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1 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Recommendations and Reports / Vol. 63 / No. 4 April 25, 2014 Providing Quality Family Planning Services Recommendations of CDC and the U.S. Office of Population Affairs Continuing Education Examination available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/cme/conted.html. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

2 Recommendations and Reports CONTENTS 1 ... Introduction ... 3 Methods 7 ... Contraceptive Services 13 ... Pregnancy Testing and Counseling ... 14 Clients Who Want to Become Pregnant ... 15 Basic Infertility Services ... 16 Preconception Health Services ... 18 Sexually Transmitted Disease Services 20 ... Related Preventive Health Services Summary of Recommendations for Providing Family Planning and 21 ... Related Preventive Health Services ... 21 Conducting Quality Improvement ... 25 Conclusion 30 ... Appendix A Disclosure of Relationship ... 35 Appendix B CDC, our planners, content experts, and their spouses/partners ... 45 Appendix C wish to disclose that they have no financial interests or other 47 ... Appendix D relationships with the manufacturers of commercial products, Appendix E ... 48 suppliers of commercial services, or commercial supporters. Planners have reviewed content to ensure there is no bias. 51 ... Appendix F series of publications is published by the Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), MMWR The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA 30329-4027. Suggested Citation: [Author names; first three, then et al., if more than six.] [Title]. MMWR 2014;63(No. RR-#):[inclusive page numbers]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Thomas R. Frieden, MD, MPH, Director Associate Director for Science Harold W. Jaffe, MD, MA, Acting Director, Office of Science Quality Joanne Cono, MD, ScM, Chesley L. Richards, MD, MPH, Deputy Director for Public Health Scientific Services Director, Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services Michael F. Iademarco, MD, MPH, MMWR Editorial and Production Staff (Serials) Lead Visual Information Specialist Martha F. Boyd, John S. Moran, MD, MPH, Acting Editor-in-Chief Maureen A. Leahy, Julia C. Martinroe, Editor Christine G. Casey, MD, Stephen R. Spriggs, Terraye M. Starr Managing Editor Teresa F. Rutledge, Lead Technical Writer-Editor Visual Information Specialists David C. Johnson, Project Editor Quang M. Doan, MBA, Phyllis H. King Jeffrey D. Sokolow, MA, Information Technology Specialists MMWR Editorial Board William L. Roper, MD, MPH, Chapel Hill, NC, Chairman Matthew L. Boulton, MD, MPH, Ann Arbor, MI Timothy F. Jones, MD, Nashville, TN Virginia A. Caine, MD, Indianapolis, IN Rima F. Khabbaz, MD, Atlanta, GA Barbara A. Ellis, PhD, MS, Atlanta, GA Dennis G. Maki, MD, Madison, WI Jonathan E. Fielding, MD, MPH, MBA, Los Angeles, CA Patricia Quinlisk, MD, MPH, Des Moines, IA David W. Fleming, MD, Seattle, WA Patrick L. Remington, MD, MPH, Madison, WI William E. Halperin, MD, DrPH, MPH, Newark, NJ William Schaffner, MD, Nashville, TN King K. Holmes, MD, PhD, Seattle, WA

3 Recommendations and Reports Providing Quality Family Planning Services Recommendations of CDC and the U.S. Office of Population Affairs Prepared by 2 1 1 2 1 Loretta Gavin, PhD, Emily Godfrey, Kathryn Curtis, PhD, Marion Carter, PhD, Evelyn Glass, MSPH, Susan Moskosky, MS, 1 3 1 1 1 2 MD, Nancy Mautone-Smith, MSW, Lauren Zapata, PhD Karen Pazol, PhD, Arik Marcell, MD, Naomi Tepper, MD, 1 Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC 2 Office of Population Affairs, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland 3 The Johns Hopkins University and the Male Training Center for Family Planning and Reproductive Health, Baltimore, Maryland Summary This report provides recommendations developed collaboratively by CDC and the Office of Population Affairs (OPA) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The recommendations outline how to provide quality family planning services, which include contraceptive services, pregnancy testing and counseling, helping clients achieve pregnancy, basic infertility services, preconception health services, and sexually transmitted disease services. The primary audience for this report is all current or potential providers of family planning services, including those working in service sites that are dedicated to family planning service delivery as well as private and public providers of more comprehensive primary care. The United States continues to face substantial challenges to improving the reproductive health of the U.S. population. Nearly one half of all pregnancies are unintended, with more than 700,000 adolescents aged 15–19 years becoming pregnant each year and more than 300,000 giving birth. One of eight pregnancies in the United States results in preterm birth, and infant mortality rates remain high compared with those of other developed countries. This report can assist primary care providers in offering family planning services that will help women, men, and couples achieve their desired number and spacing of children and increase the likelihood that those children are born healthy. The report provides recommendations for how to help prevent and achieve pregnancy, emphasizes offering a full range of contraceptive methods for persons seeking to prevent pregnancy, highlights the special needs of adolescent clients, and encourages the use of the family planning visit to provide selected preventive health services for women, in accordance with the recommendations for women issued by the Institute of Medicine and adopted by HHS. Family planning services can help address these and other public Introduction health challenges by providing education, counseling, and medical The United States continues to face challenges to improving 5 services ( ). Family planning services include the following: the reproductive health of the U.S. population. Nearly half (49%) • providing contraception to help women and men plan of all pregnancies are unintended ( 1 ). Although adolescent birth and space births, prevent unintended pregnancies, and rates declined by more than 61% during 1991–2012, the United reduce the number of abortions; States has one of the highest adolescent pregnancy rates in the offering pregnancy testing and counseling; • developed world, with >700,000 adolescents aged 15–19 years • helping clients who want to conceive; becoming pregnant each year and >300,000 giving birth ( ). 2,3 providing basic infertility services; • Approximately one of eight pregnancies in the United States providing preconception health services to improve infant • results in a preterm birth, and infant mortality rates remain high and maternal outcomes and improve women’s and men’s ). Moreover, all compared with other developed countries ( 3,4 health; and of these outcomes affect racial and ethnic minority populations providing sexually transmitted disease (STD) screening • 1–4 ). disproportionately ( and treatment services to prevent tubal infertility and improve the health of women, men, and infants. Corresponding preparers: Loretta Gavin, PhD, Division of Reproductive This report provides recommendations developed Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health collaboratively by CDC and the Office of Population Affairs Promotion, CDC. Telephone: 770-488-6284; E-mail: [email protected]; Susan Moskosky, MS, Office of Population Affairs, US Department of (OPA) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Health and Human Services. Telephone: 240-453-2818; E-mail: (HHS). The recommendations outline how to provide family [email protected] planning services by: / / April 25, 2014 MMWR Vol. 63 / No. 4 1

4 Recommendations and Reports defining a core set of family planning services for women • defines health-care quality as the extent to which health-care and men, services improve health outcomes in a manner that is consistent • describing how to provide contraceptive and other clinical with current professional knowledge ( 10 ). According to 13 , services, serve adolescents, and perform quality IOM, quality health care has the following attributes: improvements, and These recommendations integrate other CDC Safety. • • encouraging the use of the family planning visit to provide recommendations about which contraceptive methods can selected preventive health services for women, in accordance be provided safely to women with various medical with the recommendations for women issued by the conditions, and integrate CDC and U.S. Preventive 6 ). Institute of Medicine (IOM) and adopted by HHS ( Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations on STD, The collaboration between CDC and OPA drew on the preconception, and related preventive health services. strengths of both agencies. CDC has a long-standing history of Effectiveness. • These recommendations support offering developing evidence-based recommendations for clinical care, a full range of Food and Drug Administration and OPA’s Title X Family Planning Program ( 7 ) has served as (FDA)–approved contraceptive methods as well as the national leader in direct family planning service delivery counseling that highlights the effectiveness of contraceptive since the Title X program was established in 1970. methods overall and, in specific patient situations, draws This report provides recommendations for providing care to attention to the effectiveness of specific clinical preventive clients of reproductive age who are in need of family planning health services and identifies clinical preventive health services. These recommendations are intended for all current services for which the potential harms outweigh the or potential providers of family planning services, including benefits (i.e., USPSTF “D” recommendations). those funded by the Title X program. • Client-centered approach. These recommendations encourage taking a client-centered approach by 1) highlighting that the client’s primary purpose for Current Context of Family visiting the service site must be respected, 2) noting the Planning Services importance of confidential services and suggesting ways Women of reproductive age often report that their family to provide them, 3) encouraging the availability of a broad planning provider is also their usual source of health care ( ). 8 range of contraceptive methods so that clients can make As the U.S. health-care system evolves in response to increased a selection based on their individual needs and preferences, efforts to expand health insurance coverage, contain costs, and and 4) reinforcing the need to deliver services in a 9 emphasize preventive care ( ), providers of family planning culturally competent manner so as to meet the needs of services will face new challenges and opportunities in care all clients, including adolescents, those with limited delivery. For example, they will have increased opportunities English proficiency, those with disabilities, and those who to serve new clients and to serve as gateways for their clients to are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning their other essential health-care services. In addition, primary care sexual identity (LGBTQ). Organizational policies, and other providers who provide a range of health-care services governance structures, and individual attitudes and will be expected to integrate family planning services for all practices all contribute to the cultural competence of a persons of reproductive age, including those whose primary health-care entity and its staff. Cultural competency within reason for their health-care visit might not be family planning. a health-care setting refers to attitudes, practices, and Strengthened, multidirectional care coordination also will be policies that enable professionals to work effectively in needed to improve health outcomes. For example, this type – 16 ). 14 cross-cultural situations ( of care coordination will be needed with clients referred to • These recommendations highlight the Timeliness. specialist care after initial screening at a family planning visit, importance of ensuring that services are provided to clients as well as with specialists referring clients with family planning in a timely manner. needs to family planning providers. • These recommendations identify a core set of Efficiency. services that providers can focus on delivering, as well as ways to maximize the use of resources. Defining Quality in Family These recommendations address how to Accessibility. • Planning Service Delivery remove barriers to contraceptive use, use the family planning The central premise underpinning these recommendations visit to provide access to a broader range of primary care is that improving the quality of family planning services will and behavioral health services, use the primary care visit to ). IOM lead to improved reproductive health outcomes ( – 10 12 2014 No. 4 / Vol. 63 2 / April 25, / MMWR

5 Recommendations and Reports provide access to contraceptive and other family planning CDC and OPA used the input from the subject matter services, and strengthen links to other sources of care. experts to develop a set of core recommendations and asked Equity. These recommendations highlight the need for • the Expert Work Group to review them. The members of providers of family planning services to deliver high- the Expert Work Group were more familiar with the family quality care to all clients, including adolescents, LGBTQ planning service delivery context than the members of the persons, racial and ethnic minorities, clients with limited Technical Panel and thus could better comment on the English proficiency, and persons living with disabilities. feasibility and appropriateness of the recommendations, These recommendations highlight services (i.e., Value. • as well as the supporting evidence. The Expert Work contraception and other clinical preventive services) that Group considered the core recommendations by using the – ). have been shown to be very cost-effective ( 17 19 following criteria: 1) the quality of the evidence; 2) the positive and negative consequences of implementing the recommendations on health outcomes, costs or cost-savings, and implementation challenges; and 3) the relative importance Methods of these consequences, (e.g., the likelihood that implementation Recommendations Development Process of the recommendation will have a substantial effect on health outcomes might be considered more than the logistical The recommendations were developed jointly under the ). In certain cases, when 20 challenges of implementing it) ( auspices of CDC’s Division of Reproductive Health and the evidence from the literature reviews was inconclusive or OPA, in consultation with a wide range of experts and key incomplete, recommendations were made on the basis of expert stakeholders. More information about the processes used to opinion. Finally, CDC and OPA staff considered the individual conduct systematic reviews, the role of technical experts in feedback from Expert Work Group members when finalizing reviewing the evidence, and the process of using the evidence the core recommendations and writing the recommendations to develop recommendations is provided (Appendix A). A document. A description of how the recommendations link multistage process was used to develop the recommendations to the evidence is provided together with the rationale for the that drew on established procedures for developing clinical inclusion of each recommendation in this report (Appendix B). 21 ). First, an Expert Work Group* was formed guidelines ( 20 , The evidence used to prepare these recommendations comprising family planning clinical providers, program will appear in background papers that will be published administrators, and representatives from relevant federal separately. Resources that will help providers implement the agencies and professional medical associations to help define recommendations will be provided through a web-based tool the scope of the recommendations. Next, literature about kit that will be available at http://www.hhs.gov/opa. three priority topics (i.e., counseling and education, serving adolescents, and quality improvement) was reviewed by using the USPSTF methodology for conducting systematic reviews Audience for the Recommendations † 22 ). The results were presented to three technical panels ( The primary audience for this report is all providers or comprising subject matter experts (one panel for each priority potential providers of family planning services to clients of topic) who considered the quality of the evidence and made reproductive age, including providers working in clinics that suggestions for what recommendations might be supported on are dedicated to family planning service delivery, as well as the basis of the evidence. In a separate process, existing clinical private and public providers of more comprehensive primary recommendations on women’s and men’s preventive services care. Providers of dedicated family planning services might be were compiled from more than 35 federal and professional less familiar with the specific recommendations for the delivery medical associations, and these results were presented to two of preconception services. Providers of more comprehensive technical panels of subject matter experts, one that addressed primary care might be less familiar with the delivery of women’s clinical services and one that addressed men’s clinical contraceptive services, pregnancy testing and counseling, and services. The panels provided individual feedback about services to help clients achieve pregnancy. which clinical preventive services should be offered in a family This report can be used by medical directors to write clinical planning setting and which clinical recommendations should protocols that describe how care should be provided. Job aids receive the highest consideration. and other resources for use in service sites are being developed and will be made available when ready through OPA’s website A list of the members of the Expert Wor k Group appears on page 52. * † A list of the members of the technical panels appears on pages 52 and 53. (http://www.hhs.gov/opa). April 25, 2014 / Vol. 63 / / No. 4 3 MMWR

6 Recommendations and Reports BOX 1. Definitions of quality terms used in this report In this report, the term “provider” refers to any staff member who is involved in providing family planning services to a The timely use of personal health services Accessible. client. This includes physicians, physician assistants, nurse to achieve the best possible health outcomes.* practitioners, nurse-midwives, nursing staff, and health Client-centered. Care is respectful of, and responsive educators. The term “service site” represents the numerous to, individual client preferences, needs, and values; client settings in which family planning services are delivered, which † values guide all clinical decisions. include freestanding service sites, community health centers, Services are based on scientific knowledge and Effective. private medical facilities, and hospitals. A list of special terms provided to all who could benefit and are not provided to used in this report is provided (Box 1). † those not likely to benefit. The recommendations are designed to guide general clinical Efficient. Waste is avoided, including waste of equipment, practice; however, health-care providers always should consider † supplies, ideas, and energy. the individual clinical circumstances of each person seeking Equitable. Care does not vary in quality because of the family planning services. Similarly, these recommendations personal characteristics of clients (e.g., sex, race/ethnicity, might need to be adapted to meet the needs of particular geographic location, insurance status, or socioeconomic populations, such as clients who are HIV-positive or who are † status). substance users. The process of integrating science- Evidence-based. based interventions with community preferences to Organization of the Recommendations § improve the health of populations. This report is divided into nine sections. An initial section The degree to which health-care Health-care quality. provides an overview of steps to assess the needs of a client services for individuals and populations increase the and decide what family planning services to offer. Subsequent likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent sections describe how to provide each of the following services: † with current professional knowledge. contraceptive services, pregnancy testing and counseling, helping Whether services are provided correctly and Process. clients achieve pregnancy, basic infertility services, preconception ¶ completely and how clients perceive the care they receive. health services, STD services and related preventive health services. Avoids injuries to clients from the care that is Safe. A final section on quality improvement describes actions that all † intended to help them. providers of family planning services should consider to ensure The characteristics of the settings in which Structure. that services are of high quality. More detailed information about providers deliver health care, including material resources, selected topics addressed in the recommendations is provided ¶ human resources, and organizational structure. (Appendices A–F). Waits and sometimes harmful delays for both Timely. These recommendations focus on the direct delivery of care † those who receive and those who provide care are reduced. to individual clients. However, parallel steps might need to be . The care provides good return relative to the costs Value taken to maintain the systems required to support the provision of involved, such as a return on investment or a reduction in quality services for all clients (e.g., record-keeping procedures that the per capita cost of health care.* preserve client confidentiality, procedures that improve efficiency and reduce clients’ wait time, staff training to ensure that all clients Source: Institute of Medicine. Future directions for the national healthcare * quality and disparities reports. Ulmer C, Bruno M, Burke S, eds. are treated with respect, and the establishment and maintenance Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2010. of a strong system of care coordination and referrals). † Source: Institute of Medicine. Crossing the quality chasm: a new health system for the 21st century. Committee on Quality of Health Care in Client Care America, ed. Washington, DC: National Academies of Science; 2001. § Source: Kohatsu ND, Robinson JG, Torner JC. Evidence-based public Family planning services are embedded within a broader health: an evolving concept. Am J Prev Med 2004;27:417–21. ¶ Source: Donabedian A. The quality of care. JAMA 1988;260:1743–8. framework of preventive health services (Figure 1). In this report, health services are divided into three main categories: These include contraceptive • Family planning services. and other preconception health services are considered family services for clients who want to prevent pregnancy and space planning services because they improve women’s and men’s births, pregnancy testing and counseling, assistance to achieve health and can influence a person’s ability to conceive or to pregnancy, basic infertility services, STD services (including have a healthy birth outcome. HIV/AIDS), and other preconception health services (e.g., • Related preventive health services. These include services screening for obesity, smoking, and mental health). STD/HIV that are considered to be beneficial to reproductive health, 4 MMWR April 25, / No. 4 / Vol. 63 / 2014

7 Recommendations and Reports FIGURE 1. Family planning and related and other preventive health (i.e., contraceptive services, pregnancy testing and counseling, services or becoming pregnant). Other aspects of managing pregnancy (e.g., prenatal and delivery care ) are not addressed in these recommendations. For clients seeking to prevent or achieve pregnancy, providers should assess whether the client needs Family planning services • Contraceptive services other related services and offer them to the client. In the second • Pregnancy testing and type of encounter, the primary reason for a client’s visit to a counseling health-care provider is not related to preventing or achieving • Achieving pregnancy • Basic infertility services pregnancy. For example, the client might come in for acute • Preconception health care (e.g., a male client coming in for STD symptoms or as • Sexually transmitted a contact of a person with an STD), for chronic care, or for disease services another preventive service. In this situation, providers not only should address the client’s primary reason for the visit but also Related preventive assess the client’s need for services related to preventing or health services achieving pregnancy. (e.g., screening for breast A clinical pathway of family planning services for women and and cervical cancer) men of reproductive age is provided (Figure 2). The following questions can help providers determine what family planning Other preventive health services services are most appropriate for a given visit. (e.g., screening for lipid It is essential to What is the client’s reason for the visit? • disorders) understand the client’s goals for the visit and address those needs to the extent possible. Does the client have another source of primary health • Understanding whether a provider is the main source care? are closely linked to family planning services, and are of primary care for a client will help identify what appropriate to deliver in the context of a family planning visit preventive services a provider should offer. If a provider is but that do not contribute directly to achieving or preventing the client’s main source of primary care, it will be pregnancy (e.g., breast and cervical cancer screening). important to assess the client’s needs for the other services • These include Other preventive health services. listed in this report. If the client receives ongoing primary preventive health services for women that were not care from another provider, the provider should confirm included above ( 6 ), as well as preventive services for men. that the client’s preventive health needs are met while Screening for lipid disorders, skin cancer, colorectal cancer, avoiding the delivery of duplicative services. or osteoporosis are examples of this type of service. • An assessment What is the client’s reproductive life plan? Although important in the context of primary care, these should be made of the client’s reproductive life plan, which have no direct link to family planning services. 25 – 23 outlines personal goals about becoming pregnant ( ) Providers of family planning services should be trained and (Box 2).The provider should avoid making assumptions equipped to offer all family planning and related preventive about the client’s needs based on his or her characteristics, health services so that they can provide optimal care to clients, such as sexual orientation or disabilities. For clients whose with referral for specialist care, as needed. Other preventive initial reason for coming to the service site was not related to health services should be available either on-site or by referral, preventing or achieving pregnancy, asking questions about but these recommendations do not address this category his or her reproductive life plan might help identify unmet of services. Information about preventive services that are reproductive health-care needs. Identifying a need for beyond the scope of this report is available at http://www. contraceptive services might be particularly important given uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org. the high rate of unintended pregnancy in the United States. – If the client does not want a child at this time and is Determining the Client’s Need for Services sexually active, then offer contraceptive services. These recommendations apply to two types of encounters – If the client desires pregnancy testing, then provide with women and men of reproductive age. In the first type of pregnancy testing and counseling. encounter, the primary reason for a client’s visit to a health- – If the client wants to have a child now, then provide care provider is related to preventing or achieving pregnancy, services to help the client achieve pregnancy. MMWR / Vol. 63 / April 25, 2014 / 5 No. 4

8 Recommendations and Reports FIGURE 2. Clinical pathway of family planning services for women and men of reproductive age Determine the need for services among female and male clients of reproductive age Assess reason for visit • • Assess source of primary care Assess reproductive life plan • Initial reason for visit is not Reason for visit is related to related to preventing or preventing or achieving pregnancy achieving pregnancy Acute care • Chronic care management • Preventive services • Contraceptive Achieving Basic Pregnancy pregnancy infertility services testing and counseling services Assess need for services related If needed, to preventing or achieving provide pregnancy services If services are not needed at this Sexually Clients also should be Preconception visit, reassess at subsequent visits transmitted provided these health disease services, per services services clinical recommendations Related be provided Clients also should preventive or referred for these services, health per clinical recommendations services – If the client wants to have a child and is experiencing at every visit. Many clients requesting contraceptive services difficulty conceiving, then provide basic infertility services. also might meet the criteria for being at risk of one or more • Does the client need preconception health services? STDs. Screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea is especially Preconception health services (such as screening for important in a family planning context because these STDs obesity, smoking, and mental health) are a subset of all contribute to tubal infertility if left untreated. STD services preventive services for women and men. Preconception are also necessary to maximize preconception health. The health care is intended to promote the health of women federal recommendations cited in this report should be and men of reproductive age before conception, with the followed when determining which STD services a client 24 ). goal of improving pregnancy-related outcomes ( might need. Aspects of managing symptomatic STDs are Preconception health services are also important because not addressed in these recommendations. they improve the health of women and men, even if they • What other related preventive health services does the choose not to become pregnant. The federal and Whether the client needs related preventive client need? professional medical recommendations cited in this report health services, such as breast and cervical cancer screening should be followed when determining which preconception for female clients, should be assessed. The federal and health services a client might need. professional medical recommendations cited in this report • The need for STD Does the client need STD services? should be followed when determining which related services, including HIV/AIDS testing, should be considered preventive health services a client might need. No. 4 6 Vol. 63 / 2014 April 25, / MMWR /

9 Recommendations and Reports BOX 2. Recommended questions to ask when assessing a client’s Contraceptive Services reproductive life plan Providers should offer contraceptive services to clients who wish to delay or prevent pregnancy. Contraceptive services Providers should discuss a reproductive life plan with should include consideration of a full range of FDA-approved clients receiving contraceptive, pregnancy testing and contraceptive methods, a brief assessment to identify the counseling, basic infertility, sexually transmitted disease, contraceptive methods that are safe for the client, contraceptive and preconception health services in accordance with counseling to help a client choose a method of contraception CDC’s recommendation that all persons capable of having and use it correctly and consistently, and provision of one or a child should have a reproductive life plan.* more selected contraceptive method(s), preferably on site, but Providers should assess the client’s reproductive life plan by referral if necessary. Contraceptive counseling is defined as by asking the client questions such as: a process that enables clients to make and follow through on Do you have any children now? • decisions about their contraceptive use. Education is an integral Do you want to have (more) children? • component of the contraceptive counseling process that helps How many (more) children would you like to have • clients to make informed decisions and obtain the information and when? they need to use contraceptive methods correctly. Source: CDC. Recommendations to improve preconception health and * Key steps in providing contraceptive services, including health care—United States: a report of the CDC/ATSDR Preconception contraceptive counseling and education, have been outlined Care Work Group and the Select Panel on Preconception Care. MMWR (Box 3). These key steps are in accordance with the five principles 2006;55(No. RR-6). of quality counseling (Appendix C). To help a client who is initiating or switching to a new method of contraception, The individual client’s needs should be considered when providers should follow these steps. These steps most likely will determining what services to offer at a given visit. It might not be implemented iteratively when working with a client and be feasible to deliver all the needed services in a single visit, and should help clients adopt, change, or maintain contraceptive use. they might need to be delivered over the course of several visits. Step 1. Establish and maintain rapport with the client. Providers should tailor services to meet the specific needs of Providers should strive to establish and maintain rapport. the population they serve. For example, clients who are trying Strategies to achieve these goals include the following: to achieve pregnancy and those at high risk of unintended • using open-ended questions; pregnancy should be given higher priority for preconception • demonstrating expertise, trustworthiness, and accessibility; health services. In some cases, the provider will deliver the • ensuring privacy and confidentiality; initial screening service but then refer to another provider for explaining how personal information will be used; • further diagnosis or follow-up care. • encouraging the client to ask questions and share The delivery of preconception, STD, and related preventive information; health services should not become a barrier to a client’s ability • listening to and observing the client; and to receive services related to preventing or achieving pregnancy. being encouraging and demonstrating empathy and • For these clients, receiving services related to preventing or acceptance. achieving pregnancy is the priority; if other family planning Step 2. Obtain clinical and social information from services cannot be delivered at the initial visit, then follow-up the client. Providers should ask clients about their medical visits should be scheduled. history to identify methods that are safe. In addition, to learn In addition, professional recommendations for how to more about factors that might influence a client’s choice of a address the needs of diverse clients, such as LGBTQ persons contraceptive method, providers should confirm the client’s 33 – 32 ( 26 ), should be consulted ) or persons with disabilities ( pregnancy intentions or reproductive life plan, ask about the and integrated into procedures, as appropriate. For example, client’s contraceptive experiences and preferences, and conduct as noted before, providers should avoid making assumptions a sexual health assessment. When available, standardized tools about a client’s gender identity, sexual orientation, race, should be used. or ethnicity; all requests for services should be treated • Medical history. A medical history should be taken to without regard to these characteristics. Similarly, services for ensure that methods of contraception being considered adolescents should be provided in a “youth-friendly” manner, by a client are safe for that particular client. For a female which means that they are accessible, equitable, acceptable, client, the medical history should include menstrual appropriate, comprehensive, effective, and efficient for youth, history (including last menstrual period, menstrual as recommended by the World Health Organization ( 34 ). frequency, length and amount of bleeding, and other No. 4 / Vol. 63 MMWR / April 25, 2014 / 7

10 Recommendations and Reports BOX 3. Steps in providing contraceptive services, including contraception?”; “Did you use contraception at last sex?”; contraceptive counseling* and education “What difficulties did you experience with prior methods if any (e.g., side effects or noncompliance)?”; “Do you Establish and maintain rapport with the client. • have a specific method in mind?”; and “Have you discussed • Obtain clinical and social information from the client. method options with your partner, and does your partner Work with the client interactively to select the most • have any preferences for which method you use?” Male effective and appropriate contraceptive method. clients should be asked if they are interested in vasectomy. • Conduct a physical assessment related to • Sexual health assessment. A sexual history and risk contraceptive use, only when warranted. assessment that considers the client’s sexual practices, Provide the contraceptive method along with • partners, past STD history, and steps taken to prevent instructions about correct and consistent use, help the STDs ( 36 ) is recommended to help the client select the client develop a plan for using the selected method most appropriate method(s) of contraception. Correct and and for follow up, and confirm client understanding. consistent condom use is recommended for those at risk for STDs. CDC recommendations for how to conduct a Key principles of providing quality counseling including education have * sexual health assessment have been summarized (Box 4). been outlined (Appendix C). Step 3. Work with the client interactively to select the most effective and appropriate contraceptive method. Providers patterns of uterine/vaginal bleeding), gynecologic and should work with the client interactively to select an effective obstetrical history, contraceptive use, allergies, recent and appropriate contraceptive method. Specifically, providers intercourse, recent delivery, miscarriage, or termination, should educate the client about contraceptive methods that and any relevant infectious or chronic health condition the client can safely use, and help the client consider potential and other characteristics and exposures (e.g., age, barriers to using the method(s) under consideration. Use of postpartum, and breastfeeding) that might affect the decision aids (e.g., computerized programs that help a client client’s medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive to identify a range of methods that might be appropriate for ). Clients considering combined hormonal methods ( 35 the client based on her physical characteristics such as health contraception should be asked about smoking tobacco, in conditions or preferences about side effects) before or while accordance with CDC guidelines on contraceptive use waiting for the appointment can facilitate and maximize the 35 ( ). Additional details about the methods of contraception utility of the time spent on this step. that are safe to use for female clients with specific medical Providers should inform clients about all contraceptive conditions and characteristics (e.g., hypertension) are methods that can be used safely. Before the health-care visit, 35 addressed in previously published guidelines ( ). For a clients might have only limited information about all or male client, a medical history should include use of ). A broad range of 37 specific methods of contraception ( condoms, known allergies to condoms, partner use of methods, including long-acting reversible contraception (i.e., contraception, recent intercourse, whether his partner is intrauterine devices [IUDs] and implants), should be discussed currently pregnant or has had a child, miscarriage, or with all women and adolescents, if medically appropriate. termination, and the presence of any infectious or chronic Providers are encouraged to present information on potential health condition. However, the taking of a medical history reversible methods of contraception by using a tiered approach should not be a barrier to making condoms available in (i.e., presenting information on the most effective methods first, the clinical setting (i.e., a formal visit should not be a 38 , ). before presenting information on less effective methods) ( 39 prerequisite for a client to obtain condoms). This information should include an explanation that long- • Each Pregnancy intention or reproductive life plan. acting reversible contraceptive methods are safe and effective for client should be encouraged to clarify decisions about her most women, including those who have never given birth and or his reproductive life plan (i.e., whether the client wants adolescents ( 35 ). Information should be tailored and presented to have any or more children and, if so, the desired timing to ensure a client-centered approach. It is not appropriate to omit and spacing of those children) ( 24 ). presenting information on a method solely because the method Method- • Contraceptive experiences and preferences. is not available at the service site. If not all methods are available specific experiences and preferences should be assessed by at the service site, it is important to have strong referral links in asking questions such as, “What method(s) are you place to other providers to maximize opportunities for clients currently using, if any?”; “What methods have you used to obtain their preferred method that is medically appropriate. in the past?”; “Have you previously used emergency 2014 April 25, / MMWR 8 No. 4 / / Vol. 63

11 Recommendations and Reports BOX 4. Steps in conducting a sexual health assessment* a method. For example, receiving a contraceptive injection every 3 months might not be acceptable to a woman who • Practices: Explore the types of sexual activity in which fears injections. Similarly, oral contraceptives might not the patient engages (e.g., vaginal, anal, or oral sex). be acceptable to a woman who is concerned that she might • Discuss current and future Pregnancy prevention: not be able to remember to take a pill every day. contraceptive options. Ask about current and previous Many contraceptives have Noncontraceptive benefits. • use of methods, use of contraception at last sex, noncontraceptive benefits, in addition to preventing difficulties with contraception, and whether the client pregnancy, such as reducing heavy menstrual bleeding. has a particular method in mind. Although the noncontraceptive benefits are not generally Ask questions to determine the number, gender Partners: • the major determinant for selecting a method, awareness (men, women, or both), and concurrency of the patient’s of these benefits can help clients decide between two or sex partners (if partner had sex with another partner while more suitable methods and might enhance the client’s still in a sexual relationship with the patient). It might be motivation to use the method correctly and consistently. necessary to define the term “partner” to the patient or use • Side effects. Providers should inform the client about risks other, relevant terminology. and side effects of the method(s) under consideration, help Protection from sexually transmitted diseases • the client understand that certain side effects of contraceptive (STDs): Ask about condom use, with whom they do methods might disappear over time, and encourage the or do not use condoms, and situations that make it client to weigh the experience of coping with side effects harder or easier to use condoms. Topics such as against the experience and consequences of an unintended monogamy and abstinence also can be discussed. pregnancy. The provider should be prepared to discuss and Ask about any history of STDs, Past STD history: • correct misperceptions about side effects. Clients also should including whether their partners have ever had an be informed about warning signs for rare, but serious, STD. Explain that the likelihood of an STD is higher adverse events with specific contraceptive methods, such as with a past history of an STD. stroke and venous thromboembolism with use of combined hormonal methods. Source: CDC. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. * • Protection from STDs, including HIV. Clients should MMWR 2010;59(No. RR-12). be informed that contraceptive methods other than condoms offer no protection against STDs, including For clients who have completed childbearing or do not plan HIV. Condoms, when used correctly and consistently, to have children, permanent sterilization (female or male) is an help reduce the risk of STDs, including HIV, and provide option that may be discussed. Both female and male sterilization protection against pregnancy. Dual protection (i.e., are safe, are highly effective, and can be performed in an office protection from both pregnancy and STDs) is important 40 or outpatient surgery setting ( ). Women and men should 41 , for clients at risk of contracting an STD, such as those be counseled that these procedures are not intended to be with multiple or potentially infected partner(s). Dual reversible and that other highly effective, reversible methods of protection can be achieved through correct and consistent contraception (e.g., implants or IUDs) might be an alternative use of condoms with every act of sexual intercourse, or if they are unsure about future childbearing. Clients interested correct and consistent use of a condom to prevent infection in sterilization should be referred to an appropriate source of plus another form of contraception to prevent pregnancy. care if the provider does not perform the procedure. (For more information about preventing and treating When educating clients about contraceptive methods that STDs, see STD Services.) the clients can use safely, providers should ensure that clients When educating clients about the range of contraceptive understand the following: methods, providers should ensure that clients have information A contraceptive method’s rate of Method effectiveness. • that is medically accurate, balanced, and provided in a typical effectiveness, or the percentage of women nonjudgmental manner. To assist clients in making informed experiencing an unintended pregnancy during the first decisions, providers should educate clients in a manner that year of typical use, is an important consideration (Figure 3; can be readily understood and retained. The content, format, 42 Appendix D) ( ). , 38 method, and medium for delivering education should be The mode of administration Correct use of the method. • evidence-based (see Appendix E). and understanding how to use the method correctly might When working with male clients, when appropriate, providers be important considerations for the client when choosing should discuss information about female-controlled methods / Vol. 63 No. 4 9 MMWR / April 25, 2014 /

12 Recommendations and Reports FIGURE 3. The typical effectiveness of Food and Drug Administration–approved contraceptive methods (including emergency contraception) encourage discussion of contraception ( 47 ). Providers should help the client contraception with partners, and provide information about how consider the advantages and disadvantages of the partners can access contraceptive services. Male clients should method(s) being considered, the client’s feelings about also be reminded that condoms should be used correctly and using the method(s), how her or his partner is likely to consistently to reduce risk of STDs, including HIV. respond, the client’s peers’ perceptions of the method(s), When working with any client, encourage partner and the client’s confidence in being able to use the method communication about contraception, as well as understanding correctly and consistently (e.g., using a condom during partner barriers (e.g., misperceptions about side effects) and every act of intercourse or remembering to take a pill every ). facilitators (e.g., general support) of contraceptive use ( 43 – 46 37 ). day) ( The provider should help the client consider potential • Intimate partner violence and sexual violence. Current barriers to using the method(s) under consideration. This and past intimate partner sexual or domestic violence includes consideration of the following factors: might impede the correct and consistent use of Social-behavioral factors might • Social-behavioral factors. contraception, and might be a consideration when influence the likelihood of correct and consistent use of choosing a method ( 47 – 49 ). For example, an IUD might / 2014 April 25, / MMWR 10 No. 4 / Vol. 63

13 Recommendations and Reports be preferred because it does not require the partner’s Unnecessary medical procedures and tests might create • participation. The medical history might provide logistical, emotional, or economic barriers to contraceptive information on signs of current or past violence and, if access for some women, particularly adolescents and low- not, providers should ask clients about relationship issues income women, who have high rates of unintended that might be potential barriers to contraceptive use. In , ). For both adolescent and adult pregnancies ( 1 51,52 addition, clients experiencing intimate partner violence female clients, the following examinations and tests are or sexual violence should be referred for appropriate care. not needed routinely to provide contraception safely to a Mental health and substance use behaviors. Mental health • healthy client (although they might be needed to address (e.g., depression, anxiety disorders, and other mental ): 42 other non-contraceptive health needs) ( – pelvic examinations, unless inserting an intrauterine disorders) and substance use behaviors (e.g., alcohol use, device (IUD) or fitting a diaphragm; prescription abuse, and illicit drug use) might affect a client’s – cervical cytology or other cancer screening, including ability to correctly and consistently use contraception clinical breast exam; , ). The medical history might provide information 47 ( 50 – human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening; and about the signs of such conditions or behaviors, and if not, – laboratory tests for lipid, glucose, liver enzyme, and providers should ask clients about substance use behaviors hemoglobin levels or thrombogenic mutations. or mental health disorders, such as depression or anxiety, For male clients, no physical examination needs to be that might interfere with the motivation or ability to follow performed before distributing condoms. through with contraceptive use. If needed, clients with Step 5. Provide the contraceptive method along with mental health disorders or risky substance use behaviors instructions about correct and consistent use, help the should be referred for appropriate care. client develop a plan for using the selected method and for Step 4. Conduct a physical assessment related to follow-up, and confirm client understanding. contraceptive use, when warranted. Most women will need • A broad range of FDA-approved contraceptive methods no or few examinations or laboratory tests before starting a should be available onsite. Referrals for methods not method of contraception. Guidance on necessary examinations available onsite should be provided for clients who indicate 42 ). and tests related to initiation of contraception is available ( they prefer those methods. When providing contraception, A list of assessments that need to be conducted when providing providers should instruct the client about correct and reversible contraceptive services to a female client seeking to consistent use and employ the following strategies to initiate or switch to a new method of reversible contraception is facilitate a client’s use of contraception: ). Clinical evaluation of a client electing 42 provided (Table 1) ( – Provide onsite dispensing; permanent sterilization should be guided by the clinician who – Begin contraception at the time of the visit rather than performs the procedure. Recommendations for contraceptive waiting for next menses (also known as “quick start”) if 42 use are available ( ). Key points include the following: the provider can reasonably be certain that the client is Blood pressure should be taken before initiating the use • ). A provider can be reasonably certain not pregnant ( 42 of combined hormonal contraception. that a woman is not pregnant if she has no symptoms or • Providers should assess the current pregnancy status of signs of pregnancy and meets any one of the following clients receiving contraception ( ), which provides 42 , 42 criteria ( ): 53 guidance on how to be reasonably certain that a woman ˏ is ≤7 days after the start of normal menses, is not pregnant at the time of contraception initiation. In ˏ has not had sexual intercourse since the start of last most cases, a detailed history provides the most accurate normal menses, assessment of pregnancy risk in a woman about to start ˏ has been using a reliable method of contraception using a contraceptive method. Routine pregnancy testing correctly and consistently, for every woman is not necessary. ˏ is ≤7 days after spontaneous or induced abortion, • Weight measurement is not needed to determine medical ˏ is within 4 weeks postpartum, eligibility for any method of contraception because all ˏ is fully or nearly fully breastfeeding (exclusively methods generally can be used among obese women. breastfeeding or the vast majority [≥85%] of feeds are However, measuring weight and calculating BMI at baseline breastfeeds), amenorrheic, and <6 months postpartum; might be helpful for monitoring any changes and counseling – Provide or prescribe multiple cycles (ideally a full year’s women who might be concerned about weight change supply) of oral contraceptive pills, the patch, or the ring perceived to be associated with their contraceptive method. April 25, 2014 Vol. 63 No. 4 / / / 11 MMWR

14 Recommendations and Reports TABLE 1. Assessments to conduct when a female client is initiating a new method of reversible contraception Diaphragm or Combined Cu-IUD and Progestin- cervical hormonal contraception LNG-IUD only pills Condom Injectable Implant cap Spermicide Examination C C C C A* C C C Blood pressure † 2 † † † † Weight (BMI) (weight [kg]/height [m] — C — ) — — — C C C C C Clinical breast examination C C C C C § C A C C C C C A Bimanual examination and cervical inspection Laboratory test Glucose C C C C C C C C C C C C C Lipids C C C C C C C C C C C Liver enzymes Hemoglobin C C C C C C C C Thrombogenic mutations C C C C C C C C C C C Cervical cytology (Papanicolaou smear) C C C C C ¶ C C C C C C C STD screening with laboratory tests — C HIV screening with laboratory tests C C C C C C C Source: CDC. U.S. selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use 2013. MMWR 2013;62(No. RR-5). Abbreviations: A = Class A: essential and mandatory in all circumstances for safe and effective use of the contraceptive method; B = Class B: contributes substantially to safe and effective use, but implementation might be considered within the public health and/or service context (the risk of not performing an examination or test should be balanced against the benefits of making the contraceptive method available); C = Class C: does not contribute substantially to safe and effective use of the contraceptive method; Cu-IUD = copper-containing intrauterine device; LNG-IUD = levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine device. * In cases in which access to health care might be limited, the blood pressure measurement can be obtained by the woman in a nonclinical setting (e.g., pharmacy or fire station) and self-reported to the provider. † Weight (BMI) measurement is not needed to determine medical eligibility for any methods of contraception because all methods can be used (U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria 1) or generally can be used (U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria 2) among obese women (Source: CDC. U.S. medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use 2010. MMWR 2010;59[No. RR-4]). However, measuring weight and calculating BMI at baseline might be helpful for monitoring any changes and counseling women who might be concerned about weight change perceived to be associated with their contraceptive method. § A bimanual examination (not cervical inspection) is needed for diaphragm fitting. ¶ Most women do not require additional STD screening at the time of IUD insertion, if they have already been screened according to CDC’s STD treatment guidelines (Sources: CDC. STD treatment guidelines. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2013. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment . CDC. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR. 2010;59[No. RR-12]). If a woman has not been screened according to guidelines, screening can be performed at the time of IUD insertion and insertion should not be delayed. Women with purulent cervicitis or current chlamydial infection or gonorrhea should not undergo IUD insertion (U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria 4). Women who have a very high individual likelihood of STD exposure (e.g., those with a currently infected partner) generally should not undergo IUD insertion (U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria 3) (Source: CDC. U.S. medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use 2010. MMWR 2010;59[No. RR-4]). For these women, IUD insertion should be delayed until appropriate testing and treatment occurs. to minimize the number of times a client has to return to messages or cell phone alarms). Providers also may inform the service site; clients about the availability of emergency contraceptive pills – Make condoms easily and inexpensively available; and and may provide clients an advance supply of emergency – If a client chooses a method that is not available on-site contraceptive pills on-site or by prescription, if requested. or the same day, provide the client another method to Side effects (e.g., irregular vaginal bleeding) are a primary use until she or he can start the chosen method. 54 ), so providers reason for method discontinuation ( Help the client develop a plan for using the selected • should discuss ways the client might deal with potential side method. Using a method incorrectly or inconsistently and effects to increase satisfaction with the method and improve having gaps in contraceptive protection because of method continuation ( ). 42 switching both increase the likelihood of an unintended • Develop a plan for follow-up. Providers should discuss an 37 ). After the method has been provided, or pregnancy ( appropriate follow-up plan with the client to meet their a plan put into place to obtain the chosen method, individual needs, considering the client’s risk for providers should help the client develop an action plan discontinuation. Follow-up provides an opportunity to for using the selected method. inquire about any initial difficulties the client might be Providers should encourage clients to anticipate reasons experiencing, and might reinforce the perceived accessibility why they might not use their chosen method(s) correctly or of the provider and increase rapport. Alternative modes consistently, and help them develop strategies to deal with of follow-up other than visits to the service site, such as these possibilities. For example, for a client selecting oral telephone, e-mail, or text messaging, should be considered contraceptive pills who might forget to take a pill, the provider (assuming confidentiality can be assured), as needed. can work with the client to identify ways to routinize daily As noted previously, if a client chooses a method that pill taking (e.g., use of reminder systems such as daily text is not available on-site or during the visit, the provider Vol. 63 / 12 No. 4 April 25, / MMWR / 2014

15 Recommendations and Reports should schedule a follow-up visit with the client or provide Providers of family planning services should offer confidential a referral for her or him to receive the method. The client services to adolescents and observe all relevant state laws and should be provided another method to use until she or he any legal obligations, such as notification or reporting of child can start the chosen method. abuse, child molestation, sexual abuse, rape, or incest, as well • Confirm the client’s understanding. Providers should assess , ). Confidentiality is critical for 59 58 as human trafficking ( whether the client understands the information that was adolescents and can greatly influence their willingness to access presented. The client’s understanding of the most and use services ( 60 ). As a result, multiple professional – 67 important information about her or his chosen medical associations have emphasized the importance of contraceptive method should be documented in the 68 70 providing confidential services to adolescents ( – ). medical record (e.g., by a checkbox or written statement). Providers should encourage and promote communication The teach-back method may be used to confirm the client’s between the adolescent and his or her parent(s) or guardian(s) understanding by asking the client to repeat back messages ). Adolescents – 71 about sexual and reproductive health ( 86 about risks and benefits and appropriate method use and who come to the service site alone should be encouraged to follow-up. If providers assess the client’s understanding, then talk to their parents or guardians. Educational materials and the check box or written statement can be used in place of a programs can be provided to parents or guardians that help written method-specific informed consent form. Topics that them talk about sex and share their values with their child providers may consider having the client repeat back include ( ). When both parent or guardian and child have agreed, 72,87 the following: typical method effectiveness; how to use the joint discussions can address family values and expectations method correctly; protection from STDs; warning signs about dating, relationships, and sexual behavior. for rare, but serious, adverse events and what to do if they In a given year, approximately 20% of adolescent births experience a warning sign; and when to return for follow-up. 88 ), so in addition to providing represent repeat births ( postpartum contraception, providers should refer pregnant Provide Counseling for Returning Clients and parenting adolescents to home visiting and other programs When serving contraceptive clients who return for ongoing that have been demonstrated to provide needed support and care related to contraception, providers should ask if the 94 reduce rates of repeat teen pregnancy ( ). 89 – client has any concerns with the method and assess its use. Services for adolescents should be provided in a “youth- The provider should assess any changes in the client’s medical friendly” manner, which means that they are accessible, history, including changes in risk factors and medications that equitable, acceptable, appropriate, comprehensive, effective, might affect safe use of the contraceptive method. If the client and efficient for youth as recommended by the World Health is using the method correctly and consistently and there are no 34 ). Organization ( concerns about continued use, an appropriate follow-up plan should be discussed and more contraceptive supplies given ). If the client or provider has concerns about the client’s ( 42 Pregnancy Testing and Counseling correct or consistent use of the method, the provider should Providers of family planning services should offer pregnancy ask if the client would be interested in considering a different testing and counseling services as part of core family planning method of contraception. If the client is interested, the steps services, in accordance with recommendations of major described above should be followed. professional medical organizations, such as the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Counseling Adolescent Clients 95 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) ( ). 97 – Providers should give comprehensive information to Pregnancy testing is a common reason for a client to visit a adolescent clients about how to prevent pregnancy ( 55 – 57 ). provider of family planning services. Approximately 65% of This information should clarify that avoiding sex (i.e., pregnancies result in live births, 18% in induced abortion, abstinence) is an effective way to prevent pregnancy and STDs. ). Among live births, only 98 and 17% spontaneous fetal loss ( If the adolescent indicates that she or he will be sexually active, 1% of infants are placed for adoption within their first month providers should give information about contraception and ). 99 of life ( help her or him to choose a method that best meets her or his The visit should include a discussion about her reproductive individual needs, including the use of condoms to reduce the life plan and a medical history that includes asking about risk of STDs. Long-acting reversible contraception is a safe any coexisting conditions (e.g., chronic medical illnesses, and effective option for many adolescents, including those 95 physical disability, psychiatric illness) ( ). In most cases, 96 , ). 35 who have not been pregnant or given birth ( Vol. 63 April 25, 2014 / / MMWR / No. 4 13

16 Recommendations and Reports a qualitative urine pregnancy test will be sufficient; however, Negative Pregnancy Test in certain cases, the provider may consider performing a Women who are not pregnant and who do not want to quantitative serum pregnancy test, if exact hCG levels would become pregnant at this time should be offered contraceptive be helpful for diagnosis and management. The test results services, as described previously. The contraceptive counseling should be presented to the client, followed by a discussion of session should explore why the client thought that she was options and appropriate referrals. pregnant and sought pregnancy testing services, and whether Options counseling should be provided in accordance with she has difficulties using her current method of contraception. recommendations from professional medical associations, such as A negative pregnancy test also provides an opportunity to discuss 97 – 95 ACOG and AAP ( ). A female client might wish to include the value of making a reproductive life plan. Ideally, these services her partner in the discussion; however, if a client chooses not to will be offered in the same visit as the pregnancy test because involve her partner, confidentiality must be assured. clients might not return at a later time for contraceptive services. Women who are not pregnant and who are trying to become Positive Pregnancy Test pregnant should be offered services to help achieve pregnancy or basic infertility services, as appropriate (see “Clients Who Want If the pregnancy test is positive, the clinical visit should include to Become Pregnant” and “Basic Infertility Services”). They also an estimation of gestational age so that appropriate counseling should be offered preconception health and STD services (see can be provided. If a woman is uncertain about the date of her “Preconception Health Services” and “STD services”). last normal menstrual period, a pelvic examination might be needed to help assess gestational age. In addition, clients should receive information about the normal signs and symptoms of Clients Who Want to early pregnancy, and should be instructed to report any concerns to a provider for further evaluation. If ectopic pregnancy or Become Pregnant other pregnancy abnormalities or problems are suspected, the Providers should advise clients who wish to become pregnant provider should either manage the condition or refer the client in accordance with the recommendations of professional for immediate diagnosis and management. medical organizations, such as the American Society for Referral to appropriate providers of follow-up care should Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) ( 100 ). be made at the request of the client, as needed. Every effort Providers should ask the client (or couple) how long she or should be made to expedite and follow through on all referrals. they have been trying to get pregnant and when she or they For example, providers might provide a resource listing or hope to become pregnant. If the client’s situation does not directory of providers to help the client identify options for meet one of the standard definitions of infertility (see “Basic care. Depending upon a client’s needs, the provider may make Infertility Services”), then she or he may be counseled about an appointment for the client, or call the referral site to let them how to maximize fertility. Key points are as follows: know the client was referred. Providers also should assess the The client should be educated about peak days and signs • client’s social support and refer her to appropriate counseling of fertility, including the 6-day interval ending on the day or other supportive services, as needed. of ovulation that is characterized by slippery, stretchy For clients who are considering or choose to continue the cervical mucus and other possible signs of ovulation. pregnancy, initial prenatal counseling should be provided • Women with regular menstrual cycles should be advised in accordance with the recommendations of professional that vaginal intercourse every 1–2 days beginning soon ). The client should 97 medical associations, such as ACOG ( after the menstrual period ends can increase the likelihood be informed that some medications might be contraindicated of becoming pregnant. in pregnancy, and any current medications taken during • Methods or devices designed to determine or predict the time pregnancy need to be reviewed by a prenatal care provider of ovulation (e.g., over-the-counter ovulation kits, digital (e.g., an obstetrician or midwife). In addition, the client should telephone applications, or cycle beads) should be discussed. be encouraged to take a daily prenatal vitamin that includes • It should be noted that fertility rates are lower among folic acid; to avoid smoking, alcohol, and other drugs; and women who are very thin or obese, and those who consume 97 not to eat fish that might have high levels of mercury ( ). If high levels of caffeine (e.g., more than five cups per day). there might be delays in obtaining prenantal care, the client Smoking, consuming alcohol, using recreational drugs, • should be provided or referred for any needed STD screening and using most commercially available vaginal lubricants (including HIV) and vaccinations ( 36 ). should be discouraged as these might reduce fertility. 2014 / MMWR April 25, Vol. 63 / No. 4 14 /

17 Recommendations and Reports The physical examination should include: height, weight, and Basic Infertility Services body mass index (BMI) calculation; thyroid examination to Providers should offer basic infertility care as part of identify any enlargement, nodule, or tenderness; clinical breast core family planning services in accordance with the examination; and assessment for any signs of androgen excess. recommendations of professional medical organizations, such A pelvic examination should assess for: pelvic or abdominal as ACOG, ASRM, and the American Urological Association tenderness, organ enlargement or mass; vaginal or cervical 96 , ). (AUA) ( 102 , 101 abnormality, secretions, or discharge; uterine size, shape, position, Infertility commonly is defined as the failure of a couple and mobility; adnexal mass or tenderness; and cul-de-sac mass, to achieve pregnancy after 12 months or longer of regular tenderness, or nodularity. If needed, clients should be referred ). Earlier assessment (such as 101 unprotected intercourse ( for further diagnosis and treatment (e.g., serum progesterone 6 months of regular unprotected intercourse) is justified levels, follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone levels, for women aged >35 years, those with a history of oligo- thyroid function tests, prolactin levels, endometrial biopsy, amenorrhea (infrequent menstruation), those with known or transvaginal ultrasound, hysterosalpingography, laparoscopy, suspected uterine or tubal disease or endometriosis, or those and clomiphene citrate). with a partner known to be subfertile (the condition of being less than normally fertile though still capable of effecting Basic Infertility Care for Men fertilization) ( 101 ). An early evaluation also might be warranted if risk factors of male infertility are known to be present or Infertility services should be provided for the male partner if there are questions regarding the male partner’s fertility of an infertile couple in accordance with recommendations ). Infertility visits to a family planning provider 102 potential ( developed by professional medical associations such as AUA are focused on determining potential causes of the inability to ( 102 ). Providers should discuss the client’s reproductive life achieve pregnancy and making any needed referrals to specialist plan, take a medical history, and conduct a sexual health 102 ). ASRM recommends that evaluation of both care ( 101 , assessment. AUA recommends that the medical history include 101 partners should begin at the same time ( ). ). The medical history should 102 a reproductive history ( include systemic medical illnesses (e.g., diabetes mellitus), prior surgeries and past infections; medications (prescription Basic Infertility Care for Women and nonprescription) and allergies; and lifestyle exposures. The The clinical visit should focus on understanding the client’s reproductive history should include methods of contraception, 24 ) and her difficulty in achieving reproductive life plan ( coital frequency and timing; duration of infertility and prior pregnancy through a medical history, sexual health assessment fertility; sexual history; and gonadal toxin exposure, including and physical exam, in accordance with recommendations heat. Patients also should be asked about their female partners’ developed by professional medical associations such as history of pelvic inflammatory disease, their partners’ histories ). The medical history should 101 ASRM ( ) and ACOG ( 96 of STDs, and problems with sexual dysfunction. include past surgery, including indications and outcome(s), In addition, a physical examination should be conducted with previous hospitalizations, serious illnesses or injuries, medical particular focus given to 1) examination of the penis, including conditions associated with reproductive failure (e.g., thyroid the location of the urethral meatus; 2) palpation of the testes disorders, hirsutism, or other endocrine disorders), and and measurement of their size; 3) presence and consistency of childhood disorders; results of cervical cancer screening and both the vas deferens and epididymis; 4) presence of a varicocele; any follow-up treatment; current medication use and allergies; 5) secondary sex characteristics; and 6) a digital rectal exam and family history of reproductive failure. In addition, a ( 102 ). Male clients concerned about their fertility should have reproductive history should include how long the client has a semen analysis. If this test is abnormal, they should be referred been trying to achieve pregnancy; coital frequency and timing, for further diagnosis (i.e., second semen analysis, endocrine level of fertility awareness, and results of any previous evaluation evaluation, post-ejaculate urinalysis, or others deemed necessary) and treatment; gravidity, parity, pregnancy outcome(s), and and treatment. The semen analysis is the first and most simple associated complications; age at menarche, cycle length and screen for male fertility. characteristics, and onset/severity of dysmenorrhea; and sexual history, including pelvic inflammatory disease, history Infertility Counseling of STDs, or exposure to STDs. A review of systems should emphasize symptoms of thyroid disease, pelvic or abdominal Counseling provided during the clinical visit should be 101 ). pain, dyspareunia, galactorrhea, and hirsutism ( guided by information elicited from the client during the medical and reproductive history and the findings of the April 25, 2014 / / / No. 4 15 MMWR Vol. 63

18 Recommendations and Reports physical exam. If there is no apparent cause of infertility who do not want to become pregnant should also be provided and the client does not meet the definition above, providers preconception health services, since they are recommended by should educate the client about how to maximize fertility (see USPSTF for the purpose of improving the health of adults. “Clients Who Want to Become Pregnant”). ACOG notes Recommendations for improving the preconception health the importance of addressing the emotional and educational of men also have been identified, although the evidence base needs of clients with infertility and recommends that providers for many of the recommendations for men is less than that consider referring clients for psychological support, infertility ). This report includes preconception health for women ( 103 96 support groups, or family counseling ( ). services that address men as partners in family planning (i.e., both preventing and achieving pregnancy), their direct contributions to infant health (e.g., genetics), and their role in improving the health of women (e.g., through reduced STD/HIV transmission). Preconception Health Services Moreover, these services are important for improving the health Providers of family planning services should offer of men regardless of their pregnancy intention. preconception health services to female and male clients In a family planning setting, all women planning or capable in accordance with CDC’s recommendations to improve of pregnancy should be counseled about the need to take a daily 24 ). preconception health and health care ( supplement containing 0.4 to 0.8 mg of folic acid, in accordance Preconception health services are beneficial because of with the USPSTF recommendation (Grade A) ( 104 ). their effect on pregnancy and birth outcomes and their Other preconception health services for women and men role in improving the health of women and men. The term should include discussion of a reproductive life plan and preconception describes any time that a woman of reproductive sexual health assessment (Boxes 2 and 4), as well as the potential is not pregnant but at risk of becoming pregnant, ). Services , 103 , 24 screening services described below ( 105 or when a man is at risk for impregnating his female partner. should be provided in accordance with the cited clinical Preconception health-care services for women aim to identify recommendations, and any needed follow up (further and modify biomedical, behavioral, and social risks to a diagnosis, treatment) should be provided either on-site or woman’s health or pregnancy outcomes through prevention and through referral. management. It promotes the health of women of reproductive age before conception, and thereby helps to reduce pregnancy- Medical History related adverse outcomes, such as low birthweight, premature For female clients, the medical history should include ). Moreover, the preconception birth, and infant mortality ( 24 the reproductive history, history of poor birth outcomes health services recommended here are equally important (i.e., preterm, cesarean delivery, miscarriage, and stillbirth), because they contribute to the improvement of women’s health environmental exposures, hazards and toxins (e.g., smoking, and well-being, regardless of her childbearing intentions. CDC alcohol, other drugs), medications that are known teratogens, recommends that preconception health services be integrated ). 105 genetic conditions, and family history ( 24 , into primary care visits made by women of reproductive age, For male clients, the medical history should include asking about such as family planning visits ( 24 ). the client’s past medical and surgical history that might impair his In the family planning setting, providers may prioritize reproductive health (e.g., genetic conditions, history of reproductive screening and counseling about preconception health for failures, or conditions that can reduce sperm quality, such as obesity, couples that are trying to achieve pregnancy and couples diabetes mellitus, and varicocele) and environmental exposures, seeking basic infertility services. Women who are using hazards and toxins (e.g., smoking) ( ). 103 contraception to prevent or delay pregnancy might also benefit from preconception health services, especially those Intimate Partner Violence at high risk of unintended pregnancy. A woman is at high Providers should screen women of childbearing age for risk of unintended pregnancy if she is using no method or a intimate partner violence and provide or refer women who screen less effective method of contraception (e.g., barrier methods, positive to intervention services, in accordance with USPSTF rhythm, or withdrawal), or has a history of contraceptive (Grade B) recommendations ( 106 ). 39 discontinuation or incorrect use ( 38 ). A woman is at lower , Alcohol and Other Drug Use risk of unintended pregnancy if she is using a highly effective method, such as an IUD or implant, or has an established For female and male adult clients, providers should screen for history of using methods of contraception, such as injections, alcohol use in accordance with the USPSTF recommendation ). Clients , 38 pills, patch, or ring correctly and consistently ( 39 (Grade B) for how to do so, and provide behavioral counseling / Vol. 63 / 2014 April 25, / MMWR No. 4 16

19 Recommendations and Reports ). Screening adults for other 107 interventions, as indicated ( Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index drug use and screening adolescents for alcohol and other drug For all clients, providers should screen adult (Grade B) and use has the potential to reduce misuse of alcohol and other adolescent (Grade B) clients for obesity in accordance with 109 , drugs, and can be recommended ( , 105 ). However, 108 the USPSTF recommendation, and obese adults should be the USPSTF recommendation for screening for other drugs referred for intensive counseling and behavioral interventions in adults, and for alcohol and other drugs in adolescents, is an 118 to promote sustained weight loss ( ). Clients likely will , 119 “I,” and patients should be informed that there is insufficient need to be referred for this service. These interventions typically evidence to assess the balance of benefits and harms of this comprise 12 to 26 sessions in a year and include multiple , 110 ). screening ( 107 behavioral management activities, such as group sessions, individual sessions, setting weight-loss goals, improving diet Tobacco Use or nutrition, physical activity sessions, addressing barriers to For female and male clients, providers should screen for change, active use of self-monitoring, and strategizing how to tobacco use in accordance with the USPSTF recommendation maintain lifestyle changes. ) for how to do so. Adults (Grade A) who use tobacco , 112 ( 111 products should be provided or referred for tobacco cessation Blood Pressure interventions, including brief behavioral counseling sessions For female and male clients, providers should screen for (<10 minutes) and pharmacotherapy delivered in primary hypertension in accordance with the USPSTF’s recommendation 111 ). Adolescents (Grade B) should be provided care settings ( (Grade A) that blood pressure be measured routinely ). 112 intervention to prevent initiation of tobacco use ( among adults ( 120 ) and the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Immunizations Blood Pressure’s recommendation that persons with blood For female and male clients, providers should screen for pressure less than 120/80 be screened every 2 years, and every immunization status in accordance with recommendations year if prehypertensive (i.e., blood pressure 120–139/80–89) of CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ( ). Providers also may follow AAP’s recommendation that 121 ) and offer vaccination, as indicated, or provide referrals ( 113 109 adolescents receive annual blood pressure screening ( ). to community providers for immunization. Female and male clients should be screened for age-appropriate vaccinations, Diabetes such as influenza and tetanus–diphtheria–pertussis (Tdap), For female and male clients, providers should follow the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), varicella, pneumococcal, USPSTF recommendation (Grade B) to screen for type 2 and meningococcal. In addition, ACOG recommends that diabetes in asymptomatic adults with sustained blood pressure rubella titer be performed in women who are uncertain about (either treated or untreated) >135/80 mmHg ( 122 ). MMR immunization ( 108 ). (For vaccines for reproductive health-related conditions, i.e., human papillomavirus and hepatitis B, see “Sexually Transmitted Disease Services.”) Sexually Transmitted Depression Disease Services For all clients, providers should screen for depression Providers should offer STD services in accordance with CDC’s when staff-assisted depression care supports are in place to 36 , ). It 124 , STD treatment and HIV testing guidelines ( 123 ensure accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and follow-up among young is important to test for chlamydia annually ). Staff-assisted care supports are defined as clinical 115 , 114 ( sexually active females and for gonorrhea routinely among all staff members who assist the primary care clinician by sexually active females at risk for infection because they can providing some direct depression care, such as care support or cause tubal infertility in women if left untreated. Testing for coordination, case management, or mental health treatment. syphilis, HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis C should be conducted The lowest effective staff supports consist of a screening nurse as recommended ( 36 , 123 , 124 ). Vaccination for human who advises primary care clinicians of a positive screen and papillomavirus (HPV) and hepatitis B are also important parts provides a protocol facilitating referral to behavioral therapy. ). of STD services and preconception care ( 113 Providers also may follow American Psychiatric Association STD services should be provided for persons with no signs or ( 116 ) and American Academy of Child and Adolescent symptoms suggestive of an STD. STD diagnostic management ) recommendations to assess risk for suicide Psychiatry ( 117 recommendations are not included in these guidelines, so among persons experiencing depression and other risk factors. providers should refer to CDC’s STD treatment guidelines April 25, 2014 / Vol. 63 / / No. 4 17 MMWR

20 Recommendations and Reports when caring for clients with STD symptoms. STD services (36) <25 years are at highest risk for gonorrhea infection. Other risk include the following steps, which should be provided at the factors that place women at increased risk include a previous initial visit and at least annually thereafter: gonorrhea infection, the presence of other STDs, new or multiple Step 1. Assess: The provider should discuss the client’s sex partners, inconsistent condom use, commercial sex work, and reproductive life plan, conduct a standard medical history drug use. Females with gonnorrhea infection should be re-screened and sexual health assessment (see text box above), and check for re-infection at 3 months after treatment. Pregnant women immunization status. A pelvic exam is not indicated in patients should be screened for gonorrhea at the time of their pregnancy with no symptoms suggestive of an STD. 36 test if there might be delays in obtaining prenatal care ( ). Step 2. Screen: A client who is at risk of an STD For male clients, providers should screen MSM for gonorrhea (i.e., sexually active and not involved in a mutually at anatomic sites of exposure, in accordance with CDC’s STD monogamous relationship with an uninfected partner) should 36 treatment guidelines ( ). Males with symptoms suggestive of be screened for HIV and the other STDs listed below, in gonorrhea (urethral discharge or dysuria or whose partner has ) and accordance with CDC’s STD treatment guidelines ( 36 gonorrhea) should be tested and empirically treated at the initial recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, visit. Males with gonorrhea infection should be re-screened for ). Clients 123 and pregnant women in health-care settings ( 128 36 reinfection at 3 months after treatment ( ). – 126 , also should follow CDC’s recommendations for testing Syphilis for hepatitis C ( ), and the Advisory Committee on 124 For female and male clients, providers should screen clients for Immunization Practice’s recommendations on reproductive syphilis, in accordance with CDC’s STD treatment guidelines ). It is important to follow 113 health-related immunizations ( 36 ( ). CDC recommends that persons at risk for syphilis infection these guidelines both to ensure that clients receive needed should be screened. Populations at risk include MSM, commercial services and to avoid unnecessary screening. sex workers, persons who exchange sex for drugs, those in adult Chlamydia correctional facilities and those living in communities with high For female clients, providers should screen all sexually active prevalence of syphilis ( ). Pregnant women should be screened 36 women aged 25 years for chlamydia annually, in addition ≤ for syphilis at the time of their pregnancy test if there might be to sexually active women aged >25 years with risk factors for 36 ). delays in obtaining prenatal care ( 36 ). Women aged >25 years at higher chlamydia infection ( HIV/AIDS risk include sexually active women who have a new or more For female and male clients, providers should screen than one sex partner or who have a partner who has other clients for HIV/AIDS, in accordance with CDC HIV concurrent partners. Females with chlamydia infection should ). Providers should follow CDC testing guidelines ( 123 be rescreened for re-infection at 3 months after treatment. recommendations that all clients aged 13–64 years be screened Pregnant women should be screened for chlamydia at the time routinely for HIV infection and that all persons likely to be at of their pregnancy test if there might be delays in obtaining ). Persons 123 high risk for HIV be rescreened at least annually ( prenatal care ( 36 ). likely to be at high risk include injection-drug users and their For male clients, chlamydia screening can be considered for sex partners, persons who exchange sex for money or drugs, sex males seen at sites with a high prevalence of chlamydia, such partners of HIV-infected persons, and MSM or heterosexual as adolescent clinics, correctional facilities, and STD clinics persons who themselves or whose sex partners have had more 126 , 36 , ). Providers should screen men who have sex with ( 125 than one sex partner since their most recent HIV test. CDC men (MSM) for chlamydia at anatomic sites of exposure, in further recommends that screening be provided after the ). Males 36 accordance with CDC’s STD treatment guidelines ( patient is notified that testing will be performed as part of with symptoms suggestive of chlamydia (urethral discharge or general medical consent unless the patient declines (opt-out dysuria or whose partner has chlamydia) should be tested and screening) or otherwise prohibited by state law. The USPSTF empirically treated at the initial visit. Males with chlamydia also recommends screening for HIV (Grade A) ( 129 ). ). infection should be re-screened for reinfection at 3 months ( 36 Hepatitis C Gonorrhea For female and male clients, CDC recommends one-time For female clients, providers should screen clients for gonorrhea, testing for hepatitis C (HCV) without prior ascertainment of in accordance with CDC’s STD treatment guidelines ( 36 ). HCV risk for persons born during 1945–1965, a population in all sexually active women Routine screening for N. gonorrhoeae with a disproportionately high prevalence of HCV infection 36 ). Women aged at risk for infection is recommended annually ( / April 25, / MMWR 2014 / No. 4 18 Vol. 63

21 Recommendations and Reports and related disease. Persons identified as having HCV is expedited partner therapy (EPT), as permissible by state laws, infection should receive a brief screening for alcohol use and in which medication or a prescription is provided to the patient intervention as clinically indicated, followed by referral to to give to the partner to ensure treatment. EPT is a partner appropriate care for HCV infection and related conditions. treatment strategy for partners who are unable to access care These recommendations do not replace previous guidelines for and treatment in a timely fashion. Because of concerns related HCV testing that are based on known risk factors and clinical to resistant gonorrhea, efforts to bring in for treatment partners indications. Rather, they define an additional target population of patients with gonorrhea infection are recommended; EPT for testing: persons born during 1945–1965 ( 124 ). USPSTF for gonorrhea should be reserved for situations in which efforts also recommends screening persons at high risk for infection to treat partners in a clinical setting are unsuccessful and EPT for hepatitis C and one-time screening for HCV infection is a gonorrhea treatment of last resort. ). for persons in the 1945–1965 birth cohort (Grade B) ( 130 All clients treated for chlamydia or gonorrhea should be rescreened 3 months after treatment; HIV-infected females Immunizations Related to Reproductive Health with Trichomonas vaginalis should be linked to HIV care and Female clients aged 11–26 years should be offered either at 3 months. If needed, the client also T. vaginalis rescreened for human papillomavirus (HPV) 2 or HPV4 vaccine for the should be vaccinated for hepatitis B and HPV ( ). Ideally, 113 prevention of HPV and cervical cancer if not previously STD treatment should be directly observed in the facility vaccinated, although the series can be started in persons as rather than a prescription given or called in to a pharmacy. ); recommendations include starting 113 young as age 9 years ( If a referral is made to a service site that has the necessary at age 11–12 years and catch up vaccine among females aged medication available on-site, such as the recommended 13–26 who have not been vaccinated previously or have injectable antimicrobials for gonorrhea and syphilis, then the not completed the 3-dose series through age 26. Routine referring provider must document that treatment was given. hepatitis B vaccination should be offered to all unvaccinated If the client is at risk for Step 4. Provide risk counseling: children and adolescents aged <19 years and all adults who or has an STD, high-intensity behavioral counseling for sexual are unvaccinated and do not have any documented history of behavioral risk reduction should be provided in accordance ). hepatitis B infection ( 113 with the USPSTF recommendation (Grade B) ( 132 ). One Male clients aged 11–21 years (minimum age: 9 years) high-intensity behavioral counseling model that is similar to should be offered HPV4 vaccine, if not vaccinated previously; ), 133 the contraceptive counseling model is Project Respect ( recommendations include starting at age 11–12 years and catch which could be implemented in family planning settings. All up vaccine among males aged 13–21 years who have not been sexually active adolescents are at risk, and adults are at increased vaccinated previously or have not completed the 3-dose series risk if they have current STDs, had an STD in the past through age 21 years; vaccination is recommended among year, have multiple sexual partners, are in nonmonogamous at-risk males, including MSM and immune-compromised relationships, or are sexually active and live in a community males through age 26 years if not vaccinated previously or with a high rate of STDs. males who have not completed the 3-dose series through age 26 Other key messages to give infected clients before they years. Heterosexual males aged 22–26 years may be vaccinated leave the service site include the following: a) refrain from 131 ( ). Routine hepatitis B vaccination should be offered to all unprotected sexual intercourse during the period of STD unvaccinated children and adolescents aged <19 years, and all treatment, 2) encourage partner(s) to be screened or to get unvaccinated adults who do not have a documented history treatment as quickly as possible in accordance with CDC’s ). 113 of hepatitis B infection ( STD treatment guidelines (partners in the past 60 days for Step 3. Treat: A client with an STD and her or his chlamydia and gonorrhea, 3 to 6 months plus the duration of partner(s) should be treated in a timely fashion to prevent lesions or signs for primary and secondary syphilis, respectively) complications, re-infection and further spread of the infection if the partner did not accompany the client to the service site in the community in accordance with CDC’s STD treatment for treatment, and 3) return for retesting in 3 months. If the guidelines; clients with HIV infection should be linked to partner is unlikely to access treatment quickly, then EPT for 36 HIV care and treatment ( ). Clients should be counseled 123 , chlamydia or gonorrhea should be considered, if permissible about the need for partner evaluation and treatment to avoid by state law. reinfection at the time the client receives the positive test A client using or considering contraceptive methods other results. For partners of clients with chlamydia or gonorrhea, than condoms should be advised that these methods do not one option is to schedule them to come in with the client; protect against STDs. Providers should encourage a client another option for partners who cannot come in with the client who is not in a mutually monogamous relationship with an Vol. 63 / April 25, 2014 / / No. 4 19 MMWR

22 Recommendations and Reports uninfected partner to use condoms. Patients who do not know Cervical cytology no longer is recommended on an annual their partners’ infection status should be encouraged to get basis. Further, it is not recommended (Grade D) for women tested and use condoms or avoid sexual intercourse until their 136 ). Women with abnormal test results should aged <21 years ( infection status is known. be treated in accordance with professional standards of care, 96 ). The need for cervical 137 , which may include colposcopy ( cytology should not delay initiation or hinder continuation of a contraceptive method ( ). 42 Related Preventive Health Services Providers should also follow ACOG and AAP recommendations For many women and men of reproductive age, a family that a genital exam should accompany a cervical cancer screening planning service site is their only source of health care; to inspect for any suspicious lesions or other signs that might therefore, visits should include provision of or referral to other , 97 ). 138 96 indicate an undiagnosed STD ( , preventive health services. Providers of family planning services that do not have the capacity to offer comprehensive primary Clinical Breast Examamination care services should have strong links to other community Despite a lack of definitive data for or against, clinical providers to ensure that clients have access to primary care. If breast examination has the potential to detect palpable breast a client does not have another source of primary care, priority cancer and can be recommended. ACOG recommends should be given to providing related reproductive health annual examination for all women aged >19 years ( 108 ). services or providing referrals, as needed. ACS recommends screening every 3 years for women aged For clients without a primary care provider, the following 139 20–39 years, and annually for women aged ). 40 years ( ≥ screening services should be provided, with appropriate However, the USPSTF recommendation for clinical breast follow-up, if needed, while linking the client to a primary care exam is an I, and patients should be informed that there is provider. These services should be provided in accordance with insufficient evidence to assess the balance of benefits and harms federal and professional medical recommendations cited below of the service ( ). 140 regarding the frequency of screening, the characteristics of the clients that should be screened, and the screening procedures Mammography to be used. Providers should follow USPSTF recommendations (Grade B) to screen women aged 50–74 years on a biennial Medical History basis; they should screen women aged <50 years if other USPSTF recommends that women be asked about family conditions support providing the service to an individual history that would be suggestive of an increased risk for ). 140 patient ( deleterious mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes (e.g., receiving a breast cancer diagnosis at an early age, bilateral Genital Examination breast cancer, history of both breast and ovarian cancer, For adolescent males, examination of the genitals should be presence of breast cancer in one or more female family conducted. This includes documentation of normal growth and members, multiple cases of breast cancer in the family, both development and other common genital findings, including breast and ovarian cancer in the family, one or more family ). Components 141 hydrocele, varicocele, and signs of STDs ( members with two primary cases of cancer, and Ashkenazi of this examination include inspecting skin and hair, palpating background). Women with identified risk(s) should be referred inguinal nodes, scrotal contents and penis, and inspecting the for genetic counseling and evaluation for BRCA testing perinanal region (as indicated). (Grade B) ( 134 ). The USPSTF also recommends that women at increased risk for breast cancer should be counseled about ). 135 risk-reducing medications (Grade B) ( Summary of Recommendations for Cervical Cytology Providing Family Planning and Providers should provide cervical cancer screening to clients Related Preventive Health Services receiving related preventive health services. Providers should The screening components for each family planning and follow USPSTF recommendations to screen women aged related preventive health service are provided in summary 21–65 years with cervical cytology (Pap smear) every 3 years, checklists for women (Table 2) and men (Table 3). When or for women aged 30–65 years, screening with a combination considering how to provide the services listed in these ). 136 of cytology and HPV testing every 5 years (Grade A) ( recommendations (e.g., the screening components for each MMWR No. 4 / 20 Vol. 63 / 2014 April 25, /

23 Recommendations and Reports service, risk groups that should be screened, the periodicity of make changes to improve quality ( 147 ). Ideally, these steps screening, what follow-up steps should be taken if screening will be conducted on a frequent (optimally, quarterly) and reveals the presence of a health condition), providers should ongoing basis. However, since quality cuts across all aspects follow CDC and USPSTF recommendations cited above, of a program, not all domains of quality can necessarily be or, in the absence of CDC and USPSTF recommendations, considered at all times. Within a sustainable system of quality the recommendations of professional medical associations. improvement, programs can opt to focus on a subset of quality Following these recommendations is important both to ensure dimensions and their respective measures. clients receive needed care and to avoid unnecessary screening of clients who do not need the services. Determining Which Measures Are Needed The summary tables describe multiple screening steps, which Performance measures provide information about how refer to the following: 1) the process of asking questions about ). 148 well the service site is meeting pre-established goals ( a client’s history, including a determination of whether risk The following questions should be considered when selecting factors for a disease or health condition exist; 2) performing performance measures ( 143 ): a physical exam; and 3) performing laboratory tests in Is the topic important to measure and report? For example, • at-risk asymptomatic persons to help detect the presence of does it address a priority aspect of health care, and is there a specific disease, infection, or condition. Many screening opportunity for improvement? recommendations apply only to certain subpopulations • What is the level of evidence for the measure (e.g., that a (e.g., specific age groups, persons who engage in specific risk change in the measure is likely to represent a true change in behaviors or who have specific health conditions), or some health outcomes)? Does the measure produce consistent screening recommendations apply to a particular frequency (reliable) and credible (valid) results about the quality of care? (e.g., a cervical cancer screening is generally recommended Are the results meaningful and understandable and useful • every 3 years rather than annually). Providers should be aware for informing quality improvement? that the USPSTF also has recommended that certain screening Is the measure feasible? Can it be implemented without • services not be provided because the harm outweighs the undue burden (e.g., captured with electronic data or benefit (see Appendix F). electronic health records)? When screening results indicate the potential or actual Performance measures should consider the quality of the presence of a health condition, the provider should either provide structure of services (e.g., the characteristics of the settings in which or refer the client for the appropriate further diagnostic testing or providers deliver health care, including material resources, human treatment in a manner that is consistent with the relevant federal resources, and organizational structure), the process by which care or professional medical associations’ clinical recommendations. is provided (whether services are provided correctly and completely, and how clients perceive the care they receive), and the outcomes of that care (e.g., client behaviors or health conditions that result) Conducting Quality Improvement ( ). They also may assess each dimension of quality services 149 Service sites that offer family planning services should ). Examples of measures that can be used for monitoring the ( 10 , 13 have a system for conducting quality improvement, which is quality of family planning services ( ) and suggested measures 150 designed to review and strengthen the quality of services on an that might help providers monitor quality of care have been listed ongoing basis. Quality improvement is the use of a deliberate (Table 6). However, other measures have been developed that also and continuous effort to achieve measurable improvements – 151 153 ). Service sites that offer family planning might be useful ( in the identified indicators of quality of care, which improve services should select, measure, and assess at least one intermediate the health of the community ( 142 ). By improving the quality or outcome measure on an ongoing basis, for which the service site of care, family planning outcomes, such as reduced rates of can be accountable. Structure- and process-based measures that unintended pregnancy, improved patient experiences, and assess the eight dimensions of quality services may be used to better , , 143 , 144 ). reduced costs, are more likely to be achieved ( 12 10 ). determine how to improve quality ( 154 Several frameworks for conducting quality improvement – ). This section presents a general 146 144 have been developed ( Collecting Information overview of three key steps that providers should take when Once providers have determined what information is needed, conducting quality improvement of family planning services: the next steps are to collect and use that information to improve 1) determine which measures are needed to monitor quality; the quality of care. Commonly used methods of data collection 2) collect the information needed; and 3) use the findings to include the following: No. 4 / Vol. 63 / April 25, 2014 / 21 MMWR

24 Recommendations and Reports TABLE 2. Checklist of family planning and related preventive health services for women Family planning services (provide services in accordance with the appropriate clinical recommendation) Preconception health Pregnancy testing and Contraceptive Related preventive † Screening components STD services services Basic infertility services counseling services* health services History § Screen Screen Screen Screen Screen Reproductive life plan §, Screen Screen Screen Screen ** Screen Screen Medical history § Screen Current pregnancy status §, Screen Screen Screen Screen ** Sexual health assessment §,¶, ** Screen Intimate partner violence §,¶, Screen ** Alcohol and other drug use §,¶ Screen Screen (combined Tobacco use hormonal methods for clients aged ≥35 years) § Immunizations Screen Screen for HPV & §§ HBV §,¶ Depression Screen §,¶ Screen Folic acid Physical examamination §,¶ Screen (hormonal Screen Screen Height, weight and BMI †† methods) §§ §,¶ Screen Screen (combined Blood pressure hormonal methods) §§ Screen Clinical breast exam** Screen §, ** Pelvic exam Screen (initiating Screen (if clinically Screen diaphragm or IUD) indicated) Screen Signs of androgen excess** Thyroid exam** Screen Laboratory testing Pregnancy test ** Screen (if clinically Screen indicated) ¶¶ ¶ §§ §, Screen Screen Chlamydia §§ §, ¶ ¶¶ Screen Screen Gonorrhea §§ §,¶ Screen Syphilis §,¶ §§ HIV/AIDS Screen §§ §,¶ Screen Hepatitis C §§ §,¶ Screen Diabetes ¶ §§ Screen Cervical cytology ¶ §§ Screen Mammography BMI = body mass index; HBV = hepatitis B virus; HIV/AIDS = human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; HPV = human papillomavirus; Abbreviations: IUD = intrauterine device; STD = sexually transmitted disease. * This table presents highlights from CDC’s recommendations on contraceptive use. However, providers should consult appropriate guidelines when treating individual patients to obtain more detailed information about specific medical conditions and characteristics (Source: CDC. U.S. medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use 2010. MMWR 2010;59(No. RR-4). † STD services also promote preconception health but are listed separately here to highlight their importance in the context of all types of family planning visits. The services listed in this column are for women without symptoms suggestive of an STD. § CDC recommendation. ¶ U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation. Professional medical association recommendation. ** †† Weight (BMI) measurement is not needed to determine medical eligibility for any methods of contraception because all methods can be used (U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria 1) or generally can be used (U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria 2) among obese women (Source: CDC. U.S. medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use 2010. MMWR 2010;59[No. RR-4]). However, measuring weight and calculating BMI at baseline might be helpful for monitoring any changes and counseling women who might be concerned about weight change perceived to be associated with their contraceptive method. §§ Indicates that screening is suggested only for those persons at highest risk or for a specific subpopulation with high prevalence of an infection or condition. ¶¶ CDC. STD treatment Most women do not require additional STD screening at the time of IUD insertion if they have already been screened according to CDC’s STD treatment guidelines (Sources: . CDC. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, http://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment guidelines. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2013. Available at 2010. MMWR 2010;59[No. RR-12]). If a woman has not been screened according to guidelines, screening can be performed at the time of IUD insertion and insertion should not be delayed. Women with purulent cervicitis or current chlamydial infection or gonorrhea should not undergo IUD insertion (U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria 4) women who have a very high individual likelihood of STD exposure (e.g. those with a currently infected partner) generally should not undergo IUD insertion (U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria 3) (Source: CDC. US medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use 2010. MMWR 2010;59[No. RR-4]). For these women, IUD insertion should be delayed until appropriate testing and treatment occurs. Review of medical records. All records that detail service • • Exit interview with the client. A patient is asked (through delivery activities can be reviewed, including encounters either a written or in-person survey) to describe what and claims data, client medical records, facility logbooks, happened during the encounter or their assessment of their and others. It is important that records be carefully satisfaction with the visit. Both quantitative (close-ended designed, sufficiently detailed, provide accurate questions) and qualitative (open-ended questions) information, and have access restricted to protect methods can be used. Limitations include a bias toward confidentiality. The use of electronic health records can clients reporting higher degrees of satisfaction, and the facilitate some types of medical record review. April 25, MMWR / 22 2014 / Vol. 63 / No. 4

25 Recommendations and Reports TABLE 3. Checklist of family planning and related preventive health services for men Family planning services (provide services in accordance with the appropriate clinical recommendation) Basic infertility Preconception Related preventive Screening components and source § † health services services health services Contraceptive services* of recommendation STD services History ¶ Reproductive life plan Screen Screen Screen Screen ¶,†† Screen Screen Screen Screen Medical history ¶,†† Sexual health assessment Screen Screen Screen Screen ,†† ¶, ** Screen Alcohol & other drug use ¶, Tobacco use ** Screen §§ ¶ Screen for HPV & HBV Screen Immunizations ¶, Screen ** Depression Physical examination ¶, Screen ** Height, weight, and BMI §§ ,†† Blood pressure** Screen §§ †† Screen Screen (if clinically Screen (if clinically Genital exam indicated) indicated) Laboratory testing ¶ §§ Screen Chlamydia ¶ §§ Screen Gonorrhea ¶, §§ Syphilis Screen ** ¶, §§ HIV/AIDS ** Screen §§ ¶, Screen ** Hepatitis C §§ ¶, ** Diabetes Screen Abbreviations: HBV = hepatitis B virus; HIV/AIDS = human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; HPV = human papillomavirus virus; STD = sexually transmitted disease. o making condoms available to males. However, when a male client requests advice on pregnancy prevention, he No special evaluation needs to be done prior t * should be provided contraceptive services as described in the section “Provide Contraceptive Services.” † The services listed here represent a sub-set of recommended preconception health services for men that were recommended and for which there was a direct link Frey K, Navarro S, Kotelchuck M, Lu M. The clinical content of preconception care: preconception care for men. Am J to fertility or infant health outcomes (Source: Obstet Gynecol 2008;199[6 Suppl 2]:S389–95). § STD services also promote preconception health, but are listed separately here to highlight their importance in the context of all types of family planning visit. The services listed in this column are for men without symptoms suggestive of an STD. ¶ CDC recommendation. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation. ** †† Professional medical association recommendation. §§ Indicates that screening is suggested only for those persons at highest risk or for a specific subpopulation with high prevalence of infection or other condition. provider’s behavior might be influenced if she or he knows Consideration and Use of the Findings clients are being interviewed. After data are collected, they should be tabulated, analyzed, • Questions about a service site’s structure Facility audit. and used to improve care. Staff whose performance was assessed (e.g., on-site availability of a broad range of FDA-approved should be involved in the development of the data collection methods) and processes (e.g., skills and technical tools and analysis of results. Analysis should address the competence of staff, referral mechanisms) can be used to ): following questions ( 155 determine the readiness of the facility to serve clients. What is the performance level of the facility? • • A provider’s behavior is observed Direct observation. • Is there a consistent pattern of performance among during an actual encounter with a client. Evaluation of a providers? full range of competencies, including communication • What is the trend in performance? skills, can be carried out. A main limitation is that the • What are the causes of poor performance? observer’s presence might influence the provider’s How can performance gaps be minimized? • performance. Given the findings, service site staff should use a systematic Interview with the health-care provider. Providers are • approach to identifying ways to improve the quality of care. interviewed about how specific conditions are managed. One example of a systematic approach to improving the Both closed- and open-ended questions can be used, quality of care is the “Plan, Do, Study, and Act” (PDSA) model although it is important to frame the question so that the ( ), in which staff first develop a plan for improving 156 , 147 ‘correct’ answer is not suggested. A limitation is that quality, then execute the plan on a small scale, evaluate feedback providers tend to over-report their performance. to confirm or adjust the plan, and finally, make the plan / / April 25, 2014 MMWR Vol. 63 / No. 4 23

26 Recommendations and Reports TABLE 4. Suggested measures of the quality of family planning services Source Measure Type of measure and dimension of quality Unintended pregnancy PIMS* • Health outcome Teen pregnancy • • Birth spacing • Proportion of female users at risk for unintended pregnancy who adopt or continue use of an FDA-approved contraceptive method (measured for any method; highly effective methods; or long-acting reversible methods) [Intermediate outcome] Proportion of providers that follow the most current CDC recommendations on Safe (Structure) • contraceptive safety • PIMS* Site dispenses or provides on-site a full range of FDA-approved contraceptive methods Effective to meet the diverse reproductive needs and goals of clients; short-term hormonal, (Structure, or the characteristics of the long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), emergency contraception (EC). settings in which providers deliver health Proportion of female users aged ≥24 years who are screened annually for chlamydial • care, including material resources, human resources, and organizational infection. • structure) Proportion of female users aged ≥24 years who are screened annually for gonorrhea. Proportion of users who were tested for HIV during the past 12 months. • Proportion of female users aged ≥21 years who have received a Pap smear within • the past 3 years. † CAHPS • Client-centered Proportion of clients who report the provider communicates well, shows respect, § RQIP spends enough time with the client, and is informed about the client’s medical (Process, or whether services are provided history. correctly and completely, and how • Proportion of clients who report that clients perceive the care they receive) – Staff are helpful and treat clients with courtesy and respect. His or her privacy is respected. – She or he receives contraceptive method that is acceptable to her or him. – PIMS* • Efficient Site uses electronic health information technology or electronic health records to (Structure) improve client reproductive health. Average number of days to the next appointment. PIMS* • Timely Site offers routine contraceptive resupply on a walk-in basis. • (Structure and process) Site offers on-site HIV testing (using rapid technology). • Site offers on-site HPV and hepatitis B vaccination. • PIMS* • Accessible Site offers family planning services during expanded hours of operation. Proportion of total family planning encounters that are encounters with ongoing or CAHPS–PCMH item set • (Structure and process) † continuing users. on care coordination Proportion of clients who report that his or her care provider follows up to give test • results, has up-to-date information about care from specialists, and discusses other prescriptions. • Site has written agreements (e.g., MOUs) with the key partner agencies for health care (especially prenatal care, primary care, HIV/AIDS) and social service (domestic violence, food stamps) referrals. Equitable • PIMS* Site offers language assistance at all points of contact for the most frequently encountered language(s). (Structure) ¶ Value CDC Average cost per client. • CAPHS = Abbreviations: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s Consumer Assessment of Health Care Providers and Systems; FDA = Food and Drug Administration; HPV = human papillomavirus; MOU = memorandum of understanding; PIMS = Performance Information and Monitoring System; RQIP = Regional Quality Indicators Program. Fowler C. Title X Family Planning Program Performance Information and Monitoring System (PIMS): Description of Proposed Performance Measures [DRAFT]. Source: * Washington, DC: Research Triangle Institute; 2012. † https://www.cahps.ahrq. Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS). Available at . gov/default.asp § John Snow International. The Regional Quality Indicators Project (RQIP). Boston, MA: John Snow International; 2014. Available at Source: http://www.jsi.com/ JSIInternet/USHealth/project/display.cfm?ctid=na&cid=na&tid=40&id=2621 . ¶ Haddix A, Corso P, Gorsky R. Costs. In: Haddix A, Teutsch S, Corso P, eds. Prevention effectiveness: a guide to decision analysis and economic evaluation. 2nd Sources: ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2003; Stiefel M, Nolan K. A guide to measuring the triple aim: population health, experience of care, and per capita cost. Cambridge, MA: Institute for Healthcare Improvements; 2012. permanent. Examples of steps that may be taken to improve Conclusion the quality of care include developing job aids, providing The United States continues to face substantial challenges to task-specific training for providers, conducting more patient improving the reproductive health of the U.S. population. The education, or strengthening relationships with referral sites recommendations in this report can contribute to improved 146 ). through formal memoranda of understanding ( reproductive health by defining a core set of family planning 2014 24 MMWR / April 25, / Vol. 63 / No. 4

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Cancer Society guidelines, current issues in cancer screening, and new guidance on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening. CA CDC. Male chlamydia screening consultation. Atlanta, GA: US 125. Cancer J Clin 2013;63:88–105. Department of Health and Human Services, DCD; 2006. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/std/chlamydia. / / 2014 April 25, / MMWR No. 4 28 Vol. 63

31 Recommendations and Reports 149. Donabedian A. The quality of care. JAMA 1988;260:1743–8. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for breast cancer. 140. 150. Fowler C. Title X Family Planning Program Performance Information Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2009. Available at http://www. and Monitoring System (PIMS): description of proposed performance uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspsbrca.htm. measures. Washington, DC: Research Triangle Institute; 2012. 151. Marcell A, Bell D, Joffe A. The male genital examination: a position 141. California Family Health Council. Performance measures: guiding quality improvement for family planning services. Los Angeles, CA: paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine: a position http://www.cfhc. paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. J Adolesc California Family Health Council; 2011. Available at Health 2012;50:424–5. org/TitleX/PerformanceMeasures/default.htm. John Snow International. The Regional Quality Indicators Project Riley W, Moran J, Corso L, Beitsch L, Bialek R, Cofsky A. Defining 152. 142. quality improvement in public health. J Public Health Manag Pract (RQIP). Boston, MA: John Snow International; 2012. Available at 2010;16:5–7. http://www.jsi.com/JSIInternet/USHealth/project/display.cfm?ctid=n a&cid=na&tid=40&id=2621. National Quality Forum. ABCs of measurement. Washington, DC: 143. National Quality Forum; 2011. Available at http://www.qualityforum. 153. Family Planning Councils of America. Performance Measurement org/Measuring_Performance/ABCs_of_Measurement.aspx. System. Los Angeles, CA: Family Planning Councils of America; ND. Available at http://www.fpcai.org/pms.html. 144. Berwick D, Nolan T, Whittington J. The Trip Aim: care, health and Palmer R. Process-based measures of quality: the need for detailed 154. cost. Health Aff 2008;27:759–69. clinical data in large health care databases. Ann Intern Med 1997; formance Standards Program. Atlanta, CDC. National Public Health Per 145. 127:733–8. GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2012. Available at www.cdc.gov/od/ocphp/nphpsp. 155. Bouchet B. Health manager’s guide: monitoring the quality of primary 146. Berwick D. A user’s manual for the IOM’s “Quality Chasm” Report. care. Bethesda, MD: Center for Human Services; ND. Available at http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNACK584.pdf . Health Affairs 2002;21:80–90. Nolan T, Norman C, Provost L. The Improvement Langley G, Nolan K, Institute for Health Care Improvement. How to improve. Cambridge, 156. 147. Guide: A practical approach to enhancing organizational performance. http:// MA: Institute for Health Care Improvement; 2014. Available at www.ihi.org/knowledge/Pages/HowtoImprove/default.aspx. 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers; 2009. Government Accountability Office. Performance measurement and 148. evaluation: definitions and relationships. Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office; 2011. No. 4 Vol. 63 / April 25, 2014 / 29 MMWR /

32 Recommendations and Reports Appendix A How the Recommendations Were Developed The recommendations were developed jointly under the to consider the quality of the evidence and suggest what auspices of CDC’s Division of Reproductive Health (DRH) recommendations might be justified on the basis of the and the Office of Population Affairs (OPA), in consultation evidence. CDC and OPA used this feedback to develop core with a wide range of experts and key stakeholders. A recommendations for counseling, serving adolescents, and multistage process that drew on established procedures for quality improvement. EWG members subsequently reviewed ) was used to develop the 1,2 developing clinical guidelines ( these core recommendations; EWG members differed from the recommendations. In April 2010, an Expert Work Group subject matter experts in that they were more familiar with the (EWG) comprising family planning clinical providers, program family planning service delivery context and could comment administrators, representatives from relevant federal agencies, on the feasibility and appropriateness of the recommendations and representatives from professional medical organizations as well as on their scientific justification. EWG members met was created to advise OPA and CDC on the structure and to consider the core recommendations using 1) the quality content of the revised recommendations and to help make the of the evidence; 2) the positive and negative consequences of recommendations more feasible and relevant to the needs of implementing the recommendations on health outcomes, costs the field. This group made two key initial recommendations: or cost-savings, and implementation challenges; and 3) the 1) to examine the scientific evidence for three priority areas of relative importance of these consequences (e.g., the ability of focus identified as key components of family planning service the recommendations to have a substantial effect on health delivery, (i.e., counseling and education, serving adolescents, outcomes may be weighed more than the logistical challenges and quality improvement); and 2) to guide providers of family ). In certain cases, when the evidence of implementing them) ( 1 planning services in the use of various recommendations for was inconclusive or incomplete, recommendations were made on how to provide clinical care to women and men. the basis of expert opinion (see Appendix B). Finally, CDC and OPA staff considered the feedback from EWG members when finalizing the core recommendations and writing this report. Developing Recommendations on Counseling, Adolescent Services, Developing Recommendations and Quality Improvement on Clinical Services Systematic reviews of the published literature from January 1985 DRH and OPA staff members synthesized recommendations through December 2010 were conducted for each priority topic for clinical care for women and for men that were developed to identify evidence-based and evidence-informed approaches to by >35 federal and professional medical organizations. They family planning service delivery. Standard methods for conducting were assisted in this effort by staff from OPA’s Office of Family the reviews were used, including the development of key questions Planning Male Training Center and from CDC’s Division of and analytic frameworks, the identification of the evidence base STD Prevention, Division of Violence Prevention, Division through a search of the published as well as “gray literature” of Immunization Services, and Division of Cancer Prevention (i.e., studies published somewhere other than in a peer-reviewed and Control. The synthesis was needed because clinical journal), and a synthesis of the evidence in which findings were recommendations are sometimes inconsistent with each other summarized and the quality of individual studies was considered, and can vary by the extent to which they are evidence-based. using the methodology of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force The clinical recommendations addressed contraceptive services, 3 ). Eight databases were searched (i.e., MEDLINE, (USPSTF) ( achieving pregnancy, basic infertility services, preconception PsychInfo, PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, POPLINE, health services, sexually transmitted disease services, and related and the U.K. National Clearinghouse Service Economic health-care services. Evaluation Database) and were restricted to literature from the An attempt was made to apply the Institute of Medicine’s United States and other developed countries. Summaries of the criteria for clinical practice guidelines when deciding which evidence used to prepare these recommendations will appear in ). professional medical organizations to include in the review ( 2 background papers that will be published separately. However, many organizations did not articulate the process In May 2011, three technical panels (one for each priority used to develop the recommendations fully, and many did not topic) comprising subject matter experts were convened Vol. 63 MMWR 2014 April 25, / 30 No. 4 / /

33 Recommendations and Reports conduct comprehensive and systematic reviews of the literature. at high risk of unintended pregnancy). Future operational In the end, to be included in the synthesis, the recommending research should provide more information about how to deliver organization had to be a federal agency or major professional these services most efficiently during multiple visits to clients medical organization that represents established medical with diverse needs. disciplines. In addition, a recommendation had to be made on the basis of an independent review of the evidence or expert opinion and be considered a primary source that was developed Determining How Clinical Services for the United States. Should Be Provided In July 2011, two technical panels comprising subject matter Various federal agencies and professional medical associations experts on clinical services for women and men were convened have made recommendations for how to provide family to review the synthesis of federal and professional medical planning services. When considering these recommendations, recommendations, reconcile inconsistent recommendations, the Expert Work Group used the following hierarchy: and provide individual feedback to CDC and OPA about the Highest priority was given to CDC guidelines because • implications for family planning service delivery. CDC and OPA they are developed after a rigorous review of scientific used this individual feedback to develop core recommendations evidence. CDC guidelines tailor recommendations for for clinical services. The core recommendations were subsequently higher risk individuals, (whereas USPSTF focuses on reviewed by EWG members, and feedback was used to finalize average risk individuals), who are more representative of the core recommendations and write this report. the clients seeking family planning services. Members of the technical panels recommended that • When no CDC guideline existed to guide the contraceptive services, pregnancy testing and counseling, recommendations, the relevant USPSTF A or B services to achieve pregnancy, basic infertility care, STD services, recommendations (which indicate a high or moderate and other preconception health services should be considered certainty that the benefit is moderate to substantial) were family planning services. This feedback considered federal used. USPSTF recommendations are made on the basis of statute and regulation, CDC and USPSTF recommendations a thorough review of the available evidence. for clinical care, and EWG members’ opinion. • If neither a CDC nor a USPSTF A or B recommendation Because CDC’s preconception health recommendations existed, the recommendations of selected major professional include many services, the panel narrowed the range of medical associations were considered as resources. The preconception services that were included by using the following American Academy of Pediatrics’ (AAP) Bright Futures ) had criteria: 1) the Select Panel on Preconception Care ( 4 6 guidelines ( ) were used as the primary source of assigned an A or B recommendation to that service for women, recommendations for adolescents when no CDC or which means that there was either good or fair evidence to USPSTF recommendations existed. support the recommendation that the condition be considered For a limited number of recommendations, there were no • in a preconception care evaluation (Table 1), or 2) the service federal or major professional medical recommendations, but was included among recommendations made by experts in the service was recommended by EWG members on the basis ). Services for men that preconception health for males ( 5 of expert opinion for family planning clients. addressed health conditions that affect reproductive capacity In some cases, a service was graded as an I recommendation or pregnancy outcomes directly were included as preconception by USPSTF for the general population (an I recommendation health; services that addressed men’s health but that were not means that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance related directly to pregnancy outcomes were considered to be of benefits and harms of the service, so if the service is offered, related preventive health services. patients should be informed of this fact), but either CDC, EWG The Expert Work Group noted that more preventive services members, or another organization recommended the service for are recommended than can be offered feasibly in some settings. women or men seeking family planning services. The situations However, a primary purpose of this report is to set a broad in which this occurred and the reasons why the service was framework within which individual clinics will tailor services recommended despite its receiving an I recommendation by to meet the specific needs of the populations that they serve. USPSTF have been summarized (Table 2). The approach used to In addition, EWG members identified specific subgroups that consider the evidence and make recommendations that are used should have the greatest priority for preconception health 7 ). by USPSTF have been summarized (Tables 3 and 4) ( services (i.e., those trying to achieve pregnancy and those / April 25, 2014 / Vol. 63 / No. 4 31 MMWR

34 Recommendations and Reports 5. Frey KA, Navarro S, Kotelchuck M, Lu M. The clinical content of References preconception care: preconception care for men. Am J Obstet Gynecol oup. GRADE: going from evidence to GRADE Working Gr 1. 2008;199(Suppl 2):S389–95. recommendations. BMJ 2008;336:1049–51. utures 6. Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine, Bright F 2. Institute of Medicine. Clinical practice guidelines we can trust. Washington, Periodicity Schedule Workgroup. 2014 recommendations for pediatric DC: The National Academies Press; 2011. Available at http://www.nap. preventive health care. Pediatrics 2014;133;568. edu/catalog.php?record_id=13058. 7. US Preventive Services Task Force. Grade definitions. Rockville, MD: US 3. US Preventive Services Task Force. USPSTF: methods and processes. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce. and Quality; 2013. Available at for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2013. Available at http://www. org/uspstf/grades.htm. uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/methods.htm. Jack BW, Atrash H, Coonrod D, Moos M, O’Donnell J, Johnson K. The 4. clinical content of preconception care: an overview and preparation of this supplement. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008;199(Suppl 2):S266–79. Vol. 63 / 32 2014 April 25, / MMWR No. 4 /

35 Recommendations and Reports TABLE 1. Select Panel on Preconception Care grading system Quality of the evidence* Evidence was obtained from at least one properly conducted, randomized, controlled trial that was performed with subjects who were not pregnant. I-a I-b Evidence was obtained from at least one properly conducted, randomized, controlled trial that was done not necessarily before pregnancy. II-1 Evidence was obtained from well-designed, controlled trials without randomization. II-2 Evidence was obtained from well-designed cohort or case-control analytic studies, preferably conducted by more than one center or research group. II-3 Evidence was obtained from multiple-time series with or without the intervention, or dramatic results in uncontrolled experiments. Opinions were gathered from respected authorities on the basis of clinical experience, descriptive studies and case reports, or reports of expert III committees. Strength of the recommendation A There is good evidence to support the recommendation that the condition be considered specifically in a preconception care evaluation. B There is fair evidence to support the recommendation that the condition be considered specifically in a preconception care evaluation. C There is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the inclusion of the condition in a preconception care evaluation, but recommendation to include or exclude may be made on other grounds. D There is fair evidence to support the recommendation that the condition be excluded in a preconception care evaluation. There is good evidence to support the recommendation that the condition be excluded in a preconception care evaluation. E Jack B, Atrash H, Coonrod D, Moos M, O’Donnell J, Johnson K. The clinical content of preconception care: an overview and preparation of this supplement. Source: Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008;199(6 Suppl 2):S266–79. TABLE 2. Services included in these recommendations that received a U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) I recommendation Service/screen USPSTF recommendation Why the service is recommended despite a USPSTF I recommendation The recommendations are consistent with CDC’s recommendations on preconception health and Alcohol I for adolescents AAP’s Bright Futures* guidelines. Other drugs I for adolescents and adults The recommendations are consistent with CDC’s recommendations on preconception health and AAP’s Bright Futures guidelines. Clinical breast exam I for all women No CDC recommendation exists, but ACOG and ACS recommend conducting clinical breast exams, and the Expert Work Group endorsed the ACOG recommendation. I for all males The recommendations are consistent with CDC’s STD treatment guidelines. Chlamydia Gonorrhea I for all males The recommendations are consistent with CDC’s STD treatment guidelines. Source: US Preventive Services Task Force. USPSTF recommendations. Available at http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/recommendations.htm. Abbreviations: AAP = American Academy of Pediatrics; ACS = American Cancer Society; ACOG = American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; STD = sexually transmitted disease. Source: Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine, Bright Futures Periodicity Schedule Workgroup. 2014 recommendations for pediatric preventive health * care. Pediatrics 2014;133;568. MMWR No. 4 / Vol. 63 / April 25, 2014 / 33

36 Recommendations and Reports TABLE 3. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) grades, definitions, and suggestions for practice Suggestions for practice Definition Grade This service should be offered or provided. USPSTF recommends the service. There is high certainty that the net A benefit is substantial. B This service should be offered or provided. USPSTF recommends the service. There is high certainty that the net benefit is moderate, or there is moderate certainty that the net benefit is moderate to substantial. Clinicians may provide this service to selected patients depending on C This service should be offered or provided only if other considerations support the offering or providing the service in an individual circumstances. However, for a majority of persons without signs or symptoms there is likely to be only a limited benefit from individual patient. this service. Use of this service should be discouraged. D USPSTF recommends against the service. There is moderate or high certainty that the service has no net benefit or that the harms outweigh the benefits. I Statement The clinical considerations section of USPSTF recommendation USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess statement should be consulted. If the service is offered, patients the balance of benefits and harms of the service. Evidence is lacking, of poor quality, or conflicting, and the balance of benefits and harms should be educated about the uncertainty of the balance of cannot be determined. benefits and harms. Source: US Preventive Services Task Force. USPSTF: methods and processes. Available at http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/methods.htm. TABLE 4. Levels of certainty regarding net benefit Level of certainty* Description High The available evidence usually includes consistent results from well-designed, well-conducted studies in representative primary care populations. These studies assess the effects of the preventive service on health outcomes. This conclusion is therefore unlikely to be strongly affected by the results of future studies. The available evidence is sufficient to determine the effects of the preventive service on health outcomes, but confidence in the estimate is Moderate constrained by such factors as the number, size, or quality of individual studies; • inconsistency of findings across individual studies; • • limited generalizability of findings to routine primary care practice; and • lack of coherence in the chain of evidence. As more information becomes available, the magnitude or direction of the observed effect could change, and this change may be large enough to alter the conclusion. The available evidence is insufficient to assess effects on health outcomes is insufficient because of Low the limited number or size of studies, • important flaws in study design or methods, • inconsistency of findings across individual studies, • gaps in the chain of evidence, • findings not generalizable to routine primary care practice, • lack of information on important health outcomes, or • • more information required to allow estimation of effects on health outcomes. US Preventive Services Task Force. USPSTF: methods and processes. Available at http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/methods.htm. Source: The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) defines certainty as the likelihood that the USPSTF assessment of the net benefit of a preventive service is correct. * The net benefit is defined as benefit minus harm of the preventive service as implemented in a general, primary care population. USPSTF assigns a certainty level on the basis of the nature of the overall evidence available to assess the net benefit of a preventive service. 2014 MMWR / April 25, 34 / Vol. 63 / No. 4

37 Recommendations and Reports Appendix B The Evidence, Potential Consequences, and Rationales for Core Recommendations life plan; medical history; sexual health assessment; intimate Sixteen core recommendations that were considered by partner violence, alcohol, and other drug use; tobacco use; the Expert Work Group (EWG) are presented below. Each immunizations; depression; body mass index (BMI); blood recommendation is accompanied by a summary of the pressure; chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV/AIDS; and relevant evidence (full summaries of which will be published diabetes. All female clients also should be counseled about the separately), a list of potential consequences of implementing the recommendation, and its rationale. When considering the need to take a daily supplement of folic acid. When screening results indicate the presence of a health condition, the provider recommendations, the Expert Work Group was divided into should take steps either to provide or to refer the client for two groups (one comprising seven members and the other five the appropriate further diagnostic testing and or treatment. members), and each group considered separate recommendations. Services should be provided in a manner that is consistent with established federal and professional medical associations’ recommendations to enable clients who need services to receive Definition of Family them and to avoid over-screening. Planning Services Quality of evidence: A systematic review was not conducted; Recommendation: Primary care providers should offer the the recommendation was made on the basis of CDC’s following family planning services: contraceptive services for recommendations to improve preconception health and health women and men who want to prevent pregnancy and space ) and a review of preconception health services by an care ( 3 births, pregnancy testing and counseling, help for clients who ). expert panel on preconception care for women ( 6 wish to achieve pregnancy, basic infertility services, sexually Potential consequences: More women will receive specified transmitted disease (STD) services and preconception health preconception health services, which will improve the health of services to improve the health of women, men, and infants. infants and women. The evidence base for preconception health Quality of evidence: A systematic review was not conducted; is not fully established. There is a potential risk that a client with the recommendation was made on the basis of federal statute a positive screen will not be able to afford treatment if the client is – 3 5 ), and regulation ( 1,2 ), CDC clinical recommendations ( uninsured and not eligible for public programs. The human and and expert opinion. financial cost of providing preconception health services might Potential consequences: Adding preconception health mean that fewer contraceptive and other services can be offered. services means that more women and men will receive The potential benefits to the health of women and Rationale: preconception health services. The recommended services infants were thought by the panel to be greater than the costs, also will promote the health of women and men even if potential harms, and opportunity costs of providing these services. they do not have children. The human and financial cost of Implementation (e.g., training and monitoring of providers) can providing preconception health services might mean that fewer address the issues related to providers over-screening and not contraceptive and other services can be offered in some settings. following the federal and professional medical recommendations. Rationale: Services to prevent and achieve pregnancy CDC will continue to monitor related research and modify these are core to the federal government’s efforts to promote recommendations, as needed. Health-care reform might make reproductive health. Adding preconception health as a family follow-up care more available to low-income clients. All seven planning service is consistent with this mission; it emphasizes EWG members agreed to this recommendation. achieving a healthy pregnancy and also promotes adult health. Adding preconception health is also consistent with CDC recommendations to integrate preconception health services Preconception Health — Men 3 ). All seven EWG members into primary care platforms ( Recommendation: Preconception health services for men agreed to this recommendation. include the following screening services: reproductive life plan; medical history; sexual health assessment; alcohol and other drug use; tobacco use; immunizations; depression; Preconception Health — Women BMI; blood pressure; chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and Recommendation: Preconception health services for HIV/AIDS; and diabetes. When screening results indicate women include the following screening services: reproductive the presence of a health condition, the provider should take April 25, 2014 / Vol. 63 / No. 4 35 MMWR /

38 Recommendations and Reports steps either to provide or to refer the client for the appropriate Twenty-two studies were identified Quality of evidence: further diagnostic testing and or treatment. Services should be that examined the impact of contraceptive counseling provided in a manner that is consistent with established federal in clinical settings and met the inclusion criteria. Of the and professional medical associations’ recommendations to 16 studies that focused on adults or mixed populations ensure that clients who need services receive them and to avoid 8 (adolescents and adults) ( 23 ), 11 found a statistically – over-screening. significant positive impact of counseling interventions with low Quality of evidence: A systematic review was not conducted; 12 ), moderate ( ), or unrated ( ) intensity 22 11 ( , , 14 – 16 , 18 – 21 8 the recommendation was made on the basis of CDC’s on at least one outcome of interest; study designs included two recommendations to improve preconception health and cross-sectional surveys ( , 22 ), one pre-post study ( 21 ), one 14 health care ( ) and a review of preconception health services 3 prospective cohort study ( 8 ), one controlled trial ( 15 ), and for men ( 7 ). 20 – , 16 , 12 , 18 six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) ( ). 11 More men will receive Potential consequences: Six studies examined the impact of contraceptive counseling preconception health services, which might improve infant and – among adolescents ( ), with four finding a statistically 29 24 men’s health. The evidence base for preconception health is not significant positive impact of low-intensity ( 27 ) or moderate- well established and is less than that for women’s preconception 24 intensity ( ) counseling interventions on at least one , 25 , 29 health. There is a risk of over-screening if recommendations outcome of interest; study designs included two pre-post are not followed. There is a potential risk that a client with 27 ), and one RCT ( studies ( 24 , 30 ), one controlled trial ( 29 ). In a positive screen might not be able to afford treatment if the addition, five studies were identified that examined the impact of reminder system interventions in clinical settings on family client is uninsured and not eligible for public programs. The ); of planning outcomes and met the inclusion criteria ( 31 – 35 human and financial cost of providing preconception health these, two found a statistically significant positive impact of services might mean that fewer contraceptive and other services reminder systems on perfect oral contraceptive compliance, a can be offered. retrospective historical nonrandomized controlled trial that Rationale: The potential benefits to men and infant health ) and a cohort 31 examined daily reminder email messages ( were thought by the panel to be greater than the costs, potential study that examined use of a small reminder device that harms, and opportunity costs of not providing these services. 34 emitted a daily audible beep ( ). In addition, two studies Implementation (e.g., training and monitoring of providers) examined the impact of reminder systems among depot can address the issues related to providers over-screening ) with one, 35 , medroxyprogesterone acetate users (DMPA) ( 33 and not following the federal and professional medical a retrospective cohort study, finding a statistically significant recommendations. CDC will continue to monitor related positive impact of receiving a wallet-sized reminder card with research and modify these recommendations, as needed. the date of the next DMPA injection and a reminder postcard Health-care reform might make follow-up care more available shortly before the next injection appointment on timely to low-income clients. All seven EWG members agreed to this DMPA injections. Statements about safety and unnecessary recommendation. medical examinations and tests are made on the basis of CDC 37 , 36 ). guidelines on contraceptive use ( Potential consequences: Fewer clients will use methods that Contraceptive Services — are not safe for them, there will be increased contraceptive use, Contraceptive Counseling Steps increased use of more effective methods, increased continuation Recommendation: To help a client who is initiating or of method use, increased use of dual methods, increased switching to a new method of contraception, providers should knowledge, increased satisfaction with services, and increased follow these steps, which are in accordance with the key principles use of repeat or follow-up services. for providing quality counseling: 1) establish and maintain Making sure that a contraceptive method is Rationale: rapport with the client; 2) obtain clinical and social information safe for an individual client is a fundamental responsibility of from the client; 3) work with the client interactively to select the all providers of family planning services. Removing medical most effective and appropriate contraceptive method for her or barriers to contraceptive use is key to increasing access him; 4) provide a physical assessment related to contraceptive to contraception and helping clients prevent unintended use, when warranted; and 5) provide the contraceptive method pregnancy. Consistent use of contraceptives is needed to prevent along with instructions about correct and consistent use, help unintended pregnancies, so appropriate counseling is critical the client develop a plan for using the selected method and for to ensure clients make the best possible choice of methods for follow-up, and confirm understanding. their unique circumstances, and are supported in continued April 25, / Vol. 63 / No. 4 36 MMWR / 2014

39 Recommendations and Reports use of the chosen method. The principles of quality counseling, financial barriers to long-acting reversible contraception for from which the steps listed in the recommendations are based, many persons. The potential increase in use of long-acting are supported by a substantial body of evidence and expert reversible contraception and other more effective methods is opinion. Future research to evaluate the five principles will be likely to help reduce rates of unintended pregnancy. All seven monitored and the recommendations modified, as needed. All EWG members agreed to this recommendation. seven EWG members agreed to this recommendation. Contraceptive Services — Broad Contraceptive Services — Tiered Range of Methods Approach to Counseling Recommendation: A broad range of methods should be Recommendation: For clients who might want to get available on-site or through referral. pregnant in the future and prefer reversible methods of Quality of evidence: Three descriptive studies from the review contraception, providers should use a tiered approach to of quality improvement literature identified contraceptive choice presenting a broad range of contraceptive methods (including as an important aspect of quality care ( ). 44 – 42 long-acting reversible contraception such as intrauterine Clients will be more likely to select Potential consequences: devices and contraceptive implants), in which the most a method that they will use consistently and correctly. effective methods are presented before less effective methods. Rationale: A central tenet of quality health care is that Quality of evidence: National surveys have demonstrated it be client-centered. Being able to provide a client with 38,39 low rates of LARC use overall ( ). However, Project a method that best fits her or his unique circumstances is CHOICE has demonstrated high uptake of long-acting essential for that reason. All seven EWG members agreed to reversible contraception (approximately two thirds of clients this recommendation. when financial barriers are removed) and a very substantial 40 ). Further, a reduction in rates of unintended pregnancy ( recent study of postpartum contraceptive use shows that 50% Contraceptive Services — Education of teen mothers with a recent live birth are using long-acting Recommendation: The content, format, method, and reversible contraception postpartum in Colorado, which medium for delivering education should be evidence-based. demonstrates high levels of acceptance in the context of a Seventeen studies were identified Quality of evidence: 41 ). statewide program to remove financial barriers ( that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Of Use of long-acting reversible Potential consequences: these, 15 studies looked at knowledge of correct method use contraception has the potential to help many more persons or contraceptive risks and benefits, including side effects prevent unintended pregnancy because of its ease of use, safety, 56 ). All but one study ( 59 – 45 and method effectiveness ( ) and effectiveness. Several questions were raised about ethical found a statistically significant positive impact of educational issues in using a tiered approach to counseling. First, is it ethical interventions on increased knowledge. These studies included to educate about long-acting reversible contraception when six randomized controlled trials with low risk for bias. the methods are not all available on-site? Second, conversely, Potential consequences: Clients will make more informed is it ethical not to inform clients about the most effective decisions when choosing a contraceptive method. More clients will methods? In other health service areas, the standard of care be satisfied with the process of selecting a contraceptive method. is to inform the client about the most effective treatment Knowledge obtained through educational Rationale: (e.g., blood pressure medications), so the client can make a activities, as integrated into the larger counseling model, is fully informed decision, and this standard should apply in a critically important precondition for the client’s ability to this instance as well. On the basis of historic experiences, make informed decisions. The techniques described in the there is a need to ensure that methods always are offered on recommendations have a well-established evidence base for a completely voluntary and noncoercive basis. Health-care increasing knowledge and satisfaction with services. This reform might make contraceptive services more available to knowledge lays the foundation for further counseling steps that the majority of clients. will increase the likelihood of correct and consistent use, and Providers have an obligation to inform clients Rationale: increased satisfaction will increase return visits to the service about the most effective methods available, even if they cannot site, as needed. Four of seven EWG members agreed to this provide them. Further, health-care reform will reduce the recommendation; three members did not express an opinion. April 25, 2014 No. 4 / / / 37 MMWR Vol. 63

40 Recommendations and Reports absence of harmful effects from comprehensive sexual health Contraceptive Services — education was noted. Confirm Understanding The benefits of informing adolescents about all ways Rationale: A check box or written statement should Recommendation: to prevent pregnancy are substantial. Ultimately, each adolescent be available in the medical record that can be used to document should make an informed decision that meets her or his unique that the client expressed understanding of the most important circumstances, based on the counseling provided by the provider. information about her/his chosen contraceptive method. The Six of seven EWG members agreed to this recommendation. teach-back method may be used to get clients to express the most important points by repeating back messages about risks and benefits and appropriate method use and follow-up. Adolescent Services — Use of Long- Documentation of understanding using the teach-back method Acting Reversible Contraception and a check box or written statement can be used in place of Recommendation: Education about contraceptive methods a written method-specific informed consent. should include an explanation that long-acting reversible Quality of evidence: Two studies from outside the family contraception is safe and effective for nulliparous women planning literature (one cohort study and one controlled (women who have not been pregnant or given birth), including ) and a strong 60,61 trial with unclear randomization) ( adolescents. recommendation by members of the Technical Panel on Quality of evidence: CDC guidelines on contraceptive use Counseling and Education were considered. ) provide evidence that long-acting reversible contraception 37 ( More clients will make informed Potential consequences: is safe and effective for adolescents and nulliparous women. decisions, adherence to contraceptive and treatment plans will Potential consequences: More providers will encourage improve, and reproductive and other health conditions will be adolescents to consider long-acting reversible contraception; better controlled. more adolescents will choose long-acting reversible Rationale: Asking providers to document in the record contraception, resulting in reduced rates of teen pregnancy, that the client is making an informed decision will increase including rapid repeat pregnancy. providers’ attention to this task. This recommendation will Long-acting reversible contraception is safe for Rationale: replace a previous requirement that providers obtain method- adolescents ( 37 ). As noted above, providers should inform specific informed consent from each client (in addition to a clients about the most effective methods available. The general consent form). Six of seven EWG members agreed to potential increase in use of long-acting reversible contraception this recommendation. and other more effective methods by adolescents is substantial and is likely to lead to further reductions in teen pregnancy. Three EWG members agreed to this recommendation; two Adolescent Services — EWG members abstained. Comprehensive Information Providers should provide comprehensive Recommendation: information to adolescent clients about how to prevent Adolescent Services — pregnancy and STDs. This should include information about Confidential Services contraception and that avoiding sex (abstinence) is an effective Recommendation: Confidential family planning services way to prevent pregnancy and STDs. should be made available to adolescents, while observing state A systematic review was not conducted Quality of evidence: laws and any legal obligations for reporting. because other recent reviews were available that have shown a Six descriptive studies documented Quality of evidence: substantial impact of comprehensive sexual health education one or more of the following: that confidentiality is important ). The evidence for 66 on reduced adolescent risk behavior ( 62 – to adolescents; that many adolescents reported they will not abstinence-only education was more limited: CDC’s Community use reproductive health services if confidentiality cannot be 67 ), but Guide concluded that there was insufficient evidence ( assured; and that adolescents might not be honest in discussing the Department of Health and Human Services’ Office of reproductive health with providers if confidentiality cannot be Adolescent Health has identified two abstinence-based programs assured ( 69 ). One RCT showed a slight reduction in use of 74 – as having evidence of effectiveness ( 68 ). services after receiving conditional confidentiality, compared Potential consequences: Teens will make more informed with complete confidentiality ( 75 ). One study showed a decisions and will delay initiation of sexual intercourse. The MMWR April 25, / / Vol. 63 / No. 4 38 2014

41 Recommendations and Reports positive association between confidentiality and intention to Adolescent Services — use services ( ). 73 Repeat Teen Pregnancy Consequences might include an Potential consequences: Providers should refer pregnant and Recommendation: increased intention to use services, increased use of services, and parenting adolescents to home visiting and other programs reduced rates of teen pregnancy. However, explaining the need that have been shown to provide needed support and reduce to report under certain circumstances (rape, child abuse) might rates of repeat teen pregnancy. deter some adolescent clients from using services. Further, some Three of four studies of clinic-based Quality of evidence: parents/guardians might not agree that adolescents should have programs (using retrospective case-control cohort, ecological access to confidential services. evaluation, and prospective cohort study designs) showed that Minors’ rights to confidential reproductive health Rationale: comprehensive teen pregnancy prevention programs (programs services are consistent with state and federal law. The risks of with clinical, school, case management, and community not providing confidential services to adolescents are great and components) were associated with both medium- and long- likely to result in an increased rate of teen pregnancies. Finally, ). In addition, several randomized trials 98 – term outcomes ( 95 this recommendation is consistent with the recommendations of community-based home visiting programs, and an existing of three professional medical associations that endorse systematic review of the home visiting literature, demonstrated – 78 ). All 76 provision of confidential services to adolescents ( a protective impact of these programs on preventing repeat teen seven EWG members agreed to this recommendation. ). – 99 pregnancy and other relevant outcomes ( 103 Potential consequences: Consequences might include decreased rapid repeat pregnancy and abortion rates, and Adolescent Services — increased use of contraceptives. Family-Child Communication There is sufficient evidence to recommend that Rationale: Recommendation: Providers should encourage and promote providers link pregnant and parenting teens to community and family-child communication about sexual and reproductive health. social services that might reduce rates of rapid repeat pregnancy. Quality of evidence: From the family planning literature, Three of seven EWG members agreed to an earlier version of 16 parental involvement programs (most using an RCT study this recommendation. Other members wanted to remove a design) were found to be positively associated with at least one clause about prioritizing the contraceptive needs of pregnant/ short-term (13 of 16 studies) or medium-term (four of seven parenting teens because they felt that all clients should be – 79 ). However, only one of these studies studies) outcome ( 94 treated as priority clients. This suggestion was adopted, but 80 ); others were implemented was linked to clinical services ( the EWG did not have a chance to vote again on the modified in community settings. recommendation. Potential consequences: Consequences might include increased parental/guardian involvement and communication, improved knowledge/awareness, increased intentions to use Contraceptive Method Availability contraceptives, and the adoption of more pro-social norms Family planning programs should stock Recommendation: that support parent-child communication about sexual health. and offer a broad a range of FDA-approved contraceptive The literature provides strong evidence that Rationale: methods so that the needs of individual clients can be met. increased communication between a child and her/his parent/ These methods are optimally available on-site, but strong guardian will lead to safer sexual behavior among teens, referrals can serve to make methods not available on-site real and numerous community-based programs have created an options for clients. evidence base for how to strengthen parents/guardians’ ability Quality of evidence: No research was identified that to hold those conversations. Although less is known about explicitly addressed the question of whether having a broad how to do so in a clinical setting, providers can refer their range of methods was associated with short-, medium-, or clients to programs in the community, and principles from the long-term reproductive health outcomes. However, as noted community-based approaches can be used to help providers above, three descriptive studies from the review of quality develop appropriate approaches in the clinical setting. Research improvement literature identified contraceptive choice as an in this area will be monitored, and the recommendations will be – 42 important aspect of quality care ( ). 44 revised, as needed. Four of five EWG members who provided Potential consequences: Consequences might include input agreed to this recommendation; one member abstained. increased use of contraception and increased use of reproductive / April 25, 2014 / Vol. 63 / No. 4 39 MMWR

42 Recommendations and Reports health services. It also was noted that there are sometimes high example of comprehensively client-centered care, rather than costs to stocking certain methods (e.g., intrauterine devices an end of its own. and contraceptive implants). Having a broad range of contraceptive methods is Rationale: central to client-centered care, a core aspect of providing quality Quality Improvement services. Individual clients need to have a choice so they can Family planning programs should have Recommendation: select a method that best fits their particular circumstances. a system for quality improvement, which is designed to review This is likely to result in more correct and consistent use of and strengthen the quality of services on an ongoing basis. the chosen methods. The benefits of this recommendation Family planning programs should select, measure, and assess were weighed more heavily than the negative outcomes at least one outcome measure on an ongoing basis, for which (e.g., additional cost). All five EWG members agreed to this the service site can be accountable. recommendation. ) was A recent systematic review ( Quality of evidence: 122 supplemented with 10 articles that provided information related to client and/or provider perspectives regarding what constitutes Youth-Friendly Services 42 44 , 113 , – ). These quality family planning services ( 128 – 123 Recommendation: Family planning programs should take studies used a qualitative (k = 4) or cross-sectional (k = 6) study steps to make services “youth-friendly.” design. Ten descriptive studies identified client and provider Quality of evidence: Of 20 studies that were identified, perspectives on what constitutes quality family planning services, six looked at short-, medium-, or long-term outcomes with which include stigma and embarrassment reduction (n = 9), client mixed designs (one group time series, one cross-sectional, three access and convenience (n = 8); confidentiality (n = 3); efficiency prospective cohort, and one nonrandomized trial); protective and tailoring of services (n = 6); client autonomy and confidence effects were found on long-term (two of three studies), (n = 5); contraceptive access and choice (n = 4); increased time medium-term (three of three), and short-term (three of three) of patient-provider interaction (n = 3); communication and , , 30 outcomes ( 104 – 107 ). One of these six studies ( 29 ), plus 29 relationship (n = 3); structure and facilities (n = 2); continuity 13 other descriptive studies (for a total of 14 studies), presented of care (n = 2). Well-established frameworks for guiding quality adolescents’ or providers’ views on facilitators for adolescent ). 132 – 129 improvement efforts were referenced ( 122 , clients in using youth-friendly family planning services. Key Potential consequences: Consequences might include factors described were confidentiality (13 of 14), accessibility increased use by clients of more effective contraceptive methods, (11 of 14), peer involvement (three of 14), parental or familial clients might be more likely to return for care, client satisfaction involvement (four of 14), and quality of provider interaction might improve, and there might be reduced rates of teen and 112 121 (11 of 14) ( 105 – 121 ). Four of these studies ( 111 , , 114 , ) unintended pregnancy, and improved spacing of births. plus one other descriptive study ( ) described barriers to 108 Research, albeit limited, has demonstrated that Rationale: clinics adopting and implementing youth-friendly family quality services are associated with improved client experience planning services. with care and adoption of more protective contraceptive Potential consequences: Consequences might include behavior. Further, these recommendations on quality increased use of reproductive health services by adolescents, improvement are consistent with those made by national leaders improved contraceptive use, use of more effective methods, in the quality improvement field. Research is either under way more consistent use of contraception, and reduced rates of teen or planned to validate a core set of performance measures, and the recommendations will be updated as new findings emerge. pregnancy. It is also likely to lead to improved satisfaction with All five EWG members agreed to these recommendations. services and greater knowledge about pregnancy prevention among adolescents. It is possible that there will be higher costs, References and some uncertainty regarding the benefits due to a relatively 1. Family Planning Services and Population Research Act of 1970, Title weak evidence base. X. Population Research and Voluntary Family Planning Programs Rationale: Existing evidence has demonstrated the Project Grants and Contracts for Family Planning Services Pub. L. No. importance of specific characteristics to adolescents’ attitudes Public Law 91-572 (1970). and use of clinical services. The potential benefits of providing 2. Project Grants for Family Planning Services. 42 CFR Part 59, Subpart A, youth-friendly services outweigh the potential costs and (1971). 3. CDC. Recommendations to improve pr econception health and health weak evidence base. All five EWG members agreed to this care—United States. MMWR 2006;55(No. RR-06). recommendation. Some thought that it should be cast as an April 25, 2014 / MMWR Vol. 63 / No. 4 40 /

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Schuster MA, Corona R, Elliott MN, et al. Evaluation of 92. Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, a new worksite based parenting programme to Ambul Child Health 2000;6:253–60. promote parent-adolescent communication about sexual health: 111. Alberti PM, Steinberg AB, Hadi EK, Abdullah RB, Bedell JF. Barriers randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2008;337:a308. at the frontline: assessing and improving the teen friendliness of South Bronx medical practices. Public Health Rep 2010;125:611–4. 93. Stanton B, Cole M, Galbraith J, et al. Randomized trial of a parent Brindis CD, Loo VS, Adler NE, Bolan GA, Wasserheit JN. Service intervention: parents can make a difference in long-term adolescent 112. risk behaviors, perceptions, and knowledge. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med integration and teen friendliness in practice: a program assessment of 2004;158:947–55. sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents. J Adolesc Health 2005;37:155–62. 94. Stanton BF, Li X, Galbraith J, et al. Parental underestimates of adolescent risk behavior: a randomized, controlled trial of a parental ofessionals’ Chambers R, Boath E, Chambers S. Young people’s and pr 113. monitoring intervention. J Adolesc Health 2000;26:18–26. views about ways to reduce teenage pregnancy rates: to agree or not agree. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care 2002;28:85–90. Elster AB, Lamb ME, Tavare J, Ralston CW. The medical and 95. Cromer BA, McCarthy M. Family planning services in adolescent psychosocial impact of comprehensive care on adolescent pregnancy 114. and parenthood. JAMA 1987;258:1187–92. pregnancy prevention: the views of key informants in four countries. Fam Plann Perspect 1999;31:287–93. 96. Omar HA, Fowler A, McClanahan KK. Significant reduction of repeat teen pregnancy in a comprehensive young parent program. J Pediatr Donovan C, Mellanby AR, Jacobson LD, Taylor B, Tripp JH; The 115. Adolesc Gynecol 2008;21:283–7. Adolescent Working Group. Teenagers’ views on the general practice consultation and provision of contraception. Br J Gen Pract 97. ollack S. The long term benefits of a Rabin JM, Seltzer V, P 1997;47:715–8. comprehensive teenage pregnancy program. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1991;30:305–9. 116. French RS. The experience of young people with contraceptive Stevens-Simon C, Kelly L, Kulick R. A village would be nice but...it consultations and health care workers. Int J Adolesc Med Health 98. 2002;14:131–8. takes a long-acting contraceptive to prevent repeat adolescent pregnancies. Am J Prev Med 2001;21:60–5. Hayter M. Reaching marginalized young people through sexual health 117. nursing outreach clinics: evaluating service use and the views of service 99. Eckenrode J, Campa M, Luckey DW, et al. Long-term effects of prenatal users. Public Health Nurs 2005;22:339–46. and infancy nurse home visitation on the life course of youths: 19-year follow-up of a randomized trial. 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46 Recommendations and Reports Peremans L, Hermann I, Avonts D, Van Royen P, Denekens J. 119. 126. Dixon-Woods M, Stokes T, Young B, Phelps K, Windridge K, Shukla R. Choosing and using services for sexual health: a qualitative study of Contraceptive knowledge and expectations by adolescents: an explanation by focus groups. Patient Educ Couns 2000;40:133–41. women’s views. Sex Transm Infect 2001;77:335–9. Khan NS, Kirkman R. Intimate examinations: use of chaperones in 127. 120. Perry C, Thurston M. Meeting the sexual health care needs of young community-based family planning clinics. BJOG 2000;107:130–2. people: a model that works? Child Care Health Dev 2008;34:98–103. 128. 121. Russell ST, Lee FCH. Practitioners’ perspectives on effective practices Fiddes P, Scott A, Fletcher J, Glasier A. Attitudes towards pelvic for Hispanic teenage pregnancy prevention. Perspect Sex Reprod Health examination and chaperones: a questionnaire survey of patients and providers. Contraception 2003;67:313–7. 2004;36:142–9. Becker D, Koenig MA, Kim YM, Cardona K, Sonenstein FL. The 129. Bruce J. Fundamental elements of the quality of care: a simple 122. framework. Stud Fam Plann 1990;21:61–91. quality of family planning services in the United States: findings from a literature review. Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2007;39:206–15. 130. Donabedian A. The quality of care. JAMA 1988;260:1743–8. 131. 123. Becker D, Tsui AO. Reproductive health service preferences and perceptions Institute of Medicine. Crossing the quality chasm: a new health system for of quality among low-income women: racial, ethnic and language group the 21st century. Washington, DC: National Academies of Science; 2001. differences. Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2008;40:202–11. National Quality Forum. ABCs of measurement. Washington, DC: 132. 124. Becker H, Stuifbergen A, Tinkle M. Reproductive health care http://www.qualityforum. National Quality Forum; 2011. Available at org/Measuring_Performance/ABCs_of_Measurement.aspx. experiences of women with physical disabilities: a qualitative study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997;78:S26–33. 125. Bender SS. Attitudes of Icelandic young people toward sexual and reproductive health services. Fam Plann Perspect 1999;31:294–301. 2014 No. 4 / 44 / April 25, / MMWR Vol. 63

47 Recommendations and Reports Appendix C Principles for Providing Quality Counseling use of contraceptives, and increased use of more effective Counseling is a process that enables clients to make 2,7,8 methods ( ). Contraceptive counseling studies that have and follow through on decisions. Education is an integral personalized discussions to meet the individual needs of component of the counseling process that helps clients to make informed decisions. Providing quality counseling is an clients have been associated with increased contraceptive use, increased correct use of contraceptives, increased use of more essential component of client-centered care. Key principles of providing quality counseling are listed below effective methods, increased use of dual-method contraceptives to prevent both sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and and may be used when providing family planning services. The model was developed in consultation with the Technical Panel pregnancy, increased quality and satisfaction with services, on Contraceptive Counseling and Education and reviewed by increased knowledge, and enhanced psychosocial determinants the Expert Work Group. Although developed specifically for ). (4,7,9–12 of contraceptive use providing contraceptive counseling, the principles are broad and can be applied to health counseling on other topics. Although Principle 3. Work with the Client the principles are listed here in a particular sequence, counseling Interactively to Establish a Plan is an iterative process, and at every point in the client encounter Working with a client interactively to establish a plan, it is necessary to determine whether it is important to readdress including a plan for follow-up, is important. Establishing a and emphasize a given principle. plan should include setting goals, discussing possible difficulties with achieving goals, and developing action plans to deal with potential difficulties. The amount of time spent establishing a Principles of Quality Counseling plan will differ depending on the client’s purpose for the visit Principle 1. Establish and Maintain and health-care needs. A client plan that requires behavioral change should be made on the basis of the client’s own goals, Rapport with the Client ). Use of computerized interests, and readiness for change ( 13–15 Establishing and maintaining rapport with a client is vital decision aids before the appointment can facilitate this process ). This to the encounter and achieving positive outcomes ( 1 by providing a structured yet interactive framework for can begin by creating a welcoming environment and should clients to analyze their available options systematically and to continue through every stage of the client encounter, including consider the personal importance of perceived advantages and follow-up. The contraceptive counseling literature indicates disadvantages (16,17 ). The contraceptive counseling literature that counseling models that emphasized the quality of the indicates that counseling models that incorporated goal interaction between client and provider have been associated setting and development of action plans have been associated with decreased teen pregnancy, increased contraceptive use, with increased contraceptive use, increased correct use of increased use of more effective methods, increased use of repeat contraceptives, increased use of more effective methods, and or follow-up services, increased knowledge, and enhanced increased knowledge ). Furthermore, contraceptive (2,9,18–20 psychosocial determinants of contraceptive use ( 2–5 ) . counseling models that incorporated follow-up contacts resulted in decreased teen pregnancy, increased contraceptive Principle 2. Assess the Client’s Needs and use, increased correct use of contraceptives, increased use of more effective methods, increased continuation of method Personalize Discussions Accordingly use, increased use of dual-method contraceptives to prevent Each visit should be tailored to the client’s individual both STDs and pregnancy, increased use of repeat or follow-up circumstances and needs. Clients come to family planning services, increased knowledge, and enhanced psychosocial providers for various services and with varying needs. determinants of contraceptive use (2,3,7,11,21,22 ) . From the Standardized questions and assessment tools can help providers family planning education literature, computerized decision determine what services are most appropriate for a given visit aids have helped clients formulate questions and have been ( 6 ). Contraceptive counseling studies that have incorporated associated with increased knowledge, selection of more effective standardized assessment tools during the counseling process ). 23–25 methods, and increased continuation and compliance ( have resulted in increased contraceptive use, increased correct No. 4 / Vol. 63 MMWR / April 25, 2014 / 45

48 Recommendations and Reports 9. Hanna KM. Effect of nurse-client transaction on female adolescents’ Principle 4. Provide Information That Can oral contraceptive adherence. Image J Nurs Sch 1993;25:285–90. Be Understood and Retained by the Client 10. Schunmann C, Glasier A. Specialist contraceptive counselling and provision after termination of pregnancy improves uptake of long-acting Clients need information that is medically accurate, methods but does not prevent repeat abortion: a randomized trial. Hum balanced, and nonjudgmental to make informed decisions and Reprod 2006;21:2296–303. Shlay JC, Mayhugh B, Foster M, Maravi ME, Baron AE, Douglas JM 11. follow through on developed plans. When speaking with clients Jr. Initiating contraception in sexually transmitted disease clinic setting: or providing educational materials through any medium (e.g., a randomized trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;189:473–81. written, audio/visual, or computer/web-based), the provider Weisman CS, Maccannon DS, Henderson JT, Shortridge E, Orso CL. 12. Contraceptive counseling in managed care: preventing unintended must present information in a manner that can be readily pregnancy in adults. Womens Health Issues 2002;12:79–95. understood and retained by the client. Strategies for making 13. Kaplan D. Family Counseling for all counselors. Greensboro, NC: CAPS information accessible to clients are provided (see Appendix D). Publications; 2003. 14. Nupponen R. What is counseling all about—basics in the counseling of health-related physical activity. Patient Educ Couns 1998; Principle 5. Confirm Client Understanding 33(Suppl):S61–7. Whitlock EP, Orleans 15. CT, Pender N, Allan J. Evaluating primary care It is important to ensure that clients have processed the behavioral counseling interventions: an evidence-based approach. Am information provided and discussed. One technique for J Prev Med 2002;22:267–84. 16. French RS, Wellings K, Cowan F. How can we help people to choose a confirming understanding is to have the client restate the most method of contraception? The case for contraceptive decision aids. J Fam important messages in her or his own words. This teach-back Plann Reprod Health Care 2009;35:219–20. method can increase the likelihood of the client and provider 17. O’Connor AM, Bennett CL, Stacey D, et al. Decision aids for people reaching a shared understanding, and has improved compliance facing health treatment or screening decisions. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;CD001431. with treatment plans and health outcomes (26,27 ). Using the 18. Cowley CB, Farley T, Beamis K. “Well, maybe I’ll try the pill for just a teach-back method early in the decision-making process will few months...”: brief motivational and narrative-based interventions to help ensure that a client has the opportunity to understand her encourage contraceptive use among adolescents at high risk for early childbearing. Fam Syst Health 2002;20:183–204. or his options and is making informed choices ( ). 28 19. Gilliam M, Knight S, McCarthy M Jr. Success with oral contraceptives: a pilot study. Contraception 2004;69:413–8. References 20. Namerow PB, Weatherby N, Williams-Kaye J. The effectiveness of Lambert M. Implications of outcome research for psychotherapy 1. contingency-planning counseling. Fam Plann Perspect 1989;21:115–9. integration. In: Norcross J, Goldfind M, eds. Handbook of psychotherapy 21. Berger DK, Perez G, Kyman W, et al. Influence of family planning integration. New York, NY: Basic Books; 1992:94–129. counseling in an adolescent clinic on sexual activity and contraceptive 2. Adams-Skinner J, Exner T, Pili C, Wallace B, Hoffman S, Leu CS. The use. J Adolesc Health Care 1987;8:436–40. development and validation of a tool to assess nurse performance in dual Winter L, Breckenmaker LC. Tailoring family planning services to the 22. protection counseling. Patient Educ Couns 2009;76:265–71. special needs of adolescents. Fam Plann Perspect 1991;23:24–30. 3. Brindis CD, Geierstanger SP, Wilcox N, McCarter V, Hubbard A. 23. Chewning B, Mosena P, Wilson D, et al. Evaluation of a computerized Evaluation of a peer provider reproductive health service model for contraceptive decision aid for adolescent patients. Patient Educ Couns adolescents. Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2005;37:85–91. 1999;38:227–39. Nobili MP, Piergrossi S, Brusati V, Moja EA. The effect of patient- 4. Garbers S, Meserve A, Kottke M, Hatcher R, Chiasson MA. Tailored health 24. centered contraceptive counseling in women who undergo a voluntary messaging improves contraceptive continuation and adherence: results from termination of pregnancy. Patient Educ Couns 2007;65:361–8. a randomized controlled trial. Contraception 2012;86:536–42. Proctor A, Jenkins TR, Loeb T, Elliot M, Ryan A. Patient satisfaction 5. Garbers S, Meserve A, Kottke M, Hatcher R, Ventura A, Chiasson MA. 25. with 3 methods of postpartum contraceptive counseling: a randomized, Randomized controlled trial of a computer-based module to improve prospective trial. J Reprod Med 2006;51:377–82. contraceptive method choice. Contraception 2012;86:383–90. 6. Fiore M, Jaén C, Baker T, Bailey W, Benowitz N, Curry S. Treating McMahon SR, Rimsza ME, Bay RC. Parents can dose liquid medication 26. tobacco use and dependence: 2008 update. Clinical practice guideline. accurately. Pediatrics 1997;100:330–3. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2008. 27. Schillinger D, Piette J, Grumbach K, et al. Closing the loop: physician Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK63952. communication with diabetic patients who have low health literacy. Arch oductive health counseling Boise R, Petersen R, Curtis KM, et al. Repr 7. Intern Med 2003;163:83–90. at pregnancy testing: a pilot study. Contraception 2003;68:377–83. 28. National Quality Forum. Health literacy: a linchpin in achieving national Custo G, Saitto C, Cerza S, Sertoli G. The adjusted contraceptive score 8. http://www. goals for health and healthcare, Issue Brief #13 2009. Available at (ACS) improves the overall performance of behavioural and barrier qualityforum.org/Publications/2009/03/Health_Literacy__A_Linchpin_in_ contraceptive methods. Adv Contracept Deliv Syst 1987;3:367–73. Achieving_National_Goals_for_Health_and_Healthcare.aspx. / 2014 / Vol. 63 April 25, No. 4 / MMWR 46

49 Recommendations and Reports Appendix D Contraceptive Effectiveness unintended pregnancy during the first year of use, and is Providers should counsel clients about the effectiveness estimated for both typical and perfect use (Table). of different contraceptive methods. Method effectiveness is measured as the percentage of women experiencing an † TABLE. Percentage of women experiencing an unintended pregnancy during the first year of typical use* and the first year of perfect use of contraception and the percentage continuing use at the end of the first year — United States % of women experiencing an unintended pregnancy within the first year of use § % of women continuing use at 1 year Method Typical use Perfect use ¶ 85.0 85.0 No method 18.0 Spermicides** 28.0 42.0 24.0 Fertility awareness-based methods 47.0 †† 5.0 Standard days method †† 4.0 2-day method †† 3.0 Ovulation method Symptothermal method 0.4 Withdrawal 22.0 4.0 46.0 Sponge 36.0 24.0 20.0 Parous women 9.0 Nulliparous women 12.0 §§ Condom 41.0 Female 21.0 5.0 Male 2.0 18.0 43.0 ¶¶ 12.0 57.0 6.0 Diaphragm 67.0 0.3 9.0 Combined pill and progestin-only pill Evra patch 9.0 0.3 67.0 0.3 NuvaRing 9.0 67.0 56.0 6.0 Depo-Provera 0.2 Intrauterine contraceptives 0.6 ParaGard (copper T) 78.0 0.8 Mirena (LNG) 0.2 0.2 80.0 Implanon 84.0 0.05 0.05 0.5 0.5 100.0 Female sterilization 0.15 0.1 100.0 Male sterilization Emergency Contraceptives : Emergency contraceptive pills or insertion of a copper intrauterine contraceptive after unprotected intercourse substantially reduces the risk of pregnancy.*** ††† : LAM is a highly effective, temporary method of contraception. Lactational Amenorrhea Method Source: Adapted from Trussell J. Contraceptive efficacy. In: Hatcher RA, Trussell J, Nelson AL, Cates W, Kowal D, Policar M, eds. Contraceptive technology: 20th revised ed. New York, NY: Ardent Media; 2011. Among typical couples who initiate use of a method (not necessarily for the first time), the percentage of couples who experience an accidental pregnancy during the first year if they * do not stop use for any other reason. Estimates of the probability of pregnancy during the first year of typical use for spermicides and the diaphragm are taken from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth corrected for underreporting of abortion; estimates for fertility awareness-based methods, withdrawal, the male condom, the pill, and Depo-Provera are taken from the 1995 and 2002 National Survey of Family Growth corrected for underreporting of abortion. See the text for the derivation of estimates for the other methods. † Among couples who initiate use of a method (not necessarily for the first time) and who use it perfectly (both consistently and correctly), the percentage of couples who experience an accidental pregnancy during the first year if they do not stop use for any other reason. See the text for the derivation of the estimate for each method. § Among couples attempting to avoid pregnancy, the percentage of couples who continue to use a method for 1 year. ¶ The percentages becoming pregnant in columns labeled “typical use” and “perfect use” are based on data from populations in which contraception is not used and from women who cease using contraception to become pregnant. Among such populations, approximately 89% become pregnant within 1 year. This estimate was lowered slightly (to 85%) to represent the percentage of women who would become pregnant within 1 year among women now relying on reversible methods of contraception if they abandoned contraception altogether. ** Foams, creams, gels, vaginal suppositories, and vaginal film. †† The Ovulation and 2-day methods are based on evaluation of cervical mucus. The Standard Days method avoids intercourse on cycle days 8 through 19. The Symptothermal method is a double-check method based on evaluation of cervical mucus to determine the first fertile day and evaluation of cervical mucus and temperature to determine the last fertile day. §§ Without spermicides. ¶¶ With spermicidal cream or jelly. *** Ella, Plan B One-Step, and Next Choice are the only dedicated products specifically marketed for emergency contraception. The label for Plan B One-Step (1 dose is 1 white pill) says to take the pill within 72 hours after unprotected intercourse. Research has indicated that all of the brands listed here are effective when used within 120 hours after unprotected intercourse. The label for Next Choice (1 dose is 1 peach pill) says to take one pill within 72 hours after unprotected intercourse and another pill 12 hours later. Research has indicated that that both pills can be taken at the same time with no decrease in efficacy or increase in side effects and that they are effective when used within 120 hours after unprotected intercourse. The Food and Drug Administration has in addition declared the following 19 brands of oral contraceptives to be safe and effective for emergency contraception: Ogestrel (1 dose is 2 white pills), Nordette (1 dose is 4 light-orange pills), Cryselle, Levora, Low-Ogestrel, Lo/Ovral, or Quasence (1 dose is 4 white pills), Jolessa, Portia, Seasonale or Trivora (1 dose is 4 pink pills), Seasonique (1 dose is 4 light-blue-green pills), Enpresse (1 dose is 4 orange pills), Lessina (1 dose is 5 pink pills), Aviane or LoSeasonique (one dose is 5 orange pills), Lutera or Sronyx (1 dose is 5 white pills), and Lybrel (1 dose is 6 yellow pills). ††† However, for effective protection against pregnancy to be maintained, another method of contraception must be used as soon as menstruation resumes, the frequency or duration of breastfeeds is reduced, bottle feeds are introduced, or the baby reaches age 6 months. / / April 25, 2014 47 No. 4 / MMWR Vol. 63

50 Recommendations and Reports Appendix E Strategies for Providing Information to Clients The client should receive and understand the information Toolkit for Making Written Material Clear and Effective, • she or he needs to make informed decisions and follow Part 11; Understanding and using the “Toolkit Guidelines treatment plans. This requires careful attention to how for Culturally Appropriate Translation,” provided by the information is communicated. The following strategies can Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (available at make information more readily comprehensible to clients: http://www.cms.gov/outreach-and-education/outreach/ ). writtenmaterialstoolkit/downloads/toolkitpart11.pdf Strategies for Providing Information to Clients The amount of information presented should be limited and emphasize essential points. Providers should focus on needs Educational materials should be provided that are clear and and knowledge gaps identified during the assessment. Many easy to understand. Educational materials delivered through clients immediately forget or remember incorrectly much of any one of a variety of media (for example, written, audio/ the information provided. This problem is exacerbated as visual, computer/web-based) need to be presented in a format more information is presented ( 9 ). Limiting the amount 7 – that is clear and easy to interpret by clients with a 4th to 6th of information presented and highlighting important facts ). Many adults have only a basic 3 – 1 grade reading level ( by presenting them first improves comprehension ( 10 – 14 ). ability to obtain, process, and understand health information Numeric quantities should be communicated in a way that 4 ). Making necessary to make decisions about their health ( is easily understood. Whenever possible, providers should use easy-to-access materials enhances informed decision-making natural frequencies and common denominators (for example, 3 ( 1 – ). Test all educational materials with the intended 85 of 100 sexually active women are likely to get pregnant audiences for clarity and comprehension before wide-scale use. within 1 year using no contraceptive, as compared with 1 The following evidence-based tools provide recommendations in 100 using an IUD or implant), and display quantities in for increasing the accessibility of materials through careful graphs and visuals. Providers also should avoid using verbal consideration of content, organization, formatting, and descriptors without numeric quantities (for example, sexually writing style: active women using an IUD or implant almost never become Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit, provided • pregnant). Finally, they should quantify risk in absolute rather by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality than relative terms (for example, “the chance of unintended (available at http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/literacy), pregnancy is reduced from 8 in 100 to 1 in 100 by switching Toolkit for Making Written Material Clear and Effective, • from oral contraceptives to an IUD” versus the chance of provided by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services unintended pregnancy is reduced by 87%). Numeracy is more (available at ), http://www.cms.gov/WrittenMaterialsToolkit highly correlated with health outcomes than the ability to read and ). The strategies listed above can help or listen effectively ( 15 Health Literacy Online, provided by the Office of Disease • 16 clients interpret numeric quantities correctly ( ). 28 – http:// Prevention and Health Promotion (available at Balanced information on risks and benefits should be www.health.gov/healthliteracyonline). presented and messages framed positively. In addition to Information should be delivered in a manner that is discussing risks, contraindications, and warnings, providers culturally and linguistically appropriate. In presenting should discuss the advantages and benefits of contraception. information it is important to be sensitive to the client’s In presenting this information, providers should express risks 6 , ). Ideally information cultural and linguistic preferences ( 5 and benefits in a common format (for example, do not present should be presented in the client’s primary language, but risks in relative terms and benefits in absolute terms), and frame translations and interpretation services should be available messages in positive terms (for example “99 out of 100 women when necessary. Information presented must also be culturally find this a safe method with no side effects,” versus “1 out of appropriate, reflecting the client’s beliefs, ethnic background, 100 women experience noticeable side effects”). Many clients and cultural practices. Tools for addressing cultural and prefer to receive a balance of information on risks and benefits linguistic differences and preferences include ), and using a common format avoids bias in presentation ( 29 Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit, provided • , 22 18 26 , 30 ). Framing messages positively , of information ( by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 32 , 31 , 22 , 18 increases acceptance and comprehension ( ). (available at http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/literacy), and 48 / Vol. 63 / No. 4 2014 April 25, / MMWR

51 Recommendations and Reports 15. Berkman N, Sheridan S, Donahue K, et al. Health literacy interventions Active client engagement should be encouraged. Providers and outcomes: an updated systematic review. Evidence Report/ should use educational materials that encourage active Technology Assesment No. 199. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare information processing (e.g., questions, quizzes, fill-in-the- Research and Quality; 2011. 16. Berry DC. Informing people about the risks and benefits of medicines: blank, web-based games, and activities). In addition, they implications for the safe and effective use of medicinal products. Curr should be sure the client has an opportunity to discuss the Drug Saf 2006;1:121–6. information provided, and when speaking with a client, 17. Berry DC, Raynor DK, Knapp P, Bersellini E. Patients’ understanding providers should engage her or him actively. Research has of risk associated with medication use: impact of European Commission guidelines and other risk scales. Drug Saf 2003;26:1–11. indicated that interactive materials improve knowledge Edwards A, Elwyn G, Mulley A. Explaining risks: turning numerical 18. of contraceptive risks, benefits, and correct method use data into meaningful pictures. BMJ 2002;324:827–30. 36 ( 33–35 ); and ). Clients also value spoken information ( 29 , Galesic M, Gigerenzer G, Straubinger N. Natural frequencies help older 19. adults and people with low numeracy to evaluate medical screening tests. educational materials, when delivered by a provider, more Med Decis Making 2009;29:368–71. 37 , effectively increase knowledge ( 10 ). In particular, presenting Garcia-Retamero R, Galesic M. Communicating treatment risk reduction 20. information in a question and answer format is more effective to people with low numeracy skills: a cross-cultural comparison. Am J Public Health 2009;99:2196–202. ). than simply presenting the information ( 10 41 – 37 , 15 , 21. Garcia-Retamero R, Galesic M, Gigerenzer G. Do icon arrays help reduce denominator neglect? Med Decis Making 2010;30:672–84. References Gigerenzer G, Edwards A. Simple tools for understanding risks: from 22. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid S 1. ervices. Toolkit for making written innumeracy to insight. BMJ 2003;327:741–4. material clear and effective. Baltimore, MD: Centers for Medicare and 23. Knapp P, Gardner PH, Raynor DK, Woolf E, McMillan B. Perceived Medicaid Services; 2011. risk of tamoxifen side effects: a study of the use of absolute frequencies 2. US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease or frequency bands, with or without verbal descriptors. Patient Educ Prevention and Health Promotion. Health literacy online: A guide to Couns 2010;79:267–71. writing and designing easy-to-use health Web sites. Washington, DC: Kurz-Milcke E, Gigerenzer G, Martignon L. Transparency in risk 24. US Department of Health and Human Services; 2010. communication: graphical and analog tools. Ann N Y Acad Sci DeWalt D, Callahan L, Hawk V, et al. Health literacy universal 3. 2008;1128:18–28. precautions toolkit. AHRQ Publication No. 10–0046-EF. Rockville, 25. Lipkus IM. Numeric, verbal, and visual formats of conveying health MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2010. risks: suggested best practices and future recommendations. Med Decis 4. Kutner M, Greenberg E, Jin Y, Paulsen C. The health literacy of America’s Making 2007;27:696–713. adults: results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy 26. Paling J. Strategies to help patients understand risks. BMJ 2003; (NCES 2006–483). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education: 327:745–8. National Center for Education Statistics; 2006. Skolbekken JA. Communicating the risk reduction achieved by 27. 5. Olavarria M, Beaulac J, Belanger A, Young M, Aubry T. 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Rheumatol Rehabil 1979;18:18–22. Fahey T, Griffiths S, Peters TJ. Evidence based purchasing: understanding 30. 8. Crane JA. Patient comprehension of doctor-patient communication on results of clinical trials and systematic reviews. BMJ 1995;311:1056–9, discharge from the emergency department. J Emerg Med 1997;15:1–7. discussion 9–60. McGuire LC. Remembering what the doctor said: organization and adults’ 9. 31. Armstrong K, Schwartz JS, Fitzgerald G, Putt M, Ubel PA. Effect of framing memory for medical information. Exp Aging Res 1996;22:403–28. as gain versus loss on understanding and hypothetical treatment choices: 10. Little P, Griffin S, Kelly J, Dickson N, Sadler C. Effect of educational survival and mortality curves. Med Decis Making 2002;22:76–83. leaflets and questions on knowledge of contraception in women taking 32. Gurm HS, Litaker DG. Framing procedural risks to patients: is 99% the combined contraceptive pill: randomised controlled trial. BMJ safe the same as a risk of 1 in 100? Acad Med 2000;75:840–2. 1998;316:1948–52. Paperny DM, Starn JR. Adolescent pregnancy prevention by health 33. 11. McGee J. Toolkit for making written material clear and effective: education computer games: computer-assisted instruction of knowledge Baltimore, MD: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services; 2010. and attitudes. Pediatrics 1989;83:742–52. Available at http://www.cms.gov/WrittenMaterialsToolkit. Reis J, Tymchyshyn P. A longitudinal evaluation of computer-assisted 34. 12. Peters E, Dieckmann N, Dixon A, Hibbard JH, Mertz CK. Less is more instruction on contraception for college students. Adolescence in presenting quality information to consumers. Med Care Res Rev 1992;27:803–11. 2007;64:169–90. Roberto AJ, Zimmerman RS, Carlyle KE, Abner EL, Cupp PK, Hansen 35. Steiner MJ, Dalebout S, Condon S, Dominik R, Trussell J. Understanding 13. GL. 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52 Recommendations and Reports 40. DeLamater J, Wagstaff DA, Havens KK. The impact of a culturally 37. Eldridge GD, St Lawrence JS, Little CE, et al. Evaluation of the HIV risk reduction intervention for women entering inpatient substance appropriate STD/AIDS education intervention on black male abuse treatment. AIDS Educ Prev 1997;9(Suppl):62–76. adolescents’ sexual and condom use behavior. Health Educ Behav 2000;27:454–70. Jaccard J. Unlocking the contraceptive conundrum. Washington, DC: 41. McMahon SR, Rimsza ME, Bay RC. Parents can dose liquid medication 38. The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy; 2009. Available at http://thenationalcampaign.org/resource/ accurately. Pediatrics 1997;100:330–3. unlocking-contraception-conundrum. 39. Belcher L, Kalichman S, Topping M, et al. A randomized trial of a brief HIV risk reduction counseling intervention for women. J Consult Clin Psychol 1998;66:856–61. / Vol. 63 50 / 2014 April 25, / MMWR No. 4

53 Recommendations and Reports Appendix F Screening Services For Which Evidence Does Not Support Screening The following services have been given a D recommendation • USPSTF recommends against routine Ovarian cancer: screening for ovarian cancer ( 9 ). from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), which The USPSTF has recommended against offering the indicates that the potential harms of routine screening outweigh the benefits. Providers should not perform these screening services. following services to men: The USPSTF has recommended against offering the • Prostate cancer: USPSTF recommends against prostate- specific antigen (PSA)-based screening for prostate cancer ( 10 ). following services to women and men: USPSTF recommends • • Testicular cancer: USPSTF recommends against screening Asymptomatic bacteriuria: for testicular cancer in adolescent or adult males ( against screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in men 11 ). and nonpregnant women ( 1 ). References • USPSTF recommends against routine Gonorrhea: 1. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria screening for gonorrhea infection in men and women who in adults. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, 2 are at low risk of infection ( ). Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2008. Available at http:// USPSTF recommends against routinely Hepatitis B: • www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspsbact.htm. 2. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for gonorrhea. Rockville, screening the general asymptomatic population for MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for 3 ). chronic hepatitis B virus infection ( Healthcare Research and Quality; 2005. Available at http://www. USPSTF recommends Herpes simplex virus (HSV): • uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspsgono.htm. 3. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for hepatitis B infection. against routine serological screening for HSV in Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency asymptomatic adolescents and adults ( 4 ). for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2004. Available at http://www. USPSTF recommends against screening of Syphilis: • uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspshepb.htm. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for genital herpes: 4. asymptomatic persons who are not at increased risk of recommendation statement. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health syphilis infection ( 5 ). and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; The USPSTF has recommended against offering the http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/ 2005. Available at following services to women: uspstf05/herpes/herpesrs.htm. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for syphilis infection. 5. • BRCA mutation testing for breast and ovarian cancer Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency susceptibility: USPSTF recommends against routine http://www. for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2004. Available at referral for genetic counseling or routine breast cancer uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspssyph.htm. 6. US Preventive Services Task Force. Risk assessment, genetic counseling, and susceptibility gene (BRCA) testing for women whose family genetic testing for BRCA-related cancer in women. Rockville, MD: US history is not associated with an increased risk of deleterious Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research mutations in breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) or http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce. and Quality; 2013. Available at org/uspstf/uspsbrgen.htm. ). However, 6 breast cancer susceptibility gene 2 (BRCA2) ( US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for breast cancer. Rockville, 7. USPSTF continues to recommend that women whose family MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for history is associated with an increased risk of deleterious http://www. Healthcare Research and Quality; 2009. Available at mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes be referred for genetic uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspsbrca.htm. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for cervical cancer. 8. counseling and evaluation for BRCA testing. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency • Breast self-examination: USPSTF recommends against for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2012. Available at www. teaching breast self-examination ( 7 ). uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf11/cervcancer/cervcancerrs.htm. 9. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for ovarian cancer: U.S. • USPSTF recommends against routine Cervical cytology: Preventive Services Task Force reaffirmation recommendation statement. screening for cervical cancer with cytology (Pap smear) in Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency the following groups: women aged <21 years, women aged http://www. for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2012. Available at uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf12/ovarian/ovarcancerrs.htm. >65 years who have had adequate prior screening and are 10. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for prostate cancer. not otherwise at high risk for cervical cancer, women who Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency have had a hysterectomy with removal of the cervix and for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2012. Available at http://www. who do not have a history of a high-grade precancerous uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/prostatecancerscreening.htm. 11. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for testicular cancer. lesion (i.e., cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3) Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency or cervical cancer. USPSTF recommends against screening http://www. for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2011. Available at for cervical cancer with HPV testing, alone or in uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspstest.htm. ). 8 combination with cytology, in women aged <30 years ( Vol. 63 April 25, 2014 / MMWR / / No. 4 51

54 Recommendations and Reports Lead Authors Loretta Gavin, PhD, Division of Reproductive Health, CDC Susan Moskosky, MS, Office of Population Affairs, CDC Systematic Review Authors and Presenters Anna Brittain, MHS, Division of Reproductive Health, CDC Marion Carter, PhD, Division of Reproductive Health, CDC Kathryn Curtis, PhD, Division of Reproductive Health, CDC Emily Godfrey, MD, Division of Reproductive Health, CDC Arik V. Marcell, MD, The Johns Hopkins University and the Male Training Center Cassondra Marshall, MPH, Division of Reproductive Health, CDC Karen Pazol, PhD, Division of Reproductive Health, CDC Naomi Tepper, MD, Division of Reproductive Health, CDC Marie Tiller, PhD, MANILA Consulting Group, Inc. Stephen Tregear, DPhil, MANILA Consulting Group, Inc. Michelle Tregear, PhD, MANILA Consulting Group, Inc. Jessica Williams, MPH, MANILA Consulting Group, Inc. Lauren Zapata, PhD, Division of Reproductive Health, CDC Expert Work Group Courtney Benedict, MSN, Marin Community Clinics Jan Chapin, MPH, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Clare Coleman, President and CEO, National Family Planning and Reproductive Health Association Vanessa Cullins, MD, Planned Parenthood Federation of America Daryn Eikner, MS, Family Planning Council Jule Hallerdin, MN, Advisor to the Office of Population Affairs Mark Hathaway, MD, Unity Health Care and Washington Hospital Center Seiji Hayashi, MD, Bureau of Primary Health Care, Health Resources and Services Administration Beth Jordan, MD, Association of Reproductive Health Professionals Ann Loeffler, MSPH, John Snow Research and Training Institute Arik V. Marcell, MD, The Johns Hopkins University and the Male Training Center Tom Miller, MD, Alabama Department of Health Deborah Nucatola, MD, Planned Parenthood Federation of America Michael Policar, MD, State of California and UCSF Bixby Center Adrienne Stith-Butler, PhD, Keck Center of the National Academies Denise Wheeler, ARNP, Iowa Department of Public Health Gayla Winston, MPH, Indiana Family Health Council Jacki Witt, MSN, Clinical Training Center for Family Planning, University of Missouri—Kansas City Jamal Gwathney, MD, Bureau of Primary Health Care, Health Resources and Services Administration Technical Panel on Women’s Clinical Services Courtney Benedict, MSN, Marin Community Clinics Janet Chapin, MPH, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Elizabeth DeSantis, MSN, South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Linda Dominguez, CNP, Southwest Women’s Health Eileen Dunne, MD, Division of STD Prevention, CDC Jamal K. Gwathney, MD, Bureau of Primary Health Care, Health Resources and Services Administration Jule Hallerdin, Consultant Advisor Mark Hathaway, MD, Washington Hospital Center Arik V. Marcell, MD, Johns Hopkins University and the Male Training Center Cheri Moran, University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago Deborah Nucatola, MD, Planned Parenthood Federation of America Michael Policar, MD, Family PACT Program - California State Office of Family Planning Pablo Rodriguez, MD, Women’s Care Inc., Providence Office Denise Wheeler, ARNP, Iowa Department of Public Health Jacki Witt, MSN, Clinical Training Center for Family Planning, University of Missouri—Kansas City 2014 MMWR / April 25, 52 / Vol. 63 / No. 4

55 Recommendations and Reports Technical on Men’s Clinical Services Linda Creegan, FNP, California STD/HIV Prevention Training Center Dennis Fortenberry, MD, Indiana University School of Medicine Emily Godfrey, MD, University of Illinois at Chicago Wendy Grube, PhD, University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing Arik V. Marcell, MD, The Johns Hopkins University and the Male Training Center Elissa Meites, MD, Division of STD Prevention, CDC Anne Rompalo, MD, Johns Hopkins University Thomas Walsh, MD, University of Washington Medical Center Jacki Witt, MSN, Clinical Training Center for Family Planning, University of Missouri—Kansas City Sandra Wolf, MD, Women’s Care Center, Philadelphia Technical Panel on Adolescents Claire Brindis, DrPH, University of California, San Francisco Gale Burstein, MD, SUNY at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Department of Pediatrics Laura Davis, MA, Advocates for Youth Patricia J. Dittus, PhD, Division of STD Prevention, CDC Paula Duncan, MD, University of Vermont College of Medicine Carol Ford, MD, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia Melissa Gilliam, MD, The University of Chicago Mark Hathaway, MD, Unity Health Care & Washington Hospital Center Deborah Kaplan, PhD, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene Arik V. Marcell, MD, The Johns Hopkins University and the Male Training Center Brent C. Miller, PhD, Utah State University Elizabeth M. Ozer, PhD, Division of Adolescent Medicine, University of California, San Francisco John Santelli, MD, Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health Technical Panel on Counseling and Education Beth Barnet, MD, University of Maryland Betty Chewning, PhD, University of Wisconsin School of Pharmacy Christine Dehlendorf, MD, University of California, San Francisco Linda Dominguez, CNP, Southwest Women’s Health Jillian Henderson, PhD, University of California, San Francisco James Jaccard, PhD, New York University Beth Jordan, MD, Association of Reproductive Health Professionals—East David Kaplan, PhD, American Counseling Association Alicia Luchowski, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Merry-K Moos, FNP, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Patricia Murphy, DrPH, University of Utah College of Nursing Elizabeth O’Connor, PhD, Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research Jeff Peipert, MD, Washington University in St. Louis Technical Panel on Quality Improvement Davida Becker, PhD, Bixby Center for Global Reproductive Health University of California, San Francisco Peter Briss, MD, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC Denise Dougherty, PhD, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Daryn Eikner, MS, Family Planning Council Christina I. Fowler, PhD, RTI International Evelyn Glass, MSPH, Consultant Advisor Yvonne Hamby, MPH, Regional Quality Improvement and Infertility Prevention Programs A. Seiji Hayashi, MD, Bureau of Primary Health Care, Health Resources and Services Administration Michael D. Kogan, PhD, Health Resources and Services Administration /Maternal and Child Health Bureau Tom Miller, MD, Alabama Department of Health Sam Posner, PhD, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC Donna Strobino, PhD, Johns Hopkins University Amy Tsui, PhD, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Reva Winkler, MD, National Quality Forum / / April 25, 2014 MMWR Vol. 63 / No. 4 53

56 Recommendations and Reports Adivsors on Community Outreach and Participation* Paula Baraitser, MBBS, Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust/Health Protection Agency Joy Baynes, MPH, Advocates for Youth Diane Chamberlain, California Family Health Council Clare Coleman, National Family Planning & Reproductive Health Association Emily Godfrey, MD, University of North Carolina and Division of Reproductive Health, CDC Rachel Gold, MPA, Guttmacher Institute Rachel Kachur, MPH, Division of STD Prevention, CDC Michelle Kegler, PhD, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory Eleanor McLellan-Lemal, PhD, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, CDC Paula Parker-Sawyers, National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy Denise Wheeler, MS, Iowa Department of Public Health Gayla Winston, MPH, Indiana Family Health Council, Inc. CDC and Office of Population Affairs Reviewers Wanda Barfield, MD, Division of Reproductive Health, CDC Gail Bolan, MD, Division of STD Prevention, CDC Linda Dahlberg, PhD, Division of Violence Prevention, CDC Patricia Dietz, PhD, Division of Reproductive Health, CDC Sherry Farr, PhD, Division of Reproductive Health, CDC Evelyn Glass, MSPH, Office of Population Affairs Tamara Haegerich, PhD, Division of Violence Prevention, CDC David Johnson, MPH, Office of Population Affairs Pamela Kania, MS, Office of Population Affairs Marilyn Keefe, MPH, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Population Affairs Dmitry Kissin, MD, Division of Reproductive Health, CDC Nancy Mautone-Smith, MSW, Office of Population Affairs Jacqueline Miller, MD, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, CDC Sam Posner, PhD, National Center for Chronic Disease and Health Promotion, CDC Cheryl Robbins, PhD, Division of Reproductive Health, CDC Lance Rodewald, MD, Division of Immunization Services, CDC Mona Saraiya, MD, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, CDC Van Tong, MPH, Division of Reproductive Health, CDC Lee Warner, PhD, Division of Reproductive Health, CDC Kim Workowski, MD, Division of STD Prevention, CDC External Reviewers Paula Braverman, MD, Department of Pediatrics at the University of Cincinnati Claire Brindis, DrPH, University of California–San Francisco Sarah Brown, MPH, National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy Marji Gold, MD, Albert Einstein School of Medicine Milton Kotelchuck, PhD, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children and Harvard Medical School David Levine, MD, Morehouse School of Medicine Pamela Murray, MD, West Virginia University School of Medicine Competing interests for the development of these guidelines were not assessed. These persons made important contributions to a discussion about community outreach and participation. A decision was made to narro w the focus of this report * to clinical services, so recommendations informed by the input of these persons will be published separately. 2014 MMWR / April 25, 54 / Vol. 63 / No. 4

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60 The Series is prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and is available free Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) MMWR’ s free subscription page at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/mmwrsubscribe. of charge in electronic format. To receive an electronic copy each week, visit . Paper copy subscriptions are available through the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402; html telephone 202-512-1800. Series, including material to be considered for publication, to Editor, MMWR MMWR Address all inquiries about the Series, Mailstop E-90, CDC, 1600 Clifton Rd., N.E., Atlanta, GA 30329-4027 or to [email protected] All material in the MMWR Series is in the public domain and may be used and reprinted without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated. Use of trade names and commercial sources is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. References to non-CDC sites on the Internet are provided as a service to MMWR readers and do not constitute or imply endorsement of these organizations or their programs by CDC or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. CDC is not responsible for the content of these sites. URL addresses were current as of the date of publication. listed in MMWR ISSN: 1057-5987

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