1 ® American Angus Association Arthrogryposis Multiplex (AM) Fact Sheet Factsheet The following fact sheet was developed to respond to questions commonly asked by American Angus Association members. information may be found online at www.angus.org. Additional I have never had an calf. Does that mean my cows are What is Arthrogryposis Multiplex (AM)? AM AM was recognized as a genetic condition non on September 16 , - carriers? Not necessarily. 2008. Calves are born dead or die shortly after birth. The spine and legs appear crooked or twisted and the joints of the legs What is the risk of having an AM calf if I breed an AM are often fixed in position. Front legs are contracted and rear carrier cow to an carrier bull? AM limbs may be contracted or extended. Calves are small and Every time you breed a carrier to a carrier, there is: appear thin due to limited muscle development. There may be A 25% risk of having a dead - calf; AM a cleft affecting the nose or palate. - A 50% risk of having an otherwise normal appear ing calf - that carries the AM mutation; A 25% chance that you will have a non appearing, - normal - - carrier calf. AM carrier cow to an AM carrier bull and have If I breed an ? AM three live calves, will the fourth calf have The risk is the same every time you breed a carrier to a carrie r. calf, a 50% risk AM There is always a 25% risk of having a dead - of having a carrier calf, and a 25% chance of having a non Figure 2 Figure 1 carrier calf. AM What causes ? carrier cow to a non carrier bull, what is - If I breed an AM is caused by a recessive mutation on a single cattle AM the chance of having an calf? AM affected chromosome. Cattle that are homozygous for the mutated affected AM have an Zero. You will never calf if you breed a AM gene will exhibit . carr xcluding the possibility of a e ier cow to a non carrier bull. ( - spontaneous mutation) What is an carrier? AM carrier is an Angus or For the purpose of this response, an AM carrier bull, what is If I breed an AM - carrier cow to a non Angus cross cow, heifer, bull or steer that carries the recessive - the risk of having a carrier calf? mutation in their DNA. AM carrier bull there - Every time you breed a carrier cow to a non is: Why are carriers of AM important? A 50% risk of having a normal - appear ing calf that carries - used in breeding programs (registered or Carriers of AM the AM mutation; and ecessive commercial) are responsible for propagating the r - carrier calf. - A 50% chance you will have a non mutation within the cattle population. Is there a test to identify carriers? AM carrier look like? AM What does an Yes. A DNA test is available to determine if an animal carries An carrier looks perfectly normal; there is nothing in the AM the AM mutation in their DNA. The type of DNA sample way an animal looks (its phen otype) that indicates that the required to perform the test varies from lab to lab but includes; mutation. animal is a carrier of the AM - hair root samples, blood spot or FTA cards, whole blood in If a cow has an AM calf, what does that mean? “purple – bes, tissue samples from ears and semen top” tu calf, and if it is the cow’s natural calf, it AM If a cow has an samples. mutation and the sire means that the cow is a carrier of the AM A video on www.angus.org explaining how to collect the carrier. AM of the calf is also an sample can be found . here AM that mean? calf, what does If a recipient cow has an carrier females in my - What do I do with the confirmed non If a recipient cow has an AM calf, it means only that both the herd? donor cow and the sire of the calf are carriers of the AM - carriers and they are bred to non If the females are tested non - carrier mutation. It doesn’t tell you anything about the AM AM carrier bulls, they will never produce affected calves or status of the recipient cow. carriers. These non - carrier females can be used throughout calf, what d AM If a bull sires an oes that mean? AM your breeding program with no risk of propagating the calf, it means that the bull is a carrier of the AM If a bull sires an utation. m AM mutation and that the dam of the calf is also an AM carrier.
2 What do I do with confirmed female carriers in my herd? AM potential carrier report & potential carrier You have several options: management tool tion and you want to AM - If you have a cow that carries the muta AAA Login users can access interactive tool s to generate a report of produce calves from her; you must make a commitment to test all owned animals and their Arthrogryposis Multiplex (AM status ) offspring retained for breeding; (check policy regarding registration date. From the AAA Login test results received to based on the AM requirements) menu, go to the “interactive” section and click on “Potential - If you have both a registered and a commercial herd, retain your Carrier Report AM/NH /CA/DD/M1/D2” or “Potential Carrier carrier cows in the co mmercial herd, breed to a non - carrier bull, and Management Tool (PCMT).” The PCMT can identify those animals test any calves retained for breeding purposes; in your herd that have the most descendants in your herd and carrier bull, you will - If you always breed your carrier cows to a non - would be the most logical animal to start a testing scheme should If you are not lar genetic condition. you decide to test for a particu AM calf. never have an a current AAA Login user, you can sign up to create an online - carrier cows as ET recipients. As a recipient female, she Use your AM www.angusonline.org. profile at has no genetic effect on the embryo calf she raises. What is the AAA registration policy regarding AM ? 12. If a calf is a potential carrier submitted for registration after 9 - 13 - Must be tested and can be registered regardless of the test outcome. Heifers Bulls Must be tested and only those that test AMF can be registered. E.T. Calves Registration is based on sex of calf and if they are sired by a bull that is an A.I. sire as described below. No test required. Steers A.I. Sires that are Calves cannot be registered that are conceived more than 60 days after the date a non - owned bull (a bull that would require an A.I. Service Certificate) is listed as a carrier animal (AMC). confirmed carriers AM Definitions AMC Carrier, has been tested and carries the AM mutation. – AMF AM Free, has been tested and does not carry the AM mutation. – AMP – to one or more confirmed tested carrier animals in its pedigree Potential Carrier , animal that trace s AM ancestors that have been tested free of AM. that have no intervening Two Testing Options 1. Submit Samples through American Angus Association/AGI Samples are submitted to the American Angus Association and archived for future testing AAA Login to orde r tests. Use and use menu option: Order -- Testing for AM/NH/CA/ DD/ D2/M1 requests. Login at www.angusonline.org Arthrogryposis Multiplex ( AM ) Testing Authorized Labs for 2. Additional AM testing by the American Angus Association. Consult the respective lab web sites for Below are the labs currently authorized for sample types, sample submission forms, pricing information and complete instructions on how and information on DNA preferred where to submit samples for testing. In choosing a lab, members of the Association are urged to read and carefully consider any language on a given lab's submis sion form (for the AM test) or on its accompanying "Terms and Conditions" that relates to any lab's alternative use of the DNA samples being submitted. wing labs are authorized for AM: The follo Zoetis GeneSeek Bldg 300 333 Portage Road , 4665 Innovation Dr. Suite 120 Kalamazoo, MI 49007 - 9970 Lincoln , NE 68521 - - 435 - 0665 402 877 - 233 3362 833 - 0664 - 4711 - Fax: 269 Fax: 402 - 435 www.geneseek.com .com http://www.zoetis Revision 0/2016 06/2