Defining Video Quality Requirements

Transcript

1 Def ng Video ini Quality Requirements Safety A Guide for Public May 2013

2 Initial Release: July 2010

3 Defining Quality Requirements: Video A Guide Safety Public for Volume 1.0 Developed by: Vid eo Quality Safety Working Group in Public This procurement guide was sponsored by the Office for Interoperability and Compatibility within the U.S. Department was developed in partnership with emergency responders, the U.S. of Homeland Security. It partners. of Commerce’s Public Safety Communications Research program, and private sector Department

4 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Summary Executive of such as installation, testing, support, consider a multitude factors, Often, emergency responders must decisions. The guide provides redundancy, and training, before making video component procurement systems, of video quality, explains defines functional concepts to generalize a of video an overview how with use use class, and provides a brief explanation of the qualitative aspects of video case a in the procurement process— system either in components. Emergency responders involved of a video to- entirety— find this or in its it considers an end- -- will -- e nd system. For part guide valuable because this guide identifies needs associated with a video stream as it travels from the scene (camera) example, system on a remote display. through the to the end user viewing the scene is a wide range of information that exists related to video quality and selection of video T here as installation, maintenance, training, and interoperability. this guide does not components such While video Quality in Public Safety for components, the Video provide detailed specifications and standards on technical performance specifications and standards Working Group plans to release future guidance of the video system. that address various components Use Cases system must deliver video to the end users in such a way that they are able to A video accurately recognize objects and action based on what they see. The first step in procuring video equipment take use case. A set case is a is to determine the of functional requirements based on the content of the use instance, observed scene and the an end user. For being performed by the scene of interest could task be a large crowd on a train platform, a license plate on a moving vehicle, or a plume of smoke, and an end user’s task be to view a scene in real time through the video apparatus and alert emergency might officials if something Alternatively, the video apparatus may capture and record responder is awry. use an to review at a for These applications for end user are called “use cases.” This footage later date. will introduce users to different use cases, enabling users to determine which level of quality is guide making to procure an appropriate video necessary and system with the required level of it possible o vide quality. Use Classes a particular video use case may seem unique, it almost certainly has features common to other Although shared features across cases. Use classes represent combinations of various use cases . Video use footage from a police car and aerial video footage of a wildfire, although different in many respects, are similar in that they are capturing image that is moving at a high degree. By answering five questions an use case, the reader can determine which general class applies. Key aspects to about a particular use consider include Usage Time Frame – Is the video used for real- 1. time applications or recorded for later use? -- 2. Discrimination Level – What is the end user’s ultimate goal? 3. Target Size – How much of the frame does the object or person of interest occupy? and 4. – How much motion (either target or camera) Motion how much spatial detail are in the video frame? 5. Lighting Level – Is the lighting generally uniform or are there near - - - b lack to daylight ranges in the video frame? ii

5 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Video System Components Core addition use cases and use classes in the procurement of video systems, it is also In to understanding to understand the various components of video systems and which components impact important To address quality. issues, this document describes various core video system components that those direct ly affect video quality, such as: Lens Configuration, Image Capture, Processing, Transport, Storage, and Display. Guidance Qualitative provides qualitative guidance to help the Lastly, understand features of system the document reader components and define impact those components have on video quality based on an identified use the class. This guidance is intended to educate readers on the issues involved, tradeoffs, and units of use measure with video components. This information informs the reader how certain associated cases and scene content can affect video component features. 3

6 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video of Contents Table for Safety ... i Video Defining Public Quality Requirements: A Guide ... ii Summary Exe cutive Tab iv le of Contents ... of Figures v List ... ... v of Tables List Introduction ... 1 I. Background ... 2 A. ... 2 B. Problem Statement C. Intended Audience ... 2 Document Scope ... 2 D. How This Guide ... 3 to Use E. Fundamental Concepts ... 4 II. Video Qua lity ... 4 A. ... 4 B. Use C ase Generalized Use Class ... 5 C. 6 III. Case into a Use Class ... Generalize a Use A. Generalized Use Class Aspects ... 6 B. Generalized Use Class Questionnaire ... 9 C. Use Class Examples ... 13 Generalized Core System Components ... 13 IV. Video Lens ... 13 A. Configuration Capture ... 14 B. Image Processing ... 14 C. D. Transport ... 15 ... 16 E. Storage Dis play ... F. 16 V. Qualitative Guidance ... 17 A. Usage Timeframe ... 17 B. Level ... 17 Discrimination Size ... 18 C. Target Motion D. 19 ... E. Lighting Level ... 19 VI. Ongoing VQiPS Efforts ... 21 VII. ... 22 Conclusion A: Glossary ... 23 Appendix endix B: Acronyms ... 38 p Ap Appendix C: Acknowledgements ... 39 4

7 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video List of Figures 1. How to Get the Appropriate Video Quality ... 3 Figure 2. Use ... 4 Figure Case 3. Multiple Use Cases Have Aspects in Common ... 5 Figure 4. Example of Target Size: Large ... 7 Figure Figure Example of Target Size: Small... 5. ... 7 Figure 6. Example Motion in the Scene: High ... 8 of 7. Example 8 Lighting Level: Variable ... Figure of 8. Generalized Class Aspects Figure ... 9 Use 9. Application Figure Use Class ... 11 1: Generalized Figure 10. Application 3: Generalized Use Class ... 12 ... Figure Video System Components Core 13 11. List of Tables Table 1. Generalized Use Class Questionnaire ... 10 5

8 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Introduction I. Closed (CCTV) and other video technology In recent years, the exponential Circuit Television growth of of emergency response concerns. The emergency has been instrumental in addressing a wide range are using video (EMS) response community, including police, fire, and emergency medical services applications in transportation, crime, and public works efforts. With emergency responders increasingly CCTV relying systems, they need to increase their attention on video quality issues so on technology and use and share across interoperable emergency response systems. that they can images within growing need, the to this Interoperability and Compatibility (OIC) Office the U.S. To respond for of Homeland Security worked with the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Public Safety Department Research (PSCR) develop a partnership of local, state, and Federal Communications program to to address these concerns. of the representatives partnered with members These representatives and academia to form the Video Quality in Public Safety Working Group (VQiPS WG), private sector to enhance and standardize video quality for public safety. is working which WG has developed this guide to inform and assist the emergency response community The VQiPS in identifying system components impact video quality. The guide is intended for emergency which video in procuring and a video system. responders who are involved maintaining Background A. initiated the At in February 2009, OIC and PSCR first the VQiPS WG and defined how VQiPS conference the group would address the most pressing video quality issues. The VQiPS WG includes local, state, and Federal representatives from of disciplines, including law enforcement, fire, EMS, a variety The VQiPS also includes representatives from non - -- pr ofit transportation, and telecommunications. WG academic and the video industry. organizations, institutions, research VQiPS WG and the research and development efforts by OIC and PSCR are Th of e activities of the all part collaborative process to provide representatives of local, tribal, state, and Federal governments with a that will assist them information procurement of video components and systems. OIC partners in the with to support research, development, testing, and evaluation of video system standards and PSCR PSCR a structured approach to identify video quality needs and performance requirements. uses and lab testing to identify performance specifications for the core specifications and conducts research system video component areas. Wi of requirements common th an end goal for the procurement of video components to articulate a set and systems that meet the specific needs of end users, the VQiPS WG has two main purposes: 1) to provide the emergency response community with to purchase and employ the knowledge they need systems; 2) to collectively communicate emergency responders’ needs to appropriate video and -- ma king bodies. In order to achieve those purposes, the VQiPS WG developed an industry and standards- plan action following key initiatives: to complete the i a 1. of application- -- Develop ndependent usage scenarios. set 2. Develop guidance materials to help emergency response communities perform the following: a. Assess video quality needs. b. Match needs to technical performance specifications and standards to support procurement. 3. Develop a glossary of common terms. 1 of 39

9 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Compile an inventory of existing standards and specifications that address various 4. video for specific usage scenarios. the components of system Develop a common library of test clips that represent the use cases. 5. 1, 2a, and 3 the initiatives action plan. Currently, the VQiPS WG is This document addresses from 4, and will make addressing the remaining elements (2b, available to the emergency the results 5) and response community in the near future. B. Problem Statement as an essential component of effective emergency response Video applications are quickly emerging For use video to provide aerial images of communications. example, emergency responders can to firefighters, to monitor highway traffic, to assess the scene of an accident, or as evidence in wildfires past, practitioners relied manufacturers to build and provide video equipment a criminal case. In the on specifications. However, video technology has evolved, resulting in more complex video system and systems and components systems and a multitude which to choose in the procurement of video from many emergency response agencies do not have the tools, support, and information process. Because to make major system purchasing decisions, they have a they need challenge in informed video 1 systems that quality. procuring video attain the desired video Intended Audience C. of emergency responders who intend systems, This document addresses the needs to procure video of their size, system regardless or specific video application. There are two specific organization size, categories of potential users of this guide: 1. Emergency response practitioners or persons representing a group of end users within an agency involved in video systems. This guide will aid in determining video quality evaluating and selecting video system components. needs core user) The employee or contractor (not the end technical who is writing specifications 2. support video systems and developing procurement documents. This guide can for as a serve communications between an end user and integrator. tool will those individuals who are responsible for This guide systems evaluating and procuring video assist often meet needs of end users. Because there are that multiple end users, the minimum quality the requirements should be established, when feasible, for the user with the most stringent video quality needs that are with the most critical use of the system. consistent D. Document Scope will enable emergency response agencies to more clearly describe This guide quality an agency’s video needs. It will provide qualitative guidance for key video system components and provide a better understanding of which video components impact video quality. The document aims to educate the end user on components of video systems, which will enable them to purchase the appropriate common 1 quality” is the ability “Video response agency to use the required video to perform of the emergency the purpose intended. For example, if the purpose of the video is to capture vehicle license plates in a in the range outdoor conditions, video quality is measured of ability of the video outputs to provide 2 of 39

10 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Because this guide will not directly advise users on which video system to purchase, video system. consult with experienced video professionals specific systems and obtain should readers to identify jurisdictional procurement regulations. on information and the aspects of the scene content of a video system This document addresses the core components to any video regardless of size. The term “core components” refers to equipment in that apply system, system that can change the video signal, thereby affecting the quality of the delivered video. the video for system Other considerations include, but are not limited to, camera placement, security, and a video not this guide. Highly complex or unique video applications may weatherization, and are covered by outside the scope of this guide. For example, the addition of a need additional requirements that are of video use for complex package with the video system may require additional research and analytics in the preparation specifications. consideration of procurement is a first This guide in providing the end user with guidance in selecting video components that step affect video quality, such as installation, maintenance, training, and interoperability. In future documents that build this guide, OIC, PSCR, and the VQiPS WG plan to provide detailed guidance on on that can be to various usage scenarios. technical performance specifications and standards applied E. to Use This Guide How of key concepts, this guide will address two things: first, the steps end users Following the introduction take can use case; and second, how to capture user needs and use cases to define the to generalize a 1. Generalized This process is illustrated in Figure Class. Use Figure 1. How to Select the Appropriate Video Quality Chapter 2 the fundamental concepts used in the document. Chapter 3 contains a questionnaire outlines Class, to help designed form of a Generalized Use the reader identify needs which is referenced in in the the remaining sections. Chapter 4 describes the core video systems components. Chapter 5 provides qualitative that relates back to the Generalized Use Class developed in Section 3. Appendix information A contains an extensive glossary that defines commonly used technical terms. 3 of 39

11 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Fundamental Concepts II. defines video use case, and a Generalized Use Class. section This quality, Video Quality A. quality Video ability of the emergency response agency to utilize the required video to perform is the the purpose intended. intelligibility” and “visual ther terms used to video quality are O to refer acuity.” These equate to “visual a visual extension of a “Can you hear me?” audio test, rephrased as “Can you see me?” This guide reflects concept as it allows a user to specify end- - - to- - - e this system performance or individual nd component performance. This guide is based on the following key concepts: Every application is trying to recognize a desired target to a particular level of discrimination. The ability to perform a specified task determines the video quality required. B. Case Use To ensure the video first step is to clearly define functional quality meets end users’ needs, the requirements or the use case(s). To define the use case, answer these two questions: 1. is in the scene of interest or scene content? What accomplished the desired task to be is from viewing that scene? What 2. mergency response video systems must present a scene of interest to a remote user in sufficient All e detail to make a decision or perform a task based on recognition of what is happening in the for the user scene. example, the end user must be able For in a license plate or determine the to read the characters identities of individuals at a local convenience store while performing surveillance. 2. Use Figure Case 2 illustrates the role that video equipment plays in bringing scene content back to the Figure end user. The of the video equipment depends on the specific performance required A use case use case. considers the scene captured by the video system and the task being performed by the emergency response practitioner end user). Figure 2 shows a use case in which an agency has installed video (or the train (when cameras a train station. The scene content comprises the platform, at it is in the 4 of 39

12 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video on the platform. Understanding the end user’s needs for video feeds station), and the individuals command center represents a component in assessing the type of video system into the critical coming example, what are the feeds principally used required. Are they being used to monitor the For for? of trains (perhaps to ensure tracks are clear and to notify service and response personnel of an arrival influx of persons into the station)? Are they being used to monitor the flow of passengers on incoming platform look the for disturbances or guide response assets in the event of an emergency)? Or are (to to positively identify and conduct surveillance suspicious individuals in the crowd they being used on follow them through the station? Later sections of this guide will define how users can identify the and of the scene content and use those impact requirements to inform which core video equipment aspects components are necessary. Generalized U se C lass C. This guide’s fundamental premise use cases for seemingly different applications have similar is that quality requirements. This means that, upon closer examination, seemingly disparate video applications may actually same minimum requirements to perform a desired recognition task. While one have the features common application it almost certainly has seem unique, to other video video may Figure 3 illustrates this idea. For example, identifying license plates and monitoring applications. wildfires seem many common minimum video to be very different applications; however, they have Thus, definite on a requirements. set of users can develop performance specifications based Use Classes. This eliminates the need to create separate performance specifications for Generalized every possible application because there are specific Generalized Use Classes that exis t. 3. Multiple Cases Have Aspects in Common Figure Use this theory, Using guide presents a finite set of questions that will lead the reader to identify an this appropriate Generalized Use Class. These questions are related to how the user intends to use the video images and questions related to common aspects such as target size, motion, lighting includes level, usage time frame, and discrimination level. The following section will provide a questionnaire to determine these common aspects. 5 of 39

13 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Generalize a Use Case into a Use Class III. provides examples and explains to translate the reader’s unique use case into a section This how Class. A description of common aspects that make up a Generalized Use Class, such as Generalized Use time size, level, motion, and lighting, is followed by a questionnaire discrimination frame, target of choosing values related aspects. common to guide the reader through a process designed to these of values serves particular combination easily identifiable Generalized Use Class that describes The as an quality needs. an agency’s video agency or organization may have more than one use case associated with its An Each use should be carefully defined and analyzed as a use class in order case mission. restrictive use class. For example, if law enforcement most to determine the overall fire officials share a video system, law enforcement may need to recognize and high le - - individuals with vel detail, while fire may only need to recognize the presence of - In law enforcement case, smoke. has a more restrictive use case. this After the reader has used to determine the Generalized Use Class, subsequent the questionnaire sections of the guide refer to the Generalized Use Class to provide qualitative guidance for the core video system The VQiPS WG will make more detailed standards and performance components. available in subsequent publications. specifications Use Class Aspects Generalized A. class consists A of specific use cases that are common to other use cases, and use of important aspects can be made between them. As shown in Figure 2, all use cases have an analyst and a generalizations The scene under observation. are derived from both the analyst’s intended use of generalized aspects (Use is in the scene under observation (Scene Content). The next the video Characteristics) and what of the video describes Generalized Use section aspects, each of which can impact the quality five Class content as seen and used by the end user. Use Characteristics 1. Discrimination Level* V be used to identify a wide range of detail, from motion detection to positive identification of ideo may for to perform evidence. Not every video system needs a person positive identification. The forensic - video should conform to the application requirements, without over- selected - o r under- -- system specifying the system. 2. Time Frame Usage of to recognize the target? does the user need To what level discrimination f a user needs I only whether there are people present in a scene, “General Elements of the to determine Action” would suffice. If the user requires large - - - scale recognition, such as the distinction between a car Term is defined in Appendix A: Glossary 6 of 39

14 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video user’s system needs. A value of “Target and a van, then “Target Class Recognition” fits the recognize gender and and distinguish smaller actions, to Characteristics” indicates the need markings level. Positive most specific discrimination “Target and ID” indicates the Content Scene Target Size 3. size field region of interest (target) with respect to the size of the The of view directly affects the of the ability is at its maximum optical zoom. The larger the target, to recognize that target when the camera to the field of view, the more details can be discerned. The perceived target size relative is dependent on actual target size, its distance from the camera, and the camera’s field of view. Figures 4 and 5 the demonstrate the difference between a large target size and a small target size. PSCR is developing measurements to more size. precisely define target 4. Example of Target Size: Large Figure Figure 5. Example of Target Size: Small Motion in the Scene 4. background, target, or camera) (e.g., M otion can come from the target (e.g., a car driving by), the background (e.g., a large crowd), or from the camera moving (e.g., a dash - -- m itself in a police car). Motion affects the length of ounted camera time a desired target is shown in the video frame and can cause the target to blur. High motion can be 6) or a caused by either moving objects within the scene (see Figure many single object moving quickly. 7 of 39

15 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video 6. Example of Motion in the Scene: High Figure Lighting Level 5. levels can vary from very dark (e.g., nighttime or indoors) to very bright (e.g., daylight or Lighting spotlight), ability of the camera to capture the image. The presence of both very bright affecting the in the dynamic simultaneously is known as high areas and very dark areas range, and can impair frame as shown in Figure 7. target recognition, Level: High Dynamic Range Figure 7. Example of Lighting combinations of the end user’s The needs in these five areas comprise the Generalized Use specific Class. many more aspects that affect video, and There are of these parameters has an infinite each number of possible values. This document addresses the most important aspects and defines a a concerted manageable for each. VQiPS WG made of choices effort to provide a balance number between complexity and simplification. up a Given the aspects and values described above, Figure 8 illustrates the aspects that make possible Generalized Use Class. 8 of 39

16 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Figure Use Class Aspects 8. Generalized end user determines the specific value for each aspect. The combination of the individual choices The form the user’s Generalized Use Class. B. Generalized Use Class Questionnaire Table Use Class questionnaire, which identifies each of the aspects with a 1 contains the Generalized brief description, followed by a small set of choices for each aspect. The user should match the the appropriate video with the appropriate Generalized Use Class. The user should use application most restrictive case when making selections. 9 of 39

17 Requirements: A Guide for Public Quality Safety Volume 1.0 Defining Video Class Questionnaire Table 1. Generalized Use for End User Value Definition Example Question Aspect Characteristics Use or person People ---level High General o the of Elements description of present took Action actions that place Class o Target Car vs. van Large ---scale is the Discrimination What user’s end Recognition recognition ultimate goal? Level Target detail Medium o ---scale markings, Gender, actions smaller Characteristics recognition --- Target alpha object, o Face, Enough detail to numeric Positive ID a positive make recognition Live be will video The -- or Real- o Security monitor viewed at the same time by being viewed time it is being security personnel shot --- video Is the used for real Usage Time or applications time Forensic Recorded video o The video will be Fra me recorded for later use? saved and capable being of played back Scene Content Large o of percentage a large occupies target The the frame How much does frame the of object or person of the Size Target a smaller o The target occupies of percentage Small occupy? interest frame the o High is a lot of motion or edges in the There How much (either motion video and how camera) target or much is not there Low complexity; spatial are much the motion Low o detail in frame? If the camera video edges many or Motion --zoom, ---tilt- is required to pan could the scene complexity higher. be bright level At a comparatively Constant o lighting generally Is the – High Lighting -- near- there are uniform, or Lighting Level At level dim o Constant a comparatively in black to daylight ranges – Low Lighting video frame? the Variable o Ranges from bright to dim 10 of 39

18 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Generalized Use Class Examples C. case three examples demonstrate to convert a specific use following into a Generalized Use The how The first two demonstrate how two seemingly different applications may actually have the same Class. quality Class. to the same Generalized Use video The third demonstrates a needs because they belong Use different resulting Generalized Class. Application 1 Police in - -- c ar camera used to read license plates in real time (Figure 7). Description: -- c Th must accurately read a license e in - of a moving car from a moving vehicle at speeds ar camera plate of up to 70 mph (miles per hour). The application of video in this example involves the police officers in the car, the dispatcher, and and control. The police car follows the target car, the back of the command is filmed, of the license plate number is attempted in real time. The target car and the acquisition is the target. The motion sources are the target and the camera. The alphanumeric character is lighting variable. 9. Application 1: Generalized Use Figure Class Application 2 Description: Video shot by a firefighter from a helicopter circling a building fire is used to recognize or color) smoke small plumes (i.e., velocity from in real time. Command and control personnel features on the ground use the video to determine the color and velocity of smoke plumes. motion is a section of a small plume of smoke, and the target sources are the target and camera. The The lighting is variable. 11 of 39

19 Public Quality Requirements: A Guide for Safety Volume 1.0 Defining Video 1 and 2 demonstrate two different uses of video, the use cases belong to the Although Applications Generalized Class (Figure 9). Use same Application 3 Stored surveillance footage is used as courtroom evidence to verify the number of people in Description: aisle during an incident. a store end use of the store surveillance is to verify the number of people in the scene. The users are The during a forensic sequence of events deals with the people that walk through a store The analysts. period of two minutes. The target is the number of people. The motion sources are the people at walking speed. The lighting is indoor lighting and it is classified as bright. 10. Application 3: Generalized Use Class Figure The use case in Application 3 belongs to a different Generalized Use Class, as shown in Figure 10. 12 of 39

20 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Core System Components IV. Video provides a summary of This fundamental components of a video system. These section the as shown in Figure 11, provide the foundation for any basic video system. Each components, affects component quality (i.e., each component has the potential to alter the video in a way that video its Use to be used). The user can use the Generalized impacts Class that he/she created based on ability the video from I to identify performance specifications for Table system components in the selections future guidance material. This section provides information that will help the reader develop qualitative requirements for components. Future guidance material will provide detailed specifications and system considerations. additional of the components and convey The each can affect following how sections provide a general description quality. o vide 11. Video System Components Figure Core Lens Configuration A. Description The optical component of a camera system is a lens or series of lenses used to create an image on some lens sort film or electronic means. A as photographic can be a simple convex surface or of media, such composed of a number of optical elements in order to correct the many optical aberrations that arise. A lenses lens be permanently fixed to a camera or may be interchangeable with may of different focal lengths, apertures, and other properties. 13 of 39

21 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Attributes might affect video quality that Lens Aberration – Lenses do not form perfect images; there is always some degree of distortion or aberration introduced by the lens that causes the to be an imperfect replica of the image object. of the observable world that Field of – The extent is seen at any given moment through View* the len s. Focal Length* – Determines the field of view and the apparent size of the objects relative to the image size. Aperture* – Refers to a lens opening to reduce or increase the amount of light that reaches the and the image aperture controls the brightness of the image The fastest shutter capture surface. speed usable. Depth of Field* – The range of distances that appear acceptably sharp in the image. B. Image Capture capture of recording data, such as an image or video sequence. Image is the process Description light) image consists of converting the information (i.e., The from a real scene into a capture process stream of information that is suitable for the remaining links via a photographic or electronic medium. camera is modified slightly. The of modern video, the process is in front of a scene and it has n the case I The just - - v ision system). it could be a night- lens presents focused light to the optics (usually a lens, but of the camera—a projection of the information from the scene. The camera converts internal workings information of electronic data that can support subsequent processing, the projected into a stream and viewing. digital images, the capture process converts light into a digital form via a storage, For digitization. sensor and Attributes that affect video quality might Resolution at which the camera captures information Frame rate at which the camera captures information of the colors used Fidelity Dynamic of the recording medium range Number bits per pixel (digital cameras) of Noise (analog cameras) capability of image capture system Infrared C. Processing Description that Processing any enhancement, restoration, or other operation to is performed on a video refers signal. This could also refer to any processing that occurs automatically as part of a system; for example, ∗ Term is defined in Appendix A: Glossary 14 of 39

22 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video digital camera to convert an image into an image file format. The the processing performed inside a file three digital photographs are RAW, TIFF, and JPEG. formats for main affect video quality might Attributes that Compression* – Also referred to as coding, compression involves electronically processing a so that less storage and allows more video to be sent through a digital video picture it uses loss Most for compression result in a methods of fidelity that is not transmission channel. Compression can be used to reduce the amount of bandwidth needed to transmit recoverable. must encoded) to view a file that has been compressed (or a video. A user or else use a decoder -- s exist on the the video cannot be viewed. There are open- ource video encoder/decoders that proprietary own specific decoder. many systems that require their market; however, there are Digitization – Converting analog video source to a digital format. an Enhancement for Analysis – Many methods are available to increase clarity for certain parts of Examples the video. frame averaging, edge enhancement, and color balancing. are – Video images can be delayed, which can result in incomplete or inaccurate real- -- time Delay -- decision- making. D. Transport to the effects Transport refers or copying from one location to another. of moving Description Transport and network are go hand- -- in - -- hand, depending on the Information Technology terms that This document refer to this concept as transport. The transport can be Engineer’s preference. will of these. distance of the transport can or any combination wired (including fiber optics), wireless, The side a feet from a building to the other few of the world. The transport has unpredictable range within on the transmission of the electrical signal between two or more effects electronic devices. Attributes might affect video quality that of Bandwidth – How much data a network is able to carry affects the speed and size Available signal that is able to reach the destination. the video on Sharing – Other users Network the network may reduce the available bandwidth. Loss of Data (digital)* – When digital information is transmitted, it is broken into short blocks of data called on the receiving end of “packets.” Packets are sent separately and then reassembled in transmission, system. many the some packets are lost For causing a loss of some reasons, pieces of the video picture. Loss of Data (analog)* – Noise can interfere with an analog signal (e.g., "snow" on analog TV), permanently obscuring of the video field. portions Delay – Video images can be delayed, which can result in incomplete or inaccurate real- -- time decision- making. -- Term is defined in Appendix A: Glossary 15 of 39

23 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Storage E. Description analysis. - - ti me (e.g., monitoring or tactical) applications Video can be used for future for real- or stored stored video unusable due to loss or degradation of may be for example, improper Improperly data; of video would be a critical issue in evidentiary and forensic video applications. Video must be storage simultaneously bit high bit rate and low stored rate to prevent irretrievable data loss. For example, at a wireless monitoring systems low bit rate stream for provide a while simultaneously storing a some may bit rate version locally. higher n order rate, bit I storage is also often preceded by some form of processing. File format to decrease the can be altered as coding the video in MPEG 2 for storage to fit different media, such a DVD and on player. A series playback with a DVD of alterations or physical custody changes made to a video file is called the The storage chain should be monitored and documented very closely since “storage chain.” every change format almost in a loss of data. in file results Attributes that might affect video quality: Physical degradation of storage media over time (e.g., tapes stretching, breaking, or being exposed fields) to magnetic Physical custody of the media F. Display Description To present a true quality picture of video footage captured, the emergency response community depends on good quality image display unit to aid in accurately communicating information to the end a users. Public agencies are increasingly using display functions— EMS for medical diagnosis, fire for safety research and training, and law enforcement for evidence in the courtroom. Selecting the proper display for the end user’s specific video applications can be as important to achieving the user’s goal for the video as selecting the appropriate camera equipment. footage Attributes that might affect video quality "Trueness" of the colors displayed Aspect ratio used 16 of 39

24 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Qualitative Guidance V. for of the reader’s use class that was determined provides qualitative guidance each aspect section This in Section general recommendations about how use characteristics and scene 3. This section makes component features. It educates readers on the issues involved, tradeoffs, and units of content affect with associated components. This section’s organization mirrors the Questionnaire in measure the 3. Section Usage Time Frame A. will the video be used?” frame time what time frame answers the question: (i.e., will the video Usage “In in real- - - ti me or will it be recorded?). be used real -- ti me video Capturing - - - ti me surveillance requires the integration of cameras and high - - - quality displays. In defining their Real- for should cameras will be used whether recording a video stream, even if the needs, users consider usage is in real- - - time (i.e., the recording could have forensic or analytic uses down the line). primary - streams r esolution cameras require greater storage because they record video High and capture minute -- of detail. levels cameras, lenses, or mounts used will depend on whether the user plans to conduct analytics during he T of the video real- - ti me use system (e.g., using computer processing to aid in the detection of objects, - behaviors, or motion). For example, will the video system be used for detection and alert purposes if people approach or loiter near critical infrastructure? must take into account factors such as how Users away the infrastructure larg e it is, and whether it is well lit. far is, how video Storing stored for possible future analysis. Proper storage is critical in evidentiary and forensic Videos can be save space is stored at a very low bit rate to only on the video video applications. For example, if media, then data will be irretrievably lost. Those accustomed storage word- -- p rocessing to storing documents photos might be shocked at how rapidly video files consume storage space, which or digital cassette from video cassette recorders can range single hard drive to systems with multiple single or a recorders or huge arrays. Depending on the frame rate, resolution, and compression of the video, a user may need to store terabytes of data. One clear implication of this: both the rules for retention within an and the records- -- k eeping laws in a particular jurisdiction will affect the amount of organization needed. storage orage is often proceeded by some form of processing, altering the file format to fit differing media, St and in MPEG 2 such it can be stored on a DVD as coding the video played back with a DVD player. so that A series of alterations or physical custody changes made to a video file is called the “storage chain.” storage Almost format results in a loss of data, so the in file chain should be monitored every change and documented very closely. B. Discrimination Level user The level answers the following question: to what level of discrimination does the discrimination need to recognize a target of interest? 17 of 39

25 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video detail for High discrimination of recognition/identification for such as positively identifying individuals, reading license plates, or will be used activities If the video objects, and not for simple motion detecting (e.g., did a person cross a boundary?), look small detection the following features: for High- -- Resolution Camera – Resolution is measured in megapixels or lines. or More megapixels lines a greater ability to capture detail. The tradeoff is that as cameras produce more data, offer bandwidth and are needed. more storage Large- -- I maging Sensor Sensor (or “imager”) size is measured in fractions of inches. Large – sensors, such as a 1/2 - - - in ch sensor, can capture more light than a 1/3 - - - in ch or 1/4 - - - nch sensor. i is especially important, users should pay attention to other aspects of the camera, such as the I f fidelity in which the camera of to viewing or storing systems, and the compression ratio manner is connected signal. the video The lens* offer low distortion and high resolution. should The communications network* needs to accurately transmit all signals. If digital, a high - -- bandwidth, reliable communications may be needed. If analog, the communications network network have a good ratio of signal to noise. should Compression* should be kept to a minimum, since a low compression level will result in lower image The amount of storage available and the rules governing retention of the video quality. can determine the amount of compression required. C. Target Size Target size refers to the size of the object of interest with respect to the field of view. Capture small distant objects or used to record or distant objects should have : Cameras small distant Telephoto, Zoom*, or – The degree to which lenses bring lens objects closer or Varifocal away (but capture wide fields of view) is called make “ focal length .”* objects appear farther the length in millimeters. Lenses with longer is measured lengths (called “telephoto” or Focal focal lenses”) are more telescopic and can make distant objects appear “long to the camera’s larger sensor, that images will be sharper. The drawback is that the longer the lens is or the more it so in, will less field of view* the camera is zoomed capture. The advantage of a varifocal or the ngle lens it can act as a wide- - - a zoom lens to capture a wide scene and zoom in on small or is that distant objects. One tradeoff of long lenses is their susceptibility to capture less light, resulting in less functionality environments. Furthermore, telephoto lenses that admit a large in dark of are usually large and expensive. amount light High- -- Resolution Camera – Resolution is measured in megapixels or lines. More megapixels or as cameras offer ability to capture detail. The tradeoff for this ability is that lines a greater produce more data, more bandwidth and storage are needed. Large- -- I maging Sensor – Sensor (or “imager”) size is measured in fractions of inches. Large or 1/4 sensors, as a 1/2 - - - in ch sensor, can capture more light than a 1/3 - - - in ch such - - - i nch sensor. Term is defined in Appendix A: Glossary 18 of 39

26 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video capture or recognition of these small objects is especially important, users should pay If faithful of the camera, such as the is connected to viewing or storing attention to other aspects way the camera that the video signal is compressed: the systems and amount The lens* should offer low distortion and high resolution. The communications network* needs to accurately transmit all signals. If digital, a high - - - reliable communications network needed. If analog, the communications bandwidth, may be should good ratio of signal to noise. network have a Compression* should be kept to a minimum, since a low compression level will result in lower quality. amount of storage available and the rules governing retention of the video image The of compression required. can determine the amount D. Motion to the Motion of interest (e.g., background, target, camera). motion in the scene refers in motion Camera or objects for a video system The or to capture scenes if the camera is in ability to clearly capture moving objects is determined by several factors. Systems are better suited for this situation if they have: motion Fast Shutter Speed – Shutter speed is the length of time that the camera sensor is exposed to the it is capturing for each of the still photos that comprise the video. If there’s enough image to do it’s better to have fast (or “short” or “high”) shutter speeds (measured in fractions light so, seconds) image that while each of is being recorded, the scene being recorded on the camera so One way has to move and thereby blur the image. of a chance to decrease the need for the less environment to be bright is to use a wide- -- a perture lens. -- A perture Lens – The ability for lenses to admit more light is measured in f- -- st ops; the Wide- is allowed lens’s f- stop number, the more light - to pass through the lens. The smaller a - of a smaller f- - - stop number is that when more light hits the sensor, the camera uses advantage and takes pictures. However, this come at a price because lenses shorter shutter speeds more small f- - - stop numbers require wide- -- a perture lenses, and those lenses have difficulty with keeping both of the scene in focus at the same time (a quality known as near and distant parts - -- o f- -- f ield* ). depth Wide- -- Angle L ens – If the camera or object is moving, it’s easier to keep the camera on the object if the lens This ability of a lens to capture a wide scene is a is capturing a wider scene. of its length,” measured in millimeters, with smaller focal length lenses capturing function “focal making them appear smaller or farther away. wider scenes, but is measured Imaging Sensor – Sensor size Large in fractions of inches. The sensor is to digital cameras what film is to conventional cameras. Large sensors, such as a 1/2 - - - in ch sensor, can - capture than a 1/3 - - - in ch or 1/4 - - light in ch sensor. more E. Lighting Level Lighting level is an obvious aspect that impacts the selection of video equipment and refers to light available of interest. to illuminate the scene Term is defined in Appendix A: Glossary 19 of 39

27 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video - Light Situations -- Low of video systems to work in low light is measured in their The is a measure of the ability “lux” rating. Lux of light present; cameras that have a lower lux rating can work in darker environments. amount s with high - -- motion applications (described in Section V. Qualitative Guidance, D. Motion), when A selecting lenses low - - - l ight applications, try to select those with larger apertures (lower f- - - stop for The give the added will transmit more light to the camera’s sensor. This will numbers). larger opening of reducing will be captured - -- blur, since each image benefit more quickly. In other words, users motion able to use faster shutter speeds. will be amera considerations C very little or no light: for B lack- -- a nd - -- White Camera: Most black- - - and - - - white cameras are better suited for low - - - l ight environments than cameras. color D easy, tradeoff may not be This but the increasing availability of “day/night” cameras ay/Night Camera: for color during the day and black and white at night increases the number of options for wide- - designed - ranging situations. lighting lux, There are also nfrared available that work in zero Camera: or with no visible light. This is cameras I possible because these systems are sensitive to infrared light, and they use a form of infrared lighting that is not to the naked eye. visible - Light Situations Changing -- system will be used If the video light can fluctuate from bright to dim, be in environments where the sure to consider “auto- - - i ris” lenses. These lenses automatically adjust their sensitivity in changing light video appears situations lighting level of the so that the as even and constant as possible. 20 of 39

28 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Ongoing VQiPS Efforts VI. VQiPS efforts and PSCR are continuing their collaborative and complementary the to identify OIC, WG, performance qualifications, and other information that standards development guidance, video quality to those procuring video systems. OIC will continue to publicize the benefits of using this is important with guidance document state, and Federal emergency responders to build ongoing support local, the response community. Future rewards of this continued outreach will be new throughout emergency within the VQiPS community and adoption stakeholder champions of standards by industry and standards development organizations. to participate in and provide support OIC continues VQiPS WG to deliver future products, to the including compiling an inventory of existing standards and specifications that address various components of the video core components for specific usage scenarios (or Generalized Use system to match particular With the emergency response community will be able information, Classes). this to technical performance specifications and standards. needs unded by OIC, PSCR is working with F response community to develop a set industry and the emergency lab application -- independent of - research to develop video quality usage scenarios and conduct performance qualifications. PSCR is developing performance specifications that will be available to the emergency response community upon For example, PSCR is developing a common library completion. test clips that represent the use cases. of This video clip library can be found at: http://www.cdvl.org/ Moreover, a focal point to communicate the progress of PSCR’s video PSCR established a website as quality efforts. Please visit http://www.pscr.gov/projects/video_quality/video_about.php for additional information. 21 of 39

29 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Conclusion VII. the able within this document, readers will be better informed and Using qualitative guidance contained on of video components that have an impact to understand features video systems. By system generating one or more Generalized Use Classes, the emergency response community will be able to identify and represent a more of their video quality needs. As a result, users accurate representation able to more clearly describe video quality needs when procuring and evaluating components will be and systems that have a direct impact on video transmission, processing, and quality, as experienced by related the end user. Future will leverage the results of this guide to address ongoing issues efforts to vide o quality. 22 of 39

30 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video A: Glossary Appendix Defining glossary defines terms that are used Requirements: A the document, This Video in Quality and contains of concepts relevant to the video , Safety Public Guide for terminology and explanations glossary industry. the reader of commonly used vocabulary terms in the The purpose of the is to inform glossary was compiled from various industry sources. This domain. video Definition Term A A circuit for automatically controlling output gain in order to maintain a constant amplifier AGC (Automatic Gain -- with a varying input voltage within a predetermined range of input- voltage to - -- output Control) variation. smooth a be Something other than what it appears to be. Stair steps on what should backwards to move diagonal line are an example of spatial alias. Wagon wheels appearing reduced or are an example of temporal alias. be are cause by sampling and can Aliases - eliminated by pre picture -- filtering, wh ich can appear to be a blurring effect. Defects in the caused by insufficient sampling (a violation typically the Nyquist sampling rate) in the of proce analog -- to - -- digital conversion - ss or poor filtering of digital video. Defects are typically Aliasing as jagged and lines seen twinkling or brightening in picture detail. Examples are: diagonal Aliasing – such wagon wheel spokes appearing to rotate in the Temporal as rotating pulsing direction. Aliasing – such as sparkling or Scan effects in sharp reverse Raster lines. Stair- -- Steppi ng – stepped or jagged edges in diagonal lines or the diagonal horizontal of a parts (Tektronix Glossary of Video Terms) letter. carries 1. A continuous electrical signal that information in the form of variable frequency physical modulation. values, such as amplitude or continuous A signal that moves through a 2. range of settings or levels. Analog 3. describing any signal that varies continuously as opposed to a digital An adjective contains which representing the binary digits 0 and 1. discrete signal, levels Glossary of Video Terms) (Tektronix data. The science of analysis. Arriving at an optimal or realistic decision based on existing analyzing the video industry it is often used for In video to detect and determine temporal Analytics not based on a single It has a wide range of application in safety and events image. objects, video specific data, behavior, for or attitude. security to examine The effective diameter of the lens that controls the amount of light reaching the Aperture or photo - -- photoconductive im age pickup sensor. emitting the Compensation for the loss in sharpness of detail because of the finite dimensions of Correction Aperture elements or dot- -- pitc h of the monitor. image the the the video image, introduced along A sequence from origination defect or distortion of the capture and image channel to final overload of Artifacts may arise from display. from: capacity by excess signal bandwidth. Artifacts may also result in sampling effects by temporal, spatial, or frequency domains; processing Artifact the transfer functions; compromises and inadequacies in the system employed; cascading of minor defects; or basically departure of the total system from “complete transparency,” resulting other any in visual errors. (Tektronix Glossary of Video Terms) Aspect Ratio The ratio of width to height for the frame of the televised picture. 4:3 for standard 23 of 39

31 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Definition Term 5:4 for 1K x 1K, and 16:9 for HDTV. systems, general terms, a reduction in signal strength. In Attenuation and A system for detecting errors in color balance in white and black areas of picture the the adjusting white and black levels of automatically the red and blue signals as both Auto Balance correction. needed for of The range of light, e.g., sunlight to moonlight, which a TV camera is capable over Range Light Auto automatically operating at a specified output. Brightness as In display devices, the self - -- acting mechanism that Automatic the brightness of the device controls a function of ambient light. Control an An whereby the frequency of arrangement oscillator is automatically maintained within Frequency Automatic specified limits. Control AGC. Gain Automatic See Iris Lens A lens Automatic automatically adjusts the amount of light reaching the imager. that is device The process by which the illumination upon the face of a pickup incident Light Automatic Control adjusted scene brightness. automatically as a function of B the That portion of the composite picture signal which lies between the trailing edge of Back Porch of the sync and the horizontal edge pulse corresponding blanking pulse. trailing or The range of signal frequencies that a piece of audio or video equipment can encode frequencies the difference between the limiting decode; of a continuous frequency band. Bandwidth uses higher than audio, thus requiring a wider bandwidth (High - -- Te ch Video frequency Video Productions Terms) Glossary of upper portion The encoders. A special test pattern for adjusting color TV receivers or color Pattern Test Bar (SMPTE) vertical bars of saturated colors and white. The power consists bars have of horizontal and white areas and I and Q signals. black with The number of levels that pixel might have, such as 256 with an 8 - --bit depth or 1024 a Bit Depth Glossary of 10- de pth. (Tektronix bit Video Terms) a -- The rate at which the bit stream is delivered from the storage medium to the compressed bandwidth. analog of equivalent digital The input of a decoder. are in bits The speed at which bits per second (bits/s). transmitted, usually expressed in a digitized Video information, and image for example, is transferred, recorded, reproduced through the production process at some rate (bits/s) appropriate to the nature Rate Bit and capabilities the origination, the channel, and the receptor. of amount usually data transported in a given amount of time, The defined in Mega of means bits second (Mbps). Bit rate is one (million) used to define the amount of per compression used on a video signal. Uncompressed D1 has a bit rate of 270 Mbps. MPEG - -- 1 has a bit of 1.2 Mbps. (Tektronix Glossary of Video Terms) rate occurs when the white This effect is sometimes called “whiter - --than - -- white.” Blooming objects voltage level is exceeded and screen become fuzzy and large. Blooming The defocusing of regions of a picture where brightness is excessive. (Tektronix Video Terms) Glossary of scene Sudden variations in picture presentation (brightness, size, etc.,) independent of Bounce illumination. 24 of 39

32 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Definition Term more The attribute of visual perception in accordance with which an area appears to emit tric light. (Luminance is the recommended name for the photo - -- elec less quantity, which of Brightness also been called “brightness.”) has In television system use, a device having a bandpass greater than the band of a single VHF Broadband channel. television a of Also called “burn.” An image that persists a fixed position in the output signal in In Image -- - Burned tube after the camera has been turned to a different scene or, on a monitor camera screen. C See - -- Coupled Device. CCD Charge See -- Circuit Televi sion. CCTV Closed- (2.54 The first standard for CCTV lens screw mounting. It is with the thread of 1’’ defined mm) in diameter and 32 threads/inch, and the back flange - to - -- CCD dista nce of 17.526 mm -- t lenses moun -- C- (0.69’’). The -- can desc ription applies to both lenses and cameras. C- mount oun M C t put on both C mount and C S- -- mount cam eras; only in the latter case is an adaptor -- be - required. (Tektronix Glossary of Video Terms) the A unit for measuring luminous intensity. One candela is approximately equal to amount of light energy generated by an ordinary candle. Since 1948, a more precise to a luminous definition of a candela has become: “the intensity of a black body heated up Candela at which platinum from a liquid state to a solid.” (Tektronix temperature converges Video Glossary Terms) of the are CCDs signals. images A semiconductor device that converts optical to electronic sensor cameras. video and camcorders in consumer most commonly found type of image -- Coupled Device - Charge Serial storage technology that uses MOS capacitors. D) (CC solid- -- state imag e sensor that converts light A to electricity. energy (Tektronix Video Terms) Glossary of That hue quality of color which embraces both and saturation. White, black, and grays ma Chro no chroma. have regulates the control of color television receiver that A saturation (vividness) of colors in a Chroma Control color picture. The input. encoder in a color information A tool that detects the absence of chrominance color chroma detector automatically deletes the burst from the color encoder output Chro r ma D etecto the of chrominance is detected. when absence be to An optical defect of a lens that causes different colors or wave lengths of light Chromatic Aberration fringes at different from the focused It is seen as color distances or halos along edges lens. and around every point in the image. The defined color quality of light that is by the wavelength (hue) and saturation. Chromaticity Chromaticity defines all the qualities of color except its brightness. color term defining the hue and saturation A of a color. Chrominance does not refer to Chrominance brightness. 25 of 39

33 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Definition Term the That NTSC color television signal that contains the color information. Signal Chrominance portion of A device which functions during the horizontal blanking or synchronizing interval to fix the Clamp picture level at some predetermined reference level at the beginning of each of the signal line. scanning The process that established a fixed level for the picture level at the beginning of each Clamping scanning line. dark or 1. An electronic limit usually imposed in cameras to avoid overly bright it can signals. When improperly applied, in result in loss of picture information bright very or very dark areas. Also used in switchers to set the cutoff point for mixing video signals. Clipping The process of shearing off the peaks of either the white or black 2. electronic signal limiting purposes. Sometimes, clipping is video excursions of a for to modulation, signal, so sometimes to limit the prior it will not and performed level. (Tektronix Glossary of Video Terms) a predetermined exceed general that the Video primarily used for surveillance and security is not broadcast to Circuit -- - Closed Television public. low A particular type of cable capable of passing a wide very range of frequencies with simplest form consists of a hollow in its signal loss. Such a cable a metallic shield with Coaxial Cable single wire accurately placed along the center of the shield and isolated from the shield. in digital form. audio The algorithm used to capture analog video or to implement coding physical combination of the the and decoding circuits. Used CODEC device back converting signals from analog to coded digital and then A again for use in for (Coding/Decoding) transmission Most CODECs employ proprietary coding algorithms for schemes. digital data (Tektronix Glossary of Video Terms) compression. the A term used to describe how close a color is to the mathematical representation of Color eye). (that what can be seen by the human to render (Tektronix Glossary color attempts Video Terms) of of wave That portion of the composite signal comprising a few cycles of a sine color which chrominance subcarrier frequency, demodulating is used to establish a reference for Burst Color the chrominance signal. Normally approximately 9 cycles of 3.579545 MHz (megahertz). colored colors appearing at the edges of objects and differing from the Extraneous true Color Edging in the colors object. signal from device that produces an Encoder color A separate R, G, and B video inputs. Color NTSC televised Spurious colors introduced into the picture by the change in position of the Color Fringing object from field to field. any The degree to which a color is free of white or other color. In reference to the of a tri - -- color pict ure operation it refers to the production of pure red, green, or blue tube Color Purity illumination the phosphor dot face plate. of Color Saturation The degree to which a color is free of white light. 26 of 39

34 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Definition Term relationships to establish and maintain the same color signal used that are transmitted. Sync Signal Color A The transmission of a that represents both the brightness values and the color signal Transmission Color values in a picture. Communications path over which all signals are transmitted. The Network ple entary M etal Co m m sensor. camera type A of digital Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) synchronizing and The combined picture signal, including vertical and horizontal blanking signals. Signal Video Composite storage it use less to make picture video The process of electronically processing a digital video channel. or to allow more a transmission to be sent down the The process of removing picture data to decrease image. size of a video any The reduction in the volume of data from given process so that more data can be Compression can in a smaller are a variety of compression schemes that There be applied stored space. data of which MPEG- -- 1 and MPEG- -- 2 ar e called “lossy” because the data produced by to schemes is not There are other compression recoverable. that are compression totally recoverable, but the degree of compression is much more limited. (Tektronix totally of Terms) Video Glossary and The range of light to dark values in a picture or the ratio between the maximum Contrast brightness minimum values. Range The ratio between Contrast whitest and blackest portions of a television image. the This The crossover of the three electron beams of a three - --gun tri - -- color picture tube. Convergence occurs at plane of the aperture mask. normally the can in the video system that change the Equipment video signal, thereby affecting the Components Core quality of the delivered video. An undesired signal from a different channel interfering with the desired Crosstalk signal. D use, A measure of the power ratio of two signals. In system ratio a measure of the voltage (dB) Decibel across two provided they of measured signals common impedance. are source. (encoded) composite A device used to recover the component signals from a and where Decoders are used in displays in various processing hardware components signals are required from a composite source, such as composite chroma keying or color r D ecode equipment. A device that changes digital signals to analog or reconstructs correction encode (data) performing information inverse (reverse) functions of an by process. the (Tektronix Glossary of Video Terms) image, The aggregate of fine details available on - -- screen. The higher the definition of an be greater the number of details that can the discerned by the human eye or displayed. Definition During video recording and subsequent playback, several factors can conspire to cause a frequency loss definition. Among these are the limited of response of magnetic tapes and 27 of 39

35 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Definition Term with electronic circuitry employed in associated the recording process. These losses signal fine region of a appear in the highest frequency because video signal losses occur details is usually degradation. first casualty of signal portion Each additional and this the as losses videotape and fewer fine details in fewer are of a generation results Glossary of accumulated. Terms) (Tektronix Video item measured The in - --focus range of a lens or optical system around an of interest. It is interest from the distance behind an object of of to the distance in front of the object Field of Depth when the viewing lens is specifically focused on the object of interest. Depth interest, of field on subject- -- to - -- came ra distance, focal length of the lens, and f- -- stop. depends the image The range of sensor --to - -- lens distance for which - formed by the lens is clearly of Focus Depth focused. A fundamental component in every digital camera. The imager records the view received Imager Digital from the camera lens. light) where (sound, An electronic signal every different value from the real - --life excitation combinations has a different value of binary that (words) signal. represent the analog (Tektronix Glossary of Video Terms) Digital Signal -- analog that has been converted to a digital form. (High - signal Tec h Productions An Glossary of Video Terms) is sensors CCD the When applied to video cameras, DSP means that the analog signal from It is then settings, converted to a digital signal. bandwidth processed for signal separation, Digital Signal Processing and signal adjustments. After processing, the video signal either remains in the digital DSP ) ( recording (DVR) a digital video recorder for or is converted back into an analog domain by recording parts DSP is also used in other for of the video chain, signal or transmission. Glossary of and and routing devices. (Tektronix switching Video Terms) including DVRs, angular small very a have Qualitatively: Capacity for seeing distinctly fine details that separation. resolution, as the such Quantitatively: Any visual number of measures of spatial of a Discrimination Level (also value neighboring two reciprocal of the of of the angular separation in minutes of arc as Level of known objects (points or lines other specified or that the observer can just perceive to be stimuli) Discrimination) separate. Glossary of Video Terms) (Tektronix image. The ultimate image presented to a viewer; the process of presenting that lumin CRT, LED, or another photo - -- LCD, escent panel upon which numbers, characters, Display or data is presented. (Tektronix Glossary of Video Terms) graphics, other transmitted The deviation of the received waveform from that of the original signal Distortion w ave for m. that and A device that provides several isolated outputs from one looping or bridging input input- has a sufficiently high input impedance and of -- to - -- output isolation to prevent loading Distribution Amplifier input source. the The difference between the acceptable signal level and the minimum maximum Dynamic Range acceptable signal level. E 28 of 39

36 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Definition Term synchronizing of scanning specified in EIA Standards for the RS - -- 170, RS - -- The signal used Sync EIA 343, r subsequent issues. 330, -- o RS- electronic circuit that introduces compensation for frequency discriminative effects of An Equalizer the television system, particularly long coaxial transmission systems. elements within F communications Optics (use of light computer or The technology of transferring information (e.g., in Fiber fibers through technology) through thin flexible glass or plastic tubes optical transmitted using modulated light waves. (Encarta World English Dictionary) fibers) precision of accurately The extent to which Fidelity: an electronic device, such as a stereo system or television, reproduces sound or images reproduction one In interlaced scan systems, the information for picture is divided up into two fields. lines the picture. entire the to produce required Each field contains one- -- half of Adjacent fields. in alternate are picture lines in the needed complete Half of the to create a lines (262.5 in NTSC and 312.5 in PAL) horizontal picture. In a progressive One vertical scan of an complete scanning system, all of the image. scanning lines comprising a frame also comprise a field. Field area in a window in which An can type text. you A television picture is produced by scanning the TV screen with an electron beam. One complete scan the screen is called a “field.” Two fields are required to make a complete of which is called The duration of a field is approximately 1/60 of a picture, a “frame.” and second in PAL. 1/50 or in NTSC 1/60 of a second the complete video of a (frame), containing all interlaced odd or even half One picture of the picture. scanning Glossary of Video Terms) lines (Tektronix of The maximum angle of view that View be seen through a lens. Field can The lens. Regarding a lens, the distance from the focal point to the principal point of the length is usually measured in millimeters of focal lens. Focal length is an indication of the Focal Length lens’s of to capture a wide angle of view or a narrow view the objects that are capability away far (telephoto). Plane A plane (through the focal Focal at right angles to the principal point of the lens. point) Focal Point The point at which a lens or mirror will focus parallel incident radiation. Footcandle Lumen/FT 2. See A unit of luminance equal to 1/candela per square foot or to the uniform luminance at a at the diffusing surface emitting or reflecting light perfectly rate of one lumen per square and of foot. A lumen per square foot is a unit of incident light is a unit a footlambert (FL) Footlambert or the light. For a perfectly reflecting and perfectly diffusing surface, emitted reflected is equal of per square foot lumens to the number of footlamberts. number is The total area occupied by the television picture that is scanned while the picture signal me Fra not blanked. 29 of 39

37 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Definition Term consists of all the information required for a complete picture. For interlaced scan frame A are fields in a frame. For progressive video, these lines contain systems, there two lines time and continuing through successive instant to the starting samples from one the bottom of frame. complete composed of two fields. In the NTSC system, 525 interlaced horizontal A picture system, picture frames per second. In the PAL in 29.97 625 interlaced of information lines of picture information in 25 frames per second. horizontal complete video lines One containing fields. There are 30 frames two NTSC video. image in one second of rate the system, NTSC an The at which frames of video data are scanned on the screen. In second. For PAL, frame rate is 29.97 frames per rate the frame is 25 frames per second. known also Rate, Frame The number of frames per second at which a video clip is displayed. Frame as Frequency stored rate are output from a video decoding device or frames in memory. The at which Glossary of Video Terms) (Tektronix output A CCD imager where an entire matrix of pixels is read into storage before being Transfer Frame of the from Interline Transfer where lines Differs pixels are output. from camera. within The method by which color and black - --and - -- white sideband signals are interwoven Interlace Frequency the same channel bandwidth. related directly The range of frequencies that a piece of equipment can process and that is transfer system’s ability to uniformly the signal components of different frequencies to over the entire video spectrum without affecting their amplitudes. This parameter is also Response Frequency as gain/frequency amplitude versus frequency response. The known distortion or maybe expressed in dB, percent, or IRE. amplitude variation the The portion of a composite picture signal that lies between the leading edge of Porch Front the pulse the leading edge horizontal and corresponding sync pulse. blanking of length focal the The speed or ability of of a lens to pass light. It is calculated by dividing also known as F Stop, -- - F in the focus image the lens by its diameter. The F- -- St op also is a factor in more areas of System Number or F as Depth of known Field. G usually increase Gain or power, expressed in dB. An in voltage that A numerical value, or the degree of in a video picture, that is the exponent of contrast the power law which is used to approximate curve of output magnitude versus input a nonlinear of interest. magnitude over the region Since picture monitors have Gamma signal between voltage and brightness, the input must be correspondingly relationship the - -- distorted. pre amma correction is always done at the source (camera). (Tektronix G Glossary of Video Terms) Gamma Correction Provides for a linear transfer characteristic from input to output device. source. Genlock A device used to lock the frequency of an internal sync generator to an external resulting G A spurious image host from an echo. 30 of 39

38 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Definition Term display. white, through shades of gray, to black on a from Scale Variations Gray in value H General term TV for proposed standards pertaining to consumer high - --resolution TV. A to the (16 x screen wider on a 9) as opposed conventional format capable of displaying 4 x standard, Federal the HDTV 3) and at higher resolution. Rather than a single has Communications Commission approved several different standards, allowing High -- - Definition broadcasters to choose which to use. This means new TV sets will have to support all of Television (HDTV) the systems will be broadcast as component digital. By HDTV, we normally All of them. about rendering, display systems that feature and double the transmission, understand of scanning lines, improved color quality, and less artifacts than that of today’s number systems. (Tektronix Glossary of Video Terms) composite blue, Corresponds to colors such as red, All etc. A color wheel contains basic pigments. the that the hues of the rainbow encircle cone’s perimeter. The wavelength of the color as red, blue, color to be distinguished, such allows and green. Often used synonymously ue H the term “tint.” It is the with wavelength that distinguishes a color, such as red, dominant yellow, Most commonly, video hue is influenced by a camera’s white balance or scene etc. the Video as the Video Equalizer, are such main tools used to lighting. color processors, and correct hue problems. adjust values space Color Intensity, system based on the of Hue, Saturation, and Intensity. and Hue, Saturation, and to luma, analogous the is the vertical axis of the polar system. The Hue is the angle (HSI) Intensity is the distance the axis. (Tektronix Glossary of Video Terms) Saturation out from called Saturation, and Hue, function. Nearly identical to HSI Intensity is “Lightness.” Both serve the same except (HSL) (Tektronix Glossary of Video Terms) Lightness Saturation, and All Nearly identical to HSI and HSL, except Hue, Intensity and Lightness are called “Value.” Value three serve the same function. (Tektronix Glossary of Video Terms) (HSV) or um disturbance at the power supply frequency Electrical harmonics thereof. H I or A bit stream duplicate the original data. (SWGIT/SWGDE) An imitation of Image of a person or thing, representation painted, photographed, etc. drawn, human A device that intensifies low - --light images to light levels that can be seen with the Intensifier Image camera. or detected by a video be (Lambert Instruments) eye can is plane object The plane in which an image produced by an optical system if the is formed; ordinarily perpendicular to the optical axis, the image plane will to also be perpendicular Plane Image the axis. flow of to the presents circuit that a in ohms, The total of the resistance, measured frequency. alternating current at a given The characteristics of a system component that Impedance (input or The determine type of transmission cable to be used. the cable used must have the same output) characteristic impedance as the component. Video distribution has standardized on 75- -- ohm -- oh m balanced cable. (Columbia University) coaxial and 124- Incident Light The direct light that falls on an object. 31 of 39

39 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Definition Term Insertion strength loss when a piece of equipment is inserted into a line. The Loss signal equipment, Disturbance to the normal or expected operation electronic devices, and Interference (McGraw prevention of reception of systems. signals. clear Hill inhibition or The broadcast Scientific and Technical Dictionary of Terms) a A technique of combining two television fields in order to produce two full frame. The which fields are composed of only odd and only even lines, are displayed one after the Scanning Interlaced but with the physical position of all the lines interleaving each other, hence other “interlace.” (SWGIT/SWGDE) (CCD) A technology of Charged - -- Coupled Device of design where rows pixels are output from area camera. The sensor's active pixel the and storage register are both contained Transfer Interline the active image area. This differs from "frame transfer" cameras that move all within pixels active register outside of the active area. to a storage light control adjustable aperture built into a camera lens to permit of An transmission Iris the photographic terms) through lens. (Glossary of An amplifier with input and output circuitry designed to eliminate the effects of circuitry and a isolation changes made at either upon the other. They provide electrical safety Amplifier Isolation barrier. J rapid variations in a waveform due to mechanical disturbances or to Small, changes in the Jitter components. circuits, voltages, imperfect synchronizing signals, characteristic Supply of etc. pulses, frequency L image One or more pieces of curved glass or similar material designed to form an optical Lens from an converging or diverging rays of light by the object. (Britannica Concise of object Encyclopedia) Follower Pots are on a lens that allows feedback to the controller information installed to a adjust relevant to zoom and focus positioning, allowing the controller to quickly Lens Preset Positioning automatically. and at the proper focal length in focus preselected scene arrive ability The lens to transmit light, represented as the ratio of the focal length to the of a can diameter of the lens. The largest lens opening (smallest f- -- number ) at which the lens Lens Speed has A fast transmits more light be lens a larger opening than a slow lens. set. and of photographic terms) (Glossary in the radiation that has a wavelength Electromagnetic range from about 400 to 750 Light Hill nanometers be perceived by the normal unaided human eye. (McGraw may that and of Scientific and Technical Terms) Dictionary Amplifier, also Line video An amplifier for audio or the signals that is installed in the transmission line to boost known as Program certain signal as it travels over distances. Amplifier 32 of 39

40 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Definition Term impedance multiple The method of feeding a series of high circuits, such as video monitor/displays in parallel, from a pulse or source with a coax transmission line in also Loop Through, stubs) a manner that the line is bridged (with minimum length such and that the last unit as Looping known the line in its characteristic impedance. This minimizes discontinuities properly terminates on reflections transmission line. or the The ratio of the power at one point in a transmission system to the power at a point the line; loss is usually expressed in decibels. along actual power that is lost in farther The Loss signal point to another through a medium from one along a line. (McGraw transmitting or Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms) Hill signals - Low An undesired change in a waveform or that occur at low frequencies. In television, -- Frequency it is generally considered as any frequency below the 15.75 kHz (kilohertz) line frequency. Distortion of unit of measurement of the amount A brightness that comes from a light source. (L M) Lu men define “luminous flux,” which is energy within the range of frequencies we Lumens as light. Desktop Encyclopedia) perceive (Computer which on A unit of incident light. It is the illumination on a surface one foot in area square Lu men/FT2 flux of one is uniformly distributed, or the illumination at a surface a points of lumen all which are at a distance of one foot from a uniform source of one candela. the of area projected Luminous intensity of any surface in a given direction per unit of known also Luminance, direction. surface viewed from that is The amount of brightness, measured in lumens, that as Photometric given by a pixel or area on a screen. (McGraw off Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Hill Brightness Desktop Computer Terms, Encyclopedia) Signal (Y Luminance brightness That portion of the NTSC color television signal which contains the luminance or luma) denotes information. signal International System (Sl) unit of illumination, equal to one lumen per square meter. Lux is Lux measurement in light intensity. a M of A combination or array of electromechanical or electronic switches that route a number Matrix Switcher signal sources to one or more designations. The term “Pixel” comes from to phrase “Picture Element.” One mega pixel is equal the the of 1,000 pixels. For the most part, the larger number of pixels, the better the quality Pixel Mega picture. some or results of the process, whereby The process, characteristic of one signal is varied with in accordance The another “carrier.” The modulated signal is called the signal. carrier may be modulated in three ways: by varying the amplitude (called fundamental Modulation by “amplitude varying the frequency (called “frequency modulation”), or by modulation”), varying the phase (called “phase modulation”). Monitor, also known as displays A device that accepts video signals from a computer or video camera and Display on a screen; a video display. information all and white with Monochrome shades of gray. Black the in In monochrome television, a signal wave for controlling the brightness values Monochrome Signal picture. In color television, that part of the signal wave which has major control of the displayed brightness of the picture, whether values in color or in monochrome. 33 of 39

41 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Definition Term transmission of a signal wave that represents the Monochrome brightness The values in the picture, but the color (chrominance) values. Transmission not as information, A group of standards for encoding and compressing audiovisual such is as high compression movies, video, and music. MPEG of video as 200:1 for low- -- moti on Picture Moving Experts Group (MPEG) is supported broadcast be achieved at 6 Mbps. Audio can at rates from quality; VHS quality to 384 kbps for up to two stereo channels. 32 kbps N National Abbreviation for National Television System Committee. A committee that worked with Television standards day present System the Federal Communications Commission in formulating Committee for the ) United States color television system. ( NTSC visible that attenuates light evenly A over the filter light spectrum. It reduces the light Filter ND a lens, thus the iris to open to its maximum. entering forcing and word "noise" originated in audio practice The refers to random spurts of electrical Noise or interference. In some cases, it will produce a "salt - -- and - -- pepper " pattern over the energy picture. noise is sometimes referred to as "snow." televised Heavy containing - Vi deo A video signal Composite all information except sync. Non -- O utput The signal level at the output of an amplifier or other device. O P One unit of binary data capable of being routed through a computer network. To improve network communication performance and reliability, each message sent between two Packet is often subdivided packets by the underlying hardware and software. devices into A device upon which a camera can be mounted that azimuth allows movement in both the Tilt Pan and in the and plane (tilt). (pan) vertical and controller Follower Pots are installed on a pan/tilt unit to allow feedback to the Preset Pan/Tilt provide information relevant and vertical positioning, allowing the controller to horizontal Positioning ected quickly - -- sel to a pre scene automatically. to adjust interconnecting A panel where circuits are and facilities are provided for terminated Patch Panel circuits by between of jacks and plugs. means be to The maximum absolute peak value of a pulse, excluding those portions considered Amplitude Peak Pulse such as spikes. unwanted, negative most the and The amplitude (voltage) difference between the most positive -- to - -- - Peak Peak (peaks) of electrical signal. A full video excursions measures one volt peak to an signal peak. Picture Element See Pixel. or Short for “Picture Element.” The most basic unit of an image displayed on a computer Pixel in rows display are generally arranged Pixels and columns; a given video screen. among combination pixels of various brightness and color values forms an image. the television, Three colors wherein no mixture of any two can produce the third. In color Primary Colors these are the additive primary colors— red, blue, and green. 34 of 39

42 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Definition Term other has undergone enhancement, restoration, or that operation. image Image Any Processed Display scan pattern where each line of the frame is scanned sequentially. Progressive Scan R contains A camera raw image file minimally processed data from the image sensor of a are named so digital camera, image, or motion picture film scanner. Raw files because ready they not yet processed and therefore are are to be printed or edited with a not Image Raw Format editor. in a wide the image is processed by a raw converter graphics - -- bitmap Normally, colorspace made precise adjustments can be internal before conversion to a gamut where printing, file as TIFF or JPEG, for storage, such or further manipulation, "positive" format, often encodes the image in a device - -- dependent colorspace. which at the receive relating to systems that update information or same rate as they Of data, enabling them to direct or control a process such as video recording and display. Real Time timing referred or real - -- life live of events. to as Sometimes as The determination, by any means, of the individuality of persons or of objects, such aircraft or cars. Recognition determination that an object is similar within a category of something already known; The car, man. e.g., truck, parts The act, process, or capability of distinguishing between two but adjacent separate Resolution similar colors. stimuli, as elements of detail in an or or such (Encyclopedia of image Photography, 3rd Edition) usually is The amount of resolvable detail in the horizontal direction in a picture. It alternately as the number of distinct vertical lines, expressed black and white, which can Resolution (horizontal) in a distance to picture height. be seen equal to The details that can be distinguished on the television screen. Vertical resolution refers the number of horizontal black- -- and - -- white lines tha t can be resolved in the picture height. Limiting Resolution, lines r refers to -- and - Horizontal white the black- esolved in a dimension equal to resolution -- vertical height and may be limited by the video amplifier bandwidth. the direction picture. amount of resolvable detail in the vertical in a The It is usually expressed alternately as number of distinct horizontal lines, the black and which can white, (vertical) Resolution be in a picture. theoretically seen Also called “image burn.” A change produced large or on the target that remains for a in Image Retained number of after the removal of a previously stationary light image and which yields frames spurious signal corresponding to that light image. a electrical for radiation is useful The frequency at which coherent electromagnetic of energy Frequency) RF (Radio purposes. Also, the communication range of such frequencies. entire insufficient Amplitude variations in the output voltage of a power supply caused by Ripple filtering. a A loss of vertical synchronization, which causes the picture to move up or down on Roll receiver or monitor. S 35 of 39

43 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Definition Term with the degree to which a color is In color, white light or is pure. The vividness of diluted a color, described by such terms as bright, deep, pastel, pale, etc. Saturation is directly Saturation amplitude the chrominance signal. to the related of The process of moving the electron beam of a pickup tube or a picture tube across the Scanning target or screen area of a tube. In television, a factor expressing the incident illumination upon a specified scene required Sensitivity produce a specified picture signal at the output terminals of a television camera. to The to control the integration “(of light)” time ability to the sensor to less than 1/60 Shutter stop motion of moving second; e.g., traffic. and -- -- Noise Ra tio The ratio between - television signal to- disturbing noise or snow. Signal a useful Heavy random noise. Snow of Motion Picture Society sets things, other among A global organization, based in the United States, which, Engineers Television and standards for visual communications. This includes film as well as video baseband (S MPTE standards. ) amplitude A transient of short duration, comprising part of a pulse, during which the Spike exceeds the average considerably of the pulse. amplitude Standard Minimum --VPP 1000 microvolts at 75 ohms (0dB mV) in RF systems; 0.7 - -- VPP non - -- composite, 1 - Signal in video systems. composite low - --bit - --rate encoding format intended A for use over networks and the Internet. speed Streaming match the encoded bit rate to the connection files of the user, so the Streaming viewer can play audio or video with remote stoppage without first downloading minimal the video file. entire A of "synchronous" or "synchronize." Sync contraction Generator A device for generating a synchronizing signal. Sync Level The level Sync the peaks of the synchronizing signal. of Sync The signal employed for Signal synchronizing of scanning. the a The act of keeping two sequences playing at the same rate (in sync). A slide show or on an of video clips can be synced to the beat series audio track. A talking- -- he ad video Synchronize to maintain -- sy needs so that the audio matches the mouth movements of the lip- nc, speaker. processes two or Synchronizing scanning Maintaining in phase. more T are A term used to describe a picture condition in which groups of horizontal lines Tearing displaced in an irregular manner. system. television A chart specifically prepared for checking the overall performance of a lines It contains various combinations of is focused and geometric shapes. The camera on Pattern Test at the the and the pattern is viewed chart, monitor for fidelity. 36 of 39

44 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video Definition Term at per The process by which images are frames recorded less than the standard rate of Video Time - -- Lapse second (NTSC – 29.97; PAL – 25.00), thus extending the period of time that can be covered Recording by storage medium. (SWGIT/SWGDE) the convert from one compression format to another (that is, from DV video from a To camcorder to MPEG- -- 2 for D VD). Preferably done intelligently to minimize loss of quality Transcode compression, and not requiring fully decompressing the input repeated then from and to the output. recompressing Signals that exist for a brief period of time prior to the attainment of a steady - --state Transients may include overshoots, damped sinusoidal waves, etc. These condition. U description In software and systems engineering, a of a to behavior in response system’s functional external This technique is used stimuli. requirements by specifying to develop to video the system’s behavior through scenarios. This concept can be expanded to apply Use Case of are specific tasks. A use case is a combination to perform the scene systems used that and the being being performed by an end user (or analyst). observed task V A compression scheme in which each unit of input material can be compressed to different no with (that is, sequences "easier" sizes. For MPEG- -- 2 video , for example, this means that small sizes, motion) can compress to very whereas "hard" sequences (with lots of motion (VBR) Bit Variable Rate scene and compress to much larger sizes. VBR compression can take better cuts) can the transmission available bandwidth of a video of or DVD player by advantage overall parts available intelligently to the difficult bits of a sequence. allocating the The electronic representation of a sequence of images, depicting either stationary or Video scenes. It may include audio. moving Amplifier wideband amplifier used for passing picture signals. Video A to transmit Band frequency band width utilized The a composite video signal. Video Distribution device A Video used to divide single video signals while boosting their strength for delivery to multiple video devices. Amplifier and display open relevant, An organization devoted to promoting and developing timely, Electronic Video standards, display interface and ensuring interoperability, and encouraging innovation Association Standards the market Its vision is to be one of growth. leading, worldwide standards organizations (VESA) internationally electronics voices in the video and industry. recognized (Non - -- The picture Video A signal Signal containing visual information and horizontal and vertical signal. Co mposite) blanking (see also Composite Video Signal) but not sync. ability of the emergency response agency to The utilize the required video to perform the on plates license purpose intended. For example, if the purpose of the video is to capture video vehicles in a range of outdoor conditions, quality is measured in the ability of the Video Quality video outputs to provide that specific information across a range of environmental conditions. Y 37 of 39

45 Safety Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Volume 1.0 Defining Video Term Definition signal A signal transmitted in color television containing brightness information. This In a color a black- -- and - -- produces pictur e on a standard monochrome receiver. white Y Signal it supplies fine detail and brightness information. picture, Z To or reduce, on a continuously variable basis, the size of a televised image enlarge Zoom primarily varying the lens focal length. by in An optical system of continuously variable focal length in which the focal plane remains Lens Zoom a fixed position. 38 of 39

46 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video B: Acronyms Appendix Acronym Phrase U.S. Department of Homeland Security DHS PE Moving Picture G Experts Group M N TS C National Television System Committee OIC for Interoperability and Compatibility Office PSCR Safety Communications Public Research Program SM PT E Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers VESA Video Electronic Standards Association VQiPS Video Quality in Public Safety WG Working Group 39 of 39

47 Defining Quality Requirements: A Guide for Public Safety Volume 1.0 Video C: Acknowledgements Appendix extends of Homeland Security’s for Interoperability and U.S. Office its Department The Compatibility many sincere appreciation organizations to the emergency responders, individuals, and government to the creation Defining Video Requirements: A Guide for of Safety . that directly contributed Public rga n izati o n O Department Fire Boise (Idaho) Deloitte Technology Authority Georgia Forensic Institute Indiana Association of Chiefs International Police of Johns University, Applied Physics Laboratory Hopkins Kiamichi Centers (EMS Training) Technology Angeles Los County Sheriff's Department National of State EMS Officials Association and of Standards Technology National Institute Surface Warfare Center Naval Panama City Division Pittsboro (North Carolina) Fire Department Public Safety Communications Research Program Technology Scientific Group on Imaging Working Security Industry Association System Development Integration Enterprises, LLC Homeland Transportation Security Administration, U.S. Department of Security Wolf Technical Services, Inc. 40 of 39

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The Economic Benefits of More Fully Utilizing Advanced 2 201 M ay Practice Registered Nurses in the Provision of Health An Analysis of Local and Statewide Effects on Care in Texas: Business Activity T...

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2018 of OUT REACH THE HIGH COST OF HOUSING MADE POSSIBLE BY THE GENEROSITY OF:

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CityNT2019TentRoll 1

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2019 D IRECTORS B OARD OF C G , C HAIR AROLE ROOM K C M V ICE , HAIR ARYL ATSUMOTO R C OLLINS ON M F RASER ARINA R OSE UILBAULT G D P INE AVE J OSH OWELL P P R ATTO ETER C TONE S HARLES A G E N D A J ...

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