EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative 7 Things You Should Know About Flipped Classrooms

Transcript

1 THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT...™ FLIPPED CLASSROOMS 1. What is it? The flipped classroom is a pedagogical model in which the typical lecture and homework elements of a course are reversed. Scenario Short video lectures are viewed by students at home before the For the past two weeks, Kyle has been taking a flipped class session, while in-class time is devoted to exercises, projects, course in designing food gardens. Before he attends each or discussions. The video lecture is often seen as the key ingredient class, he watches videos of short lectures recorded or in the flipped approach, such lectures being either created by the recommended by his instructor. Each lecture comes with a instructor and posted online or selected from an online repository. ! ers him immediate feedback on brief online quiz that o While a prerecorded lecture could certainly be a podcast or other whether he missed any essential points. Today as he enters audio format, the ease with which video can be accessed and class, he glances at the schedule on the whiteboard. For the viewed today has made it so ubiquitous that the flipped model has first half hour, teams will discuss how the content of the come to be identified with it. video lectures on microclimates, insect predation, and The notion of a flipped classroom draws on such concepts as active disease control will inform their team projects. Professor learning, student engagement, hybrid course design, and course Dalton circulates among the tables to see if anyone has podcasting. The value of a flipped class is in the repurposing of questions. class time into a workshop where students can inquire about Kyle’s team will be repurposing an area the size of an urban lecture content, test their skills in applying knowledge, and interact backyard into a visually appealing garden that is also a with one another in hands-on activities. During class sessions, functional food source. It’s part of the larger class project to instructors function as coaches or advisors, encouraging students reclaim a strip of city land by building a demonstration food in individual inquiry and collaborative e ! ort. garden. “I think we should bring in disease-resistant How does it work? 2. blueberries, grapes, and pome fruits,” says Coleen, looking the term There is no single model for the flipped classroom— at the rough drawings they have made so far. Dalton stops is widely used to describe almost any class structure that provides to look over their design. “Check the nursery catalogs on the prerecorded lectures followed by in-class exercises . In one front table,” he suggests. “Disease-resistant strains are common model, students might view multiple lectures of five to clearly marked in their listings.” As they search the catalog seven minutes each. Online quizzes or activities can be interspersed and discuss which diseases might be a problem in dwarf to test what students have learned. Immediate quiz feedback and apples, pears, blueberries, and grapes, Kyle enters their the ability to rerun lecture segments may help clarify points of cultivar choices in their Google Docs space. They are turning confusion. Instructors might lead in-class discussions or turn the to a discussion of microclimates and plant placement when classroom into a studio where students create, collaborate, and put a chime signals discussion is over. into practice what they learned from the lectures they view outside In the second half of the class, team monitors each retrieve class. As on-site experts, instructors suggest various approaches, two flat boxes from the front of the class. One box contains clarify content, and monitor progress. They might organize a stack of pins and various leaves preserved in plastic. The students into an ad hoc workgroup to solve a problem that several second box has a foam insert topped by a paper grid; each are struggling to understand. Because this approach represents a square is labeled with a nutritional deficiency or a disease comprehensive change in the class dynamic, some instructors have common to food plants. During the next half hour, each team chosen to implement only a few elements of the flipped model or is to identify the disease or nutritional deficiency and pin the to flip only a few selected class sessions during a term. correct leaf in the right spot on the grid. Dalton is on hand, Who’s doing it? 3. directing attention to clues and sometimes challenging their A growing number of higher education individual faculty choices. At Algonquin have begun using the flipped model in their courses. As he leaves, Kyle reflects that the hands-on activities have College, a video production class has been using this model to given him a far better grasp of the information and more explain the workings of editing software, a procedure that is confidence in what he has learned than he could have gotten notoriously di " cult to explain in a standard lecture. Short tutorial from an in-class lecture. video lectures let students move at their own pace, rewind to review portions, and skip through sections they already understand, © 2012 EDUCAUSE This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 License. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ educause.edu/eli ™

2 THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT...™ FLIPPED CLASSROOMS meaning students come to class able to use the software and 6. Where is it going? prepared to do creative projects with their peers. A particularly new tools may As the flipped class becomes more popular, successful example of a blended and flipped class in accounting . In emerge to support the out-of-class portion of the curriculum at Penn State accommodates 1,300 students. In-class time is used particular, the ongoing development of powerful mobile devices for open discussion, a featured guest speaker, or hands-on will put a wider range of rich, educational resources into the hands problem solving where instructor support is supplemented by of students, at times and places that are most convenient for them. student assistants. At Harvard University, one physics professor Greater numbers of courses will likely employ elements of the not only employs the flipped model but has also developed a flipped classroom, supplementing traditional out-of-class work correlative site, Learning Catalytics, that provides instructors with with video presentations and supporting project-based and lab- free interactive software enabling students to discuss, apply, and ! orts during regular class times. At a certain level of style e get feedback from what they hear in lecture. adoption, colleges and universities may need to take a hard look at class spaces to ensure they support the kinds of active and 4. Why is it significant? collaborative work common in flipped classes. In a traditional lecture, students often try to capture what is being said at the instant the speaker says it. They cannot stop What are the implications for teaching and 7. to reflect upon what is being said, and they may miss significant learning? points because they are trying to transcribe the instructor’s words. The flipped classroom constitutes a role change for instructors, By contrast, the use of video and other prerecorded media puts who give up their front-of-the-class position in favor of a more lectures under the control of the students: they can watch, rewind, collaborative and cooperative contribution to the teaching process. and fast-forward as needed. This ability may be of particular value There is a concomitant change in the role of students, many of to students with accessibility concerns, especially where captions whom are used to being cast as passive participants in the are provided for those with hearing impairments. Lectures that The flipped education process, where instruction is served to them. can be viewed more than once may also help those for whom model puts more of the responsibility for learning on the Devoting class time to English is not their first language. shoulders of students while giving them greater impetus to application of concepts might give instructors a better Activities can be student-led, and communication experiment. opportunity to detect errors in thinking , particularly those that among students can become the determining dynamic of a session are widespread in a class. At the same time, collaborative projects devoted to learning through hands-on work. What the flip does can encourage social interaction among students, making it easier particularly well is to bring about a distinctive shift in priorities— for them to learn from one another and for those of varying skill from merely covering material to working toward mastery of it. levels to support their peers. What are the downsides? 5. The flipped classroom is an easy model to get wrong. Although the idea is straightforward, an e ective flip requires ! ort and time ! . Recording lectures requires e careful preparation on the part of faculty, and out-of-class and in-class elements must be carefully integrated for students to understand the model and be motivated to prepare for class. As a result, introducing a flip can mean additional work and may require new skills for the instructor, although this learning curve could be mitigated by entering the model slowly. Students, for their part, have been known to complain about the loss of face-to-face lectures, particularly if they feel the assigned video lectures are available to anyone online. Students with this perspective may not immediately appreciate the value of the hands-on portion of the model, wondering what their tuition brings them that they could not have gotten by surfing the web. Those who see themselves as attending class to hear lectures may EDUCAUSE 7 Things You Should Know About...™ feel it is safe to skip a class that focuses on activities and might miss the real value of the flip. Finally, even where students embrace EDUCAUSE is a nonprofit membership association created to support those who lead, manage, and use information technology to benefit higher education. the model, their equipment and access might not always support A comprehensive range of resources and activities are available to all EDUCAUSE rapid delivery of video. members. For more information about EDUCAUSE, including membership, please contact us at [email protected] or visit educause.edu. February 2012

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