Design 2.0

Transcript

1 A DESIGN FOR MAINTAINING MARITIME SUPERIORITY Version 2.0 December 2018

2 MISSION The United States Navy will be ready to conduct prompt and sustained combat incident to operations at sea. Our Navy will protect America from attack, promote American prosperity, and preserve America’s strategic influence. U.S. naval operations—from the seafloor to space, from the blue water to the littorals, and in the information domain—will deter aggression and enable resolution of crises on terms acceptable to the United States and our allies and partners. If deterrence fails, the Navy will conduct decisive combat operations to defeat any enemy. Why Design 2.0? What has changed? A Design for Maintaining Maritime Superiority, Version 1.0 , released in January 2016 (Design 1.0), was explicitly intended to be assessed and, if necessary, revised to stay relevant. This update reflects the first reevaluation. There were three reasons we undertook this assessment. The first reason was to ensure our plans were aligned with updated strategic guidance. President Trump issued a new National Security Strategy (NSS) in December 2017, and Secretary of Defense Mattis issued a supporting National Defense Strategy (NDS) in January 2018. A new National Military Strategy (NMS) will follow. These documents orient national security objectives more firmly toward great power competition. While Design 1.0 highlighted that competition, these new strategies demand that we reevaluate our current heading to ensure it maximizes the Navy’s contribution to the objectives they set forth. The second factor driving our assessment was to account for progress that has been made since Design 1.0 was issued. We have accomplished many of the tasks it articulated, and have advanced many more—it’s now time to define what comes next. The third motivation was to validate Design 1.0’s characterization of the strategic environment, to check our assumptions. 1

3 Design 2.0 reflects the results of this assessment. Overall, the structure of Design 1.0 proved sound: the characterization of the security environment, the Core Attributes, and the Lines of Effort (LOEs) remain valid and relevant. Readers should recognize the new version as a continuation of Design 1.0; a major course change was not required. There are, however, some adjustments. Design 2.0 provides updated operational guidance to link strategy with execution. The “Achieve High Velocity Learning” Green LOE has been tightened, focusing on outcomes rather than processes. The tasks supporting all of the LOEs have been updated to establish new and ambitious goals that will spur us to accelerate our progress. This is an all-hands effort. Like Design 1.0, Design 2.0 establishes the framework to guide our behaviors and investments this year and in the years to come. More specific details about programs and funding adjustments will be reflected in our annual budget documents. 2

4 Security Environment The United States Navy will aggressively compete, harnessing three forces that continue to shape our modern security environment: - The increasing use of the maritime domain—the oceans, seas, waterways, and seafloor. - The rise of global information systems, especially the role of data in decision making. - The increasing rate of technological creation and adoption. It has been decades since we last competed for sea control, sea lines of communication, access to world markets, and diplomatic partnerships. Much has changed since we last competed. We will adapt to this reality and respond with urgency . The future of the United States depends on the Navy’s ability to rise to this challenge. As discussed in the 2018 NDS, China and Russia are deploying all elements of their national power to achieve their global ambitions. In addition, our competitors have been studying our methods over the past 20 years. In many cases, they are gaining a competitive advantage and exploiting our vulnerabilities. Their activity suggests that Eurasia could once again be dominated by rivals of the United States, our allies, and partners. China and Russia seek to accumulate power at America’s expense and may imperil the diplomatic, economic, and military bonds that link the United States to its allies and partners. While rarely rising to the level of conflict, Chinese and Russian actions are frequently confrontational. And these actions are not only directed at the United States: China and Russia seek to redefine the norms of the entire international system on terms more favorable to themselves. 3

5 This global competition extends to the maritime domain, including the seabed, and importantly, to newer domains: space and cyber. The new security environment is shaped by the following facts: - Our competitive advantage has shrunk and in some areas, is gone altogether. We do not have the margins we once enjoyed. - Twenty-first century competition takes place over a wide range of conceptual approaches—from peaceful competition to violent conflict. This competition involves all elements of national power. - The competitive space has expanded to new domains, fueled by technological advances as well as the amount and availability of information. - The pace of competition has accelerated in many areas, achieving exponential and disruptive rates of change. As this pace drives yet more unpredictability, the future is becoming increasingly uncertain. Identifying mid- and near-term outcomes will become more challenging. - We cannot become overwhelmed by the blistering pace. This is a long-term competition. We must think in terms of infinite, instead of finite, time frames. Only sustainable approaches will prevail. 4

6 Our Response To recapture strategic momentum and grow our advantages in the maritime domain, the U.S. Navy will act with a sense of urgency and creativity. Three central themes will guide our response: 1. The Navy will become more agile. The Navy will develop concepts and technology to “expand the competitive space” as the 2018 NDS directs. With the Joint Force, we will restore agility—conceptual, geographic, and technological—to impose cost on our adversaries across the competition-conflict spectrum. Our efforts will be prioritized to exploit our strengths against our competitors’ weaknesses. We will leverage the creativity and expertise of the Fleet. The Competition-Conflict Spectrum for the Military Dimension of Power Figure 1: . Navy concepts and capabilities should improve our ability to respond to an adversary across the spectrum from day to day operations, to escalation, to lethal combat. It is essential to develop options for the full spectrum of competition. Naval concepts and capability development will appreciate that this spectrum is fluid from peaceful presence to total war. Our competitors see the landscape as continuous; we will do so as well. Restoring — agility means realizing that operating in the spectrum can be non-linear and simultaneous our adversaries can operate at different levels of intensity in different domains at the same time. We will not let rigid thinking or self-imposed structures prevent us from operating in creative ways. 5

7 2. The Navy will compete in ways that are sustainable. Overextension in the short- and long-term—the pursuit of ends that are beyond the ways and means of the force—is self-defeating. Over the long timelines that characterize the current competition, the Navy will be ready to fire effectively first, but also be able to defend and return fire. We will aim to act as early as possible to de-escalate any crisis on our terms and be ready for the next move. This will require that we sustain the fight with the logistics capabilities needed to refuel, rearm, resupply, and repair our operational forces. 3. The Navy, fighting with the Joint Force and with our allies and partners, will control the high end of maritime conflict. The Navy is a key enabler of the Joint Force’s ability to prevent China and Russia from controlling the Eurasian rimland and its adjacent seas. We will protect the sea lines of communication between the United States and its allies and partners. 6

8 Four Core Attributes The current security environment demands that the Navy be prepared at all levels for decentralized operations, guided by commander’s intent. This operating style is reliant on clear understanding up, down, and across the chain of command. It is also underpinned by trust and confidence created by demonstrating character and competence. Our actions must always reflect our core values of Honor, Courage, and Commitment. Four Core Attributes define our professional identity and serve as guiding criteria for our decisions and actions. Leaders at all levels must continue to educate and focus our Sailors through example, education, and dialogue. Our conduct must always be upright and honorable. Our behaviors as INTEGRITY: individuals, as teams, and as an organization must align with our values as a profession. We will actively strengthen our resolve to act consistently with our values. ACCOUNTABILITY: We are a mission-focused force. We achieve and maintain high standards. Our actions support our strategy. We clearly define the problem we are trying to solve and the outcomes to which we will hold ourselves accountable. In execution, we honestly assess our progress and adjust as required. We are our own toughest critic. Our leaders in command recognize the unique trust and confidence placed in them to operate independently. This is a profound responsibility. INITIATIVE: We strive to accomplish what needs to be done, even in the absence of direct orders. Leaders at all levels take ownership and act to the limit of their authorities. We foster a questioning attitude, and we encourage everyone to look at new ideas with an open mind. Our most junior teammate may have the best idea; we must be open to capturing and implementing that idea. TOUGHNESS: We can take a hit and keep going, tapping all sources of strength and resilience. Through rigorous training for operations and combat, the fighting spirit of our people, and the steadfast support of our families, we maintain a culture of warfighting excellence and hone our warfighting ethos. We don’t give up the ship, we never give up on our shipmates, and we never give up on ourselves. We are never out of the fight. 7

9 Four Lines of Effort As in Design 1.0, Design 2.0 is structured along four LOEs that are interrelated and mutually supporting. Together, the LOEs and their supporting tasks define our priority efforts. LOE Blue: Strengthen Naval Power at and from the Sea 1. Strengthen the undersea leg of our nation’s strategic deterrent. Be ready to deploy USS COLUMBIA (SSBN 826) as quickly as possible—beating the current schedule—in order to preserve our ability to defeat the threat. Refresh and fortify the nuclear command and control system. Develop the nuclear capabilities directed in the Nuclear Posture Review. 2. Build SECOND Fleet to full operational capability by 2019. Commander, SECOND Fleet (C2F) and Commander, THIRD Fleet (C3F) will be expeditionary: they will have the capability to command and control their forces while deployed forward. In order to retain the capability for force generation while C2F and/or C3F are deployed, Carrier Strike Group (CSG)-4 and CSG-15 will develop the capability and capacity to generate forces, reporting directly to Commander, Fleet Forces Command (CFFC) and Commander, Pacific Fleet (CPF), respectively. 3. Continue to reinvigorate and strengthen the warfighting culture of the Navy through execution of the Comprehensive Review and Strategic Readiness Review program. In support of this, make any necessary adjustments to the command and control structure for the talent and capacity resident in the Afloat Training Groups. Aim to assign the capacity for training and certification to the accountable commander. 4. Establish data-driven decisions as a foundation for achieving readiness in our warfighting enterprises. Lead Type Commands (TYCOMs), supported by Systems Commands (SYSCOMs), Budget Submitting Offices, and higher echelons will develop and maintain authoritative and accessible data for decision-quality information. We will strive to reduce cycle time in all aspects of the organization. Refine, through execution and iteration, and in concert with the Joint Force, the Dynamic 5. Force Employment (DFE) concept. Use DFE creatively to impose costs on competitors and make our Navy stronger, more ready, and sustainable. Ensure Navy’s development of DFE concepts is aligned with the Joint Force to achieve maximum effects. 6. Continue to mature the Distributed Maritime Operations (DMO) concept and key supporting concepts. Design the Large Scale Exercise (LSE) 2020 to test the effectiveness of DMO. LSE 2020 must include a plan to incorporate feedback and advance concepts in follow-on wargames, experiments, and exercises, and demonstrate significant advances in subsequent LSE events. 7. Posture logistics capability ashore and at sea in ways that allow the fleet to operate globally, at a pace that can be sustained over time. Assess and develop options for improved ability and resilience to refuel, rearm, resupply, and repair. 8

10 8. Invigorate and continually reinforce our culture of mission command, which is an enduring advantage against any adversary. As stated in the Charge of Command, the ability of Commanding Officers to execute commander’s intent, using their initiative and creativity to fight, will enable victory. 9. As stated in “One Navy Team,” we will leverage inclusion and diversity within our teams to make better decisions. This will make us more creative, more competitive, and more operationally effective. LOE Green: Achieve High Velocity Outcomes 1. Rapidly acquire key platforms and payloads: - Award the Future Frigate contract in 2020 to deliver as soon as possible (ASAP). - Award the Large Surface Combatant contract in 2023 to deliver ASAP. - Award the Large Unmanned Surface Vehicle contract in 2023 to deliver ASAP. - Award the Future Small Auxiliary contract in 2023 to deliver ASAP. - Award the Future Large Auxiliary (CHAMP) contract in 2023 to deliver ASAP. - Contract for and field the family of Underwater Unmanned Vehicles (Orca, Snakehead, Razorback, Knifefish) ASAP, and no later than (NLT) 2025. - Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: - Reach MQ-25 first flight in 2021 and initial operating capability ASAP. - Reach MQ-4C Triton initial operating capability in 2021. - By the end of 2019, identify requirements across the family of systems to replace the F/A-18E/F and EA-18G by 2030. - Develop and field an offensive hypersonic weapon by 2025. - Develop and field the family of laser weapons (low power lasers, high power lasers, Surface Navy Laser Weapons System) beginning in 2019 and NLT 2025. - Improve the performance of our current enterprise networks in 2019. Modernize these networks under the NGEN-R contract. 9

11 2. Strengthen the synergy between development and dissemination of naval doctrine and naval capability: - Establish a concept development hub (DEVGRUEAST) at C2F. Principally supported by the Naval War College (NWC), the Naval Warfare Development Command (NWDC), and the TYCOM Warfare Development Commands, it will form the Navy’s Center of Excellence for concept development. - Establish a capability development hub (DEVGRUWEST) at C3F. Principally supported by Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR), the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), the NWDC, and the TYCOM Warfare Development Commands, it will form the Navy’s Center of Excellence for capability development. - DEVGRUEAST and DEVGRUWEST will collaborate to exploit the constructive, iterative dynamic between capability and concept development. 3. Design and implement a comprehensive operational architecture to support DMO. This architecture will provide accurate, timely, and analyzed information to units, warfighting groups, and fleets. The architecture will include: - A tactical grid to connect distributed nodes. - Data storage, processing power, and technology stacks at the nodes. - An overarching data strategy. - Analytic tools such as artificial intelligence/machine learning (AI/ML), and services that support fast, sound decisions. The operational architecture will be designed to be extensible to Joint and coalition forces. It will include a development environment to rapidly generate enhancements and support its continued evolution. 10

12 4. Upgrade the Plan-Brief-Execute-Debrief (PBED) cycle to a Plan, Practice, Perform, Progress, and Promulgate (P5) cycle: “Red team” the Plan - early to expose weaknesses and vulnerabilities as soon as possible. Practice - the Plan under expected and casualty conditions. the event according to the Plan, recording information for further analysis. - Perform Depart from the Plan during execution if required, but do so deliberately, with an understanding of what assumptions have been abandoned. - to a higher level of performance by analyzing planned outcomes versus Progress actual performance. Review the original Plan, Practice, and Performance data. Make adjustments to improve Performance the next time. - Promulgate what has been learned. 5. Focus Navy efforts for fielding AI/ML algorithms on areas that most enhance warfighting, training, and corporate decisions. By the end of 2018: - CFFC and CPF identify five priority warfighting problems for AI/ML to address. - Chief of Naval Personnel (CNP) and N7 identify five priority training problems. - VCNO identify five priority corporate problems. - Demonstrate initial capability for each AI/ML application by the end of 2019. 6. Maximize use of additive manufacturing (AM) to fabricate “hard to source” or obsolete parts, reduce cost, field more effective systems, and reduce reliance on vulnerable supply chains, through production at the point of need. - OPNAV N4, with the SYSCOMs in support, develop and issue means to certify each stage of the process, to include design, data transmission, printing, article test, and installation. - Field AM-produced metal parts in at least five current programs by the end of 2019. - If relief from current policies is required, recommend adjustments to better align policy with future technological trends. 7. Expand the use of Live, Virtual, and Constructive (LVC) training to support the growing demands of the scale, complexity, and security of training and operations. LVC training capabilities must provide a realistic, accurate experience in a secure environment at all levels of classification. - TYCOMs ensure unit-level training fully leverages LVC tools and systems. - Deliver an initial cross-domain solution by LSE 2020. 11

13 LOE Gold: Strengthen Our Navy Team for the Future Continue to improve and modernize military personnel management and training systems 1. through the “Sailor 2025” program. Deliver mobile access, increased career choice and flexibility, easier movement back and forth between active and reserve components, expanded family support, and tailored learning. - Provide Commanding Officers with a dashboard for talent management and risk monitoring by the end of 2020. - Build a one-stop “detailing marketplace” for reenlistment and billet negotiation by the end of 2019. Implement rating modernization so Sailors can explore opportunities and understand the training required to take a job in a different rate. Enable every Sailor to negotiate for more than one tour to include opportunities like geographic stability, education, co-location with spouses, advancements for hard-to-fill locations, and special pays. - Deliver a new performance evaluation system by the end of 2021 that emphasizes meaningful, frequent, and timely feedback. Use a standards-based assessment that evaluates character and that values merit over tenure. Focus on enhancing coaching and individual development. - Modernize and integrate the personnel and pay systems to provide accurate auditable pay to all active and reserve personnel by the end of 2021. Create a single Authoritative Data Environment for Navy personnel systems to permit the use of cutting-edge machine learning and data analytics by the end of 2024. Use commercial off-the-shelf, cloud-hosted modern technology. - Complete the transition to block learning and choose the training technology portfolio to deliver Ready, Relevant Learning. 12

14 2. Stand up a 3-star Director for Warfighting Development on the OPNAV staff (OPNAV N7). This office will be responsible for coordinating and aligning the Navy’s education, experimentation, exercise, and analytic efforts. It will align leader development across accession sources. Synergy between how we fight and how we learn will accelerate our combat effectiveness. 3. Release a mobile version of MyNavy Portal that can be accessed without a Common Access Card and allows leave submission and record access from a smartphone by the end of FY2020. 4. Shift from multiple Personnel Support Detachments to two MyNavy Career Centers with 24 hours / 7 days a week Sailor and Family customer service support by the end of 2019. 5. Better align our Navy Reserves to fleet and warfighting, instead of administrative, roles. 6. Establish the goals in “Laying the Keel” to advance leadership development for our enlisted force by the end of 2020. Create courses that focus on character, ethics, leadership, and decision making, and are facilitated by certified Senior Enlisted Leaders. Continue to evolve Chief Petty Officer (CPO) initiation to build senior line leaders with expertise and innovative thinking — consistent with the CPO Creed. 7. Use quantitative techniques, data-driven analysis, and other research to catalyze Navy leadership development by the end of 2020. Use science-based practices and training to support leader development and better decision making. 13

15 8. C ontinue the work started with the Navy Civilian Workforce Framework. - Develop Navy-wide guidance for Navy civilian acculturation that provides a consistent approach to acclimating civilians to our Navy mission and culture. - Create a structure for effectively developing civilian leaders through experience, education, training, and personal development. - Educate uniformed military members and civilians on effective personnel management. 9. As outlined in the Navy Family Framework: Provide for authoritative Navy information online. - - Provide for spouse and family training and education to strengthen a sense of mission in families. Evaluate the effectiveness of support provided to families. - Include assessment of command family support in our command inspections. - LOE Purple: Expand and Strengthen Our Network of Partners 1. Further strengthen Navy and naval integration into the Joint Force. Ensure the development of the naval operational architecture, to include the Naval - Tactical Grid, progresses in alignment with and in support of the development and fielding of the Joint Tactical Grid. Deepen naval integration with other services to realize the NDS and the NMS in multi- - domain, distributed operations. Integration with our natural partner, the U.S. Marine Corps, will continue to get top priority. - Work with the COCOMs and Joint Staff to support the development of joint operational concepts. 2. Maintain close alignment across the U.S. Government. - Strengthen our relationships with other Executive Branch agencies and the Congress. Work to achieve a relationship of transparency in order to build mutual understanding and trust. Develop a cohesive approach to building and supporting a balanced and ready Navy. 3. Strengthen the Navy’s unique role in diplomacy. Our nation’s history is replete with examples where the Navy has advanced the diplomatic element of national power. - Increase Navy International Programs Office contributions to strategic U.S. relationships. - Strengthen support for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), especially for high-end operations at sea. 14

16 - Mature Joint Forces Command-Norfolk as the NATO headquarters for high-end naval operations and warfare in the Atlantic theater. - Execute the work plans as set out in our maritime trilateral agreements between: - The United States, United Kingdom and France. - The United States, United Kingdom and Japan. - Continue to progress agreements and technology for information and intelligence sharing. Build on existing maritime intelligence and logistics partnerships with allied - nations, and expand relationships with partner nations to broaden and strengthen global maritime awareness and access. 4. Advance the Navy’s partnership with industry. - Encourage collaboration between industry and the new Requirements Officer Continue to refine and optimize requirements, informed by the availability community. of mature technology. - Move the acquisition process to progress via faster, more frequent iterative steps for acquisition and capability development. Expand dialogue at all levels with industry partners to increase shared understanding - and reduce obstacles to more effective and efficient ways of doing business. 5. Enhance cooperation with academic and research institutions. - Securely connect Navy labs in the cloud. - Create a commercial cloud environment to accelerate collaboration with academia. Use this environment to allow our workforce to be more agile and innovative, - as we reimagine traditional workflows to maximize efficiency. Leverage NPS to facilitate deeper exchanges between technology developers and - warfighters, to inform rapid capability and concepts development. - Expand cooperation with academia beyond technical matters, to include social and decision science to improve decision making in the Navy. 15

17 6. Reinforce relations with our neighbors. - Forge closer relationships between our Navy installations and host communities, both within the United States and abroad. Create new access opportunities, promote mutual security through drills and exercises, and build pride in and loyalty with the communities we serve. End State A dominant naval force that produces outstanding leaders and teams, armed with the best equipment, that learn and adapt faster than our rivals. Every person and every unit in the Navy will maximize their potential and be ready for decisive combat operations. Conclusion The margins of victory are razor thin but decisive. We will remain the world’s finest Navy by fighting each and every minute to achieve excellence in everything we do. Our rivals are intent on taking the lead from us—we must pick up the pace and deny them. We cannot be satisfied with achieving minimum standards—we are a Navy focused on being the best we can be, every day. I am counting on you. I am honored and proud to lead the Navy team. JOHN M. RICHARDSON Admiral, U.S. Navy Chief of Naval Operations 16

18 CHIEF OF NAVAL OPERATIONS April 6, 2018 The Charge of Command Ref: (a) 10 U.S.C. §5947 (b) U.S. Navy Regulations (1990) Encl: (1) ADM Ernest King CINCLANT Serial 053 of January 21, 1941 (2) Hobson’s Choice (Wall Street Journal, 1952) The Privilege of Command 1. As a prospective or serving Commander or Commanding Officer, you have been identified as worthy of the privilege of command. The decision to select you for command was not made lightly; you wer e selected based on your demonstrated past performance and the trust and confidence that senior Navy officers have in you to lead Sailors under your charge. Command is the foundation upon which our Navy rests. Authority, responsibility, accountability, and expertise 2. are four essential principles at the heart of command. Effective command is at risk if any of these principles is lacking or out of balance. 3. You accept the extraordinary responsibility of command with full regard for its consequences. It is the duty of every Commanding Officer to understand his or her authorities and responsibilities prior to assuming command, which are clearly laid out in statute and regulations as outlined below. The Scope of Command 1. “ All Commanding Officers and others in authority in the naval service are required to show in themselves a good example of virtue, honor, patriotism, and subordination; to be vigilant in inspecting the conduct of all persons who are placed under their command; to guard against and suppress all dissolute and immoral practices, and to correct, according to the laws and regulations of the Navy, all persons who are guilty of them; and to take all necessary and proper measures, under the laws, regulations, and customs of the naval service, to promote and safeguard the morale, the physical well-being, and the general welfare of the officers and enlisted persons under their command or charge.” (Ref (a)) 2. “ Commanders shall be responsible for the satisfactory accomplishment of the mission and duties assigned to their commands. Their authority shall be commensurate with their responsibilities. Normally, commanders shall exercise authority through their immediate subordinate commanders.” (Ref (b), Paragraph 0702) 3. “The responsibility of the Commanding Officer for his or her command is absolute, except when, and to the extent to which, he or she has been relieved therefrom by competent authority, or as provided otherwise in these regulations. The authority of the Commanding Officer is commensurate with his or her responsibility. While the Commanding Officer may, at his or her discretion, and when not contrary to law or regulations, delegate authority to subordinates for the execution of details, such delegation of authority shall in no way relieve the commanding officer of continued responsibility for the safety, well-being and efficiency of the entire command.” (Ref (b), Paragraph 0802) The Standards of Command 1. There are two standards to measure officers in command. The first is the standard for criminal behavior, which should be well known to you. The second — and higher standard — is trust and confidence, both with the American people we are sworn to protect and across all levels of the chain-of-command. 2 . A Commander’s competence and character lead to trust and confidence . Commanders can only feel comfortable delegating their authority — sending subordinate Commanding Officers and their teams over the horizon and into harm’s way — with the knowledge that those CO’s are both technically competent and share their values. If so, their teams will win — performing at or near their theoretical limits — and they will always come back stronger than when they left. 3. Trust and confidence are the two coins of the realm that enable decentralized command and operations at sea; they are the key to our effectiveness as a force. Work hard to build and guard trust and confidence. J.M. RICHARDSON Admiral, U.S. Navy 1

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