All In Cincinnati 10 17 18e

Transcript

1 All-In Cincinnati: Equity Is the Path to Inclusive Prosperity USC Program for Environmental & Regional Equity James A. Crowder Jr. October 2018 Supported by

2 Foreword The foundation for this agenda was already laid by the work of The story of Cincinnati is a tale of two cities. The first courageous citizens and policymakers who birthed the Cincinnati exemplifies its reputation as the Queen City, a bright Collaborative Agreement, the Citizens Complaint Authority, the light in the dark night run toward freedom. This Cincinnati is Community Police Partnering Center, the Minority Business considered by many to be “the northernmost southern city.” Accelerator, the Wage Theft Ordinance, and the Pre-School Home to the Bengals and the Reds, Oktoberfest, and the Promise. But we’ve barely scratched the surface of income long-running Cincinnati Music Festival—the largest annual inequality and the mass incarceration issues facing people of weekend driver of tourism among surrounding states. color in Cincinnati and Hamilton County. The status quo is simply not working for the majority of our community. We And then, there is the other Cincinnati. The city where many of its invite you to study this report with an open mind, an open residents do not benefit from the richness that is here. The place heart, and an eye toward what each of us can do to contribute where the voices of those who suffer compounded inequities are to this movement. The time for change is now. The force for often not heard. One of the most segregated communities in the change is all of us. nation. A city where racism far too often prevails. consisting of representatives The All-In Cincinnati Core Team, Produced in 1968, a year after waves of national civil unrest, from the following organizations: the Kerner Commission Report warned that unaddressed racial turmoil would result in two nations: one Black and one White. MOS Project A written 47 The State of Black Cincinnati: A Tale of Two Cities Child Poverty Collaborative years later in 2015 confirmed that, for Cincinnati, not much Cincinnati Black United Front had changed. Cincinnati Union Cooperative Initiative City of Cincinnati Human Relations Commission For those of us on the All-In Cincinnati Core Team, this latest report shook us to our core. So, at the end of 2015, a group City of Cincinnati Economic Inclusion Department of Cincinnatians attended the PolicyLink Equity Summit in City of Cincinnati Health Department Los Angeles, to learn from other advocates from across the Collective Empowerment Group country about how we attack the racial and economic Intersections inequities here in Cincinnati. We came home, armed with the LISC of Greater Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky focus and drive to use our power to make our city a better place for all. Three years later, we are excited to launch a Strive Partnership policy agenda for a more equitable Cincinnati. Urban League of Southwestern Ohio The Women’s Fund of the Greater Cincinnati Foundation Equity Is the Path to Inclusive Prosperity 2 All-In Cincinnati:

3 Introduction Overview Cincinnati is an economic powerhouse, yet it struggles with Cincinnati is poised for economic renewal. As home to nine Fortune 500 companies, the region is an economic uneven growth, high rates of poverty, and an economy 2 powerhouse. dominated by low-wage jobs and few pathways into the middle After decades of decline, for six years in a row, 3 Several the city of Cincinnati’s population has inched upward. class. While communities of color account for only 33 percent 1 of Hamilton County’s population—up from 23 percent in 1990 depopulated and disinvested neighborhoods have come back —racial inequities persist across all indicators of community to life with rehabbed apartments, new stores and restaurants, health and well-being. To build a stronger Cincinnati, public art, and foot traffic. stakeholders must start with equity—just and fair inclusion into a society in which all, including every racial and ethnic group, Yet across the city and Hamilton County, many residents, and many neighborhoods, remain cut off from this new investment can participate, prosper, and reach their full potential. Equity seeks to counteract the barriers and systemic exclusions and growth. Within “revitalized” neighborhoods like Over-the- (historic and current) that prevent people from realizing their Rhine, lower wealth residents—disproportionately people of potential. Leaders in the private, public, nonprofit, and color—often do not feel that they have been a part of the philanthropic sectors must commit to putting all residents on revitalization process, or that they benefit from new the path to economic security through equity-focused investments. Many more live in neighborhoods that are still strategies and policies to grow good jobs, invest in human distressed, with vacant properties and stagnant home values. And most lower wealth residents have not seen their paychecks capital, remove barriers, and expand opportunities for communities of color currently being left behind. grow even as housing costs have increased. These Cincinnatians are still waiting for their opportunity to be a part of the rising tide, and to contribute their energy and talent to building the new Cincinnati. Our look at the data confirms what others have already described: inequities by race, gender, income, and neighborhood persist across multiple indicators—from economic inclusion to education to access to healthy and affordable homes, transportation, jobs, and more. The greatest inequities are found at the intersection between these demographic and geographic dimensions: women of color in Hamilton County, for example, face particular barriers to accessing quality jobs that pay enough to support a family, and we also know that nationwide women of color with children experience the highest rates of eviction. Cincinnati’s resurgence cannot be complete when these glaring exclusions persist. For the city and county to prosper, everyone must participate and benefit from growth and development. One reason for this inclusion imperative relates to changing demographics: while Hamilton County’s population has steadily been growing more diverse over the past several decades, the pace of change is going to pick up. The county’s Black, Latino, Asian, and multiracial populations will grow and by 2040 these communities of color as a group will be the majority. Eliminating racial inequities will become more and more important as people of color become the majority of the county’s schoolchildren, workers, and residents. Equity Is the Path to Inclusive Prosperity 3 All-In Cincinnati:

4 Advancing equity—just and fair inclusion—is both the right About the Data Analysis thing to do and critical to securing Cincinnati’s economic Unless otherwise noted, all of the data and analyses future. Research proves that inequality and racial segregation presented in this report were produced by PolicyLink and hinder growth, prosperity, and economic mobility in regions, the University of Southern California’s Program for while diversity and inclusion fuel innovation and business 4 Environmental and Regional Equity (PERE) and are success. As baby boomers retire and the region’s workforce included in the accompanying profile, Advancing Health grows more and more diverse, the costs of racial economic Equity and Inclusive Growth in Cincinnati . Data were exclusion for Cincinnati—and the value proposition of drawn from the National Equity Atlas longitudinal inclusion—will continue to rise. Already, our analysis finds that database which includes deeply disaggregated indicators Hamilton County’s economic output could be almost $10 covering the 1979 – 2015 time period as well as more billion higher every year if racial gaps in income were recent population estimates from the U.S. Census eliminated. Bureau for 2016. The focus of the analysis was on Hamilton County but we also examined the city of This report, and the accompanying data profile, Advancing Cincinnati and neighborhoods across the county. underscore the Health Equity and Inclusive Growth in Cincinnati, Throughout the text in this report, we use “Cincinnati” urgency of equity for Cincinnati and outlines an agenda to put and “Hamilton County” interchangeably to describe the the city on the path toward inclusive prosperity. It is based on county but say the “city of Cincinnati” when we are interviews and conversations with dozens of Cincinnati leaders, specifically describing the city. The appendix of the in addition to a review of the current data, and research on profile includes additional information about methods promising practices and strategies to advance equitable and data sources. development and growth. The report is organized in three sections: describes the demographic shifts New Demography • underway in Hamilton County, Ohio. examines how the The State of Equity in Hamilton County • county is doing on measures of inclusive growth and prosperity, looking at the county’s economic inclusion and vitality, the readiness to participate and contribute, and the connectedness of the county’s residents to each other and the county’s assets and opportunities. Toward an All-In Cincinnati • presents policy priorities to achieve inclusive prosperity. The good news is that leaders across the region have set a foundation for action. Cincinnati’s inequities have been well documented and conversations about inequality are already happening. Policy shifts are underway. But it is time to step it up. Cincinnati’s future depends on changing the odds for its communities of color. Equity Is the Path to Inclusive Prosperity 4 All-In Cincinnati:

5 population is expected to decrease from 68 percent to 42 New Demography: A Growing and Much percent of the population while the Black population will More Diverse Hamilton County increase from 26 to 33 percent, the Asian population will increase from 2 to 10 percent, and the Latino population will Like the city of Cincinnati, Hamilton County is again increase from 3 to 9 percent. experiencing population growth after decades of decline. Hamilton County counts about 813,800 residents as of 2017, up Hamilton County’s fastest-growing racial/ethnic demographic 5 This is down from 925,000 in 1970—but from 802,000 in 2010. groups also tend to skew very young, which bodes well for the represents an important recent upward trend. area’s workforce vitality. The median age of White residents is 41, 8 compared to 25 for Latino residents and 33 for Black residents. This population increase is entirely due to the growth of communities of color. Since 2000, the county has lost over These demographic changes also mean that the county’s young 72,000 White residents while communities of color (defined as residents are much more diverse than its seniors. Today, 43 all groups other than those who self-identify as non-Hispanic percent of young people under age 18 are people of color, 6 and White) grew by 31,000. Over the same time, the county’s 9 compared with only 21 percent of seniors ages 65 and over. Black, mixed-race, Latino, and Asian or Pacific Islander This 22-percentage point racial generation gap between young populations all grew in absolute numbers as well as their and old has risen very quickly, more than doubling since 1980. population shares. The county’s small Latino population is also This large racial generation gap can have significant its fastest-growing group. consequences when it comes to investing in services and programming for youth, since researchers have consistently Demographic projections reveal that these changes are expected found that White seniors are less likely to support spending on to continue and accelerate. Hamilton County—which was 80 10 This is youth when they are from different racial groups. percent White in 1980—is projected to become majority people particularly relevant to Cincinnati as the city develops a of color by 2040, four years before the tipping point for the concerted effort to combat child poverty, which 7 Between 2010 and 2050, the White nation as a whole. 11 disproportionately affects children of color. Hamilton County is projected to become majority people of color in 2040, four years before the nation. Racial/Ethnic Composition, 1980 to 2050 2% W hi te U. S. % 3% 2% 4% 5% 6% 2% 3% 3% othe r Mi xe d/ 5% 4% 7% 19 % % 10 5% Na rica n A tive me % 21 7% % 23 As Pac ific r ian or de Islan 26 % 9% tino La 27 % k Blac % 29 ite Wh 31 % 33 % 80 % 77 % % 72 % 68 % 63 % 57 % 50 % 42 50 20 40 20 30 20 20 20 19 80 19 90 20 00 20 10 U.S. Census Bureau; Woods & Poole Economics, Inc. Source: Much of the increase in the mixed/other population between 1990 and 2000 is due to a change in the survey question on race. Note: Equity Is the Path to Inclusive Prosperity 5 All-In Cincinnati:

6 Economic Vitality: Inequitable Growth Is The State of Equity in Hamilton County Deepening Racial Economic Divides Given the county’s rapidly changing demographics, ensuring that the Black, Latino, Asian, and mixed-race communities that Hamilton County is experiencing economic growth—as represent a growing share of workers and residents are able to measured by traditional measures including growth in jobs and participate and thrive is critical to the city of Cincinnati’s and economic output—but its economic growth is slower than the Hamilton County’s success. To better understand the current 12 national average. Moreover, economic opportunities are state of equity, we examined how the county is doing across diminishing in the county as the number of “middle-wage” jobs three major dimensions of equitable growth. that have typically provided stepping stones into middle-class economic security for workers with fewer means has decreased. Since 1979, the share of middle-class households decreased Economic vitality: How is the county doing on measures of • from 40 percent to 35 percent of all households, while the economic growth and well-being? share of lower income households grew from 30 percent to 39 • Readiness: How prepared are the county’s residents for the 13 The share of higher income households also declined percent. 21st century economy? from 30 to 26 percent, but has increased over the past decade. Connectedness: Are the county’s residents and • neighborhoods connected to one another and to the county’s While the regional economy has recovered from the Great assets and opportunities? Recession, many of the racial and gender inequities in education, employment, and income have not improved and, in fact, have in some cases worsened. To ensure a strong economy and improved growth, the county will need to address the following challenges. The county’s middle class has declined. Households by Income Level, 1979 and 2014 r Uppe 26 % 30 % 7,012 $8 $8 2,303 dd Mi le % 35 % 40 $3 5,904 $3 3,962 Lowe r % 39 % 30 20 99 19 89 19 79 19 14 Source: Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Universe includes all households (no group quarters). Note: Data for 2014 represent a 2010 through 2014 average. Dollar values are in 2014 dollars. Equity Is the Path to Inclusive Prosperity 6 All-In Cincinnati:

7 The • Racial barriers to good jobs and fair pay. While the overall • Working poverty, particularly for women of color. unemployment rate in Hamilton County is lower than the share of workers who are considered working poor (defined here as working full-time for an income below 200 percent of national average, workers who are Black, Latino, or with the federal poverty level) is both on the rise in the county multiracial backgrounds face much higher rates of unemployment than White workers. The unemployment rate and is higher among communities of color. Working poverty for Black workers in Hamilton County (17 percent), is almost is particularly a problem for Latinos, with more than one in 14 five Latino workers working full-time with family income In three times that for White workers (5.6 percent). below 200 percent of the federal poverty level. Women, addition, although unemployment declines as education particularly women of color, are also disproportionately levels increase, African Americans face the highest rates of represented among the working poor. unemployment at all education levels, signaling that 15 For employment discrimination continues to play a role. example, among those with a bachelor’s degree or higher, Nationally, women are nearly two-thirds of minimum-wage workers, and 40 percent of all households with children under Black workers are still more than twice as likely as Whites to 16 Black workers also earn lower wages than age 18 include mothers as the sole or primary source of be unemployed. 18 their White counterparts at every education level. Among Similarly, nearly half of low-wage women workers are income. 19 women of color. In Ohio, 19 percent of working Black women college-educated workers, Black workers earn $6/hour less 17 than their White counterparts ($23 compared with $29). and 19 percent of working Latina women between ages 25 and 64 are classified as working poor, compared to only 8 percent 20 of White women in the same age group. In Hamilton County, Black and Latina women are the most likely to be working full-time and still economically insecure. Female Working-Poor Rate by Race/Ethnicity, 2014 All 8.6% ite Wh 5.4% Blac k 17 .6% La tino .1% 18 As r de Islan ian or Pac ific 6.4% ther M ixed /o .2% 10 Source: Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Universe includes the female civilian noninstitutional population ages 25 through 64 who worked during the year prior to the survey (excludes group quarters). Note: Data represent a 2010 through 2014 average. Data for some racial/ethnic groups in some years are excluded due to small sample size. Equity Is the Path to Inclusive Prosperity 7 All-In Cincinnati:

8 approximately 13,000 in 2000 to 12,400 in 2014, there is still Readiness: Educational and Health Barriers racial inequality. Only 37 percent of all youth are people of Are Holding People of Color Back 21 color, but are 56 percent of disconnected youth. In addition to being able to access good jobs and rising The future of Cincinnati and Hamilton County is contingent incomes, Cincinnati’s current and future workers must be upon the ability of its youth to power its economy in the years adequately prepared to participate in—and build—the next to come. Unfortunately, a significant segment of Hamilton economy. Given today’s knowledge- and technology-driven County’s workforce lacks access to the education needed to economy, this means gaining a college education or another take advantage of the technological and information-based postsecondary certificate or credential. Several community jobs of the future. According to the Georgetown Center for leaders in the education and health sectors interviewed for Education and the Workforce, 41 percent of all jobs in Ohio this analysis spoke specifically about the need to increase the 22 will require an associate’s degree or higher by 2020. number of students engaged in STEM (science, technology, Currently, only 23 percent of Latino immigrants, and 25 engineering, and math) education. Hamilton County is percent of U.S.-born Black working-age residents in Hamilton showing some signs of progress: more of the county’s youth 23 If the Cincinnati region County have that level of education. are getting high school diplomas and the number of 16-to-24- is to remain a competitive site for Fortune 500 companies, year-olds who are not enrolled in school and lack a high the region’s education and workforce training systems must school diploma fell by 40 percent from roughly 7,000 in 2000 support and increase the ability of people of color to succeed to 3,000 in 2014. While the number of “disconnected youth” in jobs of the future. who are neither in school nor working dropped slightly from Hamilton County could face a skills gap if it does not increase educational attainment among growing segments of the workforce. Share of Working-Age Population with an Associate’s Degree or Higher by Race/Ethnicity, 2014, and Projected Share of Jobs that Require an Associate’s Degree or Higher, 2020 % 70 65 % 50 % % 49 42 % 41 % 40 % % 25 % 23 Source: Georgetown Center for Education and the Workforce; Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Universe for education levels of workers includes all persons ages 25 through 64. Note: Data for 2014 by race/ethnicity and nativity represent a 2010 through 2014 average for Hamilton County; data on jobs in 2020 represents a state-level projection for Ohio. Equity Is the Path to Inclusive Prosperity 8 All-In Cincinnati:

9 have increased, while wages have remained stagnant. Rents in Connectedness: A Shortage of Healthy, Cincinnati are rising at a faster pace than any other major Affordable Housing Options 25 In fact, the eviction rate in metropolitan area in the Midwest. Cincinnati ranks among the 10 highest eviction rates for Housing is the foundation for opportunity. The location and 26 metropolitan areas across the country. quality of a home that one can afford affects not only the living space, but also determines the quality of schools for children, Limited access to safe and affordable housing options forces health and safety for families, the length of commute for many residents to move further away from high-opportunity workers, and more. Unfortunately, the number of housing units neighborhoods and commute to work. As one elected Hamilton affordable to low-income households in Hamilton County has County official interviewed for this analysis noted, job centers not kept pace with the number of households in poverty, which have shifted away from downtown Cincinnati and the public 24 has increased by 40 percent since 2000. More than half of all transit system hasn’t reacted to that reality. Unfortunately, very renter households in the region are housing cost-burdened, low-income African Americans are the most likely to need to meaning that they are spending more than 30 percent of use public transit. Sixteen percent of Black workers who earn income on housing costs. The high housing burden also less than $15,000 per year rely on public transit, compared to 4 impacts homeowners, with 25 percent of homeowner percent of White workers in the same income bracket. This households cost-burdened. This lack of affordable housing in disparity has significant implications given the number of jobs Hamilton County disproportionately impacts Black residents. in the region that are inaccessible via public transportation. A Sixty-one percent of Black renter households are housing recent study confirmed that some 75,000 jobs in Cincinnati are cost-burdened, as are 39 percent of Black homeowner 27 unreachable by public transit. households. A major reason for the sizeable share of housing cost-burdened households is that housing costs in the region More than half of renter households and a quarter of homeowner households in the county are housing cost-burdened. Renter Housing Burden and Homeowner Housing Burden by Race/Ethnicity, 2014 % 70 All % 70 ite Wh Blac k Lati no ian or Pacific Islan de r As r xe Mi othe d/ % 60.5 % 60 60 % % 51.8 % 50 % 50 % 49.1 Renters Homeowners % 45.4 43.7 % 40 % % 40 % 39.1 38.5 % 35.4 % 30 % % 30 25.9 % % 25.4 % 24.8 23.1 % 20 % 20 % Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Universe includes all renter-occupied households with cash rent. Source: Data represent a 2010 through 2014 average. Note: All-In Cincinnati: 9 Equity Is the Path to Inclusive Prosperity

10 Disinvestment and flawed planning have created Cincinnati Toward an All-In Cincinnati: neighborhoods that are not conducive to the well-being of Policy Implications residents. For example, a growing body of research shows that the long-term success of children is hindered when they are Hamilton County’s growing, diverse population is a major raised in neighborhoods of concentrated disadvantage— economic asset that will help the county compete in a global characterized by poor housing, inadequate public economy, but this will only occur if the county’s leaders invest 28 In fact, infrastructure, and high rates of unemployment. resources equitably to ensure that all of its residents can poverty has been shown to genetically age children compared connect to good jobs and contribute their talents and 29 People with their peers living above the federal poverty line. creativity. Hamilton County’s rising inequity and racial gaps not of color in Hamilton County face greater health challenges, only hinder communities of color—they impede the whole including higher rates of both obesity and diabetes, compared region’s economic growth and prosperity. According to our 30 Similarly, the average Black with their White counterparts. analysis, if there were no racial disparities in income, GDP resident of Hamilton County has more exposure to air pollution would have been $9.9 billion higher in 2014. Unless racial gaps than residents of 83 percent of census tracts in the United are closed, the costs of inequity will grow as Hamilton County 31 States. This contributes to the fact that Black residents are becomes more diverse. 32 In addition, more likely than White residents to have asthma. data show that Black residents are more likely than White Our analysis suggests focusing on the following goals to 33 The county’s limited residents to have a heart attack. promote more equitable growth in the county. supermarket access (LSA) areas—or communities where residents must travel significantly farther to reach a supermarket compared to residents in well-served areas—are also home to higher shares of people of color compared with 34 other neighborhoods. This is a contributing factor in the 71 billion The Cincinnati metro area’s GDP would have been $9.9 percent of Black Hamilton County residents who are higher in 2014 if racial gaps in income were closed. 35 overweight or obese. Actual GDP and Estimated GDP without Racial Gaps Income, 2014 in GD ) (billions P in 2014 ga ps P if rac GD in inco me ial we s) ted (billion na re elimi $90 Eq uity 2 $78. $80 Di vide nd : $9 .9 billi on $68. 3 $70 $60 $50 $40 $30 $20 $10 $0 Integrated Public Use Microdata Series; Bureau of Economic Analysis. Source: Equity Is the Path to Inclusive Prosperity 10 All-In Cincinnati:

11 • Support the expansion of businesses owned by people of Grow good, accessible jobs that provide color, especially women of color. A well-crafted, race- pathways to the middle class conscious targeted city and county contracting program can create employment opportunities for people who are jobless Developing on-ramps to good, family-sustaining careers is because people-of-color-owned firms tend to hire more essential to building an “all-in” economy. employees of color and people living in the community. • Ensure public investments in community infrastructure However, the 2015 City of Cincinnati Disparity Study such as roads, transit, sewers, and construction projects confirmed that African American business enterprises were create training and job opportunities for the not used proportionately on all prime construction contracts, underemployed and unemployed, with emphasis on prime professional services contracts, or prime supplies and 38 women of color. This can be done by geographically services contracts. The Minority Business Accelerator targeting investments in neighborhoods where (MBA) launched by the Cincinnati Regional Chamber, and the unemployment and poverty are high, by promoting the Cincinnati Minority Business Collaborative are encouraging negotiation of community benefits agreements on large, examples of positive steps that Cincinnati has taken to publicly subsidized development projects, and by address this concern. Community leaders should ensure that implementing local and targeted hiring and training these groups are adequately funded and that city and county strategies. For example, in 2014, the Revive Oakland procurement strategies take advantage of their expertise. coalition was able to ensure that the $800 million revitalization of a shuttered army base would also create • Leverage the economic power of large anchor institutions, economic opportunities for local residents. As a result, half such as hospitals and universities, for equitable of the 3,000 jobs created through the project (1,500 These anchors can community economic development. construction jobs and 1,500 permanent jobs) will go to develop intentional strategies to hire jobseekers facing Oakland residents. In Cincinnati, the concerted mobilization barriers to employment, create on-the-job training of residents resulted in a $6 million community benefits opportunities, and purchase more goods and services from agreement to address the impact that the impending FC local and people-of-color-owned businesses that provide Cincinnati soccer stadium will have on the city’s West End local jobs. For example, the Uptown Consortium is a coalition 36 neighborhood. The soccer stadium community benefits of anchor institutions in the Cincinnati region with an agreement will establish a youth soccer program, build local intentional focus on the inclusive development of the capacity for affordable housing development, and support interchange at the intersection of Martin Luther King Drive 37 entrepreneurship training for West End residents. In 39 and Interstate 71. Thus far, the Consortium has successfully addition to exploring community benefits agreements, been able to get developers to commit to hiring 25 percent advocates should also ensure that developers are conforming of women and minority contractors, suppliers, and to their HUD Section 3 hiring requirements as housing 40 construction workers. development and construction in Hamilton County continues. Equity Is the Path to Inclusive Prosperity 11 All-In Cincinnati:

12 • Prohibit employers from asking about salary history as Increase the economic security and mobility part of the job application process. An employer’s reliance of vulnerable families and workers, especially on salary history will effectively perpetuate historical women of color facing barriers to employment patterns of bias and discrimination. Eliminating inquiries into salary history seeks to level the playing field and empower Neighborhoods and cities thrive when their residents have women to be able to negotiate higher pay. New York, sufficient incomes to buy goods and services from local Philadelphia, San Francisco, and the state of Massachusetts 46 businesses, and invest in their homes and neighborhoods. have already successfully passed such legislation. Implement sectoral workforce strategies that connect • Increase the availability of apprenticeships, career • workers with lower education levels to high-quality academies, and other education and training supports training programs that lead to gainful employment in that provide work experience and connections to keep more Such approaches are a growing sectors of the economy. youth on the track to graduation, college, and family- win-win for employers who need access to skilled workers as sustaining careers. For example, Cincinnati Arts and well as workers seeking employment. One notable example is Technology Studios uses arts education to engage at-risk the job-training program that the Mississippi Low-Income youth and provide them with skills, credentials, and pathways Child Care Initiative (MLICCI) has developed to help women to employment. Apprenticeship opportunities can also be gain access to higher wage employment opportunities. tied to construction projects or companies that receive MLICCI has employed an innovative approach to layering public subsidies. Iowa, for example, established the existing subsidy programs such as Temporary Assistance for Apprenticeship and Training Act in 2014, allocating $3 Needy Families (TANF) and Workforce Innovation and million to expand apprenticeship programs throughout the Opportunity Act (WIOA)) to be able to provide childcare for state. Since then, Iowa has been among the top states to mothers participating in job-training programs leading to register new apprenticeship programs with the federal higher wage employment opportunities. By addressing the 41 government. potential barrier presented by the need for childcare, MLICCI has been able to achieve higher program retention rates and Raise the floor on low-wage jobs. Ohio recently raised the • 47 better position participants for success. minimum wage to $8.15, and $4.08 for tipped employees. Tipped workers face poverty at twice the rate of the rest of 42 the workforce. Given that about three-quarters of tipped Cultivate homegrown talent through a strong workers in Ohio are women, increasing the minimum wage cradle-to-career pipeline would immediately help a significant number of women and their families get closer to economic security. Currently, Ensuring that all young people in the county, including African seven states (Alaska, California, Minnesota, Montana, Americans, Native Americans, Latinos, and immigrants, can Nevada, Oregon, and Washington) require employers to pay access a good education that leads to a career is critical for their tipped workers at least the regular minimum wage, developing the human capital to power the Cincinnati region’s 43 regardless of how much is earned in tips. In these states, economy in the future. the poverty rate for all women is 13 percent lower than in states that perpetuate the current federally mandated tipped 44 • Eliminate overly harsh “zero-tolerance” school discipline Advocates and policymakers should also minimum wage. and replace them with strategies focused on positive policies consider passing living-wage ordinances to set wage behavior support and restorative justice in order to lower standards for city employees, government contractors, and suspension and expulsion rates and reduce the number of companies receiving public subsidies, to ensure that public Los Angeles Unified School District disconnected youth. spending creates good family-supporting jobs. For example, eliminated zero-tolerance policies in 2013, because of, in Dallas passed a living-wage ordinance for city sanitation 48 part, the disproportionate impact on students of color. As a workers in 2015. The wage is based on geographically result, the district has seen a 53 percent decrease in the specific data related to the cost of childcare, health 49 number of students suspended. insurance, housing, transportation, and estimated family 45 spending on food. Equity Is the Path to Inclusive Prosperity 12 All-In Cincinnati:

13 • by ensuring Strengthen the K-12 public school system Increase access to high-quality, healthy sufficient and equitable funding for schools attended by affordable homes and prevent displacement lower income students. For example, bilingual education and other language access strategies can help youth who are The city and advocates should explore strategies that promote English-language learners excel in school. However, it is not affordable housing options for low-income residents in a tight enough to only address in-school time; high-quality housing market. Resolving any lingering racially discriminatory afterschool and youth development activities that provide housing and lending practices such as those outlined in the learning opportunities outside of the school day are also 2014 Analysis of Impediments to Fair Housing is critical to critical ingredients for academic success. The Cincinnati expanding opportunity for all. In addition, efforts should be Public School System is already on the right path with the considered to protect affordable housing that is threatened by passage of the District Equity Policy (Board Policy No. 2255 mismanagement and disrepair such as the units in the Alms 50 – Equity and Excellence in Education). This equity policy 54 Hill Apartments. provides a useful framework for helping the school district • Identify and support the creation of new sources of create a robust education pipeline that equips low-income municipal funding for affordable housing maintenance children with the skills they need to succeed in a 21st The Ohio Housing Trust Fund was and development. century economy. created 25 years ago and has provided approximately $700 million for affordable housing development, homeless Create healthy, opportunity-rich assistance, and other essential programs. Unfortunately, this neighborhoods for all resource has not been able to support the development of an adequate number of affordable housing units to meet the All neighborhoods throughout the county should provide their current demand. There are at least four counties in Ohio residents with the resources they need to thrive and access to (Cuyahoga, Franklin, Montgomery, and Lucas counties) that healthy homes. Housing hazards including lead paint, pests, have created separate local housing trust funds to meet the and mold can affect the health of families. Advocates should growing demand for affordable housing options. work to better understand the types and extent of health issues Policymakers should consider the Cincinnati Affordable impacting communities of color, and expand the resources Housing Trust Fund operational framework developed by available to address them. 55 Affordable Housing Advocates. • An Expand use of community health worker model. Incentivize affordable housing by instituting regulatory • important mechanism for advancing health equity for Several jurisdictions such as Oakland, California, waivers. residents in disadvantaged neighborhoods across the county have explored ways to expedite permitting and waive certain has been the community health worker model. Community regulations (e.g., parking requirements associated with infill health workers (CHW) are residents trained to assist other housing) to create a more hospitable landscape for community members in accessing health and supportive 56 developers seeking to create affordable housing. services through the provision of education, role modeling, Stakeholders should Expand and streamline collaboration. • outreach, home visits, and referral services. Research has consider facilitating a collaboration between financial documented that integrating CHWs into multidisciplinary institutions, local philanthropy, and other intermediaries in health teams is an effective strategy for improving the 51 order to create new financing tools for affordable housing control of hypertension among high-risk populations. development. Community development financial institutions Similarly, CHWs have also played an integral role in Cradle could also play a critical role in supporting the development Cincinnati’s ability to reduce infant mortality in Hamilton 52 of affordable housing through predevelopment loans and County to the lowest rate on record. grants, construction loans, and permanent financing. This • Facilitate active engagement by all racial and ethnic same collaboration could also help create products that make by implementing communities in local planning processes low-interest home purchase and home-improvement loans best practices for multicultural engagement (e.g., translation available in targeted neighborhoods, specifically those that services, provision of childcare during meetings, etc.). This have been underserved by financial institutions. approach has already been implemented successfully in 53 redevelopment efforts in Austin, Chicago, and San Jose. Equity Is the Path to Inclusive Prosperity 13 All-In Cincinnati:

14 Support the expansion of existing equitable leadership Housing • • Expand the use of inclusionary zoning. developments located downtown as well as those along development programs. Increased funding for programs such transit and streetcar lines should be prioritized in order to as Public Allies has the potential to grow the pipeline of leadership for people of color, especially women of color in the maximize construction of new affordable units. Montgomery County, Maryland, is the oldest example of inclusionary city of Cincinnati and Hamilton County. Public Allies zoning in the country. Since launching the program in 1974, Cincinnati prepares young leaders from underrepresented 57 more than 12,500 units have been produced. backgrounds to advance social justice and equity. The program While transit- oriented development and inclusionary zoning present engages and activates the leadership capacities of young people through a 10-month apprenticeship and training opportunities to benefit low-income residents, any affordable 58 program, and the completion of a team service project. housing development in downtown should not be prioritized over other neighborhoods in dire need, or in high- Expand efforts to reconcile racial injustice. • As the city opportunity neighborhoods lacking in housing opportunity. explores ways to advance racial equity, leaders should In addition, anti-displacement strategies should be consider strategies to address past racial injustices. Prior to incorporated into development plans (both residential and the 2001 civil unrest stemming from the police shooting of commercial) in areas targeted for revitalization. an unarmed Black man, the City of Cincinnati and the Fraternal Order of Police entered into a Collaborative along Just cause eviction protections and rent control, • Agreement with the Black United Front to improve relations with other measures to protect tenants from retaliation, between the community and police. While progress has been should be considered to help prevent displacement. For made since the Collaborative Agreement was signed, there is example, New York City guarantees an attorney to all still much room for improvement. It is critical that all parties residents with housing court cases. While this resource remain committed to understanding and addressing implicit required an initial outlay of city funds for legal services, there bias and racial profiling. are cost savings in the long run by keeping families out of shelters and preserving affordable housing units. Housing advocates should consider a rent escrow account • Conclusion similar to the REAP15 in Los Angeles that directs program rents to cover maintenance and repairs when property Community leaders in the public, private, and nonprofit sectors owners repeatedly fail to do so. are already taking steps to connect its more vulnerable communities to educational, economic, and healthy housing Expand democracy and justice opportunities, and these efforts must continue. To secure a prosperous future, the Cincinnati region needs to implement a Given the county’s rapid demographic shifts that are being growth model that is driven by commitment to equity. driven by the growing diversity of the youth population and Concerted investments and policies for, and developed from increase in the number of immigrants of color, it is important within, communities of color will also be essential to ensure the for local leaders in every sector to proactively take steps to region’s fastest-growing populations are ready to lead it into ensure that there are opportunities for communities of color to the next economy. participate in decision making and leadership. Strategies to build diverse leadership include the following. • Create a durable countywide equity network of leaders across race, age, gender, issue areas, and geography to advance equitable growth strategies and policies. This effort could build on successful local efforts such as the racial inclusion curriculum of the Undivided program at Crossroads Church, or the group of individuals engaged through the Collaborative Agreement to improve public safety and community-police relations. Equity Is the Path to Inclusive Prosperity 14 All-In Cincinnati:

15 Author Biography Acknowledgments PolicyLink and the Program for Environmental and Regional James A. Crowder Jr. is a senior associate at PolicyLink. He Equity (PERE) at the University of Southern California are researches and develops policy and community engagement grateful to the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation for their strategies to create more equitable economic outcomes for low-income families and communities of color. generous support of this project. This policy brief and the accompanying data profile, Advancing Health Equity and are part of a series of reports Inclusive Growth in Cincinnati, produced in partnership with local community coalitions in Buffalo, Fresno, Long Island, Cincinnati, and Sacramento. This brief lifts up policy solutions to advance health equity, inclusive growth, and a culture of health while the profile features additional health indicators to build a data-backed case for equity. These communities are also a part of the All-In Cities initiative at PolicyLink, which supports community leaders in advancing racial economic inclusion and equitable growth. The profile was written by Ángel Ross at PolicyLink; the data, charts, and maps were prepared by Sheila Xiao, Pamela Stephens, and Justin Scoggins at PERE; and Rosamaria Carrillo of PolicyLink assisted with formatting, editing, and design. Rebecca Flournoy assisted with development of the framework presented in the profile. We also thank the Greater Cincinnati Foundation for their partnership. The analyses and recommendations in the report were informed by interviews with key city and county leaders, and a local advisory committee convened by the Greater Cincinnati Foundation, Interact for Health, and the United Way of Greater Cincinnati. We are grateful for the time and leadership of our local partners and all that they do to build a more just and equitable Cincinnati. ©2018 PolicyLink. All rights reserved. PolicyLink is a national research and action institute advancing ® Lifting Up What Works racial and economic equity by . www.policylink.org Equity Is the Path to Inclusive Prosperity 15 All-In Cincinnati:

16 20 National Equity Atlas. Percent Working Poor by Race/ Notes Ethnicity and Gender: Ohio, 200%, 2015, accessed on http://nationalequityatlas.org/indicators/ August 6, 2018, Advancing Health Equity and Inclusive PolicyLink and PERE, 1 Working_poor/By_gender:40271/Ohio/false/Poverty_ Growth in Cincinnati , (Oakland, CA: PolicyLink and PERE, Level:200/Year(s):2015/ 2018), pg. 23. Advancing Health Equity and Inclusive PolicyLink and PERE, 21 City of Cincinnati website, accessed on August 3, 2018, 2 Growth in Cincinnati , (Oakland, CA: PolicyLink and PERE, http://choosecincy.com/Economic-Development/Strategic- 2018), pg. 66. Advantages/Fortune-500-Companies.aspx . 22 Georgetown Center for Education and the Workforce; 3 Chris Wetterich. City of Cincinnati’s Population Continues Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Universe for Growth Streak. Cincinnati Business Courier . May 25, 2017, education levels of workers includes all persons ages 25 https://www.bizjournals.com/cincinnati/news/2017/05/25/ through 64. city-of-cincinnati-s-population-continues-growth.html . National Equity Atlas, Current Educational Attainment and 23 4 See the list of studies here: “The Economic Case for Equity Projected State/National-Level Job Education Requirements and Inclusion,” National Equity Atlas, http:// by Race/Ethnicity and Nativity: Ohio, AA degree or higher, . nationalequityatlas.org/about-the-atlas/resources http:// 2015, accessed on August 6, 2018, nationalequityatlas.org/indicators/Education_levels_and_ 5 United States Census Bureau website, accessed on August 6, job_requirements 2018, https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/ hamiltoncountyohio/PST045216 24 “Housing Affordability in Hamilton County: An Analysis of Households, Housing Affordability, and Housing Subsidy in Advancing Health Equity and Inclusive 6 PolicyLink and PERE, Hamilton County and Cincinnati, Ohio.” LISC of Greater Growth in Cincinnati , (Oakland, CA: PolicyLink and PERE, Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky and Community Building 2018), pg. 21. http://www. Institute at Xavier University, February 2017, Ibid, pg. 25. 7 lisc.org/media/filer_public/a1/16/a116fbab-4be3-4704- 98e6-83f633b7d893/asset_upload_file30_13212.pdf . Ibid, pg. 27. 8 25 Randy Tucker, “Been Evicted? You Have a lot of Company. 9 Ibid, pg. 26. Study Finds Cincinnati Area Has High Eviction Rate, Driven 10 David N. Figlio and Deborah Fletcher, “Suburbanization, , Cincinnati Enquirer By Escalating Rents and Poverty,” Demographic Change and the Consequences for School October 26, 2017, https://www.cincinnati.com/story/ Finance,” working paper (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau money/2017/10/26/escalating-rents-and-widespread- http://www.nber.org/papers/ of Economic Research, 2010), poverty-pushed-cincinnati-into-top-10-metro-areas-were- w16137.pdf . . residents-fac/798150001/ Advancing Health Equity and Inclusive PolicyLink and PERE, 11 Sarah Holder, “Where Evictions Hurt the Most,” , CityLab 26 , (Oakland, CA: PolicyLink and PERE, Growth in Cincinnati https://www.citylab.com/ October 30, 2017, 2018), pg. 44. equity/2017/10/where-evictions-hurt-the-most/544238/ . 12 Ibid, pg. 31. Jason Williams, “Study: 75k Cincy Jobs Unreachable by 27 Ibid, pg. 40. 13 Transit,” Cincinnati Enquirer , November 5, 2015, https:// www.cincinnati.com/story/money/2015/11/05/study-75k- 14 Ibid, pg. 35. . cincy-jobs-unreachable-transit/75214956/ 15 Ibid, pg. 36. Barbara Sard and Douglas Rice, “Creating Opportunity for 28 16 Ibid, pg. 36. Children: How Housing Location Can Make a Difference,” (Washington: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, 2014), Ibid, pg. 37. 17 . http://www.cbpp.org/files/10-15-14hous.pdf , Maria Shriver, “The Female Face of Poverty,” 18 The Atlantic 29 Marisa Taylor, “Poverty ‘Ages’ Genes of Young Children, https://www.theatlantic.com/business/ January 8, 2014. Study Shows,” , April 7, 2014, http:// Al Jazeera America archive/2014/01/the-female-face-of-poverty/282892/ america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/4/7/genetic-effect- Chartbook: The Women in National Women’s Law Center, 19 povertydisadvantagedchildren.html . the Low-Wage Workforce May Not Be Who You Think , 30 PolicyLink and PERE, Advancing Health Equity and Inclusive https://nwlc.org/resources/ accessed on November 7, 2017, Growth in Cincinnati , (Oakland, CA: PolicyLink and PERE, chart-book-women-low-wage-workforce-may-not-be-who- 2018), pg. 73. you-think/ 31 Ibid, pg. 71. 32 Ibid, pg. 78. 33 Ibid, pg. 80. Equity Is the Path to Inclusive Prosperity 16 All-In Cincinnati:

17 Teresa Watanabe. “L.A. Unified Bans Suspension for ‘Willful Ibid, pg. 68. 34 48 Defiance,’” Los Angeles Times , May 14, 2013, http://articles. 35 Ibid, pg. 74. latimes.com/2013/may/14/local/la-me-lausd- Cameron Knight, “So What’s in FC Cincinnati’s Community 36 . suspension-20130515 Cincinnati Benefits Agreement with the West End?,” 49 H oward Blume. “Big Drop in Number of California Students https://www.cincinnati.com/story/ Enquirer , May 23, 2018, , January Los Angeles Times Who Are Suspended, Expelled,” news/2018/05/22/so-whats-fc-cincinnatis-benefits- http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln- 15, 2015, . agreement-west-end/632258002/ california-schools-suspended-expelled-20150114-story. 37 Ibid. html . 38 City of Cincinnati website, Disparity Study Final Report July 50 Cincinnati Public Schools, Equity Policy, accessed on https://www.cincinnati-oh.gov/manager/assets/File/ 2015, October 4, 2017, https://www.cps-k12.org/about-cps/ City%20of%20Cincinnati%20Disparity%20Study%20 . board-of-education/equity-policy Final%20Report%209-27-2015.pdf . pg. 11-3 – 11-7 51 National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health . Way Beyond Happy Talk: Developers and Bob Driehaus 39 Addressing Chronic Disease through Community Promotion, Uptown Demanding Jobs for Minority and Female Workers . Health Workers , April 2015, pg. 2. https://www.cdc.gov/ https:// WCPO Cincinnati, accessed on August 6, 2018, dhdsp/docs/chw_brief.pdf . www.wcpo.com/news/insider/way-beyond-happy-talk- 52 Cradle Cincinnati 2017 Annual Report, accessed on January developers-and-uptown-demanding-jobs-for-minority-and- 18, 2018. http://www.cradlecincinnati.org/wp-content/ . female-workers uploads/2017/04/Cradle-Cincinnati-2017-Annual-Report- 40 Ibid. Compressed.pdf . How States Are Expanding 41 Angela Hanks and Ethan Gurwitz, 53 Urban Land Institute, “Involving the Community in Apprenticeship , Center for American Progress, February 9, Neighborhood Planning,” ULI Community Catalyst Report 2016, https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/economy/ Number 1, September 2004, http://uli.org/wp-content/ reports/2016/02/09/130750/how-states-are-expanding- uploads/2012/07/Report-1-Involving-the-Community-in- apprenticeship/ Neighborhood-Planning.ashx_.pdf . Caitlin Dewey, “Maine Tried to Raise Its Minimum Wage. 42 Monroe Trumbly. “Walnut Hills Residents Face Losing Their 54 Washington Post Restaurant Workers Didn’t Want It,” , June Affordable Housing From HUD,” , Cincinnati Enquirer 27, 2017, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/ https://www.cincinnati.com/story/ September 22, 2017, wp/2017/06/27/maine-tried-to-raise-its-minimum-wage- news/politics/2017/09/22/walnut-hills-residents-face- restaurant-workers-didnt-want-it/?noredirect=on&utm_ losing-their-affordable-housing-hud/693155001/ . term=.dcbda215b2b2 55 Affordable Housing Advocates website, accessed on January National Women’s Law Center and Restaurant 43 http://affordablehousingcincinnati.org/wp- 17, 2018. Opportunities Centers United, “Raise the Wage: Women content/uploads/2017/07/City-of-Cincinnati-White-Paper. Fare Better in States With Equal Treatment for Tipped pdf . https://nwlc.org/wp-content/ Workers,” October 2016, A Roadmap Toward Equity: Kalima Rose and Margaretta Lin, 56 . uploads/2016/10/Tipped-Wage-10.17.pdf (Oakland, Housing Solutions for Oakland, California 44 Ibid. California: PolicyLink, 2015) https://www.policylink.org/ sites/default/files/pl-report-oak-housing-070715.pdf Stephen Young, “City of Dallas Contracts More Expensive, 45 But Better Workers Are Sticking Around Thanks to Living National Low-Income Housing Coalition. “40 Years Ago: 57 http://www. , February 23, 2017, Wage,” Dallas Observer Montgomery County, Maryland Pioneers Inclusionary dallasobserver.com/news/city-of-dallas-contracts-more- Zoning,” May 16, 2014, http://nlihc.org/article/40-years- expensive-but-better-workers-are-sticking-around-thanks- ago-montgomery-county-maryland-pioneers-inclusionary- to-living-wage-9211282 . . zoning 46 Joshua Sabatini, “SF to Prohibit Employers From Asking For Public Allies Cincinnati website, accessed on January 18, 58 San Francisco Salary History to Close Gender Wage Gap,” 2018, . http://publicallies.org/cincinnati http://www.sfexaminer.com/sf- , June 8, 2017, Examiner prohibit-employers-asking-salary-history-close-gender- . wage-gap/ Coupling Child 47 Mississippi Low-Income Child Care Initiative, Care with Pathways to Nontraditional, Higher Paying Work: http:// , June 2017, Bridging Mississippi’s Skills and Wage Gap www.mschildcare.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/child- . pg. 2. care-and-work-training-FINAL.pdf Equity Is the Path to Inclusive Prosperity 17 All-In Cincinnati:

18 ® Lifting Up What Works Headquarters 1438 Webster Street Suite 303 Oakland, CA 94612 t 510 663-2333 f 510 663-9684 Communications 75 Broad Street Suite 701 New York, NY 10004 t 212 629-9570 Washington, DC 1200 18th Street, NW Suite 1200 Washington, DC 20036 policylink.org Facebook: /PolicyLink Twitter: @policylink USC Program for Environmental & Regional Equity University of Southern California 950 W. Jefferson Blvd. JEF 102 Los Angeles, CA 90089 t 213 821-1325 f 213 740-5680 http://dornsife.usc.edu/pere ©2018 PolicyLink. All rights reserved.

Related documents

CityNT2019TentRoll 1

CityNT2019TentRoll 1

STATE OF NEW YORK 2 0 1 9 T E N T A T I V E A S S E S S M E N T R O L L PAGE 1 VALUATION DATE-JUL 01, 2018 COUNTY - Niagara T A X A B L E SECTION OF THE ROLL - 1 CITY - North Tonawanda TAX MAP NUMBER ...

More info »
CRPT 116hrpt9 u2

CRPT 116hrpt9 u2

U:\2019CONF\HJRes31Front.xml APPRO. SEN. [COMMITTEE PRINT] REPORT { } CONGRESS 116TH 1st HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Session 116- FURTHER APPROPRIATIONS FOR MAKING CONTINUING OF HOMELAND SECURITY FOR THE...

More info »
RIE Tenant List By Docket Number

RIE Tenant List By Docket Number

SCRIE TENANTS LIST ~ By Docket Number ~ Borough of Bronx SCRIE in the last year; it includes tenants that have a lease expiration date equal or who have received • This report displays information on ...

More info »
CalCOFI Atlas 33

CalCOFI Atlas 33

THE EARLY STAGES IN OF THE FISHES CALIFORNIA CURRENT REGION CALIFORNIA FISHERIES COOPERATIVE OCEANIC INVESTIGATIONS ATLAS NO. 33 BY THE SPONSORED STATES OF COMMERCE DEPARTMENT UNITED OCEANIC AND ATMOS...

More info »
2017PA 00002 R00SB 01502SS1 PA

2017PA 00002 R00SB 01502SS1 PA

Senate Bill No. 1502 Act No. 17 - June Special Session, Public 2 E STATE BUDGET FOR T HE BIENNIUM AN ACT CONCERNING TH , MAKING APPROPRIATI ENDING JUNE 30, 2019 ONS THEREFOR, STING BONDS OF THE S TATE...

More info »
MPI: A Message Passing Interface Standard

MPI: A Message Passing Interface Standard

MPI : A Message-Passing Interface Standard Version 3.0 Message Passing Interface Forum September 21, 2012

More info »
OperatorHoursReport

OperatorHoursReport

John Bel Edwards Rebekah E. Gee MD, MPH SECRETARY GOVERNOR State of Louisiana Louisiana Department of Health Office of Public Health Certified Water and Wastewater Operators 2018 - 2019 Hours Hours li...

More info »
catalog 2019

catalog 2019

2019 ® HARLEY-DAVIDSON GENUINE MOTOR PARTS & ACCESSORIES

More info »
The 9/11 Commission Report

The 9/11 Commission Report

Final FM.1pp 7/17/04 5:25 PM Page i THE 9/11 COMMISSION REPORT

More info »
JO 7400.11C   Airspace Designations and Reporting Points

JO 7400.11C Airspace Designations and Reporting Points

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ORDER FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION 7400.11C JO Air Traffic Organization Policy August 13, 2018 SUBJ: Airspace Designations and Reporting Points . This O rder, publ...

More info »
untitled

untitled

G:\P\16\HR1\INTRO.XML ... (Original Signature of Member) TH 116 CONGRESS 1 ST S ESSION H. R. 1 To expand Americans’ access to the ballot box, reduce the influence of big money in politics, and strengt...

More info »
Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Update

Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Update

201 8 Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals U pdated Tables, March 2018 , Volume One

More info »
pisa 2012 results volume I

pisa 2012 results volume I

PISA 2012 Results: What Students Know and Can Do tICS, themA StuDent PeRfoRmAnCe In mA ReADIng AnD SCIenCe Volume I rogramme for ssessment A tudent S nternational I P

More info »
E:\PUBLAW\PUBL031.115

E:\PUBLAW\PUBL031.115

131 STAT. 135 PUBLIC LAW 115–31—MAY 5, 2017 * Public Law 115–31 115th Congress An Act Making appropriations for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2017, and for May 5, 2017 other purposes. [H.R. 244...

More info »
625137

625137

2018-19 Nebraska All-Sports Record Book - Nebraska Communications Office -

More info »
me bpd eng

me bpd eng

2017–18 Estimates Parts I and II The Government Expenditure Plan and Main Estimates ESTIMATES ESTIMATES

More info »
Department of Defense   Law of War Manual (June 2015)

Department of Defense Law of War Manual (June 2015)

D E A R T M E N T O F D E F E N S E P N A L O F W A R M A W U A L J U N E 2 0 1 5 O F F I C E O F G E N ER A L C O U N S E L D P A R T M E N T E O F D E F E N S E

More info »
doj final opinion

doj final opinion

UNITED STAT ES DIS TRICT COURT IC F OR THE D ISTR T OF CO LU M BIA UNITED STAT F AMERICA, : ES O : : la in t if f, P 99 No. on cti l A vi Ci : 96 (GK) -24 : and : TOBACCO-F UND, : REE KIDS ACTION F : ...

More info »
UNSCEAR 2008 Report Vol.I

UNSCEAR 2008 Report Vol.I

This publication contains: VOLUME I: SOURCES SOURCES AND EFFECTS Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation to the General Assembly OF IONIZING RADIATION Scie...

More info »
Out of Reach 2018

Out of Reach 2018

2018 of OUT REACH THE HIGH COST OF HOUSING MADE POSSIBLE BY THE GENEROSITY OF:

More info »