New York State Archives FA03 They Also Served: New Yorkers on the Home Front

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1 They Also Served: New Yorkers on the Home Front A Guide to Records of the New York State War Council New York State Archives 1994

2 Table of Contents Introduction ... ... 8 History of the New York State War Council ... 9 Office of Civilian Mobilization ... 9 Committee on Child Care, Development, and Protection... 11 Office of Physical Fitness ... 12 Office of Civilian Protection... 12 Emergency Medica l Service ... 13 Committee on Discriminati on in Employment ... 14 . 15 Farm Manpower Service... War Emergency Dispensation Committee... 15 Office of War Training ... ... 16 War Transportation Committee ... 16 Salvage Division ... 17 Nursing Council for War Service ... 18 Series Descriptions... 20 ... 20 Executive Offices... A4304. Agendas and Minutes, 1942-1945 ... 20 A3085. Resolutions, 1941-1945. ... 20 A4302. Annual Reports and War Agency Directories, 1942-1944. ... 21 A3086. Printed Copies of Orders Issued, 1942-1946. ... 21 A4288. Petitions to the Attorney General to Restrict Acce ss to Defense Installations, 1941-1944. ... 21 A4291. Governor's Correspondence with Citizens on War Issues, 1942-1945 ... 22 A4295. Governor's Office Correspondence on War Issues, 1940-1945. ... 22 A4294. Governor's Media Releases, 1941-1942. ... 23 A4303. Executive Secretary's Corresponde nce with Local War Councils, 1942-1945.23 General Report Files, 1942-1945. ... 24 A4301. Agencies and Local War Councils A4345. Local Defense Council Appointment Notification and Inquiry Response Correspondence, 1940-1941 ... 24 A4358. Personnel Records, 1942-1945. ... 24 A4309. Meeting Coordination Correspondence Files, 1940-1945 ... 25 A4310. Organizational Letters and Releases Presenting Issues and Guidelines, 1941- 1942... 25 A4312. Progress Reports of War Counc il and State Agencies, 1941- 1945... 25 A4343. Social and Economic Survey s of New York Cities, 1942 ... 26 A4346. Assistant to the State War Plans C oordinator's Agency Activity Coordination and Information Files, 1941-1945 (bulk 1942)... 26 A4360. State War Plans Coordinator's Co rrespondence and Information File, 1941- 1942... 27 A4361. Executive Secretaries' Correspondence with State and War Council Agencies, 1940-1945 ... 27 2

3 A4362. Executive Secretary's Correspondence with Civil Defense Administrators, 1942... 28 Division of Civilian Mobilization ... 29 A4338. Division and Office Staff Conference Minutes, 1942-1944 ... 29 Office of Civilian Mobilization ... 29 A4339. Program Coordination Meeting a nd Conference Agendas, Minutes, and Correspondence, 1941-1944 ... 29 A4340. Lists of Local War Council Ch airs and Officers, 1943-1945 ... 29 A3084. Correspondence With Local War Councils And Volunteer Agencies, 1942- 1945... 30 A4324. Local War Councils' and Field Representatives' City and County Activity Reports, 1941-1945... 30 A4325. Defense Programs Coordina tion Correspondence, 1941-1945... 31 A4326. National Defense and Civilian Serv ices Cooperative Activities Programs Coordination File, 1941-1945 ... 32 A4327. Organization and Program Coordi nation Correspondence File, 1941-1945... 33 A4328. Volunteer Participation Conferences and Meetings Coordination Correspondence and Publicity Files, 1941-1945 ... 33 A4329. Local War Councils Newspa per Clippings File, 1941-1945 ... 34 A4330. Local War Council Operating Reports, 1942-1944 ... 34 A4331. Field Directors' Local War Council Master Reports, 1942- 1944 ... 35 A4332. Address Lists of State War Council Agency Directors and Local War Council Officers, 1941-1945 ... 36 A4333. Directives to Local War Councils, 1941-1945... 36 A4334. Procedure Establishment Letters from the Federal Office of Civilian Defense, 1941-1945 ... 36 A4335. Director's Organization and Re sponsibilities Memoranda, 1941-1944 ... 36 A4336. Monthly Reports to the State War Plans Coordinator, 1942- 1944 ... 37 ssignment Reports Received from Local A4337. Summary Charts of Volunteer A Offices, 1943-1944 ... 37 A4341. Civilian War Services and Civilian Protection Training Charts, 1943 ... 37 A4342. Local War Council and Subordinate Agencies Card File, 1942-1943... 38 State Education Department ... 38 A4318. Department Resource Management Files, 1941-1943. 0.5 cu. ft... 38 A4319. War Programs Correspondence and Fi eld Reports, 1941- 1944. 3 cu. ft. ... 38 A4320. Department War Programs Coordi nator's Files, 1937-1943. 2 cu. ft... 39 Section for Citizen Unity ... 40 A4270. General Correspondence, 1942-1943. 2 cu. ft. ... 40 Committee on Child Care, Development, and Protection... 40 A3100. General corresponden ce, 1942-1946. 2.5 cu. ft. ... 40 A4379. Local Child Care Organization and Assistance Files, 1942- 1945 ... 41 A4282. Mayor's Committee on Child Care for Schenectady Administrative Files, 1942-1947 ... 42 A4283. Post-World War II Day Care Center Field Reports, 1944- 1947... 43 Office of Physical Fitness ... 43 ve Correspondence, 1942-1945... 43 A4366. Director's Administrati 3

4 A4369. Director's Program Administra tion Subject Files, 1940-1945 ... 44 nistration Files, 1942-1945 ... 44 A4371. Director's Office Admi A4370. Deputy Director's Program Supervision Files, 1942-1945 ... 45 A4367. Supervisory and Assistance Corres pondence with Schools and State and Local War Council Agencies, 1942-1945... 45 A4368. Field Representatives' Reports a nd Support Materials, 1942- 1945 ... 46 A4306. New York City Regional Office Ad ministration and Correspondence Files, 1942-1945. ... 46 ate Physical Fitness Ce rtificates, 1943- 1946 ... 47 A4363. Requisitions for St A4364. Newspaper Clippings, 1942-1943... 47 Division of Civilian Protection ... 47 Office of Civilian Protection... 47 A4311. Director's General Administrative Files, 1942-1945 ... 47 A4300. Director's Correspondence with Local Civilian Protection Organizations, 1942- 1945... 48 ss Coordination Correspondence, 1941-1945. 48 A4305. Director's Defense Preparedne A4308. Eastern and Western District Deputy Directors' Local War Council Correspondence and Directives, 1941-1945 ... 49 A3090. Printed Copies of Regulations Issued, 1942-1944 ... 49 A4383. Civil Defense Issues Corresponden ce with Other States, 1941- 1945... 49 A4409. Correspondence with the Federal Office of Civilian Defense, 1942-1945... 50 A4384. Volunteers Fingerprint Identification Correspondence Files, 1942-1945 ... 50 A4385. Awards Committee Case Files, 1943-1944... 51 A4386. War Plant Protection Instru ctional Materials, 1942-1943 ... 51 A4387. Local War Council Volunteer Particip ation Information and Statistics, 1942- 1944... 51 on and Inspection Correspondence, 1942- A4388. War Plant Blackout Practice Exempti 1944... 52 A4389. Local Water Companies Survey and Equipment Inventory, ca. 1942 ... 52 A4390. Newspaper Clippings, 1941-1944... 52 A4393. Deputy Directors' Correspondence, 1942-1944 ... 53 A4394. General Administrative Files, 1942-1945 ... 53 Emergency Medical Service ... 53 A4286. Survey and Planning Files, 1940-1945 ... 53 Committee on Fire Defense ... 55 A4271. Correspondence, Bulletins and Minutes, 1941-1944. ... 55 1 cu. ft. ... 55 Highway Repair and Debris Clearance Committee ... 55 A4275. General Correspondence, 1941-1945. 1 cu. ft. ... 55 A4273. Personnel Files, ca. 1941-1945. 0.3 cu. ft. ... 56 A4272. Equipment and Material Inventories, ca. 1941-1945 ... 56 A4274. Contractors Files, ca. 1941-1945 ... 56 State Fire Administrator... 57 A4357. Local Personnel and Equipment Inventories, 1942-1945 ... 57 State Gas Consultant ... 57 A4391. Training and Inquiry Response Correspondence Files, 1942-1945 ... 57 4

5 State Property Officer ... 58 A4359. Civil Defense Equipment Distributi on and Liquidation Records, 1942-1946. 58 58 Division of Industry and Labor... Bureau of Rationing ... 58 A4313. Rationed Resources Coordina tion Correspondence, 1941-1944 ... 59 Committee on Discriminati on in Employment ... 59 A4278. Minutes and Investigations Files, 1941-1945 ... 59 Farm Manpower Service... 60 A4348. Farm Labor Correspondence, 1943-1945 ... 60 A4349. Farm Labor Program Procedure Manuals, 1944-1945... 61 A4355. Farm Cadet Victory Corps Pr ogram Administrative Records and Correspondence, 1943-1944 ... 61 A4356. Farm Labor Program Administrative and Organizational Records, 1943 ... 61 Vocational Education Program for National Defense Industries... 62 A3089. Vocational Training Manuals, 1942-1945 ... 62 War Emergency Dispensation Committee... 62 A4280. Recommendations for Labor Disp ensations for Minors, 1943- 1945... 62 A3087. Dispensation Orders, 1943-1945... 63 Office of War Training ... 63 A4377. Program Administration Correspondence, 1944-1945. ... 63 A4381. Correspondence with Local War Councils and Other War Agencies, 1943- 1944... 63 A4382. Training Programs S ubject File, 1943-1944 ... 64 Administration and Certification Files, A4373. School Bus Drivers' Training Program 1943-1945 ... 64 A4374. Bus and Truck Operators Training Course Admi nistration Files, 1943-1944 65 A4375. Civilian Defense Driver Corps Instructors Organization and Training Files, 1943-1944 ... 66 A4376. Food and Drug Chemists Institute Organization Files, 1939- 1943 ... 66 A4378. War Training Institutes Organization Records, 1942-1944 ... 67 A4380. Film Distribution Correspondence, 1943-1944 ... 67 War Transportation Committee ... 67 A4407. Director's Correspondence, 1942-1943... 67 A4399. Director's Subject Files, 1942-1945 ... 68 A4401. Agendas and Minutes, 1942-1945. ... 68 A4403. Supervisory Directives, 1942-1945... 68 A4397. Field Agents Supervision Files, 1942-1945. ... 69 A4395. Omnibus and Charter Bus Rout e Request Files, 1942-1945 ... 69 A4396. School Bus Route Review and Certificate Renewal Files, 1943-1945... 70 A4402. Charter, Omni- , School, and Summ er Camp Bus Application Request Tracking Files, 1942-1945 ... 71 A4405. School Bus Regulation Exemption Request Correspondence, 1943-1945 ... 71 A4398. Special Charter Bus Permit Re quest Correspondence, 1942- 1945... 71 A4400. Publicity Files, 1942-1945 ... 72 A4404. Complaint Correspondence File, 1943-1945 ... 72 A4408. General Program Subject Files, 1943-1945 ... 72 5

6 Salvage Division ... 73 A4350. Instructive Releases Sent to Local Salvage Committees, 1943- 1945 ... 73 Promotional Material, 1942- A4351. Federal Advisory and Instructional Releases and 1945... 73 A4352. Field Representatives' Correspondence and Report Files, 1945 ... 74 A4353. Advisory Correspondence with Local Salvage Committees, 1944-1945 ... 75 A4354. Correspondence with Cooperating Busi nesses, Agencies, and Individuals, 1942-1945. ... 75 Nursing Council for War Service ... 75 A4277. Recruitment and Classi fication Files, 1942-1945 ... 75 A4281. Newspaper Clippings Scrapbook, 1943-1944... 76 Office of the Mileage Administrator... 76 A4243. Government Agency Automobile Usage Rationing Coordination Files, 1943- 1945... 77 War Information Service... 77 A4314. Information Coordination Correspondence with State and War Council Agencies, 1942-1943 ... 77 A4315. Public Relations Coordi nation Files, 1943-1944 ... 78 A4316. Official Bulletin Coor dination Files, 1941-1944 ... 78 A4317. Media Releases, 1942-1944 ... 78 Division of Public Relations ... 79 A4285. Defense Digests and Offi cial Bulletins, 1942-1945... 79 A4347. Newsletter Photograph Prin ter Negatives, ca. 1942-1944 ... 79 A4287. Home Front Information P ublications File, 1942-1945... 80 Division of Records ... 80 A3081. Inventories of State War-Relat ed Agency Records, 1940-1945 ... 80 pire State at War: World War II, 1944- A4236. Research and Drafts Files for The Em 1948... 80 A4245. Local War Council Records Inve ntory Forms and Correspondence, 1945-1946. ... 81 A4296. War Records Program Organization File, 1943-1945 ... 82 A4297. World War II Home Front Activity Information Preservation File, ca. 1943- 1946... 82 Other Records ... 82 A4284. Hospital Staff Draft Status Classifi cation and Recruit Screening Files, 1941- 1945... 82 A3083. Petitions from the Bronx Coordinating Committee for Child Care, ca. 1944 . 83 A4392. Home Front Goals Promotion and Inst ruction Audio-Visual Materials, ca. 1942-1944. ... 83 A4322. Abbot Low Moffat's Advisory Correspondence, 1941-1943... 84 Publications and Information ... 84 A3091. War Information Publications File, 1941-1945 ... 84 A4289. Citizen Assistance and Pr eparation Films, 1942-1943 ... 84 A4299. Photographs of War Council Agen cy Activities, ca. 1942- 1945 ... 85 History... 86 Defense and War Councils, 1940-1945... 86 A4292. History of Westchester County 6

7 A4365. Scrapbooks, 1941-1942... 86 A4344. Organizational History Research File, 1941-1944... 86 Appendices... 88 Appendix A ... 88 Appendix B ... 89 Records in the State Archives may be used at th e Archives' research room. Certain record series have been microfilmed by the State Archives, and the film may be borrowed on inter-library loan or purchased. For further information please contact us. 7

8 Introduction rk began mobilizing for the impending war. Before the bombing of Pearl Harbor, New Yo rnational connections, anticipated the conflict Governor Herbert H. Lehman, a banker with inte and readied the Union's most populous state for the demands of war. The New York State War Council was initially composed of a small group of business, government, and civic leaders. By war's end, it would be a statewide organization which administered programs concerned with child care, discrimination, civil defense, salvag e collection, social welf are, farm labor, and education, and involved over 100 communities. The records of the War Council will prove valuable to those interested in these topics as well as issues such as volunteerism, community mobilization, inter-governmental cooperation, women's history, local history, and social history of the home front. The records are part of the hol dings of the New York State Ar chives and consist of over 140 series totaling over 300 cubic feet. Some records have been, or are scheduled to be, microfilmed (see Appendix A). Microfilm copies are availa ble on inter-library loan and for purchase. Microfilming is supported, in part, by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities. This finding aid provides gene cies, and summary descriptions ral histories for War Council agen of each series. Full series descriptions are include d in the microfilm copies of the records and are online the New York State Library's automated available at the New York State Archives and catalog, Excelsior. Many series have container or folder list s which provide more detailed available at the State Archives and in the information on their contents. These are also microfilmed copies of selected record series(see Appendix A). Records in the State Archives may be used at th e Archives' research room. Certain record series have been microfilmed by the State Archives, and the film may be borrowed on inter-library loan or purchased. For further information please contact us. This guide was prepared by Senior Archivist Daniel J. Linke, who wrote a majority of the series descriptions. Principal Archivist Kathleen Roe a nd student interns Mary Heathwaite, David Hill, Nancy Rogers, and Sarah Talley also described some of the records. Finally, none of this work would have been possible if not for the efforts of Karl D. Hartzell, who collected the records for left a thorough paper trail which allowed for the State immediately following World War II and easy identification of most of the record groups. 8

9 History of the New York State War Council necessary to ensure State and coordinate war-related efforts The War Council was organized to ing with that mandate, the council undertook a national defense during World War II. In keep variety of activities, including c onducting research on defense issues , especially t hose relating to supplying material for the war effort; providing the civilian population with civil defense ng an adequate labor supply in rationing and price control; ensuri training; administering federal war-production industries; and c oordinating war efforts among State agencies and local war councils. ate Council of Defense in 1940 consisting of Governor Herbert H. Lehman appointed a St culture, labor, commerce, and public utilities. It became a representatives of industry, agri statutory body the following year (Laws of 1941, Ch apter 22). Following the passage of the New York State War Emergency Act (Laws of 1942, Chapter 445), the Council of Defense was replaced by the New York State War Council, a temporary state agency. It was composed of the governor, certain legislative leaders, and ten gubernatorial appointees. ted war-related efforts in State government and cooperated The War Council actively coordina with the federal government and local govern ments as well. The War Emergency Act had authorized the formation of lo cal war councils; the councils were not mandatory but if formed were responsible to the State c ouncil. Over 100 local war councils were formed in counties and cities throughout the State, and their activities were assi sted and monitored by field the various agencies within th representatives who worked for e War Council. Eventually over thirty War Council agencies and programs were developed, many relating to either civilian on, and most falling under one of three main divisions: the protection or war-related producti the Division of Civilian Mob ilization; and the Division of Division of Civilian Protection; Industry, Labor, and Agriculture. By war's end, ag ricultural programs were separated from this last division and congregated under the Em ergency Food Commission. The Salvage Division acted as a cooperating agency under the War C ouncil's aegis. The council was terminated in 1947. For more information on the New York State War Council, see Karl Drew Hartzell, The Empire State at War, published by the St ate of New York, 1949 (423 pages). Office of Civilian Mobilization Continuation and expansion of community se rvices during World War II depended largely on volunteers and initially was organized primarily by women. The Office of Civilian Mobilization (OCM) was created to recruit volunt eers for participation in the civilian war effort in areas such as child care, recreation, hea lth services, war production, f ood production and preservation, and salvage. As World War II progressed and the Unit ed States' involvement grew, the citizens of the war effort overseas by volunteering their New York considered it their duty to support services at home. 9

10 Governor Herbert H. Lehman created the OC M's forerunner, the Women's Division of the named the Division of Volunteer Participation Defense Council, in 1941. It was subsequently re and was charged to coordinate the activities of approximately one million volunteers. Volunteer offices in the counties, with advice from State o fficials when necessary, orchestrated the citizens' efforts by reviewing federal and State program s and implementing only those programs that maximized the efforts of their citizens. Becau se Governor Lehman believed that a strong organization of women was essentia l to the success of volunteer se rvices at home, he appointed Clarice Leavell Pennock as the director of the Division of Volunteer Participation. During 1941 the Division of Volunteer Participati on expanded and strengthened its ties to the local volunteer agencies by the establishment of three subordinate agencies (the Volunteer Office, the Section on Citizen Morale, a nd the Section of Civilian War Services) and through the efforts analyzed counties' needs and suggested strategies for of volunteer field agents, who Volunteer Office had re sponsibility for the implementing federal and State programs. The formation and direction of local branches of the U. S. Citizens Service Corps, composed of all volunteers working in community war programs. The Section on Citizen Morale was created after the bombing of Pearl Harb or; however, the United States' subsequent involvement in the ction, led it to be the first War Council program war, and the perceived ineffectiveness of the se was designed to address problems in housing, abolished. The Section of Civilian War Services nutrition, child care, consumer intere sts, youth problems, and recreation. In 1942, the State War Council reorganized and separated its programs into three major divisions: Division of Civilian Mobilization, Di vision of Civilian Protection, and Division of Volunteer Participation was renamed the Office of Civilian Industry and Labor. The Division of Civilian Mobilization. The OCM was still Mobilization and placed within the Division of responsible for establishing programs in educatio n, war training, physical fitness, health care and social welfare by assisting in the establishment of local volunteer agencies. However, as the war progressed and pressure grew from the federal and State governments, the OCM evolved into an e implementation of war programs. On e of the major innovations resulting active participant in th from this shift was the "Block Plan" which wa s established to organi ze community programs (such as salvage, transportation, and war savings) to make them more effective. The Block Plan was only a success in counties where citizens perceive d their efforts as essential to the war effort. both because of the intensified role of Between 1943 and 1945 the number of volunteers grew the United States in the war and a growing desire at home to support the war efforts. During this period, Rebecca H. McNab replaced Clarice Pennock as the director of the OCM. In order to increase morale both within the OCM and at the local level, she allowed individual field agents to take control of three major programs: farm labor, hospital personnel, and recreation. Major shortages in the work force required the OCM to ensure that it and local agencies did not duplicate their efforts in recruiting volunteers. In most communities the efforts of both State and local agencies were effectively integrated, but this required a great deal of coordination by the OCM through correspondence and meetings. volved recruitment of soldiers, maintenance of The programs from 1943 to the end of the war in morale of servicemen both at home and abroad, recruitment of workers for factories and farms, advertisement of the "Don't Travel " campaign (which discouraged all forms of non- essential 10

11 travel in order to conserve gaso line and tires for the war effort), and support of social services. itness, health care, nursing, welf Child care, recreation, physical f are, and Red Cross programs all became important to the overall effort of vol unteers. The OCM was disbanded in September 1945, but some of its planning functions (particularly in the fina ncial and social areas) were ouncil, a statewide organization coordinated by maintained after the war by the Citizen's C members of the Citizens Unity Section of the OCM. Committee on Child Care, Development, and Protection New York businesses alleviated the labor shor tage caused by World War II by turning to women, increasing numbers of whom left their domestic roles to find good wages in defense-related industries. In addition to single women and childless wives, moth ers answered the call to work. The need for more women in the work force, combin ed with the needs of their children, gave rise to State-sponsored child care. The New York State War Council, as part of it s duty to ensure an adequate labor supply, recognized the need for child care programs and in 1942 organized the Committee on Child Care, Development, and Protection. The committee initiated a two-phase program: one for pre- school children, the other for school-age children. The program was designed to encourage women into war industries which the War Manpower Commission estimated needed an additional 250,000 women to augment the 500,000 already in the work force. In late 1942, the War Council responded to charges that the committee was not cooperating with other groups interested in child care, such as churches and private char ities, by reorganizing th e committee and renaming it the New York State Committee on Child Care, Deve lopment, and Protection. It was an advisory board whose members were appointed by the gov ernor and whose chairperson, Elsie M. Bond, was a paid employee of the War Council. war councils to develop child care committees, The new organization focused on prompting local then assisting the committees in surveying thei r needs, providing services and equipment, and federal funding. Often, the local committees perhaps most importantly, obtaining State and facilities run by private or public agencies or churches. would utilize existing day care Congress's passage of the Lanham Act made federal funds available to most of these institutions, though eligibility rules changed from year to y ear. Generally, the federal government provided funds only to those areas which were experienci ng labor shortages in or der to provide women with the opportunity to work by relieving them of child care duties. Initially, the State only allocated funds for child care programs which r eceived no federal funds. Therefore State funds were spent on programs which did not have grea t needs until late 1943, when the State changed its rules to fund any program regardle ss of the receipt of federal funds. At the program's peak, the State received almo st $3 million in federal support and provided child care to over 10,000 children. As the war progres sed, the War Council's view of child care evolved: the program expanded a nd regulations loosened. Initiall y, child care was regarded as necessary to maximize the number of women in the work force, but in time the children's needs merged with the ability of the child care centers to serve them. Children from all families became d meals, vaccinations, regular health checkups, eligible for day care programs which often provide 11

12 and guidance counseling. Generally, facilities we re open ten to twelve hours a day, thereby expanded child care facilities to include accommodating most work schedules. The program migrant labor camps during the summer of 1944. This allowed many middle- and low- income families to send their children to child care, pe rmitting the mother to work and provide a higher standard of living for the family. ild care; the committee did not plan to become a Necessities of war moved the State to provide ch as the exigencies of war disappeared, the social service organization, though it did. However, child care program's stated purpose disappeared also. After the war in Europe ended, federal funding was reduced, then cut off. In August 1945, Governor Dewey announced that all State funding for child care would end in March 1946, though some funding continued through the Youth Commission. While some ch ild care centers remained open as day nurseries, and the migrant camps day care facilities continued operations ceased in until April 1948, all other October 1947. Office of Physical Fitness When the United States first began inducting young men into the armed forces during World War II, almost thirty percent were rejected as physically unfit. To help alleviate this, the New York State War Council formed the Office of Phys ical Fitness, which, in conjunction with the State Education Department's Division of Health and Physical Education, developed, coordinated, and assisted the State Physical Fitness Program. Initially the office worked to ities among secondary school children. Almost promote and assist physical education activ immediately the program's scope widened to incl ude all school-age child ren, registrants for the and civil defense volunteers. armed forces, war industry workers, Directed by Dr. Hiram A. Jones and with a small field staff, the program sought to encourage the development of motor skills, strength, stamina, courage, and morale through organized sports lth, the office hoped to pr and exercise regimens. By improving people's hea oduce better soldiers and improve the efficiency of workers in th e defense industry by reduc ing sick time. While public school facilities were pr imarily used for programs, other institutions employed included religious organizations, parochial schools, industr ial plants, and municipal and state parks. In addition to organizing activities, the office al so educated people on physical fitness through pamphlets and movies and promoted regular medical, dental, and eye exam inations. Over five million people were served by the program during the war. In August 1945, with the war's end and Dr. Jones' s death in an auto accident, the program was suspended. In December, its activities within pub lic schools and the distribution of its pamphlets were resumed. In March 1946, the office was absorb ed into the State E ducation Department's Division of Health and Physical Education. Office of Civilian Protection The Office of Civilian Protection (OCP) was the primary operating unit of the Division of ted the efforts of over 600,000 ecruited, trained, and coordina Civilian Protection. The OCP r 12

13 volunteers organized to prevent and respond to aerial bombings dur ing World War II. Created in e State Police, the State Guard, and the Civil May 1941, the office worked in conjunction with th attacks and to provide a rapid response to the Air Patrol to protect New York from enemy air emergencies which could have been caused by such attacks. Other units and officials of the the work of the OCP included the Air Raid Division of Civilian Protection which supported ers Service, State Property Officer, Emergency Center, State Gas Officer, Forest Fire Fight Medical Service, Emergency Welfare Service, State Fire Administrator, and the Office of Highway Repair and Debris Clearance. Each local war council was encouraged to appoint a director of civil defe nse who reported to the OCP's director. The OCP director assisted in creating lo cal civil defense units (which reported to their local war counc ts, and coordinated existing municipal ils), directed the training of these uni and private services to assist with civil de fense needs. The local organizations organized auxiliary fire and police units, es tablished air observation posts, and appointed street wardens. Typical activities included practice brown and blackouts, aircraft spot ting and identification drills, incendiary bomb extingu ishment training, emergency me dical training, and evacuation planning. While the State War Council issued OCP civil de fense directives, municipalities were permitted to pass their own regulations as l ong as they were consistent with those of the State. Furthermore, the State OCP and all its subor dinate civil defense units re ported to the Eastern Defense Command of the U. S. Army, and it was the Army which would initiate blackouts. mbing attack, many local units did respond to Though the OCP never needed to respond to a bo as train wrecks, floods, or blizza rds, providing medical service, other kinds of emergencies such evacuation assistance, and supply delivery. The OC P's activities began to be curtailed in late shed, and the organization ceased operations 1943 as the threat of German bombing dimini completely in October 1945. Emergency Medical Service In view of the high level of civilian casualties caused by German bombing in England and fearing that the worst possible could happen in the United States and New York, in 1942 the War Council's Division of Civilian Protection formed the Emergency Medical Service to respond to the medical needs of bombing casua lties. In July 1940, the governor 's war plans coordinator had charged the New York State Commission to Formulate a Long-Range Health Program to assemble and analyze data relating to the health resources of the State in order to ascertain their potential to act effectively in case of a na tional emergency. The commission recommended that each county create an Advisory Health Prepar edness Committee composed of members of the public health organizations in the county to handle all medical pr oblems anticipated in connection with air attack s. This early action laid a firm foundation for the Emergency Medical Service. All general hospitals in the Stat e were part of the Emergency Me dical Service. The hospital care of casualties was planned upon the basis of local self-sufficiency, and for this reason, hospitals protection units and casualty stations. However, a worked in conjunction with their local civilian 13

14 statewide system of casualty rece iving and emergency base hospitals was established in case any Department of Mental Hygiene provided 26 single hospital became overcrowded. (The State institutions for emergency hospital use, the larg est single source. )Plans to keep check on each institution's ability to provide emergency base hospital bed space were formulated. In the area ergency bed space was maintained constantly, surrounding each of the State's larger cities, em Division of the United and equipment for 10,500 beds was supplied to the State by the Medical States Office of Civilian Defense. In addition, th e United States Public Health Service and the Red Cross worked out agreements delimiting mutual spheres of activity. At its peak strength, the New York State Emergency Medical Service consisted of 2,454 mobile included 2,454 doctors, 4,808 registered nurses, emergency medical field units whose personnel and 7,812 medical auxiliaries. Almost 1,500 casua lty stations were established, over 17,000 stretcher teams were formed, and regular or converted ambulances with a combined capacity of over 8,400 persons were made available. Casualty stations were set up to handle minor injuries not requiring hospitalization. Emergency Medical Field Units were teams of trained re prepared to travel to bo professionals and volunteers who we mbing sites to provide limited medical treatment before transp orting casualties to hospitals. Once the initial job of organi zation had been completed, a sk eleton staff supervised its maintenance and, as the war progressed in Europe and the danger of German bombings receded, the Emergency Medical Service shif ted its attention to assisting w ith civilian disasters. In a number of incidents (railroad wrecks, an explosion in an electric plant, a food poisoning epidemic, the crash of a pilotless plane into an aircraft factory, and a chlorine gas poisoning accident, among others), the Emergency Medica l Service responded promptly, demonstrating that the preparation put into its formation was not in vain. Committee on Discrimination in Employment mmittee on Discrimination in Employment in Governor Herbert H. Lehman appointed a Co March 1941 as part of the New York State Counc il of Defense for the purpose of encouraging complete utilization in defense work of all indivi duals without consideration of race, color, creed, chaired by the Industrial Commi ssioner, consisted of twenty- or national origin. The committee, enting industrial, labor, civic, and racial seven members appointed by the governor repres organizations. Frieda S. Miller was the first chairperson of the committee; later Alvin Johnson held that position. The committee conducted investigations in 1942 of public and private defense training schools, employment agencies, and labor unions to determ ine whether they pursued discriminatory labor policies and to take appropria ble practices. The committee te action to eliminate undesira appointed Labor Discrimination Representatives who were trained to approach war employers, workers, and community agencies when Stat e labor policies were not followed. Governor Thomas E. Dewey reorganized the committ ee in 1943 to undertake more intensive and continuous work to eliminate econo mic and social discrimination a nd to develop greater unity in the war effort. The committee obtained data on the number of members of minority groups employed in the plants visited and obtained st atistical information on the mental, manual, and physical exams given to employees before or after hiring. 14

15 The committee proposed legislation in 1944 to es tablish a permanent commission to enforce the n, or ancestry, and to right of employment, regardless of race, cree d, color, national origi n, but initially their proposal was turned down. investigate the various problems of discriminatio Under the influence of Governor Thomas E. Dewey, a State Commission against Discrimination was established by law in 1945 (Chapter 118) co nsisting of five members appointed by the governor. Empowered to take proper action ag ainst discrimination in employment, this commission replaced the War Council's committee. Farm Manpower Service The Farm Manpower Service began operation upon the appointment of its director, T. Norman Hurd, by a resolution of the New York State Wa r Council in 1943. It was formed to coordinate cies as well as farm organizations, groups, and the work of all federal, State, and local agen bor shortage faced by food producers in New York individuals dealing with the severe wartime la State. The Farm Manpower Service was responsible for the administration of the Farm Cadet Victory Corps Program, an effort to recruit, train, place, house, and employ seve ral thousand high school ers. The program was started in 1942 and administered by New students as seasonal farm labor eau of Agricultural Education of the State York City schools in conjunction with the Bur Education Department. Upon its creation in 1943, the Farm Manpower Service assumed responsibility for the Farm Cadet Victory Corp s Program, while the schools and State Education Department continued to cooperate in its administration. To fulfill its re sponsibility to provide ng farm labor, the Farm Manpower statistical information concerni Service gathered data from surveys, the monthly reports of approximatel y 800 farmers, and other sources and began to publish the results in Employment and Wage s of Farm Labor in New York in 1943. g and expediting the farm labor activities of The Farm Manpower Service aided in coordinatin agencies involved in the war-time Farm Labor Program. This program was implemented in 1942 to mobilize workers to meet the expected shortage of 10,000 to 15,000 regular workers and 100,000 seasonal workers. The Farm Labor Program se rved to maintain an adequate supply of year-round farm help and was responsible for recruiting, training, housin g, and transporting a total of 375,000 seasonal volunteers to harvest and process food crops from 1942 to 1945. The seasonal work force was comprised of the Farm Cadet Victory Corps and other students; adult laborers from surrounding cities, villages, and rural areas; adult vacationers from New York City; prisoners; Italian and Ge rman prisoners of war; U. S. servicemen; and workers from Jamaica, the Bahamas, West Virginia, and Kentuc ky. This mobilization of labor helped to bring New York State food production during the years 1942 to 1945 to a level higher than the pre-war average. Due to lack of federal and St ate funds, the Farm Manpower Se rvice was discontinued in 1946. Its culture and Markets. functions were assumed by the New York Stat e Department of Agri War Emergency Dispensation Committee 15

16 In order to maximize the ability of the labor force to meet production demands of World War II, in 1941 Governor Herbert H. Lehman empowe red the Industrial Commissioner to grant . Limitations on longer ho dispensations to allow a relaxation of labor laws urs, night shifts, or seven day weeks were suspended for six-mont h periods by the commissioner upon application from individual employers in manufacturing indu stries. In January 1942, the legislature passed a the procedure and retroa law (Chapter 4 of the Laws of 1942) approving ctively validated all decisions made prior to the law's passage. In 1943, the legislature expanded the law to include all essential civilian indus tries (Chapter 315 of the Laws of 1943) and a later amendment allowed for dispensation of labor laws for si xteen- and seventeen-year-old workers. Cases involving dispensation for minors were handled by a special committee of the War Council comprised of two labor leaders, two in legislator--initially dustrialists, and one Assemblyman Irving M. Ives-- who chaired the committee. This special committee established and followed guidelines which limited minors to a 10-hour day and a 50-hour week, prohibited a seven-day week or work beyond midnight, and required a 30-minute lunch break. An on-site inspection of each business was completed before a dispensation would be granted, and approval was by no means guaranteed. No changes permitted by the dispensations were made permanent, and on September 1, 1945, all concerning minors were terminated. On October 31, 1945, all other dispensations were abolished. Office of War Training After the United States entered World War II, civil defense workers and other civilians required specific, accurate training to ha deal with the possible threats ndle the variety of tasks needed to facing New Yorkers. Thus, the Office of War Tr aining was formed on June 15, 1942 to act as a ewide civilian training, including the acquisition comprehensive service agency for planning stat or production of instructional materials and f ilms. The office also developed and maintained standards for civilian war inst ruction and assisted in coordi nating and supervising all war was discontinued in March 1944, Albert H. Hall training programs. From its inception until it served as the office's director. The office worked for numerous State and War Council agencies, developing programs for fire defense, plant protection, air raid wardens, bloc k leaders, civilian defe nse drivers, school bus drivers, emergency sanitation and water services, child care, gas reconnaissance officers, and war gas protection. The office would consult with the agency requesting training, package information for instructor training, then bri ng together persons from around the state for instruction on specific topics a nd teaching methods. These persons th en served as instructors in their local communities. The biggest projects involved plant protection, war gas training, and other projects concentrating on protection of life and property. War Transportation Committee When the United States declared war on Japa n in December 1941, over ninety percent of the stantly lost. Almost nation's crude rubber supply was controlled by the Japanese and in immediately, the U. S. government took steps to ensure that civilian consumption would not 16

17 interfere with military exigencies: in January 194 2, all new car sales were frozen and by the end of July 1942, gas rationing had been implemented. New York State, where seventy-five percent of the work force depended on personal autom obiles to commute between home and work, was particularly hard hit. The New York State War Council responded to th e situation in May 1942 by creating the War Transportation Committee to encourage the conservation of vehicles, vation and improvement of transportation in gasoline, and tires, and to promote the conser e committee concentrated primarily on road and general and mass transportation in particular. Th highway transportation, but wa s also interested in rail and water transportation. The War Transportation Committee replaced the Highway Traffic Advisory Committee to the War Department. The Highway Traffic Advisory Committee, appointed by Governor Herbert H. Lehman in February 1941, had succeeded the Stat e Traffic Commission. R. C. Georger, who was the secretary of the State Tra ffic Commission, was named direct or of the War Transportation Committee. Working through the local war counc ils, the committee established committees of car owners, businessmen, and representatives from industrial plants and transportation companies to address the transportation issues in each community. Five field representatives, based in Albany, Utica, Syracuse, Rochester, and Buffalo, assisted local war transportation committees to meet the goals they set for themselves. New York City was handled by the director of Port Development of the Port of New York Authority. Assisting the field representatives, when necessar y, were ten traffic e ngineers from the Highway Department and seven traffic supervisors from the State Police. Working in conjunction with the Office of Wa r Training, the committee promoted safe and iver training. It also encouraged efficient school bus and truck dr staggered work hours to relieve congestion; proposed the elimina tion of some traffic signals a nd the alteration of others to flashing signals to allow smoother traffic flow ; promoted observance of the 35 mile-per-hour speed limit; and encouraged private car owners to car pool. The committee also advocated that car owners conduct timely preventive maintena nce and eliminate unnecessary use. Re-routing traffic patterns around war plants was another concern of the committee as well as promoting charter bus use and encouraging the implementation of new bus lines. The committee ceased operations in October 1945. Salvage Division World War II left America in Disruptions to established trade routes during the early years of short supply of such materials as rubber and ga soline, and coordinated e fforts to conserve these items were begun in 1941. As the fighting escalate d, and with America's entry into the war, the demand increased for items that would be used sp ecifically for the war effort, such as metals, rags, paper, and waste fat. Cut off from usual s uppliers, it became clear that the country would have to reclaim the needed materials from used items. Detailed plans for a national salvage effort were developed in Washington by the Chief of the General Salvage Section, Bureau of Industrial Conservation, Office of Production Management, America's entry into the war. The governors and were issued on November 29, 1941, just prior to of every state were asked to appoint state salvage committees which would operate as divisions 17

18 of the state defense councils (later the state war councils). E ach governor appointed a voluntary an executive secretary to administer operations chairman for the committee who in turn selected by Washington, the executive secret ary was placed on the Bureau at the state level. Once cleared of Industrial Conservation payroll, and therefore occupied a dual role as both federal employee e committees were federally funded. and state committee official. The stat In January of 1942 the Office of Production Mana gement was subsumed into the newly created War Production Board. The country wa s divided into thirteen regi ons, each presided over by a Regional Director and a Regional Salvage Mana ger of the War Production Board, and these offices functioned as liaisons between the state salvage committees and Washington. On December 19, 1941 New York State Governor Herbert H. Lehman appointed a committee, chaired by R. Murray Willard, to oversee salvag e operations in the State. The committee appointed William Arnoldy as executive secretary, and the following month he traveled to Washington and became the first of the state executive secretaries to be sworn in. The committee operated out of Albany as the Salvage Divi sion of the War Production Board; the War Production Board's regional offices were located in New York City. Salvage efforts at the local level were coordinated by volunt ary committees which were appoi nted by the city and county defense councils. By 1945 paid field represen tatives of the Salvage Division--each usually having jurisdiction over nine counties--supervised the activities of the volunteer committees and the cooperating businesses and organizations. Coordinating a salvage campaign which operated at the national, State, and local level was a major undertaking. Volunteer groups (such as th e Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts), schools, and what materials were needed and why; regional religious institutions had to be instructed as to informed in order to answer questions and directors and committee members needed to be kept develop policy; and, since waste materials like sc rap metal, waste paper, and fat were purchased essing, the operations of the businesses carrying by dealers before being sent on for further proc e releases sent from out those procedures needed to be monitored. Instructive and directiv Washington kept State leaders apprised of speci fic salvage needs, nationwide initiatives, quotas, and collection figures. Local committees were kept informed by releases issued at the State level but were free to establish policies as they saw fi t since they received no directives from the State. Promotional material was distributed in the sa me way. Pamphlets, posters, radio scripts, and mats for newspaper and magazine use, designed to demonstrate the needs and methods of the salvage campaign and to persuade the public to cooperate in th e effort, were channelled from Washington to the State and, fi nally, to the local level. The end of the war in the summer of 1945 meant th e end of the need for salvaged materials. The New York State Salvage Division office ceased operations on September 30, 1945, and national efforts were officially discontinued on October 31, 1945. Nursing Council for War Service The State Nursing Council for War Service was formed in August 1942 to serve as the coordinating body for New York State nursing programs. These programs included conducting in the State and recruiting students to nursing studies and inventories of the number of nurses 18

19 schools. The principal objectives of the Nu rsing Council were to study nursing needs and resources in the State; keep an up-to-date roster of licensed and auxiliary nursing personnel; plan for and assist in enlistment and distribution of nursing services; disseminate information on war nursing; and assist in recruiting students for nursing schools. The Nursing Council worked in conjunction with both national and local (usually county) organizations in these efforts. The Nursing Council conducted meetings , personal visits, and publicity campaigns to meet the need for active nurses. At one poi nt, the nursing shortage was so evident that nurses who were retir ed were reactivated to teach in training programs and to care for patients. Under the Bolton Act of 1943, the U.S. Public thorized to provide Health Service was au qualified candidates with all-expense scholarship s to nursing schools. Students who enrolled under the plan became members of the U.S. Cadet Nursing Corps and upon graduation were required to serve with either military or essen tial civilian nursing until the end of the war. Initially a one-woman operation, by war's e nd the Nursing Council had classified over 38,000 nurses and was employing a nurse director, two assistants, and fi fteen clerks. Alta E. Dines served as chairperson of the Nursing Council while Ruth Hall chaired the Procurement and Assignment Committee. Aid to the nursing prog ram was discontinued by the War Council in April 1946, but the State Nursing Council continued as a private organizati on with coordinating York State in the field of nursing. and informational services in New 19

20 Series Descriptions Executive Offices A4304. Agendas and Minutes, 1942-1945. 1 cu. ft. Arrangement: Chronological by meeting date. This series contains agendas and minutes from meetings held as part of the War Council's effort to coordinate home front activities throughout th e State. The War Council met once or twice a month at the Executive Mansion in Albany to discuss issues relating to new and existing programs and the organization of the State War Council and local war councils. Prominent were members of the War Council, which was business, community, and legislative leaders chaired by the governor. These meetings facilitated th eir efforts to organize the State in a time of crisis. The agendas contain itemized lists of the topics to be discussed, while the minutes outline the te disposition of the proposals. Topics discussed in the agendas discussions as well as the ultima and minutes include civil defense; gas rationing; transportation; ch ild care; farm labor; efforts of the various State War Council committees; petiti ons to post properties and close streets; by the War Council; allocation of funds to War appointments to various committees established rs relaxing certain child labor laws; financial statements of Council agencies; dispensation orde the War Council; changes in personnel in the various local war council s; salary schedules; establishment of divisions of the State War Council; amendments to War Council orders; abolition of War Council ag encies; and resignations. Finding aids: Folder list. A3085. Resolutions, 1941-1945. 2 cu. ft. Arrangement: Organized into tw o subseries: Subseries 1, Council of Defense Resolutions, 1941- 1942, 0.1 cu. ft.; and Subseries 2, War Council Resolutions, 1942-1945, 1.9 cu. ft. Both are numerical by resolution number. This series contains resolutions issued by th e War Council (and its pred ecessor, the Council of Defense) as part of its mandate to coordinate wartime needs. The resolutions cover a range of topics including appointments to council offices or new positions on council committees; the creation of special committees; budge allocation of funds to various t requests to the legislature; programs; civil defense issues (including Natio nal Guard matters); and support for measures which would allow children to miss school during harvest seasons. Other t opics include adoption of orders; amendments to resolutions; approval of salary schedul es; authorizati on of funds for administration of new and existing war programs; authorization to post signs around defense industries and close streets near these industries; establishmen t of War Council offices (war transportation); resignations; a training, fire mobilization, war nd rescindment of resolutions. 20

21 Finding aids: Item list briefly descri bing each resolution in Subseries 2. A4302. Annual Reports and War Agency Directories, 1942-1944. 0.25 cu. ft. Arrangement: Chronological. This series contains seven booklets: four annual reports of the New York State War Council, two directories of war agencies, and a report from the War Council's predecessor, the Council of e Council of Defense's report were assembled Defense. The War Council's annual reports and th and circulated in order to inform all concerne d parties of the war wo rk undertaken by the many agencies which comprised the War Council. They explain the organization's divisions and the divisions' responsibilities and programs and list senior personnel. The dire ctories list federal, State, and "semi-official" agencies involved in local and headquarters' war work, their functions, addresses, and senior personnel. Finding aids: Folder list. A3086. Printed Copies of Orders Issued, 1942-1946. 0.2 cu. ft. Arrangement: Chronological by date issued. The Council was empowered to issue orders on a ny matter it deemed essen tial to the war effort. These orders contain information on the conditions of the order, its duration, and effective date. They cover such subjects as using school buses for transferring defense industry employees; providing child care; instituting price controls; racing motor ve hicles; and releasing school neries. Pre-publication co students over age 16 for temporary work in can pies of orders are occasionally included with the printed copy. ey General to Restrict Acce A4288. Petitions to the Attorn ss to Defense Installations, 1941-1944. 1 cu. ft. Arrangement: Chronological by meeting date w ith supporting materials preceding the petitions. This series contains petitions and supporting ma terials from defense in stallations to the War Council (and its predecessor, the Council of Defens e) requesting that certain streets adjacent to the defense facilities be closed to public access or that signs be posted restricting access to an area surrounding a facility. The a ttorney general, as a member of the War Council, assumed the duty of investigating the peti tions and recommending any nece ssary actions to secure the installations. Factories involved in supplying war materials request ed the limits in order to prevent monitoring of shipments and deliveries, while other facilities such as water and power plants wanted to protect themselves from sabotage. A typical application c ontains a letter to the e facility delineating the nature of the request, War Council from the president or director of th 21

22 along with a more formal resolution passed by th e War Council, signed by the attorney general and countersigned by the executive secretary. petitions approved by the War Council and This series also includes summaries of correspondence from the attorney general to the executive se cretary notifying him of pending action on petitions. Also found is a 1942 report by th to the governor and e adjutant general sent apparently passed on to the a ttorney general concerning the security of almost 1,100 public defense installations throughout the State, in cluding airports, telephone switching buildings, water pumping facilities, railroad bri dges, and ports and other entrepots. city and village mayors, along w ith lists of both State and local The series also includes lists of war council staffs, including th e Office of Civilian Protection, Of fice of Civilian Mobilization, and the Salvage Division. Finding aids: Folder list. A4291. Governor's Corresponde nce with Citizens on War Issu es, 1942-1945. 3.8 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by last name of correspondent. governor oversaw its operations, appointed As titular head of the War Council, the administrators, and presided at selected meetings. Because of this high profile, many citizens wrote to the governor requesting assistance w ith war-related issues and problems, and he tween the public and the government. This series responded as part of his role as the liaison be around the State concerning complaints of contains correspondence from citizens from favoritism on draft boards; requests for exemptions from rationing; offers to volunteer for the armed services or home front activities, usually the draft board; suggestions for wartime procedures such as civil defense; other matters relating to home front activities; and requests for aid with family members' military concerns (leav e, promotions, assignments, etc.). A copy of the governor's (or an assistant's) reply often is attached to the correspondence. The file intermixes letters addressed to Governors Herbert H. Lehm an and Thomas E. Dewey (who took office in 1943). Finding aids: Container list. A4295. Governor's Office Correspondence on War Issues, 1940-1945. 7.5 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by topic or last name of correspondent. This series contains correspondence between th e governor's office and various agencies and organizations involved in the coordination of war work. Because the letters mainly discuss the initial set-up and administration of War Council activities, the lett ers are predominantly authored by Herbert H. Lehman or his aides, though Thom as E. Dewey and his administration are also ude civil defense (including th e formation of the New York represented. Topics covered incl 22

23 Guard and the defense of specific sites in New Yo rk, such as the canals); appointments to draft recommendations); morale issues; child care; and draft appeals boards (including third party discrimination; war bonds; war contracts; women's roles in the labor pool; farm labor; h Columnists, Japanese-Americans, and "loyal" conservation issues; migrant workers; and Fift aliens. Correspondence with other states on war issues, complaints about civilian defense (including a letter from publis her Alfred A. Knopf), and photographs of the Brooklyn Arsenal are also found. Finding aids: Folder list. A4294. Governor's Media Rele ases, 1941-1942. 0.3 cu. ft. Arrangement: Chronological by date of release. es, bulletins, telegrams, radio a ddress transcripts, correspondence, This series contains press releas H. Lehman's office to the media in order to and meeting minutes released by Governor Herbert records illustrate the gov ernor's involvement in inform the public of War Council activities. The many aspects of these activities. Issues covered include production rates; appointments to the War Council; wartime housing; security; agriculture; labor disputes and strikes; civil defense raft warning units); scrap metal drives; tire and (including fire defense, auxiliary police, and airc disease prevention programs; la bor shortages; savings bonds; gasoline shortages; venereal physical fitness; and training programs. The series also contains releases from the Council of Defense, the War Council's predecessor. A4303. Executive Secretary's Corresponden ce with Local War Co uncils, 1942-1945. 1.75 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by city or county. e War Council's executive secretary and various This series contains correspondence between th officers of local war councils generated as a result of the executive secretar y's role as coordinator of all War Council activities. These letters were regular contact between not the result of any local organizations and the executive secretary, bu t were exchanged as issues that required the executive secretary's attention arose. Topics di scussed cover the spectrum of home front issues with which the War Council was involved incl uding child care; civil defense; civilian mobilization; food preservation; labor issues ; physical fitness; rationing; recreation; transportation; war nutrition; and victory gardens. The series also contains documents concerning the curtailment of civilian prot ection activities near the war's end and frank reviews of many local war council administrations' programs. Also found are copies of form letters sent by the executive secretary to all the local war council s concerning rationing; pr e-induction of soldiers; labor issues; lists of names and addresses of local war council members; and infrequently, activity reports of lo cal war councils. Often muni cipalities' news bulletins, copies of resolutions, bout local events a correspondence, resignations, or clippings a nd activities are found. 23

24 Finding aids: Folder list. ral Report Files, 1942-1945. 8.5 cu. ft. A4301. Agencies and Local War Councils Gene Arrangement: Alphabetical by county, municipality, or organization name. This series contains correspondence, bulletins, ne nt to the War Council's wsletters, and posters se executive secretary reporting on activities of agencies involve d in war work and local war councils. The reports vary in na ture: some are comprehensive and span all the war years; others are skimpy and may cover only one event or prog ram. For most groups reporting, organizational and financial issues are detailed, and sample forms and published materials are provided. Many organizations are represented in this series, including Emergency Food Commission, Nursing Council, Office of Civilian Mobilization, Office of Civilian Protection, and Salvage Division. Topics discussed include civil defense, child care, housing, labor, ra tioning, salvage, and education and training. Finding aids: Folder list. A4345. Local Defense Council Appointme nt Notification and Inquiry Response Correspondence, 1940 -1941. 1.5 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by city or county. ams sent between local defense councils and This series contains correspondence and telegr Council of Defense (predecessor to the New York Thomas L. J. Corcoran, the secretary of the State War Council), or Charles Poletti, the lieut enant governor and State defense coordinator. tified the State Council of Defense of local Correspondence from the local councils usually no licies. In some cases, entire lists of local office appointments or requested information on po defense council personnel are found. Carbon copies of correspondence sent to the local councils found in this series usually provide informati on on meetings, programs, or clarification of regulations. A4358. Personnel Records, 1942-1945. 1 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by agency. The War Council's executive secretary administer ed the organization's daily operations. This series contains correspondence sent to the War Council's executive secretary by War Council agencies documenting personnel issues. Most are letters of appointment and usually contain the following information: job title; date of appoi ntment; qualifications of appointee; salary; ss. Other letters announce resignations or note assignment; and employer and/or employee's addre salary changes. 24

25 A4309. Meeting Coordination Correspon dence Files, 1940-1945. 1 cu. ft. Arrangement: Chronological by meeting date. This series contains notices sent by Gover nor Herbert H. Lehman announcing War Council (and its predecessor, the Council of Defense) meetings, accompanied by replies from council absence. These meetings were held at the members indicating their intended attendance or Executive Mansion in Albany, as part of the governor's home in New York City or at the coordination efforts of the governor as chai rman of the council. In addition to the correspondence, lists of War Council members and agendas and minutes for some early meetings are also included. Similar notices and materials are also found for the following War Council sub-agencies and committees: Child Care, Co mmittee on Discrimination in Employment, Labor Dispensation Committee, Physical Fitness, O tion--Butter and Eggs ffice of Price Administra Subcommittee, and the Section on Citizen Unity. Finding aids: Folder list. A4310. Organizational Lette rs and Releases Presenting Issues and Guidelines, 1941- 1942. 0.25 cu. ft . Arrangement: Chronological by release date. This series contains letters and other enclosures sent out by the c ouncil that reflect those issues that Governor Lehman or Lieute nant Governor Charles Poletti, the state defense coordinator, emphasized to the members of the State Council of Defense and local defense councils. Issues h, recreational, and housing facili presented include adequate healt ties for workers; civil defense issues; appointments, announcements , notices, and staffing; and the collection of scrap aluminum and other metals. These files also include copies of resolutions that address social, economic, and that address issues such as effective organization of local civil defense issues, and bulletins defense councils, civil defense, gasoline conservation, and emergency medical measures for civilian defense. Also included are lists that note the members of the State War Council, local war councils, and other county and city officials as of 1942. Finding aids: Folder list. d State Agencies, 1941- 1945. 3 cu. ft. A4312. Progress Reports of War Council an Arrangement: Alphabetical by agency. This series contains monthly, quarterly, or annual progress reports from many War Council agencies and State agencies involved in war work. The War Council used these reports to monitor the performance and supervise the activitie s of individual agencies. The reports, sent to the State war plans coordinator, candidly detail the progress, probl ems, and plans of the various agencies. Some reports are in narrative form; others are completed on a standard form which contemplated; contacts with communities, war provides information on work performed; work 25

26 councils, or other public official s; and problems which require the assistance of federal agencies. ision of reports for each month. Materials produced Individual agencies vary greatly in their prov vant to their work are sometimes appended to by an agency during a particular month or rele progress reports. These include reprints, news releases, public ations, charts, tables, maps, minutes and condensations of meetings, and correspondence. This series is very useful for understanding each agency or subagency's contribution to the war effort, and in some cases, the work of local war councils as it related to the larger agencies. Topics covered include agricu lture; child care; citizen morale; civil defense; civilian mobilization; commerce; discrimination in employ ment; education; health issues; housing; labor; nursing; police training; rationing; salvage; vocational trai ning; war training; and war transportation. Finding aids: Folder list. A4343. Social and Economic Surveys of New York Cities, 1942. 0.2 cu. ft. Arrangement: Arranged by city. This series primarily contains reports comp iled by the federal National Resources Planning Board and the Office of Defense Health and We lfare Services detailing conditions in several communities and sent to the State War Council to a ssist with war planning efforts. Kept by the assistant to the State war plans coordinator, th e reports detail each community's conditions in education, health, housing, indus try, infrastructure, labor, pl anning, and transportation, and discuss the impact of the war and military on these areas. Some maps and photographs are rrespondence and other reports from State War reproduced in the reports. Also found are co reported on items discussed in th e federal reports, as well as Council field representatives who the status of War Council programs such as scra p drives, rationing, civ il defense, and war bond drives. Reports exist for Buffalo, Elmira, Le , Newburgh, Orangeburg, wiston, Massena, Mineville Poughkeepsie, Rome-Utica-Ilion, Sampson, Schen ectady, Sidney, Syracuse, Watertown, and the western portion of Long Island. Finding aids: Folder list. A4346. Assistant to the State War Plans Coordinator's Agency Activity Coordination and Information Files, 1941- 1945 (bulk 1942). 3 cu. ft. Arrangement: Organized into thr ee subseries: Subseries 1, Agency Activity Coordination Files, 1942-1945, 1 cu. ft., is arranged by document type or topic. Subseries 2, Agency Activity Information Files, 1941-1942, 1.5 cu. ft., is alpha betical by agency. Subseries 3, Federal War Agencies Coordination Files, 1942, 0.5 cu. ft ., is arranged by agency or topic. Maurice Neufeld worked in New York State's Di vision of Commerce and became the assistant to in 1941 with the creation of the State War Council. Lieutenant the State war plans coordinator 26

27 Governor Charles Poletti was the first State wa r plans coordinator; later Oswald D. Heck, ut the war, and though in his position througho speaker of the assembly, served. Neufeld served served to direct deci sions to the appropriate he had authority over certain issues, primarily he agency heads. al releases relating to Maurice This series contains corresponden ce, bulletins, posters, and offici State, and federal agencies. ouncil activities with local, Neufeld's coordination of War C Materials found describe agricu ltural and labor issues; appointments to subagency positions; civil defense activities; civili an mobilization efforts; personnel and organizational matters; items sent to local wa r councils; and a fuel publication printing (sometimes including samples); conservation program. Also found in this series are notices from the attorney general concerning road access restricti statistics on metropolitan New York City; and ons; monthly employment significant information on civil defense, m obilization, nutrition, war training, and war transportation. dination of activities between the federal government's war Other materials reveal the coor represented are the Office of Civil Defense, programs and New York's. The federal agencies best the Works Progress Administration, and the Federa l Security Agency. Within the Office of Civil Defense files, there are releases concerning operations, letters, memoranda, and publications (including pre-publication copies of some items). Of special interest is a folder listing the status of various Lanham Act projects (hospital construction, sanitation projects) within New York. omas E. Dewey's special emergency committee, Also included are materials from Governor Th 50 inches) of January 1945, with western New formed to respond to the heavy snowfalls (over York hit particularly hard near the end of the month. rrespondence and Information File, 1941- A4360. State War Plans Coordinator's Co 1942. 0.75 cu. ft. Initially, the lieutenant governor served as the State war plans coordina tor of the War Council, overseeing much of the implementation and coordi nation of the early projects and activities. This series contains correspondence, telegrams, reports, and various charts exchanged between Lieutenant Governor Charles Council agencies, and private Poletti, local and federal War organizations and individuals involved in the war effort. Topics and agencies documented include civil defense; civilian mobilization; fuel; health; health preparedness; housing; nutrition; physical fitness; rationing; wa r transportation; war informa tion; and war training. In 1943, Speaker of the Assembly Oswald D. Heck became State war plans coordi nator, but none of his records are found in this series. A4361. Executive Secretaries' Correspondenc e with State and War Council Agencies, 1940-1945. 9 cu. ft. ree subseries: Subseries 1, Ex Arrangement: Organized into th ecutive Secretary's Correspondence with State and Defense Council Agencies, 1940-1941, 1 cu. ft., and Subseries 2, Thomas L. J. 27

28 Corcoran Correspondence Files, 1941- 1942, 3 cu. ft., are alphabetical by agency. Subseries 3, cu. ft., is arranged by topic or individual. Executive Secretaries' Correspondence, 1941-1945, 5 This series contains correspondence between th e executive secretary and State and War Council agencies as part of the executive secretary's dut ies to supervise the daily operation of the War Council and its predecessor, the C ouncil of Defense. Agencies a nd topics well- represented in this series include agriculture; automotive rationing; citizen unity (morale); civil defense; civilian discrimination in employment; Emergency Food mobilization, conservation of waste materials; Commission; fire defense and fo rest fire fighters; Health Preparedness Commission; Health rationing; State Guard and Selective Service; Department; migrant labor camps; physical fitness; water supplies; and volunteer work. war training; war transportation; Civil defense materials include reports on National Guard troop strength, supplies, and buildings available for use. Many letters are requests for in formation from other government agencies. The philosophy behind many subordinate organizations' decisions is found, especia lly in the set up of ffice. Initial surveys con the Office of Civilian Mobilization's Volunteer O ducted by the Office of Civilian Defense are also found, as well as in formation about other ea rly Council of Defense (later War Council) agencies' activ ities. This series also contai ns mimeographed letters from the governor released to the general public concerning home front issu es, usually civil defense, as well as correspondence with the federal Offi ce of Civil Defense in Washington, D.C. Finding aids: Folder list. A4362. Executive Secretary's Correspondence with Civil Defense Administrators, 1942. 1.6 cu. ft. Arrangement: Geographical by re gion, then by individual. War Council Executive Secretary Thomas L. J. This series contains correspondence between Corcoran and various State and federal admini strators who coordinate d civil defense work. Correspondence from F. H. LaGuardia, the head of the U.S. Office of Civilian Defense, was usually addressed to Governor Herbert H. Lehman but routed to Corcoran. Corcoran also regularly corresponded with ci vil defense offices in Washington, D.C., New York City, Rochester, and Albany. Topics c overed include air raids, auxiliary police and fire fighters, blackouts, Civil Air Patrol, informa tion distribution, a nd fire fighting. The series contains a large num ber of correspondence referral forms kept by Corcoran about letters forwarded to the director of the War C ouncil's Office of Civilian Protection (OCP).(It is uncertain if these letters are ex tant in other OCP series.) Thes e forms list the date, correspondent, and subject of each letter, and whether or not Co rcoran made any response. The forwarded letters were usually from the U.S. Of fice of Civilian Defense or ot her civil defense groups. A small number of releases from the OCP to local civil defense groups is found in this series. They usually discuss subjects similar to th e correspondence found in this series. 28

29 Division of Civilian Mobilization A4338. Division and Office Staff Conference Minutes, 1942-1944. 0. 1 cu. ft. Arrangement: Chronological by month. lla organization unit comprised of the Office of The Division of Civilian Mobilization, the umbre Civilian Mobilization, Education De partment, Health Department, Department of Social Welfare, ess, Office of War Training, and War Information War Nutrition Services, Office of Physical Fitn Service, worked to coordinate all home front activities including child care, fitness programs, and war bond drives. both the Division of Civilian Mobilization and This series contains minutes from meetings of kept by the OCM's director to document and Office of Civilian Mobilization which were es of the division's monthly meetings discuss facilitate plans and activities of the OCM. Minut each organization's programs and delineate decisions made during the meeting. The office staff meeting minutes document organizational decisions made within the Office of Civilian information, and liaison work Mobilization on issues such as field services, dissemination of the Evacuation Committee) . Some staff meeting with other agencies (such as the Red Cross or agendas are found in this series also. Office of Civilian Mobilization A4339. Program Coordination Meeting an d Conference Agendas, Minutes, and -1944. 0.1 cu. ft. Correspondence, 1941 Arrangement: Chronological by month. This series contains materials documenting the m eetings of the Office of Civilian Mobilization wherein its organization and responsibilities were determined. Early meetings held in conjunction with other War Council agencies de termined areas of program responsibility between the various organizations held among local war councils ; later regional meetings were to coordinate activities. An early concern wa s the formation of the OCM's State and local governing boards. Later regional meetings and conferences con centrated on OCM programs such as nursing recruitment, material conservation, and youth programs. A4340. Lists of Local War Council Chai rs and Officers, 1943-1945. 0.3 cu. ft. Arrangement: Chronological by year , then alphabetical by county. 29

30 This series contains lists of lo cal war council chairs and officers involved in home front activities Civilian Mobilization. related to the Office of The lists were used by the office to send information to the councils and officers. The names and addresses of the local directors of charge of each local Volunteer Office and the Civilian War Services divisions and persons in Block Plan are found, in addition to the names of the individuals responsible for adult education; child care; citizen unity; consumer relations ; emergency medical service; health and preparedness; housing; nutrition; physical fitness; recreation; salvage; so cial protection (which worked to discourage prostitution); victory gard ens; war training; war bond sales; and youth programs. The names and addresses of local O ffice of Civilian Protection directors are also found in this series. A3084. Correspondence With Local War Councils And Volunteer Ag encies, 1942-1945. 10.8 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by county or city. This series contains correspondence relating to the organization and coordination of local volunteer agencies in community services. Through correspondence with the local war councils and volunteer agencies, the Office of Civili an Mobilization (OCM) promoted recreation uvenile delinquency and maintaini activities related to preventing j ng morale. It also encouraged local agencies to recruit women to work in defense industries and agriculture and promoted child also promoted pre-induc care for those who needed the service. The OCM tion activities (such as award ceremonies, community support parties, and counseling) to he lp young men make the transition from civilian to soldier. Topics covered include recreati on, child care, nursing recruitment, women in the work force, salvage collection, pre-induction of soldiers, and other topics re lating to the support of home front activities. Also found in this series are ne wsletters from county volun teer agencies relating their activities in these areas. Frequently, list s of county committee members detailing names and positions within the local agency are found. The OCM also disseminated information on hom e front activities by providing pamphlets on salvage, food preservation, production, the "Don 't Travel" campaign, pre-induction activities, nursing recruitment, and recreation. Requests for th is information and responses are found within the correspondence. Finding aids: Folder list. A4324. Local War Councils' and Field Repr esentatives' City and County Activity Reports, 1941-1945. 1.2 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by city or county. 30

31 This series contains correspondence and memoranda sent to the Office of Civilian Mobilization war councils reporting on activities, personnel (OCM) by its field representatives or local quiring these on a regular basis, the OCM used changes, and organizational issues. While not re the reports to monitor problems w ithin the local councils, especi ally those reports filed by the unter than those sent by the local field representatives which are bl councils. Buffalo, Rochester, Schenectady, and Syracuse are well-represented in this series. The local war councils' reports contain detailed lists of program s, including the number of vo lunteers involved; lists of procedures used for civil defense activities; organizational charts ; personnel changes; and sample forms and pamphlets for various activities. observations concerning operational problems, The field representatives' reports include personnel conflicts, and program deficiencies, often with suggeste d plans of action to rectify them. These reports include logs listing who the representative met with, when, and what was discussed. Topics discussed include projected employment needs, wo men's role in the local labor market, the need for child care, nursing recruitment, and volunteer recruitment. Initially, many local officers confided to the field representative s that enlisting volunteers for anything but civil defense was problematic. Finding aids: Folder list. A4325. Defense Programs Coordination Correspondence, 1941-1945. 11 cu. ft. opic headings and therei Arrangement: By broad t n alphabetical by subject. This series contains corresponde rative efforts between the OCM, State nce created during coope e organizations in an effort and federal agencies, and privat to coordinate, publicize, and implement programs designed to involve the citizens of New York State in home front activities. cies relates to program development and Correspondence between the OCM and State agen M and agencies such as the Department of implementation and volunteer recruitment. The OC Agriculture, State Committee on Child Care, De partment of Education, Food Commission, Farm Manpower Service, and Department of Health concentrated on de veloping plans and priorities, solving problems, assessing needs in the localities, and assisting local war c ouncils with program implementation. Correspondence with federal agencies is of a mo re informational nature. Recommendations for operating procedures to ensure cooperative rela tionships, promotion of the federal agencies' programs, and use of volunteers in the progr ams are discussed. Included are copies of publications, summaries of confer ences held in Washington, D.C., and copies of talks given at national conferences from agencies such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Office of Price Administration, Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services of the Federal Security Agency, and the Defense Office of Transportation. In addition to gathering information within Ne w York State, the OCM exchanged publications addressing the effects of ns many of these reports and reports with other states. This series contai 31

32 war on welfare services and ope ration of the other states' de fense councils. Requests from libraries in other states to the OCM for publications are numerous. rams designed to increase awareness about Colleges also conducted workshops and other prog defense issues. A major particip ant and source of expert advice was the Department of Home Economics at Cornell University. Cornell distributed information about food conservation, s, and promoted these organized nutrition committees in counties and citie efforts by directing the home demonstration agents program. The College of Agriculture at Cornell cooperated with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Extension Service to create a report series that addressed issues such as farm labor, marketing, and farm m achinery. Vassar College became involved in community planning and hosted th e Civilian Training Institute for Family and Child Care Services in War Time. In additi so sent informational reports on to correspondence, the schools al and newsletters to the OCM produced as a result of their efforts. The OCM coordinated its actions with private or ganizations to reduce confusion about who was responsible for program admini stration. Placing the OCM in char ge of recruiting volunteers to participate in the organizations' activities created a workable compromise. The series contains correspondence between the OCM and such organi zations as community chests and councils, Council of Social Agencies, Girl Scouts, State Ch arities Aid Association, and the United Service Organizations. In an effort to consolidate volunteer recruitmen t within New York State, the OCM was given full for the Office of Civilian Protection (OCP) and responsibility for recruiting for itself as well as ties. Much of the co rrespondence between the for compiling OCP progress reports from the coun OCM and OCP relates to coordi nating cooperative efforts. Procedures for the OCP programs such as air raids, artificial li r raid shelters, and operation of ghting in dimout areas, use of ai control centers and report centers are also included. The OCM also corresponded with the federal Office of Civilian Defense (OCD) offices in New York City and Washington. The OCD in New York City was the central location for the Second Civilian Defense region. It served as a liais on between the Washington OCD and the state OCP in an effort to promote federal defense programs through exchange of publications and organizational plans. The OCD in Washington ac ted as a liaison with federal agencies to coordinate programs which would then be distri buted to the states and implemented in the counties where they would be best utilized. This office encouraged central leadership, so much of the correspondence addresses procedures, unified action an d planning, and gathering and disseminating information from all states. Finding aids: Folder list. A4326. National Defense and Civilian Services Cooperative Activities Programs Coordination File, 1941-1945. 3 cu. ft . Arrangement: Alphabetical by subject. 32

33 The Office of Civilian Mobilization was responsib le for coordinating volunteer participation to Cooperation between the war council offices and promote civilian defense and social activities. rtment and the Office of Defense Health and State agencies (such as the State Education Depa Welfare Services) and other organizations (suc h as the Recreation A ssociation and the Red s. This series contains correspondence and Cross) was essential for maximum effectivenes change of information and coordination of programs. Some of publications which facilitated ex the subjects covered include edu cation; national defense; recreation; health (Red Cross); and veterans. Finding aids: Folder list. A4327. Organization and Program Coordi nation Correspondence File, 1941-1945. 2 cu. ft. Arrangement: Arranged by topic. The correspondence in this series relates to operational plans of the Office of Civilian Mobilization (OCM) and its subordinate divisi ons (Section of Citizen Morale, Section of Civilian War Services, and the Volunteer Office). The Section of Citizen Morale was responsible for organizing speeches and other activities designed to interpret war plans and democratic principles for the citizens. Programs promoti ng health, child care, sa lvage, recreation, and housing were implemented by the Section of Civilian War Services. Registration of volunteers and tabulation of statistics became the main responsibility of the Volunteer Office. Most of the correspondence details discussions be tween the director and other leaders of the OCM and the directors of the sections concerning program objectives, events coordination, local agencies. Narrative reports and handbooks that developments, and cooperation with State describe the scope and policies of these subdi t in the series. The visions are also presen governor's and lieutenant governor's corresponden ce with private citizens and the OCM provides evidence of how they wanted the OCM to operate. Finding aids: Folder list. A4328. Volunteer Participation Conferences and Meetings Coordination Correspondence and Publicity Files, 1941-1945. 3 cu. ft. Arrangement: Chronological by meeting date, then arranged by topic. This series contains correspondence, agendas, and minutes relating to conferences organized by the Office of Civilian Mobilization (OCM). The office's director and staff members met with representatives from State agencies and ot her organizations and committees to discuss coordination of volunteer participa tion in program areas such as nutrition (mass feeding); child nd safeguarding military informa tion. Other meetings addressed care; block leader training; a 33

34 coordination of the field repres entatives' activities and develo pments and problems within the OCM, regions, and local councils. addresses, radio talks, and bu lletins to distribute information The OCM used publications, public are contained in this series. The series also and increase citizen participation. Copies of these contains monthly reports prepared by the OCM, Protection, and Civilian Director of Civilian War Services; correspondence relating to the publicity steering committee and completed projects (block leader training, fifth war loan drive, transporta tion and fuel survey); and labor market development reports from the United States Employment Service of the War Manpower Commission detailing demand for la bor in regions of the State. Finding aids: Folder list. A4329. Local War Councils Newspaper C lippings File, 1941-1945. 2 cu. ft. Arrangement: Organized into two parts: the fi rst is alphabetical by subject, the second is alphabetical by county or city. This series contains clippi ngs collected by the Office of Civilian Mobilization (OCM) documenting the activities of local war councils in home front programs. In addition to OCM activities, civil defense work is also docum ented, and sometimes the communities' war-related activities such as war plant produc tion. Typical subjects found in th is series include Block Plan neighborhoods); child care; civil defense; (in which volunteers promoted OCM activities in their age; volunteer recruitment; war training; and farm labor; first aid; nursing; nutrition; salv women's volunteer activities. A4330. Local War Council Operating Reports, 1942-1944. 2.4 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by county or municipality. This series contains quarterly operating report fo rms sent to the Office of Civilian Mobilization (OCM) by local war councils detailing their home front activities, programs, and personnel. Information about the Volunteer Office, Division of Civilian War Services, the Block Plan, and Office of Civilian Protection, among others, is found. Each form lists the local war council's office a ddress, officers, resignations, and appointments. Detailed information from the Volunteer Office includes names of officers; total volunteers recruited; number of volunteers working on each project; outstanding activities and projects; services performed for other state and private agencies; and assistance required by the office from the OCM. Officers' names and addresses for the following lo cal war council units are also provided, along with small amounts of program information: Bl ock Plan; Citizen Service Corps; Civilian Protection Office; Civilian War Services; and Sp eakers Bureau. For the Civilian War Services, 34

35 some reports contained only the names and addre sses of the chairs of active programs, while vities. Units represented include child care; others provided a full page on operations and acti health preparedness; nutriti on; physical fitness; recr eation; salvage; victory critical resources; gardens; war information; war savings bonds; wa r training; and locally organized committees. Finding aids: Container list. A4331. Field Directors' Local War Counc il Master Reports, 1942- 1944. 1 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by county or municipality. This series contains 11-page report forms completed by field directors (also called field representatives) for each local war council de ganization, and operations. tailing their personnel, or Filed only once (most in 1943), these forms were used by the Office of Civilian Mobilization (OCM) to examine local councils to ensure they operated as well as possible and according to the State War Council's standards. Each form lists the local war council's addre ss, territory, and populati on, as well as providing detailed information on the council and the OCM divisions operating in the council. Addresses for the Volunteer Office, the Division of Civilian War Services, and the Office of Civilian Protection are also listed. If there were any sub-units of the local war council, the name, territory covered, and organizations comprising it were also listed. local war council; Civilian War Se A roster lists the chair of the rvices director; Labor, Industry, and Agriculture chair; Volunteer Office chair and director; War Tr aining chair; and War Information chair. For each of these positions, the roster provides name; address; occupation and "noteworthy status"; appointive or elective offi ces held; other war council positions held; and if paid for war council work. This same informa tion is also listed for persons serving on the Civilian War Services executive committee an d those working on the Block Plan program (though no address is listed for Civilian War Se rvices personnel.) The Civilian War Services executive committee included persons responsible for child care, citizen unity, consumer problems, education, family security, health pr eparedness, housing surveys, nutrition, physical fitness, recreation, salvage, social protection (w hich worked to prevent venereal disease and prostitution), war savings bond sales, and youth programs. Several pages of the report form are devoted to reporting the characteristics of the local war councils, specifically the Volunt eer Office, the Block Plan, and the Division of Civilian War Services. Issues addressed include organization, fi nances, program status, competence of officers, cooperativeness with other agencies and the Stat e War Council, training effectiveness, frequency of meetings, public confidence, public relations, and office space. Finding aids: Folder list. 35

36 A4332. Address Lists of State War Council Agency Directors an d Local War Council Officers, 1941-1945. 0.1 cu. ft. , then alphabetical by county or municipality within each Arrangement: Chronological by year list. This series contains address lists of persons i nvolved in war work which the Office of Civilian Mobilization (OCM) used to mail information a bout OCM programs and ac tivities to pertinent organizations. Separate lists for each of th e following are found: State War Council agency directors; local war council chairs; local OCM chai rs; local chairs of Civilian War Services; local chairs of Volunteer Offices; and local Block Plan chiefs. One address list for local war councils' executive secretaries is also found. A4333. Directives to Local War Councils, 1941-1945. 0.7 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by subject. This series contains memoranda directing, prom oting, and explaining the Office of Civilian Mobilization's (OCM) home front activities to local war councils. The OCM would provide ents, publicity, and activities. In suggestions on organization of ev some cases, releases from various federal offices would be passed along to the local organizations. Information on the series: "I Am An American Day"; Block Plan following programs and topics can be found in this k); civil defense; housing; (in which volunteers promoted OCM activities on their bloc promotional films; rationing; recreation; sa lvage; and volunteer recruitment and training. Finding aids: Folder list. A4334. Procedure Establishment Letters from the Federal Office of Civilian Defense, 1941-1945. 0.1 cu. ft. Arrangement: Chronological by month. These letters from the United Stat were sent to the Office of es Office of Civilian Defense Civilian Mobilization (OCM) to establish volunteer activities and to ensure that programs were administered in accordance with federal mandate s. The letters discuss anti-sabotage activities; awards; blackouts; Block Plan (in which volunte ers promoted OCM activities on their block); fingerprinting of civil defense vol unteers; gas attacks; identificat ion cards; incendiary and anti- personnel bombing; insignia standards; selectio n of civil defense trainees; and war plant protection. n and Responsibilities Memoranda, 1941-1944. 0.1 cu. ft. A4335. Director's Organizatio 36

37 Arrangement: Chronological by year. e Office of Civilian Mobilization's (OCM) This series contains memoranda outlining th organization and the execution of its duty to coordinate volunteers involved in home front l war councils and the State War Council. Those activities. The memoranda are directed to loca sent to the local organizations delineate responsibilities, and set goals for interpret regulations, future work. Those sent to the State War Council report on the OCM's progress and include financial and personnel information. A4336. Monthly Reports to the State War Pl ans Coordinator, 1942- 1944. 0.1 cu. ft. Arrangement: Chronological by month. From May 1942 to August 1943 the Office of Civili ctor sent a monthly an Mobilization's dire arge of administering defense programs as the report to the lieutenant governor who was in ch e local war councils; State war plans coordinator. The reports describe organization of th ouncils; establishment of commun ity service sections with the developments in the local war c al Welfare; volunteer office inspections; cooperation of the State Department of Soci conferences; cooperative civilian pr otection efforts; and cooperati ve agreements with federal agencies. The monthly reports are often supplemented by field development reports from the Section for Citizen Unity (initially the Section fo r Citizen Morale) and th e State Department of ry 1943 is missing. This series also contains Social Welfare. The monthly report for Februa ated future activities, and an annual report budget requests, reports of activities and contempl (1944) addressed to the executive secretary. A4337. Summary Charts of Volunteer Assignment Reports Received from Local Offices, 1943-1944. 0.1 cu. ft. Arrangement: Chronological by year. This series contains lists ta llying the number of voluntee rs working on various civilian mobilization programs within the local war c ouncils, which allowed the Office of Civilian Mobilization to monitor the local organizations' su ccesses or needs. Less th an ten percent of the local councils reported their fi gures, however, and those that did report did not do so regularly. Some reported only the total number of volunteer s working, while others reported the total number of hours volunteered. When programs are enumerated, the list includes block leaders, child care, housing, nutrition, recreation, and war bonds. A4341. Civilian War Services and Civilian Protectio n Training Charts, 1943. 0.2 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by county. 37

38 This series contains charts enumerating the num ber of volunteers in each local war council who home front activities during January and February had been, or were being, trained for specific ese figures, which the Office of Civilian 1943.Many, but not all, war councils reported th Mobilization (OCM) collected in or der to track local war councils' volunteer needs. Civilian War carrying out many home Services was the OCM division responsible for front programs, while the Office of Civilian Protection worked on civil defense projects. Examples of the categories for Civilian War Servi ces programs include block leaders, child care, consumer assistance, war bonds, and youth and recr eation. Examples of the categories for Office of Civilian Protection programs include air raid wardens, auxiliary police and fire fighters, emergency medical service, and messengers. A4342. Local War Council and Subordinate Agen cies Card File, 1942-1943. 0.25 cu. ft. Arrangement: Chronological by year, then al phabetical by county or municipality. The index cards found in this series contain information about local war councils and the agencies assisting them with local home front programs and were used by the Office of Civilian Mobilization (OCM) as a central reference file for quick reference on program status and local program needs. The 1942 cards list local war council officers and of agricultural agencies ten social welfare and involved with their activities. In addition to this information, the 1943 cards contain a brief description of the war's impact on the area, disc bor shortages, industry ussing issues such as la ems, housing, and women's employment. The 1943 expansion, wage rates, transportation probl cards frequently give the status of the local programs such as child care, nutrition, health preparedness, physical fitness, and recreation. These brief status reports may note number of ived, and problems encountered. In the few cities participants, regular events, appropriations rece n committees, which confronted the problems of where the OCM organized them, social protectio prostitution, also repo rted their status. State Education Department A4318. Department Resource Manageme nt Files, 1941-1943. 0.5 cu. ft. This series contains a range of material relating to the management of the Education Department's resources as it administered its pr ograms during wartime. The records relate to automobile rationing procedures, funds for school construction, and the department's financial reports. Also included are newspa per clippings about department projects and a small number of bulletins and journals is sued by the department. Field Reports, 1941- 1944. 3 cu. ft. A4319. War Programs Correspondence and 38

39 Arrangement: Arranged by topic. the Education Department's establishment, This series contains correspondence detailing me programs related to educating citizens on supervision, or other involvement with war- ti defense matters. Working under the auspices of the War Council, the department organized several programs including the Civilian Defense Training Program which sought to instruct safety (primarily fire fighte citizens in first aid, nutrition, public r training), physical education and recreation (for defense plant workers), the re cruitment and training of farm labor, and civic education (primarily for aliens). The department worked closely with other State agencies or War Council offices, including War Training, Civil Pr otection, and Salvage, among others, in these endeavors. In particular, the de partment worked with the Depart ments of Health, Labor, Mental Hygiene, and Social Welfare to s published for the War Council to produce a series of pamphlet educate the general public on war- related issues. These pamphlets are also found in this series. The department was also involved in other programs either in an organizational or coordinating capacity for other State or War Council agencies . In addition to correspondence, this series contains field reports from Education Depart ment personnel who visited war programs (youth services, agricultural education, home economics, phys ical fitness, child care , or adult education) around the State. The field reports were sometim es contained in memoranda, but predominantly a standard printed form was used. In both cases, they enumerate organization met with; date and location of the meeting; purpose of the meeting; persons interviewed; an d results. Statements describe with varying amounts of detail the results of the meetings. The child care field reports usually contain two or three sent ypically contain more substantial ences. Reports on other areas t summaries of the meetings and the programs investigated. Finding aids: Folder list. A4320. Department War Programs Coordi nator's Files, 1937-1943. 2 cu. ft. Arrangement: By topic. This series contains Dr. Albert Meredith's ma terials relating to his role as the Education Department's coordinator of war programs. An administrative assistan t in the department, Meredith was the liaison between the department and the War Council. Correspondence in this series relates to school lunch programs, adu lt education, citizen unity programs, physical education, child care, agricultural education, home economics e ducation, the Youth Services Council, and the Civilian Defense Training Program. Exchanges with both federal and local governments concerning these programs are fou nd, in addition to reports to the Lieutenant Governor from Meredith on the status of thes e programs, sometimes with small amounts of financial information. The materials include discussions of school lunc h programs and federal assistance for the school milk program; adult education, which details a lien registration, and English and citizenship classes; the Section on Citizen Unity program wh ich promoted war goals to the general public; physical education (pre-war pamphlets list regimens for all ages, and include one for 39

40 handicapped children); child care issues, including curriculum guides, and notes from a ng procedures, including a poster explaining use conference on war strain in children; and rationi of rationing coupons. Informational releases fr om the New York City Board of Education concerning war issues and their e ffect on schools, and press releas es from the governor's office on war issues in general are also found. Minutes and other materials from the Committee to Study the Evacuation of Cities in Target Areas, a special committee appointed by the governor to examine the possibility of evacuating New York's cities and on which Meredith served, are included. Materials from other programs in wh ich Meredith was involved are found, including the Conference on Democratic Processes. Finding aids: Folder list. Section for Citizen Unity A4270. General Corresponde nce, 1942-1943. 2 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by subject. The Section for Citizen Unity was formed on Ja nuary 1, 1942 by the State War Council. Some of the section's functions were to help interpret th e civilian war program to the general public; to foster projects for building unity at home be hind the war effort; to develop an informed understanding of war issues on the part of the general public includ ing the Atlantic Charter, total sorship and news policy; to assist local manpower mobilization, wartime financing, and cen programs, speakers bureaus, di scussion projects, exhibits, bl ock groups, war forums and war materials relating to the war effort such as problem round tables; and to gather and disseminate pamphlets, film lists, bibliographies, radio script reference lists, and dramatization material. The Section for Citizen Unity, directed by John W. Merring, was divided into city and county Moral Committees. The Victory Publications Councils of Citizen Unity and Local Citizen Clearing House, in conjunction with the Section for Citizen Unity, issued pamphlets on war issues to the general public. The general correspondence files contain materi al on conferences, annual and monthly reports, bibliographies, catalogs, kits, finances, and co rrespondence with city and county Councils of Citizen Unity and Citizen Moral Committees. Also included in the files are clippings, press releases, telegrams, form letters, maili ng lists, and purchase requisitions and vouchers. Finding aids: Container list. Committee on Child Care, Development, and Protection A3100. General correspondence, 1942-1946. 2.5 cu. ft. Arrangement: Arranged roughly by subject or co rrespondent, and then by reverse chronological order. 40

41 This series illustrates the Committee's effort s in developing child care committees, assisting ices and equipment for child care initiatives committees in surveying their needs, providing serv care services during the Second across the state, and obtaining St ate and federal funding for child es includes: correspondence, applications for grants, expenditures, World War. Material in the seri budgets, and pamphlets and publications produced by the Committee. The series documents the appointment of individu al teachers, the financing and administration of tical results, arranged federal grants, the administration and operation of lo cal facilities, and statis by county, regarding mothers employed or seeking employment in war work. Discussions in the of the state in the aid and maintenance of correspondence illuminate such issues as the role parochial institutions, offers of cooperation from other institutions and agencies, and s after the Second World War. continuation of child care program Finding aids: Folder list. A4379. Local Child Care Organization and Assistance Files, 1942- 1945. 15.5 cu. ft. Arrangement: Organized into 3 subseries: Subs eries 1, Local Child Care Committee Files, 1942- 1946, 7.5 cubic feet, is alphabetical by municipalit y. Subseries 2, Monthly Reports of Attendance and Operating Costs, 1942-1946, 2.5 cubic feet, is a rranged with the attend ance reports, followed by operating cost reports, both in chronologi cal order, followed by miscellany which has no apparent order. Subseries 3, Claim Applica tions, Equipment Claims, and Other Financial Records, 1943-1946, 5.5 cubic feet, is arranged with claim a pplications alphabetical by alphabetical by child ca municipality, equipment claims re center, and the other records in no apparent order. This series contains correspondence, memoranda , financial records, ledger books, and reports ganizing and supervising which detail the committee's operations at the state and local level in or d care centers, their activ ities, and operations are the state's child care facilities. Individual chil documented in this series. In addition, a great deal of demographic information is found on the children and families who participated in child care programs. Subseries 1, Local Child Care Committees Fi les, 1942-1946, 7.5 cubic feet: This subseries contains correspondence, memoranda, reports, a nd financial records of the local child care committees or groups interested in starting chil d care programs and their interactions with the State War Council's Child Care Committee. These records illustrate the Committee's initial work demonstrating the need for child care statewide. Reports detailed specifi c areas' needs for child care, demographic breakdowns of the areas in te rms of number of child ren by age, number of mothers, the number of children home alone af ter school, and publicity efforts undertaken to promote child care programs. Financial reco rds reveal the local committee's budgets and financial operations. Analysis of child care proj ects, parental reactions to them and problems with specific programs or individuals, often very bluntly discussed, are included, as are materials on child care programs operated in migrant labor camps. Of note is local opposition to child care 41

42 programs as expressed by male-dominated local war council leadership. This subseries also contains photographs of the Buffalo child care program. Subseries 2, Monthly Reports of Attendance and Operating Costs, 1942-1946, 2.5 cubic feet: of local war councils' This subseries documents the level of activity an d financial expenditures child care facilities as reported to the State War Council. The reports were used by the State n funding. The attendance reports tally daily Committee to help the local committees obtai attendance (sometimes broken into age groups) from each area's facilities. Compilations are found at the beginning of most folders. The repor ts of monthly operating costs include the name lineate the cost of: administrati on; instruction; salaries; food; and address of the facility and de These reports also list local revenue totals plant operations; plant maintenance; and pensions. from parents' fees, public funds, and local contributions. ooks, memoranda to field representatives, rules Some additional records, including two ledger b bor camps, and several files on films made for on federal regulations, information on migrant la ng scripts, are also found. child care centers, includi Subseries 3, Claim Applications, Equipment Claims, and other Financial Records, 1943-1946, 5.5 cubic feet: Until funding was discontinued in September 1947, local municipalities which sought state funds for their child care programs filed claim app lications with the State Youth Commission. The applications contain a breakdown of expenditures and the maximum percentage the State was asked to pay of expenses incurred, in addition to listing the number of dule, hours of operation, health s children cared for, the fee sche upervision and prerequisities, staff-to-children ratio, salaries, office e xpenses, food purchases by age group, and plant operations. Individual child care centers re questing funds from the State for equipment purchases filed forms similar to the claim applications. Information on the equipment claims forms included a physical description of facilities, numb er of children served by age group, hours of operation, staff-to- children ratio, an activity schedule, salaries, food and supply e xpenses, and plant operations and equipment costs. Frank memoranda and corresp ondence evaluating each facility, its operations, and cleanliness are also sometimes f ound with the equipment claim forms. Other financial records include payroll informat ion, ledger books listing cl aims, and statistical reports which are compilations of child care progr ams' cost per student and number of students served. Finding aids: Folder list and map list. A4282. Mayor's Committee on Child Care for Schenectady Administrative Files, 1942- 1947. 4.75 cu. ft. Arrangement: Arranged by topic. 42

43 This series illustrates the daily operation of a local war council's child care committee and its efforts to provide care for the children of wo rking mothers. It documents the problems and and maintaining high quality facilities. successes of promoting the idea of child care , salaries, monthly reports, food cost analysis, This series details attendance, budgetary matters d care facilities in Schenectady. The weekly and interaction with parents at several chil attendance records list the school, head teacher, students (alphabetically) and the days attended, e, lunches only, after school, and s into four categories: full tim and daily totals (dividing student Saturday and holiday). Additionally, correspondence and memoranda within this series reveal r children from day care and the f acilities' efforts to operate as reasons why parents withdrew thei ter government funding ceased. cooperative day care centers af Portions of the series contain might result in an unwarranted information which if disclosed invasion of personal privacy. The sensitive documents are children's attendance records and children's attendance or behavior. correspondence with parents regarding Finding aids: Folder list. A4283. Post-World War II Da y Care Center Field Reports, 1944- 1947. 0.5 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by municipality. These field reports were collected to monitor the use and needs of day care facilities within the de a thorough descrip State in the post-war period. These reports provi tion of the child care centers and the extent of State involvement. The reports contain attendance records for each phics of the families who used them. Information child care center, in addition to listing demogra parents (married, separated, widowed, unmarried, husband in found includes: marital status of armed services, husband an invalid); employment type and status of both parents; and family income. Frank memoranda and letters rev eal the details of operations a nd problems, including evaluation of facilities, personnel, finan problem children (and how they ces, fee schedules, regulations, were handled), and the need for bot h physical and program improvements. Portions of the series contain information which if disclosed could result in an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. sensitive informati on is found in children's attendance records and in day care personnel evaluations. Finding aids: Folder list. Office of Physical Fitness A4366. Director's Administrative Co rrespondence, 1942-1945. 0.6 cu. ft. 43

44 Arrangement: Alphabetical by name of correspondent. director of the Office of Physical Fitness, This series contains correspondence between the ivate organizations involved with the State Hiram A. Jones, and schools and public and pr Physical Fitness Program. The correspondence documents Jones's efforts to direct and administer the program's daily operations. I ssues covered include pamphlet and film distribution; requests for physical fitness certif icates and suggestions for the program; local committee activities; and personnel and administrative issues. A4369. Director's Program Administratio n Subject Files, 1940-1945. 4 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by topic. This series contains correspondence, form letters, expense account forms, address lists, manuals, , and field reports documenting th e activities of the Office of minutes, annual and monthly reports Physical Fitness and the director's administratio n of its various programs. While some of the records document office routine (o ffice expenses or expenses for outside help, time schedules), the bulk relates to its programs encouraging phys ical fitness. Material s found include meeting minutes of the Office of Physical Fitness, staff conferences, the finance committee, or the War Council; correspondence with related agencies ab out fitness and health; reports from field representatives; annual reports for the office from 1940-1944; correspondence and reports from regional supervisors; press releases describing program initiatives or appointments; form letters to or about schools and principals , certificate requisit ion, directors of physical fitness programs, program changes, or state agencies in war physical fitness films, equipment acquisition and vities (obstacle course, swimming, etc.). Also programs; and certificate cards for various acti found are program manuals, e ither in manuscript form, final printed form, or both. Finding aids: Folder list. A4371. Director's Office Administ ration Files, 1942-1945. 1 cu. ft. Arrangement: By topic. This series is comprised primarily of corresponden ce between Office of Physical Fitness Director Hiram A. Jones and staff member nizations that reveals Jones's s or other individuals and orga actions in directing the daily routines of the office and its programs. This series includes letters from schools and other organizations interested in physical fitness to which Jones usually directed others to respond. These letters ty pically requested pamphlets, information, or clarification regarding pr ograms, or gave thanks for program assistance. The series also includes records revealing weekly schedules of the field representatives, including name, week, each day's activities, and its purpo se; schedules, time records, and correspondence regarding office staff rds concerning expense refunds and travel arrangements. Also members; and minor financial reco found in this series is a slim folder of supplemental field reports from Ethel Kohlberg, the 44

45 supervisor of the Women's Industrial Program, th at documents issues and problems women faced in war industries. rvision Files, 1942-1945. 1.6 cu. ft. A4370. Deputy Director's Program Supe Arrangement: Alphabetical by topic. This series contains correspondence, memora nda, press releases, manuscripts, and reports documenting the supervisory role of Francis J. Moench, the deputy director of the Office of Director Hiram A. Jones, Moench oversaw the Physical Fitness. Working in conjunction with field representatives and worked closely with field program organizers . This series includes correspondence between Moench and field represen tatives detailing prog rams with war plant athletic leagues and high school certificate awards and activities; papers presented by Moench at conferences around the State on aspe ogram; manuscripts of leaflets cts of the physical fitness pr about physical fitness produced by the office; car bon copies of Director Jones's correspondence, memoranda, and work plans; index card pla cards and health char ts; correspondence and memoranda between field program organizers, pa rticularly E. Patricia Hagman; small amounts of correspondence from other organizations invo lved in physical fitness issues such as the Selective Service, the Women's Land Army, sokol s (ethnic physical fitness organizations), and other War Council agencies; and press releases about program initiatives and progress. Finding aids: Folder list. stance Correspondence with Schools and State and Local A4367. Supervisory and Assi War Council Agencies, 1942-1945. 1.6 cu. ft. Arrangement: Organized into two subseries: Subseries 1, Deputy Director's Correspondence with Schools, 1943-1945, 1 cu. ft., is arranged by topic. Subseries 2, Director's Program Development Correspondence with State and Local Wa r Council Agencies, 1942-1945, 0.6 cu. ft., is alphabetical by city or county war council. This series contains corresponden ce detailing the supervision and a ssistance of the State Physical Fitness Program by the Office of Physical Fitness. Also found are instruction manuals, meeting minutes, newspaper clippings, and reports. Much of the correspondence is routine requests for pamphlets, films, or information on the program's obstacle course. Some letters detail problems with gas rationing or program choice in some veal Deputy Director school districts and re Moench's attempts to assist with problems as pa rt of his duties to faci litate the program. Also found in this series are a small number of meeting minutes of th e Office of Physical Fitness; instruction manuals for instructor s of "women and girls"; instru ction manuals for water sports, team sports, and track and field; some correspondence between Moench and local war councils; and form letters sent to local war councils and others participating in the Physical Fitness Program regarding topics such as manual availab ility or changes in training procedures. This series also contains correspondence between the di rector of the Office of Physical Fitness and organizations involved in the physical fitness progr am detailing the director's supervisory duties. 45

46 Many letters notify the director of appointments made to local physical fitness leadership in obtaining publications or other materials. A positions, while others seek advice or assistance large number of files contain a copy of a lette Jones to the local r from Director Hiram A. councils soliciting their opinions on the nature of the office's mission and its provision of services. Few responses to this letter are found in th is series, though a small number of letters detailing problems with the overall program ar e found. Individual files may contain bulletins, umenting local war councils' physical fitness reports, schedules, or newspaper clippings doc activities. A4368. Field Representatives' Reports and Support Materials, 1942- 1945. 2 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by topic. This series contains corresponden distribution lists held by the ce, field reports, and pamphlet office's director as part of his ro le to supervise and assist the offi ce's field representatives as they promoted, developed, and assisted the Physical Fitness Program. While much of the material ration, several folders contain fiel d reports or supplemental field relates to routine office administ The field representatives' reports provide city or county; date; reports from field representatives. field representative's name; agency; names and title s (if any) of persons interviewed; number of children participating, divided by gender and sometimes age; number of persons involved in the program; reason for the field trip; and observation s (in supplemental field reports) of the number of playgrounds, number of supervisors, source(s) of financing, and number of teams and types of standardized forms, some are in narrative form. activities. While most field reports are written on Finding aids: Folder list. A4306. New York City Regional Office Administration and Co rrespondence Files, 1942-1945. 1.6 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by subject. This series contains correspondence, pamphlets, and other materials documenting the activities which promoted physical fitness in one region supervised by the Office of Physical Fitness (OPF). The records of New York City Regiona l Supervisor Boris Von Arnold and Ethel T. Kohlberg, Principal Supervisor, Women's Industria l Program, constitute the bulk of this series. This series contains correspondence between the regional office and war industry companies such as Grumman, Curtiss-Wright, and Bristol-Myers, in addition to sports organizations such as the Police Athletic League, YMCA, YWCA, and summer youth camps about fitness programs and athletic leagues within th eir organizations; pamphlets from federal agencies concerning physical fitness; requests for OPF pamphlets a nd certificates; correspondence with OPF Director Hiram A. Jones; and routine office matters such as expenses and supply inventories. Information on women's exercises and activit ies is featured throughout the series resulting from Ethel ts to promote, organize, and assi Kohlberg's visits to defense plan st physical fitness and exercise programs for women defense workers. 46

47 Finding aids: Folder list. A4363. Requisitions for State Physical F itness Certificates, 19 43- 1946. 3 cu. ft. ty, then arranged by school. Arrangement: Alphabetical by coun junior and senior high schools to the Office of This series contains requisition forms from Physical Fitness listing the names of the students who should rece ive physical fitness certificates. Information regarding male and female students' abilities in various sports and activities such as , and water sports gymnastics, track and field events is recorded. A4364. Newspaper Clippings, 1942-1943. 2 cu. ft. Arrangement: Chronological by week. This series contains clippings from newspape rs from around the State do cumenting the office's many individual programs. Programs and topics detailed include track and field, football, basketball, water safety, health examinations, an d athletic insurance. Typical clippings discuss the preparation or execution of events or programs held around the state Division of Civilian Protection Office of Civilian Protection tive Files, 1942-1945. 13.5 cu. ft. A4311. Director's General Administra Arrangement: Arranged by topic. This series contains correspondence, memora nda, publications, regulations, and photographs documenting the director's administration of the Office of Civilian Protection with local war councils and other agencies invo significant amount of material lved in civil defense work. A details the initial organization of the office and the materials requi red to supply the various civil defense activities and stockpiles. Subordinate and related agencies represented in this series include American Red Cross, Boy Scouts, Emer gency Medical Service, Highway Repair and Debris Clearance Committee, and the federa l Office of Civilian Defense. Also found is information regarding the protection of New York State's war industries. Finding aids: Folder list. 47

48 A4300. Director's Correspon dence with Local Civilian Pr otection Organizations, 1942- 1945. 4 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by city or county. rector of the Office of Civilian Protection and This series contains correspondence between the di officers of local civilian protec tion organizations concerning the administration of civil defense programs in order to coordinate the protection of life and property from possible bomb attacks. The letters discuss procedural and organizational issues. Civil defense topics such as ai r raid drills, sabota ge, blackouts, observatio n posts and airplane spotters, and communication methods are discusse es such as personnel d, and organizational issu changes, funding, and regulations are detailed. Some county directors included monthly reports re requests for civil defense pamphlets published detailing their unit's activities. Many letters we and distributed by the Office of Civilian by the War Council or the federal government Protection. Correspondence with civ il defense organizations in Ma ryland and Michigan is also found. During the early part of the war, many letters detail blackouts (scheduling, communication between civil protec tion directors, regulations, re sults, and local directors' frustration with the few number of practices held). Near the wa r's end, questions regarding the appropriateness of continued civil defense activ ities are discussed. The outgoing letters were signed by Director William N. Haskell, his successor Edward C. O. Thomas, or one of their assistants. Finding aids: Folder list. A4305. Director's Defense Preparedness Coordination Correspondence, 1941-1945. 2.95 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by subject. and posters sent between the Office of Civilian This series contains correspondence, pamphlets, Protection's director and local, State, and federal organizations involved in civil defense and documents the director's work in coordinating de fense preparations. Topics covered include air raids (regulations, warni ng systems), blackouts, evacuation (p lans, procedures), insignia for volunteers, and medical contingenc from each community detail ies. Individual report sheets actions during practice air raids including respons iveness, personnel presen t, traffic movement, telephone service, accidents, and first aid status. Also found are drafts of a civil defense manual for New York State discussing the role of local war councils, police, and fi re fighters, water and power supplies, emergency food and shelter, and air raids. Periodic reports from local civil defense operations of the OCP usually detail local defense director's name; address of operations center; projects undertaken; vol unteers registered; problems en countered; assistance required; and training sessions conducted. Finding aids: Folder list. 48

49 A4308. Eastern and Western District Deputy Directors' Local War Council , 1941-1945. 6.75 cu. ft. Correspondence and Directives Arrangement: Organized into two subseries: Su bseries 1, Western Distri ct Deputy Director's ft., is alphabetical by city or county. Correspondence and Directives, 1942-1945, 3.75 cu. Deputy Director's Correspondence and Directives, 1941-1945, 3 cu. Subseries 2, Eastern District ft., is alphabetical by city or county or by topic. The Office of Civilian Protection (OCP) divided the state into three districts. John J. Farrell was deputy director of the Eastern Di strict (initially called the Nort hern District) covering the area from Clinton County south to Dutchess County and west to Oneida County. E. G. Ziegler was in , including everything west of Oneida County. Metropolitan New charge of the Western District York City and Long Island formed the third distri ct. The deputy directors acted as supervisors and liaisons between the federal a nd State directors of civil defe nse activities and the local war councils. This series contains correspondence, memoranda , telegrams, directives, and informational releases documenting the deputy di rectors' supervision of and assistance to local war councils. Topics include air observation posts, blackouts, and organizational and procedural issues. Correspondence from the United States Office of Ci vilian Defense, the OCP's director, members of the State War Council, and othe r organizations involved in civil defense work is also found in this series. Correspondence with, an d directives to, the local war councils cover topics such as nd their pertinence to specific situations; operational problems; the explanation of regulations a drills; organizational and personnel changes; some organizations' exemptions from blackout volunteer recruitment and training; local war counc ils' responsibilities to inspect local facilities for defense readiness; and disaster response. Finding aids: Folder list. A3090. Printed Copies of Regula tions Issued, 1942-1 944. 1 cu. ft. Arrangement: Chronological by date issued. gulations to enforce rules adopted by the War The director was empowered to issue necessary re Council. The regulations list proc edures and rules to be followed, duration, and effective date. They deal primarily with conditions during ai r raid drills and blackouts. Occasionally pre- publication copies of printe d regulations are included. A4383. Civil Defense Issues Correspondence with Other States, 1941- 1945. 1 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by state or subject heading. This series contains correspondence, memoranda, reports, pamphlets, maps, and newspapers exchanged between the Office of Civilian Protecti on and other states' civil defense organizations 49

50 in order to share information on operations, re gulations, and issues su ch as blackouts and tion of civil defense newspapers from airplane spotting. A collec various states constitutes a large part of the series, as do correspondence and ot her materials exchanged with Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Civil defense annual or special repo rts are frequently found, as well as newspaper correspondence posing or responding to questions clippings about civil defense activities and represented in this series include Connecticut, concerning civil defense activities. Other states Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, and Virginia. Also found in this series is a mailing list of New York defense councils. A4409. Correspondence with the Federal Offi ce of Civilian Defense, 1942-1945. 8 cu. ft. Arrangement: Arranged by topic. This series contains correspondence, pamphlets, bulletins, manuals, and posters sent between the Office of Civilian Protection (OCP) and the fe deral Office of Civilian Defense (OCD). The records document the OCP's work in coordinati ng defense preparations. Topics covered by the records include air raids (re gulations, warning systems); blackouts; evacuation (plans, procedures); fire defense; industrial plant protection; insignia for volunteers; medical contingencies; practice drills; rescue squads; tra ffic control; and volunteer training and appraisal. Monthly statistics concerning OCP activities reported to the OCD ar e also found in this series, as well as small amounts of correspondence with othe r organizations involved in civil defense activities. n Correspondence Files, 1942-1945. 1 cu. A4384. Volunteers Fingerprint Identificatio ft. unicipality. General co Arrangement: Alphabetical by county, then by m rrespondence, arranged by topic, follows these records. Because civil defense was considered a national security issue, civil defense volunteers were required to be fingerprinted. This allowed the Office of Civilian Protection to screen for criminals and would also allow for identification in case of catastrophe. The actual work of identifying the fingerprints was conducted by th e New York State Department of Corrections' Division of Identification. This series contai ns correspondence, monthly reports, and memoranda concerning the procedures and operation of the fi ngerprint identification program. Most of the correspondence consists of routine transmittal lett ers from local war councils to the Division of Identification requesting fingerprint identification or forms. The series also includes correspondence between the division and both th e State War Council and the local war councils detailing the procedures, personne l, and finances involved in th e division's operation. Also found prints received and from what organizations, are monthly reports listing the total number of including local war councils and military bases in and out of State. 50

51 A4385. Awards Committee Case Files, 1943-1944. 1 cu. ft. Arrangement: Numerical by case number. units were required to respond to an enemy While none of the Office of Civilian Protection bombing attack during the war, many did respon d to other emergencies such as train wrecks, flooding, and severe winter storms. In these cris es, the OCP units responded in much the same attack: providing first way as they would have in the case of enemy aid, responding to fires, providing emergency shelter, and as sisting with the other exigencies of disasters. This series contains correspondence and other materials se nt to the OCP's Committee on Awards from local volunteers who nominated indivi duals for letters of commendation in recognition of actions taken during emergencies. Case files contain letters, memoranda, photographs, and newspaper clippings documenting the reasons for each nomin ation, along with a letter containing the committee's decision. The committee could issue a letter or recommend that a local chairman issue a letter, as well as reje ct the nomination altogether. A4386. War Plant Protection Instructiona l Materials, 1942-1943. 0.5 cu. ft. Arrangement: Organized by t opic or geographic area. This series contains lecture transcripts, syllabi, correspondenc e, memoranda, maps, and a test with answer key documenting the O ffice of Civilian Protection's tw o-day training institutes held r industry plant managers in basic defense procedures to avoid throughout the State to instruct wa damage from enemy attacks. The materials discu ss issues such as training personnel to respond ch as fires and accidents; preventing espionage to emergencies; reducing work place hazards su nd other bombs; protection from gas attacks; and sabotage; fighting fires from incendiary a building camouflage; and in-plant bomb shelters . Sessions were held throughout the State, and a folder is found for each of the following locat ions: Buffalo, Elmira, Hempstead, Jamestown, New York City, Rochester, Schenecta dy, Syracuse, Utica, and White Plains. A4387. Local War Council Volu nteer Participation Inform ation and Statistics, 1942- 1944. 1.2 cu. ft. Arrangement: Chronological by month. This series contains carbon copi mpiled by the State and local war es of monthly report forms co councils and sent to the United St ates Office of Civil Defense St atistics Section. The local war councils would send their forms to the Office of Civilian Protect ion, which compiled the totals for a consolidated report, and then sent the originals to the federal office. The local and State report forms are nearly identical in layout , with both entit led "Civilian Defense Report." The local report form provides na me of local war council, address, population of area served, and names of all subsidiary coun cils. Both forms provide the number of full and another agency; total volunteer part-time staff; staff who are pa id, volunteer, or on loan from 51

52 rs; and "service corps" volu personnel; civil defense voluntee civil defense nteers (all non- and housing). For the civi l defense and "service programs such as child care, salvage, health, is also listed. A last section corps" volunteers, the number of members trained and in-training reports on the readiness of air raid and blackout systems. Many local war council forms are incomplete, while others are accompanied by correspondence or memoranda expanding on the numbers in the reports and circumstances which affected activities. Reports span August 1942 tion of March 1943), and March 1944. through October 1943 (with the excep tion and Inspection Correspondence, 1942- A4388. War Plant Blackout Practice Exemp 1944. 0.5 cu. ft. Arrangement: By topic. ce of Civilian Protection (OCP) from war plants This series contains correspondence to the Offi requesting exemptions from blackout practi ces and correspondence from the U.S. War ponsible to inspect for civil defense purposes. Department listing which plants the OCP was res ndustrial plants involved in war manufacturing for which the Exemptions were granted to i blackout practice would interrupt production. The OCP shared indus trial plant inspection with the War Department, usually reviewing the facilities of smaller, less sensitive plants for civil defense readiness which included blackout pr ocedures and equipment, camouflage, and evacuation plans. A4389. Local Water Co ventory, ca. 1942. 0.4 cu. ft. mpanies Survey and Equipment In Arrangement: Numerical by zone, then alphabetical by municipality. local water companies detailing personnel, equipment, supplies, This series contains surveys of and facilities. This information was collected by the Office of Civilian Protection to prepare for the needs caused by possible enemy bombing in cluding fires and the destruction of water supplies. Each 36-page survey form lists the total number of personnel of each water company involved in operations and pipe la ying, as well as the number and type of supplies. The form also includes the names and addresses of water superintendents; water wo rks experts, and consultants, as well as laboratories which coul d test for bacteriological and chemical purity; chlorinators at private facilities, reservoirs a nd elevated tanks; and pumping stat ions. Also discussed or found in the form are brief descriptions of possible sabotage threats. A4390. Newspaper Clippings, 1941-1944. 1 cu. ft. Arrangement: By topic. This series contains newspaper clippings docum enting the activities of the Office of Civilian Protection (OCP) in its efforts to instruct people on civil defense procedures to be used in the raids (drills and results) ; blackouts (notices of event of enemy attack. The clippings discuss air 52

53 practice and results); county war council civil de fense issues; and OCP administrators' meetings ss civil defense issues. with civilians to discu A4393. Deputy Directors' Correspondence, 1942-1944. 1 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by topic. correspondence between the Office of Civilian Protection's deputy This series contains copies of directors and individuals and organizations involved in civil defense work. The copies were sent to the OCP's director to keep him informed of activities and programs. In some cases, the deputy directors responded to correspondence sent to th e director. Topics disc ussed include blackout practices, blood plasma collection, Civil Air Patr ol, disasters to which the OCP responded, and local personnel. Finding aids: Folder list. A4394. General Administrative Files, 1942-1945. 7 cu. ft. Arrangement: By topic. This series contains correspondence, memoranda , booklets, and reports documenting the Office of Civilian Protection's efforts to establish and monitor adequate civil defense measures for New York State. This series cont ains correspondence with local wa r councils documenting personnel, activities, and equipment inventor y; monthly reports from deputy directors on local war councils' regulations, and memo civil defense organization and status; bulletins, randa from the OCP's director to local civil defense directors, including Official Me moranda Numbers 1-24 and 38-91; "white sheets" documenting air raid drill practices and listing the stations, persons receiving the calls, and the date and time the call was placed ; a secret report discussing civil defense preparations in Germany; a complete organiza tion and program manual from the United States Office of Civilian Defense; a booklet from the New York City Citizens Defense Corps entitled "Manual for Public Works Officers;" and New York City precinct maps. rplane spotting; awards and commendations; Correspondence found in this series discusses ai blackout practices; blood plasma collection; coop erative civil defense e fforts with Canadians; equipment distribution; medical personnel and equipment requirements; personnel address changes; volunteer recruitment a nd training; war industry plant pr otection; and the Wayland train wreck of 1943 in which the OCP's local unit provided emergency medical assistance. Emergency Medical Service Files, 1940-1945. 4 cu. ft. A4286. Survey and Planning 53

54 Arrangement: Organized into six subseries: Subs eries 1, Blackout and Casualty Stations Files, eries 2, Emergency Base Hospitals Files, 1942-1944, 1.2 cu. ft., is alphabetical by county; Subs Subseries 3, Emergency Medical Field Unit 1942-1945, 0.6 cu. ft., is alphabetical by subject; Reports, 1940-1943, 0.6 cu. ft., is alphabetical by c ounty; Subseries 4, District Medical Officers Files, 1941-1943, 0.6 cu. ft., is alphabetical by subject; Subseries 5, General Files, 1941-1943, 0.6 cu. ft., has no apparent order; Subseries 6, County Readiness Books, ca. 1943, 0.4 cu. ft., is alphabetical by county. This series contains correspondence, reports, an d memoranda relating to the administration and coordination of the Emergency Medical Servi ce (EMS) in its duties to respond to medical emergencies caused by bombings. This series contains materials relating to the establishment and evaluation of blackout procedures and casua lty stations in each county. The EMS undertook these efforts to minimize the number and severity of bombing casualties. Well-prepared casualty stations were integral to eff ective response; therefore a survey of each county's (and the State's larger cities') casualty stations was conducted which delineated the facilities and amenities, including type of heat; t ype of lighting; if a tele phone was present; if a ca nteen was present; if a toilet was present; number of stretchers available; number of beds available; doctors and nurses on staff; auxiliary staff availabl e; number of ambulances availa ble; and equipment holdings. The office records of Dr. Ward L. Oliver, who work ed to establish a network of hospitals which could be relied upon to tend to the needs of massi ve bombing casualties, are found in this series. The records relate to the surveying of resources and personnel. In addition, this series contains records relating to the inspection and supplies available at these hospitals. Reports entitled "Report of Local Chief of Emergency Medical Service to N.Y. State Health Preparedness Commission" from each county and the State's larger cities co ntain information on Emergency Medical Field Units including address of participating hospitals; number of beds available; number of physicians and nurse l; and transportation arrangements. Also, s; auxiliary personne these reports discuss casualty stations (incl uding equipment inventorie s), first aid posts, and transportation facilities. This information was collected to assist in the allocation and coordination of resources among hospitals. to the administration of the Emergency Medical This series also contains materials relating Service and the coordination of meetings, supplies, and facilities. The State had three District Medical Offices, but Roy Seidman from the Roches ter office is best represented. Especially well-documented are blood plasma issues such as designation of holdi ng centers, distribution, and a policy for sharing or loaning plasma units. Th is information was collected to assist in the allocation and coordination of resources among the State's districts. Furthermore, this series contains materials on emergency nursing, plasma reserves, and District Medical Officer J. A. Walsh. These records reveal the EMS's attempts to solve spec ific problems of supply and personnel. The County Readiness Books consist of approximately 240 5 x 8 inch cards arranged alphabetically by county. Each county and most la rger cities have at least one card containing summary information on: hospitals, equipment and personnel; the amount of pl asma available; if a federal grantee blood bank existed among the hospitals in the count y; and whether the mmary of the State's organizations were part of the War Council. These cards provided a su 54

55 medical resources and would permit a fast and efficient allocation of those resources when responding to bombing casualties' needs. Committee on Fire Defense A4271. Correspondence, Bulle tins and Minutes, 1941-1944. 1 cu. ft. The New York State Committee on Fire Defe nse organized a statewide administrative the firemen, fire equipment and fire fighting framework to mobilize quickly and efficiently resources of the State in times of war emergency. The proposal for statewide emergency fire mobilization and mutual aid was intended to provide fire departments a blueprint for wartime rvices. It provided for standardization of fire emergency mobilization by, for and of local fire se mmunication system, and mutual aid arrangements department connection threads, a statewide co plan established a reception depot for fire for adjacent sections of neighboring states. The equipment which came to the State and its loca lities from the federal government and other ite principles of command at the scene of fires. In addition, the sources, and also established defin authorities and industria l fire brigades. The plan optimized cooperation between local fire Committee organized its efforts together with War Council Offices of Wa r Training, Civilian Protection and Civilian Defense. The files contain general planning corresponde with the Firemen's nce; correspondence w York; minutes; bulletins from th Association of the State of Ne e directors of the Office of allocations of fire Civilian Protection; press releases from the committee secretary; and lists of equipment. Highway Repair and Debris Clearance Committee A4275. General Corresponde nce, 1941-1945. 1 cu. ft. Arrangement: Rough alphabetical order by subject. ittee was jointly appointed by the Department The Highway Repair and Debris Clearance Comm of Public Works and the Conference of Mayors in 1941. The committee consisted of three representatives from the Department of Pub lic Works, two city engineers, two county superintendents, one town superint endent, and one village engineer. The plan developed by the committee was patterne d after the system established in London. The plan designated a site for a central pool of e quipment and personnel that would be available on short notice for work in a stricken area. The plan provided for an orderly and quick procedure for tensive highway maintena the full utilization of whatever units of the ex nce resources would be needed, based on the extent and seriousness of the emergency. 55

56 General correspondence files relate to the planning and implementation of the Mutual Aid Plan e correspondence is betw een State Coordinator for Highway Repair and Debris Clearance. Th Edward T. Gawkins and city and district engi neers, superintendent of highways, executive secretary of the Conference of Mayors, superint endent of public works, zone coordinators, county superintendents, city coordinators, county assistants, city managers or mayors, and others. Finding aids: Folder list. A4273. Personnel Files, ca. 1941-1945. 0.3 cu. ft. number, then alpha betical by county. Arrangement: Numerical by district Personnel files for the Mutual Aid Plan for Highway Repair and Debris Clearance provide names, zone coordinators. They also provide a roster addresses and telephone numbers for of the number of personnel available, such as laborers or truc k divers, for individual towns and villages, as well as the location of equipment or storage. tories, ca. 1941-1945. 1.3 cu. ft. A4272. Equipment and Material Inven Arrangement: Alphabetical by county. The Mutual Aid Plan for Highway Repair and Debris Clearance was organized to repair highways or streets or to remove debris in the event of an enem y attack. An inventory was made counties, cities, villages, and towns. Zone of all equipment and material owned by the State, r taking an inventory for their z one and furnishing copies to the coordinators were responsible fo assistant coordinators in their zone and to the deputy zone coordinators. from air compressors to welding equipment, Inventories for equipment may include anything while those for material may include anything from bituminous material to timber. The information retrieved from the inventories wa s distributed to the public works and highway officials in each zone for planning for use of the resources in an emergency. Finding aids: Container list. A4274. Contractors Files, ca. 1941-1945. 0.3 cu. ft. Arrangement: Numerical by district number, then alpha betical by county. Contractors files for the Mutual Aid Plan for Highway Repair and Debr is Clearance include name of contractor; name of the person in char ge; address; business te lephone; and location of equipment or storage. The files also provide lists of c ontractors' equipment from air compressors to welding equipment. 56

57 Finding aids: Folder list. State Fire Administrator A4357. Local Personnel and Equipment Inventories, 1942-1945. 11 cu. ft. type, then alphabetical by year. Arrangement: Arranged by inventory preparing local fire The State Fire Administrator was appointed to coordinate the work of departments for the emergencies caused by possi ble enemy bombing. This series contains correspondence, memoranda, and inventory forms enumerating local war councils' available fire fighting personnel and equipment which were su rveyed by the State Fire Administrator to measure the State's capabilities and needs. A general inventory of each local council's equipment was conducted in 1943 and 1945, though ecific types of equipment at other inventories were made on sp other times. Items inventoried include pumpers and related equipment; personnel; fi rst aid equipment; motori zed fire fighting or related equipment; fire alarms and sirens; and hose supplies. State Gas Consultant A4391. Training and Inquiry Response Correspondence Files, 1942-1945. 1 cu. ft. Arrangement: Chronological by quarter year, then by topic. With the capture of a Japanese cruiser loaded w ith poison gas canisters at the battle of Midway 2 rockets against Great Britain, th in 1942 and later German use of V- e possibility of a gas attack against the United States was considered serious . F. Wellington Gilcreas, a chief chemist with the New York State Department of Health, was appointed State Gas Consultant in May 1942 and served until his position's termination in 1945. As part of the War Council's Division of Civilian Protection, he worked closely with State and federal agencies to coordinate instruction concerning the identification of, and proper response to, enemy gas attacks. In addition, he assisted local war councils' gas officers w ith training and provided technical advice. , releases, publications, and bulletins detailing This series contains correspondence, memoranda the State Gas Consultant's work with training programs and local war councils to instruct individuals on the proper response to enemy gas attacks. The State Gas Consultant collected a significant amount of material from other states, individuals, and organizations (such as the U.S. Office of Civilian Defense) cont aining technical details regarding various types of gases used in war. Other materials detail training programs that the State Gas Consultant either organized or participated in, such as the O ffice of War Training's Food Contro l Chemists Institute in January 1943. Much of the material in this series wa s marked "Destroy," possibly by the State Gas Consultant himself. 57

58 Finding aids: Folder list. State Property Officer cords, 1942-1946. 9 A4359. Civil Defense Equipment Distributio n and Liquidation Re cu. ft. Arrangement: Arranged by equipment type or activity. The State Property Officer was appointed to overs ee the allocation and dist ribution of protective an Defense to New York State and nearly 350 equipment from the United States Office of Civili a local property officer responsible to the of New York's communities. Each community had his community, and the federal government for the equipment allocated to State Property Officer provided technical assistance to lo cal officers in the discharge of their duties. Generally, various institutions of the State's Department of Ment detection and protection al Hygiene stored gas equipment along with medical supplies such as folding and hospital beds , while fire fighting equipment was held in the communities. At the war's end, with the State Property Officer's coordination, surplus equipment was sold to the State and local communities. The liquidation was completed in October 1946. This series contains correspondence, memoranda, lists, and forms documenting the State liquidation of civil defense equi pment, including steel helmets, Property Officer's distribution and pump tank extinguishers, and gas masks. Lists enumerate equipment distribution by community, and correspondence with hospitals notes the re ceipt of emergency medical equipment. Other correspondence details communities' requests fo r equipment and the Mutual Aid Allocation program, in which local communities agreed to assist one another in the case of certain emergencies. iled in correspondence and forms. The forms The fire fighting equipment's liquidation is deta note community and county; population of community ; presence of a fire department; number of pumpers fire department owns; number of fireme n; and type and number of equipment requested. Many local property officers were involved in the distri bution of surplus goods as they handled both the physical and administrativ e transfer of the equipment. Division of Industry and Labor Bureau of Rationing 58

59 Correspondence, 1941-1944 (bulk 1942). 4 A4313. Rationed Resources Coordination cu. ft. Arrangement: By subject. founded on December 22, 1941 and absorbed by the The short-lived Bureau of Rationing was stration (OPA) in May 1942. Esta blished to act as a liaison federal Office of Price Admini between the federal government's rationing progr am and local rationing boards, the bureau disseminated information, monitored compliance w ith regulations, and assisted in interpreting instructions. This series contains correspondence between th e Bureau of Rationing and State agencies and local boards detailing the proce dures and requirements of the bureau in its efforts to coordinate rationing procedures. Much of the material docu ments appeals concerning automobile rationing shoes, sugar, and tires is also found. A fair decisions, but information on coffee, gasoline, rubber, form requests), but mate rials dealing with the proportion of the material is routine (such as small amount of county-level information are interpretation of federal and State regulations and a also found. The county-level informa usually concerns individuals. tion details the same issues but A small amount of material from the OPA contains oaths of offi ce from local officials from New York and Pennsylvania and copies of federal regulations. Committee on Discrimination in Employment A4278. Minutes and Investigations Files, 1941-1945. 7. 5 cu. ft. ree subseries: Subseries 1, Mi Arrangement: Organized into th nutes and Organization Files, 1941-1944, 1. 5 cu. ft. , is arranged with the minut es chronological, followed by the organization files which have no apparent order. Subser ies 2, Subject File, 1941-1945, 4. 75 cu. ft. , is ies 3, Investigation Leads F alphabetical by topic. Subser ile, 1942-1944, 1. 25 cu. ft. , is alphabetical by organization name. The series contains minutes, correspondence, reports, memoranda, hearing transcripts, newspaper clippings, press releases, pamphlets, and a procedures manual for field workers (Labor Discrimination Representatives), all of wh ich reveal the committee's efforts to discourage discrimination and promote fair employment practices. The earliest minutes discuss the committee's organization, its procedures, and the types of discrimination it wished to address. Also found are agendas, resolutions, and sometimes discussion of specific complaints. Quarterly reports recite the number of i nvestigations, their results, c ourt decisions which aided the committee's work, and details of some cases. Information on committee members and special meetings is found, in addition to letters solici ted from businessmen, government officials, and civic organizations on the il l-effects of discrimination. The complaint investigation material contains reports of the committee's work, including final ts and their rectification, a nd reports of defense industry disposition reports of complain 59

60 investigations conducted in various cities. These were compiled as part of the committee's work mposition, production levels, and geographic areas in investigating discrimination. Work force co in which a company recruited its labor were all examined by the committee. In addition, reports of statistical surveys reveal th e number of Jewish and black persons living in New York City's various municipalities. Information from other st ates and non-New York State cities on their anti- discrimination activities are within these fi les, as well as information on Japanese-American internment camps and the federal governme nt's Committee on Fair Employment Practice. rimination made against various businesses and Daily report sheets detail complaints of disc individuals. These report forms were used as th e basis for the committee's investigations and list the name of the complainant, the alleged discri mination, and the establishment where it occurred. A more detailed complaint form lists this info rmation in addition to address and phone number of complainant; age; place of birt of the United States, if at all; h; number of years as a citizen dency in New York; training and experience in defense jobs; the draft classification; years resi nager or personnel direct or; items manufactured accused establishment's address; its general ma the committee on the complaint's at the plant; type of discrimination charged; and an opinion by made by black, Jewish, or foreign-born persons. validity and seriousness. Most complaints were Also found are correspondence and other materials from various minority organizations such as the Anti-defamation League and the Urban League which provided the committee with information on discriminatory inci dents within the defens e industry that were collected to assist the committee's work in investigating discrimination. Farm Manpower Service A4348. Farm Labor Correspondence, 1943-1945. 3 cu. ft. rrespondent's last name, subject, or organization name. Arrangement: Alphabetical by co This series contains the correspondence of the Farm Manpower Service detailing how it coordinated and provided informa tion to individuals and organizat ions concerned with the farm labor shortage. It includes suggestions, inquiries about the placement of both children and adults in food harvesting and processing jobs, appeal s for additional labor on farms, questions concerning assistance in buying farms, and inquir ies about the details of Selective Service classifications and releases from service in order to work in food production. Many of these letters were written in response to an addr ess on farm labor given by Governor Dewey on February 25, 1943. Also included is correspondence between the Farm Manpower Service and other agencies which details its efforts to alle viate the farm labor shortage. Among the topics discussed in this series are price ceilings for produce; the possibil ity of recruiting laborers from non-traditional sources, such as St ate mental health facilities, to work in food production; and the difficulties in obtaining and repairing farm equipment. Finding aids: Folder list. 60

61 A4349. Farm Labor Program Procedure Manuals, 1944-1945. 0.7 cu. ft. Arrangement: By topic. by county agricultural extension agents in the This series contains the procedure manuals used implementation and operation of the Farm Labor Program, which the Farm Manpower Service served to coordinate. The Extens ate College of Agriculture had ion Service of the New York St the general responsibility, through the county ag ents, Farm and Home Bureaus, and the 4-H Clubs organization, for implementing the recruitment, placement, housing, and general educational functions of the Farm Labor Program. Included in the manuals are lists of potential sources of labor, budget forms, monthly farm la bor report forms, policies concerning cooperative and membership corporations, information on the transportation, health maintenance, and insurance of workers, and certificates and insignia given to workers in recognition of satisfactory performance. A4355. Farm Cadet Victory Corps Program Administrative Records and Correspondence, 1943-1944. 2 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by name or subject. This series contains records concerning the insu rance, training, housing, and supervision of the cadets participating in the Farm Cadet Victory Corp s Program, an effort to recruit, train, place, nd high school students as seasona house, and employ several thousa l farm laborers. It includes reports on the arrivals, departures, and perf ormance of farm cadets submitted by County by the Farm Manpower Service as part of its Agricultural Extension agents and maintained ration. Also included are transcripts of radio responsibility for the program's overall administ s and a sample of a questionnaire given to programs relating to the Farm Cadet Victory Corp rmation necessary for the Farm Manpower Service farmers, one of the many sources of the info to fulfill its duty to provide statistics on farm labor. The correspondence concerns details of the program such as work permits, insurance, and in signia. It contains complaints regarding the conditions of work and housing made by cadets, th eir parents, or the hiring farmers and the subsequent investigation of these complaints. Th is series also includes materials from related programs used by W.J. Weaver, a State Department of Education supervisor, in his work with the Farm Cadet Victory Corps Program. Finding aids: Folder list. A4356. Farm Labor Program Administrative and Organizational Re cords, 1943. 1 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by subject. This series documents the activities of federal, State, and local agencies and organizations rved to coordinate. Farm Manpower Service se implementing the Farm Labor Program, which the 61

62 It includes draft and final legi slation regarding the Farm Labor Program's creation, organization, n and administration include ng to the program's organizatio and goals. Other records relati reports, providing information on the program mission statements, meeting minutes, and annual itself as well as information used by the Farm Ma npower Service in its prov ision of a statistical service concerning farm labor. Plans for program s and campaigns to mobilize workers on a local level, work plans of County Agricultural Exte nsions helping to implement the Farm Labor and local agencies refl ect worker mobilization Program, and news releases by federal, State, efforts in response to the farm labor shortage. Dr afts to amend existing le gislation regarding the from mental health facilities show the program's efforts to employment of minors and patients traditional sources. recruit labor from non- The series contains the Farm Manpower Servic e's records regarding an d correspondence with in the program. These deal w ith issues such as health individual labor camps involved ing farm laborers, nutr ition, and rationing of inspections, the suitability of the camps for hous food and materials. Also incl uded are records concerning grou ps of food production workers from various sources, such as Army troops for emergency work, Navy trai nees, Italian prisoners of war, Jamaicans, vacation workers, and the Women's Land Army, an organization of women working in food production. Vocational Education Program for National Defense Industries A3089. Vocational Training Manuals, 1942-1945. 2 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by title. World War II combatants and those who produ red a sophisticated ced their weapons requi understanding of mechanical device s. To raise the mechanical ap titude level of the population, the War Council promoted various forms of vo cational education in order to help prepare citizens for the increasingly complex nature of warfare and the increas ed demand for skilled workers in defense industries. This series cont ains 58 instruction manuals published by the State Education Department for the Vocational Education Program for National Defense Industries. These manuals covered metal work, carpentry, machine work, and other skills related to manufacturing and were distributed to vocational and high schools to assi st in the technical training of students. War Emergency Dispensation Committee A4280. Recommendations for Labor Dispensa tions for Minors, 1943- 1945. 0.5 cu. ft. rs are numerical by case number. All other Arrangement: Recommendations with case numbe materials are chronological. 62

63 This series contains recommendations compile d by Labor Department representatives for ation into different companies' requests for members of the committee summarizing the investig dispensations which would allow them to i gnore certain child labor restrictions. These mber of hours per week permitted to work and dispensations usually involved the time and nu each dispensation was issued for a six month perio d. The information was gathered to ensure that the dispensation was necessary and that minors would be protected from unhealthy or adverse working conditions. Also included in this series are petitions for extensions or renewals of dispensations granted earlier, along w ith a small amount of correspondence. Finding aids: Folder list. A3087. Dispensation Orders, 1943-1945. 0.3 cu. ft. Arrangement: Numerical by order number. tions from peacetime restricti The War Council granted dispensa ons on the hiring of minors to industries doing war-related work. Periodic orde rs were issued to grant a group of companies dispensation for up to six months. Each order lists company name; address; number and sex of minors allowed to work; jobs performed; number of work days permitted per week; number and duration of lunch and rest periods required ; and maximum work hours per week. All the companies were given a dispensation duration period (usually 3 to 6 months) and a date the order would become effective. Later orders also granted dispensation renewals. Office of War Training A4377. Program Administration Corresp ondence, 1944-1945. 0.4 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by correspondent. This series contains routine correspondence between administrators in the Office of War Training and those involved in specific programs, such as the School Bus Driver Training Program, the Bus and Truck Driver Training Pr ogram, and police and fire training. Topics discussed include certificate di quipment distribution, meeting and stribution, pamphlet requests, e conference scheduling, instruction sites, and training film distri bution. Carbon copies of cover letters to individuals regarding their test results are found, though actual test results are not in this series. A4381. Correspondence with Local War Coun cils and Other War Agencies, 1943-1944. 2 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by municipality or state. 63

64 This series contains correspondence between the Office of War Training a nd agencies interested bany and New York City organizations are well- in the office's programs and materials. While Al well as other states are also represented. The represented, organizations from across the State as correspondence usually discusses instructor training and availa bility; handbook preparation and nd distribution; certification of distribution; film preparation a individuals for the office's many programs; and preparation and pr octoring of qualification tests. A4382. Training Programs Subjec t File, 1943-1944. 4.5 cu. ft. Arrangement: By topic. This series contains correspondence, memoranda, a ts, pamphlets, tests, nnual reports, field repor and speeches and lectures relating to the office' s work training civilians for possible wartime emergencies. Programs represented in this seri es include fire fighti ng and auxiliary police training, school bus drivers' training, gas identification and res ponse training, and public service training. Much of this series de tails routine aspects of the prog rams (travel, attendance reports, payroll, requests for materials, and personnel issues). Other materials, such as annual and field reports relating to the instructors' supervisors and the supervisors' staff, document activities, plans, goals, and policies of the programs. Pamphl ets, speeches, and tests detail the information which the office wished to c onvey in the training programs. Finding aids: Folder list. ram Administration and Certification Files, A4373. School Bus Drivers' Training Prog 1943-1945. 6 cu. ft. Arrangement: Organized into two subseries: Subseries 1, Administration Files, 1943-1945, 2.3 inations and Certification File, 1943-1944, 3.7 cu. cu. ft., is arranged by topic. Subseries 2, Exam alphabetical by school location. ft., is arranged by topic, then World War II caused numerous shortages and affect ed many aspects of daily life. School buses, while an efficient means of transportation, require d a great amount of resour ces, particularly fuel and rubber. Because better school bus driving tec hniques would help to conserve resources for the war effort, the War Council requ be certified in the safe and ired all school bus drivers to efficient operation of buses. The War Council assi gned the Education Department to this task, and it in turn requested that the Office of Wa r Training administer the program. The program trained and assigned instructors in over 100 schools throughout the State and issued certificates to those who passed the course. The War Producti on Training Office, a subdivision of the War Transportation Office, assumed responsibility fo r the distribution of publ ications (though it did not carry out any other program activities) after the Office of War Trai ning closed in 1944. This series contains correspondence, memoranda , lists, manuscript drafts, and certification exams documenting the School Bus Drivers' Trai ning Program. Requests for pamphlets, manuals, 64

65 and information were directed to the War Pr oduction Training Office, and correspondence from this series. Material of the instructor's that office is also found within s found include drafts manual; correspondence from field representa tives regarding program organization; correspondence to new instructors re garding duties and expectations; lists of the number of buses available; brochures from school bus driver training programs in New York as well other states; newspaper clippings documenting program activitie s; monthly reports from the Bureau of Motor Vehicles enumerating motor vehicle accidents involving property and personal injury; correspondence with other organizations intere sted in motor vehicle safety; and routine correspondence between program officers and instructors discussing training manual and instructional film distributi on, prospective training locations , reimbursements, and program activities. Also found are examinations taken by students in the School Bus Drivers' Training Program and lists of those who took the training course, kept to record which dr ivers were certified to drive. The sixty- question exam posed questions on tr affic regulations, a bus's mechanical operation, passenger safety and behavior, and efficient driving habits. The lists contain the names of course attendants, their address, and their final certification stat us. Some correspondence between program officers and local trai ning program administrators discussing issues regarding individuals' status is also found in this series , in addition to a set of 8" x 5" cards listing information relative to each training program. Finding aids: Folder list for subseries 1 and a container list for subseries 2. A4374. Bus and Truck Operators Training Course Administration Files, 1943-1944. 0.8 cu. ft. Arrangement: Arranged by topic. was a crucial part of home front efforts to During World War II, limiting truck and bus use l, needed for the war effort. These efforts tried conserve resources, such as fuel, rubber, and meta to balance conservation with the re cognition of the integral role th at trucks and buses played in the nation's economy. The Office of War Training implemented a program aimed at educating drivers through trucking company managers. The United States Office of Education awarded a grant to the New York State Education Departme nt to provide one-week training sessions to "essential transport ope rators" in cities around the State. The program was primarily for managers who, after training, would develop trai ning programs within their organizations to encourage driver safety and efficient driving habi ts. Courses given included Driver Selection and Training, Preventive Maintenance, Safety, Conservation of Equipment, Customer and Public Relations, Developing Better Employer and Employee Relations, and Teacher Training. This series contains correspondence, pamphlets, and instructors' manuals documenting the Office of War Training's administration of this driver's education program to improve both truck and bus driver safety and the conservation of res ources. Much of the series contains routine correspondence regarding the program 's administration (registration, requests for material), but also found are instructors' manuals and syllabi, in cluding tests, and promotional flyers for this 65

66 and similar programs in other stat es. Other records in this series document the training institutes cuse. These records usua held in Albany, Buffalo, New York City, and Syra lly include lists of student names and final scores by section; lists of student names and addresses (business, home, or both); students' employers; students' positions; and number of drivers and/or equipment for which students are responsible. Finding aids: Folder list. A4375. Civilian Defense Driver Corps Inst ructors Organization and Training Files, 1943-1944. 0.75 cu. ft. Arrangement: Arranged by topic. The Civilian Defense Driver Corps was formed in emergency driving to train instructors techniques. These instructors woul d then teach others the techniques in order to provide civil defense organizations with drivers who would be capable of transporting essential supplies, evacuating children, or ferrying civil defense uni ts. Training included instructions on emergency traffic regulations, emergency repairs, and dr iving in rough terrain, mud, and during blackouts. This program was administered by the Office of War Training for the Office of Civilian Protection with courses held in Albany, Buff alo, Long Island, New York City, Rochester, Syracuse, and Utica. This series contains correspondence and instructional materials documenting the organization of this program in its mission to train drivers. This series contains lists of instructors; course registration forms; lesson outlines; a final examination; emergency traffic regulations; and routin e correspondence regarding rese rvation of meeting sites, information requests, and instructor requirements. Finding aids: Folder list. A4376. Food and Drug Chemis ts Institute Organization Files, 1939- 1943 (bulk 1942- 1943). 0.25 cu. ft. Arrangement: Arranged by topic. Food and drug supplies are crucial to both soldiers and civilians in wartime. In New York State efforts were undertaken to prevent contamination, spoilage, improper labelling, or other threats which would lessen supplies. The Office of War Training arranged two training institutes to teach food and drug professionals about possible threats and how to avoid them. The first, held es such as shelf life, contamination December 8-10, 1942, focused on food and drug issu prevention, and proper packaging and storag e. The second, held January 19-22, 1943, was directed toward health and food inspectors. Both were held in Albany, with speakers from the federal and State governments and the private sect or conducting lectures. Th is series contains information from both institutes, including a transcript of the first two days of the first institute, and registration forms from the second institute which include name; addr ess; job title; job routine correspondence detailing speakers' duties; and educational background. Also found is 66

67 arrangements, meeting places, and other organiza tional details of the two institutes, and a pamphlet from a similar institute held by New York State in 1939. tion Records, 1942- 1944. 0.65 cu. ft. A4378. War Training Institutes Organiza Arrangement: By topic. schedules, certificates of attendance, and This series contains announcements, program instructors' manuals and other teaching materials relating to several trai ning institutes conducted by the Office of War Training. The records document the office's efforts to educate civilians for a variety of war time programs. This series c ontains training program materials for air raid wardens, block leaders, fuel conservation, ga general war training, s reconnaissance officers, including first aid, and plant protection. A4380. Film Distribution Correspondence, 1943-1944. 1 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by county. The Office of War Training accumulated a sizable film library encompassing a wide range of topics related to the home front and war education topics. The o ffice distributed these films to its, schools, businesses, and ot local war councils and their subun her organizations involved in war work. The correspondence in this series co ntains requests for specific films from various groups and the office's response. Films requested covered subjects such as automobile conservation, child care, civil defense, fire figh ting, physical fitness, safety, salvage, school bus driving, and volunt eer activities. War Transportation Committee A4407. Director's Correspon dence, 1942-1943. 2 cu. ft. Arrangement: Arranged by topic. This series contains correspondence documen ting the War Transportation Committee (WTC) director's efforts to regulate discussed include staggered hours transportation resources. Issues for school and business operations; special bus re gulation exemption reques ts; transportation to summer camps; and school transportation for athletes. Agencies with which the WTC worked, and for which correspondence is found, include the Office of War Training; the U. S. War Manpower Commission; the U. S. Office of Price Administratio n; and the U. S. Office of Defense Transportation. The status of trans portation programs throughout the State and the agenda and minutes of the Motor Bus Advisory Committee, which advised the WTC on bus ed incident of non- compliance regulations, are also found in this series. In addition, a complicat with WTC regulations which occurred in the Bronx is also documented in this series. 67

68 A4399. Director's Subject F iles, 1942-1945. 5 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by subject. This series contains correspondence, memoranda , and pamphlets detailing the work of the War Transportation Committee's director, R. C. Georger, in implementing, supervising, and the conservation of transportation resources. coordinating the committee's work in promoting While routine administrative matters such as bud el are detailed, the gets, travel, and personn series primarily contains correspondence betw een Georger and either committee personnel or other organizations involved in war transportati on issues. Topics and or ganizations represented in this series include group rides or car pool ing, publicity, rationing, review of spur routes (alternate routes used to a ervation, Office of War Training, void congestion), school bus cons Office of Civilian Mobilization, and United States Office of Defe nse Transportation. This series also includes letters to war trans portation administrators, school superintendents, and field agents detailing procedures, disseminating information, requesting information or forms, and providing advice. A4401. Agendas and Minutes , 1942-1945. 0. 8 cu. ft. Arrangement: Arranged w ith agendas followed by minutes, then chronological. This series contains agendas and minutes doc umenting the actions of the War Transportation fforts to conserve transportation resources. Committee (WTC) which oversaw the War Council's e tailed information relating to issues discussed at the meetings. The agendas contain significant de In particular, charter bus or school bus lines whose permits would be approved, denied, or revoked were often enumerated in the agendas and would include the case request code, the applicant's name, and the purpose of its operation. In the minutes, these lists would be referred to by the number found in the agenda and their approva l, denial, or cancellation noted. Other topics discussed in the meetings include many routin e matters such as pers onnel service expenses, maintenance and operations costs, and changes in procedures and rules. Also discussed are the status of WTC programs and projects such as sc er training, group riding hool and public bus driv or car pooling, information booklets issuance, en forcement of regulations, and inter- agency cooperation. A4403. Supervisory Directives , 1942-1945. 2. 5 cu. ft. Arrangement: By document type. This series contains orders, regulations, and bulletins issued by organizations to which the War Transportation Committee was subord inate such as the New York State War Council, the federal nse Health and Welfare Services, Office of Office of Defense Transportation, Office of Defe Price Administration, and Federal Security Agency. They were used by the committee to guide 68

69 its efforts in coordinating the conservation of transportation resources. Issu es detailed in these nd other automotive resources; bus, taxi, and materials include rationing of fuel, rubber, a automobile operations and restrictions; passeng er and freight train regulations; and general to transportation While most of the materials pertain issues, regional transportation prohibitions. bulletins from the Federal Security Agency provide broad overviews of selected New York cities and other issues. detailing demographics relating to h ealth, transportation, Files, 1942-1945. 5. 4 cu. ft. A4397. Field Agents Supervision ree subseries: Subseries 1, Fi Arrangement: Organized into th eld Agents' Reports, 1942-1945, 2 cu. ft. , and Subseries 2, Field Agents' Correspondence Files, 1942-1945, 3 cu. ft. , are ructions to Field Agents and Local War geographical by region. Subseries 3, General Inst Transportation Administrators, 1942-1945, 0. 4 cu. ft. , is chronological. Like other War Council agencies, the War Transportation Committee (WTC) directed field agents to execute its programs and supervise local war council efforts. The WTC divided the State into six regions: Buffalo, Rochester, Sy racuse, Utica, Albany, and New York City. One field agent in each region acted as liaison for the WTC, providing advice to local programs, implementing WTC programs in their regions, an d working with the WTC in resolving local transportation problems or disputes. This series contains reports, correspondence, pamphlets, a nd newspaper clippings documenting the work of, and the committee's supervision of, field agents in their efforts to conserve transportation resources. Field agents' reports contain weekly summaries of each agent's activities including meetings attended, local wa r councils visited, and individuals consulted. Typical subjects reported on include car pooling; bus transportation and schedules, including viate congestion; the op timization of traffic charter bus lines; staggered work hours to alle -home vacations; coordina tion of programs with patterns; program advertising and promotion; at local rationing boards; and the purchase or dispos al of transportation equipment. Reports from the New York City region are not in this series. Correspondence in this series often contains more specific details on pa rticular problems or concerns. Of particular note is correspondence from field agents to the WTC office regarding unionized transportation workers and the WTC's programs. Also, in late 1944 an assessment survey of local transportation capability was conduc ted and it is found in ma ny files. It noted the status of car pool programs, bus usage, and ve hicles' operating condition. Also found in this series are published reprints of government publications and periodic al articles concerning transportation conservation from federal progr ams and other agencies and organizations concerned with the conservation of transportatio n resources. Some newspaper clippings related to war transportation are also found in this series. A4395. Omnibus and Charter Bus Route Re quest Files, 1942-1945. 12. 8 cu. ft. 69

70 Arrangement: Alphabetical by county, then divide d by petitions for omnibus routes and charter bus routes. routes started during The War Transportation Committee was responsible for ensuring that bus the war did not overlap with existing routes and waste precious automotive resources. Organizations were required to apply to th e committee for permission before initiating new ains correspondence, petitions, maps, and other omnibus or charter bus lines. This series cont Each file folder holds one request and may documentation for each new bus service line request. contain a description of the route, including beginning and ending points and stops; existing transportation services along any part of the route; days and times of service; necessity of route (usually the provision of transpor tation for war plant workers); ma ps of proposed routes; and the committee's approval or denial of marks in the case of denials). the request (with explanatory re The majority of requests are for charter bus routes. Finding aids: Container list. A4396. School Bus Route Review and Certificate Renewal Files, 1943-1945. 16 cu. ft. Arrangement: Organized into two subseries: Su bseries 1, School Bus Route Review Files, 1943, 7 cu. ft. ; and Subseries 2, School Bus Route Cer tificate Renewal Files, 1943-1945, 9 cu. ft. Both are alphabetical by county, then arranged by school district. The War Transportation Committee was responsible for promoting and ensuring the efficient use of transportation resources such as rubber and fuel. As part of this duty, the United States Office of Defense Transportation directed the committee to review school bus routes to ensure that signed to minimize school bus usage while still buses were employed according to regulations de for school children. School districts were required to submit to providing adequate transportation the War Transportation Committee detailed plan s of their school bus routes each year. This series contains correspondence, memoranda, maps, and forms documenting the War es. A typical school Transportation Committee's supervision and review of school bus rout district's file includes a form with the county, lo cal school unit, and date at the top, which lists name of school served or destination, bus seat ing capacity, number of elementary and secondary school students served (and the number less than two miles from school), and the time en route per trip; daily round trip mileage with and withou t pupils; and number of days each bus operates per quarter. The file also usually the county, local school unit, includes another form, also with and date at the top, entitled "Data on Mileage, Ga llons of Gasoline, and Ownership" which lists mileage by quarters of 1943 for routes and trips, in spection and refueling, and total mileage. The form also lists the total gallons of gas consum ed each quarter, and th e war certificate number issued for each bus's operation. Both forms were issued by the Office of Defense Transportation. Other items found in the file may include road maps, some hand drawn, outlining proposed bus routes; memoranda from a committee staff member detailing revisions required in the school district's plans; a questionnaire from the War Transportation Committee used to ensure that d and that other War Council programs such as the Office of efficient practices were employe 70

71 Training Program were utilized ; requests from school districts War Training's School Bus Driver for exemptions from the mandated limits stati ng the circumstances requiring the exemption and the committee's response; and routine transmitta l correspondence between the committee and the ntendent). This series also contains materi school district (usually the superi als relating to the renewal of school bus route permits. Finding aids: Container list. A4402. Charter, Omni- , School, and Summer Camp Bus Application Request Tracking Files, 1942-1945. 2 cu. ft. Arrangement: Request tracking forms: Arranged by request-type, then alphabetical by county or ype, then alphabetical by name of applicant. organization name. Card file: Arranged by request-t The War Transportation Committee (WTC) was respons bus routes started ible for ensuring that th existing routes and waste during the war did not overlap wi precious automotive resources. Organizations were required to apply to th e committee for permission before initiating new ains forms and index cards created by the WTC to omnibus or charter bus lines. This series cont track each county's or organization's request for bus transportation. The forms list the applicant, proposed route, sometimes its purpose, and the date when the line was discontinued, if it was approved. Forms exist for charter bus, omnibus, and summer camp bus lines. The card file is divided into charter, school, and omnibus lines . Each card lists the a pplicant, company or organization, destination or route, purpose, the date request receive d, and the date acted upon. A4405. School Bus Regulation Exemption Request Correspondenc e, 1943-1945. 1 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by county, then by school. This series contains correspondence between the WTC and local schools in which exemptions to school bus regulations were request ed. A typical request was that bus routes be shorter than the legal minimum due to heavy traffic patterns or a l ack of sidewalks, which threatened the safety of child pedestrians. Another common exempti on request concerned the purchase of new buses; these were usually accompanied by a justificat ion for the need. The WTC's response and an explanation for its decision are usually found with each request. A4398. Special Charter Bus Permit Request Correspondence, 1942- 1945. 5. 4 cu. ft. Arrangement: Chronological by year, then alphab etical by region, then alphabetical by county. The War Transportation Committee (WTC) was re sponsible for promoting and ensuring the efficient use of transportation resources such as rubber and fuel. Working through the local war transportation administrators or regional field agents in the six WTC regions (Albany, Buffalo, 71

72 New York City, Rochester, Syracuse, and Utica), organizations were required to apply to the This series contains committee for permission before chartering a bus. correspondence primarily between local war transportation administra tors and the War Transportation Committee regarding the issuance of charter bus permits. These requests were usually for one-time-only trips, though some requests for semi-regular serv ice (such as for summer camps) are also found in this series. Often letters from the organizatio ns seeking the charter bus permits (or interested third parties) are found. Both types of correspond ence detail the trip, destination, miles, date, time, type of bus, and reason for the trip. A f ile containing correspondence between the regional field agent and the WTC is usually found at the start of each region's files. The correspondence discusses the same topic as noted above, though other issues infrequently discussed include equipment acquisition, distribution, and status. A4400. Publicity Files, 1942-1945. 1 cu. ft. Arrangement: Arranged by topic. The War Transportation Committee utilized newspapers, radio, billboards, and posters to promote car pooling, bus use, and conservative driving habits. This series contains correspondence, broadsides, posters, and newspaper clippings documenting the committee's efforts to promote the conservation of transpor tation resources. The correspondence is primarily between the committee and the War Council's pub lic relations agency, the War Information Service, and other organizations, federal and private, involved in the war effort. Also found is which cars that partic information on the "Double-up" sticker program, in ipated in car pools or group rides received spec ial window stickers. Finding aids: Folder list. A4404. Complaint Correspondence File, 1943-1945. 1. 8 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by county. This series contains correspondence between the War Transportation Committee (WTC) and its subordinate organizations detailing complain ts and problems regarding WTC programs and decisions. This series documents the committee's efforts to enforce both State and federal wartime energy and resource regulations. Issues discussed include charter bus regulation; school bus routes (routes followed, length of routes, sp eeds travelled); gasoline ration allotment; and continuation of routes. Typical co mplaints originated with parents who wished to move their children's school bus stops closer to their homes or to have their children be given the right to ride the school bus. Other common complaints c oncerned gasoline rationi ng inequities or the cancellation of charter bus routes. t Files, 1943-1945. 6 cu. ft. A4408. General Program Subjec 72

73 Arrangement: By topic. pamphlets, reports, and brochures pertaining to This series contains correspondence, memoranda, the War Transportation Committee (WTC) program and its efforts to conserve transportation resources. Topics covered include school bus use limits; charter bus use; fuel allocation; automobile conservation hints; summer school bus requirements; industrial plants' staggered work hours; and new equipment purchase requests. Materials detailing the WTC's work with its ral Office of Defense ee, as well as the fede various subcommittees and its advisory committ Transportation, are also found. Salvage Division A4350. Instructive Releases Sent to Loca l Salvage Committees, 1943- 1945. 1 cu. ft. Arrangement: Organized into two subseries: Subseries 1, General Releases to Local Committees, to Local Committee Chairmen, 1943-1945, 1943-1945, 0.75 cu. ft., and Subseries 2, Releases 0.25 cu. ft., are both numerical by release number. This series contains releases sent to city and county salvage committees and committee chairs to keep them apprised of specific salvage needs an d campaigns and to inform and motivate salvage committee volunteers. Each release has sections devot ed to specific salvage items such as waste fat, tin, paper, and scrap metal, and includes co llection figures, direc tions, quotations, national program descriptions, and indica tions of how these materials were used in the war effort. ases. Included is an Exemplary salvage efforts from around the state are reported in these rele but only releases numbered from 197 to 380 are found in the index for releases 1 through 199, series. A few leaflets, posters, a nd stickers, designed to publicize, inspire, or educate the general public are also found. This series also contains brie f letters sent from the Salvage Division to all city and county salvage committee chairmen to inform them of salvage needs and to advise on programs. Most address a single issue such as specific salvage ne eds, suggestions for programs, the availability of promotional and instructional material, government policy, requests for information, and quota figures intended to keep the chairmen notif ied of success rates. Many of the letters were sent with booklets, advertisi ng mats, brochures, and scripts an d some of those items are found within the series. Also found is a list of lo cal salvage committee chairmen dated February 15, 1945. Finding aids: Folder list. A4351. Federal Advisory and Instructional Releases and Promotional Material, 1942- 1945. 2.5 cu. ft. Arrangement: Arranged by topic. 73

74 This series documents how the activities of the Salvage Division were directed, coordinated, and informed by the United States War Production Board (WPB).The series includes federal releases describing what materials were State division on how to proceed to be salvaged, directing the with salvage campaigns, and listing available promotional materials; correspondence between the Salvage Division and the WPB' s Washington and regional New York City office regarding and the ordering of promotional materials; questions of policy, the resolution of problems, ing administrative procedures and policies on bulletins from the WPB to field executives detail issues such as travel authorization, salaries, and office supplies; bulletins and newsletters about salvage efforts across the nation intended for general audiences; bulletins issued by the WPB's General Salvage Section, Bureau of Industrial Conservation to state chairmen and executive secretaries across the nation to keep them informed of salvage procedures; index for bulletins 1 200 are included in the series ); Manual of Administrative through 369 (only bulletins 2 through Instructions sent to all executives of the WPB, and sections of another WPB manual regarding the establishment, abolition, and restructuring of policies, procedures, and organizations; promotional and instructional materials such as posters, flyers, booklets, newspaper clippings, print advertising mats, and a folder of radio and play scripts; blueprint of a machine used to cut and process tin cans, with photographs and nega tives of workers operating the device; and a General Dwight D. Eisenhower Award medal (f iled under "General MacArthur") which was presented by the WPB to individual Boy Sc outs for outstanding paper collection efforts. Finding aids: Folder list. A4352. Field Representatives' Corresponde nce and Report Files, 1945. 0.75 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by field representative's last name. This series contains correspondence, memoranda , travel and expense vouchers, and weekly itineraries and reports which doc ument the activities undertaken by the Salvage Division's field r effort to coordinate, advise, a nd oversee the city and county salvage representatives in thei ount of information contained in them vary committees. The number of reports filed and the am greatly among the representatives. When include d, reports focus on the coordination of specific local salvage campaigns, meetings with local committee members, and efforts to persuade reluctant agencies and individuals to participate fully in salvage efforts. Also included are memoranda issued by the Albany office to all field representatives to apprise them of policies, procedures, available promotional material, a nd specific salvage needs. Correspondence between Albany and the United States War Production Board's regional office reveals a general satisfaction with the work of the field repres entatives, though problems did arise because of unnecessary travel and spending, poor record ke eping, and misrepresentation of the division. Also included are newspaper clippings sent by fi eld representatives regarding salvage issues and efforts in their jurisdiction. A job descrip tion filed under "H. W. Roberts" details the responsibilities of the field representatives. Finding aids: Folder list. 74

75 A4353. Advisory Correspondence with Loca l Salvage Committees, 1944-1945. 2 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by city or county. This series reveals the activities of the city and county salvage committees and their coordination of local salvage efforts, part icularly those concerning periodic waste paper and tin collection drives. Correspondence includes letters from th e committees describing their programs and requesting assistance and promotional materials; supportive and congratulat ory letters from the Salvage Division to committee chairmen; letters between the Salvage Division and cooperating agencies, businesses, and individu als concerning the resolution of problems; and routine letters regarding the shipment of promotional materials and awards to children for outstanding service. Field representatives' reports about the activit ies of the local committees are included if the reports raised issues that re quired follow-up correspondence. Ne wspaper clippings detail local salvage issues and announce salvage drives. Some very brief reports from committee chairmen giving tin salvage figures are included. Finding aids: Folder list. A4354. Correspondence with Cooperating Businesses, Agencies, and Individuals, 1942-1945. 3 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by inst itution or individual's name. This series reveals how the Salvage Division coor of various businesses, dinated the activities ste processors and dealers, and individuals agencies, publicity organizations, schools, wa involved in salvage efforts across the State. The series includes letters detailing policies and procedures and describing salvage priorities; congratulatory letters sent from the Salvage Division; requests to the division for printed publicity material s; news releases from the United States Office of Price Administ ration regarding price ceilings on waste products; news releases from the United States Office of Defense Transpor tation and letters to that office regarding the Salvage Division's recommendations about individual applications for extra gas or vehicle allotments; and releases from the regional o ffice of the United States War Production Board regarding travel regulations; instructional and pr omotional materials such as booklets, leaflets, newspaper clippings, advertisement mats, and corporate in-house publications; and routine housekeeping records such as the travel vouchers of the executiv e secretary and his assistant. Nursing Council for War Service . 24.5 cu. ft. A4277. Recruitment and Classificatio n Files, 1942-1945 75

76 Arrangement: Organized into tw o subseries: Subseries 1, Administrative Files, 1942-1945, 1 cu. nt. Subseries 2, Classificati on Files, 1942-1943, 23 cu. ft., is ft., has no apparent arrangeme alphabetical by name. This series contains information on the War C ouncil's efforts to attract women into the nursing profession in order to alleviate the acute shorta ge exacerbated by World War II and to assist in the recruitment of nurses into the armed servi ces by keeping a roster of nursing personnel. memoranda, monthly reports, press releases, form This series contains minutes, correspondence, letters, and publicity materials revealing the coun cil's efforts to organize themselves and their recruiting efforts. Included are missives from the national to the State organization and communications from the State to national organization detail the local groups. Minutes from the number of nurses each state was asked to recruit and the states' response. Organizational efforts direct local nursing council including information on how to s and manage problems with recruitment are also discussed. Minutes from th e New York State Nursing Council's Procurement and Assignment Committee reveal local chapters' efforts with recruitment and classification of are the council's recruitment nurses. Found throughout this series strategies promoting nursing as a valuable, patriotic career that was comp atible with motherhood and family life. This series also contains a wealth of demogr aphic data on the classification forms collected by the Procurement and Assignment Committee. Th e inventory was done to assess the size, capability, and availability of the nursing force av ailable for war service. These forms detail siding in the State of New York during World information on about two-thirds of all nurses re ent; position; date of birth; marital status; War II, including name; address; place of employm number of dependents under and above 14 years ol d; physical handicaps (i f any); classification were granted); and date rating; reasons for a temporary deferment (if one of availability. The form also includes the name and address of th e originating county's procurement and assignment committee agent, the date of action, and the reas ons for a deferment. (Reasons for a deferment included work in an "essential position," poor health, having young children, or being under age 25 and single.) A4281. Newspaper Clippings Scrapbook, 1943-1944. 0.3 cu. ft. Arrangement: By subject, then chronological. The scrapbook, labeled "Sample newspaper clippings, September 1943 to April 1944," is comprised solely of clippings from New York State publications. Each clipping has the name and date of the publication from which it originat ed. It details the student recruitment efforts, activities of local nurs ing councils, and nursing issues, incl uding the nursing shortage and post- war planning for the nursing profession. It was collected by the Nursi ng Council to partially document the many activities with which it was involved. Office of the Mileage Administrator 76

77 A4243. Government Agency Automobile Us age Rationing Coordination Files, 1943- 1945. 2 cu. ft. vision name or subject. Arrangement: Alphabetical by di Milton Alpert served as the departmental mileage administrator for the War Council. The duties privately owned vehicl of the office were to supervise the operation of es used for official, departmental business; to examine and pass on gaso line and tire applicati ons; and to keep an up- to- date record of the mileage covered by such vehicles. This se ries contains correspondence, bulletins, travel vouchers, and file cards relating to the administra tion of rationing procedures as part of the office's duty to conserve resources. ide miles per gallon, time The travel vouchers prov period covered, and type of ration coupons used, for the various agencies of the War Council. The card file lists all State employees who used a personal car on official business and contains the name, address, and duties of the employ ee; the department employer, address, and departmental mileage administrator; and (som etimes) an explanation of job duties which required automobile use. The cards also tracked the requests of each employee (gasoline needed per month, tires, tubes, renewal, or supplemen tal). Other files contain correspondence between Alpert and other government offici als regarding the enforcement of regulations at the local level, reductions in or additions to individuals' mileag e allotments, and the settlement of disagreements ts of local mileage administrators and various between State and local authorities. Included are lis government departments' mileage administrators. Semi-weekly bulletins from the federal Office of Price Administration (OPA) detail new and tire rationing. They also report different regulations and amendments concerning gasoline on. Quarterly reports to the OPA from New York State delineate states' reductions in consumpti the number of vehicles in use in each department , the types of vehicles, and the miles driven in public service. Finding aids: Folder list. War Information Service A4314. Information Coordination Corre spondence with State and War Council Agencies, 1942-1943. 0. 5 cu. ft. Arrangement: By subject. This series contains mostly perfunctory correspondence between the War Information Service and other agencies involved in war work as part of the office's duty to coordinate information about home front programs. The co rrespondence discusses informati on to be included in annual reports or information which the office was to disseminate in press releases. Some carbon-copy sent to the office for informational purposes), letters exchanged between agencies (apparently requests to federal agencies for various materials, and a small amount of material relating to publicity strategy are also found. 77

78 Finding aids: Folder list. A4315. Public Relations 943-1944. 0. 5 cu. ft. Coordination Files, 1 Arrangement: By subject. This series contains correspondence, memoranda, and a small amount of posters, broadsides, and pamphlets detailing several aspects of the servi ce's coordination of public relations for the War Council. The series includes "clipping summaries" which briefly desc ribe a press release and list the newspapers which carried it; files of Alice Tierney Scanlan, an assistant in the service who worked with the War Transportation Committee, containing information on car pooling and tire rationing publicity strategies, in addition to some posters and broadsides; correspondence with other agencies (War Nutrition Services and Emergency Food Comm ission in particular); some director's material, possibly passed on to assistants for handling; discussions of the "Sappy and Silly Sabotire" comic strip, which was used to promote tire and automobile rationing; internal letters and memoranda regarding the office r outine; and other related documents including pamphlets for promoting other War Council activities. Finding aids: Folder list. A4316. Official Bulletin Coordinatio n Files, 1941-1944. 2. 25 cu. ft. Arrangement: By topic. This series contains correspondence and mailing lists related to the publication of the War to keep informed all War Council agencies, Council's Official Bulletin which was published local war councils, and other agen cies involved in war work. Records from the War Information Service director and the Offici e minutia of running a monthly al Bulletin's editor contain th publication including mailing lists, and correspondence with publishe rs, subscribers, and local war council officers. The majority of the files in this series contain mailing lists and subscribers' correspondence, which provide information on th e changing personnel of local war councils. Also found in this series: letters from business people volunteering for war work; the Official Bulletin's editor's files containing information about his work; War Information Service radio scripts and amusing letters to other War Council colleagues; photographs and posters from various agencies; and requests for reprints of official orders issued by the War Council. Finding aids: Folder list. A4317. Media Releases, 1942-1944. 0. 25 cu. ft. Arrangement: By topic. 78

79 This series contains press releases from the War Information Service to inform various media about accomplishments of War Council agencies and members. Topics covered include issues; civil defense; nursing; salvage; and wa agriculture, health, and nutrition r transportation. Division of Public Relations Bulletins, 1942-1945. 0.7 cu. ft. A4285. Defense Digests and Official Arrangement: Chronological. War Council's predecessor, the New York State Even before the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the Council of Defense, started publishing the semi-m onthly Defense Digest wh ich was "devoted to defense activities of state departments and local de fense councils" in order to keep all branches of the Council informed of each subgroup's activ ities. The four-page newsletter contained e collection, evacuation plans, photographs and reported on salvag vocational training, health field activities, recruitment, volun teer activities, civil defense issues, labor/work force issues, and rationing. an eight-page tabloid-size format in June Started in October 1941, the newsletter expanded to 1942. One month later, the War Council's Office of War Information took over publication and the format changed yet again to a booklet form ranging from upwards of 16 pages per issue. Retitled New York State War Council Offici al Bulletin, the public ation contained no photographs or feature stories but only War Council orders, re gulations, communications, and predecessor covered. In March 1944, the Office directives, though on the same issues which its Division of Public Relations assumed the of War Information was abolished and the responsibilities of publishing the Official Bulletin. In May 1944, the format changed once again, ent similar to the Defense Digest, though some reverting back to the tabloid format and a cont War Council communications and directives were sometimes included. (The third and fourth format changes resulted in the volu me number reverting to Volume I.) Finding aids: Folder list. Indexes: Official Bulletins contai n indexes in the following issues: Vol. I, #13; Vol. II, #4; Vol. II, #18; Vol. II, #43; Vol. III, #7; and Vol. III, #19. A4347. Newsletter Photograph Printer Negatives, ca. 1942-1944. 1 cu. ft. This series contains over th irty-six printer's offset plat e negatives set on woodblocks. The negatives were used in the pub lication of the Official Bulle tin and Defense Digest, both published to keep volunteers and administrators informed of War Council activities. The reversed halftone images depict State and loca l war council members or members of the public involved in war work. Also found in this seri es are approximately 40 Civil Defense ribbons. 79

80 A4287. Home Front Information Pub lications File, 1942-1945. 8 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by title. r War Council agencies), This series consists of publications from nati onal, State (including othe Office of War Information to and private organizations involved in war work collected by the assist the office when informing citizens a bout war-related activities on the home front. salvage drives, civil defense Pamphlets, booklets, brochures, an d other printed material about issues, rationing, agricultural practices, war bond drives, cooking and homemaking, morale other topics, are found. issues, and first aid, among Finding aids: Item list. Division of Records A3081. Inventories of State War-Related Agency Records, 1 940-1945. 1 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by agency name. The inventory was conducted in 1945 by War Counc il staff as authorized by an amendment to the War Emergency Act providing fo r this inventory to assure proper care, control and custody of these records. This series consists of inventories of reco rds generated by the State War Council, its subdivisions, and other State agen cies conducting war-related activities. The on on: creating agency and subdivision; agency standardized inventory sheets contain informati dates; existence of othe r copies; frequency of and custody; title and brief description; inclusive use; method of filing; form and size of materi al; container type; persons interviewed; and disposition (destruction, retention by agency, tran sfer to War Council headquarters for retention). A detailed discussion of the inventory is in: Karl D. Hartzell, "Home Front Records of New York 1940-1945: The Problem of Disposition," American Archivist, April 1946. Finding aids: Folder list. A4236. Research and Drafts Files for The Empire State at War: World War II, 1944- 1948. 3.2 cu. ft. Arrangement: Organized into tw o subseries: Subseries 1, Chap ter Drafts and Reviews, 1944- 1949, 2 cu. ft., is numerical by chapter. Subser ies 2, Interview Files, 1944-1947, 1.2 cu. ft., is alphabetical by last name of interviewee or topic. This series contains Karl D. Hartzell's research documents, correspondence, interviews, notes, and portions of chapter drafts of his book The Em pire State at War: Wo rld War II. It provides 80

81 information regarding the organization and c oordination of industry, the population, and the State towards war production and civil defense compiled by Hartzell to assist in the writing of his book. Titles for the nine chapters contained in this series are: Coming Events Cast Their Shadow, 1940- 1941: The Organization of New York State for National Defense; State Aid to Federal Programs; Production for War; Defens e of the Home Front; The Mobilization and Direction of Volunteers; Agricu ltural Production and Nutrition; War Transportation; Maintaining rtaining to the other nd Conclusions. Records pe the Efficiency of the Individual; and Results a chapters to the book (Chapt ers IX-XII) were not incl uded with this series. , minutes, reports, manuals, screenplays, news This series contains correspondence, memoranda ous War Council agencies' releases, speeches, and ephemera detailing vari activities which were ts found in this series. This in used to compile the chapter draf formation was usually provided by agency officials interviewed by Hartzell. Al so found is correspondence between Hartzell and chapters for review. Transcripts of interviews conducted by Hartzell individuals sent drafts of the this series, as is supplemental information with War Council administrators are also found in they provided to Hartzell about their agencies' work. Finding aids: Folder list. A4245. Local War Council Re cords Inventory Forms and Correspondence, 1945-1946. 2 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by city or county name. authorize the War Council to provide a In 1945, the War Emergency Act was amended to d disposition of records maintained by the 108 uniform method for the care, custody, control, an local war councils in New York State during Worl d War II. This was part of a larger survey ouncil records created under the au thority of the War Emergency designed to inventory all War C inventory local war coun cil records in order to Act. The purpose of this part of the survey was to insure the retention of those r ecords deemed to be of permanent historical value, and to determine which of the two or three available lo cal repositories should re ceive these records for storage. Local war councils were otherwise perm itted to include for pe rmanent retention any remaining records they wished to preserve, w ith the exception of personnel cards and enrollment blanks containing information of a highly personal nature. These were marked for destruction by the War Council. Examples are occasionally included in the folders. This series contains the correspondence and stan dardized Inventory of Records forms (Inventory Check Sheets) used for the New York State War Council's records inventory of the holdings of local war councils. The Inventor y Check Sheets contain the fo llowing information: creating agency; subdivision; agency of custody; addre ss of depository; title and brief description of series; inclusive dates; existence of duplicates, frequency of use, method of filing, records form and size, and container type; persons interviewed; and di sposition. Correspondence files maintained by agencies within the local war c ouncils are listed alphabe tically on the back of counties vary greatly in scope . Files on individual cities and appropriate inventory check sheets 81

82 and content. Particularly rich files exist fo r Buffalo, Corning, Ithaca , Nassau, New Rochelle, acuse, Tompkins, and Westchester. Monroe, Rochester, Schenectady, Syr A detailed discussion of the inventory is in: Karl D. Hartzell, "Home Front Records of New York 1940-1945: The Problem of Disposition," American Archivist, April 1946. Finding aids: Container list. A4296. War Records Program Organization File, 1943-1945. 1 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by county, then by state. This series contains correspondence between St ate Historian Albert Co rey and numerous county and local historians regarding the disposition of home front war records. This operation was undertaken as part of the State Historian's role to help preser ve the State's heritage, and the records created in this series were later used by the War Council's Division of Records when it assessed local home front records. The letters discuss the appointment of local historians, potential repositories, and other matters pertaining to post-war plans for the records generated as part of the war effort. Included are lists of the na mes and addresses of local directors of civilian protection, civilian mobilization, and local war c ouncils. Also included are materials from other state war councils which either answer inquirie s or ask for information regarding war records programs. Finding aids: Folder list. A4297. World War II Home Front Activity Information Preservation File, ca. 1943- 1946. 0.5 cu. ft. ont activities such as salvage, child care, This series contains publications about home fr education, and collection of war r ecords. These records were kept as part of the organization's efforts to document the war effort on the home fr ont. Included is a nearly complete run of the Yonkers Home News, a publication written for di stribution to Yonkers servicemen stationed around the world. A pamphlet en titled Organizing Your Community For War Records Work, published by the National Jewish Welfare Board, describes efforts which should be undertaken to preserve records of Jewish pa rticipation in the war effort. Also found are several issues of the Ossining Courier. Other Records reening Files, 1941- A4284. Hospital Staff Draft Status Classi fication and Recruit Sc 1945. 1 cu. ft. 82

83 Arrangement: By broad topic; therein hospital sta ff files are alphabetical by location of hospital. In addition to its normal duties of promoting me ntal health in the State of New York, the Department of Mental Hygiene assisted the State with various wartime mental health-related tasks during World War II; prim arily, it conducted psychological screening of recruits for the Selective Service. As with several other St ate agencies, the department's war work was conducted in conjunction with and under the ausp ices of the War Council, which coordinated all of New York's home front activi ties. The Department of Mental Hygiene provided over 40% of the total psychiatric personnel at the milita ry's induction stations who conducted brief questioning sessions with each recruit to determin e if he was a possible psychological liability. From this session, a further background check w ould be completed on recruits suspected of having psychological problems, including consulting wi th other State agencies to ascertain if a recruit had ever been hospitali zed for a previous mental c ondition. During the war over 450,000 men were examined and 3,200 identified as probable liabilities. In addition to screening recruits, the department also transferred three institutions with a total of over 5,000 beds to the Army for use as general facilities. The department also und ertook to educate the pub lic to meet the strain of the war by providing lectures a nd radio talks to air raid ward en and defense groups. It also produced several well-received pamphlets on citizen morale. This series contains correspondence and memoranda between staff relating to the department's ng drafted by classifying them as essential to efforts to prevent its hospital personnel from bei detailing the department's work screening recruits for the operations. Also found are records Selective Service, which was part of its task in promoting mental health. These records discuss onfidentiality and screening criter ia including serious delinquency, policy considerations such as c ous mental conditions. The inability of certain perverted sexuality, and a family history of seri institutions to safeguard confidential in formation is also frankly discussed. Finding aids: Folder list. A3083. Petitions from the Br onx Coordinating Committee for Child Care, ca. 1944. 1 cu. ft. The Coordinating Committee circulated these pe titions requesting the governor to establish adequate child care facilities in New York City. The petitions are on standard printed forms and are signed by residents of Bronx County. A4392. Home Front Goals Promotion and Instruction Audio-Visual Materials, ca. 1942-1944. 5.2 cu. ft. Much of the War Council's work focused on in forming the general public on home front war goals and providing instruction on the methods to ach ieve them. This series contains audio-visual materials including filmstrips, black-and-whit e photographs, slides, posters, and phonograph rs, including billboard size posters, from the records employed to this end. Included are poste War Transportation Committee promoting driver safety and automobile conservation; color 83

84 slides demonstrating home canning; a filmstrip from the U.S. Office of Civilian Defense entitled p on home safety; black- "Battle Strategy for the Home Front"; a filmstri and-white photographs of diverse War Council activitie s; phonograph recordings, including one of Lieutenant Governor ployment, one on civil defense ("When Bombs Charles Poletti speaking on discrimination in em nd an organizational char t of the War Council's Fall"), and one explaining the Block Plan; a Division of War Records and its organizati onal relationship with the State Education Department's Division of Archives and History. A4322. Abbot Low Moffat's Advisory Co rrespondence, 1941-1943. 1.5 cu. ft. Arrangement: Alphabetical by subject. Abbot Low Moffat was an assemblyman from New York City (15th District) from 1929 to 1943. From 1938 to 1939, he served as the chair of the Ways and Means Committee. From 1941-1943, he also served on the War Council. This seri es contains corresponden ce between Moffat, War Council officials, and others involved in Stat e war work relating to many War Council activities which Moffat helped oversee, including agricultural aid, child care, civil defense, anti- oning, salvage, and discrimination work, housing problems, rati war transportation. Finding aids: Folder list. Publications and Information ns File, 1941-1945. 5.5 cu. ft. A3091. War Information Publicatio Arrangement: Alphabetical by topic or agency publishing material. special reports, handbooks, pamphlets, posters and This series consists of printed annual and training materials issued by State and federal ag encies involved in the homefront effort. The publications provide civilians with information on numerous war related issues and deal with a wide range of social and economic issues rela ting to war efforts underway. Among the subjects included are civil defense; commerce; discri mination in employment; economics; education; emergency medical training; health and nutrition; job recruitment; labor; nursing; physical education; rationing; and war training. Finding aids: Item list. A4289. Citizen Assistance and Prepar ation Films, 1942 -1943. 1 cu. ft. This series contains five bl ack-and-white, 16 mm films produced by the Department of Health singly or in conjunction with th e New York State War Council. These films explain the programs ffered aid or advice to citizens. With these of the Health Department or War Council which o 84

85 films, these government bodies hoped to alleviate citizens' concerns about wartime disruptions of their lives and to boost effici ption of each film follows. ency and productivity. A descri What of Your Child? (approximate ains the program of the War ly 200 feet or 4 minutes) expl Council's Committee on Child Care: who is eligible, what risks are avoided by enrolling a child are involved. The film starts with Governor in the program, what activities and age groups Thomas E. Dewey explaining that because of th e great need for labor, women, including mothers, must work, and therefore child car e has been set up to facilitate this. This film includes many shots of children at play. Quit Worrying! (approximately 200 feet or 4 minut es) explains the New York State Children's Bureau and the obstetric services which can be obtained through the bureau for the wives of military personnel. It explains who is eligible fo r its programs and details the benefits available. The beginning and end of the film feature flag s, music, and people of various European backgrounds engaged in work and leisure activities. Fighters in White (approximately 400 feet or 8 minutes) opens with shots of Hitler, Nazis, and swastika flags with a voice-over stating "How well they know what they fight against." This is followed by scenes of children play ing and the voice-over states, "Well too they know the things they fight for!" The film then discusses ai r raid wardens and the War Council's Emergency detail the involvement of doctors, Medical Service. It describes in nurses, and the coordination of volunteers who will prevent casualties from bomb ings through the Emergency Medical Service, xplaining the organization's hierarchy. with the middle part of the film e Four Point Safety Home (approximately 600 feet or 12 minutes) details accidents in the home and how they can be prevented, and discusses cost and frequency of specific types of accidents. pproximately 400 feet or 8 minutes) discusses Local Health Problems in War Industry Areas (a health problems in Seneca County when a new ordnance depot brings a great number of temporary workers to the area, placing a strain on housing and water supplies. The Department of Health tested local wells for purity, trucke d in pure water where needed, constructed new outhouses, arranged for temporary housing, and brought in nurses to tend to health care needs. Activities, ca. 1942- 1945. 2.2 cu. ft. A4299. Photographs of War Council Agency Arrangement: By subject. This series contains over 300 black-and-white ph otographs (most 8 x 10) taken to document the activities of, and the individuals who worked for, the War Council. Photographs depict child care institutions, Chinese labor (as part of th e Farm Manpower Service), the Emergency Food Commission, the Home Accident Pr evention program, migrant labo r camps, the Physical Fitness Office, publicity activities, salv age collection, U.S. Cadet Nurses , victory gardens, the War Bond program, and War Council officers and personnel. Finding aids: Folder list. 85

86 History A4292. History of Westchester County De fense and War Councils, 1940-1945. 0.8 cu. ft.(4 volumes) Arrangement: Numerical by volume number. The four bound volumes which comprise this seri es are, according to the foreword, condensed from the 31-volume complete version kept in the Office of the Westchester County Clerk, County Court House, in White Plains, New Yor k. These volumes were presented to the New York State War Council in 1946. The condensed vers ion and the larger complete history were compiled to document the efforts of this local War Council. Volume 1 details the activities e Westchester County War Council and sub-organizations of th including the health and sanita tion committee; women's participation in the war effort; child care; nursing recruitment; community health; war tr ansportation; civilian mobilization; industrial production; welfare committee; ci vilian protection; rationing boards; salvage drives; and war stamps and bonds. Names of specific programs, participants, and often a chronology of activities can be found for these organizations. Volume 2 contains bulletins (May 1941-January 1942), special orders (May 1942-May 1945), and general orders (May 1942-May 1945). Volume 3 contains regulations (May 1942-August 1944). Vo lume 4 contains circulars (May 1942-May 1945).All were issued by the Westchester County Office of Civilian Protection and concerned circulars also contain information issued from civil defense and civilian mobilization issues. The rpretations of regulations. the federal government on inte Indexes: Within Volume 1 is a complete index to the full history. 41-1942. 1.5 cu. ft. A4365. Scrapbooks, 19 Arrangement: Chronological. This series contains resoluti ons, Official Bulletins, corres pondence, and booklets documenting events and actions taken by the Council of Defense and the War Council which were collected to document the work of these organizations. Many, if not all, of the documents found in this series duplicate records in other War Council series. A4344. Organizational History Research File, 1941-1944. 1 cu. ft. Arrangement: Arranged by agency or topic. This series contains records from a wide array of War Council agencies detailing major events in the agencies' formation, the execution of their du ties, or appointment of officers. They were apparently culled or collected from other record s to document significant as pects of the council's , correspondence, resolutions, monthly reports, meeting minutes history. Document types include 86

87 programs, pamphlets, sample forms, and me moranda-of-understanding. Agencies or subjects represented in this series include: child care; New York State Division of Commerce; New York State Department of Health; New York Stat e Department of Labor; Discrimination in Employment Committee; Farm Manpower Service; fire protection; Housing Division; labor safety program; Mutual Aid Water Supply; nutr ition; New York State Employment Service; Office of Civilian Mobilization; physical fitness; police reports; production; rati oning; salvage; State Traffic Commission; transportation; victory gardens; voca tional training; War Information Service; War Training Program; and War Emergency Dispensation Act. 87

88 Appendices Appendix A Series Available on Microfilm ecruitment and Classification Files, 1942- - A4277. Nursing Council for War Service. R 1945. t. Minutes and Investigations Files, - A4278. Committee on Discrimination in Employmen 1941-1945. Committee on Child Care, Development, and Protection A4279. Local Child Care Organizati - on and Assistance Files, 1942- 1945. - A4282. Mayor's Committee on Child Care for Schenectady Administrative Files, 1942- 1947. - Center Field Reports, 1944- 1947. A4283. Post-World War II Day Care Executive Offices A4304. Agenda and Minutes, 1942-1945. - - A4343. Social and Economic Surv eys of New York Cities, 1942. - A4312. Progress Reports of War Coun cil and State Agencies, 1941- 1945. - A4301. Agencies and Local War Counc ils General Report Files, 1942-1945. Office of Civilian Mobilization A4324. Local War Councils' and Field Represen tatives' City and County Activity Reports, - 1941-1945. A4330. Local War Council Operating Reports, 1942-1944. - - A4331. Field Directors' Local War Council Master Reports, 1942- 1944. Office of Civilian Protection A4300. Director's Correspondence with Local Civilian Protection Organizations, 1942- - 1945. Division of Records - A3081. Inventories of State War-Rel ated Agency Records, 1940-1945. Emergency Medical Service - A4286. Survey and Planning Files, 1940-1945. 88

89 Salvage Division Local Salvage Committees, 1943- 1945. - A4350. Instructive Releases Sent to A4352. Field Representatives' Correspondence and Report Files, 1945. - A4353. Advisory Correspondence with Local Salvage Committees, 1944-1945. - Appendix B Series Containing Significant Local (Town and County) Information Executive Offices A4303. Executive Secretary's Corresponde nce with Local War Councils, 1942-1945. - - A4345. Local Defense Council Appointment Notification and Inquiry Response Correspondence, 1940-1941. A4312. Progress Reports of War Coun cil and State Agencies, 1941- 1945. - A4343. Social and Economic Surv eys of New York Cities, 1942. - - A4346. Assistant to the State War Plans Coor dinator's Agency Activity Coordination and Information Files, 1941-1945 (bulk 1942). - A4360. State War Plans Coordinator's Corre spondence and Information File, 1941-1942. A4362. Executive Secretary's Correspondence wi th Civil Defense Administrators, 1942. - A4301. Agencies and Local War Counc ils General Report Files, 1942-1945. - Office of Civilian Mobilization - A4340. Lists of Local War Council Chairs and Officers, 1943-1945. A3084. Correspondence with Local War Counc - ils and Volunteer Agencies, 1942-1945. - A4324. Local War Councils' and Field Represen tatives' City and County Activity Reports, 1941-1945. A4329. Local War Councils News - paper Clippings File, 1941-1945. - A4330. Local War Council Operating Reports, 1942-1944. - A4331. Field Directors' Local War Council Master Reports, 1942- 1944. - A4332. Address Lists of State War Council Agency Directors and Local War Council Officers, 1941-1945. - ent Reports Received from Local Offices, A4337. Summary Charts of Volunteer Assignm 1943-1944. - A4341. Civilian War Services and Civili an Protection Training Charts, 1943. - A4342. Local War Council and Subordin ate Agencies Card File, 1942-1943. Committee on Child Care, Development, and Protection - A4379. Local Child Care Organizati on and Assistance Files, 1942- 1945. - A4282. Mayor's Committee on Child Care for Schenectady Administrative Files, 1942- 1947. Center Field Reports, 1944- 1947. - A4283. Post-World War II Day Care Office of Physical Fitness 89

90 - pondence with Schools and State and Local A4367. Supervisory and Assistance Corres War Council Agencies, 1942-1945. A4368. Field Representatives' Reports and Support Materials, 1942- 1945. A4306. New York City Regional Office Admi nistration and Corres pondence Files, 1942- - 1945. A4363. Requisitions for State Physic al Fitness Certificates, 1943- 1946. - Office of Civilian Protection - A4300. Director's Correspondence With Local Civilian Protection Organizations, 1942- 1945. A4305. Director's Defense Preparedne ss Coordination Correspondence, 1941-1945. - - A4308. Eastern and Western District Deputy Directors' Local War Council Correspondence and Directives, 1941-1945. - A4311. Director's General Administrative Files, 1942-1945 - A4387. Local War Council Volunteer Participation Information and Statistics, 1942-1944. - A4389. Local Water Companies Survey and Equipment Inventory, ca. 1942. A4386. War Plant Protection Instruct ional Materials, 1942-1943. Highway Repair and Debris Clearance Committee - A4272. Equipment and Material Inventories, ca. 1941-1945. A4273. Personnel Files, ca. 1941-1945. - A4274. Contractors Files, ca. 1941-1945. - Emergency Medical Service. - A4286. Survey and Planning Files, 1940-1945. State Fire Administrator - A4357. Local Personnel and Equipment Inventories, 1942-1945. Office of War Training - A4381. Correspondence with Local War Counc ils and Other War Agencies, 1943-1944. - A4373. School Bus Drivers' Training Program Administration and Certification Files, 1943-1945. - A4380. Film Distribution Correspondence, 1943-1944. War Transportation Committee - A4395. Omnibus and Charter Bus R oute Request Files, 1942-1945. A4396. School Bus Route Review and Ce rtificate Renewal Files, 1943-1945. - 90

91 - 1942-1945. A4398. Special Charter Bus Permit A4397. Field Agents Supervision Files, Request Correspondence, 1942- 1945. - A4402. Charter, Omni-, School, and Summer Camp Bus Application Request Tracking Files, 1942-1945. - A4404. Complaint Correspondence File, 1943-1945. - A4405. School Bus Regulation Exemption Correspondence, 1943- 1945. Salvage Division A4350. Instructive Releases Sent to - Local Salvage Committees, 1943- 1945. - A4352. Field Representatives' Correspondence and Report Files, 1945. - A4353. Advisory Correspondence with Local Salvage Committees, 1944-1945. Other Records - A4292. History of Westchester Count y Defense and War Councils, 1940-1945. - A4245. Local War Council Records Inve ntory Forms and Correspondence, 1945-1946. - A4296. War Records Program Organization File, 1943-1945. formation Preservation File, ca. 1943-1946. A4297. World War II Home Front Activity In - 91

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