sanitation, as well as sound infrastructure and utilities, are essential to sustaining development and improving quality of life. To ensure resilience of societies and development sustainability, the Survey suggests that public services should be made available to everyone, leaving no one behind. New and existing technologies are essential for broader access as well as the provision of significant benefits to service users at a reduced cost. The transformational and facilitating powers of ICTs are creating a paradigm shift in the public sector, but despite the sector’s enormous influence, governments remain responsible for quality, standards, and ethics of public services, and for ensuring that no one is left behind. Despite the technological advances in e-government, an increasingly digitized world carries risks, including growing threats to social cohesion and economic prosperity, as well as planetary challenges related to climate change and environmental stress. The 2018 Survey assesses the readiness of governments to confront these threats and challenges. E-government for leaving no one behind The Survey notes a negative correlation between digital use and social exclusion. Online use, offers an opportunity for e-inclusion but also risks a new digital divide, owing to insufficient access in low-income countries, either because of a lack of devices or of bandwidth and speed. The research also indicates that the greater ease with which information is gathered, stored, analyzed and disseminated and the decreasing cost and coverage of mobile-cellular and mobile broadband subscriptions have improved e-service delivery to vulnerable populations. xxiii Summary

26 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES According to the , since 2012, there has been a steady increase in the number of country Survey websites with information about specific programmes benefiting women and children, persons with disabilities, older persons, indigenous people, and people living in poverty. Increasingly, United Nations Member States are addressing the needs of marginalized groups through more targeted interventions and services provision. Still, the majority of the world’s population remains offline, which increases the risk that vulnerable groups without Internet access will fall further behind in the rapidly progressing digital society. Thus, technology can both aid and impede the overarching goal of leaving no one behind. The digital divides are reviewed, both in terms of access to ICTs and the potentially negative consequences of a “digital first” approach wherein services are primarily offered online, isolating those who do not have online services or do not know how to access or use them. The Survey discusses the implications both of having digital skills and the lack thereof. It concludes that there are many opportunities to enhance social and digital inclusion through e-government and that emerging technologies and innovative multi-stakeholder partnerships can help to expand e-government access for all and provide dedicated services to address traditional problems related to poverty and social exclusion. E-government: A tool to better anticipate and respond to disasters The Survey presents an overview of natural disasters, the consequent loss of life and economic devastation, and the ways in which countries and regions are affected differently. Natural disasters continue to constrain the efforts of Member States in achieving the sustainable development goals. Particularly worrisome is the exposure and vulnerability of landlocked least developed countries, least developed countries and small island developing States. Often, these countries do not have adequate coping mechanisms, especially when faced with multiple hazards. The losses incurred from damaged infrastructure, such as schools and homes, and health facilities, can be immense and can undermine development for generations. Global accords such as the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, which encourage the mainstreaming of disaster risk concerns into all sectors, are detailed. ICTs play an important role in ensuring that disaster response and recovery are fast and efficient. Indeed, ICTs are recognized as an enabler in supporting all phases of disaster risk management from prevention, reduction, and preparedness to respond and recover, and the Survey emphasizes the need to protect critical ICT infrastructure from disaster impacts. Several e-resilience initiatives across the globe are designed to support the various phases of disaster risk management and response. Examples from Uganda, Madagascar, Chile, Sri Lanka and Bhutan underline the importance of relaying the right information at the right time. Given that some disasters such as floods, cyclones and typhoons, and droughts are transboundary in nature, inter-regional and global data sharing and coordination among concerned countries and regions are crucial. Partnerships also aid smaller economies, which may not have sufficient budgets or personnel to take charge of all phases of disaster risk reduction. Building the resilience of e-government Cybersecurity is a key factor in the transformation to resilient e-government. Security measures need to be strategically incorporated from the outset, during the design phase. The global community is increasingly embracing ICTs as a key enabler of social and economic development but cautions that misuse is raising questions about State security and protection of individuals and businesses in the explosion of global connectivity. It is important for governments to xxiv

27 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES improve the management of ICT-driven approaches to guarantee continuity of online services as well as to safeguard people’s data and privacy. The Survey posits that a change in existing procedures as well as heightened cybersecurity consciousness among civil servants are required, noting for example, that ransomware attacks are increasingly affecting businesses and consumers, and indiscriminate campaigns are distributing massive volumes of malicious emails. In May 2017, the WannaCry ransomware cyberattack caused major disruptions to critical information infrastructures of companies and hospitals in more than 150 countries, prompting a call for greater global cooperation. The most common barriers to e-government resilience are insufficient training and accessibility, as well as e-illiteracy. There is a need for trust, security, and privacy, which can be established through the following cybersecurity measures: (i) adopting a harmonized set of laws at regional and international levels against the misuse of ICTs for criminal or other nefarious purposes; (ii) integrating adequate technical capabilities in detecting and responding to cyber-attacs, and to ensure a climate of trust and security; (iii) and establishing minimum security criteria and accreditation schemes for software applications and systems. A secure e-government system requires collaboration among vendors, industries and manufacturers to ensure that devices are secure by design and that users can interact with them to perform updates and make configurations changes, among others. The digital transformation must be thoughtfully strategized and continuously updated to ensure security and relevance along the path to sustainable development. Global and regional trends in e-government E-government has been growing rapidly over the past 17 years since the first attempt of the United Nations to benchmark the state of e-government in 2001. The 2018 Survey highlights a persistent positive global trend towards higher levels of e-government development. In this edition, 40 countries scored “ ”, with EGDI values in the range of 0.75 to 1.00, Very-High as compared to only 10 countries in 2003, and 29 countries in 2016. Since 2014, all 193 Member States have been delivering some form of online presence. The average world EGDI has been increasing from 0.47 in 2014 to 0.55 in 2018 due to the continuous improvement of its subcomponents indices. This suggests that globally, there has been steady progress in improving e-government and public services provision online. But despite some development gains and major investments made in several countries, the e-government and digital divides persist. Fourteen countries in the Low-EGDI group are African and belong to the least developed countries. Denmark, followed by Australia and the Republic of Korea, lead the world in providing government services and information through the Internet according to the 2018 E-Government Development Index (EGDI). The remaining countries in the top 10 are the United Kingdom, Sweden, Finland, Singapore, New Zealand, France and Japan. E-government development increases overall across regions, driven largely by improvements in the Online Service Index. The European countries lead e-government development, while the Americas and Asia share almost equal standing in the High- and Middle-EGDI levels. The number of African countries in the High-EGDI-level group remains relatively modest at 6, with only one country, Ghana, joining the group since 2016. Many people in these countries are unable to benefit from ICTs because of poor connectivity, high cost of access and lack of necessary skills. These disadvantages are likely to affect further development of e-government xxv

28 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES in Africa as the pace of technological innovation intensifies. Finally, in order to build a well- functioning e-government, countries need to strengthen investments in developing human capital and telecommunication infrastructure. According to the 2018 , the complexity of e-government in promoting accountable, Survey effective, inclusive, transparent and trustworthy public services that deliver people-centric outcomes is growing. Currently, there are trends in deploying e-services, especially in health, education, the environment, and decent employment, while the reach to the most vulnerable is expanding. The major drivers of the EGDI, as well as trends in open government data, public participation and engagement for delivery of innovative public services are scrutinized in detail. Survey , the three most commonly used online services in 2018 are utilities According to the payment, submission of income taxes, and registration of new businesses. Service availability through emails, feed updates, mobile apps and SMS (short message service, or texts) has doubled globally, especially in the health and education sectors. For instance, 176 countries provide online services in education via email alerts to citizens compared to 88 countries in 2016, and 152 countries provided such services in the health sector this year compared to 75 in 2016. A growing number of countries is also providing targeted online services to vulnerable groups: 86 per cent in the Americas, 79 percent in Asia, 57 per cent in Africa, and 15 per cent in Oceania. One hundred forty (140) Member States provide at least one transactional service online. Improvement in such services is strong and consistent in all assessed categories: paying for utilities; submitting income tax; registering new businesses; paying fines and fee; applying for birth and marriage certificates; registering motor vehicles; and applying for driver’s licenses and personal identity cards. Transforming cities to increase resilience and sustainability The Survey provides an overview of assessment models and presents the findings of a pilot study, carried out in 40 municipalities around the world. The challenges and opportunities of applying e-governance to local government units are presented through specific cases. E-government improves public services, citizen engagement, and transparency and accountability of authorities at the local level. E-government also strengthens resilience and sustainability and better aligns local government operations with national digital strategies. Among the top 10 of the 40 pilot cities, Moscow ranks the highest, followed by Cape Town and Tallinn (second, tie) and by London and Paris (forth, tie). According to the Local Online Services Index (LOSI) used in determining this ranking, the remaining cities in the top 10 are Sydney, Amsterdam and Seoul (seventh, tie), and Rome and Warsaw (ninth, tie). The LOSI covers the technical and content aspects of the city/municipality websites, as well as electronic services provision and e-participation initiatives available through the portals. Politicians, policy-makers and public officials are creating new policies to promote resilience and sustainability especially in the areas of poverty eradication, equal opportunity for all, support for vulnerable groups, land development and planning, economic development, smart growth, pollution prevention, energy, resources and water conservation, inner-city public transit, eco-projects and alternative energy. Public administration processes are being reengineered to integrate these policies into local planning and development efforts, even as these administrations are striving to keep pace with the speed of technological innovation. xxvi

29 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Improving local e-government is inseparable from the pursuit of sustainable development goals. The 2030 Agenda recognizes the importance of technological innovation in the implementation of the Goals and contains specific references to the need for high quality, timely, reliable and disaggregated data including earth observation and geospatial information. Many of the specific targets of the 2030 Agenda are directly or indirectly related to local e-government assessment indicators. Local governments are indeed the policy-makers and catalysts of change. They are also the level of government best-placed to bind the SDGs with local communities. The development of electronic services and the increasing number of citizens participating in decision-making will motivate efforts to achieve the SDGs and will assist in making cities sustainable, inclusive, safe and resilient. Fast-evolving technologies affecting e-government and possible applications for the SDGs Today, fast-evolving technologies have a potential to transform the traditional way of doing things across all functions and domains of government as well as the ways in which ICTs offer governments an unprecedented opportunity to achieve sustainable development and improve the well-being of their citizens. The challenge lay in the fact that the speed with which technology is evolving surpasses the speed with which governments can respond to and use ICTs to their advantage. The Survey discusses some of these transformative technologies, such as data analytics, Artificial Intelligence including cognitive analytics, robotics, bots, high-performance and quantum computing. It explains how forces driving such technologies are the result of long-term and painstaking research and development, their use by businesses and citizens as well as the increased processing power of hardware, increasing data availability and society’s driving needs and expectations. Oftentimes, it is not the technologies that are new but the convergence of developments in hardware, software and data availability. Data is being currently referred to as the new oil, the new raw material driving innovation and growth in both the private and public sectors. Indeed, data use will grow exponentially in the next decade and will offer the ability to systematically analyze and act in real time in solving more complex business problems, creating more competitive advantage and making better informed decisions in a tightly connected world. Yet, integrated approaches to achieving synergies and minimizing trade-offs may remain relatively untapped in many countries. Artificial Intelligence is beneficial, particularly with its potential applications, touching on Neural Networks, Natural Language Processing, Machine Learning, and Robotic Process Automation. The recognized benefits of AI are error reduction, robust functioning, delegation of repetitive jobs, improved security, improved business operations as well as improved customer experience. However, the rise in use of AI also carries uncertainty in terms of employment. It is feared that AI, particularly robotic automation, will leave low-skilled workers without jobs. The fourth industrial revolution and convergence of innovative technologies such as Big Data, Internet of things, cloud computing, geo-spatial data and broadband, AI and machine learning, is promoting a dramatic shift towards more data and machine-driven societies. Digital transformation does not depend only on technologies alone, but also requires a comprehensive approach that offers accessible, fast, reliable and personalized services. The public sector in many countries is ill-prepared for this transformation. Governments can respond by developing the necessary xxvii

30 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES policies, services and regulations, but many of these instruments are slow in being “brought to the market”. Principles such as effectiveness, inclusiveness, accountability, trustworthy and openness should direct the technologies and not the other way around. The Survey concludes that while e-government began with bringing services online, the future will be about the power of digital government to leverage societal innovation and resilience and to transform governance to better achieve the SDGs. xxviii

31 Chapter 1 CHAPTER 1 • MOBILIZING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Mobilizing e-government to build resilient societies: preconditions and enabling environment 1.1 Introduction Photo credit: pixabay.com In this chapter: At the United Nations Summit held in New York in September 2015, world leaders adopted an ambitious road map to guide the sustainable 1 1.1 Introduction development of all countries over the next 15 years. This new Agenda – entitled “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable 1.2 Preconditions for e-government Development”– defines 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and to accelerate the building of sustainability and resilience 2 169 targets to stimulate actions for people, planet, prosperity, peace and partnerships. With the adoption of the 2030 Agenda, a common 1.2.1. Political commitment and public 2 trust in e-government transformative vision based on solidarity, accountability and shared responsibility, has been guiding governments, civil society, the private 3 1.2.2. National policy alignment sector and other stakeholders in their efforts to eradicate poverty and 4 1.2.3. About resilience and SDGs promote a better world for all. The SDGs have been formulated to 5 1.2.4. Public Trust stimulate action over the next 12 years. 1.2.5. Policy integration and coherence 7 in e-government approaches Indeed, the 2030 Agenda envisages a world in which “democracy, good governance and the rule of law, as well as an enabling environment 1.2.6. Societal engagement and partnerships 10 at the national and international levels, are essential for sustainable development, including sustained and inclusive economic growth, social 1.2.7. Effective institutions in development, environmental protection and the eradication of poverty transforming and innovating government 12 and hunger” (A/RES/70/1, para. 9). The Agenda explicitly highlights in Goal 16 the need to build peaceful, just and inclusive societies, which 1.3 E-government strategies for sustainability and resilience 14 provide equal access to justice and are based on respect for human rights (including the right to development), effective rule of law and 1.3.1 Ensuring access for all to good governance at all levels, and transparent, effective and accountable 14 inclusive public services institutions” (A/RES/70/1, para. 35). 1.3.2. E-government as a sustainable 16 development platform It is widely agreed that deploying e-government in support of good 1.3.3. ICT-enabled public institutions 17 governance is essential for building effective, accountable and inclusive 1.3.4. User-centricity and co-creation institutions at all levels, as called for in Goal 16, and for strengthening 118 of public services implementation of Goal 17, both of which underpin achievement of the 1 1.4 Challenges, risks and vulnerabilities 20 SDGs as a whole. In addition, the 2030 Agenda underlines the strategic benefits offered by the technology revolution: “The spread of information 1.4.1. The need for adequate strategies 20 and response systems and communications technology and global interconnectedness have great potential to accelerate human progress to bridge the digital divide 1.4.2. Technological misuse, distortion 21 and risks and to develop knowledge societies, as does scientific and technological innovation across areas as diverse as medicine and energy.” However, for 1.4.3. The complex roles of technology this to occur, several preconditions need to be in place, as outlined by the in society 21 2 World Bank in its report on Digital Dividends. 1.5 Conclusions 22 References 24 1 Chapter 1

32 Chapter 1 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES This chapter sets out the conditions necessary for e-government to support sustainable and resilient societies, and it outlines ways in which e-government can support implementation of the SDGs. It also examines the challenges, risks and vulnerabilities associated with e-government and the readiness of countries and regions, and governments at all levels to confront them. Despite recent progress, there are heightened dangers of a more troubled world, owing to deepening and 4 increasingly interconnected risks . These include growing threats to social cohesion and economic prosperity, as well as planetary risks related to climate change and environmental stress. It is also ever more important to meet the special needs of the poorest and most vulnerable, by empowering them through a range of targeted policy measures. The chapter closes with a brief review of lessons learned and conclusions. Preconditions for e-government to accelerate the building of 1.2 sustainability and resilience 1.2.1. Political commitment and public trust in e-government The 2030 Agenda encouraged all United Nations Member States to “develop as soon as practicable ambitious national responses to the overall implementation of this Agenda”. The Agenda notes that it is up to each Government to “decide how [the] aspirational and global targets [of the SDGs] should be incorporated into national planning processes, policies and strategies.” It specifies that national responses towards implementation can “build on existing planning instruments, such as national development and sustainable development strategies”. At the same time, the SDGs and the commitments contained in the Paris Climate Change Agreement, the SAMOA Pathway, the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction and other UN-lead agreements are mutually reinforcing. Thus, they should be implemented in a complementary and synergistic way. Institutions need new capacities and knowledge to provide integrated support to implementation and to leave no one behind. Many governments have already made good progress in adapting the SDG targets to their national circumstances and priorities and incorporating them in their policies and strategic development plans, where applicable. By the United Nations High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (HLPF) in 2016 and 2017, 65 countries had carried out the first and second voluntary national reviews (VNRs). They will be followed by 47 more countries, which will present their national reviews in July 5 2018 during the annual HLPF. That requires that national strategies, including those dealing with Information and Communication Technologies and e-government, adopt an integrated approach to comprehensive and balanced development. National plans and strategies set the overall direction and priorities and form the first opportunity to express SDG efforts in a coherent way at the national level. Member States also will have to adapt their institutions, engage local governments, parliaments and other actors as they identify follow-up and review structures. The SDGs, as an integrated framework, call for whole-of-government and whole-of-society approaches, and many countries have been moving in this direction. Good practices, lessons and challenges are already emerging. 6 Based on a recent research conducted by UN-DESA , existing national development plans and national sustainable development strategies provide a framework for implementation of the 2030 Agenda. (See Box 1.1.). These plans and strategies guide countries’ overall development and are not solely dedicated to SDGs. 2

33 Chapter 1 CHAPTER 1 • MOBILIZING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Box 1.1. Compendium of national institutional arrangements for implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development In order to implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the SDGs, many countries have been adapting their policy and institutional frameworks and are actively mobilizing all parts of government, parliaments, supreme audit institutions, as well as non-state actors. The compendium of national institutional arrangements for implementing the 2030 Agenda reflects institutional approaches taken by countries facing different contexts and circumstances. United Nations The compendium aims at facilitating exchanges on institutional practices and lessons learned Department of Economic and Social Affairs among governments and other stakeholders, thereby helping them to support the realization of the SDGs. The compendium, prepared by the Division for Public Institutions and Digital Government of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, initially covered 22 UN Member States, which chose to present reviews of progress on the SDGs at the 2016 HLPF, and then was expanded to cover additional 43 countries that presented Voluntary National Reviews in 2017. The information collected for each country is classified in nine categories: (i) national strategies and plans; (ii) national institutional arrangements; (iii) local authorities; (iv) parliament; (v) engaging and equipping public servants; (vi) civil society and the private sector; (vii) monitoring and review; (viii) supreme audit institutions; and (ix) budgeting. The research was Source: conducted between August 2016 to December 2017. All the countries covered in the report had http://workspace.unpan.org/ an opportunity to review the information that concerned them, and to provide feedback, inputs sites/Internet/Documents/ and comments through their representatives to the UN in New York. UNPAN97468.pdf 1.2.2. National policy alignment It is recommended that governments exploit the potential of ICTs through coherent public sector- wide policies closely aligned with the broader national policies aimed at delivering the SDGs. Being successful requires a whole-of-government approach across ministries and agencies and between levels, as well as partnerships with non-government actors. That approach must be supported by a high-level political will, an example of which is an effective cross-government institution with clearly earmarked financial resources and decision-making powers. Maximizing the potential of ICTs also demands appropriate infrastructure for interoperability and digital transactions across the public sector, dependent on common standards, data sharing, highly skilled staff, as well as sound organizational capacity. There are many good examples from around the world where governments are applying such strategies. Azerbaijan, for instance has adopted a whole-of-government approach to modernize service delivery in a joined-up manner to change the mindset of civil servants through human resources and capacity building. Political will has proved critical for that strategic change of direction. It is also essential to achieve public service impacts through deployment of the full range of channels for service delivery, both online and offline, designed to reach the entire population, whoever they 7 are and wherever they live . That relies on improved accountability and inclusive public participation, in which all parties know their rights and duties. ICTs are essential tools to making that happen. In some countries, such as Colombia, e-government is used to improve governance, equity and peaceful reconciliation to help heal the wounds of years of internal conflict and crime. Often, the only ties between the citizens and State are through public services, so if those are non-existent or of poor quality, trust rapidly disintegrates and progress towards sustainable development falters. To achieve such improvement, it is important that governments attempt to change the mindset, not only of civil servants, but also of its citizens. Indeed, the two are mutually reinforcing. For example, a strong focus is required on open and participative government, with institutional commitments to, among others, inclusion and gender sensitivity. Both of these commitments are themselves wellsprings of innovation 8 and improve quality of life for the citizens. 3

34 Chapter 1 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES The Survey will explore ways to move in that direction. The theme will be examined against the backdrop of an analysis of the trends in e-government development worldwide. 1.2.3. About resilience and SDGs The HLPF in 2018 will focus on the theme of “Transformation towards sustainable and resilient societies” as a precondition to achieving SDGs. Strengthening resilience entails ensuring that people, societies and institutions have the resources and capacities to anticipate, reduce, absorb and adapt 9 to various shocks and risks . It also requires measures that target the poorest and most vulnerable and strive to empower them through employment and social and other policy measures. Resilience in all dimensions of sustainable development thus includes a range of strategies that go well beyond systems and emergency plans, such as bolstering public services, improving social safety nets, effective macroeconomic and urbanization policies. Governments have the critical responsibility to build resilience and assist those most affected by possible shocks in pursuing the SDGs implementation. They must find ways to anticipate disasters and lower their impact. They themselves must prepare for risks of various kinds and adapt to and reduce their own vulnerability and exposure. They need to manage emergency responses, seamlessly perform essential functions and deliver services, and recover rapidly from crises while incorporating lessons learned into their institutions and public administrations. Shocks of various kinds can derail progress towards realizing the vision of the 2030 Agenda. Strengthening resilience is at the heart of all SDGs and is thus essential for sustainable progress. Digital technologies are often used by governments to respond better to disasters and other shocks and improve community resilience. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), open data, eGovernment services, and emerging cutting-edge technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) or blockchain, can serve as a means for improving both resilience and emergency response. Scientific and technological advancement in GIS can be utilized for better disaster risk reduction practices. Capturing, storing, analysing and managing georeferenced information (GIS) play an important role in disaster risk assessment and management. The use of spatial and geo-referenced data during pre- and post-disaster management contributes to risk reduction, early warning, vulnerability and risk assessment, and mitigation of damage. Similarly, the modern computational power of analysing big data and georeferenced images make it possible to use artificial intelligence to predict environmental changes. The World Resource Institute, for example, used a spatial modelling software and artificial intelligence to uncover the most accurate linkages between the past loss 10 of forests and drivers of deforestation in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) . That helped produce a map showing areas at high risk for forest loss, and key factors behind it. The development of ICTs has also added a new dimension of vulnerability. This requires bolstering resilience in areas where governments are not always well equipped to venture. Online services should be sheltered from the impact of cyber-attacks. Governments should find ways to ensure high security standards in online public services such as digital health while working closely with other institutions, the private sector and civil society. They must address the potential threats associated with the information society while gearing innovations towards areas that will improve people’s lives. Action is also required at the international level to help developing countries boost their resilience against shocks and threats related to e-government and ICTs, while also closing the digital divide. 4

35 Chapter 1 CHAPTER 1 • MOBILIZING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT 1.2.4. Public Trust Building public trust for effective e-government outcomes is another fundamental step towards achieving the SDGs. This will depend primarily on implementation of sound public policy that reflects people’s priorities on institutional performance and on the equal access to quality public services. For effective service delivery, e-government applications should be designed to meet needs and should promote people’s active participation in identifying those, and most importantly, to implement trustworthy plans and projects at all levels. The role of local authorities in sustainable development will be ever more important to reaching the most vulnerable. Therefore, working locally with all communities through innovative participatory mechanisms is a must. An increase in citizens’ expectations for effective, equitable and citizen-centric services, demands a shift from inward, disjointed and process-oriented organizational structures to highly collaborative frameworks for seamless delivery of services and enhanced development impact. Clear and long-term policy and strategic frameworks are needed to create an enabling trustworthy, accountable, inclusive and effective environment for technology use in public service and good governance. These frameworks should be the blueprint for public service, in support of the implementation of the core principles of sustainable development. The capacity of reliable institutions to meet performance expectations, perceptions of competence and effective public service delivery for all, along with public accountability, should be among the leading concerns in public administration and underlying objectives of public sector reform. Gender inequality must be overcome through a 11 multiplicity of public policies, especially through participatory gender-responsive budgets. Citizens and businesses are demanding more open, transparent, accountable and effective governance, while new technologies are enabling effective knowledge management, sharing and collaboration between all sectors and at all levels of government. There should be particular emphasis on building trust between citizens and their government through principles of transparency, inclusion and collaboration. Governments can no longer provide services unilaterally and disregard demands for a more efficient and accountable use of public funds, which can result from service integration (eGovernment Survey 2014). ICTs can improve transparency by providing access to information, which also increases accountability and can keep a check on what government is doing and how well it is doing it. ICTs also promote participation through the two-way sharing of knowledge and experiences between governments and their citizens. That makes it possible to co-create public services and collaborate on evidence-based decision and policy-making, both across the silos of national government as well as across borders. In short, ICTs are a game-changing enabler. At the same time, lack of regulation can impede ICT use in public service design and delivery. Developing a long-term strategy for ICTs and supporting it with the necessary resources, regulatory framework and political will, has a uniquely powerful potential to ensure sustainable development. An overall open government strategy, sound human resource management, and comprehensive disclosure procedures should be put in place for managing and monitoring the conduct of public servants. New forms of institutional frameworks for effective coordination, cooperation and accountability should be put in place across government, between governments and with relevant non-public actors, which can contribute building trust and creating public value. Policy-makers must seek a government that is open to its citizens. Innovative coordination processes and mechanisms for service delivery, and citizen engagement and empowerment are essential, as is making such services open, inclusive and accessible by all groups in society, including the disadvantaged and vulnerable. The extent of engagement and the methodology varies from country to country, but what works for all is the adoption of a holistic approach for a more inclusive 5

36 Chapter 1 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES people-centric public-sector reform and ethical leadership at all levels. That will restore the public administration’s credibility and trust in public institutions. This strategy also will foster a culture of multi-stakeholder collaboration based on a vision of common good for all. The results can advance realization of national development agendas and the SDGs. All of this requires transformational capabilities through ethical leadership, transparency and combatting corruption. Public administration resources should be complemented by ethical values and the transparent management of those resources. As public service delivery is one of the most expensive aspects of a government’s budget, it will be extremely important, not only to pair the right policies with specific context or jurisdiction, but also to appoint public leaders with high integrity and impeccable ethical behaviour. An example of such transformation is provided in Box 1.2. describing the approach of Tax Administration of Chungcheongnam-do province in the Republic of Korea, which secured transparency through active participation of residents and fiscal innovation. Disclosure of budget execution is not a statutory requirement in the country, yet the Tax Administration decided that all fiscal information should be made available to the public, in order to enhance transparency and monitoring by expanding participation, through full digital disclosure of tax use history to residents in real time. There is a critical need for new forms of collaborative leadership and shared organizational culture, including re-shaping values, mindsets, attitudes and behaviours in the public sector through visible guiding principles and leadership. Finally, and often underpinning the other enabling factors for gearing e-government to support transformation towards sustainable and resilient societies, it is essential to harness the power of new Box 1.2. Tax Administration Division, Republic of Korea (2018 UNPSA Winner) Since the global economic crisis in 2008, the increase in social welfare spending has constrained the finances of national and local governments. The seriousness of the local fiscal crisis caused by various irregularities of public officials and the poor financial management of the heads of local governments demonstrated the need for the integrity and transparency of local finance. In this process, the local fiscal system based on control and management has shifted to the direction of securing transparency through active participation of residents and fiscal innovation. In the Republic of Korea, disclosure of budget execution is not a statutory requirement. Chungcheongnam-do has concluded that it is desirable that all fiscal information should be made available to the public, in order to increase fiscal transparency and fiscal monitoring by expanding participation of residents, through 100 per cent digital disclosure of tax use history to residents in real time. The characteristic of fiscal information released by Chungcheongnam-do is the further extension of fiscal information in cooperation with the city and county as well as expansion of residents’ participation. All budget information includes real-time expenditure information and shows the amount of money [spent thus far?] [that can be executed from the total amount to the present]. This budget information includes various materials to help understand such aspects as a mid-term plan and sustainable development indicators. In addition, a questionnaire answer box was added to the person in charge of budget business, and a function of registering and responding to questions or suggestions about the budget was attached, as was a description of basic finance terms. Apart from the central government, the provincial government has strengthened the disclosure of budget status, revenues and expenditure status, and settlement status on the website of Chungcheongnam-do Province. In particular, in the case of revenues and expenditures, in July 2013 a fiscal information disclosure system was established, linking 15 primary local governments in the province for the first time in the nation. For expenditures, all the contract methods, contract contents, and contract parties were disclosed, even meal expenses. As a result, citizens can check Source: the budget execution status of Chungcheongnam-do online in real time. Fiscal surveillance has Ghttps://www.nts. expanded and transparency and efficiency of fiscal spending have been maximized. go.kr 6

37 Chapter 1 CHAPTER 1 • MOBILIZING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT technologies through appropriate ICT management strategies, which enhance policy integration and coherence in e-government approaches. The global spread of the Internet and the application of ICTs in government, as well as greater investments in telecommunication infrastructure coupled with capacity-building in human capital, can provide opportunities to promote integration and transform public administration into an instrument of collaborative governance which directly supports sustainable development outcomes. 1.2.5. Policy integration and coherence in e-government approaches The 2030 Agenda emphasizes the importance of the integrated nature of the SDGs. Acknowledging possible synergies and the trade-offs required to achieve the targets depends on the sound allocation of resources. This can also eliminate unwanted side effects, which compromise achievement of targets in other areas. In the same manner, providing the preconditions for sustainable and resilient societies through e-government depends upon a holistic approach that eliminates firewalls between ministries and builds government capacity to rewire policy-making through a new framework of governance and high-impact public services. Broadly speaking, integration implies finding ways to foster cooperation among institutions at all levels dealing with closely interrelated issues. This may entail putting in place adequate institutional arrangements or streamlining public administration practices, mechanisms, capacities, budgetary arrangements and resources. It also encompasses various modalities of engagement of non-state 12 stakeholders in decision-making through participation, partnerships and the commonly used notion of whole-of-government approach. Box 1.3. refers to a recent UN DESA publication from 2018 on analysing integration efforts from an institutional perspective. The report presents three standard dimensions of integration: horizontal integration, i.e. integration across sectors or institutions; vertical integration, i.e. how the actions of national and sub-national levels of government can be aligned to produce coherent outcomes; and engagement of all stakeholders in the realisation of shared objectives. Box 1.3. Policy integration for the Sustainable Development Goals The World Public Sector Report 2018, entitled Working together: Integration, Institutions and the Sustainable Development Goals, aims to inform national efforts towards policy integration for the SDGs, while highlighting the challenges and opportunities that exist for public institutions and public administration. The report illustrates the ways in which interlinkages that exist among the SDGs can be addressed from an institutional perspective, based on examples. Through this, the report aims to sketch areas where public institutions need to work closely together; the types of tools that can be used to that end; and the broader implications for public institutions and public service. To illustrate the importance of integrated approaches, the report looks in detail at three themes: international migration, health, and sustainable development in post-conflict contexts. The report finds that many countries have created a new structure or mechanism specifically designed to lead or coordinate SDG implementation across sectors. Most of these new institutions are of an inter-ministerial nature and are placed under the authority of the head of Source: UN DESA, State or Government. In many countries, local governments are actively engaged in the SDGs’ World Public Sector Report 2018: https:// implementation. The report finds that stakeholder engagement has been happening through publicadministration. different activities, including awareness raising on the 2030 Agenda; adaptation and prioritization un.org/en/Research/ of the Goals in the national context; the development of national SDG implementation plans; World-Public-Sector- their implementation; and monitoring and review. Reports 7

38 Chapter 1 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Alliances across government allows for coordination of policies and strategies and their implementation. Such joint efforts can leverage the maximum potential, avoid redundant or overlapping investments, exploit synergies, and introduce a culture of sharing. Of utmost importance is avoiding fragmentation and achieving effective cooperation within a collaborative governance structure that involves all relevant players. However, coordination among relevant stakeholders, such as IT bodies and ministries, is often lacking, as all too often those actors have their own agendas and do not take into consideration those of other entities. This fragmentation severely hampers the sustainable development of resilient societies. It is important to ensure that responsibility for ICT uses in line ministries is spread among subordinated agencies, lest competition occur, leading to a duplication of efforts and wasted assets, all of which undermine interoperability. That, in turn, reduces government efficiency and effectiveness and results in poorly designed and delivered public services as well as a weakening of good governance overall. Although many deficiencies are the result of a lack of financial resources, existing systems often contain numerous redundancies, which reduce the impact of ICTs and other budgetary expenditures, thus hampering new opportunities for long-term growth. The public sector generally considers strong organization as important to the successful integration and use of information systems and, indeed, horizontal policy integration is crucial to thwarting competition and facilitating a whole-of-government approach that fosters sustainable development. The necessary cooperation requires extensive coordination among different agencies and organizations, and can only occur when an entity has cross-government responsibility and power, supported by clear political mandates from the top. This demands a fundamental change in culture and values of the entire organization. The transformational change and impressive performance of e-government by the Republic of Korea is an illustration of a new paradigm designed to deliver customized public services and generate new jobs through the sharing of government-owned data with the public and improved collaboration between government departments. Government 3.0, as the programme is called, was driven in 2013 by a foundational shift in institutional arrangements and behaviours based on a new set of values. That, in turn, made the government more service-oriented, competent, and transparent. The programme was successfully implemented through purposeful 13 behaviour that was connected to a strategy with clear objectives from top management. As illustrated previously, enhanced efficiency and effectiveness in public administration and service delivery has been a longstanding and consistent driver of e-government reform. E-government facilitates, among other things, a reduction in the administrative burden. By eliminating duplication and limiting the number times the same information is collected from individuals or firms enables more systematic information sharing across government agencies. Policy integration and coherence can be another powerful driver to advance e-government. An imperative of that integration is the design of new e-government approaches. Enhanced collaboration and cooperation across government agencies (both across sectors and levels) have implications for data sharing and communication protocols, which are directly relevant to e-government. Examples such as Bangladesh’s integrated health data portal illustrates how data from various sources can be mobilised to provide different actors with a comprehensive overview of the situation in a given area, on a permanent and open basis. With regard to public services, collaboration and adequate resources are needed across government levels in order to enhance information flows. Dimensions such as data compatibility and associated standards are part of this discussion. As with other dimensions of integration in government, securing support from the public service institutions and public servants, 8

39 Chapter 1 CHAPTER 1 • MOBILIZING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT including through human resources and capacity building, is necessary to promote a mindset of collaboration and engagement. Both efficiency and collaboration arguments are influenced by a third consideration, that of strengthening the interface between governments, citizens and other components of society. That involves the clear articulation of e-government solutions among all layers of government, to the benefit of both constituents and beneficiaries. ICTs provide the communication tools that enable users’ direct participation in the design and delivery of services. There are examples of the 14 use of mobile technology to facilitate participatory decision-making in Cameroon . In South Kivu, 15 Democratic Republic of the Congo for example , mobile technologies allow communities to discuss their basic service needs and facilitate the government’s response. People’s positive perception of the government as deliverer of services resulted in improved tax collection. E-government can support strategies to improve governance and make it more inclusive, which is important in post-conflict situations. Increasingly central is open government, which seeks to improve transparency in government processes and proceedings, and made documents and data more available, which facilitates public scrutiny and oversight. One of the tools used to increase transparency and participation is Open Government Data (OGD), which can be defined as government information proactively disclosed and made available online for all to access, without restriction. OGD introduces a new approach to publishing government data and helps bridge the gap between government, citizens and the other stakeholders. The access, reuse and re-distribution of OGD creates value not only for public sector agencies but 16 for the entire society. It gives all stakeholders full and free access to public data and opens up the opportunity for people to evaluate the performance of various administrative institutions. Combined with the use of modern ICTs, this open platform allows for greater accessibility of key records to a much wider audience. Making data easily accessible gives citizens the opportunity to make informed decisions about public policies and identify development opportunities. Consequently, opening up government data can lead to more efficient use of resources and improved service delivery, which is an important component of e-government strategies in most countries. ICTs are also essential tools to expanding coverage of public services to all population groups, which is a key principle of the 2030 Agenda. Combined with other approaches, ICTs can facilitate the tailoring of service delivery solutions in a way that explicitly targets marginalized groups such as those identified in the 2030 Agenda. Within this context, however, tensions and trade-offs among policy objectives also impact e-government strategies. A well-known example is the sharing of individuals’ health data among government agencies, health providers, insurers and other actors. Similarly, the provision of public services to migrant populations may require the sharing of information across 17 government agencies and layers, which in some cases may put the rights of migrants at risk. Therefore, the drive to enhance circulation of information across all government’s layers and eliminate firewalls between them should be balanced by broader ethical and societal considerations. Experience shows that e-government innovation often happens at local, regional or city levels. (See Box 1.4.). Cities are sufficiently large to wield considerable power and resources, while at the same time, small enough to be close to their inhabitants and the everyday concerns and demands of citizens and businesses. They are also taking an active stance in the implementation of the SDGs. 9

40 Chapter 1 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES 18 Box 1.4. Santiago: ingredients for a smart sustainable city The smart city pilot development programme “Santiago of Tomorrow”, initiated in 2013, seeks to improve quality of life for its inhabitants by increasing access to energy and emphasizing its sustainable use, and creating environmentally friendly smart homes. Some 85 per cent of Santiago’s population of 5.12 million, which represents 40 per cent of Chile’s population overall, lives in urban areas. In 2017, Santiago was named one of the top smart cities in Latin America, a ranking that includes a focus on resources and opportunities for older people and people with disabilities, 19 . In Santiago, there are business and innovation strategies with the goal of leaving no one behind for diversifying the economy away from primary industries by attracting massive ICT infrastructure investment. Another initiative is the “Start-Up Chile” programme of 2010, which aimed to establish Chile as “the definitive innovation and entrepreneurial hub of Latin America.” There is also a strong focus on energy, and Chile ranked in the global top 10 for the most sustainable buildings with investments in green infrastructure, including renewable energy. In terms of mobility, the city’s Metro network is organized around an ICT-based congestion pricing in a 3-tier system. Supported by a central card payment platform, the programme provides commuters with choices throughout the day. In addition, the ubiquitous network of bus routes provides free daily bus arrival updates via text messaging. There is also a strong cycling community with separated bikeways, large public bicycle racks, and bicycle sharing programmes based on smart phone apps. A pilot electric Source: vehicle car-sharing programme, the first of its kind in Latin America, uses smart apps for real time http://www. information, booking and location updates. smartcitysantiago.cl/ 1.2.6. Societal engagement and partnerships Sustainable development cannot be achieved by governments’ efforts alone. Partnerships are a fundamental pillar of SDG 17. Since the Agenda’s adoption, arrangements have been developed to ensure information sharing and accountability, and the launch of new partnerships at the global, regional and national levels, including public-private partnerships and multi-stakeholder partnerships. Such partnerships exist across many of the SDGs. For example, the overall review of the General Assembly on the World Summit of Information Society in December 2015 (WSIS+10) underscored the importance of public-private partnerships, along with universal access strategies and other approaches, to leveraging ICTs for sustainable development. International agreements help to mobilize the private sector to contribute to the implementation of the SDGs. UN DESA has organized several international and regional fora to promote and facilitate a discussion among stakeholders about challenges and capacity gaps faced by public administrations in creating new partnerships. Those include “The Symposium on the Promotion of an inclusive and 20 accountable public administration for sustainable development” (Bolivia, March 2016) , the Bahamas 21 Symposium “Effective Partnerships for Implementing the SDGs and SAMOA Pathway” (February 2017), and the Regional Symposium “Building Effective, Accountable and Inclusive Institutions and 22 Public Administration for Advancing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development” (Republic of Korea, December 2017). Special attention has been given to whether public institutions have the necessary capacities, information, safeguards and culture to mobilize partnerships for delivering quality public services to all, including the poorest and most vulnerable, and realizing the SDGs and 23 the SAMOA Pathway . These symposiums took stock of those efforts and reflected on the delivery of commitments made by partnerships thus far. Emerging models of partnerships such as those where the private sector or civil society take leading roles were also explored. The role of the private sector remains critical for realizing the SDGs. It goes well beyond corporate social responsibility to include joining in the broader efforts to reach the Goals. It also includes the creation of financial tools, facilities and solutions that can support the huge investments needed to implement the SDGs. Effective investment can be achieved by learning – including from the 10

41 Chapter 1 CHAPTER 1 • MOBILIZING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT public sector - and strategizing on ways to engage the private sector and ensure that it augments implementation of the SDGs. The public sector, as the main driver of public services, must be able to deliver high-quality, user-friendly services. That, in turn, requires capacities, skills, financial support, human resources, structures, policies and strategies, as well as legal and regulatory frameworks. At the strategic level, careful policy design is needed, supported by evidence and analysis reliable enough to enable sound political judgments about which public services to offer and how to do so. In short, the services provided should align with need and produce the intended social, economic and environmental outcomes. Successful examples of using innovative technology in solving a global humanitarian and social problems abound. The partnership between the government of Jordan, The World Food Programme (WFP), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Cairo Amman Bank and IrisGuard Inc., for example, has introduced an innovative iris scan payment system in Jordan’s Zaatari 24 and Azraq refugee camps allowing 1.5 million Syrian refugees and migrants to use digital money deposited on e-cards to access food and basic services using a scan of their eye instead of cash or vouchers. But much greater efforts are required to mobilize all the stakeholders behind the SDGs and give them the right “ecosystem” with which to engage. The government is responsible for identifying the key stakeholders in a given area, and to try new approaches to engage them, bearing in mind that the local and municipal levels are critical. It is urgent to strengthen global partnerships for realising the SDGs, so as to ensure that developing countries have the resources and capacities necessary to eradicate poverty and boost economic growth. North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation is therefore essential, and efforts should be made to extend this imperative throughout public administrations. It is also crucial, albeit urgent, to involve youth and the poorest and most vulnerable people in decision-making. Countries should make full use of their existing institutions that give voice to the people and to civil society, as well as to parliaments. ICTs provide the communication tools for service users’ direct participation in the design and delivery of their services. Participatory decision-making in such areas as budgeting gives citizens the opportunity to discuss and vote on how parts of their government’s budget should be used. The archetypal example at Porto Alegre in Brazil is recognized internationally as a ground-breaking local- level initiative in which the state government has engaged more than 1 million residents in its multi- channel online and offline decision-making to enhance provision of a wide range of public services 25 and utilities . That is just one example of a way to increase revenue in developing countries, where tax collection rates are notably low, and where the dearth of financial resources often threatens sustainable development programmes. Similarly, ICT use in Turkey enabled the establishment of a Communications Centre under the Prime Minister’s purview to provide a fast and efficient system through which citizens can easily communicate requests, complaints and opinions related to administration. The scheme supported citizens’ right to petition and right for information, and it introduced significant financial savings for the public. Finally, governments should increase capacity to address disasters. Preventing them, where possible, through good planning and mitigation systems is essential, but effective responses in the aftermath of a disaster are also crucial. The deployment of ICTs and e-government to improve disaster mitigation and management has grown tremendously in recent years, but often remains a neglected tool, especially in those developing countries most subjected to events that threaten widespread loss 11

42 Chapter 1 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Box 1.5. President Communication Center (CIMER), Turkey The President Communication Center (CIMER), previously called the Prime Ministry Communication Center (BIMER), is an important project that was launched in 2006 as an electronic public service tool where the public can apply for the right to petitions and right to information from anywhere in the country. As known in today’s public administration literature, the concepts of “Governance” and “Participation” have come to the forefront. For this reason, the establishment of a fast and efficient system for citizens to easily communicate all requests, complaints and opinions related to administration is an indispensable requirement for the spread of democracy, as well as for the success of management. Applications are accepted all around the country and are delivered to the related public institutions rapidly. In addition, it aims to provide answers to the applicants as soon as possible, to warn the relevant units in case of delay, to receive statistical reports and to provide supervision from the center. Applicants who want to make an electronic application, can apply via “https://www.cimer.gov.tr/” or can use the e-government system. Applicants also can apply via ALO 150 telephone line, go to the application offices of the Ministry, the Governor’s Office and the District Governorships in person, or by letter or fax. Approximately 6,000 applications are submitted through BI MER every day, and about 80,000 public personnel are employed by this project throughout the country. Considering that 92 per cent of the applications were received over the Internet and 60 per cent were made using mobile Source: https://www. cimer.gov.tr/ phones; CIMER provides significant financial savings to the public. of life and material destruction. At the same time, ICT use requires adequate infrastructure for organizations and individuals. During the past decade, many developing countries have put that in place, as they strive to make ICTs accessible and affordable. Mobile technology, the Internet, Web 2.0 tools like social media, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing and satellite communications, as well as different types of radio communication including amateur and satellite 26 radio have proved indispensable to disaster risk reduction. 1.2.7. Effective institutions in transforming and innovating government 27 In its resolution on Promoting Public Sector Leadership, the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) stressed that governments have the “central role” in SDG implementation, and notes that “effective institutions” are essential for achieving all the Goals and targets. The resolution indicates that many countries are in the process of identifying and updating policies, strategies, institutions and arrangements for spearheading and coordinating the implementation and progress review of the SDGs. The text also recognizes that implementing the SDGs does not necessarily require the creation of new institutions. With no one blueprint for implementation, existing institutions, such as planning and finance ministries, have a critical role to play. Governments around the world have pioneered widespread innovation and transformation across multiple levels and various platforms. These developments are critical to support the creation of sustainable and resilient societies, which meet the needs of all people. It is important to shift from an approach where the latest technologies are the exclusive focus in e-government to digital government where technology is “fully” integrated and embedded in government processes in a 28 sustainable way and with proper institutional and legislative support . The new approach must seek to build resilience and promote sustainable development in a way that leaves no one behind. The ECOSOC resolution underlines the critical importance of leadership at all levels of government and welcomes government engagement at the highest political level in SDG implementation. It invites governments to undertake concerted efforts to raise awareness and increase ownership of the goals within national, regional and local authorities, civil society, the private sector and society 12

43 Chapter 1 CHAPTER 1 • MOBILIZING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT at large, and to launch initiatives to build the awareness and commitment of civil servants at all levels to the vision of the 2030 Agenda. It also invites governments to build the capacities and skills of civil servants in areas such as integrated and coherent policymaking, planning, implementation, foresight, consultation, evidence-based reviews of progress and the collection and use of statistics and data. The resolution further encourages governments to “redouble efforts” to ensure respect for the rule of law by institutions at all levels. Box 1.6. The United Nations Public Service Forum and Awards Ceremony The UNPSA is a prestigious international recognition of excellence in public service. It promotes and rewards innovation and excellence in public services for realizing the SDGs and the principle to leave no one behind, which is at the core of the 2030 Agenda. Through an annual competition, the UNPSA promotes the role, professionalism and visibility of public service. It was launched in 2003 and since then it has encouraged exemplary public service and recognized that democracy United Nations and successful governance are built on a competent civil service. Department of Economic and Social Affairs The Awards are usually handed out on 23 June, day designated by the General Assembly as the United Nations Public Service Day to “celebrate the value and virtue of public service to the community” (A/RES/57/277). The General Assembly, in its resolution 57/277, encourages Member States to organize special events on that Day to highlight the contribution of public service in the development process. The UN Public Service Award (UNPSA) ceremony is part of a United Nations Public Service Forum, which takes place in different regions of the world. The United Nations Public Service Forum is a capacity development activity of UN-DESA where ministers, public servants, and representatives of civil society from all over the world gather to discuss and share innovations, build synergies and partnerships and exchange knowledge and best practices. In 2003, the General Assembly decided “that 23 June would be designated United Nations Public Service Day”. Unique global event on public governance that provides a platform for decision-makers to share successful strategies, innovative approaches and lessons learned on how to rally public servants to realize the SDGs and leave no one behind. By hearing from their peers on how they addressed https:// Source: the challenges related to designing and delivering services, Government officials bolster their publicadministration. 29 un.org/en/UNPSA capacity to respond to the 2030 Agenda. Many innovative approaches around the world make public services more effective, efficient and often transformative. These cases were recognized during the annual United Nations Public Service Awards (UN PSA) programme (please see Box 1.6.). Significant population changes, such as increases in both the number and proportion of elderly, birth rate reductions, and migration will require more and better services. Key areas of health and long- term care, education, and professional training are starting to use big data to increase personalized and potentially more efficient and effective services, as well as artificial intelligence, which, if properly deployed, can lead to better decisions. ICTs overall can enable personalized medicine and education, support vulnerable populations, predict and manage shocks and disasters, promote social and political inclusion, improve sanitation, provide identity for unregistered persons, and reduce environmental toxicity through better monitoring. In this regard, governments have been exploring private and public partnerships to improve service delivery. Singapore, notably, has partnered with Microsoft to create “chatbots” to deliver certain public services. There is also the potential for significant wins through the use of artificial intelligence to allocate resources in hospitals more efficiently, and, among other things, to model and control scheduling systems for public transport navigating the complex ways in which traffic flows through a 13

44 Chapter 1 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES 30 Therefore, it is not surprising that in many countries, ICT-enabled technologies are increasingly city. being used to design and deliver innovative public services. This trend is likely to increase significantly in the future with lessons already being drawn. The processes of public service design, delivery and use depend largely on the preconditions, related to the policy, strategy and capacities of the public sector, and collaboration among actors. The overarching aim is to provide good quality public services across the main sustainable development pillars of social, economic and environmental need, and, generally, to improve welfare and prosperity across the whole of societies. The process must be built on institutional changes that ensure the ability of public institutions to adapt to the new technologies and prevailing conditions and needs through greater efficiency, effectiveness, transparency, accountability and inclusivity. 1.3 E-government strategies for sustainability and resilience 1.3.1 Ensuring access for all to inclusive public services There are many examples where ICTs are being used with tremendous effect in delivering public services to lower-income, developing countries and emerging economies. Such examples spotlight the ways in which ICTs can make huge differences in public service delivery. In developing countries, in particular, non-digital service delivery channels, such as traditional post offices, telephone call centres, over-the-counter face-to-face services in citizen centres, as well as television and radio, remain important. However, those can be significantly improved by adding a digital channel, for example, or using satellite broadcasting and multi-channel learning services through mobile Internet centres that connect teachers, learners and communities. The “back offices” of service providers can also be digitized and joined up to provide innovative solutions for enhancing service delivery, including via traditional channels. Many service components will continue to require direct human interaction in health, care, education and the building of personal and trusting relationships through dialogue and empathy. In that, ICTs can be a valuable support tool for front-line staff. Notably, ICTs are being used innovatively to provide instant access to remote and hard-to-reach people across large areas and distances, regardless of time or location. In terms of access to and information about public services, a new initiative in Ghana is providing Wifi and Internet access in remote rural areas (Box 1.7.). 31 Box 1.7. Ghana: Remote access to wifi and internet services In early 2018, a Danish ICT company, in collaboration with the Ministry of Communications in Ghana, launched an affordable and sustainable “connecting the unconnected project” in four rural communities in western Ghana, prior to it being rolled out across the country. A base station 100 per cent solar energy powered establishes a Wifi hotspot with a range of up to one kilometre 3 2 The hotspot is connected to the Internet by existing infrastructure such as microwave in diameter. link and fibre, satellite, balloons or drones, bringing connectivity to even the most remote areas of the world. Because the programme is based on Wifi, users can browse the web, stay in touch, or participate in educational programmes using any smartphone, tablet, or laptop. A local cloud at the base station provides fast and easy access to e-learning, e-health, and e-governance, and allows citizens to share information, such as on health care and agriculture, as well as to communicate online with government authorities. Farmers can watch training videos to help them make the most of their land and to sell their crops at a fair price. Local doctors can access lifesaving information and much more. The hotspots are also in use in public establishments such as schools, Source: http:// hospitals, banks, police stations and market places. gifec.gov.gh/ 14

45 Chapter 1 CHAPTER 1 • MOBILIZING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Often, specific needs can be precisely targeted by using a multi-channel approach consisting of different combinations of both ICTs and traditional communication means. Relatively inexpensive ICTs, such as mobile phones, along with more traditional media like TV, radio and newspapers, are highly effective in the context of the poor and marginalized. Such approaches can be hugely successful if the business model is right, as in the Text4Baby example in the United States, which targets new and expectant mothers, most of whom, with disadvantaged backgrounds, are otherwise hard to reach (Box 1.8.). 33 Box 1.8. USA: Text4Baby SMS support service for new and expectant mothers Text4Baby provides information to expectant and new mothers about how to take care of themselves and their baby while pregnant and during the baby’s first year of its life. The women most at risk often come from a disadvantaged background and thus have limited access to the Internet, but they are likely to have access to a mobile phone, so the programme sends them relevant text messages in either English or Spanish once a week. Results show a very high satisfaction rate with the service. Additionally, users’ health knowledge increases, there is improved interaction with health care providers, greater adherence to appointments and immunizations, and increased access to health resources generally. The Text4Baby initiative is a highly successful partnership between the United States government and a number of non-profit and other non-governmental organizations, consisting of more than 700 partners. It is thus a very good example of collaboration between the public and civil sectors deploying simple but Source: https://www. highly effective technology tailored to the target group. text4baby.org/ There are additional examples of how such widespread and inexpensive ICTs can have significant impacts on health. An African-based for-profit company spun out of a non-profit organization, mPedigree, works with mobile operators and pharmaceutical manufacturers to provide a mobile phone-based drug verification system for addressing the issue of counterfeit drugs in pharmacies at the point-of-sale, in Ghana, Kenya, and Nigeria. The mPedigree service is free to users and allows instant verification of whether a drug is real or counterfeit by sending a unique code via simple SMS. Automated responses in the appropriate language follow. The service relies on various partners across the value chain, both private and public, and it is also simple to rollout to new customers and 34 easy to access for the end-user. These examples illustrate the many ways in which ICTs can help meet the SDGs. Water and sanitation are vital for basic human health and quality of life and, although those are physical services, ICTs can play a vital role in improving access, service delivery and governance. Water in particular is becoming an increasingly scarce resource as demand rises and pollution and climate change take their toll. ICTs can significantly enhance the identification, extraction and recovery of water supplies by providers as well as its efficient and effective access and use. ICTs can also improve distribution and payment systems for users, especially the poor, through mobile payment services. In developing countries where access to good quality water is a serious challenge, there are additional examples of ICT use, such as mWater, which is a mobile and web platform for monitoring and regulating 252 water schemes in small towns, such as in Senegal, Mali, Benin and Niger, which typically rely on hand pumps from piped systems operated by private companies. The providers often have poor operational performance with a lack of knowledge about maintenance of the pipes and asset levels, which can lead to high water tariffs and poor coverage. Through ICT use, data is now collected via mobile phones, which enables providers to improve their operations, and the regulators to monitor the programme’s performance. 15

46 Chapter 1 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES The use of mobile devices assists in finding and exploiting suitable water resources by showing the reality of a situation on the ground. The data collected is used to make decisions aimed at establishing the sustainability and quality of water services. The so-called Water Point Mapping (WPM) in Rwanda 35 and Ethiopia has been very successful through the use of mobile data , and the MajiVoice for better water in Nairobi turns citizens into active participants when it comes to their water supply services. The programme allows customers to report complaints, and the water company to provide service updates as well as proof that the complaints have been addressed, by, for example, sending photos from engineers when they repair a leak. The number of reported leaks has doubled since the introduction of MajiVoice, resulting in enhanced service performance through greater accountability. The programme also averts visits to an office, and enables staff to resolve complaints faster, thereby 36 strengthening management and regulation . 1.3.2. E-government as a sustainable development platform Viewing e-government as a platform for resilience and sustainable development arises directly out of the open governance approach. In that context, a platform means an open environment and data ecosystem, with clear standards and guidelines, tools and resources. The aim is to invite all stakeholders to collaborate in producing public value, thereby contributing to society and the common good. In one manifestation, that might be an open source service platform in the Internet cloud providing government services, data and enablers as building blocks for increased efficiency and effectiveness, as promoted by the European E-Government Action Plan. E-government operating as a platform for sustainable development can generate public value and a range of people-centred benefits. ICT use transforms citizens’ lives, communities, civil society groups and businesses from passive consumers of data and knowledge to active producers. For example, citizens are sharing ever more with each other on social media platforms and tend to consult other citizens, rather than the government, for advice. Put another way, they increasingly use the “social signal” and “social search” to organize and improve their lives. Governments thus need to recognize the value of collaboration and crowd-sourcing, which enable citizens and others to contribute as co-creators. Although governments should better mobilize their resources and talent, there is always additional talent to be found outside as well. The public sector as a platform for ICT use can facilitate sustainable development and can support an ecosystem of stakeholders with changing roles and relationships. There is a need to consider both virtual and physical platforms, as well as their inter-relationships, to support public value co-creation with other actors. Thus, a better understanding is needed of how government - the main designer and provider of public services - can adapt its role to become an enabler, facilitator and orchestrator of that ecosystem, which would increase its public value. Such new roles, aided by appropriate tools and support, including big open and linked data, can create resilient and sustainable societies, built 37 on standards, ethics and inclusion. There are already numerous examples of ICT use where non-government stakeholders have assumed or supplemented certain government roles. In just a few examples, noise level measurements around Amsterdam Airport were undertaken by residents in the flight path, when the responsible public 38 authority was underperforming; Microsoft’s so-called health vault, which stores health records in the 39 cloud, can be accessed by patients when they change health providers, including across borders; , and “Fix-My-Street” in the United Kingdom, which was developed by the civil society organization 40 , enables individuals to report broken or failing infrastructure and other local problems. MySociety 41 The programme has been adopted by many local authorities and governments around the world. A website, “Patients know best”, allows patients to control their own medical data when negotiating 16

47 Chapter 1 CHAPTER 1 • MOBILIZING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT 42 In India, a non-governmental organization has with public health authorities about their treatment. supplanted the role of government in rooting out corruption with its anti-corruption initiative, “I Paid 43 a Bribe”. Set up in 2010, it harnesses the collective energy of citizens to tackle corruption in public services across India. The site collects reports on its website about the nature, number, pattern, types, location, frequency and monetary value of actual corrupt acts in specific locations. The information is then used to advocate changes in governance and accountability processes, as well as to confront particular incidences of corruption. That initiative is now in use in several other countries. Those examples spotlight just a few cases where ordinary citizens, civil organizations, private companies and others have spearheaded the use of ICTs to fill voids left by governments or to remedy governments’ underperformance. However, it is important to stress that, whether or not the public sector is directly involved, the government always needs to exercise final responsibility to ensure that such activities are fair and ethical, as well as open and inclusive, and in line with prevailing regulations and laws. Government represents all interests in society, and thus, it has the legitimacy and authority to ensure the widest possible range of public value creation for sustainable development. As the duty bearer for basic services, the government, in the end, is responsible for ensuring minimum service quality, interoperability standards, legal and regulatory frameworks, and elaborating long-term policies for sustainable development. Governments are also responsible for fixing a problem when something goes wrong, even if they were not directly involved in designing and delivering a specific initiative, for it is the main entity tasked with balancing society’s often competing interests. There are numerous instances where government and e-government are the main actors. The Australian Government, for example, created a Digital Transformation Agency, which focuses on enhancing service delivery by acting as a central repository for open government data. The platform 44 adds value to users, intermediaries and society as a whole. 1.3.3. ICT-enabled public institutions The increasing use of ICTs by institutions has also dramatically impacts public services and their delivery, both via Internet websites and portals, mobile and especially smart phones, social media, and kiosks situated in places accessible to the public. ICT-enabled public service delivery is having a significant impact, as it is much more affordable for an increasing number of users and more cost effective for governments than traditional supply channels. ICT use also enables more targeted, personalized and up-to-date service design and delivery. That gives the service user greater benefits than the sole reliance on traditional service channels, in terms of access, convenience through 24/7 availability, savings in time, and the cost of travel to physical premises such as offices. It also opens up the possibility of new types of public services for achieving the SDGs by 2030. ICT solutions are also being used internally within institutions to better manage and analyse large amounts of data in more routine and rule-governed processes and transactions, thereby reducing overall transaction costs and increasing efficiency. One example is a collaborative health project in Cambodia to combat malaria, where there is an effective interplay among national control programmes, research institutions, and commercial and civil society organizations, aimed at data sharing and response coordination. The Malaria Information System (MIS) has been set up to process data from village malaria workers and health facilities, and to use open source software for MIS reporting via mobile phones. That also is a tool for district staff to manage such activities as mosquito net distribution and ‘drug stock out’ system tracking in health centres and clinics, when levels drop below a set threshold. It can also reduce the inappropriate use of antibiotics in human beings and 45 animals and measure its impact on antibiotic resistance. 17

48 Chapter 1 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES However, institutions in many developing countries still have not been able to deliver basic services like education, health, water and sanitation, as well as infrastructure and other utilities, to their entire population. ICT use can contribute substantially to closing those gaps, given its extremely low cost, its power of reach, and the rapidity with which it is able to be rolled out. Thus, the aim in all countries must be to ensure access for all, including to basic services. The more developed economies have generally achieved universal access to ICTs, so there, the focus tends to be on more advanced and personalized ICT-enabled services as the next step. However, there are many examples of clever ICT use in developing countries as well. 1.3.4. User-centricity and co-creation of public services Although context largely defines service design and delivery, ICTs enhance the process by focusing increasingly on user-centricity, with well-defined needs at its core. In a growing number of cases, that principle is complemented by the notion of user-driven and user-personalized services, where the user determines precisely the service sought or required. In turn, that lays the basis for developments in so-called open services and the co-creation of services in cooperation, or even competition, with relevant stakeholders. The design and delivery process, if undertaken in a transparent manner, can further drive innovation. ICT use has already shown its potential and benefits in terms of access, affordability and usability, and flexibility. Service design is related directly to user needs and behaviours rather than to the requirements of government. ICT use has also simplified back-office processes to save resources and offer better services. Additionally, service personalization is enhanced in the front-office to satisfy individual needs. Finally, multi-channel and blended service delivery that uses a channel mix best suited to the individual user is becoming the norm, and flexibility has been enhanced. Portugal’s modernization of public services is a good example (Box 1.9.). 46 Box 1.9. Portugal: The modernization of public services The modernization of public services in Portugal since the late 1990s has been driven by a policy focused both on efficiency and cost reduction, on the one hand, and high-quality services and their multi-channel delivery on the other. These policies and strategies emphasize three principles: rolling out citizen-centric services, administrative simplification, and the rationalization of the administration’s interoperability, costs and resource use. So-called “citizen shops” are one of the flagships of this policy as an innovative concept of public service delivery that brings together, in the same space, several public and private entities. This involves collaboration between the local public administration and local partners and citizens who best know the needs of a population and the area. There are now more than 150 such physical multi-service centres as part of a national network utilizing ICTs to set up citizen spaces for the provision of digitally delivered services, with in-person assistance if required. This addresses the fact that digital literacy is not at the same level everywhere in the country. Another important policy pillar is the “Simplex” programme, which aims to streamline bureaucracy, modernize public administration, and facilitate interaction Source: http://www. gee.gov.pt/ between citizens and companies with public administration, at both central and municipal levels. An example of user-centric and co-created service innovations in education is the development of massive open on-line courses (MOOCs) enabling anyone in the world with an Internet connection to access quality educational material and adapt it to their own use (Box 1.10.). 18

49 Chapter 1 CHAPTER 1 • MOBILIZING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT 47 Box 1.10. MOOCs: Massive Open Online Courses -- a global phenomenon This initiative makes available all types of educational courses and material for unlimited participation, often with free and open access for everyone connected to the Internet anywhere in the world. It also directly addresses the need for lifelong education and learning as well as the “up-skilling” of the labour force. The programme offers a flexible, wide-reaching and inexpensive way of meeting societies’ need for education of all types through democratizing access and providing, in principle, no limits on the numbers participating. Although there have been correspondence and open courses before, ICTs provides the means for the massive expansion of this type of education, often through “blended” learning where online channels are combined with offline and face-to-face channels. Like any other use of ICTs for service delivery, there are potential barriers in terms of limited access to high-speed networks, and varying degrees of digital literacy. Such challenges need to be addressed to ensure the quality of the course material and uphold certification and accreditation standards so the education obtained is recognized by employers and society at large. An example of a non-profit MOOC platform is edX (www.edx. org). It hosts online university-level courses in a wide range of disciplines, including some at no charge, to a worldwide student body. It also conducts research on how to use its platform. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University created edX in May 2012. More than 70 schools, non-profit organizations, and corporations offer or plan to offer courses on the edX website. As of 29 December 2016, edX had some10 million students taking more than Source: http://www. 1,270 courses online. wikipedia.org/ Other trends in the area of user-centricity include the bundling of related services around the life events and experiences of users. That is a departure from service delivery, determined by the physical infrastructures and organization of government, towards more people-friendly service geared to the needs of real people in their everyday lives. The Singapore eCitizen portal was the first in the world, in 2002 to bundle service offerings around user life events for easy navigation and user-centricity. It further developed that approach in 2018 into an integrated citizen experience and one-stop- 48 shop . Another leading trend is incorporating user behavioural approaches and design thinking into creating, delivering and using services, as exemplified by initiatives in both Singapore and the United Kingdom. It is important to recognize that users are already dramatically changing their behaviour when it comes to accessing and using e-services of any kind. The evolutionary approach to making e-government services available has been, first, abandoning the “many stops” approach and moving to the one-stop shop. However, complexity still dominates the navigation for many one-stop shop portals, hampering a user-friendly approach. However, recent experience like that in the United Kingdom shows that, rather than using sophisticated navigation, some users are increasingly deploying advanced search tools, such as autocomplete and predictive searches to attain access to the service they want in one or two clicks. In other words, users are finding and accessing services - whether commercial, personal or public by advanced online search, rather than expensive navigation portals. In the United Kingdom, for example, the previous navigation portal, DirectGov, was replaced by Gov.uk, because, in practice, users just typed what they wanted to do into a good search engine. A group of non-government hackers had set up a rival unofficial site with such a search engine, which was being used much more widely than the official portal. The government wisely recognized this behavioral change and co-opted the group, co-creating the world’s first e-government portal publicly launched in both alpha and then beta versions, rather than relying only on IT experts and a few user tests. User tests were conducted, however, to find the search terms that people actually used when 49 searching for helpful government offerings . 19

50 Chapter 1 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Challenges, risks and vulnerabilities 1.4 Despite the successes and opportunities arising from the public sector’s use of ICTs in furthering the goals of resilient and sustainable societies, there are many challenges and risks that can undermine the role of e-government in supporting the SDGs. Those include environmental stresses and disasters, socio-economic and governance risks, as well as those related to technologies themselves. Disturbances to political, economic and social systems are becoming more common, and often shift attention and resources away from the processes by which a society produces public, private and social goods and services. Delivery of public services is also disturbed, exposing millions to insecurity, loss of opportunity, and poverty. In the reverberation of those disturbances and stresses, public services may break down altogether, especially for the poor and vulnerable, women, children and elderly. Weakened state capacity is often reflected in a loss of control over basic public services, especially where resilience measures are lacking. Inadequate governance institutions often contribute to inconsistent or non-existent provision of education, health, and clean water. Damage to basic services may even become permanent. Risk drivers such as badly planned and managed urbanization, environmental degradation and poverty often exacerbate vulnerability with adverse impacts on progress towards implementation of the 2030 Agenda. Governments need to understand the critical risks arising both from shocks and disasters and the vulnerability of e-government systems and consider ways to mitigate them. The manifold risks are often deeply interlinked and become more intractable in the face of so-called “wicked” problems. Those include planetary environmental risks related to climate change, extreme weather events, water crises, bio-diversity and habitat reduction, to name a few. Such stresses threaten rural and urban development, health, and economic sectors, such as agriculture and fishing, which often provide the livelihoods for poor and marginalized populations. Those problems have social and economic consequences, which governments, in partnership with non-governmental actors, must address in order to prevent erosion of social cohesion and economic prosperity. Otherwise, a vicious cycle may result of under- and unemployment, which increases income and wealth inequality and foments demographic pressures like ageing and migration, economic downturns, terrorism and conflict, and 50 failing States. Those threats naturally strain public services , and combined, can derail progress towards realizing Agenda 2030. Strengthening resilience to avoid, mitigate and cope with such threats is critical, and requires the adoption of measures, including emergency plans, for tackling both natural and person-made disasters. 1.4.1. The need for adequate strategies and response systems Good planning, mitigation systems and policies, therefore, are vital in anticipating and coping with 51 the burgeoning stresses and threats arising from today’s increasingly fractured world. Basic data, about both the population and the physical features of areas prone to disasters is essential to implementing successful strategies and response systems. ICTs, in particular mobile phones, can provide instant data from virtually any location. It is crucial to be able to collect, analyse and visualize data during and after a disaster, such as through real time spatial applications. The ability to seamlessly integrate and distribute digital data into spatially explicit forms for rapid assessment and other analyses can be enormously helpful in saving lives and mitigating long-term impacts. Governments, citizens, and businesses are increasingly using mobile technology in natural disaster preparedness and public safety responses. Real-time mobile phone data can also provide valuable insights about the behaviour of affected populations and enable both victims and rescuers to send real-time reports. By examining mobile phone activity data before, during and after a disaster, a baseline understanding of emergency behaviour and capacity to measure the rate of disaster 52 recovery can be established. 20

51 Chapter 1 CHAPTER 1 • MOBILIZING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT 1.4.2. Technological misuse, distortion and risks At the same time, specific threats have arisen from the way technology, especially ICTs, is developing and being used by governments and society. As digital technology companies advance, power may be concentrated in ways that current legal and regulatory frameworks are unable to address. Governments and regulators often struggle to understand the pace of change, let alone formulate relevant policies, prompting the question of what technology companies are accountable for and to whom. Such questions raise concern in various regions of the world. In relation to security, privacy and control, the rise of digital connectivity is leading to increased cyber-security concerns, for example with the hacking of critical infrastructures, including those that control power supplies and transportation networks. It is becoming increasingly important to consider the security, ownership and usage of the massive amount of personal data which is created and shared, as well as to protect the identities of both individuals and organizations. New technology can also be misused by governments and private companies. According to the 53 freedom on the net report , Internet freedom has declined for the sixth consecutive year, with more governments than ever targeting social media and communication apps as a means of halting the rapid dissemination of information, particularly during anti-government protests. Online activism has reached new heights, and the number of countries where arrests for online posts have occurred has increased by more than 50 per cent since 2013. Since June 2015, police in 38 countries have arrested individuals for their activities on social media. Social media users face unprecedented penalties, as governments censor more diverse content and install security measures that threaten free speech and privacy. There is also the rise of the so-called post-truth society, fake and fact-free news, which can thwart political discourse. Although those are not new phenomena, their significance has reached vastly new heights. Social media have played a significant role in that trend, and currently, Facebook, Twitter, Google, and others are working together to see whether they can develop algorithms to filter out false news, hate speech, and terrorist propaganda. At the same time, repeated and often large- scale leaks and hacks of user-data collected by technology companies jeopardize the trust, social cohesion and governance processes in different parts of the world. Ensuring anonymity and privacy of voter decisions during the elections is a responsibility of government authorities, and Information technology may play a role in different phases in the voting process, thus, having an impact on voter privacy. Secret balloting in many countries is aimed at preventing vote buying and coercion. For information technology to be used for casting votes, privacy becomes not only a right but also 54 a duty, thus e-democracy initiatives shall change the way privacy is viewed in the political process . Information technology developments shall guarantee the voter right to fulfil this duty while providing a possibility for the authorities to verify the process. Recent cases of user-data transfers to and hacks by Cambridge Analytica, a political data firm hired to provide services during the 2016 presidential campaign in the United States, raised concerns about targeted political messaging on social media to influence voter preferences. These issues are of fundamental importance for sustainable development. International organizations have a major role to play in reinstating facts and evidence, and expertise in policy debates, while ensuring they get the balance right by also leaving those debates open to legitimate scrutiny and transparency. 1.4.3. The complex roles of technology in society It is also true that technology can no longer be considered simply as a straightforward tool, for it plays a complex role, as today’s general-purpose technology affects all aspects of societal 21

52 Chapter 1 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES development. Although the advance of technology has created enormous new opportunities across a range of sectors, the speed and impact of these changes have made it very difficult for society and governments to keep up and respond appropriately. In many ways, technology is not neutral because its impacts are determined by how it is used. Social media has indeed had huge positive impacts on the lives of many, bringing people together globally, and extending an individual’s horizons beyond local and even national borders. It keeps families in different parts of the world connected, and it enables communities, campaigns and democratic movements to form. It also makes governments and big business more transparent. At the same time, misuse of social media has mushroomed, from trolling and bullying the vulnerable online or allowing paedophiles to share child pornography, to the so-called “dark web” where illegal and dangerous anti-social transactions take place. The democratic and mind-broadening potential of the web has also come under scrutiny as more and more people access only the material they choose to follow. They increasingly ignore other content, leading to so-called filter-bubbles. The more they use the search engines, the more those engines adapt, through sophisticated algorithms, to feeding 55 users what they like. When people go online, they leave digital traces or footprints, which are scooped up by the tech companies and sold to advertisers who use their intimate knowledge of a user’s personal life to target their advertising. The users are thus digital products to be sold to the highest bidder, in a bizarre reversal of traditional economic relationships. Neither is the so-called neutrality of technology straightforward. There are numerous examples where technological advances are driven by social needs, such as the Linux free open-source operating system for computers and the M-PESA mobile phone money transfer app in Kenya, which allows poor people with no bank account to make secure commercial and family transactions over long distances. However, it is also clear that most technological advances are market-driven, arising out of companies’ desires, first and foremost, to increase their profits. Proportionate regulation is therefore required, but there must be caution that it does not hamper increasing prosperity and realization of the SDGs. There are also examples where new ICTs are being designed to extract market value from individuals and communities rather than increase it. Recent e-learning initiatives in Africa, connecting globally via new ICT infrastructure, can sometimes become overwhelmed by international content and social media. That risks crowding out local content and languages, which help develop local communities, cultures, companies and entrepreneurship. In turn, that can cause local income to leave the locality and even the country, draining rather than supplementing indigenous development. Also, with scant international investment in local content and language, the local context is increasingly neither 56 supported nor even recognized as legitimate . 1.5 Conclusions This chapter has demonstrated the multifarious and complex opportunities for deploying e-government to build resilient societies and play a major role in sustainable development. It has also described many of the risks, challenges and vulnerabilities governments face in ensuring their e-government systems are able to fulfil that potential. Basic services like education, health, water and sanitation, as well as infrastructure and other utilities, are essential to sustaining e- development and improving quality of life and prosperity. To ensure resilience and sustainability, those services need to be delivered universally in order to not leave anyone behind, a crucial pillar of sustainable development. New technologies and ICTs are essential to that quest, both through widening access and providing significant benefits to service users while at the same time reducing provider costs. 22

53 Chapter 1 CHAPTER 1 • MOBILIZING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT The transformational and facilitating power of ICTs is creating a paradigm shift in the public sector, driven by three trends. The first is the need to address ever increasing and complex societal challenges, while promoting resilience and sustainable development. The second is acceptance that, although the public sector is normally the biggest and most powerful actor, it does not have a monopoly on resources or the ability to innovate. Governments need to retain overall responsibility for quality, standards, and ethics, and ensure that no one is left behind. The third trend concerns the increased capacities of other State actors as well as civil society and the commercial sector, to participate alongside the public sector in addressing societal challenges. ICTs have not only given rise to those overlapping trends, but have shown their increasing potential to deliver when it comes to building sustainable and resilient societies, with the right preconditions and an enabling environment. 23

54 Chapter 1 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES References 1 Development. [online] Available at: https:// United Nation (2015). Transforming our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/21252030%20Agenda%20for%20Sustainable%20Development%20web. pdf 2 Digital Dividends. [online]. Available at: http://www.worldbank.org/ The World Bank (2016). World Development Report 2016: en/publication/wdr2016 3 World Economic Forum (2018). The Global Risks Report 2018. Available at: https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-global-risks- report-2018 United Nations (2018). High-Level Political Forum 2018. [online] Available at: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/hlpf/2018 - 4 last update on 15 May 2018 5 UNDESA (2016). Compendium of Innovative Practices in Public Governance and Administration for Sustainable Development. 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Mobile-Enhanced Participatory Budgeting in the DRC. 13 Feb. http://blogs.worldbank.org/ic4d/ mobile-enhanced-participatory-budgeting-in-the-drc 15 UNDESA (2017). Guide on Lessons for Open Government Data Action Planning for Sustainable Development, December. Available at: http://workspace.unpan.org/sites/Internet/Documents/UNPAN97913.pdf. World Public Sector Report 16 UNDESA (2018). Working Together: Integration, institutions and the Sustainable Development Goals. Division for Public Administration and Development Management. New York. April. 2018. 17 Teng, F. (2014). Santiago, Chile: Ingredients for a Smart City. Available at: http://cityminded.org/santiago-chile-ingredien ts-smart- city-10307 18 IESE Business School (2017). Cities in Motion Index. Available at: http://smartcities4all.org/20170627_press_release_English _pdf. php 19 UNDESA (2016). Promotion of an Inclusive and Accountable Public Administration for Sustainable Development. Available at: https://publicadministration.un.org/en/Bolivia-Symposium 20 UNDESA (2017). Symposium on “Implementing the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda and the SAMOA pathway in Small Island Developing States-SIDS: Equipping Public Institutions and Mobilizing Partnerships”. Available at: https:// publicadministration.un.org/bahamas_symposium 21 UNDESA (2017). Symposium on Building Effective, Accountable and Inclusive Institutions and Public Administration for the SDG, Incheon, Republic of Korea. Availabe at: https://publicadministration.un.org/en/news-and-events/calendar/moduleid/1146/ ItemID/2955/mctl/EventDetails 22 United Nations (2014). SIDS Accelerated Modalities of Action [S.A.M.O.A.] Pathway. Available at: http://www.sids2014.org/ index.php?menu=1537 23 E. Luce (2014). Evolution of WFP’s food assistance programmefor Syrian refugees in Jordan. [online] Available at: https://da ta2. unhcr.org/fr/documents/download/42525 24 Odta.net (2018). Automotive. 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55 Chapter 1 CHAPTER 1 • MOBILIZING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT 29 Harwich, E. (2017). AI could transform the way governments deliver public services. Published in The Guardian (8 February 2017). Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/public-leaders-network/2017/feb/09/artificial-intelligence-robots-transform- governments-public-services-japan-uk-singapore 30 The Ghana Web (2018). Communications Minister to launch Smart Communities Project. 5 February. Available at: https://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/Communications-Minister-to-launch-Smart-Communities- Project-623633 n/ 31 Bluetown (2018). The Bluetown Base Station: Technology where it matters the most. Available at: https://bluetown.com/solutio 32 Text4Baby. [online] Available at: https://www.text4baby.org [Accessed Jun. 2018] 33 Madigan, K. (2017). Innovate4Health: mPedigree Battles Counterfeit Drugs Through Innovative Verification System. Available at: https://cpip.gmu.edu/2017/03/17/innovate4health-mpedigree-battles-counterfeit-drugs-through-innovative-verification- system 34 SIWI World Water Week (2013). ICT to improve water governance: World Water Week in Stockholm (2013). [online] Available at: http://programme.worldwaterweek.org/event/changing-relationships-ict-2882 35 MajiVoice. [online] Available at: http://www.majivoice.com/?page=Introduction%20to%20MajiVoice [Accessed Jun. 2018] 36 Millard, J. (2015) Open governance systems: Doing more with more. Government Information Quarterly. [online] Available at: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2015.08.003 37 Sensornet (2003). [online] Available at: http://www.sensornet.nl/english 38 Microsoft (2017). [online] Available at: https://www.healthvault.com 39 FixMyStreet. [online] Available at: https://www.fixmystreet.com [Accessed Jun. 2018] / 40 Lewisham Council (2017). London Borough of Lewisham. [online] Available at: https://www.lewisham.gov.uk/doitonline/report-it Pages/report-it.aspx 41 PatientsKnowBest (2017). Patients Know Best: manage Your Health. [online] Available at: https://www.patientsknowbest.com 42 Ipaidabribe.com (2017). [online] Available at: http://www.ipaidabribe.com 43 Australian Government Digital Transformation Agency (2017). Government As A Platform. [online] Available at: https://www.dta. gov.au/standard/design-guides/government-as-a-platform/ Malaria Consortium’s support and implementation activities in Cambodia. [online] Available at: 44 Malaria Consortium (2018). http://www.malariaconsortium.org/where-we-work/cambodia-areas_of_focus.htm 45 Martins J., Veiga L. (2018). Innovations in digital government as business facilitators: implications for Portugal. GEE Pap ers, Number 97, March 2018. [online] Available at: : http://www.gee.gov.pt/RePEc/WorkingPapers/GEE_PAPERS_97.pdf; and UNDESA (2015). Innovative Public Service Delivery Learning from Best Practices. [online] Available at : http://workspace.unpan.org/sit es/ Internet/Documents/EGM%20Report%20on%20Innovative%20Public%20Service%20Delivery%20Learning%20from%20 Best%20Practices.docx.pdf. Massive Open Online Service. 46 Wikipedia. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massive_open_online_course [Qccessed Jun. 2018] 47 CitizenConnect. [online] Available at: http://ccc.ecitizen.gov.sg/eservice; and Vintar M., Kunstelj M., Leben A. (2002). Delivering Better Quality Public Services Through Life-Event Portals. [online] Available at: http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/ documents/nispacee/unpan004382.pdf 48 Wikipedia. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Directgov; and Braken, M. (2012). Gov.uk: why this new Directgov. government website really matters. The Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2012/oct/17/gov-uk- website-internet 49 World Economic Forum (2018). The Global Risk report 2018. [online] Available at: https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-global- risks-report-2018 50 World Economic Forum (2018). The Global Risk report 2018. [online] Available at: https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-global- risks-report-2018 Using Mobile Phone Activity For Disaster Management During Floods. [online] Available at: http:// 51 Global Pulse (2014). unglobalpulse.org/sites/default/files/Mobile_flooding_WFP_Final.pdf 52 Freedom House (2016). Freedom on the net - silencing the messenger: communication apps under pressure. 53 Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2014). Privacy and Information Technology. [online] Available at: https://plato.stanford.edu/ entries/it-privacy/ 54 Pariser E. (2011). The filter bubble: how the new personalized web is changing what we read and how we think. The Penguin Press. 55 12th International Conference on ICT for Development, Education & Training (2017). eLearning Africa. [online] Available at: http://www.elearning-africa.com/ressources/pdfs/report/eLA17_PCR.pdf 25

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57 Chapter 2 CHAPTER 2 • E-GOVERNMENT FOR LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND E-government for leaving no one behind 2.1. Introduction Addressing the needs of the poorest and vulnerable groups is one of the building blocks of resilient and sustainable societies. Given today’s Photo credit: pixabay.com complexities – from humanitarian crises and migration patterns to the challenges of the urban and rural poor – technologies offer an In this chapter: opportunity to leave no one behind by extending the reach and access 27 2.1 Introduction of information and services to those who need them the most. 2.2 E-service delivery 30 At the 72nd Session of the United Nations General Assembly, a new 2.2.1. Digital identities 32 agenda item on the impact of rapid technological change on the 33 2.2.2. E-participation achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) underscored in a resolution the persistent and growing digital divides in science and 2.3 Digital divides 34 technology among and within developed and developing countries. 35 2.3.1. Infrastructure divides The text also addresses the issues of ensuring an inclusive and gender- 36 2.3.2. A perceived lack of benefits sensitive approach and promoting the empowerment of women and 1 37 2.3.3. A gender divide girls . It is widely agreed by countries that inclusiveness speaks to the notion of empowerment and the principle of non-discrimination and 2.3.4. Web accessibility 38 2 is reflected in the pledge to leave no one behind. There is similarly a 2.3.5. Digital first 38 3 broad accord in the Addis Ababa Action Agreement on the need to 38 2.4 Digital literacy create a transformative framework that contains concrete deliverables, 2.5 Emerging divides: migrants, and to craft a cohesive strategy ensuring parity in data access and use restrictions on access, and net across regions. World leaders agree that strengthening cooperation in neutrality 40 technology, infrastructure and social protections to drive prosperity is 2.5.1. Migrants 40 key to realizing inclusive and sustainable development. 2.5.2. Country restrictions on information access 41 Social and digital exclusion are interlinked as research has shown that differing access to technology contributes to socio-economic 2.5.3. Net neutrality 41 4 stratification or inclusion. It is therefore imperative that e-government 2.6 Conclusion 42 is recognized as an incentive to bring more people online. E-government References 43 enables people with access to take advantage of digital government information and services and stimulates greater social inclusion through the use, for example, of online and mobile financial services. The 2014 United Nations E-Government noted that digital divides are “inextricably linked to a lack of social equity in today’s information world.” In an increasingly digital world, electronic inclusion, or e-inclusion, is 5 fundamental to leaving no one behind. The rapid development of E-Government has created new imperatives for policy-makers to bridge social gaps through greater e-inclusion in terms of access and usage. 6 Digital divides are no longer considered to be only a lack of access to ICT infrastructure. Neither are they necessarily a division between high- and low-income countries. Given the progress of e-government, digital divides exist in all countries, and they must be bridged to enable 27 Chapter 2

58 Chapter 2 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES everyone to take full advantage of what the digital society is offering. A lack of e-inclusion could put vulnerable populations at risk of falling further behind. Many of the 67 principles adopted at the 2003 United Nations World Summit on the Information Society directly acknowledge that point, 7 including principle 10, which states: “We are also fully aware that the benefits of the information technology revolution are today unevenly distributed between the developed and developing countries and within societies. We are fully committed to turning this digital divide into a digital opportunity for all, particularly for those who risk being left behind and being further marginalized.” Global efforts to bridge access to the Internet are improving. Almost one-half, or 48 per cent of 8 the world’s population, is estimated to have used the Internet in 2017. At the same time, there are large regional differences. In Europe, almost 80 per cent of the population used the Internet. The Commonwealth of Independent States (68 per cent) and the Americas (66 per cent) followed as the only regions where more people use the Internet than do not. In Africa, only 22 per cent were estimated to use the Internet in 2017, leaving the continent lagging all other regions. Figure 2.1. Individuals using the Internet 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2015 2006 2016 2017* 2009 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2008 2007 2005 Africa Arab States Asia & Pacific CIS World The Americas Europe ITU Source: Mobile devices are proving to be helpful in bridging the access divide. Fixed- and mobile-broadband prices are falling, making ICTs more accessible and affordable. In 2017, mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions were estimated at 103.5 per 100 inhabitants, of which 56.4 had an active mobile- ). There remain, however, see figure 2.2 broadband subscription providing Internet connectivity ( large discrepancies between developed and developing countries. In the former, mobile-cellular subscriptions are approaching 127.3 per 100 inhabitants (as one person can have more than one subscription) while the number for developing countries is 98.7. The rapidly increasing use of mobile devices around the world elevates the potential for mobile government (mgovernment) services as a subset of e-government. Mobile services and smart phones allow governments to better reach the poorest and most vulnerable. As a result, 74 countries have 28

59 Chapter 2 CHAPTER 2 • E-GOVERNMENT FOR LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND Figure 2.2. Mobile subscriptions in developed and developing countries 150% 130% 110% 90% 70% 50% 30% 10% -10% 2009 2011 2010 2017* 2008 2007 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 Mobile-cellular telephone Mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions: Developed subscriptions: Developing Active mobile-broadband Active mobile-broadband subscriptions: Developed subscriptions: Developing Source: ITU 9 dedicated mobile apps to deliver online services. Moreover, 83 countries indicated that they are providing some form of mobile service through short message service (SMS), mobile apps or the equivalent. Despite this progress, most of the world’s population remains offline. This increases the risk that vulnerable groups without Internet access will fall further behind in an increasingly digital society. While those online are benefiting from ever improving e-government services such as e-health and eeducation, those without access are being excluded from such opportunities. Bridging digital divides, therefore, is important for ensuring that no one is left behind in taking advantage of socio-economic opportunities. An additional benefit of greater e-inclusion is cost savings for governments themselves as people move from offline to online channels. The UK Government Digital Efficiency Report found 10 that digital transactions were 50 times cheaper than face-to-face ones see figure 3 ( ). Such cost- savings could enable additional investment in bringing people online in the first instance or provide technology solutions in other areas of e-government. Figure 2.3. Channel vs relative cost unit Channel Relative cost unit Digital 1 Telephone 20 Post 30 Face to Face 50 UK Government Digital Efficiency Report Source: However, the adoption by governments of emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI), blockchain, cloud computing, big data and analytics, may inadvertently create new divides. This heightens the need for governments to create appropriate policies and regulations to stimulate adoption of emerging technologies among civil society and the private sector which would improve inclusion without widening existing divides. In addressing the pledge to leave no one behind, 29

60 Chapter 2 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES e-government is clearly at the centre of the 17 Goals and 169 targets of the 2030 Agenda for 11 Sustainable Development. This chapter focuses on digital divide barriers to e-service delivery at the national level, including among persons with disabilities, older persons, women, youth and other vulnerable groups, and seeks to enhance understanding of the opportunities available to bridge the gaps. The 2018 Survey questionnaire includes a set of questions assessing the digital divide in e-government development ( see Survey Methodology ). All data used in this chapter come from that questionnaire, unless otherwise stated. This chapter also provides an overview of various digital divides with the aim of identifying the obstacles to greater digital adoption. Finally, it illustrates how e-government can be used to improve digital inclusion to benefit all citizens. 2.2 E-service delivery There has been notable progress recently in e-services aimed at disadvantaged and vulnerable groups. According to the Survey, the number of country websites with information about specific programmes and initiatives to benefit women, children, youth, persons with disabilities, older persons, indigenous peoples, people living in poverty, or other vulnerable groups and communities, has been increasing steadily since 2012. According to the United Nations Member State Questionnaire, 80 countries out of 100 indicated that they provide specific measures to ensure egovernment use by the most vulnerable segments of their population in 2018, up from less than 30 per cent in 2012. To track progress, 64 of those respondents said they collect usage statistics in this area. Figure 2.4. Number of country websites with information about specific programs/ initiative to benefit vulnerable groups and communities 90 81 80 70 64 60 50 40 28 30 20 10 0 2014 2018 2012 Great emphasis is being placed on m-government services in delivering remote education, health and other social services, which impact positively on people’s everyday lives. This is particularly true for those in rural areas who have been previously at a disadvantage compared to their urban counterparts. Notably, m-government provides the same opportunity in interacting with public authorities and possibly limiting corruption in the process. 30

61 Chapter 2 CHAPTER 2 • E-GOVERNMENT FOR LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND Figure 2.5. Number of countries with specific online government services available to vulnerable groups 66 Female-headed households 144 Youth 134 Women 125 Immigrants, migrant workers, refugees, and internally... 128 Older persons 128 Persons with disabilities 120 Poor (below poverty line) 140 0 20 40 160 60 80 100 120 Box 2.1. Mexico: Automated SMS communication nudges users towards healthy habits Despite the Government’s commitment to maternal and child health, Mexico has continued to lag in maternal mortality, under-five mortality and childhood stunting. To improve its reach to its citizens to influence their health decisions, the Government created the Prospera Programme, the second largest conditional cash transfer programme in the world, which provides cash to approximately 7 million families with a per capita monthly income below the minimum welfare 12 line (USD $55 for rural areas and USD$ 85 for urban areas). The Government partnered with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Mexico to launch Prospera Digital, a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT), based on behavioural science principles that tested targeted messages using an open source communications platform. The service simulates conversation by sending automated Short Message Service messages; it analyses responses and replies accordingly. Each message addresses the specific needs of the end user and improves the Government’s ability to respond effectively. The programme is designed to help 13 women through pregnancy and during the first two years of their babies’ lives. The pilot was launched in December 2015, and it has since been used by more than 5,000 women. Evidence suggests that Prospera Digital is having the desired impacts on promoting overall maternal and childhood health. The programme is increasingly perceived as a “trusted 14 By the end of 2018, partner”, with response rates during pregnancy at above 60 per cent. the Government is planning to launch a national version of the programme that will include modules to educate and promote healthier behaviour around other health issues such as Source: https://www. diabetes, hypertension and obesity. gob.mx/prospera Emerging technologies are also enabling governments to improve e-service delivery and to adapt to shifting needs. Drones, for example, are being used to deliver services to remote areas at a lower cost and faster pace. In Africa, that potential is being applied across a wide range of areas, from 15 agriculture to health care. ). see Box 2.2. on the use of drones to improve health care in Rwanda ( Artificial intelligence (AI) is also improving the efficiency of service delivery to marginalized groups. In the Middle East, the United Arab Emirates is on a path to make the country a leader in AI. In October 2017, the country created a strategy for AI and appointed the world’s first Minister of State for AI. Civil society is also increasingly looking to emerging technologies to provide greater assistance to 16 the public. 31

62 Chapter 2 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Box 2.2. Rwanda: Drones to improve health care In 2016, the Rwandan government signed a partnership with Zipline, an American drone company, 17 to cut delivery time of medical products to remote areas. Whenever a hospital needs blood, they simply send a WhatsApp message or place an order online, after which they receive a confirmation that delivery is coming. When the drone is within a minute of its destination, an SMS message is sent informing the doctor that the drone will soon dispatch the package through a parachute. Previously, it took about four hours to deliver life-saving services such as blood to rural hospitals. But with a drone, deliveries are now being completed in less than 45 minutes, and in some cases, in as little as 15 minutes. The partnership between Rwanda’s Ministry of Health and Zipline has delivered more than 5,500 units of blood, and once the programme is established nationwide, it is expected that the costs will be comparable to current deliveries made through land vehicles but 18 with a much quicker response time. This is not the first time an East African country is spearheading emerging technology solutions aimed at greater inclusion. In 2007, Safaricom, a Kenya-based telecommunications company, launched the often-cited mobile phone-based money transfer service, M-Pesa, which has since spread around the region and the world. That success is now being replicated with drones. In early 19 It is now setting to 2018, the Tanzanian government looked to replicate the efforts in Rwanda. open four drone distribution centres with Zipline, which will provide more than 100 drones and https://www. Source: 2,000 flights a day. moh.gov.rw 2.2.1. Digital identities Today an estimated 1.1 billion people worldwide—mostly people living in poverty, migrants, refugees, 20 those in rural communities and other disadvantaged groups—have no legal identity. Sustainable Development Goal 16, specifically Target 16.9, seeks to remedy that by 2030. Providing legal identities to these vulnerable group can help by expanding financial inclusion and preventing fraud see Box 2.3. on digital financial inclusion initiatives and corruption in the delivery of social services ( 21 ). Digital identities have been offered as a means to expedite the process effectively. in Bangladesh In 2014, the Peruvian National Registry of Identification and Civil Status (Registro Nacional de Identificación y Estado Civil (Reniec)) established the national electronic identity document (DNIe). The DNIe integrates two digital certificates, one of which enables the cardholder to sign electronic documents with the same validity as hand-written signatures. The electronic ID provides access to all public digital services, for example, electronic voting or processing certified copies of official acts 22 with full legal value. The identification system has been recognized as one of the best in Latin 23 America. In India, the Aadhaar program is providing digital identity to the entire population and is serving as the basis for interacting with the Government at various levels. Aadhaar captures a biometric profile consisting of an iris scan, finger prints and a photograph. Most Indian States have now enrolled more 24 than 80 per cent of their residents. The opportunities to create digital identities are further enabled by high mobile penetration rates. Most mobile operators are now mandated to verify the identification of users when they register a mobile SIM (subscriber identification module) card and now have “know-your-customer” (KYC) obligations for mobile financial services. This provides a unique opportunity for governments to increase digital identity registrations and improve socio-economic outcomes. For instance, mobile operators are now involved in birth registration systems in the United Republic of Tanzania, Uganda, 25 Ghana Senegal and other countries. 32

63 Chapter 2 CHAPTER 2 • E-GOVERNMENT FOR LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND Box 2.3. Bangladesh: Digital financial inclusion initiatives The rural poor in Bangladesh are still facing many barriers when trying to access the formal financial system. Financial inclusion programmes focused on branch-based banking have failed because rural villagers deal mostly in cash, and the transaction expenses are prohibitively expensive. In response to the difficulty of building bank branch networks, the Central Bank 26 began promoting inclusive digital financial programs in 2015. Digital Financial Services (DFS) Lab+ is a joint initiative between the Central Bank and Access to Information (a2i), a digital inclusion programme under the Office of the Prime Minister. DFS studied the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), which enrolled over 1 billion people 27 DFS research in five years using biometric information such as fingerprints and iris scans. showed that beneficiaries in Bangladesh could save as much as 58 per cent in time, 32 per cent in cost and 80 per cent in the number of visits if government safety net payments were 28 digitized. The Digital Financial System is collaborating with the private sector and civil society in offering agent banking and mobile financial services in more than 1,900 Digital Centres across the 29 The Digital Centres are one-stop shops, mainly in rural areas, which provide access to country. Internet, e-government services and ICT training. DFS aims to increase payment digitalisation, http://a2i. Source: assisted e-commerce, account usage and financial literacy among poor farmers in rural villages, pmo.gov.bd/digital- 30 especially in the remote pockets of Bangladesh. financial-services/ At the same time, such opportunities highlight the challenges that a lack of e-inclusion can bring to those who remain offline. As more people gain digital identities and are able to take advantage of socio-economic opportunities, those who do not have one risk falling even further behind. 2.2.2. E-participation The concept of leaving no one behind extends to inclusive digital participation. The use of online tools can enhance access to information and public services, as well as promote better public policy ). E-participation can serve as a catalyst for citizen see chapter 5 for further details decision-making ( engagement and in achieving the objectives of the 2030 Agenda. The Crystal Urn initiative in Colombia (Urna de Cristal) was created by the Colombian government 31 to increase citizen participation and government transparency. The programme allows citizens to ask questions, access information, and participate in policy consultation exercises. Citizens can access the Crystal Urn website or use social media. Those without access to the Internet can also participate through radio, call-centres and SMS. For example, in December 2017, the National Planning Department conducted a consultation about food supplements in schools via SMS, sending 32 approximately 315,000 messages and receiving nearly 31,000 responses. In 2017, the programme received an honourable mention by the Ministry of Public Functions for the national senior management award (Premio Nacional de Alta Gerencia). The opportunity to gain access to more information and participate in online engagement with their government can also serve as a stimulus to bring more people online for public engagement. For example, if vulnerable populations feel that their voice is heard through e-participation, they might be more likely to go online, and more frequently. This in turn could increase utilization of other e-government services, as users, once online, may discover the benefits of other online public-sector services. Simultaneously, those who remain offline or do not have the skills to use e-participation may feel even more excluded from public discourse, yet another reason to tackle multiple digital divides. 33

64 Chapter 2 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES 2.3 Digital divides The “digital divide” was once considered to be a lack of access to the Internet and hardware, such as computers, phone, and mobile devices. But access has improved through technological progress and affordability, such as access to mobile phones. However, new digital divides have emerged, such as the speed and quality of those devices, and in digital literacy or the know-how to use them. Hence, the debate has moved from “a” digital divide to “multiple” digital divides,” which are not only a global challenge but also local contextualized problems in terms of availability of content, bandwidth, and skills, among other issues. The WSIS+10 General Assembly resolution recognized 33 this distinction. Table 2.1 shows a selection of digital divides. 34 Table 2.1. A selection of digital divides – from access to useful usage Divide Description It starts with access or the lack thereof: although Internet penetration has increased, it continues Access to be a key barrier as more people globally remain offline rather than online Affordability The gap between rich and poor affects affordability of ICTs and serves as an important difference in adoption within countries as much as between them Age Older people are generally using ICTs to a lesser extent than younger populations, despite the notion that they could benefit from online social and health services Bandwidth International bandwidth and the capacity to transmit and receive information over networks varies greatly between countries but also within them, limiting potential useful endeavours Content Relevant content in local language(s) is important to stimulate adoption Disability Those with disabilities face additional hurdles to use ICTs if websites are not compliant with web accessibility guidelines Like social divides, education and literacy rates are fundamental challenges to bridge digital Education divides There is a small but persistent difference in online usage between men and women Gender Migration Migrants may not possess the same levels of digital skills as the population in their new country and if they do, may be subject to content and language divides Location Rural and remote areas are often at a disadvantage in terms of speed and quality of services as compared to their urban counterparts Mobile devices provide opportunities to bridge the access gap but can also introduce new forms Mobile of divides in terms of technology, speed and usage The gap between basic and broadband access is creating a new divide as speed is important to Speed reap the full benefits of a digital society What people do with their access is a key difference in whether users take full advantage of ICTs, Useful usage such as e-government services Note: The above table is intended to be illustrative and not exhaustive Strategies tackling digital divides implicitly mean greater dependency on ICTs generally and with respect to e-government specifically. Such dependency may have unintended consequences and create new digital divides. A combination of gross national income (GNI) per capita as a proxy for socio- economic opportunities, and Internet usage as a reflection of the digital society, highlight the degree of digital dependency. Such a matrix of GNI and Internet usage can help countries identify emerging 34

65 Chapter 2 CHAPTER 2 • E-GOVERNMENT FOR LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND 35,36,37 digital divide challenges by looking at countries ahead of them in the digital development. For example, countries with low GNI and low Internet usage often face an infrastructure challenge whereas Member States with high numbers often struggle with bringing the last proportion of the population online to avoid leaving those people further behind. There have been numerous attempts to measure various aspects of digital divides considering the importance of e-inclusion. Research shows that lower-income families, those with less education, persons with disabilities, minorities, and rural residents generally lag behind in both broadband 38 adoption and computer usage. Recognizing the multitude of digital divides today, the need for “useful usage,” a term coined to describe the difference between access and what people do with it, surfaces as a key difference-maker in terms of whether people can take advantage of e-government 39 services, which also requires investment in developing digital skills. Collection of data and statistics related to all digital divides should therefore be enhanced, especially given technology progress. Currently, countries mainly track information on traditional yardsticks of digital divides such as access to technologies rather than delving into the underpinning factors that prevent usage of available e-government services, such as lack of local content or web accessibility conformance. Governments indeed face a tall order in bridging numerous digital divides depending on where they find themselves in their digital development: from upgrading basic infrastructure and promoting the benefits to all - including women - to addressing new challenges, such as web accessibility and digital first. 2.3.1. Infrastructure divides To reap the full benefits of e-government moving forward, high-speed broadband access and greater bandwidth are necessary components. Although both fixed- and mobile-broadband subscriptions have increased significantly around the world, the proportion of people who do not have access 40 continues to far outnumber those who do. Lack of access remains a particular problem in low- income countries where in 2016, only 12 out of every 100 people were Internet users, according 41 to the latest data available. The middle-income countries rated higher in terms of having more Internet users - about 42 people per 100 - although a majority of their populations remains offline. Mobile connectivity was once considered a unique opportunity to bridge access divides, but countries are increasingly realizing the importance of fixed-line infrastructure to enhance e-inclusion and equal opportunity for all. This is made even clearer with the introduction of 5G mobile networks which require fibre networks. Governments around the world are formulating a wide variety of plans to bridge the connectivity divide. Countries with a clear broadband strategy are also credited with a 42 higher penetration rate than those without a plan. There are, however, big differences in funding capacities and national approaches. Contrary to notions of leapfrogging into mobile-only solutions, emerging markets are also investing in fixed-line broadband networks. In India, for example, the government created the National Optical 43 Fiber Network in 2011 to connect all 250,000 villages (Gram Panchayats) with fixed-line broadband. European countries, such as France, are focusing government investment almost entirely on rural areas, in part due to European Union funding guidelines preventing support for urban areas where private sector operators are investing. In Australia, the Government is building and funding a national 44 broadband network combining fixed, mobile, and satellite connectivity. 35

66 Chapter 2 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES The quality and speed of mobile connections must also increase to reap the full benefits of connectivity. The rapid rise of mobile adoption in emerging markets is proving helpful in bridging the connectivity divide. However, network quality and speed remain a challenge if economies want to reap the benefits offered by transferring greater amounts of data over mobile networks. The population covered by a 3G network—considered the minimum speed required for “smart” data functions— 45 remains at 85 per cent globally. However, next-generation networks, such as 4G mobile-broadband subscriptions, are lagging behind. 2.3.2. A perceived lack of benefits Lack of Internet connectivity and usage can also stem from a lack of perceived value. In the United States, according to a 2013 report from National Telecommunications and Information Administration, 46 about one-half of those who do not use the Internet say they are just not interested. More recent 47 research from Brazil similarly reveals that 7 in 10 people show a lack of interest or skills to go online. Those findings highlight the need for local services to meet local needs. For example, rural Chinese farmers can purchase new agricultural products, but there may be a lack of information in the local 48 language on how to use them. Similarly, in India, a country with 26 languages, finding content in 49 the local language is a big challenge. The trend of declining proportions in English-speaking users and content is not absolute but rather reflect the rise in online usage among non-English speaking countries ( see Figure 2.6 ). Despite progress, providing local, relevant and useful content, in addition to raising awareness about it, requires significant effort. While the mechanisms for providing e-government services to vulnerable groups vary, providing e-services through partnerships tend to reach more vulnerable groups more effectively. Multi- stakeholder partnerships with the private sector and non-governmental organizations are helping governments find innovative solutions to addressing traditional problems related to poverty and social exclusion. They can expand access to e-government and help develop dedicated services targeted at vulnerable groups. Figure 2.6. English language dominance 60 56% 51.5% 50 40 30 27% 25.5% 20 10 0 % of Internet users % of Internet users % of English content % of English content in English 2014 on the Internet 2014 in English 2018 on the Internet 2018 https://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all; https://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm Source: 36

67 Chapter 2 CHAPTER 2 • E-GOVERNMENT FOR LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND Successful examples of local content are often linked to economic incentives. In the South Indian province of Kerala, fishermen are using their mobile phones to get price information on what different markets would pay for their catch. This demonstrates the clear benefits of mobile usage, as 50 the fishermen’s profits improved by 8 per cent. 2.3.3. A gender divide Cultural or social acceptance of Internet use, particularly for women, is another aspect of the connectivity divide. ITU research finds that a woman in the developing world is 21 per cent less likely 51 to own a mobile phone. In 2013, the Broadband Commission for Digital Development established 52 a target calling for gender equality in access to broadband by 2020. In 2017, about 51 per cent 53 of men globally were online compared to about 45 per cent of women. One reason may be a lack of supply-side content targeting women ( see Box 2.4. on case study on Asia-Pacific ). For example, according to Oncology Services International, about one-third of Member States, or roughly 74 countries, do not provide information about reproductive health-care services. Box 2.4. Asia-Pacific: E-government for women toolkit 54 That gender divide Research shows that globally there are fewer women than men online. raises concerns regarding e-inclusion generally and the opportunity to take advantage of e-government specifically. In response, several global organizations, such as the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), have embarked on promoting greater Internet access for 55 women, including awareness-raising events such as Girls in ICT Day. In this context, the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA), Division for Public Institutions and Digital Government (DPIDG) through its Project Office on Governance (UNPOG), and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) jointly launched the EGov4Women Toolkit (https://egov4women. unescapsdd.org/toolkit) in early 2018. The toolkit is a set of five training modules that promotes e-government that bridges gender divide and aims for social inclusion. This online platform is an innovative public resource related to the design and implementation of gender-responsive E-Government institutional ecosystems in the Asia-Pacific region. The toolkit represents the first region-wide toolbox to support the gender-mainstreaming of E-Government. Through a set of 5 comprehensive modules, it provides key pointers for policymakers on gender-responsive design https:// Source: of e-service delivery, e-participation and connectivity initiatives, and introduces a capabilities- egov4women. 56 based approach to outcome evaluation of E-Government for women’s empowerment. unescapsdd.org/toolkit Another reason cited for lower Internet use among women may be the lack of content geared towards them. According to the Online Service Index, approximately one-third of United Nations Member States do not provide information about reproductive health-care services, for example. Efforts to promote female inclusion from a demand-side perspective are under way. In South Africa, for example, Lwazi, an initiative of the Department of Telecommunications and Postal Services, helps victims of gender-based violence learn how to leverage ICTs to reduce the digital skills gap 57 for women. The programme teaches ICT skills, such as basic coding and entrepreneurship, to interested women and girls, and encourages them to use ICTs to combat the social challenges 58 facing them. In Malaysia, the “Digi Wanita Era Digital (DigiWED)” nationwide initiative – a public- private partnership between Digi Telecommunications (Digi), the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) and the National Council of Women’s Organizations (NCWO) – is seeking to educate and integrate women into the online community. DigiWED is using the 1Malaysia Internet Centers to conduct basic ICT training and to introduce women to safe usage of smart 59 devices and the Internet. 37

68 Chapter 2 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES 2.3.4. Web accessibility Persons with such disabilities as sight impairment are often excluded from access because most 60 websites are not adequately designed to handle technologies such as screen readers. People who 61 rely on screen readers to read the content of websites, also rely on websites to be properly designed . Such barriers hamper use of e-government services, among others. In Europe, for example, 49 per 62 cent of individuals used the Internet for interaction with public-sector authorities in 2017. Yet, 63 only one-third of Europe’s government websites are fully accessible to persons with disabilities. In the 2018 Survey, only 76 UN Member States were fully compliant with web accessibility standards, 64 according to an automated test, leaving much room for necessary improvement. One challenge to web accessibility has been a lack of regulation or monitoring. In Norway, a new law mandates that both public- and private-sector websites should be web accessible, but 65 implementation appears uneven. The web accessibility gap is being bridged primarily by civil society and private-sector entities looking for a competitive edge in attracting customers. For instance, the 66 World Wide Web Consortium creates standards for web accessibility. This is helpful to users with disabilities but can be difficult to monitor effectively. This is among the reasons for the European Commission’s Directive on the accessibility of public-sector websites and mobile applications that not only impose compliance with accessibility requirements but also require that they be monitored on 67 a regular basis. 2.3.5. Digital first The digital divides become more apparent as an increasing number of government services are provided online. By promoting a “digital first” approach, governments may inadvertently create new digital divides by excluding those who cannot use online services. Thus, supplementing online services with technology-enabled offline services is increasingly important as countries move towards adopting a more digital government with the aim of promoting efficiency and inclusiveness. To leverage digital use, some countries are making services “digital by default” designed primarily for use online but when some services are not available offline, the potential implications are significant. Denmark has taken a “digital first” approach where electronic interaction is now legally mandatory. Help is available offline to those who are unable to complete the transactions themselves. Similarly, the United Kingdom has developed digital assistance initiatives. To measure progress, the Government is using a performance-tracking dashboard for service managers, which enables them to track service 68 usage on both digital and non-digital channels. For instance, in processing driving license renewals, the dashboard shows the number of digital transactions taking place, with data breakdowns by 69 device, such as desktop, mobile, or table, and user satisfaction. The public sector is inadvertently creating new digital divides by advancing e-government services 70,71 at the expense of those who cannot take advantage of them. A survey by Go ON UK , a non- governmental organization (NGO), and the British Broadcasting Corporation found that one in five, or 21 per cent of the population in the United Kingdom do not have the skills or ability to communicate via email, use a search engine or conduct transactions online. There are non-technology related measures that could ensure that e-government benefits reach those who are the furthest behind. It is important that governments use various communication mediums such as call centres and community centres to serve vulnerable groups. 38

69 Chapter 2 CHAPTER 2 • E-GOVERNMENT FOR LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND 2.4 Digital literacy It is widely recognized that digital skills can help improve social inclusion. Thus, these skills should be taught to schoolchildren and enhanced among civil servants, the private and public sectors. Additionally, digital assistance initiatives should be spearheaded to support members of society who are unable to access online services themselves. Underpinning these efforts is the aspiration to meet the evolving needs of citizens and businesses. In Singapore, the Government has established programmes, such as the Silver Infocomm Initiative (SII), bridging the connectivity divide for older people by addressing their lack of education or digital 72 skills, where it exits. The European Union Commission has noted that improving digital skills among 73 public-sector servants is vital to reaping the benefits of e-government. Box 2.5. Portugal: Citizen Spots combat the digital divide In 2014, the Portuguese Agency for Administrative Modernization launched the Citizen Spot initiative, a helpdesk with specialized attendants delivering services related to both public administration and the private sector. The programme targets those who are not comfortable in an online environment. Citizen Spots provide face-to-face support by trained civil servants or private attendants who guide citizen-clients in obtaining online services. The human interaction facilitates online use, teaches digital literacy, and aims to reduce the digital divide. The Agency aimed to launch 1000 Citizen Spots by 2016, and provide coverage to all 278 municipalities in 74 mainland Portugal. 75 In 2017, there were 533 Citizen Spots, offering approximately 200 public services. They are 76 Implementation has been slower than mainly located in town halls, parishes or post offices. expected. But despite the delays in building out the network, the initiative has been successful in reducing costs due to maximizing the usage of existing resources and cost-sharing between the Source: https://www. 77 Citizen public and private entities that share the responsibilities of operating the Citizen Spots. portaldocidadao.pt/ 78 Spots have been used approximately 320,000 times since implementation. home Figure 2.7. Educational access List of all available scholarships or 140 other forms of government funding Online application for government 49 scholarships and fellowships Lists of schools with accessible 55 facilities for children with disabilities Tools for parents and teachers for children 74 with different kinds of disabilities Information regarding equal access for children 109 in vulnerable situations Information regarding equal access 128 for persons with disabilities Online training that provides 75 required skills for job market Information about programs for 144 youth to gain relevant skills 160 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0 2018 UN E-Government Survey Source: 39

70 Chapter 2 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES The need to raise skill levels across different population groups is increasingly evident around the world, in response to the so-called fourth industrial revolution. A United Nations’ study warned that about 56 per cent of those employed in Southeast Asian outsourcing hubs, such as in Viet Nam as well as Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand are at elevated risk of losing their jobs 79 to automation, especially in those textile and manufacturing industries. In response, Viet Nam, for 80 example, is seeking to revise its education and training systems to develop higher-end skills. Box 2.6. Europe: Developing digital skills The fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) is expected to have a significant impact on employment. The World Economic Forum has predicted a net loss of 5 million jobs in 15 developed 81 Countries around the world are and emerging markets by 2020 as robots replace humans. therefore looking to enhance skills among the labour force to create higher value-added jobs and counter the potential negative impact of Industry 4.0. Europe may be particularly vulnerable to potential job losses as labour costs and automation adoption are both high. It is estimated that 9 out of 10 jobs in the region will require digital skills in the future. Presently, however, less than one-half (44 per cent) of those between 16 and 74 years possess such 82 skills. The European Commission has established several initiatives to address the challenges of Industry 4.0 and to promote better education. The Digital Skills and Jobs Coalition, for example, brings together Member States, businesses, non-profit organizations, and educational institutions to improve digital skills for all citizens, enhance digital skills in the labour force, develop digital skills Source: http:// 83 for ICT professionals, and transform education to prepare for the future. ec.europa.eu/ 2.5 Emerging divides: migrants, restrictions on access, and net neutrality Technological advancements create new capabilities for communication and are used as tools to 84 gain and share information and to learn the skills needed to participate in a globalized economy. Emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence, cloud computing, big data & analytics, and machine-learning all have the potential to improve the level of social inclusion in a society, including e-health and e-education, among others. 2.5.1. Migrants Migration has moved up the global policy agenda in recent years. In 2015, for example, an estimated 85 160,000 people arrived in Sweden (a country with a population of about 10 million). From an e-government perspective, the growth in migration necessitates a shift in providing services to a more diverse group of people ( see Box 2.7. case study on Finland ). The Swedish Migration Agency 86 website is offered in several languages to provide information to migrants. Such tailored services, however, do not extend to most government websites. This illustrates that there are institutional gaps in bridging the range of digital divides, especially with emerging divides. Typically, one ministry only serves a segment of the population, such as migrants. Yet tackling digital divides requires a strategic holistic view, and integrated policy actions across government agencies and at local levels. 40

71 Chapter 2 CHAPTER 2 • E-GOVERNMENT FOR LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND Box 2.7. Finland: blockchain for identity management and financial inclusion Between January 2014 and June 2017, the Finnish immigration authority received more than 41,000 applications for asylum and those who were accepted faced long waiting times to process residence permits and local identity papers. During the waiting period, refugees could not access 87 the banking system and monthly Government-to-Citizen payments had to be made in cash. In 2015, the government partnered with MONI, a Finnish start-up, to launch a pilot digital financial services programme enabling refugees to receive money and pay bills without opening a bank account. MONI developed a prepaid debit card (Mastercard) linked to a unique digital identity stored on a blockchain which does not require a bank account or identity papers. The service simplifies social welfare payments between the government and refugees and creates a digital trail that allows for credit scoring and increased access to other financial products such as 88 Account holders can apply for a loan through their mobile phone, either from friends credit. or financial companies. The digital trail allows users to lend money to each other, setting a maximum amount. Loans between users have no fees and no interest, and the service is free to 89 use. As of September 2017, the programme had about 4,000 active accounts and activity has expanded as refugee users find jobs, pay bills and transfer money to relatives. In the fourth quarter of 2017, the programme was launched across the European Economic Area (EEA) allowing adults over 18 http://migri. Source: 90 to sign up online using a phone number and a residential address. fi/vastaanottoraha 2.5.2. Country restrictions on information access The use of global cloud services is creating a new digital divide among local authorities; they are facing challenges in accessing and controlling data within their jurisdictions. Sovereign clouds, or data localization regulations, where information is required to be stored in a certain geographic area are becoming a global trend. This could make information inaccessible to those who are outside the jurisdictions, which could limit access to government information and services for overseas migrants. While acknowledging the importance of cybersecurity, countries need to recognize the consequences of disguising it as national security, which can limit widespread uptake of ICTs by undermining trust and leading to geographic information divides. Given the challenges ahead, there remains a need for the global community to work together in setting international objectives that affect digital divides while acknowledging the need for local contexts and regulations. 2.5.3. Net neutrality The debate surrounding net neutrality -- whether Internet service providers can discriminate against distinct types of usage or should treat all data as the same – has been ongoing for some time. However, the decision of the United States’ administration in December 2017 to reverse previous American policies, and, in effect, repeal net neutrality, brought the issue to the forefront of the 91 technology policy debate. The effect of that decision remains to be seen. From an e-government perspective, service providers could, in theory, charge money for access to public- sector websites or slow down the speed with which they could be accessed. Although that is an unlikely scenario, the debate has raised issues of openness and access, such as whether private-sector websites could be 92 restricted in a way that limited access to information from a variety of sources, such as from news. Hence, the larger concern is whether potential new barriers to access content will have an impact on access to information more generally, especially as different countries have different approaches and there are no existing global agreements on this topic. 41

72 Chapter 2 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES 2.6 Conclusion Research on e-inclusion has moved beyond identifying whether access is available—the prime focus of early reports on the digital divide—to assessing what people do with their access. A World Bank report in 2016 on “digital dividends”, another term for “useful usage” or potential digital productivity, indicates that while global connectivity and service delivery has improved, it has not necessarily improved socio-economic outcomes due to uneven distribution, which highlights the need to bridge 93 digital divides. Since improved socio-economic status for all people is the fundamental point of e-inclusion, this is a concerning gap which will need greater attention moving forward. To reap the enormous dividends of the information society for sustainable development, countries around the world must tackle current and emerging digital divides. While there is a role for different stakeholders, governments must take the lead in setting standards, deploying strategic instruments, and providing e-government services. Multi-stakeholder partnerships should be forged with civil society and the private sector to stimulate demand for e-government in support of the implementation of the 2030 Agenda. Recommendations include: • Greater recognition that digital divides exist in all countries and that digital progress can create new divides. In many ways, segments of the population that remain offline in leading e-government countries are at greater risk of being socially excluded if they cannot use “digital first” policy-enforced e-government services. Special attention needs to be paid to vulnerable groups as there is a strong correlation between • digital exclusion and social exclusion. Persons with disabilities, for example, are often as vulnerable online (due to lack of web accessibility) as they are to offline services. • There remains a need to bring people online in the first instance. In some cases, this remains a problem due to lack of access to ICT infrastructure. Governments must raise awareness of the value of online services to motivate usage. In this effort, relevant and sufficient content should be provided in local language and at local levels. • The role of government is critical to ensuring that no one is left behind in implementing the 2030 Agenda. E-participation can serve as a catalyst towards greater e-inclusion. • Greater attention should also be paid to digital literacy, among the population at large, but also among civil servants. Implementation and delivery of e-services rely on the ability of users to use them. Given the potential socio-economic benefits for citizens and governments alike, greater emphasis should be placed on skills development. • Raising awareness on information and services and promoting their use require partnerships with other actors, such as civil society and the private sector. The government is a supplier of services, but the demand for them should be promoted across sectors to overcome multiple challenges of different population segments. 42

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74 Chapter 2 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES 28 IBID 29 A2i Prime Minister’s Office: Bangladesh (2018). Digital Financial Services. [online] Available at: http://a2i.pmo.gov.bd/digi tal- financial-services/ [Accessed 26 Jun. 2018]. 30 IBID 31 Urna de Cristal. Urna de Cristal [online] Available at: http://www.urnadecristal.gov.co [Accessed 26 Jun. 2018]. o/ 32 Urna de Cristal, (2018). Programa de Alimentación Escolar en Colombia. [online] Available at: http://www.urnadecristal.gov.c ejercicio-participacion-PAE [Accessed 26 Jun. 2018]. 33 United Nations, (2015). Information and communications technologies for development. [online] Available at: http://workspace . unpan.org/sites/Internet/Documents/UNPAN95735.pdf [Accessed 26 Jun. 2018]. C Press. 34 Andreasson, K. J., (editor.) (2015). Digital divides: the new challenges and opportunities of e-inclusion. 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75 Chapter 2 CHAPTER 2 • E-GOVERNMENT FOR LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND 58 Mkhize, H. (2017). Launch of the Northern Cape Lwazi ICT Digital Training for Socio-Economic Development. [online] Available at: https://www.dtps.gov.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=702:launch-of-the-northern-cape-lwazi-ict-digital- training-for-socio-economic-development&catid=10&Itemid=137 [Accessed 26 Jun. 2018]. https:// 59 Telenor Group, (2016). ‘Wanita Era Digital’ empowers Malaysian women with internet & digital skills. [online] Available at: www.telenor.com/wanita-era-digital-empowers-malaysian-women-with-internet-digital-skills/ [Accessed 26 Jun. 2018]. 60 Goodwin, M., Susar, D., Nietzio, A., Snaprud, M., and Jensen, C. (2011). Global Web Accessibility Analysis of National Gover nment Portals and Ministry Web Sites. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, [online] 8(1), p. 41-67. 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76 Chapter 2 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES 86 Migrationsverket. [online] Available at: https://www.migrationsverket.se/Other-languages/yh-dry.html. 87 Gray, A. (2017). Finland has created a digital money system for refugees. [online] Available at: https://medium.com/world- economic-forum/finland-has-created-a-digital-money-system-for-refugees-ba1fe774ee1c [Accessed 26 Jun. 2018]. 88 Heath, R. (2016). Private sector tries to fill EU void on refugees. [online] Politico. Available at: https://www.politico.eu/ article/ private-sector-fill-eu-void-refugees-ngos-activists-migration-crisis-solutions/ [Accessed 26 Jun. 2018]. 89 Gray, A. (2017). Finland has created a digital money system for refugees. [online] Available at: https://medium.com/world- economic-forum/finland-has-created-a-digital-money-system-for-refugees-ba1fe774ee1c [Accessed 26 Jun. 2018]. 90 MONI, (2017). Start using MONI. [online] Available at: https://moni.com/start-using-moni/ [Accessed 26 Jun. 2018]. 91 Kang, C. (2017). F.C.C. Repeals Net Neutrality Rules. [online] New York Times. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/12 /14/ technology/net-neutrality-repeal-vote.html?mtrref=en.wikipedia.org&gwh=6880C95FC8A9729FC7D33008A14EC860&gwt=pay [Accessed 26 Jun. 2018]. 92 Pitre, S. (2018). Is Net Neutrality Preserving the Openness of Government in the North American Context. [online] Open Gover nment Partnership. Available at: https://www.opengovpartnership.org/stories/net-neutrality-preserving-openness-of-government-north- american-context [Accessed 26 Jun. 2018]. 93 World Bank, (2016). World Development Report 2016: Digital Dividends. [online] Available at: http://www.worldbank.org/en/ publication/wdr2016 [Accessed 26 Jun. 2018]. 46

77 Chapter 3 CHAPTER 3 • E-RESILIENCE THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES E-resilience through e-government: global and regional perspectives 3.1 Introduction: Impact of Natural Disasters and Role of Policy and ICT in Disaster Risk Photo credit: pixabay.com Management Natural disasters constrain government efforts in achieving the 2030 In this chapter: Agenda for Sustainable Development. The results of natural disasters are 3.1 Introduction: Impact of Natural cataclysmic—from human loss and suffering to devastating economic Disasters and Role of Policy and repercussions, all of which erodes development gains. Not only are natural 47 ICT in Disaster Risk Management disasters hurting past and present development initiatives, but they are 3.2 E-resilience and its linkages to also forestalling new opportunities for growth and prosperity, causing ICT and E-government 53 harm to future generations. 3.3 Emerging uses of artificial 1 intelligence, social media, space Since 1970, the number of disasters worldwide has more than quadrupled technology applications and to approximately 400 a year. Although 2006 to 2016 saw a gradual decline geospatial information for in terms of numbers, their impact, in terms of casualties and monetary e-resilience 56 damage, has continued to soar. The total number of people affected by 3.4 Mainstreaming e-resilience within disasters in 2016 was 569.4 million, the highest since 2006 and far above e-government framework 60 the 2006-2015 annual average of 224.1 million. Losses from natural 3.5 Conclusions and Policy disasters have increased eight-fold in economic terms during the last Recommendations 61 four decades. Topping US $154 billion, it was up by 12 per cent in 2016 compared to the 2006-2015 annual averages. The cost of natural disasters References 64 doubled in 2017 to $306 billion compared to the previous year’s tally. 2,3 Disasters claimed more than 11,000 victims in 2017. Asia and the Pacific experienced the highest number of natural disasters between 2000 and 2017 (Figure 3.1). The region suffered the most human casualties during the same period, owing to those events (Figure 3.2). More than half of the top 20 countries with the highest number of deaths from natural disasters worldwide from 2000-2017 comes from the region. China and the United States registered the highest number of casualties, generated in large part by storms and floods. Earthquakes were the deadliest natural disaster in Asia (Figure 3.3). 47 Chapter 3

78 Chapter 3 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Figure 3.1. Number of reported natural disaster occurrences by region, between 2000 4 and 2017, per million of inhabitants. Asia A mericas Oceania Europe Africa 0 100 200 300 Drought Extreme temperature Storm Earthquake Flood Landslide Volcanic activity Number of reported natural disasters (weighted average) Author’s calculation based on data compiled from Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) and Source: Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT) Figure 3.2. Total number of deaths from natural disasters (2000 - 2017), by major regions Asia Europe Americas Africa Oceania 80,000 40,000 0 60,000 20,000 Drought Extreme temperature Storm Earthquake Flood Landslide Volcanic activity Number of deaths from natural disasters (weighted average) Idem Source: 48

79 Chapter 3 CHAPTER 3 • E-RESILIENCE THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES Figure 3.3. Number of reported natural disasters (2000-2017), Top 20 economies China United States India Philippines Indonesia Japan Vietnam Mexico Bangladesh Afghanistan Pakistan Brazil Russian Federation Iran (I.R.) Australia Haiti France Romania Madagascar Canada 500 100 0 400 300 200 Drought Extreme temperature Storm Earthquake Flood Landslide Volcanic activity Idem Source: Number of reported natural disasters (weighted average) 5 From an economic perspective, Asia and the Pacific once more emerges as one of the most affected regions, second to the Americas where the year 2017 was the costliest for weather disasters in the 6 United States (Figure 3.4). An ESCAP report notes that natural disasters in 2016 alone caused 4,987 deaths, affecting 35 million people with an estimated damage of USD 77 billion in Asia and the 7 Pacific . Figure 3.4. Total damages from natural disasters (USD billion) (2000 - 2017) by major 8 regions Americas Asia Oceania Europe Africa 250 50 200 150 100 0 Drought Extreme temperature Storm Earthquake Flood Landslide Volcanic activity Idem Source: 49

80 Chapter 3 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Higher-income countries generally have better coping capacities against natural hazards, which often translate into fewer human casualties. Typically, the greatest exposure and impact is born by the poorest countries, which have scant capacity to prepare for and respond to the manifold disasters, to which they are prone. These countries include the least developed countries, the landlocked developing countries, and small island developing States. This is well illustrated in the case of the Asia and the Pacific region (Table 3.1.). Top 10 Member States with the highest commitment to cybersecurity Table 3.1. Coping Capacities GDP Per Capita Exposure (%) Country (Current USD) 63.66 Very High Low 2,861 Vanuatu Tonga Very High Low 3,749 55.27 Philippines Very High Low 2,951 52.46 45.91 Very High Japan 38,901 Very High Brimeo Darussalam 41.1 Very High High 26,939 Bangladesh 31.7 Very High Very Low 1,359 Solomon Islands 29.98 Very Low 2,005 Very High 27.71 Very High Fiji 5,233 Low Cambodia 27.65 Very High Very Low 1,270 Timor-Leste 25.73 Very High Low 1,405 Source: ESCAP (2017) Asia-Pacific Disaster Report 2017. GDP Per Capita is obtained from the World Development Indicators. Accessed in March 2018. Pacific countries, especially the small island developing States (SIDS), are particularly susceptible to 9 natural disasters. Between 2000 and 2016, the Pacific sub-region experienced 225 natural disasters, causing 1,752 fatalities, affecting 4.7 million people, and generating nearly USD 50 billion worth of damages. Since 2000, SIDS have lost over 1 per cent of their respective gross domestic product, or GDP, to disasters, compared with 0.4 per cent for all countries except the countries in special 10 situations. Estimates of the savings that those countries must set aside annually to cover the cost 11 of long-term losses incurred from any unexpected hazard , known as the average annual loss (AAL), are telling (Figure 3.5.). 50

81 Chapter 3 CHAPTER 3 • E-RESILIENCE THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES 12 AAL figures for Pacific Island countries by hazard type Figure 3.5. Marshall Islands Micronesia, FS Palau American Samoa Tonga Solomon Islands Vanuatu Fiji Papua New Guinea 200 0 150 100 50 US$ millions Earthquake Wind Storm surge Tsunami Floods Volcano Source: idem One recent case in Fiji illustrates the intensity and extent of damages (Box 3.1.). Box 3.1. Disaster Response and Recovery: Impact of Cyclone Winston on Fiji in 2016 On 20 February 2016, tropical cyclone Winston (category 5) struck Fiji affecting 540,400 people, or 62 per cent of the population. The estimated cost of the damages was USD $0.6 billion-$0.9 billion, or approximately onefifth of the country’s GDP. The immediate damage in communication and electricity infrastructure triggered the loss of cellular, fixed-line, radio and television services. The cyclone disabled power and communication networks; 80 per cent of the population lost electricity. The total damage to the communication 13 was estimated to be near USD 24 million. The cyclone damaged cellular transmission sector towers and equipment. While mobile network services were partially restored in the aftermath of the disaster, up to 50 per cent of all sites operated on generators for a period due to the disruption of electricity networks. In places where fixed-line services were affected, the service provider, Fiji Telecom Limited, offered free wireless devices. The lessons learned were many. The Government expressed its willingness to assist the private sector in building more disaster-resilient infrastructure through public-private partnerships and infrastructure-sharing arrangements. In addition, other mechanisms such as early warning systems were found to be critical for preparedness. As a result of post-disaster needs assessment, Fiji cooperated with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) to boost its resilience to weather events, through the creation of early warning systems; feasibility studies on future investments related to disaster risk management, particularly in rural and remote areas were Government of Source: 14 prepared. Fiji, 2016 51

82 Chapter 3 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES In addition to post-disaster studies and technical solutions, policy plays a pivotal role in disaster risk management. The United Nations, in 2005, organized the first global meeting on natural disasters, in Kobe, Japan, which culminated in the adoption of the Hyogo Framework of Action 2005-2015. The Framework aimed at guiding disaster preparation and management. Building on the accord, the United Nations World Summit on Disaster Risk Reduction was organized in 2015 in Sendai, Japan, following the devastating tsunami in Japan. The outcome document, The Sendai Framework 15 for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 , shifted Hyogo’s focus from responding to disasters to anticipating them so as to reduce and manage their disaster risk. The Sendai Framework proposed seven global targets and priority actions including: understanding disaster risk; strengthening disaster risk governance; investing in disaster risk reduction; enhancing disaster risk management; improving preparedness to respond to disasters and to duly implementing the Framework’s “Build Back Better” 16 priority. Like public policy, information and communications technologies are an essential element in disaster risk management. During disasters, ICTs, including geospatial technology and space applications, can be instrumental in providing swift response and ensuring emergency communication services. ICTs can support the operation of critical infrastructure in the energy and health sectors, as well as in natural resource management and transport, and can assist in weather forecasting, all of which have a role in the timely and effective dispatch of humanitarian aid in the aftermath of a disaster. They are vital to identifying, managing and mitigating risk before a disaster strikes, and can ensure continuous 17 and critical communication and service delivery across all phases of disaster management. Two examples come from Madagascar and Uganda (Box 3.2.). Box 3.2. Disaster Communications Management, Prevention and Response in Madagascar and Uganda In the National Bureau for Risk and Disaster Management was set up within the Madagascar, Ministry of the Interior and Decentralisation. It is responsible for coordinating programmes and activities related to emergency response and relief, preparation and prevention, and disaster mitigation, and data collection. The data is used to evaluate the availability of food, sanitation Source: http://www. facilities, equipment, shelter and medical needs and assistance. Various groups and stakeholders, mid.gov.mg/ such health and medical professionals, have access to available ICT channels to relay data to the disaster risk management system including through 1) telephone (free emergency number available to all operators); 2) Short Message Service (periodic messages regarding the current situation), and 3) data transmission (images from satellites or agents on the ground). Communications Commission in collaboration with the Office of the Prime Minister, Uganda The the Ministry of Water and Environment, and the District Local Government of Butaleja, jointly implemented a pilot project on setting up two flood early warning systems along the R. Manafwa basin in Butaleja district in Eastern Uganda. One of the systems installed in the Namulo Primary School in the Manafwa District was activated in September 2014 to warn the community about Source: Government possible flooding, allowing many to run to higher ground for safety. The installation of the early of Uganda, 2014 warning systems has brought hope of saving lives and property to the people of Butaleja. ICTs themselves are critical infrastructure to be protected from disasters, as discussed more extensively in Chapter 4. The following section concentrates on the role of ICTs and e-government in different disaster risk management stages and introduces the concept and practice of e-resilience. 52

83 Chapter 3 CHAPTER 3 • E-RESILIENCE THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES 18 3.2 E-resilience and its linkages to ICT and E-government Resilience is “ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including 19 through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions”. E-resilience 20 is ICT contributions to resilience, particularly at the community level. In other words, e-resilience is the use of ICTs during all phases of disaster risk management —prevention, reduction, preparedness, response and recovery — towards reducing risk and impact and maintaining the gains made towards sustainable development, including through e-government. E-resilience entails two main dimensions (Table 3.2.): ICTs for disaster risk prevention, risk reduction and preparedness, as well as for disaster response and recovery, including the rapid restoration of 21 ICT infrastructure and services. E-resilience and Role of ICT in Disaster Risk Management Table 3.2. DRM Phases ICT Roles Recovery Prevention Reduction Preparedness Response Key Tasks Improving risk Reducing the chance of Planning and getting Saving lives, preventing Being able to restore information disasters and mitigating adequately and further damage and losses functions, recover as basis for the level of disruptions, appropriately ready to and meeting immediate needs assets and operations, investments and damage & losses respond to any disaster during disasters and build back better business strategies eventuality, in a timely / operations manner ICT for • Not to create/ • Address the underlying • Plan System/network • Gather data and • Conduct rapid its own increase risks factors of risks continuity information on any damage assessment of resilience • Not to • Reduce vulnerability • Implement system and disruptions to the ICT damage and losses (ICT Sector) exacerbate • Increase capacity/ redundancy/backup infrastructure, facilities and • Assess needs for existing risks protection • Ensure response services recovery • Avoid and • Undertake retrofitting readiness • Restore and repair • Factor in additional transfer risks • Reduce exposure • Conduct training and services, data, facilities and investment to • Invest in early warning drills equipment reduce future risks • Set up emergency • Activa te emergency response and communication systems, communication such as satellite systems and mechanisms mobile communication units • Gather data and • Plan and put in • Enhance rapid ICT for • Make ICTs • Set up risk databases information on casualties, place emergency assessments and society’s available to • Introduce Geo- decision making tools losses and damage for detailed Post resilience improve risk Referenced Information coordinated responses Disaster Needs (assessment, mapping, (non-ICT assessments Systems (GIS) for • Request for satellite imagery databases, planning) Assessment (PDNA) Sectors) • ICT as crucial decision making, of affected areas • Use ICT systems with ICT instruments for planning and mitigation • Activate data backup in • Set up and enhance and applications to analysis • Expand ICT as a tool emergency/humanitarian case socioeconomic data is facilitate disaster • ICT to enhance for disaster knowledge, response efforts lost. communication, development/ innovation, education application and • Inform more robust • Inform citizens of available business • Enhance coordination emergency services and coordination future investment investment via ICT information via SMS, • Position ICT as one of within the recovery planning • Enhance risk website, radio or PA comon services to all framework observation, assessment sectors and early warning by ICT ESCAP--E/ESCAP/CICTSTI(1)/5 Source: The Asia Pacific Disaster Report 2015 identified five essential steps and guiding principles to enhance e-resilience including through e-government initiatives, as follows: understanding risk; installing data- and information-sharing policies; generating actionable information; customizing that information and reaching out to people at risk; and using real-time information (Figure 3.6.). These steps are applicable to all stages of the disaster risk management cycle (Figure 3.7.). 53

84 Chapter 3 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Figure 3.6. E-resilience guiding principles Right people –making effective decisions Using ealtime information Generating actionable information Customizing information & reaching out Having data & to people at risk. information sharing Understanding policies Risk Post-disaster Pre-disaster Right people –making effective decisions Real time (optional time) ESCAP--E/ESCAP/CICTSTI(1)/5 Source: Figure 3.7. Disaster Management Cycle Recovery Response (Build, Back, Better) Risks (Hazards,vulnerability, Ex-Post Capacity Gaps, Exposure) Ex-Ante Early Warning Risk Prevention Preparedness Risk Reduction (Mitigation) Source: ESCAP--E/ESCAP/CICTSTI(1)/5 Given the increasing recognition of the key role ICTs across the different phases of disaster risk reduction and management, Member States have been requesting more support in building and strengthening their eresilience, including in designing and implementing ICT applications and services and embedding them in egovernment initiatives as part of their overall disaster risk management systems and strategies. Addressed holistically, e-resilience has the potential to reduce disaster risks and improve disaster management, and it can be instrumental in reducing economic loss and preventing human casualties. Some e-resilience illustrations come from Bhutan and Japan (Box 3.3). 54

85 Chapter 3 CHAPTER 3 • E-RESILIENCE THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES Box 3.3. Disaster Risk Prevention, Reduction and Response: DHMS Weather Monitoring and Early Warning in Bhutan and E-resilience in Japan the Department of Hydro Med Services (DHMS) website provides hazard related In Bhutan, 22 . Each hazard information on meteorology, hydrology, snow and glacier early warnings monitoring system is linked to sensors, which send real time data generating actionable information, which then activates sirens to warn people in high-risk areas. This online weather information service of DHMS is an integral part of disaster risk reduction, preparedness and Source: http://www. hydromet.gov.bt response contributing to the e-resilience of the country. Japan, the tsunami that followed the Great East Japan Earthquake, or Tohoku Earthquake in In 2011 (magnitude 9.0) led to damages, among others, to ICT infrastructure such as underground (1700 Km) and overhead cables (6300 Km), causing communications breakdowns in the affected areas. This prompted Japan to start a national project to strengthen ICT infrastructure, develop applications and network control technologies, ranging from WiFi to satellite communications. Some of the measures taken were (a) relocation of communication offices/facilities to higher grounds, (b) deployment of dynamo-electric generators, (c) installation of new long-life battery system in active seismic zones, and (d) installation of underground fiber optic cable to strengthen ICT network resilience. A robust wireless mesh network using wireless and satellite technologies Source: http://www. 23 was also developed. unescap.org The data collected for the 2018 United Nations E-government Survey sheds light on the available functions and readiness of e-government in addressing challenges and creating opportunities associated with managing disaster risks and enhancing e-resilience. A preliminary regression analysis, which studied the relationship between broadband connectivity and disaster impact, shows that as broadband connectivity was increased disaster impact was reduced. Likewise, countries that provided relevant weather- and disaster-related information on their e-government websites had 24 lower casualties as result of natural disasters. Figures 3.8. and 3.9. below show the weather and agriculture updates, and energy-related e-government services. Figure 3.8. Percentage of countries with e-government sites that share updates and information on electricity or power outage. Africa Asia-Pacific Latin America & Caribbean Europe Middle East & North Africa North America 20 40 60 100 80 0 Percentage of respondents Responded - Yes Responded - No Sample size: North America ((n=2)), Latin America & Caribbean (n= 33), Europe (n=42), Asia-Pacific (n=48), Middle East & Africa (n=20) & Africa (n=47) UN DESA E-Govt 2018 Source: 55

86 Chapter 3 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Integrating e-resilience into e-government initiatives is thus paramount. The first step is to assess the specific disaster risks and their potential impact. Different disaster management tools and initiatives are needed for e-resilience of cyclone/typhoon-prone countries versus countries in a seismic zone. Similarly, preparedness efforts, in terms of data, application, back-up and communication methods, would take different forms. But integrating these tools and initiatives could save lives and minimise economic loss, as well as contain damage, with significant impact on sustainable development. 3.3 Emerging uses of artificial intelligence, social media, space technology applications and geospatial information for e-resilience Many innovative disaster and crisis management tools are designed to consolidate structured and unstructured data for quick and effective decision-making. Some of these tools include Artificial 25 Intelligence, social media, space technology applications and geospatial data. These technologies along with enhanced data availability, analytics and functionalities hold much promise for advancing e-resilience initiatives towards the achievement of sustainable development. Artificial Intelligence refers to “a set of computer science techniques that enable systems to perform tasks normally requiring human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision- 26 making and language translation” . It includes, inter alia, the Internet of Things (IoT), fixed and 27, 28 mobile broadband, cloud computing, and big data. IoT collects and exchanges biometric data, behavioural information and unstructured information using network-connected sensors and devices. Big data are large data sets of voice, administrative records, electronic transactions, online activities and data transmissions collected mostly through mobile and broadband cloud computing 29 technologies. AI technology does not necessarily involve pre-defined behavioural algorithms since 30 it can build on past iterations, characterized as machine learning or deep learning. Many examples illustrate the innovative applications of Artificial Intelligence on e-resilience. For instance, kinetic sensors are installed at the bottom of the Indian Ocean and are detecting waves and water flows, and transmitting data via sonic buoys and satellite links to emergency agencies. Drones are being used in effectively assessing damage after disasters, such as the series of earthquakes in Nepal in 2015. In the south of Thailand, a network of cameras is providing real-time monitoring of water flows and using closed-circuit television to aid with warnings of potential flooding. AI-based methods, including the IoT technologies, are being applied successfully on a range of hydrological 31 problems in Australia. Two examples come from Chile and Sri Lanka (Box 3.4.). 56

87 Chapter 3 CHAPTER 3 • E-RESILIENCE THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES Box 3.4. Disaster Preparedness: Sensor Detection for Early Warning: The Cases of Chile and Sri Lanka Chile is one of the most disaster-prone countries as it lies on the “ring of fire” plate. The 8.8 magnitude earthquake that occurred there in 2010 was the sixth strongest in the world since 32 In its aftermath, the government of Chile took progressive steps toward establishing a 1900. 33 . A network of pressure sensors was installed near the main tsunami early warning alert system http://www. Source: fault lines in the Peru-Chile Trench. The sensors detect the number of seismic occurrences and shoa.cl/php/inicio.php the software estimates the magnitude and epicenter. The algorithm analyzes and interprets the data before transmitting it to the warning centers. The early warning messages are broadcasted through mobile phone network. Sri Lanka’s Disaster Management Initiative, Sahana, was created in the aftermath of the 26 December 2004 tsunami that hit several countries in Asia bordering the Indian Ocean. The Sri Lankan ICTs industry created Sahana to help track families and coordinate work among relief organizations. Sahana is a free open-source software, consisting of a series of integrated web- based disaster management applications. It automatically collates, aggregates, and calculates 34 Sahana fills a unique niche in data, and provides situation and needs assessment in real-time. the toolkit of emergency and disaster response agencies by facilitating information sharing and UNDP-APDIP, Source: coordination of efforts across all types of organizations and individuals. 2006 While most practical applications of big data in disaster scenarios are still experimental, useful cases have emerged, such as in connection with the Haitian earthquake of 2010. A recent survey conducted by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications of Japan has concluded that 35 big data is expected to make significant contributions to disaster risk reduction in the country. Mobile network big data has an immense potential in that regard. Mobility data collected in the aftermath of a disaster can help relief operations by locating affected populations and potential 36 disease outbreaks. Social media and its various uses are also critical for e-resilience. Some examples come from Qatar, Austria and Germany (Box 3.5.). Box 3.5. Disaster Preparedness and Response: Artificial Intelligence using Social Media 37 is a free and open source software Qatar’s Artificial Intelligence for Disaster Response (AIDR) that automatically collects and classifies social media feeds including tweets that are posted during humanitarian crises. AIDR maximises the use of machine intelligence and assists in making sense of significant amounts of data, video, images and texts on social media whenever http://aidr. Source: disaster strikes. Once the collection starts and tweets begin to gather, different keywords and qcri.org/ hashtags are created, such as #Medical Needs or #Shelter. The AIDR team works closely with United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA), International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and other organizations in carrying out the deployment of AIDR. In and Germany, researchers conducted studies on multi-stakeholder disaster response Austria coordination and developed a public display application called City-Share. It aims to crowdsource relief activities to unaffiliated volunteers and emergent citizen groups within neighborhoods. As such, it supports self-help and civil society initiatives, and contributes to the alignment of activities between public authorities and other actors including aid organizations. It also assists public authorities in gathering information on loosely structured data, emergent citizen groups Source: Zettl and others, 2017 and their related activities. 57

88 Chapter 3 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Space technology applications and geographic information systems also play important roles in disaster risk management. By comparing satellite images before and after disasters, disaster management authorities can estimate the type and magnitude of the potential or actual damage. Such disaster data overlaid with other socioeconomic data such as on transport, infrastructure, medical facilities and population statistics, can be decisive in making timely and accurate decisions. Space technology applications and geographic information systems also contribute to assessing vulnerabilities, reducing risk and preventing and preparing for disasters. One example is ESCAP’s Regional Space Applications Programme for Sustainable Development in Asia-Pacific, which aims to enable countries with advanced space technologies to assist low-capacity and high-risk countries. The mechanism provides tools, services, capacity building and information to help drought-prone countries design drought management programmes that are tailored to their specific needs. One specific application of this mechanism comes from Mongolia (Box 3.6.). Box 3.6. Disaster Risk Prevention, Reduction and Preparedness: Socio-economic Information to Supplement Drought Data Eighty per cent of the land in Mongolia is capable of agricultural production, primarily extensive livestock production, while arable land occupies only 0.09 per cent of the total land area. Figure a. shows an example of a drought early warning product developed in June 2015 in a collaboration among Mongolian institutes, based on the ESCAP Regional Drought Mechanism. When compared with a land cover map of Mongolia (Figure b), it shows that drought was forecast primarily for pasture lands. Figure a. Drought early Figure b. Land cover map warning for June 2015 of Mongolia Figure c provides an overview of poverty by province and district and Figure d provides an overview of livestock, identifying those farmers at high risk of having their livestock affected by localized drought. This early warning product helps in the identification of localized pockets of intervention, relief and mitigation assessments and priorities, as well as the calculation of mitigation cost for livestock feed and other productive assets. Figure d. Livestock density, Figure c. Poverty headcount 2 heads per Km based on census data Figure e shows the state of desertification and land degradation in Mongolia while Figure f shows the vegetation index, both of which provide an overview of the average stress on vegetation including soil stress and other environmental degradation. This informs relief and intervention activities including the assessment for parametric insurance products and initiatives. Disclaimer: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Figure e. Desertification and Figure f. MODIS NDVI, Nations. land degradation in 2014 vegetation index 58

89 Chapter 3 CHAPTER 3 • E-RESILIENCE THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES Similar initiatives are also being implemented in other drought-prone regions such as in Africa where livelihoods are closely intertwined with climate variability. Princeton University in collaboration with the International Hydrological Programme and the Information for Arid Zones of the United Nations 38 Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has developed the African Flood and 39 Drought monitor, which monitors and forecasts meteorological, agricultural and hydrological drought at various temporal and spatial scales. It enables users to access the system’s input and output data. It also contains a multi-decadal, historical reconstruction of the terrestrial water cycle. In the last two years, the data has been used in a wide range of e-resilience building initiatives including drought resilience, irrigation, health and epidemiology, and migratory movements. Box 3.7. Using Spatial Technologies and Science-Based Modelling in Disaster Risk Management: Perspectives from Africa and the Caribbean T he African Risk Capacity (ARC) was established in 2012 as a specialized agency of the African Union to help Member States improve their capacities to prepare for, plan and respond to extreme weather events and natural disasters, thereby protecting the food security, safety, health and well-being of their vulnerable populations. http://www. Source: Extreme Climate Facility (XCF) provides eligible ARC countries with additional funds should africanriskcapacity.org/ extreme weather events in their region increase in magnitude and/or frequency, as reflected by an objective data-driven index. and contingency plans support ARC countries based on Outbreak and Epidemic Response (O&E) quantitative models of epidemic risk. Pay-outs are triggered as result of accurate detection of distinct epidemiologic events in a country. The first pilot country implementation is taking place in 2018. is a science-based risk modelling and government-led risk management system Replica Coverage to assess drought probability. If rainfall levels fall below a pre-defined threshold, preventive disbursement of funds from the ARC Members, international community and donors is triggered. As of 2018, ARC Member States include: Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Comoros, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, in addition to the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. The Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility SCP was developed in 2004 to help mitigate the short-term cash flow problems from which small developing economies suffer after major natural disasters. It is the first multi-country risk pool in the world, and a regional catastrophe fund for Caribbean governments (and Nicaragua), designed to limit the financial impact of devastating hurricanes and earthquakes by quickly providing financial liquidity. Member States as of 2018 include: Anguilla, Antigua & Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, and Nicaragua, as well as Bermuda, Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos. The Facility spearheads environmental management initiatives, aimed directly at reducing vulnerability and enhancing resilience at the community level. Examples include watershed management projects in degraded areas, and parametric insurance, which disburses funds based on the occurrence of a pre-defined level of hazard and impact without having to wait for an on-site loss assessment. The Facility’s parametric model includes hazard, exposure, vulnerability, damage and loss modules, and applies to three types of disasters – earthquakes, hurricanes and excessive rainfall. It triggers payouts, from independently provided data, based on hazard inputs related to wind speed and storm surge in the case of tropical cyclones, ground shaking for earthquakes and rainfall amounts for excessive rainfall events. These hazard levels are then Source: https://www. ccrif.org/ applied to pre-defined government exposure levels to produce a loss estimate. 59

90 Chapter 3 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Additional innovative schemes for development financing are also using spatial technologies and geographic information systems, including, but not limited to, African Union’s specialized agency, African Risk Capacity and its various tools and products of disaster risk management, and the 40 Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility SPC , which offers earthquake, tropical cyclone and excess rainfall policies (Box 3.7). Computational innovations and high-speed Internet have allowed geospatial data and various applications to be incorporated into early warning systems, resulting in increased operational efficiency. As disaster data are location-specific, using space-based technology and geospatial data becomes essential for the entire early warning phase and disaster management cycle. Such information provides answers to location-based questions as well as on disaster impact and supply routes for effective first response. 3.4 Mainstreaming e-resilience within e-government framework From a development perspective, mainstreaming e-resilience in all phases of disaster management requires concerted efforts by various actors in myriad sectors, as well as coherent policy and a sound budget. E-government initiatives could be designed and implemented to facilitate the mainstreaming with an eye on the principles of the Sendai Framework and other comparable and supporting global initiatives of resilience through innovative applications of ICTs (Box 3.8). Box 3.8. Global-level initiatives of disaster risk management and ICT **Global Partnership for Preparedness –Upon the call of the United Nations Secretary-General to enhance the emergency response capacity of the 20 highest risk countries by 2020, the Vulnerable 20 (V20) Group of Ministers of Finance of the Climate Vulnerable Forum representing 48 high risk developing nations launched this partnership together with the United Nations agencies to support risk-prone countries to better prepare for responding to, and recovering from, disasters ( Source :https://www.agendaforhumanity.org/initiatives/3840) caused by natural hazards. **One Billion Coalition for Resilience (1BC) –Using data analytics and other related tools, the 1BC initiative maps the resilience of local communities and offers local action preparedness starter kits and grants. It aims to collectively enhance the impact of resilience building by integrating actions and strategies of individuals, households and communities on the ground. ( http://media.ifrc.org/1bc/) Source: **Insurance Development Forum (IDF) –First announced at the United Nations Conference of the Parties Paris Climate summit in 2015, IDF was launched by the United Nations, World Bank and the insurance industry in 2016. It addresses the risks associated with catastrophic weather and climate-related hazards through the design and dissemination of solutions for risk-sharing and transfer to increase global resilience. **Platform on Disaster Displacement –Employing various data gathering mechanisms, this State-led Platform aims to address the protection needs of people displaced across boarders in the context of natural disasters and climate change. Its main goal is to implement the recommendations of the Nansen Initiative Protection Agenda of October 2015. ( Source: https://www.agendaforhumanity.org/initiatives/3833) Authors’ Source: –Inform is a global, open-source risk assessment **Inform (Index for Risk Management) compilation and for humanitarian crises and disasters. Its model is based on three specific dimensions elaboration of of risk: hazards and exposure, vulnerability and lack of coping capacity dimensions. select initiatives for http://www.inform-index.org/InDepth) Source: ( illustrative purposes. 60

91 Chapter 3 CHAPTER 3 • E-RESILIENCE THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES 41 are From a public administration perspective, internal mechanics of governments and State capacity important in mainstreaming e-resilience into e-government frameworks. Mediating factors between formal and information institutions, such as management practices, task structures and standard operating procedures as well as the organizational, institutional and technological change across various layers of government, play a critical role. Also significant is the degree of embeddedness of public and disaster policies in e-government initiatives and the extent to which they can benefit the 42 public sector. Finally, central government leadership in promoting and implementing e-resilience 43 initiatives is paramount. To ensure that no one is left behind, Member States, the private sector, civil society organizations and various other partners should ensure that e-resilience initiatives reach the vulnerable groups, including those in remote and rural areas. While exponential growth in mobile and fixed broadband availability has been seen across the globe, there are still countries with low connectivity and groups of people that are unconnected altogether. Where the services are available, the alert messages and information communicated should be understandable and take into consideration the various linguistic and cultural diversities. While many e-government initiatives seek to tackle these challenges, the need for such considerations becomes acute when a disaster strikes and there is no time to translate the alert in different languages. Conclusions and Policy Recommendations 3.5 E-resilience and sustainable development are highly interrelated. E-resilience and the use of ICTs in disaster risk management are part of key e-government initiatives and, used together, can support both the Sendai Framework and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Artificial Intelligence, Box 3.9. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP): Linking disaster risk management with e-resilience Asia and the Pacific remains the region most affected by natural disasters. ESCAP has been assisting Member States in building their capacities to withstand disasters, including through enhanced e-resilience. Some of ESCAP’s initiatives include: a) Intergovernmental cooperation platforms such as the Asia-Pacific Information Superhighway Note: Figure shows Steering Committee (AP-IS) initiative, which promotes affordable broadband connectivity some of the analytical 45 research and and network resilience to reduce disaster risk. publications produced b) Regional early warning systems such as the Regional Space Applications Programme for by the ESCAP Secretariat to support Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific (RESAP), which draws on space applications the listed initiatives. like satellite-derived imageries, geographic information system, big data; the Typhoon Committee and the Panel on Tropical Cyclones, established together with the World Meteorological Organization. c) Advisory technical cooperation organisations such as the Pacific Centre for the Development for Disaster Information Management which addresses transboundary disasters including earthquakes, droughts, and sand and dust storms. d) Advocacy and awareness-raising activities such as the ICT and DRR Gateway and the Asia- Pacific E-resilience Toolkit, online platforms which facilitate information sharing on the use of ICTs for disaster risk management and e-resilience. e) Capacity building and training institutions and funds such as the Trust Fund on Tsunami, Disaster and Climate Preparedness, which strengthens institutional capacity for e-resilience in high-risk, low-capacity countries; and the Asian and Pacific Training Centre for ICT for Development, which trains government officials in disaster risk management and the use of http://www. Source: ICTs. unescap.org/ 61

92 Chapter 3 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES its associated digital technologies, space technology applications and geo-spatial technologies can buttress e-resilience initiatives contributing to all phases of disaster risk management. Government leadership, both at national and local levels, also is vital. Disaster resilience in cities, particularly in the context of smart city ecosystems, is critical given that disasters pose higher risks 44 for human and financial loss in urban than in rural areas. The need for institutional and individual capacity development in designing and implementing e-resilience initiatives, particularly in countries in special situations, is significant. Some relevant initiatives come from ESCAP (Box 3.9). Three key recommendations for policy-makers and practitioners working at the intersection of e-resilience and disaster risk management are the following: Systematic and sustained efforts towards e-resilience Knowing the specific disaster risks, and degrees and types of vulnerabilities is critical to designing and implementing appropriate e-resilience initiatives. If a country is on the path of seasonal cyclones or on a seismic zone, for instance, preparedness as well as measures for risk prevention and reduction will be different. Risk and vulnerability assessment is expected to identify infrastructure, data, applications, facilities and communities at risk, which will help design and improve e-resilience initiatives. Coherent and integrated ICT and disaster risk management policies should clearly map out organizational roles and responsibilities, including between central and local administrations. They should include budget allocations and division of tasks related to follow-up, monitoring and evaluation. They should harness and hone the instrumental role of emerging technologies for sustainable development. Systematic and sustained efforts will help mainstream disaster risk management for the implementation of both the Sendai Framework of Action and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Awareness raising, participation and capacity development There are already capacity-building programmes, which assist government officials and partners in e-resilience, but awareness of disaster risks and e-resilience could be raised among ICT and disaster management authorities. Awareness-raising on emerging technologies, such as IoT, big data and cloud computing, deserves systematic support from international and regional partners, including the private sector, civil society and academia. There is also a need to go beyond tried-and-tested approaches and to include all citizens, in addition to technical experts, in a polycentric manner. Seeking and obtaining community buy-in early on, an approach which some have likened to “citizen science”, is pivotal to the provision of extensive and real-time information for risk management (Paul and others, 2018). Such concerted efforts can prompt increased investment in e-resilience initiatives, including resilient infrastructure development and early warning systems. They can also ramp up ownership by linking knowledge management with resilience. Sharing of good practices and lessons learned across the globe Some disasters, such as floods, cyclones/typhoons and droughts are transboundary in nature. Glacial lake outbursts or monsoon rains upstream will have devastating impact in downstream areas and countries. Information and data sharing, coordination and cooperation in e-resilience among concerned countries are of utmost importance. Smaller economies might not have sufficient budgets or government manpower to take charge of all the phases of disaster risk management for all hazards. Resources such as remote sensing data collection and analysis could be supported through partnerships and global and regional cooperation. 62

93 Chapter 3 CHAPTER 3 • E-RESILIENCE THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES This chapter presented a global and regional overview of natural disasters and their aftermath, and how those disasters affect regions and countries differently. Particularly worrisome are the inadequate coping mechanisms of countries in special conditions, such as landlocked and least developed countries, and small island developing States. This chapter also examined the global frameworks which encourage the mainstreaming of disaster risk concerns into all sectors, in cooperation with relevant stakeholders. It concluded that e-resilience through egovernment can be vital in managing disasters and their associated risks and in moving the world towards sustainable development. 63

94 Chapter 3 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES References 1 Note: For reasons of space and scope, this chapter covers natural disasters, and excludes health and financial crises as well as man- made emergencies. It examines both sudden onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, and crises that unfold over a period of time, such as drought. 2 Note: Data is compiled based on various sources including Reliefweb, UNISDR and SwissRe. 3 Guha-Sapir, D., Hoyois, P., Wallenmacq, P. & Below, R. (2017). Annual Disaster Statistical Review 2016: The numbers and trend s. Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters. Brussels. October 2017. Available at www.emdat.be/sites/default/files/ adsr_2016.pdf 4 Note: Countries may have different capacities and procedures for systematic reporting. This may result in under-reporting of incidents. EM-DAT is considered one of the most comprehensive disaster databases. For more, see http://www.emdat.be/. Accessed in January 2018. 5 Note: In this chapter, Asia and the Pacific is defined by the countries covered by ESCAP. Please see the list at http://www.une scap. org/about/member-states Note: According to the 2015 Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction, “disaster risk is considered as a function 6 of the severity and frequency of the hazard, numbers of people and assets exposed to the hazard, and of their vulnerability or susceptibility to damage.” (UNISDR 2015). ESCAP (2017a). Disaster Resilience for Sustainable Development. Asia-Pacific Disaster Report 2017. Available at: http://www. 7 unescap.org/sites/default/files/publications/0_Disaster%20Report%202017%20High%20res.pdf 8 Note: The calculation depends on the economic value of the damaged facilities, properties and assets. EM-DAT guidelines on th e measures can be found at http://www.emdat.be/explanatory-notes 9 ESCAP (2018). Broadband Connectivity in Pacific Island Countries. 15 January. Available at: http://www.unescap.org/resources/ broadband-connectivity-pacific-island-countries 10 ESCAP (2017a). Disaster Resilience for Sustainable Development. Asia-Pacific Disaster Report 2017. p.7. Available at: http:// www. unescap.org/sites/default/files/publications/0_Disaster%20Report%202017%20High%20res.pdf 11 UNISDR (2015). Multi-hazard Average Annual Loss. Humanitarian Data Exchange. Available at: https://data.humdata.org/dataset/ multi-hazard-average-annual-loss. 12 Note: The high-income economies of Australia, New Zealand and New Caledonia were excluded to highlight the issues of low- income countries with special needs. 13 Note: The sector includes private and public corporations, including Telecom Fiji Limited (TFL), state-owned and the sole pr ovider of fixed-line telephone services; two mobile service operators (Vodafone and Digicel); two broadband service providers (Connect and Unwired); and other ICT support services (including televisions and radio broadcasters). 14 World Meteorological Organization (2017). Shoring up early warning systems for Asia-Pacific SIDS. Available at: https://publi c. wmo.int/en/media/news/shoring-early-warning-systems-asia-pacific-sids 15 United Nations (2015). Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030. Geneva: Switzerland. pp. 12-14. Available at: https://www.unisdr.org/files/43291_sendaiframeworkfordrren.pdf 16 ESCAP (2016a). Building e-resilience, Enhancing the role of ICTs for Disaster Risk Management (DRM). Available at: http://ww w. unescap.org/resources/building-e-resilience-enhancing-role-icts-disaster-risk-management-drm 17 ESCAP (2016). Space application as a critical tool for enhanced e-resilience. 15 August. E/ESCAP/CICTSTI(1)/5. Available at: http:// www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Space_applications_as_a_critical_tool_for_enhanced_e-resilience_Eng.pdf and ESCAP (2016). ICT in Disaster Risk Management Initiatives in Asia and the Pacific. 4 March. Available at: www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/ ICT4DRR%20Iniatives%20in%20Asia-Pacific_0.pdf 18 Note: This section draws on research and publications of ESCAP, including, notably, the Report found at http://www.unescap.o rg/ sites/default/files/Space_applications_as_a_critical_tool_for_enhanced_e-resilience_Eng.pdf 19 UNISDR (2009). 2009 UNISDR terminology on disaster risk reduction. p.24. Available at: https://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/ publications/7817 20 Heeks, R. & Ospina, A. (2018). Conceptualizing the Link Between Information Systems and Resilience: a developing country fiel d study. Information Systems Journal. 29 January. DOI: 10.1111/isj.12177 21 ESCAP (2016). Space application as a critical tool for enhanced e-resilience. 15 August. E/ESCAP/CICTSTI(1)/5. Available at: http:// www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Space_applications_as_a_critical_tool_for_enhanced_e-resilience_Eng.pdf and ESCAP (2016). ICT in Disaster Risk Management Initiatives in Asia and the Pacific. 4 March. Available at: www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/ ICT4DRR%20Iniatives%20in%20Asia-Pacific_0.pdf 22 National Center for Hydrology and Meteorology Royal Government of Bhutan (2013). Flood Early Warning. Available at: http:// www.hydromet.gov.bt/?q=warning 23 ESCAP (2016). Space application as a critical tool for enhanced e-resilience. 15 August. E/ESCAP/CICTSTI(1)/5. Available at: http:// www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Space_applications_as_a_critical_tool_for_enhanced_e-resilience_Eng.pdf and ESCAP (2016). ICT in Disaster Risk Management Initiatives in Asia and the Pacific. 4 March. Available at: www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/ ICT4DRR%20Iniatives%20in%20Asia-Pacific_0.pdf 24 Note: Preliminary regression analysis is available upon request. It is an assessment based on one point in time, i.e., 2016 data of the UN E-government Survey. Two questions were examined based on the data from the UN E-government Survey dataset:(i) Do countries currently providing e-government services on weather or health related information minimize deaths incurred from natural disasters? (ii)Do countries with better broadband connectivity deliver more effective e-government services, thereby 64

95 Chapter 3 CHAPTER 3 • E-RESILIENCE THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES minimizing deaths emanating from natural disasters? To examine these two questions, two binary (yes/no) variables from the UN E-government Survey 2018 dataset were used as independent variables: (i). Can people subscribe (via SMS, an email list, etc.) to keep updated about weather? and (ii). Can users subscribe to updates or alerts on Health services?). F-test was found to be statistically significant (p-value<0.01) for both dependent variables. In addition, the model specified was found to explain a hi gh variation of the dependent variable—number of deaths of natural disasters (Adjusted-R2 = 0.73) for both the fixed broadband and mobile broadband variables. 25 ESCAP (2016). Space application as a critical tool for enhanced e-resilience. 15 August. E/ESCAP/CICTSTI(1)/5. Available at: http:// www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Space_applications_as_a_critical_tool_for_enhanced_e-resilience_Eng.pdf and ESCAP (2016). ICT in Disaster Risk Management Initiatives in Asia and the Pacific. 4 March. Available at: www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/ ICT4DRR%20Iniatives%20in%20Asia-Pacific_0.pdf r. 26 ESCAP (2017b). Artificial Intelligence and Broadband Divide: State of ICT Connectivity in Asia and the Pacific 2017. 27 Octobe p.6. Available at: http://www.unescap.org/resources/artificial-intelligence-and-broadband-divide-state-ict-connectivity-asia-and - pacific-2017 g, 27 Note: This composition is determined using the framework developed by the Korean Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Plannin n”, “Mid- to Long-Term Master Plan in Preparation for the Intelligent Information Society: Managing the Fourth Industrial Revolutio Available at: http://www.msip.go.kr/dynamic/file/afieldfile/msse56/1352869/2017/07/20/Master%20Plan%20for%20the%20 intelligent%20information%20society.pdf. 28 ESCAP (2017b). Artificial Intelligence and Broadband Divide: State of ICT Connectivity in Asia and the Pacific 2017. 27 Octobe r. Available at http://www.unescap.org/resources/artificial-intelligence-and-broadband-divide-state-ict-connectivity-asia-and- pacific-2017 29 Lokanathan, S. and Gunaratne, R. (2015). Mobile Network Big Data for Development: Demystifying the Uses and Challenges. Communications & Strategies, 97(1st quarter 2015), pp. 75-94. Available at https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_ id=2674017. 30 ESCAP (2017b). Artificial Intelligence and Broadband Divide: State of ICT Connectivity in Asia and the Pacific 2017. 27 Octobe r. Available at http://www.unescap.org/resources/artificial-intelligence-and-broadband-divide-state-ict-connectivity-asia-and- pacific-2017 31 ESCAP (2017b). Artificial Intelligence and Broadband Divide: State of ICT Connectivity in Asia and the Pacific 2017. 27 Octobe r. Available at http://www.unescap.org/resources/artificial-intelligence-and-broadband-divide-state-ict-connectivity-asia-and- pacific-2017 32 Note: For more, see athttp://www.earthquakenewz.com/10-strongest-earthquakes-in-history and https://www.usnews.com/news/ world/articles/2016-04-17/the-worlds-strongest-earthquakes-since-1900 33 Center for Excellence in Disaster Management & Humanitarian Assistance (2017). Chile. Disaster Management Reference Handbook. Available at: https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Chile-2017-draft6-lowres.pdf. 34 Prutsalis, M. (2010). Developing a service industry to support the Sahana disaster management system. Technology Innovation Management Review. December 2010. Available at: http://www.timreview.ca/article/400 35 ESCAP (2016). Space application as a critical tool for enhanced e-resilience. 15 August. E/ESCAP/CICTSTI(1)/5. Available at: http:// www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Space_applications_as_a_critical_tool_for_enhanced_e-resilience_Eng.pdf and ESCAP (2016). ICT in Disaster Risk Management Initiatives in Asia and the Pacific. 4 March. Available at: www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/ ICT4DRR%20Iniatives%20in%20Asia-Pacific_0.pdf 36 Lu, X., Bengtssona, L. and Holmea, P. (2012) Predictability of population displacement after the 2010 Haiti earthquake. PNAS , 109(29), p. 11576–11581. Available at: http://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/109/29/11576.full.pdf. 37 Note: For more, see https://github.com/qcri-social/AIDR/wiki/AIDR-Overview 38 Note: UNESCO’s programme for Water and Development Information for Arid Lands – a Global Network (G-WADI) 39 Note: For more, see http://stream.princeton.edu/AWCM/WEBPAGE/interface.php 40 Note: SPC stands for segregated portfolio company 41 Fountain, J. E. (2007). Bureaucratic Reform and E-Government in the United States: An Institutional Perspective, NCDG Workin g Paper, 07(006). Available at: https://scholarworks.umass.edu/ncdg/7/ 42 Cordella, A., Iannacci, F. (2010) Information systems in the Public Sector: the eGovernment enactment framework. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 19(1), pp. 52-66 43 Heeks, R., & Bailur, S. (2007) Analyzing E-Government Research: Perspectives, Philosophies, Theories, Methods, and Practice, Government Information Quarterly, 24(2), 243265 44 Hayat, P. (2016). Smart Cities: A Global Perspective. India Quarterly, 72(2), pp. 177-191. 45 Note: Other such committees and platforms include Committees on Information and Communications Technology, Science, Technology and Innovation and on Disaster Risk Reduction, Asia-Pacific Forums on Sustainable Development, and others. 65

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97 Chapter 4 CHAPTER 4 • BUILDING THE RESILIENCE OF E-GOVERNMENT Building the resilience of e-government 4.1. Introduction: Need for a resilient e-government system Internet use has proliferated since its inception. By 2017, it was Photo credit: pixabay.com estimated that 3.7 billion people, approximately half of the world’s 1 population, have access to and continuously use the Internet. In this chapter: With big data, machine learning, and the Internet of Things, some experts 4.1. Introduction: Need for a resilient anticipate that the number of Internet connections may grow to nearly e-government system 67 2 a trillion by 2035. Similarly, there has been an ever increasing amount of government services that are conducted online. Egovernment 4.2. Global view in cybersecurity 68 development by Member States has progressed with the use of the 4.3. Designing a secure e-government latest tools and Internet technologies as featured in the current and system 71 Digital United Nations E-Government Surveys. past editions of the 72 4.3.1. Legal framework technologies and e-government have provided advanced tools and 4.3.2. Organizational framework 75 resources for governments to deliver public services, engage citizens in 76 4.3.3. Technical framework policy making, improve transparency and monitor development plans. As these tools increasingly become more essential for a dependable and 4.3.4. Capacity building and smooth flow of services, threats of disruption, such as cyber-attacks or Cooperation 78 natural disasters, are never far behind. 80 4.3. Conclusion References 81 The multiplicity of uses of these tools and resources varies across governments, whose individual departments often introduce diverse levels of coherence and consistency among the adopted ICT approaches to service delivery. A disjointed approach also results in degrees of risk, relating to technological threats across the different organizations, departments, systems, platforms and applications. It is important, therefore, for governments to improve management of ICT-driven approaches for the sake of continuity of online services as well as to protect people’s data and privacy. This requires robust platforms that are resilient to cyber-attacks, other threats and emergencies such as natural disasters, including fires, floods and earthquakes. Deployment of ICT mechanisms increases transparency, trust, security and stability in the cyber environment. There is also a tendency to connect technologies and tools to create an open-source computing platform that brings 3,4 together governments, citizens and innovative companies. Although, constant development and deployment of resilient ICT tools indisputably boosts egovernment services, technology, by its nature, spawns threatening side effects. Rapid technological developments and globalization have brought new challenges for the protection of sensitive information and personal data. This requires a decidedly stronger and more coherent framework of protection at national and international levels, backed by effective enforcement. At the national level, creating a comprehensive cybersecurity framework implies a thorough analysis of Internet-infrastructure dependencies and vulnerabilities. Thus, Member 67 Chapter 4

98 Chapter 4 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES States should continue to adopt appropriate measures aimed at reducing the risk of cybersecurity attacks. As United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres said, governments and international organizations may not be prepared for rapid developments in the cyber environment, and existing regulations on how to address cybercrime may no longer be applicable. The growing rate of cybersecurity attacks is a vivid example of how Internet capacities are being used, not only for the 5 benefit or empowerment of societies, but also to “degrade and enslave”. Considering the fast pace of cyber technology development, it is imperative to amend the existing legal frameworks so as to protect individual privacy, enhance cooperation among government bodies and address the problems stemming from cybercrime. This chapter introduces a new concept of e-resilience modelled on the Global Cybersecurity Index (GCI) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), which assesses the legal, technical, organizational, capacity-building and cooperation frameworks necessary to ensure a robust and resilient e-government system. It also includes a discussion on the use of cybersecurity in improving e-government resilience. Moreover, the chapter discusses the digital transformation of governments towards e-governance, wherein a clear vision of digital technology and the Internet is essential. It notes the importance of investing in new technologies such as cloud computing to ensure ongoing access to systems and records, and to protect data assets in case of damage to facilities, regardless of the level of e-government development. Attention to cybersecurity is important, as without it, disastrous data breaches can occur. Undoubtedly, recognizing the importance of this domain benefits the e-government system. However, this requires not only a change in existing procedures, but also in the behaviour of public servants. Civic engagement should not be overlooked, as it is critical to the 6 system’s functioning. It is also crucial for agencies to create a feedback mechanism for cooperation aimed at sharing knowledge and best practices. 4.2. Global view in cybersecurity Over the past several years, experts and policymakers have expressed increasing concerns about cyberattacks. Secretary-General Guterres, in his address to the Opening Ceremony of the Munich Security Conference, referred to the lack of response to the cybersecurity threat as an existential 7 threat to humankind. There is a broad agreement among researchers that modern day e-government systems are susceptible to cyber threats. It is estimated that the cost of addressing cybercrime will double from $3 trillion in 2015 to $6 trillion by 2021. One reason is the increasing interdependence of ICT devices and components, where the disruption of one may cascade and affect many other services. More than a third of cybersecurity breaches are caused by “successful” exploitation of known vulnerabilities. Cyberattacks vary, but their effects can be devastating. For example, in May 2017, the “WannaCry” ransomware attack affected 150 countries, wreaking havoc on societies and resulting in financial damages. This included the United Kingdom, where the National Health Service (NHS) systems were targeted. At least 81 of the 236 NHS organizations known as “trusts” were affected, destroying 8 key medical equipment and risking patient safety. The economic impact of that cyberattack was 9 estimated to be more than $100 million. Other types of cybercrimes are also costly and erode gross domestic product (GDP). For example, the Netherlands lost 10 billion euros to e-crime, identity and intellectual property theft, which eroded its GDP by 2 per cent. Intellectual property theft alone caused a loss of $300 billion in the United States, 10 while Germany lost 24 billion euros. 68

99 Chapter 4 CHAPTER 4 • BUILDING THE RESILIENCE OF E-GOVERNMENT The response to the aforementioned attacks has been an increase in global spending on cybersecurity products and services. Cybersecurity Ventures predicts that worldwide, this will exceed $1 trillion 11 cumulatively by 2021. It is also predicted that global spending on security awareness training for employees will reach $10 billion by 2027, up from some $1 billion in 2014. Such investments are aimed at expanding ICT use in cybersecurity strategies and preventing future damage from cyberattacks. Long-term economic opportunity, however, lay in modernizing industrial infrastructure, the cost of which is estimated at $32 trillion. The Global Cybersecurity Index (see Box 4.1) developed by the International Telecommunication Union can serve as reference for government officials in the process of designing secure egovernment systems. Through use of the Index, governments can assess progress in the effective deployment of ICTs and development of cybersecurity strategies. It provides governments with an assessment of the level of their cybersecurity wellness and offers solutions to addressing e-government risks. More specifically, the Index measures the type, level and evolution of cybersecurity commitment in 12 countries, which will eventually give experts an opportunity to assess the performance of those commitments from both regional and global perspectives. It is crucial to protect critical information infrastructures, or CIIs, the interconnected information systems and networks, the disruption or destruction of which, would seriously impact the health, safety, security, the economic well-being of citizens, and potentially, the effective functioning of the government or economy. Also essential for a nation’s security is a well-established and protected CII framework that interacts well with the government. Thus, in designing e-government systems, it is important to consider CIIs and how these may affect online services. Given the need to protect information infrastructures from risk or threat, government officials must be made aware of the potential devastating effects of its disruption, so as to improve the effectiveness of mitigation. The Global Cybersecurity Index 2017 reveals that 50 per cent of the surveyed countries have no cybersecurity strategy, and only 25 per cent have legislation or regulation that impose the implementation of cybersecurity measures on CIIs. It was also found that only 31 per cent of the subject countries included a section on the protection of CIIs in their cybersecurity strategy. These 13 Box 4.1. ITU Global Cybersecurity Index The Global Cybersecurity Index is a composite Index combining 25 indicators into one benchmark measure to monitor the cybersecurity commitments of the 193 ITU Member States in the five pillars identified by high-level experts (see Figure 4.2). It revolves around the Global 14 a framework for international cooperation launched by the International Cybersecurity Agenda, 15 Telecommunication Union in 2007 to enhance confidence and security in the information society. A first iteration of the global Index was conducted between 2013 and 2014, in partnership with ABI Research, to which 105 out of 193 ITU Member States responded. The outcome was published in 2015. Following feedback received from various communities and Member States, a second iteration with more in-depth analysis was prepared in 2016. Participants included Member States, and interested individuals, experts and representatives from contributing partners such as the World Bank, the Red Team Cyber from the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, FIRST, Indiana University, the International Criminal Police, the ITU-Arab Regional Cybersecurity Centre in Oman, Korea Internet and Security Agency, National Telecommunications Regulatory Authority of Egypt, The Potomac Institute of Policy Studies, United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute, University of Technology Jamaica, and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. As a result of the high-level attention of Member States, media and other interested bodies who Source: https://www.itu. believe in the vision of the Global Cybersecurity Index, ITU is compiling a third iteration with an int/en/ITU-D/Cybersecurity/ even broader multi-stakeholder participation. Pages/GCI.aspx 69

100 Chapter 4 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES results call for measures that will not only create awareness among governments of their position in the digitized world, but also ensure more resilient e-government systems and secure CIIs. Top 10 Member States with the highest commitment to cybersecurity Table 4.1. Capacity Technical Organizational Country Building Cooperation Legal GCI Score 0.95 Singapore 0.88 0.97 0.87 0.92 0.96 0.91 1 0.96 0.92 1 0.73 USA 0.89 0.87 0.96 0.77 1 0.87 Malaysia 0.87 0.82 0.85 0.95 0.75 0.98 Oman 0.84 0.99 0.82 0.85 0.94 0.64 Estonia 0.82 0.85 0.96 0.74 0.91 0.70 Mauritius Australia 0.82 0.94 0.96 0.86 0.94 0.44 Georgia 0.81 0.77 0.82 0.90 0.70 0.91 France 0.94 0.96 0.60 1 0.61 0.81 Canada 0.81 0.94 0.93 0.71 0.82 0.70 Source: ITU, GCI Report 2017 Table 4.1. above shows the top 10 countries ranked according to their GCI score. It is clear that geographical location is irrelevant when it comes to cybersecurity commitments. These ten countries managed to establish coherent cybersecurity strategies while significantly improving their ICT mechanisms. Since these Member States are leaders in their regions, they could foster the creation and development of different forms of collaboration with neighbouring countries to improve regional cybersecurity cooperation. Percentage of countries with CII protection included in their legislation or Figure 4.1. cybersecurity strategy Measures on critical infrastructure Cybersecurity Audits Protection of CII 80% 70% 90% 100% 60% 50% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% No Ye s ITU GCI report 2017 Source: 70

101 Chapter 4 CHAPTER 4 • BUILDING THE RESILIENCE OF E-GOVERNMENT As seen in Figure 4.1. above, only less than one-fifth of United Nations Member States included protection of critical information structures in their legislation or cybersecurity strategy. Similarly, less than one-fifth conduct cybersecurity audits and have measures on critical infrastructure. Critical information protection secures communications or information services that are essential to 16 the functioning of a modern economy. posits that For example, the Australian Privacy Principle Act all eligible entities “must take reasonable steps to protect personal information it holds from misuse, 17 interference and loss, as well as unauthorized access, modification or disclosure.” National protection of critical information infrastructures presents an organized view of strategic information services and available infrastructure resources. This requires an assessment of potential risks, threats and information components supporting critical infrastructures. It also defines risk management protocols essential to the health of the national economy and mitigates possible 18 risks. Protection protocols overall have positive long-term stabilizing effects , whereas insufficient protection provides criminals with opportunities to exploit online vulnerabilities and conduct cyberattacks. Designing a secure e-government system 4.3. There are five main pillars in ITU’s Global Cybersecurity Agenda (see Figure 4.2) that lay a solid foundation for the creation of a secure e-government system – legal, technical, organizational, capacity building and cooperation. These measure different aspects of government cybersecurity Figure 4.2. Five Pillars of ITU’s Global Cybersecurity Agenda Cybercriminal Legislation, Substantive law, Procedural cybercriminal law, Cybersecurity Regulation. National CIRT, Government CIRT, Sectoral CIRT, Standards for organisations Standardisation body. Strategy, Responsible agency, Cybersecurity metrics. Public awareness, Professional training, National education programmes, R&D programmes, Incentive mechanisms, Home-grown industry. ultilateral agreements, Intra-state cooperation, M International fora, Public-Private partnerships, Inter-agency partnerships. ITU, GCI report 2017 Source: 71

102 Chapter 4 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES commitment as well as the progress with which governments ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of online information. The legal pillar seeks to develop advice on how criminal activities committed over ICTs could be dealt with through legislation in an internationally compatible manner. The technical pillar focuses on key measures for addressing vulnerabilities in software products, including accreditation schemes, protocols and standards. The organizational pillar considers generic frameworks and response strategies for the prevention, detection, response to and crisis management of cyberattacks, including the protection of countries’ critical information infrastructure systems. The capacity-building pillar elaborates strategies for raising awareness, transferring know-how and boosting cybersecurity on the national policy agenda. The cooperation pillar aims to develop a strategy for international cooperation, dialogue and coordination in dealing with cyberthreats. All five foundational components work synergistically to ensure cybersecurity. 4.3.1. Legal framework Legal measures allow governments and other stakeholders to define basic response mechanisms to cyberattacks, including within e-government systems. These mechanisms may involve investigation and prosecution of crimes and violation of norms, leading to the imposition of sanctions for non- compliance and legal breaches by nefarious agents or entities. A legislative framework sets the minimum standards of behaviour across the board, applicable to all, upon which further cybersecurity capabilities can be built. Ultimately, the goal is to enable all nations to have adequate legislation to harmonize practices and offer a setting for interoperable measures that facilitate international combat against cybercrime. As Figure 4.3. shows, all European countries have cybersecurity legislation and regulations in place. However, only 60 per cent provide training in cybersecurity. The majority of countries in the Americas and Asia have both legislation and regulations. Oceania has the lowest indicators in all three categories. Notably, all regions have relatively low cybersecurity training indicators. Total number of Member States with laws related to cybercrime in 2017 Figure 4.3. 100 100 100 92 85 85 90 80 75 70 69 70 61 60 60 50 36 40 30 31 30 21 21 % of countries in the region 20 10 0 Americas Oceania Africa Europe Asia Cybersecurity training Cybercriminal legislation Cybersecurity regulation ITU, GCI report 2017 Source: 72

103 Chapter 4 CHAPTER 4 • BUILDING THE RESILIENCE OF E-GOVERNMENT Figure 4.4. shows that 133 out of 193 United Nations Member States, or about 69 per cent, have laws pertaining to citizens’ rights to access government information online. Of these countries, 20 are in Africa, 32 are in the Americas, 33 are in Asia, 42 are in Europe and 6 are in Oceania. As many as 34 African countries do not have government information or laws on citizens’ rights to access it online. It is also absent in Cuba, Cyprus, Haiti, Monaco and Suriname. Figure 4.4. Percentage of countries with Access to Information Act 12 0 98 10 0 91 80 70 63 57 60 43 37 40 30 20 9 2 0 Africa Asia Americas Oceania E u ro p e Ye s No % of countries in the region As seen in Figure 4.5., the highlights that 141 Member States, United Nations E-Government Survey or 73 per cent, have legislation on personal data protection online. While the legislation may be available in the remaining 52 countries, this information is not accessible online. Figure 4.5. Personal data protection legislation available online 93 100 86 90 74 80 64 70 57 60 43 50 36 40 29 30 14 20 7 10 0 Oceania Asia Europe Americas Africa Ye s No % of countries in the region 73

104 Chapter 4 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Data protection is vital since it ensures the privacy of individuals, communities, and specific groups, and protects them from unauthorized surveillance and discriminatory monitoring. Personal data protection is regulated differently in every country. In Europe, the law protects personal data regardless of the 19 technology used for processing that data. In fact, the European Union is considered to have the 20 strongest legal privacy provisions. General Data Protection Regulation will be enacted in the Union in 2018, which will significantly affect data collection and analysis procedures. Box 4.2. Data Protection Act of Switzerland In 2017, the Swiss government issued a preliminary draft of a new Data Protection Act intended to amend existing provisions on digital technology and strengthen personal data protection. It was also crafted to maintain the European Commission knowledge of ways of securinf the free flow of personal data between the European Union countries and Switzerland. Source: https://www.swlegal.ch/files/media/filer_public/68/68/6868d658-d977-41f0-948f-7468edcb8931 news_alert_september_2017_english.pdf There are multiple ways of reducing the risks of breaches and unauthorized data retrieval. For starters, personal and sensitive data should be kept at minimum. All personal data could be encrypted and stored during a specific relevant period and destroyed thereafter. The number of actors involved in data collection and storage should be minimized with the assistance of trustworthy and reliable organizations. In order to mitigate risks to the integrity and continuity of available data, replications could be produced and stored off-site, domestically or abroad. The United States State Department and the Estonian Government have already implemented this strategy to ensure data security and 21 the smooth operation of their e-government services. Figure 4.6. below shows that only 109 Member States have cybersecurity legislation, compared to the information in Figure 4.5., which highlights those with laws on access rights. Majority of the Member States in Asia and Europe have cybersecurity legislation online, while only 13 countries in Africa, 12 in the Americas and 4 in Oceania have it online. e Figure 4.6. Countries with cybersecurity legislation onlin 74 80 68 65 70 64 60 60 50 40 36 35 40 32 26 30 20 10 0 Oceania Asia Europe Americas Africa Ye s No % of countries in the region 74

105 Chapter 4 CHAPTER 4 • BUILDING THE RESILIENCE OF E-GOVERNMENT 4.3.2. Organizational framework It is important for Member States to have a cybersecurity strategy, a coordinating agency and a compilation of indicators for tracking cybercrime. Governments should design and execute a robust cybersecurity strategy so as to secure its E-government system. An effective strategy should include the protection of critical information infrastructure and a national resiliency plan. Box 4.3. highlights the United Kingdom organizational framework for cybersecurity. The strategy’s formulation should also be open for consultation with all the relevant stakeholders to create trust and transparency in the government and ensure that all reap the benefit. Ideally, cybersecurity strategies should be aligned with the national e-government strategy. Governments also should consider establishing national agencies responsible for ensuring coherence in putting cybersecurity strategies into action and assessing their efficacy. This needs to be complemented by a commitment to human resource development and leadership. Without a national cybersecurity strategy, a governance model and a supervisory body, the efforts of various sectors and industries can become disparate and disconnected, which could thwart efforts to attain national harmonization and increase e-government resilience in the event of a cyberattack. Equally important is the compilation of indicators for tracking cyber incidents. Measuring progress is vital, as is observing current and past trends, and putting in place appropriate future actions to implement a secure e-government system and develop further cyber strategies. The Netherlands uses metrics to measure its cybersecurity development, the result of which is summarized in the Cyber 22 Security Assessment Netherlands report. Their National Cyber Security Centre compiles disclosure reports, security advisories and incidents using a registration system. The metrics allow trends to be observed and addressed. The presence of cybersecurity metrics is an indication that a country has a legally recognized set of measures to provide balanced and unbiased data on the performance of cybersecurity development. Such measures provide crucial data that better equip both the private and public sectors for further administrative decisions regarding e-government system upgrades. Figure 4.7. illustrates the relationship between the high presence of cybersecurity metrics in Europe and the region’s advanced level of ICT mechanisms implementation. Box 4.3. National Cybersecurity Strategy of the United Kingdom issued its second five-year National Cyber Security Strategy in 2016. United Kingdom The The Strategy, established by the Cabinet Office, aims to make the country one of the safest places in the world for online business. Compared to its first Strategy, the new one has doubled its investment in cybersecurity. Some of its main objectives is to make United Kingdom more Source: https:// resilient to cyberattacks, enhance stable cyberspace in support of open societies, and create www.gov.uk/ a stable and secure place for conducting business in cyberspace. All of these goals are directly government/ related to the further development of e-government and cybersecurity, involving both private publications/ 23 national-cyber- and public sectors. security-strategy- 2016-to-2021 75

106 Chapter 4 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Countries with cybersecurity legislation online Figure 4.7. 50 47 35 23 25 19 9 % of countries in the region 13 7 0 Africa America Asia Oceania Europe 4.3.3. Technical framework Establishing strong security features in communication networks and increasing resilience against network attacks involving access, modification or service denial, are prerequisites for successful e-government development. Threats to network security such as cyber terrorism, cyber espionage, advanced persistent threats, blended threats and others, are the result of the fast and continuous evolution in technology. Firewalls, antivirus software, Internet security software suites, antimalware, encryption and security fencing are among the measures used to prevent network security from being compromised. To ensure a more reliable and secure e-government system, governments must put in place a computer emergency response team (CERT) or a computer security incident response team (CSIRT) that responds to computer or cybersecurity incidents solely affecting government institutions. Also wise is to have specific government institutions, which protect the nation’s entire infrastructure, including that of academia and the civil sector. Box 4.4. and Box 4.5. illustrate cases from United Arab Emirates and Georgia. Figure 4.8. illustrates the presence of CSIRT as well as government and sectoral CERTs. The highest presence of these teams is in Europe followed by Asia, while Africa and Oceania have the lowest presence. 76

107 Chapter 4 CHAPTER 4 • BUILDING THE RESILIENCE OF E-GOVERNMENT Regional view of CERT/CIRT/CSIRT Figure 4.8. 100 88 88 90 80 72 72 70 70 60 51 50 43 40 34 33 33 26 30 20 % of countries in the region 13 7 7 7 10 0 Americas Oceania Asia Europe Africa Sectorial CERT Gov’t CERT National CIRT Box 4.4. The National Computer Emergency Response Team of the United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates develops actionable intelligence from analysis of threat, incident and vulnerability data. It also provides constituents with proactive services in the form of preliminary alerts, remediation and recovery from security incidents, and advisories to improve the infrastructure as well as related security processes of their clients or citizens before an event occurs. The national CERT acts as the central point in disseminating information and advises all affected entities during high-profile targeted cyberattacks against critical national infrastructure. It also provides forensics services, including digital forensics investigations, computer forensics https://www. Source: tra.gov.ae and mobile device forensics, data recovery and data wiping. Box 4.5. Information Security Policy in Georgia Georgia has established the Legal Entity of Public Law Data Exchange Agency as part of its Ministry of Justice. The Agency is tasked with establishing an infrastructure for data exchange for both public and private sectors and to implement its information security policy. Moreover, the national CERT of Georgia operates under the Agency and is responsible for handling critical incidents that occur within Georgian governmental networks and critical infrastructures. Georgia also established the Cyber Security Bureau, under its Minister of Defence. It is responsible for cybersecurity in the defence sector. The Council for State Security and Crisis Management acts Source: Government on the national level as a coordinating body and operates directly under the Prime Minister. of Georgia, 2017 A well-designed cloud computing strategy can be made cost-effective by sharing platforms across various e-government applications, increasing resource utilization and providing scalability. Cloud computing can further increase the capacity for integration and interoperability across egovernment systems. In addition, by analyzing huge volumes of data, cloud computing allows for accelerated 24 fraud detection capabilities, which provides opportunities to address corruption in the public sector. While a proactive cloud computing strategy improves services, optimizes processes and gives more 77

108 Chapter 4 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES opportunities for citizens to interact with the government, it comes with certain challenges. Hence, regular security audits should be performed to ensure proper functionality and system security. Furthermore, backups and restoration features should be in place to prevent data loss or absence of connection during natural disasters or similar events. 4.3.4. Capacity building and Cooperation The cybersecurity of e-government systems requires inputs from all sectors and disciplines, given the rising interdependence of big data, machine learning and the Internet of things that are incorporated within the system. This includes cooperation at the intergovernmental level, among agencies at the national level, with the private sector, civil society and academia. Constant dialogue and sharing of best practices are necessary in responding to or defending against a cyberattack. Greater cooperation initiatives can enable the development of much stronger cybersecurity capabilities, help deter persistent online threats, and enable better investigation, apprehension and prosecution of malicious agents. A good example for cooperation is taking place in Australia where the Government, business and the research communities are working closely to advance the country’s cybersecurity agenda. The Government has directed resources towards increasing the number of cybersecurity professionals, and it has invested in tertiary education competitions. Beyond this, it is partnering with various sectors to improve and share cybersecurity information. This is further facilitated through the convening of 25 annual cybersecurity leaders’ meetings. Similarly, Azerbaijan has established an Electronic Security Centre, or CERT, which identifies cyber security threats and raises national awareness of existing and emerging threats. In collaboration with the national operator, the Ministry of Communications and Information Technologies and other authorities, this CERT conducts preventive measures to counter cyber threats and secure cyberspace. The table below lists various international networks on e-government and cybersecurity providing platforms for hosting dialogues among governments concerning digitization. As egovernment cannot operate effectively without collaborating with organizational structures, it is essential for governments in transition to actively participate in these networks. 78

109 Chapter 4 CHAPTER 4 • BUILDING THE RESILIENCE OF E-GOVERNMENT Table 4.2. Global cybersecurity activities • The United Nations Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security (UN GGE) was established with the aim of examining existing and potential threats from cybersphere and possible cooperative measures to address them. The mandate of the Group was reconfirmed in 2009, 2011, 2013 and 2015. The main outcome of the UN GGE 2013 Report was the reconfirmation of the principle that existing international law(s) apply to the use of ICT by States. In addition, the 2015 Report contained new provisions on norms and principles of responsible State behaviour in cyberspace, specifying, for example, that a State should not conduct or knowingly support ICT activity that intentionally damages or otherwise impairs the use and operation of critical infrastructure. The fifth UN GGE ended its fourth and final session in June 2017 without a consensus on a final report, leaving the dialogue on the conduct of States in cyberspace open. • Cybersecurity has been very prominent in the agenda of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) since its first meeting in 2006. The 2017 Best Practices Forum on Cybersecurity examined how a well-developed cybersecurity strategy helps to create an enabling environment for ICTs and Internet technologies to contribute towards achieving the SDGs. • A fundamental role of ITU, based on the guidance of the World Summit on the Information Society and the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference, is to build confidence and security in the use of information and communication technologies. At the World Summit, world leaders entrusted ITU to be the Facilitator of Action Line C5, “Building confidence and security in the use of ICTs”, in response to which, in 2017, ITU launched the Global Cybersecurity Agenda as a framework for international cooperation in this area. • The Global Forum on Cyber Expertise has emerged as a series of conferences discussing principles related to governing behaviour in cyberspace. The first conference was held in London in 2011, followed by Budapest in 2012; Seoul in 2013; The Hague in 2015; and New Delhi in 2017. • The Global Commission on the Stability of Cyberspace was inaugurated in 2017, with the mission to develop proposals for norms and policies to enhance international security and stability and to guide responsible State behaviour in cyberspace. It is composed of 27 Commissioners representing a wide range of geographic regions, as well as representatives from governments, the private sector, technical and civil society stakeholders. 79

110 Chapter 4 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES 4.4. Conclusion The main conclusions of this Chapter are as follows: First and foremost, the adoption of a regionally and internationally harmonized set of legislation • against the misuse of ICTs for criminal or other nefarious purposes is critical to providing a common regulatory basis, whether on prohibiting criminal conduct or establishing minimum regulatory requirements. Legal measures should allow each State to establish the basic response mechanisms to data or system breaches. Ultimately, the goal is to enable all States to have adequate legislation in place to harmonize practices internationally and to offer a setting for interoperable measures, thus, facilitating international combat against cybercrime. Organizational measures are necessary for the proper implementation of any national initiative. • At the initial phase of transformation, a government should incorporate cybersecurity and risk management as an essential component of the e-government systems. A sub-section on the implementation of cybersecurity should be constituted to enhance security and protection in e-government. A national cybersecurity strategy, governance model and supervisory body should be created parallel to the e-government strategy to overcome attempts by various sectors to foil efforts to attain national harmonization in e-government development. A broad strategic objective should be set along with a comprehensive plan for implementation, delivery and measurement. • Technology is the first line of defense against cyber threats and malicious online agents. Without adequate technical measures and the capabilities to detect and respond to cyberattacks, e-government systems and their respective entities are vulnerable. The emergence and success of ICTs can only truly prosper in a climate of trust and security. Governments therefore need to be capable of developing strategies to establish accepted minimum security criteria and accreditation schemes for software applications and systems. Moreover, governments must regularly assess systems to ensure that security precautions are being implemented by establishing a CIRT/CERT/CSIRT with a national responsibility capable of identifying, defending, responding to and managing cyber threats. Alongside these efforts, a national entity focused on dealing with cyber incidents should be created, or, at the very least, a responsible government agency be mandated to watch, warn and respond to incidents. The same agency could also provide support for the development of an organizational structure needed for coordinating responses to cyberattacks. • With the increasing interest in knowledge-sharing and transfer in organizations, cooperation through collaboration and communication among relevant stakeholders such as central governments, local public authorities, the private sector, academia, civil society and international organizations, are crucial. The Internet is a highly interdependent system, and no single actor can adopt a fix-all solution to overcome threats that arise from its use. Without Internet, regardless of its obstacles and shortcomings, there can be no egovernment services. However, a secure e-government system requires collaboration among all stakeholders including vendors, industries, manufacturers, academia, government and civil society. 80

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112 Chapter 4 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES 26 UNODA. Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security. [online] Available at: https://www.un.org/disarmament/topics/informationsecurity/ [Accessed 26 Jun. 2018]. 27 United Nations, (2013). Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international secur ity. [online] Available at: http://undocs.org/A/68/156 [Accessed 26 Jun. 2018]. ity. 28 United Nations, (2013). Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international secur [online] Available at: http://undocs.org/A/68/172 [Accessed 26 Jun. 2018]. 29 IGF. BPF Cybersecurity. [online] Available at: https://www.intgovforum.org/multilingual/content/bpf-cybersecurity-1 [Accesse d 26 Jun. 2018]. 30 ITU. ITU Cybersecurity Activities. [online] Available at: https://www.itu.int/en/action/cybersecurity/Pages/default.aspx [Ac cessed 26 Jun. 2018]. 31 GFCE. Global Forum on Cyber Expertise. [online] Available at: https://www.thegfce.com/ [Accessed 26 Jun. 2018]. 2018]. 32 GCSC. Global Commission on the Stability of Cyberspace. [online] Available at: https://cyberstability.org/ [Accessed 26 Jun. 82

113 Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 • GLOBAL TRENDS IN E-GOVERNMENT Chapter 5. Global trends in e-government 5.1 Introduction The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development introduces the concept of data-driven governance and highlights the challenge to Photo credit: pixabay.com “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely, reliable 1 and disaggregated data by 2030”. This chapter presents a data-driven analysis of the key trends of e-government development in 2018 based In this chapter: on the assessment of the E-Government Development Index (EGDI). It 83 5.1 Introduction also describes and analyzes global trends in electronic and mobile service delivery and sheds light on the distribution of online services by income 5.2 E-government rankings in 2018 83 level and sectors. 5.2.1 E-government development at a glance 84 It starts by briefly analyzing the ranking of the 193 United Nations Member 5.2.2 The leading e-government States according to EGDI subgroups (Very-High, High, Middle, and Low). 88 developed countries The analysis also presents major drivers of EGDI such as progress in online 5.2.3 National Income and e-Government Development 94 transactional services delivery, trends in open government data and mobile services, and public engagement in the delivery of innovative public 5.3 Progress in online service delivery 96 services. Multiple linkages to the sustainable development goals (SDGs) 5.3.1 Trends in Transactional are highlighted relating to key services across selected goals and targets, Online Services 99 such as health, education, social protection, gender equality, and decent 5.3.2 Distribution of online services work and employment. Also highlighted are the five key dimensions in by sector 101 Goal 16, including effectiveness, inclusion, openness, trustworthiness, and 5.3.3 Targeted services for vulnerable accountability. Selected themes or proxy themes related to e-government groups 103 and sustainable development are also globally analyzed, including open 5.3.4 Key Dimensions of Governance government data, mobile-government and e-participation. 104 for Sustainable Development 5.3.5 Global disparities in The sections below present the 2018 Survey findings by EGDI rankings at 106 e-government services the global level. Where relevant, additional insights are provided based on 107 5.4 Trends in Open Government Data comparisons of data from the 2014, 2016 and 2018 Surveys and relevant 109 5.5 Trends in mobile service delivery correlations between EGDI and its components, country income group 5.6 E-participation: public engagement for classifications, and organization of e-services by sectors. innovative public eservices delivery 112 5.6.1 E-participation concepts 5.2 E-government rankings in 2018 and features 112 114 5.6.2 Global and regional rankings The 2018 United Nations E-Government Survey is the tenth edition of 5.6.3 E-information 118 tracking e-government development achieved by all Member States of the United Nations since the 2001 benchmarks. The Survey is not designed to 119 5.6.4 E-consultation capture e-government development in absolute terms. Rather, it aims to 5.6.5 E-decision-making 120 give an indicative assessment of the diffusion of e-government through 5.6.6 Innovative partnerships, performance rating of national governments relative to one another. As crowdsourcing, and crowdfunding 121 explained in the Methodology note (See Annexes), the E-Government 122 5.7 Conclusions Development Index is a weighted average of normalized scores on the References 125 three most important dimensions of e-government: the scope and quality of online services as indicated by the Online Service Index (OSI), the status of the development of telecommunication infrastructure rated through 83 Chapter 5

114 Chapter 5 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES the Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) and the inherent human capital scored through the Human Capital Index (HCI). Each of these indices is by itself a composite measure that can be extracted and analyzed independently. The composite value of each component index is then normalized to fall between the range of 0 to 1 and the overall EGDI is derived by taking the arithmetic average of the three component indices. 5.2.1 E-government development at a glance E-government has been growing rapidly over the past 17 years since the first attempt of the United Nations to benchmark the state of e-government in 2001. The 2018 Survey highlights a persistent positive global trend towards higher levels of e-government development. In this edition, 40 countries score “Very-High”, with EGDI values in the range of 0.75 to 1.00, as compared to only 10 countries in 2003, and 29 countries in 2016. Since 2014, all 193 Member States have been delivering some form of online presence. Figure 5.1 shows the percentages of the different groupings based on EGDI in 2018 compared to 2016. Table 5.1 lists all countries grouped by E-Government Development Index (EGDI) levels in alphabetical order. Figure 5.1 Number of countries grouped by E-Government Development Index (EGDI) in 2016 and 2018 2018 2016 Low EGDI, 32, Middle EGDI, 66, 16% High EGDI, 71, High EGDI, 65, 34% 37% 34% Very High EGDI, 29, 15% Middle EGDI, 67, Low EGDI, 16, Very High EGDI, 40, 35% 8% 21% High and Very-High EGDI Group Notably, in 2018, there are more countries with High-and Very-High-EGDI or values between 0.50 and 1.00; and the share of countries in High and Very-High-EGDI level groups has increased by 3 and 6 per cent respectively. As a result, the cumulative percentage of countries with High and Very- High levels of e-government development has reached 58 per cent, close to two-thirds of the United Nations Member States. About one-quarter of countries in the High-EGDI and Very-High-EGDI groups had transitioned to a higher EGDI level: from Middle- to High-EGDI, 17 out of 71 countries and High- to Very High-EGDI, 11 out of 40 countries. It is interesting to note that eight of the 17 new countries that moved from the Middle- to High-EGDI level group in 2018 belong to the small island developing States (SIDS) group, indicating that many SIDS are already well advanced in implementing e-government policies and strategies and incorporating these into their development plans and policies. 84

115 Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 • GLOBAL TRENDS IN E-GOVERNMENT The other nine out of the 17 countries that transitioned from Middle- to High-EGDI level group include five from Asia (India, Indonesia, Iran, Maldives, Kyrgyzstan), three from the Pacific (Fiji, Palau, Tonga) and one from Africa (Ghana). Ghana is the only African country that made this transition, in part, by streamlining its institutional and policy frameworks to capitalize on ICT innovations. Since 2017, it has also been investing in improving online services delivery (see Box 5.1 below). Box 5.1 e-Ghana and e-Transform projects Ghana’s economy experienced dramatic growth in 2017 when its GDP increased by 8.5 percent, 2 compared with 3.7 percent in 2016 . The government of Ghana made significant contributions towards the development of ICTs under the e-Ghana and e-Transform projects. The Ghana Shared Growth and Development Agenda (GSGDA) incorporates an ICT strategy which implies increasing use of ICT across economic sectors, e-government, in implementing the National Electronic Security 3 system and the proliferation of other ICT-related mechanisms for public benefit . Various projects conducted by the National Information Technology Agency and the Ghana Investment Fund for 4 Source: Electronic Communication are ensuring stable growth in the use of ICTs and are creating a favorable http://www.un-page. 5 environment for further development and deployment of e-government mechanisms . All these org/files/public/gsgda. initiatives are securing Ghana’s commitment towards the attainment of SDGs. pdf The Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries are demonstrating remarkable progress in advancing positions in the EGDI. In the 2018 Survey, eight countries in the region jumped to the High-EGDI group, reflecting improved online presence boosted by strategies linking digital policies to national development. Middle-EGDI Group While the number of countries in the Middle-EGDI level group with scores between 0.25 and 0.50 remained almost unchanged at 66 countries in 2018 compared to 67 in 2016, a significant improvement on e-government development is observed, as 18 or one-third of those countries have transitioned from a previous lower level. Only two countries (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and Sudan) have fallen from Middle- to Low-EGDI level due to adverse political, socio-economic and natural conditions. Twelve of the 18 countries are from Africa (Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gambia, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Sierra Leone), while two are from Asia (Afghanistan, Myanmar). The other three countries are part of SIDS (Haiti, Sao Tome and Principe, and Solomon Islands). Low-EGDI Group As evidence of the advancement of e-government development in the last two years, countries in the Low-EGDI level that scored 0.25 or lower have dropped by a significant 50 per cent or 16 countries compared to 32 countries in 2016. But despite some development gains and major investments made in several countries, the e-government divide and digital divides persist. Fourteen countries in the Low-EGDI group are African and belong to the least developed countries. Within these countries, there is a high risk that the divide could deepen between people who have access to the Internet and online services and those who do not. 85

116 Chapter 5 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Table 5.1 Countries grouped by EGDI levels Very High EGDI 2018 Middle EGDI 2018 High EGDI 2018 Low EGDI 2018 (Less than 0.25) (Between 0.25 to 0.50) (Greater than 0.75) (Between 0.50 and 0.75) Central African Republic Albania Australia Afghanistan (+) Chad Algeria Austria Andorra Angola Comoros Bahrain Antigua and Barbuda (+) Argentina Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (-) Belarus (+) Bangladesh Belize Armenia Belgium Djibouti Canada Azerbaijan Benin (+) Equatorial Guinea Bahamas Bhutan Eritrea Cyprus (+) Barbados Denmark Botswana Guinea Burkina Faso (+) Bolivia (Plurinational State of) (+) Guinea-Bissau Estonia Burundi (+) Mali Finland Bosnia and Herzegovina Cambodia Mauritania Brazil France Brunei Darussalam Cameroon Niger Germany Bulgaria Somalia Cabo Verde Greece (+) Chile Congo (+) South Sudan Iceland China Côte d’Ivoire (+) Ireland Sudan (-) Israel Colombia Cuba Yemen Democratic Republic of the Italy Costa Rica Central African Republic Congo (+) Egypt Japan Croatia Eswatini Kazakhstan (+) Czech Republic Liechtenstein (+) Ethiopia Dominica (+) Lithuania Dominican Republic (+) Gabon Luxembourg Gambia (+) Ecuador Malta (+) Guatemala El Salvador (+) Fiji (+) Guyana Monaco (+) Georgia Haiti Netherlands New Zealand Ghana (+) Honduras Norway Grenada Iraq Poland (+) Hungary Jamaica India (+) Portugal (+) Kenya Republic of Korea Indonesia (+) Kiribati Lao People’s Democratic Russian Federation (+) Iran (Islamic Republic of) (+) Republic Singapore Jordan Lesotho Slovenia Kuwait Liberia (+) Spain Libya Kyrgyzstan (+) Sweden Latvia Madagascar (+) Switzerland Lebanon Malawi (+) United Arab Emirates Malaysia Marshall Islands United Kingdom of Great Micronesia Britain and Northern Maldives (+) Ireland 86

117 Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 • GLOBAL TRENDS IN E-GOVERNMENT High EGDI 2018 Middle EGDI 2018 Low EGDI 2018 Very High EGDI 2018 (Greater than 0.75) (Less than 0.25) (Between 0.25 to 0.50) (Between 0.50 and 0.75) Mozambique (+) Mauritius United States of America Mexico Myanmar (+) Uruguay (+) Mongolia Namibia Montenegro Nauru Nepal Morocco Nicaragua Oman Nigeria Palau (+) Pakistan Panama (+) Paraguay (+) Papua New Guinea (+) Peru Rwanda Philippines Saint Lucia Qatar Samoa Republic of Moldova Sao Tome and Principe (+) Romania Senegal Saint Kitts and Nevis Sierra Leone (+) Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (+) Solomon Islands (+) Suriname San Marino Syrian Arab Republic Saudi Arabia Serbia Tajikistan Seychelles Timor-Leste Slovakia Togo South Africa Turkmenistan Sri Lanka Tuvalu Thailand Uganda The former Yugoslav Republic of United Republic of Tanzania Macedonia Vanuatu Tonga (+) Trinidad and Tobago Zambia Tunisia Zimbabwe Turkey Ukraine Uzbekistan Venezuela (Bolivian Republic of) Viet Nam Note: Countries with superscript (+) have advanced from a lower EGDI group to a higher EGDI group (e.g., from low-EGDI to middle- EGDI); countries with superscript (-) have dropped from a higher EGDI group to a lower EGDI group (e.g. from high-EGDI to middl e- EGDI). The average world EGDI has been increasing from 0.47 in 2014 to 0.55 in 2018 due to the continuous improvement of its subcomponent indices (see Figure 5.2). It is important to note that the improvement of the OSI Online Service Index average is the fastest - from 0.39 to 0.57 or by an average of 40 per cent. This suggests that globally, there has been steady progress in improving e-government and public services provision online. 87

118 Chapter 5 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Figure 5.2 Breakdown of EGDI Indices comparing data from 2014, 2016 and 2018 Components of EGDI Index Comparing 2014, 2016 and 2018 Data 1.00 0.75 0.66 0.66 0.64 2018 Global EGDI 0.57 average = 0.55 0.55 0.49 0.47 0.50 0.46 0.42 0.39 0.37 0.37 0.25 0.00 HCI EGDI TII OSI 2016 2014 2018 Year 5.2.2 The leading e-government developed countries In presenting the 2018 ranking, it is pertinent to reiterate that the E-Government Development Index is a normalized broad relative index. Dropping a few positions in rankings does not necessarily imply that a country had underperformed in that specific two-year survey period. Nor does higher ranking always mean better or more desirable outcomes, especially if it refers to a country belonging to the same EGDI level. Hence, analysts and policy-makers should caution against misinterpreting, even slightly, changes in ranking among closely ranked countries. Every country should determine the level and extent of its digital government objectives based on its specific national development context, capacity, strategy and programmes and never on an arbitrary assumption of its future position in the ranking. EGDI is a powerful and reliable benchmarking tool for development but only if it is used as a snapshot performance indicator and not an award conferred to worldwide leadership positions or outstanding advancements against the performance of others. The list of the top-ranking countries in e-government development according to the findings of the 2018 Survey, are presented in Table 5.2 with corresponding EGDI values and its three components— OSI, TII and HCI. All the top 29 countries with Very-High-EGDI scores in 2016 remained in the same group in 2018. 88

119 Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 • GLOBAL TRENDS IN E-GOVERNMENT Leading countries in e-government development Table 5.2 2016 2018 EGDI Country Name Rank HCI Rank TII Group change EGDI Region OSI 0.9472 0.9150 9 1 None 1.0000 0.7978 Denmark Europe 1.0000 0.7436 0.9053 2 2 Australia Oceania 0.9722 None 0.9792 0.8496 0.9010 3 0.8743 None Republic of Korea Asia 3 United Kingdom of Great 0.9792 Europe 0.8004 0.8999 1 4 None 0.9200 Britain and Northern Ireland 0.9444 0.9366 0.7835 0.8882 6 5 None Sweden Europe 0.9653 0.7284 0.8815 5 6 None Europe 0.9509 Finland 0.9861 0.8557 0.8019 0.8812 Singapore 7 None Asia 4 Oceania 0.9514 0.9450 0.7455 0.8806 8 8 None New Zealand Europe 0.9792 0.8598 0.7979 0.8790 10 9 None France Asia Japan 0.8406 0.8783 11 10 None 0.9514 0.8428 0.9861 0.7564 0.8769 12 11 None Americas United States of America 0.8883 0.9306 0.9036 0.7952 0.8765 15 12 None Germany Europe Europe 0.9306 0.7758 0.8757 7 13 None Netherlands 0.9206 Europe 0.9025 0.7131 0.8557 18 14 None Norway 0.9514 Europe 0.8472 0.8660 0.8428 0.8520 28 15 None Switzerland Europe Estonia 0.7613 0.8486 13 16 None 0.9028 0.8818 Europe 0.8885 0.6986 0.8415 17 17 None Spain 0.9375 Europe 0.9236 0.7803 0.7964 0.8334 25 18 None Luxembourg Europe 0.7292 0.9365 0.8292 Iceland 27 19 None 0.8316 Austria Europe 0.8681 0.8505 0.7716 0.8301 16 20 None United Arab Emirates Asia 0.6877 0.8564 0.8295 29 21 None 0.9444 Europe 0.8264 0.6970 0.8287 26 22 None Ireland 0.9626 0.9306 14 0.6724 0.8258 Americas 23 None Canada 0.8744 Europe 0.8341 0.6771 0.8209 22 24 None Italy 0.9514 Europe 0.7986 0.8237 0.8389 0.8204 32 25 H to VH Liechtenstein Bahrain Asia 0.7897 0.8466 0.8116 24 26 None 0.7986 Europe 0.9740 0.6930 0.8080 19 27 None Belgium 0.7569 Europe 0.6250 0.7901 1.0000 Monaco 31 28 H to VH 0.8050 Portugal Europe 0.9306 0.8170 0.6617 0.8031 38 29 H to VH Malta Europe 0.8403 0.7973 0.7657 0.8011 30 30 H to VH Israel Asia 0.8635 0.7095 0.7998 20 31 None 0.8264 Europe 0.8522 0.6219 0.7969 35 32 H to VH Russian Federation 0.9167 Europe 0.9306 0.8668 0.5805 Poland 36 33 H to VH 0.7926 Uruguay Americas 0.8889 0.7719 0.6967 0.7858 34 34 H to VH Greece Europe 0.8194 0.8867 0.6439 0.7833 43 35 H to VH Cyprus Asia 0.8083 0.7279 0.7736 64 36 H to VH 0.7847 Slovenia 0.7986 0.8923 0.6232 0.7714 21 37 None Europe Belarus Europe 0.7361 0.8681 0.6881 0.7641 49 38 H to VH Kazakhstan Asia 0.8681 0.8388 0.5723 0.7597 33 39 H to VH None Lithuania Europe 0.7986 0.8323 0.6293 0.7534 23 40 89

120 Chapter 5 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Eight of the 11 new countries that joined the Very-High EGDI group in 2018 are from Europe (Belarus, Greece, Liechtenstein, Malta, Monaco, Poland, Portugal and the Russian Federation) while two are from Asia (Cyprus and Kazakhstan). Uruguay is the only Latin American country and one of the three countries from the Americas in this group, the other two being the United States and Canada. Eight of these 11 countries have significantly improved their online presence and services as reflected in their respective OSI scores. 6 All but two of the 40 countries in the Very-High-EGDI level group are high-income countries; Belarus and Kazakhstan are upper-middle-income countries. As evidenced in previous editions of the Survey (United Nations, 2012, 2014 and 2016), the per capita income of a country, indicating economic capacity, has a strong influence on national e-government development. Box 5.2 Belarus e-government development Belarus transitioned from High-EGDI in 2016 to Very-High-EGDI in 2018. This could be attributed to its National Strategy for Sustainable Social and Economic Development for the period up to 2030 incorporating several initiatives related to ICT development in various sectors of its economy. For example, the Strategy of Informatization of the Republic of Belarus for the period 2016 – 2022 was implemented in 2015 with the purpose of enhancing ICTs in the provision of e-government services. Another initiative, the State Program for the Development of the Digital Economy and the Information Society for 2016-2020 defines the vision for the “digital transformation” of the Belarusian economy and ensures the effective implementation of digital tools. This program was designed to digitalize already existing processes in healthcare, public procurement, education, among others. Presidential decrees and resolutions of the Council of Ministers contribute towards the coherent functioning of egovernment services in the Republic http://www. Source: economy.gov.by/ru/ of Belarus. The 10 top countries leading e-government development Among the top 10 countries, Denmark ranks highest according to the 2018 Survey. In the independent assessment conducted by UNDESA on the provision of online services, Denmark got the 7 highest score. Since 2016, Denmark has been implementing its Digital Strategy 2016-2020 , setting the course for Danish public-sector digitization efforts as well as their interaction with businesses and industry. This strategy is aimed at building the basis for a strong and secure digital Denmark. Denmark has also made digital government-citizen interactions mandatory without excluding those unable to use digital services. Along with the private sector, public institutions at local, regional and central-government levels are taking advantage of the opportunities provided by digitization. Australia ranks second in 2018 retaining its position in 2016. Notably, Australia leads the chart in human capital development and is in the top 10 in online services. The Australian Government is working to deliver the Digital Transformation Agenda. A Digital Transformation Roadmap issued in November 2016 sets out the goals of the Agenda, and snapshots of expected deliverables are being 8 updated regularly . The Republic of Korea also remains in the third spot, as in 2016. The country performed well in online service and technology infrastructure, but its human capital development was relatively low compared to other top ranked countries. The country facilitates convenient, efficient, and transparent government in enhancing citizens’ satisfaction and government productivity and is constantly improving to provide better government services to its citizens in the face of rapid technology changes. An increasing number of developing countries have requested the Government of the 90

121 Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 • GLOBAL TRENDS IN E-GOVERNMENT 9 resulting in e-government Republic of Korea to share its know-how in digital government strategies capacity-building and the training of more than 4,820 public officials from other countries in the past 10 years. The United Kingdom ranks fourth in the 2018 Survey, a few spots down from being the top-ranking country in 2016. The drop is due to a relative decrease in the ranking of its human capital and online service indices. The British Government is providing more integrated online services through its one- 10 stop platform GOV.UK. Its Government Transformation Strategy published in 2017 is setting the course for further e-government development through business transformation, growing the right people, culture and skills, building better tools, processes and governance for civil servants, making better use of data and creating shared platforms, components and reusable business capabilities. In the fifth place, Sweden stepped up one position compared to its ranking in 2016, owing to relatively high scores in both human capital and technical infrastructure indices. In 2017, the Government presented a strategy outlining the focus of the Government’s digital policy—how it will contribute to competitiveness, full employment, and economic, social and environmentally sustainable development. The strategy aims for Sweden to become the world leader in harnessing 11 the opportunities of digital transformation. Sweden has high rates of mobile broadband take-up and its market is characterized by a rapidly growing consumer demand for fast broadband. Ninety- one percent of Swedes are online and three-quarters of them have basic digital skills. Finland stepped down from the fifth place in 2016 to sixth in 2018. Finland has been scoring consistently well in human capital and online service indices, while its technical infrastructure is relatively low compared to other high ranked countries. Its National Knowledge Society Strategy has been focusing on the provision of multichannel, interactive e-services together with interoperability of information systems in the public administration. According to its Strategic Government Programme 12 in 2016 , public services will be designed to be user-oriented and primarily digital, so as to achieve the desired productivity leap in public administration. Digitalization is a cross-cutting theme in the Government strategy. Principles for client-oriented public services are being drawn up and the public sector is being encouraged to commit to automation and the digitalization of their practices. Singapore stepped down from the forth place in 2016 to the seventh in 2018. Singapore ranks second in online service delivery index together with United States behind Denmark. It dropped a few positions from 2016 due to its human capital index and technological infrastructure indices. The Singaporean Government had an e-government plan since the 1980s. In 2014, it announced its goal 13 of becoming a Smart Nation, of which Digital Government is an integral aspect . Singapore has been embracing e-government as a whole-of-government approach in its national development strategy. Its small population and land area, accompanied by a very high human development and high GNI per capita, allow the government to develop a full suite of online services for its citizens, businesses and visitors. Additionally, the high mobile and smartphone penetration rate in Singapore is enabling the government to provide e-access to citizens through seamless m-government applications with faster, easier and more convenient use of available online resources, especially in government-to- 14 citizen (G2C) and government-to-business (G2B) transactions . New Zealand scores well in both online services and human capital, ranking eight in EGDI in 2018 15 the same as in 2016. Alongside its ICT strategy , the Government of New Zealand has established a Digital Economy Work Programme ensuring that agencies are collectively focusing on the right initiatives, in the right areas. The government is supporting the growth of New Zealand’s digital sector, the uptake and smart use of ICT across its economy, the citizens’ secure use of digital technologies 91

122 Chapter 5 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES to support their personal, development and learning, access job opportunities, run businesses, and trade goods and services all over the world. More importantly, it charges the Government to use 16 digital technologies for efficiency and to reduce paper-based processes . France improved its ranking from the tenth position in 2016 to ninth in 2018. Among factors contributing to improved scores is governments vision to achieve digital transformation of the public service with an objective of 100% dematerialized public service by 2022. In October 2017 France 17 has launched Public Action 2022: for a transformation of the public service aiming, among others, to simplify and digitize administrative processes. The government of France has also launched a 18 Coordinated Development Program of the Digital Territorial Administration (DCANT ) to build a common foundation of applications, digital bricks, repositories and shared frameworks to accelerate digital transformation and scale up digital transformation. Japan completes the group of the top 10 leading countries moving up from eleventh position in 2016 to tenth position in 2018. It scored high in technology infrastructure and online service, which drove it to the top 10 performance country list, even though its human capital index was comparatively low compared to other top-ranking countries. In Japan, the Government is promoting initiatives such as online use of administrative procedures, electronic provision of government information, optimization of work and systems, improvement of government e-procurement, and 19 information security measures . Japan also has a “Digital Government Strategy” and a “Basic Plan for the Advancement of Utilizing Public and Private Sector Data”. One of the three pillars of “Digital Government Strategy” is a platform for public-private partnerships aligned with SDG 8—promoting sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent 20 work for all . At a glance, the regional EGDI averages in 2018 mirror those of previous Surveys. In 2018, Europe (0.7727) continues to lead with the highest regional EGDI, followed by the Americas (0.5898), Asia (0.5779), Oceania (0.4611) and finally Africa (0.3423). Examining previous trends, there has been no change in regional positions since 2003. Figure 5.3 Regional averages with maximum and minimum values of EGDI in 2018 1.000 Max 0.9150 Max 0.9010 0.900 Max 0.9053 Max 0.8769 0.800 Average 0.7727 0.700 Max 0.6678 0.600 Average 0.5898 Average 0.5779 World 0.5303 Average 0.500 0.55 Average 0.4611 0.400 Average 0.3423 Min 0.3047 0.300 Min 0.2787 Min 0.2154 0.200 0.100 Min 0.0566 0.000 Africa Oceania Americas Asia Europe 92

123 Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 • GLOBAL TRENDS IN E-GOVERNMENT More specifically, as shown in Figure 5.4, in the Very-High-EGDI group, 67 per cent of all countries are from Europe, followed by Asia (20 per cent), Americas (8 per cent) and Oceania (5 per cent). In the High-EGDI group, the leaders are Asia and Americas regions (33 per cent and 31 per cent respectfully), followed by Europe (22 per cent), Africa (11 per cent), and Oceania (3 per cent). In the Middle-EGDI group, African countries comprise 50 per cent, the geographic distribution of countries from Americas and Oceania is similar (15 per cent), and Asia takes up to 20 per cent of the share in the group. No European country is in the Middle and Low EGDI-level groups. The majority of 15 countries in Low-EGDI-level group are from Africa (87 per cent) followed by 2 countries in Asia (13 per cent). The Africa region overall lags in e-government development compared to the rest of the world. While the share of African countries with improved EGDI scores expanded in 2018, the upward movement has mainly been from low to middle EGDI-level groups. The number of African countries within High-EGDI level group remains at the relatively modest count of six, including Ghana, Mauritius, Morocco, Seychelles, South Africa, and Tunisia. Except Ghana, all other five countries were in this group in 2016. The regional average EGDI scores for countries in Africa and Oceania are significantly lower than the world average, comprising 0.3423 for Africa and 0.4611 for Oceania. Australia and New Zealand are the only two countries in Oceania that have high EGDI scores of 0.9053 and 0.8806 respectively. The scores for the other 12 countries range between 0.2787 to 0.5348, below the world average, even though they have as high level of human development as in the Americas and Asia. The HCI for these countries ranges from 0.4732 to 0.8462 with an average of 0.6637. Their e-government advancement is stalled due to relatively poor telecommunications infrastructure, with TII scores ranging from 0.0773 to 0.3562. Figure 5.4 Regional distribution by EGDI level, 2018 2018: Very High EGDI 2018: High EGDI Africa, 0, 0% Americas, 3, Oceania, 2, Africa, 8, 8% 5% 11% Oceania, 2, 3% Americas, 22, 31% Asia, 8, 20% Europe, 16, 22% Europe, 27, Asia, 24, 67% 33% 2018: Low EGDI 2018: Middle EGDI Americas, 10, Europe, 0, Asia, 2, 15% Americas, 0, 0% 13% 0% Asia, 13, Oceania, 0, 20% 0% Africa, 13, Africa, 33, Europe, 0, 50% 87% 0% Oceania, 10, 15% 93

124 Chapter 5 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Similarly, only 4 countries out of 54 in Africa score higher than the world average of 0.55, whereas 14 countries, namely Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Somalia, South Sudan, and Sudan have very low EGDI scores. These are also low-income countries, which face significant constraints in socio-economic development, creating additional pressure for prioritizing and allocating resources for e-government development. In the Americas and Asia, the overall progress in e-government development is slow but noticeable. Two-thirds of the countries in Asia (31 out of 47) and almost half of the countries in the Americas (15 out of 32) score above the world average EGDI. In the Americas, Bolivia, El Salvador, Paraguay, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines rose from Middle- to High-EGDI, and Haiti from Low- to Middle-EGDI, in the last two years. In Asia, six countries recorded an improvement in their e-presence and provision of public services online— Pakistan, Nepal, Indonesia, from Middle- to High-OSI and Cambodia, Timor Leste and Tajikistan, from Low to Middle-OSI level. 5.2.3 National Income and e-Government Development The average EGDI scores and its component indices have improved over time for all income groups, as shown in Figure 5.5. Moreover, there is a positive correlation between the country’s income level and its e-government ranking, as presented in Figure 5.6. Most countries in high and upper middle-income groups tend to have higher than average EGDI scores with the only exception being Equatorial Guinea, which has a low EGDI score (0.2298) despite being an upper middle-income country. This trend is consistent with findings from previous Surveys. High-income countries progress faster by expanding the scope and quality of their online services (OSI) with already advanced levels telecommunications infrastructure and human capital development. Figure 5.5 Correlation between EGDI and Income groups and GDP Distribution of 2018 vs 2016 EGDI index Correlation of EGDI 2018 with GDP scores across income groups Positive correlation between EGDI 2018 and log (GDP) Adj R-squared = 0.323 0.75 0.79 0.75 0.73 0.75 2018 Global EGDI average = 0.5 0.57 0.50 0.51 0.44 0.50 0.38 0.28 0.25 0.22 EGDI index scores EGDI index scores 0.25 0.00 Lower Upper Higher Lower income Middle Middle income income income 0.00 2 4 6 2016 2018 Year Source: 2018 EGDI Survey Log (GDP) 94

125 Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 • GLOBAL TRENDS IN E-GOVERNMENT This is not universal, however. Twenty-two upper middle-income countries and 39 lower-middle income countries have EGDI scores ranging from 0.2154 to 0.5390, which is below the global EGDI average of 0.55. On the other hand, 10 countries in the lower middle-income group have scores above the global EGDI average — Armenia (0.5944), Georgia (0.6893), India (0.5669), Kyrgyzstan (0.5835), Philippines (0.6512), Republic of Moldova (0.6590), Sri Lanka (0.5751), Ukraine (0.6165), Uzbekistan (0.6207) and Viet Nam (0.5931). For these lower and upper-middle income countries, where telecommunications infrastructure permits, the efforts directed at improving online services delivery greatly enhance their e-government development overall. Figure 5.6 Distribution of OSI values by income groups, 2018 1 6 5 7 2 4 8 7 7 1 6 12 8 9 2 3 13 10 5 11 5 8 5 6 6 5 1 5 4 2 4 3 3 2 2 11 1 11 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 Income Level 2018 High Income Upper Middle Income Lower Middle Income Low Income It is important to note that in 2018, for the first time, the main contributor towards improving EGDI scores in all income groups is OSI (see Figure 5.7). Based on previous Survey results, high- income countries were expected to perform well on all EGDI components compared to other groups. Likewise, the gap between the component HCI, OSI, and TII scores is relatively narrower for high-income countries that already enjoy rather high levels of development of human capital and telecommunications infrastructure. For the low and middle-income countries, however, the ascending trend of TII and OSI scores over the last four years is encouraging. This suggests a continuous expansion of online services availability and quality leading to an overall improvement in e-government development (see Section 5.3.1. below for further details on key trends in transactional online services delivery). 95

126 Chapter 5 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES EGDI and its component indices for 2014 and 2018 Figure 5.7 2018 2014 0.9 0.9 0.8375 0.812 0.8343 0.7838 0.8 0.8 0.7231 0.7207 0.7253 0.7 0.7 0.7018 0.6845 0.6503 0.5843 0.5655 0.6 0.6 0.5787 0.5479 0.4828 0.4411 0.5 0.5 0.4688 0.3684 0.4256 0.3709 0.4 0.4 0.3523 0.3884 0.3522 0.3076 0.3329 0.3 0.3 0.2735 0.2703 0.2094 0.2307 0.2 0.2 0.1523 0.1191 0.1 0.1 0.0876 0 0 Lower Upper Upper Lower Higher Higher Lower Lower income Middle Middle income income Middle income Middle income income income income Online Service Human Capital Telecomm. Infrustructure Component EGDI Component Component 5.3 Progress in online service delivery The Online Services Index component of the E-Government Development Index is a composite indicator measuring the use of ICTs by governments in delivering public services at the national level. It is based on a comprehensive survey of the online presence of all 193 Member States. The Survey assesses the technical features of national websites as well as e-government policies and strategies applied in general and by specific sectors in delivering services. The results are tabulated and presented as a set of standardized index values on a scale from zero to one, with one corresponding to the highest rated online services and zero to the lowest. As with the EGDI itself, the index values are not intended as absolute measurements. Rather, they capture the online performance of countries relative to each other at a particular point in time. Because the index is a comparative tool, a high score is an indication of best current practice rather than perfection. Similarly, a very low score, or a score that has not changed since the Survey’s last edition in 2016, does not mean there has been no progress in e-government development. Table 5.3 presents the OSI level grouping with corresponding EGDI level for 193 United Nations Member States. Table 5.3 Countries grouping by Level of Online Service Index (OSI), 2018 High OSI Middle OSI Very High OSI Low OSI Corresponding EGDI level Corresponding EGDI level Corresponding EGDI level Corresponding EGDI level Algeria High Australia Medium Very High Medium Albania Afghanistan Botswana Andorra Angola Medium Very High Medium Austria High Cambodia Argentina High Antigua and High Bahrain Very High Medium Barbuda Central African Republic Bangladesh Medium Armenia High Belize Low Medium Chad Benin Very High Belgium Medium Low High Azerbaijan Comoros Bahamas High Bhutan Medium Low High Brazil Congo Barbados High Bosnia and Bulgaria High High Medium Herzegovina Côte d’Ivore Very High Belarus Very High Burundi Medium Canada Medium Democratic People’s Cameroon Bolivia (Plurinational Low High High Medium Chile Republic of Korea state of) Democratic Republic of the China Medium Medium Cape Verde High Brunei Darussalam High Congo 96

127 Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 • GLOBAL TRENDS IN E-GOVERNMENT Middle OSI Low OSI Very High OSI High OSI Corresponding EGDI level Corresponding EGDI level Corresponding EGDI level Corresponding EGDI level Equatorial Guinea Medium Colombia Low Cuba Burkina Faso High Medium Eritrea Djibouti Low High Low Cyprus Very High Costa Rica Gabon High Denmark Medium Very High Croatia High Fiji Guinea-Bissau Gambia Medium Low High Czech Republic Very High Estonia Lao People’s Democratic Grenada Medium High Finland Dominica Very High High Republic Lesotho Dominican Republic Guinea Low Medium Very High France High Libya Guyana Medium Medium Germany Very High Ecuador High Marshall Islands Egypt Medium Medium Medium Greece Very High Haiti Mauritania El Salvador Iraq Medium Low High India High Micronesia Medium Ireland Medium Very High Medium Ethiopia Jamaica Myanmar High Jordan High Very High Medium Israel Georgia Nauru Ghana Medium Very High Medium High Italy Kiribati Niger Medium High Low Guatemala Japan Very High Lebanon Sao Tome and Principe Honduras Liberia Medium Medium Very High Kazakhistan Medium Solomon Islands High Medium Hungary Medium High Kuwait Madagascar Somalia Very High Malawi Medium Liechtenstein Low Very High Iceland South Sudan Indonesia Maldives High Low Very High Lithuania High Sudan Iran (Islamic Republic High Mali Very High Low Low Luxembourg of) Turkmenistan Kenya Medium Mozambique Medium Medium Malaysia High Tuvalu Malta Kyrgizistan High Namibia Medium Very High Medium Yemen Mexico Nicaragua Medium High Low Latvia High Mauritius Netherlands High High Very High Palau Very High Papua New Guinea Medium Very High New Zealand Monaco Mongolia High Saint Lucia Medium Norway Very High Montenegro Oman Saint Vincent and High High High the Granadines Peru Morocco High Samoa Medium High High Nepal Medium San Marino High Philippines Very High Nigeria Senegal Medium Poland Medium Pakistan Medium Sierra Leone Very High Portugal Medium High High Suriname Medium Qatar Panama Very High Republic of Paraguay High eSwatini Medium Korea Medium High Romania High Syrian Arab Republic of Moldova Republic Russian Very High Rwanda Medium Tajikistan Medium Federation Saudi Arabia High Timor-Leste Medium Saint Kittis and Nevis High Very High Serbia Tonga High Singapore High Very High High Vanuatu Medium Slovenia Seychelles High Slovakia High South Africa High Venuzuela (Bolivian Republic of) Very High High Zambia Medium Spain Sri Lanka Sweden Thailand High Zimbabwe Medium Very High Switzerland Very High The former Yugoslav High Republic of Macedonia High Togo Medium Tunisa Turkey High Trinidad and Tobago High United Arab Very High Uganda Medium Emirates United High Ukraine Very High Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland United States United Republic of Very High Medium of America Tanzania Uruguay Very High Vietnam High High Uzbekistan 97

128 Chapter 5 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES As highlighted in earlier sections, the progress in online services provision correlates positively with the overall improvement of EDGI scores globally. The EGDI and OSI levels, as seen in Table 5.3, coincide for 62 per cent of the Member States, although there are also divergences where OSI levels are higher or lower than EGDI levels. Of the 57 countries with Very High-OSI level, 19 are in the High-EGDI group— Brazil, Bulgaria, Chile, China, Colombia, India, Kuwait, Malaysia, Mexico, Oman, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Republic of Moldova, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Tunisia, Turkey, and Uzbekistan. In most of these countries, the human capital development indices are quite high (ranging from 0.5484 to 0.8339), but telecommunications infrastructure is unevenly developed (TII ranging from 0.2009 to 0.7394), resulting in lower EGDI scores despite having relatively advanced levels of online services delivery. The same is true for 13 countries with High OSI scores in the Middle EGDI group: Burkina Faso, Egypt, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Honduras, Kenya, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Rwanda, Togo, Uganda, and United Republic of Tanzania. Their average HCI score (0.7555) is significantly higher than their average TII score (0.4592). Bangladesh is a notable example of a country with a Very High-OSI (0.7847) but a much lower EGDI score (0.4862), placing the country in the Middle-EGDI level group. The EGDI score for Bangladesh was pulled down by low levels of development in TII and HCI. Three countries with High OSI scores, on the other hand, are in the Very High-EGDI level group: Iceland (EGDI=0.8316), Monaco (EGDI=0.8050) and Belarus (EGDI=0.7641). This suggests that the improvement of their e-government slightly outpaces online services delivery as they already enjoy rather high levels of telecommunications infrastructure and human capital development. For the 36 countries that have higher OSI levels compared to their EGDI standing, their e-government advancement is constrained by the relatively slower progress in telecommunications infrastructure and human capital development. Investment in human capital and telecommunications infrastructure is important for many reasons, but primarily because it allows expanded access to online services for all population groups, including the most vulnerable, such as the poor, as well as people living in remote areas, women, older persons, persons with disabilities, youth, and those with limited digital literacy. From the regional perspective, European countries form a majority in Very High and High OSI level groups (36 per cent) followed by Asia (28 per cent), Americas (20 per cent), Africa (13 per cent) and Oceania (2 per cent). While this is consistent with previous surveys, it is important to note the positive trends in advancement of online services in all regions. In Africa, for instance, 57 per cent of countries moved upwards and changed their position in OSI level standing. Most of them moved up from Low to Middle (Burundi, Djibouti, Gambia, Guinea, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, and Sierra Leone); six countries stepped up from Middle to High (Ghana, Egypt, Nigeria, Rwanda, Seychelles and Togo) and two countries rose from High to Very High (South Africa and Tunisia). Two countries - Benin and Burkina Faso recorded significant progress by moving two steps up from Low to High OSI level grouping. Altogether, 16 countries in Europe, 13 in the Americas, 21 in Asia, and 4 in Oceania improved their standing in online services delivery. 98

129 Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 • GLOBAL TRENDS IN E-GOVERNMENT 5.3.1 Trends in Transactional Online Services All 193 Member States had national portals and back-end systems automating core administrative tasks, improving the availability of public services and promoting transparency and accountability. Although not all countries provide transactional online services, the coverage and availability of services in countries that do provide these services has increased from 18 per cent to 47 per cent in all service categories compared to 2016 (see Table 5.4 below). The three most commonly used online services in 2018 were paying for utilities (140 countries), submitting income taxes (139 countries), and registering new businesses (126 countries). Table 5.4 Trends in transactional online services Increase in percent of countries offering the service Trends of transactional services 2018 2016 2016 to 2018 2014 2014 to 2018 online, 2014, 2016 and 2018 26% 140 41 71% Pay for utilities 104 Submit income taxs 47% 18% 139 114 73 Regoster a business 52% 23% 126 97 60 Pay fines 32% 111 76 42 62% 44 55 86 36% 49% Apply for a birth certificate 52% 39 53 82 35% Apply for marriage certificate Register a motor vehicle 57% 38% 76 47 33 29 Apply for drivers licence 38 62 39% 53% Apply for personal identity card 59 47% 54% 31 27 Identity registration at birth is a United Nations proclaimed human right being tracked by the 2030 Agenda target 16.9 (A/RES/70/1). In the period 2014-2018, the number of countries where citizens can apply for birth registration online has been rising significantly, almost doubling from 44 in 2016 to 86 in 2018. Still, this comprises only 45 per cent of the total United Nations Member States, and the service is not available to many of the world’s poorer countries. Only 15 out of 31 countries in the Low-OSI level group and 23 out of 51 countries in Middle OSI level group offer online birth registration. Box 5.3 Uruguay: Democratizing access to all government services The Government of Uruguay committed to the digitalization of all services by 2020 as a presidential goal. As part of this strategy, all services should be started online by the last quarter of 2016, for example, filling out a form or scheduling an appointment. Following an international prize-winning enterprise architecture, services such as e-forms, e-notifications, epayments are being digitized using shared and reusable components, making them more user- friendly through standardization. One of these components is the “single-sign-in” allowing citizens to log in to all government services with a single user ID and password or by using the digital signature integrated into the Uruguayan ID card. The national portal currently in beta phase, is being transformed to GUB.UY to simplify interaction with the government through new integrated services already available such as the one-stop application tracking the status of every government service or the one-stop agenda for scheduling appointments. All these are being coordinated by the Agency for eGovernment and Information and Knowledge Society (Agesic) from the Office of the President, as part of the Uruguayan digital policy of transforming Source: https://www. with equity. agesic.gub.uy/ 99

130 Chapter 5 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Figure 5.8 Trends in transactional services online Comparing 2014, 2016 and 2018 responses by OSI Level 37 50 32 21 2018 28 21 22 2016 33 Pay for utilities 98 9 15 2014 37 49 30 23 2018 Submit 36 29 27 22 2016 income taxes 19 12 9 33 2014 29 30 20 47 2018 Register a new 2016 24 27 15 31 business 2014 24 99 18 42 31 23 15 2018 Pay fines 12 23 22 19 2016 17 6 7 12 2014 OSI Level Very High OSI 23 14 34 15 2018 Apply High OSI 2016 for birth 9 12 18 16 Middle OSI certificates 17 84 15 2014 Low OSI 16 33 20 13 2018 Apply 17 9 14 13 2016 for marriage certificates 64 15 14 2014 22 12 28 14 2018 Apply 18 11 10 8 2016 for motor vehicles 11 73 12 2014 18 21 10 13 Apply 2018 for drivers 54 13 16 2016 license 16 4 63 2014 11 17 18 13 Apply 2018 for personal 84 15 4 2016 indentity cards 7 13 2 5 2014 140 135 130 125 120 115 110 105 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 145 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 35 The trend of improvement in providing online services have been steady over the last four years in all OSI level groups including in 31 countries with Low-OSI level scores in 2018; 23 countries (or 74 per cent) are providing at least one kind of online service. The most commonly offered services among the Low-OSI level countries are submitting income taxes online (23 countries), paying for utilities (21 countries), registering a new business (20 countries), applying for birth certificates online and paying fines online (15 countries), registering vehicles online (14 countries), applying for marriage certificates and driving licenses (13 countries), for death certificates (12 countries), and for personal identification cards (11 countries). Even though the share of Low-OSI countries providing online services in 2018 may seem relatively smaller compared to 2016 (see Figure 5.8 above), the reason for this is that the number of countries with Low OSI scores has significantly decreased from 53 to 31 in 2018 too. Further, four countries in the Low OSI group provide all the online services listed above, namely: Lesotho, Federated State of Micronesia, Sao Tome and Principe and Yemen. Figure 5.9 Number of countries offering new transactional services assessed in 2018 survey 129 Apply for government vacancies online 121 Submit Value Added Tax 104 Apply for business license 100 Apply for visa 91 Apply for social protection programs 84 Declare to police 78 Apply for death certificate 67 Apply for land title registration 61 Submit change of address 58 Apply for building permit 100

131 Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 • GLOBAL TRENDS IN E-GOVERNMENT The 2018 Survey also tracked the expansion of online services globally and took note of new services being offered (see Figure 5.9) The top three new services for 2018 are applying for government vacancies online (129 countries), submitting value added taxes (121 countries) and applying for business licenses (104 countries). 5.3.2 Distribution of online services by sector Various government sectors are continuing to adopt and use digital technologies—the Internet, mobile phones and other tools—to collect, store, analyze and share information digitally. According to the 2018 Survey, the number of countries providing online services through emails, SMS/RSS feed updates, mobile Apps and downloadable forms has increased in all sectors but the environment (see Figure 5.10). For instance, 176 countries are providing archived information online in education sector compared to 154 in 2016. Similarly, mobile Apps and SMS services in health sector are offered in 70 countries compared to 65 in 2016. Types of online services by sector, 2016 and 2018 Figure 5.10 2016 2018 108 77 46 70 Environment Environment 64 88 137 166 123 132 48 73 Employment Employment 61 99 132 165 108 125 Social Social 44 63 66 84 Protection Protection 135 164 114 120 65 70 Health Health 75 99 156 173 135 146 58 88 Education Education 88 116 154 176 050100150200 0 200 100 50 150 Downloadable forms Mobile Apps or SMS services Archived information Updates via email, RSS As shown on Figure 5.11, Services provided through mobile Apps are growing fastest, at 52 per cent, in the education, employment, environment sectors. Updates via email and RSS have increased the most, at 62 per cent, in the employment sector, followed by the environment sector, at 38 per cent. Interestingly, fewer countries offer downloadable forms in the environment sector in 2018 compared to 2016. 101

132 Chapter 5 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Figure 5.11 Changes in sector-specific online service provision, percentage 80% 62% 60% 52% 52% 52% 43% 38% 40% 32% 32% 27% 25% 21% 21% 20% 16% 14% 11% 8% 8% 7% 5% 0% Social Protection Health Employment Education Environment -20% -29% -40% Archived information Updates via email, RSS Downloadable forms Mobile Apps or SMS services The regional distribution of countries that provide online services via email, SMS or RSS in the abovementioned sectors is as follows (see Figure 5.12): in average, 86 per cent of countries in Europe, 71 per cent in Asia, 59 per cent in Americas, 36 per cent in Africa, and 30 per cent in Oceania. Most frequently, the online services offered are in education (64 per cent in average), followed by health (55 per cent), labor (54 per cent), environment (54 per cent) and social protection (47 per cent). Services provided via email, SMS or RSS, percentage of countries in each Figure 5.12 region, 2018 Services provided via email, SMS or RSS; percentage of countries in each region, 2018 100% 91% 90% 84% 84% 81% 81% 81% 80% 77% 70% 66% 64% 64% 64% 63% 64% 60% 60% 55% 52% 51% 54% 54% 49% 50% 47% 43% 40% 37% 36% 35% 28% 30% 26% 21% 21% 20% 14% 10% 0% Education Health Labour Environment Social Protection Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania Average by sector 102

133 Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 • GLOBAL TRENDS IN E-GOVERNMENT 5.3.3 Targeted services for vulnerable groups One positive trend recorded in 2018 Survey is that increasingly more countries are providing online services targeting the most vulnerable groups. As illustrated in Figure 5.13, since 2016, the number of countries providing services to the poor has almost tripled, while those providing services tailored to the youth, women, migrants, refugees, older persons and persons with disabilities have nearly doubled. More specifically, services for young people were offered in 144 countries compared to 88 in 2016; services for women were offered in 135 countries compared to 61 countries previously; services for immigrants was available in 126 countries in 2018, up from 72 in 2016; while services for seniors and persons with disabilities doubled from 64/66 in 2016 to 128 countries in 2018. Figure 5.13 Online services provided for vulnerable groups, 2016 and 2018 Online services provided for vulnerable groups, 2016 and 2018 120 Poor 47 125 Immigrants 76 128 Older persons 64 128 Persons with disabilities 66 135 Women 61 144 Youth 88 160 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 2016 2018 Online service delivery for all vulnerable groups in Europe has been growing, reaching almost universal coverage across the region or 81-89 per cent of all European countries. The percentage of countries offering services to vulnerable groups also rose from 69 to 86 per cent in the Americas, from 70 to 79 per cent in Asia, from 33 to 57 per cent in Africa, and from 4 to 15 per cent in Oceania. Table 5.5 Online services provided to vulnerable groups, regional distribution, 2018 Americas (35) Asia (47) Europe (43) Oceania (14) Africa (54) percent number percent number percent number percent number percent number Poor people 20 37.0% 27 77.1% 33 70.2% 38 80.9% 2 4.3% 76.6% Persons with 33.3% 28 80.0% 36 18 42 89.4% 4 8.5% disabilities Older persons 20 37.0% 27 77.1% 37 78.7% 39 83.0% 5 10.6% 78.7% Immigrants 24 68.6% 37 37.0% 39 83.0% 5 10.6% 20 8.5% 27 50.0% 28 80.0% 37 78.7% 39 83.0% 4 Women 14.9% Youth 31 57.4% 30 85.7% 34 72.3% 42 89.4% 7 103

134 Chapter 5 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES 5.3.4 Key Dimensions of Governance for Sustainable Development In promoting peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, the 2030 Agenda places critical attention on building effective, accountable, inclusive institutions at all levels, as stated in Goal 16. In implementing the 2030 Agenda vision to lift people out of poverty and provide opportunities for prosperity to all while protecting our planet, the public institutions shall expand the access to quality public services, particularly for vulnerable groups. In achieving progress in building such institutions, it is important to strengthen the trust in authorities and State institutions, as well as increase transparency and openness in governance processes. The use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in government can effectively support an integrated and inclusive implementation of SDGs and can provide necessary tools to enable policy integration across economic, social and environmental dimensions. It can also eliminate “silos” in various sectors of the government helping institutions to join forces in pursuit of common objectives. It can help by providing online access to information generated by the government, and by reengineering information flows and decision-making processes for greater public participation in decision-making processes. All these efforts lead to increased transparency, accountability, effectiveness and inclusiveness. The E-government Survey 2018 has analyzed governments’ efforts across the globe towards increasing accountability, effectiveness, inclusiveness, openness and transparency by assessing multiple features of the government platforms and their online services. This is contributing to enhancement of these key governance principles. For instance, detailed information in government websites about institutional arrangements, the availability of mechanisms for providing feedback or filing complaints about the quality of services provided, the ability to contact government agencies directly, among others, are contributing to transparency and openness of governments. Likewise, availability of legal information and state regulations preventing discrimination, protecting against misuse of personal data, and ensuring digital/cyber security for all citizens help to improve transparency and trustworthiness. Increasingly, more governments give importance to disclosing information about procurement processes. In their efforts to strengthen accountability and openness, they offer online tools for monitoring and evaluating procurement contracts, tender results and primary government expenditures. To foster inclusiveness and effectiveness, governments are forging public-private partnerships offering more innovative public services online. They are also engaging in public e-consultations, organizing online deliberations on key strategic and policy issues, publishing the results of such e-consultations online, and creating targeted services for vulnerable groups. Among the mechanisms for keeping public servants and institutions accountable is the availability of online reporting of cases on unethical behavior or corruption among public servants. People’s ability to report their grievances, cases of discrimination, and legal violations are among the new features that governments are employing to improve accountability and effectiveness of public services delivery. All these measures are contributing towards achieving the 2030 Agenda’s vision for accountable, effective and inclusive governance. The sections below highlight some of the 2018 Survey’s findings on these key attributes of e-governance. By and large, the countries with Very High EGDI level offer the most comprehensive websites and online services in keeping with these governance principles (see Figure 5.14). The countries in the Low EGDI group tend to cover lesser aspects of accountability, effectiveness, inclusiveness, openness and trustworthiness. 104

135 Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 • GLOBAL TRENDS IN E-GOVERNMENT The aspects of governance assessed on websites, by EGDI level group, 2018 Figure 5.14 Accountability 1.0000 0.7500 0.5000 Effectiveness Trustworthiness 0.2500 0.0000 Openness Inclusiveness High EGDI Middle EGDI Low EGDI Very High EGDI One of the indicators of openness, transparency and accountability on the part of government is the provision of public mechanisms to participate in e-procurement and public bidding processes. This may include the availability of e-procurement platforms, public announcements about e-procurement processes and bidding results, as well as online mechanisms to monitor and evaluate e-procurement contracts. The 2018 Survey shows that 130 out of 193 United Nations Member States have e-procurement platforms compared to only 98 in 2016 (see Figure 5.15). In 2018, more than two-thirds of the Member States are providing online announcements and sharing the results of the bidding processes, as well as providing information for monitoring and evaluating public procurements contracts, which is a significant increase from 40 to 59 per cent of countries offering the same set of services in 2016. Figure 5.15 Number of countries offering tools related to e-procurement out of 193 countries, 2016 and 2018 160 160 140 149 130 120 116 115 115 100 98 80 76 60 40 20 0 Online Monitor and Eprocurement Find platform procurement / announcement evaluate procurement bidding process contracts online results online 2016 2018 105

136 Chapter 5 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Similarly, by announcing government vacancies online and sharing information about employment opportunities with the public sector, governments are increasing transparency in recruitment and encouraging greater participation. Increasingly, more countries are now offering such features in government websites compared to 2016, as shown on Figure 5.16 summarizing the findings of 2018 Survey. Figure 5.16 Government vacancies online, 2016 and 2018 40 38 35 30 30 29 27 26 25 25 21 20 15 10 9 8 8 5 0 Oceania Europe Asia Americas Africa (total of 14 (total of 43 (total of 47 (total of 35 (total of 54 countries) countries) countries) countries) countries) 2016 2018 5.3.5 Global disparities in e-government services ICT-supported and innovative delivery of public services are primarily aiming to ensure the universality of basic services to the poorest and most vulnerable—leaving no one behind. In many parts of the world, especially in developing countries, public service delivery applications are still lacking. While some countries and governments are now fully exploiting ICTs, large disparities remain among regions and countries on how ICTs are being harnessed to deliver public services, innovate service delivery for targeted populations or designing different types of services. Many low-income countries are still utilizing more basic levels of ICTs, resulting in lack of reach and quality of public services, lack of efficiency and effectiveness in service provision. Figure 5.17 compares the deployment of basic, advanced and very advanced features in national e-government portals by country income. Most government portals are now adopting the basic features covering ease of finding the portal, availability of basic searches, site map and contact us features— all of which are being regularly updated. However, lower and low-income countries lag considerably behind in offering more advanced features such as help, frequently asked questions or FAQs, feedback options, links to one-stop-shop options, social media, and automatic web adaption to any device, as well as very advanced features for searching, availability of tutorials, help-desk, facility to report unethical or corrupt behavior, and ability to propose new open datasets. 106

137 Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 • GLOBAL TRENDS IN E-GOVERNMENT Availability of basic, advanced and very advanced services on national Figure 5.17 e-government portals by country income 94% High income 89% 71% 95% Upper middle income 72% 58% 93% Lower middle income 56% 42% 93% Low income 56% 32% Percentage Advanced features Basic features Very advanced features 5.4 Trends in Open Government Data Open government data (OGD) contributes to the achievement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in more ways than one. Apart from generating better data for tracking sustainable development progress, it is supporting the attainment of Goal 16 — to build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels. Open government data is significantly increasing transparency leading to increased accountability and trust in governments and public institutions. Publicly available and reusable open data is fueling participation and collaboration among actors in the public, private and civil society sectors. It is also helping to improve service delivery in many sectors crucial to sustainable development such as education, health, environment, social protection and welfare and finance. Many countries have dedicated portals sharing data in open formats, often referred to as “Open Government Data portals”. Many others have OGD catalogues listing all available datasets usually organized by theme, for example, environment, spending, health, among others, and/or by ministry. OGD are typically available in the national portal or the OGD portal. The 2018 Survey tracks the progress of making OGD available to the public through government websites, dedicated portals, and OGD catalogues. As highlighted in Figure 5.18, the number of countries with OGD portals has reached 139, comprising 72 per cent of the United Nations Member States, a significant improvement compared to only 46 countries in 2014 and 106 in 2016. By and large, 84 per cent of these portals also have a directory or metadata repositories describing the data underlying concepts, methodology and structure. 107

138 Chapter 5 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Figure 5.18 Countries with Open Government Data Portal and/or Catalogues in 2014, 2016 and 2018 150 139 120 106 90 60 46 30 0 2016 2018 2014 The functionality of OGD portals is also improving. About 74 per cent of countries that have OGD portals and websites are also providing guidance on using and navigating the complex datasets, encouraging users to request new datasets, initiating hackathons and promoting use of public open data in creating online Apps. This trend is significant and encouraging, given that in 2016 only 24 to 50 per cent of countries did the same. Figure 5.19 Functionalities of Open Government Data Portals, 2018 Countries with Open Government 139 Data Portal, 2018 Availability of data dictionary or 117 metadata repository Possibility to propose and/or 104 request new open datasets to be made available online Availability of guidance for using 103 Open Government datasets Availability of policies and initiatives to promote Open Data App 102 competitions (hackathons) 90 120 150 60 30 0 108

139 Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 • GLOBAL TRENDS IN E-GOVERNMENT Open data can be considered as such when information is released in a machine-readable format, there are no legal barriers to access, the information is free of charge and is available in widespread type or open standard files. Making data both human- and machine-readable is an important step towards greater utilization of open government data. Figure 5.20 below presents the number of countries providing data in machine readable and non- readable formats about the education, health, social welfare, labor and environment sectors. Compared to 2016, it is increasingly common to find sector-specific information in dedicated government websites. However, data are often in non-machine-readable formats, for example, in PDF. While the data being provided in non-machine-readable formats has doubled in the past two years across various sectors, machine-readable datasets are increasing incrementally. Figure 5.20 Trends in open government data, by sector, 2016 and 2018 88 2018 69 Education 90 2016 39 86 2018 66 Health 82 2016 39 83 2018 62 Labour ear 81 Y 2016 26 77 2018 58 Environment 73 2016 36 64 2018 59 Welfare 65 2016 31 V alue Non Machine Readable Machine Readable 5.5 Trends in mobile service delivery With the continuous increase in mobile broadband coverage, mobile data traffic, and the rising 21 number of smartphone subscriptions worldwide, accounting for all mobile phone subscriptions , governments around the world are actively adapting e-government services to mobile platforms to enable delivery of public services anytime and anywhere. In 2018, the percentage of countries among the 193 Member States providing updates via email, or rich site summary (RSS) feeds has increased in all sectors compared to 2016. The highest number of countries are offering mobile services or applications (Apps) in education at 46 per cent, followed by 38 per cent in employment, 36 per cent in health and environment, and 33 per cent in social protection sectors. 109

140 Chapter 5 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Figure 5.21 Trends in Mobile Apps and SMS Services usage by sectors in 2016 and 2018 50% 46% 45% 40% 38% 36% 36% 34% 35% 33% 30% 30% 25% 24% 25% 23% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Health Environment Social Protection Education Employment 2016 2018 The increasing use of email and RSS, as well as mobile Apps and short messaging system (SMS) services by governments signify the commitment to utilize technology to benefit the people. Updates subscriptions are expanding faster, but the availability of mobile Apps and SMS services is also growing significantly, especially in the education sector with 88 countries offering such services compared to 58 in 2016. Figure 5.22 Mobile Services Delivery by Sector 120 116 100 99 99 88 88 80 84 73 70 70 60 66 40 20 0 Environment Education Employment Health Social Protection Update Subscriptions Apps/SMS Services y 120 100 88 80 75 65 66 60 64 61 58 48 40 46 44 20 0 Education Social Health Environment Employment Protection Update Subscriptions Apps/SMS Services 110

141 Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 • GLOBAL TRENDS IN E-GOVERNMENT The expansion of mobile services is linked to the increased subscription of mobile phones and fixed broadband across all regions. As shown in Figure 5.23, the accessibility and subscription of fixed broadband has grown by an average of 1-2 per cent in all regions. For every 100 persons, usage grew in Africa from 1.2 users to 2.16 users; in Asia, from 8.68 users to 9.51 users; in the Americas, from 11.03 users to 12.31 users; in Europe, from 28.31 to 30.42; and in Oceania, from 6.94 to 7.14. Figure 5.23 Trends in fixed broadband subscriptions in 2016 and 2018 35 30.42 30 28.31 25 20 15 12.31 11.03 9.51 10 8.68 7.14 6.94 5 2.16 1.2 0 Asia Africa Europe Oceania Americas 2016 2018 Wireless-broadband subscriptions across the regions has been increasing briskly in the last two years. The number of subscriptions per 100 persons in Africa jumped from 10.75 in 2016 to 28.62 in 2018 even as the region remains in the lower end. Asia and Americas experienced more than a two- fold increase in wireless broadband subscriptions reaching 68.15 and 48.74 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants in 2018 respectively. The Oceania had a modest increase from 27.74 in 2016 to 31.56 in 2018. Europe with an overall subscription rate of 80.45 in 2018 is at the most advanced level globally. Figure 5.24 Trends in active wireless-broadband subscriptions in 2016 and 2018 90 80 80 68 70 60 56 49 50 40 35 32 29 28 30 22 20 11 10 0 Africa Asia Americas Europe Oceania 2018 2016 111

142 Chapter 5 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES The trend of mobile phone subscription per 100 inhabitants for the last two years, according to ITU data as shown in Figure 5.25 below, is increasing in Asia, Americas and Oceania, but is slightly decreasing in Africa and Europe. Figure 5.25 Trends in mobile phone subscriptions in 2016 and 2018 140.00 122.19 122.91 116.35 111.28 120.00 114.03 109.86 100.00 82.98 83.99 76.02 80.00 64.78 60.00 40.00 20.00 0.00 Europe Africa Americas Asia Oceania 2016 2018 E-participation: public engagement for innovative public 5.6 e-services delivery 5.6.1 E-participation concepts and features E-participation is defined “as the process of engaging citizens through ICTs in policy, decision- making, and service design and delivery so as to make it participatory, inclusive, and deliberative” (United Nations, 2013). As in previous Surveys, the 2018 Survey measures e-participation through the E-Participation Index (EPI) based on: (i) e-information – availability of online information; (ii) e-consultation – online public consultations, and (iii) e-decision-making – directly involving citizens in decision processes. The Survey assesses the availability of e-participation tools on national government portals for each of the above criteria. It is noted in the 2018 Survey that more and more governments are encouraging citizens and businesses to collaborate by contributing ideas and providing feedback. 22 The 2030 Agenda calls for equitable, tolerant, open and socially inclusive world in which the needs of the most vulnerable are met. In line with this, new questions were introduced in 2018 assessing the participation of vulnerable groups through provision of targeted information, including in open formats, as well as the support being provided to these groups in terms of policies, budget, and legislation. Table 5.6 below summarizes the main e-participation features assessed in the 2018 Survey. 112

143 Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 • GLOBAL TRENDS IN E-GOVERNMENT Table 5.6 Summary of assessed e-participation features • Availability of sources of archived information (policies, budget, legal documents, budgets, etc.); use of digital channels ( including mobile devices/platforms) and open data technologies in the areas of education, health, finance, social welfare, labour, environment. • Availability of online information on citizens’ rights to access government information (such as Freedom of Information Act o r Access to Information Act) • Evidence about government partnership/collaboration with third parties (civil society, private sector) in providing services • Evidence about free access to government online services through the main portal, kiosks, community centers, post offices, lib raries, public spaces or free WiFi • Availability of open datasets (in machine-readable non-proprietary formats), related policies/ guidance • Evidence about collaborative co-production, crowdfunding • Evidence about engaging citizens in consultation/communication to improve online/mobile services and raise citizens’ satisfac tion • Evidence about engaging citizens in consultation/communication on education, health, finance, social welfare, labor, environme nt • Availability of “personal data protection” legislation online • Evidence about opportunities for the public to propose new open datasets to be available online • Availability of e-participation policies/mission statements • Availability of public procurement notifications and tender results online • Availability of online tools (on the national portal) to seek public opinion and other input in raw (non-deliberative) form p olicy formation • Evidence on decisions made that included results from online consultation with citizens in the education, health, finance, soc ial welfare, labor, and environment sectors • Evidence about governments’ publishing outcomes of policy consultations online Figure 5.26 Number of countries grouped by EPI levels in 2016 and 2018 2018 Survey 2016 Survey Very High EPI, Low EPI, 62 countries, 35 countries, Very High EPI, 32% 18% 31 countries, Low EPI, 16%, 56 countries, 29% Middle EPI, High EPI, Middle EPI, 47 countries, High EPI, 59 countries, 43 countries, 24.40% 53 countries, 30.60% 22% 28% Middle EPI High EPI Low EPI Very High EPI 113

144 Chapter 5 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Comparing the results from 2016 and 2018 Surveys, the number of countries with Very-High EPI level has doubled from 31 to 62. The number of countries with High-, Middle- and Low-EPI levels decreased slightly because many of them had transitioned to higher EPI level groups. Total number of countries with low EPI decreased from 56 to 35. This positive trend along with improvements in other digital indexes showcases countries’ commitments in implementing further tools for engaging citizens. 5.6.2 Global and regional rankings According to the 2018 Survey, Denmark, Finland, Republic of Korea are ranked as global leaders on e-participation while Netherlands, Australia, Japan, New Zealand, United Kingdom, United States and Spain are following closely behind (see Table 5.7 below). Top 10 Performers in 2018 Table 5.7 Country Name Rank EPI score Denmark 1 1 Finland 1 1 1 1 Republic of Korea Netherlands 0.9888 4 0.9831 Australia 5 0.9831 5 Japan 5 New Zealand 0.9831 Spain 5 0.9831 5 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 0.9831 5 0.9831 United States of America The countries that are leading in e-participation are implementing different initiatives. For example, 23 in Denmark, e-participation is part of the country’s Digital Strategy for 2016-2020 . In Australia, all agencies designing new or redeveloping public-facing services must meet the Australian Digital Service Standard, including criteria “9” which ensures the proposed service is accessible to all users, 24 regardless of their ability and environment . Japan has the “Digital Government Idea Box 2017” as a venue to widely discuss e-governance issues with its citizens and realize higher quality e-services. Countries grouped by E-participation Index levels Table 5.8 Very High EPI High EPI Middle EPI Low EPI (Greater than 0.75) (Between 0.25 and 0.50) (Between 0.50 and 0.75) (Less than 0.25) Algeria Albania Andorra Afghanistan Botswana (-) Australia Angola Argentina Cambodia Antigua and Barbuda (+) Armenia Austria Chad Azerbaijan Belize Bahrain (+) Comoros Bangladesh (+) Bahamas Benin (+) Congo Belarus (+) Barbados (+) Bosnia and Herzegovina Côte d’Ivoire Belgium (+) Bhutan (+) Burundi (+) 114

145 Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 • GLOBAL TRENDS IN E-GOVERNMENT Low EPI Very High EPI Middle EPI High EPI (Between 0.50 and 0.75) (Less than 0.25) (Greater than 0.75) (Between 0.25 and 0.50) Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Brazil (+) Bolivia Cabo Verde Democratic Republic of the Congo Bulgaria (+) Brunei Darussalam Cameroon (+) Equatorial Guinea Burkina Faso Canada Central African Republic (+) Eritrea Cuba Chile (+) Czech Republic Gabon China Dominica (+) Djibouti (+) Guinea-Bissau Eswatini Dominican Republic Colombia Lao People’s Democratic Republic (-) Costa Rica (+) Fiji Ecuador Lesotho Gambia (+) Croatia Egypt Libya El Salvador Cyprus (+) Grenada Malawi (-) Guinea (+) Denmark Ethiopia Mali Estonia Guyana Georgia Marshall Islands Finland Haiti (+) Ghana Mauritania France Guatemala Iraq Micronesia (Federated States of) Jamaica Honduras Germany Myanmar Jordan Hungary Greece (+) Nauru Iceland Kiribati India Niger Lebanon Indonesia Ireland (+) Papua New Guinea Iran (Islamic Republic of) Liberia Israel Saint Lucia Italy Kenya Madagascar (+) Sao Tome and Principe Maldives (+) Kuwait Japan Solomon Islands Kazakhstan (+) Kyrgyzstan Mozambique (+) Somalia Namibia (+) Latvia Lithuania South Sudan Nicaragua Luxembourg (+) Liechtenstein Sudan (-) Nigeria Malaysia (+) Mauritius Suriname (-) Malta Palau (+) Monaco Turkmenistan Samoa Mexico Mongolia Tuvalu Montenegro (-) San Marino (+) Morocco Yemen Pakistan Sierra Leone (+) Nepal (+) Algeria Netherlands Syrian Arab Republic Panama (+) Botswana (-) New Zealand Paraguay Tajikistan (+) Cambodia Timor-Leste Norway Qatar Chad Romania (+) Tonga Oman (+) Comoros Saint Kitts and Nevis Vanuatu (+) Peru (+) Saint Vincent and the Congo Philippines (+) Venezuela Grenadines Côte d’Ivoire Saudi Arabia Zambia Poland Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Portugal (+) Senegal Zimbabwe Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of Korea Seychelles 115

146 Chapter 5 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES High EPI Middle EPI Low EPI Very High EPI (Between 0.25 and 0.50) (Less than 0.25) (Greater than 0.75) (Between 0.50 and 0.75) Equatorial Guinea Republic of Moldova (+) Sri Lanka Eritrea Russian Federation (+) Thailand The former Yugoslav Republic Rwanda (+) of Macedonia Togo Serbia Trinidad and Tobago Singapore Uganda Slovakia (+) Slovenia (+) Ukraine South Africa (+) United Republic of Tanzania Viet Nam Spain Sweden Switzerland (+) Tunisia (+) Turkey (+) United Arab Emirates (+) United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland United States of America Uruguay (+) Uzbekistan (+) Note: Countries with superscript (+) have advanced from a lower EPI group to a higher EPI group (e.g., from low-EPI to middle-E PI); countries with superscript (-) have dropped from a higher EPI group to a lower EPI group (e.g. from high-EPI to middle-EPI). Figure 5.27 Distribution of 62 countries with Very-High EPI level by region, 2018 (compared with the regions’ percentage in total 193 countries) 100% 80% 60% 70% 36% 40% 7% 26% 20% 14% 28% 24% 22% 18% 7% 0% Oceania Africa Americas Asia Europe (43 countries) (35 countries) (14 countries) (47 countries) (54 countries) among 62 countries with VH-EPI level among all 193 countries 116

147 Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 • GLOBAL TRENDS IN E-GOVERNMENT As seen in Figure 5.27, only 22 per cent of the countries in the world are in Europe, while European countries contribute 70 per cent in the group of 62 countries with Very-High EPI levels. Asia follows with the largest proportion of 36 per cent in the same Very High-EPI level group while comprising 24 per cent of the 193 Member States. Americas’ share in the group is 26 per cent, Oceania’s share is 14 per cent, and Africa’s share is 7 per cent. Countries that have advanced more than 30 positions in the 2018 EPI ranking Table 5.9 Country Change in rank 2018 EPI 2016 EPI Burkina Faso 87 +56 143 +50 156 106 Dominica Philippines +48 67 19 +48 114 66 Panama Haiti +47 164 117 Peru 82 36 +46 Belarus +43 76 33 Central African Republic 191 151 +40 Cyprus +38 84 46 Iran (Islamic Republic of) +38 149 111 Sierra Leone 167 129 +38 Djibouti +38 153 191 +37 39 South Africa 76 Antigua and Barbuda +36 157 121 +35 133 Saint Kitts and Nevis 98 Guinea +35 173 138 Nepal +34 89 55 Oman +33 76 43 Bangladesh +33 51 84 Slovakia +32 82 50 Rwanda +32 91 59 Greece +31 65 34 Switzerland +31 72 41 Bahamas +30 122 92 Tuvalu 161 +30 191 117

148 Chapter 5 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES 5.6.3 E-information The first level of e-participation is e-information. Governments are providing people with information through ICT channels to help them make more informed choices at the next stage of consultation. E-information is critical because without access to publicly held information, participation cannot be evidence-based, fully relevant, or significant. As seen in Figure 5.28 below, Member States are sharing an increasing amount of information with their citizens mostly in the education and health sectors followed closely by other sectors. Figure 5.28 Number of countries offering archived information in 2016 and 2018, by sector 177 Education 154 173 Health 156 168 Environment 137 166 Social welfare 135 165 Labour 132 157 Vulnerable groups 127 120 140 160 180 200 0 20 40 60 80 100 2018 2016 Box 5.4 E-participation activities in Finland Openness and democratic principles are key values and principles in Finland that are being applied in the digital era through the Openness of Government Act which was revised in 1999. Openness and citizen participation have been actively developed during the last decades. Good examples of these development work are the Government’s Project Register (HARE), established in 1999; and the otakantaa.fi website, established in 2000 to promote public discussion on government proposals; Hear Citizens project (2000-2005); Government’s Policy Programme on Citizen Participation (2003-2007) and the on-going Democracy Network established in 2007. The government portal, www.demokratia.fi, available in Finnish and Swedish languages only, allows any citizen to suggest initiatives or make comments to the national as well as local government. One of the key services is the Citizen’s Initiative for a legislative proposal launched in fall of 2012. Initiatives that collect over 50,000 signatures at a given time are referred to the parliament to be assessed for legislative reform. In 2015, the Government initiated a program helping those who are unable or are not accustomed to using digital services. The Ministry of Finance set up “HELP-project” to draft a proposal on ensuring availability of sufficient assistance for those who need help in using digital services. It also set up an Advisory Board, “Digitalization of everyday life”, consisting of representatives from over 20 civil society organizations and the academe, to ensure the diverse needs of service users are considered in the implementation of the goal to digitize public Source: UNDESA Member services. States Questionnaire 2018 118

149 Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 • GLOBAL TRENDS IN E-GOVERNMENT 5.6.4 E-consultation The second level of the e-participation model is e-consultation. It means consulting the people is part of the process of crafting new policies, designing new services or projects. Consultation however, need not mean that the government is obligated to use the inputs received. Rather, it has the ability to leverage the information obtained to better respond to public sentiments on a particular subject. Figure 5.29 Number of countries with online engagement tools on national portals and their usage 2018 Survey 50 46 46 45 42 42 40 40 39 40 35 35 34 35 32 30 24 25 20 15 12 12 10 5 5 2 1 0 0 0 0 Africa Americas Oceania Europe Asia (14 countries) (35 countries) (54 countries) (43 countries) (47 countries) 2016 Survey 45 40 39 38 35 33 33 30 30 29 28 25 23 21 21 20 15 12 11 10 9 8 6 5 5 4 4 2 2 0 Africa Asia Americas Europe Oceania (14 countries) (35 countries) (43 countries) (54 countries) (47 countries) Portals with social media Protals with e-to ols for public networking tools consultation/deliberation No online engagement tools/ Recent use of online consultation/ available activities deliberation e-tools for development UN/DESA Source: 119

150 Chapter 5 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Box 5.5 E-participation activities in Brazil The third axis of the Digital Governance Strategy of Brazil is about social participation, and its objectives are: (1) Endorse the collaboration in the public policies cycle; (2) Amplify and drive social participation in the creation and improvement of digital public services; and (3) Improve the direct interaction between the government and society. Moreover, in 2014, the President signed Decree 8.243 establishing the National Social Participation Policy and creating the National System of Social Participation managed by the Secretary of Government of the Presidency of the Republic. Through its social participation platform, Participa.br, the initiative is engaging in the development of free software and in body communication tools, discussion forums, chat rooms, videos, maps, participation trails and other means of online social consultation. Since its creation, Participa.br (www.participa.br) has been hosting over 200 participatory processes and more than 30 public government consultations. The Brazilian open data policy, instituted by Decree No. 8.777 / 2016, has as its fundamental objectives: the promotion of transparency and social participation, the development of new and better government services, the increase of public integrity, and the promotion of entrepreneurship. The Federal Executive Branch of the Ministry of Planning coordinates this policy. To better promote social participation, Knowledge Networks were established through Ordinance No. 290 of 2016, inviting citizens, institutions and communities to become involved in thematic discussion groups, in the E-Government Portal. Also relevant are the network collaboration between government and society through the Ombudsman System, or e-Ouv, which receives Source: UNDESA information through a variety of channels; and the Consumer Portal, a site allowing consumers Member States to evaluate services provided by companies. (https://www.governoeletronico.gov.br/egd) Questionnaire 2018 All regions made progress in deploying e-consultation tools in 2018 compared to 2016. For example, in Europe, all countries have online engagement tools or activities, 42 countries have social media networking tools; 39 countries have e-tools for public consultation or deliberation, and 40 countries made recent use of online consultation or deliberation. Among the regions, Africa made the largest progress in 2018. While in 2016, it was recorded that 21 national portals from Africa did not have any online engagement tools available. In 2018, only two countries remain without any kind of online tools for citizen engagement. 5.6.5 E-decision-making E-decision-making, the third level of the e-participation model, remains a serious challenge. It refers to a process in which people provide their own inputs into decision-making processes. Two examples are: (i) direct e-voting via secure systems and (ii) identifying preferred (popular) options and proposals by rating them through social media’s “Like/Dislike” or “plus/minus” functions. While policy-making is the logical outcome of these type of public engagement activities, information gathering and consultations are equally valuable participation forms in their own right. Recently, policy discourse has been gaining special attention as new software tools are creating more complex and sophisticated systems of deliberation online. 120

151 Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 • GLOBAL TRENDS IN E-GOVERNMENT Box 5.6 Internet Voting in Estonia Internet voting (I-voting or online voting) is one of the options for elections in addition to other voting methods in Estonia. I-voting in this context means voting through the Internet, not voting by using a special voting device. In 2012, an Electronic Voting Committee was established responsible for conducting Internet voting even as the National Electoral Committee retains a supervisory role. Internet voting was first introduced in the local elections of 2005, when more than 9 thousand voters cast their ballot via the Internet corresponding to about 2 per cent of all registered voters. Today, I-voting with binding results has been carried out eight times in Estonia: • in the local elections in October 2005, October 2009 and October 2013; • in the parliamentary elections in March 2007, March 2011 and March 2015; and Source: UNDESA Member States Questionnaire 2018 • in the European Parliament elections in June 2009 and May 2014.. Box 5.7 Digital Malta Strategy 2014-2020 On 24 March 2014, the Government of Malta presented Digital Malta – the National Digital Strategy for 2014-2020. The seven-year strategy was launched by Prime Minister Joseph Muscat along with the Parliamentary Secretary for Competitiveness and Economic Growth. E-Democracy is addressed in the Strategy whereby the “Government is committed to using ICTs to encourage citizens to take part in democratic decision-making. Initiatives will be implemented to enhance the visibility, transparency and accountability of government.” The Government encourages the general public, civil society organizations, trade unions, business organizations, political parties, governmental institutions and other actors, to participate in online public consultation. The portal http://meae.gov.mt/en/Public_Consultations/ Pages/Home. aspx lists all public consultations and their respective outcomes. Citizens can also subscribe for notification about consultations in their specific areas of interest. Given the delicate responsibilities that fall under the Planning Authority’s remit, the Authority is conscious that informing and involving the public and all interested parties in policy making and decision taking are crucial to the holistic improvement of Malta’s island-environment. As a matter of policy, the Government involves end-user communities in the development of Source: UNDESA online services as stated in Circular No. 17/2015 from the Office of the Prime Minister entitled Member States Questionnaire 2018 “Online Public Services For Citizens and Businesses”. 5.6.6 Innovative partnerships, crowdsourcing, and crowdfunding Innovative public-private partnerships (PPPs) have emerged as models for the provision of public services and social entitlements in areas such as education, health and environmental sustainability. As the 2030 Agenda states— in support of implementing its Goals and targets, there is a need to mobilize all available resources for intensive global engagement, to bring together Governments, the United Nations system, the private sector, civil society, and other stakeholders and actors. In this regard, the Survey checks the online services provided in partnership with civil society and/or the private sector. Figure 5.30 below shows the number of countries providing such services by region for 2016 and 2018. There is progress in all regions, particularly in Africa. The partnership usually 121

152 Chapter 5 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES includes financial transactions such as payment of passport application fees in partnership with banks as in the case of Ghana and Cabo Verde. Figure 5.30 Number of countries providing online services in partnership with civil society or private sector, by region, 2016 and 2018 2018 Survey 2016 Survey Oceania Oceania 12 8 Europe Europe 42 36 Asia Asia 41 32 Americas Americas 32 28 Africa Africa 44 23 5 0 1020304050 15 20 25 30 35 50 10 0 5.7 Conclusions: The key conclusions from this chapter are as follows: • Countries are advancing towards higher levels of e-government signified by an upward movement of 46 countries from Low- to Middle- to High- and Very High-EGDI levels. The world average EGDI has been increasing from 0.47 in 2014 to 0.55 in 2018 due to the continuous improvement of its sub-indices in the last 4 years. • The percentage of countries with High- and Very-High levels of e-government development is reaching 58 per cent or close to two-thirds of all United Nations Member States. The share of countries with Low-EGDI level, has dropped by a significant 50 percent, that is, 16 countries in 2018 compared to 32 in 2016. • The regional distribution of e-government development in 2018 mirror those of previous Surveys. In 2018, Europe with 0.77 continues to lead with the highest regional EGDI, followed by the Americas with 0.59, Asia with 0.58, Oceania with 0.46 and Africa with 0.34. • The overall progress of e-government development in the Americas and Asia is noteworthy. While in 2016 most countries in Latin America and the Caribbean had Middle-EGDI values, eight countries transitioned to High-EGDI level in 2018. Moreover, two-thirds of the countries in Asia, or 31 out of 47, and almost half of countries in Americas, that is, 15 out of 32, have averages above the world average EGDI scores. • Despite some development gains and investments in technology in several countries, e-government divide and digital divide continue to persist. Fourteen countries with Low-EGDI values are African and belong to the least developed countries. Within these countries, there is high risk that the divide deepens between people who have access to the Internet and online services and those who do not. 122

153 Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 • GLOBAL TRENDS IN E-GOVERNMENT • The improvement of the average score of the Online Service Index (OSI) was the fastest —from 0.39 to 0.57 or by an average of 40 per cent—suggesting that globally, there was a steady progress in improving e-government and public services provision online. It is important to note that for the first time, in 2018, the main contributor of EGDI score improvement in all income groups is OSI. • Although not all countries provide transactional online services, the coverage and availability of services in countries that do provide has increased between 18 per cent to 47 per cent across all service categories. The three most commonly used online services are paying for utilities, available in 140 countries; submitting income taxes, available in 139 countries; and registering new businesses, which can be done in 126 countries. Improvement in providing online services has been steady over the last four years in all OSI level • groups. Even among the 31 countries in the Low-OSI group in 2018, 23 countries, or 74 per cent, provide at least one kind of online service. • The number of countries providing online services using emails, SMS/RSS feed updates, mobile Apps and downloadable forms has been increasing in all sectors. For instance, between 156 to 176 countries provide archived information online compared to 137 to 154 in 2016. Similarly, sector-specific mobile Apps and SMS services are now being offered in 70 to 88 countries compared to 46 to 65 countries in 2016. • Provision of services through mobile Apps is growing fastest in the education, employment, environment sectors, increasing by 52 per cent. Email updates has increased the most, in the employment sector by 62 per cent, followed by the environment sector by 38 per cent. • One positive trend recorded in 2018 Survey is that increasingly, more countries provide online services targeted to the most vulnerable groups. From the regional perspective, Europe continues to lead in online service delivery for all vulnerable groups reaching almost universal coverage across the region or 81-89 per cent of all European countries. The percentage of countries offering services to vulnerable groups ranges from 69 to 86 per cent in the Americas, from 70 to 79 per cent in Asia, from 33 to 57 per cent in Africa, and from 4 to 15 per cent in Oceania. • The number of countries with Open Government Data (OGD) portals has reached 139, comprising 72 per cent of all United Nations Member States. Most of these portals, that is, 84 per cent, also have a directory or metadata repositories describing the data underlying concepts, methodology and structure. About 74 per cent of countries that have OGD portals and websites also provide guidance on using and navigating the complex datasets, encourage users to request new datasets, initiate hackathons and use public open data for creating online Apps. This trend is significant and encouraging, given that in 2016 only 24 to 50 per cent of the Member States offered these. • In all sectors, the share of data provided in non-machine-readable formats has doubled, whereas the increase in machine-readable datasets is incremental. • The percentage of countries among the 193 Member States providing updates via email, or RSS in 2018 continue to increase compared to 2016 in all sectors. The highest percentage of countries offering mobile services by sector was in education by 46 per cent, followed by 38 per cent in employment, by 36 per cent in health and environment, and by 33 per cent in social protection. 123

154 Chapter 5 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES • There was progress in e-participation development in all regions. Comparing the results from 2016 and 2018, the number of countries with very-high EPI level doubled from 31 to 62. • While all regions made progress in deploying e-consultation tools in 2018 compared to 2016, e-decision-making – the third level of the e-participation model – remains a serious challenge. 124

155 Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 • GLOBAL TRENDS IN E-GOVERNMENT References General Assembly (2015). Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 25 September 2015, A/RES/70/1, para 48. Available 1 at: http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/generalassembly/docs/globalcompact/A_RES_70_1.pdf 2 The World Bank (2018). The World Bank in Ghana. Overview. Available at: http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/ghana/ overview# http://www.un-page.org/ Government of Ghana – NDPC (2015). Ghana shared growth and development agenda II. Available at: 3 files/public/gsgda.pdf 4 GIFEC. Ghana Investment Fund for Electronic Communication. Available at: http://gifec.gov.gh/ https://nita.gov.gh/ 5 NITA. National Information Technology Agency. Available at: The World Bank. World Bank Country and Lending Groups. Available at: https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/ 6 articles/906519-world-bank-country-and-lending-groups 7 Agency for Digitisation Denmark (2016). A Stronger and More Secure Digital Denmark (2016-2020). Available at: https://digst. dk/media/16165/ds_singlepage_uk_web.pdf Member States Questionnaire submitted by Australia to UNDESA in 2017. 8 MOIS Korea (2017). World e-Government Leaders to Gather at OECD E-Leaders Meeting 2018 in Korea. Available at: http:// 9 www.mois.go.kr/eng/bbs/type001/commonSelectBoardArticle.do?bbsId=BBSMSTR_000000000019&nttId=58071 10 Gov.UK (2017). Policy paper. Government Transformation Strategy, United Kingdom (2017-2020). Available at: https://www.gov. uk/government/publications/government-transformation-strategy-2017-to-2020 11 Government Offices of Sweden (2017). Action on digital transformation. Available at: http://www.government.se/press- releases/2017/06/action-on-digital-transformation/ Prime Minister’s Office Finland (2016). Action plan for the implementation of the key project and reforms defined 12 in the Strategic Government Programme. Available at: http://valtioneuvosto.fi/documents/10616/1986338/ Action+plan+for+the+implementation+Strategic+Government+Programme+EN.pdf/12f723ba-6f6b-4e6c-a636-4ad4175d7c4e 13 Member States Questionnaire submitted by Singapore to UNDESA in 2017. 14 GovTech Singapore (2007). Singapore’s e-Government Journey. Available at: https://www.tech.gov.sg/media-room/ speeches/2007/09/singapores-egovernment-journey ICT.govt.nz (2017). ICT Strategy and Action Plan. Available at: https://www.ict.govt.nz/strategy-and-action-plan/strategy/ 15 16 Member States Questionnaire submitted by New Zealand to UNDESA in 2017. 17 Gouvernement.fr (2018). Action Publique 2022 : pour une transformation du service public. Available at : https://www. gouvernement.fr/action/action-publique-2022-pour-une-transformation-du-service-public 18 Secrétariat d’Etat au numérique (2017). L’administration change avec le numérique : découvrez le programme DCANT! https:// www.numerique.gouv.fr/transformation-numerique-de-letat/ladministration-change-avec-le-numerique-decouvrez-le-programme Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Japan. Japan’s e-Government Initiatives. Available at: http://www.e-gov.go.jp/ 19 en/e-government.html 20 Member States Questionnaire submitted by Japan to UNDESA in 2017. 21 Ericsson Mobility Report (2017). 5.2 billion mobile broadband subscriptions. Available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/ news/2018/2/5.2-billion-mobile-broadband-subscriptions 22 General Assembly (2015). Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 25 September 2015. Available at: http://www. un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/70/1&Lang=E 23 Agency for Digitisation Denmark (2016). A Stronger and More Secure Digital Denmark (2016-2016). Available at: https://digst . dk/media/16165/ds_singlepage_uk_web.pdf 24 Australian Government Digital Transformation Agency (2018). Digital Service Standard. Make it accessible. Available at: htt ps:// www.dta.gov.au/standard/9-make-it-accessible/ 125

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157 Chapter 6 CHAPTER 6 • REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE Regional development and country groupings performance 6.1. Introduction Photo credit: pixabay.com The swift evolution and subsequent diffusion of technology are bringing about significant changes in the way people interact with each other and their immediate environments. Governments around the world are using In this chapter: the advancement in infrastructure and information and communication 127 6.1. Introduction technologies (ICTs) to promote innovation of and sustainable development in their economies. This chapter presents an overview of e-government 127 6.2. Regional rankings development initiatives at regional levels. It features important trends and 6.2.1 Africa 133 analyses of regional e-government development performance, including 135 6.2.2 Americas by specific country groups such as the small island developing States 137 6.2.3 Asia (SIDS), least developed countries (LDCs) and least developed landlocked countries (LLDCs). 140 6.2.4 Europe 142 6.2.5 Oceania 6.2. Regional rankings 6.3 The situation in the Least Developed 142 Countries (LDCs) Figure 6.1. below highlights the breakdown of the EGDI and its sub- 6.4 Landlocked Developing Countries indices per region. As was the case in previous editions, Europe continues (LLDCs) 143 to lead e-government development as indicated by the highest EGDI 6.5 The situation in Small Island (0.7730) it enjoys, followed by Americas (0.5900), Asia (0.5780), 144 Developing States (SIDS) Oceania (0.4610), and Africa (0.3420) respectively. The Human Capital Index (HCI) is the highest contributing sub-index in all regions while the 6.5.1 Comparing EGDI Levels of LDCs, LLDCs, and SIDS 146 Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) is the lowest. This implies that the major impediments to the further growth of e-government 6.6 Conclusion 148 development worldwide are still the lack of infrastructure and the digital References 149 divide. Africa has the lowest HCI and Online Service Index (OSI), but its OSI at 0.3630 is relatively close to Oceania’s OSI, at 0.3930. While Asia’s OSI at 0.6220 is better than the Americas’ at 0.6100, it still ranks behind the Americas in terms of EGDI due to Asia’s lower HCI and TII rating. 127 Chapter 6

158 Chapter 6 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Figure 6.1. Breakdown of E-Government Development Index (EGDI) per geographical region Highest Lowest TII HCI OSI EGDI 0.460 0.363 0.342 0.203 Africa 0.716 0.610 0.590 0.444 Americas 0.674 0.622 0.578 0.439 Asia 0.847 0.795 0.773 0.677 Europe 0.708 0.461 0.393 0.283 Oceania As Figure 6.1 indicates, Africa has the least developed technical infrastructure and is less connected to the Internet than other regions. According to a recent report by the Economic Commission for Africa, while there is an impressive growth in mobile broadband access across much of the continent, there remains very limited access to fixed broadband. In many African countries, fixed broadband does not even exist. Figure 6.2 highlights an overall improvement in worldwide EGDI ratings since 2014. The box on the right explains the contribution of each of the three sub-indices indicating that the largest component of the rise in EGDI comes from improvements in OSI. This shows that investment in OSI is the fastest means of improving a country’s EGDI rankings. However, the graph also shows the importance of investing in infrastructure and human capital in the long term. While improvements in both infrastructure and human capital have been slower, they are equally important for a healthy and functioning e-government system. 128

159 Chapter 6 CHAPTER 6 • REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE Figure 6.2 Contributors to the EGDI improvements Worldwide EGDI scores over time Breakdown of improvements per category (2018) Improvement 0.075 0.549 0.172 Biggest contributor 0.493 0.474 0.047 0.005 HCI OSI TI 2018 2014 2016 Figure 6.3 shows the comparison of the standard deviation for each region indicating intra-regional gaps in development. Europe, due to the relative homogeneity in the level of development across countries, has the lowest dispersion in EGDI and its sub-indices. On the other hand, Asia has the highest levels of asymmetry in OSI and TII rankings because the region comprises both highly advanced countries such as Japan, Singapore and Republic of Korea as well as developing countries like Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar and others. Similarly, Oceania has the highest level of dispersion in its EGDI and the second highest level of dispersion across the other three sub-indices due to the inclusion of Australia and New Zealand which boosted the indices of Oceania, a region composed mostly of small island developing States. Among the EGDI sub-components, OSI has the highest level of dispersion across all regions, which confirms that availability and accessibility to online government services are uneven throughout all the regions. Figure 6.3 Comparison of the standard deviation of EGDI, OSI, HCI and TII TII OSI EGDI HCI Africa 0.138 0.213 0.168 0.131 Americas 0.132 0.205 0.101 0.160 Asia 0.263 0.138 0.218 0.183 Europe 0.143 0.067 0.123 0.090 0.201 0.263 0.160 0.217 Oceania 4th Lowest Highest 2nd 3rd 129

160 Chapter 6 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Figure 6.4 highlights the absolute improvements in EGDI levels for each region. The largest gains 1 come from 18 countries across the regions improving from Low-EGDI level to Medium-EGDI level. 3 2 This is followed by 17 countries that moved from Medium-EGDI level to High-EGDI level and 11 moving from High-EGDI level to Very-High-EGDI level. Africa has the largest improvement with 14 countries increasing their EGDI levels between 2016 and 2018 followed by the Americas (10), Asia (9) Europe (8) and Oceania (5). Thirteen African countries moved from Low-EGDI to Medium-EGDI level and one country moved from Medium-EGDI level to High-EGDI level. In the Americas, either countries moved from Medium-EGDI level to High-EGDI level, followed by Asia (5) and Oceania (3). At the same time, eight European countries improved from High-EGDI level to Very-High-EGDI level followed by Asia (2) and the Americas (1). Figure 6.4 Breakdown of change in countries’ EGDI categories per geographical region from 2016 to 2018 Africa 13 1 1 Americas 8 1 Asia 5 2 2 Europe 8 Oceania 2 3 02468101214 High to very high Low to medium Medium to high Each region contains differing percentages of EGDI levels in their respective countries. Figure 6.5 highlights asymmetries and distributional impacts of e-government development within these regions. Only two regions currently have Low-EGDI level countries; Africa with 26 per cent and Asia with 4 per cent of their respective countries. Africa has no countries represented within the Very- High-EGDI level. On the other hand, 63 per cent of European countries have Very-High-EGDI level followed by Asia (17 per cent), Oceania (14 per cent) and the Americas (9 per cent) respectively. Finally, most of the Oceanian (64 per cent) and African (63 per cent) countries are represented within the Medium-EGDI levels, whereas American (63 per cent) and Asian (51 per cent) countries are mostly within the High-EGDI category. 130

161 Chapter 6 CHAPTER 6 • REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE Figure 6.5 Percentage of countries grouped by E-Government Development Index (EGDI) level and geographical regions 14 43 47 35 54 100% 9% 11% 14% 17% 90% 80% 21% 63% 70% 60% 51% 63% 63% 50% 40% 30% 64% 20% 37% 28% 29% 26% 10% 4% 0% Americas Europe Oceania Africa Asia Low EGDI High EGDI Very High EGDI Medium EGDI Number of countries Figure 6.6 shows the percentage of GNI per capita spent by citizens to access broadband, and the percentage of broadband subscriptions for each region. While Europeans spend the least on mobile broadband, at 0.63 percent of their income, they have the largest mobile broadband subscription at 80.46 per cent. In contrast, Africa has the lowest level of mobile broadband subscription with 27.84 per cent, while African citizens need to spend 13.49 per cent of their income on mobile broadband. Clearly, there is a need to lower the cost of access to technology so that it could be utilized to serve a wider segment of the population. According to ITU data in 2018, 156 countries 4 have National Broadband Plan implemented. These countries indicate their intent to improve access 5 and affordability through various measures. 131

162 Chapter 6 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Figure 6.6 Amount spent on mobile broadband as percentage of GNI per capita against the percentage of subscriptions per geographical region Amount spent as a % of subscription in population % of GNI per capita 27.84 72.16 Africa 13.49 48.70 51.30 Americas 2.50 33.08 66.92 8.77 Asia Europe 0.63 19.54 80.46 4.34 31.56 68.44 Oceania Average subscription No subscription While efficiency gains do not come automatically with e-government, savings are possible both on the government and citizen sides with the implementation of transactional services. As seen in Figure 6.7, all regions made progress in their implementation. “Submitting income taxes” and “paying for utilities” are the most used transactional services across all regions. Africa made significant progress in all transactions between 2014 and 2016. However, there is still room for improvement. 132

163 Chapter 6 CHAPTER 6 • REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE Figure 6.7 Transactional services per geographical region Trends in transactional services online Comparing 2014, 2016 and 2018 responses by region 6 43 29 21 40 2018 Submit 4 38 25 18 29 2016 income taxes 3 2014 31 19 14 6 39 36 29 27 9 2018 28 31 5 31 27 24 17 Pay Utilities 2016 3 19 19 4 5 10 2014 8 37 22 32 27 2018 Register a new 31 28 18 14 6 2016 business 5 13 10 4 20 2014 4 36 17 34 20 2018 Pay fines 28 8 15 23 2 2016 and fees 2 13 17 8 2 2014 34 9 14 22 3 Apply for 2018 3 marriage 22 11 6 11 2016 Year certificates 3 18 783 2014 3 35 23 14 11 2018 Apply for 23 3 12 9 8 birth 2016 certificates 19 3 10 4 8 2014 28 9 23 14 2 2018 Register for 2 23 13 5 4 motor 2016 vehicles 1 2 10 14 6 2014 20 11 22 8 1 2018 Apply for 13 13 8 4 drivers 2016 licence 11 12 2 4 2014 2 19 16 11 11 Apply for 2018 45 10 personal 12 2016 identity cards 35 1 11 7 2014 0 70 60 50 80 100 110 120 130 140 90 10 20 30 40 Africa Americas Asia Oceania Europe 6.2.1 Africa Africa has large gaps in infrastructure, including broadband infrastructure and access to broadband services, where it exists, is very expensive. This is evident in the region’s low TII score of 0.2030. Progress with respect to the EGDI across the whole region remains positive albeit uneven. The average 2018 EGDI is 0.3420 compared to 0.2880 in 2016, which represents the third highest regional improvement in EGDI largely driven by a 0.1060 increase in the provision of online services. In an effort to contribute to the advancement of e-government development in Africa, the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), among others, plays an active role in strengthening the environment for adopting effective ICT policies in the region and developing a greater collaboration between all relevant stakeholders within the Internet community, including African Union Commission, ITU, ICANN, Smart Africa Secretariat, IGF, etc.). 133

164 Chapter 6 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Box 6.1 UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) work on selected areas in ICT In 1996 the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) had launched The African Information Society Initiative (AISI), and since then assisted the UN Member States in adopting evidence-based ICT, science, technology and innovation policies to transform their economies. With support of the ECA, 48 UN Member States in Africa adopted national e-strategies complementing their development efforts and are harnessing their ICT sectors to play a greater role in achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs), the African Union 2063 Agenda and other internationally agreed development goals. Building on its experience from the AISI, rigorous analytical and policy-research work was conducted on many emerging and frontier technologies, including cybersecurity, geo-blocking & future of e-commerce, Internet of Things (IoT) and Smart Cities, financial technology, big data & analytics, transition to IPV6, Internet governance & net neutrality, and analog to digital broadcasting migration, Blockchain technologies, and digital economy. ECA also undertook various activities to measure the economic, social, political, and security impact of technologies and innovation process. Within the Partnership on Measuring Information and Communications Technology for Development which was launched in 2004 to improve the availability of internationally comparable information and communications technology (ICT) statistics, ECA has been leading the taskforce for e-government indicators and has been instrumental in the development of the core list of e-government indicators and its implementation by developing a manual for using the core list of e-government indicators and producing a training manual for implementers. ECA continues to contribute also to data gathering and dissemination including an annual follow up and review of the implementation of the WSIS outcomes in Africa. ECA has been working with the African Union Commission to develop the African Union Convention on Cyber security and personal data protection adopted by the 23rd Assembly of Heads of States and Governments of the African Union. UNECA is coordinating along with other UN Agencies effective implementation of the United Nations Group on the Information Society (UNGIS). UNGIS serve as an interagency mechanism to coordinate substantive policy issues facing the UN’s system in the implementation of the WSIS outcomes for leveraging ICTs to Build Information and Knowledge Source: UN ECA Societies for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. Box 6.2 Case study on Mauritius’ Vision 2030 Blueprint The Government of Mauritius has developed “Vision 2030 Blueprint”, which aims to provide the country with a high-income, sustainable and innovative economy. In line with the UN 2030 Agenda, the Government, through its Ministry of Technology, Communication and Innovation and Central Informatics Bureau, is developing “Digital Mauritius 2030 Strategy” and “Digital Government 6 These strategies, closely aligned with the “Vision 2030 Blueprint”, will Strategy for 2018-2022”. address legal, regulatory, security, and institutional frameworks. The digital strategies are intended to address the gap between academia and industry, to ensure that the right skills are developed 7 The to meet the increasingly growing digital economy and the IT requirements of the future. government aims to implement these strategies by strengthening the information, technology and Source: http:// 8 www.govmu.org communications sector by focusing on software development and big data analytics. 134

165 Chapter 6 CHAPTER 6 • REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE In Africa, only four countries (Mauritius, South Africa, Tunisia and Seychelles) are in the top fiftieth percentile along with countries that have EGDIs above the world average of 0.549. Mauritius (66th) and South Africa (68th) the two highest ranking countries from the region closely followed by Tunisia (80) and Seychelles (83) are the only countries in the top 100. The average rank of countries in the African region is 150th. It is worth mentioning that Algeria and Burkina Faso have made great strides in e-government development, climbing 20 places from 2016 to 2018. Algeria rose from 150th to 130th, while Burkina Faso climbed from 185th to 165th. Cameroon rose by 19 places from 155th to 136th and Ghana from 120th to 101st. These movements, even if they originate from very low levels, highlight regional efforts to keep pace with worldwide technological development trends. Upward movements in EGDI across the region were driven by significant improvements in OSI (0.106 increase) and TII (0.031 increase). This is an encouraging trend given that 13 African countries have low EGDI and require major leaps to improve their EGDI levels. Table 6.1 Top 10 countries for e-government in Africa OSI HCI TII EGDI EGDI Level 2018 Rank Sub-region Country Eastern Africa 0.7292 0.7308 0.5435 0.6678 High Mauritius 66 Southern South Africa 0.8333 0.7291 0.4231 0.6618 High 68 Africa Northern Tunisia 0.8056 0.6640 0.4066 0.6254 High 80 Africa Eastern Africa 0.6181 0.7299 0.5008 0.6163 High 83 Seychelles Ghana Western Africa 0.6944 0.5669 0.3558 0.5390 High 101 Northern Morocco 0.6667 0.5278 0.3697 0.5214 High 110 Africa Cabo Verde 0.4861 0.6152 0.3926 0.4980 Medium 112 Western Africa Northern Egypt 0.5347 0.6072 0.3222 0.4880 Medium 114 Africa Rwanda Eastern Africa 0.7222 0.4815 0.1733 0.4590 Medium 120 Southern Namibia 0.4514 0.5850 0.3299 0.4554 Medium 121 Africa 6.2.2 Americas The Americas is continuing its improvement in e-government development into 2018. The region is no longer represented in the low-EGDI and low-OSI levels. Uruguay has moved from a High-EGDI to a Very-High-EGDI level country in 2018, followed closely by Chile and Argentina just below the Very-High-EGDI threshold. Since 2016, eight countries (Panama, Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Bolivia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Paraguay) have improved their EGDI level from Medium- to High-range. Fifty-seven per cent of the region comprising 20 countries are in the top 50th percentile. These positive developments have allowed the Americas to maintain its position as the second most developed region in e-government development, worldwide. The average regional EGDI in the Americas has risen from 0.5250 in 2016 to 0.5900 in 2018, an improvement of 0.0650 representing the largest regional improvement in 2018. The top performing country in the Americas region remains the United States, one of the world leaders in e-government 135

166 Chapter 6 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES (11th), followed by Canada (23rd) and Uruguay (34th), both among the countries with Very-High- EGDI. Box 6.3 Case Study on Agenda Uruguay Digital 2020 In addition to developing “Digital Government Plan 2020”, the Government of Uruguay has created “Agenda Uruguay Digital 2020”, a plan built on four key pillars: i) social policy and inclusion, ii) sustainable economic development, iii) government management, and iv) governance for the information society. Objective VI of the Agenda, on “Proximity government”, aims to improve transparency, accountability, citizen participation and services through increased focus on citizens’ interaction with the Government. Specific goals include the establishment of “Citizen Source: http:// Response Centres” and portals, which will allow citizens to complete all transactions related to uruguaydigital. 9 select services online. gub.uy Top 10 countries in e-government in the Americas Table 6.2 Sub-region OSI TII EGDI EGDI Level 2018 Rank Country HCI 0.9861 0.7564 0.8769 Very High 11 Northern America 0.8883 United States of America 0.9306 0.8744 0.6724 0.8258 Canada 23 Northern America Very High South America 0.8889 0.7719 0.6967 0.7858 Very High 34 Uruguay South America 0.8333 0.8339 0.5377 0.7350 High 42 Chile South America 0.8579 0.5927 0.7335 High 43 Argentina 0.7500 South America 0.9236 0.7525 0.5220 0.7327 High 44 Brazil Caribbean 0.8301 0.6719 0.7229 High 46 Barbados 0.6667 Central America 0.6736 0.7933 0.6343 0.7004 High 56 Costa Rica South America 0.4412 0.7382 Colombia 0.6871 High 61 0.8819 Central America 0.4173 0.7044 Mexico 0.6818 High 64 0.9236 Saint Kitts and Nevis leapt by 23 places from 94th to 71st, the most improved ranking in the region, followed closely by the Bahamas and Dominica, whose rankings increased by 21 and 16 respectively. Haiti has improved its ranking from 178th to 163rd, but remains the lowest ranking country in the region, owing mostly to difficulties that it has been experiencing such as natural disasters, which hinder its e-government development, particularly, the development of its telecommunications infrastructure. 136

167 Chapter 6 CHAPTER 6 • REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE Box 6.4 Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) In line with Goal 16 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, ECLAC and The Latin American and Caribbean Institute for Economic and Social Planning (ILPES) continue to work with countries in the region to democratize public management, accountability, access to information and participation in order to respond to the expectations of citizens who demand accessible and higher quality public services through the formulation of open government policies. For instance, in Costa Rica, ECLAC, through ILPES, collaborated in the design of a Policy on Open Justice. The Costa Rican government generated this policy as an innovative form of administration of justice and its subsidiary bodies. The Judicial Power is aware that the implementation of the Open Justice Policy demands a change of paradigm that includes a citizen-centered cultural change. It includes changes in the processes seeking efficiency and effectiveness in the delivery of justice, employing information technology for simplification, traceability and predictability. It also includes organisational changes, giving priority to coordination and team work under a results-based network model. In addition to this technical assistance, since 2011, more than 1,000 professionals from 19 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have been trained in open government and digital government. Participants come mainly from government agencies at the national, regional, Source: ECLAC state and local levels, as well as from universities and other academic and research institutions. 6.2.3 Asia Asia is not only the most populous region, but it is also the largest continent in terms of land mass. The e-government development trend is highly diverse across the countries in the region. The Republic of Korea (third), Singapore (seventh) and Japan (tenth) are ranked among the top 10 in the world, while in the low-EGDI spectrum are the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (185th) and Yemen (186th). Such vast differences in the availability of e-government services were highlighted in Figure 6.4 depicting high levels of dispersion across the region. Despite this, Asia’s strong performance in e-government development from 2016 to 2018 is a continuing challenge to the America’s position as the second best performing region. The average regional EGDI has risen from 0.5130 in 2016 to 0.5780 in 2018, an improvement of 0.0650 representing the second highest leap across all of the regions. Moreover, the average ranking for the region is 90th, while the Americas’ average is 87th. Box 6.5 Case Study on the Republic of Korea’s e-Government Master Plan 2020 The Republic of Korea indicated in its MSQ response that it has developed the “e-Government Master Plan 2020” to address the challenges that come from a constantly evolving e-government environment. The plan consists of five strategies that include: developing all-digital government service, reforming public administration based on intelligent information, creating more digital friendly industries, building a e-government platform and solidifying a position in the global e-government as a major e-government exporter. The Government develops a master plan every five years to ensure that the e-government services it offers incorporate the latest available Source: http://www. mois.go.kr technologies and take into consideration the evolving needs of its citizenry. Compared to 2016, the region has made significant improvements to its OSI (0.1100) and TII (0.0660), This is evident when analyzing Cyprus, which has made the biggest improvement in this year’s Survey. In 2018, the country’s ranking rose to 36th from 64th in 2016 representing an improvement of 28 spots, the highest in the region. Similarly, the Maldives (97th), Timor-Leste (142nd) and Brunei (59th) have improved their rankings by 20 or more places. 137

168 Chapter 6 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES United Arab Emirates has the highest EGDI among Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries followed by Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar. GCC countries managed to achieve a series of substantial accomplishments related to improving e-government systems and making it easier for citizens to access government portals of other GCC Member States. During the Fifth GCC eGovernment Ministerial Committee, which took place in Bahrain, the proposal of a virtual academy for e-Government training was discussed. Such an institution would contribute towards the development of e-government by providing qualified specialists for GCC comprehensive e-government strategy. Box 6.6 The World Government Summit T The World Government Summit is hosted in United Arab Emirates on an annual basis since 2013. This event allows government leaders to take part in the global dialogue and outline strategies regarding the usage of technology and innovation. It also functions as a platform and networking hub for 10 policymakers, business and civil society in human development. This event also gives opportunities to Source: http://www. showcase innovative solutions in e-government and analyze best practices in 150 participating countries worldgovernment with the aim of addressing future challenges using and improve already existing e-government policies. summit.org Top 10 countries for e-government in Asia Table 6.3 Sub-region OSI TII EGDI EGDI Level 2018 Rank Country HCI 0.9792 Republic of Korea 0.9010 Very High 3 0.8743 Eastern Asia 0.8496 0.9861 0.8019 0.8812 Very High 7 South-Eastern Asia Singapore 0.8557 0.9514 0.8428 0.8406 0.8783 Japan 10 Eastern Asia Very High Western Asia 0.6877 0.8564 0.8295 Very High 21 United Arab Emirates 0.9444 0.7986 0.7897 0.8466 0.8116 Very High 26 Bahrain Western Asia Western Asia 0.8264 0.8635 0.7095 0.7998 Very High 31 Israel Western Asia 0.8083 0.7279 0.7736 Very High 36 Cyprus 0.7847 Central Asia 0.8681 0.8388 0.5723 0.7597 Very High 39 Kazakhstan Western Asia 0.7917 0.7394 0.7388 High 41 Kuwait 0.6852 0.8889 High 0.5647 0.7174 South-Eastern Asia 48 Malaysia 0.6987 Level of e-government development in Gulf Cooperation Council member states Table 6.4 Level of Income EGDI 2018 Rank 2016 Rank Change in Rank* Country High income Very High EGDI 21 29 +8 United Arab Emirates High income Very High EGDI 26 24 -2 Bahrain High income 41 40 -1 Kuwait High EGDI High income High EGDI 51 48 -3 Qatar High income High EGDI 52 44 -8 Saudi Arabia High income Oman 63 66 +3 High EGDI * A plus sign (+) implies rank improvement, while minus (-) sign implies rank drop. 138

169 Chapter 6 CHAPTER 6 • REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE Box 6.7 UN-ESCWA and E-Government in the Arab Region e-Government is one of the most important Action Lines of the World Summit on Information Society (WSIS) Tunis Agenda. ESCWA conducted several activities related to the WSIS and SDGs one of which 11 was Arab High-level Forum on WSIS and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (AHLF 2017), which was the first, to link the WSIS action lines and targets with the 17 SDGs at the Arab region’s level. 12 During 2017, ESCWA conducted a report on Smart Digital Transformation in Government provided conceptual frameworks of transition from government applications to government services; and highlighted the role of technology and the smart paradigm in the transformation from e-government to smart government. It proposed linkages of the SDGs with smart government and highlighted the top 10 technologies for smart government. The study considered that smart governments are those which score high on the e-Government Development Index (EGDI). Committed to continue working on the WSIS and SDG processes and linkages, ESCWA conducted 13 a study (also in 2017) entitled “Arab Horizon 2030: Digital Technologies for Development ” which provided a preliminary vision on how the Arab region can achieve an appropriate status in seven major policy areas by 2030, that include Bridging Divide, Digital Strategies, Infrastructure, Cybersecurity, ICT Sector, e-Government and e-Applications. As a continuation of this effort ESCWA is currently in the process of conducting a new study “Arab Digital Technologies for Development Report(2019): Towards Empowering People and Ensuring Inclusiveness”, which is considered to be a continuation to 2017th study giving more emphasis to the assessment of the current status of the Arab Region in the different policy areas, and linking the role of ICTs to sustainable development in its three dimensions to the theme of empowering people and ensuring inclusiveness of societies; and thus leaving no one behind in sustainable development, derived from the theme of the High Level Political Forum (HLPF) of the year 2019. Furthermore, ESCWA led an initiative to develop a Government Electronic and Mobile Services (GEMS) maturity index that can be applicable across countries, while taking into consideration regional specificities. GEMS index is an assessment tool for policy makers to measure the level of digitization and sophistication in delivering Government services to the public. GEMS index enables multi-dimensional benchmarking. On the national level, it allows for comparing government entities, and comparing them to their peers in the Arab region. In addition, it allows for services comparison on the regional level, and thus it supports identifying the need for developing common services among Arab countries, therefore allowing for joining regional efforts to enhance these services. The GEMS index is currently dedicated to serve the whole Arab region in the first stage and then probably the World in a later stage. ESCWA has given high priority to innovation due to its importance for sustainable social, and economic development in the Arab region. In innovation efforts are focused on improved national innovation policies and systems for economic growth, industrial optimization, social welfare and environmental protection. In 2017, ESCWA published a study entitled “Innovation Policy for Inclusive the Sustainable Development 14 in the Arab region ”. It provides a framework for the development of national innovation policies as well as its adaptation to specific sectors, including youth employment and climate change to help Arab countries in their efforts to achieve inclusive sustainable development. With the aim of supporting Arab countries in building stronger public institutions, ESCWA launched a project in 2016 entitled “Institutional development for better service delivery towards the achievement of the sustainable development goals in Western Asia”. One of the components of this project focus on the employment of emerging technologies and embracing the concept of openness, specifically 15 Source: ESCWA open government. 139

170 Chapter 6 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES 6.2.4 Europe Since the first edition of the UN E-Government Survey in 2003, Europe has always had the highest EGDI among the regions. In 2018, this dominance continues at both country and regional levels. Five of the top 10 countries come from Europe. Fourteen of the top 20 ranked countries are in this region and no European country ranks below the high-level EGDI category. Table 6.5 Level of e-government development in European Union member states Country EGDI 2018 Rank 2016 Rank Change in Rank Level of Income High income 0.9150 1 9 +8 Denmark High income United Kingdom 4 1 -3 0.8999 High income 6 5 Sweden +1 0.8882 Finland 0.8815 6 5 -1 High income France High income 0.8790 9 10 +1 Germany High income 12 15 +3 0.8765 High income 7 13 Netherlands -6 0.8757 Switzerland 0.8520 15 28 +13 High income Estonia High income 0.8486 16 13 -3 Spain 0.8415 17 17 0 High income Luxembourg High income 0.8334 18 25 +7 Austria High income 0.8301 20 16 -4 26 Ireland High income 0.8287 22 +4 Italy High income 24 22 -2 0.8209 High income 0.8080 19 -8 Belgium 27 High income 29 38 +9 Portugal 0.8031 High income 0.8011 30 30 0 Malta Poland High income 33 36 +3 0.7926 High income 43 35 Greece +8 0.7833 Slovenia 0.7714 37 21 -16 High income Lithuania High income 0.7534 40 23 -17 Hungary High income 45 46 +1 0.7265 Upper middle income 52 47 Bulgaria +5 0.7177 Slovakia 0.7155 49 67 +18 Upper middle income -4 High income 50 54 0.7084 Czech Republic Croatia Upper middle income 0.7018 55 37 -18 Latvia High income 0.6996 57 45 -12 Romania Upper middle income 0.6671 67 75 +8 * A plus sign (+) implies rank improvement, while minus (-) sign implies rank drop. 140

171 Chapter 6 CHAPTER 6 • REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE Challenges brought about by an aging workforce, subdued growth and high levels of youth unemployment have stimulated the region to seek innovative e-government solutions to improve competitiveness. This has resulted in the region improving its EGDI from 0.7240 in 2016 to 0.7730 in 2018. Slovakia (49th) showed the best improvement in the region with an increase of 18 rankings, followed by Switzerland (15th) and Portugal (29th) whose rankings rose 13 and 9 spots respectively. Forty-two countries, or 97 per cent of the region, are in the top 50th percentile for EGDI. Box 6.8 Case Study of Denmark’s Digital Strategy 2016-2020 Through the Digital Strategy 2016-2020, Denmark is further evolving towards digital public administration, communication and e-services. Specific focus areas of the Strategy are: a user- friendly and simple digital public sector; better use of data and quicker case processing; more cohesive welfare services; a better framework for the business community; having public-sector data as a growth driver; having an efficient utilities sector; public sector data protection; robust digital infrastructure and digitization for everyone. Initiatives such as mandatory Digital Post and mandatory online self-service for individuals and businesses; telemedicine solutions for people with chronic disorders, digital learning tools and availability of public-sector data online, free of charge for individuals, businesses and authorities alike were recently introduced. The Strategy emphasizes the need for the public sector to work closely with the business community, stakeholder organisations, and others, in establishing the foundation for a “flexible and adaptive Source: 16 society, ready for an ever more digitised world”. https://en.digst.dk Europe’s commitment to enhancing e-government within the region is evidenced by the European eGovernment Action Plan 2016-2020 , a result of the successes and lessons learned from monitoring aims to accelerate eGovernment Action Plan 2016-2020 and evaluating previous action plans. The the digital transformation of Governments, a key factor to ensure the success of the EU Single Market by removing existing digital barriers and preventing fragmentation caused by modernization of the public sector. Priority policies under the action plan include modernizing public administrations using Key Digital Enablers; enabling mobility of citizens and businesses by cross-border interoperability; facilitating digital interaction between Governments and citizens/businesses. Early indicators of the successful implementation of the Action Plan is evident when analyzing the region’s improvement in OSI levels (0.2250) from 2014 to 2018, which shows the largest improvement in OSI score worldwide. Box 6.9 European Union Digital Single Market The Digital Single Market strategy, created among European Union Member States, aims to open up digital opportunities for people and business, and enhance Europe’s position as a world leader 17 in the digital economy. Thanks to this strategy, individuals, businesses, researchers and public authorities are exposed to online activities that accelerate various processes by means of digital interactions. There are three main pillars on which Digital Single Market strategy is grounded. The first one addresses the issue of access to digital products and services. The second pillar calls for the creation of appropriate conditions for online services to develop across the EU. The third promotes https:// Source: maximization of digital economy growth. ec.europa.eu 141

172 Chapter 6 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES 6.2.5 Oceania Oceania consists of two developed countries, Australia and New Zealand, juxtaposed within the region, with island-States having smaller populations, economies and, by extension, fewer resources. Table 6.6, which shows Australia and New Zealand in the top 10 countries with very high levels of EGDI, presents this stark contrast vividly. Fiji and Tonga, the 3rd and 4th ranking countries within the region, are outside of the top 100 ranked countries, despite having relatively high EGDI scores. Nonetheless, Oceania improved its average EGDI from 0.415 in 2016 to 0.461 in 2018. Top 10 countries for e-government in Oceania Table 6.6 Sub-region OSI HCI TII EGDI EGDI Level 2018 Rank Country Australia Australia and New Zealand 0.9722 1.0000 0.7436 0.9053 Very High 2 New Zealand 0.9514 0.9450 0.7455 0.8806 Very High 8 Australia and New Zealand Fiji Melanesia 0.4583 0.7899 0.3562 0.5348 High 102 Tonga Polynesia 0.4722 0.8039 0.2951 0.5237 High 109 0.8462 Palau Micronesia 0.3264 111 0.3346 0.5024 Medium Samoa Polynesia 0.7241 0.2064 0.4236 Medium 128 0.3403 Melanesia 0.3990 0.5675 0.1920 Vanuatu Medium 137 0.4375 Tuvalu 0.2222 0.6422 0.2693 0.3779 Medium 144 Polynesia Marshall 149 Micronesia 0.2292 0.7301 0.1037 0.3543 Medium Islands 153 Micronesia 0.2986 0.6591 0.0773 0.3450 Medium Kiribati Nte: Table 6.6 shows that Oceania does not have any country in the low-EGDI level, with the majority of its countries in the me dium-EGDI level. Vanuatu leapt by 12 rankings to 137th, worldwide. Papua New Guinea (171st) and Tuvalu (144th) have improved by 8 and 7 spots respectively. 6.3 The situation in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) Least Developed Countries (LDCs) are low-income countries with low levels of human capital development and are highly vulnerable to economic structural shocks. The United Nations classifies 47 countries as LDCs. The African region (33) is the most represented nation in the LDC category, followed by Asia (9), Oceania (4) and the Americas (1). Table 6.7 shows the top 10 LDCs ranked by 2018 EGDI scores. 142

173 Chapter 6 CHAPTER 6 • REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE Top 10 countries for e-government - Least Developed Countries (LDC) Table 6.7 Sub-Region OSI HCI TII EGDI EGDI Level 2018 Rank Country Region Southern Asia 0.7847 0.4763 0.1976 0.4862 Medium 115 Bangladesh Asia Asia Southern Asia 0.6875 0.4957 0.2413 0.4748 Medium 117 Nepal Africa Rwanda 0.7222 0.4815 0.1733 0.4590 Medium 120 Eastern Africa Asia 0.3080 0.5000 0.4743 Bhutan 0.4274 Medium 126 Southern Asia Zambia Eastern Africa 0.4792 0.5689 0.1853 0.4111 Medium 133 Africa Uganda Africa Eastern Africa 0.5694 0.4906 0.1566 0.4055 Medium 135 Vanuatu Oceania 0.4375 0.5675 0.1920 0.3990 Medium 137 Melanesia Africa 0.3989 0.5556 0.5058 0.1353 Togo Medium 138 Western Africa United Republic of Africa Eastern Africa 0.5625 0.4759 0.1403 0.3929 Medium 139 Tanzania Timor-Leste Asia South-Eastern Asia 0.3125 0.5387 0.2937 0.3816 Medium 142 Among LDCs, Bangladesh ranks top in e-government development. In launching the “Digital 18 Bangladesh Initiative”, also known as “Digital Bangladesh by 2021”, Bangladesh aims to emphasize the importance of ICTs in improving efficiency and productivity in all industries. The country is expanding e-government in all possible sectors, including health, agriculture, transportation, education and poverty reduction, to make public services more transparent as stated in its MSQ submission. It is also enhancing accessibility to mobile and online services to better implement a more digitized society. 6.4 Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs) 19 Seventeen LDCs are also categorized as Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs). LLDCs have the additional impediment of facing significant geographical challenges as countries with no or limited access to the sea. Thus, their access to the international market depends on their neighbouring countries, and they rely on bordering countries for access to important telecommunication infrastructures. This geographical handicap also increases the cost of trading. The United Nations has identified 32 countries that are landlocked developing countries. The African region is, again, the most represented with 16, followed by Asia with 12 and the Americas with 2 and Europe with 2. Table 6.8 shows the top 10 LLDCs ranked by 2018 EGDI levels. 143

174 Chapter 6 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Top 10 countries for e-government - Landlocked Developing Countries Table 6.8 Sub-Region OSI HCI Region EGDI EGDI Level 2018 Rank Country TII Kazakhstan Very High 0.8681 0.8388 0.5723 0.7597 Central Asia 39 Asia Republic of Moldova High Eastern Europe 0.7708 0.7274 0.4787 0.6590 69 Europe Azerbaijan High 0.7292 0.7369 0.5062 Western Asia 0.6574 70 Asia The former Yugoslav High Europe Southern Europe 0.7153 0.6924 0.4859 0.6312 79 Republic of Macedonia Uzbekistan High Central Asia 0.7917 0.7396 0.3307 0.6207 Asia 81 Armenia High Asia Western Asia 0.5625 0.7547 87 0.5944 0.4660 High Kyrgyzstan 0.7628 0.3418 0.5835 0.6458 91 Central Asia Asia Mongolia High 0.5972 0.7899 0.3602 0.5824 Asia 92 Eastern Asia High Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 0.5307 0.7148 0.3148 South America Americas 103 0.5625 Paraguay High South America 0.5556 0.6701 0.3507 0.5255 Americas 108 Kazakhstan has the top EGDI score among the LLDC group, with a very-high-EGDI score of 0.760. In 2013, the country adopted “Information Kazakhstan - 2020”, which aims to create conditions for its transition to an information society. The programme seeks to ensure and optimize the effectiveness of public administration through information technology. It has identified four key areas of focus: ensuring the effectiveness of the government administration system, guaranteeing information availability, forming an information environment for socio-economic and cultural development of the society and developing a national information space. Kazakhstan is creating a more ‘mobile government’ by utilizing ICTs in these areas. The programme also provides ICT 20 awareness opportunities through e-learning to its citizens. It will be supported further through the use of information technologies at all levels of State bodies and through the implementation of ICT 21 projects at the national level. 6.5 The situation in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) Small Island Developing States (SIDS) face similar development struggles as LLDCs, particularly a geographical impediment. SIDS have small economies and limited resources that are geographically dispersed. They are heavily vulnerable to environmental changes and external economic shocks. For example, countries such as the Federated States of Micronesia and Seychelles are small groups of islands that rely heavily on the international system. This implies that these countries are not only susceptible to internal and external shocks, such as natural disasters, but also face the omnipresent challenge of increased costs with respect to the government’s provision of infrastructure and services. There are 37 Small Island Developing States found in the Americas (16), Oceania (12), Africa (6), and Asia (3). 144

175 Chapter 6 CHAPTER 6 • REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE Table 6.9 Top 10 countries for e-government - Small Island Developing States Sub-Region Country TII EGDI EGDI Level 2018 Rank OSI Region HCI 7 0.9861 0.8019 0.8812 Very High South-Eastern Asia Singapore Asia 0.8557 46 Caribbean 0.8301 0.6719 0.7229 High Americas Barbados 0.6667 66 0.7292 0.7308 0.5435 Mauritius High Africa Eastern Africa 0.6678 71 0.5347 0.7491 0.6825 0.6554 High Americas Saint Kitts and Nevis Caribbean 72 Caribbean 0.7249 0.5393 Americas High 0.6552 Bahamas 0.7014 78 Americas 0.6389 0.7195 0.5735 0.6440 High Trinidad and Tobago Caribbean 83 Eastern Africa Seychelles 0.5008 0.6163 High Africa 0.6181 0.7299 89 Caribbean 0.8202 0.4658 0.5930 High Americas 0.4931 Grenada 90 0.4583 0.7518 0.5617 0.5906 High Antigua and Barbuda Americas Caribbean 93 Caribbean 0.6497 0.4775 0.5794 High Dominica 0.6111 Americas Among SIDS countries, Singapore has historically had a very-high-EGDI score since the first publication of the United Nations E-Government Survey. According to its MSQ submission, since 1980, long before the Survey, the country was designing and implementing policies to provide its citizenry with an ever-advancing level of e-governance. From 1980-1999, it aimed to have a computer on every desk; in 2000-2006, online services delivery; in 2006-2015, integration of data, processes and systems aimed at creating a collaborative “Gov-with-You” rather than a “Gov-to-You”. Finally, since 2016, Singapore has been providing a digital government to a “smart nation” improving lifestyles, creating more opportunities, and stronger communities by harnessing technology. The country’s strong foundation in its approach to e-governance and ICT development continues to allow Singapore to be among the world leaders in these fields. Box 6.10 Small Island Developing States (SIDS) Symposium, Nassau, Commonwealth of the Bahamas (26-27 February 2017) Small Island Developing States (SIDS) face geopolitical realities and socio-economic dependencies, along with prevalent development challenges, such as the scarcity of resources, spatial segregation and barriers to major markets. The SIDS Accelerated Modalities of Action [S.A.M.O.A.] Pathway, adopted by the General Assembly in 2014, recognized the enabling role of information communication technologies (ICTs) to sustain high levels of economic and social growth in SIDS. It also highlighted the importance of increasing connectivity and enhancing the use of ICTs through improved infrastructure, training and national legislation, as well as through partnership with the private sector and other stakeholders. The important role of ICTs was echoed at the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) Symposium, hosted by the Government of the Bahamas and attended by ministers and high-level officials from more than 40 SIDS and other countries from 21 to 23 February 2017[1]. An informal communiqué containing key messages from the Symposium was presented by the Bahamas th Session of the UN Committee of Experts of Public Administration and at the 2017 at the 16 Session of the UN High Level Political Forum [2]. The communiqué indicated that ICTs, including e-government, can be a very important tool for [1] Refer to Symposium delivering public services and supporting progress towards the SDGs. Further efforts, however, website: https:// are needed to put them at the service of the SDGs in SIDS. The communique also expressed publicadministration. un.org/bahamas_ great concern by the persistent digital divide in SIDS and called on the international community symposium to support the building of ICT infrastructure in SIDS. It also stressed the importance of promoting [2] Available at: http:// innovation through education, raising public awareness and stimulating debate about key digital workspace.unpan.org/ sites/Internet/Documents/ public policy choices. A similar request was made to the private sector and all other actors to UNPAN97155.pdf develop innovations to ensure that SIDS can benefit from ICTs and Internet access. 145

176 Chapter 6 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES 6.5.1 Comparing EGDI Levels of LDCs, LLDCs, and SIDS Bangladesh is the highest ranked LDC at 115th. The average EGDI for this group is 0.2980 which is significantly lower than the world average of 0.5490, as seen in Figure 6.8 below. It is important to note that the LDC bloc has seen a significant improvement in e-government development since 2014. LLDCs, however, perform slightly better in their 2018 rankings with the average for the group at 133rd. This is, however, 29 positions better than the LDC average. In 2018, the LLDC countries have an average EGDI of 0.4130, significantly higher than the LDCs’ 0.2980 average. Overall, EGDI levels across all three groups have been improving since 2014, but remain behind the world average. Figure 6.8 World Average v. Average EGDI levels for LDCs, LLDCs, SIDS for 2014-2018 0.549 0.212 0.25 LDC 0.298 0.331 0.37 LLDC 0.413 0.396 0.429 SIDS 0.474 0.6 1 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.9 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 2018 2014 2016 2018 world average Figure 6.9 below shows the 2018 breakdown and comparison of the EGDI, OSI, HCI and TII levels across least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing states. Similar to the findings found in Figure 6.1, the Human Capital Index (HCI) is the highest contributing sub-index for each group. In contrast, the TII sub-index has the lowest contribution to e-government development, which highlights the urgent need for major investment in technology infrastructure in these countries. 146

177 Chapter 6 CHAPTER 6 • REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE Figure 6.9. Granular breakdown of 2018 e-Government Development Index (EGDI) and its components per grouping Highest Lowest EGDI OSI HCI TII 0.41 0.33 0.30 LDC 0.15 0.53 0.45 0.41 LLDC 0.25 0.67 0.47 0.41 0.35 SIDS The LDC and LLDC countries generally perform poorly in all three sub-indices of the EGDI when compared to the world average. However, there have been improvements since 2016. E-government allows these countries to utilize technology in providing more efficient and innovative public services such as improving access to the most vulnerable, accelerating Government’s ability to handle economic and environmental shocks and improving accountability and transparency. E-government has the potential to improve the allocation of scarce resources and enable long-term sustainable development. It can provide the impetus to boost resilience to the underlying conditions within LDC and LLDC countries. However, good infrastructure is an essential component of e-government, and insufficient spending on infrastructure coupled with lack of planning negate potential benefits. Investing in improving mobile and online services should be done in tandem with forging partnerships among stakeholders, including in the private sector. Figure 6.10 depicts the dispersion of EGDI levels across LDCs, LLDCs and SIDS which complements the previous analysis on EGDI levels. LDCs have a higher percentage of low-EGDI and middle-EGDI levels compared to LLDCs and SIDS. And while LLDCs and SIDS have the same percentage in very- high-EGDI levels, there are more SIDS among high-EGDI level countries and the lowest among middle- and low-EGDI level countries. E-government development is strongest in SIDS and weakest in the LDC group, possibly owing to the fact that the majority of the LDCs are African countries, where most have very low levels of e-government development. On the other hand, Singapore, along with many high-EGDI level countries from the Americas and Oceania, are part of the SIDS group. 147

178 Chapter 6 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Figure 6.10. Percentage of Countries Represented per bloc based on E-Government Development Index (EGDI) levels 32 37 47 100% 3% 3% 90% 28% 80% 41% 70% 70% 60% 50% 53% 40% 30% 51% 20% 30% 10% 16% 5% 0% LLDC SIDS LDC Middle EGDI Very High EGDI High EGDI Low EGDI Number of countries 6.6 Conclusion The lessons learned from this chapter are as follows: There has been an overall increase in e-government development across the regions, driven largely by improvements in OSI. Improvements in HCI and TII increased relatively less between 2014 and 2018, which require more strategic investments given the far-reaching outcomes. The regional rankings have not changed since 2003. Europe remains the highest performing region in e-government, owing to its leveraging of its existing high levels of TII and HCI and using that advantage to drive its policies towards significant improvements in OSI. The biggest EGDI improvement from 2016 to 2018 has been in the Americas, followed closely by Asia and Africa. The majority of African countries and LDCs are still in low-EGDI levels due to their poor performance in HCI and TII. Many people in these countries are unable to benefit from ICTs because of poor connectivity, high costs of access and lack of necessary skills. These disadvantages are likely to affect further development of e-government as the pace of innovation in technology intensifies. In order to build a well-functioning e-government, countries need to intensify investments in their human capital and telecommunication infrastructure. 148

179 Chapter 6 CHAPTER 6 • REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE References 1 Note: Afghanistan, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gambia, Haiti, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands Note: Antigua and Barbuda, Bolivia, Dominica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Fiji, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic 2 Republic of), Kyrgyzstan, Maldives, Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Tonga 3 Note: Belarus, Cyprus, Greece, Kazakhstan, Liechtenstein, Malta, Monaco, Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation, Uruguay P. Biggs and al (2017). The of broadband 2017: broadband catalyzing sustainable development. [online] Available at: https:// 4 www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-s/opb/pol/S-POL-BROADBAND.18-2017-PDF-E.pdf https://www. UN Economic Commission for Africa (2017). Towards improved access to broadband in Africa. [online] Available at: 5 uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/towards_improved_access_to_broadband_inafrica.pdf 6 Prime Minister of Republic of Mauritius (2015). Achieving The Second Economic Miracle And Vision 2030. Economic Mission Statement. Available at: http://www.govmu.org/English/News/Pages/Achieving-The-Second-Economic-Miracle-And-Vision-2030-- Prime-Minister-presents-Economic-Mission-Statement-.aspx 7 Ibid. 8 Ibid. Uruguay Digital (2017). Uruguay Digital Agenda 2020: Transforming with Equity. [online] Available at: 9 http://uruguaydigital.gub.uy/wps/wcm/connect/urudigital/44f1500c-6415-4e21-aa33-1e5210527d94/ Download+Digital+Agenda+%28English+Version%29.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CONVERT_TO=url&CACHEID=44f1500c-6415-4e21- aa33-1e5210527d94 10 World Economic Forum (2017). The Summit. [online] Available at: https://www.worldgovernmentsummit.org/about/about-the- summit 11 UN Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (2017). Arab High-level Forum on WSIS and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. [online] Available at: https://www.unescwa.org/ events/arab-forum-information-society-sustainable-development 12 ESCWA (2017). Smart Digital Transformation in Government. [online] Available at: https://www.unescwa.org/sites/www. unescwa.org/files/page_attachments/smart-digital-transformation-government-en_1.pdf 13 ESCWA (2017). Arab Horizon 2030: Digital Technologies for Development. [online] Available at: https://www.unescwa.org/sites/ www.unescwa.org/files/page_attachments/arab-horizon-2030-digital-technologies-development-en.pdf 14 ESCWA (2017). Innovation Policy for Inclusive Sustainable Development in the Arab Region. [online] Available at: https://www.unescwa.org/publications/innovation-policy-inclusive-sustainable-development-arab-region 15 ESCWA (2016). Open Government in the Arab Region. [online] Available at: https://www.unescwa.org/sub-site/open- government-arab-region 16 Agency for Digitisation (2018). Digital Strategy 2016 - 2020. [online] Available at: https://en.digst.dk/policy-and-strategy/digital-strategy/ [Accessed Mar. 2018]. 17 European Commission (2015). Digital Single Market. [online] Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/ 18 Korea Development Institute (2017). 2016/2017 Knowledge Sharing Program with Bangladesh: Capacity Building of the Government Officials for Effective Use of the e-Governance Tools. [online] p.82. Available at: http://www.ksp.go.kr/publication/ policy.jsp?syear=&snat=Bangladesh&skey=&stem=&stype=&pg=0&idx=14582 (pg.82). 19 UNCTAD. List of land-locked developing countries. [online] Available at: http://unctad.org/en/pages/aldc/Landlocked%20 Developing%20Countries/List-of-land-locked-developing-countries.aspx [Accessed Mar. 2018]. 20 Zerde.gov.kz. Informational Kazakhstan 2020. [online] Available at: https://zerde.gov.kz/en/activity/program-control/informa tion- kazakhstan-2020/ 21 Adilet.zan.kz (2013). State Program: Information Kazakhstan 2020. [online] Available at: http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/ [Accessed Mar. 2018]. U1300000464 149

180 Chapter 6 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES

181 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 CHAPTER 7 • IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT Improve cities resilience and sustainability through e-government assessment 7.1. Introduction Photo credit: pixabay.com 7.1.1 Urbanisation and Sustainability Cities are important hubs of human activity that are gaining in In this chapter: population and increased importance in the global economy. In 2016, 151 7.1. Introduction close to 4 billion people — 54 per cent of the world’s population — 1 lived in cities. According to the World Bank , in the last 50 years the 7.1.1 Urbanisation and proportion of population living in cities has increased by 50 per cent, and Sustainability 151 it is estimated that, by 2050, 6 billion people will be living in cities (66 7.1.2 Public service delivery at per cent of the world’s population). In 2014, high levels of urbanisation, a local level 151 at or above 80 per cent, characterised Latin America and the Caribbean 152 7.2. Local Level e-Government and Northern America. Europe, with 73 per cent of its population living 7.2.1 Supporting e-Government in cities, is expected to be over 80 per cent urban by 2050. Africa and implementation at local level 152 Asia, in contrast, remain mostly rural, with 40 per cent and 48 per cent 7.2.2. e-Government assessment of their respective populations living in urban areas. Over the coming on local level 153 decades, the level of urbanisation is expected to increase in all regions, 2 7.2.3. Relative assessment efforts 153 with Africa and Asia urbanising faster than the rest . 7.2.4. Towards Local e-Government Assessment 154 The role of local administration in the achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is critical, since those goals 7.3 Current Status of Local Online recognise the transformative power of urbanisation for development 154 Services: a Pilot Study and the significance of city leaders in driving global change from the 155 7.3.1 Study Methodology bottom up. Most of the SDGs have targets that are directly or indirectly 158 7.3.2 Study Findings related to the daily operation of local and regional governments. 7.4. Using Local e-Government to Local governments are policy makers and catalysts of change. They 171 Advance SDG implementation are also the level of government best-placed to bind the goals with 3 173 7.5. Conclusion local communities . Improvement of local e-Government functions encompasses local public institutions, their operations and civil society References 175 organisations alignment with UN SDGs 11 and 17 for sustainable cities and communities and goal 16 for peace, justice and strong institutions. In practice, institutions are strengthened by free, fair and equal citizen participation. Furthermore, local governments that possess decentralised authority can better set local priorities to assure the rights and needs of vulnerable groups and provide transparent and accountable institutions. 7.1.2 Public service delivery at a local level Municipality administration constitutes the lowest level of governance in each country (Lanvin and Lewin, 2006). E-Government at the local level has its own flavour, since cities and municipalities are developing specific functions and components that cannot be found at other levels of government. On the one hand, local government serves the 151 Chapter 7

182 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES administrative purpose of maintaining the essential infrastructures and providing services, and on the other hand, it offers their citizens the possibility of active participation in decision-making. Local governments are key players in public life, since what they do has a daily and direct impact on citizens. People interact more often with local administration than with the central one, because 4 the first delivers the vast majority of services that concerns them and determines the sustainable development of their close living environment. In Europe, 50 to 80 per cent of the interaction 5 between citizens and government takes place at the local levels . Municipal public administration organisations assure the sustainability and resilience of the city and they are responsible for a huge number of operations covering a wide range of areas. They provide to citizens with a wide spectrum of services like educational services (e.g. day nurseries, adult training programs), health and social care services (health advice services, health care centres, programmes for vulnerable groups), environmental and urban management services (e.g. disaster management, traffic planning, public transport, pollution, cleaning, waste collection, flood control), security and infrastructure services (water, sewage, power, public lighting, crime contention) and cultural and sport services. At the same time, they significantly interact with enterprises through different types of services such as enterprise registration, local taxation, business occupancy permit, networking events, financing programs, professional authorisations and licenses. Citizen interaction and engagement in local communities is a main responsibility of local authorities. Facilitation of citizens’ participation is vital because it allows individuals to express their needs and to provide feedback about their local governments’ policies. Citizen inclusion in decision-making and proximity to public administration are achieved by applying a wide spectrum of processes and tools. Virtual face-to-face meetings, such as online discussion forums, e-Bulletin boards, social media applications, real-time discussions, e-Petitions and e-Meetings, are some of the local e-Government systems that encourage citizens’ participation and enable a wide scope of formal and informal 6 government-citizen interaction and engagement . This chapter illustrates the necessity of local e-Government assessment and highlights the specific characteristics of local government. It also offers an overview of existing e-Government assessment models and practices, based on which new assessment method for local e-government is proposed. The results of a pilot local e-Government assessment study, carried out in 40 municipalities worldwide, are presented, and options to advance SDG implementation through e-Government application are discussed. Finally, lessons learned are presented. 7.2. Local Level e-Government 7.2.1 Supporting e-Government implementation at local level A significant number of cities worldwide have adopted local initiatives in response to the growing recognition of the need to improve their sustainability and resilience. Municipalities, aligning with Sustainable Development Goals, have taken action on policies related to eradicating poverty; providing equal opportunities for all, including vulnerable groups; land development and land-use planning; economic development; smart growth; transport optimisation including in connection with inner-city public transit; pollution prevention, energy, water and resource conservation; eco- 7 projects and alternative energy development policies . The need for enhancing the sustainability and resilience of cities has prompted many politicians, policy-makers and public officials to define new policies and activities. 152

183 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 CHAPTER 7 • IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT In order to integrate those policies into local planning and development efforts, public administration processes are continuously reengineered and increasingly underpinned by emerging technologies and innovations. Public administration authorities’ portals provide the opportunity to local governments, not only to digitize services but, at the same time, to “localise” their resilience and sustainability. This underlines the need for web-based local government systems to enhance access to services and prompt greater engagement among constituents. It should be ensured that policies are tailored to the socioeconomic characteristics of each city. 7.2.2. e-Government assessment on local level Therefore, the analysis of public administration portals is essential and a way for e-Government 8 development assessment . Such assessment assists public sector organisations to determine their web strategy, achieve resilient and sustainable policies and operations, and inform policy-makers 10 9 and agencies about how e-Government has performed from a citizen’s point of view . Since local government has the greatest direct contact with citizens, it is critical to collect and exploit regional and local-level data, as the more resources that are allocated at the subnational level, the more value 11 its citizens obtain . As is the case at the national level, successful existing practices and initiatives worldwide could set the benchmark for local e-Government development. Politicians, policy-makers and local public administration officers could use e-Government assessment and successful paradigms in megacities, 12 as a guide to making informed decisions . They could monitor the results of current e-Government investments and determine if the applied e-Government strategy is well-balanced, fruitful and aligned with the designated resilience and sustainability programme. Decision-makers then could set new targets regarding specific areas of e-Government service provision and improve the local government agenda. Assessment and comparison of various practices are key instruments for depicting the existing e-Government status, ascertaining which objectives have been achieved, confirming the efficiency of applied policies, identifying strengths and weaknesses, suggesting new measures and looking for improved operational patterns in large cities around the world. 7.2.3. Relative assessment efforts Apart from United Nations e-Government Development Index (EGDI), several other assessment efforts are also commissioned, at national levels, by different stakeholders. The European Commission, in 2017, found that individual countries, private consulting companies, individual researchers, and the Commission itself apply various assessment processes. In each case, policy-makers, government officials, researchers, and others seek to learn lessons from other governments’ e-Government policies, to measure their relative progress, discover best practices and global trends and explore 13 underlying e-Government concepts to identify points of leverage . There are some efforts, mainly in the research realm, to evaluate municipal portals (Box 7.1). Some of them consider ICT readiness for the municipality, while others assess the local administration portal. 153

184 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Box 7.1 Local e-Government Assessment Efforts Digital Governance in Municipalities Worldwide assesses the practice of digital governance The in large municipalities around the world. It evaluates the official municipality portals of 100 cities of the top 100 most wired nations (based on International Telecommunication Union data), in terms of public service provision and residents’ participation in governance and ranks the portals. The evaluation categories they apply are: services provision, privacy/security, usability, content, and citizen participation. Regarding provided services, it checks 20 specific ones, assessed in terms of 14 . maturity with a reference framework of three stages e-Government Municipal Assessment Project The (MeGAP) for benchmarking of local 15 . This bottom-up approach assesses 68 services that are e-Government is proposed by Kaylor et al. performed by local administrations in the US and is grouped in four distinct categories (information dissemination, interactive functions, eCommerce functions and e-Democracy). Each service is evaluated using a four-level services sophistication assessment framework. Finally, a summary statistic is defined to encapsulate all the results and is the base for a score used to rank cities. MeGAP has been also applied to the 30 municipalities in southern Norway. The Evaluation of the Portuguese Municipalities’ Online Presence is a Portuguese robust and well-established study developed and evolved since 1999. This method introduces a procedure Source: and an assessment evaluation grid. Municipalities’ portals are evaluated according to 32 groups of United Nations University indicators allocated in four criteria: content, accessibility, online services and participation. The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs considers that the different role cities play in different countries makes comparison difficult (i.e. a public function that is highly centralised 16 in one country may be highly decentralised in another). In addition, the variety of services and operations make it even more complex for information collection and comparison. Collecting internationally comparable data at the local level – even where it exists – is especially difficult, due 17 to differences in political and economic systems. It is thus challenging to design a municipality 18 e-Government assessment process that avoids misleading results. 7.2.4. Towards Local e-Government Assessment Consequently, a need to move the focus of assessment of e-Government development to different levels of public administration emerges. It is expected that local level e-Government assessment will improve public services, citizen engagement and authorities’ transparency and accountability. Local e-government could also be used as a tool to propel resiliency and sustainability goals and align local government operation with national digital strategy plans. Assessment results could produce useful benchmarks, which can lead to further improvement and application of best practices. The actions needed to improve local public governance and achieve the UN SDGs need more sub- national, policy-orientated, and capacity-building indices. That requires comprehensive government indicators, which reflect universal aspects of local governance to enable global comparisons across cities. The indicators should, for instance, evaluate specific municipality services, community participation, support to vulnerable groups, access to information, and anti-corruption measures. 7.3 Current Status of Local Online Services: a Pilot Study This section reports on a pilot study of local e-Government development, which sampled 40 diverse cities across the globe. It starts by describing the instrument used to assess the municipalities’ online services, as well as its application to the 40 cities. The study’s main findings, including some best practices, are presented in the second part of this section. 154

185 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 CHAPTER 7 • IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT 7.3.1 Study Methodology Local Online Service Index Municipalities worldwide are constantly improving their official websites, as those are the primary 19 interfaces with citizens in the e-Government paradigm. The focus of the proposed assessment instrument is the municipality’s official website, where information about administration and online services are provided by the local government authorities. Specifically, a municipal website should include information about available city services, along with information related to the city council, mayor and executive branch, as well as other departments and services. These websites should use the appropriate technologies to effectively provide government services and engage citizens in decision-making. Local government portals are also the main gateways to promote and apply cities’ resiliency and sustainability programmes. There are many parameters for assessing local government websites, as different perceptions of evaluation lead to diverse criteria. Therefore, local e-Government metrics cannot be regarded as one-size fits-all. Existing research indicates that they differ, to some extent, by municipality needs, operation and provided services. To define an appropriate set of metrics, the study expands upon previous empirical research to understand and to measure the degree of web presence in municipality portals. The proposed instrument, applied in this pilot to assess local e-Government progress around the world, is based on a set of specific indicators that yield some sort of score and, furthermore, allow city e-Government status comparison. The suggested instrument enables the comparison of individual indicators identified on municipalities’ portals by clustering them into certain criteria 20 groups using website provided information. . Apart from the indicators, an email response test is conducted which identifies different aspects regarding how municipality portals respond to citizen 21 email requests for information . Simply stated, the Local Online Service Index (LOSI) comprises four criteria groups which cover the whole spectrum of the identified assessment indicators depicted in Table 7.1, derived from the analysis of literature and practice efforts. The first one is the Technology criterion, where some basic features of the website are assessed; next is the Content Provision criterion , where the existence of essential information is examined; the third criterion is , where the delivery of Services Provision fundamental electronic services is assessed; and the final criterion is Participation and Engagement which assesses the existence of relevant participation and engagement mechanisms and initiatives. LOSI is a multi-criteria index, composed of 60 indicators (Table 7.1). The indicators enable progress towards the achievement of each criterion’s key objectives to be measured. That, in turn, permits the ongoing evaluation of success in implementing the municipality’s website aimed strategy. Each of the 60 indicators is ascribed a “value 1” if it is found in a municipality website, “value 0” if it is absent and nothing if it is not applicable. The LOSI value of a municipality is the sum of the values of all the 60 indicators for that municipality. 155

186 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES LOSI – Criteria and Indicators Table 7.1 Content Provision Technology Browser compatibility Contact details Organization structure Ease of portal finding Names and contacts about heads of departments Portal loading speed Mobile device accessibility Municipality information Navigability Budget related information Internal search mechanism Information about procurement announcements Internal advanced search mechanism Information about procurement results Alignment with markup validation standards Information about provided services Alignment with display standards Information about municipality partnership with third parties Alignment with accessibility standards Facilitation of free internet access Customization of display features Health information Foreign language support Environmental information Education information Social welfare information Sport and culture information Privacy policy Open data policy Open data provision OGD metadata Smart cities initiatives Use of emergent technologies Online user support Guiding information on online services use Links for government agencies Statistical data and studies provision Evidence of portal content update Participation and engagement Service Provision Portal authentication Real time communication Personal data accessibility Feedback/complaint submission Personal data updating Online deliberation processes Municipality responsiveness t emails Social networking features Delay of email response Reporting of occurrences in public spaces Quality of email response Participatory budgeting e-Procurement service Participatory land use plan Police online declaration Announcement of upcoming e-participation activities Address change notification Feedback about consultation processes Online residentship Online building permit Online vacancies e-Payment 156

187 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 CHAPTER 7 • IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT Assessment Procedure The 40 cities in the pilot assessment were selected on the basis of geographical coverage and population size. All geopolitical regional groups of United Nations Member States were covered. More specifically the number of countries per region that are included is based on the percentage of that region’s total population in the context of the global population: Africa – 7; Americas – 6; Asia – 13; Europe – 12; Oceania – 2. Wherever possible, all sub regions in the region are covered. Within regions, the cities with the largest population were selected, wherever possible. Where this was not possible, other criteria such as gross domestic product (GDP) and e-Government ranking were considered. Within countries, the city with the largest population was selected. Cities’ population 22 were obtained from The United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) website . In 31 cases, the largest city is also the capital city. Table 7.2 systematises the final list of cities considered. After selection, a search was conducted to identify the relative municipality website link for each. The link for each municipality’s website and the 60 indicators to be evaluated were sent to an assessor, who was a native speaker of the official language of the city. Instructions and guidance regarding the assessment process and about the email messages to be sent to the municipality to assess municipalities’ responsiveness to email contacts, were also sent to the assessors. In order to have external validation of the information collected by the assessors, an expert review was conducted. To do so, the assessors were asked to introduce comments to the indicators and, departing from that, a researcher from the team re-checked the information provided. Pilot Cities Profile Table 7.2 Country Region Sub-region Population City Luanda Angola Africa Middle Africa 2107648 Buenos Aires Argentina South America 2965403 Americas Australia Oceania Sydney 4451841 Australia and New Zealand Toronto Canada Americas Northern America 2808503 Shanghai China Asia Eastern Asia 14348535 Bogotá Colombia Americas South America 6763325 Abidjan Cote d’Ivoire Africa Western Africa 4395243 1259079 Prague Czech Republic (the) Europe Eastern Europe Santo Domingo Dominican Republic (the) 965040 Americas Caribbean Africa Northern Africa Egypt Cairo 7771617 Tallinn Estonia Europe Northern Europe 413782 Ethiopia Africa Eastern Africa 2739551 Addis Ababa Finland Northern Europe 616690 Europe Helsinki France Europe Western Europe 2243833 Paris Europe Germany 3469849 Western Europe Berlin Accra Ghana Western Africa 1594419 Africa Greece Europe Athens 664046 Southern Europe Mumbai India Asia Southern Asia 11978450 Jakarta Indonesia Asia South-Eastern Asia 9607787 Rome Italy Europe Southern Europe 2867672 Tokyo Japan Asia Eastern Asia 9272740 1507509 Almaty Kazakhstan Asia Central Asia 157

188 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Country Region Population City Sub-region Africa 3133518 Kenya Nairobi Eastern Africa Asia South-Eastern Asia 1588750 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia Mexico Central America 8851080 Americas México City Amsterdam Netherlands Europe Western Europe 821752 Pakistan Asia Karachi 9339023 Southern Asia Port Moresby Oceania Melanesia 254158 Papua New Guinea Poland Eastern Europe 1735391 Warsaw Europe Republic of Korea Asia Eastern Asia 9860372 Seoul Moscow Europe Eastern Europe 11918057 Russian Federation (the) Riyadh Saudi Arabia Asia Western Asia 5188286 433688 Cape Town South Africa Africa Southern Africa Madrid Spain Southern Europe 3186241 Europe Sri Lanka Southern Asia 647100 Colombo (commercial) Asia Thailand Asia South-Eastern Asia 6355144 Bangkok Istanbul Asia Western Asia 14100000 Turkey London UK Europe Northern Europe 8135667 Dubai United Arab Emirates Asia Western Asia 2983248 New York City United States of America Northern America 8550405 Americas 7.3.2 Study Findings The aim of this study was twofold: to demonstrate the feasibility of the methodology used to assess local e-Government development and to present a set of findings that illustrate the value of this kind of information for policy- and decision-makers, and managers involved in promoting e-Government locally. Its goal is to contribute to the sustained and sustainable development of cities and societies. As mentioned, each city was analysed against the 60 LOSI indicators, covering technical and content aspects of the municipality website, as well as electronic services provision and e-Participation initiatives available through the portal. Table 7.3 presents the final ranking of cities. The table also clusters the cities according to the total number of indicators in which they scored. Four clusters are considered: cluster, grouping very high cities that met at least 46 indicators of the 60 analysed (more than 75 per cent of the indicators); high cluster, grouping cities that achieved between 31 and 45 indicators (between 50 and 75 per cent); medium cluster, grouping cities that satisfied between 16 and 30 indicators (between 25 and 50 per cent) and, finally, low cluster, grouping cities that met fewer than 16 indicators (less than 25 per cent). This cluster is not presented in the table since none of the cities scored in fewer than 16 indicators. 158

189 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 CHAPTER 7 • IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT Ranking of cities Table 7.3 Content Service Participation and Total Technology provision provision engagement indicators indicators indicators indicators City indicators Rank Cluster Moscow Very high 26 11 55 10 1 9 (more than 75% Cape Town 11 53 10 26 2 7 indicators) Tallinn 53 11 26 12 5 2 London 10 25 11 6 4 51 Paris 51 4 24 8 9 11 Sydney 6 11 21 12 7 50 Amsterdam 49 9 25106 7 Seoul 11 49 7 25 6 8 Rome 9 11 25 8 5 48 Warsaw 11 25 7 6 9 48 Helsinki 47 11 24 7 7 10 Istanbul 11 24126 47 6 Shanghai 47 11 24 5 9 10 Madrid 10 46 14 22 8 7 New York City 14 10 21 10 6 46 High Dubai 16 44 10 21 10 4 (50% to 75% Prague 7 43 10 23 4 17 indicators) Addis Ababa 18 42 12 21 4 6 Tokyo 19 41 24 3 3 12 Toronto 9 22 8 3 19 41 Buenos Aires 40 8 22 21 6 5 Berlin 22 11 21 2 6 39 Jakarta 23 37 9 17 5 7 Mumbai 36 24 12 19 5 1 Almaty 25 11 19 3 3 35 Kuala Lumpur 25 35 11 19 4 2 Athens 33 27 8 18 7 1 Cairo 5 33 10 18 27 1 Nairobi 27 33 5 15104 Riyadh 30 15 3 5 9 31 Bogotá 31 7 17 3 4 30 Medium México City 29 7 20 1 2 32 (25% to 50% Colombo (commercial) 33 3 28 8 13 5 indicators) Bangkok 34 24 5 11 5 4 Port Moresby 4 34 24 9 12 0 Accra 36 10 12 0 2 23 Abidjan 19 10 9 37 1 0 Luanda 38 178 901 Santo Domingo 38 17 5 11 0 2 Karachi 40 1 16 5 11 0 159

190 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES When considering the whole set of indicators, the study found that municipalities tend to be very performing quite reasonably. As shown in Figure 7.1, 75 per cent of the cities were classified in high , meaning that 30 of the 40 cities scored in more than half of the 60 indicators or high clusters assessed. Figure 7.1 Percentage of cities in each cluster Very high cluster 37.5% High cluster 37.5% 25% Medium cluster Figure 7.2 illustrates the relationship between the level of assessment obtained by a city and the level of e-Government development of the country to which the city belongs. It does so by comparing the classification obtained by the city in this pilot (LOSI) with the 2018 UN OSI (Online Service Index) (countries with OSI >= 0.75), high (countries with OSI between 0.5 value and classification ( very high (countries with OSI <= 0.25)). and 0.75), medium (countries with OSI between 0.25 and 0.5) and low The 2018 UN OSI values and classifications were presented and discussed in chapter 5 of this report. As shown, 55 per cent of the cities got a cluster position in LOSI similar to the one that their countries got in UN 2018 OSI (37.5 per cent medium- ; 12.5 per cent high-high; 5 per cent very high–very high ). There were, however, 42.5 per cent of the cities that got a LOSI classification lower than medium that of the country in which they resided, as per the UN 2018 OSI (25 per cent high-very high ; 12.5 ; 5 per cent ). Two municipalities received a classification (5 medium-very high per cent medium-high per cent) that differs two levels from that of its country as per OSI (the municipality got a medium position in OSI). Only in one case, for Abidjan, did a position in LOSI while its country got a very high municipality reach a LOSI level higher than that of its country in OSI (the municipality got a medium position in OSI). position in LOSI while its country got a low These figures tend to suggest that there is not a very strong correlation between the level of assessment obtained by a local municipality and the level of e-Government development of the country to which the city belongs. This fact reinforces the need to conduct assessments of e-Government development at the local level, to complement the national level assessment. The discrepancy that may exist in national and local-level e-Government development may be even greater than the one shown by these figures, considering the fact that the cities included in this 160

191 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 CHAPTER 7 • IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT pilot study are the biggest cities, in terms of population, in their countries. Being big cities, it is highly probable that they present higher levels of e-government development than smaller ones, meaning that, when conducting a wider local e-government analysis, the difference found between performance at a national and local level may be more marked. Figure 7.2 City–Country Online Services Index cross classification in 2018 City/Municipality classification in the LOSI 2018 Medium Very high High Low 37.5% 25% 5% Paris Amsterdam Riyadh Almaty Bogotá Rome Cape Town To k yo Mexico City Athens Seoul Helsinki To ro n t o Berlin Shanghai Istanbul Buenos Aires Very high Sidney London Dubai Tallinn Madrid Kuala Lumpur Warsaw Moscow Mumbai New York City 12.5% 12.5% Country classification in UN OSI ranking 2018 Addis Ababa Accra Cairo Bangkok Jakarta Colombo (commercial) High Nairobi Karachi Prague Santo Domingo 5% Luanda Medium Port Moresby 2.5% Low Abidjan The analysis by region shows that cities in Europe scored higher. As depicted in Figure 7.3, all European cities analysed are included in clusters. Most of the African, Americas and Asian very high and high clusters. high cities, respectively, 86 per cent, 83 per cent and 77 per cent, fell into the and medium 161

192 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Figure 7.3 Performance of cities per region 80 75% 70 60 54% 50% 50% 50% 50 43% 43% 40 33% 30 25% 23% 23% 20 17% 14% 10 0 Africa Asia Europe Oceania Americas High Very high Medium Despite the reasonable global scores achieved by the cities, when looking individually to the different criteria and indicators assessed, it becomes evident that municipalities do not perform uniformly in all of them. As can be seen (Table 7.4), 85 per cent of the 13 Technology indicators (i.e. indicators which cover basic features related to accessibility, navigability, and ease of use of the website, such as browser compatibility, portal finding, portal loading speed, mobile device accessibility, internal search mechanism, customisation of display features, and foreign language support), were positively assessed in more than 50 per cent of the cities, meaning that these issues are regarded and implemented in most of municipalities’ websites. Similarly, 96 per cent of the Content Provision indicators, such as those related to the availability of essential information, were also found in more than 50 per cent of the cities analysed, with half of them being satisfied by more than 75 per cent of the cities. Table 7.4 Percentage of indicators per criteria that scored by percentage of cities. Indicators Percentage of cities 75%-100% 50%-75% 0%-25% Total Number Criterion 25%-50% Technology 13 46% 15% 0 39% Content Provision 50% 26 0 4% 46% Service Provision 31% 54% 15% 13 0 Participation and Engagement 22% 9 12% 44% 22% 162

193 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 CHAPTER 7 • IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT A different situation emerges with the other two criteria. As shown by the numbers, 56 per cent of the indicators, or those covering the availability of citizen engagement Participation and Engagement and participation initiatives through the website, were implemented by less than 50 per cent of the Service Provision municipalities. The criterion scored the lowest, with 69 per cent of its indicators being implemented only by less than half the municipalities ranked. These results tend to show that, despite some very good cases, many municipalities continue to focus their attention more on providing websites with adequate content and satisfactory usability, and less on making life easier for citizens insofar as such things as service request and execution and promoting citizen participation. As shown in Figure 7.4, indicators addressed most by municipality websites are related to Technology accessibility, ease of use, and navigability. Most of the websites are compliant with the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG1.0), as well as with the technical standard recommendations by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) referring the mark-up validity and Cascade Style Sheets (CSS) standards. Figure 7.4 Implementation of Technology indicators in municipalities’ websites Browser compatibility 100% Mobile device accessibility 95% 90% Ease of portal finding 88% Internal search mechanism 83% Navigability 65% Foreign Language support 60% Internal advanced search mechanism Alignment with accessibility standards 58% 55% Alignment with markup validation standards 55% Alignment with display standards 43% Portal loading speed 40% Customization of display features 0 204060 80100 Only 65 per cent of the municipalities provide their website content in more than one language. Considering that the sample used in the pilot includes the biggest city in the countries, and that most are capital cities that attract a huge number of visitors for business and tourism purposes, it would be reasonable to expect that their websites would be fully or partially available in an oft-used language, such as English. There is also an expectation that multilingual website content would be used in multiracial and multi-language cities, to ensure that language, ethnic and indigenous minorities can access public services and information easily. 163

194 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Most municipalities, or 95 per cent, already provide websites that are accessible through mobile platforms. This is particularly relevant considering the high penetration of mobile devices and the growing trend of “access on moving”. Only 40 per cent of the municipalities studied have websites that make it possible to customise website display options, such as font type, size and colour. Concerning Content Provision , which covers indicators related to the availability of information, namely institutional information, sectorial information, services information and information about policies of privacy and open data, most of the municipalities performed quite well. As previously Content Provision mentioned, 96 per cent of the indicators were verified in more than half the cities analysed, with 50 per cent of indicators being satisfied by more than 75 per cent of the cities. As presented in Figure 7.5, information about the municipalities’ organisation, operations and management, such as a municipality chart, the names and titles of heads of departments and their functions, working hours, contracts, municipality budget and budget-related policies, as well as information about services provided is available on the website of more than 75 per cent of the cities. Implementation of Content Provision indicators in municipalities’ websites Figure 7.5 100% Names and contacts of heads of departments Contact details 98% 95% Municipality information 90% Information about provided services Health information 90% Education information 88% Environmental information 85% Sport and culture information 85% Organization structure 83% Social welfare information 83% 83% Links for government agencies Budget related information 80% 80% Procurement annoucements information 73% Open data provision 70% Evidence of portal content update 68% Facilitation of free internet access 68% Privacy policy Evidences of smart cities initiatives 68% 68% Statistical data and studies 65% Online user support 63% Procurement results information 60% Open data policy 60% Information on online services use 58% Open data metadata 55% Third parties partnerships information 45% Evidences of emerging technologies use 80 020 60 100 40 164

195 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 CHAPTER 7 • IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT The majority of municipalities’ websites also provide a rich and wide range of information covering sectorial areas such as education, health, environment, social welfare, leisure, culture and sports. Announcements of forthcoming municipality procurement/bidding processes were found in 80 per cent of the websites, although only 63 per cent of them provide the results of the procurement/ bidding processes. Notably, 68 per cent of the municipalities have a privacy policy or statement available on the website, which denotes respect for citizens’ privacy and awareness of transparency and accountability principles. The websites were also analysed to determine whether the municipality is using, starting to use, or intends to use information and communication technologies (ICTs) in more innovative ways. For that purpose, three aspects were analysed, relating to the existence of any Open Government Data (OGD) initiatives, smart city initiatives, and the adoption and use of emerging technologies, such as Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI), blockchain, virtual reality (VR), or augmented reality (AR). Open Government Data initiatives were noted in 73 per cent of the cities, which is a sign of municipalities’ willingness to become more transparent and economical. However, only 60 per cent of those cities provide an OGD policy, establishing the rules and recommendations for publishing and using open datasets. In most cases, the municipality website provides a link to a specific OGD portal, be it a municipal or national OGD portal. One interesting example of OGD was found in Helsinki (Box 7.2). Box 7.2 Helsinki: Helsinki Region Infoshare Helsinki Region Infoshare (HRI) service aims to make regional information quickly and easily accessible to all. Essentially, HRI is a web service for fast and easy access to open data sources between the cities of Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen. The data published is mainly statistical, giving a comprehensive and diverse outlook on different urban phenomena, such as living conditions, economics and well-being, employment and transport. A good proportion of the data material offered by the service is GIS based. The main operational activity is to support the producers of information in opening their data and to increase its utilisation by multi- channel communication. The data can be used in research and development activities, decision-making, visualisation, data journalism and in the development of apps. The data may be used by citizens, businesses, universities, academies, research facilities or municipal administration. The data on offer is ready to be used freely at no cost. There are no limitations on users; anyone interested in open data can participate. Currently 628 datasets are offered organised in various categories. The data can be downloaded http://www. Source: hri.fi/en/ as files and is also available as raw data in different formats (XLS, PC-AXIS, CSV, KML, GML, JSON and XML) via various network services or technical interfaces. 165

196 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Smart cities initiatives are emerging around the globe. Prompted by environmental, economic, or social reasons, cities are taking advantage of technology advancements in many domains to become smarter. The pilot study tends to support this evidence, with some smart city initiatives found in 68 per cent of the cities analysed, such as in Amsterdam (Box 7.3). Comparing with Open Government Data and smart cities initiatives, the results obtained for emerging technologies were somewhat lower. The use, or intention to use, of emerging technologies was found in only 45 per cent of the municipalities. This percentage, however, is a positive sign, since there is still a significant general lack of understanding about the use of emerging technologies. These require new technical competencies, which, at the municipal level, may not be readily available. One interesting case of emerging technologies use was found in Seoul (Box 7.4). Box 7.3 Amsterdam: Solar Cycle Path In Amsterdam, they have designed and installed the world’s first solar cycle path. Solar path is exactly what it sounds like—solar panels that pull double duty as road surface and electricity generator. The path, which was developed by the Netherlands’ TNO Research Institute, runs between the suburbs of Krommenie and Wormerveer. The busy 70-meter stretch serves some 2,000 cyclists per day. Underneath all that glass, the solar panels are hooked up to the electric grid. 70 meters might not sound like much, but it’s a proof-of-concept pilot project to test feasibility and practicality, and it makes sense to test the waters on roads that are occupied with lightweight bicycles rather than hefty vehicles. Eventually, it could make the sense to use this solar road electricity for traffic signals and street lights. After a six months’ operation, the path attracted more than 150,000 riders, and more importantly, generated more than 3,000 kilowatt-hours of energy. That’s enough to power a home for a year. The solar path was made using prefabricated slabs consisting of concrete blocks topped with a translucent layer of tempered glass. Beneath the protective glass lie crystalline silicon solar cells which are hooked up to the grid. The glass has been given a special coating to make it skid- resistant, and it’s strong enough to withstand steel balls dropped onto it. The path has been installed on a slight tilt which is designed to help rain wash off dirt and hence keep it as clean as possible, which will help maximise the amount of sunlight that can reach the solar cells. As it is still in its early days, production costs are unfortunately rather hefty. The pilot cycle path came with a $3.75 million ( 3 million) price tag, which was mostly put up by the local authority. However, as À Source: http://www. the technology develops and production gets scaled-up, the price should drop. solaroad.nl/ The favourable scores achieved by municipalities in the Technology and Content Provision criteria indicators. As shown in change considerably when looking at the Participation and Engagement Table 7.4, there were 56 per cent of and Engagement indicators that were only found Participation in less than half of the municipalities’ websites studied. According to Figure 7.6, one of the Participation and engagement indicators that received a more positive assessment relates to a social network presence in municipalities, with 34, or 85 per cent of municipalities polled having a presence in some social network, such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Flickr. 166

197 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 CHAPTER 7 • IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT Box 7.4 Seoul: smart bins for waste management improvement Seoul had problems of frequent waste collection and waste overflow. With an inadequate number of public waste bins and with four to five daily waste collections proving to be insufficient, they had a serious problem on their hands. Furthermore, because the waste collection planners did not know how full or how quickly the bins became full, Seoul’s waste collection staff had to deal with plastic bottles and paper cups that continuously piled up on top of recycling bins. With the main goal of improving the cityscape by making streets cleaner and reducing waste collection costs, Seoul municipality decided to install 85 solar power trash compactor waste bins which can hold up to 8 times more waste compared to non-compacting bins. Those wheelie bins provide easy and safe trash removal, and they also communicate information they collect in real time through wireless transmission, to monitor the status and fill-level of waste bins and observe the collection efficiency throughout Seoul. Since installing those waste bins, waste overflow was eliminated, waste collection cost has been reduced by 83%, recycling diversion rate has been increased to 46%, route optimisation for waste collections has been achieved (66% reduction in collection frequency) and there was a significant reduction of litter on the streets. This waste management solution, using emergent http://gov. Source: technologies, is contributing to making the city cleaner and more pleasant for both residents seoul.go.kr/ and tourists. Figure 7.6 Implementation of Participation indicators in municipalities’ websites Feedback/complaint submission 85% Social networking features 85% Online deliberation processes 55% Announcement of upcoming e-participation 53% activities Reporting of occurrences in public spaces 48% Real time communication 43% Feedback about consultation processes 40% Participatory territorial master plan 35% Participatory budgeting 23% 0 20406080100 167

198 Chapter 7 Chapter 6 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Regarding the possibility for a citizen to send a complaint or opinion to their municipality – present in in 85 per cent of the municipalities - different approaches are used. In some cases, general inquiry options are available, whereas other websites provide specific areas for that feedback. One kind of information or feedback provided by citizens to their municipalities is related with the reporting of occurrences/ problems found in public spaces, such as holes in the street, broken public lamps, damages in sports facilities or playgrounds. This possibility was found, however, in only 19, or 48 per cent, of the websites. One interesting system for reporting occurrences was found in Bogota (Box 7.5). Box 7.5 Bogota: Geographic Information Services Bogotá DC has created effective mechanisms to permit timely availability of quality geospatial information to support the range of sectoral, local and regional projects that are deployed in and from the national capital district. The Infrastructure of Spatial Data for the Capital District (or IDECA) is responsible for promoting collaborative strategies to manage geographic information based on official policies and standards, using technological tools that enable information management and facilitate the development of institutional strategies for best practices related to the data lifecycle. Tu Bogotá is an application that can identify, through an interactive map, variables to make decisions about housing or investment in the capital within a search radius of 0.5 to 2 km. It can also be shared on social networks. The application gives the per-sq-km value of a land, and other useful information, such as the options available in the property’s environment related with education options, health providers, parks, and other. The tool allows users to report the real estate offers and civic needs for different sectors of the city (health, education, culture, trade, tourism, social security, risk, mobility, environment, public space). In addition, users can upload a related image, a description of the need and a contact email. This way, users can get in touch with the different http://www. Source: public entities that provide information for the app and contribute for portraying a certain area of bogota.gov.co/ the city, thus allowing interactive and information wise navigation in the app’s map. Too few websites offer mechanisms, such as online forums, social media, online polls, online voting tools, chats, blogs and online petition tools, to gather public opinion so as to inform policy deliberations. Only about half of the cities studied, or 55 per cent, provide tools on their website to engage citizens in deliberative and decision processes. Sydney, Australia has spearheaded a noteworthy community consultation initiative (Box 7.6). Box 7.6 Sydney: Community Consultation The City offers a range of opportunities for residents, workers, community groups, business, government and industry stakeholders to share ideas, insight and feedback on our projects and policies to help inform Council decisions. They can take part at workshops and community meetings, stakeholder meetings and roundtables, online consultations, community reference groups, advisory panels, drop-in sessions, surveys, school workshops etc. Consultation and engagement outcomes are collated, analysed and considered along with other input and technical, financial or legislative requirements as a key part of Council’s decision-making process. The following principles guide the city’s approach to engaging the community in decision-making: • Integrity: Engagement should be clear in scope and purpose. • Inclusiveness: Engagement should be accessible and capture a full range of values and perspectives. Dialogue: Engagement should promote dialogue and open up genuine discussion. • http://www. Source: • Influence: The community should be able to see and understand the impact of their involvement cityofsydney.nsw. in consultations that the city conducts. gov.au 168

199 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 CHAPTER 7 • IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT Despite such initiatives, only 16 of the municipalities in the study, or 40 per cent, could point to some indication of online public consultation that resulted in a policy decision, regulation, or service. Likewise, only in 21 of such websites or 53 per cent of those polled, were there calendar announcements or postings of upcoming online consultation, such as voting forums, surveys, or polls. “Participatory budget” and “participatory municipality’s land-use plan” are two specific kinds of initiatives used by municipalities to engage with their citizens. Nevertheless, at this level, the figures in our study are still low. The participatory budget initiative was found in only 9 cities studied, or 23 per cent. Similarly, only 14 cities, 35 per cent in the study, provided evidence of specific initiatives to allow citizens’ participation in the municipality’s land-use planning process. These lower numbers may, however, be due to the seasonality of such initiatives and may not have been available at the time of the pilot project. It was observed that some cities, 17 of those studied, or 43 per cent, offer “live support” features with municipality employees in real time (such as VIPE, WhatsApp, call centres) through their portal. This kind of interaction creates a closer relationship among stakeholders. Regarding the fourth set of indicators, online Service Provision , only six cities, or 15 per cent, did not score in any of the 13 Service Provision indicators, while 26 cities, or 65 per cent, scored in less than half the indicators. As depicted in Figure 7.7, citizen authentication, a basic auxiliary service for the online provision of most of the remaining services, was available on 27 (68 per cent) of municipality websites. Implementation of Services Provision indicators in municipalities’ websites Figure 7.7 Portal authentication 68% e-Procurement service 60% Online vacancies 55% e-Payment of service fees or fines 55% Online building permit 50% Municipality responsiveness to emails 48% 45% Personal data accessibility Police online declaration 38% 38% Quality of email response Personal data updating 35% 35% Address change notification 25% Online residentship Delay of email response 25% 0 1020304050607080 169

200 Chapter 7 Chapter 6 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Besides this basic auxiliary service, nine specific services were also analysed: (i) access to personal data; (ii) personal data updates; (iii) resident application; (iv) application for government vacancies; (v) building permits; (vi) notification of change of address; (vii) declaration to the municipality police; (viii) submission of a tender through an e-procurement platform; and (ix) payment of fees for government services or fines. The submission of tenders through e-Procurement platforms is the service offered by most municipalities, as it was found in 60 per cent of the websites, although different approaches are followed: in some cities, citizens are redirected to specific e-procurement municipality platforms while, in others, they are redirected to national e-procurement platforms. The online service for applying for residency is the least available: only 10 cities, or 25 per cent, have it, and in two of these cases, the service is not provided directly by the municipality but by other entities, namely the magistrate, to which the citizen is redirected. As for making a declaration to the police, only 15, or 38 per cent of the municipalities studies provide this option, and, similar to the situation prevailing for residency applications, there are nine municipalities in which the police declaration service is not provided directly by the city but through a link to the municipality police website where the declaration can be made. Application for government positions is available on the websites of 22, or 55 per cent of the municipalities, and this option is not presented by a city website but through a link to external specific websites. Payment for municipality services or fines can be made in 55 per cent of the municipalities’ websites and the possibility of online application for building permits in half of the municipalities studied. The possibility of online access and the opportunity to update personal data is available on 18, or 45 per cent of the websites, and 14, or 35 per cent, respectively. Three final services related to the usage, delay and quality of responses to email messages sent by citizens to municipalities were also analysed. For doing so, an email message containing a simple request, in particular, asking about the official working hours of the office, was sent to each municipality. During this process, it was found that not all the municipalities provide email addresses on their websites. In some of those cases, it was possible to send a message through an embedded web form. Overall, only 19, less than half of the municipalities, replied to the messages sent. And of those, only 10 replied in less than two working days. Also, from the 19 replies received, only 15 responses were considered “useful” since they applied directly to the request made. The 15 useful messages received had very different formats. Some were short, providing a simple and clear response to the request. Others did not provide an immediate answer in the email body. Instead they annexed a file, usually in the pdf format, containing the municipality’s internal regulation where the timetable of services is defined, requiring users to sort through lengthy documents written a very formal and legal way, just to find very simple information. Tallinn, Estonia is an interesting example of email interaction, since it keeps the citizens well informed about the time that it will take to receive a full reply to their request (Box 7.7). 170

201 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 CHAPTER 7 • IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT Box 7.7 Tallinn: Tallinn City Office Response In Estonia, Tallinn the municipality responds to an email request with specific time indications regarding the expected answer. The expected time response depends on request type. “Thank you for sending an email to [email protected] If your message is a request for information, we will answer within 5 business days. A request for information is a query for a document or documented information. If your message is sent as a memorandum or a request for explanation, we will answer within 30 days. A memorandum is an inquiry that makes a Source: : suggestion concerning administration or a forwarding of information. A request for information https://tallinn.ee/ is an inquiry that requires analysis of existing information or the collection of further information.” The analysis reveals that, despite municipalities’ strong performance in the provision of webpage content and in meeting most of the technical indicators embedded in the study’s methodology, they are still lagging behind expectations in what refers to the areas of participation and engagement with citizens and services provision. At services provision level, there are already, many cities that provide information about services, as well as forms to be downloaded for their requests, but that still require in-person submission. Likewise, it was found that the responsiveness and quality of email usage by municipalities to interact with citizens are far from the desired levels. 7.4. Using Local e-Government to Advance SDG implementation Improving the local level of e-Government is inseparable from achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals. The development of electronic services and the increase in the number of people participating in decision-making will drastically lead to achievement of the development Goals. It will assist in making cities sustainable, improving local communities, making them inclusive safe and resilient. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development recognises the important role of technological innovation and contains specific references to the need for high quality, timely, reliable and disaggregated data, including on Earth observation and geospatial information. Many of the Agenda’s Sustainable Development Goals have targets that are directly or indirectly related to local e-government assessment indicators, what makes improvements in local e-Government assessment operate as a catalyst for the achievement of the SDGs. Although most municipalities perform relatively well in the Technology criterion, there is room for improvement in portal design, so as to allow user configuration, content display in more than one language and improvement of user guidance in understanding and using online services. In this way, municipalities will satisfy target 1.4, on access to basic services, ensuring that all people have equal rights to access appropriate new technology, and SDG 9, which requires the building of resilient infrastructure, promotes inclusive and sustainable industrialisation and fosters innovation. Information related to municipality budget and government procurement processes, provided by 75 per cent of the municipalities, satisfies target 1.4 ensuring that all men and women have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to financial services. Service provision in partnership with third parties such as civil society and the private sector, provided by half the sample, aligns with SDG 8, on the promotion of sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, and full and productive employment and decent work for all, requests partnership 171

202 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES with the informal sector to improve working conditions and social protections. Also relevant is SDG 17, aimed at strengthening implementation means and revitalising the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development and encouraging partnerships between public bodies, the private sector and civil society in communities. Improvement of free access to government online services through kiosks, community centres, post offices, libraries, public spaces or free Wi-Fi, provided by less than 75 per cent of the cities sampled, aligns with target 1.4, which seeks to ensure that all people have access to appropriate new technology, as well as target 9.1, on affordable and equitable access for all, development of quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure. Similarly, relevant is target 9.C, on access to ICTs and the Internet, generally, as well as increasing universally and affordable access, especially in least developed countries (LDCs). Provision of information on health issues, in most of the municipalities, contributes to achieving SDG 2, on ending hunger, achieving food security and improving nutrition, and promoting sustainable agriculture by identifying and tackling child malnutrition. Also significant is the municipality’s role in connection with SDG 3, on ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for people of all ages. In over 75 per cent of municipalities reviewed, the indicator on the provision of information about environmental issues is interlinked with the most SDGs. For example, the provision of information promotes targets 3.9, on reducing pollution and contamination, 6.3, on reducing pollution and increasing recycling and safe reuse, as well as SDG 7, on access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all; SDG 12, on sustainable consumption and production patterns; SDG 13, on urgent action to combat climate change and mitigate its impacts; SDG 14, on conserving and sustainably using the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development; and SDG 15, on protecting, restoring and promoting the sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, the sustainable management of forests, combatting desertification, and halting and reversing land degradation and biodiversity loss. Provision of information about educational issues, also present in over 75 per cent of the municipalities, advances SDG 4, on ensuring inclusive and equitable quality education and promoting lifelong learning opportunities for all. Similarly, 75 per cent of those studied on provision of information on social welfare issues, goes hand-in-hand with target 1.4, ensuring that all men and women, particularly the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership, control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology, and financial services including microfinance. Support for participation and related issues, such as reporting of occurrences in public areas, participatory budgeting and the revision process of the territorial organisation of the municipality displays some gaps, as that is present in less than half the municipalities polled. Enhancing those indicators could improve SDG 16, on the promoting of peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provision of access to justice for all and the building of effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all level, as well as participatory and representative decision-making. Smart city initiatives and use of emergent technologies by the municipality, evident in about half those reviewed, aligns with SDGs 7 and 8. Personalised responses to citizen contact, available in less than half the municipalities, promotes SDG 16, especially targets 16.6, on effective, accountable and transparent institutions, 16.7, on responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision- making, and 16.10, on access to information, all of which are aimed at public access to information and protection of fundamental freedoms through national legislation and international agreements. 172

203 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 CHAPTER 7 • IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT Enhancement of online service provision and online payments, available in half the municipalities, stands to improve targets 10.2, on empowering and promoting social, economic and political inclusion, and 10.3, on eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices, including by ensuring equal opportunity and reducing inequalities of outcome, through elimination of discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promotion of appropriate legislation, policies and actions. Another area which needs improvement is e-participation, present in less than half the cities examined. Enhancing e-participation and including e-consultation in policymaking initiatives could contribute to target 10.2, on empowering and promoting the social, economic and political inclusion of all people. At the same time, target 10.3 can be advanced, on ensuring equal opportunity and reducing inequalities of outcome. Target 16.7 is also furthered by ensuring responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision making at all levels. 7.5. Conclusion Local Online Service Index (LOSI) assessment has been applied in 40 municipalities worldwide. The results prove the overall suitability of the assessment approach. The present study reveals the main characteristics for a local e-Government assessment, which could be useful for municipality managers, public officials, researchers and politicians. An efficient comparative assessment of municipality electronic administration should cover the breadth and variety of services and tasks performed by local authorities. It should rely on an updated e-Government model including new trends in service delivery, such as user interactivity, citizens’ participation, and proactivity. An assessment also should consider the service provision, not only through the web channel, but also through all the new digital channels currently in use, such as social media, kiosks, and mobile apps. It should also be based on the existence of a corpus of services that are common to municipalities worldwide, thereby setting a baseline for comparative assessment of municipalities, which examines similar services rather than similar organisations. Based on the pilot study results and analysis, some lessons can be extracted: • Local governments recognise the importance of e-Government in order to achieve sustainability and resilience; • Generally, cities in countries with very-high and high e-Government Development Index (EGDI) values perform better than the others; • 42.5 per cent of the cities got a LOSI classification less than the one assigned to their countries, as per the UN 2018 OSI; • Despite municipalities’ sound performance in webpage content provision to citizens and meeting most of the technical indicators considered in the methodology adopted, they are lagging behind in terms of what could be expected and what could be achieved, with the universal participation and engagement of all citizens and particularly in services provision; • There are already many cities that provide information about services, as well as downloadable forms for their requests, but that still requires in-person submission and process triggering; • The responsiveness and quality of email usage by municipalities, when interacting with citizens, are far from anticipated levels; 173

204 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES • E-Government systems can become a useful tool for local administration in line with achievement of the SDGs; • There are already several best practice e-Government cases that can be used as benchmarks for local governments worldwide. 174

205 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 CHAPTER 7 • IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT References 1 n. Lanvin, B., and Lewin, A. (2006). The next frontier of E-government: Local governments may hold the keys to global competitio Global Information Technology Report, 2007, 51-63. 2 United Nations (2014). World Urbanization Prospects. Department of Economic and Social Affairs UCLG (2015). The sustainable development goals: What local governments need to know. United Cities and Local Government. 3 Available at: https://www.uclg.org/sites/default/files/the_sdgs_what_localgov_need_to_know_0.pdf Schellong, A. (2010). EU e-Government benchmarking 2010+. Cambridge, MA: Institute for Quantitative Social Science. Harvard 4 University 5 Heeks, R. (2006). Benchmarking e-Government: improving the national and international measurement, evaluation and comparison of e-Government. Evaluating information systems, 257. Moon, M., and Norris, D. (2005). Does managerial orientation matter? The adoption of reinventing government and e-government at the municipal level. Information Systems Journal, Vol. 15(1), pp. 43-60. Moraru, G. (2010). Anatomy of E-Government: Assessment of Municipal E-Government Services in Romania. CEU eTD Collection. 6 Garson, D. (2005). E-Government: A research perspective. International Journal of Public Administration, 28(7-8), pp. 547-551 . 7 Saha, D. (2009). Factors influencing local government sustainability efforts. State and Local Government Review, 41(1), pp. 39 -48. 8 Heeks, R. (2006). Benchmarking e-Government: improving the national and international measurement, evaluation and comparison of e-Government. Evaluating information systems, 257. Sarantis, D. (2017). Removing Barriers in e-Government: Back Office Assessment. 16th International Conference on WWW/ INTERNET, Vilamoura. 9 Heeks, R. (2006). Benchmarking e-Government: improving the national and international measurement, evaluation and comparison of e-Government. Evaluating information systems, 257. 10 Nurdin, N., Stockdale, R., and Scheepers, H. (2012). Benchmarking Indonesian local e-government. PACIS 2012 Proceedings. 11 5. 11 United Nations (2007). Public Governance Indicators: A Literature Review. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 12 Kaylor, C., Deshazo, R., and Van Eck, D. (2001). Gauging e-government: A report on implementing services among American cities. Government Information Quarterly, 18(4), pp. 293-307. 13 Flak, L., Olsen, D., and Wolcott, P. (2005). Local e-government in Norway: Current status and emerging issues. Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, 17(2). 14 Holzer, M., and Manoharan, A. (2016). Digital governance in municipalities worldwide (2015-16). Seventh global e-governance survey: a longitudinal assessment of municipal websites throughout the world. Newark: National Center for Public Performance. Available at: https://www.seoulsolution.kr/en/content/rutgers-spaa-digital-governance-municipalities-worldwide-2015-16 15 Kaylor, C., Deshazo, R., and Van Eck, D. (2001). Gauging e-government: A report on implementing services among American cities. Government Information Quarterly, 18(4), pp. 293-307. E-government survey 2010. Leveraging e-government at a time of financial and economic crisis 16 United Nations (2010). . No. ST/ ESA/PAD/SER.E/131. New York: United Nations. 17 United Nations (2010). E-government survey 2010. Leveraging e-government at a time of financial and economic crisis . No. ST/ ESA/PAD/SER.E/131. New York: United Nations. 18 Bannister, F. (2007). The curse of the benchmark: an assessment of the validity and value of e-government comparisons. International Review of Administrative Sciences , 73(2), pp. 171-188. smart Batlle-Montserrat, J., Blat, J., and Abadal, E. (2016). Local e-government Benchlearning: Impact analysis and applicability to cities benchmarking. Information Policy , 21(1), pp. 43-59. 19 Holzer, M., Manoharan, A., and Van Ryzin, G. (2010). Global cities on the web: An empirical typology of municipal websites. International Public Management Review , 11(3), pp.104-121. 20 Flak, L., Olsen, D., and Wolcott, P. (2005). Local e-government in Norway: Current status and emerging issues. Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, 17(2). Mosse, B., and Whitley, E. (2009). Critically classifying: UK e-government website benchmarking and the recasting of the citiz en as customer. Information Systems Journal, 19(2), pp. 149-173. 21 In order to examine responsiveness to citizen requests, an email is sent to the municipality. Email responses are recorded b ased on the time it took for the agency to respond, as well as based on the quality of response provided (i.e., if the reply effectivel y responds to citizen request). 22 Note: for details please refer to: http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=POP&f=tableCode%3A240 175

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207 Chapter 6 Chapter 8 CHAPTER 8 • FAST-EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES IN E-GOVERNMENT: GOVERNMENT PLATFORMS, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND PEOPLE Chapter 8. Fast- evolving technologies in e-government: Government Platforms, Artificial Intelligence and People Photo credit: pixabay.com 8.1. Introduction In this chapter 177 8.1. Introduction As public institutions focus on the implementation of Agenda 2030 with the core principles of leaving no one behind and eradicating 8.2. Harnessing fast evolving technologies 178 poverty, frontier technologies are creating both opportunities and 8.2.1. Data, intelligent apps and risks for future governance. analytics 178 8.2.2. Artificial Intelligence and The fourth industrial revolution and convergence of innovative Robotic Process Automation 179 technologies, such as big data, Internet of Things (IoT), cloud 8.2.3. Intelligent “things”, Cyber-Physical Integration and super-computing, geo-spatial data and broadband, artificial and Edge Computing 179 intelligence (AI), and deep machine learning, are promoting a 180 8.2.4. Virtual and Augmented Reality dramatic shift towards more data and machine-driven societies, while development challenges and social inequality continue to increase. 8.2.5. High Performance – and Quantum Computing 180 So-called disruptive technologies, including predictive analytics, are creating unforeseen opportunities in many government sectors, 8.2.6. Distributed Ledger Technologies 181 including health, security, water management, environment, among 8.3. Deep Dive into a cluster of new others. The rapidity with which these new technologies are evolving, technology revolving around data 183 combined with the knowledge that governments already possess, 8.3.1. Integrating government services – public present a historic opportunity for sustainable development. 183 service as a platform 8.3.2. Insights for decision-making However, the pace and evolution of technological innovation can and intelligence at the point 185 of action surpass the speed with which governments can absorb changes and reap their rewards. In the past decade, there have been ground- 8.3.3. Insights and Data-Driven decision- making in the public sector 185 breaking technological advances, such as the economy app, blockchain, and facial recognition via simple smart phones, to name a 8.3.4. Insights at the time and point of action: streamlining the use few. Apart from the need for governments to catch up is the need to 187 of real-time data ensure that the new data tools are not concentrated in the hands of 8.4. Deep dive into a cluster of new a few but are equitably distributed. A sufficient balance which serves technology revolving around AI the needs of many for the greater good is required. Thus, the process and Robotics 187 of integrating the new data tools could benefit from constant review 8.5. Harnessing technology for societal and an incremental approach. resilience 189 8.5.1. People and Technology driving The accelerated speed of innovation and the integration of technology 189 new uses and new services into all devices and all sectors are equally disrupting the public sector. 8.5.2. Symmetry and ethics as the way forward Models governing the design and consumption of public services are 192 evolving. Beyond digital transformation, governments themselves are 193 8.6. Conclusion increasingly called upon to evolve as well. Indeed, the degree to which References 195 technology is disrupting society on the one hand and supporting it on the other is unknown. The use of these fast-evolving technologies in 177 Chapter 8

208 Chapter 8 Chapter 6 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES e-government also raises the question whether and to what extent they are being used by members of society to generate the greatest impact. The interface between government and society reinforces the widely held belief that the use of new technologies by governments can support the realization of society’s broader goals. This chapter examines several fast-evolving technologies, the e-government application of which, can be instrumental in promoting good governance principles and achieving the sustainable development goals. It also ponders present and future challenges and hypothesizes that the success of e-governance lay in leveraging and balancing the extraordinary new platforms with society’s needs. 8.2. Harnessing fast evolving technologies There is a case to be made that fast-evolving technologies have already transformed the traditional ways in which governments operate and deliver services. In the context of e-government, this chapter focuses on digital technologies, excluding but not discounting innovations in the fields of energy, biology, health and other domains. Some of the major digital technology trends fuelling innovation and growth in both the private and public sectors are mainly related to digital, analytics, cloud, core modernization, and the changing role of information and communications technologies overall. Social and mobile technologies, open data initiatives, and Internet of Things (IoT) also play an important role in transforming government efforts. Constituent engagement also drives transformation, both in service delivery and operational efficiency. Several rapidly advancing technologies have great potential, both for the ICTs industry as well as for governments around the world, include: • Data, intelligent apps and analytics • Artificial Intelligence and Robotic Process Automation • Intelligent “things”, cyber-physical integration and edge computing • Virtual and augmented reality • High Performance- and Quantum Computing • Blockchain and Distributed Ledger Technologies A combination of the fruition of long-term research and development are among the forces driving these technologies. Artificial Intelligence, for example, has been around since the 1950s, but its use today by businesses and individuals has increased exponentially. That is due in part to the growing processing power of hardware, increasing data availability, and the needs and expectations of society. Often, the technologies themselves are not new. Rather it is the convergence of developments in hardware, software and data availability that offer new potentials. 8.2.1. Data, intelligent apps and analytics The public sector has the challenge of processing vast amounts of unstructured data, responding to inquiries, and making knowledge accessible. Through automated capabilities, so-called dark analytics, or the analysis of data that is not in common use, can allocate, store, secure, and retrieve vital data on demand, from such sources as documents, e-mails, tickets, videos, and tweets. Algorithms, 178

209 Chapter 6 Chapter 8 CHAPTER 8 • FAST-EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES IN E-GOVERNMENT: GOVERNMENT PLATFORMS, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND PEOPLE following a form recognition protocol, can read machine print and hand print, and use contextual logic databases for automated validation. This can reveal trends, population movements, user preferences, demographics, transportation details, and more. User trends can then be analyzed to improve customer service. Decision-making in such areas as migration can be made more transparent and targeted, and have profound impacts. Intelligent apps and platforms are already being used to make correspondence and customer service of public institutions quicker and more effective, as well as less costly. They also support the process of digital payments and help manage information flows and reporting. Moreover, applying analytics frees human resources and reduces costs by speeding up data capture, recognition, and retrieval. This increased capacity allows greater focus on improving the “customer journey”. Data analytics can be the link between public and private institutions. Open public data can be used to fuel private sector innovations, but likewise, private sector data can support new and better public services. Technological developments and information sharing between governments and private stakeholders can benefit such vital areas as national security, health care, social and financial services, transportation, and public safety. Together with artificial intelligence and automated processes, data science are key drivers in technology-induced transformation. 8.2.2. Artificial Intelligence and Robotic Process Automation Artificial Intelligence constitutes a range of specific technologies through which “intelligent machines are gaining the ability to learn, improve and make calculated decisions in ways that enable them 1 to perform tasks previously thought to rely solely on human experience, creativity, and ingenuity”. Artificial Intelligence is the ability of a computer or a computer-enabled robotic system to process information and produce outcomes in a manner similar to the thought process of human beings in learning, decision-making and problem-solving. Artificial Intelligence has been rapidly advancing and will provide benefits through enhancing citizen engagement, automating workloads, and increasing workplace productivity. It will thus significantly impact businesses, societies and the daily lives of their members. The confluence of significant technological developments in hardware, software and data has fuelled the development of Artificial Intelligence, positioning it to have a major impact on society for the coming decades. The speed of improvements in processing power has continued apace. Graphics processing units, which are specialized hardware that can run specialized algorithms, play a key role in Artificial Intelligence. New software has been developed that can leverage this processing power by leading to faster and better learning. Data – the crucial ingredient for Artificial Intelligence – is also increasingly available, fuelling the learning process of computers. This can significantly benefit the public sector, for example, in automating decision-making of routine tasks, forecasting climate change, answering questions from citizens and managing transport flows. Another change is access to large cloud computing platforms such as AWS, Google, and Microsoft, among others, and the advent of quantum computing, which is a vastly different approach. 8.2.3. Intelligent “things”, Cyber-Physical Integration and Edge Computing Intelligent things are an evolution of the Internet of Things (IoT) whereby physical objects with sensors are connected to a network, and can function almost autonomously by using artificial intelligence. By linking software and IT/cyber) with electric and mechanical or physical parts, data can be monitored and analysed over a communication network. Often, sensors simply gather data that is processed centrally in the cloud. That information is subsequently sent to the location where it is needed. With Edge Computing, data is processed at the point of collection or at the “edge” 179

210 Chapter 8 Chapter 6 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES instead of inon a central server. This reduces latency and the amount of data that must be moved. With an increasing number of IoT devices, a mix of on-site and cloud processing will be needed. The idea itself is not new. To take a simple example to visualise this, windshield wipers on cars get their information from sensors in the vehicle. The car does not need to send rainfall data to a cloud to get back the information on which action is needed. The data is directly analysed and action is immediately taken. This concept is now being applied to more complex situations and implemented in a network of private and government infrastructures. Using this form of computing, autonomous driving, smart homes, and smart grids are made possible. In public institutions, hybrid combinations of Cloud and Edge Computing can serve as platforms where sensors are combined to support customer relationship management, enterprise resource 2 planning and supply chain systems. For example, equipping roads and snowploughs with sensors, combined with data from weather and driving apps and tweets, improves snow removal, cuts costs 3 by 10 per cent and frees up human and government resources. 8.2.4. Virtual and Augmented Reality Virtual Reality (VR) enables users to immerse themselves in a digital world. Augmented Reality (AR) shows the world in real time enriched with digital images, and digital and physical objects interact. With augmented and virtual reality and intelligent things, information is added to the space around the user. This helps the user in processing critical information, visualizing scenarios, improving the quality and speed of decision-making, and communicating with others. Examples of application of augmented reality in the public sector can include public infrastructure management and spatial planning, public safety services (such as firefighting), transportation management and tourism. The World Economic Forum in 2017 stressed the potential: “AR serves as the visual portal to data 4 across the public and private sectors” . In health care, tele-health formats can be supported by virtual examinations that can improve customer satisfaction and result in treatment success. In the area of defence, AR can help soldiers to see and hear under all conditions. Commanders can communicate more efficiently and make more educated decisions, based on first-hand information and their assessment of the situation. With virtual reality tours of buildings and surroundings, wheelchair access can be checked and planned, benefitting persons with disabilities and their caregivers. With hands-free AR devices, maintenance workers can see exactly which action to perform next with guidance from technical experts and supervisors. Augmented Reality also can be effective in training and education, such as by highlighting cultural artefacts or ecological phenomena while providing information about their appropriate use. Virtual and Augmented Reality technologies are being used increasingly by governments to streamline processes and improve constituent experience. Some of the early adopters were the military, law enforcement and national security agencies. These technologies deliver context, immersion and have the potential to retool training environments, redefine the role of field service workers, improve communication, and reshape public sector business processes. Technological improvements, such as the digital twin concept, which is a cloud-based virtual representation of a physical asset, also are being adopted. Such innovations have the potential to redefine markets, industries and societies. 8.2.5. High Performance- and Quantum Computing 5 By 2020, 25 billion connected devices will generate more than two zettabyte annual data traffic. By then, High Performance Computers or “supercomputers” executing 1 trillion operations per second will be needed to cope with the massive amount of data. By aggregating computing power, large amounts of data can be processed, thereby solving complex problems in engineering, manufacturing, 180

211 Chapter 6 Chapter 8 CHAPTER 8 • FAST-EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES IN E-GOVERNMENT: GOVERNMENT PLATFORMS, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND PEOPLE science and business. High Performance Computing can cut through complexity, understand patterns and detect anomalies. By processing highly complex data with accuracy, such tools are especially useful in forecasting and real-time-prediction. The potential benefits for the public sector can be vast in such areas as combating disease, forecasting and managing traffic flows, monitoring climate conditions, and allocating tax revenues. High Performance Computers can accelerate science and innovation to solve questions that were previously too complex to tackle. Given the high investment in their use, cooperation between public and private actors is beneficial. Quantum computing, as opposed to regular computing, leverages the laws of nature to process information in a different way. It can compute for different resultsresults simultaneously, thus increasing computing power exponentially. This allows for discovery of relationships between data that otherwise would not have been possible, leading to improvements in health care, climate change monitoring and managing logistical challenges. Both high performance computing and quantum computing can help process the vast amount of available data faster, paving the way for new insights into ways to overcome obstacles to achieving sustainable development. Combined with new algorithms in the field of Artificial Intelligence, the potential for its use in tackling the challenges of the 2030 Agenda is significant but have yet to be fully exploited by the public sector. 8.2.6. Distributed Ledger Technologies Distributed Ledger Technologies are ways of storing information in a distributed manner across numerous actors. Instead of information being stored in one central database, it is stored in several locations among multiple actors. Blockchain is a well-known example of a form of Distributed Ledger Technology where value exchange transactions are sequentially grouped into blocks. Each block is chained to the previous one and immutably recorded across a peer-to-peer network using cryptographic trust and assurance mechanisms. Identified as a game-changing technology, Blockchain has the potential to solve such problems as those related to control over information and access, as well as security and privacy of data with a high degree of sensitivity. Given its decentralised nature, blockchain holds the potential to become the ledger for creating decentralized data management systems that ensure users full control over their data. Blockchain is already being used for, among other things, land registries, speeding up registration processes andreducing possibilities for fraud 6 and corruption. These benefits can augment the building of resilient societies in the context of achieving SDGs, by keeping track of data across various activities and actors, authenticating and guaranteeing the execution of tasks, and enabling the emergence of more transparent and accountable governments. Blockchain solutions can even facilitate cash transfers in refugee camps, 7 identify Stateless refugees or register Global Conservation areas. Distributed Ledger Technologies benefit the public sector in certifying identities, establishing trust, exchanging assets between parties across borders, and sealing digital contracts. Payment and authentication processes can be made more convenient for citizens and can include parties that are 8 currently outside the traditional financial system. Governments in emerging markets are supporting Blockchain, hoping to create an advantage for the population and economy in ways that facilitate 9 development and growth. The key game-changing innovation of Distributed Ledger Technology is decentralized trust and traceability of information. It allows for more efficient handling of information, and greater security, because the ledgers cannot be tampered with. The holonic architecture of Distributed Ledger Technologies also means scalability issues can be solved logically and transparently. 181

212 Chapter 6 Chapter 8 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES The advantages of Blockchain over traditional centralized databases are that it can offer resilience in cases where central databases are difficult to secure. It also distributes management of the ledger, increasing trust in it by not centralizing its management in the hands of more actors. This does however require a large peer-to-peer network to resist manipulation of the blockchain. Having only a small number of nodes can increase the likelihood of the blockchain being compromised. To increase the size of the peer-to-peer network also means that there should also be an incentive to do so. In commercial applications such as cryptocurrencies, those incentives are financial. For public services, alternative incentives should be devised. Advances in computing also present a possible risk to the cryptography, technology that Blockchain currently relies on. It is thus crucial to consider security in any application. Additionally, while decentralizing data offers many advantages, it also creates an increasingly complex network that must communicate and validate information constantly, resulting in an exponential increase in energy consumption. Blockchain has potential public sector application for record management, identity management, voting, taxes and remittances, and even Blockchain-enabled regulatory reporting. A proof of 10 concept was developed, for example, in Ireland. Blockchain can equally be used to better manage development aid by enhancing security and transparency, as well as making international payments more accessible and easier to monitor. In that regard, multiple pilot projects have been launched, 11 such as by the World Food Programme in Jordan, and in connection with banking services for 12 refugees in Indonesia. UNECE’s United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT), which has played a fundamentally important role in the development, promotion and implementation of trade facilitation, is following the Blockchain developments closely and working to help governments understand and use their potential. (See Box. 8.1) Box 8.1. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) : whitepapers on Blockchain UNECE’s United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) is developing two white papers to address the following questions: What is the impact on existing UN/CEFACT electronic business standards and what gaps could be usefully addressed by new UN/CEFACT specifications? What opportunities do these technologies present for improving e-business, trade facilitation and the international supply chain? The second whitepaper on the opportunities for trade facilitation and e-commerce will be available for comment this autumn. UNECE How could blockchain technology be used to facilitate trade? What do government decision- makers who deal with information technology need to be aware of? And how could UNECE contribute to the development of this technology as a trade facilitation tool? The international supply chain can be characterised as a set of three flows - of goods, funds and data. Goods flow from exporter to importer in return for funds that flow in the reverse direction. The flow of goods and funds is supported by a bidirectional flow of data such as invoices, shipping notices, bills of lading, certificates of origin and import/export declarations lodged with regulatory authorities. At the same time, an essential requirement for each of these flows is trust. Where there is no trust at all, there will be no flow of goods, funds and related data. Establishing the minimum level of trustworthiness for carrying out trade can be done in a number of ways. Reducing the delays and costs created by the use of trust services has been one of the focuses of trade facilitation which seeks to increase the transparency and efficiency of international trade processes. At the same time, business, legal and other constraints have limited the ability of trade facilitation measures to reduce the costs and delays created by trust services. Today, “blockchain”, or Digital Ledger Technology (DLT), has the potential to provide the trustworthiness that traders need, at a much Source: UNECE lower cost and using fewer trust guarantors.” 182

213 Chapter 6 Chapter 8 CHAPTER 8 • FAST-EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES IN E-GOVERNMENT: GOVERNMENT PLATFORMS, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND PEOPLE 8.3. Deep Dive into a cluster of new technology revolving around data Data is becoming critical to many government organizations and will fuel the development of new 13 e-government services. Digital data is defined as “a reinterpretable representation of information in a formalised manner, suitable for communication, interpretation or processing”, which is authored 14 by people or generated by machines/sensors, often as a by-product. See table 8.1 for further definitions. Data is useless if it is not processed and analysed, delivering insights, which are leveraged for better 15,16 decision-making and the development new products and services. Table 8.1. Definitions • Algorithms are a set of step-based instructions to solve mathematical problems that are used to query and analyse data. The Algorithm Economy is an emerging concept describing the increasing amount of data analytics performed by economic operators, aimed at tailoring their services and products. • APIs or Application Programming Interfaces are interfaces for technology products that allow software components to communicate. The Internet of Things has substantially unleashed the volume of machine-to-machine communication. • Big Data has been coined to describe the exponential growth and availability of data, 17 both structured and unstructured and is defined by 3 V’s: Volume, Velocity and Variety. • Data science is the study of the generalised extraction of knowledge from data by employing machine learning, predictive and prescriptive methodologies, thereby creating direct value on an experimental and ad-hoc basis. • IoT is the use of interconnected sensors and controls that help gather and analyse data about the environment, the objects that exist within it and the people that act within it, to improve understanding and automate previously manual processes. • Open Data is information that is open in terms of access, redistribution, reuse, absence of 18 technological restriction, attribution, integrity, no discrimination. • Open Government Data is data produced or commissioned by public bodies or government-controlled entities, which is then made accessible, and can be used feely, 19 reused and redistributed by anyone. 8.3.1. Integrating government services – public service as a platform Taking advantage of the data economy and the data that governments already possess can allow for a much greater integration of services. Such digital transformation is based on a data infrastructure which can either be centralized or decentralized, and rely on two fundamental components. The first concerns the re-use of data already collected from the citizens; the second revolves around the use of Application Programming Interfaces (API) as a core component of the public-sector data infrastructure. 183

214 Chapter 6 Chapter 8 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES One-time provision of data: Governments making better use of data With digital technology, public administrations can easily retrieve data and limit the number of user requests the data may address. Citizens in turn have the right to modify and/or delete the data and be informed as to how and where the data is being used, in line with data protection regulation. In the Europe Union, a number of initiatives have been launched around the “Once Only Principle”, which aims to streamline the use of authentic data sources and foster machine-to- machine communication across the different IT systems of various public bodies. That approach is expected to 20 generate a total net savings of approximately 5 billion euros per year across the Union. Additional 21 benefits include: (i) ensuring better control of data as the data is only provided once, which reduces errors and discrepancies; (ii) helping public administrations work faster, more transparently and more efficiently, thereby saving costs; (iii) reducing fraud through the use of consistent and authoritative information; and (iv) making evidence-based decisions through the use of complete and consistent information. Use of Application Programming Interfaces, and their ability to securely connect applications across government and support the development of new services Moving towards API-based information systems can improve the efficiency of business operations by providing stronger integration between the organizational value chain and partners such as suppliers and national public administrations. APIs are the connecting links between applications, systems, 22 databases and devices. Accessing data already collected by public administrations allows the use of an internal API to improve public services. Based on their access rights, public administrations can 23 retrieve the data they need, such as an address, a profession, or a social security number. Several countries, such as Estonia and Finland, along with New South Wales in Australia are using APIs 24 to strengthen government platforms and turn governments into fully integrated one-stop-shops. In Singapore, the Land Authority saved $11.5 million in application costs for 70 government agencies through geospatial data-sharing through the GeoSpace’s APIs and Web services. Machine-to-machine access among data-enabled agencies make it possible to adjust applications 30 per cent faster and cut 25 storage costs by 60 per cent. It also eliminates data duplication. There are several instances of non- government API use as well. The De Waag Society in the Netherlands, for example, uses API for smart cities and the preservation of cultural heritage data. Setting up public or so-called open APIs can also stimulate businesses and civil society to develop new services that address areas that may not fall under the direct competence of the government. Box 8.1 further explores Government as an API. Box 8.2. Government as an API 26 Estonia created X-Road, an application network for exchanging data among agency systems so that all government services are effectively available in one spot. In addition to offering querying mechanisms across multiple databases and supporting the secure exchange of documents, X-Road seamlessly integrates different government portals and applications. The private sector can also connect with X-Road to make queries and benefit from access to a 27 secure data exchange layer. X-Road has made it possible to bring 99 per cent of public services online. On average, 500 million queries per year are made annually using X-Road. Indeed, its use has been estimated to save as https://e- Source: many as 800 years of working time. The solution has been equally successful in its roll-out to estonia.com/ Finland, Azerbaijan, Namibia, as well as the Faroe Islands. Furthermore, cross-border digital data solutions/ exchanges have been set up between Estonia and Finland, making X-Road the first cross-border interoperability- data exchange platform. services/x-road/ 184

215 Chapter 6 Chapter 8 CHAPTER 8 • FAST-EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES IN E-GOVERNMENT: GOVERNMENT PLATFORMS, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND PEOPLE 8.3.2. Insights for decision-making and intelligence at the point of action Data analysis can bring unprecedented insight. Governments are able to take advantage of the data revolution by making use of insights gained through data analytics as well as formulating their 28 response at the point and time of action. 2018 United Nations E-Government Survey As shown in the as well as in other international benchmarks and indicators, governments have been increasing their 29 efforts to publish open data. This reinforces the drive to align with good governance principles, and underlines the economic and societal benefits governments can expect from open data. Going beyond data publishing, governments are starting to understand the benefits of re-using their own data more efficiently and effectively. As highlighted in the report on Open Data Maturity in Europe 2017, 19 European countries are now using open data in their decision-making. Successes range from better urban planning, thanks to the systematic use of geospatial data in Denmark, to efficiency in public procurement spending in Slovenia. These examples are not limited only to Europe. The use of open data assisted in the formulation of solutions to eliminate or reduce air pollution in Mexico 30 City, for which it received an award at the Data for Climate Action Challenge (D4CA) Australia 31 has been exploring ways to improve data sharing for more efficient research and has renewed its 32 commitment to open data by signing the Open Data Charter in April 2017. 8.3.3. Insights and Data-Driven decision-making in the public sector Although evidence-based policy-making is not a novel concept, the growth in the volume of data sources as well as in analytics tools, present an opportunity to deliver better informed policy-making. It also has the potential to accelerate data collection, thereby reducing the time spent on policy cycles and iterations. Analyses performed on the data collected can equally be refined. Algorithms are another useful tool, as they drive digital innovation and redefine the approach to 33 technologies, leadership and execution. Algorithms can determine information flows and influence public-interest decisions, which, until recently, were handled exclusively by human beings. Data analytics also witnessed a shift from sample focus groups to exhaustive analysis or ‘real’ demand which is increasingly recognised as limiting the bias of statistics and forecast inaccuracy. Taking advantage of Big Data in the public sector also implies expanding the data pool of public-sector information and statistics to include new data sources stemming from the digital economy. These sources include mobile data, Internet of Things, and social media, among others. Finally, data held by private entities such as in the health and financial sectors, as well as eCommerce platforms could also aid policy-making. Data-driven decision making can be applied in different areas of the public sector. For example, in Latvia, insolvency data is used to plan policies or support operations in both the public and private 34 sector . In the health sector in France, as part of the implementation of the national deployment of telemedicine strategy, the French Ministry of Health has been implementing a data-driven approach 35 to manage acute stroke. It combines data on the distribution of population using census data and the distribution of geographical location of health facilities in the area. Box 8.2. on the Global Pulse Initiative, 2009, underlines how data has been used bu the UN in the context of the SDGs. To provide a practical illustration for the above, typical applications of data-driven insight for the public sector can advance the following goals, among others: • SDG 3 on ensuring lives and promoting well-being by developing health-care systems which detect epidemics in their early stages, compile diagnostics, analyse prescription drug use and improve access to medications at the right time and in the right place. This has been witnessed successfully during the ebola outbreak. Further research is currently conducted on monitoring the spread of mosquitoe borne disease. 185

216 Chapter 8 Chapter 6 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES • SDG 8 on decent work and economic growth by adopting a more prospective vision of the employment market based on the use of professional social networks and job boards. The idea is to enhance Machine Learning engine tools so as to match job offers with job applications. • SDG 14 on the conservation and sustainable use of oceans by such projects as Life Below Water 36 & Resource management. One example is the Global Fishing Watch prototype, developed by Oceana, Google and Skytruth, which combines data gleaned from scanning behavioural patterns of vessels, in order to identify which are potential fishing vessels and which are not. • SDG 16 on peace, justice and strong institutions by offering enhanced analyses in support of security, combatting crime, and fraud prevention. Data mining techniques, for instance, can drive the analysis of large amounts of text and evidence to support the structuring of evidence in court cases. The challenges in implementing data-driven and insights-based policy-making are further developed in section 8.5. 37 Box 8.3. Global Pulse Initiative, 2009 Global Pulse is a flagship initiative of the United Nations Secretary-General on big data. Its vision is a future in which big data is harnessed safely and responsibly as a public good. Its mission is to accelerate discovery, development and scaled adoption of big data innovation for sustainable development and humanitarian action. The initiative was established based on a recognition that digital data offers the opportunity to gain a better understanding of changes in human well-being, and to get real-time feedback on how well policy responses are working. To this end, Global Pulse is working to promote awareness of the opportunities Big Data presents for sustainable development and humanitarian action, forge public-private data sharing partnerships, generate high-impact analytical tools and approaches through its network of Pulse Labs, and drive broad adoption of useful innovations across the UN System. Source: http:// unglobalpulse.org/ 186

217 Chapter 6 Chapter 8 CHAPTER 8 • FAST-EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES IN E-GOVERNMENT: GOVERNMENT PLATFORMS, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND PEOPLE 8.3.4. Insights at the time and point of action: streamlining the use of real-time data Sensors monitoring traffic, air pollution, energy consumption, among other things, combined with increasing mobile data, are making real-time data available. The benefit of real-time data is its ability to prompt action at very specific locations, as described in Chapter 3. Real-time data, for instance, was used to find housing solutions for victims of natural disasters, such as in the aftermath of the 38 earthquake in Emilia Romagna, Italy. Rapid mobile phone-based surveys were deployed by the Red Cross to complement traditional communication methods, which shaped the response during the 39 critical first days of the Ebola outbreaks in Sierra Leone, Benin, Guinea and Cote d’Ivoire. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) has developed a Water Productivity Open- access portal, known as WaPOR, which uses real-time satellite data to monitor water productivity. That real-time data allows farmers to optimise the use of water in their irrigation systems, rendering 40 a more reliable crop yield. Also notable is the use of real-time data in Slovenia to protect vineyards from pests. Singapore has announced its intention to make port management more efficient with 41 the use of drones capable of capturing real-time data, data analytics as well as mobile applications. These are just a few of the examples of real-time satellite data use. Box 8.4. Streamlining the use of Earth Observation The use of Earth Observation data and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has already 2016 United Nations E-Government Survey as a promising technology been underlined in the for improving service delivery. With an increase in the availability of satellite data worldwide, 42 and the European multi-stakeholder Copernicus thanks to NASA’s Earth Observing system 43 data, and the insights gleaned from it, can be delivered more rapidly. Indeed, programme, the different applications of satellite data, be it GPS or Earth Observation data, have a specific shelf value. Satellite revisit times have proven critical in providing supporting data in the context 44 45 Australia and Italy, Initiatives are growing across the globe of wildfires in the United States, addressing multiple environmental issues. The Satellite-based Wetland Observation Service (SWOS), for example, makes use of Earth Observation data, which enables large-scale dynamic 46 . Farming by satellite monitoring of the evolution of the wetlands in Europe, Africa and Asia is another advantage of Earth Observation data, which can assist in monitoring crops such as 47 In June 2018, to drive innovation leveraging Earth Observation data, the EU has launched rice. http://swos- Source: the Data Infrastructure Access Services (DIAS) providing access to data, cloud services as well as service.eu/ 48 data tools and professional support services. Data use is expected to grow exponentially in the next decade and offer the ability to systematically analyze and act in real time to solve more challenging business problems, enhance competitive advantage and lead to more informed decisions in today’s tightly connected world. 8.4. Deep dive into a cluster of new technology revolving around AI and Robotics The term “Artificial Intelligence”, or AI, has been around for nearly 60 years, but it is only recently that AI appears to be on the brink of revolutionizing industries as diverse as health care, law, journalism, aerospace, and manufacturing, with the potential to profoundly affect how people live, work, and play. 187

218 Chapter 6 Chapter 8 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES AI can be mono- or multi-layered, performing simple automated tasks to highly advanced automation. While robotic process automation enables machines to do repetitive and rules-based work, AI enables robots to do judgment-based processing, such as thinking and learning (machine 49 intelligence) and even making decisions (synthetic, computer-based AI). Robots can appear in the shape of cyber-physical systems, imitating humans. These systems perform tangible work linked to the physical world, such as supporting the elderly, treating patients, and even harvesting fields and 50 manufacturing cars. Robots can also appear formless like virtual assistance on websites, apps, and platforms. By automating responses to matters that arise most frequently, employees can focus on more complex inquiries. The benefits lay in greater capacity, efficiency, service quality, and accuracy. A recent policy inat the European Union level is further illustrated inwithin Box 8.4. Europe rolls out an integrated approach to Artificial Intelligence. Box 8.5. Europe rolls out an integrated approach to Artificial Intelligence In April 2018, the European Union chose to pool its resources to foster innovation through the 51 signed by European countries aims to ensure a use of artificial intelligence. The Declaration sustainable vision for AI to thrive, by collectively addressing ethical and societal challenges linked to its growing and pervasive use. This states “where needed [to] review and modernise national policies to ensure that the opportunities arising from AI are seized and the emerging challenges 52 The first foresees an increase are addressed.” The European approach is based on three pillars. in financial support, to reach 20 billion Euros by 2020, thereby promoting the uptake of AI in both the public and the private sector. The second pillar is based on ensuring framework conditions for socio-economic success. Actions here aim at accompanying the transition of the labour market by modernizing education and training. The third pillar addresses the development of an adequate ethical and legal framework. The first series of draft guidelines is expected by the end of 2018 and Source: http:// 53 . will build upon the Union’s Charter of Fundamental Rights ec.europa.eu AI has the potential to bring many societal benefits. It can impact all sectors and industries, with the ability to improve mobility, mortality rates, education, hygiene, food provision and supply, and decrease emissions, crime, and human error. Robotic automation is slowly assuming repetitive tasks previously done by low-paid workers, although low-paid tasks are less likely to be replaced by 54 expensive robots, at least, not in the short term. Still, AI is expected to displace many low-skilled workers. Robots already perform many jobs on the assembly line, and that trend is expected to increase. According to a World Economic Forum study in 2016, around 5.1 million jobs across 15 countries are expected to be lost to Artificial Intelligence over the next five years alone. A study by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs 55 found that up to 80 per cent of all existing jobs could be at risk of being automated in the long run. Although many tasks can be automated, there are still numerous challenges to be addressed, including ethical considerations, social acceptance and economic aspects. Some decisions cannot be left entirely to machines. Human beings can consider unique circumstances when making decisions, which artificial intelligence may never be able to do. Data privacy and security concerns must also be carefully considered. In designing AI solutions, preventing external attacks, anomalies and cyber- attacks must be addressed. Ethical issues, ranging from preventing discrimination and biases to aligning AI systems with respective applications should also be considered. AI development requires the involvement of experts from multi-disciplinary fields such as computer science, social and behavioral sciences, ethics, biomedical science, psychology, economics, law and policy research. This has been the case, as illustrated in Box 8.5 during the AI for Good Global Summit. 188

219 Chapter 6 Chapter 8 CHAPTER 8 • FAST-EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES IN E-GOVERNMENT: GOVERNMENT PLATFORMS, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND PEOPLE 56 Box 8.6. AI for Good Global Summit The AI for Good series is the leading United Nations platform for dialogue on beneficial AI. The Summit is organized by ITU in partnership with the XPRIZE Foundation, the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and 32 sister United Nations Agencies. The AI for Good series aims to ensure that AI accelerates progress towards the achievement of the United Nations sustainable development goals. The AI for Good Global Summit in June 2017 was the first event to launch inclusive global dialogue on the actions necessary to ensure that AI benefits humanity. Source: https:// The action-oriented 2018 Summit identified AI applications capable of improving the quality www.itu.int/en/ and sustainability of life on the planet. The Summit also formulated strategies to ensure trusted, ITU-T/AI/2018/ safe and inclusive development of AI technologies and equitable access to their benefits. Pages/default.aspx 8.5. Harnessing technology for societal resilience The Internet and the development of ICTs have enabled governments to reduce administrative burdens as well as reorganise their services, from design to delivery. Nonetheless, harnessing fast- evolving technologies poses a number of challenges for governments. Whereas technology is a tool, people are key in driving the development of innovative services and products. The pervasive nature of technology calls for more symmetry across the different operators and users. Ethical questions also must be addressed. 8.5.1. People and Technology driving new uses and new services Complex emerging crises herald deep changes in how people live together on the planet. The more people are implicated in the management of these changes the better they can be catalysed to change negative behaviours. However, carrots and not sticks are required in order to productively engage 57 populations. Europeans with their “Open Innovation 2.0 ” and the Japanese “Ba” approach, (see Box 8.6), highlight the need for change in innovation policy in the coming decades if technology is to play a constructive role in development. That requires deep collaboration between the Information Technology community and society at large. On its own, purely technological advances devoid of context can and often do drive unsustainable material consumption and exploitation. Hence, the broader societal challenge is to create the conditions for sustainable and resilient socio-economic shifts. Increased flexibility in decision making systems will be needed to allow for different perspectives to emerge, in order to challenge the linear extrapolation of the past when seeking new solutions. This in turn requires out-of-the-box thinking and large-scale experimentation to assess impact in real world settings. 189

220 Chapter 6 Chapter 8 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Box 8.7. Process innovation insight The European approach to a modern innovation policy is based on the Open Innovation 2.0 paradigm characterised by citizen participation and prototyping approaches to socio-technical challenges in real world settings. 58 is driven by Professor Ikujiro Nonaka’s ideas on “Ba” Similarly, the Japan Innovation Network (JIN) Source: https:// ec.europa.eu/digital- – a place for deep interaction and wisdom sharing among stakeholders to create common value. single-market/en JIN acts as an innovation accelerator, fostering both creativity and productivity. They are recognised as two descriptions of one key component in modern innovation ecosystem thinking: deep collaboration. https://ji- Source: network.org/en/ E-government at its core can enable better interaction within the entire society, leading to socially sustainable and acceptable solutions to complex societal issues. Key to balancing the inevitable techno-societal transformation is the creation of a safety net. “There is a need for better balance between short-term economic gain on the one side and ground-breaking research by the universities 59 of science and technology that tackle grand societal challenges on the other.” In achieving societal resilience, access to high-speed Internet is key – everyone should be included in the digital economy. This point has been underscored in numerous digital for development initiatives launched by the United Nations and the European Union. With the rise of new technologies comes the fear of unemployment, which creates anxiety and 60 perceived insecurity. Artificial Intelligence, in particular, may thwart human interaction for certain processes, as new demands and functions arise. History has indeed shown that machines can replace humans, but many experts agree that they can also create new functions for human beings, albeit, 62 61 equipped with a different skill set. AI will not be an exception. Artificial Intelligence and related issues - from big data to artificial vision - have been in fashion for several years. At the same time, AI algorithm and technology experiments span multiple sectors of the economy and society, from finance to medicine. Nowadays, AI techniques and the immeasurable storage and processing capacity of modern data centres make it possible to analyze signals and images collected by modern biomedical instruments. For example, in case studies on the early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases using non-invasive MRI to focus on the visual or automatic analysis of particular anatomical districts, such as, for example, the hippocampus in the case of Alzheimer’s disease, AI can identify changes in the brains of people likely to get Alzheimer’s disease almost a decade before doctors can diagnose the disease from symptoms alone. (See box 8.7.) 190

221 Chapter 6 Chapter 8 CHAPTER 8 • FAST-EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES IN E-GOVERNMENT: GOVERNMENT PLATFORMS, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND PEOPLE Box 8.8. AI and deep machine learning for early diagnosis of brain diseases A team of researchers at the Physics Department of the Bari University in Italy and the local branch of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics has developed a novel brain connectivity model to reveal early signs of Parkinson’s disease in T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans. The same group reported the possibility to detect Alzheimer’s disease with analogous techniques just a year ago. Parkinson’s disease is the most common neurological disorder, after Alzheimer’s disease, and is characterized by a long so-called prodromal or early phase lasting up to 20 years. The Italian research team lead by Prof. Bellotti has developed a novel approach using complex networks based on the publicly available Parkinson’s Progressive Markers Initiative (PPMI) database, a mixed cohort including 169 healthy controls and 374 Parkinson patients. In particular, their analyses allowed the detection of the disease in subjects reported within the prodromal phase: accordingly, when tremor symptoms are yet to appear. The algorithm reported a classification accuracy of 93 per cent,% and these results were cross-validated hundreds of times to grant the statistical robustness of the results. 63 have developed cross-disciplinary research The physicists of the Bari Medical Physics Group approaches and big data techniques with clinical purposes. The team was awarded by Harvard Source: https://www. recas-bari.it/index. Medical School for the development of an accurate machine learning tool for schizophrenia php/it/) . diagnosis. These big data analyses, usually computational intensive, are performed thanks to the ReCaS computer facility. Space science and technology are always at the forefront of human development as they help to break barriers. Through research and innovation, spin-offs stemming from our efforts in space impact virtually all fields of human activities. Utilizing the frontier technologies in outer space has also offered us new insights, knowledge and understanding of the functioning of our planet and its four interconnected spheres: lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere. Space technologies have an impact on almost all aspects of development and the United Nations promote the utilization of space science and technology for sustainable economic and social development. Space is an invaluable tool that can help the UN in achieving the goals and targets of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 SDGs. Nearly 40% of the SDG indicators underpinning the goals are reliant on the use space science and technology. The SDGs provide an additional framework for the work of United Nations (See Box. 8.8) as it employs new, more holistic and tangible approaches to its traditional capacity-building role. 191

222 Chapter 8 Chapter 6 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES Box 8.9. The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA ) The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) is the United Nations office responsible for the promotion of international cooperation, and for leading and facilitating the promotion of peaceful uses of outer space. UNOOSA is as the main UN entity dealing with space matters and coordinates UN activities in the utilization of space-related technology for improvement of human UNOOSA conditions globally. UNOOSA, as a global facilitator, plays a leading role in promoting the peaceful use of outer space and the utilization of space-related technology for sustainable economic and social development. The Office’s vision is to bring the benefits of space to all humankind by strengthening the capacity of United Nations Member States to use space science technology, applications, data and services by helping to integrate space capabilities into national development programmes. UNOOSA is part of the UN secretariat with its headquarters in Vienna and two offices in Bonn and Beijing. UNOOSA serves as the secretariat for the General Assembly’s only committee dealing exclusively with international cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space: the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). It is also responsible for implementing the Secretary-General’s responsibilities under international space law and maintaining the United Nations Register of Objects Launched into Outer Space. Through its Programme on Space Applications, UNOOSA conducts workshops, training courses, technical advisory missions and other projects worldwide as part of its capacity-building efforts as it strives to promote and facilitate the use of space for the benefit of all United Nations Member States, with a special focus on developing nations. UNOOSA has conducted over 300 capacity- building projects in countries all over the world for over 18,000 participants. Furthermore, to address global challenges including climate change, disaster risk reduction and building more resilient societies, the United Nations Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER) was established in 2006 and is implemented by UNOOSA to support United Nations Member States in accessing and using satellite data for all phases of disaster management – disaster recovery, risk reduction and emergency response. Additionally, UNOOSA serves as the secretariat of the International Committee on Global Source: http://www. Navigation Satellite Systems (ICG) and as a permanent secretariat to the Space Mission Planning unoosa.org/oosa/en/ aboutus/index.html. Advisory Group (SMPAG), which concentrates on asteroid impact mitigation. 8.5.2 Symmetry and ethics as the way forward It is quite important for governments to understand the challenges and opportunities of the new technologies and to be aware of new public policy professions that specialize in machine learning andbut also data science ethics. The main challenges raised by future and emerging technologies should be clarified. The first concerns data ownership, particularly who owns the data and the algorithms used to access and manage it. A second challenge concerns net neutrality64, which requires a non-discriminatory infrastructure and transparency in network management practices. The third is ethics. The question, for example, of whether one would prefer to undergo surgery by a robot or by a human surgeon raises a number of ethical concerns. Considering the broad scope of the above topics, the 2018 World Economic and Social Survey is equally addressing a number of these challenges. The 2030 Agenda has introduced the concept of a data-driven governance, highlighting the challenge to “increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely, reliable and disaggregated data by 192

223 Chapter 6 Chapter 8 CHAPTER 8 • FAST-EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES IN E-GOVERNMENT: GOVERNMENT PLATFORMS, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND PEOPLE 2020”. To do so, governments require systemic policies for data production, collection, management and analysis. Society will have to adapt in order to take advantage of ICTs. Today, the hierarchical structures of governments are being challenged as these new technologies equip individuals and informal networks and communities with the necessary tools to better participate in public decision- making processes, and have a societal impact at a much faster pace than ever before. This implies discussing and redefining values, which, in turn, begs the question of the nature of a coherent set of policy actions to address the challenges. Open Innovation invites policymakers to think outside the policy toolbox. Creating linkages between communities could be valuable in that regard. What 65 would Watson do? If the citizens owned their own data, what would they do? The notion of “prosumer” – producer and consumer – is rising, as can be seen by the increase in blockchain-based applications: everyone can create- and benefit from ICT use. However, the Internet has been developing in an asymmetrical manner, with data in the hands of a limited, albeit growing, number of players as examined by the 2018 World Economic and Social Survey. Another challenge is the nature of ICT use where users leave a digital footprint. This serves to give away their data, which is then served back to them in the form of commercial offerings which also heightens fears of ever more intrusive monitoring. The rise of AI, as examined in the previous section, also carries uncertainty in terms of work placement, skills and overall employment. Symmetry can be achieved by providing a mechanism which will reduce the gap between the data providers and the data users. The notion of a “citizen salary” is gaining some traction as a way to create a more symmetric model. The idea is to pay citizens as ‘data generators’ for the data they produce, which has economic value when it is in turn re-used. By being paid for data generation, citizens are rewarded for their efforts and encouraged to continue producing valuable data. The questions arises as to whether the public sector should equally purchase data from its citizens. 8.6. Conclusion Transforming the world and realizing the sustainable development goals by 2030 will require a paradigm shift in the way societies govern themselves. It will require rethinking the role of government and the way it interacts with civil society and the private sector in managing the public affairs of a country and responding to the needs of its people. ICTs and e-government have the potential to ensure that no one is left behind in sustainable development. The 2030 Agenda specifically recognized the vital role of these two components as a catalyst for realizing its vision, and stated that “the spread of information and communications technology and global interconnectedness have great potential to accelerate human progress, bridge the digital divide, develop knowledge societies such as scientific and technological innovation among different sectors”. This chapter has considered issues facing governments in light of the widespread deployment and use of fast-evolving technologies, such as Artificial Intelligence, in e-government. The scope of the endeavour is vast and carries human rights, technical, and socio-economic challenges. These questions are not only critical to the e-government mission but represent some of the most difficult questions facing society today. Finding answers will not be easy, nor are there turn-key solutions. However, Member States can leverage their influence to lay a foundation that will bring answers within reach. From resource allocation, predictive public utilities maintenance, to managing public hotlines, health-care chatbots and real-time verification of digital identity, governments around the world are deploying AI for both back-end and front-end public services. But AI can also actually result in more social exclusion such as through its impacts on jobs and job skills. 193

224 Chapter 6 Chapter 8 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND RESILIENT SOCIETIES This will be the fastest transition on record for humankind. As seen, societies need to prepare for the impact of new technologies on the job market. In reviewing the implementation of the SDGs, the 2017 High Level Political Forum Ministerial Declaration acknowledged “the transformative and disruptive potential of new technologies, particularly advances in automation, on our labour markets, and on the jobs of the future”, and recognized the need “to prepare our societies and economies for these effects”. As initiated in the 1990s with the beginning of the digital revolution and reiterated in the 2017 High Level Committee on Programmes paper on future of work, technology will affect many aspects of society with unprecedented speed, scale and breadth. Policy responses must take an equally comprehensive and proactive approach to harness the challenges of technology into opportunities. This calls for a system-wide effort, building on existing initiatives, that reflects the 2030 Agenda for rights-based, normative and integrated solutions tailored to the needs of individual Member States as each strives to achieve inclusive and sustainable growth. Efforts to implement AI in government should be approached in a way that augments human capital and does not reduce jobs. With these principles in mind, the United Nations System should lead governments in handling 66 the use of AI under the principles of 2030 Agenda. The Agenda pays particular attention to effective means of implementation, including the need for special efforts to stimulate digital transformation and to foster and share technology and policy innovation, such as through effective and meaningful deployment of AI. Without targeted measures, the digital divide will widen with profound implications for inequality, and the principle of leaving no one behind will be challenged by the fourth industrial revolution, unless the needs of both developing and least developed countries and all segments of the population are considered. Scientific knowledge, technologies and know how spawned by the digital age will require careful management to eliminate the risks of new and wider digital divides. To have a significant social impact in using new technologies, governments should partner with the private sector in research and development, including addressing the broadband connectivity gap. Digital transformation will not only depend on technologies, but also require a comprehensive approach that offers people accessible, fast, reliable and personalized services. The public sector in many countries is ill-prepared for this transformation. Traditional forms of regulation may not apply, and thus, a paradigm shift in strategic thinking, legislation and regulation is needed. Governments can respond by developing the necessary policy, services and regulation. This response will serve as a mission statement and endorse the role of education around core objectives. Services can be delivered to address specific needs and adapted for a defined audience, administration, business or citizen. Law-making can take the form of legally binding acts, regulation, directives, norms and standards that define the parameters of what can and cannot be done. Some governments have already started to prepare ethical and legal frameworks on AI development. It is important to embed new technologies in specific social contexts and ensure that they are properly regulated to have a positive impact on society. However, many of these legal instruments are slow in being “brought to the market”. It is therefore principles such as effectiveness, inclusiveness, accountability, trustworthy and openness that should direct the technologies and not the other way around. Similarly, functionalities should determine the technology to be used. Governments around the world will need to rethink their governance models to meet the core principles of the 2030 Agenda and to respond to demands of the people for more responsive and inclusive services. While e-government was about bringing services online, the future will be about the power of digital government in leveraging societal innovation and resilience and transforming governance to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. 194

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Frontier Issues: The impact of the technological revolution on labour markets and income distribution Department of Economic and Social Affairs.[online] Available at: UN: Frontier Issues: The impact of the technological revolution on labor markets and income distributionhttps://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/publication/frontier-issues-artificial- intelligence-and-other-technologies-will-define-the-future-of-jobs-and-incomes/ . 50 European Parliamentary Research Service. [no date]. Cyber Physical Systems. Science and Technology Options Assessment.[onl ine] Available at: European Parliament Research Service: Cyber-physical systems.http://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/infographics/ robotics/public/index.html 51 European Commission (2018) Declaration: Cooperation on Artificial Intelligence, 10 April 2018. [online] Available at: http:// ec.europa.eu/newsroom/dae/document.cfm?doc_id=50951 52 European Commission - Press release,(2018). Artificial intelligence: Commission outlines a European approach to boost investm ent and set ethical guidelines Brussels, 25 April 2018http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-18-3362_en.htm. EC Press Release http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-18-3362_en.htm Database. [online] Available on: 196

227 Chapter 6 Chapter 8 CHAPTER 8 • FAST-EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES IN E-GOVERNMENT: GOVERNMENT PLATFORMS, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND PEOPLE 53 EU Charter of Fundamental Rights https://ec.europa.eu/info/aid-development-cooperation-fundamental-rights/your-rights-eu/eu- charter-fundamental-rights_en EU (2012). Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, 16 October 2012, C 326/02. [online] Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/info/aid-development-cooperation-fundamental-rights/your-rights-eu/eu-charter- fundamental-rights_en 54 United Nations (2017). Trade and Development Report 2017. Chapter III: Robots, Industrialization and Inclusive Growth. Unite d Nations Conference on Trade and Development. [online] Available at: UN: Trade and Development Report 2017.http://unctad.org/ en/PublicationChapters/tdr2017ch3_en.pdf 55 United Nations (2017) The Future of Everything – Sustainable Development in the Age of Rapid Technological Change. In: Joint meeting of United Nations General Assembly Second Committee and the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). [online] Available at: http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/blog/2017/10/looking-to-future-un-to-consider-how-artificial-intelligence-could- help-achieve-economic-growth-and-reduce-inequalities/ 56 ITU (2018) Accelerating Progress Towards the SDGs. In: AI for Good Global Summit 2018. [online] Available at: https://www.itu.int/ en/ITU-T/AI/2018/Pages/default.aspx 57 Curley, M., and Salmelin, B. (2018). Open Innovation 2.0,: The New Mode of Digital Innovation for Prosperity and Sustainabil ity, January 2018. Springer International Publishing. https://ji-network.org/en/ 58 Japan Innovation Network [no date]. JIN Main Website. [online] Available at: 59 Conference of European schools for advanced engineering education and research . Floridi, L. (2017). Charting our AI Future. Project Syndicate 2 January 2017. Project Syndicate (2018): Mapping the future of AI 60 [online] Available at: https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/human-implications-of-artificial-intelligence-by-luciano- floridi-2017-01?barrier=accesspaylog 61 United Nations (2017). Trade and Development Report 2017. Chapter III: Robots, Industrialization and Inclusive Growth. Uni ted Nations Conference on Trade and Development. [online] Available at: UN: Trade and Development Report 2017.http://unctad.org/ en/PublicationChapters/tdr2017ch3_en.pdf 62 United Nations (2017). Frontier Issues: The impact of the technological revolution on labour markets and income distributio n. Department of Economic and Social Affairs.[online] Available at: https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/publication/frontier- issues-artificial-intelligence-and-other-technologies-will-define-the-future-of-jobs-and-incomes/ 63 http://medphysics.ba.infn.it/index.php 64 Note: Over the years, policy debates and regulations on net neutrality have crystallised a few key principles, please see I nternet Governance Forum (IGF) for ongoing debate on this issue. 65 Note: Watson is a deep-machine learning AI computer system capable of answering questions posed in natural language, developed in IBM’s DeepQA project by a research team led by principal investigator David Ferrucci. Watson was named after IBM’s first CEO, industrialist Thomas J. Watson. For details, see: https://www.ibm.com/watson/ 66 2017 High Level Political ForumHLPF follow-up Paper. ITU-Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society 197

228 GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT ANNEXES 198

229 Annexes ANNEXES Annexes Survey Methodology A.1. E-Government Development Index: An Overview Mathematically, the E-Government Development Index (EGDI) is the Photo credit: pixabay.com weighted average of normalized scores on the three most important dimensions of egovernment, namely: (i) the scope and quality of In this chapter: online services quantified as the Online Service Index (OSI); (ii) the status of the development of telecommunication infrastructure or the Annexes 198 Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII); and (iii) the inherent human Survey Methodology 199 capital or the Human Capital Index (HCI). Each of these indices is a A.1. E-Government Development Index: composite measure that can be extracted and analyzed independently. An Overview 199 A.2. Telecommunication Infrastructure 200 Index (TII) A.3. Human Capital Index (HCI) 203 Prior to the normalization of the three component indicators, the 204 A.4. Online Service Index (OSI) Z-score standardization procedure is implemented for each component A.5. List of Features Assessed 205 indicator to ensure that the overall EGDI is equally decided by the three A.6. Challenges in reviewing the online component indexes, that is, each component index presents comparable 209 presence of a country variance subsequent to the Z-score standardization. In the absence of 211 A.7. E-Participation Index (EPI) the Z-score standardization treatment, the EGDI would mainly depend on the component index with the greatest dispersion. After the Z-score A.8. Member State Questionnaire (MSQ) 212 standardization, the arithmetic average sum becomes a good statistical A.9. Local Online Service Index 216 indicator, where “equal weights” truly means “equal importance.” A.10. Country Classifications and 219 Nomenclature in the Survey For standard Z-score calculation of each component indicator: A.11. United Nations e-government  knowledge base 219 -/  &#, 1  A.12.Evolving definitions and  understanding of egovernment and its related development 220 Where: References 271 x is a raw score to be standardized; μ is the mean of the population; m is the standard deviation of the population. The composite value of each component index is then normalized to fall between the range of 0 to 1 and the overall EGDI is derived by taking the arithmetic average of the three component indexes. The EGDI is used as a benchmark to provide a numerical ranking of e-government development of all United Nations Member States. While the methodological framework for EGDI has remained consistent across 199 Annexes

230 Annexes GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT United Nations E-Government Survey, each edition of the Survey has been the editions of the adjusted to reflect emerging trends of e-government strategies, evolving knowledge of best practices in e-government, changes in technology and other factors. In addition, data collection practices have been periodically refined. Figure A.1. The three components of the E-Government Development Index (EGDI) HCI OSI 1/3 1/3 OSI - Online Service Index EGDI TII - Telecommunication Infrastructure Index HCI - Human Capital Index TII 1/3 The imputation of missing data is an important step in the construction of a good quality composite indicator. The problem has been studied since 2001; in the EGDI methodology, the cold deck imputation or use of older values for the missing data has always been the first choice of action. Nevertheless, there are cases where no data is available at all. In these cases, a combination of the unconditional mean imputation and the hot deck imputation was used. This combination is based on the “donor imputation” methodology, which replaces missing values in a record with the corresponding values from a complete and valid record. A.2. Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) The Telecommunication Infrastructure Index is an arithmetic average composite of five indicators: (i) estimated Internet users per 100 inhabitants; (ii) number of main fixed telephone lines per 100 inhabitants; (iii) number of mobile subscribers per 100 inhabitants; (iv) number of wireless broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants; and (v) number of fixed broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants. The International Telecommunication Union is the primary source of data in each case. (See Figure A.2) 1 The definitions of the five components of TII are: (i) Internet users per 100 inhabitants refer to individuals who used the Internet from any location 2 in the last three months . (ii) Main fixed telephone lines per 100 inhabitants refer to telephone lines connecting a customer’s terminal equipment, such as telephone set, facsimile machine to the public switched telephone network (PSTN), which has a dedicated port on a telephone exchange. This term is synonymous with the terms main station or Direct Exchange Line (DEL), which are commonly used in telecommunication documents. It may not be the same as an access line or a subscription. 200

231 Annexes ANNEXES (iii) Mobile subscribers per 100 inhabitants are the number of subscriptions to mobile service in the last three months. A mobile/cellular telephone refers to a portable telephone subscribed to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provides access to the PSTN. This includes analogue and digital cellular systems and technologies such as IMT-2000 (3G) and IMT-Advanced. Users of both post-paid subscriptions and prepaid accounts are included. (iv) Active mobile-broadband subscriptions refer to the sum of data and voice mobile-broadband subscriptions and data-only mobile-broadband subscriptions to the public Internet. It covers subscriptions being used to access the Internet at broadband speeds, not subscriptions with potential access, even though the latter may have broadband-enabled handsets. Subscriptions must include a recurring subscription fee to access the Internet or pass a usage requirement – users must have accessed the Internet in the previous three months. It includes subscriptions to mobile-broadband networks that provide download speeds of at least 256 kbit/s (e.g. WCDMA, HSPA, CDMA2000 1x EV-DO, WiMAX IEEE 802.16e and LTE), and excludes subscriptions that 3 only have access to GPRS, EDGE and CDMA 1xRTT. (v) Fixed broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants refers to fixed subscriptions to high-speed access to the public Internet or a TCP/IP connection, at downstream speeds equal to, or greater than, 256 kbit/s. This includes cable modem, DSL, fiber-to-home/building, other fixed/ wired- broadband subscriptions, satellite broadband and terrestrial fixed wireless broadband. This total is measured irrespective of the method of payment. It excludes subscriptions that have access to data communications, including the Internet via mobile-cellular networks. It should include fixed WiMAX and any other fixed wireless technologies. It includes both residential subscriptions and subscriptions for organizations. Figure A.2. Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) and its components Mobile-cellular Individuals using internet subscriptions (per 100) (% population) 1/5 1/5 TII 1/5 1/5 Fixed (wired)-broadband Fixed-telephone subscriptions (per 100) subscription (per 100) 1/5 Wireless broadband subscriptions (per 100) Conceptually, the TII has remained largely unchanged since 2002. Three components, i.e. internet users, mobile-cellular phone subscriptions and fixed-telephone subscriptions have been used in the past Surveys since 2002. However, given the availability of suitable data, several replacements were introduced over the years, such as the replacement of online population with fixed-broadband subscription and the removal of number of television sets in 2008; the replacement of personal computer users with fixed Internet subscriptions in 2012; the replacement of fixed Internet subscriptions with wireless broadband subscriptions in 2014 (See Table A.1). In 2018, wireless broadband subscriptions indicator was replaced by active mobile-broadband subscriptions. 201

232 Annexes GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT The improvement of data quality and coverage has led to the reduction of data gaps that appeared in prior Surveys. However, in cases where gaps still occur, data is retrieved first from the Word Bank data base, and when all previous measures prove unsuccessful, the most recent ITU data is used. Each of these indicators was standardized through the Z-score procedure to derive the Zscore for each component indicator. The telecommunication infrastructure composite value for country “x” is the simple arithmetic mean of the five standardized indicators derived as follows: Telecommunication infrastructure composite value= Average (Internet user Z-score + Fixed telephone subscription Z-score + Mobile/Cellular telephone subscription Z-score + Active mobile broadband subscription Z-score + Fixed broadband Z-score) Table A.1. Telecommunication infrastructure index (TII) and changes of its components (2003-2018) TII (2018) TII (2001) TII (2003) TII (2004) TII (2005) TII (2008) TII (2010) TII (2012) TII (2014) TII (2016) Internet Internet Internet Internet Internet Internet Internet Internet Internet Internet users users users users users users users users users users Online Fixed-broad- Fixed-broad- Fixed-broad- Online Fixed-broad- Online Fixed-broad- Fixed-broad- Online band sub- popula- band sub- popula- band sub- popula- band sub- band sub- band sub- popula- scriptions tion scriptions scriptions tion scriptions scriptions tion scriptions tion Fixed In- Personal Personal Personal Personal Personal Personal Wireless Wireless Active mo- computer broadband broadband ternet sub- computer computer computer computer computer bile-broad- (PC) users (PC) users subscrip- (PC) users (PC) users scriptions (PC) users subscriptions (PC) users band sub- tions scriptions Fixed-tele- Fixed-tele- Fixed-tele- Fixed-tele- Fixed-tele- Fixed-tele- Fixed-tele- Fixed-tele- Fixed-tele- Fixed-tele- phone phone phone phone phone sub- phone sub- phone sub- phone sub- phone sub- phone sub- subscrip- subscrip- subscrip- subscrip- scriptions scriptions scriptions scriptions scriptions scriptions tions tions tions tions Mo- Mo- Mo- Mo- Mobile-cel- Mobile-cel- Mobile-cel- Mobile-cel- Mobile-cel- Mobile-cel- lular sub- bile-cel- bile-cel- bile-cel- bile-cel- lular sub- lular sub- lular sub- lular sub- lular sub- scriptions lular lular lular lular scriptions scriptions scriptions scriptions scriptions subscrip- subscrip- subscrip- subscrip- tions tions tions tions Television Television Television Television ---- -- sets sets sets sets Finally, the TII composite value is normalized by taking its value for a given country, subtracting the lowest composite value in the Survey and dividing by the range of composite values for all countries. For example, if country “x” has the composite value of 1.3813, and the lowest composite value for all countries is -1.1358 and the highest is 2.3640, then the normalized value of TII for country “x” would be:  2 4        35 1      23 1 2     4    35 202

233 Annexes ANNEXES A.3. Human Capital Index (HCI) The Human Capital Index (TII) consists of four components, namely: (i) adult literacy rate; (ii) the combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio; (iii) expected years of schooling; and (iv) average years of schooling. (See Figure A.3) Figure A.3. Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) and its components Gross enrolment Expected years ration (%) of schooling 2/9 2/9 HCI 2/9 Mean years of schooling 1/3 Adult literacy (%) The four indicators of HCI are defined as follows: 1. Adult literacy is measured as the percentage of people aged 15 years and above who can, with understanding, both read and write a short simple statement on their everyday life. 2. Gross enrolment ratio is measured as the combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio, of the total number of students enrolled at the primary, secondary and tertiary level, regardless of age, as a percentage of the population of school age for that level. 3. Expected years of schooling is the total number of years of schooling that a child of a certain age can expect to receive in the future, assuming that the probability of his or her being in school at any specific age is equal to the current enrolment ratio age. 4. Mean years of schooling (MYS) provides the average number of years of education completed by a country’s adult population (25 years and older), excluding the years spent repeating grades (add reference 6). The first two components, i.e. adult literacy rate and the combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio have been used for the past Surveys since 2002. Recognizing that education is the fundamental pillar in supporting human capital, the 2014 Survey introduced two new components to the human capital index (HCI), namely (i) expected years of schooling; and (ii) mean years of schooling. The preliminary statistical study commissioned by DESA/DPADM validated the use of the new HCI, accentuating that the two new components have strengthened the HCI without 4 introducing any error . 203

234 Annexes GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Human Capital Index and changes of its components (2003-2014) Table A.2. Components of HCI in past surveys 2002, 2003, 2004, 2008, 2010, 2012) Components of HCI in 2014 survey Adult literacy Adult literacy Gross enrolment ratio Gross enrolment ratio Expected years of schooling - Mean years of schooling - The HCI is a weighted average composite of the four indicators. In the same manner the TII is computed, each of the four component indicators is first standardized through the Z-score procedure to derive the Z-score value for each component indicator. The human capital composite value for country “x” is the weighted arithmetic mean with one-third weight assigned to adult literacy rate and two-ninth weight assigned to the gross enrolment ratio, estimated years of schooling and mean years of schooling. Human capital composite value = 1/3 x Adult literacy rate Z-score + 2/9 x Gross enrolment ratio Z-score + 2/9 x Estimated years of schooling Z-score + 2/9 x Mean years of schooling Z-score The human capital composite value is then normalized by taking its composite value for a given country, subtracting the lowest composite value in the Survey and dividing by the range of composite values for all countries. For example, if country “x” has the composite value at 0.8438, and the lowest composite value for all countries is –3.2354 and the highest equal to 1.2752, then the normalized value of the Human Capital Index for country “x” would be: 2  4  35         1    23 1 35 4     2    A.4. Online Service Index (OSI) The Online Service Index (OSI) is a composite normalized score derived on the basis on an Online Service Questionnaire. The 2018 Online Service Questionnaire (OSQ) consists of a list of 140 questions. Each question calls for a binary response. Every positive answer generates “more in-depth question” inside and across the patterns. The outcome is an enhanced quantitative survey with a wider range of point distributions reflecting the differences in the levels of e-government development among Member States. The total number of points scored by each country is normalized to a range of 0 to 1. The online index value for a given country is equal to the actual total score less the lowest total score divided by the range of total score values for all countries. For example, if country “x” has a score of 114, and the lowest score of any country is 0 and the highest equal to 153, then the online services value for country “x” would be: 204

235 Annexes ANNEXES 2    3 &%$&##(+$!#&"#-2'*&)(. -  31      1  3   2  To arrive at a set of Online Service Index values for 2018, a total of 206 online United Nations Volunteer (UNV) researchers from 89 countries covering 66 languages, assessed each country’s national website in the native language, including the national portal, e-services portal and e-participation portal, as well as the websites of the related ministries of education, labour, social services, health, finance and environment, as applicable. The UNVs included qualified graduate students and volunteers from universities in the field of public administration. To ensure consistency of assessments, all the researchers were provided with a rigorous training by e-government and online service delivery experts with years of experience in conducting the assessments, and guided by Data Team Coordinators who provided support throughout the assessment period. Researchers were instructed and trained to assume the mind-set of an average citizen user in assessing sites. Thus, responses were generally based on whether the relevant features could be found and accessed easily, not whether they in fact exist but are hidden somewhere in the site(s). The key point is that the average user needs to find information and features quickly and intuitively for a site to be “usable” with content readily discoverable by the intended beneficiaries. The data collection and Survey research ran from August 2017 until the end of November 2017. Each country was assessed by at least two researchers who conducted the assessment in the country’s national language. After the initial assessment, the evaluations by the two researchers on each country were compared and questions regarding discrepancies were reviewed together and resolved by the researchers. The third phase, from October to November, was the final review by the Data Team Reviewers, who analyzed all the answers and, where needed, carried out further review and verification processes using multiple methods and sources. The scores were then sent for approval to a Senior Reviewer. Through this multilevel approach, all surveyed sites were thoroughly assessed by at least three people, one of whom has years of experience in assessing public sector online services, and reviewed by one of the Data Team Coordinators. Once the evaluation phase was completed, the statistics team produced the first draft of the OSI ranking. Data was extracted from the platform and the raw OSI scores were created. Rankings were compared with previous OSI scores, and discrepancies were thoroughly reviewed. A.5. List of Features Assessed Multiple linkages to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) have been included in both the OSQ and the Member State Questionnaire (MSQ).The MSQ is further discussed in more detail in Section A.8 of this Chapter. As done in analytical chapters of past editions of the Survey, selected or proxy themes related to egovernment and sustainable development have been also analyzed, for example, open government data, e-participation, mobile-government and whole-of-government approach. A complete review of the OSQ has been undertaken to include questions related to key services across the SDG domains, including health, education, social protection, gender equality, and decent work and employment, as well as through the SDG principles highlighted in Goal 16, including effectiveness, inclusion, openness, trustworthiness, and accountability. Below is a list of areas assessed in the 2018 edition of the United Nations EGovernment Survey. It should be noted that this list is dynamic and is updated for each edition of the Survey. The language for the areas start with: 205

236 Annexes GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT “information about” something such as laws, policies, legislation or expenditures • “existence of” a feature such as social networking tools • • “ability to” do something on the website i.e. run a transaction Information about women’s right to access to sexual/reproductive healthcare, information and education (policy/legislation) Information about using open data sets Information about upcoming procurements Information about upcoming e-participation activities Information about technical and vocational skills training for youth Information about social protection policy or budget Information about services in partnership with third parties Information about schools with accessible facilities Information about road traffic accidents statistics Information about road safety Information about results of any government procurement/bidding process Information about reproductive health-care services Information about reduction, recycling and reuse of waste Information about public sector work force distribution by gender Information about programs/initiatives benefiting the poor or vulnerable groups Information about privacy statement Information about primary government expenditures Information about pollution and precautionary measures Information about personal data protection Information about payments for government services through different channels Information about organizational structure of the government Information about national budget or budget policy Information about local/regional government agencies Information about laws and regulations against discrimination Information about labour laws and regulation Information about housing support for older persons Information about health-emergency preparedness Information about health policy or budget Information about government-wide Chief Information Officer (CIO) or equivalent online Information about government scholarship programmes or education funding Information about gender equality (policy/legislation) Information about equal access to education for persons with disabilities Information about equal access to education for children in vulnerable situations Information about environment-related policy or budget Information about employment/labour policy or budget Information about electricity or power outage 206

237 Annexes ANNEXES Information about education policy or budget Information about early childhood development, care and pre-primary education Information about diseases affecting older persons Information about citizenship application Information about citizen’s rights to access government information Information about affordable public housing Information about accessible public transportation Existence of up-to-date information on the portal Existence of tools to obtain inputs for policy deliberation Existence of support for authentication or digital ID Existence of support for all official languages Existence of social networking features Existence of security features on the portal Existence of search engine effectiveness Existence of a site map Existence of search and advanced search features Existence of open government data on education, employment, environment, health and social protection Existence of open data competitions Existence of online tools helping children with disabilities to participate at all levels of education Existence of online skills training for youths and/or adults Existence of online service for female-headed households, immigrants, migrant workers, refugees and/ or internally displaced persons, older persons, persons with disabilities, the poor (below poverty line), women, youth Existence of online participation in public issues related to education, employment, environment, health and social protection Existence of mobile services in education, employment, environment, health, social protection Existence of live support functionality Existence of linkage/reference to technical, vocational and tertiary education Existence of linkage between national portal and sectoral/ministerial services of education, employment/labour and health Existence of help, FAQs, contact us features Existence of help links and references for youth employment Existence of free access to government services through kiosks, community centres, post offices, libraries, public spaces of free Wi-Fi Existence of features to configure font size, type, colour and background colour Existence of features relates accessibility Existence of digital security or cybersecurity act/legislation online Existence of cross-browser compatibility of website including in mobile/smartphones Existence of an outcome of an e-consultation resulted in new policy decisions Existence of an open government data policy online Existence of an e-procurement platform Existence of an e-participation policy/mission statement 207

238 Annexes GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Existence of a national portal, an open data portal Existence of a national e-government/digital government strategy online Existence of a mobile app to provide e-government services Existence of a data dictionary or metadata repository in the portal Existence of tutorials and/or guidance for using the portal Ability to submit online income and other taxes Ability to request new open data sets Ability to report online any form of discrimination Ability to report online about trafficking, sexual abuse or other form of exploitation Ability to report and track unethical behaviour of public servants/institutions Ability to report a violation of labour law Ability to register online for vehicle Ability to register online for a new business Ability to receive updates or alerts on issues related to education, employment, health, social protection, weather conditions or agricultural technology Ability to receive updates or alerts on environment-related issues Ability to pay for water, energy bills online Ability to pay for any government related fees Ability to monitor and evaluate existing government procurement contracts Ability to make address change online Ability to make a police declaration online Ability to file complaint for public services Ability to enrol online for primary or secondary education Ability to apply online for social protection Ability to apply online for government scholarships/fellowships Ability to apply for personal ID cards online Ability to apply for marriage certificates online Ability to apply for land title registration online Ability to apply for government jobs online Ability to apply for environment-related permits online Ability to apply for driver’s license online Ability to apply for death certificates online Ability to apply for business licenses or patents online Ability to apply for building permits online Ability to apply for birth certificates online Ability to apply for any visa to enter or transit through this country Ability to access/modify own data 208

239 Annexes ANNEXES A.6. Challenges in reviewing the online presence of a country Selecting the appropriate site/URL at the national level One of the essential decisions for researchers when undertaking the country assessment is identifying the specific site(s) to review as the national government site for each country. Regardless of the sophistication of e-government in a specific country, the priority for users is to identify which of the many potentially available government sites would be deemed as the “official” national government site—the gateway or starting point for national users. A simple, clear statement at the chosen website is sufficient to start an important step towards providing government information and services to the public in an integrated, usable and easy-to-find manner. Many national sites state that it is the “official” Government site, or “Gateway to Government,” or other similar statement. As done for each edition of the Survey, the United Nations Member States were requested, through the Member State Questionnaire (MSQ), to provide information on the website addresses (URL) of their national portal(s) and the different government ministries. This information was then utilized during the assessment process. Not all countries provide the appropriate URLs. Thus, some discretion is exerted in deciding whether to use only the websites provided by the Member State. What is noteworthy in this Survey is that the researchers not only reviewed the national portals but also undertook exhaustive research on e-participation and open government data, where applicable. One dilemma researchers encountered is that several countries provided more than one legitimate national access point. While some have simply not yet consolidated their government entry points into a single site or portal that could be clearly distinguished, others have taken this approach on purpose, that is, offering different access points to different audiences. Considering that the use of integrated portals or multi-portals is emerging as a trend in e-government strategies worldwide, researchers would select the integrated website as a national portal or another portal if it was deemed to be the official homepage of the government. However, more than one site could be scored if the sites were clearly part of a tightly integrated “network” of national sites. It should be noted that during the assessment of the national portals, having more than one national entry is neither a disadvantage nor a benefit. Some countries offer certain public services at the sub-national or local level rather than the federal level. No country is penalized for offering a service at the sub-national level as opposed to the federal level. In fact, when the issue arises, researchers tend to be inclusive in assessing the matter if the information and/or service can be found at the national portal. A more difficult problem arises when not only a specific service is located at the local level but when the entire ministerial functions are altogether missing at the national level. If researchers are unable to locate a ministry as per the above described method, then the next step is to find out whether the country in question actually has such a ministry at the national level or whether the functions might be locally administered. 209

240 Annexes GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Integrated Portal and Multi-Portal Approaches Some countries have adopted a different approach to their online e-government portal, by utilizing multiple websites for different topics. Instead of centralizing all the e-information, e-services, e-participation, open data and other online features into one portal, they are made available in separate websites for a more audience-targeted approach. Researchers made sure to examine all possible websites when making the assessment, through links or search engines, to ensure coverage of all government websites where relative information can be found. Even if the norm recommended is a one-stop-shop type of service delivery or an integrated portal approach, countries that opted for a decentralized approach were not penalized in their score, and the assessment was conducted as if an integrated approach was utilized. For example, Finland has a website www.valtioneuvosto.fi, providing information on the Finnish Government, while the website www.suomi.fi provides e-service, public service information portal and open government data. Information on e-participation is centralized on the websites www. kansalaisaloite.fi and www.otakantaa.fi. This approach of having several websites for different purposes, such as information, services, participation and open government data, is typical for European countries. Accessing in national official languages The research team was fully equipped to handle the six official languages of the United Nations, namely Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish. However, as in previous assessment cycles, the team went beyond this mandate and reviewed each website in the official language of the country, or where that was not possible, in one of the languages available on the site. Translators aided as necessary so that possible errors based on language are reduced to a minimum. Towards a more citizen-centric approach In line with the global trend towards a more citizen-centric approach and the demand for greater efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the public sector, the MSQ has been designed to reflect this paradigm of e-government. User uptake has been included as a special subject in the Survey, encouraging governments to take account not only of the supply side of e-services but also of what is demanded/needed by the target users. Accordingly, the research team was instructed to enforce this approach consistently throughout the entire assessment. Where features could not be found easily, quickly and intuitively, then a site scores poorly. Data Quality Assurance (QA) To ensure data quality, UNDESA has put assessment procedures under close monitoring including by developing a web-based application platform for data collection and storage, preparing the methodological and training guidelines for researchers, and instituting a training programme for both group training or individual hands-on support for researchers in resolving thorny issues. Among other tasks, team members were asked to justify the selection of URLs and to indicate whether the URLs had been reviewed in past Surveys. Regular discussions were held to discuss concerns and ensure consistency of evaluation methods. UNDESA applied the assessment scores to generate an ordering of online service presence of all United Nations Member States and compared them with the historical results in previous Surveys 210

241 Annexes ANNEXES so as to detect possible shortcomings in the process. The new scores are then compared to scores from the previous Surveys by removing the new questions and only considering the ones that remain unchanged. The team was assisted in the research by United Nations interns and volunteers with language skills not otherwise covered by the core group. Below is a list of the criteria adopted for data QA: Three levels of assessment/supervision (volunteers, First Report Officer, Second Report Officer) First check of consistency of data with data patterns by group ranking (VH, H, M, L OSI) Tuning of OSI questions to stabilize the dataset and to be consistent with EGDI data model Second check of consistency of data with data patterns by group ranking (VH, H, M, L OSI) First calculation of OSI Two levels of assessment/supervision of the outliners - Compensation with MSQ (if doable) Second calculation of OSI Data analysis of target countries (outliners or cases with significant drop/improvement ...) Random check of OSI subset of questions / URL - Compensation with MSQ (if doable) Third calculation of OSI Second check of consistency of data with data patterns by group ranking (VH, H, M, L OSI) Check for consistency with other international benchmark reports and 3rd party Sources (MSQ) Recalculation of OSI (Final) Data analysis of target countries (those jumping from on group to another) Final calculation of EGDI A.7. E-Participation Index (EPI) United Nations EGovernment The E-Participation Index (EPI) is derived as a supplementary index to the Survey. It extends the dimension of the Survey by focusing on the government use of online services in providing information to its citizens or “einformation sharing”, interacting with stakeholders or “e-consultation” and engaging in decision-making processes or “e-decision-making” (See Box A.1) Box A.1. E-Participation Framework • E-information: Enabling participation by providing citizens with public information and access to information without or upon demand • E-consultation: Engaging citizens in contributions to and deliberation on public policies and services • E-decision-making: Empowering citizens through co-design of policy options and co- production of service components and delivery modalities. A country’s EPI reflects the e-participation mechanisms that are deployed by the government as compared to all other countries. The purpose of this measure is not to prescribe any specific practice, but rather to offer insight into how different countries are using online tools in promoting interaction between the government and its citizens, as well as among the citizens, for the benefit of all. As the EPI is a qualitative assessment based on the availability and relevance of participatory services available on government websites, the comparative ranking of countries is for illustrative purposes and only serves as an indicator of the broad trends in promoting citizen engagement. As with the 211

242 Annexes GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT EGDI, the EPI is not intended as an absolute measurement of e-participation, but rather, as an attempt to capture the e-participation performance of counties relative to one another at a point in time. 2018 Survey, the e-participation questions were carefully reviewed and expanded to reflect In the current trends and modalities on how governments engage their citizens in public policy-making, implementation and evaluation. New questions were added to address data publishing and sharing by government agencies. Other updates included: (i) the availability of information on the citizens’ rights to access government information; (ii) feedback from citizens concerning the improvement of online public services; and (iii) public opinion tools on policy deliberation through social media, online polls and online discussion forums. While EPI provides a useful qualitative analytical tool when comparing the data and ranking of countries for one specific year, caution must be taken in comparing e-participation rankings with past editions of the Survey. Mathematically, the EPI is normalized by taking the total score value for a given country, subtracting the lowest total score for any country in the Survey and dividing by the range of total score values for all countries. For example, if country “x” has an e-participation score of 29, and the lowest value of any country is 0 and the highest equal to 38, then the normalized index value for country “x” would be: 2  /  3  /   23 1 1    3 2  /  The e-participation ranking of countries is determined by the value of EPI through the “standard competition ranking”. In standard competition ranking, countries with the same EPI receive the same ranking number and a gap is left in the ranking numbers. This ranking strategy is adopted in view that if two or more countries tie for a position in the ranking, the positions of all those ranked below them are unaffected. For example, if country A ranks ahead of B and C, both of which share the same EPI value and scores ahead of D, then A is ranked first (1st), B and C are ranked second (2nd) and D is ranked fourth (4th). In 2012, the “modified competition ranking” was used and for comparison reasons, all ranks were adjusted in 2014 and 2016 using the standard competition ranking. A.8. Member State Questionnaire (MSQ) As done for each edition of the Survey, Member States were requested, through the Member State Questionnaire (MSQ) to provide information on the website addresses (URL) of their respective national portal(s) as well as those of the different government ministries. Information on efforts in support of egovernment development, open government data, e-participation and the designated authority in charge of e-government policies was also requested. One hundred (100) Member States comprising 51.8 per cent of United Nations membership returned the completed questionnaires. The appropriate submitted sites were then utilized during the assessment process. Some information provided in the MSQ were also used in the case studies included in the Survey. 212

243 Annexes ANNEXES The Questionnaire Member States Questionnaire (MSQ) for the 2018 United Nations EGovernment Survey Please provide the most recent information on your country, as this information will be used in preparation of the United Nations E-Government Survey 2018. Please feel free to skip question for which you feel you do not have the relevant information. Strategy/Implementation Plan/Policy (where available, please specify URLs or attach relevant documents) • Is there a national development strategy or equivalent incorporating the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)? Is there a national e-Government Strategy or Digital Government Strategy or equivalent? • • If yes: - Is there an implementation plan for the Strategy? - Is the e-Government Strategy aligned with the national development strategy and with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)? • Is there an ICT for development strategy? • Is there a national policy on e-participation and/or inclusion in Digital Government? Is there a Cybersecurity strategy? • Does the e-Government or other strategy provide other specific measures to ensure • e-Government is used by the most vulnerable segments of the population? Legal Framework (where available, please specify URLs or attach relevant documents) • Has specific legislation been adopted in relation to the SDGs? • Is there any e-Government related legislation? Is there a law on access to information such as Freedom of Information Act? • Is there a personal data protection law such as Data Protection Act? • • Are there government-wide guidelines or ethical frameworks related to collection, retention or management of public data? Is there a digital security law such as Cybersecurity Act? • Is there any legislation on open government and/or open government data? • • Is there legislation governing the reuse of government software and systems? • Is there legislation in place to promote (or enforce) interoperability? Portals (National level) (where available, please specify URLs or attach relevant documents) • Is there an official e-Government portal? Please name all portals if there is more than one national portal. • Is there an official open data portal? • Please provide the URLs for the ministries of education, health, social protection, labor (employment, taxation, and decent work), environmental protection, energy, finance or any institutions performing the equivalent functions of these ministries. Please also provide relevant URLs including one-stop portals for these sectors. Usage of online services and user satisfaction (where available, please specify URLs or attach relevant documents) • Do you conduct surveys to measure satisfaction of e-Government services? • If yes, do you publish the results online and share them with the public institutions concerned? Please provide details and any outcome if possible. 213

244 Annexes GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Do you collect usage statistics of e-Government services? If yes, is there disaggregation by age, • gender, vulnerable groups, and other dimensions? • Do you publish such usage statistics? Please provide details and any outcome if possible. • Do you have information on the share of public services or other operations conducted online compared to in person operations? If yes, please provide details. • Does your government have a preferred modality for people to access services or interact with public administration? Mobile Government (where available, please specify URLs or attach relevant documents) • What are the public services available through mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets? Are there dedicated mobile apps (through platforms like Android, iOS, etc.) to deliver online • services? Please provide details. • Do you provide any mobile service through short message service (SMS) or equivalent? Please provide details. • Do you track usage and user satisfaction of mobile services? If yes, please provide details. E-government at the local level (where available, please specify URLs or attach relevant documents) • What is the percentage of local governments and/or municipalities with a web presence? • What is the percentage of local governments and/or municipalities with an e-Government/ Digital Government Strategy or equivalent? • Do you know the approximate share of online public services delivered at local level? Please indicate the key sectors concerned. Indicators (within government organizations) (where available, please specify URLs or attach relevant documents) • What is the proportion of persons employed in central government organizations routinely using computers? • What is the proportion of persons employed in central government organizations routinely using the Internet? • What is the proportion of central government organizations with Internet access, by type of access? (Such as broadband, dial-up, cable) • What is the proportion of central government organizations with a local area network? • What is the proportion of central government organizations with a web presence? • What is the proportion of central government organizations with a social media presence? • What is the proportion of central government organizations releasing data in open formats (either at the national open data portal or in their own open data portal)? • What percentage of your GDP is allocated for e-government at the national level? • What percentage of your GDP is allocated for R&D (Research and Development) purposes? Institutional Framework (National level) (where available, please specify URLs or attach relevant documents) • Please provide the name of the government authority (department or ministry) in charge of e-Government/Digital Government. What is its positioning within the government? • Does your country have a Chief Information Officer (CIO), or a similar senior official with a leadership role, to manage national cross-agency e-Government programs/projects? • Is your government offering or planning to offer support to other countries in the area of e-Government? 214

245 Annexes ANNEXES Please provide details and contact point if possible. Others (where available, please specify URLs or attach relevant documents) • Is ICT training provided to civil servants to promote digital literacy and improve service delivery? • Do you systematically collect large amount of digital data (social media data, IoT sensors, etc.) for public policy design or implementation? If so, do you utilize big data analytics technology in policy-making cycle? • Do you utilize artificial intelligence, Internet of Things (IoT), blockchain, robotics, or other new and emerging technologies in delivering and managing online services? Please provide details. • Do you have a digital ID system? Please provide details Does it target a specific segment of the population? • In which area does your government plan to expand e-Government? Please select whichever applies: I did not have the full information to respond to this questionnaire This questionnaire did not apply to my country but I did my best to respond to most questions. I mostly provided my own opinion/assessment rather than official information. Other: Please provide additional information and/or data or docs that in your view are relevant for this questionnaire: Contact details: • Name: • Job title: • Email: • Department/Organization: • Country: • Date Submitted: 215

246 Annexes GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Responding Member States Republic of Korea Japan Afghanistan Republic of Moldova Jordan Albania Romania Kazakhstan Argentina Russian Federation Latvia Armenia Rwanda Lebanon Australia Samoa Liechtenstein Austria Saudi Arabia Lithuania Azerbaijan Serbia Luxembourg Bahamas Seychelles Malawi Bahrain Singapore Malaysia Bangladesh Slovakia Malta Barbados Slovenia Marshall Islands Belarus Somalia Mauritius Belgium South Africa Mexico Brazil Spain Mongolia Bulgaria Sweden Montenegro Burundi Thailand Morocco Cambodia Timor-Leste Mozambique Chile Togo Myanmar Colombia Tonga Namibia Czech Republic Tunisia Nauru Denmark Turkey Netherlands Dominican Republic Uganda New Zealand Ecuador Ukraine Niger Eswatini United Arab Emirates Norway Ethiopia United Kingdom Oman Finland Uruguay Panama Gambia Uzbekistan Papua New Guinea Georgia Vanuatu Paraguay Ghana Viet Nam Peru Guatemala Yemen Philippines Guinea Zambia Poland Iran Portugal Israel Qatar Italy A.9. Local Online Service Index For the first time, assessment of sub-national or local delivery of e-government services has been carried out through a pilot exercise using a subset of cities/municipalities from each region. An ad- hoc local assessment questionnaire has been used to derive a Local Online Service Index (LOSI). LOSI is a multi-criteria index that captures e-government development at the local level, by assessing information and services provided by municipalities to citizens through their official websites. LOSI is composed of 60 indicators organized into four criteria: (i) technology, (ii) content provision, (iii) services provision, and (iv) participation and engagement. The technology criterion focuses on the content and services assembled and made available in a municipality/city website. It addresses issues related to ease of navigation, website quality, visual appeal, functionality and reliability. 216

247 Annexes ANNEXES The focus of the content provision criterion is on the relevance of information provided to the citizens. It assesses the quality, availability, relevance, and concise presentation of specific information provided on a municipality’s website. This criterion also assesses issues such as access to contact information about the organizational structure of the municipal government; access to public documents; access to sectorial information such as those on health, education, social security, economy. The presence of website privacy policies is also analyzed, since it has the potential to improve public perception, trust in government, and to enable greater citizen engagement with government. In the services provision criterion, the focus is on the delivery of fundamental electronic services. This criterion includes aspects of electronic service delivery such as online application and delivery of certificates and licenses, employment search/offer, electronic payments, and the ability of users to apply or register for municipal events or services online, forms and reports submission and registration for services, participation in tenders and e-Procurement. Issues related to electronic authentication are likewise addressed in this criterion. This criterion also covers issues related to different aspects regarding how municipalities respond to citizen email requests for information. The participation and engagement criterion assesses the existence of relevant online participation and engagement mechanisms and initiatives such as forums, complaint forms, and on-line surveys. Other features considered in this criterion includes the availability of social media features and the possibility to send comments/suggestions/complains to the concerned local government and more advanced participatory initiatives such as participatory budget, citizen engagement in online deliberations regarding public policies and services, and citizen empowerment through co-designing of policy options and coproduction of service components and delivery modalities. Each of the 60 indicators is ascribed a “value 1” if it is found in a city/municipality website, “value 0” if it is absent and nothing if it is not applicable. The LOSI value of a municipality is the sum of the values of all the 60 indicators for that municipality. The 60 indicators utilized are listed below: Technology Browser compatibility Ease of portal finding Portal loading speed Mobile device accessibility Navigability Internal search mechanism Internal advanced search mechanism Alignment with markup validation standards Alignment with display standards Alignment with accessibility standards Customization of display features Foreign language support Content Provision Contact details Organization structure Names and contacts about heads of departments Municipality information Budget related information 217

248 Annexes GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Information about procurement announcements Information about procurement results Information about provided services Information about municipality partnership with third parties Facilitation of free internet access Health information Environmental information Education information Social welfare information Sport and culture information Privacy policy Open data policy Open data provision OGD metadata Smart cities initiatives Use of emergent technologies Online user support Guiding information on online services use Links for government agencies Statistical data and studies provision Evidence of portal content update Service Provision Portal authentication Personal data accessibility Personal data updating Municipality responsiveness to emails Delay of email response Quality of email response e-Procurement service Police online declaration Address change notification Online application for residency Online building permit Online vacancies e-Payment Participation and engagement Real time communication Feedback/complaint submission Online deliberation processes Social networking features Reporting of occurrences in public spaces Participatory budgeting Participatory land use plan Announcement of upcoming e-participation activities Feedback about consultation processes 218

249 Annexes ANNEXES The assessment of the 60 indicators for each city/municipality is done by a native speaker of the official language of that city/municipality. Instructions and guidance regarding the assessment process, and about email messages to be sent to the municipality to assess municipalities’ responsiveness to email contacts, are provided to the assessors. To ensure validity and comparability of the data collected by the assessors, an expert review of all the data is conducted. The cities/municipalities assessed are selected based on geographical coverage and population size. All geopolitical regional groups of United Nations Member States are represented. The number of countries included per region is determined based on the percentage of that region’s total population in the context of the global population. Where possible, all subregions in a region are covered. Within regions, the countries with the largest population are selected, wherever possible. Where this is not possible, other criteria such as gross domestic product (GDP) and e-government ranking are considered. Within countries, the city with the largest population is selected. City population information are obtained from the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) website: (http://data. un.org/Data.aspx?d=POP&f=tableCode%3A240). A.10. Country Classifications and Nomenclature in the Survey Regional groupings are taken from the classification of the United Nations Statistics Division. For details, see http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49regin.htm. Economies are divided according to 2016 GNI per capita, calculated using the World Bank Atlas method. The groups are: low income, US$1,005 or less; lower middle income, US$1,006 - $3,955; 5 upper middle income, US$3,956 - $12,235; and high income, US$12,236 or more . Where data and statistics are reported by income groups, the Survey classifies countries according to the World Bank income classification of high, middle and low-income groups. For details, see http://data.worldbank.org/about/country-classifications. The lists of least developing countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing countries were obtained from the United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (UN- OHRLLS). For details, see http://www.unohrlls.org/en/ldc/25/ A.11. United Nations e-government knowledge base The Division for Public Institutions and Digital Government (formerly Division for Public Administration and Development Management) of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs maintains the United Nations egovernment knowledge base (egovkb) to provide governments and all stakeholders with easy access to data and information on e-government development. The egovkb is an interactive online tool to view, sort and download information and datasets in open data formats from the 2018 UN E-Government Survey and as well as previous editions (2003, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2012. 2014 and 2016). The egovkb also includes advanced research features such as customizable regional and country comparisons, rankings and country profiles. For more information and details, see the United Nations e-Government Knowledge Base at https:// publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/ 219

250 Annexes GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT A.12. Evolving definitions and understanding of egovernment and its related development Definition Sources 2001 Benchmarking E-government: E-government is ‘a tool for information and service provision A Global Perspective (UNDESA, 2001) to citizens’ E-government enhances the capacity of public administration 2003 World Public Sector Report: using ICTs to increase the supply of public value (i.e., to deliver E-Government at the Crossroads the things that people want) (UNDESA, 2003) E-government is defined as the use of all ICTs by government United Nations Global E-Government to provide information and services to the public. This is a Readiness Report 2004: Towards broader concept than in cases where it refers only to G-2-G Access networking. for Opportunity (UNDESA, 2004) The definition of e-government needs to be enhanced from United Nations Global E-Government simply ‘government-to-government networking’ or ‘use of Readiness Report 2005: From ICTs by governments to provide information and services E-Government to E-Inclusion to the public’ to one which encompasses the role of the (UNDESA, 2005) government in promoting equality and social inclusion. E-government is the continuous innovation in the delivery United Nations E-Government of services, public participation and governance through the Survey 2008: From E-Government to transformation of external and internal relationships using Connected Governance (UNDESA, information technology, especially the Internet. 2008) E-government can be referred to as the use and application of UN E-Government Survey 2014: information technologies in public administration to streamline E-Government for the Future We and integrate workflows and processes, to effectively manage Want (UNDESA, 2014) data and information, enhance public service delivery, as well as expand communication channels for engagement and empowerment of people. Organisation for Economic Co- E-government is defined as ‘the use of information and operation and Development (OECD) communications technologies (ICTs), and particularly the Internet, to achieve better government’. World Bank (WB, 2015) E-government refers to government agencies’ use of information technologies (such as Wide Area Networks, the Internet, and mobile computing) that can transform relations with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government. These technologies can serve a variety of different ends: better delivery of government services to citizens, improved interactions with business and industry, citizen empowerment through access to information, or more efficient government management. The resulting benefits can be less corruption, increased transparency, greater convenience, revenue growth and/or cost reductions. 220

251 Data Tables DATA TABLES x x x x x SIDS x x x x x x x x LLDC x x x x x x x x LDC Lower middle income High income Lower middle income Lower middle income Low income Low income Upper middle income High income Upper middle income Upper middle income Upper middle income Lower middle income Lower middle income Low income Upper middle income High income Upper middle income High income Lower middle income High income High income Upper middle income High income High income Lower middle income Upper middle income High income Lower middle income High income Upper middle income Upper middle income Low income Level of Income 0.6152 0.8744 0.5618 0.5626 0.5113 0.2097 0.8106 0.7480 0.7525 0.6694 0.7217 0.7148 0.4743 0.3653 0.6765 0.9740 0.8681 0.8301 0.4763 0.7897 0.7249 0.7369 0.8505 1.0000 0.7547 0.8579 0.7518 0.5060 0.7309 0.6640 0.7877 0.3562 HCI 0.3926 0.6724 0.1790 0.3132 0.0786 0.1603 0.5785 0.6066 0.5220 0.3982 0.4385 0.3148 0.3080 0.1418 0.2247 0.6930 0.6881 0.6719 0.1976 0.8466 0.5393 0.5062 0.7716 0.7436 0.4660 0.5927 0.5617 0.0972 0.7220 0.3889 0.4318 0.1138 TII 0.4861 0.9306 0.4583 0.2500 0.3056 0.5347 0.7639 0.7222 0.9236 0.2083 0.4306 0.5625 0.5000 0.4722 0.3333 0.7569 0.7361 0.6667 0.7847 0.7986 0.7014 0.7292 0.8681 0.9722 0.5625 0.7500 0.4583 0.4097 0.6042 0.2153 0.7361 0.3056 OSI 0.4980 0.8258 0.3997 0.3753 0.2985 0.3016 0.7177 0.6923 0.7327 0.4253 0.5303 0.5307 0.4274 0.3264 0.4115 0.8080 0.7641 0.7229 0.4862 0.8116 0.6552 0.6574 0.8301 0.9053 0.5944 0.7335 0.5906 0.3376 0.6857 0.4227 0.6519 0.2585 EGDI 2018 Western Africa Northern America Middle Africa South-Eastern Asia Eastern Africa Western Africa Eastern Europe South-Eastern Asia South America Southern Africa Southern Europe South America Southern Asia Western Africa Central America Western Europe Eastern Europe Caribbean Southern Asia Western Asia Caribbean Western Asia Western Europe Australia and New Zealand Western Asia South America Caribbean Middle Africa Southern Europe Northern Africa Southern Europe Southern Asia Sub-Region Africa Americas Africa Asia Africa Africa Europe Asia Americas Africa Europe Americas Asia Africa Americas Europe Europe Americas Asia Asia Americas Asia Europe Oceania Asia Americas Americas Africa Europe Africa Europe Asia Region Cabo Verde Canada Cameroon Cambodia Burundi Burkina Faso Bulgaria Brunei Darussalam Brazil Botswana Bosnia and Herzegovina Bolivia(Plurinational State of) Bhutan Benin Belize Belgium Belarus Barbados Bangladesh Bahrain Bahamas Azerbaijan Austria Australia Armenia Argentina Antigua and Barbuda Angola Andorra Algeria Albania Afghanistan Country 2 23 47 59 44 27 38 46 26 72 70 20 87 43 90 62 74 112 136 145 166 165 127 105 103 126 159 132 115 155 130 177 Rank Table 1. Country Profiles 221

252 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT x x x x x SIDS x x x x LLDC x x x x x x x LDC Upper middle income High income High income Upper middle income Low income Lower middle income High income Low income Upper middle income Lower middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Upper middle income Upper middle income Lower middle income High income Low income Low income High income High income Upper middle income Upper middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Lower middle income Low income Upper middle income Upper middle income High income Low income Low income Level of Income 0.6398 0.8598 0.9509 0.7899 0.3094 0.5939 0.8818 0.3179 0.5397 0.6348 0.6072 0.7395 0.6927 0.6497 0.3325 0.9472 0.5108 0.6150 0.8752 0.8083 0.7862 0.8196 0.3357 0.7933 0.5515 0.5166 0.7382 0.7088 0.8339 0.1644 0.2347 HCI 0.4250 0.7979 0.7284 0.3562 0.0976 0.1772 0.7613 0.0000 0.1010 0.3810 0.3222 0.3699 0.3655 0.4775 0.0961 0.7978 0.0645 0.0327 0.5971 0.7279 0.1455 0.6051 0.2748 0.6343 0.1889 0.0871 0.4412 0.4735 0.5377 0.0669 0.0322 TII 0.2292 0.9792 0.9653 0.4583 0.6319 0.3750 0.9028 0.0833 0.0486 0.6250 0.5347 0.7292 0.6597 0.6111 0.2917 1.0000 0.2083 0.0000 0.6528 0.7847 0.2986 0.6806 0.2222 0.6736 0.1667 0.0972 0.8819 0.8611 0.8333 0.1458 0.2083 OSI 0.4313 0.8790 0.8815 0.5348 0.3463 0.3820 0.8486 0.1337 0.2298 0.5469 0.4880 0.6129 0.5726 0.5794 0.2401 0.9150 0.2612 0.2159 0.7084 0.7736 0.4101 0.7018 0.2776 0.7004 0.3024 0.2336 0.6871 0.6811 0.7350 0.1257 0.1584 EGDI 2018 Middle Africa Western Europe Northern Europe Melanesia Eastern Africa Southern Africa Northern Europe Eastern Africa Middle Africa Central America Northern Africa South America Caribbean Caribbean Eastern Africa Northern Europe Middle Africa Eastern Asia Eastern Europe Western Asia Caribbean Southern Europe Western Africa Central America Middle Africa Eastern Africa South America Eastern Asia South America Middle Africa Middle Africa Sub-Region Africa Europe Europe Oceania Africa Africa Europe Africa Africa Americas Africa Americas Americas Americas Africa Europe Africa Asia Europe Asia Americas Europe Africa Americas Africa Africa Americas Asia Americas Africa Africa Region Gabon France Finland Fiji Ethiopia Eswatini Estonia Eritrea Equatioral Guinea El Salvador Egypt Ecuador Dominican Republic Dominica Djibouti Denmark Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic People's Republic of Korea Czech Republic Cyprus Cuba Croatia Côte d'Ivoire Costa Rica Congo Comoros Colombia China Chile Chad Central African Republic Country 125 9 6 102 151 141 16 189 184 100 114 84 95 93 179 1 176 185 54 36 134 55 172 56 164 182 61 65 42 190 188 Rank Table 1. Country Profiles (continued) 222

253 Data Tables DATA TABLES x x x x x x SIDS x x x LLDC x x x x x x LDC High income Lower middle income Lower middle income High income Lower middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Lower middle income High income Upper middle income High income High income High income Upper middle income Upper middle income Lower middle income Lower middle income High income High income Lower middle income Low income Upper middle income Low income Low income Lower middle income Upper middle income High income Lower middle income High income Lower middle income Low income Level of Income 0.8132 0.5254 0.7628 0.6852 0.6591 0.5472 0.8388 0.7387 0.8428 0.6957 0.8341 0.8635 0.9626 0.5094 0.7364 0.6857 0.5484 0.9365 0.8364 0.6015 0.3620 0.6102 0.3869 0.2406 0.5524 0.8202 0.8867 0.5669 0.9036 0.8333 0.3539 HCI 0.6188 0.2246 0.3418 0.7394 0.0773 0.1901 0.5723 0.4406 0.8406 0.3941 0.6771 0.7095 0.6970 0.1840 0.4566 0.3222 0.2009 0.8292 0.6071 0.2268 0.1078 0.2541 0.1028 0.1513 0.2941 0.4658 0.6439 0.3558 0.7952 0.5403 0.2627 TII 0.6667 0.1667 0.6458 0.7917 0.2986 0.6250 0.8681 0.4931 0.9514 0.3194 0.9514 0.8264 0.8264 0.3194 0.6319 0.5694 0.9514 0.7292 0.7361 0.5139 0.4444 0.4306 0.0764 0.3125 0.6458 0.4931 0.8194 0.6944 0.9306 0.6944 0.2708 OSI 0.6996 0.3056 0.5835 0.7388 0.3450 0.4541 0.7597 0.5575 0.8783 0.4697 0.8209 0.7998 0.8287 0.3376 0.6083 0.5258 0.5669 0.8316 0.7265 0.4474 0.3047 0.4316 0.1887 0.2348 0.4974 0.5930 0.7833 0.5390 0.8765 0.6893 0.2958 2018 EGDI Northern Europe South-Eastern Asia Central Asia Western Asia Micronesia Eastern Africa Central Asia Western Asia Eastern Asia Caribbean Southern Europe Western Asia Northern Europe Western Asia Southern Asia South-Eastern Asia Southern Asia Northern Europe Eastern Europe Central America Caribbean South America Western Africa Western Africa Central America Caribbean Southern Europe Western Africa Western Europe Western Asia Western Africa Sub-Region Europe Asia Asia Asia Oceania Africa Asia Asia Asia Americas Europe Asia Europe Asia Asia Asia Asia Europe Europe Americas Americas Americas Africa Africa Americas Americas Europe Africa Europe Asia Africa Region Latvia "Lao People's Democratic Republic" Kyrgizistan Kuwait Kiribati Kenya Kazakhistan Jordan Japan Jamaica Italy Israel Ireland Iraq Iran (Islamic Republic of) Indonesia India Iceland Hungary Honduras Haiti Guyana Guinea-Bissau Guinea Guatemala Grenada Greece Ghana Germany Georgia Gambia Country 57 162 91 41 153 122 39 98 10 118 24 31 22 155 86 107 96 19 45 123 163 124 187 181 113 89 35 101 12 60 168 Rank Table 1. Country Profiles (continued) 223

254 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT x x x x x SIDS x x x x x x LLDC x x x x x x x x x x LDC Lower middle income Low income Lower middle income High income High income Low income Upper middle income Upper middle income Lower middle income Low income Lower middle income Upper middle income Lower middle income High income Lower middle income Upper middle income Upper middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income High income Low income Upper middle income Upper middle income Low income Low income High income High income High income Upper middle income Low income Lower middle income Upper middle income Level of Income 0.4261 0.0894 0.5847 0.9450 0.9206 0.4957 0.5619 0.5850 0.5127 0.3951 0.5278 0.8172 0.7899 0.7901 0.6889 0.7044 0.7308 0.3467 0.7301 0.7973 0.2558 0.6754 0.6987 0.4720 0.4822 0.7803 0.8323 0.8237 0.7173 0.3772 0.5324 0.6649 HCI 0.1883 0.0795 0.2825 0.7455 0.7758 0.2413 0.3033 0.3299 0.2565 0.1398 0.3697 0.6059 0.3602 1.0000 0.1118 0.4173 0.5435 0.1878 0.1037 0.7657 0.2074 0.5159 0.5647 0.0834 0.0499 0.7964 0.6293 0.8389 0.3353 0.1036 0.2468 0.5219 TII 0.5278 0.1597 0.4028 0.9514 0.9306 0.6875 0.1319 0.4514 0.2292 0.4236 0.6667 0.6667 0.5972 0.6250 0.1458 0.9236 0.7292 0.1597 0.2292 0.8403 0.2639 0.4931 0.8889 0.2569 0.3056 0.9236 0.7986 0.7986 0.0972 0.3403 0.1111 0.4722 OSI 0.3807 0.1095 0.4233 0.8806 0.8757 0.4748 0.3324 0.4554 0.3328 0.3195 0.5214 0.6966 0.5824 0.8050 0.3155 0.6818 0.6678 0.2314 0.3543 0.8011 0.2424 0.5615 0.7174 0.2708 0.2792 0.8334 0.7534 0.8204 0.3833 0.2737 0.2968 0.5530 2018 EGDI Western Africa Western Africa Central America Australia and New Zealand Western Europe Southern Asia Micronesia Southern Africa South-Eastern Asia Eastern Africa Northern Africa Southern Europe Eastern Asia Western Europe Micronesia Central America Eastern Africa Western Africa Micronesia Southern Europe Western Africa Southern Asia South-Eastern Asia Eastern Africa Eastern Africa Western Europe Northern Europe Western Europe Northern Africa Western Africa Southern Africa Western Asia Sub-Region Africa Africa Americas Oceania Europe Asia Oceania Africa Asia Africa Africa Europe Asia Europe Oceania Americas Africa Africa Oceania Europe Africa Asia Asia Africa Africa Europe Europe Europe Africa Africa Africa Asia Region Nigeria Niger Nicaragua New Zealand Netherlands Nepal Nauru Namibia Myanmar Mozambique Morocco Montenegro Mongolia Monaco Micronesia Mexico Mauritius Mauritania Marshall Islands Malta Mali Maldives Malaysia Malawi Madagascar Luxembourg Lithuania Liechtenstein Libya Liberia Lesotho Lebanon Country 8 13 58 92 28 64 66 30 97 48 18 40 25 99 143 192 129 117 158 121 157 160 110 161 183 149 178 175 170 140 173 167 Rank Table 1. Country Profiles (continued) 224

255 Data Tables DATA TABLES x x x x x x x x x SIDS x x x LLDC x x x x LDC High income High income High income Low income High income Upper middle income Low income High income Lower middle income High income Upper middle income Upper middle income Upper middle income High income Low income Upper middle income Upper middle income Lower middle income High income High income High income High income Lower middle income Upper middle income Upper middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income High income Lower middle income High income High income Level of Income 0.8923 0.8141 0.8557 0.3081 0.7299 0.7896 0.3427 0.8101 0.5830 0.8102 0.7241 0.6820 0.7022 0.7491 0.4815 0.8522 0.7944 0.7274 0.8743 0.6683 0.8170 0.8668 0.7171 0.7276 0.6701 0.4778 0.7137 0.8462 0.3682 0.7013 0.9025 HCI 0.6232 0.5964 0.8019 0.1597 0.5008 0.6208 0.2240 0.5339 0.3053 0.7075 0.2064 0.4583 0.4110 0.6825 0.1733 0.6219 0.5471 0.4787 0.8496 0.6797 0.6617 0.5805 0.3547 0.3913 0.3507 0.0875 0.4543 0.3346 0.1529 0.5399 0.7131 TII 0.7986 0.7361 0.9861 0.3472 0.6181 0.7361 0.4792 0.7917 0.1389 0.4236 0.3403 0.4514 0.2847 0.5347 0.7222 0.9167 0.6597 0.7708 0.9792 0.7917 0.9306 0.9306 0.8819 0.8194 0.5556 0.2708 0.6597 0.3264 0.5486 0.8125 0.9514 OSI 0.7714 0.7155 0.8812 0.2717 0.6163 0.7155 0.3486 0.7119 0.3424 0.6471 0.4236 0.5306 0.4660 0.6554 0.4590 0.7969 0.6671 0.6590 0.9010 0.7132 0.8031 0.7926 0.6512 0.6461 0.5255 0.2787 0.6092 0.5024 0.3566 0.6846 0.8557 EGDI 2018 Southern Europe Eastern Europe South-Eastern Asia Western Africa Eastern Africa Southern Europe Western Africa Western Asia Middle Africa Southern Europe Polynesia Caribbean Caribbean Caribbean Eastern Africa Eastern Europe Eastern Europe Eastern Europe Eastern Asia Western Asia Southern Europe Eastern Europe South-Eastern Asia South America South America Melanesia Central America Micronesia Southern Asia Western Asia Northern Europe Sub-Region Europe Europe Asia Africa Africa Europe Africa Asia Africa Europe Oceania Americas Americas Americas Africa Europe Europe Europe Asia Asia Europe Europe Asia Americas Americas Oceania Americas Oceania Asia Asia Europe Region Slovenia Slovakia Singapore Sierra Leone Seychelles Serbia Senegal Saudi Arabia Sao Tome and Principe San Marino Samoa "Saint Vincent and the Grenadines" Saint Lucia Saint Kittis and Nevis Rwanda Russian Federation Romania Republic of Moldova Republic of Korea Qatar Portugal Poland Philippines Peru Paraguay Papua New Guinea Panama Palau Pakistan Oman Norway Country 7 3 37 49 83 49 52 76 71 32 67 69 51 29 33 75 77 85 63 14 174 150 154 128 104 119 120 108 171 111 148 Rank Table 1. Country Profiles (continued) 225

256 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT x x x x x x SIDS x x x x x LLDC x x x x x x x x x LDC High income High income Low income High income High income Lower middle income Low income Upper middle income Upper middle income Upper middle income Lower middle income High income Upper middle income Low income Lower middle income Upper middle income Upper middle income Lower middle income Lower middle income High income High income Upper middle income Lower middle income Lower middle income High income Low income Upper middle income Low income Lower middle income Level of Income 0.7719 0.8883 0.4759 0.9200 0.6877 0.8436 0.4906 0.6422 0.6626 0.8148 0.6640 0.7195 0.8039 0.5058 0.5387 0.6924 0.7903 0.7002 0.4860 0.8660 0.9366 0.6808 0.3873 0.7451 0.8885 0.2269 0.7291 0.0000 0.4732 HCI 0.6967 0.7564 0.1403 0.8004 0.8564 0.4364 0.1566 0.2693 0.3011 0.4298 0.4066 0.5735 0.2951 0.1353 0.2937 0.4859 0.5338 0.2254 0.2532 0.8428 0.7835 0.4595 0.1780 0.3136 0.6986 0.0262 0.4231 0.0586 0.1285 TII 0.8889 0.9861 0.5625 0.9792 0.9444 0.5694 0.5694 0.2222 0.1319 0.8889 0.8056 0.6389 0.4722 0.5556 0.3125 0.7153 0.6389 0.3403 0.2986 0.8472 0.9444 0.2917 0.1528 0.6667 0.9375 0.1111 0.8333 0.1111 0.2431 OSI 0.7858 0.8769 0.3929 0.8999 0.8295 0.6165 0.4055 0.3779 0.3652 0.7112 0.6254 0.6440 0.5237 0.3989 0.3816 0.6312 0.6543 0.4220 0.3459 0.8520 0.8882 0.4773 0.2394 0.5751 0.8415 0.1214 0.6618 0.0566 0.2816 2018 EGDI South America Northern America Eastern Africa Northern Europe Western Asia Eastern Europe Eastern Africa Polynesia Central Asia Western Asia Northern Africa Caribbean Polynesia Western Africa South-Eastern Asia Southern Europe South-Eastern Asia Central Asia Western Asia Western Europe Northern Europe South America Northern Africa Southern Asia Southern Europe Eastern Africa Southern Africa Eastern Africa Melanesia Sub-Region Americas Americas Africa Europe Asia Europe Africa Oceania Asia Asia Africa Americas Oceania Africa Asia Europe Asia Asia Asia Europe Europe Americas Africa Asia Europe Africa Africa Africa Oceania Region Uruguay United States of America United Republic of Tanzania Northern Ireland of Great Britain and United Kingoom United Arab Emirates Ukraine Uganda Tuvalu Turkmenistan Turkey Tunisia Trinidad and Tobago Tonga Togo Timor-Leste The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Thailand Tajikistan Syrian Arab Republic Switzerland Sweden Suriname Sudan Sri Lanka Spain South Sudan South Africa Somalia Solomon Islands Country 4 5 34 11 21 82 53 80 78 79 73 15 94 17 68 139 135 144 147 109 138 142 131 152 116 180 191 193 169 Rank Table 1. Country Profiles (continued) 226

257 Data Tables DATA TABLES x SIDS x x x LLDC x x x LDC Low income Lower middle income Lower middle income Lower middle income Upper middle income Lower middle income Lower middle income Level of Income 0.5668 0.5689 0.4037 0.6543 0.7615 0.5675 0.7396 HCI 0.2144 0.1853 0.1454 0.3890 0.4148 0.1920 0.3307 TII 0.3264 0.4792 0.0972 0.7361 0.4097 0.4375 0.7917 OSI 0.3692 0.4111 0.2154 0.5931 0.5287 0.3990 0.6207 2018 EGDI Eastern Africa Eastern Africa Western Asia South-Eastern Asia South America Melanesia Central Asia Sub-Region Africa Africa Asia Asia Americas Oceania Asia Region Zimbabwe Zambia Yemen Viet Nam Venuzuela (Bolivian Republic of) Vanuatu Uzbekistan Country 88 81 146 133 186 106 137 Rank Table 1. Country Profiles (continued) 227

258 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT E-Government Development Index (EGDI) Table 2. Telecomm. Infrustrcture Human Capital Online Service EGDI Level Component Rank Component EGDI Country Component 0.2585 Afghanistan 0.3562 177 0.3056 Middle EGDI 0.1138 0.7361 0.7877 0.6519 0.4318 74 Albania High EGDI 0.2153 0.3889 0.6640 130 Algeria Middle EGDI 0.4227 0.6042 0.7220 0.7309 0.6857 High EGDI Andorra 62 0.3376 0.4097 0.0972 155 Angola Middle EGDI 0.5060 High EGDI 0.4583 0.5617 0.7518 90 Antigua and Barbuda 0.5906 0.7335 0.5927 0.8579 High EGDI 0.7500 43 Argentina 0.5944 0.5625 0.4660 87 Armenia High EGDI 0.7547 Very High EGDI 0.9053 0.9722 0.7436 1.0000 Australia 2 Very High EGDI 20 0.8681 0.7716 0.8505 Austria 0.8301 Azerbaijan 0.6574 0.7292 0.5062 0.7369 70 High EGDI High EGDI 72 0.5393 0.7249 0.6552 Bahamas 0.7014 0.8116 0.8466 0.7897 Very High EGDI 0.7986 26 Bahrain 0.4862 0.7847 0.1976 115 Bangladesh Middle EGDI 0.4763 High EGDI 0.7229 0.6667 0.6719 0.8301 Barbados 46 Very High EGDI 0.7641 0.7361 38 0.8681 Belarus 0.6881 Belgium 0.8080 0.7569 0.6930 0.9740 27 Very High EGDI Middle EGDI 0.3333 0.2247 0.6765 Belize 0.4115 132 Middle EGDI 0.3264 0.4722 159 0.3653 Benin 0.1418 Bhutan Middle EGDI 0.4274 0.5000 0.3080 0.4743 126 Bolivia(Plurinational State of) High EGDI 0.5307 0.5625 0.3148 0.7148 103 Bosnia and Herzegovina 105 0.4306 0.4385 0.7217 High EGDI 0.5303 Middle EGDI 127 0.3982 0.6694 0.4253 Botswana 0.2083 0.7327 0.5220 0.7525 High EGDI 0.9236 44 Brazil 0.6923 0.7222 0.6066 59 Brunei Darussalam High EGDI 0.7480 High EGDI 0.7177 0.7639 0.5785 0.8106 Bulgaria 47 Middle EGDI 0.3016 0.5347 165 0.2097 Burkina Faso 0.1603 Burundi 0.2985 0.3056 0.0786 0.5113 166 Middle EGDI Middle EGDI 0.2500 0.3132 0.5626 Cambodia 0.3753 145 Middle EGDI 0.3997 0.4583 136 0.5618 Cameroon 0.1790 Canada Very High EGDI 0.8258 0.9306 0.6724 0.8744 23 Cabo Verde Middle EGDI 0.4980 0.4861 0.3926 0.6152 112 Central African Republic 188 0.2083 0.0322 0.2347 Low EGDI 0.1584 Low EGDI 0.1458 0.0669 0.1644 Chad 190 0.1257 High EGDI 0.7350 0.8333 0.5377 0.8339 42 Chile China High EGDI 0.8611 0.4735 0.7088 65 0.6811 Colombia 0.6871 0.8819 0.4412 0.7382 61 High EGDI Comoros Low EGDI 0.2336 0.0972 0.0871 0.5166 182 Congo 164 0.1667 0.1889 0.5515 Middle EGDI 0.3024 Costa Rica 0.7004 0.6736 0.6343 0.7933 56 High EGDI Côte d'Ivoire Middle EGDI 0.2776 0.2222 0.2748 0.3357 172 Croatia High EGDI 0.7018 0.6806 0.6051 0.8196 55 228

259 Data Tables DATA TABLES Table 2. E-Government Development Index (EGDI) (continued) Telecomm. Online Service Infrustrcture Human Capital Rank Component Component Component Country EGDI EGDI Level 0.4101 0.1455 0.7862 Middle EGDI 0.2986 134 Cuba 0.7736 0.7847 0.7279 36 Cyprus Very High EGDI 0.8083 High EGDI 0.7084 0.6528 0.5971 0.8752 54 Czech Republic Low EGDI 185 0.2159 0.0000 0.0327 0.6150 Democratic People's Republic of Korea Democratic Republic of the Congo 0.2612 0.2083 0.0645 0.5108 176 Middle EGDI Very High EGDI 1.0000 0.7978 0.9472 Denmark 0.9150 1 Low EGDI 0.2401 0.2917 179 0.3325 Djibouti 0.0961 Dominica High EGDI 0.5794 0.6111 0.4775 0.6497 93 Dominican Republic High EGDI 0.5726 0.6597 0.3655 0.6927 95 Ecuador 84 0.7292 0.3699 0.7395 High EGDI 0.6129 Middle EGDI 0.5347 0.3222 0.6072 Egypt 114 0.4880 High EGDI 0.5469 0.6250 0.3810 0.6348 100 El Salvador Equatioral Guinea Low EGDI 0.0486 0.1010 0.5397 184 0.2298 Eritrea 0.1337 0.0833 0.0000 0.3179 189 Low EGDI Estonia Very High EGDI 0.8486 0.9028 0.7613 0.8818 16 Eswatini 141 0.3750 0.1772 0.5939 Middle EGDI 0.3820 Ethiopia 0.3463 0.6319 0.0976 0.3094 151 Middle EGDI Fiji High EGDI 0.5348 0.4583 0.3562 0.7899 102 Finland Very High EGDI 0.8815 0.9653 0.7284 6 0.9509 9 France Very High EGDI 0.8790 0.9792 0.7979 0.8598 125 Gabon 0.4313 0.2292 0.4250 0.6398 Middle EGDI Gambia Middle EGDI 0.2708 0.2627 0.3539 168 0.2958 High EGDI 0.6944 0.5403 0.8333 Georgia 0.6893 60 Very High EGDI 0.8765 0.9306 12 0.9036 Germany 0.7952 Ghana High EGDI 0.5390 0.6944 0.3558 0.5669 101 Greece Very High EGDI 0.7833 35 0.6439 0.8867 0.8194 89 High EGDI 0.5930 0.4931 0.4658 0.8202 Grenada Guatemala 0.4974 0.6458 0.2941 0.5524 113 Middle EGDI Guinea Low EGDI 0.2348 181 0.1513 0.2406 0.3125 187 Guinea-Bissau Low EGDI 0.1887 0.0764 0.1028 0.3869 124 Guyana Middle EGDI 0.4316 0.4306 0.2541 0.6102 163 Haiti 0.3047 0.4444 0.1078 0.3620 Middle EGDI Honduras 0.4474 0.5139 0.2268 0.6015 123 Middle EGDI Hungary High EGDI 0.7265 45 0.6071 0.8364 0.7361 19 Iceland Very High EGDI 0.8316 0.7292 0.8292 0.9365 96 India High EGDI 0.5669 0.9514 0.2009 0.5484 107 Indonesia 0.5258 0.5694 0.3222 0.6857 High EGDI 86 High EGDI 0.6083 0.6319 0.4566 0.7364 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 155 Iraq Middle EGDI 0.3376 0.3194 0.1840 0.5094 22 Ireland Very High EGDI 0.8287 0.8264 0.6970 0.9626 0.8635 31 Israel Very High EGDI 0.7998 0.8264 0.7095 229

260 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT E-Government Development Index (EGDI) (continued) Table 2. Telecomm. Infrustrcture Human Capital Online Service EGDI Level Component Rank Component EGDI Country Component 0.8209 Italy 0.8341 24 0.9514 Very High EGDI 0.6771 0.3194 0.6957 0.4697 0.3941 118 Jamaica Middle EGDI 0.9514 0.8406 0.8428 10 Japan Very High EGDI 0.8783 0.4931 0.4406 0.7387 0.5575 High EGDI Jordan 98 0.7597 0.8681 0.5723 39 Kazakhistan Very High EGDI 0.8388 Middle EGDI 0.6250 0.1901 0.5472 122 Kenya 0.4541 0.3450 0.0773 0.6591 Middle EGDI 0.2986 153 Kiribati 0.7388 0.7917 0.7394 41 Kuwait High EGDI 0.6852 High EGDI 0.5835 0.6458 0.3418 0.7628 Kyrgizistan 91 Middle EGDI 162 0.1667 0.2246 0.5254 Lao People's Democratic Republic 0.3056 Latvia 0.6996 0.6667 0.6188 0.8132 57 High EGDI High EGDI 99 0.5219 0.6649 0.5530 Lebanon 0.4722 0.2968 0.2468 0.5324 Middle EGDI 0.1111 167 Lesotho 0.2737 0.3403 0.1036 173 Liberia Middle EGDI 0.3772 Middle EGDI 0.3833 0.0972 0.3353 0.7173 Libya 140 Very High EGDI 0.8204 0.7986 25 0.8237 Liechtenstein 0.8389 Lithuania 0.7534 0.7986 0.6293 0.8323 40 Very High EGDI Very High EGDI 0.9236 0.7964 0.7803 Luxembourg 0.8334 18 Middle EGDI 0.2792 0.3056 170 0.4822 Madagascar 0.0499 Malawi Middle EGDI 0.2708 0.2569 0.0834 0.4720 175 Malaysia High EGDI 0.7174 0.8889 0.5647 0.6987 48 Maldives 97 0.4931 0.5159 0.6754 High EGDI 0.5615 Low EGDI 178 0.2074 0.2558 0.2424 Mali 0.2639 0.8011 0.7657 0.7973 Very High EGDI 0.8403 30 Malta 0.3543 0.2292 0.1037 149 Marshall Islands Middle EGDI 0.7301 Low EGDI 0.2314 0.1597 0.1878 0.3467 Mauritania 183 High EGDI 0.6678 0.7292 66 0.7308 Mauritius 0.5435 Mexico 0.6818 0.9236 0.4173 0.7044 64 High EGDI Middle EGDI 0.1458 0.1118 0.6889 Micronesia 0.3155 161 Very High EGDI 0.8050 0.6250 28 0.7901 Monaco 1.0000 Mongolia High EGDI 0.5824 0.5972 0.3602 0.7899 92 Montenegro High EGDI 0.6966 0.6667 0.6059 0.8172 58 Morocco 110 0.6667 0.3697 0.5278 High EGDI 0.5214 Middle EGDI 0.4236 0.1398 0.3951 Mozambique 160 0.3195 Middle EGDI 0.3328 0.2292 0.2565 0.5127 157 Myanmar Namibia Middle EGDI 0.4514 0.3299 0.5850 121 0.4554 Nauru 0.3324 0.1319 0.3033 0.5619 158 Middle EGDI Nepal Middle EGDI 0.4748 0.6875 0.2413 0.4957 117 Netherlands 13 0.9306 0.7758 0.9206 Very High EGDI 0.8757 New Zealand 0.8806 0.9514 0.7455 0.9450 8 Very High EGDI Nicaragua Middle EGDI 0.4233 0.4028 0.2825 0.5847 129 Niger Low EGDI 0.1095 0.1597 0.0795 0.0894 192 230

261 Data Tables DATA TABLES E-Government Development Index (EGDI) (continued) Table 2. Telecomm. Infrustrcture Human Capital Online Service EGDI Level Component Rank Component EGDI Country Component 0.3807 Nigeria 0.4261 143 0.5278 Middle EGDI 0.1883 0.9514 0.9025 0.8557 0.7131 14 Norway Very High EGDI 0.8125 0.5399 0.7013 63 Oman High EGDI 0.6846 0.5486 0.1529 0.3682 0.3566 Middle EGDI Pakistan 148 0.5024 0.3264 0.3346 111 Palau High EGDI 0.8462 High EGDI 0.6597 0.4543 0.7137 85 Panama 0.6092 0.2787 0.0875 0.4778 Middle EGDI 0.2708 171 Papua New Guinea 0.5255 0.5556 0.3507 108 Paraguay High EGDI 0.6701 High EGDI 0.6461 0.8194 0.3913 0.7276 Peru 77 High EGDI 75 0.8819 0.3547 0.7171 Philippines 0.6512 Poland 0.7926 0.9306 0.5805 0.8668 33 Very High EGDI Very High EGDI 29 0.6617 0.8170 0.8031 Portugal 0.9306 0.7132 0.6797 0.6683 High EGDI 0.7917 51 Qatar 0.9010 0.9792 0.8496 3 Republic of Korea Very High EGDI 0.8743 High EGDI 0.6590 0.7708 0.4787 0.7274 Republic of Moldova 69 High EGDI 0.6671 0.6597 67 0.7944 Romania 0.5471 Russian Federation 0.7969 0.9167 0.6219 0.8522 32 Very High EGDI Middle EGDI 0.7222 0.1733 0.4815 Rwanda 0.4590 120 High EGDI 0.6554 0.5347 71 0.7491 Saint Kittis and Nevis 0.6825 Saint Lucia Middle EGDI 0.4660 0.2847 0.4110 0.7022 119 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines High EGDI 0.5306 0.4514 0.4583 0.6820 104 Samoa 128 0.3403 0.2064 0.7241 Middle EGDI 0.4236 High EGDI 76 0.7075 0.8102 0.6471 San Marino 0.4236 0.3424 0.3053 0.5830 Middle EGDI 0.1389 154 Sao Tome and Principe 0.7119 0.7917 0.5339 52 Saudi Arabia High EGDI 0.8101 Middle EGDI 0.3486 0.4792 0.2240 0.3427 Senegal 150 High EGDI 0.7155 0.7361 49 0.7896 Serbia 0.6208 Seychelles 0.6163 0.6181 0.5008 0.7299 83 High EGDI Middle EGDI 0.3472 0.1597 0.3081 Sierra Leone 0.2717 174 Very High EGDI 0.8812 0.9861 7 0.8557 Singapore 0.8019 Slovakia High EGDI 0.7155 0.7361 0.5964 0.8141 49 Slovenia Very High EGDI 0.7714 0.7986 0.6232 0.8923 37 Solomon Islands 169 0.2431 0.1285 0.4732 Middle EGDI 0.2816 Low EGDI 0.1111 0.0586 0.0000 Somalia 193 0.0566 High EGDI 0.6618 0.8333 0.4231 0.7291 68 South Africa South Sudan Low EGDI 0.1111 0.0262 0.2269 191 0.1214 Spain 0.8415 0.9375 0.6986 0.8885 17 Very High EGDI Sri Lanka High EGDI 0.5751 0.6667 0.3136 0.7451 94 Sudan 180 0.1528 0.1780 0.3873 Low EGDI 0.2394 Suriname 0.4773 0.2917 0.4595 0.6808 116 Middle EGDI Sweden Very High EGDI 0.8882 0.9444 0.7835 0.9366 5 Very High EGDI 0.8520 0.8472 0.8428 0.8660 15 Switzerland 231

262 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT E-Government Development Index (EGDI) (continued) Table 2. Telecomm. Infrustrcture Human Capital Online Service EGDI Level Component Rank Component EGDI Country Component 0.3459 Syrian Arab Republic 0.4860 152 0.2986 Middle EGDI 0.2532 0.4220 0.2254 0.7002 Middle EGDI Tajikistan 131 0.3403 0.6543 0.6389 0.5338 0.7903 73 Thailand High EGDI High EGDI 79 0.7153 0.4859 0.6924 The former Yugoslav Republic of 0.6312 Macedonia Timor-Leste 0.3816 0.3125 0.2937 0.5387 142 Middle EGDI Middle EGDI 138 0.5556 0.1353 0.5058 Togo 0.3989 Tonga 0.5237 0.4722 0.2951 0.8039 109 High EGDI High EGDI 78 0.5735 0.7195 0.6440 Trinidad and Tobago 0.6389 High EGDI 0.8056 0.4066 0.6640 Tunisia 80 0.6254 High EGDI 0.7112 0.8889 53 0.8148 Turkey 0.4298 Turkmenistan 0.3652 0.1319 0.3011 0.6626 147 Middle EGDI Middle EGDI 0.3779 0.2222 0.2693 0.6422 144 Tuvalu Uganda Middle EGDI 0.4055 0.5694 0.1566 0.4906 135 Ukraine 82 0.5694 0.4364 0.8436 High EGDI 0.6165 Very High EGDI 21 0.8564 0.6877 0.8295 United Arab Emirates 0.9444 0.8999 0.9792 0.8004 0.9200 United Kingoom of Great Britain 4 Very High EGDI and Northern Ireland Middle EGDI 0.3929 0.5625 139 0.4759 United Republic of Tanzania 0.1403 United States of America 0.8769 0.9861 0.7564 0.8883 11 Very High EGDI Very High EGDI 0.7858 0.8889 0.6967 0.7719 34 Uruguay Uzbekistan High EGDI 0.6207 0.7917 0.3307 0.7396 81 Vanuatu 137 0.4375 0.1920 0.5675 Middle EGDI 0.3990 High EGDI 0.4148 0.4097 Venuzuela (Bolivian Republic of) 0.7615 106 0.5287 Viet Nam 0.5931 0.7361 0.3890 0.6543 88 High EGDI Yemen Low EGDI 0.2154 0.0972 0.1454 0.4037 186 Zambia 0.4111 0.4792 0.1853 0.5689 Middle EGDI 133 Zimbabwe Middle EGDI 0.3692 0.3264 0.2144 0.5668 146 232

263 Data Tables DATA TABLES Table 3. Regional and Economic Groupings for E-Government Development Index (EGDI) Telecomm. Online Service Infrustructure Human Capital Component Component Region Component EGDI Africa 0.2034 0.4602 0.3423 0.3633 0.5898 0.6095 0.4441 0.7157 Americas 0.5779 0.6216 0.4385 0.6735 Asia 0.7727 0.6765 0.8471 0.7946 Europe Oceania 0.4611 0.3929 0.2825 0.7078 0.5491 0.5691 0.4155 0.4155 World Telecomm. Infrastructure Online Service Human Capital Component Component EGDI Component Small Island Developing States 0.3460 0.6684 0.4090 0.4744 0.4100 0.4481 0.2502 0.5318 Land Locked Developing Countries 0.2961 0.3251 0.1521 0.4113 Least Developed Countries Telecomm. Infrustructure Online Service Human Capital Component Component Levels of Income Component EGDI High income 0.7838 0.8120 0.7018 0.8375 Upper middle income 0.5655 0.5479 0.4256 0.7231 Lower middle income 0.4688 0.2703 0.5843 0.4411 Low income 0.2735 0.3329 0.1191 0.3684 233

264 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT E-Government Development Index (EGDI) by region - AFRICA Table 4. Telecomm. Infrustructure Human Capital Online Service Sub-Region Component Rank Component EGDI Country Component 0.4227 0.2153 0.6640 Algeria 130 Northern Africa 0.3889 0.4097 0.5060 0.3376 0.0972 Middle Africa Angola 155 159 0.1418 0.3653 Benin Western Africa 0.3264 0.4722 0.4253 0.2083 0.3982 0.6694 127 Botswana Southern Africa Western Africa 0.3016 0.1603 0.2097 165 Burkina Faso 0.5347 0.2985 0.0786 0.5113 Eastern Africa 0.3056 166 Burundi 0.3997 0.4583 0.1790 136 Cameroon Middle Africa 0.5618 Western Africa 0.4980 0.4861 0.3926 0.6152 Cabo Verde 112 Middle Africa 0.1584 0.2083 0.0322 0.2347 188 Central African Republic Middle Africa 190 0.1458 0.0669 0.1644 Chad 0.1257 Eastern Africa 182 0.0871 0.5166 0.2336 Comoros 0.0972 0.3024 0.1889 0.5515 Middle Africa 0.1667 164 Congo 0.2776 0.2222 0.2748 0.3357 172 Côte d'Ivoire Western Africa Middle Africa 0.2612 0.2083 0.0645 0.5108 Democratic Republic of the 176 Congo Eastern Africa 0.2401 0.2917 179 0.3325 Djibouti 0.0961 Egypt 0.4880 0.5347 0.3222 0.6072 114 Northern Africa Middle Africa 0.0486 0.1010 0.5397 Equatioral Guinea 0.2298 184 Eastern Africa 0.1337 0.0833 189 0.3179 Eritrea 0.0000 Eswatini Southern Africa 0.3820 0.3750 0.1772 0.5939 141 Ethiopia Eastern Africa 0.3463 0.6319 0.0976 0.3094 151 Gabon 125 0.2292 0.4250 0.6398 Middle Africa 0.4313 Western Africa 168 0.2627 0.3539 0.2958 Gambia 0.2708 0.5390 0.3558 0.5669 Western Africa 0.6944 101 Ghana 0.2348 0.3125 0.1513 181 Guinea Western Africa 0.2406 Western Africa 0.1887 0.0764 0.1028 0.3869 Guinea-Bissau 187 Eastern Africa 0.4541 0.6250 122 0.5472 Kenya 0.1901 Lesotho 0.2968 0.1111 0.2468 0.5324 167 Southern Africa Western Africa 0.3403 0.1036 0.3772 Liberia 0.2737 173 Northern Africa 0.3833 0.0972 140 0.7173 Libya 0.3353 Madagascar Eastern Africa 0.2792 0.3056 0.0499 0.4822 170 Malawi Eastern Africa 0.2708 0.2569 0.0834 0.4720 175 Mali 178 0.2639 0.2074 0.2558 Western Africa 0.2424 Western Africa 0.1597 0.1878 0.3467 Mauritania 183 0.2314 Eastern Africa 0.6678 0.7292 0.5435 0.7308 66 Mauritius Morocco Northern Africa 0.6667 0.3697 0.5278 110 0.5214 Mozambique 0.3195 0.4236 0.1398 0.3951 160 Eastern Africa Namibia Southern Africa 0.4554 0.4514 0.3299 0.5850 121 Niger 192 0.1597 0.0795 0.0894 Western Africa 0.1095 Nigeria 0.3807 0.5278 0.1883 0.4261 143 Western Africa Rwanda Eastern Africa 0.4590 0.7222 0.1733 0.4815 120 Sao Tome and Principe Middle Africa 0.3424 0.1389 0.3053 0.5830 154 234

265 Data Tables DATA TABLES E-Government Development Index (EGDI) by region - AFRICA (continued) Table 4. Telecomm. Human Capital Online Service Infrustructure Sub-Region EGDI Component Rank Country Component Component Senegal Western Africa 0.3486 0.4792 0.2240 0.3427 150 Seychelles Eastern Africa 0.6163 0.6181 0.5008 0.7299 83 Sierra Leone 0.2717 0.3472 0.1597 0.3081 Western Africa 174 Somalia Eastern Africa 0.0566 0.1111 0.0586 0.0000 193 South Africa Southern Africa 0.6618 0.8333 0.4231 0.7291 68 191 South Sudan Eastern Africa 0.1214 0.1111 0.0262 0.2269 180 Sudan 0.2394 0.1528 0.1780 0.3873 Northern Africa Togo 0.5556 0.3989 138 0.1353 0.5058 Western Africa 80 Northern Africa 0.6254 0.8056 0.4066 0.6640 Tunisia 135 Uganda Eastern Africa 0.4055 0.5694 0.1566 0.4906 0.4759 139 United Republic of Eastern Africa 0.3929 0.5625 0.1403 Tanzania 133 Zambia Eastern Africa 0.4111 0.4792 0.1853 0.5689 0.5668 146 Zimbabwe Eastern Africa 0.3692 0.3264 0.2144 235

266 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT E-Government Development Index (EGDI) by region - AMERICAS Table 5. Telecomm. Infrustructure Online Service Human Capital Sub-Region EGDI Rank Country Component Component Component 0.4583 0.5617 0.7518 Antigua and Barbuda Caribbean 90 0.5906 0.7500 0.8579 0.7335 43 Argentina South America 0.5927 0.6552 0.5393 0.7249 Caribbean Bahamas 72 0.7014 0.7229 0.6667 46 0.8301 Barbados Caribbean 0.6719 Central America 0.3333 0.2247 0.6765 132 Belize 0.4115 0.5307 0.7148 0.3148 South America 103 Bolivia(Plurinational State of) 0.5625 South America 0.9236 0.5220 0.7525 Brazil 44 0.7327 Northern America 23 0.9306 0.6724 0.8744 Canada 0.8258 Chile 0.7350 0.8333 0.5377 0.8339 42 South America South America 61 0.4412 0.7382 0.6871 Colombia 0.8819 0.7004 0.7933 0.6343 Central America 56 Costa Rica 0.6736 Caribbean 0.2986 0.1455 0.7862 Cuba 134 0.4101 Caribbean 0.5794 0.6111 93 0.6497 Dominica 0.4775 Dominican Republic 0.5726 0.6597 0.3655 0.6927 95 Caribbean South America 0.3699 0.7292 Ecuador 0.7395 84 0.6129 El Salvador 0.5469 0.6250 0.3810 0.6348 100 Central America Grenada Caribbean 0.5930 0.4931 0.4658 0.8202 89 Guatemala 113 0.6458 0.2941 0.5524 Central America 0.4974 South America 0.4316 0.2541 0.6102 124 Guyana 0.4306 0.3047 0.3620 0.1078 Caribbean 163 Haiti 0.4444 Central America 0.5139 0.2268 0.6015 Honduras 123 0.4474 Caribbean 0.4697 0.3194 0.3941 0.6957 118 Jamaica Mexico Central America 0.9236 0.4173 0.7044 64 0.6818 Central America 0.4028 0.2825 0.5847 Nicaragua 0.4233 129 Central America 0.6092 0.6597 85 0.7137 Panama 0.4543 Paraguay South America 0.5255 0.5556 0.3507 0.6701 108 Peru South America 0.6461 0.8194 0.3913 0.7276 77 Saint Kittis and Nevis 71 0.5347 0.6825 0.7491 Caribbean 0.6554 Caribbean 0.2847 0.4110 0.7022 Saint Lucia 0.4660 119 0.4583 Caribbean 0.5306 0.4514 104 0.6820 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Suriname South America 0.4773 0.2917 0.4595 0.6808 116 Trinidad and Tobago Caribbean 0.6440 0.6389 0.5735 0.7195 78 United States of America 0.8769 0.9861 0.7564 0.8883 Northern America 11 Uruguay South America 0.7858 0.8889 0.6967 0.7719 34 Venuzuela (Bolivian South America 0.5287 0.4097 0.4148 0.7615 106 Republic of) 236

267 Data Tables DATA TABLES Table 6. E-Government Development Index EGDI by region - ASIA Telecomm. Online Service Infrustructure Human Capital Country Component Component Sub-Region Component Rank EGDI Southern Asia 0.2585 0.1138 0.3562 177 Afghanistan 0.3056 0.5944 0.7547 0.4660 Western Asia 87 Armenia 0.5625 Western Asia 0.7292 0.5062 0.7369 Azerbaijan 70 0.6574 Western Asia 0.8116 0.7986 0.8466 0.7897 26 Bahrain Bangladesh Southern Asia 0.7847 0.1976 0.4763 115 0.4862 Southern Asia 0.5000 0.3080 0.4743 Bhutan 0.4274 126 South-Eastern Asia 0.6923 0.7222 59 0.7480 Brunei Darussalam 0.6066 Cambodia South-Eastern Asia 0.3753 0.2500 0.3132 0.5626 145 China Eastern Asia 0.6811 0.8611 0.4735 65 0.7088 36 Western Asia 0.7736 0.7847 0.7279 0.8083 Cyprus Democratic People's Republic 0.2159 0.0000 0.0327 0.6150 185 Eastern Asia of Korea Western Asia 0.6944 0.5403 0.8333 Georgia 0.6893 60 Southern Asia 0.5669 0.9514 96 0.5484 India 0.2009 Indonesia South-Eastern Asia 0.5258 0.5694 0.3222 0.6857 107 Iran (Islamic Republic of) Southern Asia 0.6083 86 0.4566 0.7364 0.6319 155 Western Asia 0.3376 0.3194 0.1840 0.5094 Iraq Israel 0.7998 0.8264 0.7095 0.8635 31 Western Asia Japan Eastern Asia 0.8783 10 0.8406 0.8428 0.9514 98 Jordan Western Asia 0.5575 0.4931 0.4406 0.7387 39 Kazakhistan Central Asia 0.7597 0.8681 0.5723 0.8388 41 Kuwait 0.7388 0.7917 0.7394 0.6852 Western Asia Kyrgizistan Central Asia 0.6458 0.3418 0.7628 91 0.5835 0.3056 0.1667 0.2246 0.5254 Lao People's Democratic South-Eastern Asia 162 Republic Western Asia 0.5530 0.4722 99 0.6649 Lebanon 0.5219 Malaysia South-Eastern Asia 0.7174 0.8889 0.5647 0.6987 48 Maldives Southern Asia 0.5615 97 0.5159 0.6754 0.4931 92 Eastern Asia 0.5824 0.5972 0.3602 0.7899 Mongolia Myanmar 0.3328 0.2292 0.2565 0.5127 157 South-Eastern Asia Nepal Southern Asia 0.4748 117 0.2413 0.4957 0.6875 63 Oman Western Asia 0.6846 0.8125 0.5399 0.7013 148 Pakistan Southern Asia 0.3566 0.5486 0.1529 0.3682 75 Philippines 0.6512 0.8819 0.3547 0.7171 South-Eastern Asia Qatar 0.7132 0.7917 0.6797 0.6683 51 Western Asia Republic of Korea Eastern Asia 0.9010 3 0.8496 0.8743 0.9792 52 Saudi Arabia Western Asia 0.7119 0.7917 0.5339 0.8101 7 Singapore South-Eastern Asia 0.8812 0.9861 0.8019 0.8557 94 Sri Lanka 0.5751 0.6667 0.3136 0.7451 Southern Asia 152 Western Asia 0.3459 0.2986 0.2532 0.4860 Syrian Arab Republic 131 Tajikistan Central Asia 0.4220 0.3403 0.2254 0.7002 73 Thailand South-Eastern Asia 0.6543 0.6389 0.5338 0.7903 237

268 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Table 6. E-Government Development Index EGDI by region - ASIA (continued) Telecomm. Infrustructure Online Service Human Capital Country EGDI Component Component Component Rank Sub-Region Timor-Leste 142 0.3816 0.3125 0.2937 0.5387 South-Eastern Asia 53 Turkey Western Asia 0.7112 0.8889 0.4298 0.8148 147 Turkmenistan Central Asia 0.3652 0.1319 0.3011 0.6626 21 United Arab Emirates 0.8295 0.9444 0.8564 0.6877 Western Asia 81 Central Asia 0.6207 0.7917 0.3307 0.7396 Uzbekistan 88 Viet Nam South-Eastern Asia 0.5931 0.7361 0.3890 0.6543 186 Yemen Western Asia 0.2154 0.0972 0.1454 0.4037 238

269 Data Tables DATA TABLES Table 7. E-Government Development Index EGDI by region - EUROPE Telecomm. Online Service Infrustructure Human Capital Country Component Component Rank Component Sub-Region EGDI Southern Europe 0.6519 0.4318 0.7877 74 Albania 0.7361 0.6857 0.7309 0.722 Southern Europe 62 Andorra 0.6042 Western Europe 0.8681 0.7716 0.8505 Austria 20 0.8301 Eastern Europe 0.7641 0.7361 0.6881 0.8681 38 Belarus Belgium Western Europe 0.7569 0.693 0.974 27 0.808 Southern Europe 0.4306 0.4385 0.7217 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.5303 105 Eastern Europe 0.7177 0.7639 47 0.8106 Bulgaria 0.5785 Croatia Southern Europe 0.7018 0.6806 0.6051 0.8196 55 0.6528 Eastern Europe 0.7084 54 0.5971 0.8752 Czech Republic Denmark Northern Europe 1 0.7978 0.9472 1 0.915 Northern Europe 0.9028 0.7613 0.8818 Estonia 16 0.8486 Northern Europe 0.8815 0.9653 0.7284 0.9509 6 Finland France Western Europe 0.9792 0.7979 0.8598 9 0.879 Germany 0.8765 0.9306 0.7952 0.9036 12 Western Europe 35 Southern Europe 0.7833 0.8194 0.6439 0.8867 Greece 45 Eastern Europe 0.7265 0.7361 0.6071 0.8364 Hungary Iceland 0.8316 0.7292 0.8292 0.9365 19 Northern Europe Ireland Northern Europe 0.8287 22 0.697 0.9626 0.8264 24 Italy Southern Europe 0.8209 0.9514 0.6771 0.8341 57 Latvia Northern Europe 0.6996 0.6667 0.6188 0.8132 25 Liechtenstein 0.8204 0.7986 0.8389 0.8237 Western Europe Lithuania Northern Europe 0.7986 0.6293 0.8323 40 0.7534 Western Europe 0.9236 0.7964 0.7803 Luxembourg 0.8334 18 Southern Europe 0.8011 0.8403 30 0.7973 Malta 0.7657 Monaco Western Europe 0.805 0.625 1 0.7901 28 Montenegro Southern Europe 0.6966 58 0.6059 0.8172 0.6667 13 Western Europe 0.8757 0.9306 0.7758 0.9206 Netherlands Norway 0.8557 0.9514 0.7131 0.9025 14 Northern Europe Poland Eastern Europe 0.7926 33 0.5805 0.8668 0.9306 29 Portugal Southern Europe 0.8031 0.9306 0.6617 0.817 69 Republic of Moldova Eastern Europe 0.659 0.7708 0.4787 0.7274 67 Romania 0.6671 0.6597 0.5471 0.7944 Eastern Europe Russian Federation 0.7969 0.9167 0.6219 0.8522 32 Eastern Europe San Marino Southern Europe 0.6471 0.4236 0.7075 0.8102 76 49 Serbia 0.7155 0.7361 0.6208 0.7896 Southern Europe 49 Eastern Europe 0.7155 0.7361 0.5964 0.8141 Slovakia 37 Slovenia Southern Europe 0.7714 0.7986 0.6232 0.8923 17 0.8415 0.9375 0.6986 0.8885 Southern Europe Spain Sweden Northern Europe 0.8882 0.9444 0.7835 0.9366 5 15 Western Europe 0.852 0.8472 0.8428 0.866 Switzerland 79 The former Yugoslav Republic Southern Europe 0.6312 0.7153 0.4859 0.6924 of Macedonia 239

270 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Table 7. E-Government Development Index EGDI by region - EUROPE (continued) Telecomm. Online Service Infrustructure Human Capital Component EGDI Country Component Rank Sub-Region Component Eastern Europe 0.6165 82 0.4364 0.8436 Ukraine 0.5694 United Kingoom Northern Europe 0.8999 0.9792 0.8004 0.92 4 of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Table 8. E-Government Development Index EGDI by region - OCEANIA Telecomm. Online Service Infrustructure Human Capital Country EGDI Component Component Rank Component Sub-Region Australia 0.9053 0.9722 0.7436 1 2 Australia and New Zealand Fiji Melanesia 0.5348 0.4583 0.3562 0.7899 102 Kiribati 153 0.345 0.2986 0.0773 0.6591 Micronesia 149 Micronesia 0.3543 0.2292 0.1037 0.7301 Marshall Islands 161 Micronesia Micronesia 0.3155 0.1458 0.1118 0.6889 158 Nauru 0.3324 0.1319 0.3033 0.5619 Micronesia New Zealand 0.8806 0.9514 0.7455 0.945 8 Australia and New Zealand Palau Micronesia 0.5024 111 0.3346 0.8462 0.3264 171 Papua New Guinea Melanesia 0.2787 0.2708 0.0875 0.4778 128 Samoa Polynesia 0.4236 0.3403 0.2064 0.7241 169 Solomon Islands 0.2816 0.2431 0.1285 0.4732 Melanesia 109 Polynesia 0.5237 0.4722 0.2951 0.8039 Tonga 144 Tuvalu Polynesia 0.3779 0.2222 0.2693 0.6422 137 Vanuatu Melanesia 0.399 0.4375 0.192 0.5675 240

271 Data Tables DATA TABLES Table 9. E-Government Development Index EGDI of Least Developed Countries(LDCs) Telecomm. Online Service Infrustructure Human Capital Country Component Component Sub-Region Component Rank EGDI Southern Asia 0.2585 0.1138 0.3562 177 Afghanistan 0.3056 0.3376 0.506 0.0972 Middle Africa 155 Angola 0.4097 Southern Asia 0.7847 0.1976 0.4763 Bangladesh 115 0.4862 Western Africa 0.3264 0.4722 0.1418 0.3653 159 Benin Bhutan Southern Asia 0.5 0.308 0.4743 126 0.4274 Western Africa 0.5347 0.1603 0.2097 Burkina Faso 0.3016 165 Eastern Africa 0.2985 0.3056 166 0.5113 Burundi 0.0786 Cambodia South-Eastern Asia 0.3753 0.25 0.3132 0.5626 145 Central African Republic Middle Africa 0.1584 0.2083 0.0322 188 0.2347 190 Middle Africa 0.1257 0.1458 0.0669 0.1644 Chad Comoros Eastern Africa 0.0972 0.0871 0.5166 182 0.2336 0.2612 0.2083 0.0645 0.5108 Democratic Republic of the Middle Africa 176 Congo Eastern Africa 0.2401 0.2917 179 0.3325 Djibouti 0.0961 Eritrea Eastern Africa 0.1337 0.0833 0 0.3179 189 Ethiopia Eastern Africa 0.3463 151 0.0976 0.3094 0.6319 168 Western Africa 0.2958 0.2708 0.2627 0.3539 Gambia Guinea 0.2348 0.3125 0.1513 0.2406 181 Western Africa Guinea-Bissau Western Africa 0.1887 187 0.1028 0.3869 0.0764 163 Haiti Caribbean 0.3047 0.4444 0.1078 0.362 153 Kiribati Micronesia 0.345 0.2986 0.0773 0.6591 162 Lao People's Democratic South-Eastern Asia 0.3056 0.1667 0.2246 0.5254 Republic 167 0.2968 0.1111 0.2468 0.5324 Lesotho Southern Africa Western Africa 0.3403 0.1036 0.3772 Liberia 0.2737 173 Eastern Africa 0.2792 0.3056 170 0.4822 Madagascar 0.0499 Malawi Eastern Africa 0.2708 0.2569 0.0834 0.472 175 Mali Western Africa 0.2424 178 0.2074 0.2558 0.2639 183 Western Africa 0.2314 0.1597 0.1878 0.3467 Mauritania Mozambique 0.3195 0.4236 0.1398 0.3951 160 Eastern Africa Myanmar South-Eastern Asia 0.3328 157 0.2565 0.5127 0.2292 117 Nepal Southern Asia 0.4748 0.6875 0.2413 0.4957 192 Niger Western Africa 0.1095 0.1597 0.0795 0.0894 120 Rwanda 0.459 0.7222 0.1733 0.4815 Eastern Africa Sao Tome and Principe 0.3424 0.1389 0.3053 0.583 154 Middle Africa Senegal Western Africa 0.3486 150 0.224 0.3427 0.4792 174 Sierra Leone Western Africa 0.2717 0.3472 0.1597 0.3081 169 Solomon Islands Melanesia 0.2816 0.2431 0.1285 0.4732 193 Somalia 0.0566 0.1111 0.0586 0 Eastern Africa 191 Eastern Africa 0.1214 0.1111 0.0262 0.2269 South Sudan 180 Sudan Northern Africa 0.2394 0.1528 0.178 0.3873 142 Timor-Leste South-Eastern Asia 0.3816 0.3125 0.2937 0.5387 241

272 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Table 9. E-Government Development Index EGDI of Least Developed Countries(LDCs) Telecomm. Online Service Infrustructure Human Capital Country EGDI Rank Component Sub-Region Component Component Togo 138 0.3989 0.5556 0.1353 0.5058 Western Africa 144 Tuvalu Polynesia 0.3779 0.2222 0.2693 0.6422 135 Uganda Eastern Africa 0.4055 0.5694 0.1566 0.4906 139 United Republic of Tanzania 0.3929 0.5625 0.1403 0.4759 Eastern Africa 137 Melanesia 0.399 0.4375 0.192 0.5675 Vanuatu 186 Yemen Western Asia 0.2154 0.0972 0.1454 0.4037 133 Zambia Eastern Africa 0.4111 0.4792 0.1853 0.5689 242

273 Data Tables DATA TABLES Table 10. E-Government Development Index EGDI of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) Telecomm. Online Service Infrustructure Human Capital Country Component Rank Sub-Region EGDI Component Component 0.5906 0.4583 0.5617 0.7518 Antigua and Barbuda 90 Caribbean 0.6552 0.5393 Caribbean 0.7249 72 Bahamas 0.7014 Caribbean 0.6667 0.6719 0.8301 Barbados 46 0.7229 Central America 0.4115 132 0.2247 0.6765 Belize 0.3333 Cabo Verde 0.498 0.4861 0.3926 0.6152 112 Western Africa Eastern Africa 0.0871 0.0972 Comoros 0.5166 182 0.2336 Cuba 0.4101 0.2986 0.1455 0.7862 134 Caribbean Dominica Caribbean 0.5794 0.6111 0.4775 93 0.6497 95 Caribbean 0.5726 0.6597 0.3655 0.6927 Dominican Republic Fiji Melanesia 0.4583 0.3562 0.7899 102 0.5348 Caribbean 0.4658 0.4931 Grenada 0.8202 89 0.593 Guinea-Bissau 0.1887 0.0764 0.1028 0.3869 187 Western Africa Guyana South America 0.4316 0.4306 0.2541 0.6102 124 163 Haiti 0.3047 0.4444 0.1078 0.362 Caribbean Jamaica 0.4697 0.3194 0.3941 0.6957 118 Caribbean Kiribati Micronesia 0.345 153 0.0773 0.6591 0.2986 97 Maldives Southern Asia 0.5615 0.4931 0.5159 0.6754 149 Marshall Islands Micronesia 0.3543 0.2292 0.1037 0.7301 66 Mauritius 0.6678 0.7292 0.5435 0.7308 Eastern Africa Micronesia Micronesia 0.1458 0.1118 0.6889 161 0.3155 Micronesia 0.3033 0.1319 Nauru 0.5619 158 0.3324 Palau 0.5024 0.3264 0.3346 0.8462 111 Micronesia Papua New Guinea Melanesia 0.2787 0.2708 0.0875 0.4778 171 71 Saint Kittis and Nevis 0.6554 0.5347 0.6825 0.7491 Caribbean Saint Lucia 0.466 0.2847 0.411 0.7022 119 Caribbean Saint Vincent and the 0.682 Caribbean 0.5306 104 0.4583 0.4514 Grenadines 128 Samoa Polynesia 0.4236 0.3403 0.2064 0.7241 154 Sao Tome and Principe Middle Africa 0.3424 0.1389 0.3053 0.583 83 Seychelles 0.6163 0.6181 0.5008 0.7299 Eastern Africa Singapore 0.8812 0.9861 0.8019 0.8557 7 South-Eastern Asia Solomon Islands Melanesia 0.2816 169 0.1285 0.4732 0.2431 116 Suriname South America 0.4773 0.2917 0.4595 0.6808 142 Timor-Leste South-Eastern Asia 0.3816 0.3125 0.2937 0.5387 109 Tonga 0.5237 0.4722 0.2951 0.8039 Polynesia 78 Caribbean 0.644 0.6389 0.5735 0.7195 Trinidad and Tobago 144 Tuvalu Polynesia 0.3779 0.2222 0.2693 0.6422 137 Vanuatu Melanesia 0.399 0.4375 0.192 0.5675 243

274 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Table 11. E-Government Development Index EGDI of Landlocked Developing Counties(LLDCs) Telecomm. Online Service Infrustructure Human Capital Country Component Rank Sub-Region EGDI Component Component 177 0.3056 0.1138 0.3562 Afghanistan 0.2585 Southern Asia 0.5944 0.5625 0.466 0.7547 Armenia 87 Western Asia Western Asia 0.6574 0.7292 0.5062 0.7369 70 Azerbaijan Southern Asia Bhutan 0.5 0.308 0.4743 126 0.4274 South America 0.3148 0.5625 Bolivia(Plurinational State of) 0.7148 103 0.5307 Botswana 0.4253 0.2083 0.3982 0.6694 127 Southern Africa Burkina Faso Western Africa 0.3016 0.5347 0.1603 165 0.2097 166 Eastern Africa 0.2985 0.3056 0.0786 0.5113 Burundi Central African Republic Middle Africa 0.2083 0.0322 0.2347 188 0.1584 Middle Africa 0.0669 0.1458 Chad 0.1644 190 0.1257 Eswatini 0.382 0.375 0.1772 0.5939 141 Southern Africa Ethiopia Eastern Africa 0.3463 0.6319 151 0.3094 0.0976 39 Central Asia 0.7597 0.8681 0.5723 0.8388 Kazakhistan Kyrgizistan 0.6458 0.5835 91 0.3418 0.7628 Central Asia 162 South-Eastern Asia 0.3056 0.1667 0.2246 0.5254 Lao People's Democratic Republic 167 Lesotho Southern Africa 0.2968 0.1111 0.2468 0.5324 175 Malawi 0.2708 0.2569 0.0834 0.472 Eastern Africa Mali Western Africa 0.2639 0.2074 0.2558 178 0.2424 Eastern Asia 0.3602 0.5972 Mongolia 0.7899 92 0.5824 Nepal 0.4748 0.6875 0.2413 0.4957 117 Southern Asia Niger Western Africa 0.1095 192 0.0795 0.0894 0.1597 108 South America 0.5255 0.5556 0.3507 0.6701 Paraguay Republic of Moldova 0.7708 0.659 69 0.4787 0.7274 Eastern Europe 120 Eastern Africa 0.459 0.7222 0.1733 0.4815 Rwanda 191 South Sudan Eastern Africa 0.1214 0.1111 0.0262 0.2269 131 Tajikistan 0.422 0.3403 0.2254 0.7002 Central Asia The former Yugoslav 0.7153 Southern Europe 0.6312 79 0.4859 0.6924 Republic of Macedonia Turkmenistan Central Asia 0.3652 0.1319 0.3011 0.6626 147 135 Uganda Eastern Africa 0.4055 0.5694 0.1566 0.4906 81 Central Asia 0.6207 0.7917 0.3307 0.7396 Uzbekistan 133 Zambia Eastern Africa 0.4111 0.4792 0.1853 0.5689 146 Zimbabwe Eastern Africa 0.3692 0.3264 0.2144 0.5668 244

275 Data Tables DATA TABLES Table 12. E-Participation Index (EPI) and its utilisation by stages Country EPI Stage 1% Stage 2% Stage 3% Rank Total % 0.3202 145 21.74% 18.18% 34.24% Afghanistan 63.33% 76.63% 91.30% 72.73% 0.7584 63.33% 59 Albania 22.83% 30.00% 34.78% 165 Algeria 0.2022 0.00% 0.5674 58.15% 70.00% 65.22% 36.36% Andorra 103 0.4326 45.11% 66.67% 125 18.18% Angola 47.83% Antigua and Barbuda 47.83% 56.67% 34.78% 54.55% 121 0.4607 0.6236 76.67% 73.91% 36.36% Argentina 63.59% 87 0.5674 58.15% 60.00% 103 63.64% Armenia 52.17% Australia 0.9831 98.37% 100.00% 95.65% 100.00% 5 Austria 0.8258 83.15% 90.00% 78.26% 81.82% 45 79 Azerbaijan 69.02% 76.67% 73.91% 54.55% 0.6798 Bahamas 0.618 60.00% 65.22% 63.64% 92 63.04% 0.7978 76.67% 82.61% 81.82% Bahrain 80.43% 53 0.8034 80.98% 86.67% 51 72.73% Bangladesh 82.61% Barbados 0.6236 63.59% 80.00% 56.52% 54.55% 87 Belarus 0.882 88.59% 90.00% 78.26% 100.00% 33 59 Belgium 76.63% 86.67% 78.26% 63.64% 0.7584 Belize 31.52% 46.67% 43.48% 0.00% 148 0.2921 Benin 0.3708 39.13% 53.33% 43.48% 18.18% 136 111 Bhutan 54.35% 60.00% 78.26% 18.18% 0.5281 99 0.5787 59.24% 63.33% 73.91% 36.36% Bolivia(Plurinational State of) 125 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.4326 45.11% 53.33% 52.17% 27.27% 168 Botswana 22.28% 43.33% 21.74% 0.00% 0.1966 Brazil 0.9719 96.67% 95.65% 100.00% 12 97.28% 0.6067 83.33% 78.26% 18.18% Brunei Darussalam 61.96% 97 0.8708 87.50% 83.33% 35 81.82% Bulgaria 95.65% Burkina Faso 0.6236 63.59% 73.33% 69.57% 45.45% 87 Burundi 0.309 33.15% 50.00% 30.43% 18.18% 147 171 Cambodia 20.11% 36.67% 21.74% 0.00% 0.1742 Cameroon 34.78% 63.33% 30.43% 9.09% 143 0.3258 Canada 0.9101 91.30% 96.67% 86.96% 90.91% 27 127 Cabo Verde 44.57% 66.67% 39.13% 27.27% 0.427 151 0.2753 29.89% 36.67% 26.09% 27.27% Central African Republic 177 Chad 0.1461 17.39% 33.33% 17.39% 0.00% 46 Chile 82.61% 96.67% 78.26% 72.73% 0.8202 China 90.76% 86.67% 86.96% 100.00% 29 0.9045 Colombia 0.9213 92.39% 96.67% 82.61% 100.00% 23 190 Comoros 8.70% 16.67% 8.70% 0.00% 0.0562 169 0.1854 21.20% 23.33% 21.74% 18.18% Congo 57 Costa Rica 0.7697 77.72% 83.33% 69.57% 81.82% 171 Côte d'Ivoire 20.11% 23.33% 26.09% 9.09% 0.1742 57 0.7697 77.72% 63.33% 86.96% 81.82% Croatia 150 Cuba 0.2809 30.43% 56.67% 17.39% 18.18% 46 Cyprus 0.8202 82.61% 80.00% 78.26% 90.91% 245

276 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Table 12. E-Participation Index (EPI) and its utilisation by stages (continued) Country EPI Stage 1% Stage 2% Stage 3% Rank Total % 0.618 92 60.87% 54.55% 63.04% 73.33% Czech Republic 0 10.00% 0.00% 0.00% Democratic People's Republic of Korea 3.26% 193 15.22% 36.67% 8.70% 183 Democratic Republic of the Congo 0.1236 0.00% 1 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% Denmark 1 0.2697 29.35% 50.00% 153 27.27% Djibouti 13.04% Dominica 57.07% 50.00% 65.22% 54.55% 106 0.5562 0.6798 73.33% 69.57% 63.64% Dominican Republic 69.02% 79 0.6742 68.48% 70.00% 81 54.55% Ecuador 78.26% Egypt 0.5393 55.43% 53.33% 65.22% 45.45% 109 El Salvador 0.6517 66.30% 80.00% 78.26% 36.36% 82 191 Equatioral Guinea 8.15% 20.00% 4.35% 0.00% 0.0506 Eritrea 0.0337 20.00% 0.00% 0.00% 192 6.52% 0.9101 96.67% 86.96% 90.91% Estonia 91.30% 27 0.3315 35.33% 60.00% 142 9.09% Eswatini 34.78% Ethiopia 0.573 58.70% 80.00% 65.22% 27.27% 101 Fiji 0.3483 36.96% 53.33% 30.43% 27.27% 139 1 Finland 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 1 France 96.74% 100.00% 91.30% 100.00% 13 0.9663 Gabon 0.1685 19.57% 33.33% 8.70% 18.18% 175 149 Gambia 30.98% 40.00% 26.09% 27.27% 0.2865 87 0.6236 63.59% 73.33% 69.57% 45.45% Georgia 23 Germany 0.9213 92.39% 96.67% 82.61% 100.00% 85 Ghana 64.13% 83.33% 69.57% 36.36% 0.6292 Greece 0.8764 83.33% 82.61% 100.00% 34 88.04% 0.4888 60.00% 39.13% 54.55% Grenada 50.54% 116 0.618 63.04% 66.67% 92 45.45% Guatemala 73.91% Guinea 0.3539 37.50% 40.00% 43.48% 27.27% 138 Guinea-Bissau 0.1124 14.13% 33.33% 8.70% 0.00% 186 140 Guyana 35.87% 36.67% 34.78% 36.36% 0.3371 Haiti 50.00% 46.67% 56.52% 45.45% 117 0.4831 Honduras 0.5449 55.98% 70.00% 52.17% 45.45% 107 69 Hungary 71.74% 76.67% 95.65% 36.36% 0.7079 75 0.6854 69.57% 80.00% 65.22% 63.64% Iceland 15 India 0.9551 95.65% 100.00% 95.65% 90.91% 92 Indonesia 63.04% 66.67% 73.91% 45.45% 0.618 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 54.35% 60.00% 56.52% 45.45% 111 0.5281 Iraq 0.3371 35.87% 60.00% 21.74% 27.27% 140 22 Ireland 93.48% 90.00% 91.30% 100.00% 0.9326 43 0.8315 83.70% 86.67% 82.61% 81.82% Israel 15 Italy 0.9551 95.65% 100.00% 95.65% 90.91% 146 Jamaica 33.70% 43.33% 30.43% 27.27% 0.3146 5 0.9831 98.37% 100.00% 95.65% 100.00% Japan 117 Jordan 0.4831 50.00% 60.00% 52.17% 36.36% 42 Kazakhistan 0.8371 84.24% 86.67% 91.30% 72.73% 246

277 Data Tables DATA TABLES Table 12. E-Participation Index (EPI) and its utilisation by stages (continued) Country EPI Stage 1% Stage 2% Stage 3% Rank Total % 0.5337 110 73.91% 18.18% 54.89% Kenya 66.67% 27.72% 26.09% 9.09% 0.2528 46.67% 157 Kiribati 70.11% 93.33% 69.57% 72 Kuwait 0.691 45.45% 0.6854 69.57% 60.00% 82.61% 63.64% Kyrgizistan 75 0.1742 20.11% 33.33% 171 9.09% Lao People's Democratic Republic 17.39% Latvia 69.57% 76.67% 60.87% 72.73% 75 0.6854 0.4438 63.33% 39.13% 36.36% Lebanon 46.20% 122 0.0787 10.87% 23.33% 189 0.00% Lesotho 8.70% Liberia 0.427 44.57% 50.00% 60.87% 18.18% 127 Libya 0.1236 15.22% 26.67% 17.39% 0.00% 183 63 Liechtenstein 75.54% 86.67% 82.61% 54.55% 0.7472 Lithuania 0.8034 86.67% 82.61% 72.73% 51 80.98% 0.9382 96.67% 86.96% 100.00% Luxembourg 94.02% 19 0.3258 34.78% 50.00% 143 18.18% Madagascar 34.78% Malawi 0.2022 22.83% 40.00% 26.09% 0.00% 165 Malaysia 0.8876 89.13% 93.33% 91.30% 81.82% 32 129 Maldives 42.93% 56.67% 43.48% 27.27% 0.4101 Mali 26.63% 43.33% 26.09% 9.09% 159 0.2416 Malta 0.8483 85.33% 96.67% 78.26% 81.82% 39 171 Marshall Islands 20.11% 36.67% 21.74% 0.00% 0.1742 170 0.1798 20.65% 30.00% 21.74% 9.09% Mauritania 72 Mauritius 0.691 70.11% 93.33% 69.57% 45.45% 17 Mexico 94.57% 93.33% 91.30% 100.00% 0.9438 Micronesia 0.1404 26.67% 21.74% 0.00% 179 16.85% 0.5618 80.00% 47.83% 45.45% Monaco 57.61% 105 0.736 74.46% 73.33% 65 81.82% Mongolia 69.57% Montenegro 0.7416 75.00% 76.67% 60.87% 90.91% 64 Morocco 0.7753 78.26% 80.00% 73.91% 81.82% 56 122 Mozambique 46.20% 43.33% 56.52% 36.36% 0.4438 Myanmar 16.30% 26.67% 13.04% 9.09% 181 0.1348 Namibia 0.3933 41.30% 63.33% 47.83% 9.09% 133 177 Nauru 17.39% 20.00% 21.74% 9.09% 0.1461 55 0.7809 78.80% 80.00% 82.61% 72.73% Nepal 4 Netherlands 0.9888 98.91% 96.67% 100.00% 100.00% 5 New Zealand 98.37% 100.00% 95.65% 100.00% 0.9831 Nicaragua 40.76% 46.67% 39.13% 36.36% 134 0.3876 Niger 0.2135 23.91% 30.00% 30.43% 9.09% 163 117 Nigeria 50.00% 63.33% 56.52% 27.27% 0.4831 11 0.9775 97.83% 93.33% 100.00% 100.00% Norway 43 Oman 0.8315 83.70% 83.33% 78.26% 90.91% 115 Pakistan 51.63% 66.67% 65.22% 18.18% 0.5 157 0.2528 27.72% 46.67% 26.09% 9.09% Palau 66 Panama 0.7191 72.83% 86.67% 60.87% 72.73% 165 Papua New Guinea 0.2022 22.83% 40.00% 26.09% 0.00% 247

278 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Table 12. E-Participation Index (EPI) and its utilisation by stages (continued) Country EPI Stage 1% Stage 2% Stage 3% Rank Total % 0.573 101 73.91% 27.27% 58.70% Paraguay 70.00% 86.96% 86.96% 90.91% 0.8652 83.33% 36 Peru 94.02% 100.00% 91.30% 19 Philippines 0.9382 90.91% 0.8933 89.67% 100.00% 86.96% 81.82% Poland 31 0.8989 90.22% 96.67% 30 81.82% Portugal 91.30% Qatar 72.28% 73.33% 78.26% 63.64% 67 0.7135 1 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% Republic of Korea 100.00% 1 0.8596 86.41% 76.67% 37 90.91% Republic of Moldova 91.30% Romania 0.7079 71.74% 70.00% 65.22% 81.82% 69 Russian Federation 0.9213 92.39% 93.33% 100.00% 81.82% 23 59 Rwanda 76.63% 83.33% 73.91% 72.73% 0.7584 Saint Kittis and Nevis 0.5843 60.00% 56.52% 63.64% 98 59.78% 0.2191 36.67% 26.09% 9.09% Saint Lucia 24.46% 161 0.5169 53.26% 50.00% 113 63.64% Saint Vincent and theGrenadines 47.83% Samoa 0.264 28.80% 46.67% 21.74% 18.18% 155 San Marino 0.2584 28.26% 53.33% 21.74% 9.09% 156 176 Sao Tome and Principe 18.48% 20.00% 17.39% 18.18% 0.1573 Saudi Arabia 72.28% 76.67% 82.61% 54.55% 67 0.7135 Senegal 0.5056 52.17% 63.33% 47.83% 45.45% 114 48 Serbia 82.07% 73.33% 82.61% 90.91% 0.8146 84 0.6461 65.76% 63.33% 69.57% 63.64% Seychelles 129 Sierra Leone 0.4101 42.93% 56.67% 43.48% 27.27% 13 Singapore 96.74% 100.00% 91.30% 100.00% 0.9663 Slovakia 0.809 80.00% 82.61% 81.82% 50 81.52% 0.8146 90.00% 82.61% 72.73% Slovenia 82.07% 48 0.2135 23.91% 30.00% 163 9.09% Solomon Islands 30.43% Somalia 0.1348 16.30% 13.33% 17.39% 18.18% 181 South Africa 0.8483 85.33% 96.67% 78.26% 81.82% 39 188 South Sudan 11.96% 26.67% 8.70% 0.00% 0.0899 Spain 98.37% 100.00% 95.65% 100.00% 5 0.9831 Sri Lanka 0.6292 64.13% 73.33% 56.52% 63.64% 85 179 Sudan 16.85% 36.67% 13.04% 0.00% 0.1404 159 0.2416 26.63% 56.67% 21.74% 0.00% Suriname 19 Sweden 0.9382 94.02% 100.00% 91.30% 90.91% 41 84.78% 90.00% 82.61% 81.82% 0.8427 Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic 38.59% 43.33% 43.48% 27.27% 137 0.3652 Tajikistan 0.3876 40.76% 36.67% 47.83% 36.36% 134 82 Thailand 66.30% 86.67% 65.22% 45.45% 0.6517 71 0.7022 71.20% 76.67% 86.96% 45.45% The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" 153 Timor-Leste 0.2697 29.35% 46.67% 30.43% 9.09% 107 Togo 55.98% 70.00% 73.91% 18.18% 0.5449 120 0.4663 48.37% 60.00% 47.83% 36.36% Tonga 99 Trinidad and Tobago 0.5787 59.24% 76.67% 69.57% 27.27% 53 Tunisia 0.7978 80.43% 86.67% 73.91% 81.82% 248

279 Data Tables DATA TABLES Table 12. E-Participation Index (EPI) and its utilisation by stages (continued) Country EPI Stage 1% Stage 2% Stage 3% Rank Total % 0.8596 93.33% 91.30% 72.73% Turkey 86.41% 37 0.1124 14.13% 23.33% 186 0.00% Turkmenistan 17.39% Tuvalu 0.2191 24.46% 53.33% 4.35% 18.18% 161 87 0.6236 63.59% 70.00% 86.96% 27.27% Uganda 75 0.6854 69.57% 63.33% 65.22% 81.82% Ukraine United Arab Emirates 96.67% 94.57% 17 95.65% 90.91% 0.9438 5 0.9831 98.37% 100.00% 95.65% 100.00% United Kingoom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 92 United Republic of Tanzania 0.618 63.04% 83.33% 73.91% 27.27% 5 United States of America 98.37% 100.00% 95.65% 100.00% 0.9831 Uruguay 91.85% 93.33% 91.30% 90.91% 26 0.9157 Uzbekistan 0.7584 76.63% 59 86.96% 45.45% 93.33% 124 Vanuatu 0.4382 45.65% 60.00% 47.83% 27.27% 131 Venuzuela (Bolivian Republic of) 0.4045 42.39% 46.67% 43.48% 36.36% 72 Viet Nam 70.11% 83.33% 56.52% 72.73% 0.691 185 0.118 14.67% 26.67% 8.70% 9.09% Yemen 132 Zambia 0.3989 41.85% 56.67% 47.83% 18.18% 151 Zimbabwe 0.2753 29.89% 53.33% 26.09% 9.09% 249

280 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Table 13. Regional and Economic Groupings for E-Participation Index (EPI) Total Stage 1 Stage 3 EPI Stage 2 0.4020 0.2948 0.3890 0.3819 Small Island Developing States 0.5153 0.4568 0.5740 0.5150 0.3153 Landlocked Developing Countries 0.4745 Least Developed Countries 0.3490 0.4716 0.3617 0.1992 0.3270 High Income 0.8092 0.8655 0.7997 0.7598 0.8028 0.5443 0.5592 0.6400 0.5565 0.4744 Upper Middle Income Lower Middle Income 0.4622 0.4798 0.5745 0.5013 0.3494 Low Income 0.3440 0.4806 0.3857 0.2141 0.3654 0.3566 0.3929 0.5025 Africa 0.2222 0.3776 Americas 0.6172 0.6876 0.6174 0.5403 0.6043 Asia 0.6126 0.6252 0.7014 0.6364 0.5280 Europe 0.8165 0.8488 0.8140 0.7844 0.8103 Oceania 0.3632 0.3839 0.5143 0.3696 0.2597 World 0.5654 0.5796 0.6625 0.5850 0.4823 250

281 Data Tables DATA TABLES Table 14. Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) and its components Fixed (wired) Mobile cellular Active mobile- telephone broadband Fixed Percentage broadband of Individuals subscriptions subscriptions subscriptions telephone using subscritions per per 100 per 100 per 100 TII 100 inhabitants inhabitants the Internet inhabitants Country inhabitants 0.33 62.33 0.03 13.47 Afghanistan 0.1138 10.6 8.5 66.36 9.1 57.63 0.4318 Albania 115.15 8.38 115.85 42.95 7.04 65.7 Algeria 0.3889 50.07 42.04 97.93 0.7220 50.47 Andorra 92.04 1.06 13 0.43 13.97 0.0972 45.12 Angola 22.29 178.28 73 Antigua and Barbuda 40.61 0.5617 9.17 0.5927 22.67 145.33 70.97 16.49 78.05 Argentina 0.4660 Armenia 117.43 67 10.23 52.87 18.18 Australia 33.91 110.05 88.24 30.56 130.75 0.7436 0.7716 40.95 84.32 28.96 87.07 Austria 163.79 17.48 78.2 18.55 56.21 0.5062 104.77 Azerbaijan 30.95 92.07 80 Bahamas 51.3 0.5393 21.41 0.8466 19.64 210.14 98 16.29 157.34 Bahrain 0.1976 0.47 83.45 Bangladesh 4.05 27.07 18.25 Barbados 49.02 116.57 79.55 32.44 45.3 0.6719 0.6881 120.67 71.11 32.36 67.53 Belarus 47.63 0.6930 38.48 110.5 Belgium 37.6 65.86 86.52 Belize 0.2247 6.27 61.86 44.58 6 13.39 Benin 0.1418 1.15 81.79 11.99 0.2 8.11 Bhutan 0.3080 87.54 41.77 2.07 68.41 2.64 0.3148 7.97 39.7 2.64 56.58 Bolivia(Plurinational State of) 92.82 21.18 54.74 18.84 40.51 0.4385 96.79 Bosnia and Herzegovina 6.32 146.16 39.36 Botswana 62.63 0.3982 2.62 0.5220 20.15 117.54 60.87 12.88 88.47 Brazil 0.6066 17.54 123.69 Brunei Darussalam 8.53 119.5 90 Bulgaria 20.74 125.83 59.83 23.8 87.39 0.5785 0.1603 82.61 13.96 0.05 19.64 Burkina Faso 0.41 0.07860 0.19 50.91 Burundi 0.04 8.79 5.17 Cambodia 0.3132 1.44 126.35 32.4 0.61 50.76 Cameroon 0.1790 4.48 79.86 25 0.2 10.51 Canada 0.6724 84.74 89.84 36.89 68.81 41.76 0.3926 111.56 50.32 2.88 66.55 Cabo Verde 12 0.0322 0.04 27.17 4 0.02 3.5 Central African Republic Chad 0.0669 43.11 5 0.07 9.22 0.1 Chile 18.84 130.11 66.01 16.22 72.11 0.5377 China 0.4735 14.72 97.25 53.2 22.99 69.37 Colombia 0.4412 120.62 58.14 12.15 46.87 14.63 Comoros 1.64 57.11 7.94 0.36 0 0.0871 Congo 0.1889 0.33 105.82 8.12 0.01 23.41 Costa Rica 0.6343 17.5 171.51 66.03 13.1 108.05 251

282 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Table 14. Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) and its components (continued) Active mobile- Mobile cellular Fixed (wired) broadband Fixed Percentage telephone broadband of Individuals subscriptions subscriptions subscriptions telephone using per 100 subscritions per per 100 per 100 inhabitants the Internet TII inhabitants 100 inhabitants Country inhabitants 1.22 115.85 26.53 0.58 43.72 0.2748 Côte d'Ivoire 34.08 104.77 Croatia 24.77 77.22 0.6051 72.7 0.1455 34.75 38.77 0.13 0 Cuba 11.52 37.72 75.9 32.77 96.69 Cyprus 0.7279 133.42 16.57 117.66 76.48 28.93 0.5971 80.39 Czech Republic Democratic People's Republic 0.0327 4.65 12.9 0 0 14.21 of Korea 36.69 0.0645 0 Democratic Republic of the 6.21 0.001 13.18 Congo Denmark 122.29 96.97 42.54 123.57 0.7978 27.26 2.65 13.13 2.87 11.25 0.0961 Djibouti 36.64 18.12 106.66 67.03 21.06 40.71 Dominica 0.4775 0.3655 12.63 61.33 7.21 49.77 Dominican Republic 81.78 0.3699 84.73 54.06 9.79 46.93 Ecuador 14.96 0.3222 6.39 102.2 41.25 4.67 47.28 Egypt 0.3810 El Salvador 29 6.23 29.08 14.71 151.89 0.1010 47.13 23.78 0.28 0.25 Equatioral Guinea 0.9 0 1.33 10.21 1.18 0.01 0 Eritrea 0.7613 28.24 144.61 87.24 30.22 Estonia 121.61 Eswatini 0.1772 3.13 74.08 28.57 0.52 12.59 Ethiopia 0.0976 50.02 15.37 0.55 5.23 1.12 0.3562 8.25 46.51 1.37 54.3 Fiji 116.24 8.31 87.7 31.11 152.31 0.7284 133.85 Finland 60.27 104.4 85.62 France 82.45 0.7979 42.74 0.4250 0.96 149.64 48.05 0.76 83.36 Gabon 0.2627 1.86 139.23 Gambia 0.18 21.2 18.5 Georgia 21.24 140.95 58.01 17.57 64.03 0.5403 0.7952 126.31 89.65 39.07 77.03 Germany 53.84 0.3558 0.89 135.8 Ghana 0.31 69.64 34.67 Greece 0.6439 46.5 112.12 69.09 32.32 51.05 Grenada 0.4658 24.95 110.86 55.86 19.4 32.85 Guatemala 0.2941 110.14 34.51 3.05 13.93 14.8 0.1513 87.13 9.8 0.01 15.33 Guinea 0 0.1028 0 70.82 Guinea-Bissau 0.04 6.95 3.76 Guyana 0.2541 18.31 75.61 35.66 7.4 0.24 Haiti 0.1078 0.05 59.96 12.23 0.01 10.19 Honduras 0.2268 85.95 30 2.42 23.3 4.86 Hungary 31.99 120.78 79.26 28.86 45.09 0.6071 Iceland 0.8292 49.5 120.8 98.24 38.51 106.45 India 0.2009 1.84 85.17 29.55 1.41 16.41 33.91 Indonesia 0.3222 4.12 147.66 25.37 2 252

283 Data Tables DATA TABLES Table 14. Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) and its components (continued) Active mobile- Mobile cellular Fixed (wired) Percentage Fixed telephone broadband broadband subscriptions of Individuals subscriptions telephone subscriptions per 100 subscritions per using per 100 per 100 inhabitants TII inhabitants inhabitants 100 inhabitants Country the Internet 38.24 53.23 11.61 33.85 0.4566 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 100.3 5.46 Iraq 21.23 0.01 16.24 0.1840 81.19 0.6970 103.15 85.01 28.78 100.8 Ireland 40.14 40.78 79.65 27.56 91.55 0.7095 129.03 Israel 34.1 153 61.32 Italy 88.06 0.6771 26.19 0.3941 10.77 113.4 45 9.93 55.16 Jamaica 0.8406 50.18 130.61 93.18 31.16 131.12 Japan 0.4406 Jordan 62.3 4.83 103.84 4.27 103.84 21.85 74.59 13.06 74.23 0.5723 Kazakhistan 141.96 0.15 80.44 26 0.33 25.89 Kenya 0.1901 0.0773 0.57 13.7 0.06 0.87 Kiribati 45.46 0.7394 133.07 78.37 2.5 254.42 Kuwait 9.95 0.3418 6.42 127.84 34.5 4.04 44.86 Kyrgizistan Lao People's Democratic 58.57 21.87 0.36 36.65 0.2246 18.74 Republic 18.42 134.5 79.84 26.35 76.34 Latvia 0.6188 0.5219 30.24 81.42 76.11 21.64 56.8 Lebanon 0.2468 1.87 103.59 27.36 0.1 35.9 Lesotho 67.56 0.1036 0.17 5.25 7.32 0.17 Liberia Libya 0.3353 121.72 20.27 2.68 35.42 21.84 0.8389 43.5 98.09 42.31 119.48 Liechtenstein 117.61 18.25 74.38 29.49 71.71 0.6293 144.58 Lithuania 48.01 132.7 98.14 Luxembourg 83.72 0.7964 35.28 0.0499 0.6 32.13 4.71 0.11 8.12 Madagascar 0.0834 0.06 39.68 Malawi 0.05 18.21 9.61 Malaysia 15.51 140.8 78.79 8.72 91.49 0.5647 0.5159 189.86 59.09 6.85 61.94 Maldives 4.94 0.2074 1.12 112.35 Mali 0.12 23.18 11.11 Malta 0.7657 54.59 123.94 77.29 39.89 71.93 Marshall Islands 0.1037 4.46 29.25 29.79 1.88 0 Mauritania 0.1878 84.03 18 0.25 29.34 1.24 0.5435 143.73 52.19 16.84 51.56 Mauritius 30.86 0.4173 16.04 87.6 59.54 12.58 58.86 Mexico Micronesia 0.1118 22.31 33.35 3.02 0 6.56 Monaco 120.98 86.49 95.21 48.35 75.05 1 Mongolia 0.3602 7.44 111.24 22.27 7.47 80.28 Montenegro 0.6059 165.56 69.88 18.27 59.97 23.55 Morocco 5.87 117.68 58.27 3.56 44.84 0.3697 Mozambique 0.1398 0.29 52.12 17.52 0.16 32.77 Myanmar 0.2565 0.97 95.65 25.07 0.17 56.3 64.98 Namibia 0.3230 7.58 107.27 31.03 2.59 253

284 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Table 14. Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) and its components (continued) Active mobile- Mobile cellular Fixed (wired) Percentage Fixed telephone broadband broadband subscriptions of Individuals subscriptions telephone subscriptions per 100 subscritions per using per 100 per 100 inhabitants TII inhabitants inhabitants 100 inhabitants Country the Internet 0 54 9.48 32.61 0.3033 Nauru 87.25 2.96 Nepal 19.69 0.77 30.54 0.2413 110.83 0.7758 122.97 90.41 42.28 88.4 Netherlands 39.88 37.76 88.47 32.84 100.84 0.7455 124.44 New Zealand 5.96 125.94 24.57 Nicaragua 23.47 0.2825 2.88 0.0795 0.78 42.18 4.32 0.13 18.33 Niger 0.1883 0.08 82.98 25.67 0.06 23.27 Nigeria 0.7131 Norway 97.3 40.35 111.38 15.34 109.04 9.55 69.93 6.43 91.46 0.5310 Oman 155.18 1.61 70.65 15.51 0.85 19.9 Pakistan 0.1529 0.334 33.84 26.97 5.75 0 Palau 111.53 0.4543 127.46 54 9.59 59.18 Panama 15.91 0.0875 1.9 46.78 9.6 0.21 8.89 Papua New Guinea 0.3507 Paraguay 51.35 3.56 49.38 5.21 111.36 0.3913 116.24 45.46 6.67 61.61 Peru 9.68 0.3547 3.71 109.37 55.5 5.47 46.36 Philippines 0.5805 21.3 138.66 73.3 19.17 68.59 Poland 111.57 0.6617 46.16 62.45 70.42 32.55 Portugal Qatar 0.6797 142.13 94.29 9.87 139.92 18.18 0.8496 55.2 92.84 40.47 109.69 Republic of Korea 120.68 28.85 71 13.73 47.28 0.4787 93.32 Republic of Moldova 20.78 115.78 59.5 Romania 80.19 0.5471 22.49 0.6219 22.42 159.15 73.09 19.12 73.7 Russian Federation 0.1733 0.11 74.86 Rwanda 0.18 28.92 20 Saint Kittis and Nevis 31.8 139.7 76.82 29.92 78.66 0.6825 0.4110 99.23 46.73 16.73 38.74 Saint Lucia 19.97 0.4583 18.74 102.74 aint Vincent and the Grenadines 19.94 49.32 55.57 Samoa 0.2064 4.96 77.39 29.41 1.11 22.51 San Marino 0.7075 48.19 110.14 49.6 36.14 110.14 Sao Tome and Principe 0.3053 89.06 28 0.71 87.66 2.87 0.5334 148.51 73.75 10.19 74 Saudi Arabia 11.27 0.2240 1.86 98.54 25.66 0.64 26.04 Senegal Serbia 0.6208 130.24 67.06 20.78 72.81 37.53 Seychelles 22.11 161.16 56.51 14.89 22.64 0.5008 Sierra Leone 0.1597 0.23 84.9 11.77 0 20.38 Singapore 0.8019 150.48 81 25.99 148.44 35.54 Slovakia 15.13 128.39 80.48 24.55 78.99 0.5964 Slovenia 0.6231 35.2 114.82 75.5 28.31 62.3 Solomon Islands 0.1285 1.24 69.5 11 0.27 12.86 1.96 Somalia 0.0586 0.34 46.47 1.88 0.64 254

285 Data Tables DATA TABLES Table 14. Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) and its components (continued) Fixed (wired) Mobile cellular Active mobile- telephone broadband Fixed Percentage broadband of Individuals subscriptions telephone subscriptions subscriptions per 100 per 100 using per 100 subscritions per Country 100 inhabitants inhabitants the Internet inhabitants inhabitants TII 8.07 56.34 54 2.05 0.4231 South Africa 147.13 0 6.68 0 1.15 0.0262 South Sudan 22.08 42.36 111.16 80.56 30.45 89.55 Spain 0.6986 0.3136 11.92 32.05 4.29 19.19 Sri Lanka 124.03 0.1780 70.26 28 0.07 25.78 Sudan 0.34 0.4595 15.94 144.51 45.4 12.75 Suriname 47.29 Sweden 31.56 127.5 89.65 37.41 123.41 0.7835 0.8428 47.23 89.13 45.13 100.56 133.81 Switzerland 0.2532 72.43 31.87 Syrian Arab Republic 12.84 5.48 18.8 5.36 107.61 20.47 0.07 18.29 Tajikistan 0.2254 0.5338 6.83 173.78 47.5 10.48 92.9 Thailand The former Yugoslav Republic 17.7 98.52 72.16 18.33 57.14 0.4859 of Macedonia 0.2937 117.61 25.25 0.08 60.75 Timor-Leste 0.21 0.1353 0.44 72.38 Togo 0.59 15.02 11.31 Tonga 0.2951 10.27 74.68 39.95 2.8 56.01 Trinidad and Tobago 0.5735 19.94 158.67 73.3 18.72 46.73 Tunisia 0.4066 125.25 49.6 5.62 62.68 8.55 0.4298 13.93 58.35 13.21 65.07 Turkey 94.4 11.74 0.07 17.99 0.3011 13.62 Turkmenistan 151.43 0.2693 68.49 46.01 9.01 0 Tuvalu 18.02 0.1566 0.89 55.05 21.88 0.26 33.69 Uganda Ukraine 0.4364 135.2 52.48 12.22 23.01 20.14 0.8564 214.73 90.6 14 164.89 United Arab Emirates 24.66 94.78 0.8004 50.94 119.98 United Kingoom of Great Britain 38.29 89.23 and Northern Ireland United Republic of Tanzania 0.1403 0.23 72.06 13 3.33 8.94 United States of America 0.7564 37.72 122.88 76.18 33 127 Uruguay 0.6967 148.57 66.4 26.76 101.88 32.33 0.3307 73.98 46.79 8.73 53.47 Uzbekistan 10.85 0.1920 1.68 80.84 24 Vanuatu 22.19 1.66 Venuzuela (Bolivian 0.4148 24.27 87.43 60 8.27 50.53 Republic of) Viet Nam 0.3890 5.92 127.53 46.5 9.61 46.44 Yemen 4.23 59.57 24.58 1.56 5.72 0.1454 Zambia 0.1853 0.61 72.43 25.51 0.19 31.08 Zimbabwe 0.2144 1.89 79.74 23.12 1.06 41.63 Note: Last accessed in December 2017 International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Source: 255

286 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Source UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) Year 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 Mean Year of Schooling Index Value 10.9 9 10.3 3.5 8.2 9.2 5 13.1 9.2 5.2 3 7.8 4.7 11.2 9 6.1 11.3 3.5 9.4 9.6 13.2 1.4 10.5 10.5 10.8 3.1 11.3 12 9.8 7.8 11.4 Source UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO Year 2015 2015 2012 2015 2015 2014 2015 2015 2015 2014 2013 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2012 2015 2015 2015 2013 2015 2015 2015 2015 2014 2015 2015 2015 2014 Expected Year of Schooling Index Value 14.2 12.7 13.5 12.82 10.7 15.40 17.29 13.95 16.04 11.4 10.77 12.19 13.8 15.95 10.9 10.2 20.47 12.7 12.6 15.29 16.3 15.52 7.70 13.19 12.52 15.60 14.4 19.98 14.94 10.6 14.74 Source UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO Year 2014 2014 2014 2011 2015 2015 2008 2011 2014 2011 2015 2015 2014 2011 2013 2012 2014 2015 2000 2015 2014 2015 2015 2015 2015 2010 2013 2012 2013 2007 2015 Gross Enrollment Ratio Index Value 86.39 101.05 75.97 90.53 119.38 91.08 68.25 80.97 74.48 99.93 46.54 82.03 64.23 95.74 69 59.22 73.58 79.25 84.49 71.95 88.54 71.11 73.10 95.64 74 93.04 67.10 69.52 71 80.91 Source UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO 116.23 UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) 2015 2015 2015 2016 2014 2014 Year 2015 2015 2015 2014 2015 2015 2015 2016 2014 2014 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2013 2015 2014 2015 2016 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 Adult Literacy (%) 64.9 38.2 98.1 98.5 95.7 38.4 Value 71.1 100.00 72.76 82.7 95.80 97.6 99.7 99.0 36 Index 99.7 99.8 99 95.7 99 92.6 75 99 88.5 85.6 98.4 77.2 80.2 99.79 99 96.4 0.3562 HCI 0.7217 0.4743 0.8579 0.7897 0.6765 0.3653 0.5060 0.8681 0.7309 0.4763 0.2097 0.7249 0.8301 0.7877 0.7518 0.8744 1 0.8106 0.5626 0.6640 0.8505 0.7525 0.5113 0.5618 0.7148 0.7369 0.9740 0.7547 0.6694 0.7480 Country Afghanistan Albania Algeria Argentina Barbados Bhutan Benin Australia Bangladesh Antigua and Barbuda Austria Armenia Bahrain Belize Angola Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Azerbaijan Bahamas Belarus Andorra Belgium Botswana Bulgaria Brunei Darussalam Burkina Faso Canada Cameroon Brazil Cambodia Burundi Bosnia and Herzegovina Table 15. Human Capital Index (HCI) and its components 256

287 Data Tables DATA TABLES Source UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) estimation UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) Year 2015 2015 2016 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2017 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 Mean Year of Schooling Value Index 8.3 10.5 6.8 7.9 6.3 5.5 9.9 7.6 5 2.6 4.2 5.47 7.1 6.8 11.2 12.3 4.8 6.5 2.3 12.5 11.8 4.8 12.7 8.7 7.7 7.6 11.7 3.9 4.1 Source UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) Year 2015 2015 2011 2011 2014 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2014 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2012 2014 2015 2015 2015 2015 2013 2015 2012 2015 Expected Year of Schooling Index Value 15.3 14.0 8.44 9.20 13.75 11.09 16.48 13.19 14.42 14.01 9.8 16.94 9.2 15.22 6.29 11.41 14.57 15.14 16.35 12.89 13.10 7.30 19.30 11.1 10.96 12.8 5.35 7.10 13.81 Source UNDP UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO Year 2013 2015 2011 2015 2015 2013 2015 2014 2011 2014 2015 2015 2014 2015 2015 2011 2015 2015 2015 2014 2012 2014 2012 2015 2015 2013 2015 2015 Gross Enrollment Ratio Value Index 88.87 64.45 95.07 59.45 67.02 46.19 55.25 55.00 32.76 36.81 42.49 75.77 85.67 74.17 54.59 80.22 66.94 97.83 89.24 73.00 97.17 88.0 66.73 78.01 79.97 79.54 89.41 94.21 105.71 Source UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) 2016 2015 2015 2015 2015 2014 2015 2014 2015 2015 2010 2016 2014 2016 2015 2015 2015 2015 Year 2015 2015 2015 2015 2014 2015 2014 2015 2015 2015 2015 Adult Literacy (%) 94.35 91.8 36.8 43.1 99.1 Value 79.3 87.6 Index 97.8 95.3 99.3 70.30 77.04 77.8 88.4 75.2 100 95.12 22.31 97.3 99.8 99.00 99.7 73.8 94.40 49.1 94.7 87.5 88.00 99 0.7395 0.2347 HCI 0.6927 0.7933 0.8083 0.5515 0.6152 0.3357 0.8752 0.8339 0.6345 0.7088 0.6072 0.5397 0.5939 0.7382 0.1644 0.5166 0.6497 0.8196 0.3179 0.8818 0.3325 0.7899 0.6150 0.3094 0.9472 0.7862 0.5108 Country Congo Cabo Verde Colombia Croatia Czech Republic Cuba China Chile Comoros Central African Republic Costa Rica Chad Cyprus Côte d'Ivoire Dominica Democratic Republic of the Denmark Ethiopia of Korea Democratic People's Republic Fiji Djibouti Eritrea Congo Dominican Republic Eswatini Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatioral Guinea Estonia Table 15. Human Capital Index (HCI) and its components (continued) 257

288 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Source UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) Year 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 Mean Year of Schooling Value Index 8.1 5.2 11.6 6.6 3.3 2.9 9.6 12.2 6.3 8.6 7.9 12 8.4 8.8 11.2 6.2 6.3 12.8 12.3 12.2 10.9 2.6 6.9 13.2 10.5 Source UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO Year 2014 2015 2015 2015 2015 2013 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2014 2015 2015 2015 2015 2012 2015 2015 2014 2015 Expected Year of Schooling Value Index 16.27 12.6 9.1 19.65 11.92 16.01 10.35 11.52 16.72 14.93 17.78 17.29 12.8 10.1 19.34 15.37 12.77 8.82 16.22 8.9 15.44 19.63 10.88 11.96 9.2 Source UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO 2014 Year 2010 2012 2015 2001 2015 2015 2015 2014 2004 2014 2015 2000 2015 2015 2015 2013 2015 2015 2015 2014 2015 2013 2015 2006 Gross Enrollment Ratio 96.15 76.26 55.70 68.54 53.11 68.60 99.79 68.61 71.21 105.78 76.15 86.33 70.23 79.86 111.54 90.34 Index 94.07 115.41 90.86 39.40 102.56 97.87 Value 54.48 90.17 62.46 Source UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) 2014 2011 2016 2015 2015 2014 2005 2016 2011 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2014 2015 2014 2015 2015 Year 2015 Adult Literacy (%) 86.8 99.00 79.7 97.7 99.00 99 95.38 88.99 83.2 99.2 88.7 98.85 99.00 60.7 55.5 96.00 30.4 97.76 72.1 99.00 88.5 99.8 76.6 79.3 Value Index 59.9 0.7364 0.8598 0.6015 0.9626 0.6857 0.6398 0.9509 0.6957 0.5094 0.8867 0.8364 0.8202 0.5524 0.6102 0.5669 0.3539 0.9365 0.3620 0.5484 0.8635 0.9036 0.8341 0.2406 HCI 0.8333 0.3869 Italy Indonesia Greece Honduras Georgia Israel Iraq Haiti Ghana Hungary Guyana Grenada Gabon Iran (Islamic Republic of) Jamaica Gambia Iceland Germany Ireland India France Guinea Finland Guinea-Bissau Guatemala Country Table 15. Human Capital Index (HCI) and its components (continued) 258

289 Data Tables DATA TABLES Source UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) Year 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2011 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 Mean Year of Schooling Value Index 12 6.2 4.4 10.1 2.3 6.3 7.3 7.3 7.8 8.6 5.2 4.3 12.4 10.1 11.3 10.8 11.7 6.1 4.4 12.7 8.6 10.9 6.1 9.1 11.7 12.5 9.7 Source UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO Year 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2014 2014 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2014 2015 2015 2002 2011 2015 2015 2014 2015 2015 2016 2015 Expected Year of Schooling Index Value 13.9 13.3 13.36 13.41 10.50 10.74 10.91 10.72 13.30 13.13 12.93 14.89 13.4 11.7 12.7 14.71 13.3 9.9 11.9 8.4 11.1 15.59 15.01 12.32 13.1 8.84 15.36 Source UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO Year 2012 2015 2015 2013 2011 2003 2015 2015 2014 2014 2014 2015 2014 2012 2015 2004 2011 2000 2008 2016 2002 2014 2009 2014 2015 2015 2003 Gross Enrollment Ratio 77.31 Value Index 93.73 94.82 75.43 74.62 62.79 67.22 80.17 66.20 77.76 93.35 86.91 85.04 89.84 76.76 75.14 52.55 68.93 69.12 81.19 63.54 51.08 94.38 75.24 63.92 81.28 63.43 Source Survey UNESCO Survey UNDP (HDI) UN E-GOV UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UN E-GOV UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) 2014 2015 2015 2014 Year 2014 2015 2015 2015 2014 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2011 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2014 Adult Literacy (%) 78 93.9 99.00 99.5 99.8 96.2 64.7 Index 94.00 96.7 99.8 Value 99.00 65.8 94.1 52.1 99.9 93.00 79.4 98.27 91 99.00 90.6 79.9 47.6 38.7 94.6 94.4 99.3 HCI 0.6649 0.7628 0.5472 0.7803 0.8428 0.8323 0.7387 0.8388 0.6852 0.6889 0.4822 0.4720 0.5324 0.7301 0.7044 0.8131 0.7973 0.3772 0.3467 0.6754 0.7308 0.8237 0.2558 0.6987 0.5254 0.7173 0.6591 Country Republic Mauritania Mexico Marshall Islands Kenya Mauritius Malawi Kuwait Lao People's Democratic Japan Maldives Malaysia Malta Luxembourg Kyrgizistan Jordan Micronesia Kazakhistan Lithuania Mali Madagascar Kiribati Libya Liechtenstein Liberia Latvia Lesotho Lebanon Table 15. Human Capital Index (HCI) and its components (continued) 259

290 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Source UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) estimation UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) estimation UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) Year 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2017 2015 2015 2017 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 Mean Year of Schooling Value Index 7.12 1.7 8.1 9 6.7 8.1 12.5 6 4.3 6.5 12.3 11.27 4.7 3.5 11.9 5.1 9.9 9.8 11.3 4.1 12.7 5 Source UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO Year 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2010 2015 2015 2015 2012 2015 2015 2012 2013 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 Expected Year of Schooling Index Value 19.36 14.3 12.05 11.8 11.7 11.7 13.4 9.1 9.59 15.13 12.3 5.4 12.19 15.01 12.80 10.0 13.7 17.68 8.24 9.7 18.12 9.9 Source UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNDP UNESCO Year 2015 2007 2008 2014 2015 2015 2012 2015 2011 2006 2012 2013 2015 2010 2012 2012 2015 2013 2010 2010 2014 2011 Gross Enrollment Ratio 105.67 Index Value 72.93 71.59 88.66 69.77 98.06 99.00 76.54 36.63 53.00 87.90 61.52 75.97 70.00 70.28 78.93 83.62 50.17 97.67 106.92 56.13 55.64 Source UNESCO Survey Survey UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UN E-GOV UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UN E-GOV UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) 2014 Year 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2014 2015 2014 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2014 2015 2015 2014 2015 Adult Literacy (%) 82.8 98.4 98.7 99.00 72.4 99.00 Index 99.00 64.2 19.1 Value 58.8 94.8 95.6 95 99.00 93.1 64.7 59.6 81.9 94.5 58.7 92.00 99.5 HCI 0.5847 0.5278 0.9450 0.8172 0.7899 0.9206 0.0894 0.9025 0.7013 0.3951 0.6701 0.4778 0.7137 0.7901 0.7274 0.3682 0.5127 0.5850 0.4957 0.4261 0.8462 0.5619 Country Papua New Guinea Panama Nigeria Niger Morocco New Zealand Myanmar Norway Netherlands Nicaragua Peru Pakistan Mozambique Namibia Monaco Oman Montenegro Paraguay Nepal Palau Nauru Mongolia Table 15. Human Capital Index (HCI) and its components (continued) 260

291 Data Tables DATA TABLES Source UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) estimation UNDP (HDI) estimation UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) Year 2015 2015 2015 2015 2017 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2017 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 Mean Year of Schooling Value Index 12.2 5.3 11.6 12.2 5.3 8.6 10.3 3.3 0.97 9.3 11.9 9.3 3.8 9.8 10.8 11.36 10.8 9.6 9.4 8.4 8.9 12 11.9 10.3 12.1 2.8 9.8 4.8 Source UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO Year 2015 2015 2015 2013 2015 2015 2012 2015 2014 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2014 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2014 2015 2014 2015 2015 Expected Year of Schooling Index Value 12.96 16.52 16.4 2.40 8.98 14.39 15.0 16.50 13.34 13.3 17.35 14.55 11.97 10.55 9.6 15.40 14.09 11.7 16.11 13.1 12.9 15.38 11.63 9.5 14.93 8.00 15.11 17.88 Source UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNDP UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO Year 2015 2015 2014 2014 2000 2015 2001 2007 2015 2014 2013 2014 2015 2014 2014 2015 2004 2012 2015 2015 2015 2014 2015 2015 2015 2007 2014 2015 Gross Enrollment Ratio 80.27 Value 96.85 Index 95.68 98.58 38.00 71.32 85.33 55.42 60.02 53.51 77.43 98.46 84.73 73.53 81.85 95.23 70.27 85.13 102.80 83.82 78.28 45.43 85.21 17.00 70.34 95.15 77.23 109.29 Source UNDP (HDI) Survey Survey UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UN E-Gov UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UN E-Gov UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) 2015 2014 2014 2015 2014 2015 2015 2015 Year 2015 2015 2015 1999 2015 2015 2015 2015 2014 2014 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2014 2015 2015 Adult Literacy (%) 74.9 99.00 94.7 94.3 31.9 99.4 95.7 98.8 Index Value 48.1 95.2 99.7 70.5 99.8 96.8 55.7 97.8 99.7 96.3 99.6 97.80 88.10 99.00 24.00 98.1 99 76.6 94.80 98.1 0.5830 0.8743 HCI 0.8100 0.7274 0.7291 0.2269 0.8167 0.8522 0.7944 0.3427 0.4815 0.7299 0.3081 0.8557 0.8668 0.8141 0 0.7896 0.7170 0.8102 0.7491 0.8923 0.6683 0.6820 0.7022 0.4732 0.7241 0.8884 Country Saint Vincent and the Slovenia Slovakia South Sudan Singapore Sierra Leone Seychelles Serbia Senegal Saudi Arabia Sao Tome and Principe South Africa Philippines Grenadines Somalia Saint Lucia Saint Kittis and Nevis Poland Solomon Islands Rwanda Russian Federation Romania Republic of Moldova Republic of Korea Qatar Portugal Samoa San Marino Spain Table 15. Human Capital Index (HCI) and its components (continued) 261

292 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Source UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) estimation UNDP (HDI) Year 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2017 2015 2015 2016 2015 2015 2015 Mean Year of Schooling Index Value 10.4 8.3 12.3 3.5 5.1 13.4 10.9 7.9 5.7 10.9 9.5 11.1 4.7 4.4 5.8 7.9 13.3 9.9 8.3 11.3 7.1 6.93 Source UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO pdf complete. hdr2013_en_ reports/14/ default/files/ org/sites/ hdr.undp. http:// Year 2015 2015 2013 2013 2015 2013 2015 2015 2014 2015 2015 2015 2015 2012 2001 2014 2015 2015 2015 2014 2015 2015 Expected Year of Schooling Index Value 13.99 12.7 16.03 18.60 11.3 9.03 16.17 7.21 17.22 12.7 14.75 8.9 13.12 17.94 15.31 13.33 10.0 14.3 10.96 12.5 10.80 12.0 Source UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO Year 2014 2015 2013 2015 2013 2012 2002 2013 2003 2015 2010 2004 2011 2014 2014 2011 2014 2013 2014 2015 2001 2015 Gross Enrollment Ratio Value Index 47.70 95.35 69.73 50.60 107.99 78.84 72.21 88.89 80.63 67.31 67.00 71.89 96.11 81.79 52.30 61.28 61.32 88.50 71.03 72.33 99.81 100.27 Source UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) Survey UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UN E-Gov UNDP (HDI) Year 2015 2015 2014 2014 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 2014 2014 Adult Literacy (%) 86.4 75.9 Value Index 95.6 99.00 92.6 99.00 96.7 99.8 66.5 73.9 99.4 80.3 67.5 99 99.00 99.8 98.00 97.8 93.8 81.8 99.7 95 HCI 0.4860 0.3873 0.6808 0.9366 0.7451 0.7002 0.8660 0.7903 0.4759 0.5058 0.4906 0.8038 0.5387 0.6422 0.6640 0.8436 0.7195 0.6626 0.6877 0.6924 0.8148 0.9200 Country Sudan Suriname Sweden Sri Lanka Switzerland Tajikistan Thailand Syrian Arab Republic Ukraine United Kingoom of Great United Arab Emirates The former Yugoslav Republic Uganda of Macedonia Britain and Northern Ireland Timor-Leste Trinidad and Tobago Tuvalu Tonga Tunisia Togo United Republic of Tanzania Turkey Turkmenistan Table 15. Human Capital Index (HCI) and its components (continued) 262

293 Data Tables DATA TABLES UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) Source UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) 2015 2015 2015 2015 Year 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 Mean Year of Schooling 7.7 6.9 3 8 Value Index 9.4 6.8 12 8.6 13.2 UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNESCO Source UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNDP (HDI) 2015 2015 2015 Year 2015 2015 2014 2015 2014 2016 Expected Year of Schooling 10.3 12.5 9.0 Value Index 12.6 15.00 10.8 12.29 14.3 16.54 UNDP UNESCO UNESCO Source UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO UNESCO 2013 2011 Year 2014 2009 2014 2016 2004 2014 Gross Enrollment Ratio 59.15 85.0 54.78 66.00 Value Index 87.78 63.51 87.91 70.24 96.39 UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) Source UNDP (HDI) UNESCO UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) UNDP (HDI) 2015 2015 2015 2015 2015 Year 2014 2015 2015 2015 Adult Literacy (%) 86.5 63.4 70.1 94.5 98.4 Index 99.00 85.2 99.6 Value 95.4 0.5668 0.5689 0.4037 0.6543 HCI 0.7719 0.7396 0.8883 0.5675 0.7615 UNESCO Institute of Statistics http://data.uis.unesco.org/ Zimbabwe Zambia Yemen Viet Nam Country Uzbekistan Venuzuela (Bolivian Republic of) Uruguay United States of America Vanuatu http://hdr.undp.org/en/data Note: Last accessed December 2017 Sources: Table 15. Human Capital Index (HCI) and its components (continued) 263

294 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Table 16. Regional and Economic grouping for E-Government Development Index (EGDI) GNI Per Capitas Region Level of Income Sub-Region (US dollars) Country EGDI Level Southern Asia Afghanistan 1970 Middle EGDI Asia Low Income High EGDI 11350 Southern Europe Upper Middle Income Albania Europe Middle EGDI Upper Middle Income 14390 Algeria Africa Northern Africa High EGDI High Income 43270*** Southern Europe Europe Andorra Middle Africa Middle EGDI Upper Middle Income Angola Africa 6090 Americas High EGDI High Income 22090 Antigua and Barbuda Caribbean South America High Income 19500 Americas High EGDI Argentina Western Asia High EGDI Lower Middle Income Armenia Asia 9020 Oceania Australia and New Zealand Very High EGDI High Income 45210 Australia Europe Western Europe Austria High Income 50530 Very High EGDI Azerbaijan Western Asia High EGDI Upper Middle Income 16130 Asia Americas Caribbean High Income 21640 Bahamas High EGDI Western Asia High Income 44170* Asia Very High EGDI Bahrain Southern Asia Middle EGDI Lower Middle Income Bangladesh Asia 3790 Americas Caribbean High EGDI High Income 17180 Barbados Europe Eastern Europe Very High EGDI Belarus 17220 Upper Middle Income Belgium Western Europe Very High EGDI High Income 45900 Europe Americas Middle EGDI Upper Middle Income 7930 Belize Central America Africa Western Africa Middle EGDI Benin 2170 Low Income Bhutan Asia Southern Asia Middle EGDI Lower Middle Income 8160 Bolivia(Plurinational State 7100 Americas South America High EGDI Lower Middle Income of) Bosnia and Herzegovina Southern Europe High EGDI Upper Middle Income 12190 Europe Africa Southern Africa Upper Middle Income 16680 Botswana Middle EGDI South America Upper Middle Income 14810 Americas High EGDI Brazil South-Eastern Asia High EGDI High Income Brunei Darussalam Asia 83010 Europe Eastern Europe High EGDI Upper Middle Income 19190 Bulgaria Africa Western Africa Middle EGDI Burkina Faso 1730 Low Income Burundi Eastern Africa Middle EGDI Low Income 770 Africa Asia Middle EGDI Low Income 3510 Cambodia South-Eastern Asia Africa Middle Africa Very High EGDI Cameroon 3540 Lower Middle Income Canada Americas Northern America Middle EGDI High Income 44020 Cabo Verde Africa Western Africa Middle EGDI Lower Middle Income 6220 Central African Republic Africa Low EGDI Low Income 700 Middle Africa Africa Low EGDI Low Income 1950 Chad Middle Africa Americas South America High EGDI High Income 22540 Chile China Asia High EGDI Upper Middle Income 15470 Eastern Asia Colombia South America High EGDI Upper Middle Income 13900 Americas Comoros Africa Eastern Africa Low EGDI Low Income 1540 Congo Africa Middle EGDI Lower Middle Income 5380 Middle Africa Costa Rica Central America High EGDI Upper Middle Income 15750 Americas Côte d'Ivoire Africa Western Africa Middle EGDI Lower Middle Income 3590 Croatia Europe Southern Europe High EGDI High Income 22630 264

295 Data Tables DATA TABLES Table 16. Regional and Economic grouping for E-Government Development Index (EGDI) (continued) GNI Per Capitas Region Sub-Region (US dollars) Country Level of Income EGDI Level Middle EGDI 5880^ Caribbean Upper Middle Income Cuba Americas Very High EGDI High Income 32200 Cyprus Asia Western Asia High EGDI High Income 32350 Eastern Europe Europe Czech Republic Asia Eastern Asia Democratic People's Low EGDI 506~ Low Income Republic of Korea Africa Middle Africa Middle EGDI Low Income 780 Democratic Republic of the Congo Europe Very High EGDI High Income 50290 Northern Europe Denmark Eastern Africa Low EGDI Djibouti 2200&& Africa Lower Middle Income Americas Caribbean High EGDI Upper Middle Income 10620 Dominica Americas Caribbean High EGDI Upper Middle Income 14480 Dominican Republic Americas Ecuador Upper Middle Income 11030 South America High EGDI Northern Africa Lower Middle Income 10980 Africa Egypt Middle EGDI Central America High EGDI Lower Middle Income 8220 El Salvador Americas Africa Middle Africa High Income 18290 Equatioral Guinea Low EGDI Africa Low EGDI Low Income 1500^ Eritrea Eastern Africa Europe Northern Europe Very High EGDI High Income 29040 Estonia Africa Eswatini Lower Middle Income 8310 Southern Africa Middle EGDI Africa Middle EGDI Low Income 1730 Ethiopia Eastern Africa Oceania Melanesia Middle EGDI Upper Middle Income 8710 Fiji Europe Northern Europe High EGDI High Income 43780 Finland France Europe Western Europe Very High EGDI High Income 42000 Gabon Africa Very High EGDI Upper Middle Income 16720 Middle Africa Africa Western Africa Low Income 1630 Gambia Middle EGDI Western Asia Lower Middle Income 9510 Asia Middle EGDI Georgia Western Europe High EGDI High Income Germany Europe 49690 Africa Western Africa Very High EGDI Lower Middle Income 4150 Ghana Europe Southern Europe High EGDI Greece 27150 High Income Grenada Caribbean Very High EGDI Upper Middle Income 13720 Americas Americas High EGDI Lower Middle Income 7750 Guatemala Central America Africa Western Africa Middle EGDI Guinea 1840 Low Income Guinea-Bissau Africa Western Africa Low EGDI Low Income 1550 Guyana Americas South America Low EGDI Lower Middle Income 7800 Haiti Americas Middle EGDI Low Income 1790 Caribbean Americas Middle EGDI Lower Middle Income 4410 Honduras Central America Europe Eastern Europe Middle EGDI Hungary 25360 High Income Iceland Europe Northern Europe High EGDI High Income 51170 India Asia Southern Asia Very High EGDI Lower Middle Income 6490 Indonesia Asia High EGDI Lower Middle Income 11220 South-Eastern Asia Iran (Islamic Republic of) Southern Asia High EGDI Upper Middle Income 20010 Asia Iraq Asia Western Asia High EGDI Upper Middle Income 17210 Ireland Europe Northern Europe Middle EGDI High Income 56920 36810 Israel Asia Western Asia Very High EGDI High Income 265

296 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Table 16. Regional and Economic grouping for E-Government Development Index (EGDI) (continued) GNI Per Capitas Region Level of Income Sub-Region (US dollars) Country EGDI Level Southern Europe Italy 38460 Very High EGDI Europe High Income Very High EGDI 8450 Caribbean Upper Middle Income Jamaica Americas Middle EGDI High Income 43540 Japan Asia Eastern Asia Very High EGDI Upper Middle Income 8980 Western Asia Asia Jordan Central Asia High EGDI Upper Middle Income Kazakhistan Asia 22930 Africa Very High EGDI Lower Middle Income 3120 Kenya Eastern Africa Micronesia Lower Middle Income 3050 Oceania Middle EGDI Kiribati Western Asia Middle EGDI High Income Kuwait Asia 83150 Asia Central Asia High EGDI Lower Middle income 3410 Kyrgizistan 6270 Asia South-Eastern Asia Lao People's Democratic Lower Middle Income High EGDI Republic Europe Northern Europe High Income 25530 Latvia Middle EGDI Western Asia Upper Middle Income 14070 Asia Lebanon High EGDI Southern Africa High EGDI Lower Middle Income 3340 Lesotho Africa Africa Western Africa Low Income 700 Liberia Middle EGDI Africa Middle EGDI Upper Middle Income 11210 Libya Northern Africa Liechtenstein Western Europe Middle EGDI High Income 115530 Europe Lithuania Northern Europe Very High EGDI High Income 28680 Europe Europe Very High EGDI High Income 69640 Luxembourg Western Europe Africa Eastern Africa Very High EGDI Madagascar 1440 Low Income Malawi Africa Eastern Africa Middle EGDI Low Income 1140 Malaysia Asia South-Eastern Asia Middle EGDI Upper Middle Income 26900 Maldives Asia High EGDI Upper Middle Income 16710 Southern Asia Africa Western Africa Low Income 2050 Mali High EGDI Southern Europe High Income 35710 Europe Low EGDI Malta Micronesia Very High EGDI Upper Middle Income Marshall Islands Oceania 5370 Africa Western Africa Middle EGDI Lower Middle Income 3760 Mauritania Africa Eastern Africa Low EGDI Mauritius 20990 Upper Middle Income Mexico Central America High EGDI Upper Middle Income 17160 Americas Oceania High EGDI Lower Middle Income 4090 Micronesia Micronesia Europe Western Europe Middle EGDI Monaco 186710^^^ High Income Mongolia Asia Eastern Asia Very High EGDI Upper Middle Income 11420 Montenegro Europe Southern Europe High EGDI Upper Middle Income 17870 Morocco Africa High EGDI Lower Middle Income 7710 Northern Africa Africa High EGDI Low Income 1190 Mozambique Eastern Africa Asia South-Eastern Asia Middle EGDI Lower Middle Income 5530 Myanmar Namibia Africa Middle EGDI Upper Middle Income 10380 Southern Africa Nauru Micronesia Middle EGDI Upper Middle Income 17510 Oceania Nepal Asia Southern Asia Middle EGDI Low Income 2520 Netherlands Europe Middle EGDI High Income 49930 Western Europe New Zealand Australia and New Zealand Very High EGDI High Income 37190 Oceania Nicaragua Americas Central America Very High EGDI Lower Middle Income 5530 Niger Africa Western Africa Middle EGDI Low Income 970 266

297 Data Tables DATA TABLES Table 16. Regional and Economic grouping for E-Government Development Index (EGDI) (continued) GNI Per Capitas Region Level of Income Sub-Region (US dollars) Country EGDI Level Western Africa Nigeria 5740 Low EGDI Africa Lower Middle Income Middle EGDI 61920 Northern Europe High Income Norway Europe Very High EGDI High Income 0 Oman Asia Western Asia High EGDI Lower Middle Income 5560 Southern Asia Asia Pakistan Micronesia Middle EGDI Upper Middle Income Palau Oceania 14840 Americas High EGDI Upper Middle Income 20980 Panama Central America Melanesia Lower Middle Income 4140 Oceania High EGDI Papua New Guinea South America Middle EGDI Upper Middle Income Paraguay Americas 9050 Americas South America High EGDI Upper Middle Income 12480 Peru Asia South-Eastern Asia Philippines Lower Middle Income 9390 High EGDI Poland Eastern Europe High EGDI High Income 26300 Europe Europe Southern Europe High Income 29940 Portugal Very High EGDI Western Asia High Income 124760* Asia Very High EGDI Qatar Eastern Asia High EGDI High Income Republic of Korea Asia 36570 Europe Eastern Europe Very High EGDI Lower Middle Income 5670 Republic of Moldova Europe Eastern Europe High EGDI Romania 22370 Upper Middle Income Russian Federation Eastern Europe High EGDI High Income 24120 Europe Africa Very High EGDI Low Income 1860 Rwanda Eastern Africa Americas Caribbean Middle EGDI Saint Kittis and Nevis 25640 High Income Saint Lucia Americas Caribbean High EGDI Upper Middle Income 12030 Saint Vincent and the 11380 Americas Caribbean Middle EGDI Upper Middle Income Grenadines Samoa Polynesia High EGDI Lower Middle Income 6230 Oceania Europe Southern Europe High Income 52140^^^ San Marino Middle EGDI Middle Africa Lower Middle Income 3250 Africa High EGDI Sao Tome and Principe Western Asia Middle EGDI High Income Saudi Arabia Asia 55750 Africa Western Africa High EGDI Lower Middle Income 2480 Senegal Europe Southern Europe Middle EGDI Serbia 13700 Upper Middle Income Seychelles Eastern Africa High EGDI High Income 28380 Africa Africa High EGDI Low Income 1320 Sierra Leone Western Africa Asia South-Eastern Asia Middle EGDI Singapore 85020 High Income Slovakia Europe Eastern Europe Very High EGDI High Income 29670 Slovenia Europe Southern Europe High EGDI High Income 31690 Solomon Islands Oceania Very High EGDI Lower Middle Income 2140 Melanesia Africa Middle EGDI Low Income 107~ Somalia Eastern Africa Africa Southern Africa Low EGDI Upper Middle Income 12830 South Africa South Sudan Africa High EGDI Low Income 1700 Eastern Africa Spain Southern Europe High Income 36300 Europe Very High EGDI Sri Lanka Asia Southern Asia Very High EGDI Lower Middle Income 12200 Sudan Africa High EGDI Lower Middle Income 4290 Northern Africa Suriname South America Low EGDI Upper Middle Income 14460 Americas Sweden Europe Northern Europe Very High EGDI High Income 49420 Europe Western Europe Very High EGDI High Income 63810 Switzerland 267

298 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Table 16. Regional and Economic grouping for E-Government Development Index (EGDI) (continued) GNI Per Capitas Region Level of Income Sub-Region (US dollars) Country EGDI Level Western Asia Syrian Arab Republic 1860& Middle EGDI Asia Lower Middle Income Central Asia Lower Middle Income 3500 Asia Tajikistan Middle EGDI South-Eastern Asia High EGDI Upper Middle Income Thailand Asia 16070 Southern Europe High EGDI Upper Middle Income 14310 The former Yugoslav Europe Republic of Macedonia South-Eastern Asia Middle EGDI Lower Middle Income 3380 Timor-Leste Asia Africa Western Africa Togo Low Income 1370 Middle EGDI Tonga Polynesia High EGDI Upper Middle Income 5780 Oceania Americas Caribbean High Income 31770 Trinidad and Tobago High EGDI Africa High EGDI Upper Middle Income 11150 Tunisia Northern Africa Asia Western Asia High EGDI Turkey 24980 Upper Middle Income Turkmenistan Central Asia Middle EGDI Upper Middle Income 16060 Asia Oceania Polynesia Middle EGDI Upper Middle Income 5920 Tuvalu Uganda Africa Eastern Africa Middle EGDI Low Income 1790 Ukraine Europe High EGDI Lower Middle Income 8190 Eastern Europe Asia Western Asia High Income 72830 United Arab Emirates Very High EGDI Northern Europe Very High EGDI High Income 41640 United Kingoom of Great Europe Britain and Northern Ireland 2740 Africa United Republic of Middle EGDI Low Income Eastern Africa Tanzania Americas Very High EGDI High Income 58700 United States of America Northern America Uruguay South America Very High EGDI High Income 21090 Americas Uzbekistan Asia Central Asia High EGDI Lower Middle Income 6640 Vanuatu Oceania Middle EGDI Lower Middle Income 3040** Melanesia High EGDI South America Venuzuela (Bolivian High Income 17410** Americas Republic of) Asia South-Eastern Asia High EGDI Lower Middle Income 6040 Viet Nam Yemen Asia Western Asia Low EGDI Lower Middle Income 2490 Zambia Eastern Africa Middle EGDI Lower Middle Income 3850 Africa Zimbabwe Africa Eastern Africa Middle EGDI Low Income 1810 268

299 REFERENCES References 1 ITU (2014) Manual for Measuring ICT Access and Use by Households and Individuals. Available at: http://www.itu.int/dms_pub/ itu-d/opb/ind/D-IND-ITCMEAS-2014-PDF-E.pdf 2 Note: The Internet is a worldwide public computer network. It provides access to a number of communication services including the World Wide Web and carries e-mail, news, entertainment and data files, irrespective of the device used (not assumed to be only via a computer − it may also be by mobile telephone, tablet, PDA, games machine, digital TV etc.). Access can be via a fixe d or mobile network. (Ibid) 3 ITU (2017). Measuring the Information Society Report 2017. Volume 2. ICT country profiles. p. 249. Available at: https://www.i tu. int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Documents/publications/misr2017/MISR2017_Volume2.pdf 4 2014 E Government Survey 5 The World Bank. World Bank Country and Lending Groups. Available at: https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/ articles/906519 (Accessed on 22 February 2018) 269

300 Data Tables GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO BUILD RESILIENT SOCIETIES: PRECONDITIONS AND ENABLING ENVIRONMENT he United Nations E-Government Survey strategies. It supports countries’ efforts to provide presents a systematic assessment of the responsive and equitable digital services to all and T use of information and communication bridge the digital divide in fulfilling the principle of technologies (ICTs) to transform the public leaving no one behind. sector by enhancing its efficiency, effectiveness, accountability, inclusiveness, trustworthiness The Department of Economic and Social Affairs, and supporting people’s participation and through its Division for Public Institutions and engagement. The Survey examines emerging Digital Government, has published this global e-government issues and trends, and innovative report on e-government since 2003 and is regularly practices that are relevant to the international called upon to advise national administrations in community. all regions of the world on digital government in advancing the Sustainable Development Goals. By studying broad patterns of e-government around the world, the Survey assesses the e-government This particular edition of the Survey examines development status of the 193 United Nations how governments can use e-government and Member States. It serves as a tool for decision- information technologies to build sustainable and makers to identify their areas of strength and resilient societies. challenges in e-government to inform policies and TIO GEA RIN G E -GO O VER NME NM N NT T TO TO T SUP POR T TRAN SFO RMA N ISBN 978-92-1- 123208-0 S ETIE T O WA RD S SU ST S AI NA NA BL L E E E AN AN A D RE S I LIEN T SO C I 270 18-11243

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