1 “Save the Veins” Vein Sparing for patients with renal dysfunction A Did You Know? poster by Mary Sylvia-Reardon, RN, DNP Nursing Director of Hemodialysis Unit PICC-certified members of the MGH IV Therapy Team topic of intereSt related to the patient with renal insufficiency. The The use of venous access devices requiring • information gained from the responses identified placement in both central and peripheral veins has a need for education. This is a beginning step in become prevalent in modern medicine. the reduction of the number of PICCs placed in this • Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are IRB Protocol #:2009P000865; SRH patient population. vascular access devices that can be inserted through In discussions with the Nephrologists at MGH, there a peripheral vein with the tip terminating in the was evidence of hemodialysis patients having PICC central vascular system. placement that oftentimes could have been avoided. Such catheters are inserted through an antecubital • reView of literA ture vein by needle puncture (Hertzog & Waybill, 2008). The literature revealed factors that contribute introDuction significantly to damage of upper extremity vessels: In many institutions, PICCs replace neck or chest diameter, location and composition of the catheters • wall central venous catheters as the access of choice • presence of disease processes for intermediate and long term intravenous therapy • infusion solutions (Gonsalves et al., 2003). Larger populations of vein choice • patients receive these lines, not only for in-hospital greater incidence of thrombosis in the presence of • use, but home therapy as well (Allen et al., 2000). chemotherapeutic agents A survey tool was developed to identify the nursing Lack of radiological visualization • knowledge and current clinical practice of the tientS VoiDinG picc lineS in pA Ance of A import with renAl fAilure GuiDelineS for VenouS AcceSS A tient S with chronic Ki in p D ne Y • Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) have become DiSeASe or renAl inSufficiencY an essential component in the management of increasing numbers of patients, including patients who require – Identify hemodialysis or may, in the future require hemodialysis as a HD patients, present or future result of renal insufficiency (Allen, 2000). • CKD stages 3,4 or 5, including Complications from central venous catheters (i.e.septicemia, • current stage 5 patients receiving stenosis, thrombosis) often prevent an optimal vascular access hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or that is critical in this population. transplant patients ArinG GuiDelineS for upper extremitY Vein Sp Plan – venous access for stages 3-5 • According to the National Kidney Foundation, veins in both arms could potentially be needed for creation of vascular Choose – access at some point in time and must be preserved (National dorsal hand veins for phlebotomy • Kidney Foundation [NKF], 2006). • proximal peripheral venous access • Due to the large number of End Stage Renal Disease patients if necessary receiving hemodialysis, as well as peritoneal dialysis and • internal jugular veins are preferred transplant patients who may require hemodialysis at some point, for central venous access the need for preservation of upper limb vessels is imperative. external jugular veins are • • Arm veins suitable for vascular access placement should be acceptable alternative preserved regardless of arm dominance. The cephalic veins of – Avoid the dominant arm should not be used for either venipuncture or intravenous catheters (NKF, 2006). the subclavian veins • The MGH Hemodialysis unit adheres to the NKF-Kidney Disease National Kidney Foundation, 2006 Outcome Quality Initiative (KDOQI) Clinical Practice Guidelines.
2 Upper Extremity Veins are the “Lifeline” for patients with End Stage Renal Disease. As clinicians, we have been charged with the care and preservation of these vessels OUR PATIENTS’ LIVES DEPEND ON IT!! whY iS Vein Sp ArinG thromboSiS followinG picc plAcement import tientS Ant in pA with renAl fAilure? • Every patient starts with only four superficial upper extremity veins and two subclavian veins Avoiding unnecessary • iatrogenic trauma to the upper extremity veins is critical for arterio-venous fistula (AVF) creation. • Not only are the upper extremity veins critical for the Figure 2 Figure 1 creation of the vascular access, but a healthy venous circuit A 38-year-old asymptomatic A 9-year-old girl with acute back to the heart is of equal lymphocytic leukemia. Initial left woman 1 day after PICC importance. upper extremity venography placement with inadvertent 1 year ago was normal. Follow-up removal. Venography demonstrates non-occlusive venography after basic and cephalic thrombus in a brachial vein. PICC placements demonstrated occulsuion of these veins, with occlusion of the central venous Printed with author’s permission. system and multiple collaterals. No other form of central venous access Allen et. al., JIVR, 2000 had been performed. A “SAVe the VeinS” initiA tiVe iS beinG inStituteD bY the hemoDiAl YSiS unit AnD renAl DiViSion A t the mGh. If you are caring for a patient who is wearing a “Save Your Veins” band or you know your patient has renal dysfunction. Please: • Contact the patient’s Nephrologist or the Access Coordinator prior to PICC placement Avoid antecubital punctures whenever possible • • Perform venipuncture below the wrist for blood draws. Contact the MGH Hemodialysis Unit 617-726-3700 if you have any questions • referenceS Allen A.W., et.al (2000). Venous thrombosis associated with the placement of peripherally inserted central catheters. Journal of Vascular & Interventional Radiology, 11(10), 1309-14. Hertzog, D.R. & Waybill, P.N. (2008). Complications and controversies associated with peripherally inserted central catheters. Journal of Infusion Nursing, 31(3), 159-63. Gonsalves C.F., et al (2003). Incidence of central vein stenosis and occlusion following upper extremity PICC and port placement. Cardiovascular & Interventional Radiology, 26(2), 123-127. National Kidney Foundation (NKF), (2006).Clinical practice guidelines and clinical practice recommendations. Retrieved August 25, 2008 from http://www.kidney.org/PROFESSIONALS/kdoqi/guideline. March 2011 • www.mghpcs.org/IPC/Programs/Committees/Research.asp