Navigating Social and Emotional Learning from the Inside Out: Looking Inside & Across 25 leading SEL Programs: A Practical Resource for Schools and OST Providers

Transcript

1 NAVIGATING SEL FROM THE INSIDE OUT LOOKING INSIDE & ACROSS 25 LEADING SEL PROGRAMS: A PRACTICAL RESOURCE FOR SCHOOLS AND OST PROVIDERS (ELEMENTARY SCHOOL FOCUS) MARCH 2017 Stephanie Jones, Katharine Brush, Rebecca Bailey, Gretchen Brion-Meisels, Joseph McIntyre, Jennifer Kahn, Bryan Nelson, and Laura Stickle HARVARD GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION WITH FUNDING FROM TH E WALLACE FOUNDATION 0

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements ... 3 4 Preface ... 6 What Does This Report Include? ... Introduction to the Report ... 7 What Makes It Unique? ... 9 ... 10 Methodology 12 Section 1: Background on SEL Skills and Interventions ... ... 12 What is Social and Emotional Learning? SEL Skills 15 ... Common Instructional Practices for SEL ... 19 Key Features & Common Implementation Challenges ... 21 Section 2: A Focus on Out- of-School Time 27 ... Alignment between SEL and OST Programs 27 ... Considerations for Adapting SEL Programs to OST Settings ... 28 Section 3: Summary Tables for Looking Across Programs ... 31 Table 1. Skills Targeted by Each Program 33 ... Table 2. Instructional Methods Used by Each Program ... 35 Table 3. Components of Each Program ... 37 Section 4: Program Profiles ... 39 Program Profiles: In-School, Lesson-Based Curricula ... 42 ... The 4Rs Program 43 Caring School Community ... 53 ... 63 Character First Competent Kids, Caring Communities ... 73 I Can Problem Solve ... 83 Lions Quest ... 92 MindUP™ ... 102 ... 111 The Mutt-i-grees Curriculum Open Circle 121 ... The PATHS® Program ... 131 Positive Action ... 141 RULER 151 ... Second Step ... 161 SECURe ... 171 Social Decision Making/Problem Solving Program ... 181 ... 191 Too Good for Violence 1

3 We Have Skills ... 201 ... Wise Skills 210 ... 220 Program Profiles: In-School, Noncurricular Approaches to SEL ... 221 Conscious Discipline Good Behavior Game ... 231 Playworks ... 240 Responsive Classroo ... 250 m© Program Profiles: Out- of-School Time SEL Programs... 260 Before the Bullying A.F.T.E.R. School Program ... 261 Girls on the Run ... 270 ... WINGS for Kids 279 References ... 289 ... Appendix A: Scope of Work 297 Appendix B: Methodology ... 298 ... Program Identification and Selection 298 Development of Data Collection and Coding System ... 298 Coding Process ... 3 0 2 Data Analysis . 304 ... Appendix C: Coding Guide ... 308 Accompanying Tools ... 334 School Settings Worksheet ... 3 3 5 3 4 1 ... OST Settings Worksheet 2

4 Acknowledgements Our team would like to thank everyone who made this work possible. We are extremely grateful to the Wallace Foundation, in particular Edward Pauly, for their generous support and ongoing collaboration and feedback. . A team of researchers at the Harvard Graduate School of Education (HGSE) produced this report We would especially like to thank Gretchen Brion-Meisels for applying her knowledge and expertise to the OST section of this report; Joe McIntyre for his speedy data analysis and beautiful displays; Rebecca Bailey for her on-going guidance and support; Jennifer Kahn for making sure the project stayed on track in its early stages and for her communication skills and eye for detail during the writing process; and Hadas Eidelman, Bryan Nelson, Laura Stickle, and Maddie Fromell for their invaluable contributions to the data collection, coding, writing, and review process. We also want to thank the many research assistants and interns who worked on this project over the past year and a half as coders and collaborators: Andrew Koepp, Austin Matte, Cyntia Barzelatto, Thea Corbette, Libby Doyle, Heather Lowe, and Rebecca Pyne. A special thanks to our group of reviewers who help ed proofread and provide thoughtful feedback on the report: Clark McKown of Rush University Medical Center; David Osher of American Institutes for Research; Charles Smith of the David P. Weikart Center for Youth Program Quality; Mirellese Vazquez of the Tauck Family Foundation; Brent Merten of The Community Group in Lawrence, MA; Aaron Roberson of East Maine School District 63; and Blake Colaianne, Sarah Franzen, Eliza O’Neil, Sarah Rauenhorst, and Sophie Barnes of the EASEL Lab at HGSE. Finally, we would like to thank the developers who created the programs in this guide for their cooperation and dedication to providing children and youth with the social and emotional skills central to success in school and life. flaticon.com. www. Program component icons made by Freepik from 3

5 PREFACE The field of social and emotional learning (SEL) is rapidly expanding. In the past decade, SEL has emerged as an umbrella term for a number of concepts including non-cognitive development, character st education, 21 century skills, and trauma-informed learning, among others. Researchers, educators, and policy-makers alike are beset by dilemmas about what exactly is included in this broad domain. Popular press highlights skills such as grit, empathy, growth mindset, social skills, and more. While SEL programs typically target multiple skills, very few programs target all of these skills. Furthermore, each program has its own way of building skills through specific teaching and learning activities, and its own programmatic components that define how the program looks and feels, as well as how skills are addressed and presented through explicit messages or implicit themes. In our work as researchers and educators, our team frequently receives questions about the content, implementation, and effectiveness of SEL programs and interventions. While good resources exist to identify evidence- based programs (see CASEL’s guides, 2003, 2013, 2015) , there are currently no available resources to help stakeholders look inside these programs to see how they differ from one another and what makes each program unique. For example, some programs are focused on “character traits” such as honesty, while others focus on skills like understanding emotions and solving problems, or a core theme like identity development. Some programs use discussions as the primary learning activity, while others are movement-based or game-oriented. Some programs have extensive family engagement or teacher professional development components, while others have none. Some programs are designed to be highly flexible and adaptable to context, while others are scripted and uniform. of-school-time organizations, researchers, and policy- These differences matter to schools, families, out- makers because they signal differences in what gets taught and how. This report was designed to provide information about the specific features that define SEL programs and that may be important to stakeholders who are selecting, recommending, evaluating, or reporting about different SEL programs, or to those who are aligning efforts across multiple schools, programs, or regions. This report consists of the following: x Section 1: Background Information on SEL , including a framework to help stakeholders consider the broader context and developmental issues that should be part of any SEL-building effort. x Section 2: Recommendations for Adapting SEL for OST settings , including common challenges and practical steps for selecting and aligning SEL and OST efforts. x Section 3: Summary Tables for Looking Across Programs , presented through a set of summary tables that illustrate which programs have the greatest or least emphasis on specific skills/skill areas, instructional strategies, and program components. Section 4: Individual Profiles for 25 Programs , describing in more detail the skill focus, x instructional strategies, program components, as well as additional findings and cross-program 4

6 similarities and differences that emerged from our analyses of each program’s curriculum and/or explicit activities. x Appendices , including detailed information about the coding system and methodology used to document, compile, and analyze information about each program. x , including a Quick Reference to help stakeholders identify programs that Accompanying Tools have the highest emphasis on a particular skill area, instructional strategy, or program component; and worksheets to help stakeholders use information in the Summary Tables and Program Profiles to make informed decisions about program selection, based on their unique settings and needs or objectives. Federal policy has begun to incorporate social, Important: This report is a living emotional, and behavioral factors into education accountability metrics (e.g., ESSA: Every Student document. Its content will grow ), and school climate initiatives, anti- Succeeds Act and change over time as we add bullying work, positive behavior supports (e.g., PBIS), and discipline reform are increasingly influencing the new programs and continue to day- to-day practice of schools and communities. As refine our coding system to provide these initiatives become more widespread, educators and other child and youth service providers are seeking increased nuance and depth. In the to identify SEL programs that (1) meet their specific future, updated information will be goals or needs; (2) fulfill certain requirements; (3) align available online at: with existing school-, district-, and state-wide regulations and initiatives; and (4) can be adapted and http://easel.gse.harvard.edu/ implemented with success in their unique settings. While this document is not necessarily exhaustive of all it will be a useful resource to SEL programs, we hope intended to exist as a inform these efforts. The report is living document that will grow and change over time as we add programs and continue to develop and 1 refine our coding system based on expert input and knowledge from the field. Project Background: In 2015, the Wallace Foundation commissioned a report that would look inside and carefully analyze widely-used SEL programs, in order to provide comprehensive details, transparent information, and cross-program analyses about the various in-school and out- of-school-time programs that are currently available in US contexts. This document is an adapted and expanded version of that initial report. This project builds upon and extends prior work conducted by our research team. For details about the . For more information about our team’s previous and methodology used for this project, see Appendix B http://easel.gse.harvard.edu/ . ongoing work in this area, visit our website: 1 The data used in our current analysis reflects program materials and evaluations available between Fall . 2015 and Spring 2016 5

7 ( ) Click to go directly to each section. What does this report include? How can this report be used? By breaking down each program in detail, this report enables schools and OST organizations to see whether and how well individual programs might: x address their intended SEL goals or needs (e.g., bullying prevention, character education, behavior management, etc.); align with a specific mission (e.g., promoting physical fitness, community service, the arts, etc.); x x meet the specific social-emotional or behavioral needs of their students (e.g., behavior regulation, conflict resolution, academic motivation, etc.); fit within their schedule or programmatic structure; x x integrate into existing school climate and culture initiatives or positive behavior supports; complement other educational or programmatic goals x outside of SEL (for example, a school looking to boost student literacy scores or make up for the absence of a regular art class might consider selecting a program that frequently incorporates books/stories or drawing/creative projects); and bridge OST settings and the regular school day . x This type of information can be used by schools and OST organizations to: (1) select specific programs or strategies that best meet their individual needs; (2) guide planning and goal-setting conversations with school and district leaders, OST partners, and other stakeholders; and/or (3) re-evaluate the fit and effectiveness of SEL programs and structures already in use. 6

8 INTRODUCTION TO T REPORT HE Over the past two decades, there has emerged a consensus among those who study child development, education, and health that social and emotional skills matter for many areas of development, including learning, health, and general wellbeing. Furthermore, recent research has demonstrated that high-quality, evidence-based social and emotional learning (SEL) programs produce positive outcomes for students, including improved behavior, attitudes, and academic performance (e.g., Durlak et al., 2011). At the same time, however, we know very little about what is “inside” SEL-focused interventions and programs – the specific skills, strategies, and programmatic features that likely drive those positive outcomes. For the purpose of this report, social and emotional learning programs were defined as those that include specific “instruction in processing, integrating and selectively applying social and emotional skills ... We know SEL programs work, but we don’t in appropriate ways (Durlak et al., ” know as much about what is inside them. 2011, p. 3), as well as programs where adults model these skills and children This report was designed to help schools and have opportunities to practice using program leaders look inside different programs them in diverse situations such that “safe, caring learning environments” and see what makes them different from one are established organization-wide ( ibid, another, to help choose the program that best 2 p.3) There are a great number of SEL . suits their needs. programs available for schools and out- of-school-time organizations to choose from, and those programs vary widely in skill focus, teaching strategies, implementation supports, and general approach toward SEL. For example, some programs target emotion regulation and non- “ prosocial behavior, while others target executive function, mindset, character traits, or other 3 cognitive ” constructs. Some programs rely heavily on discussion as the primary teaching strategy, while others incorporate methods such as read-alouds, games, role-play, music, and more. in their emphasis and material support for adult skill-building, Programs also vary substantially community engagement, and other components beyond direct child-focused activities or curriculum. Without access to detailed information about the specific content and approach of pre-packaged ng and SEL programs, few schools and OST organizations are able to use data to aid them in selecti 2 This is the definition of an SEL program used in this report. This definition may not be reflected in all its aspects for some SEL programs, and the implementation of some SEL programs may vary in ways that affect some aspects of this definition. 3 - cognitive” because it is frequently used by educators, policy makers, researchers, and journalists to refer We occasionally use the term “non to a broad set of skills that matter to student learning yet are not typically part of content areas such as math and literacy. We believe the term is problematic because it suggests these skills are separate from cognition when in fact many skills in this domain (including those described as social-emotional) involve cognitive tasks such as focus, reflection, perspective taking, mental problem-solving, etc. 7

9 implementing SEL programming, and they struggle to select and use programs that are best suited to their contexts and the specific challenges they face. There is thus a need for resources that comprehensively describe program content in a way that enables schools, OST organizations, and other practitioners see inside tasked with developing young people’s social and emotional skills to programs in order to make informed decisions about SEL programs or strategies. This report addresses that need by looking inside 25 leading SEL and character education program s to identify and summarize key features and attributes of SEL programming for elementary-age children. Schools and OST organizations vary widely in their missions, structures, pedagogies, and target populations, as do SEL programs. The goal of this report is to provide schools and OST organizations with detailed information about the specific curricular content and programmatic features of each program in a way that enables them to look across varying approaches and make informed choices about the type of SEL programming that is best suited to their particular context and needs. 25 Programs in Report In-school, Lesson-based In-school, Non-Curricular Out- of-School Time Before the Bullying 4Rs Open Circle Conscious Discipline A.F.T.E.R. School Program Caring School Good Behavior Game PATHS Girls on the Run Community Positive Action Playworks WINGS for Kids Character First Competent Kids, RULER Responsive Classroom Caring Communities I Can Second Step Problem Solve Lions Quest SECURe Social Decision Making/Problem Solving MindUp Program Too Good Mutt -i-grees for Violence Wise Skills We Have Skills 8

10 WHAT MAKES IT UNIQUE? Detailed Description of Curricular Content This report builds upon and complements other existing tools in the field (e.g., the CASEL Guide) to provide a more in-depth content analysis of leading SEL and character education programs. Most other resources focus primarily on identifying evidence-based SEL programs for use in schools and summarizing their major components. In contrast, this report offers a detailed look at the specific skills targeted, instructional methods used, and programmatic features offered by each program, and is more explicitly designed to enable schools and OST organizations to look across programs and easily identify those that best align with their focus, needs, and goals . TOOLS FOR INFORMED DECISION - MAKING : ANALYSIS OF: Program Snapshots Brief individual program overviews SEL Skills providing key program information and Cognitive, Social, details Emotional, Character, Mindset 25 Leading SEL In - Depth Program Profiles Programs for A comprehensive look at each program’s evidence base, skill focus, instructional Elementary Instructional methods, and additional features Schoolers Methods Strategies and activities School-Based and Out- used to teach skills Tools for Looking Across Programs - School Time Settings of Tables, graphs, and analyses to explore relative skill focus, instructional methods, and additional features across programs Program Components Key program features, such as training, support, and Planning Tools specific topic focus Worksheets to support a data-driven decision-making and program selection , including a guide for OST settings The level of detail provided in this report is intended to support schools and OST organizations to think explicitly about which approaches to SEL are most adaptable, feasible, and available for their particular settings, as well as whether or not and how particular approaches meet their specific 9

11 mission and goals. Furthermore, it provides schools and OST programs that may not be able to access or afford pre-packaged SEL programs with a basic overview of the types of skills, strategies, trainings, in leading SEL programs, offering a foundation from and implementation supports typically offered which to build their own independent approach to SEL. Attention to Out-of -School Time Settings This report is also distinct in the attention it gives to SEL programming in OST settings. There are few examples of evidence-based SEL programs that have been specifically designed for OST contexts, yet there are many reasons to believe that a more explicit partnership between these fields might benefit children and youth, not the least of which is that many emerging best practices in the field of afterschool and OST programming align with the central goals of SEL. For that reason, we include program profiles for three SEL programs designed for OST settings, rate sch ool-based programs on their adaptability to OST settings, and provide a set of guiding principles and considerations designed to assist OST programs in selecting or adapting SEL programs that best meet their needs. METHODOLOGY This report is the product of a detailed content analysis of 25 leading SEL and character education programs commissioned by the Wallace Foundation and conducted by a research team at the Harvard Graduate School Education led by Dr. Stephanie Jones. Collect Data Code Analyze and Identify Describe Programs by on Program Programs to Similarities Components Skill and Include in and Instructional and Evidence Analysis of Efficacy Differences Method Research Process Our research process included the following: Fifteen programs were initially selected for inclusion based on relevance to the project, (1) diversity of focus and approach, and accessibility of program materials. Ten additional programs were added at a later date for their broader focus on character education or OST Program materials were made available to us either by . settings for a total of 25 programs permission of the author or through purchase online. 10

12 (2) To conduct the content analysis we developed and employed a rigorous coding system to capture whether and how each program targets SEL outcomes across five domains (cognitive, social, emotional, character, and mindset) and 12 concrete skills (e.g., inhibitory control, emotion knowledge/expression, conflict resolution, empathy/perspective-taking, and more) by looking inside program curricula to identify the specific skills targeted and instructional methods (e.g., books, discussion, drawing, songs, etc.) used within each discrete activity. It is important to note tha t our coding system was designed to code only the explicit or concrete activities in which a skill was directly targeted or taught, with the intention of making as few inferences as possible. It is therefore possible that programs may also build additional, underlying skills. For example, one might argue that any activity requiring children to listen to others during a discussion involves practicing some form of attention control; however, our coding system was not designed to reflect this form of implicit skill-building. (3) We then used a standardized process to collect and summarize information about high-level program features and evidence of effectiveness. (4) Using these data, we created detailed program profiles that summarize each program’s domain focus, instructional methods, and program features. We also conducted a cross- program analysis to highlight key areas of overlap and variation across programs. After an initial internal review, this material was reviewed by a number of stakeholders in the field: multiple drafts were submitted to the Wallace Foundation and six external reviewers (including experts in social-emotional development, funders, and school leaders) for feedback on content, methodology, and presentation. In addition, each program developer was contacted and invited to review the following information included in their Program Snapshot: (a) program description, (b) grade range, (c) duration/timing, (d) areas of focus, and (e) additional/supplementary curricula. Of the 25 programs, 23 responded. For a detailed description of our methodology, including the program selection criteria and coding/data collection system, please see Appendices B and C, respectively. 11

13 SECTION BACKGROUND ON SEL SKILLS AND I NTERVENTIONS 1: As this report may be used to make decisions about SEL programming, it is important to have a basic understanding of the field. This section offers an overview of what we mean by social and emotional learning (SEL), and is designed to provide a broad understanding of the skills, instructional methods, and program features addressed in the program profiles in Section 4. Moreover, social and emotional skills do not develop in a vacuum; this section contains important information about developmental and contextual considerations that should influence how SEL programming for a school or OST program is considered. Below is an organizing framework for SEL that takes these factors into account, as well as a description of 12 concrete social and emotional skills that experts agree are related to positive outcomes for children and youth, 17 common instructional methods used to build social and emotional skills, six features of effective SEL programs, and seven common challenges faced by most SEL programs. LEARNING? WHAT IS SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL Broadly speaking, social and emotional learning (SEL) refers to the process through which individuals learn and apply a set of social, emotional, behavioral, and character skills required to succeed in schooling, the workplace, relationships, and citizenship. However, SEL has been defined in a variety of ways (Humphrey et al., 2011). The term has served as an umbrella for many sub-fields of psychology and human development, each with a particular focus (e.g., emotion regulation, prosocial skills, aggressive behavior problems) and many types of educational interventions (e.g., bullying prevention, character education, conflict resolution, social skills training; Social and Character Development Research Consortium, 2010). The scope and focus of SEL interventions also vary: some focus on one set of skills (e.g., recognizing and expressing emotions), while others are broader, and some include cognitive regulation and executive functioning skills (e.g., the mental processes required to focus, plan, and control behavioral responses in service of a goal), while others do not. For the purposes of this report, we use an organizing framework for SEL (Figure 1; Jones & Bouffard, 2012) that is based on research and developmental theory and captures the critical elements of SEL programs for children and youth. An Organizing Framework for SEL Our framework emphasizes four areas: skills, context, development, and outcomes. As shown in Figure 1, the framework divides core SEL skills into three domains: cognitive regulation (including attention control, inhibitory control, working memory/planning, cognitive flexibility), emotional processes (including emotion knowledge/expression, emotion/behavior regulation, social/interpersonal skills (including understanding social cues, empathy/perspective-taking), and conflict resolution, prosocial behavior). These three domains and their associated skills are related 12

14 to both short- and long-term outcomes related to academic achievement (e.g., grades, standardized tests), behavioral adjustment (e.g., getting along with others, solving conflicts, and exhibiting less aggression/fewer conduct problems), and emotional health and wellbeing (e.g., lower levels of depression and social isolation). They are described in greater detail on p. 15- 18 – “SEL Skills.” Figure 1. A Framework for Social and Emotional Learning (Jones & Bouffard, 2012) The Role of Context The links between SEL skills and these outcomes do not operate in a vacuum. As Figure 1 shows, our model for SEL views child development as taking place in a nested and interactive set of contexts, ranging from immediate (e.g., family, peer system, classroom, school contexts) to more distal (e.g., cultural and political contexts; Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998). As such, the development of SEL skills is influenced by several environmental factors and systems, including culture and climate in the school or OST setting and effectiveness of SEL implementation (as well as structural features such as schedule and staffing patterns, which are not represented in Figure 1). While this model focus es primarily on school-level factors, it is important to note that SEL skills are also influenced by community-, family-, and peer-level factors as well. There are two important ways in which educational or OST contexts influence the development and expression of SEL skills. First, the physical and human resources available to a child may facilitate (or challenge) their social and emotional learning. Research shows that children who have positive relationships with adults – those that are contextually and developmentally appropriate, recip rocal, typically have more access to interactions that reliable, and flexible (Brion-Miesels & Jones, 2012) – nd emotional learning (see box on the role of relationships on the next page). support social a 13

15 Similarly, children who have access to developmentally appropriate learning tools such The Role of Relationships in as books, games, and toys also benefit from Fostering Social and Emotional these resources. Skills Second, specific settings can be more or less likely to influence the ease with which a child Relationships are the soil in which children’s accesses and expresses SEL skills that he or she SEL skills grow. Parent child relationships are - es, particularly among young already possess d arguably most important the first an children. For example, a child is more likely to be context for the development of these skills, able to pay attention to their teacher and their with both — but relationships in schools school work in a classroom community where teachers and peers — are also important they are not simultaneously worried about or regulation, a - because they help develop self distracted by peer aggression. basic skill that is fundamental to multiple SEL domains (Eisenb erg, Valiente, & Eggum, These contextual factors underscore the critical 2010; Sameroff, 2010; Shonkoff & Phillips, role that schools and OST organizations have to regulation, the ability to manage 2000). Self - in shaping children’s social and emotional play one’s thoughts, emotions, and behaviors in development. The culture and climate of - the service of goals (Karoly, 1993; Smith educational and OST settings influence student Donald, Raver, Hayes, & Richardson, 2007), outcomes, and non-parental adults across relationships, initially is developed in settings have a unique opportunity to support through a process of “other regulation.” In - the development of healthy relationships and other - regulation, adults and peers help prosocial contexts to facilitate the acquisition children learn appropriate social rules and and expression of SEL skills. management strategies and gradually - self independent enable them to engage in Developmental Considerations regulated behavior. A growing body of research also suggests there is much to be gained from understanding the ways in which SEL skills emerge and change over the first 10 years of life. Although more research is required in this area, two things are clear. First, some skills act as building blocks: they serve as a foundation for more complex skills that emerge later in life. This suggests that children must develop certain basic SEL competencies before they can master others. Second, some skills are stage-salient: they enable children and youth to meet the demands of a particular developmental stage and/or setting. In other words, as the environments in which children learn, grow, and play change, so do the demands placed on children in order to be successful, and some SEL skills are more or less important at these different times of development. There is thus reason to believe that certain SEL skills should be taught before others, and within specific grades or age-ranges. For example, basic cognitive regulation skills begin to emerge when children are 3-4 years old and 6), go through dramatic transformation during early childhood and early school years (ages 4- coinciding with the expansion of the pre-frontal cortex of the brain. These skills (often called 14

16 “executive function”) lay a foundation for more complex skills later in life such as long-term planning, decision-making, and coping skills, among others, and are therefore important skills to emphasize during early childhood and the transition to kindergarten. As children move through the elementary grades, there is an increased need for a focus on planning, organizing, and goal-setting, as well as attention to the development of empathy, social awareness, and perspective-taking as children develop an increased capacity for understanding the needs and feelings of others. In late elementary and middle school, many children are able to shift toward an emphasis on more specific interpersonal skills, such as the capacity to develop sophisticated friendships, engage in prosocial and ethical behavior, and solve conflicts (Osher et al., in press ; Jones & Bailey, 2015). Linking SEL to Outcomes for Children and Youth A great deal of research over the last several decades have demonstrated the benefits of social and emotional skills, documenting effects on positive academic, interpersonal, and mental health outcomes. Research shows that classrooms function more effectively and student learning increases when children have the skills to focus their attention, manage negative emotions, navigate relationships with peers and adults, and persist in the face of difficulty (e.g., Ladd, Birch & Buhs, 1999; Raver, 2002). Children who are able to effectively manage their thinking, attention, and behavior are also more likely to have better grades and higher standardized test scores (Blair & Razza, 2007; Bull et al., 2008; Epsy et al., 2004; Howse, Lange et al., 2003; McClelland et al., 2007; Ponitz et al., 2008), while those with strong social skills are more likely to make and sustain friendships, initiate positive relationships with teachers, participate in classroom activities, and be positively engaged in learning (Denham, 2006). Social and emotional skills also serve as important protective factors in the face of negative life events or chronic stressors (Buckner, Mezzacappa & Beardslee, 2003; 2009) and support general wellbeing, such as job and financial security as well as physical and mental health, through adulthood (Mischel et al., 1989; Moffitt et al., 2011; Jones, Greenberg & Crowley, 2015). SEL S KILL S As shown in Figure 1, major social and emotional skills and behaviors can be categorized into three primary categories: cognitive regulation, emotional processes , and social/interpersonal skills. For the purpose of this report, we also include two skill domains not present in our model – character and mindset – that are increasingly included in other organizing frameworks in the field (e.g., Nagaoka et al., 2014, Heckman & Kautz, 2012; Social and Character Development Research Consortium, 2010 ). Cognitive Regulation can be thought of as the basic cognitive skills cognitive regulation In the most general sense, required to direct behavior toward the attainment of a goal. It is closely akin to the concept of 15

17 executive function, and encompasses a set of skills that enable children to prioritize and sequence (e.g., put their pants on before their shoes), behavior inhibit dominant or familiar responses in favor of a more appropriate one (e.g., raise their hand rather than blurt out the answer), maintain task- (e.g., remember the teacher’s req relevant information in mind uest to wash hands and then put coats on before going outside), resist distractions , switch between task goals , use information to make decisions , and cr eate abstract rules and handle novel situations . Children use cognitive regulation skills whenever faced with tasks that require concentration, planning, problem solving, coordination, conscious choices among alternatives, or overriding a strong internal or external desire (Diamond & Lee, 2011, p. 70) – all key skills for behavioral and academic success. This report focuses on four cognitive skills that experts agree are related to outcomes for children and youth : attention control, inhibitory control, working memory/planning, and cognitive flexibility . Emotional Processes Emotional processes are a set of skills and understandings that help children recognize, express, and regulate their emotions, as well as engage in perspective-taking around the emotions of others. Children must deploy these skills whenever faced with tasks that require emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal regulation. Emotional skills allow children to recognize how different situations make them feel and to address those feelings in prosocial ways. Consequently, they are often fundamental to positive social interactions and critical to building relationships with peers and adults ithout the ability to recognize and regulate one’s emotions or engage in empathy and ; w perspective-taking, it becomes very difficult to interact positively with others. This report focuses on three emotional processes that experts agree are related to outcomes for children and youth : emotion knowledge/expression, emotion/behavior regulation, and empathy/perspective-taking . Social/Interpersonal Skills Social and interpersonal skills support children and youth to accurately interpret other people’s behavior, effectively navigate social situations, and interact positively with peers and adults. Social and interpersonal skills build on emotional knowledge and processes; children must learn to recognize, express, and regulate their emotions before they can be expected to interact with others who are engaged in the same set of processes. Children must be able to use these social/interpersonal processes effectively in order to work collaboratively, solve social problems, and coexist peacefully with others. This report focuses on three social/interpersonal skills that experts agree are related to outcomes for children and youth: , conflict understanding social cues resolution/social problem-solving, and prosocial skills . W e recognize that there is theoretical and conceptual overlap between aspects of understanding social cues and emotion/ knowledge expression with regard to how body language and tone of voice are used to express and interpret emotions as well as influence how they a re understood by others. For the purposes of this review, we have included the ability to accurately read and use body language/ tone of voice to communicate feelings in both the emotional and interpersonal domains, but may make additional distinctions in future versions as we refine our coding system. 16

18 6 Character Character represents a set of skills, values, and habits that support children to be able to live and work together as friends, families, and citizens. It is often considered to encompass understanding, caring about, and acting upon core ethical values such as respect, justice, citizenship, and responsibility for self and others (U.S Department of Education, 2005). It also frequently includes the values and habits required to be a good worker and perform to one’s highest potential, such as perseverance, diligence, and self-control (Lickona & Davidson, 2005). More than simply holding prosocial ethical and performance values, displaying strong character requires taking the initiative to act upon those values and having the perseverance to follow through on them when faced with ethical, interpersonal, and personal challenges (Jones, Weissbourd, Kahn & Ross, 2014 ; Character Education Partnership, n.d.). In many ways, character could be understood as a complex construct that marshals underlying cognitive, emotional, and interpersonal skills to produce and guide ethical thoughts and behaviors. Example behaviors include verbalizing opinions about right and wrong (e.g., making ethical judgments), being tolerant and accepting of differences in others, acting upon an appreciation for community and civic responsibility, trying hard and persevering in the face of difficulty, and following through on responsibilities. For a full list of behavioral examples for each skill, please see p. 322 of the Coding Guide in Appendix C. 6 Mindset Mindset consists of children’s attitudes and beliefs about themselves, others, and their own circumstances. There is a strong reciprocal link between children’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior, and mindset impacts children’s interpretation of and response to events and interactions throughout their day. An optimistic growth mindset is a powerful tool for helping children protect against and manage negative feelings to successfully accomplish tasks and get along with others. When children feel confident in their abilities and optimistic about their chances of learning, growing, and overcoming obstacles, they are likely to build stronger relationships and be more positive. For example, if a child believes that they and their peers can develop their skills, talents, and behavior through hard work, they are better able to manage feelings of frustration and discouragement in order to solve interpersonal conflicts or persevere through challenging situations. Example behaviors include expressing confidence in oneself and one’s ability to improve (e.g., exhibiting a growth mindset), identifying positive attributes/strengths in oneself and others, and approaching challenging situations with a positive attitude. For a full list of behavioral examples for each skill, please see p. 323 of the Coding Guide in Appendix C. 6 17

19 12 Social and Emotional Skills Linked to Child Outcomes Cognitive Skills The ability to attend to relevant information and goal-directed tasks while resisting distractions and Attention Control shifting tasks when necessary, such as listening to the teacher and ignoring kids outside on the playground. The ability to suppress or modify a behavioral response in service of attaining a longer-term goal by inhibiting automatic reactions like shouting out an answer while initiating controlled responses Inhibitory Control appropriate to the situation such as remembering to raise one’s hand. Working memory refers to the ability to cognitively maintain and manipulate information over a Working Memory and relatively short period of time, and planning skills are used to identify and organize the steps or Planning Skills sequence of events needed to complete an activity and achieve a desired goal. The ability to switch between thinking about two different concepts to thinking about multiple Cognitive Flexibility concepts simultaneously, or to redirect one’s attention away from one s alient object, instruction, or strategy to another. Emotional Skills Emotion Knowledge and The ability to recognize, understand, and label emotions in oneself and others (emotion Expression knowledge) and to express one’s feelings in contextually appropriate ways (emotion expression). The ability to use effortful control strategies to modify the intensity or duration of emotional Emotion and Behavior arousal, both positive and negative (emotion regulation) as well as the ability to learn and conform Regulation to expectations for appropriate social behavior (behavior regulation). The ability to understand another person’s emotional state and point of view. This includes identifying, acknowledging, and acting upon the experiences, feelings, and viewpoints of others, Empathy and Perspective- whether by placing oneself in another’s situation or through the vicarious experiencing of another’s Taking emotions. Interpersonal Skills The process through which children interpret cues from their social environment and use them Understanding Social Cues understand the behaviors of others. Conflict Resolution/Social The ability to generate and act on effective strategies or solutions for challenging interpersonal Problem- Solving situations and conflicts. The skills required to organize and navigate social relationships, including the ability to interact effectively with others and develop positive relationships. Includes a broad range of skills and Prosocial Skills behaviors such as listening/communication, cooperation, helping, community-building, and being a good friend. Additional Skills A set of culturally determined skills, values, and habits required to understand, care about, and act upon core ethical values (e.g., respect, justice, citizenship, responsibility for self and others) and to Character perform to one’s highest potential in achievement or work contexts, such as perseverance, diligence, and self- control. Attitudes and beliefs about oneself, others, and one’s own circumstances that impact one’s Mindset interpretation of and response to events and interactions throughout their day. C. 323 of the Coding Guide in Appendix For a list of behaviors associated with each skill, please see p. 314- 18

20 COMMON INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES FOR SEL Effective SEL programs (like effective literacy programs) need to implement a set of focused, high- quality, research-based teaching strategies for developing students SEL skills. The following ’ activities describe the range of instructional methods typically found in evidence-based SEL programs as determined by a previous content analysis of leading SEL programs (Bouffard, Parkinson, Jacob & Jones, 2009 ). 17 Instructional Practices for Developing SEL Skills Discussions can occur in pairs, small groups, or as a whole class. Discussion can be used to introduce an SEL theme, pose questions to students regarding how a person may Discussion feel/act in a given situation, have students talk about how an SEL theme relates to their own lives, how an SEL theme is related to books they’ve read or things that have happened in the classroom, and more. Teacher provides specific instructions outside of an open dis cussion. This might include Didactic Instruction providing definitions, teacher modeling , or imparting specific information. Teacher reads aloud a book or short story that may or may not include pictures. In some instances, this may be a story developed by the programmers to illustrate a particular Book/Story theme. sed to teach language, words, or terms related to an SEL concept. For Activities u example, this might include working as a class to define a word related to an SEL theme, Vocabulary learning basic vocabulary necessary to talk about and solve problems, or coming up with synonyms for emotion words. Use of a tool or material to promote SEL strategies, often to help students visualize SEL concepts in a concrete way. For example, this might include using a conflict escalator to SEL Tools/ explore how certain choices can worsen or improve a conflict, using a feelings Handouts thermometer to talk about emotions, setting up a problem box to collect class problems for future discussion, or using student handouts such as planning templates. Students are often asked to write about personal experiences related to an SEL theme students might be asked to to the record the experiences of others. For example, or write about a time they were with someone, what they did, and how it felt, or to angry Writing do the same for a parent, sibling, or friend. Writing activities may also be collaborative, such as composing a poem together as a class . At younger ages, writing may take the . that depicts an experience or event form of drawing a picture th a goal other than depicting an event or experience Drawing activity wi . Drawing activities are distinct from writing exercises in that the focus is on artistic expression rather than on depicting a narrative experience. For example, asking students to draw a Drawing picture of something that makes them happy rather than drawing about a specific time they felt happy. 19

21 Art or creative project other than drawing related to an SEL theme . May be an Art/Creative individual project, such as using clay to make faces that show different emotions, or a Project collaborative project, such as creating a logo to represent team personality traits. Charts, posters, or other visual displays. Examples include classroom posters that break down emotion regulation strateg ies, a class rules chart, or a hanging circle that Visual Display represents the connection between thoughts, actions, and feelings. Often used as a way to establish or reinforce routines in the classroom. Videos typically depict children in challenging classroom or playground situations and Video are often used to prompt discussion around emotions, conflict resolution, and appropriate behaviors. Songs (and music videos or sing-songy chants) are typically used to reinforce an SEL theme and often involve dances, hand movements, and/or strategy practice. For example, a song might lead students through the steps for a calm breathing technique Song or problem-solving process. Songs may be played once or repeated over the course of a unit. Students actively practice using SEL skills or strategies outside of a game or role-play scenario. For example, students might practice paraphrasing what their partner just said Skill Practice to practice good listening skills or use emotion/behavior regulation strategies to calm down during a tense moment. playing a scene with puppets. At older At younger ages, this may involve a teacher role - playing in pairs or two students performing in - ages, it may involve the entire class role Play front of the class. It is often used to act out e motions, demonstrate/practice emotion - Role solving processes, or to practice managing - regulation strategies and problem conflict/interpersonal challenges. Can be used to reinforce an SEL theme, build community, practice an SEL skill, or transition student s into/out of a lesson, etc. Examples include playing feeling charades Game to help teach about emotions and social cues, using Simon Says to practice cognitive regulation skills, or cooperating during a relay game. Activities involving student movement and physical activity. Examples include games Kinesthetic like Freeze Dance and Feelings Charades or dancing and moving along to a song. May include portions of a lesson during which teachers are instructed to choose their range of options, such as choosing from a selection of different own activity from a Teacher Choice games or songs based on class preferences or SEL needs. May also include building a lesson around a template, such as selecting an SEL topic and related activities when the lesson structure is otherwise left open. Any activity not captured by the above descriptions. Common examples include poetry, Other visualization exercises, meditation, and more. 20

22 KEY FEATURES & COMMON CHALLENGES IMPLEMENTATION There is a strong body of evidence to suggest that current school-based approaches to promoting children’s social and emotional skills are making a meaningful difference in schools and in children’s lives (Durlak et al., 2011; Diamond & Lee, 2011; Bierman et al., 2010). We have already described the skills typically built by SEL programs as well as the instructional methods commonly used to target them. However, effective SEL programming is about more than targeting skills in students; it must also address the broader environment in which children live and learn. Here, we describe six features that are common to effective SEL programs as well as seven implementation challenges that even the most effective programs commonly face. We conclude with 10 program components outside of discrete lessons or activities that effective SEL programs typically employ to address these key features and/or common challenges. Key Features of Effective SEL Programs In their seminal 2011 paper, Durlak and colleagues found that the most effective SEL programs were those that incorporated four elements represented by the acronym SAFE: (1) sequenced activities that led in a coordinated and connected way to skills, (2) active forms of learning, (3) a focus on developing one or more social and emotional skills, and (4) explicit targeting of specific skills. But SEL is about more than just targeting and building skills, and our own research (Jones & Bouffard, 2012; Jones, Bailey, and Jacob, 2014; Jones, Bailey, Brion-Meisels, and Partee, 2016) builds upon on the SAFE elements to add that SEL efforts are most successful when they: 1. Occur within supportive contexts. School and classroom contexts that are emotional supportive of children’s social and development include (a) adult and child practices and activities that build skills and establish prosocial norms; and (b) a climate that actively promotes healthy relationships, instructional support, and positive classroom management. Efforts to build social and emotional skills and to improve school culture and climate are mutually reinforcing and may enhance benefits when the two are pursued in a simultaneous and coordinated fashion. 2. Build adult competencies. This includes promoting teachers’ own social and emotional competence and the ongoing integration of teacher social and emotional competence with pedagogical skills. 3. Acknowledge features of the broader community context. This includes taking into consideration the environments and contexts in which children are learning, living, and growing by building family-school-community partnerships that can of-school settings, fostering culturally competent support children at home and in other out- 21

23 and responsive practices, and considering how specific educational policies may influence children. Target a key set of skills across multiple domains of development. 4. This includes targeting, in a developmentally appropriate way, skills across multiple domains of development, including: (a) emotional processes, (b) social/interpersonal skills, and (c) cognitive regulation or executive function skills. 5. Set reasonable goals. This includes articulating a series of short- and long-term outcomes that are reasonable goals or expectations for the specific SEL effort. These include (a) short- term indicators of children’s growth and progress in areas proximal to the specific SEL activities, and (b) longer-term indicators of more distal, future impacts. Key Features of Incorporate SAFE Effective SEL Programs elements Occur within Set reasonable supportive goals contexts Effective SEL Programs Build adult Target key behaviors & skills competencies Partner with family & community Common Implementation Challenges Despite the impressive, and expanding, body of evidence in favor of programs and interventions focused on social and emotional skills, a number of important challenges remain, namely: 22

24 1. Ensuring sufficient exposure and intensity. SEL programs often take the form of short lessons, implemented during one weekly half- or hour-long section of a language arts, social studies, or other class (Jones et al., 2010). In our are often abridged or skipped due to tigh t schedules and teachers ’ experience, these lessons ’ needs to spend class time on academic content. and school leaders For example, sometimes schools adopt programs without setting aside time in the daily schedule, leaving it to teachers to find extra the curricula. Programs are often not sustained and students tim e or adapt experience little continuity from one year to the next. Furthermore, despite recommendations for schools to adopt evidence-based programs (CASEL, 2006), many schools utilize programs that have not been well tested. 2. Prioritizing and integrating SEL in daily practices. the educational mission; they may be In many schools, SEL skills are not seen as a core part of viewed as extracurricular, add-on, or secondary. As a result, there is little effort to apply the skills learned during into daily life in the school or extensions of the school SEL programming day. A growing number of programs have made efforts to solve this problem by integrating SEL skills with academic content (e.g., using History, Language Arts, and Social Studies curricula to build cultural sensitivity, respect for diversity, and social/ethical awareness); however, such integration in schools is rare (Becker & Domitrovich, 2011; Cappella, Jackson, Bilal, Hamre, & Soule, 2011). 3. Extending SEL beyond classrooms. Most SEL programs focus solely or primarily on what goes on in the classroom, but SEL skills are also needed on playgrounds, in lunchrooms, in hallways and bathrooms, and in the time spent of-school settings in out- — in short, everywhere. Student sur veys and “hot - spot mapping,” in which students draw maps of the areas in school where they feel unsafe, show that students feel most unsafe in these un-monitored, and sometimes unstructured, zones (LaRusso, Brown, Jones, & Aber, 2009; Astor, Meyer, & Pitnor, 2001). Students need support to navigate such spaces and make the entire school environment one that is safe, positive, and conducive to learning. Even when students do not consider them to be dangerous, these non-classroom contexts provide vital opportunities for students to practice their SEL skills. Across ages, issues like sharing, entering into social situations, and social inclusion and exclusion occur frequently in parts of the school campus outside of classrooms and in other settings where children learn and play. 4. Ensuring sufficient staff support and training. of-school settings Broadly speaking, teachers, other school staff, and the adults who staff out- typically receive little training in how to promote SEL skills, deal with peer conflict, or address other SEL-related issues (Lopes, Mestre, Guil, Kremenitzer & Salovey, 2012; Kremenitzer, 2005). For example, pre-service teacher training includes little attention to these issues beyond basic 23

25 behavior management strategies, and little in-service support is available on these topics, particularly through effective approaches like coaching and mentoring. Staff members other than teachers receive even less training and support despite the fact that cafeteria monitors, bus drivers, sports coaches, and other non-teaching staff are with children during many of the interactions that most demand effective SEL strategies and skills. 5. in. Facilitating program ownership and buy- School administrators and staff sometimes perceive structured programs developed by outsiders and adopted without local consensus or a transparent process for decision-making to be too “top - down,” and as a result , staff lack a sense of ownership and trust. In other cases, schools do not view programs as sensitive to their local context and therefore make modifications. While sometimes such modifications are useful, they can also compromise fidelity and threaten program effectiveness. 6. Using data to inform decision-making. Few schools employ data to guide decision-making about the selection, implementation, or ongoing assessment of the programs and strategies they use despite a more general trend toward data-driven decision-making in schools. Schools and their partners thus struggle to select and use programs most suited to their contexts and to the specific challenges they are facing, to monitor results, and to hold themselves accountable. Applying and transfer ring skills. 7. of-school staff often fail Even with comprehensive curricula, teachers and other school and out- time “teachable moment” situations, or to transfer skills to use the program strategies in real- from the lessons to daily interactions in the classroom and other school and out- of-school micro-contexts (Jones & Bouffard, 2012; Jones, Brown & Aber, 2008). It is important to note that the challenges summarized above are common and faced by even the most well-intentioned and empirically-grounded programs, and schools and OST organizations should consider them carefully before adopting or adapting an approach to SEL. By providing a detailed description of what is inside various SEL programs, this report may help schools and OST organizations to both avoid and address common implementation challenges, by enabling them to answer such questions as, “Does the structure of this program/approach fit what is possible or -long lessons are not feasible in a available in my setting?” For example, structured weekly hour setting with an inflexible block schedule. However, an approach that emphasizes activities that can be embedded in everyday routines and/or transitions could be implemented in that context and applied in a parallel fashion to other related settings, such as in out- of-school-time. 24

26 Common Ensuring sufficient Implementation exposure and intensity Challenges Prioritizing and Applying and integrating SEL transferring in daily skills practices Implementation Challenges Extending SEL Using data to inform beyond classrooms decision-making Facilitating Ensuring sufficient staff program ownership and support and buy-in training Program Components that Support Effectiveness and Address Challenges In addition to building social and emotional skills during classroom or OST lessons and activities, SEL programs frequently include the following additional program components that may be used help schools and OST organizations support key features and address common challenges. It is important to consider which components may be important for building an effective, holistic approach to SEL in a school or OST program. Common Program Components Lessons/activities (mandatory or optional) to be used in addition to, or as an extension of, the core curriculum. Examples include extension lessons, extra units, or supplementary activities designed to build lesson concepts and skills in the classroom or primary program space (e.g., OST, recess, etc.) outside of core lessons. This may also include activities, integrating social and emotional skills and practices Classroom resources, and/or recommendations for into the academic curriculum , including specialized or elective classes such as art, music, and Activities Beyond gym. Examples include structured integration activities, suggestions for connecting social and Core Lessons emotional skills to academic material, book recommendations for students, and more. This category does not include school-wide activities like assemblies or events intended to build school climate and culture. For more on these activities, please see School Climate and Culture Supports on the following page. 25

27 Features that promote positive norms, beliefs, values, and expectations (culture) and/or help students and staff to feel safe, connected, and engaged (climate) throughout the entire school/OST space and/or within individual classrooms This generally includes (1) school-wide . Climate and Culture activities and events such as assemblies, morning announcements, and whole-school projects; Supports (2) adult practices that foster a positive learning environment (e.g., caring, respect, engagement in learning, and a sense of community); and (3) tools for establishing policies and procedures that reinforce program practices and skills in all areas of the school. Features designed to be used in, or adapted for, OST settings. Examples include a primary Applications to focus on afterschool settings, supplementary afterschool kits or curricula, recommendations Out for using materials outside of the regular school day, or a history of being used successfully in -of-School Time OST spaces. Features that impact the extent to which programs may be tailored to site-specific needs. This includes information about mandatory vs. flexible features such as what must be Adaptability to implemented and when (e.g., lesson duration, order, content, context, etc.) as well as Local Context resources for working with specific populations, such as English Language Learners or students with special needs, and/or adapting materials for various cultures. Opportunities for staff professional development and training. Trainings may be for all staff members or designed for a particular audience (e.g., teachers, administrators, support staff, Professional etc.), mandatory or optional, on- or off-site, one-off or reoccurring, flexibly tailored to local opportunities and needs or more structured, regional workshops. This may also include Development and timing Training for building adult social and emotional competence , including trainings that help adults learn to understand and manage their emotions, build positive relationships with students and colleagues, and more. Resources designed to help school staff facilitate effective classroom and/or school-wide Support for implementation. Examples include administrator tool kits, implementation teams, sample Implementation checklists and plans, needs assessments, best practices, scripted lessons and/or support for modeling skills, opportunities to receive ongoing coaching, and more. Formal or informal tools to evaluate student progress and program outcomes, including any relevant adult outcomes or changes in adult behavior. in Examples include informal check- Tools to Assess questions and classroom observations; more formal tests, surveys, or observation batteries; Program Outcomes and even evidence-based assessments such as the Devereux Student Strengths Assessment (DESSA) or Elementary School Behavior Assessment (ESBA). Examples range Tools and resources to evaluate fidelity of implementation and staff buy- in. from materials such as staff surveys, implementation logs, and classroom observations to sets Tools to Assess of recommendations and best practices for setting up evaluation systems and making data- Implementation informed decisions. It does not include assessments of student progress or program outcomes. For tools to measure these outcomes, please see Tools to Assess Program Outcomes above. ng families in students’ social and Activities, events, and recommendations for incorporati emotional development. Examples include caregiver letters, take-home worksheets, family Family Engagement nights, family workshops, and more. Resources range from highly structured or scripted events to suggested best practices. Activities, events, and recommendations for building connections between students and Community Examples include community service projects, career nights, volunteer their community. Engagement opportunities for community members, and more. Resources range from highly structured or scripted events to suggested best practices. 26

28 SECTION 2: -OF -SCHOOL T IME A FOCUS ON OUT There are many reasons to believe that an explicit partnership between the fields of social and emotional learning and out- of-school-time (OST) programming might benefit children and youth . Yet while a range of OST programs are available for school age children and youth, relatively few of these programs have a primary focus on developing social and emotional skills. Given the lack of options, OST programs often look instead to borrow from and adapt in-school curricula for their settings. In this section, we provide a set of principles and considerations that we hope will guide programs in using this report to make choices that are most appropriate for their particular context. ALIGNMENT B ETWEEN SEL AND OST PROGRAMS Despite the lack of evidence-based SEL programs designed specifically for out- of-school-time settings, the goals of both fields are well aligned for integration. Evidence suggests that social and emotional outcomes improve when children and youth have opportunities to practice self- regulatory and social and emotional skills across settings, and when adult expectations are aligned. At the same time, research suggests that when out- of-school-time programs address the needs of the whole child, including social and emotional learning goals, their efficacy increases (Durlak, Weissberg, & Pachan, 2010; Durlak & Weissberg, 2013). In their review of 68 afterschool programs that sought to promote social and emotional skills, Durlak, Weissberg and Pachan (2010) found that afterschool programs working to promote SEL were generally effective in promoting positive youth development, particularly in terms of the feelings, attitudes, behaviors, and school performance of their participants. Their review also found that programs using evidence-based skill training approaches were the most effective across these areas. Specifically, these authors concluded that programs were most effective when they conformed to SAFE; meaning they: included sequenced activities to teach skills, actively engaged students in learning skills, focused time on SEL skill development, and explicitly targeted SEL skills. Four Common Principles Underlying High-Quality OST and SEL Programming Many of the skills targeted in out- of-school-time programs are also central goals of social and emotional learning programs. OST and SEL programs share a commitment to: considering the needs of the whole child, partnering across contexts (community, family, school), and thinking developmentally. Specifically, four common principles underlie quality out- of-school-time programming and quality social and emotional learning programming: 1. programs provide a safe and positive environment for children and adults; 2. programs support the development of high quality relationships between children and adults; 27

29 programs are developmentally appropriate, relevant and engaging for children; and 3. 4. programs provide opportunities for direct skill building. These common principles highlight the potential for partnerships between SEL and OST programs. ETTINGS IONS FOR A DAPTING SEL P ROGRAMS TO OST S CONSIDERAT Section 3 of this report outlines three programs Before the Bullying A.F.T.E.R. School Program, – Girls on the Run, and WINGS for Kids – that have been explicitly designed to build SEL skills in an out- of-school-time context. Programs that are designed to do this are rare. However, several in- school SEL programs, including many of those in our larger analysis, have been designed or adapted to some degree for use in out- of-school-time, including Character First, Conscious Discipline, Lions Quest, Mutt-i-grees, Playworks, Positive Action, Social Decision Making/Problem Solving Program, Second Step, and Too Good for Violence. Given the relative lack of SEL programs that are explicitly of-school-time contexts, it makes sense that many OST programs look to borrow designed for out- from and adapt in-school curricula for their settings. In-school SEL programs vary in the amount of OST support they provide; a limited number offer packaged OST lessons, but the majority leave adaptation up to individual users. When adopting or adapting in-school SEL curricula, it is critical that organizational leaders remember the four common principles underlying quality programming in both arenas, as described above. If leaders lose sight of these principles in their efforts to adapt existing programs, they risk missing a critical ingredient of the work and undermining its overall success. Instead, leaders must build on these core principles by considering what elements of SEL programs best match their mission, pedagogical approach, and the specific needs of their population. They must consider activities that are doable in small blocks of time, are engaging for young people, and are aligned with the central mission and character of their already-existing programs. When SEL adaptations for the OST context start from these dimensions of mission alignment, children are more likely to benefit. In addition to these four common principles, our analysis suggests five key tensions with which organizations must grapple when they adapt SEL programming for OST settings. These considerations require careful discussion prior to any partnership efforts: 1. Expansion is difficult when forcing standardization. While most SEL programs are packaged as standardized units, the ingredients contained within vary in their content, approach, and related outcomes. To most effectively use programmatic ingredients, partners must think about how they can differentiate for the specific needs of their organizational context and student population. The benefits of consistency must be balanced with the need for programming to be additive. 2. Research suggests that consistency across contexts improves outcomes for children and youth; 28

30 however, simply repeating more of the same often leads to student disengagement. To most effectively integrate SEL programming into OST spaces, partners must consider how to maintain consistency without becoming redundant. SEL programs must authentically support the mission of the OST organization . Prior work in 3. the fields of family and community engagement suggests that adaptations are most effective when they are fully integrated into the mission and practices of an organization. For this to occur, partners must choose ingredients from SEL programs that support their existing mission. 4. In addition to mission, the pedagogical approach of SEL and OST programs should be both aligned and additive. SEL programs, like OST programs, vary in their goals and pedagogical approaches. Because consistency across contexts and authentic integration contribute to the success of partnerships, programs should consider ingredients from SEL programs that match their existing pedagogical approach. Organizations should look for SEL programs that can be easily integrated with, but also add to, what an OST program already offers. 5. Organizations must consider the specific SEL needs and learning styles of their students. Organizations must consider the needs and learning styles of their students, particularly in terms of SEL. Collecting data can help to inform choices about the content and activity type that one adopts. Once there is clarity around students’ needs, programs should choose SEL ingredients that best address these targeted outcomes. Building on the four common principles underlying SEL and OST programming, we recommend that OST organizations begin by discussing the key tensions above. We imagine that the answers to — these questions — together with the detailed programmatic information in this report will help guide OST organizations in adopting and/or adapting programmatic elements of the SEL programs that best meet their needs. Once an OST program has considered its mission, pedagogical approach, partner organizations, and students’ needs, it should be easy to use this report to search for appropriate SEL building blocks. This process is described in the figure on the following page. For tips on how to use the information in this report to think about adopting or adapting an SEL program in an OST setting, ple ase see the accompanying tool, “ OST Settings Worksheet, ” at the end of this report. 29

31 Process for Approaching the Adaptation of SEL Programs to OST Contexts Building Blocks Structures, strategies, routines, and activities Five Key Considerations (1) Expansion without standardization (2) Consistency without being redundant (3) Alignment with mission (4) Alignment with pedagogy (5) Consideration of student needs Four Underlying Principles (1) Safe and positive environment (2) High-quality relationships with adults (3) Developmentally appropriate, relevant, engaging - Opportunities for direct skill building (4) 30

32 ACROSS PROGRAMS 3: SUMMARY T ABLES F OR LOOKING SECTION The tables in this section provide an overview of the specific skills, instructional methods, and This section comprises a set of components offered by each program. These summary tables that allow the tables may be helpful tools for identifying programs that best fit your school/organization reader to quickly glance across all needs. They may also be helpful for looking 25 programs in order to see big- across programs to identify areas of similarity or difference. These tables should be used in picture trends that emerge from our conjunction with the more detailed program analyses. profiles as well as the accompanying tools at the end of this report. In this section, you will find the following tables: 1. Table 1: Skills Targeted By Each Program 2. Table 2: Instructional Methods Used by Each Program Table 3: Components of Each Program 3. 31

33 An Important Note About Interpretation Building A Focus on Explicit Skill- What does it mean Our coding system was designed to code only the explicit or concrete activities in which a if a program particular skill was directly targeted or taught. For example, it could be argued that activities requiring students to pay attention or listen to a teacher speak about any topic doesn’t appear to for an extended period of time might implicitly lead students to practice and build their focus on a attention control skills. However, we only coded program activities in which attention particular domain control was explicitly referenced or practiced, such as activities in which teachers ask students to use their “focusing power” to pay attention, or to practice using active listening or skill? skills with a partner. It is therefore possible that our analysis may not reflect some of the more subtle or underlying skill-building that occurs in programs. No One Way to Achieve Positive Results It is important to note that no one domain is a silver bullet or more important than the others, nor must programs target every domain to achieve positive outcomes for students. Schools and OST providers must instead think carefully about their students and settings , and consider how a particular program focus fits with their needs and goals, in coordination with the type of instructional methods and program components it offers. 7 Tertiary Instructional Methods What does it mean Because our coding system is only designed to capture two instructional methods per if a particular program activity (a primary and secondary method), there are times when a tertiary instructional method is present but does not get coded. For example, during a lesson about instructional getting along with others, the term “respect” might be defined briefly in the context of a method appears in larger discussion about a related children’s book. In this case, discussion and book/story 0% of activities? would be coded over vocabulary/language exercise because a greater amount of focus is dedicated to these tasks. For this reason, instructional methods (like vocabulary) that frequently tend to occur only – briefly within the context of a larger activity may seem to appear in only a low percentage or even 0% – of activities across most programs. This does not mean that programs do not ever guide teachers to define new words and concepts for students – it simply means that vocabulary is not the primary focus of any activity. Consequently, programs that chunk lessons into more discrete activities may appear to use more of these less dominant instructional methods than programs that do not break lessons down into smaller activities or sections. Instructional methods that tend to fit this description include language/vocabulary exercises, charts/visual displays, and didactic instruction. In many cases, these instructional methods appear in little to no activities across a majority of programs, and even a small percentage of program activities targeting this skill may indicate significant use of a particular method. (Please see Table 2 in Section 3 and the How Does It Compare section of the program profiles in Section 4 for comparative analyses.) Anchor Activities This instructional Activities are not weighted based on how integral they are to a given lesson, which may method is an cause some instructional methods to appear less integral to a program than expected. For example, although the lesson mentioned above about getting along with others may be integral part of this anchored by a children’s book, it is common for the actual act of reading and discussing a – program why book to only constitute one activity within that lesson. Per our coding system, that single doesn’t it appear in activity would be weighted equally with brief introduction/wrap-up activities, or any subsequent applied skill practice. a higher For this reason, even though the lesson is based around the book, it would appear in only a percentage of small percent of lesson activities. Instructional methods that tend to fit this description activities? include books/stories, songs, and videos. 7 For an example of how instructional methods were prioritized, please see p. 311 of the Coding Guide in Appendix C. 32

34 8 TABLE 1. ACH PROGRAM SKILLS TARGETED BY E the percentage of activities in each program that target each of the five skill domains the percentage of program activities that target the specific skills within , and (2) Table 1 below displays: (1) each domain (in blue). The table is color-coded, with darker shading indicating increasing attention to that skill or domain relative to other programs. This table can be used to identify the domains and specific skills that are most frequently targeted within and across programs. For example, if you are interested in programs that focus primarily on interpersonal skills, look at the green column in the chart labeled ‘Interpersonal Skills’ and identify the programs that cor respond to the darkest shade of green (e.g., Caring School Community, Good Behavior Game). Full descriptions of each domain and skill can be found in Section 1 on p. 15-18 . Empathy/ Emotion / Emotion Working Cognitive Emotional Interpersonal Underst and s Inhibitory Cognitive Attention Prosocial Conflict Memory Knowledge / / Behavior - Perspective Character Mindset Program Resolution Flexibility Control Social Cues Behavior Control Skills Processes Regulation Regulation Expression t aking Planning 4Rs 9% 4% 1% 2% 27% 16% 12% 10% 11% 43% 4% 19% 26% 14% 0% Before the Bullying A.F.T.E .R. School c 4% d  1% 1% 1% 0% 39% 16% 2% 27% c 55% 1% 6% 52% c 37% c 17% Program Caring School 28% 8% d 5% 1% 0% 3% 33% 15% 0% d c 78% c 1% 18% 71% c 13% 0% Community Conscious Discipline 14% 4% 7% 2% 2% 75% c 47% c 49% c 6% 54% 15% 11% 37% 4% 7% Character First 6% 15% 9% 1% 11% d 3% d 3% 29% 8% 38% 0% 6% 37% 71% c 39% c Competent Kids, 6% 8% 19% 5% 8% 28% 22% 17% 30% 23% d 2% 11% 18% d 10% 23% c Caring Communities Good Behavior 0% 33% 0% 33% c 0% 0% 0% d 0% d 0% d 0% d 100% c 0% 0% d 100% c 0% d Game Girls on the Run 3% 0% 7% 0% 0% 11% d 7% d 4% 7% d 35% d 0% 11% 31% 20% 49% c I Can Problem Solve c 11% 10% 7% 47% c 65% c 57% c 2% 46% c 55% 19% c 37% c 20% d 3% 0% 65% Lions Quest 1% 14% 1% 3% 23% 19% 4% 5% 18% 60% 6% 12% 51% 19% 7% 18% d MindUP 41% c 3% 4% 2% 28% 20% 7% 11% 44% c 4% 0% d 15% d 4% 19% c Mutt - - grees i d 1% 3% 4% 6% 45% 28% 10% 24% 56% 23% c 3% 40% 10% 6% 11% Open Circle 20% 3% 10% 0% 11% 38% 28% 18% 10% 65% c 14% 18% 44% 2% 1% PATHS 30% 6% 16% 0% 12% 75% c 61% c 41% c 24% 59% 15% 25% c 37% 12% 2% Playworks 0% 37% 31% c 11% 5% 0% 1% d 1% d 0% d 0% d 49% 0% 0% d 49% 0% d 33

35 7 TABLE ACH PROGRAM , CNTD 1. SKILLS TARGETED BY E Empathy/ Emotion / Working Emotion Emotional Cognitive Interpersonal Cognitive Inhibitory Prosocial Attention s Conflict Understand / Knowledge Memory / Behavior - Perspective Character Program Mindset Resolution Behavior Control Social Cues Flexibility Control Skills Regulation Processes t Planning Regulation aking Expression Positive Action d 0% 6% 0% 4% 57% c 10% 34% c 20% 33% d 1% 2% 32% 32% c 43% c 38% Responsive 0% 34% 25% c 8% 3% 5% 2% d 0% d 0% d 2% 26% d 5% 0% d 24% 1% d Classroom RULER d 1% 0% 1% 8% 94% c 78% c 51% c 10% 11% 51% 35% c 4% 13% d 3% 0% Social Decision Making/Problem 0% 36% 13% 19% 9% 8% 41% 35% 13% 11% 55% 15% 22% 34% 10% Solving Program Second Step 40% c 32% c 18% 12% 7% 52% 26% 26% 26% 49% 13% 25% c 27% 7% 1% SECURe c 50% c 38% c 25% 33% 2% 41% 29% 25% 24% 43% 13% 20% 35% 0% d 0% Too Good for 12% 0% 3 % 5 % 5 % 53 % 34 % 9 % 26 % 67 % c 13 % 49 % c 55 % c 42% c % 5 Violence We Have Skills c 9% 42% c 8% 1% 16% d 11% 13% 51% 59% 23% c 4% 53% c 32% c 32% c 2% WINGS 16% 6% 2% 8% 2% 41% 24% 28% 5% 36% 3% 9% 28% 9% 3% Wise Skills 7% d 0% 3% 5% 0% 17% d 8% d 4% 9% 40% 1% 17% 30% 52% c 18% c Average Across All 11% 25% 10% 11% 5% 6% 37 % 25 % 15% 14 % 50 % 9% 13 % 38 % 16% Programs Key Character Mindset Interpersonal Emotional Cognitive 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 = High focus in a particular area relative to most other programs in analysis c d = Low focus in a particular area relative to most other programs in analysis Note: Lack of an arrow signifies a typical focus in a particular area relative to other programs in analysis Appendix B. the Data Analysis section of please see For information on how relative high/low focus was calculated, 8 34

36 9 TABLE AM 2. S USED BY EACH PROGR INSTRUCTIONAL METHOD the percentage of activities in each program that use each instructional method . This table is colored-coded, with darker shades of blue indicating higher usage of an instructional Table 2 displays method relative to other programs. This table can be used to identify and look across programs that utilize specific instructional methods. For example, if you would like to identify programs that utilize books/stories as a primary teaching and learning activity, look at the column labeled ‘Book/Story’ to locate the darkest shade of blue (e.g., Character First, PATHS). This table can be used to identify the range and frequency of n Section 1 on p. 19- 20. different instructional methods used within or across programs. Full descriptions of each instructional method can be found i Art/ Song/ Visual SEL Tool/ Skill Teacher Didactic Vocabulary Discussion Drawing Game Kinesthetic Other Creative Role Writing Play Video Book/Story - Program Practice Choice Handout Chant Instruction Display Project 4Rs % 6 % 14% 53 % 4 % 10 % 5 % 3 % 9 1 3 % 7 % 2 % 0 % 0 % 6 % 1 % 8 % % Before the Bullying .R. School A.F.T.E 9 % c 2 % 0% d 52 % 2% 13% 6% 6 % 1 % 5 % 1 % d 39 % c 0 % 0 % 10 % 0 % 1 % Program Caring School % 0 % 0 % 28% c 65 % c 1% 1% 2% 1 % 3 % 0 % 19 % 0 % 0 % 0 % 15 % 0 % 3 Community Conscious 12 1 % 4 % 9% 22 % d 3 % 2 % 1 % 0 % 16 % % 27 % c 37 % c 1 % 0 % 28 % 0 % 3 % Discipline Character First 20 % c 18 % c 5% 28 % d 0 % 6 % 1 % 11 % c 2 % 0 % 6 % 1 % 0 % 8 % c 10 % 9 % c 3 % Competent Kids, Caring % 1 % 3 % 10% 46 % 1 % 3 % 5 % 20 % c 13 % 3 % 25 % c 3 % 19 % c 0 % 11 % 1 % 6 Communities Good Behavior 0 % 0 % 0 % 33 % c 0 % d 0 % 0 % 0 % % 0 % 33 % c 33 % c 0 % 0 % 0 % 67 % c 0 % 0 Game Girls on the Run 0 % 11% 43 % 0% 9% 38% c 10 % c 2 % 9 % % 8 % 10 % c 0 % 0 % 7 % 1 % 4 % 0 I Can Problem % 0 % 3 % 1% 63 % 3 % 19 % c 2 % 0 % 23 % c 3 0 % d 1 % 0 % 0 % 23 % 15 % c 3 % Solve Lions Quest % 3 % 10% 73 % c 4 % 2 % 0 % 3 % 4 % 4 % 5 % 1 % 0 % 0 % 25 % 0 % 41 % c 4 MindUP 1 % 2 % 6 % 83 % c 2 % 2 % 9 % 11 % c 2 % 10 % 6 % 1 % 0 % 0 % 9 % 4 % 3 % Mutt - - grees i 4 % 1 % 50% c 39 % 0 % 3 % 2 % 0 % 8 % c % 5 % 0 % 0 % 0 % 3 % 2 % 4 % 10 Open Circle 0 % 1 % 4% 83 % c 0 % 2 % 0 % 0 % 5 % 4 % 13 % 0 % 0 % 0 % 39 % c 0 % 0 % PATHS 0 % 14 % c 6% 74 % c 0 % 5 % 0 % 0 % 13 % 11 % 11 % 0 % 1 % 0 % 35 % c 2 % 3 % Playworks % 0 % 0 % 0 % d 2 % d 0% 96% c 90% c 0 % 0 % 0 % 0 % d 0 % 0 % 0 % 0 % d 0 % 0 35

37 8 TABLE AM, CNTD . 2. INSTRUCTIONAL METHOD S USED BY EACH PROGR Art/ Visual Teacher SEL Tool/ Didactic Drawing Game Kinesthetic Other Role - Play Discussion Book/Story Creative Skill Practice Song /Chant Writing Vocabulary Video Program Instruction Choice Handout Display Project Positive Action 11 2 c 16% 52 % 3 % 2 % 1 % 4 % 7 % 17 % c 6 % 6 % 1 % 0 % 18 % 0 % 4 % % % ive Respons % 0 % 0 % 0% d 11 % d 0 % 46 % c 17 % c 0 % 19 0 c 0 % 19 % 5 % 34 % c 0 % 1 % d 2 % % Classroom RULER 11 % c 13% 48 % 9% c 0% 1% 0 % 8 % 4 % 1 % d 0 % 11 % c 2 % 15 % 7 % c 14 % c 4 % Descision Social Making/Problem % 5 % 8% 76 % c 2 % 2 % 1 % 1 % 6 % 2 11 % 7 % 0 % 0 % 0 % 11 % 3 % 1 % Solving Program Second Step 0 % 0 % 6% 33 % d 5% 17% c 20% c 1 % 8 % 3 % 15 % 21 % c 0 % 7 % c 12 % 2 % 11 % c SECURe 1 % 7 % 2% 52 % 0% 21% c 5% 0 % 8 % 6 % 23 % c 1 % 28 % c 2 % 15 % 1 % 2 % Too Good for % 2 % 6 % 65 % c 0 % 4 % 4 % 5 % 29 4 c 15 % 6 % 5 % 0 % 1 % 16 % 1 % 1 % % Violence We Have Skills % 3 % 10 % 51 % 5 % 5 % 0 % 1 % 9 % 0 4 16 % 10 % c 0 % 9 % c 16 % 0 % 0 % % WINGS for Kids 5 % 3 % 2 % 45 % 0 % 46 % c 9 % 1 % 1 % 2 % 5 % 3 % 0 % 0 % 1 % d 0 % 1 % Wise Skills % 0 % 1 % 61% 4% 1% 0% 1 % 10 % 5% 2 0 0 % 0 % 0 % 10% 6 % c 31% c % Average Across All % 3 % 4 % 10% 49 % 2 % 13 % 9 % 3 % 8 % 7 % 11 % 6 % 4 % 1 % 16 % 2 % 6 Programs Key . 100 0 c = High focus in a particular area relative to most other programs in analysis Low focus in a particular area relative to most other programs in analysis d = of an arrow signifies a typical focus in a particular area relative to other programs in analysis Note: Lack For information on how relative high/low focus was calculated, please see the Data Analysis section of Appendix B. 9 36

38 TABLE ROGRAM 3. COMPONENTS OF EACH P (e.g., Family Engagement, Support for Implementation, etc.). or components Table 3 summarizes the extent to which each program includes specific program features This table can be used to identify the range of program features and components offered within and across programs. It can also be used to identify programs that provide a specific feature or ut-of- component. For example, if you are interested in programs that include applications to out- of- school time (OST), look at the column labeled ‘Applications to O School Time’ to locate programs 26. ). A full description of each component can be found in Section 1 on p. 25- with stars, which indicate the most extensive supports for a component (e.g., Before the Bullying, Girls on the Run, WINGS Classroom Activities Service Community Climate & Culture Family to Applications Adaptability Tools to Assess Tools to Assess Support for Professional Program Local Context & Training Program Implementation Implementation OST to Outcomes Supports Engagement Lessons Beyond Core / Engagement Development - Social Support for Adult Academic Emotional Integration Competence 4Rs 9 9 Before the Bullying A.F.T.E.R. School -- -- Program Caring School 9 -- Community Character First 9 -- Competent Kids, 9 -- Caring Communities Conscious Discipline 9 9 Girls on the Run -- -- Good Behavior 9 -- Game Can Problem Solve I 9 -- Lions Quest 9 -- MindUp 9 9 Mutt - i - grees -- -- Open Circle 9 -- PATHS 9 -- 37

39 3. TABLE , CNTD . COMPONENTS OF EACH PROGRAM to Classroom Activities Community Climate & Culture Family Applications Adaptability Tools to Assess Tools to Assess Support for Professional Program Development and Training Program Implementation Implementation OST to Local Context Supports Engagement Beyond Core Lessons Engagement Outcomes - Support for Social Adult Academic Emotional Competence Integration Playworks -- -- Positive Action 9 9 Responsive 9 -- Classroom RULER 9 9 Social Decision Making/Problem 9 -- Solving Program Second Step 9 -- SECURe 9 -- Too Good for 9 -- Violence We Have Skills -- -- WINGS for Kids 9 -- Wise Skills 9 -- Key No components provided. Comprehensive components provided. Extensive components provided. Moderate components provided. resources to support this area Component includes additional 9 For more detailed descriptions of the ratings for each category , please see Table 3 Key in Appendix B. the 38

40 PROGRAM PROFILES SECTION 4: This section is intended to help schools and OST organizations better understand the content, organization, and purpose of 25 leading SEL and character education programs. It includes detailed summaries for each of the 25 programs, which are intended to aid schools and OST organizations in the selection and evaluation of an approach to SEL programming that best meets the goals and constraints of their particular setting. Program profiles are divided into three categories based on out- programmatic approach: (1) of-school-time SEL ; (2) in-school, lesson-based SEL curricula programs ; and (3) in-school, noncurricular approaches to SEL . Each approach comes with its own set of strengths and constraints, and schools and OST organization should use the guidelines provided in the previous section to consider carefully which approach works best for their setting. re-packaged, These programs typically provide p In-school, lesson-based curricula. 1. comprehensive curricula with structured, sequential lessons featuring explicit instruction in SEL skills. Programs differ in a variety of ways, including skill focus, teacher autonomy, and ease of integration into other subjects or programs. While they are generally implemented at the classroom level as a part of the regular school day, the majority of these programs also provide supports for strengthening school/program climate and promoting family engagement. While most programs provide some form of professional development, they vary in the extent to which they build social and emotional competencies. They may also . provide some form of support for extending SEL programming to the OST context The 18 programs in this category include: 4Rs; Caring School Community; Character First; Competent Kids, Caring Communities; I Can Problem Solve; Lions Quest; MindUP; Mutt-i- grees; Open Circle; PATHS; Positive Action; RULER; Second Step; SECURe; Social Decision Making/Problem Solving Program; Too Good for Violence; We Have Skills; and Wise Skills. In-school, noncurricular approaches to SEL. Non-curricular approaches to SEL are distinct 2. for their lack of lesson-based curricula. (Although some programs may provide short activities or lessons, they are not the primary focus of the program.) Instead, they are designed to provide adults with an array of strategies and structures geared toward minimizing disruptive behavior and maximizing learning time in safe, nurturing, calm, and orderly environments. Importantly, they vary considerably in their approach to doing so; for example, Responsive Classroom and Conscious Discipline offer a broad philosophy or approach to teaching and learning, while Good Behavior Game is a simple, discrete behavior management strategy. Unlike lesson-based curricula, these programs offer few opportunities for explicit instruction, and instead use carefully structured environments and everyday situations to build SEL skills organically. They typically focus heavily on teacher development and adult social and emotional competence. The four programs in this : Conscious Discipline, Good Behavior Game, Playworks, and Responsive category include Classroom. 39

41 These programs are designed explicitly to build SEL Out- of-school-time SEL programs. 3. skills in the afterschool arena. Similar to the in-school, lesson-based curricula, OST programs typically offer structured, sequential lessons that provide opportunities for explicit skill building as well as supports for promoting family engagement. There is some variation in the amount of extra supports offered — some programs focus strictly on SEL activities, while others offer additional supports, such as homework help and connections to the regular school day. Programs also differ in the extent to which they provide supports for bridging The three programs in this category include: the OST space and the regular school day. Before the Bullying A.F.T.E.R. School Program, Girls on the Run, and WINGS for Kids. Program Inclusion Criteria Each program met a majority of the following criteria to be included in this report: x sufficient evidence to support impact on social and emotional skills, including results from randomized control trials and/or multiple research studies; widely implemented; x well -aligned with the theory and practice of social and emotional learning; x has accessible materials and available information about implementation; x x has a clear scope and sequence and well-defined set of activities and supports; and covers the K-5 elementary age span. x Well-aligned Accessible with SEL materials and theory and information practice Well-defined set of Widely Implemented activities and supports Included Covers Sufficient elementary in Evidence school Report 40

42 What does each program profile include? 1-2 paragraph program description, including history, purpose, and Program Description: Program Snapshot I. 10 program structure. Summary Table: Includes grade range and lesson differentiation, additional curricula, evidence of effectiveness, skill focus, instructional methods, and unique features relative to other programs. Summary Table: A brief summary of available evidence, including information about student, II. Evidence of teacher, and classroom outcomes. Effectiveness Any available information about program implementation Implementation Experience: provided in program evaluations or reports. A brief description of the extent to which the program focuses on specific Program Focus: III. Curricular domains (cognitive regulation, emotional processes, interpersonal skills, character, mindset). 1 1 Content Breakdown of Skills Targeted: A brief description of when and how the program targets specific skills (e.g., attention control) within each domain. Scope and Sequence of Skills: A heat map that illustrates when and where various skills are targeted throughout the course of the program, allowing users to see relative areas of emphasis at different points throughout the year and across different developmental stages. Practitioners can use the maps to determine where programming might align with the academic content they have planned for the year, and use it as a planning tool to integrate social and emotional programming into different parts of the school day and the school structure. For example, if Unit 3 of an SEL program focuses on conflict resolution, how might teachers link that topic to the book students are reading at that point in the year? How can hallway displays, school assemblies, and school-wide initiatives be used to further reinforce that skill during that time? Schools and OST programs can further use information from the heat maps to identify the extent to which various programs might help teachers meet state social and emotional learning standards or help students reach social and emotional learning benchmarks. ogram’s commonly used Primary Methods of Instruction: A brief description of the pr instructional methods. Any available information about major program features or components beyond core lessons, IV. Program including: classroom activities beyond core lessons (including support for academic Components integration), culture and climate supports, applications to out- of-school time, adaptability to local context, tools to assess program outcomes, professional development/training (including support for building adult social-emotional competence), support for implementation, tools to assess implementation, family engagement, and community engagement. A brief summary of the ways in which a program’s skill focus, instructional methods, and V. How It Compares program components are unique relative to other programs. VI. Purchasing and How to contact developers to learn more about or purchase a program. 2 1 Contact Info 10 We gave program developers the opportunity to review and offer feedback on their descriptive paragraphs. 1 1 Only core lessons were coded. Supplementary lessons, units, curricula, and activities were not coded, but are listed in the program component section. 1 2 Previously included information about program cost has been removed as many prices have changed significantly since writing began. 41

43 PROGRAM PROFILES , LESSON -BASED CURRICULA : IN-SCHOOL 18 in-school, lesson-based SEL The following pages provide a detailed summary for each of the curricula. - School, Lesson - Based Curricula 18 In p. 43 PATHS p. 131 4Rs Caring School 141 p. 53 Positive Action p. Community 63 Character First p. p. 151 RULER Competent Kids, Second Step p. 73 161 p. Caring Communities I Can Problem Solve 171 p. p. 83 SECURe Social Decision Making/ 92 Lions Quest p. p. 181 Problem Solving Program 102 MindUP p. Too Good for Violence p. 191 111 Mutt i - grees p. - We Have Skills p. 201 210 p. Open Circle p. 121 Wise Skills 42

44 THE 4RS PROGRAM I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT - specific PreK - tegrates the The 4Rs Program (Reading, Writing, Respect & Resolution) is a grade 5 curriculum that in teaching of social and emotional skills and the language arts through the use of diverse children’s literature. The ram contains 35 lessons across 7 units, with at least 1 lesson delivered per week throughout the school year. Each prog - aloud of a book with an SEL theme; a discussion to unit focuses on a single book and consists of three parts: a read deep en students understanding of the story and its relationship to students’ own lives; and 3 - 6 applied learning - 60 minutes depending on grade level. Developed by Morningside Center for Teaching activities. Lessons range from 20 . Social Responsibility - ange PreK 5 Grade R with separate lessons for each grade Duration and 35 lessons; 1 lesson/ week; 20 - 60 min /lesson Timing of Focus Areas Building community, understanding and managing feelings, listening, assertiveness, problem solving, (as stated by dealing well with diversity, bullying prevention, and cooperation program) Other Curricula Can be used in conjunction with Morningside Center’s Peace Helper , Peer Mediation, and Pathways to (not included in Respect programs analysis) Evidence of andomized control trial One r Effectiveness Mindset Emotional Interpersonal Cognitive Character Regulation Skills Processes Skill Focus 14% 27% 12% 0% 43% Instructional Most frequently uses discussion Methods - Typical focus on all domains Unique Features - Typical use of all instructional methods Relative to - Support - emotional competence for building adult social Other Programs - Extensive resources for family engagement, including parent workshops 43

45 1 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS 4Rs has been evaluated in a large randomized control trial that followed students over a three-year period. The primary measures and assessments include self-reports, teacher reports, classroom observations, and state standardized tests and attendance records. Results are summarized below. 3 - 4 Grades: Urban Geographic Location: Race/Ethnicity: African American, Hispanic Free/Reduced Lunch: 62% x Overall gains in social competence; gains in standardized reading scores, standardized math scores, and academic skills among students at risk for behavior problems Outcomes: x Reductions in aggression, hostile attribution bias, aggressive interpersonal negotiation strategies, depressive symptoms, and hyperactivity x Improved classroom quality and instructional suppo rt Implementation Experiences: A majority of teachers in the study implemented the program with fidelity. 1 References: Brown, Jones, LaRusso, & Aber (2010); Jones, Brown, & Aber (2011); Jones, Brown, Hoglund, & Aber (2010) 44

46 2 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 3 PROGRAM FOCUS As shown in Figure 1 below, 4Rs primarily focuses on interpersonal skills (targeted in 43% of program activities) with a s also targets cognitive regulation (12%) a 4R . To a lesser extent, secondary emphasis on emotional processes (27%) nd character (14%), however provides little to no focus on mindset (<1%). Figure 1. Percentage of Program 3 Activities Targeting Each Domain Considerations Developmental 4Rs provides separate lessons for each grade. Notable differences across grades include a greater emphasis on character and emotional processes in Grades 3 and 5 as well as a lack of emotion/behavior regulation in Grade 1 . 4 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation As shown in Figure 2 to the right, the 12% of 4Rs activities that Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted in 4 build cognitive regulation most frequently focus on attention Activities that Build Cognitive Regulation of the time), followed by working control (55% memory/planning skills (24%) . Activities targeting these skills Attention Control 12% might include games such as Telephone or Simon Says. 4Rs Working Memory/Planning 9% activities that build cognitive regulation rarely address cognitive % of the time) or inhibitory control (9%). 12 flexibility (only Inhibitory Control 55% 24% Cognitive Flexibility 2 Data collected from grades 1, 3, and 5. 3 A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not add up to 100%. 4 Proportions represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., attention control) relative to other skills in the same domain (e.g., inhibitory control, etc.). For example, if 12% of program activities build cognitive regulation, 55% of the time, those activities target attention control. 45

47 Emotional Processes As shown in Figure 3 to the right, the 27% of 4Rs activities Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by that target emotional processes most frequently focus on 4 Activities that Build Emotional Processes emotion knowledge/expression (42% of the time), followed to a lesser extent by emotion/behavior regulation and empathy/ Emotion Knowledge/ Expression perspective-taking (29% each). Activities that address these 29% skills might include using a feelings web to record emotion 42% Emotion/Behavior words, practicing abdominal breathing to calm down, or Regulation discussing how the conflict in a book makes the characters feel . Empathy/ 29% Perspective-Taking Interpersonal Skills As shown in Figure 4 to the right, the 43% of 4Rs activities that Figure 4. Frequency of Skills Targeted by build interpersonal skills most frequently target prosocial 4 Activities that Build Interpersonal Skills behavior (53% of the time), followed by conflict resolution (38%). For example, students may read a book about standing Understanding 9% up to a bully or brainstorm compliments to give their Social Cues classmates. 4Rs activities that build interpersonal skills rarely Conflict address understanding social cues (only 9% of the time ). Resolution 38% 53% Prosocial Behavior 5 Character 14 % of 4Rs activities that build character primarily focus on respecting differences and standing up to injustice. The Every grade contains 1-2 units focused specifically on celebrating diversity and countering prejudice, and almost all units, regardless of theme, feature books that touch on these issues in some way. Activities for younger students might include drawing similarities and differences between themselves and a partner, discussing times they were proud or afraid to be different, or interviewing adults about a time they learned to like something new. Activities for older students might include practicing how to respectfully discuss differing opinions as a class, role-playing how to stand up against injustice, writing about a time they saw someone being mistreated because they were different, or learning the definitions and impact of prejudice and stereotyping. 5 Mindset 4Rs offers little to no focus on mindset (targeted by <1 % of program activities). 5 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapting our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are targeted by ≥ 10% of program activities. 46

48 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS The heat map in Figure 5 below provides a more detailed look at where and when 4Rs addresses specific skills over the course of the school year, within and across different grades. The vertical progression of the map could be thought of as time, moving from one unit to the next and one grade to the next, with the shading representing degree of concentration in a particular skill at that rough point in time. The map can be used as a planning tool to help practitioners determine where 4Rs programming might align with specific academic plans, scho ol-wide programming, or social and emotional learning standards throughout the year. (Please see p. 41 for specific examples.) Figure 5. Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Targeting Each Domain and Skill by Unit, Grade, and Program-wide. Emotional Processes Interpersonal Processes Character Mindset Cognitive Regulation - Unit Taking Control Control Conflict Mindset Working Emotion Planning Grade Behavior Behavior Prosocial Cognitive Flexibility Attention Inhibitory Character Emotion / Memory / Empathy / Resolution Expression Regulation Social Cues Perspective Knowledge / Understands TIME 1 19 19 6 0 12 0 12 6 56 0 0 0 2 4 4 0 0 50 0 8 4 12 25 0 0 3 16 4 0 0 4 0 16 12 12 20 0 0 4 15 7 7 7 15 0 11 4 30 11 7 0 0 5 7 7 0 7 20 0 20 7 53 7 0 Grade 1 6 0 4 0 8 8 0 12 0 4 16 32 0 7 15 7 4 4 7 0 7 0 4 70 4 0 30 A1 11 7 3 4 16 0 12 4 15 7 0 45 A2 15 21 7 0 0 1 15 7 4 0 7 0 4 7 0 48 19 3 0 0 0 50 2 0 12 0 0 0 0 56 9 3 17 3 0 0 6 26 9 40 17 0 0 14 3 3 0 0 7 4 0 7 34 21 21 0 5 17 0 9 0 0 0 13 22 0 57 9 13 Grade 3 6 0 0 3 3 3 3 0 31 33 31 3 3 4 0 0 0 9 13 7 0 4 65 35 0 0 8 A1 2 1 0 14 15 9 5 24 26 16 0 A2 10 27 48 16 0 (Developmental Progression) 15 1 4 0 0 15 0 15 7 0 48 15 4 2 3 0 0 3 50 39 6 6 3 3 8 3 23 3 0 3 16 6 3 42 3 13 26 6 0 4 4 12 4 4 15 19 8 4 35 27 23 0 10 5 0 3 3 3 21 3 0 44 10 10 0 Grade 5 0 0 0 11 4 6 7 4 11 29 54 0 0 10 7 19 0 0 19 10 0 0 5 38 33 0 A1 8 3 1 2 19 15 14 3 17 24 20 1 A2 35 37 12 20 1 0 14 A1 9 4 1 2 16 10 11 4 19 2 6 - Program wide A2 12 27 43 14 0 Key Mi nds e t Character Emoti ona l Interpersonal Cognitive 100 100 0 0 100 0 0 0 100 100 A1 = Total % of activities targeting each skill (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution, etc.) = Total % of activities targeting each domain (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, etc.) A2 47

49 6 PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION P Figure 6. ercentage of Program Activities 6 Employing Each Teaching Method As shown by Figure 6 to the right, discussion is the most commonly used instructional method in 4Rs (employed in 53% of activities). Each unit includes an in-depth Book Talk discussion about a story with an SEL theme. Additional discussions are used to explore SEL themes and skills throughout subsequent lesson activities. All other instructional methods appear in less than 15% of program activities. 6 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the proportions of program activities employing each instructional method may not add up to 100%. 48

50 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons he curriculum includes optional extension activities and unit projects and suggests regularly setting time aside for x T - solving meetings. silence, journaling, and class problem x Each unit also includes a list of additional books related to the unit’s social a nd emotional theme that can be used to . supplement the regular curriculum and literacy. re designed to integrate social and emotional learning with language arts 4Rs lessons a x Climate and Culture Supports x provides teachers with suggestions for structuring their classroom and employing teaching methods that 4Rs increase students’ attention, comfort, engagement and understanding . x Morningside Center also offers Peace Helper (Grades K-2) and Peer Mediation (Grade 3+) programs that can be used in conjunction with the 4Rs program to reduce discipline problems throughout the school by train ing peer mediators to help fellow students solve problems with age-appropriate conflict resolution strategies. x 4Rs can also be used in conjunction with Morningside Center’s Pathways to Respect program, which is designed to prevent and eliminate bullying as well as create a respectful school culture. x No school-wide events or activities provided. of-School Time Applications to Out- x No OST adaptations provided. Adaptability to Local Context 4Rs requires that all units be implemented in sequential order with at least one lesson delivered each week x ool year. Teachers may choose to integrate ideas from earlier or later units as opportunities for throughout the sch teachable moments in their classroom. x Core lessons should be implemented with full fidelity, but additional extension activities, silent time, journaling, and problem - solving meet ings may be incorporated at the teacher’s discretion. x While teachers should carefully follow the provided facilitation format, 4Rs is not a scripted curriculum and teachers are encouraged to creatively tailor recommended activities to their students’ need s and interests. x 4Rs books represent a range of different backgrounds and cultures, making them relatable and applicable to diverse student populations. Professional Development and Training x 4Rs requires an initial 25 - 30 hour introductory training that builds teachers’ own social and emotional skills and going classroom coaching from a 4Rs staff developer. prepares them to teach the 4Rs curriculum, followed by on - x - the - trainer program to support sustainability. 4Rs also offers a train Support for Implementation Lessons are structured, but not scripted. x x 4Rs provides general tips for achieving maximum impact, including recommendations for when and how to deliver lessons, mod emotional learning into the regular sch ool day. el skills, and integrate social and Tools to Assess Program Outcomes A brief, informal evaluation question is used at the end of each lesson to gauge students’ understanding and x perception of the lesson. 49

51 Tools to Assess Implementation No information provided. x Family Engagement 4Rs engages families through parent letters and interactive homework assignments . x x emotional 4Rs also offers a guide for facilitating a 5 - session parent w orkshop that helps parents develop s ocial and - explore s how they can strengthen parent skills, child relationships , and provides activities related to each unit book that children can complete with family members at home . Community Engagement x No information provided. 50

52 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT Skill Focus Fairly typical emphasis on all domains ‰ Instructional Methods Typical use of all instructional methods ‰ ‰ Support for adult social-emotional competence Program Components ‰ Extensive support for family engagement For more information about programs with common features, please see Summary Tables in Section 3. Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 7 SKILL FOCUS to offer 4Rs is one of only four programs a fairly typical emphasis on all domains relative to other programs (<14% below the cross-program mean for all domains). While it does not provide much emphasis on cognitive regulation (targeted by 12% of program activities), character (14%), or mindset (<1%), this is fairly typical across programs. 7 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS 4Rs does not use any instructional method more or less frequently than most other programs (<11% above or below the cross-program mean for all methods). While 4Rs most commonly uses discussion to teach social and emotional skills (used in 53% of program activities), this is typical relative to other programs (only 4% above the cross-program mean). PROGRAM COMPONENTS Relative to other programs, unique aspects of 4Rs include opportunities to build adult social-emotional competence as well as extensive support for family engagement. %) do not provide structured Wh Adult Social-Emotional Competence: ; 76 ile a majority of programs (n=19 opportunities for adults to develop or reflect on their own social and emotional skills, 4Rs is one of six programs (24%) to offer training focused explicitly on building adult social-emotional competence, for both school/OST staff and parents/guardians. : While almost all programs (n=24; 96 %), including 4Rs, engage families through regular updates or Family Engagement take-home activities, 4Rs is one of only seven programs (28%) to also offer support for family workshops that teach parents and guardians how to reinforce lesson concepts and skills at home. For a detailed breakdown of how 4Rs compares to other programs across all program component categories, 37- please see Table 3 on p. 38. 7 For more information on how skill focus and instructional method comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. 51

53 VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information Morningside Center for Teaching Social Responsibility works flexibly to meet the needs of schools. For more Program to your school, please contact Director of Administration Lillian Castro information about bringing the 4Rs using the contact information provided below. Contact Information Website : http://www.morningsidecenter.org/node/36/ : Contact Lillian Castro, Director of Administration Phone : - 212 - 870 3318, e xt. 33 Email : [email protected] 52

54 CARING SCHOOL COMMUN ITY I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT Caring School Community (CSC) is a K-6 program that builds classroom and school community while teaching social and emotional skills. CSC is a school-wide program with four core components: Class Meetings, the Cross-Age Buddies Program, Homeside Activities, and Schoolwide Community-Building Activities. The program is divided into two age-ranges: Grades K-1 and Grades 2-6. The curriculum for Class Meetings includes 30-35 lessons that build classroom community, set class norms and goals, build social skills, and help students learn to make decisions and solve problems related to classroom life. Lessons are organized for use at various points throughout the year : Beginning of Year Meetings occur 2-3 times per week during the first 8 weeks of school; Planning/Decision- Making and Problem Solving Meetings occur twice a month or as needed from November through May; and End of Year Meetings are delivered twice in the last month of school. Class Meetings typically include an introduction, activity or discussion related to the lesson theme, and reflection on the lesson concepts. In addition to Class Meetings, the Cross-Age Buddy Program fosters caring relationships between students of different ages; Homeside Activities promote family engagement; and Schoolwide Activities build community and promote helpfulness, inclusivity, and responsibility among students. Developed by Center for the Collaborative Classroom. K - 6 with separate lessons for K - 1 and Grades 2 - 6 Grade Range - Class Meetings: 30 - 35 lessons; 2 - 3 lessons/week from September - October, 2 lessons/month or as May, 2 lessons/month in June - needed from November Duration and 30 Cross - Age Buddies Program: 40 activities; 2 activities/month; - - 60 min /activity Timing - Homeside Activities: 18 activities; 1 - 2 activities/month; 15 - 20 min /activity - Building Activities: 15 events or activities/year - Schoolwide Community of Focus Areas making, problem solving, nd goals, planning and decision Building community, setting classroom norms a stated by (as and understanding and empathizing with other students program) Additional Curricula No additional or supplementary curricula offered (not included in analysis) Evidence of Multiple randomized control trials, quasi - experimenta l, and non - experimental studies Effectiveness Cognitive Mindset Emotional Character Interpersonal Regulation Processes Skills Skill Focus 13% 8% 78% 0% 33% Instructional Most frequently uses d iscussion, didactic instruction, skil l practice, and visual display s Methods - empathy/perspective ( particularly prosocial behavior ) and High emphasis on interpersonal skills - taking - Low emphasis on cognitive regulation and emotion/behavior regulation Unique Features discussion and High - use of didactic instruction Relative to Age Buddy Program - Integral Schoolwide Activities and Cross - Other Programs - Self - facilitated professional development/training Provides tools to assess adult outcomes - 53

55 1 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS Caring School Community has been evaluated in multiple studies, including two randomized control trials, two quasi- experimental studies, and a non-experimental study. The primary measures and assessments used in these studies include student self-reports, teacher ratings, student and staff surveys, discipline referrals, and state standardized tests. Results are summarized here. K - 6 Grades: Urban, suburban, rural Geographic Location: Race/Ethnicity: African American, Hispanic Free/Reduced Lunch: 0 - 91% x Gains in prosocial and passive behavior, reading and math proficiency, sense of community, and safety of learning environment sense of autonomy and influence, Outcomes: Reductions in alcohol and marijuana use, relational and overt aggression, delinquent behaviors, x school victimization ls, and in - d iscipline referra Most schools implemented all four components of the program. x Implementation Available information indicated that while teacher buy-in varied, a majority of teachers did an x Experiences adequate job of implementing the program in their classrooms. 1 Battistich, Schaps, Watson, Solomon, & Lewis (2000); Boyle & Hassett-Walker (2008); Developmental Studies Center (n.d.a); Developmental Studies References: Center (n.d.b); Gibbons, Foster, Owens, Caldwell, & Marshall (2006). 54

56 2 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 3 PROGRAM FOCUS As shown by Figure 1 below, Caring School Community has a strong primary focus on interpersonal skills (targeted in 78% of program activities), followed by emotional processes (33%), and to a much lesser extent, character (13%) . Caring School Community provides little to no focus on cognitive regulation or mindset (both targeted by <10% of program activities). Figure 1. Percentage of Program 3 Activities Targeting Each Domain Considerations Developmental Caring School Community provides separate lessons for 6. Of the few activities that address - Grades K 1 and 2 - a majority 1 with - appear in Grades K little cognitive skills, There is also to no focus on cognitive skills . 6 - in Grades 2 a slightly higher focus on emotional and interpersonal 6. skills in Grades 2- 4 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation Caring School Community provides little focus on cognitive regulation (only targeted by 8% of program activities). Emotional Processes Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by As shown in Figure 2 to the right, the 33% of Caring School 4 Activities that Build Emotional Processes Community activities that build emotional processes most frequently focus on empathy/perspective-taking (64% of the Emotion Knowledge/ time), followed by emotion knowledge/expression (35%). For Expression example, students might acknowledge the perspectives of 35% classmates using “I agree/disagree because” statements or Emotion/Behavior Regulation . Caring discuss how it feels to be excluded on the playground 64% School Community activities that build emotional processes rarely Empathy/ address emotion/behavior regulation (only 1% of the time). Perspective-Taking 1% 2 Data collected from Grades K-1 and 2-6 Class Meeting lessons. Our analysis did not include Cross-Age Buddy Program, Homeside, or Schoolwide activities. 3 A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not add up to 100%. 4 The proportions in this section represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., empathy) relative to other skills in the same domain (e.g., emotion/behavior regulation). For example, if 33% of program activities target emotional processes, 64% of the time, those activities build empathy. 55

57 Interpersonal Skills As shown in Figure 3 to the right, the 78% of Caring School Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by Community activities that build interpersonal skills most 4 Activities that Build Interpersonal Skills commonly target prosocial behavior (79% of the time), followed 1% to a lesser extent by conflict resolution (20%). For example , Understanding students are frequently asked to practice appropriate classroom 20% Social Cues behaviors like lining up or role-playing how to solve an argument Conflict with a peer . Caring School Community activities that build Resolution interpersonal skills rarely address understanding social cues 79% Prosocial (only 1% of the time). Behavior 5 Character The 13% of Caring School Community activities that build character primarily focus on understanding the importance of taking responsibility for one’s own behavior and being fair, caring, and helpful. Activities that build these skills might include discussing how to take responsibility for oneself at school such as behaving during assemblies or turning in homework, drawing ways in which they have been fair or caring, or brainstorming ways to help a new student or substitute teacher. 5 Mindset Caring School Community offers little to no focus on mindset (targeted by ≤1 % of program activities). 5 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapting our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are 10% of program activities. targeted by ≥ 56

58 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS The heat map in Figure 4 below provides a more detailed look at where and when Caring School Community addresses specific skills over the course of the school year, within and across different grade ranges. The vertical progression of the map could be thought of as time, moving from one unit to the next and one grade to the next, with the shading representing degree of concentration in a particular skill at that rough point in time. The map can be used as a planning tool to help practitioners determine where Caring School Community programming might align with specific ol-wide programming, and social and emotional learning standards throughout the year. (Please academic plans, scho 41 for specific examples.) see p. Figure 4. Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Targeting Each Domain and Skill by Unit, Grade, and Program-wide Interpersonal Processes Cognitive Regulation Character Mindset Emotional Processes - Unit Taking Control Control Conflict Mindset Working Emotion Planning Grade Behavior Behavior Prosocial Cognitive Attention Flexibility Memory/ Inhibitory Character Emotion / Empathy / Regulation Expression Resolution Social Cues Perspective Knowledge / Understands TIME 0 17 1 11 0 0 4 4 0 17 0 6 63 12 0 2 0 0 6 18 0 29 6 0 76 18 1 - 3 0 0 0 13 35 0 43 0 39 96 9 0 4 29 0 0 0 14 0 14 0 0 57 0 0 Grades K A1 8 0 0 6 12 0 23 1 11 70 15 0 0 A2 14 28 73 15 2 0 10 1 2 1 0 6 1 24 1 18 69 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 42 0 29 81 9 26 6 - 3 0 0 0 0 35 0 42 0 73 65 23 0 (Developmental Progression) 0 0 0 0 69 0 4 54 0 0 77 0 0 Grades 2 A1 1 1 1 0 18 1 32 1 25 73 11 0 A2 37 82 3 11 0 0 13 A1 5 1 0 3 15 0 28 1 18 7 1 Program - wide A2 8 33 78 13 0 Key Minds et Character Emotional Cognitive Interpersonal 100 0 0 100 0 100 100 0 100 0 program activities targeting each skill (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution , etc. ) A1 = Total % of (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, etc.) Total % of program activities targeting each domain A2 = 57

59 6 PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION P Figure 5. ercentage of Program Activities 6 Employing Each Teaching Method As show in Figure 5 to the right, discussion is the most frequently used instructional method in Caring School Community (used in 65% of activities), followed by didactic instruction (28%), skill practice (19%), and visual displays (15%). Appearing in every lesson, discussions use cooperative structures such as “Turn to Your Partner” and “Think, Pair, Share” to establish and reflect on behavior al norms, build classroom community, and facilitate joint planning and social problem-solving. Discussions are often preceded by didactic instruction, which is typically used to model al norms and classroom practices. All other behavior instructional methods are used in ≤ 3% of activities. 6 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the proportions of program activities employing each instructional method may not add up to 100%. 58

60 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons - - Aloud Values Library for use in their classroom. The K - 6 libraries contain 10 grade Schools may also purchase a Read x aligned with those taught by Caring School Community . level trade books that highlight values The x - Age Buddy Program is an integral c omponent of the program and includes 40 classroom activities Cross designed to foster social skills while supporting academic goals related to language arts, math, social studies, science, - 60 minutes at least twice a month. physical education, health and nutrition, and the arts. Buddies meet for 30 Climate and Culture Supports x CSC’s Schoolwide Community - Building Activities are an integral part of the program and include 15 events/activities that promote helpfulness, inclusivity, and responsibility outside the classroom. Activities include creating hall ing service projects, and more. displays, complet x The Cross - Age buddy program is intended to build school climate by building inter - grade relationships. x Class Meeting lessons and Cross - Age Buddy activities often focus on how to make responsible decisions and behave , and during appropriately in various areas of the school and community, including on the playground, in the library assemblies and field trips. CSC provides teachers with cooperative learning strategies and effective facilitation techniques to be used x throughout the school day in order to build classroom community and promote student engagement and participation. Applications to Out- of-School Time No OST adaptations provided . x Adaptability to Local Context School - wide implementation of all four program components is necessary; however, components may be x implemented in stages over the course of two years to make phasing in the program more manageable. x W hile Beginning - and End - of - Year Class Meetings must be de livered in order, Planning/Decision - Making and Problem Solving Meetings are flexible and may be delivered anytime from November through May as topics become relevant to students. CSC also provides a list of instructional strategies to support English Lang special education x uage Learners and . h disabilities students wit Professional Development and Training x CSC offers online professional development sessions that are 20 - 30 minutes in length and designed for self - facilitation during monthly staff meetings. Sessions cover topics such as program preparation, class meeting implementation, and reflection on practice. x Free, self - paced online courses on CSC pedagogy and practice are also available. Support for Implementation x L essons are structured, but not scripted, with support for modeling embedded throughout the lesson. x CSC provides detailed suggestions for how to plan and coordinate lessons/ activities nstructions and offers detailed i cooperative learning strategies . for modeling rules and using x Teachers and administrators are encouraged to work together in triads to share problems and receive feedback using suggested meeting protocols. The to help lead teachers and administrators support implementation. x School s can also purchase a Leadership Guide 59

61 guide includes implementation tools and activities such as calendars, staff development agendas, and observation forms. Tools to Assess Program Outcomes x At the classroom level, teac hers are encouraged to use informal assessment questions to observe and reflect on changes in student behavior and thinking over time, on an ongoing basis. At the school level, all staff members informally observe interactions between students and adults in different areas x of the school and complete a survey about the presence of specific attitudes and behaviors 2 3 times a year. - x CSC also provides a school climate survey that includes three questions to capture the values and behaviors that staff xhibit while interacting with students and other adults. members e Tools to Assess Implementation provides staff and teacher surveys that can be used to assess which aspects of the program are working well and x CSC fidelity of implementation. which are not, as well as the frequency and x The Leader’s Guide also includes lesson observation forms for administrators to assess classroom implementation. Family Engagement x CSC’s Homeside Activities component includes 18 take -home activities designed to engage families, strengthen parent-child relationships, and build connections between home and school. Activities take place 1-2 times per month. x CSC also provides opportunities to engage family members through school-wide events such as grandparent gatherings, family nights, and more. Community Engagement x CSC’s Schoolwide Activities incorporate events and service projects that enable students to meet and support the people in their community. 60

62 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT ‰ High emphasis on interpersonal skills, particularly prosocial behavior Skill Focus Moderately high emphasis on empathy/perspective-taking skills ‰ Moderately low emphasis on cognitive regulation and emotion/behavior ‰ regulation ‰ High use of didactic instruction Instructional Methods Moderately high use of discussion ‰ ‰ Extensive support for culture/climate Program Components Extensive classroom activities beyond core lessons ‰ ‰ Less intensive professional development and training For more information about programs with common features, please see Summary Tables in Section 3 . Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 7 SKILL FOCUS Caring School Community offers a high emphasis on interpersonal skills (28% above the cross-program mean), particularly prosocial behavior (33% above the cross-program mean), relative to other programs. While Caring School Community provides a fairly typical emphasis on emotional processes (4% below the cross-program mean), it offers a moderately high focus on empathy/perspective-taking relative to other programs (14% above the cross-program mean) and a moderately low emphasis on emotion/behavior regulation (15% below the cross-program mean). Caring School Community also offers a moderately low emphasis on cognitive regulation (17% below the cross-program mean) relative to other programs, as well as a fairly typical emphasis on character (3% below the mean) and mindset (5% below the mean). 7 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS Caring School Community offers a high use of didactic instruction (18% above the mean) and a moderately high use of discussion (16% above the mean) relative to other programs. The high use of didactic instruction is likely due to the emphasis the program places on teacher modeling of prosocial behaviors while establishing classroom norms during of-Year lessons. Beginning- PROGRAM COMPONENTS Unique aspects of Caring School Community include its required Schoolwide Community-Building Activities and Cross- Age Buddy Program components, as well as its less intensive professional development and training and tools to assess adult outcomes. Climate and Culture Supports: A majority of programs (n=23; 92%) offer at least some support for school climate and culture, but Caring School Community is one of only three (12%) to offer extensive support. While most programs simply offer suggestions for effective behavior management and engaging instruction, or optional schoolwide 7 For more information on how skill focus and instructional method comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. 61

63 activities, Caring School Community’s Schoolwide Commu nity-Building activities are highly integral to the program and must be implemented alongside classroom lessons. Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons: Similarly, while a majority of programs (n=22; 88%) suggest or provide some form of supplementary lessons/activities in addition to core lessons, most do not require that they be used. Caring School Community is one of only four programs (16%) to include highly integral supplementary activities: The Cross-Age Buddy Program must also be implemented alongside classroom lessons. Professional Development and Training: All programs (n=25; 100%) provide some form of professional development and training; however, while most (n=17; 68%) offer developer-led trainings, Caring School Community employs a combination of self-facilitated and online trainings. Tools to Assess Program Outcomes: While 72% of programs (n=18) provide tools to assess program outcomes, most only measure program impact on students, and those that do assess adults typically only measure their ability or facilitate student social and emotional growth. Caring School Community, however, is to deliver the program one of two programs (8%) along with Conscious Discipline to offer tools for assessing positive changes in adult behaviors or skills. For a detailed breakdown of how Caring School Community compares to other programs across all program component categories, please see Table 3 on p. 37-38. VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information Information on how to purchase Caring School Community materials can be found online at http://www.collaborativeclassroom.org/store . For more information about the program, please use the contact information provided below. Contact Information - https://www.collaborativeclassroom.org/caring school - community Website: Phone : 1 - 800 - 666 - 7270 [email protected] Email: 62

64 CHARACTER FIRST I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT Developed by Character First Education, a division of Strata Leadership, Character First is a K-12 character education curriculum designed to build positive social values and character by helping students develop a vocabulary of character traits and apply them to life. The K-5 Elementary Curriculum includes lesson guides for 20 character traits, each of which contains three hours of instruction divided into three sections: an introduction to the trait, a discussion and practice of five learning objectives related to that trait, and a connection to real life that uses examples from history and nature to highlight the trait in action. Each section contains between 1 and 5 activities that last 15-20 minutes each. Educators may decide when and how to deliver lessons; however, Character First recommends focusing on one character trait per month and delivering one 10- to 20-minute lesson per week, incorporating additional activities into the monthly schedule as time allows. K - 12 w ith separate lesson gu 5 and G - Grade Range rades 5 - 12 ides for PreK Duration and Recommended: 1 trait/month; 1 lesson/week; 10 - 20 min /lesson Timing Attentiveness, availability, compassion, conservation, courage, determination, diligence, enthusiasm, of Focus Areas flexibility, forgiveness, gratefulness, honesty, loyalty, obedience, orderliness, patience, respect, (as stated by program) responsibility, self - control, and wisdom Additional Curricula Intermediate Curriculum for Grades 5 12 - (not included in analysis) Evidence of . No evaluations are currently available Effectiveness Mindset Cognitive Emotional Interpersonal Character Regulation Skills Processes Skill Focus 11% 29% 71% 39% 38% Instructional Most frequently uses discussion, art/creative projects, and book s/stories Methods - High emphasis on character and mindset - Low emphasis on emotional processes High , vocabulary, video, and other ( art/creative projects use of books/stories, poems) - Unique Features - Low use of discussion Relative to Flexible lesson structure and content - Other Programs Less intensive professional development and training - Little support for implementation - - No classroom activities beyond core lessons or tools to assess program outcomes 63

65 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS No evaluations of Character First are currently available. Grades: N/A Geographic Location: N/A Race/Ethnicity: N/A Free/Reduced Lunch: N/A Outcomes: N/A N/A Implementation Experiences: 64

66 1 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 2 PROGRAM FOCUS As shown in Figure 1 below, Character First primarily focuses on character development (targeted by 71% of program activities). To a lesser extent, Character First also targets interpersonal skills, mindset, and cognitive development ls (11%). (each targeted by 29-39% of program activities). Only a small percentage of activities target emotional skil Figure 1. Percentage of Program 2 Activities Targeting Each Domain Developmental Considerations Character First provides a single set of lessons for Grades K-5. 3 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation As shown in Figure 2 to the right, the 29% of Character First Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by activities that build cognitive regulation most frequently focus 3 Activities that Build Cognitive Regulation 45% of the time), followed by on working memory/planning ( 4% inhibitory control (26%), and attention control (25%). For Attention Control a calendar to practice personal example, students may create planning during a lesson on Orderliness, play Red Light, Green 25% Working Memory/Planning 26% Light to practice thinking before acting during a lesson on Self- Control, or learn how the ear works during a lesson on Inhibitory Control Attentiveness. Other lessons that build cognitive regulation 45% Cognitive Flexibility include Availability, Conservation, Determination, Diligence, and Patience. Character First activities that build cognitive regulation 4% of the time). rarely address cognitive flexibility (only 1 68. Data collected from the 20 lesson guides listed in Figure 5 on p. 2 A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not add up to 100%. 3 Proportions represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., attention control) relative to other skills in the same domain (e.g., inhibitory control, etc.). For example, if 29% of program activities target cognitive regulation, 25% of the time, those activities build attention control. 65

67 Emotional Processes As shown in Figure 3 to the right, the 11% of Character First Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by activities that build emotional processes most frequently focus 3 Activities that Build Emotional Processes on empathy/perspective-taking (48% of the time), followed by emotion knowledge/expression (30%) and emotion/behavior Emotion Knowledge/ Expression regulation (22%). For example, students may discuss how to tell 30% on Compassion, share if others are sad or hurt during a lesson Emotion/Behavior 48% how it feels to be ignored during a lesson on Attentiveness, or Regulation do a science experiment that demonstrates what happens when Empathy/ 22% pressure builds up in a small container to demonstrate the Perspective-Taking on Self- importance of controlling your temper during a lesson Control. Other lessons that build emotional processes include Forgiveness, Honesty, and Respect. Interpersonal Skills First As shown in Figure 4 to the right, the 38% of Character Figure 4. Frequency of Skills Targeted by activities that build interpersonal skills most frequently focus on 3 Activities that Build Interpersonal Skills prosocial behavior (86% of the time), followed to a much lesser 1% extent by conflict resolution (13%). For example, students may Understanding practice the different ways people greet each other in other 13% Social Cues countries or cultures during a lesson on Respect or act out Conflict different scenarios in order to learn how to apologize during a Resolution r lessons that build interpersonal lesson on Forgiveness. Othe Prosocial 86% skills include Attentiveness, Availability, Compassion, Courage, Behavior Enthusiasm, Loyalty, Obedience, Patience, and Wisdom. Character First activities that build interpersonal skills rarely address understanding social cues (only 1% of the time). 4 Character As a character-based program, Character First builds character in 71% of activities. Example activities include discussing how different values relate to students’ lives, reading stories about how they are represented in history and/or nature, or working on projects that help students practice a value or visualize what it means, such as building a piggy bank out of milk cartons to learn about Conservation or researching lighthouses to reinforce the importance of “shining a light” on truth and justice during a lesson on Courage. Lessons with a high percentage of activities that build character include: Availability, Compassion, Conservation, Courage, Determination, Diligence, Enthusiasm, Forgiveness, Honesty, Loyalty, Obedience, Patience, Respect, Responsibility, and Wisdom. 4 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapt ing our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are 10% of program activities. ≥ targeted by 66

68 4 Mindset The 39% of Character First activities that build mindset primarily focus on maintaining a positive attitude, such as being grateful and cheerful or approaching one’s circumstances with optimism and enthusiasm. Activities that build these skills might include filling a bag with rocks that have negative behaviors written on them to visualize how a bad attitude can weigh you down during a lesson on Enthusiasm, turning negative statements about approaching a new task into positive ones during a lesson on Diligence, or writing thank you notes during a lesson on Gratefulness. Other lessons that focus on mindset include Determination, Obedience, Patience, Self-Control, Availability, Flexibility, Forgiveness, and Wisdom. 67

69 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS The heat map in Figure 5 below provides a more detailed look at where and when Character First addresses specific skills, with the shading representing degree of concentration in a particular skill in that particular lesson. Because character trait lesson guides can be purchased separately and delivered in any order, the map can be used as a planning tool to help practitioners determine where Character First programming might align with specific academic plans, school-wide programming, and social and emotional learning standards throughout the year. (Please see p . 41 for specific examples.) Figure 5. Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Targeting Each Domain and Skill by Unit, Grade, and Program-wide Cognitive Regulation Emotional Processes Interpersonal Processes Character Mindset Trait Grade Taking Control Control Conflict Mindset Working Emotion Planning Behavior Behavior Prosocial Character Cognitive Flexibility Attention Inhibitory Character Emotion / Memory / Empathy / Regulation Resolution Expression Social Cues Perspective- Knowledge / Understands Attentiveness 8 0 0 15 0 8 0 0 69 0 0 85 Availability 0 0 0 9 0 0 27 0 82 64 27 0 Compassion 0 0 0 0 8 0 58 0 0 75 50 0 Conservation 0 67 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 8 100 8 Courage 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 18 45 100 0 0 Determination 8 0 0 0 0 0 58 0 8 100 100 0 Diligence 90 30 0 0 0 0 40 0 0 10 90 0 Enthusiasm 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 27 91 55 0 Flexibility 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 8 0 15 23 92 Forgiveness 0 0 0 0 8 17 0 0 42 25 92 92 Gratefulness 100 23 0 15 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 Grades K-5 Honesty 9 9 0 18 0 9 0 91 0 0 9 9 Loyalty 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 67 100 8 0 0 Obedience 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 70 100 50 0 Orderliness 17 0 0 0 0 0 8 33 33 0 83 0 Patience 0 70 0 10 0 0 0 10 20 100 70 0 Respect 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 0 20 90 80 10 Responsibility 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 100 0 0 Self -Control 0 92 0 0 25 0 0 8 17 42 17 0 Wisdom 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 8 50 83 50 1 39 71 A1 8 15 9 37 3 3 6 0 6 Program -wide 71 38 11 39 A2 29 Key Mindset Character Cognitive Emotional Interpersonal 100 0 100 100 0 100 0 100 0 0 = A1 Total % of program activities targeting each skill (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution , etc. ) A2 = Total % of program activities targeting each domain (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, etc.) 68

70 5 P Figure 6. ercentage of Program Activities PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION 5 Employing Each Teaching Method As shown in Figure 6 to the right, the most frequently used instructional method in Character First is discussion (used in 28% of program activities), followed by art or creative projec ts (20%) and . The lesson guides for each trait books/stories (18%) are divided into three sections, two of which routinely feature a discussion about that trait. The discussion in the first section serves to help students synthesize and , he trait’s definition and importance expand upon t while the discussion in the second focuses on the skills and behaviors students need to put that trait into action, and acts as a foundation for subsequent skill practice. The skills practice typically includes multipl e arts and crafts projects, which serve to help students visualize the trait’s importance and help s them apply it to real life. All other activity types appear in less than 15% of program activities. 5 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the proportions of program activities employing each instructional method may not add up to 100%. 69

71 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Core Lessons Classroom Activities Beyond x Character First recommends emphasizing character traits during other subjects, but does not provide specific support for doing so . Climate and Culture Supports Lesson guides include tips for how to recognize character traits in action and effectively praise students in ways that x reinforce and promote character values . x No school - wide activities provided. of-School Time Applications to Out- x Character First is designed for use in multiple settings, including afterschool youth programs, athletic programs, daycare, and summer camp. Adaptability to Local Context on to an existing x Character First is highly flexible and can be used either as a stand - alone curriculum or as an add - character education program. at the teacher’s discretion. Sites may also x L essons consist of discrete activities that can be used alone or combined contac t program staff to help tailor the curriculum to a specific school, district, or program . x Lesson guides and resources for each character trait are sold separately such that sites are able to purchase only the materials most applicable to their need s dget and bu . Professional Development and Training site professional develop x - specific training, Character First Education offers on - While there is no curriculum ment for teachers and staff on topics such as dealing with conflict, preventing bullying/creating a culture of respect, optional and typically half classroom management, and integrating character into daily work. Trainings are day. - Support for Implementation x Activities are structured, but not scripted. x No additional information provided. Tools to Assess Program Outcomes x No information provided. Tools to Assess Implementation x No information provided. Family Engagement home Family Connection worksheet that provides an The lesson guide for each character trait includes a take - x overview of the trait and its five related learning objectives as well as a character quiz that family members can use to reinforce the trait at home . Community Engagement x No information provided. 70

72 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT High emphasis on character and ‰ mindset Skill Focus ‰ Low emphasis on emotional processes ‰ High use of books/stories and art/creative projects Instructional Methods ‰ Moderately high use of vocabulary, video, and other (poems) ‰ Low use of discussion Extensive program flexibility ‰ Program Components Less intensive professional development and training ‰ ‰ Little support for implementation No tools to assess program outcomes ‰ For more information about programs with common features, please see Summary Tables in Section 3 . Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 6 SKILL FOCUS Character First has the greatest focus on character of all 25 programs (55% above the cross-program mean). It also has a high focus on mindset relative to other programs (34% above the mean). Character First places a low emphasis on emotional processes (26% below the cross-program mean), particularly emotion knowledge/expression (22% below the mean). Character First offers a typical emphasis on cognitive regulation (4% above the mean) and interpersonal skills (12% below the mean) . INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS Character First offers the highest use of books/stories (14% above the cross-program mean) and art/creative projects (17% above the mean) of all 25 programs. Character First also has a moderately high use of vocabulary (7% above the mean), videos (7% above the mean), and other (8% above the mean). Compared to other programs, Character First has a low use of discussion (21% below the mean). PROGRAM COMPONENTS Relative to other programs, unique aspects of Character First include extensive flexibility and less intensive professional development and training. Adaptability to Local Context: While almost all programs (n=24; 96%) allow facilitators to adapt lesson timing, context, or content to meet local needs, Character First is one of only two programs (8%), along with Wise Skills, that offer the freedom to piece together lesson content from a menu of possible activities. Rather than providing lessons that follow a prescribed sequence of activities like most programs Character First instead enables facilitators to , choose from a wide range of activities related to the lesson theme, to be combined or used separately as needed. 6 For more information on how skill focus and instructional method comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. 71

73 Professional Development and Training: All programs (n=25; 100%) provide some form of professional development and training; however, while most (n=17; 68%) offer required or highly suggested trainings that introduce school/OST staff to the curriculum they will be using, Character First trainings are not required or curriculum-specific. Character First also offers less support for implementation than most other programs (n=23; 92%), and is one of seven programs (28%) to not provide tools to assess program outcomes . It is also one of three programs (12%) to not provide guidelines or support for classroom activities beyond core lessons . For a detailed breakdown of how Character First compares to other programs across all program component categories, please see Table 3 on p. 37-38. VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information Character First materials can be purchased online at http://characterfirsteducation.com/c/shop.php . For more information about the program, please use the contact information provided below. Contact Information Website: http://characterfirsteducation.com/c/ Phone: 0001 1 - 877 - 357 - or 405 - 815 - 0001 Email: [email protected] 72

74 COMPETENT KIDS, CARI NG COMMUNITIES I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT emotional competencies, K - 5 program designed to build social - Pre C ompetent Kids, Caring Communities (CKCC) is a - school partnerships. The elementary level increase compassion and connectedness, and strengthen home - 38 weekly lessons designed to fit into the time a teacher or facilitator has available. Lessons curriculum includes 30 - typically begin with a 5 minute relaxation and mindfulness exercise followed by an introduction, a question that es prior knowledge of lesson concepts, an activity related to the lesson theme, a wrap up, and a short check activat - - for understanding. Teachers and facilitators are also encouraged to clarify or teach 3 7 new vocabulary words per lesson. Developed by the Ackerman Institute for the Family. Grade Range Pre K - 5 with separate lessons for each grade Duration and 30 - 38 weeks; 1 lesson/week; flexible lesson duration Timing Areas of Focus responsibility taking S elf - regulation, reflective abilities, respect for others, relationship skills, and (as stated by program) Additional Curricula K based curriculum for Pre CKCC for Early Childhood li teracy - (not included in analysis) Evidence of Quasi - experimental study Effectiveness Cognitive Mindset Emotional Character Interpersonal Processes Regulation Skills Skill Focus 23% 10% 30% 28% 23% Most frequently uses and , discussion Instructional , skill practice, other ( poetry, meditation, visualization exercises) teacher choice Methods High focus on mindset - - , particularly prosocial behavior Low emphasis on interpersonal skills Features Unique variety of instructional methods - Wide Relative to - High use of “other” activities (highest; visualization, poetry, meditation), skill practice, and teacher Other Programs choice activities Typical levels of support across all program components - 73

75 1 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS A previous iteration of Competent Kids, Caring Communities called Unique Minds was evaluated in a quasi- experimental study. The primary measures and assessments used in this study include surveys, questionnaires, observations, and report cards. Results from the study are summarized below. 4 Grades: Urban Geographic Location: Diverse Race/Ethnicity: Free/Reduced Lunch: 52% Gains in attention and concentration, self-efficacy, tendency to suggest that classroom Outcomes: problems be solved with prosocial strategies, social-emotional competence, compliance with authority, lack of aggression, and math grades x Ind ependent observers reported that , on average, 70% of teachers met fidelity tandards when teaching lessons. s Implementation Experiences: x Teacher satisfaction with curriculum manuals was assessed on a scale of 1 - 5 with an average overall satisfaction rating of 3.6. 1 References: Linares et al. (2005) 74

76 2 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 3 PROGRAM FOCUS As shown in Figure 1 below, Competent Kids, Caring Communities provides a relatively balanced focus on cognitive regulation, emotional processes, interpersonal skills, and mindset (each targeted by 23-30% of program activities), with less emphasis on character (10%) . Figure 1. Percentage of Program 3 Activities Targeting Each Domain Considerations Developmental CKCC offers separate lessons for each grade. Notable differences across grades include a lower focus on character and a slightly development in Kindergarten higher focus on cognitive skills in Grade 3. 4 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation As shown in Figure 2 to the right, the 30% of activities in CKCC Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by 4 that build cognitive regulation most frequently focus on Activities that Build Cognitive Regulation y/planning skills (47% of the time), followed by working memor attention control (21%), cognitive flexibility (20%), and to a Attention Control much lesser extent, inhibitory control (12%). For example, 20% 21% Working Memory/Planning students might create checklists to set and accomplish goals, learn mnemonic devices to aid memory, practice strategies for 12% Inhibitory Control refocusing attention when distracted , and brainstorm ways to 47% solve a problem. Cognitive Flexibility 2 Data collected from Grades K, 3, and 5. 3 A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not add up to 100%. 4 Proportions represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., attention control) relative to other skills in the same domain (e.g., inhibitory control, etc.). For example, if 30% of program activities target cognitive regulation, 21% of the time, those activities build attention control. 75

77 Emotional Processes As show in Figure 3 to the right, the 28% of CKCC activities that Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by build emotional processes most frequently focus on emotion 4 Activities that Build Emotional Processes knowledge and expression (49% of the time), followed by emotion/behavior regulation (38%), and to a much lesser extent, Emotion Knowledge/ Expression empathy/perspective-taking (13%). Activities that address these 13% skills might include identifying feeling words that express similar Emotion/Behavior 49% emotions or using deep breathing strategies to calm down. Regulation 38% Empathy/ Perspective-Taking Interpersonal Skills As shown in Figure 4 to the right, the 23% of CKCC activities that Figure 4. Frequency of Skills Targeted by build interpersonal schools most frequently focus on prosocial 4 Activities that Build Interpersonal Skills behavior (58% of the time), followed by conflict resolution (35%). Activities that target these skills might include Understanding 7% discussions or role-plays about bullying. CKCC activities that Social Cues build interpersonal skills rarely address understanding social Conflict 7% of the time). cues (only 35% Resolution 58% Prosocial Behavior 5 Character CKCC offers little to no focus on character (only targeted in 10% of program activities). 5 Mindset 23% of CKCC The activities that build mindset primarily focus on mindfulness. Every lesson begins with a 5-minute “Preparing to Learn” exercise that uses mindfulness techniques such as deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery or visualizations, and mantra meditation to reduce stress and refocus students on the lesson’s learning objectives. Some lessons also focus on helping students understand the connection between their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. For example, students may be asked to brainstorm positive statements while learning how to combat negative-self talk. 5 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapting our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are targeted by >10% of program activities. 76

78 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS The heat map in Figure 5 below provides a more detailed look at where and when CKCC addresses specific skills over the course of the school year, within and across different grades. The vertical progression of the map could be thought of as time, moving from one unit to the next and one grade to the next, with the shading representing degree of concentration in a particular skill at that rough point in time. The map can be used as a planning tool to help practitioners determine where ol-wide programming, and social and emotional learning CKCC programming might align with specific academic plans, scho p. 41 for specific examples.) standards throughout the year. (Please see Figure 5. Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Targeting Each Domain and Skill by Unit, Grade, and Program-wide Interpersonal Processes Character Mindset Emotional Processes Cognitive Regulation - Unit Taking Control Control Conflict Grade Mindset Emotion Working Planning Behavior Behavior Prosocial Cognitive Flexibility Attention Inhibitory Character Emotion / Memory / Empathy / Resolution Regulation Expression Social Cues Perspective Knowledge / Understands TIME 1 7 6 8 0 14 0 1 6 0 0 6 0 22 2 0 58 0 0 4 4 0 0 0 4 0 17 3 0 0 0 0 35 0 0 9 0 43 4 17 14 10 0 0 14 4 5 0 0 24 0 19 0 5 7 0 0 13 13 7 0 13 20 20 0 27 26 6 0 0 0 0 32 11 0 5 16 16 16 7 6 0 0 29 47 0 0 6 12 0 0 24 Kindergarten 0 0 0 15 0 0 0 0 38 38 0 23 8 9 0 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 27 2 A1 3 12 2 0 18 9 3 7 16 2 22 A2 17 24 23 2 22 0 1 27 8 12 4 4 23 0 8 27 8 12 4 67 0 17 8 4 25 0 0 0 0 4 2 3 26 17 0 4 22 13 22 0 22 26 43 26 4 11 4 0 4 71 46 7 7 0 21 18 14 11 5 15 37 33 4 48 41 4 4 56 44 7 15 6 7 15 0 52 67 4 0 0 0 0 41 Grade 3 26 22 57 9 13 7 0 0 9 13 22 0 22 0 8 40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 20 20 A1 14 27 11 12 30 27 6 2 13 19 14 19 (Developmental Progression) A2 45 35 24 14 19 43 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 9 4 22 1 13 0 0 0 4 4 2 8 0 0 17 29 29 0 3 0 0 0 0 33 25 0 0 17 0 0 58 31 4 0 0 0 6 25 19 0 6 31 0 0 5 0 11 0 11 37 16 21 5 42 42 11 11 6 9 27 0 5 23 41 23 0 5 5 0 50 Grade 5 7 19 33 10 62 14 19 10 0 14 19 24 38 8 13 13 4 9 9 13 4 0 0 39 26 13 18 A1 18 2 12 17 16 9 1 12 8 13 30 A2 29 26 13 30 22 23 10 A1 8 19 5 8 22 17 6 2 11 18 Program - A2 30 28 wide 23 10 23 Key Mindset Character Interpersonal Emotional Cognitive 0 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 100 Total % of program activities targeting each skill (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution , etc. ) = A1 = Total % of program activities targeting each domain (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, etc.) A2 77

79 6 PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION P Figure 6. ercentage of Program Activities 6 Employing Each Teaching Method As shown in Figure 6 to the right, discussion is the most commonly used instructional method in CKCC (used in 46% of activities). In younger grades, puppets and cooperative strategies such as Think-Pair-Share or Turn and Talk are used to facilitate discussions, while discussions in Grade 5 use focus questions to encourage organic dialogue. CKCC also uses skill practice (25%); other activities such as poetry, meditation, and visualization exercises (20%); and teacher choice activities (19%) such as whatever centering transition activity a teacher feels is . All other appropriate at the start of each lesson instructional methods occur in less than 15% of activities. 6 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the proportions of program activities employing each instructional method may not add up to 100%. 78

80 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons CKCC provides additional activities and lessons for Grades 3 5 that help students apply strategies to real life x - scenarios, such as goal setting, current events, and career connections. CKCC x provides a list of suggested activities and books that connect to other areas of the Following each lesson, curriculum, such as reading, science, writing, math, art, music , and speaking. Climate and Culture Supports x CKCC provides a detailed chart of instructional techniques and engagement strategies, when to use them, and at what grades they are most appropriate. x CKCC includes examples of possible school-wide activities such as school plays, newsletters, and fairs. x It is expected that school staff use CKCC strategies throughout the building, and it is important for all staff to become familiar with the language of CKCC and use it in their interactions with students. Applications to Out- of-School Time No OST adaptions provided. x Program Adaptability CKCC acknowledges the need to tailor teaching style to individual classrooms and includes guidelines for adapting x lesson delivery, design, and timing to the needs of the classroom and students. Professional Development and Training , with the option to x Formal in - service training includes one mandatory 90 - minute workshop led by a site’s CKCC team minute workshops depending on need. deliver four additional 90 - x CKCC facilitator and team are required to attend Prior to delivering the workshop to other school personnel, the introductory and implementation trainings provided by the Ackerman Institute. technical They also receive assistance from CKCC . x Informal trainings may also be initiated by the principal and CKCC facilitator or t eam, and CKCC provides example activities, worksheets, and professional development outlines for these informal trainings. Support for Implementation SEL strategies x Lessons are partially scripted and provide tips for introducing new vocabulary and modeling . x The implementation guide for principals also offers comprehensive support materials such as timelines, checklists, detailed goals, sample implementation plans, examples of school - wide activities, sample letters to staff and/or families, and ideas for fundi ng. Tools to Assess Program Outcomes x CKCC suggests that an evaluation committee develop both short - and long - term goals with an evaluation plan. x The use of the DESSA is suggested for program assessment. x It is also recommended that families fill out behavioral questionnaires about their children to inform program implementation. program skills. - x S tudents also complete beginning and end of year questionnaires to evaluate their pre - and post 79

81 Tools to Assess Implementation x Tools to assess implementation include teacher reflections completed at the end of each unit and an end - of - year questionnaire regarding thoughts on program implementation, delivery, and effectiveness. Family Engagement x The program thoroughly integrates the family into the curriculum. Nearly every lesson ends with a worksheet and activity that students complete at home with a parent or guardian. Each grade has three core activities that connect students, parents, and teachers: interactive family-school events, x conferences, and problem-solving meetings. x Guidelines, activities, and checklists for involving families are included. suggests that the school consider hosting workshops on SEL skills and suggests workshop themes for x CKCC also engaging family members in utilizing strategies at home. Community Engagement x No information provided. 80

82 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT ‰ High focus on mindset Skill Focus ‰ Low emphasis on interpersonal skills, particularly prosocial behavior Greater variety of instructional methods relative to other programs ‰ Instructional Methods Highest use of “other” activities (visualizations, meditation, poetry) ‰ ‰ High use of skill practice and teacher’s choice activities ‰ Typical levels of support across all program components Program Components . Summary Tables in Section 3 For more information about programs with common features, please see Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 7 SKILL FOCUS CKCC has a high emphasis on mindset (18% above the cross-program mean) and a low emphasis on interpersonal skills (27% below the mean), particularly prosocial behavior (20% below the mean), relative to other programs. CKCC provides a typical emphasis on cognitive regulation (5% above the mean), emotional processes (9% below the mean), and character (6% below the mean). 7 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS CKCC has the highest use of “other” activities of all 25 programs (17% above the cross -program mean). Examples of these activities include poetry, meditation, and visualization exercises . It also offers a relatively high use of skill the mean) and teacher choice (15% above the mean) . CKCC also offers a greater variety of practice (14% above instructional methods than most other programs (7 vities, while most methods occur in ≥10% of program acti programs use fewer than 4 ). in ≥10% PROGRAM COMPONENTS CKCC is unique in that it is the only program to provide typical levels of support across all 10 program component categories relative to other programs. For a detailed breakdown of how CKCC compares to other programs in these categories, please see Table 3 on p. 37-38. 7 For more information on how skill focus and instructional method comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. 81

83 VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information To learn how to bring CKCC to your school, please complete the online form at http://www.competentkids.org/contact/ or use the contact information provided below. Contact Information http://www.competentkids.org/ Website: 212 Phone : 4900, e - 879 - xt. 330 82

84 I CAN PROBLEM SOLVE I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT Problem Solve (ICPS) is a PreK-5 program designed to build interpersonal thinking and problem-solving skills. The I Can program offers two curricula for elementary school: ICPS for Kindergarten & Primary Grades (Grades K-2, or Grade 3 students who have never been exposed to ICPS) and ICPS for Intermediate Elementary Grades (Grades 3-5). Each initially last curricula contains 77-83 lessons to be delivered 2-3 times per week over the course of 3-5 months. Lessons 5- 20 minutes and build up to 10-20 minutes over the course of the program. Lessons typically include a short activity related to the lesson theme that varies in structure and content but frequently includes learning problem-solving vocabulary or engaging in short problem-solving dialogues that help students use lesson concepts to solve real-life problems. Developed by developmental psychologist Dr. Murna B. Shure, Ph.D. and Intermediate Elementary Pre K - 5 with sepa rate lessons for Preschool, Kindergarten/Primary Grades, Grade Range Grades Duration and /lesson 3 - - 3 lessons/week; 5 - 2 0 min 5 months; 2 Timing feelings and preferences, listening and paying attention, vocabulary, ( skills solving - Pre - problem of Focus Areas sequencing and timing) and problem - solving skills (alternative solution thinking, consequential thinking, (as stated by program) and means - end thinking or sequential planning) Additional Curricula I CPS for Preschool (not included in analysis) Evidence of experimental studies - Multiple randomized control trials, quasi - experimental, and non Effectiveness Character Cognitive Emotional Mindset Interpersonal Regulation Processes Skills Skill Focus 65% 3% 55% 65% 0% Instructional games, and vocabulary play, M ost frequently uses discussion , visual display s , role - Methods - Balanced focus on cognitive, emotional, and interpersonal domains - knowledge/expression), and h emphasis on cognitive skills, emotional processes (particularly emotion Hig understanding social cues Unique Features - Highest focus on empathy/perspective - taking and conflict resolution Relative to ow focus on prosocial skills - L Other Programs - High use of vocabulary, role - play, and games - Low use of skill practice tcomes - No tools to assess program ou 83

85 1 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS ICPS has been evaluated in multiple studies, including a non-experimental study, a quasi-experimental study, and two randomized control trials. The primary measures and assessments used in these studies include teacher ratings, parent reports, direct observations, and hypothetical problem-solving scenarios. Results from these studies are summarized below. - PreK 6 Grades: Geographic Location: Urban, rural Race/Ethnicity: Diverse Free/Reduced Lunch: 91% or otherwise not stated to provide problems and name x Gains in prosocial behavior, ability to multiple solutions multiple consequences to an action, social competence, family relat ionships, and self - Outcomes: regulation x Reductions in relational and overt aggression or Teacher feedback varied, but 96% teachers participating in one survey saw “ great ” Implementation Experiences: “ some ” positive change. 1 Boyle & Hassett-Walker (2008); Kumpfer, Alvarado, Tait, & Turner (2002); Santos Elias, Marutrano, Almeida Motta, & Giurlani (2003); Shure & References: Spivack (1982). 84

86 2 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 3 PROGRAM FOCUS As shown in Figure 1 below, I Can Problem Solve (ICPS) provides a relatively balanced focus on cognitive regulation, emotional processes, and interpersonal skills throughout the program (each targeted by 55-65% of program activities). Very few activities target character (3%) or mindset (<1%). Figure 1. Percentage of Program 3 Activities Targeting Each Domain Developmental Considerations ICPS provides separate curricula for Kindergarten/ (K and Intermediate Elementary Primary Grades - 2) 5); however, - (3 the Kindergarten/Primary Grades Grades lesson should be used with Grade 3 students who are rd below 3 grade level or who have never been exposed to . Notable differences across ICPS include a slight curricula increase in focus on interpersonal skills in the Intermediate Elementary Grades. 4 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation As shown in Figure 2 to the right, the 65% of ICPS activities that Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by 4 build cognitive regulation most frequently focus on cognitive Activities that Build Cognitive Regulation flexibility (63% of the time). For example, students are frequently asked to generate multiple, different solutions for problems . Attention Control Fewer activities focus on attention control (only targeted in 15% 15% Working Memory/Planning g of activities that build cognitive regulation) and workin 13% memory/planning skills (13%). ICPS activities that build cognitive Inhibitory Control 9% 63% regulation rarely address inhibitory control (9% of the time). Cognitive Flexibility 2 Intermediate Elementary Grades. Data collected from Kindergarten & Primary Grades and 3 A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not add up to 100%. 4 Proportions represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., attention control) relative to other skills in the same domain (e.g., inhibitory control, etc.). For example, if 65% of program activities build cognitive regulation, 15% of the time, those activities target attention control. 85

87 Emotional Processes As shown in Figure 3 to the right, the 65% of ICPS activities that Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by build emotional processes most frequently focus on emotion 4 Activities that Build Emotional Processes knowledge/expression ( 54% of the time), followed by 44%). For example, a teacher may empathy/perspective-taking ( Emotion Knowledge/ Expression happy, “ review a feeling word, such as and ask students to ” discuss what might make others feel happy. ICPS activities that Emotion/Behavior 44% build emotional processes rarely address emotion/behavior Regulation 54% 2% regulation (only ). of the time Empathy/ Perspective-Taking 2% Interpersonal Skills As shown in Figure 4 to the right, the 55% of activities that build Figure 4. Frequency of Skills Targeted by interpersonal skills most frequently focus on conflict resolution 4 Activities that Build Interpersonal Skills (49% of the time), followed by understanding social cues (25%) and prosocial behavior (26%). For example, a lesson may ask Understanding students to look at a picture of one boy pushing another out of Social Cues 25% 26% line and engage in a problem-solving dialogue around why he Conflict might have pushed the other boy, what might happen as a Resolution result, and whether pushing is actually a good way of solving his Prosocial 49% problem. Behavior 5 Character ICPS offers little to no focus on character (only targeted in 3% of program activities). 5 Mindset ICPS offers little to no focus on mindset (targeted in ≤ 1% of program activities). 5 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapting our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are targeted by ≥ 10% of program activities. 86

88 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS The heat map in Figure 5 below provides a more detailed look at where and when I Can Problem Solve (ICPS) addresses specific skills over the course of 3-5 months, within and across different grade ranges. The vertical progression of the map could be thought of as time, moving from one unit to the next and one grade to the next, with the shading representing degree of concentration in a particular skill at that rough point in time. The map can be used as a planning tool to help practitioners determine where ICPS programming might align with specific academic plans, scho 41 for ol-wide programming, and social and emotional learning standards throughout the year. (Please see p. specific examples.) Figure 5. Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Targeting Each Domain and Skill by Unit, Grade, and Program-wide Cognitive Regulation Emotional Processes Interpersonal Processes Character Mindset - Unit Taking Control Control Conflict Mindset Emotion Working Planning Grade Behavior Behavior Prosocial Cognitive Memory/ Flexibility Attention Inhibitory Character Emotion / Empathy / Resolution Regulation Expression Social Cues Perspective Knowledge / Understands TIME 0 1 17 6 19 17 60 4 35 8 8 13 6 2 8 0 2 82 52 2 48 22 65 57 5 0 A1 13 3 12 46 57 3 40 14 33 33 5 0 Primary Grades Kindergarten and A2 64 61 47 5 0 43 0 1 18 6 0 69 0 43 31 20 14 0 17 29 5 55 45 0 62 0 69 0 2 0 2 (Developmental Progression) 10 16 2 A1 48 58 0 52 25 42 8 1 0 Intermediate A2 67 69 62 1 0 Elementary Grades 0 A1 1 1 10 7 47 5 7 2 46 19 20 3 7 3 Program - wide A2 65 65 55 3 0 Key Minds et Character Cognitive Emotiona l Interpersonal 100 0 100 0 0 100 100 0 100 0 of program activities targeting each skill (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution , etc. ) A1 = Total % (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, etc.) Total % of program activities targeting each domain = A2 87

89 6 PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION P Figure 6. ercentage of Program Activities 6 Employing Each Teaching Method As shown in Figure 6 to the right, ICPS is predominantly discussion-based (used in 63% of program activities), in large part due to its focus on problem-solving dialogues. Each lesson provides the teacher with a script to follow, but the teacher may diverge from the script as the class responds to dialogue prompts. ICPS also frequently employs the use of visual displays (23%), role-plays (23%), games (19%), and vocabulary exercises (15%). All other instructional methods occur in 3% of program ≤ activities. 6 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the proportions of program activities employing each instructional method may not add up to 100%. 88

90 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons x integral supplementary lessons that incorporate ICPS principles in classroom interactions and Most lessons include academic curriculum. integrate lesson concepts into the Teachers should use ICPS p roblem - solving dialogues, which walk students through problems using ICPS x , principles although need not be used to address every problem. they throughout the day as classroom challenges arise, Climate and Culture Supports x ICPS encourages the practice of problem - solving dialogues outside of the classroom to practice new vocabulary and problem - solving skills during lunchtime and free play , and some activities include advice for how dialogues can be used or referenced outside of a lesson to improve behavior . ICPS also provide s classroom management techniques designed to hel p address behavi oral challenges and engage x shy students. Applications to Out- of-School Time No OST adaptions provided. x Adaptability to Local Context All lessons must be delivered in order and use the ICPS dialoguing structure provided; however, teachers may move x through lessons at a pace appropriate to their class and adapt their wording and content to meet the needs of individual classrooms as long as the lesson concepts are not lost. Teachers may also choose to assign some lessons as homework. x ICPS may be taught in both whole-class and small group settings. Professional Development and Training Optional trainings are offered prior to beginning the program, including a two - day ICPS training with follow - up x s and a three - day ICPS train - the - trainer program. support for schools and implementer x hree - day “Raising a Thinking Child” Train - the - Trainer program is also available for parent educators and A t . professionals Support for Implementation Lessons are scripted and provide tips for getting and keeping children engaged. x ICPS also provides suggestions for delivering lessons x effectively, focusing on classroom size, room layout, game set up, and more. Tools to Assess Program Outcomes x No information provided. Tools to Assess Implementation x ICPS provides a teacher evaluation checklist that teachers can use to self evaluate and monitor their use and - modeling of ICPS dialoguing techniques . Family Engagement x The program provides parent training on the underlying theory and skills of ICPS (which school staff can be trained to deliver), as well as a supplemental book series for parents, Raising a Thinking Child and Raising a Thinking Preteen that support parents to help their children build the skills required to resolve conflicts and get along with others . Community Engagement No information provided. x 89

91 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT ‰ Balanced focus on cognitive, emotional, and interpersonal domains Skill Focus ‰ High emphasis on cognitive regulation High emphasis on emotional processes, particularly empathy/perspective- ‰ taking (highest) and emotion knowledge/expression ‰ High focus on conflict resolution (highest) and understanding social cues High use of vocabulary, role-play, and games ‰ Instructional Methods ‰ Moderately low use of skill practice Fewer tools to assess program outcomes ‰ Program Components Section 3 Summary Tables in For more information about programs with common features, please see . Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 7 SKILL FOCUS ICPS offers the highest emphasis on cognitive skills of all 25 programs (40% above the cross-program mean), due in part to its high focus on cognitive flexibility (41% above the mean). ICPS also provides a high emphasis on emotional skills (28% above the mean), particularly emotion knowledge/expression and empathy/perspective-taking (both 32% above the mean). In fact, ICPS has the highest focus on empathy/perspective-taking of all 25 programs. ICPS also provides the highest emphasis on conflict resolution of all programs (24% above the mean) as well as a moderately high focus on understanding social cues (10% above the mean); however, it has a moderately low focus on prosocial behavior (18% below the mean). ICPS provides a fairly typical emphasis on character (13% below the mean) and mindset ( 5% below the mean ). 7 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS ICPS provides the greatest use of vocabulary of all 25 programs (13% above the cross-program mean). ICPS also offers more opportunities for role-play (15% above the mean) and games (13% above the mean) than many other programs. In contrast, ICPS provides a moderately low amount of skill practice relative to other programs (11% below the mean). Although it most frequently uses discussion, it does so at a fairly typical rate (only 14% above the mean). PROGRAM COMPONENTS ICPS is unique in that it provides a typical level of support across nine out of ten program component categories relative to other programs. The only area in which ICPS differs somewhat from the majority is in Tools to Assess Program Outcomes , for which ICPS is one of seven programs (28%) to not offer any student assessments. For a 37-38. detailed breakdown of how ICPS compares to other programs in other categories, please see Table 3 on p. 7 For more information on how skill focus and instructional method comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. 90

92 VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information I Can Problem Solve can be purchased online at https://www.researchpress.com/authors/325/dr-myrna-b-shure . For more information about the program, please use the contact information provided below. Contact Information Website: http://www.icanproblemsolve.info - Phone: 717 - 763 1661, e xt. 128 [email protected] Email: 91

93 LIONS QUEST I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT 12 program that integrates social and emotional learning, character education, drug and bullying Lions Quest is a PreK- ’ s PreK-5 curriculum, Lions Quest prevention, and service learning to promote school and life success. The program Skills for Growing, contains 36 weekly lessons across 6 units. Lessons last approximately 30-40 minutes and typically include a 10-minute discovering activity that introduces students to lesson concepts, a 10-minute connecting activity -20 minute practicing that tea ches a new skill and connects it to students’ existing knowledge of lesson concepts, a 15 activity during which students practice that new skill and reflect on their learning, and a 5-minute applying activity during which students complete a journal page that encourages them to apply what they have learned beyond the classroom. Each grade also includes a unit-long service learning project designed to promote cooperation, caring, and concern for others as well as provide an opportunity for students to use their new skills to contribute to their school and community. Developed by the Lions Clubs International Foundation. s for G K - 12 with separate lessons for each grade through G rade 8 and a single set of lesson Pre rades 9 - 12 Grade Range Duration and ; /lesson 36 weeks - 1 lesson /week ; 30 40 min Timing Areas of Focus Self - discipline, responsibility, good judgement, and respect for others (as stated by program) Additional Adolescence - Lions Quest Skills for 8 for G rades 6 - Curricula - - Lions Quest Skills for Adolescence out - of - school time program for G rades 6 8 (not included in 12 - - rades 9 Lions Quest Skills for Action for G analysis) Evidence of M atched - - structured qualitative interview studies pair, randomized control trials, and semi Effectiveness Cognitive Mindset Emotional Interpersonal Character Processes Skills Regulation Skill Focus 18% 19% 23% 60% 7% Instructional Most frequently uses discussion, writing, and visual display s Methods - Typical emphasis on all domains Unique Features - and writing activities High use of discussion Relative to - Extensive support for family engagement , including parent meetings Other Programs - Service - learning component built into the core curriculum 92

94 1 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS Lions Quest has been evaluated in matched-pair, randomized control trials, and semi-structured qualitative interview studies. The primary measures and assessments used in these studies include surveys and interviews. Results from three of the most recent studies are summarized here. 6 - 8 Grades: Geographic Location: Urban United States, Eastern Ontario Canada Race/Ethnicity: Diverse Free/Reduced Lunch: No information provided . x Gains in s elf - efficacy around refusal skills; teach er perceptions of student self - confidence, capacity for self - assertion, and improved interpersonal relationships; and student - confidence, capacity for self perception s of interpersonal relationships, solidarity, self - Outcomes: assertion, conflict resolution and sense of belonging Reductions in cigarette smoking, lifetime x marijuana use , successive use of more advanced substances, an d binge drinking x In the urban study, teachers reported delivering a mean of 32.74 out of 36 sessions. Implementation Experiences: x In the Canadian study, teachers and students reported positive perceptions of the program, citing increased confidence and enjoyment of program sessions. 1 Drolet, Arcand, Ducharme, & Leblanc (2013); Eisen, Zellman, Massett, & Murray (2002); Eisen, Zellman, & Murray (2003); Leblanc et al. (2015). References: 93

95 2 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 3 PROGRAM FOCUS As shown in Figure 1 below, Lions Quest activities most frequently focus on interpersonal skills (targeted by 60% of activities target emotional, cognitive, and character skills (each program activities). To a lesser extent, Lions Quest targeted by 18-23% of program activities). Lions Quest rarely targets mindset (7%). Figure 1. Percentage of Program 3 Activities Targeting Each Domain Developmental Considerations Lions Quest provides grade - differentiated lessons with relatively small differences in domain focus between grades. 4 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation e 18% of Lions Quest As shown in Figure 2 to the right, th Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by 4 activities that build cognitive skills most frequently focus on Activities that Build Cognitive Regulation 75% of the time), followed to a working memory/planning ( 6% . For example, Lions lesser extent by cognitive flexibility (16%) Attention Control Quest contains a unit on service learning during which students 16% 3% Working Memory/Planning are frequently asked to brainstorm ideas and develop plans for their own service project. Lions Quest activities that build Inhibitory Control cognitive regulation rarely address attention control (only 6% of 75% the time) or inhibitory control ( 3% ). Cognitive Flexibility 2 Data collected from Grades 1, 3, and 5. 3 A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not add up to 100%. 4 Proportions represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., attention control) relative to other skills in the same domain (e.g., inhibitory control, etc.). For example, if 18% of program activities target cognitive regulation, 6% of the time, those activities build attention control. 94

96 sses Emotional Proce As shown in Figure 3 to the right, the 23% of Lions Quest Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by activities that build emotional processes most frequently focus 4 Activities that Build Emotional Processes on emotion knowledge/expression (65% of the time), followed to a lesser extent by empathy/perspective-taking (20%) and Emotion Knowledge/ Expression emotion/behavior regulation (15%). For example, students 20% might reflect on the feelings they associate with bullying Emotion/Behavior situations using their student journal, discuss how two people Regulation 15% can have different feelings about the same event while learning 65% Empathy/ about situations that trigger emotions, or work with a partner to Perspective-Taking identify the best calm down strategy for a particular situation. Interpersonal Skills As shown in Figure 4 to the right, the 60% of Lions Quest Figure 4. Frequency of Skills Targeted by activities that build interpersonal skills most frequently focus on 4 Activities that Build Interpersonal Skills prosocial behavior (75% of the time), followed to a much lesser . Activities that build these extent by conflict resolution (17%) 8% Understanding skills might include discussing how to respect others and build Social Cues 17% positive relationships or composing “don’t bug me” messages to Conflict . Lions Quest activities that communicate annoyance respectfully Resolution build interpersonal skills rarely addresses understanding social Prosocial cues (only 8% of the time). 75% Behavior 5 Character The 19% of Lions Quest activities that build character primarily focus on responsible decision-making and the importance of making a difference in the world during units on health/prevention and service learning. During these units, students might be asked to use a three-step decision-making process to practice making responsible choices in hypothetical situations, read a short story about teasing and discuss the different choices bystanders could make in that situation, or work as a team to plan and execute a project that positively impacts their community. 5 Mindset Lions Quest offers little focus on mindset (targeted by ≤ 7% of program activities). 5 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapt ing our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are 10% of program activities. ≥ targeted by 95

97 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS The heat map in Figure 5 below provides a more detailed look at where and when Lions Quest addresses specific skills over the course of the school year, within and across different grades. The vertical progression of the map could be thought of as time, moving from one unit to the next and one grade to the next, with the shading representing degree of concentration in a particular skill at that rough point in time. The map can be used as a planning tool to help practitioners determine where Lions Quest programming might align with specific academic plans, scho ol-wide programming, and social and emotional learning standards throughout the year. (Please see p. 41 for specific examples.) Figure 5. Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Targeting Each Domain and Skill by Unit, Grade, and Program-wide Interpersonal Processes Cognitive Regulation Mindset Emotional Processes Character - Unit Taking Control Control Conflict Mindset Working Emotion Planning Grade Behavior Behavior Prosocial Cognitive Flexibility Attention Inhibitory Character Emotion / Memory / Empathy / Regulation Resolution Expression Social Cues Perspective Knowledge / Understands TIME 1 7 14 0 7 21 0 0 14 7 64 0 0 2 0 25 0 4 62 21 0 0 17 33 12 25 3 13 0 0 3 13 0 3 17 30 63 0 0 4 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 24 8 7 7 0 27 0 5 10 0 0 0 77 10 3 Grade 1 6 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 25 0 0 0 A1 12 2 4 20 4 2 4 5 11 47 9 7 A2 22 22 56 9 7 0 0 0 0 35 0 6 0 0 100 12 0 1 2 0 24 0 10 33 21 17 7 2 21 33 31 3 0 2 0 0 24 2 17 17 33 83 7 0 4 0 0 0 6 3 0 0 11 0 17 34 49 44 0 5 0 0 0 22 0 7 0 2 46 51 Grade 3 6 0 10 0 10 30 0 0 0 0 90 30 0 12 16 0 4 23 5 0 5 12 54 32 7 A1 (Developmental Progression) 32 31 59 7 19 A2 1 0 9 0 0 9 0 9 18 0 91 0 0 2 0 20 0 7 23 17 0 7 0 3 23 30 3 0 3 0 0 13 3 5 16 50 53 3 0 4 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 55 39 0 0 5 38 0 0 19 0 0 0 0 72 12 9 Grade 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 22 0 6 A1 0 13 0 1 13 4 2 7 13 53 17 8 A2 17 64 15 17 8 7 19 A1 1 14 1 3 19 4 5 6 12 51 Program - wide A2 1 8 23 60 19 7 Key Minds et Character Cognitive Emotiona l Interpersonal 0 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 100 Total % of program activities targeting each skill (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution , etc. ) = A1 = Total % of program activities targeting each domain (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, etc.) A2 96

98 6 PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION P Figure 6. ercentage of Program Activities 6 Employing Each Teaching Method As shown in Figure 6 to the right, discussions are the most commonly employed instructional method in Lions Quest (used in 73% of activities), followed by writing (41%) and visual displays (25%) . Almost every lesson begins with an introductory discussion accompanied by a slide that displays discussion prompts or strategies for learning new skills, and discussions are further used throughout lessons to help students reflect on lesson concepts and engage with their peers, as a whole class, in small groups, or with a a writing . Each lesson also concludes with partner prompt that students use to independently reflect on lesson concepts in their student journals. 6 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the proportions of program activities employing each instructional method may not add up to 100%. 97

99 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons x Each lesson includes two reinforcement and two enrichment activities designed to provide additional exposure to the lesson, offer different ways of thinking about and/or performing lesson skills, and encourage students to use lesson skills in new ways that employ h igher - order, abstract thinking. x Each lesson also lesson concepts and skills in - includes two optional cross curriculum activities designed to reinforce the following content areas: math, social studies, science, language arts, music, art, information technology, career education, health, P.E., family and consumer science, and world languages. Every unit includes two supplemental activities: a 5 x min “Tickler,” a reflective activity to be completed at the - beginning of the day or any time teachers want to reinforce lesson concepts, and an “Energizer,” a cooperative activity requiring physical movement that can be used i n or outside of the classroom Climate and Culture Supports x Lions Quest emphasizes the importance of creating school - wide norms to create common language and expectations around social and emotional competencies. - x Core lesson themes should be used as a basis for monthly or bi wide activities, including service monthly school - learning projects and other events, though Lions Quest provides few guidelines or suggestions for doing so. x Lions Quest provides instructional strategies and checklists for creating a relationship - centered classroom, including strategies for setting up the physical environment, establishing a comfortable learning environment, introducing new skills and information, preparing students to practice and apply new skills/information, and managing discipline respectfully. x multicultural classroom, including creating a managing and engaging a The progra m also provides guidelines for climate of respect, incorporating all learning styles, using cooperative interactions, using diverse classroom materials, and encouraging family and commun ity involvement. - Applications to Out - School Time of x Lions Quest’s adolescent program for Grades 6 8 has been 5 program has adapt ed for OST settings, but the PreK - - not. Adapt ability to Local Context x Lions Quest is designed to be implemented as a universal program, which can be done in several ways: as a daily life skills course, during classroom meetings, or integrated into academic subject areas. It can also be used in small - group settings with students requiring more intense intervention in conj unction with a universal program. No guidance for x ing content or timing provided. adapt Professional Development and Training Lions Quest provides an initial workshop for school implementation teams consisting of the principal, staff teaching x the program, and parent and community representatives. The training covers effective youth development and prevention strategies, introduce s program materials, and guides implementation planning. Additional workshops are available for specific topics such as conflict management, peer mediation, service x - learning, school - community team building, and classroom management. are also available for schools already implementing program x Refresher workshops . 98

100 Support for Implementation x Lions Quest provides general guidelines for the implementation process including planning, evaluation, and school climate initiative such as how to set up a school improvement as well as general steps for developing a climate team, collect survey data, and construct an action plan. Tools to Assess Outcomes Program x Informal, formative teacher observations are conducted at the conclusion of each lesson , which i nclude watching behaviors reflective o f those covered in the lesson. and listening to children while they complete work to observe x also review each student's journal pages to assess their written understanding of lesson concepts. T eachers Tools to Assess Implementation x No information provided. Family Engagement x Lions Quest considers family engagement an integral part of its program and offers step - by - step instructions and resources for school staff to facilitate four parent meetings on the following topics: introducing the program, internet safety/bullying, posit ive prevention, and celebrating the family. home Family Connection worksheet designed to involve family members in practicing x E ach lesson includes a take - for feedback and reinforcing program content. Some lessons also instruct students to share their work with or ask from family members. x Family members can also participate as guests in various lessons throughout the curriculum. Community Engagement xecuting a x Each grade includes an entire unit focused on service learning, which guides students in planning and e self - determined service project that enables them to learn about and make a difference in their school or community. 99

101 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT ‰ Typical emphasis on all domains Skill Focus High use of discussion ‰ Instructional Methods ‰ Highest use of writing Extensive support for family engagement ‰ Program Components ‰ Extensive support for community engagement For more information about programs with common features, please see Summary Tables in Section 3 . Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 7 SKILL FOCUS a fairly typical emphasis on all domains relative to other programs to offer Lions Quest is one of only four programs (<15% below the cross-program mean for all domains). While it does not provide much emphasis on mindset (targeted in only 7% of program activities), this is fairly typical across programs. 7 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS Lions Quest has a high use of discussion (24% above the cross-program mean) and writing activities (38% above the mean) relative to other programs. Lions Quest has the highest use of writing activities of any program, and is one of only four programs to offer opportunities for writing in more than 10% of program activities, likely due to its inclusion of at least one journal activity per lesson. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Relative to other programs, unique aspects of Lions Quest include its extensive support for family and community engagement. While almost all programs (n=24 ; 96%), including Lions Quest, engage families through regular Family Engagement: updates or take-home activities, Lions Quest is one of only seven programs (28%) to also offer support for parent meetings that teach family members and guardians how to reinforce lesson concepts and skills at home. Community Engagement: Lions Quest has a strong service-learning component embedded in its core curriculum. Only seven programs (28%) offer any opportunity for community service, and Lions Quest is one of just three (12%), including Girls on the Run and WINGS, that incorporate a long-term project directly into the curriculum or program. For a detailed breakdown of how Lions Quest compares to other programs across all program component 37-38. categories, please see Table 3 on p. 7 For more information on how skill focus and instructional method comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. 100

102 VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information Lions Quest materials can be purchased by calling the number listed below, and cost information is available online at https://www.lions-quest.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Lions-Quest-Price-List.pdf . For more information about the program, please use the contact information provided below. Contact Information - quest.org/ Website: https://www.lions 2700 Phone: 1- 800- 446- [email protected] Email: 101

103 1 MINDUP ™ I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT M - 12 program that offers a framework and curriculum for social and emotional learning designed to indUP ™ is a PreK integrates social and emotional learning with concepts from be modeled by teachers in the classroom. The program the fields of neuroscience, mindful awareness, positive psychology to help students develop self - regulation, focus, and . MindUP offers a c urriculum published by S cholastic that is and sustained attention while reducing stress and anxiety divided into lessons for - 2 and Grades 3 - 5), middle school (Grades 6 - 8) , and high school (Grades primary grades (PreK implemented throughout the school year, with each - 9 The primary grade curriculum includes 15 lessons to be 12) . lesson taught over the course of 2 - 3 weeks. Les sons typically last 40 minutes and include a review, introduction, classroom practice, optional academic integration or life practice activities, and an asses sment. Lessons also include associated activities that range from short 5 - - week projects, and frequently incorporate minute assignments to multi short opportunities for reflection and journal writing. In addition, adults lead students in MindUP’s Core Practice, a practice mindfu l attention outside of lessons. listening and breathing exercise, three times a day to - specific online curriculum intended to provide teachers with a better understanding MindUP now also offers a grade of lesson concepts as well as mo re flexibility around how to present them to students. Each lesson includes additional reading materials and videos related to the lesson theme, and teachers are encouraged to contribute their own activities to the online portal. MindUP is a way of teachin g as much as it is something to teach, and the online platform has a particular focus on activities that are aligned with academic subject matter. Developed by the Hawn Foundation. 2, Grades 3 Grade Range Pre K - 12 with separate lessons for Pre K - - 5, G rades 6 - 8 , and Grades 9 - 12 Duration and long ; 3 weeks Year - - /lesson over the course of 2 40 min Timing of Focus Areas (mindful listening, seeing, smelling, tasting, touch, movement, and action) , Brain science, mindfulness (as stated by , perspective - taking, optimism, gratitude, and kindness focused awareness program) Additional - MindUP for middle school Curricula MindUp for high school - (not included in analysis) Evidence of One randomized control trial Effectiveness Emotional Interpersonal Mindset Character Cognitive Skills Regulation Processes Skill Focus 18% 28% 4% 44% 19% Instructional Most frequently uses discussion Methods control (highest) High emphasis on mindset and cognitive regulation , particularly attention - - , particularly conflict resolution and prosocial behavior Low emphasis on interpersonal skills High use of discussion Unique Features - and “other” activities (visualization techniques) Relative to Less intensive professional development and training - Other Programs - Builds adult s ocial - emotional competence - Opportunities for community service No tools to assess program outcomes - 1 Analysis was conducted using the Scholastic edition of MindUP. Therefore the results of our analysis may not reflect the content/focus of the online platform. 102

104 2 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS MindUP has been evaluated in one randomized control trial. Primary measures and assessments include behavioral assessments, child self-reports, and peer nominations. A second randomized control trial was conducted in 2011- 2012 for which analyses are currently underway. Results from the first trial are summarized below. Grades: 4 - 5 Geographic Location: Urban Race/Ethnicity: Diverse Free/Reduced Lunch: Approximated median annual income of Canada Gains in empathy, perspective taking, optimism, emotional control, school self-concept, Outcomes: mindfulness, and prosocial behavior Implementation Experiences: No information available. 2 Schonert-Reichl et al. (2015) References: 103

105 3 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 4 PROGRAM FOCUS MindUP activities most frequently focus on the cognitive domain (targeted in 44% of program activities), followed by emotional processes (28%), mindset (19%), and interpersonal skills (18%) . MindUP provides little to no focus on character (4%). Figure 1. Percentage of Program 4 Activities Targeting Each Domain Considerations Developmental For elementary school students, MindUP provides differentiated lessons for - 2 and 3 - 5. There are rades G K few notable differences in skill focus across grades. 5 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation As shown in Figure 2 to the right, the 44% of MindUP Activities Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by that build cognitive regulation most frequently focus on 5 Activities that Build Cognitive Regulation attention control (83% of the time) and predominantly consist 3% of mindfulness activities. For example, in a lesson on mindful Attention Control 5% listening, students focus on listening to a sound the teacher 9% it. makes and raise their hands when they can no longer hear Working Memory/Planning MindUP activities that build cognitive regulation rarely address Inhibitory Control other cognitive skills (<10% of the time). 83% Cognitive Flexibility 3 Data collected from Grades K-2 and 3-5. 4 A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not add up to 100%. 5 Proportions represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., attention control) relative to other skills in the same domain (e.g., inhibitory control, etc.). For example, if 44% of program activities target cognitive regulation, 83% of the time, those activities build attention control. 104

106 Emotional Processes As shown in Figure 3 to the right, the 28% of MindUP activities Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by that build emotional processes most frequently focus on 5 Activities that Build Emotional Processes emotion knowledge/expression (53% of the time), followed by empathy/perspective-taking (29%) and emotion/behavior Emotion Knowledge/ Expression . For example, students might be asked to regulation (18%) 29% make a happy face as they share what makes them feel that Emotion/Behavior way; brainstorm various situations that might result in different Regulation 53% outcomes based on the preferences, beliefs, or experiences of 18% Empathy/ those involved; or practice controlled breathing when they are Perspective-Taking feeling nervous, angry, or afraid. Interpersonal Skills As shown in Figure 4 to the right, the 18% of MindUP activities Figure 4. Frequency of Skills Targeted by that build interpersonal skills primarily focus on prosocial 5 Activities that Build Interpersonal Skills behavior (80% of the time), followed to a lesser extent by understanding social cues (20%). An example activity targeting Understanding prosocial behavior might include planning and performing a 20% Social Cues community service project in a lesson on mindful action. Conflict MindUP activities that build interpersonal skills rarely address Resolution conflict resolution (<1% of the time). Prosocial 80% Behavior 6 Character MindUP offers little to no focus on character (only targeted by 4% of program activities). 6 Mindset The 19% of MindUP activities that build mindset primarily focus on mindfulness and positive mindset by teaching students about keeping an open mind, being aware of and in touch with the present moment, and choosing to view circumstances with optimism and gratitude . Activities that build these skills might include drawing a picture of a time they were open-minded, practicing deep breathing while focusing on a single sound, writing about how a positive attitude helped them solve a recent problem, or creating a classroom gratitude tree that displays the names of people for whom they are grateful. 6 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapting our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are ≥ targeted by 10% of program activities. 105

107 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS The heat map in Figure 5 below provides a more detailed look at where and when MindUP addresses specific skills over the course of the school year, within and across different grades. The vertical progression of the map could be thought of as time, moving from one unit to the next and one grade to the next, with the shading representing degree of concentration in a particular skill at that rough point in time. The map can be used as a planning tool to help practitioners determine where MindUP programming might align with specific academic plans, scho ol-wide programming, and social and emotional learning standards throughout the year. (Please see p. 41 for specific examples.) Figure 5. Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Targeting Each Domain and Skill by Unit, Grade, and Program-wide Cognitive Regulation Emotional Processes Interpersonal Processes Character Mindset - Unit Taking Control Control Conflict Mindset Emotion Working Planning Grade Behavior Behavior Prosocial Cognitive Attention Flexibility Inhibitory Character Emotion / Memory / Empathy / Resolution Regulation Expression Social Cues Perspective Knowledge / Understands TIME 28 0 1 61 11 22 0 6 11 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 66 5 5 8 5 0 0 0 0 0 2 - 3 0 0 0 0 50 11 33 11 0 0 0 39 4 33 0 0 0 0 6 11 11 0 78 0 17 Grades K A1 39 3 7 2 21 8 9 4 0 15 0 16 16 A2 42 27 18 0 61 6 0 0 0 1 6 11 6 6 11 0 0 0 8 0 2 69 0 0 6 3 0 3 0 0 5 - 3 44 3 6 0 0 0 39 0 44 6 0 0 0 s (Developmental Progression) 4 11 5 0 0 37 11 21 5 0 74 37 37 Grade A1 43 2 2 1 19 5 13 3 0 15 8 21 A2 30 18 46 8 21 9 1 4 A1 41 3 4 2 20 7 11 4 0 15 Program - wide A2 44 28 18 4 1 9 Key Mindset Character Cognitive Interpersonal Emotional 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 0 100 Total % of program activities targeting each skill , etc. ) A1 = (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution = Total % of program activities targeting each domain (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, etc.) A2 106

108 7 PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION Figure 6. ercentage of Program Activities P 7 is As shown in Figure 6 to the right, MindUP Employing Each Teaching Method predominantly discussion-based (used in 83% of activities), followed to a lesser extent by “ other ” . activities such as mindful visualization techniques Each lesson typically begins with a discussion that introduces the lesson concept and concludes with a discussion that reviews and reinforces the skills es guided visualization learned. MindUP also includ activities to practice mindfulness. For example, students might be asked to practice mindful listening, seeing, and smelling by closing their eyes, picturing someone cooking a hamburger, and imagining what they hear, see, and smell. All other instructional methods occur in ≤10 % of program activities. 7 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the proportions of program activities employing each instructional method may not add up to 100%. 107

109 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons can be Practice , MindUP’s Core used to center students throughout the x a short listening and breathing exercise, school day, including at the beginning or end of the day, during transitions, while waiting in line, or in small pullout sessions. x Each lesson suggests additional books that can be linked with the lesson and offers a journal entry extension that provides an opportunity for writing and reflection. Lessons are also accompanied by highly - recommended academic integration lessons that incorporate lesson x concepts into other curricular areas, such as science, language arts, physical education, social studies, and the arts. Climate and Culture Supports x Each lesson contains a section on creating an optimistic classroom, which includes classroom management strategies, ways to support English Language Learners, and neuroscience-inspired instructional techniques. x No school-wide activities are provided. Applications to Out- of-School Time MindUP can be implemented during afterschool programs, with a particular focus on using the Core Practice in out- x of-school settings. Adaptability to Local Context MindUP should be implemented at regular intervals throughout the year; however, teachers may break up lessons x into parts and pace them as they see fit. x MindUP also provides tips for adapting lessons for English Language Learners and special education students. Professional Development and Training The Hawn Foundation offers an optional on - site training as well as customized trainings and workshops and an x online support system. x In addition, MindUP includes adult - focused activities that help school staff pract ice mindfulness and incorporate lesson con cepts into their everyday interactions with colleagues and students. Support for Implementation x Lessons are structured, but not scripted. x MindUP outlines potential implementation scenarios that include suggestions for when to use the Core Practice, how to break up the lessons, and how to pace the lessons throughout the year. Tools to Assess Program Outcomes x No information provided. Tools to Assess Implementation x MindUP offers a teacher evaluation kit to gauge student and teacher satisfaction. Family Engagement x MindUP offers a family workshop in which the 15 program lessons are adapted for the home environment. Community Engagement The final two lessons in each grade focus on performing acts of kindness and planning a community project outside x of the classroom. Support for project planning is provided, but teachers and students choose, plan, and execute the project together. Suggestions include interacting with senior citizens, writ ing thank-you cards to local police, hosting a clothing drive, or cleaning a local park. 108

110 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT High emphasis on mindset ‰ Skill Focus Moderately high emphasis on cognitive regulation ‰ ‰ Highest emphasis on attention control ‰ Low emphasis on interpersonal skills, particularly conflict resolution and prosocial behavior High use of discussions ‰ Instructional Methods Moderately high use of “other” activities (visualizations) ‰ ‰ Less intensive professional development and training Program Components ‰ Builds adult social-emotional competence Comprehensive supports for community engagement ‰ No tools to assess program outcomes ‰ For more information about programs with common features, please see Summary Tables in Section 3. Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 8 SKILL FOCUS Given its focus on mindfulness and positive mindset, MindUP provides a high emphasis on mindset relative to other programs (14% above the cross-program mean). It also offers a moderately high emphasis on cognitive regulation (19% above the mean), particularly attention control (31% above the mean). In fact, MindUP has the greatest focus on attention control of all 25 programs. MindUP provides a low emphasis on interpersonal skills relative to other programs (32% below the mean), particularly prosocial behavior (23% below the mean) and conflict resolution (13% below the mean). MindUP provides a typical emphasis on emotional processes (9% below the mean) and character (12% below the mean). 8 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS MindUP, along with Open Circle, employs the highest use of discussions relative to the other 25 programs (34% above program mean). MindUP also has a moderately high use of “other” activities (8% above the mean) the cross- due to its use of mindful visualization techniques. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Relative to other programs, unique aspects of MindUP include comprehensive supports for community engagement, opportunities to build adult social-emotional competence, and less intensive professional development and training. Community Engagement: Only seven programs (28%), including MindUP, provide structured activities for community engagement. While a majority of programs offer little to no support for engaging the community, MindUP includes regular opportunities to engage in short community service projects. 8 For more information on how skill focus and instructional method comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. 109

111 Adult Social-Emotional Competence: ; 76%) do not provide structured While a majority of programs (n=19 opportunities for adults to develop or reflect on their own social-emotional competence, MindUP is one of only six programs (24%) to offer explicit opportunities for adults to practice working on their own social and emotional skills. Professional Development and Training: All programs (n=25; 100%) provide some form of professional development l. and training; however, while most (n=17; 68%) require training, MindUP trainings are optiona tools for assessing program outcomes MindUP is also one of seven programs (28%) that do not provide . For a detailed breakdown of how MindUP compares to other programs across all program component categories, please see Table 3 on p. 37-38. VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information For more information on how to bring MindUP to your school or program, please visit https://mindup.org/ or use the contact information provided below. Contact Information Website: http://thehawnfoundation.org/ https://mindup.org/ http://learn.mindup.org/ Contact: Laurie Coots, CEO - Phone: Office: 305 - 424 1655 Mobile: 646 - 623 - 8233 Email: [email protected] 110

112 THE MUTT -I- GREES CURRICULUM I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT The Mutt-i-grees Curriculum is a PreK-12 program that combines social and emotional learning with humane education, building on children’s love of animals to promote social -emotional competence, academic achievement, and awareness of the needs of shelter pets. Mutt-i-grees ’ elementary school curriculum is grouped into two kits: 3 and Grades 4- 6, with separate lessons for students in PreK-K, Grades 1-3, Grades 4-5, and Grade 6. PreK-Grade Each grade range includes 25 scripted weekly lessons across 5 units designed to teach students about shelter dogs in ways that help them navigate interactions with both people and animals. Lessons last approximately 30 minutes and typically include an introduction, discussion, activity related to the lesson theme, and wrap-up. Family involvement, community outreach, and opportunities for service learning are built into the lessons. Each unit also includes Dog Dialog lessons that teach students about dog behavior in order to promote positive interactions with st animals. Developed by the Pet Savers Foundation and Yale University of the 21 Century with initial funding from the Cesar Millan Foundation. - K - 12 with separate lessons for Pre - K Pre K, Grades 1 - 3, Grades 4 - 5, and G rade 6 Grade Range Duration and /lesson 25 weeks; 1 lesson/week; 30 min Timing - Self taking, and - perspective awareness; emotion identification, expression, and management; empathy, Areas of Focus appreciation for diversity; cooperative and caring relationships; communication skills; and problem - (as stated by program) solving and decision - making The Mutt - i - grees Curriculum - for Grades 7 - 8 and 9 - 12 Additional extension kit - M utt - i - grees in the Library Curricula grees i physical fitness kit - - Paws Down, Tails Up with Mutt - (not included in analysis) Cats are Mutt i - grees 2 companion kit - - Evidence of study T wo internal studies, including randomized control trial and one non - experimental one Effectiveness Mindset Character Cognitive Interpersonal Emotional Skills Regulation Processes Skill Focus 10% 45% 6% 56% 10% Instructional Most freque ntly uses didactic instruction and discussion Methods is on understanding social cues emphas High - - Low emphasis on cognitive regulation Unique Features - High use of didactic instruction (highest) and art/creative projects Relative to OST adaptations provided - Structured Other Programs for community engagement Structured activities - - Less support for academic integration 111

113 1 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS The Mutt-i-grees Curriculum has been evaluated in two internal studies, including a 2-year randomized study and a non-experimental pilot study. There is also a pilot study underway to evaluate the impact of using a School Dog as part of the program. The primary measures and assessments used in these studies include student self-reports, teacher reports, and principal interviews. Results from the most recent studies are summarized below. PreK - 5 Grades: Urban, rural Geographic Location: Race/Ethnicity: No information provided. 70% of students qualified for free or reduced - price lunch Free/Reduced Lunch: Gains in empathy; prosocial behavior; social-emotional competence; positive feelings x about school and learning; and understanding of shelters, shelter pets, and dogs x Improved job satisfaction , relationships, and beliefs/behaviors that support social and emotional learning among teachers (including discussing/modeling emotions, encouraging Outcomes: students to identify feelings and notice social cues, and considering student feelings and how teacher feelings affect students) x Improved parent involvement in school x Overall reductions in disciplinary referrals and incidences of bullying; reductions in aggression among students with severe behavior problems x P articipating schools used Mutt - i - grees in mainstream and special education classrooms, afterschool programs, and as part of bullying prevention efforts x Of the teachers who participated: 84% implemented lessons at least once per week Implementation Experiences: (28% twic e a week); 74% customized lessons by adding materials, activities, or books, or by modifying the lesson script; 32% displayed Mutt - i - grees posters and materials in their classrooms; 32% used strategies from the curriculum when classroom conflicts arose; an d 68% discussed topics from the curriculum during other subjects . 1 References: Yale 21C. (n.d.) 112

114 2 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 3 PROGRAM FOCUS As shown in Figure 1 below, Mutt-i-grees primarily focuses on interpersonal skills and emotional processes (each , targeted by 45-56% of program activities). To a lesser extent, Mutt-i-grees also focuses on cognitive regulation character, and mindset (each targeted by ≤10% of program activities) . Figure 1. Percentage of Program 3 Domain Activities Targeting Each Considerations Developmental K, Mutt - grees provides separate lessons for PreK - i - . Notable 3, Grades 4 differences - - Grades 1 5, and G rade 6 across grades include a higher focus on cognitive regulation and emotional processes in PreK-K. 4 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation Mutt-i-grees offers little focus on cognitive regulation (only targeted in 10% of program activities). Emotional Processes Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by As shown in Figure 2 to the right, the 45% of Mutt-i-grees activities 4 Activities that Build Emotional Processes that build emotional processes most frequently focus on emotion knowledge/expression (44% of the time) and empathy/perspective Emotion Knowledge/ taking (38%), followed by emotion/behavior regulation (18%). For Expression example, students might make a mobile of emotion words, create a 38% Emotion/Behavior 44% guide to help people anticipate how dogs might feel in various Regulation situations, or perform a skit about acceptable vs. unacceptable ways to express a feeling. Empathy/ 18% Perspective-Taking 2 Data collected from Grades 1, 3, and 5. 3 A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not add up to 100%. 4 Proportions represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., empathy) relative to other skills in the same domain (e.g., emotion/behavior regulation, etc.). For example, if 45% of program activities build emotional processes, 38% of the time, those activities target empathy. 113

115 Interpersonal Skills grees As shown in Figure 3 to the right, the 56% of Mutt-i- Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by activities that build interpersonal skills most frequently focus on 4 Activities that Build Interpersonal Skills prosocial behavior (60% of the time), followed to a lesser extent by understanding social cues (35%). Mutt-i-grees activities that Understanding build interpersonal skills rarely addresses conflict resolution Social Cues (only 5% of the time ). 35% Conflict Resolution 60% Prosocial Behavior 5% 5 Character Mutt-i-grees offers little to no focus on character (only targeted in 10% of program activities). 5 Mindset Mutt-i-grees offers little to no focus on mindset (only targeted in 6% of program activities). 5 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapting our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are 10% of program activities. targeted by ≥ 114

116 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS The heat map in Figure 4 below provides a more detailed look at where and when Mutt-i-grees addresses specific skills over the course of 25 weeks, within and across different grades. The vertical progression of the map could be thought of as time, moving from one unit to the next and one grade to the next, with the shading representing degree of concentration in a particular skill at that rough point in time. The map can be used as a planning tool to help practitioners determine where Mutt-i-grees programming might align with specific academic plans, scho ol-wide programming, and social and emotional learning standards throughout the year. (Please see p. 41 for specific examples.) Figure 4. Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Targeting Each Domain and Skill by Unit, Grade, and Program-wide Interpersonal Emotional Processes Character Cognitive Regulation Mindset Processes - Unit Taking Control Control Conflict Mindset Emotion Working Planning Grade Behavior Behavior Prosocial Cognitive Flexibility Attention Inhibitory Character Emotion / Memory / Empathy / Regulation Resolution Expression Social Cues Perspective Knowledge / Understands TIME 1 0 0 0 8 0 0 8 0 0 38 25 21 0 0 0 0 96 46 2 33 29 0 4 0 4 0 12 3 0 0 0 0 38 0 54 38 17 25 K - 0 4 0 0 0 17 0 25 50 0 92 12 0 PreK 0 22 39 61 9 17 39 4 0 48 17 0 5 4 8 13 32 13 32 0 24 3 41 A1 5 13 A2 16 53 56 13 5 32 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 48 12 19 0 0 0 0 77 2 12 31 4 0 0 4 3 - 0 3 0 0 0 0 42 0 62 46 12 27 15 0 4 8 0 0 0 15 0 27 50 0 85 0 4 5 12 8 12 4 12 0 0 0 46 0 0 Grades 1 21 2 2 2 28 6 2 26 3 41 6 7 A1 A2 8 43 57 6 7 (Developmental Progression) 12 1 0 4 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 40 24 58 0 0 0 0 58 2 12 25 8 17 0 8 5 - 4 3 0 0 0 0 35 9 61 35 9 13 0 21 4 0 4 0 18 0 7 36 0 75 7 0 5 0 12 4 12 8 12 4 4 0 36 16 16 Grades 4 A1 2 3 2 2 24 15 19 20 3 38 10 7 A2 38 54 6 10 7 6 10 A1 1 3 4 6 28 11 24 23 3 40 - Program wide A2 10 45 56 10 6 Key Mindset Character Interpersonal Cognitive Emotional 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution , etc. = A1 Total % of program activities targeting each skill ) = Total % of program activities targeting each domain (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, etc.) A2 115

117 6 PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION Figure 5. P ercentage of Program Activities 6 Employing Each Teaching Method As shown in Figure 5 to the right, the most commonly used instructional method in Mutt-i-grees is didactic instruction (used in 50% of program activities), followed by discussion (39%). Didactic instruction is used to explain and review concepts and skills at the beginning and end of lessons, and most lessons contain a class discussion that helps students explore and expand on new ideas. These discussions are frequently interspersed with additional didactic instruction as teachers build upon student answers to further elaborate on lesson concepts. All other activity types appear in ≤10% of Mutt-i-grees activities. 6 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the proportions of program activities employing each instructional method may not add up to 100%. 116

118 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons x E ach core lesson includes a list of related readings/resources and provides an advanced activity that can be used to or build on lesson themes. supplement E very unit includes three extension lessons (15 total) that introduce students to more complex co ncepts and x activities related to the unit theme. x Mutt - i - grees also offers a supplementary Paws Down, Tails Up physical fitness kit , which can be used in conjunction with the core curriculum. The kit - themed warm ups, cool downs, and games designed to promote includes animal ide social - emotional competence . Activities can be used during Mutt - i - grees l essons and classroom fitness alongs r as behavior management tools throughout the day. transitions, o - Mutt - i grees also provides a x Club Activities packet that in cludes a series of service learning and community outreach lessons aligned with unit themes that core curriculum f or students in G rades 4 - 8. can be used to supplement the Climate and Culture Supports x The Mutt-i-grees website provides suggestions for ways in which teachers and students can use the program to enhance school climate, such as making bulletin boards or creating a program-inspired motto and using it to decorate posters, T-shirts, and buttons that can be shared with other students, staff, and families. x No school-wide activities provided. of-School Time Applications to Out- - Mutt - i - grees is designed to be used across a variety of out x of - school - time settings, including afterschool and mentoring programs. The program’s supplementary Paws Down, Tails Up kit in particular includes physical activities and games ideal for use in afterschool, YMCA, and summer programs. ublic libraries may purchase an x L ocal animal shelters and p grees in the Library - Animal Shelter Guide or a Mutt - i extension kit, which provide activity plans, service learning activities, crafts, stories, and books that shelter staff and based organizations and engage them y social librarians can use to connect with schools, families, and communit - in . and emotional learning and humane education to Local Context Adaptability in Lessons are scripted and a ll themes and lessons must be taught x order; however, teachers are not required to instead implement all activities included in each lesson . They are encouraged to use only those that best suit their teaching style and the developmental needs o f their students, and to treat lesson scripts as blueprints to be , customized as they see fit usi ng resources from the Mutt - i - grees website, such as bo ok lists, discussion topics shelter dog profiles, and more . x Mutt - i - grees can be used as a stand - alone program or in conjunction with other character education, life skills, service learning, bullying prevention, health education, pre - oring, or afterschool programs. school, ment x The curriculum can be used in mainstream, inclusion, or special education classrooms, and is designed to accommodate students who have autism as well as other behavioral and developmental differences. Schools may also purchase supple mental lessons for students with special needs. Professional Development and Training site staff development training x Mutt - i - gree s encourages administrators to submit an online request for an on - delivered by a team of experienced educators and Mutt - i - grees program staff. . x Mutt - i - grees also hosts optional conferences and training workshops throughout the country 117

119 Support for Implementation s - i - grees suggests that schools appoint a Mutt - i x gree Mutt coordinator or lead staff member to provide technical - assistance to teachers, suggest resources, arrange staff development trainings, and serve as a parent liaison. x Teachers also have access to a classroom implementation checklist as well as the Muttervi lle online community mplementation. where educators can engage in professional networking and share ideas, tips, and resources for i x Participants also receive the Mutt - i - grees Newsletter , which highlights the best practices of exemplary classrooms, schools , and communities. Tools to Assess Student Outcomes No information provided. x Tools to Assess Implementation x A classroom implementation checklist is available for teachers. Family Engagement x Each lesson includes a parent letter that provides an overview of the lesson topic as well as ways for parents to reinforce lesson concepts outside of school. x Many lessons also provide short, optional family involvement activities that allow students to share what they are learning in the classroom with their families and practice key social and emotional skills at home. Schools are encouraged to host informational sessions or presentations for parents before beginning the curriculum x and to invite parents to participate in lessons during the school day. Community Engagement x Schools are encouraged to collaborate with loc al shelters to incorporate dogs into lessons and provide students with opportunities for shelter - based c ommunity service. M any lessons include supplementary community involvement activities that introduce students to local resources x and agencies and help them explore what it means to have social responsibility and make a difference in their communities. x Supplementary Mutt - i - g rees Club Activities also provide opportunities for students to connect with their community through service learning and outreach projects . 118

120 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT ‰ Moderately high focus on understanding social cues Skill Focus ‰ Moderately low focus on cognitive regulation ‰ High use of didactic instruction Instructional Methods ‰ Moderately high use of art/creative projects Comprehensive OST adaptations ‰ Program Components ‰ Comprehensive support for community engagement ‰ No support for academic integration For more information about programs with common features, please see Summary Tables in Section 3 . Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 7 SKILL FOCUS Relative to other programs, Mutt-i-grees places a moderately low emphasis on cognitive regulation (15% below the cross-program mean). It provides a fairly typical focus on emotional processes (8% above the mean), character (6% below the mean), and mindset (1% above the mean). Although Mutt-i-grees focuses most frequently on interpersonal skills (targeted in 56% of program activities), it does so at a fairly typical rate relative to other programs (only 6% above the mean); however, it does provide a moderately high focus on understanding social cues (14% above the mean). 7 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS Mutt-i-grees has the highest use of didactic instruction of all 25 programs (40% above the cross-program mean); it is used in 50% of all Mutt-i-grees program activities, as teachers explain dog behaviors and elaborate on lesson concepts with students. It also offers a moderately high use of art and creative projects relative to other programs (5% above the mean). PROGRAM COMPONENTS of-school time (OST) adaptations and Relative to other programs, unique aspects of Mutt-i-grees include its out- comprehensive support for community engagement. While approximately half of all programs (n=14; 56%) are either designed to be applicable to – Applications to OST: or have been successfully adopted in – OST settings, Mutt-i-grees is one of only two programs (8%), along with Too Good for Violence, to offer separate, structured activities for OST contexts. Community Engagement: is one of only seven programs (28%) to offer highly structured opportunities Mutt-i-grees for students to connect with their community, including supplementary community involvement and service-learning activities. Mutt-i-grees also offers less support for academic integration than most other programs (n=19; 76%). For a detailed breakdown of how Mutt-i-grees compares to other programs across all program component categories, please see 37- 38. Table 3 on p. 7 For more information on how skill focus and instructional method comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. 119

121 VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information To learn how to bring Mutt-i-grees to your school, please complete the online form at http://education.muttigrees.org/contact , or use the contact information provided below. Contact Information Website: http://education.muttigrees.org/ 203 -432 -9944 or 515- 883 -7900, ext. 225 Phone: 120

122 OPEN CIRCLE I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT Open Circle is a K-5 program designed to develop social and emotional skills and build a school community in which -differentiated classroom curriculum consists students feel safe, cared for, and engaged in learning. Open Circle’s grade of 32 lessons to be delivered during twice-weekly Open Circle Meetings over the course of the year. Lessons last 15 minutes and typically include a review, introduction, and opportunity to practice and apply lesson concepts and skills . recommended children’s literature . Open Circle ’s w Lessons also include opportunities to incorporate hole -school approach is integral to the program, and all adults in the school community – from teachers and administrators to support staff and families – learn to model and reinforce prosocial skills throughout the school day and at home. Developed at Wellesley Centers for Women. Grade Range Grades K - 5 with separate lessons for each grade Duration and Year - long; 32 lessons with 2 lessons/week; 15 min/lesson Timing of Focus Areas Recognizing and managing emotions, empathy, positive relationships, and problem solving (as stated by program) Additional Curricula No additional or supplementary curricula available (not included in analysis) Evidence of - experimental study non One quasi - experimental study and one Effectiveness Mindset Cognitive Character Emotional Interpersonal Regulation Processes Skills Skill Focus 65% 2% 20% 1% 38% Instructional practice , skill Most frequently uses discussion, visual display s and Methods skills Unique Features High emphasis on interpersonal - Relative to - High use of discussion and visual displays Other Programs Extensive support for family engagement, including family workshops - 121

123 1 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS Open Circle has been evaluated in a quasi-experimental study and a non-experimental study. The primary measures and assessments used in these studies include student-, parent-, and teacher- reports. Results from the studies are summarized below. Grades: 4, 6 Urban, s uburban Geographic Location: European American, African American, Latino Race/Ethnicity: Free/Reduced Lunch: No information available . x Overall gains in social skills; gains in assertiveness and middle school adjustment among Outcomes: middle school girls; gains in self-control among middle school boys x Overall reductions in problem behaviors; reductions in fighting among middle school boys x Informally collected data revealed that both teachers and students came to view time spent in Open Circle as valuable. x Open Circle’s internal training evaluation forms, class observations, and school staff Implementation Experiences: surveys show that 80% or more of t eachers believe d that Open Circle improve d ed problem - solving skills, increase d empathy and cooperation, and improve d their teaching practice . 1 Hennessey (2007); Taylor, Liang, Tracy, Williams, & Seigle (2002). References: 122

124 2 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 3 PROGRAM FOCUS As shown in Figure 1 below, Open Circle focuses primarily on interpersonal skills (targeted by 65% of program activities). To a lesser extent, Open Circle focuses on emotional processes and cognitive regulation (38% and 20%, (each targeted by ≤2% of program activities) . respectively). Open Circle rarely targets character or mindset Figure 1. Percentage of Program 3 Activities Targeting Each Domain Developmental Considerations Open Circle lessons are differentiated by grade and provide a similar emphasis on domains across grades. 4 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation As shown in Figure 2 to the right, the 20% of Open Circle Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by 4 activities that build cognitive regulation primarily focus on Activities that Build Cognitive Regulation cognitive flexibility (47% of the time), followed by working memory/planning skills (41%) and, to a lesser, extent, attention Attention Control control (11%). For example, students might be asked to create a 11% by-step plan to solve a problem or to brainstorm creative step- Working Memory/Planning 47% solutions to interpersonal conflicts. Open Circle activities that Inhibitory Control build cognitive regulation rarely address inhibitory control (only 41% 1% of the time). Cognitive Flexibility 1% 2 Data collected from Grades 1, 3, and 5. 3 %. A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not add up to 100 4 Proportions represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., attention control) relative to other skills in the same domain (e.g., inhibitory control, etc.). For example, if 20% of program activities build cognitive regulation, 11% of the time, those activities target attention control. 123

125 Emotional Processes As shown in Figure 3 to the right, the 38% of Open Circle Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by activities that build emotional processes most commonly focus 4 Activities that Build Emotional Processes on emotion knowledge/expression (50% of the time), followed to a lesser extent by emotion/behavior regulation (33%) and Emotion Knowledge/ Expression empathy/perspective-taking (17%) . Activities that build emotion 17% knowledge/expression might incl ude using feelings flashcards to Emotion/Behavior 50% identify emotions or discussing how the body feels when it is Regulation calm. 33% Empathy/ Perspective-Taking Interpersonal Skills As shown in Figure 4 to the right, the 65% of Open Circle Figure 4. Frequency of Skills Targeted by activities that target interpersonal skills most frequently focus 4 Activities that Build Interpersonal Skills on prosocial behavior (59% of the time), followed to a lesser extent by conflict resolution (23%) and understanding social Understanding cues (18%). Activities that build prosocial behavior might include 18% Social Cues or working brainstorming ways to be inclusive of others Conflict cooperatively as a class to create the sounds of a rainstorm. Resolution 23% 59% Prosocial Behavior 5 Character Open Circle offers little to no focus on character (only targeted in 2% of program activities). 5 Mindset Open Circle offers little to no focus on mindset (only targeted in 1% of program activities). 5 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapt ing our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are 10% of program activities. targeted by ≥ 124

126 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS The heat map in Figure 5 below provides a more detailed look at where and when Open Circle addresses specific skills over the course of the year, within and across different grade ranges. The vertical progression of the map could be thought of as time, moving from one unit to the next and one grade to the next, with the shading representing degree of concentration in a particular skill at that rough point in time. The map can be used as a planning tool to help programming might align with specific academic plans, scho ol-wide practitioners determine where Open Circle 41 for specific programming, and social and emotional learning standards throughout the year. (Please see p. examples.) Figure 5. Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Targeting Each Domain and Skill by Unit, Grade, and Program-wide Emotional Processes Interpersonal Processes Cognitive Regulation Character Mindset - Unit Taking Control Control Conflict Mindset Working Emotion Planning Grade Behavior Behavior Prosocial Cognitive Flexibility Attention Inhibitory Character Emotion / Memory / Empathy / Regulation Resolution Expression Social Cues Perspective Knowledge / Understands TIME 1 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 71 0 0 24 2 9 0 0 0 61 39 4 30 0 4 0 0 25 3 0 0 0 19 19 0 31 0 69 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 33 0 0 22 100 33 0 Grade 1 5 0 12 3 30 27 24 12 12 52 15 0 0 A1 2 8 1 11 30 20 9 18 27 33 0 0 65 A2 18 43 0 0 1 0 12 0 12 0 0 0 6 0 81 6 0 2 0 5 0 0 55 40 10 35 0 10 0 15 3 0 0 0 0 35 12 6 6 0 88 0 0 0 4 0 12 0 21 35 16 16 9 40 53 5 Grade 3 0 0 0 0 50 0 0 50 0 0 0 0 5 A1 0 8 0 11 34 17 10 14 17 54 3 3 A2 16 40 73 3 3 (Developmental Progression) 1 7 7 0 14 0 0 0 0 0 79 0 0 50 22 6 0 0 39 2 33 28 0 17 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 27 13 0 7 0 87 0 10 4 0 0 0 24 0 0 14 43 71 10 0 Grade 5 3 37 0 27 10 20 3 0 0 10 0 0 5 A1 6 13 0 10 19 17 9 9 9 46 2 0 55 A2 24 33 2 0 1 A1 3 10 0 11 28 18 10 14 18 44 2 Program - wide A2 20 3 8 6 5 2 1 Key Mindset Character Emotional Cognitive Interpersonal 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 100 0 0 A1 , etc. (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution ) program activities targeting each skill of Total % = Total % of program activities targeting each A2 domain (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, etc.) = 125

127 6 PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION ercentage of Program Activities Figure 6. P 6 Employing Each Teaching Method Figure 6 to the right, the most commonly As shown in in Open Circle is discussion used instructional method (used in 83% of activities), followed by visual displays (39%) and skill practice (13%). Visual displays in Open Circle typically consist of mini-posters used to reinforce lesson concepts. For example, during a lesson that targets emotion/behavior regulation, a mini-poster might be used to recall the steps involved in abdominal breathing or to illustrate where the amygdala and prefrontal cortex are located. All other 5% of activities. instructional methods are used in ≤ 6 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the proportions of program activities employing each instructional method may not add up to 100%. 126

128 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons x E ways to incorporate optional extension activities, literature connections, and ach lesson includes suggestions for supplementary lessons. In total, Open Circle offers 27 supplementary lessons and 80 extension activities focused on communit y - building and mindfulness. x Open Circle also provides a list of 250 children’s books related to SEL topics such as self - awareness, self - management, social awareness, relationships, and problem solving. Climate and Culture Supports Open Circle provides facilitation and behavior management strategies that promote cultural sensitivity and help x students feel connected, capable, valued, and courageous, as well as tools and resources for using Open Circle to address bullying behavior and traumatic events. x Open Circle embraces a whole-school approach, providing teachers with recommendations and tools for infusing offer ing a manual for specialists and support staff that lesson concepts throughout the rest of the school day and ay. supports community-building and mindfulness activities throughout the school d x Open Circle also offers activities that can be used during regular staff meetings and professional development days to strengthen communication, collaboration, and trust among adults in the building. x No school-wide activities provided. of-School Time Applications to Out- adapt ations provided. x No OST Adapt ability to Local Context x Open Circle lessons are structured but not scripted. Teachers are encouraged to modify lessons to meet the needs of the group by bringing their own personalit y into x lesson and choosing cooperative l the earning structures and community - building activities that best meet the needs of their class. also x Open Circle offers its take - home materials in a variety of languages . Professional Development and Training x All classroom teachers are required to attend the Classroom Teacher training, which prepares them to implement the program during a single 3-day training and three hours of self-paced online training. The program also includes 24 hours of professional development over the course of the year and an optional graduate-level course available for an additional fee. x Additional suggested trainings include separate workshops for administrators and specialists/support staff, coach training that prepares Open Circle teachers to become certified peer coaches, a sustainability program to help the SEL Leadership Team grow and sustain a strong program, a parent engagement program that trains school staff to facilitate family engagement workshops, a train-the-trainer program, and a coach institute that provides peer coaches with best practices and research findings in the field of SEL. Most additional offerings include 1-4 training days and 2-6 follow-up coaching sessions. Support for Implementation Open Circle provides separate manuals for teachers, administrators, and specialist/support staff. x Open Circle also provides tools to establish an SEL Leadership Team and develop an annual sustainability plan, x including proven sustainability models, planning tools and resources, meeting agendas and activities, and 127

129 a ssessment and evaluation tools. x Schools also have the option to purchase sustainability trainings for their leadership team as well as train peer coaches to support classroom implementation. Larger districts have the opportunity to train district - wide trainers to ensure consistent and effective x implementation at the district level . Tools to Assess Program Outcomes x Open Circle provides multiple tools to evaluate students’ social and emotional skill development at the beginning assessments for and end of the year, including formal teacher - report assessments for all grades, forma l student self - . G - 5, and informal teacher reflections at the end of each unit for all grades rades 2 x Open Circle also provides a school climate survey for staff to rate school climate at the beginning and end of the year, or across multiple years. Tools to Assess Implementation x Open Circle provides a detailed checklist that teachers can use to reflect on their delivery of lessons, including frequency, duration, structure, and content . aspects of school - x Open Circle also provides a detailed checklist that school staff can use to reflect on e wid implementation, including their use such as modeling and use of vocabulary as well as of SEL teaching practices - staff meetings and hallway displays . larger aspects of a school wide approach to SEL including Open Circle also provides a detailed checklist for x teams to reflect on SEL leadership and school leaders and SEL monitor program roll - out and implementation . Family Engagement minute family x Schools can purchase Family Overview and Literature Connection kits that prepare them to lead 90 - engagement workshops and/or train parents and families on how to use children’s literature to reinforce social and emotional skills at homes. Open Circle al x through take - home activities and letters that introduce Open Circle skills, so engages families practices, and vocabulary for use at home . Community Engagement at during Open Circle x Teachers may choose to invite members of the school and local community to fill the open se Meetings . 128

130 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT Moderately high emphasis on interpersonal skills ‰ Skill Focus High use of discussion and visual displays ‰ Instructional Methods Extensive support for family engagement ‰ Program Components For more information about programs with common features, please see Summary Tables in Section 3 . Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 7 SKILL FOCUS Open Circle places a moderately high emphasis on interpersonal skills relative to other programs (15% above the cross-program mean) while offering a typical emphasis on cognitive regulation (5% below the mean) and emotional processes (1% above the mean) relative to other programs. It offers little focus on character or mindset, but this is fairly typical relative to other programs (both <15% below the mean). 7 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS While most programs use discussion more than any other instructional method, Open Circle, along with MindUP, has the highest rate of discussion across all programs (34% above the cross-program mean). Open Circle also uses visual displays in 39% of its activities, which is high compared to other programs (23% above the mean). PROGRAM COMPONENTS Relative to other programs, unique aspects of Open Circle include extensive support for family engagement. Family Engagement: While almost all programs (n=24 ; 96%), including Open Circle, engage families through regular updates or take-home activities, Open Circle is one of only seven (28%) to also offer support for family workshops that teach parents and guardians how to reinforce lesson concepts and skills at home. For a detailed breakdown of how Open Circle compares to other programs across all program component 37-38. categories, please see Table 3 on p. 7 For more information on how skill focus and instructional method comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. 129

131 VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information Schools, districts, and OST programs may request a quote for training and materials online at http://www.open- circle.org/materials/order-materials or contact Open Circle to discuss options using the information provided below. Contact Information - circle.org/ Website: http://www.open - Phone: 781 - 283 3277 Email: [email protected] 130

132 PATHS ® I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT 1 The PATHS® program is a PreK -6 curriculum designed to reduce aggression and behavior problems by promoting the development of social-emotional competence. The program provides grade-differentiated materials through Grade 4 5 or across Gra 53 core and a single set of lessons that can be delivered in Grade des 5 and 6. The program includes 36- lessons across 6-11 units, depending on grade level. The fully-scripted lessons require approximately 30 minutes and are delivered once or twice per week over the course of the school year. Lessons typically include an introduction or . The review, discussion and/or activity, and a wrap up. Optional lessons and supplementary activities are also provided PATHS program also includes send-home materials for parents/guardians designed to promote consistent use of PATHS concepts and skills at home. Developed by Mark T. Greenberg, Ph.D. and Carol A. Kusché, Ph.D. Preschool/Kindergarten module also developed by Celene E. Domitrovich, Ph.D. and Rebecca C. Cortes, Ph.D. Grade 1- 5/6 modules also developed by Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. Distributed exclusively by Channing Bete Company. and a sin K - 6 with separate lessons for each grade through Gra de 4 Grade Range Pre gle s et of lessons for Grades 5/ 6 Duration and /lesson 36 - 53 lessons; 1 - 2 l essons/week; at least 30 min Timing problem esteem, relationships, and interpersonal - - control, emotional understanding, positive self - Self Areas of Focus skills; Grades 5/ solving 6 materials also include lessons on goal setting, organizational and study skills, (as stated by program) friendship, and empathy Additional Curricula supplementary curricula available No additional or (not included in analysis) Evidence of Multiple randomized experimental studies - control trials and quasi - Effectiveness Interpersonal Emotional Mindset Character Cognitive Regulation Skills Processes Skill Focus 12% 30% 2% 59% 75% Instructional play, skill practice, and SEL - Most frequently uses discussion, visual display s , book s/stories , role Methods s /handout s tool High focus on emotional processes, particularly emotion knowledge/expression and emotion - behavior/regulation - High focus on conflict resolution Unique Features - Wider v ariety of instructional methods - visual disp lays, and books/stories High use of discussion, - Less intensive family engagement 1 “PATHS” is a registered trademark of the Channing Bete Company, Inc. 131

133 2 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS PATHS has been evaluated in several clustered randomized trials, randomized trials, and quasi-experimental studies. The primary measures and assessments used in these studies include teacher reports, student reports, checklists, and questionnaires. Results from four of the most recent studies are summarized here. Grades: 1 5 - Geographic Location: Diverse Diverse Race/Ethnicity: Free/Reduced Lunch: 43% or not otherwise stated x Gains in inhibitory control, verbal fluency, acceptance of authority, cognitive concentration, and social competence Outcomes: x problem - solving, hostile attribution Reductions in conduct problems, aggressive social bias, aggressive interpersonal negotiation strategies, externalizing behaviors, internalizing behaviors, and peer perceptions of aggression and hyperactivity x In one study, teachers thought PATHS fit well with the school and brought structure and focus to existing programs Implementation Experiences: x Some teachers felt that the curriculum involved a lot of sitting and listening for some students and indicated a desire for resources to help make lessons new and interesting 2 References: Bierman et al. (2010); Crean & Johnson (2013); Curtis & Norgate (2007); Riggs, Greenberg, Kusché, & Pentz (2006). 132

134 3 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 4 PROGRAM FOCUS As shown in Figure 1 below, PATHS primarily focuses on the emotional processes (targeted by 75% of program activities), followed by interpersonal skills (59%) and cognitive regulation (30%). PATHS rarely targets character or mindset (≤12% each). Figure 1. Percentage of Program 4 Activities Targeting Each Domain Developmental Considerations grade PATHS provides - differentiated 4 lessons for PreK - Notable and a single set of lessons for Grades 5 and 6 . differences across grades include a decreased focus on focus the cognitive domain in Grade 1 and an increased on character in Grade 3. 5 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation of PATHS activities As shown in Figure 2 to the right, the 30% Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by 5 that build cognitive regulation most commonly focus on working Activities that Build Cognitive Regulation memory/planning skills (46% of the time), followed to a lesser %) and attention control (19%) extent by cognitive flexibility (35 . Attention Control Activities that build these skills might include developing a plan 19% Working Memory/Planning to complete and turn in homework on time, coming up with as 35% to solve an interpersonal many different ways as possible Inhibitory Control problem, or practicing good listening skills with a partner. PATHS 46% activities that build cognitive regulation rarely target inhibitory Cognitive Flexibility control (<1% of the time). 3 Data collected from Grades 1, 3, and 5. 4 A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not add up to 100%. 5 Proportions represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., attention control) relative to other skills in the same domain (e.g., inhibitory control, etc.). For example, if 30% of program activities build cognitive regulation, 19% of the time, those activities target attention control. 133

135 Emotional Processes As shown in Figure 3 to the right, the 75% of PATHS activities Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by that build emotional processes most frequently focus on 5 Activities that Build Emotional Processes emotion knowledge/expression (48% of the time), followed by emotion/behavior regulation (32%) and empathy/perspective- Emotion Knowledge/ Expression taking (20%) . For example, students might use a Feelings Face 20% poster to point out and describe how they are feeling, practice Emotion/Behavior 48% deep breathing techniques to calm down, or brainstorm ways Regulation that other people would like to be treated. 32% Empathy/ Perspective-Taking Interpersonal Skills As shown in Figure 4 to the right, the 59% of PATHS activities Figure 4. Frequency of Skills Targeted by that build interpersonal skills most frequently focus on prosocial 5 Activities that Build Interpersonal Skills behavior (50% of the time), followed by conflict resolution (30%) and understanding social cues (20%). For example, Understanding students might be asked to role-play politely reminding a friend 20% Social Cues to follow classroom rules, to read and discuss a story in which a Conflict body language shows how they are feeling, or to characters ’ 50% Resolution differentiate between examples of gossip and public 30% Prosocial information . Behavior 6 Character The 12% of PATHS activities that build character primarily focus on being respectful, responsible, and caring. This includes learning about the importance of being polite, treating others as you would want to be treated, being considerate of differences, taking responsibility for your behavior, and working to make the world a better place. Activities that build these skills might include practicing good manners, reading and discussing a story about a boy who is afraid to be different, or completing a community service project at school. 6 Mindset PATHS offers little to no focus on mindset (only targeted in 2% of program activities). 6 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapting our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are 10% of program activities. ≥ targeted by 134

136 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS The heat map in Figure 5 below provides a more detailed look at where and when PATHS addresses specific skills over the course of the school year, within and across different grade ranges. The vertical progression of the map could be thought of as time, moving from one unit to the next and one grade to the next, with the shading representing degree of concentration in a particular skill at that rough point in time. The map can be used as a planning tool to help practitioners determine where PATHS programming might align with specific academic plans, school-wide programming, and social and emotional learning standards throughout the year. (Please see p. 41 for specific examples.) Figure 5. Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Targeting Each Domain and Skill by Unit, Grade, and Program-wide Mindset Emotional Processes Interpersonal Processes Cognitive Regulation Character - Unit Taking Control Control Conflict Mindset Working Emotion Planning Grade Behavior Behavior Prosocial Cognitive Flexibility Attention Inhibitory Character Emotion / Memory / Empathy / Regulation Resolution Expression Social Cues Perspective Knowledge / Understands TIME 12 0 0 12 1 25 0 0 0 0 88 0 0 2 33 0 0 25 25 0 17 8 0 92 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 75 92 25 8 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 100 0 42 50 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 20 100 60 60 80 0 20 0 0 6 0 30 0 0 60 100 0 10 10 0 0 0 0 0 7 12 62 50 38 0 50 0 75 38 0 0 0 0 0 100 30 0 40 10 0 0 0 8 Grade 1 9 10 0 0 60 30 10 40 10 70 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 20 100 20 20 20 40 10 10 0 11 0 50 0 0 100 100 0 0 100 0 0 0 A1 4 5 0 8 71 38 20 27 9 33 4 0 4 81 62 0 A2 17 54 0 0 0 46 38 23 23 8 1 77 31 0 2 0 8 0 8 67 83 50 0 50 67 0 0 0 3 0 12 0 6 100 53 29 12 18 47 12 0 0 4 0 23 8 46 46 38 8 31 100 31 5 0 0 0 11 44 22 67 11 44 78 89 0 6 12 47 0 12 47 53 53 12 29 24 6 24 7 12 75 0 75 62 50 50 0 38 38 0 25 Grade 3 (Developmental Progression) 8 0 0 0 20 40 20 20 0 0 60 100 20 67 0 33 33 67 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 33 11 23 0 14 59 49 40 9 27 A1 25 7 58 A2 39 74 66 25 7 13 20 0 1 13 40 73 0 0 40 33 0 0 100 2 0 0 0 0 0 50 0 0 0 0 0 3 15 77 0 8 15 8 0 0 8 15 15 0 4 0 0 0 27 36 55 9 0 45 55 18 0 5 0 0 0 25 50 0 8 8 92 0 8 0 Grade 5 6 0 0 0 0 100 20 30 50 30 10 0 0 20 A1 19 0 13 52 35 10 9 38 3 7 0 A2 33 70 7 0 49 2 12 A1 6 16 0 12 61 41 2 4 15 25 37 Program - wide A2 30 75 59 12 2 Key Mindset Character Interpersonal Emotional Cognitive 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 , etc. ) = A1 Total % of program activities targeting each skill (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution = Total % of program activities targeting each domain (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, etc.) A2 135

137 7 PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION P Figure 6. ercentage of Program Activities 7 Employing Each Teaching Method As shown in Figure 6 to the right, discussion is the most common instructional method used in PATHS (used in 74% of activities), followed by visual displays (35%), book/story (14%), role-play (13%), skill practice (11%) and SEL tool/handout (11%). Discussions typically follow a similar format in each grade, beginning with a short introduction, followed by a teacher-guided class conversation. All other instruction al methods occur in less than 10% of program activities. 7 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the proportions of program activities employing each instructional method may not add up to 100%. 136

138 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons x Every core lesson includes a suggested follow - up activity or discussion, which ranges from structured activities with supplemental activities may accompanying worksheets to suggested discussion topics. Some be used to connect also core lessons to other are as of the curriculum, such as a Language Arts activity that includes poetry and writing about feelings. 3 also include supplementary book lists, and the x Many lessons in G rades 1 - G rades 5 - 6 curriculum offers a chapter - our books over the course of 23 lessons. - chapter novel study guide covering f by x that can be used as needed as issues arise PATHS provides additional lessons that target specific interpersonal issues uggests nts can submit up a classroom Problem Box where stude throughout the year, and also s that teachers set concerns or conflicts to be addressed during class problem solving meetings. - Climate and Culture Supports Teachers, principals, and school support staff are encouraged to identify teachable moments outside of the x should participate i n reinforcing PATHS strategies throughout the building, particularly the program’s classroom and "stop and think" skills. x PATHS also offers a Counselor's Package for support staff, which includes grade-differentiated lessons as well as a manual focused on building school-wide awareness of PATHS. Applications to Out - of - School Time x No OST adaptations provided. Adaptability to Local Context Teacher scripts are important to the lessons; however, modifications are encouraged based on individual teaching x style, unique classroom situations or diverse learning population s . , x Time spent on lessons is flexible to the needs of students. x While lessons should be taught in sequence, PATHS emphasizes that teachers should be aware of teachable moments and may brin g up past lessons, or even teach future lessons earlier, if relevant . Professional Development and Training x It is recommended that teachers implementing PATHS participate in an informal spring training prior to implementation, followed by an intensive two - day curriculum workshop before the beginning of the school year. x Certified PATHS trainers are available to provide on - site workshops and consultation at an additional cost . Support for Implementation Lessons are scripted and teacher modeling is embedded in the script. Classroom posters also provide specific x instructions for modeling . strategies new PATHS provides suggestions for effectively preparing for lessons, helping x students adopt new skills, reinforcing less on concepts throughout the day, responding to challenging student behaviors, and communicating with students when they are upset. staff member wit x PATHS als o suggests designating a h a strong background in social and emotional development and experience teaching the program as "curricul um consultant" or coach . The coach’s role i s to support and encourage . fellow teachers as well as model proper implementation 137

139 Tools to Assess Program Outcomes x Teachers assess students' behavior at the beginning and end of the year using a four - page evaluation that rates students on 30 specific behaviors in three areas: aggression/disruptive behavior; concentration/ attention; and social emotional competence . - Tools to Assess Implementation x No information provided. Family Engagement x Parent/caregiver handouts accompany specific lessons throughout the program. These handouts summarize what students are learning and suggest ways parents can reinforce themes at home . Community Engagement x No information provided. 138

140 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT High emphasis on emotional processes, particularly emotion ‰ Skill Focus knowledge/expression and emotion behavior/regulation ‰ Moderately high focus on conflict resolution ‰ Wider variety of instructional methods Instructional Methods ‰ High use of discussion and visual displays ‰ Moderately high use of books/stories ‰ Less intensive family engagement Program Components . Summary Tables in Section 3 For more information about programs with common features, please see Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 8 SKILL FOCUS PATHS places a high emphasis on emotional processes relative to other programs (38% above the cross-program mean), particularly emotion knowledge/expression (38% above the mean) and emotion/behavior regulation (26% a above the mean). And while PATHS provides a typical focus on interpersonal skills (9% above the mean), it offers moderately high focus on conflict resolution relative to other programs (12% above the mean). PATHS also provides a typical focus on cognitive regulation (5% above the mean), character (4% below the mean), and mindset (3% below the mean). 8 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS PATHS provides a high use of discussion (25% above the cross-program mean) and visual displays (19% above the mean), as well as a moderately high use of books and stories (10% above the mean). PATHS also offers a slightly greater variety of instructional methods than most other programs (6 methods occur in ≥10% of program activities, while most programs have fewer than 4). PROGRAM COMPONENTS Relative to other programs, unique aspects of PATHS include less intensive opportunities for family engagement. Family Engagement: Most programs (n=22 ; 88%) provide take-home activities for students to complete with parents or guardians; however, PATHS is one of two programs (8%) to instead engage parents primarily through informational updates. PATHS updates suggest ways for parents and guardians to reinforce skills at home, but do es not provide structured activities for doing so. For a detailed breakdown of how PATHS compares to other programs in other categories, please see Table 3 on p. 37- 38. 8 For more information on how skill focus and instructional method comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. 139

141 VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information PATHS program materials may be purchased from Channing Bete Company at http://www.channing-bete.com/paths . For more information about the program, please contact Channing Bete using the contact information provided below. Contact Information Website: bete.com/paths http://www.channing - Phone: 1- 877- 896-8532 [email protected] Email: 140

142 POSITIVE ACTION I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT - actions, and feelings to promote Positive Action is a PreK 12 program that emphasizes the link between thoughts, positive self and emotional learning. The program is based on the - concept alongside character development and social philosophy that students feel good about themselves when they do positive actions to promote an intrinsic interest in Positive Action kits for Grades K - 5 include 140 script ed lessons across 6 units learning and becoming a better person. to be delivered 4 times a week over the course of 35 weeks. Lessons last approximately 15 minutes and vary in structure and activity offerings based on content but may include discussion - based activities as well as original stories, , worksheets, and more. Developed by Positive Action , Inc . poems, games, Grade Range Pre K - 12 with separate lessons for each grade through Grade 8, and 4 themed kits for Grades 9 - 12 Duration and 35 weeks; 4 lessons/week; 15 min/lesson Timing of Focus Areas Self - concept, personal responsibility for your body and mind, managing yourself responsibly, getting by (as stated improvement along with others, self - honesty, and continual self - program) 8 - and Grades 6 - Grade - specific kits for Pre - K Additional Curricula - - 4 12 Grades 9 High School kits for (not included in Drug Education, Bullying Preve ntion, and Conflict Resolution k its - analysis) Evidence of Three randomized control trials Effectiveness Cognitive Emotional Mindset Interpersonal Character Skills Regulation Processes Skill Focus 43% 32% 57% 33% 10% Instructional Most frequently uses discussion, visual displays, SEL tool s /handout s , didactic instruction, and books/stories Methods , particularly emotion/behavior regulation processes emotional character, mindset, and - High focus on - Low focus on cognitive regulation and interpersonal skills Unique Features - High use of SEL tools/handouts and books/stories Relative to S - upport for building adult social - emotional competence Other Programs - Ext ensive support for family engagement, including family workshops Includes structured activities for community engagement - 141

143 1 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS Positive Action has been evaluated in three randomized control trials. The primary measures and assessments used in these studies include student self-reports, parent and teacher reports, school-level data, and state standardized test scores. Results from the 10 most recent papers using data from the randomized control trials are summarized here. 1 - 8 Grades: Geographic Location: Urban, suburban, rural Race/Ethnicity: Diverse Free/Reduced Lunch: 25 - 75% life Gains in academic performance, positive behavior, motivation, positive affect, and x satisfaction x Reductions in substance abuse, violence-related and bullying behavior, sexual activity, Outcomes: depression, anxiety, absenteeism, aggressive behaviors, disruptive behaviors, and school suspensions x Improved school quality Multiple studies found that fidelity of implementation, while adequate, could have x 47% of been greater in most schools. For example, one study showed that only participating schools delivered Positive Action assemblies . x In some cases, teachers did not feel they had the time to implement the program at meet other academic expected levels due to the amount of pressure placed on them to Implementation Experiences: standards. x Findings on the re quired dosage varied, with one study reporting that a smaller dosage led to smaller outcomes, while another found that behavior effects among students within the same school did not differ signi ficantly by degree of exposure. x Fidelity tend ed to improve over time. 1 Bavarian et al. (2013); Beets et al. (2009); Lewis et al. (2012); Lewis, DuBois, et al. (2013); Lewis, Schure, et al. (2013); Li et al. (2011); Snyder et al. References: (2010); Snyder et al. (2012); Snyder et al. (2013); Washburn et al. (2011). 142

144 2 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 3 PROGRAM FOCUS As shown in Figure 1 below, Positive Action most frequently focuses on emotional processes (targeted in 57% of program activities), followed by mindset (43%) and to a lesser extent, interpersonal skills (33%) and character (32%). Only a small percentage of Positive Action activities target cognitive regulation (10%). Figure 1. Percentage of Program 3 Activities Targeting Each Domain iderations Cons Developmental Positive Action provides separate lessons for each grade. Notable differences across grades include a greater focus on emotional processes and mindset in Grade 1 and a greater focus on character and cognitive skills in Grades 3 and 5. 4 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation Positive Action activities rarely provide an explicit focus on cognitive regulation (only targeted in 10% of program ). activities Emotional Processes Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by As shown in Figure 2 to the right, the 57% of Positive Action 4 Activities that Build Emotional Processes activities that target emotional proceses most commonly focus on emotion knowledge/expression (42% of the time), followed by Emotion Knowledge/ %) and empathy/perspective- emotion/behavior regulation (36 Expression 22% taking (22%). For example, students might be asked to identify 42% Emotion/Behavior and describe how characters in a story feel or to brainstorm Regulation positive ways to manage fear. Empathy/ 36% Perspective-Taking 2 Data collected from Grades 1, 3, and 5 of the standard curriculum. 3 A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not add up to 100%. 4 Proportions represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., empathy) relative to other skills in the same domain (e.g., emotion/behavior regulation, etc.). For example, if 57% of program activities build emotional processes, 22% of the time, those activities target empathy. 143

145 Interpersonal Skills As shown in Figure 3 to the right, the 33% of Positive Action Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by activities that build interpersonal skills most frequently focus on 4 Activities that Build Interpersonal Skills prosocial behavior (90% of the time). For example, students 4% 6% might be asked to role-play a scenario in which they offer words Understanding of encouragement to classmates or to write a poem about what Social Cues makes a good friend. Positive Action activities that build Conflict interpersonal skills rarely address conflict resolution or Resolution 6% of the time). understanding social cues ( ≤ 90% Prosocial Behavior 5 Character The 32% of Positive Action activities that build character primarily focus on getting along with others, being honest with yourself and others, and taking responsibility for yourself and your actions. Activities that build these skills might include creating and following a classroom code of conduct that emphasizes values such as kindness, fairness, honesty, respect, and more; reading and discussing a story about a boy who made up excuses rather than admitting his mistakes; or acting out the responsible thing to do in various situations. Values covered in Positive Action include: respect, love, fairness, compassion, courtesy, patience, kindness, honesty, integrity, responsibility, forgiveness, and courage. 5 Mindset The 43% of Positive Action activities that build mindset primarily focus on understanding the connection between thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and building a positive self-concept. One of Positive Action’s primary goals is to teach students that they will feel good about themselves when they engage in positive behavior, and the program uses a visual representation of this philosophy, the Thoughts-Actions-Feelings Circle, to help students understand how their thoughts, behaviors, and feelings influence one another. Activities that build this understanding might include acting out how to respond to a situation in ways that will make them feel good about themselves, reading a story about a boy who chose negative thoughts over positive ones and discussing how it affected his day, or working in pairs to determine the different actions and feelings that might stem from a positive versus a negative thought. 5 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapting our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are targeted by ≥ 10% of program activities. 144

146 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS The heat map in Figure 4 below provides a more detailed look at where and when Positive Action addresses specific skills over the course of the school year, within and across different grades. The vertical progression of the map could be thought of as time, moving from one unit to the next and one grade to the next, with the shading representing degree of concentration in a particular skill at that rough point in time. The map can be used as a planning tool to help programming might align with specific academic plans, scho practitioners determine where Positive Action ol-wide programming, and social and emotional learning standards throughout the year. (Please see p. 41 for specific examples.) Figure 4. Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Targeting Each Domain and Skill by Unit, Grade, and Program-wide Cognitive Regulation Emotional Processes Interpersonal Processes Character Mindset - Unit Taking Control Control Conflict Mindset Working Emotion Planning Grade Behavior Behavior Prosocial Cognitive Flexibility Attention Inhibitory Character Emotion / Memory / Empathy / Expression Regulation Resolution Social Cues Perspective Knowledge / Understands 1 1 0 0 4 68 64 25 0 0 29 1 65 2 0 0 0 12 49 61 23 0 0 0 0 91 3 0 0 0 7 58 65 20 0 0 24 0 91 4 0 0 0 0 54 10 51 7 7 98 42 14 32 5 0 0 0 5 77 12 40 0 9 77 65 Grade 1 6 0 0 0 0 51 78 27 0 7 31 17 90 7 0 0 0 0 54 46 14 0 7 32 29 64 41 A1 0 0 0 4 59 49 29 1 4 20 65 43 A2 5 79 20 65 31 1 4 4 0 0 84 20 0 2 4 39 12 0 2 10 0 4 10 14 0 2 0 0 22 57 3 0 9 0 0 43 49 12 1 3 26 41 25 4 0 0 0 0 23 0 32 5 0 93 32 16 17 5 0 0 0 2 21 2 6 0 4 85 6 Grade 3 6 0 28 0 0 17 8 11 0 0 3 47 61 0 21 0 0 7 7 21 0 0 21 36 36 7 2 1 8 0 1 25 18 10 2 29 39 40 A1 9 37 30 39 40 A2 1 0 6 0 25 56 67 28 8 0 8 8 3 2 0 10 0 12 40 75 12 0 2 12 10 20 3 0 6 0 0 48 44 10 2 2 22 38 43 4 0 0 0 0 19 15 54 0 4 88 23 15 15 5 0 0 2 22 13 0 0 0 11 96 22 Grade 5 40 0 8 2 2 6 6 0 0 2 28 32 0 50 7 50 0 0 50 50 0 0 0 50 50 50 A1 0 11 0 7 31 34 20 1 1 25 35 25 A2 57 27 16 35 25 43 2 3 A1 0 6 0 4 38 34 20 1 2 32 Program - wide A2 10 5 7 3 3 3 2 43 Key Minds et Character Interpersonal Cognitive Emotiona l 0 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 100 Total % of program activities targeting each skill (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution , etc. ) = A1 = Total % of program activities targeting each domain (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, etc.) A2 145

147 6 PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION P Figure 5. ercentage of Program Activities 6 Employing Each Teaching Method As shown in Figure 5 to the right, the most common instructional method used in Positive Action is discussion (used in 52% of activities). To a lesser extent, Positive Action also utilizes visual displays (18%), SEL tools/handouts (17%), didactic instruction (16%), and books/stories (11%). For example, a discussion is used to introduce or debrief most lesson activities, and many lessons also make use of classroom posters or a Thoughts-Actions-Feelings circle to provide a visual reminder of lesson concepts or strategies. 6 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the proportions of program activities employing each instructional method may not add up to 100%. 146

148 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons x M any lessons include supplementary enrichment activities that extend the lesson and can be used at any time during the school day. x A supplementary Conflict Resolution Kit teaches students how to use a conflict resolution plan to resolve conflicts and offe rs lessons and scenarios during which to practice using the plan. x A supplementary Drug Education Kit offers 18 additional lessons on the effects of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs and - free living as they relate to each of the Positive Ac tion unit concepts. the importance of drug x A supplementary Bullying Prevention Kit offers 21 lessons on using positive actions to prevent bullying behaviors. The kit is designed to stand alone; however, it is recommended that lessons be taught at the end of each unit of the lar classroom curriculum. regu Climate and Culture Supports x A supplementary Climate Development Kit provides tools for administrators, program coordinators, and support staff to implement school- climate development activities such as assemblies, words of the week, bulletin wide boards, and recognition/reward programs. x Positive Action also offers whole-school reform services to low-performing schools through the federal School Improvement Grant program. Positive Action’s f ederally-approved Whole-School Reform Model employs a more intensive implementation plan to improve school achievement scores by impacting a school’s entire eco -system. Positive Action offers two reform plans that vary in scope and match funding availability. More information can be reform . found online at https://www.positiveaction.net/services/whole-school- of - School Time Applications to Out - x Positive Action is designed to be flexible for use in afterschoo l settings and is currently being used in Boys & Girls Club afterschool programs across the country . Program Adaptability x Positive Action can be customized to meet the social and emotional learning needs of individual schools and aligns well with existing Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports (PBIS) and Response to Intervention (RTI) systems. While the program is intended for school-wide implementation, it is possible to phase the program in over time x beginning with classroom kits for lower grades. x Lessons are designed to be taught in sequence, but may be delivered out of order as needed to help students cope with a particular problem. It is not necessary to deliver lessons every day to achieve lasting results. x Lessons can be delivered by a variety of school staff, and facilitators are encouraged to adapt lessons to individual classrooms using a localization guide available on the Positive Action website. so available for use with individuals, small groups, or classes that require x A suppleme ntary Counselor’s Kit is al intensive assistance and support. The kit includes lessons to address specific issues such as violence, substance abuse, anger management, social skills, community service, and more. x Lessons are also available in Spanish. 147

149 Professional Development and Training 12 curriculum, supplementary lessons, climate x orientation training that covers the PreK - Positive Action offers an district - development, and family and community programs. The training is optional but recommended for larger, offered in two formats that di ffer in flexibility and cost: a live online webinar or an on - wide implementations. It is site orientation. Schools may also purchase an additional Ongoing Training Kit and/or on site professional development that focus x - either on building social and emotional skills among school staff or on preparing them to improve sp ecific aspects of of the program . their implementation Support for Implementation x Lessons are scripted. x The Positive Action website provides a broad list of best practices to follow during each stage of implementation, including planning, preparation, delivery, and assessment. Tools to Assess Program Outcomes Each unit concludes with an evaluation lesson that enables the teacher to assess student comprehension through a x about class discussion . questions related to the unit themes Tools to Assess Implementation of x Tools to assess implementation are available online, including beginning - year surveys for students and - - and end teachers . Family Engagement x Positive Action’s core curriculum engages families in multiple ways, including introduction letters, updates via report - teacher conferences, and periodic take - home exercises. cards and parent x A supplementary Family Kit offers 42 lessons that can be completed with children at h ome, which correspond with classroom lessons and encourage positive actions at home. also Family Classes Kits x Supplementary Parenting and available to support school staff in teaching families how are to lead their families effectively, use the Family Kit , and engage their child in positive actions at home . The kits contain planning and facilitation materials for seven classes. Community Engagement E ach year concludes with a school x wide event that provides opportunities to involve or influence the com munity. - For example, schools may complete a service project in an area of their community that needs support. A x is also available to engage communities in positive projects. The kit includes tools supplementary Community Kit a shared vision f form ing commu nity partnerships; creating and materials for or the community; and facilitating community projects related to government, media, business, and social services. 148

150 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT High focus on emotional processes and mindset, particularly ‰ Skill Focus emotion/behavior regulation ‰ Moderately high focus on character Moderately low focus on cognitive regulation and interpersonal skills ‰ ‰ High use of SEL tools/handouts Instructional Methods ‰ Moderately high use of books/stories Support for building adult social-emotional competence ‰ Program Components ‰ Extensive support for family engagement ‰ Comprehensive support for community engagement . For more information about programs with common features, please see Tables in Section 3 Summary Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 7 SKILL FOCUS Positive Action provides a high focus on emotional processes (20% above the cross-program mean), particularly emotion/behavior regulation (19% above the mean). Due to its focus on positive self-concept and the link between thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, Positive Action also provides a high focus on mindset (38% above the mean) as well as a moderately high focus on character (16% above the mean). The program also has a moderately low focus on cognitive regulation (15% below the mean) and interpersonal skills (17% below the mean) compared to other programs. 7 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS Relative to other programs, Positive Actions provides a high use of handouts (10% above the cross-program mean) and a moderately high use of books and stories (7% above the cross-program mean). Most lessons include either a story that helps illustrate lesson concepts and/or a worksheet for students to complete related to the lesson theme. PROGRAM COMPONENTS -emotional competence Unique aspects of Positive Action include the program’s support for building adult social and comprehensive support for family and community engagement. While a majority of programs (n=19 ; 76%) do not provide any opportunity for Adult Social-Emotional Competence: adults to develop or reflect on their own social and emotional skills, Positive Action is one of only six programs (24%) to offer professional development opportunities that focus explicitly on building adult social-emotional competence. Family Engagement: Positive Action also offers more comprehensive supports for family and community engagement than most other programs. While almost all programs (n=24; 96%) engage families in some way, 7 For more information on how skill focus and instructional method comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. 149

151 usually through regular updates or take-home activities, Positive Action is one of only seven programs (28%) to offer support for family workshops that teach parents how to reinforce lesson concepts and positive actions at home in addition to providing regular take-home activities. Community Engagement: Only seven programs (28%), including Positive Action, provide any resources more comprehensive than loose recommendations for community engagement. Unlike most programs, Positive Action offers a Community Engagement Kit that contains concrete materials and resources for facilitating community partnerships and projects. For a detailed breakdown of how Positive Action compares to other programs across all program component categories, please see Table 3 on p. 37-38. VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information Positive Action materials may be purchased online at https://catalog.positiveaction.net/ . For more information about the program, please fill out the contact form at https://www.positiveaction.net/contact or use the contact information provided below. Contact Information Website: https://www.positiveaction.net/ Phone: 208 - 733 - 1328 or 1 - 800 - 345 - 2974 [email protected] Email: Mailing Address: Positive Action, Inc. th 264 4 Ave South Twin Falls, Idaho 83301 150

152 RULER I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT RULER (Recognizing, Understanding, Labeling, Expressing and Regulating emotions) is a PreK-12 approach to social and emotional learning that builds emotional intelligence in students and adults and prepares adults to model these skills and create a supportive and healthy emotional climate for students. RULER has been developed for early childhood (PreK), lower elementary (Grades K-2), upper elementary (Grades 3-5), middle school (Grades 6-8), and high school (Grades 9-12). During the first year of implementation in elementary schools, adults and students learn and use the Anchors of Emotional Intelligence, four tools designed to establish classroom norms for how students want to feel and be treated, build intra and interpersonal emotional awareness, assist self-regulation, and promote empathy and perspective-taking during and after conflict. These tools are taught over the course of 16 lessons and integrated into regular practice. In the second year of implementation, students take part in the Feeling Words Curriculum, which 15-minute lessons to be includes 16 units each focused on a different feeling word. Each unit contains five 10- delivered over the course of two weeks that help students learn the word through storytelling about a personal experience, connect the feeling word to academic content, teach the skill to adults at home, use the feeling word in a visual or performing arts activity, and discuss how to effectively regulate the feeling. Developed by the Yale Center for Emotional Intelligence. P reK - Grade - with separate lessons for P re - K, G rades K - 2, G rades 3 - 5, G rades 6 - 8 , and Grades 9 Grade Range 12 12 Duration and regular practice - Anchors of Emot iona l Intelligence: 16 lessons/year and integrated into /lesson Feeling Words Curriculum: 5 lessons/week; 10 - 2 0 min - Timing of Focus Areas Recognizing emotions in self and others, understanding the causes and consequences of emotions, (as stated by labeling emotions accurately, expressing emotions appropriately, and regulating emotions effectively program) Additional Curricula RULER for middle and high school (not included in analysis) Evidence of experimental study O ne randomized control trial, one quasi - experimental study, and one non - Effectiveness Emotional Mindset Cognitive Character Interpersonal Processes Regulation Skills Skill Focus 3% 51% 10% 94% 0% , writing, didactic instruction, book Instructional and teacher s/stories, Most frequently uses discussion, visual display s choice Methods - High est focus on emotional processes (including emotion knowledge/expression and emotion/behavior regulation) and understanding social cues and prosocial behavior Moderately low focus on cognitive regulation - Unique Features - Wider v ariety of instructional methods Relative to - High use of drawing (highest), books/stories, vocabulary, writing, and teacher choice Other Programs - Extensive support for family engagement , including parent workshops - Intensive professional development and training - - Support for adult social emotional competence 151

153 1 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS RULER has been evaluated in multiple studies, including one randomized control trial, one quasi-experimental study, and one non-experimental study. The primary measures and assessments used in these studies include teacher reports, report cards, student responses, and observations. Results from these studies are summarized below. Grades: K - 6 Geographic Location: Urban Diverse Race/Ethnicity: 24% or not otherwise stated Free/Reduced Lunch: Gains in adaptive skills and ELA grades x Outcomes: x Improved emotional support in the classroom, emotion-focused interactions, cooperative learning strategies, and positive classroom climate In one study, teachers rated their enjoyment of the program at a 4.12 out of 5 and Implementation Experiences: students rated their enjoyment at a 3.88 out of 5. 1 References: Brackett, Rivers, Reyes, & Salovey (2012); Hagelskamp, Brackett, Rivers, & Salovey (2013); Reyes, Brackett, Rivers, Elbertson, & Salovey (2012); Rivers, Brackett, Reyes, Elbertson, Salovey (2013). 152

154 2 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 3 PROGRAM FOCUS As shown in Figure 1 below, RULER primarily focuses on emotional processes (targeted in 94% of program activities), , or mindset . Few activities target cognitive regulation (10%), character (3%) followed by interpersonal skills (51%) (<1%). Figure 1. Percentage of Program 3 Activities Targeting Each Domain Considerations Developmental sets of RULER provides two Anchors of Emotional Intelligence lessons, one recommended for use with students in G rades K - 2 and another re commended for G 5. - Similarly, the Feeling Words C urriculum rades 3 appropriate emotion - offers separate lists of age vocabulary words for lower and upper elementary school students. For the most part, however, domain focus remains the same across both age ranges. 4 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation RULER provides little to no focus on cognitive regulation (only targeted in 10% of program activities). Emotional Processes Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by As shown in Figure 2 to the right, the 94% of RULER activities 4 Activities that Build Emotional Processes that build emotional processes most often focus on emotion (56% of the time), followed by emotion/ knowledge/expression Emotion Knowledge/ behavior regulation (36%). For example, as part of the Feeling 8% Expression Words Curriculum, students learn one feeling word at a time Emotion/Behavior through activities that might include identifying when characters Regulation 36% in a book are feeling that way or creating a song or dance 56% Empathy/ inspired by the word. While emotion knowledge/expression is Perspective-Taking 2 Data collected from Grades K-2 and 3-5. 3 A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not add up to 100%. 4 Proportions represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., empathy) relative to other skills in the same domain (e.g., emotion/behavior regulation, etc.). For example, if 94% of program activities build emotional processes, 8% of the time, those activities target empathy. 153

155 taught throughout the program, emotion/behavior regulation is primarily targeted by the Anchors of Emotional Intelligence. For example, students are taught to use calm breathing techniques as part of the Meta Moment anchor in order to handle unpleasant feelings in a prosocial way. RULER activities that build emotional processes rarely address empathy/perspective-taking (only 8% of the time ). Interpersonal Skills As shown in Figure 3 to the right, RULER activities that build Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by interpersonal skills most frequently focus on understanding 4 Activities that Build Interpersonal Skills social cues (67% of the time), followed by prosocial behavior . For example, throughout the Feeling Words Curriculum, (25%) Understanding students are frequently asked to pay attention to how facial Social Cues 25% expressions and tone of voice offer clues about how a character Conflict or classmate is feeling. Students are also asked to create an Resolution 8% Emotional Intelligence Charter for their classroom that helps set 67% Prosocial prosocial norms and guidelines for the year. RULER activities Behavior that build interpersonal skills rarely address conflict resolution 8% of the time ). (only 5 Character RULER offers little to no focus on character (only targeted in 3% of program activities). 5 Mindset RULER offers little to no focus on mindset (targeted in <1% of program activities). 5 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was no t captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapting our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are targeted by 10% of program activities. ≥ 154

156 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS The heat map in Figure 4 below provides a more detailed look at where and when RULER addresses specific skills over the course of the school year, within and across different grades. The vertical progression of the map could be thought of as time, moving from one unit to the next and one grade to the next, with the shading representing degree of concentration in a particular skill at that rough point in time. The map can be used as a planning tool to help practitioners determine where RULER programming might align with specific academic plans, scho ol-wide programming, and social and emotional learning standards throughout the year. (Please see p. 41 for specific examples.) Figure 4. Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Targeting Each Domain and Skill by Unit, Grade, and Program-wide Emotional Processes Interpersonal Processes Cognitive Regulation Character Mindset - Taking Control Control Conflict Grade Mindset Working Emotion Planning Behavior Behavior Prosocial Cognitive Attention Memory/ Flexibility Inhibitory Character Emotion / Empathy / Regulation Expression Resolution Social Cues Perspective Knowledge / Understands Curriculum Component TIME Feeling Word 0 0 0 0 8 85 54 8 38 0 8 0 Curriculum Mood Meter 8 0 8 0 92 42 0 17 0 8 0 0 Blueprint 15 0 0 0 62 46 46 0 69 38 8 0 2 - Charter 0 0 0 0 42 8 17 8 0 83 17 0 - Meta Grades K 0 0 0 6 0 72 83 6 44 11 22 28 Moment 0 A1 1 0 1 6 81 53 9 35 4 13 3 A2 8 96 50 3 0 Feeling Word 0 0 0 0 15 77 46 15 38 0 8 0 Curriculum Mood Meter 0 7 0 7 0 0 73 53 13 40 0 0 (Developmental Progression) Blueprint 0 21 0 0 0 50 43 0 71 50 14 36 5 - Charter 0 0 42 8 0 17 0 8 17 83 17 0 Meta - Grades 3 0 0 6 6 50 83 0 39 28 39 22 0 Moment A1 1 0 0 13 72 47 16 36 6 14 3 0 A2 89 53 14 3 0 0 3 A1 1 0 1 8 78 51 11 35 4 13 Program - wide A2 10 94 51 3 0 Key Mindset Character Emotional Cognitive Interpersonal 0 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 100 Total % of program activities targeting each skill (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution , etc. ) = A1 = Total % of program activities targeting each domain (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, etc.) A2 155

157 6 PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION P Figure 5. ercentage of Program Activities 6 Employing Each Teaching Method As shown in Figure 5 to the right, discussion is the most used instructional method in RULER (used in 48% of program activities). To a lesser extent, RULER uses visual displays (15%), writing (14%), and didactic instruction (13%). In addition to discussion, visual displays are used with each lesson. For example, in the Feeling Words Curriculum, each feeling word taught is first located on the Mood Meter, which visually represents the intensity and pleasantness of various emotions. All other instructional methods occur in ≤11% of program activities. 6 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the proportions of program activities employing each instructional method may not add up to 100%. 156

158 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons Lessons used to teach the x Anchors of Emotional Intelligence include extension lessons and supplementary activities that incorporate the Anchor tools throughout the school day, such as during daily reflections or when naming an - emotional intelligence student - the week. of RULER also recommends finding teachable moments out side of lessons in which students can apply RULER x strategies. Climate and Culture Supports The curriculum includes recommendations for how to use the Classroom Charter and Mood Meter throughout the x school in hallways and the cafeteria. x RULER also includes various school-wide enrichment activities to be used during assemblies or to build inter- classroom connections. x RULER also encourages applying the Anchors of Emotional Intelligence tools within staff meetings to support the ongoing emotional development of adults in the building. Applications to Out- of-School Time x No OST adaptations provided. to Local Context Adaptability x lum and must be The four Anchors of Emotional Intelligence units are the foundations of the RULER curricu throughout the school. effectively in the classroom and incorporated The Feeling Word Curriculum is more flexible, and teachers may cover the feeling words in any order as long as they x s deliver lessons on 15 out of the 19 words suggested . Professional Development and Training a minimum of three participants per school must complete four days of x RULER uses a train-the-trainer model: training over the course of two years in order to receive curriculum materials. Staff who attend trainings acquire the skills and resources to roll out the RULER curriculum at their respective schools or program sites. Schools are encouraged to send teachers from different grade levels, a mental health professional, and an administrator. x Year 1 training consists of a t wo-day summer Anchors of Emotional Intelligence Institute (plus an online course on the Foundations of Emotional Intelligence), which engages school staff in personal and professional development around emotional intelligence and prepares them to implement the program at their school. x Year 2 training consists of a t wo-day Feeling Words Curriculum training, which prepares attendees to train staff at their school to deliver the curriculum to students. Schools also receive four personalized online/over-the-phone coaching sessions to support implementation and x rollout. Support for Implementation which provides staff with resources to roll out the x In addition to the Anchors of Emotional Intelligence training , program, the RULER online community provides ongoing implementation support, including handouts, videos, PowerPoint presentations, rollout plans, and more. 157

159 Tools to Assess Program Outcomes provides formative assessments for the Anchors of Emotional Intelligence curriculum to be administered once x RULER or twice a week. The assessments vary in nature and are included with each lesson to assess the student’s understanding of the four anchors . Tools to Assess Implementation x Implementation teams are required to come up with their own methods for measuring effective implementation using the SMART (specific, measureable, achievable, relevant, and timely) framework . Family Engagement x RULER engages parents through introductory letters, parent workshops, and access to online RULER tools. home activity that requires students to x In addition, the third lesson of every Feeling Words unit includes a take - communicate with family members about emotional literacy skills . Community Engagement x No information provided. 158

160 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT ‰ Highest focus on emotional processes, including emotion Skill Focus knowledge/expression and emotion/behavior regulation ‰ Highest focus on understanding social cues Moderately low focus on cognitive regulation and prosocial behavior ‰ ‰ Wider variety of instructional methods Instructional Methods ‰ Highest use of drawing Moderately high use of book/stories, vocabulary, writing, and teacher ‰ choice ‰ Moderately low use of skill practice Extensive support for family engagement ‰ Program Components Intensive professional development and training ‰ ‰ Support for adult social-emotional competence For more information about programs with common features, please see Summary Tables in Section 3 . Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 7 SKILL FOCUS With 94% of its program activities targeting emotional processes, RULER offers the highest focus on emotional processes of all 25 programs (57% above the cross-program mean). It has a particularly strong emphasis on emotion knowledge/expression (53% above the mean) and emotion/behavior regulation (36% above the mean), which are both targeted more often in RULER than in any other program. While RULER provides a typical focus on interpersonal skills (1% above the mean), it provides the highest focus on understanding social cues than any of the other programs (26% above the mean) along with a moderately low focus on prosocial behavior (25% below the mean). RULER also provides a moderately low focus on cognitive regulation (15% below the mean) and a typical focus on character (13% below the mean) and mindset (5% below the mean). 7 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS RULER offers a slightly greater variety of instructional methods than most other programs (6 methods occur in ≥10% of program activities, while most programs have fewer than 4). It has the highest use of drawing activities of all 25 programs (7% above the cross-program mean) as well as a moderately high use of books and stories (7% above the mean), vocabulary (5% above the mean), writing activities (11% above the mean), and teacher choice activities (7% above the mean). RULER offers a moderately low use of skill practice (10% below the mean) relative to other programs. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Relative to other programs, unique aspects of RULER include extensive support for family engagement and intensive professional development and training, including support for adult social-emotional competence. 7 For more information on how skill focus and instructional method comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. 159

161 Family Engagement: While almost all programs (n=24; 96%), including RULER, engage families through regular updates or take-home activities, RULER is one of only seven programs (28%) to also offer support for family workshops that teach parents and guardians how to reinforce lesson concepts and skills at home. Professional Development and Training: All programs (n=25; 100%) provide some form of professional development and training; however, RULER is one of only two programs (8%) for which professional development is a highly integral component. RULER requires teachers to attend two years of training to receive access to program materials, and considers adult development an important secondary part of the program. Adult Social-Emotional Competence: While a majority of programs (n=19; 76%) do not provide structured opportunities for adults to develop or reflect on their own social and emotional skills, RULER is one of six programs (24%) to offer professional development opportunities that focus explicitly on building adult social-emotional competence. For a detailed breakdown of how RULER compares to other programs across all program component categories, please see Table 3 on p. 37- 38. VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information For more information on how to bring RULER to your school, please fill out the contact form at . we-are/contact-us/ http://ei.yale.edu/who- Contact Information http://ei.yale.edu/ruler/ Website: Yale Center for Emotional Intelligence 340 Edwards Street Mailing Address: P.O. Box 208376 8376 New Haven, CT 06520 - 160

162 SECOND STE P I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT Second Step is a PreK-8 program designed to help children understand and manage their emotions, control their reactions, be aware of others’ feelings, and develop problem -solving and responsible decision-making skills using rades 3-5 provides a scripted curriculum for each grade cond Step’s Elementary Kit for G games, stories, and songs. Se that consists of 22-25 weekly lessons that last 20-45 minutes, followed by four subsequent 5- to 10-minute follow- through activities to be delivered over the course of the week. Each main lesson typically includes an introduction to the lesson concepts, a Brain Builder game that develops cognitive regulation skills, a discussion of a story or video with an SEL theme, an opportunity for students to practice new skills, and a brief review of lesson concepts. Follow-through activities vary based on the lesson and may include Brain Builder games, skill practice, songs, and writing or drawing activities. Developed by the Committee for Children. G rade Range PreK - 8 with separate lessons for each grade Duration and through activity 22 - 25 weeks; 1 - 5 lessons/week; 20 - 45 min /lesson; 5 - 10 min /follow - Timing Areas of Focus Skills for learning, empathy, emotion management, and problem - solving (as stated by program) - Early Learning (ages 4 - 5) Additional - Middle School (ages 6 - 8) Curricula - Bullying Prevention Unit (not included in analysis) - Child Protection Unit Evidence of - experim ental studies Multiple randomized control trials, quasi - experimental, and non Effectiveness Cognitive Mindset Emotional Character Interpersonal Regulation Processes Skills Skill Focus 52 40% % 7% 49 % 1% Instructional , songs, kinesthetic activi ties, games, and skill practice Most frequently uses discussion Methods - High focus conflict resolution and cognitive regulation , particularly attention control on Wider - variety of instructional methods used Unique Features High use of songs, - kinesthetic activities , games, writing, and video Relative to Low - use of discussion Other Programs - Self - facilitated training s - Required supplementary activities 161

163 1 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS Second Step has been evaluated in multiple randomized control trials, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental studies. The primary measures and assessments used in these studies include content assessments, surveys, behavioral observations, grades, and disciplinary referrals. Three randomized control trials are currently underway. Results from four of the most recent studies are summarized below. 1 - 7 Grades: Urban, s uburban Geographic Location: Race/Ethnicity: Diverse Free/Reduced Lunch: 20% - 71% Gains in empathy, impulse control, anger management, self -reliance, positive approach- Outcomes: coping, caring-cooperative behavior, suppression of anger, consideration of others, and social competence wide implementations tended to deliver the program with - x Teachers participating in school greater fidelity than those in single classroom implementations (although they were more likely to find shortcomings with the program ) . Implementation Experiences: x In one study, teachers saw benefit in teaching the SEL skills in Second Step . 100% of In another study, x . 98% of students felt that other students should learn these lessons felt the program had a Some teachers x repetitive nature . 1 References: Cooke et al. (2007); Edwards, Hunt, Meyers, Grogg, & Jarrett (2005); Frey, Nolen, Edstrom, & Hirschstein (2005); Holsen, Smith, & Frey (2008); Larsen & Samdal (2007). 162

164 2 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 3 PROGRAM FOCUS As shown in Figure 1 below , Second Step offers a relatively balanced focus on the cognitive, emotional, and 52% of program activities) with little to no focus on character (7%) or interpersonal domains (each targeted by 40- mindset (1%). Figure 1. Perce ntage of Program 3 Activities Targeting Each Domain Considerations Developmental Second Step lessons are differentiated by grade level. Notable differences across grades include a greater emphasis on cognitive regulation in Grades 1 and 3, which gives way to a stronger focus on emotional and interpersonal skills in Grade 5. 4 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation , the 40% of Second Step As shown in Figure 2 to the right Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by activities that build cognitive regulation tend to focus most 4 Activities that Build Cognitive Regulation on attention control (46% of the time), followed by frequently working memory/planning ( 27%) and inhibitory control ( 18%). Attention Control Grades 1 and 3 have entire units dedicated to building attention 10% skills such as listening and focusing, and most lessons begin with Working Memory/Planning 18% 46% Brain Builder games (e.g., Simon Says) designed to build Inhibitory Control . attention control, working memory, and inhibitory control 27% Second Step activities that build cognitive regulation rarely Cognitive Flexibility 10% of the time). address cognitive flexibility (only 2 Data collected from Grades 1, 3, and 5. 3 A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not add up to 100%. 4 Proportions represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., attention control) relative to other skills in the same domain (e.g., inhibitory control, etc.). For example, if 40% of program activities build cognitive regulation, 46% of the time, those activities target attention control. 163

165 Emotional Processes As shown in Figure 3 to the right, the 52% of Second Step Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by 4 activities that build emotional processes provide a balanced Activities that Build Emotional Processes focus on emotion knowledge/expression, emotion/behavior regulation, and empathy/perspective-taking skills (each targeted Emotion Knowledge/ Expression 33% of the time). Activities that build these skills might include 33% 33% acting out different emotions with your face and body, practicing Emotion/Behavior calm breathing techniques for managing emotions, or working as Regulation a class to come up with techniques for predicting how your Empathy/ actions might affect the feelings of others. 33% Perspective-Taking Interpersonal Skills As shown in Figure 4 to the right, the 49% of Second Step Figure 4. Frequency of Skills Targeted by activities that build interpersonal skills most frequently focus on 4 Activities that Build Interpersonal Skills 42% of the time), followed closely by conflict prosocial behavior ( 38%) and understanding social cues ( resolution ( 20%). Activities Understanding that build these skills might include role-playing how to be 20 % Social Cues respectfully assertive in challenging interpersonal situations, 42 % Conflict learning to discuss a problem without placing blame, or looking Resolution at pictures as a class to explore how facial expressions and body 38 % Prosocial ht into someone else’s thoughts and feelings. language offer insig Behavior 5 Character Second Step offers little to no focus on character (only targeted in 7% of program activities). 5 Mindset in 1% of program activities). Second Step offers little to no focus on mindset (only targeted 5 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapt ing our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are targeted by 10% of program activities. ≥ 164

166 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS The heat map in Figure 5 below provides a more detailed look at where and when Second Step addresses specific skills over the course of 22-25 weeks, within and across different grades. The vertical progression of the map could be thought of as time, moving from one unit to the next and one grade to the next, with the shading representing degree of concentration in a particular skill at that rough point in time. The map can be used as a planning tool to help practitioners determine where Second Step programming might align with specific academic plans, school-wide programming, and social and emotional learning standards. (Please see p. 41 for specific examples.) Figure 5. Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Targeting Each Domain and Skill by Unit, Grade, and Program-wide Cognitive Regulation Emotional Processes Interpersonal Processes Character Mindset - Unit Taking Control Control Conflict Mindset Emotion Working Planning Grade Behavior Behavior Prosocial Cognitive Flexibility Attention Inhibitory Character Emotion / Memory / Empathy / Resolution Regulation Expression Social Cues TIME Perspective Knowledge / Understands 1 0 74 47 33 0 0 0 0 0 14 0 0 2 0 24 22 22 3 38 0 38 32 1 6 0 3 0 25 25 25 30 55 9 8 0 6 0 5 4 22 24 12 19 10 10 11 7 32 33 0 0 Grade 1 A1 15 29 23 6 20 16 15 12 9 35 0 1 A2 1 30 0 39 34 1 32 12 65 5 0 5 8 5 35 12 0 0 2 52 16 5 21 47 2 66 29 7 34 31 0 3 12 7 31 22 21 0 55 71 16 26 12 9 4 31 7 9 12 9 17 9 76 47 5 0 17 Grade 3 A1 43 18 12 9 31 24 27 16 30 32 14 2 A2 54 55 57 14 2 1 53 31 3 0 19 1 14 18 15 64 19 0 (Developmental Progression) 2 11 0 1 1 47 91 20 8 31 9 1 1 3 3 0 0 9 18 34 12 20 63 29 0 0 Grade 5 A1 7 0 5 26 38 36 18 10 35 34 7 0 A2 28 67 59 7 0 A1 25 1 32 18 12 7 26 26 26 13 7 27 Program - ide w A2 40 52 49 7 1 Key Mindset Character Emotional Interpersonal Cognitive 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 100 0 of (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution program activities targeting each skill , etc. A1 Total % = ) each domain (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, etc.) Total % of program activities targeting = A2 165

167 6 PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION P Figure 6. ercentage of Program Activities 6 Employing Each Teaching Method As shown in Figure 6 to the right, discussion is the most commonly employed instructional method in Second Step (used in 33% of program activities), followed by songs (21%), kinesthetic activities (20%), games (17%), skill practice (15%), visual displays (12%), and writing (11%). Examples of these instructional methods in Second Step include: discussions about the feelings of children in a picture or video; Brain Builder games, such as Simon Says, that build cognitive skills while also getting students up and moving; practicing calm breathing techniques to manage emotions; listening to a song that explains empathy; or completing a reflective writing exercise about handling an emotionally charged situation. All other instructional methods occur in <10% of program activities. 6 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the proportions of program activities employing each instructional method may not add up to 100%. 166

168 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons x Second Step requires that lesson concepts be reinforced throughout the day, and each unit includes scripted suggestions for encouraging students to apply and reflect on skills during everyday activities. x Supplementary units on Bullying Prevention and Child Protection are available for purchase. The Bullying unit includes five additional 30- to 45-minute lessons on recognizing, reporting, resisting, and standing up to bullying, while the Child Protection unit includes six weekly 20- to 40-minute lessons on safety skills. x Second Step also offers art therapy resources from the nonprofit organization Art with Heart that can be used in conjunction with the Second Step program for students dealing with difficult family issues, grief, or loss. x Every Second Step unit offers optional, highly structured academic integration activities designed to incorporate lesson concepts into subject areas such as literacy, science, social studies, math, fine arts, and physical education. x Second Step also provides a list of recommended books to complement various skills, which can be used to reinforce Second Step skills in tandem with literacy or the language arts. Climate and Culture Supports of a consistent, common x Second Step’s supplementary Principal Toolkit contains resources to promote the use language to reinforce positive behavior throughout the whole school, including 24 morning announcements, 6 scripted school assemblies, and an office referral conversation guide. x Second Step’s supplementary Bullying Prevention and Ch ild Protection units include resources for training school staff to recognize bullying and child abuse as well as guidelines for establishing school policies and procedures that prevent bullying and promote effective child protection practices. School Time Applicat ions to Out - of - , it has been implemented x While Second Step does not provide specific adapt ation s for out - of - school time successfully both afterschool and summer programs. in Adaptability to Local Context x To achieve desired results, all Second Step lessons and follow - through activities should be taught in order, all lesson home worksheets should be concepts and skills should be reinforced throughout the school day, and all take - completed. x Lessons frequently include tips for adapt ing activ ities to meet the needs of individual classrooms, learners, and cultures (particularly English Language Learners), and support materials are available in Spanish. Professional Development and Training x training that prepares staff teaching the program to deliver Second Step Second Step includes an individual, online lessons. The training is one hour long and should be completed prior to the start of the program. The supplementary Principal Toolkit x materials to facilitate the involvement of all school staff , including provides scripted all - staff orientations , 30 staff meeting activities, and handouts that highlight key concepts for school staff not teaching the program. x Second Step also offers a Leadership Institute for individuals coordinating dis trict - wide implementation that consists of a two - day training in June followed by monthly online meetings. The Institute allows participants to learn from ves. Second Step implementation experts and network with peers coordinating similar district - wide initiati 167

169 Support for Implementation x p rovides resources designed to help develop an implementation plan and onboard staff and Second Step stakeholders, including , handouts, and best practices. presentations, templates, checklists x Lessons are scripted, and s upport for teacher modeling is embedded throughout the script. Many lessons also provide suggestions for how to model skills outside of lessons at other times during the s chool day. rt to and conduct observations of fellow Second Step also suggests appointing program coaches to provide suppo x teachers. Program coaches are designated school staff selected for their commitment to the program, colleag ue respect, and area expertise. Tools to Assess Program Outcomes Program sites may purchase the Devereux Student Strengths Assessment: Second Step Edition (DESSA- SSE) to x formally assess students at the beginning and end of the program. The DESSA-SSE uses teacher reports to assess students on 36 skills important to social-emotional competence, resilience, and academic success. The tool is available on paper or online. x Second Step also provides a multiple choice summative knowledge assessment to be given to students at the end of the program. x assess student understanding throughout the program by checking end- of- Second Step also suggests that teachers the-week drawing/writing assessments, take-home worksheets, and performance during Brain Builder games. Tools to Assess Implementation x Second Step ’s online portal formal and informal assessment tools to monitor and evaluate the provides implementation process, including lesson completion checklists, lesson reflection logs, and implementation surveys. Family Engagement t x Second Step engages famil ies through take - home worksheets; family letter s; and an online family portal tha and book lists. - solving charts, print - out posters , contains Brain Builder games, songs, worksheets, problem Community Engagement x No information provided. 168

170 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT Moderately high focus on conflict resolution and cognitive regulation, ‰ Skill Focus particularly attention control ‰ Wider variety of instructional methods Instructional Methods ‰ Moderately high use of songs and kinesthetic activities ‰ Moderately low use of discussion ‰ Less intensive professional development/training Program Components ‰ Extensive classroom activities beyond core lessons Summary Tables in Section 3 For more information about programs with common features, please see . Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 7 SKILL FOCUS % above the Relative to other programs, Second Step places a moderately high emphasis on cognitive regulation (15 cross-program mean) particularly attention control (22% above the mean) — and a typical emphasis on all other — domains (all within 15% of the mean). However, despite its typical focus on interpersonal skills, Second Step does provide a moderately high focus on conflict resolution (12% above the mean). 7 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS While discussion is the most commonly used instructional method in Second Step, discussions are still used less frequently than in other programs (16% below the cross-program mean). This can likely be a ttributed to Second Step’s use of a greater variety of instructional methods than most other programs (7 methods occur in ≥10% of program activities, while most programs have fewer than 4). Relative to other programs, Second Step provides a high use of songs (19% above the mean), kinesthetic activities ( 16% above the mean), and games (11% above the mean), as well as a moderately high use of videos (6% above the mean) and writing (8% above the mean ). PROGRAM COMPONENTS Relative to other programs, unique aspects of Second Step include required supplementary classroom activities and less intensive professional development and training. While a majority of programs (n=22; Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons: 88%) suggest or provide some form of supplementary lessons/activities in addition to core lessons, most do not require that they be used. Second Step is one of only four programs (16%) to include highly integral supplementary activities, requiring the use of short follow- through activities that enable students to practice skills and lesson concepts throughout the week. All programs (n=25; 100%) provide some form of professional development Professional Development and Training: and training; however, while most (n=17; 68%) offer developer-led trainings, Second Step employs a combination of self-facilitated and online trainings. For a detailed breakdown of how Second Step compares to other programs across all program component categories, 37- 38. please see Table 3 on p. 7 For more information on how skill focus and instructional method comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. 169

171 VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information Second Step kits may be purchased online at http://www.cfchildren.org/purchase . For more information about the program, please use the contact information provided below. Contact Information Website: http://www.cfchildren.org/second - step Phone 4449 : 1 - 800 - 634 - Email: [email protected] 170

172 SECUR e I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT SECURe is a PreK-3 program that develops the social-emotional and self-regulatory skills that students need to be effective learners . The program includes a set of strategies, routines, and lessons that work together to improve student learning and behavior and build positive classroom and school climate. SECURe structures, strategies, and routines are designed to be used by all adults and students throughout the day and across all areas of the school in order to reinforce SECURe skills and support a positive, productive, and well-regulated school environment. They include cooperative learning structures, problem-solving and conflict resolution strategies, daily and weekly opportunities to reinforce SECURe skills outside of lessons, and more. SECURe lessons teach core cognitive, emotion management, and social skills alongside strategies for solving problems and dealing wit h challenges. The curriculum consists of 36-38 lessons across 6 units with separate lessons for each grade. Lessons for elementary grades typically occur once per week and range from 30-60 minutes depending on grade level. Each lesson includes a Brain Game that targets cognitive skills, followed by a warm-up, review, introduction, main activity, skill practice, and brief wrap-up question. SECURe was developed initially in collaboration with the Success For All (SFA) Foundation as part of a project funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). SECURe is available as Getting Along Together from SECURe is also embedded in SFA’s SFA coupled with their whole school literacy platform ( all-day preschool and kindergarten programs called Curiosity Corner and KinderCorner) . SECURe has also been embedded in other summer programming for Children’s Aid curricular and OST programs (e.g., Getting Ready for School program for Head Start; ). Society of New York SECURe is available as a stand-alone program from the research team led by Dr. Stephanie Jones at the Harvard Graduate School of Education and can be combined with a multi-workshop professional development system and/or a family-focused program – the SECURe stand-alone program – that was reviewed for this report. Overall, the SECURe (SECURe Families). It is this program structures, strategies, routines, and lessons were developed initially as part of a collaborati ve effort between Stephanie M. Jones, 1 Robin Jacob, Ph.D. (University of Michigan); Frederick J. Morrison, Ph.D. (University of Michigan); Ph.D. (Harvard University); ; SFA). Deborah Phillips, Ph.D. (Georgetown University); and Nancy A. Madden, Ph.D. (Johns Hopkins University PreK Grade Range 3 with separate lessons for each grade - Duration and Timing 36 - 38 lessons; 1 lesson/week; 30 - 60 min/lesson Memory; focus/attention; inhibitory control; emotional understanding, identification, and Areas of Focus (as expression; emotion regulation; empathy; reading and responding to social cues; social problem- stated by program) solving; and prosocial behavior Curricula Additional pplementary curricula available r su No additional o (not included in analysis) Evidence of Two quasi-experimental pilot studies Effectiveness Character Cognitive Emotional Mindset Interperson al Processes Regulation Skills Skill Focus 0% 0% 43% 41% 50% Instructional s Most frequently uses discussion, teacher choice, skill practice, games, and visual display Methods - Balanced focus on cognitive, emotional, and interpersonal domains - High focus on cognitive skills, particularly inhibitory control (highest) and attention control Low focus on character - - High use of skill practice, games, and teacher choice activities Unique Features - Required structures and routines in addition to core lessons - Extensive support for family engagement, including family workshops - Support for building adult social - emotional competence - No support for academic integration 1 Dr. Jones is also the principal investigator and primary author of this content analysis. 171

173 2 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS SECURe has been evaluated in two quasi-experimental pilot studies (one unpublished). The primary measures and assessments in these studies include direct assessments, student and classroom observations, and standardized test scores. Results from these studies are summarized here. PreK - 3 Grades: Urban Geographic Location: Race/Ethnicity: 80% Hispanic or not otherwise stated Free/Reduced Lunch: 92% or not otherwise stated x Overall gains in number of PreK students meeting benchmarks in cognitive, literacy, and social-emotional domains ; gains in literacy and math standardized test scores for K-3; and Outcomes: positive impact on attention/impulsivity for kindergarteners Positive effects on emotional support and classroom organization domains of the CLASS x x In one school, a teacher implementation survey indicated relatively high fidelity of implementation but substantial variability among teachers. x Teachers perceived the program as helpful and adopted classroom strategies based on Implementation Experiences: their perceived needs. x 75% of teachers played Brain Games at least twice a week and 25% played Brain Games four or more times per week. 2 ; Morrison, Jacob & Jones (2013) & Jacob (2014); Jones, Jacob & Morrison (in preparation) References: Jones & Bailey (2014); Jones, Bailey, 172

174 3 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 4 PROGRAM FOCUS As shown in Figure 1 below, SECURe provides a balanced focus on cognitive regulation , emotional processes, and interpersonal skills (each targeted in 40-50% of program activities). The program provides little to no focus on character development or mindset (both targeted in <1% of program activities). Figure 1. Percentage of Program 4 Activities Targeting Each Domain Considerations Developmental SECURe is designed primarily for use with students in PreK and early elementary grades. It provides separate lessons for each grade; however, there are few notable differences in skill focus across grades. 5 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation As shown in Figure 2 to the right, the 50% of SECURe activities Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by that build cognitive skills most frequently focus on attention 5 Activities that Build Cognitive Regulation control (38% of the time) and inhibitory control (34%), followed 2% by working memory/planning skills (26%). Every lesson begins Attention Control with a “Brain Game” (e.g., Freeze Dance) designed to build cognitive skills like attention control, inhibitory control, and Working Memory/Planning 38% 34% working memory . SECURe activities that build cognitive Inhibitory Control regulation rarely address cognitive flexibility (only 2% of the time). Cognitive Flexibility 26% 3 Analysis was conducted using a version of SECURe adapted for the Children’s Aid Society. Data collected from Kindergarten and Grade 3. 4 A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not add up to 100%. 5 Proportions represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., attention control) relative to other skills in the same domain (e.g., inhibitory control, etc.). For example, if 50% of program activities build cognitive regulation, 38% of the time, those activities target attention control. 173

175 Emotional Processes As shown in Figure 3 to the right, the 41% of SECURe activities Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by that build emotional processes most frequently focus on 5 Activities that Build Emotional Processes emotion knowledge/expression (37% of the time), followed closely b y emotion/behavior regulation (32%) and empathy/ Emotion Knowledge/ Expression . For example, students might be asked perspective-taking (31%) 31% to practice composing “I Messages” to express how they feel 37% Emotion/Behavior and why they feel that way, use calm breathing techniques to Regulation manage their emotions, or discuss how they would feel if they Empathy/ were in a character’s shoes. 32% Perspective-Taking Interpersonal Skills As shown in Figure 4 to the right, the 43% of SECURe activities Figure 4. Frequency of Skills Targeted by that build interpersonal skills most frequently focus on prosocial 5 Activities that Build Interpersonal Skills behavior (51% of the time), followed to a lesser extent by . conflict resolution (30%) and understanding social cues (19%) Understanding For example, students might be asked to give compliments to 19% Social Cues their classmates, brainstorm ways to help someone who is being Conflict illustrations to identify how a teased, or use clues from Resolution 51% character in a book might feel after being excluded. 30% Prosocial Behavior 6 Character SECURe offers little to no focus on character (targeted in <1% of program activities). 6 Mindset SECURe offers little to no focus on mindset (targeted in <1% of program activities). 6 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapting our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are ≥ 10% of program activities. targeted by 174

176 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS The heat map in Figure 5 below provides a more detailed look at where and when SECURe addresses specific skills over the course of the school year, within and across different grades. The vertical progression of the map could be thought of as time, moving from one unit to the next and one grade to the next, with the shading representing degree of concentration in a particular skill at that rough point in time. The map can be used as a planning tool to help ol-wide practitioners determine where SECURe programming might align with specific academic plans, scho 41 for specific programming, and social and emotional learning standards throughout the year. (Please see p. examples.) Figure 5. Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Targeting Each Domain and Skill by Unit, Grade, and Program-wide Emotional Processes Interpersonal Processes Character Mindset Cognitive Regulation - Unit Taking Control Control Conflict Mindset Emotion Working Planning Grade Behavior Behavior Prosocial Cognitive Flexibility Attention Inhibitory Character Emotion / Memory / Empathy / Expression Resolution Regulation Social Cues Perspective Knowledge / Understands TIME 1 35 9 29 0 19 24 13 10 9 43 1 0 0 2 39 29 32 0 3 3 6 3 0 6 0 18 3 18 18 0 61 36 21 27 3 6 0 0 4 38 23 31 4 35 35 19 12 4 0 0 0 5 28 21 43 0 15 9 26 9 32 62 0 0 Kindergarten 6 35 30 35 0 40 35 25 15 25 50 0 0 19 32 0 26 22 18 32 12 12 32 0 0 A1 0 A2 46 35 40 0 0 21 0 1 44 24 25 3 31 36 14 28 43 14 0 64 48 64 0 14 2 6 0 4 26 2 3 18 18 18 21 52 36 64 15 24 15 0 0 Developmental Progression) ( 42 32 0 26 26 4 53 21 16 26 0 0 26 5 24 21 24 0 42 18 61 36 73 61 0 0 Grade 3 6 58 58 58 0 33 33 17 8 42 67 0 0 37 A1 32 35 4 32 27 30 15 28 43 0 0 A2 53 47 0 0 47 0 0 5 A1 38 2 5 3 3 2 29 2 5 24 1 3 20 3 Program - wide A2 50 41 43 0 0 Key Mindset Character Emotional Cognitive Interpersonal 100 0 100 0 100 100 0 0 0 100 (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution ) of program activities targeting each skill Total % = A1 , etc. (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, etc.) = Total % of program activities targeting each domain A2 175

177 7 PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION P Figure 6. ercentage of Program Activities 7 Employing Each Teaching Method As shown in Figure 6 to the right, discussion is the most common instructional method used in SECURe (52% of program activities), followed by teacher choice of activity (28%), skill practice (23%), games (21%), and visual displays (15%). For example, students might be asked to use discussion strategies such as Think-Pair-Share or to practice using their , active listening skills during class. In addition teachers are able to select which Brain Game to use at the beginning of each lesson in order to target different cognitive skills. All other instructional methods occur in less than 10% of program activities. 7 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the proportions of program activities employing each instructional method may not add up to 100%. 176

178 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons Class Council meetings occur for 30 minutes every Friday and provide a forum for students to practice social and x emotional skills in a real world setting. During meetings, students discuss classroom strengths and concerns, set social and emotional goals, and take responsibility for regulating their own behavior. While a set of guidelines is provided, the format of meetings is flexible so as to best meet the needs of individual classrooms. x SECURe also provides various classroom structures and routines that should be used to embed learning skills, emotion regulation, and conflict prevention/resolution throughout the day. Routines include conflict resolution strategies (e.g., I Messages), cooperative learning structures (e.g., Think-Pair-Share), self -regulation techniques (e.g., , procedures to enhance student learning (e.g., listening, focusing, remembering skills) and more. Stop and Stay Cool) x SECURe also suggests implementing a set of daily routines designed to embed SEL into classrooms and teaching s, including morning meetings, Brain Games, and providing opportunities for classmates to compliment a practice student- of-the-day. Climate and Culture Supports x All school personnel should use SECURe strategies and routines (e.g. Stop and Think, I Messages, etc.) throughout the building to ensure consistency; reinforce skills; and support students to be productive, regulated, respectful, focused, and engaged in all areas of the school. of-School Time Applications to Out- x successfully in Children’s Aid Society summer and OST programs. SECURe strategies have been used Adaptability to Local Context x Lessons should be implemented with full fidelity; however SECURe strategies and routines , while required, may be used through the day or week as needed or as time allows , and may be adapted to meet the needs of specific schools, classrooms, and summer and OST programs with support from a coach from the Harvard Graduate School . of Eduation SECURe strategies have x have and also been adapted to stand - alone apart from th e more comprehensive curriculum been international and refugee used flexibly in different schools, su mmer programs, and OST spaces as well as in settings . Professional Development and Training x Members of SECURe’s Research and Development team deliver trainings to school staff twice a year. informal x SECURe also provides materials for school personnel to facilitate 10 workshops , throughout the school year and videos, facilitator notes, training activities, and participant handouts . including detailed agendas, presentations Workshop s are organized around six topics, including daily classroom routines, promoting positive behaviors, executive function and brain development, cool down strategies for a dults, parent and family partnerships, and supporting student transitions . x The three workshops on cool down strategies for adults support te achers to better understand/ manage their own situations. re actions to stress and to respond thoughtfully to stressful classroom 177

179 Support for Implementation Lessons are scripted with support teach er modeling embedded in the script. x for SECURe provides teachers with tips and instructions for implementing lessons , class meetings, and classroom x structures/routines. Coaches from the Harvard Graduate School of Education are also available to provide ongoing feedback and support x targeted to the needs of specific classrooms and schools. Program Outcomes Tools to Assess x Teachers and parents fill out reports based on observable behaviors and use of SECURe strategies/routines in students three times a year. In addition, Grade 3 students fill out a total of 6 self - assessments interspersed , and 6 . throughout units 1, 2 Tools to Assess Implementation Coaches from the Harvard Graduate School of Education are available to conduct teacher interviews and classroom x observations to assess implementation and provide specific feedback. SECURe also provides schools with an imple mentation checklist to assess student and teacher use of SECURe x strategies, routines, and materials. Family Engagement x The SECURe Families program provides resources for engaging parents and family members in 9 monthly workshops home materials and strategies that help them reinforce SECURe skills. The workshops provide families with take - such as books, Brain Games, and additional resources on social and emotional learning. x Teachers and school staff are also trained on how to build parent and fam ily partnerships as part of SECURe’s regular professional development opportunities . The training provides specific SECURe - aligned activities that teachers can share with parents to complete with children at home. During the workshop, teachers also create a plan for engaging families using these activities . Community Engagement No information provided. x 178

180 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT ‰ High focus on cognitive regulation, particularly inhibitory control (highest) Skill Focus and attention control ‰ Moderately low focus on character Instructional Methods High use of skill practice, games, and teacher choice activities ‰ ‰ Extensive classroom activities beyond core lessons Program Components ‰ Extensive support for family engagement ‰ Support for adult social-emotional competence ‰ Less support for academic integration For more information about programs with common features, please see . Summary Tables in Section 3 analysis. Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our 8 SKILL FOCUS Relative to other programs, SECURe provides a high focus on cognitive regulation (25% above the cross-program mean), particularly attention control (28% above the mean) and inhibitory control (28% above the mean). It has the highest focus on inhibitory control of all 25 programs. SECURe provides a typical focus on emotional processes (4% above the mean), interpersonal skills (7% below the mean), and mindset (5% below the mean), and a moderately low focus on character (16% below the mean). 8 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS SECURe provides more opportunities for skill practice (12% above the cross-program mean) and games (15% above the mean) than most other programs. SECURe also uses teacher choice activities more than most programs (24% due to teacher’s ability to select Brain Games above the mean), preceded only by Responsive Classroom, primarily of their choosing. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Relative to other programs, unique aspects of SECURe include required supplementary classroom activities, extensive support for family engagement, and opportunities for building adult social-emotional competence. Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons: While a majority of programs (n=22; 88%) suggest or provide some form of supplementary lessons/activities in addition to core lessons, most do not require that they be used. SECURe is one of only four programs (16%) to include highly integral supplementary activities: SECURe routines and structures. Family Engagement: While almost all programs (n=24; 96%), including SECURe, engage families through regular updates or take-home activities, SECURe is one of only seven programs (28%) to also offer support for family workshops that teach parents and guardians how to reinforce cognitive, social, and emotional skills at home. 8 For more information on how skill focus and instructional method comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. 179

181 Adult Social-Emotional Competence: While a majority of programs (n= 19; 76%) do not provide any opportunity for adults to develop or reflect on their own social and emotional skills, SECURe is one of only six programs (24%) to offer professional development opportunities that focus explicitly on building adult social-emotional competence. SECURe also offers less support for academic integration than most other programs (n=19; 76%). For a detailed breakdown of how SECURe compares to other programs across all program component categories, please see Table 3 on p. 37-38. VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information As noted above, SECURe was originally developed by Stephanie M. Jones , Ph.D. (Harvard University); Robin Jacob, Ph.D. (University of Michigan); Frederick J. Morrison, Ph.D. (University of Michigan); Deborah Phillips, Ph.D. (Georgetown University); and Nancy A. Madden, Ph.D. (Johns Hopkins University; SFA). Adapted versions for specific contexts are available for purchase through Dr. Jones and her research team at Harvard. For more information about the program, please contact Stephanie Jones or Rebecca Bailey using the information provided below. For more information about Getting Along Together, Curiosity Corner, or KinderCorner, contact the Success For All Foundation. For more information about Getting Ready for School, please contact Kimberly Noble, Ph.D., M.D., or Helena Duch, Psy.D. (Columbia University). Contact Information Website: http://easel.gse.harvard.edu/secure Stephanie Jones Contact: Rebecca Bailey (617) 496 2223 Jones: - Phone: Bailey: ( 617) 496 - 4541 [email protected] Email: [email protected] 180

182 SOCIAL DECISION MAKI NG/PROBLEM SOLVING PROGRAM SNAPSHOT I. PROGRAM -8 program designed to help students develop The Social Decision Making/Problem Solving (SDM/PS) Program is a K -making skills they need to make sound decisions and healthy life -control, and decision the social awareness, self -1, choices. The program includes separate instructional activities for each grade, divided into four books: Grades K 5, and Grades 6 -8. There are approximately 30 lessons per grade, each of which t Grades 2 -3, Grades 4- ypically includes a review of the previous topic, introduction, teacher modeling, discussion and/or skill practice, and final learning check. Lesson and program duration is flexible as teachers are encouraged to spend as much time as needed on each topic to ensure students grasp the material. Developed by the Rutgers University Behavioral Healthcare Behavioral Research and Training Institute. Grade Range K- 8 with separate lessons for each grade Duration and 30 lessons; teachers should spend as much time as needed on each topic Timing Areas of Focus -control, personal and s Listening, following directions, identifying feelings, emotion regulation, self ocial (as stated by awareness, social problem solving/decision making, teamwork, positive peer relationships program) Additional Curricula supplementary curricula available No additional or (not included in analysis) Evidence of Two experimental studies and one longitudinal follow -up study Effectiveness Mindset Emotional Character Interpersonal Cognitive Processes Skills Regulation Skill Focus 41% 36% 10% 0% 55% Instructional Primarily uses discussion Methods Unique Features -Typical emphasis on all domains Relative to -High use of discussion Other Programs -Extensive support for family engagement , including parent workshops 181

183 1 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS multiple studies, including two SDM/PS has been evaluated in -up experimental studies and one longitudinal follow study. Primary measures and assessments used include student self- reports, teacher reports, social problem -solving scenarios, peer ratings, and standardized test scores. Results from these studies are summarized below . Grades: 1-5 Geographic Location: Suburban, International Race/Ethnicity: White, Multiethnic, Middle Eastern Free/Reduced Lunch: -middle class, working class Upper Gains in emotional intelligence, prosocial skills, social and academic competence, self - • efficacy, belief in one’s ability to solve problems positively, and social -problem solving Outcomes: skills • Reductions in antisocial/destructive behavior and unpopularity Implementation Experiences: No information available. 1 -Muller & Sayette (1991); Gesten et al. (1982); Hassan & Mouganie (2014). References: Elias, Gara, Schuyler, Branden 182

184 2 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 3 PROGRAM FOCUS has a strong primary focus the Social Decision Making/Problem Solving (SDM/PS) Program Figure 1 below, As shown in . (36%) (41%) emotional , followed by (targeted in 55% of program activities) on interpersonal skills and cognitive skills (<1%). Few program activities target character (10%) or mindset Figure 1. Percentage of Program Considerations Developmental 3 Activities Targeting Each Domain Social Decision Making/Problem Solving Program offers separate lessons for each grade. Notable differences across grades include an increased focus on character in Grade 1 relative to Grades 3 and 5. There is also a greater focus on understanding social cues and prosocial behavior in the earlier grades relative to Grade 5. 4 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation As shown in Figure 2 to the right, SDM/PS activities that build Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by cognitive regulation most frequently focus on working 4 AcRviRes that Build CogniRve RegulaRon attention memory/planning (39% of the time ), followed by (19 %) and cognitive flexibility , inhibitory control control (26%) A_en`on Control might be asked to remember and (16%) . For example, students 16% Working Memory/ follow a series of problem -solving steps to resolve a conflict, to 26% Planning practice being a good listener and not interrupting during a class 19% Inhibitory Control discussion, or to brainstorm as many alternate solutions to a 39% problem as possible . Cogni`ve Flexibility 2 Data collected from G rades 1, 3, and 5. 3 in may not add up to A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each doma 100%. 4 Proportions represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., attention control) relative to other skills in th e same domain (e.g., inhibitory control, f the time, those activities target attention control . etc.). For example, if 36% of program activities build cognitive regulation, 26% o 183

185 Emotional Processes As shown in Figure 3 to the right, the 41% of SDM/PS a ctivities Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by emotional that most frequently focus on processes build 4 AcRviRes that Build EmoRonal Processes emotion knowledge/expression (58% of the time ), followed by and empathy/perspective (22%) emotion/behavior regulation Emo`on Knowledge/ Expression write . For example, students might be asked to (20%) taking 20% about a recent experience that triggered difficult feelings for Emo`on/Behavior them, practice using a calm -down strategy to deal with intense Regula`on 22% 58% emotions, or role -play how two people with different Empathy/ perspectives would resolve a conflict. Perspec`ve-Taking Interpersonal Skills As shown in Figure 4 to the right, activities SDM/PS the 55% of Figure 4. Frequency of Skills Targeted by that build interpersonal skills more frequently focus on prosocial 4 AcRviRes that Build Interpersonal Skills (48 % of behavior conflict resolution (30%) ), followed by the time %). For example, students and understanding social cues (22 Understanding be asked to might establish and follow class rules, use a series of Social Cues 22% problem -solving steps to resolve hypothetical interpersonal 48% Conflict conflicts, or practice identifying how another person is feeling Resolu`on by their facial expression and tone. 30% Prosocial Behavior 5 Character SDM/PS offers little to no focus on character (targeted in 10% of program activities). 5 Mindset The SDM/PS Program offers little to no focus on mindset (targeted in <1 % of program activities). 5 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data coll ection. While we are in the process of adapting our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are 10% of program activities. targeted by ≥ 184

186 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS addresses The heat map in Figure 5 below provides a more detailed look at where and when the SDM/PS Program specific skills over the course of the school year, within and across different grades. The vertical progression of the map could be thought of as t ime, moving from one unit to the next and one grade to the next, with the shading representing degree of concentration in a particular skill at that rough point in time. The map can be used as a the SDM/PS Program programming might align with specific planning tool to help practitioners determine where learning standards throughout the year. (Please academic plans, scho ol-wide programming, and social and emotional 41 for specific examples.) see p. Figure 5 . Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Tar geting Each Domain and Skill by Unit, Grade, and Program -wide Cognitive Regulation Emotional Processes Interpersonal Processes Character Mindset - Unit Taking Control Control Conflict Mindset Emotion Working Planning Grade Behavior Behavior Prosocial Cognitive Flexibility Attention Inhibitory Character Emotion / Memory / Empathy / Resolution Expression Regulation Social Cues Perspective Knowledge / Understands TIME 48 0 30 0 9 0 0 9 0 61 4 1 0 2 0 4 0 83 0 17 35 0 17 0 0 4 0 3 6 6 0 17 0 31 53 11 22 17 28 0 4 6 59 6 24 41 24 12 12 53 6 18 5 0 17 6 6 39 17 17 0 6 78 61 0 Grade 1 6 45 0 45 0 18 18 0 45 36 73 27 0 40 16 0 A1 20 10 16 4 38 20 8 20 16 47 57 16 0 A2 37 5 1 26 0 14 1 7 0 0 16 8 57 22 0 2 2 2 5 5 36 34 2 30 9 18 5 31 3 31 6 17 39 19 8 8 56 39 17 0 Grade 3 A1 16 18 10 5 21 13 7 18 18 43 7 0 (Dev elopmental Progression) A2 35 33 59 7 0 0 6 1 3 34 3 21 56 10 24 13 34 19 2 19 0 4 28 0 0 0 26 22 7 0 11 A1 2 28 2 15 45 6 19 8 31 20 6 0 Grade 5 A2 35 51 50 6 0 10 0 34 A1 13 19 9 8 35 13 11 15 22 - Program wide A2 36 41 55 10 0 Key Mindset Character Interpersonal Emotional Cognitive 1 1 1 1 1 100 100 0 100 0 0 0 100 0 100 ) of program activities targeting each skill = Total % , etc. A1 (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution = Total % of program A2 activities targeting each domain (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, etc.) 185

187 6 PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION P ercentage of Program Activities Figure 6. 6 Employing Each Teaching Method the PS to the right, As shown in Figure 6 SDM/ of Program primarily uses discu ssions (used in 76% program activities ), followed to a lesser extent by . visual displays and SEL tools/handouts (11% each) Discussions are used to review previous topics, content at to summarize introduce new topics, and . Discussions are also frequently the end of lessons that facilitate skill practice paired with other activities . All skills outside of the classroom and application of instructional methods appear in less than 10 other % of program activities . 6 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the may not add up to 100%. instructional method ying each emplo proportions of program activities 186

188 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons Each topic includes supplemental • activities or lessons intended to promote the transfer of skills to everyday life, including opportunities to apply skills to real -life situations, structured prompts for integrating concepts with academic content areas , and tips for using lesson concepts as part of general classroom management strategies. Program also provides resources for incorporating skills taught in the program into student • The SDM/PS government, peer leadership, peer mediation, and service learning programs . Climate and Culture S upports pedagogical practices that • The SDM/PS Program provides guidance for setting up classroom routines and using facilitate the development of decision . -making skills Applications to Out -of-School Time • programs, multiple settings, including athletic organizations, afterschool Lessons are designed to be applicable to and summer programs. • It is recommended that all OST staff be trained to reinforce SDM/PS skills and procedures learned in the classroom in the OST space . Program Adaptability use their discretion to • The curriculum should be delivered at least once a week at a set time ; however, teachers may spend as much time as needed on any given topic. • Lessons are aligned with core curriculum standards in health, language arts, and so cial studies and can be integrated into most existing academic content areas ; however, the program provides little direct support for doing so. Professional Development and Training -site training for up to 30 teachers, admi Program recommends 2- • The SDM/PS nistrators, 3 days of customizable on and support staff. • Training, Upon conclusion of the teacher training, the Leadership Team may attend a Leadership and Management - or ful an implementation plan. which includes a half l- day training focused on creating • On-site and telephone consultation, support, and technical assistance are also available from program staff as needed, and schools have access to online video clips of master teachers modeling teaching skills. Support for Implementation also have access to online • Lessons are partially scripted and include tips for effective implementation. P rogram sites video clips of master teachers modeling effective . lesson delivery • Rutgers program staff are also available to provide o n- site and telephone consultation, support, and technical assistance as needed. • Administrators may also attend a Leadership and Management training focused on creating an implementation plan. Tools to Assess Program Outcomes • Informal reflection questions are provided at the end of each topic and can be used by teachers to immediately and informally gauge what students have learned about the topic. • to observe students on various The SDM/PS Program also provides a formal assessment tool that teachers can use self -control, social awareness, problem -solving, and social decision -making skills. The assessment should be . delivered at the beginning and end of the year to gauge program impact 187

189 Tools to Assess Implementation • rogram The SDM /PS P provides curriculum feedback sheets that can be used to obtain teacher opinions about specific lesson material, including what is effective or ineffective. • The program also offers surveys to assess teacher, student, and administrator satisfact ion as well as implementation progress and needs. Family Engagement • The SDM/PS Program provides a customizable introductory letter that can be sent home to caregivers at the beginning of the year, a list of best practices for engaging families, and recommended books and websites on emotionally intelligent parenting. Lessons occasionally include take • -home informat ion sheets or activities that help reinfor ce lesson concepts at home. • Grade K -1 teachers are encouraged to send home progress rep orts to keep parents informed about their child’s to provide them with recommendations for helping their child at home. progress and • Schools are encouraged to purchase the Leader's Guide for Conducting Parent Meetings, which includes a detailed plan for conducting parent workshops on social decision -making . Community Engagement • The curriculum guide suggests reaching out to members of the community and local businesses who can act as mentors for projects and provide resources for projects and activities . 188

190 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT q Typical emphasis on all domains Skill Focus High use of discussion q Instructional Methods q Extensive support for family engagement Program Components For more information about programs with common features, please see Summary Tables in Section 3 . Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 7 SKILL FOCUS The SDM/PS Program is one of only four programs to offer a fairly typical emphasis on all domains relative to other programs mean), emoti onal processes (4% above the mean), program cross- (11% above the regulation : cognitive interpersonal skills (5% above the mean) , character (6% below the mean), and mindset (5% below the mean). pical Although it offers little focus on character and mindset (targeted in ≤10% of program activities each), this is ty across most programs. 7 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS 76% of program activities, the SDM/ PS Program has a high use of discussions relative to other Appearing in frequency , programs (27% above the cross -program mean). All other instructional methods are used at a typical falling within their respective cross- program mean s. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Program Relative to other programs, u nique aspects of the SDM/PS include extensive support for family engagement. While almost all programs (n=24; 96 %), including the SDM/PS Program , engage families Family Engagement: seven programs (28%) to also the SDM/PS Program is one of only -home activities, through regular updates or take ion -making skills offer support for family workshops that teach parents and guardians how to reinforce social decis at home. For a detailed breakdown of how the SDM/PS compares to other programs across all program component Program categories, please see Table 3 on p. 37- 38. 7 comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. method For more information on how skill focus and instructional 189

191 VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information SDM/PS materials can be purchased online at https://www.researchpress.com/books/702/social -decision - makingsocial -problem -solving -sdmsps. To schedule a trai ning, consultation, or workshop – or to learn more about the (BRTI) at program – please contact Behavioral Research and Training Institute Rutgers University Behavioral Health using the contact information below. (UBHC) Care Contact Information http://ubhc.rutgers.edu/sdm/index.html Website: Phone: 732- 235- 9280 [email protected] Email: 190

192 TOO GOOD FOR VIOLENC E I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT - 12 violence prevention and character education program that teaches social and Too Good for Violence is a K behaviors to help stud ents manage bullying situations as well as resolve conflicts and emotional skills, attitudes, and peacefully . Too Good for Violence offers 7 - 10 scripted lessons per grade for G rades K - 8 , with cope with frustration of characters, from animals and robots to building bridges and each grade featuring its own unique theme and/or cast Lessons last approximately 30 - 5 0 minutes and include 3 - 4 activities related to the lesson theme. reporting the news. . Developed by the Mendez Foundation 12 K - for Grades K with separate lessons for each grade Grade Range - 8 and a single set of lessons for high school Duration and 7 10 lessons ; 30 - 5 0 min /lesson - Timing awareness, social awareness, conflict Social and emotional skills: goal - setting, decision - making , self - of Focus Areas resolution, anger management, respect for self and others, and effective communication. (as stated by program) Character traits: caring, cooperation, courage, fairness, honesty, respect, responsibility, self - discipline. Additional Violence for middle and high school Social Perspectives – - Too Good for rricula Cu - School Activities - Too Good for Drugs and Violence After (not included in analysis) Evidence of One randomized control trial Effectiveness Mindset Cognitive Emotional Interpersonal Character Regulation Skills Processes Skill Focus 67 % 12 53 % 42% % % 5 Instructional play Most frequently uses discussion, role - , visual displays, and SEL tools/handouts Methods - conflict resolution and prosocial behavior on character High focus and interpersonal skills, particularly Unique Features - High use of role - play (highest) and discussion ations - Structured OST adapt 191

193 1 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS Too Good for Violence has been evaluated in one, year-long randomized control trial. The primary measures and assessments used in the study include teacher and student surveys. Grades: Grade 3 Geographic Location: Urban, suburban, rural regions of Florida Diverse Race/Ethnicity: 54% Free/Reduced Lunch: Gains in emotional competency skills, social and conflict resolution skills, communication Outcomes: skills, and prosocial behaviors Implementation Experiences: No information provided. 1 Hall & Bacon (2006) References: 192

194 2 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 3 PROGRAM FOCUS As shown in Figure 1 below, Too Good for Violence focuses primarily on interpersonal skills (targeted in 67% of program activities), followed by emotional processes (53%), character (42%), and to a much lesser extent, cognitive regulation (12%) . Too Good for Violence rarely addresses mindset (only targeted in 5% of program activities). Figure 1. Percentage of Program 3 Activities Targeting Each Domain Consideratio Developmental ns Too Good for Violence provides separate lessons for each grade. Notable differences across grades include an increasing focus on interpersonal skills as students get older, a greater focus on emotional processes in Grade 3, and a greater focus on character in Grades 1 and 5. 4 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation As shown in Figure 2 to the right, the 12% of Too Good for Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by Violence activities that build cognitive regulation most 4 Activities that Build Cognitive Regulation frequently focus on cognitive flexibility (40% of the time). For example, students might be asked to think of as many different Attention Control solutions to a problem as they can. To a lesser extent, program 27% Working Memory/Planning activities that build cognitive regulation also focus on inhibitory 40% control (33% of the time) and working memory/planning (27%), Inhibitory Control but rarely address attention control (<1% of the time). 33% Cognitive Flexibility 2 Data collected from Grades 1, 3, and 5. 3 A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not add up to 100%. 4 Proportions represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., empathy) relative to other skills in the same domain (e.g., emotion behavior/regulation, etc.). For example, if 39% of program activities build emotional processes, 40% of the time, those activities target empathy. 193

195 Emotional Processes As shown in Figure 3 to the right, the 53% of Too Good for Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by 4 Violence activities that build emotional processes most Activities that Build Emotional Processes frequently focus on emotion knowledge/expression (47% of the time), followed by empathy/perspective-taking (40 %) and Emotion Knowledge/ Expression emotion/behavior regulation (13%). For example, students might practice expressing their feelings to others with a calm 40% Emotion/Behavior 47% raille to see what it feels like to be in the shoes of tone, reading B Regulation someone who is blind, or helping a puppet use calm down Empathy/ strategies to manage its emotions. 13% Perspective-Taking Interpersonal Skills As shown in Figure 4 to the right, the 67% of Too Good for Figure 4. Frequency of Skills Targeted by Violence activities that build interpersonal skills most frequently 4 Activities that Build Interpersonal Skills focus on prosocial behavior (48% of the time) and conflict resolution (42 %). For example, students might use puppets to Understanding 10% act out how friends treat each other or to discuss the Social Cues consequences of dealing with conflict violently. Too Good for 48% Conflict Violence activities that build interpersonal skills rarely addresses Resolution understanding social cues (only 10% of the time). 42% Prosocial Behavior 5 Character The 42% of Too Good for Violence activities that build character primarily focus on celebrating and respecting differences. In younger grades this might include identifying what makes a classmate special or unique, or learning about the importance of treating others as you want to be treated. In older grades, students learn about prejudice and stereotyping as well as how to stand up for someone who is being bullied. 5 Mindset Too Good for Violence offers little to no focus on mindset (only targeted in 5% of program activities). 5 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapt ing our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are 10% of program activities. ≥ targeted by 194

196 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS The heat map in Figure 5 below provides a more detailed look at where and when Too Good for Violence addresses specific skills over the course of seven lessons, within and across different grades. The vertical progression of the map could be thought of as time, moving from one lesson to the next and one grade to the next, with the shading representing degree of concentration in a particular skill at that rough point in time. The map can be used as a programming might align with specific planning tool to help practitioners determine where Too Good for Violence academic plans, scho ol-wide programming, and social and emotional learning standards throughout the year. (Please see p. 41 for specific examples.) Figure 5. Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Targeting Each Domain and Skill by Lesson, Grade, and Program-wide Emotional Processes Interpersonal Processes Cognitive Regulation Character Mindset - / Unit Taking Control Control Conflict Mindset Emotion Working Planning Grade Behavior Behavior Prosocial Cognitive Flexibility Attention Memory Inhibitory Character Emotion / Empathy / Expression Regulation Resolution Social Cues Perspective Knowledge / Understands TIME 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 80 0 20 40 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 67 0 4 0 0 0 0 60 60 0 0 40 0 0 0 0 50 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 50 0 0 0 Grade 1 0 0 0 40 20 0 6 0 60 0 0 0 20 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 13 10 0 0 0 6 26 10 6 16 A1 42 0 A2 6 39 32 42 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 75 0 50 0 75 75 25 0 2 0 0 0 100 20 0 0 40 20 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 100 100 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 100 0 20 80 100 60 0 0 17 5 0 0 67 0 33 33 0 0 67 67 0 Grade 3 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 17 67 50 50 0 40 20 20 0 0 7 0 40 20 80 80 60 0 26 A1 6 14 3 54 9 0 20 66 63 23 11 (Developmental Progression) 74 71 A2 23 11 20 20 1 20 0 20 20 0 0 0 40 100 40 40 2 0 0 0 0 12 0 88 0 0 88 88 0 0 14 0 14 43 29 3 57 0 100 100 0 0 33 4 0 0 0 0 22 33 11 89 67 33 0 0 5 0 0 20 0 0 0 20 100 100 100 0 Grade 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 50 0 100 100 100 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 17 0 0 50 33 100 100 0 A1 0 5 0 7 20 9 39 11 64 91 61 5 A2 50 95 9 61 5 5 42 55 A1 0 3 5 5 3 4 9 26 1 3 49 Program - wide A2 12 53 67 42 5 Key Mindset Character Interpersonal Cognitive Emotional 100 100 100 100 0 0 0 100 0 0 = A1 Total % of program activities targeting each skill (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution , etc. ) A2 = Total % of program activities targeting each domain (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, etc.) 195

197 6 PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION . Figure 6 P ercentage of Program Activities 6 Employing Each Teaching Method As shown in Figure 6 to the right, Too Good for Violence most frequently uses discussion (65% of the time), followed by role-play (29%), visual displays (16%), and SEL tool/handouts (15%) . Discussions are used throughout each lesson to reinforce new topics and to reflect on stories or role-plays. Role-plays, which appear more frequently in the earlier grades, typically involve the teacher acting out or describing imaginary events experienced by a puppet or other another personified toy, like a robot. In Grade 5, role- plays more often involve students acting out scenarios that they themselves might experience in . All other instructional methods appear in less real life than 10% of program activities. 6 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the proportions of program activities employing each instructional method may not add up to 100%. 196

198 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons x Every lesson includes a list of supplemental books, songs, and videos as well as optional academic extender activities that infuse lesson concepts into subject areas such as math, language arts, music, art, science, and more. Climate and Culture Supports x Adults are encouraged to model and reinforce lesson concepts on the playground, in the lunchroom, and throughout the school day. x Too Good for Violence provides teachers with tips for speaking about violence and drugs in a way that avoids normalizing problem behaviors and reinforces positive messages. x – Staff Development curriculum (see Professional Development and Training) is The Too Good for Drugs & Violence also designed to provide staff with the resources and skills to build a school climate that reduces risk factors and supports student resiliency. Applications to Out- of-School Time x es kit extends the in-school Too Good for The separate Too Good for Drugs and Violence After-School Activiti Violence and Too Good for Drugs programs into the afterschool space. The kit contains 60 age-differentiated activities such as games, stories, and songs that reinforce broad prevention concepts such as decision-making, goal- setting, and conflict resolution. Adapt ability Program x No information provided. Professional Development and Training Too Good for Violence offers x recommended Curriculum Training that introduces staff to the program and teaches a them how to deliver the curriculum and employ evidence based prevention strategies. The training is available in - - a fully customizable on two forms: site training for 10 40 peo ple or a flexible open training that features 1 - 3 days of - hands - on curriculum training in a group environment. day Training of Trainers session for staff tasked with training others in their school, district, or x A comprehensive, one - community is also avail able . Prerequisites include Curriculum Training and experience delivering the program. oo Good for Violence also offers t he Too Good for Drugs & Violence – Staff Development curriculum, a 10 - session x T rs, and other staff to create classroom and school climates program that supports administrators, teachers, counselo that reduce risk factors and support student resiliency. Support for Implementation x Lessons are scripted with support for teacher modeling embedded in the script. x Too Good for Violence also offers detailed instructions for leading role - plays . Tools to Assess Program Outcomes a student behavior checklist that teachers use to rate students on a set of x social and Too Good for Violence offers erved over a two - week period, as well as a student survey on which emotional skills and social behaviors obs students report their own thoughts, feelings, and behavior . choice test Too Good for Violence also includes a multiple - x for students that measures their underst anding of program concepts. prior to and following program delivery and may vary based on grade. ed x Al l assessments should be deliver 19 7

199 Tools to Assess Implementation x The program offers a variety of tools that can be used to improve quality and fidelity of implementation and provide feedback to staff, including a teacher implementation survey and classroom observation form. Family Engagement x Each lesson includes a take-home worksheet that contains information and exercises for parents and students to do together at home. x Too Good for Violence suggests involving families by hosting informational meetings, sending home letters, hosting family events like conflict resolution fairs, inviting parents to volunteer during lessons or events, and conducting parent surveys; however, they provide little support for doing so. x Too Good for Violence also contains recommendations for offering a prevention-oriented parenting program and/or establishing a parent resource center or lending library with recommended curricular and parenting resources. x A list of external resources is also provided for teachers interested in learning more about involving parents i n prevention. Community Engagement x The curriculum guide provides general tips for promoting community involvement and includes a list of books, manuals, reports, and youth development organizations that offer more specific information on how to build community support. 198

200 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT ‰ High focus on character Skill Focus ‰ Moderately high focus on interpersonal skills, particularly conflict resolution and prosocial behavior Highest use of role-play ‰ Instructional Methods Moderately high use of discussion ‰ ‰ Comprehensive OST adaptations Program Components For more information about programs with common features, please see Summary Tables in Section 3. Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 7 SKILL FOCUS Relative to other programs, Too Good for Violence places a high emphasis on character (26% above the cross-program mean). It also has a moderately high focus on interpersonal skills (17% above the mean) due to its high focus on conflict resolution (36% above the mean) and prosocial behavior (17% above the mean). Too Good for Violence provides a typical focus on cognitive regulation (13% below the mean), emotional processes (16% above the mean), and mindset (equal to the mean). 7 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS Too Good for Violence has the highest use of role-play of all 25 programs (21% above the cross-program mean), as early grades frequently use puppets or other characters to teach students new skills. It also has a moderately high use of discussion (15% above the mean). PROGRAM COMPONENTS Relative to other programs, unique aspects of Too Good for Violence include its comprehensive out- of-school time (OST) adaptations. Applications to OST: While approximately half of all programs (n=14; 56%) are either designed to be applicable to – or OST settings, Too Good for Violence is one of only two non-OST programs (8%), have been successfully adopted in – along with Mutt-i-grees, to offer separate, structured activities for OST contexts. For a detailed breakdown of how Too Good for Violence compares to other programs across all program component 37-38. categories, please see Table 3 on p. 7 For more information on how skill focus and instructional method comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. 199

201 VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information Too Good for Violence can be purchased online at http://www.toogoodprograms.org/too-good-programs.html . For more information about the program, please use the contact information provided below. Contact Information Website: http://www.toogoodprograms.org/ Phone: 678 - 0986 791 - 0865 or 1 - 800 - 750 - Email: [email protected] 200

202 WE HAVE SKILLS I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT We Have Skills is a video b ased social skills program for G rades K - 3 designed to facilitate positive behavior and - learning in the classroom by teaching seven behavioral skills that research shows teachers want to see in their - minute lessons to be taught once a week, followed by 3 - students. The program features eight 20 5 opportunities for additional skill practice throughout the day and an end - of - day review . Each lesson focuses on a single social skill ped and includes a review, introduction, discussion, instructional video, skill practice, and teacher feedback. Develo by IRIS Educational Media with funding from the Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences (IES) . Grade Range K - 3 with one set of lessons for all ages Duration and 8 weeks; 1 lesson/week; 20 min /lesson; 3 - 5 opportunities for additional skill practice Timing Areas of Focus How to listen, follow directions, do the best you can, ask for help, follow rules, manage strong feelings, (as stated by and get along with others program) Additional Curricula No additional or su pplementary curricula available (not included in analysis) Evidence of One randomized control trial Effectiveness Mindset Emotional Interpersonal Cognitive Character Skills Regulation Processes Skill Focus 16% 32% 51% 32% 59% Instructional Most frequently uses discussion, visual displays, and skill practice Methods , and cognitive regulation, , character, understanding social cues, prosocial behavior - High focus on mindset (highest) particularly working memory/planning Low focus on emotional processes - Unique Features High use of videos - and songs (highest) Relative to - Required supplementary activities in addition to core lessons Other Programs - Optional professional development and training - No support for academic integration support for climate/culture - No 201

203 1 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS We Have Skills has been evaluated in one randomized control trial. The primary measures and assessments used in this study include teacher student- and self-reports and a teacher survey. An IES funded 4-year randomized control trial is currently underway. Results from the most recent study are summarized below. Grades: K - 3 Geographic Location: California, Washington, Oregon Race/Ethnicity: Diverse 41 Free/Reduced Lunch: - 88% x Gains in desirable behaviors among students Outcomes: x Improved teacher self-efficacy 100% of participating teachers said they would use the program in their classroom and x recommend it to others . Implementation Experiences: x 43% of teachers reported spending 3 or more hours delivering the program over th e course of 8 weeks, while 34% reported spending one hour or less. 1 Marquez et al. (2014) References: 202

204 2 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 3 PROGRAM FOCUS As shown in Figure 1 below, We Have Skills activities most frequently focus on interpersonal skills (targeted by 59% of program activities) and cognitive regulation (51%). To a lesser extent, the program also targets character and mindset (32% each) . Few activities target emotional processes (16%). Figure 1. Percentage of Program 3 Activities Targeting Each Domain Considerations Developmental We Have Skills provides one set of lessons for Grades K - 3. 4 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation As shown in Figure 2 to the right, the 51% of We Have Skills Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by activities that build cognitive regulation primarily focus on 4 Activities that Build Cognitive Regulation working memory/planning (70% of the time), followed to a 2% much lesser extent by attention control (15%) and inhibitory Attention Control control (13%). For example, cognitive skills are primarily 15% 13% targeted in early lessons that teach skills such as remembering Working Memory/Planning and following directions or ignoring distractions and waiting Inhibitory Control your turn in order to be a good listener. We Have Skills activities that build cognitive regulation rarely address cognitive flexibility Cognitive Flexibility 70% 2% of the time). (only 2 Data collected from Grades 1-3. 3 A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not add up to 100%. 4 Proportions represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., attention control) relative to other skills in the same domain (e.g., inhibitory control, etc.). For example, if 51% of program activities build cognitive regulation, 15% of the time, those activities target attention control. 203

205 Emotional Processes As shown in Figure 3 to the right, the 16% of We Have Skills Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by activities that target emotional processes most frequently focus 4 Activities that Build Emotional Processes on emotion/behavior regulation (50% of the time), followed by emotion knowledge/expression (42%) . Emotional skills are Emotion Knowledge/ 8% Expression primarily addressed in Lesson 8: Working Out Strong Feelings, during which students discuss strong feelings and learn calming 42% Emotion/Behavior strategies to help manage them. We Have Skills activities that Regulation build emotional processes rarely address empathy/ perspective- 50% Empathy/ of the time 8% taking (only ). Perspective-Taking Interpersonal Skills As shown in Figure 4 to the right, the 59% of We Have Skills Figure 4. Frequency of Skills Targeted by activities that build interpersonal skills most frequently focus on 4 Activities that Build Interpersonal Skills prosocial behavior (67% of the time), followed by understanding . For example, a lesson on getting along may social cues (28%) Understanding ask students to practice giving compliments to their classmates Social Cues 28% using compliment cards. We Have Skills activities that build Conflict 5% of interpersonal skills rarely address conflict resolution (only Resolution of the time). 67% 5% Prosocial Behavior 5 Character The 32% of We Have Skills activities that build character primarily focus on persistence and respect. For example, students might practice doing the best they can while working on a difficult task or role-play how to ask for help respectfully. 5 Mindset The 32% of We Have Skills activities that build mindset primarily focus on reminding students that they can improve through practice. For example, students begin and end every lesson by chanting, “The more you practice, the better you get!” In addition, Lesson 3: Doing the Best You Can teaches students about the importance of approaching difficult tasks with a positive attitude by having them discuss how every difficult task is a learning opportunity. 5 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapt ing our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are 10% of program activities. ≥ targeted by 204

206 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS The heat map in Figure 5 below provides a more detailed look at where and when We Have Skills addresses specific skills over the course of eight weeks. The vertical progression of the map could be thought of as time, moving from one lesson to the next, with the shading representing degree of concentration in a particular skill at that rough point in time. The map can be used as a planning tool to help practitioners determine where We Have Skills programming ol-wide programming, and social and emotional learning standards might align with specific academic plans, scho throughout the year. (Please see p. 41 for specific examples.) Figure 5. Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Targeting Each Domain and Skill by Lesson and Program-wide Cognitive Regulation Emotional Processes Interpersonal Processes Character Mindset - Taking Control Control Conflict Mindset Emotion Working Planning Grade Behavior Behavior Prosocial Cognitive Flexibility Attention Inhibitory Lesson Character Emotion / Memory / Empathy / Regulation Resolution Expression Social Cues Perspective Knowledge / Understands TIME 67 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 64 27 27 0 0 0 9 73 0 82 0 27 0 3 8 83 17 8 0 0 25 0 25 0 25 3 - 42 4 0 50 8 0 0 8 0 8 0 8 75 25 5 0 58 8 0 0 8 0 17 0 83 33 Grades K 6 0 64 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 91 45 27 7 0 23 0 0 0 0 8 23 31 92 69 23 (Developmental Progression) 8 0 25 0 0 83 83 0 25 0 33 17 25 4 32 32 A1 9 42 8 1 11 13 2 23 53 Program wide - A2 51 16 59 32 32 Key Minds et Character Emotiona l Interpersonal Cognitive 0 0 100 0 100 100 0 100 100 0 Total % of program activities targeting each skill (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution , etc. ) A1 = (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, etc.) Total % of program activities targeting each domain = A2 205

207 6 PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION . Figure 6 P ercentage of Program Activities 6 Employing Each Teaching Method As shown in Figure 6 to the right, discussion is the most frequently used instructional method in We Have Skills (used in 51% of program activities), followed by visual displays and skill practice . Each lesson includes discussions that provide opportunities to review concepts, reflect on new concepts, talk . To a about skill practice, and summarize content lesser extent, We Have Skills uses visual displays such as cards that remind students of lesson skills as part of problem-solving discussions. Each lesson also includes an opportunity for direct skill practice, and teachers are encouraged to incorporate an additional 3-5 opportunities for skill practice each day. All other instructional methods appear in 10% or less of We Have Skills activities. 6 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the proportions of program activities employing each instructional method may not add up to 100%. 206

208 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons x Each lesson should be accompanied by a review of its associated skill at the end of the school day , as well as an additional 3 - 5 opportunities for skill practice activities throughout the day. a list of suggested Each lesson includes such as problem - solving discussions, role - play, songs, read alouds, games, and coloring for additional skill practice, pag es that can be integrated into class instruction, transitions, or small group instruction. x These activities can also be used to provide targeted support for students with behavior challenges or those who require additional practice. Extra support should in clude 15 - 30 minutes of small group instruction each week, led by a teacher, behavior specialist, or a trained staff person. Climate and Culture Supports x No information provided. Applications to Out - of - School Time x No OST adapt ations provided. Program Adaptability x We Have Skills is designed to align with Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and Response to Intervention (RTI) support systems. Professional Development and Training x Training is optional, and program sites may request on - site group trainings on the irisEd website . Support for Implementation x Lessons are structured, but not scripted, and lesson videos provide support for teacher modeling. We Have Skills provides a reference list of academic articles on effective instructional techniques for social skill x development. Tools to Assess Student Outcomes x Program sites may purchase the Elementary Social Behavior Assessment (ESBA) to monitor student progress and identify those who might require extra support. Teachers use the ESBA to rate students on 12 prosocial behaviors. - The measure was developed by irisEd and can be used with K 6 students across multiple populations, including uage learners . general education students, students with disabilities, and English lang Tools to Assess Implementation x No information provided. Family Engagement We Have Skills x he different social skills that children includes an introductory family letter that informs parents of t will learn throughout the year and provides tips for reinforcing lesson content at home. at home. The booklets reinforce lesson x Each lesson includes a skill booklet for parents and students to put together ild’s learning. concepts and engage parents in their ch x Teachers also send home “Happy Notices” and skill certificates at the end of each week to inform parents of their child’s progress. Community Engagement No information provided. x 207

209 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT ‰ High focus on mindset and cognitive regulation Skill Focus ‰ Highest focus on working memory/planning Moderately high focus on character, understanding social cues, and ‰ prosocial behavior Low focus on emotional processes ‰ videos Highest use of ‰ Instructional Methods ‰ Moderately high use of songs ‰ Extensive classroom activities beyond core lessons Program Components ‰ Less intensive professional development and training ‰ No explicit support for academic integration or climate/culture For more information about programs with common features, please see Summary Tables in Section 3. Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 7 SKILL FOCUS Relative to other programs, We Have Skills provides a high focus on cognitive regulation (26% above the cross- program mean) due to its strong focus on working memory/planning (31% above the mean) . It offers the highest emphasis on working memory/planning of all 25 programs. We Have Skills also has a high focus on mindset (27% above the mean) as well as a moderately high focus on character (16% above the mean). We Have Skills has a typical focus on interpersonal skills (9% above the mean); however, it has a moderately high focus on understanding social cues (14% above the mean) and prosocial behavior (15% above the mean). It has a low focus on emotional processes (21% below the mean). 7 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS As a video-based program, We Have Skills has the highest use of videos of all 25 programs (8% above the cross- program mean) and a moderately high use of songs (8% above the mean), despite only using videos and songs in approximately 10% of program activities each. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Relative to other programs, unique aspects of We Have Skills include required supplementary activities and less intensive professional development and training. Wh ile a majority of programs (n=22 ; 88%) suggest or provide some form of Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons: supplementary lessons/activities in addition to core lessons, most do not require that they be used. We Have Skills is one of only four programs (16%) to include highly integral supplementary activities, requiring that students be provided with 3-5 opportunities to engage in additional skill practice outside of regular lessons. 7 For more information on how skill focus and instructional method comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. 208

210 Professional Development and Training: All programs (n=25; 100%) provide some form of professional development and training; however, while most (n=17; 68%) require training, We Have Skills trainings are optional. We Have Skills also offers less support for academic integration and climate and culture than most other programs (n=19; 76% and n=23; 92%, respectively). For a detailed breakdown of how We Have Skills compares to other programs across all program component categories, please see Table 3 on p. 37-38. VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information . For more information We Have Skills resources can be purchased online at https://www.irised.com/pages/shop about the program, please use the contact information provided below. Contact Information https://www.irised.com/products/we- Website: have -skills -4747 Phone: 1- 877 -343 209

211 WISE SKILLS I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT Wise Skills is a K-12 character education and social and emotional learning program designed to develop character, social and emotional skills, resilience, grit, and positive school climate by using the words and lives of diverse historical figures to help students learn to make positive, healthy choices based on principles of character. The elementary program is comprised of two curricula: Wise Words for Grades K-2 and Wise Quotes for Grades 3-5. Both include 32 weekly skills divided into eight monthly character themes and are designed to provide teachers with a flexible menu of activities to develop character throughout the school year. Each skill includes several discussion topics, classroom activities, role-plays, and journal writing exercises. Teachers are encouraged to conduct 3-4 daily activities or discussions per week, spending 10-15 minutes per activity, for the duration of the school year. Developed by Twenty First Century Minds LLC. K - 12 with separate lessons for Grades K - 2, Grades 3 - 5, G rade s 6 - 8, and G rades 9 - 12 Grade Range Duration and - /activity 32 weeks; 3 4 activities/week; 10 - 15 min Timing of Focus Areas discipline, relationships, personal goals, citizenship, and - Positive attitude, respect, responsibility, self (as stated by conflict resolution program) Additional 8 - - Wise Lives for Grades 6 Curricula - Wisdom for Life for G rades 9 - 12 (not included in analysis) Evidence of No eval uations are currently available Effectiveness Mindset Emotional Interpersonal Cognitive Character Regulation Skills Processes Skill Focus 17% 52% 9% 18% 40% Instructional activities Most frequently uses discussion and writing Methods - High focus on character and mindset - Low focus on cognitive regulation and emotional processes, particularly emotion knowledge/expression Unique Features High use of writing activities and vocabulary - Relative to - Highly f lexible program structure Other Programs - Optional professional development and training - Structured opportunities for community engagement 210

212 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS No evaluations of Wise Skills are currently available. Grades: N/A Geographic Location: N/A Race/Ethnicity: N/A Free/Reduced Lunch: N/A Outcomes: N/A N/A Implementation Experiences: 211

213 1 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 2 PROGRAM FOCUS As shown in Figure 1 below, Wise Skills predominantly focuses on character (targeted in 52% of program activities) and interpersonal skills (40%), while fewer activities target mindset (18%) and emotional processes (17%). Wise Skills rarely builds cognitive regulation (9%). Figure 1. Percentage of Program 2 Activities Targeting Each Domain Considerations Developmental Wise Skills offers separate les - 2 and sons for Grades K Grades 3 - 5. There are few notable differences in domain focus across grades. 3 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation Wise Skills provides little focus on cognitive regulation (only targeted in 9% of program activities). Emotional Processes Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by As shown in Figure 2 to the right, the 17% of Wise Skills activities 3 Activities that Build Emotional Processes that build emotional processes most frequently focus on emotion knowledge/expression (45% of the ti me), followed by empathy/ Emotion Knowledge/ perspective taking (35%) and emotion behavior/regulation (20%). Expression For example, students might be asked to discuss the importance 35% Emotion/Behavior 45% of using “I” statements during disagreements, create skits to show Regulation how someone might manage their feelings in a positive way, or list the different ways people have showed them compassion Empathy/ 20% when they were in need. Perspective-Taking 1 Data collected from Grades K-2 and 3-5. 2 A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not add up to 100%. 3 Proportions represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., empathy) relative to other skills in the same domain (e.g., emotion/behavior regulation, etc.). For example, if 17% of program activities build emotional processes, 35% of the time, those activities target empathy. 212

214 Interpersonal Skills As shown in Figure 3 to the right, the 40% of Wise Skills activities Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by that build interpersonal skills most frequently focus on prosocial 3 Activities that Build Interpersonal Skills behavior ( 63% of the time), followed by conflict resolution 1% (36%) . For example, students might interview their peers about Understanding when they have had to cooperate with others to get something Social Cues done or act out how two characters in a scenario might resolve 36% Conflict a conflict peacefully and responsibly. Wise Skills activities that Resolution build interpersonal skills rarely address understanding social 63% Prosocial 1% of the time) cues (only . Behavior 4 Character As a character-based program, Wise Skills builds character in 52% of program activities and primarily focus es on teaching the skills and behaviors associated with values such as respect, responsibility, perseverance, patience, honesty, courage, compassion, humility, citizenship, and forgiveness. Activities that build these skills might ask students to write a short story in which a character shows respect or disrespect for someone, share with a partner the ways they are dependable at home, or act out scenarios in which characters have the opportunity to be honest or dishonest. 4 Mindset The 18% of Wise Skills activities that address mindset primarily focus on building self-confidence and a positive attitude, including teaching students how to identify personal strengths, learn from challenges, develop hopes and dreams for the future, use positive speech, think positive thoughts, and express thanks. Activities that build these skills might ask students to identify whether certain popular songs produce negative or positive thoughts and attitudes, write about something for which they are thankful, discuss the positive aspects of facing a challenge, or make a list of their unique talents or the dreams they have for their future. 4 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapt ing our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are targeted by 10% of program activities. ≥ 213

215 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS The heat map in Figure 4 below provides a more detailed look at where and when Wise Skills addresses specific skills over the course of the school year, within and across different grades. The vertical progression of the map could be thought of as time, moving from one unit to the next and one grade to the next, with the shading representing degree of concentration in a particular skill at that rough point in time. The map can be used as a planning tool to help practitioners determine where Wise Skills programming might align with specific academic plans, scho ol-wide programming, and social and emotional learning standards throughout the year. (Please see p. 41 for specific examples.) Figure 4. Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Targeting Each Domain and Skill by Unit, Grade, and Program-wide Interpersonal Processes Character Mindset Cognitive Regulation Emotional Processes - Unit Taking Control Control Conflict Mindset Working Emotion Planning Grade Behavior Behavior Prosocial Cognitive Flexibility Attention Inhibitory Character Emotion / Memory / Empathy / Regulation Resolution Expression Social Cues Perspective Knowledge / Understands TIME 0 1 0 0 0 14 9 11 9 2 30 16 64 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 0 0 40 79 19 0 3 0 0 0 6 0 4 0 0 28 85 2 11 87 4 0 0 38 0 4 4 9 0 0 13 2 - 0 0 0 0 7 0 9 0 13 69 51 4 5 s K 0 29 0 0 4 0 7 0 0 9 27 64 6 Grade 0 0 0 0 11 0 34 7 2 0 30 77 5 8 1 0 1 0 20 16 4 0 75 48 22 2 10 3 5 0 10 5 0 1 17 35 53 19 A1 19 A2 8 21 43 53 74 15 21 0 1 0 0 5 0 7 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 0 0 3 27 78 12 3 3 0 0 0 2 8 0 2 0 0 34 80 (Developmental Progression) 89 4 11 4 0 0 41 0 0 2 0 0 11 5 - 3 5 0 0 0 2 7 0 3 0 13 58 60 3 s 0 34 0 2 5 0 6 0 0 0 11 23 45 Grade 7 0 0 0 0 7 0 20 0 3 26 70 3 8 0 2 0 15 16 3 0 72 17 21 3 0 4 A1 4 5 1 7 3 0 0 17 25 52 18 A2 10 13 38 52 18 17 18 52 A1 0 3 5 0 8 4 7 1 30 Program wide - A2 9 17 40 52 18 Key Mindset Character Cognitive Interpersonal Emotional 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 program activities targeting each skill A1 ) , etc. (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution = of Total % = domain (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, etc.) A2 Total % of program activities targeting each 214

216 5 PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION P Figure 5. ercentage of Program Activities 5 Employing Each Teaching Method As shown in Figure 5 to the right, discussions are the most commonly used instructional method in Wise Skills (used in 61% of program activities), followed by writing (31%) . Each lesson typically includes 3- 5 potential discussion topics related to the lesson . In addition, each lesson typically includes 2- theme 3 with additional , short journaling activities opportunities to engage in more complex writing present in later grades . For example, older students might be asked to compose short stories related to the lesson theme. All other instructional methods are used in ≤ 10% of Wise Skills activities. 5 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the 0%. proportions of program activities employing each instructional method may not add up to 10 215

217 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons x Wise Skills is designed to provide teachers with a flexible array of classroom activities. E ach monthly theme includes related service learning projects, discussions of how the theme is portrayed in television, music, and movies; and interdisciplinary proj ects that integrate the theme into different subject areas, including language arts, social studies, math, science, the arts, health, and physical education. x The program also provides specific resources for integrating character into language arts and his tory , including brief biographies for 42 highlight ing their positive ch aracter qualities; a series of simple writing, diverse historical figures s quotes from historical figure s related to the lesson t heme; drawing, and interviewing activities that explore famou and journal exercises that help students relate lesson concepts to situations from their own lives, community service, and careers . x Wise Skills offers Peer Mediation activities comprised of role - plays and activity sheets that can be used to train older students to be peer mediators or to help familiarize younger students with conflict resolution skills. Climate and Culture Supports x ive character Wise Skills encourages school staff to use a common language to regularly communicate posit messages and provide opportunities to reinforce skills throughout the school day. T eachers are encouraged to use current theme around the school. faculty meetings to discuss ways to model and demonstrate the The supplementary Administrator’s Handbook x also includes suggestions for school - wide activities that reinforce the classroom curriculum, including special events and programs, kick - off events, contests and awards, service learning projects, PA announcements, and visual displays . - of Applications to Out School Time - No OST adapt ations provided. x Adapt to Local Context ability x Wise Skills is designed to provide teachers with a flexible array of classroom activities that can be tailored and modified to meet particular needs of a sch ool, district, or organization. x It can be easily integrated into language arts and social studies curricula or used in conjunction with other character . education programs, particularly Character Counts Professional Development and Training day, interactive workshop that covers the program’s school, community, x Wise Skills LIVE Training is a n optional, one - and family components . Character Acros s - is an optional training that - Curriculum Training x helps teachers more intensively develop the practi cal strategies for connecting their subject area to relevant character issues . x Special custom trainings can also be designed to help a school develop specific areas of their character educ ation program. x The Family Wisdom and Community Connections kits also include resources that can be used to train staff and volunteers on how to use the materials. 216

218 Support for Implementation x Skills Coordinator and a Leadership Team made u p of educators and Schools are encouraged to establish a Wise outlines general responsibilities for the Wise volunteers who wide activities. Wise Skills plan and facilitate school - Skills Coordinator, as well as the principal, teachers, counselors, family coordinato rs, and volunteer coordinators. x Wise Skills also provides an implem guidelines for three implementation phases: entation flow chart that includes - implementation, and evaluation. preparation, The supplementary Administrator’s Handbook also x provides implementation guidelines and staff development resources that support a com prehensive program involving schools, family, and the community . Tools to Assess Program Outcomes No formal assessments are provided, but teachers are encouraged to assess students on their ability to memorize x and recite historical quotes related to the weekly theme. Tools to Assess Implementation x No information provided. Family Engagement The curriculum includes at least one take - home writing activity per weekly skill that promotes regular parent - child x interaction. Program sites may also purchase a x , which includes 200+ newsletters and activity Family Wisdom Implementation Kit to 15 - minute interactive activities include art projects, writing, - pages that can be used to engage families. The 10 and more that families can do together at home to reinforce concepts learned in school and interviews, discussions, . encourage parents to reflect on their own character Community Engagement , which includes resources for Program sites may purchase a Community Connections Kit x coordinating community service projects and hosting a career speaker series comprised of individuals from the local community who share about different careers and how good character helped them find personal and professional success . 217

219 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT ‰ High focus on character Skill Focus ‰ Moderately high focus on mindset ‰ Low focus on emotional processes, particularly emotion knowledge/expression ‰ Moderately low focus on cognitive regulation High use of writing activities ‰ Instructional Methods ‰ Moderately high use of vocabulary ‰ Highly flexible program structure Program Components Less intensive professional development and training ‰ Comprehensive support for community engagement ‰ Summary Tables in Section 3. For more information about programs with common features, please see Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 6 SKILL FOCUS As a character focused program, Wise Skills places a high emphasis on character (36% above the cross-program mean) as well as a moderately high emphasis on mindset (13% above the mean). Relative to other programs, Wise Skills places little emphasis on emotional processes (20% below the mean), particularly emotion knowledge/expression (17% below the mean). The program also has a moderately low focus on cognitive regulation (16% below the mean). Wise Skills provides a typical focus on interpersonal skills (10% below the mean). 6 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS Because Wise Skills provides multiple opportunities for journaling, it offers a high use of writing activities relative to other programs (28% above the cross-program mean), as well as a moderately high use of vocabulary (4% above the mean). PROGRAM COMPONENTS Relative to other programs, unique aspects of Wise Skills include a highly flexible program structure, less intensive professional development and training, and comprehensive support for community engagement. While almost all programs (n=24; 96%) allow facilitators to adapt lesson timing, Adaptability to Local Context: context, or content to meet local needs, Wise Skills is one of only two programs (8%), along with Character First, that offer the freedom to piece together lesson content from a menu of possible activities. Rather than providing lessons that follow a prescribed sequence of activities like most programs , Wise Skills instead enables facilitators to choose from a wide range of activities related to the lesson theme, to be combined or used separately as needed. Professional Development and Training: All programs (n=25; 100%) provide some form of professional development and training; however, while most (n=17; 68%) require training, Wise Skills trainings are optional. 6 For more information on how skill focus and instructional method comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. 218

220 provide structured activities for Only seven programs (28%), including Wise Skills, Community Engagement: community engagement. While a majority of programs include little to no support, Wise Skills offers a Community Connections Kit to help connect students to their community and engage in short community service projects. For a detailed breakdown of how Wise Skills compares to other programs across all program component categories, please see Table 3 on p. 37- 38. VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information http://www.wiseskills.com/collections/companion- Wise Skills resources can be purchased online at materials/companion-materials . For more information about the program, please use the contact information provided below. Contact Information http://www.wiseskills.com Website: Phone: 1- 888 -860 -0356, ext. 1 [email protected] Email: 219

221 : IN-SCHOOL , NON CUR RICULAR APPROACHES TO SEL PROGRAM PROFILES The following pages provide a detailed summary for each of the 4 in-school, noncurricular approaches to SEL. 4 In - School, Noncurricular Approaches to SEL 240 Conscious Discipline p. 221 Playworks p. sive Classroom Good Behavior Game p. 231 Respon 50 p. 2 220

222 CONSCIOUS DISCIPLINE I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT Conscious Discipline is an early childhood social and emotional learning program that integrates social and emotional learning with classroom management. It is designed to modify teacher and child behavior in order to build a school and classroom culture built on safety, connection, and problem-solving instead of external rewards and punishment. Conscious Discipline consists of a philosophy, common language, and set of behavior management strategies/positive discipline techniques that help adults manage their thoughts, feelings, and actions in the face of daily stressors, as well as teach these skills to students. The program includes seven sections that align wi th Conscious Discipline’s seven core skills, with one section taught per month. The seven skills include: composure, encouragement, assertiveness, choices, positive intent, empathy, and consequences. Instead of scripted lessons delivered as a discrete component of the day, each section is taught through associated classroom structures, rituals, or routines designed to set behavioral expectations, build school and classroom connectedness, and scaffold social and emotional skill development during everyday teachable moments. Teachers learn and model these skills in their classrooms through intensive teacher training and self-study, as well as ongoing coaching and support. Program materials include a variety of adult-focused professional development books and classroom resources that support student social and emotional skills. Conscious Discipline also offers add- on curricula, including the year-long Feeling Buddies 1 The Feeling Buddies curriculum helps students learn to understand and label their Curriculum for students in PreK-Grade 2. emotions, employ calming strategies, and use problem-solving techniques to handle strong emotions by having students teach the to plush “Feeling Buddies.” The curriculum includes 30 lessons to be delivered twice a week f skills or 20 minutes each. Conscious Discipline has been recognized by SAMHSA NREPP and was developed by Dr. Becky Bailey, Ph.D. - Overall program: Ages 0 - 12 Grade Range - Feeling Buddies Curriculum: PreK - Grade2 - going infusion throughout everyday interactions - Overall program: Multi year Duration and ; on - Timing Feeling Buddies Curriculum: 15 w eeks; 2 lessons/week; 20 min /lesson - n: Composure (anger management and delay of gratification), encouragement (pros ocial For adults and childre Areas of Focus skills: kindness, caring, and helpfulness), a ssertiveness (bully prevention and healthy boundaries), choices (as stated by empathy (emotional regul taking), positive intent (impulse control and goal achievement), - ation and perspective program) (cooperati on and problem - solving), and consequences (learning from mistakes) Additional Curricula Baby Doll Circle Time for ages 0 - 5 (not included in analysis) Evidence of experimental studies Experimental and non - Effectiveness Mindset Cognitive Emotional Character Interpersonal Processes Regulation Skills Skill Focus 4% 14% 75% 54% 7% Instructional Most frequently uses songs, visual display s , skill practice, discussion, and role - play Methods - High emphasis on emotional processes , especially emotion/behavior regulation and emotion knowledge/expression - Low emphasis on character ariety of instructional methods Greater v - Unique Features and skill practice - High use of songs Relative to Other - Low use of discussion Programs - Flexible, non curricular approach - - building Dual focus on child and adult skill - Provides tools to assess adult outcomes - Extensive support for climate/culture 1 Feeling Buddies curriculum is not a required component of Conscious Discipline but was included in our analysis due to its ability to be used as a structured curriculum in conjunction with the broader Conscious Discipline program. 221

223 2 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS Conscious Discipline has been evaluated in multiple studies, including one experimental and two non-experimental studies. The primary measures and assessments used in these studies include teacher reports and surveys. Study results are summarized below. 6 PreK - Grades: Geographic Location: Diverse regions in Florida, Intermountain West Race/Ethnicity: Diverse Free/Reduced Lunch: Diverse aggression, hype Outcomes: Reductions in ractivity, and conduct problems x In one study, 94% of preschool teachers reported that they liked the program and 76% reported believing that it improves their students ’ social and emotional functioning. O nly 59% reported that students enjoyed program activities/spontaneously used skills Implementation Experiences: they learned. x T eachers reported that the program helped them regulate their emotions . 2 ; Hoffman, L. L., Hutchinson, C. J., & Reiss, E. (2009) . References: Caldarella, P., Page, N. W., & Gunter, L. (2012) ; Hoffman, L. L., Hutchinson, C. J., & Reiss, E. (2005) 222

224 3 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 4 PROGRAM FOCUS As shown in Figure 1 below, Conscious Discipline activities have a primary focus on emotional processes (targeted by 75% of program activities), followed by interpersonal skills (54%) and, to a much lesser extent, cognitive regulation le to no emphasis on character or mindset (each targeted in ≤7% of program (14%). The program provides litt activities). Figure 1. Percentage of Program Activities 4 Targeting Each Domain Considerations Developmental Conscious Discip - 12, line is designed for children aged 0 for diverse and the program provides products fancy through late developmental stages from in More information about which products are adolescence. appropriate for various age groups can be found on the Conscious Discipline website. 5 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation As shown in Figure 2 to the right, the 14% of Conscious Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by 5 Discipline activities that build cognitive regulation most Activities that Build Cognitive Regulation frequently focus on working memory/planning (53% of the time). An activity that targets this skill might include following a Attention Control set of sequenced self-regulation steps in order to achieve a 12% 24% Working Memory/Planning behavioral goal. To a lesser extent, Conscious Discipline also 12% es on attention control (24%), inhibitory control (12%), and focus Inhibitory Control cognitive flexibility (12%). Cognitive Flexibility 53% 3 Materials analyzed include (1 ) child-centered routines, rituals, classroom structures, and tools from the 7 Skills and Safe Space poster sets, the self-control board, and the School Family Make-N-Take CD-ROM, and (2) the Feeling Buddies Self- Regulation Curriculum for PreK-Grade 2. 4 A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not add up to 100%. 5 Proportions represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., attention control) relative to other skills in the same domain (e.g., inhibitory control etc.). For example, if 14% of program activities target cognitive regulation, 24% of the time, those activities build attention control. 223

225 Emotional Processes As shown in Figure 3 to the right, the 75% of Conscious Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by Discipline activities that build emotional processes focus 5 Activities that Build Emotional Processes primarily on emotion knowledge/expression (50% of the time ) 3% and emotion/behavior regulation (47%). It is important to note, Emotion Knowledge/ Expression however, that the everyday rituals, routines, and structures that make up a majority of the program tend to focus more on Emotion/Behavior emotion/behavior regulation than emotion knowledge/ 50% Regulation 47% expression, which is a larger focus of the Feeling Buddies Empathy/ Curriculum. Activities that build these skills might include acting Perspective-Taking out the facial expression and tone of voice one might use when upset during a Feeling Buddies lesson, or using the classroom Safe Space to calm down when they are feeling upset. Conscious Discipline activities that build emotional processes rarely address empathy/perspective-taking (only 3% of the time ). Interpersonal Skills As shown in Figure 4 to the right, the 54% of Conscious Discipline Figure 4. Frequency of Skills Targeted by activities that build interpersonal skills most frequently focus on 5 Activities that Build Interpersonal Skills prosocial behavior (47% of the time), followed to a lesser extent by understanding social cues (37%) and conflict resolution (17%). Understanding An activity that builds prosocial skills might include using picture Social Cues cards to provide students with visual reminders of classroom 37 % 47 % Conflict rules and the positive behavioral choices associated with them. Resolution Prosocial 17 % Behavior 6 Character Conscious Discipline offers little to no focus on character (targeted in ≤4% of program activities). 6 Mindset Conscious Discipline offers little to no focus on mindset (targeted in ≤7% of program activities). 6 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapting our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are ≥ targeted by 10% of program activities. 224

226 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS The heat map in Figure 5 below provides a more detailed look at where Conscious Discipline addresses specific skills through its classroom structures, routines, and tools as well as through the Feeling Buddies curriculum, with the . For the Feeling Buddies shading representing degree of concentration in a particular skill at that rough point in time curriculum in particular, the vertical progression of the map could be thought of as time, moving from one unit to the next over the course of 15 weeks. The map can be used as a planning tool to help practitioners determine where ol-wide programming, and social and Conscious Discipline programming might align with specific academic plans, scho 41 emotional learning standards throughout the year. (Please see p. for specific examples.) Figure 5. Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Targeting Each Domain and Skill by Unit, Grade, and Program-wide Mindset Cognitive Regulation Emotional Processes Interpersonal Processes Character - / Taking Control Control Conflict Grade Mindset Emotion Working Planning Behavior Behavior TIME Prosocial Cognitive Flexibility Attention Memory/ Inhibitory Character Emotion / Empathy / Regulation Resolution Expression Social Cues Component Program Unit Perspective Knowledge / Understands 1 0 0 0 0 88 24 0 44 0 8 8 8 2 0 0 0 83 57 0 35 9 9 0 0 0 4 0 0 3 0 0 0 58 83 0 12 0 0 2 - 4 0 0 0 0 76 0 48 0 5 0 19 67 0 5 0 0 0 0 79 84 0 16 0 26 0 10 6 0 14 0 0 57 57 29 5 33 33 5 Grades PreK 7 0 0 0 0 67 67 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 74 61 A1 26 7 12 2 10 Feeling Buddies Curriculum A2 2 95 40 2 10 School Family 9 27 9 9 0 0 45 18 0 0 73 0 7 Tools 7 Skills 4 4 0 0 8 4 16 12 8 28 64 12 8 Posters Safe Place 0 0 20 0 0 40 60 0 0 0 40 0 9 Posters Self - 70 Control 0 0 40 10 0 0 70 0 0 10 50 10 Board 8 12 4 4 20 37 10 4 16 61 6 4 A1 Classroom Structures, Routines, and Tools 25 55 67 6 4 A2 49 A1 4 7 2 2 47 7 6 15 1 1 3 7 4 - Program wide 14 75 54 A2 4 7 Key Mindset Character Emotional Cognitive Interpersonal 100 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 0 = ) Total % of program activities targeting each skill (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution , etc. A1 A2 = Total % of program activities targeting each domain (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, etc.) 7 Tools (e.g., kindness tree where students record kind and helpful acts) used to support the seven skills of Conscious Discipline (from Make-N-Take CD- ROM) 8 Posters that outline classroom structures for promoting the seven skills of Conscious Discipline 9 Interactive posters outlining self-regulation steps for students in the classroom self-regulation center 10 Interactive visual display that leads students through a five-step self-regulation process 225

227 11 P Figure 6. ercentage of Program Activities PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION 11 Employing Each Teaching Method As shown in Figure 6 to the right, songs are the most frequently used instructional method in Conscious Discipline (targeted in 37% of activities), followed by the use of visual displays (28%), skill practice (27%), discussion (22%), role-play (16%), and SEL tools/handouts (12%). Example activities that use these methods might include singing songs from the Listen to Your Feelings CD during a Feeling Buddies lesson, hanging calm-down strategy posters in a classroom’s self -regulation center, practicing calm breathing techniques to manage emotions, or discussing times students let their anger get the best of them. All other instructional methods occur in <10% of program activities. 11 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the proportions of program activities employing each instructional method may not add up to 100%. 226

228 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons x curriculum offers optional extension activities for each lesson and tips for integrating lesson The Feeling Buddies concepts into the broader curriculum. Climate and Culture Supports x Conscious Discipline materials provide tips for incorporating Conscious Discipline strategies and routines into the for fostering a positive school climate that promotes optimal development among students, school community and staff, and faculty. Conscious Discipline is designed to act as part of a whole - x school behavior management system and is therefore meant to be embedded in classroom and school - wide routines throughout the school day. Applications to Out- of-School Time x Conscious Disciplin e strategies and routines have been used in OST settings, and the program offers workshops . designed to empower OST staff to effectively handle behavior issues in the afterschool space Adaptability to Local Context x Conscious Discipline does not occur at a discrete time during the school day; instead, strategies may be used as everyday situations arise and teachers may use program activities at their discretion. x and is In addition, Conscious Discipline is designed to align with existing Response to Intervention (RTI) initiatives udents who require extra social and emotional supports . recommended for use with st x Teachers using the Feeling Buddies curriculum may also choose how often and when to teach Feeling Buddies les sons, make adjustments to lessons based on the specific needs of their students, and are not required to teach every lesson. Professional Development and Training x Conscious Discipline is designed to promote intensive teacher self -study and build adult self-regulation skills, which it does through a library of reading materials and a variety of optional workshops, on-site trainings, conferences, and institutes on various topics. Program sites may work with Conscious Discipline staff to create a customized suite of training tools. x Year-long 1:1 support (either on- or off-site) from a trained Conscious Discipline coach is also recommended to increase fidelity of implementation and outcomes. Support for Implementation x Conscious Discipline pr ovides implementation guides, staff development plans, and a manual for implementing school - wide transformational change. x The Feeling Buddies curriculum is scripted and contains specific suggestions for deepening student learning and m management. streamlining classroo Tools to Assess Program Outcomes planning package that provides access to the Devereux Early x Program sites may purchase an online assessment - Childhood Assessment (DECA), an evidence based behavior rating scale that measures social - emotional competence - in children aged 2 - 5. Program sites are encouraged to use the system on an on - going basis to assess student progress and plan for individual needs . x Conscious Discipline also includes a progress assessment rubric that measures adult acquisition of emotional intelligence skills central to the ubrics may be used either as an informal self - assessment or as a program. The r . formal staff assessment 227

229 Tools to Assess Implementation x Conscious Discipline provides progress assessment rubrics designed to measure implementation of the program as a the use of specific components by adults in the school whole as well as . Family Engagement Easy to Love, x Many of the books by Dr. Bailey, including I Love You Rituals ; Managing Emotional Mayhem ; and are written for parents as well as educators. Difficult to Discipline x The Feeling Buddies curriculum also offers take - home family activities to reinforce lesson concepts at home. Community Engagement x No information provided. 228

230 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT ‰ High emphasis on emotional processes, particularly emotion knowledge/ Skill Focus expression and emotion/behavior regulation ‰ Moderately low emphasis on character ‰ Greater variety of instructional methods Instructional Methods ‰ High use of songs and skill practice Low use of discussion ‰ Flexible, noncurricular approach ‰ Program Components ‰ Support for adult social-emotional competence ‰ Extensive support for climate/culture Provides tools to assess adult outcomes ‰ For more information about programs with common features, please see Summary Tables in Section 3 . Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 12 SKILL FOCUS Conscious Discipline offers the second greatest focus on emotional processes of all 25 programs (38% above the cross- program mean), preceded only by RULER. As a program heavily focused on self-regulation, Conscious Discipline also places a strong emphasis on emotion/behavior regulation (34% above the mean ) and emotion knowledge/expression (22% above the mean) relative to other programs. Conscious Discipline offers a typical emphasis on cognitive regulation, mindset, and interpersonal skills (each within 11% of the mean) and a moderately low emphasis on character (12% below the mean). 12 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS Conscious Discipline has the second highest use of songs across all 25 programs (35% above the cross-program mean), preceded only by Before the Bullying, a song-based program. It also offers more skill practice than most other programs (16% above the mean) and less discussion (27% below the mean). Conscious Discipline offers a slightly greater variety of instructional methods than most other programs (6 methods occur in ≥10% of program activities, while most programs have fewer than 4). PROGRAM COMPONENTS Relative to other programs, unique aspects of Conscious Discipline include its noncurricular approach, high degree of program flexibility, extensive support for climate and culture, and opportunities to build and assess adult social- emotional competence. emotional learning offers Adaptability to Local Context: Conscious Discipline’s approach to social and a great deal more flexibility than most programs (n=21; 84%). While most programs are structured around a set of pre- packaged lessons to be delivered in sequence at a discrete time during the day, Conscious Discipline provides an array of behavior management strategies and classroom structures that teachers can use to turn everyday situations into learning opportunities. 12 For more information on how skill focus and instructional method comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. 229

231 Climate and Culture Supports: While most programs (n=23 ; 92%) offer at least some support for school climate and is one of only three programs (12%) to offer extensive supports. As a behavior culture, Conscious Discipline management system, Conscious Discipline is built around a set of structures, rituals, and routines that are embedded throughout the learning environment in order to build positive school and classroom culture. Adult Social-Emotional Competence: While a majority of programs (n=19; 76%) do not provide structured opportunities for adults to develop or reflect on their own social and emotional skills, Conscious Discipline is one of six programs (24%) to offer professional development opportunities that focus explicitly on building adult social- emotional competence. In fact, building self-regulation skills in adults is a core focus of the program. Tools to Assess Program Outcomes: While 72% of programs (n=18) provide tools to assess program outcomes, most only measure program impact on students, and those that do assess adults typically only measure their ability to deliver the program or facilitate student social and emotional growth. However, as a program with a strong dua l focus on child and adult skill-building, Conscious Discipline is one of only two programs (8%), along with Caring School Community, to offer tools for assessing positive changes in adult behaviors or skills. For a detailed breakdown of how Conscious Discipline compares to other programs across all program component categories, please see Table 3 on p. 37-38. VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information Conscious Discipline materials are available for purchase online at https://consciousdiscipline.com/products/ . For more information about the program, please use the contact information provided below. Contact Information http://consciousdiscipline.com/ Website: 2846 Phone: 1 - 800 - 8 42 - 230

232 T AMERICAN INSTITUTE GOOD BEHAVIOR GAME A S FOR RESEARCH I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT Good Behavior Game is a team-based classroom management strategy for early grades that uses positive social reinforcement to promote positive behaviors related to student success. During the game, children work to follow classroom rules in order to avoid losing points for their team. At the end of the game, any team who has broken rules “wins” and receives a prize, such as stickers or extra reading time. While the game is a publicly fewer than five available program, American Institutes for Research (AIR) offers proprietary support, including staff training, implementation instructions, and data tools. The program focuses on providing teachers with consistent and effective language for promoting positive behavior during the context of the game. As the Good Behavior Game is a strategy rather than a curriculum, it can be played during any subject or activity that allows students to work independently of the teacher. Sessions last between 10-40 minutes and are delivered 3-5 times per week depending on the time of year, classroom activity, and student readiness. Grade Range Early grades Duration and 40 min /session Year - lon g; 3 - 5 sessions/week; 10 - Timing of Focus Areas managing own behavior Teamwork; promoting and following classroom rules; and monitoring and (as stated by program) Additional Curricula supplementary curricula available No additional or (not included in analysis) Evidence of y experimental stud randomized control trials and one non - Multiple Effectiveness Emotional Cognitive Mindset Character Interpersonal Processes Regulation Skills Skill Focus 0% 100% 33% 0% 0% Instructional Primarily uses visual displays, didactic instruction, SEL tool s /handout s , and skill practice Methods on (highest) prosocial behavior and working memory/planning - High focus - Low focus on emotional processes, character, and mindset High use of visual displays, handouts skill practice, - est Unique Features - High use of didactic instruction Relative to Lowest use of discussion - Other Programs - Noncurricular classroom management strategy - No classroom activities beyond core lessons - Less intensive family engagement 231

233 1 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS Good Behavior Game has been evaluated in multiple studies, including multiple randomized control trials and one non-experimental study. The primary measures and assessments used in these studies include student self-reports, teacher reports, observations, and peer ratings. Results from the six most recent studies are summarized bel ow. K - 12 Grades: Urban, suburban, rural, international Geographic Location: Race/Ethnicity: Diverse Low - Free/Reduced Lunch: income to lower - middle class x Gains in peer acceptance and on-task behaviors Outcomes: x Reductions in aggression; disruptive, externalizing, and oppositional behavior; and physic al and relational victimization Implementation Experiences: In one study, 78% of students voted to continue playing the game the next year. 1 Donaldson, Vollmer, Krous, Downs & Berard (2011); Kellam et al. (2008); Leflot, van Lier, Onghena & Colpin (2010); Petra, Masyn & Jalongo (2011) References: ; Vuijk, van Lier, Crijnen & Huizink (2006) ; Wityliet, van Lier, Cuijpers & Koot (2009). 232

234 2 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 3 PROGRAM FOCUS As shown in Figure 1 below, Good Behavior Game primarily focuses on interpersonal skills (targeted by 100% of , which reflects the program’s focus on prosocial behavior and program activities) and cognitive regulation (33%) classroom rules. The program does not include activities that target emotional processes, character, or mindset. Figure 1. Percentage of Program 3 Activities Targeting Each Domain Developmental Considerations ame is a strategy designed for use in Good Behavior G elementary school; early however it has been shown to th be effective for students through the 12 gr ade. AIR does - differentiated support materials, but not provide grade notes that the subjects during which the game is appropriate to play will vary by grade. 4 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation As shown in Figure 2 to the right, the 33% of Good Behavior Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by Game activities that build cognitive regulation focus entirely on 4 Activities that Build Cognitive Regulation working memory/planning (100% of the time) . During the game, students are expected to remember four Class Rules in order to Attention Control achieve their goal of winning the game. Good Behavior Game activities that build cognitive regulation do not explicitly target Working Memory/Planning any other cognitive skills ( <1% of the time). Inhibitory Control 100% Cognitive Flexibility 2 Data collected from AIR implementation manual. 3 A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not add up to 100%. 4 Proportions represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., working memory/planning) relative to other skills in the same domain (e.g., attention control, etc.). For example, if 33% of program activities target cognitive regulation, 100% of the time, those activities build working memory/planning skills. 233

235 Emotional Processes in <1% of program activities). Good Behavior Game offers little to no focus on emotional processes (targeted Interpersonal Skills , the 100% of Good Behavior As shown in Figure 3 to the right Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by Game activities that build interpersonal skills always focus on 4 Activities that Build Interpersonal Skills prosocial behavior (100% of the time) . For example, the overarching goal of the game is for students to understand and Understanding adhere to a set of classroom norms and rules. Good Behavior Social Cues Game activities that build interpersonal skills do not explicitly Conflict address any other interpersonal skills (<1% of the time ). Resolution Prosocial 100% Behavior 5 Character Good Behavior Game offers no focus on character (explicitly targeted by 0% of program activities). 5 Mindset Good Behavior Game offers no focus on mindset (explicitly targeted by 0% of program activities). SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS Good Behavior Game is a classroom management strategy that consists of a single activity – the game – and therefore has no scope or sequence. The game is intended to be used for 10-40 minutes, 3-5 times per week during regular subjects throughout the year, with a focus on the same skills each time. For this reason, we have not provided a heat map. 5 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapting our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are targeted by 10% of program activities. ≥ 234

236 6 PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION P . Figure 4 ercentage of Program Activities 6 Empl oying Each Teaching Method While the Good Behavior Game is in and of itself a game, as shown in Figure 4 to the right, the most commonly used instructional strategy during the game are visual displays (used in 67% of program activities). For example, throughout the game, teachers and students use visual reminders such as posters and rule cards to remember classroom rules and record when they are broken . Good Behavior Game also features skill practice, SEL tools/handouts, and didactic instruction (each used used in 33% of activities ). All other instructional methods appear in 0% of activities. 6 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the proportions of program activities employing each instructional method may not add up to 100%. 235

237 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons x rather than a curriculum that can be used during any independent classroom The Good Behavior Game is a strategy activity, and can thus be fully integrated with academics. limate and Culture Supports C The game is designed to create a positive learning environment in which children learn how to be model students x work together more effectively . and Applications to Out - of - School Time No OST adaptations provided. x Adaptability to Local Context The Good Behavior Game is a strategy rather than a curriculum, and may be integrated into any instructional x activity that incorporates independent worktime. Teachers are, however, expected to introduce and enforce Good the program’s core concepts including team membership, the Behavior Game classroom rules and implement monitoring system, and positive reinforcement. Game duration and frequency are flexible and left to the discretion of the teacher. In the beginning, the game x should be conducted in short increments, but the duration can be increased as the year goes on. Professional Development and Training x one - AIR offers an initial two-day training that focuses on the core elements of the Good Behavior Game as well as a day follow up booster session that focuses on making the game more challenging, using positive reinforcement, changing student teams, and employing data tools. x AIR also offers bi-weekly coaching support throughout the first year of implementation to deepen knowledge of content, procedures, and data tools used in the game. Support for Implementation x The AIR implementation manual provides teachers with instructions for setting up and playing the game. AIR also provides a list of resources for teachers, such as x templates for organizing and collecting data and visual displays. x Select videos and examples of behavior reinforcers are also provided. On - site coaches from AIR are also available to help monitor and support program implementation . x Tools to Assess Program Outcomes x AIR provides a data oral collection form that can be used once a week to track whether students are meeting behavi expectations outside of the game. Tools to Assess Implementation teams are doing and what rules students x AIR provides a data collection form that enables teachers to track how consiste ntly follow or break during the game . This information can be used to make decisions about when to play, how long to play, and whether to change up teams. completed during coach visits to assess the strengths and AIR also offers an implementation checklist that is x 236

238 weaknesses of each facilitator. Facilitators are also encouraged to complete the checklist themselves as often as needed to reflect on their performance and identify areas for professional development. Family Engagement AIR provides parent letters to be sent x during the beginning of the implementation period . The letters home ntroduce families to game i rules and core components. Program sites may also send home a postcard with the Good Behavior Game rules to help reinforce classroom x behaviors at home . Community Engagement x No information provided. 237

239 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT on prosocial behavior (highest) and working memory/planning High focus ‰ Skill Focus ‰ Low focus on emotional processes, character, and mindset Moderately low focus on conflict resolution ‰ ‰ Highest use of handouts, visual displays, and skill practice Instructional Methods High use of didactic instruction ‰ ‰ est use of discussion Low ‰ No classroom activities beyond core lessons Program Components Less intensive family engagement ‰ For more information about programs with common features, please see Summary Tables in Section 3 . Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 7 SKILL FOCUS The Good Behavior Game is unique for its sole focus on prosocial behavior and working memory/planning skills. It has a high focus on interpersonal skills (50% above the cross-program mean) relative to other programs due to its strong focus o n prosocial behavior. Good Behavior Game places the highest emphasis on prosocial behavior of all 25 programs (62% above the mean) as it is designed to help students learn prosocial classroom behaviors . The game also has a high focus on working memory/planning skills (22% above the mean) relative to other programs as its central purpose is to have students remember and follow a set of classroom rules to achieve a goal: winning the game. The Good Behavior game offers no focus on emotional processes, which is the lowest of all 25 programs (37% below the mean). The program also offers no focus on character or mindset; however, this still only represents a moderately low focus for character (16% below the mean) and a typical emphasis on mindset (5% below the mean) relative to other programs. It also offers a moderately low focus on conflict resolution relative to other programs (13% below the mean). 7 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS The Good Behavior Game offers the highest use of SEL tools/handouts (26% above the cross-program mean), visual displays (51% above the mean), and skill practice (22% above the mean) of all 25 programs. This is likely due to the fact that students practice following classroom rules with the aid of rule cards and posters, and then track their team’s performance on a handout following each game. It also provides a high use of didactic instruction (23% above the mean) relative to other programs, as teachers must remind students of the rules before each game. Unlike most other programs, the Good Behavior Game does not use discussion as it must be played during times when students are working independently, making it the program with the least amount of discussion of all 25 programs (49% below the mean). 7 For more information on how skill focus and instructional method comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. 238

240 PROGRAM COMPONENTS Relative to other programs, the Good Behavior Game is unique for its lack of supplementary activities and less intensive support for family engagement. Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons: All other programs (n=22 ; 88 %) provide or suggest some form of supplementary lessons or activities in addition to the core curriculum. However, as a noncurricular classroom management strategy, the Good Behavior Game is an isolated activity that can be played at any time during the school day, and therefore is one of only three programs (12%) to not include any additional lessons or activities outside of game sessions. Family Engagement: Most programs (n=22; 88%) provide take-home activities for students to complete with parents or guardians; however, Good Behavior Game is one of two programs (8%) to instead engage parents primarily through informational updates. AIR provides resources that suggest ways for parents and guardians to reinforce positive classroom behaviors at home, but do not provide structured activities for doing so. For a detailed breakdown of how the Good Behavior Game compares to other programs across all program component categories, please see Table 3 on p. 37-38. VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information Good Behavior Game is publicly available. For more information about purchasing proprietary resources and training from AIR, please use the contact information provided below. Contact Information - education Website: http://www.air.org/topic/p - 12 game - and - social - development/good - behavior - or 202 - 403 - 5000 Phone: 1 - 877 - 334 - 3499 Email: [email protected] 239

241 PLAYWORKS I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT Wlayworks is a national nonprofit that leverages the power of play to transform children’s social and emotional health. In the 2016-17 school year, Playworks will reach 900,000 students at 1,800 schools in 23 U.S. cities directly and through professional training services. Playworks changes school culture by leveraging the power of safe, fun, and healthy play at school every day, creating a place for every kid on the playground to feel included, be active, and build valuable social and emotional skills. The vision for Playworks is for 3.5 million kids in 7,000 elementary schools nationwide to experience safe and healthy play every day by 2020. Playworks offers three models for implementation: the Playworks Coach model, which brings a full-time, year-round Playworks Coach into the school to lead recess activities and classroom games; the Playworks Team Up model, which utilizes an on-site coordinator s recess team; and Playworks Pro, which provides ongoing training to who provides monthly guidance to the school ’ school staff, paraprofessionals, and afterschool caregivers so they can support fun, prosocial play at their school or program. In all models, activities occur every day during recess for the duration of the school year. A typical Playworks session engages children in a physical activity from one of the following six categories: ice breakers, readiness games, tag games, cooperative games, playground games and sports, health and fitness, and energizers. Grade Range Games span all ages Duration and Year - long during recess Timing Areas of Focus Physical, social, and emotional growth (as stated by program) Additional Curricula available No additional or supplementary curricula (not included in analysis) Evidence of Multiple randomized control trials Effectiveness Character Interpersonal Cognitive Mindset Emotional n Processes latio Regu Skills Skill Focus 0% 37% 0% 1% 49% Instructional Primarily uses games and kinesthetic activities Methods High focus on attention control - L - ow focus on emotional processes, character, and conflict resolution Unique Features - High est use of games and kinesthetic activities , didactic instruction, skill practice, and visual displays Relative to - Low use of discussion ecess program Other Programs - Game - based r - No support for academic integration or family engagement No tools to assess program outcomes - 240

242 1 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS Playworks has been evaluated in four randomized control trials. Primary measures and assessments include student surveys, teacher surveys, accelerometer, and direct observation. Results from these studies are summarized below. 1 - 5 Grades: Geographic Location: Urban Race/Ethnicity: Diverse Free/Reduced Lunch: Not stated x Gains in positive language, physical activity, positive recess behavior, and readiness for Outcomes: class Reductions in bullying x All studies implemented organized recess activities, class game times, junior coaches, x and after school activities. Implementation Experiences: x increased their students’ In one study, about 75% of teachers reported that Playworks opportunities to engage in physical activity and 97% of teachers indicated that they would like the program to return the following year. 1 Beyler et al. (2013); Beyler, Bleeker, James-Burdumy, Fortson, & Benjamin (2014); Bleeker, Beyler, James- Burdumy, & Fortson (2015); Fortson et al. References: (2013). 241

243 2 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 3 PROGRAM FOCUS primarily focuses on interpersonal skills (targeted in 49% of program As shown in Figure 1 below, Playworks activities), followed by cognitive regulation (37%) . It offers little to no focus on emotional processes (1%), character (<1%), or mindset (<1%). Figure 1. Percentage of Program 3 Considerations Developmental Activities Targeting Each Domain Playworks lists a recommended age group for each game in the Playworks Playbook. 4 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation As shown in Figure 2 to the right, the 37% of Playworks Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by 4 activities that build cognitive regulation most frequently focus Activities that Build Cognitive Regulation on attention control (65% of the time), followe d to a lesser extent by working memory/planning (23%) and inhibitory Attention Control 12% control (12%). Activities that target the cognitive domain Working Memory/Planning typically include ice breaker, readiness, and energizer games . 23% For example, students might have to remember a movement Inhibitory Control associated with each classmate during the “Dovement Eame 65% listen carefully to the music and remain frozen when 'ame” or Cognitive Flexibility it stops during a game of “Dance Freenje.” W layworks activities that build cognitive regulation rarely address cognitive flexibility (<1% of the time ). 2 Data collected from the Playworks Playbook 3 A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not add up to 100%. 4 Proportions represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., attention control) relative to other skills in the same domain (e.g., inhibitory control, etc.). For example, if 37% of program activities build cognitive regulation, 65% of the time, those activities target attention control. 242

244 Emotional Processes Playworks offers little to no focus on emotional processes (only targeted in 1% of program activities). Interpersonal Skills As shown in Figure 3 to the right, the 49% of Playworks Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by activities that build on interpersonal skills focus entirely on 4 Activities that Build Interpersonal Skills prosocial behavior (100% of the time). Playwork s’ cooperative games and playground games/sports frequently build Understanding interpersonal skills. For example, students might have to Social Cues cooperate with a partner to move together from a sitting to Conflict standing position during a game of “Back Back 'et hp” or -to- Resolution nication and teamwork skills during “Crossfire practice commu Prosocial ^occer” where players must work in pairs to score a goal. Other 100% Behavior types of games that frequently target this domain include ice breakers and energizers. Playworks activities that build interpersonal skills rarely address conflict resolution or understanding social cues (<1% of the time). 5 Character ≤ 1% of program activities). Playworks offers little to no focus on character (targeted in 5 Mindset Playworks offers little to no focus on mindset (targeted in 1% of program activities). ≤ 5 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapting our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are 10% of program activities. targeted by ≥ 243

245 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS The heat map in Figure 4 below provides a more detailed look at which types of games address specific skills, with the shading representing the degree of concentration in a particular skill by that particular category of games. The map can be used as a planning tool to help practitioners determine where Playworks programming might align with specific academic plans, scho ol-wide programming, and social and emotional learning standards throughout the year. (Please for specific examples.) 41 see p. Figure 4. Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Targeting Each Domain and Skill by Game Type and Program-wide Cognitive Regulation Emotional Processes Interpersonal Processes Character Mindset - Grade Taking Control Control Conflict Mindset Working Emotion Planning Behavior Behavior Prosocial Cognitive Flexibility Attention Inhibitory Character Emotion / Memory / Empathy / Resolution Expression Regulation Game Type Social Cues Perspective Knowledge / Understands 0 A1 46 23 15 0 0 0 4 0 0 58 0 Ice Breakers 0 4 58 0 58 A2 0 A1 58 25 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 Readiness Games 0 0 15 0 A2 67 0 A1 20 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 29 0 Tag Games 22 0 A2 0 0 29 6 - 4 0 0 A1 24 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 90 Cooperative Games 0 A2 4 90 24 0 Grades K Playground 0 A1 10 2 4 0 0 0 0 0 54 0 0 Games & A2 12 0 54 0 0 Sports Playground 0 A1 46 22 10 0 2 0 0 0 0 47 0 Game & 61 2 A2 47 0 0 Sports 0 0 A1 3 1 1 1 5 0 1 0 0 0 0 49 - Program wide A2 37 1 49 0 0 Key Mindset Character Cognitive Interpersonal Emotional 100 0 100 0 0 100 100 0 100 0 of program activities targeting each skill (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution , etc. ) A1 = Total % activities targeting each domain (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, etc.) Total % of program = A2 244

246 6 PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION P Figure 5. ercentage of Program Activities 6 Employing Each Teaching Method As shown in Figure 5 to the right, as a recess-based program, Playworks predominantly uses games and kinesthetic activities (each used in more than 90% of program activities). Both playground games like softball or kickball and classroom games such as ice breakers usually include movement of some kind. All other instructional methods occur in ≤Ϯ% of program activities. 6 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the h instructional method may not add up to 100%. proportions of program activities employing eac 245

247 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Activities Beyond Core Lessons x Outside of recess, Playworks coaches may facilitate weekly class game time during which students learn cooperative solving, physical health and - sports in a small setting. Class game time also often incorporates lessons on problem on, and safety. fitness, violence preventi transition periods between classes. x Games may also be used during x Students may also take part in the Junior Coach program, which encourages teams of students to work together to positive conflict resolution . teach their classmates about new games, fair play, and Climate and Culture Supports x Playworks coaches are trained to give positive feedback, use engaging group management techniques , and create and enforce rules and consequences during playground games. x No school - wide activit ies are provided. Applications to Out- of-School Time x Activities can be played as a part of an afterschool program , particularly during transitions. x T raining services are av ailable for youth organizations . trained coaches to run before/afterschool programs or x The Playworks Coach model may also provide interscholastic/developmental sports leagues. Adaptability to Local Context x The program must be implemented during recess, but the content is flexible depending on the needs and interests of students . x Playworks offers three implementation models depending on site needs: Playworks Coach provides schools with a trained recess coach, PlayworksPro provides professional development for school or program staff, and Playworks TeamUp blends elements o f Playworks Coach and Playworks Pro to provide schools with a trained recess coach and site coordinator to lead and support a sustainable recess program. - an on Professional Development and Training x The Playworks Pro and Team Up models train schools an d youth organizations in techniques that relieve chaos at recess, improve playtime, and prepare students to learn. Trainings range from three hours to two days on topics such as creating a safe, healthy, and respectful play environment; using effective gro up management strategies; implementing recess; and integrating play into existing activities. Playworks also offers a comprehensive Recess 360 workshop that includes six days of training and consultat ion visits x to your program site, an d s chools may also re quest advanced, customizable training s in special topics relevant to local needs. Support for Implementation x The Playworks Coach model provides schools with a full - time, trained recess coach to implement the program. r who leads and supports x The Playworks TeamUp model also provides schools with an additional on - site coordinato school staff and recess coaches in a sustainable recess program. Tools to Assess Program Outcomes x No information provided. 246

248 Tools to Assess Implementation x No information provided. Family Engagement x No information provided. Community Engagement x No information provided. 247

249 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT ‰ High emphasis on attention control Skill Focus ‰ Low emphasis on emotional processes, character, and conflict resolution est use of games and kinesthetic activities High ‰ Instructional Methods Low use of discussion, didactic instruction, skill practice, and visual displays ‰ Less support for family engagement and academic integration ‰ Program Components ‰ No tools to assess program outcomes For more information about programs with common features, please see Summary Tables in Section 3 . Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 7 SKILL FOCUS Playworks provides a typical emphasis on cognitive skills (12% above the cross-program mean); however, it has a high emphasis on attention control relative to other programs (21% above the mean). The program places little emphasis on emotional processes (36% below the mean), with only 1% of programs activities targeting this domain. Playworks places a typical emphasis on interpersonal skills (1% below the mean); however, it has a moderately low focus on conflict resolution relative to other programs (13% below the mean). Playworks does not include activities that focus on character or mindset; it has a moderately low emphasis on character (16% below the mean) and a typical emphasis on mindset (5% below the mean) relative to other programs. 7 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS Playworks predominantly uses games and kinesthetic activities. As such, it has the highest use of games (90% above the cross-program mean) and kinesthetic activities (86% above the mean) of all 25 programs. Compared to other programs, Playworks uses very little discussion (47% below the mean), didactic instruction (10% below the mean), skill practice (11% below the mean), and visual displays (16% below the mean). PROGRAM COMPONENTS Likely due to its primary focus on recess, Playworks is the only program (4%) to provide no support for family engagement . It also provides less support for academic integration than most other programs (n=19; 76%), and is one tools to assess program outcomes . For a detailed breakdown of how of seven programs (28%) to not provide any 37-38. Playworks compares to other programs across all program component categories, please see Table 3 on p. 7 For more information on how skill focus and instructional method comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. 248

250 VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information For more information on how to bring the Playworks model to your school or district, please fill out the online form at http://www.playworks.org/schools/transform-your-school/ or use the contact information provided below. Contact Information Website: http://www.playworks.org/ 1374 Phone: 617 - 708 - 249

251 RESPONSIVE CLASSROOM © I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT Responsive Classroom© is a research-based approach to elementary and middle school teaching that focuses on the strong link between academic success and social and emotional learning. Responsive Classroom emphasizes that methods of teaching are just as important as the content being taught, and it provides adults with practices and strategies designed to improve four key domains of the educational environment: engaging academics, positive community, effective management, and developmental awareness. For elementary school, this includes interactive modeling, teacher language, logical consequences, interactive learning structures, and establishing rules, as well as classroom structures such as Mornin g Meetings (20-30 minute classroom gatherings at the beginning of the day), Energizers (short, playful activities to help students refresh and focus), Quiet Time (a brief time of relaxed transition after lunch/recess), and Closing Circles (5- 10 minute classroom gatherings at the end of the day). As an approach to teaching, Responsive Classroom has a strong focus on adult development and offers a variety of workshops that teach educators how to implement Responsive Classroom knowledge and practices, as well as a library of books and materials that focus on using specific teaching practices, building skills, and integrating Responsive Classroom practices into the school environment. Developed by the Center for Responsive Schools, Inc. Grade Range Elementary and middle school - Most p ractices are woven into daily teaching and learning activities Duration and - Typical Morning Meetings last between 20 - 30 min Timing Typical Closing C ircles last between 5 - 10 min - Adult professional development, educational environment (engaging academics, positive community, Areas of Focus effective management, developmental awareness), social and emotional competencies (cooperation, (as stated by emic competencies (academic mindset, assertiveness, responsibility, empathy, self - control), and acad program) perseverance, learning strategies, academic behaviors) Additional Curricula pplementary curricula available No additional or su (not included in analysis) Evidence of - Multiple quasi experimental and clus tered randomized control trials Effectiveness Mindset Cognitive Character Emotional Interpersonal Processes Regulation Skills 1 Skill Focus 1% 34% 0% 26% 2% Instructional Most frequently uses games, teacher choice, skill practice, role - play, and kinesthetic activities 1 Methods 1 - High focus on attention control 1 - Low emphasis on emotional processes, character, and interpersonal skills, particularly conflict resolution 1 ariety of instructional methods v - Wide 1 , and role - High use of teacher choice (highest), games, kinesthetic activities play - Unique Features 1 - Low use of discussion , didactic instruction, and visual displays Relative to - - Flexible, non curricular approach to teaching Other Programs - professional development and training Primary focus on - Extensive support for school climate/culture - No tools to assess program outcomes 1 Please note: This data reflects our coding of only a small number of Responsive Classroom practices. As a teaching approach that primarily focuses on adults as levers for improving the learning environment, Responsive Classroom includes many materials that were not able to be included in our analysis of student-focused activities and are not represented here. For a full list of Responsive Classroom materials, please visit rg. https://www.responsiveclassroom.o 250

252 2 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS Responsive Classroom has been evaluated in three quasi-experimental and four clustered randomized control trials. The primary measures and assessments used in these studies include observations, teacher reports, school records, subject matter tests, and student self-reports. Results from these studies are summarized below. Grades: 2 - 5 Geographic Location: Urban Divers Race/Ethnicity: e Free/Reduced Lunch: 35% of students receiving free/reduced lunch Gains in emotional support, classroom organization, assertion in peer relationships, and Outcomes: reading and math scores Implementation Experiences: No information provided. 2 Abry, Rimm-Kaufman, Larsen, & Brewer (2013); Brock, Nishida, Chiong, Grimm, & Rimm-Kaufman (2008); Curby, Rimm-Kaufman, & Abry (2013); References: Griggs, Rimm-Kaufman, Merritt, & Patton (2013). Rimm-Kaufman & Chiu (2007); Rimm-Kaufman, Fan, Chiu & You (2007); Rimm-Kaufman et al. (2014). 251

253 3 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 4 PROGRAM FOCUS As shown in Figure 1 below, activities in Responsive Classroom primarily focus on cognitive regulation (targeted in 34% of program activities) and interpersonal skills (26%). Program activities have little to no emphasis on emotional processes, character, or mindset (each targeted in ≤2% of program activities) . Figure 1. Percentage of Program 4 Activities Targeting Each Domain Considerations Developmental Responsive Classroom frequently recommends age ranges for which specific activities are most appropriate and/or highlights where learning skills align with grade- specific Common Core standards. The program also includes a bo ok ( Yardsticks ) on the typical developmental characteristics of children aged 4 14 to help teachers - shape age-appropriate curricula for their students. 5 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation As shown in Figure 2 to the right, the 34% of Responsive Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by Classroom activities that build cognitive regulation focus on 5 Activities that Build Cognitive Regulation attention control (62% of the time), followed to a lesser extent by working memory/planning (19%) and cognitive flexibility Attention Control 7% (12%) . Many of these activities come from the Language of 12% Working Memory/Planning book, particularly those focused on listening. For Learning example, students practice skills such as keeping their eyes on 19% Inhibitory Control the speaker in order to focus on what they are sayi ng. 62% Responsive Classroom activities that build cognitive regulation Cognitive Flexibility rarely target inhibitory control (only 7% of the time). 3 The Morning Meeting Data was collected from the following books that contain concrete, student-focused activities for building social and emotional skills: 99 Activities and Greetings Great for Morning Meeting Book . The Language of Learning , and , 4 A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not add up to 100% 5 Proportions represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., attention control) relative to other skills in the same domain (e.g., inhibitory control, etc.). For example, if 34% of program activities build cognitive regulation, 62% of the time, those activities target attention control. 252

254 Emotional Processes Responsive Classroom provides little to no focus on emotional processes (only targeted in 2% of program activities). Interpersonal Skills As shown in Figure 3 to the right, the 26% of Responsive Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by Classroom activities that build interpersonal skills most 5 Activities that Build Interpersonal Skills frequently focus on prosocial behavior (84% of the time), followed to a much lesser extent by understanding social cues Understanding “Toe (16%) . For example, during the Morning Meeting activity, 16% Social Cues to Toe, ” the teacher calls out different positions for students to Conflict stand in with a partner in order to practice safe and respectful Resolution touching, and the Language of Learning book teaches skills for Prosocial 84% agreeing or disagreeing with peers respectfully. Responsive Behavior Classroom activities that build interpersonal skills rarely target conflict resolution (<1% of the time). 6 Character Responsive Classroom offers little to no focus on character (only targeted in 1% of program activities). 6 Mindset Responsive Classroom offers little to no focus on mindset (targeted in <1% of program activities). 6 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapting our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are 10% of program activities. targeted by ≥ 253

255 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS The heat map in Figure 4 below provides a more detailed look at where Responsive Classroom activities addresses specific skills, with the shading representing degree of concentration in a particular skill. The map can be used as a skills or activities might align with planning tool to help practitioners determine where specific Responsive Classroom specific academic plans, school-wide programming, and social and emotional learning standards throughout the year. (Please see p. 41 for specific examples.) Figure 4. Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Targeting Each Domain and Skill by Book and Program-wide Cognitive Regulation Emotional Processes Interpersonal Processes Character Mindset - Taking Book Control Control Conflict Mindset Working Emotion Planning Grade Behavior Behavior Prosocial Cognitive Attention Flexibility Inhibitory Character Emotion / Memory / Empathy / Expression Regulation Resolution Social Cues Chapter Perspective Knowledge / Understands The Morning N/A 0 17 0 7 3 3 0 0 0 0 7 0 Meeting Book 99 Activities & Greetings N/A 0 10 Great 26 0 for 6 0 0 6 3 0 20 0 Morning Grades K-8 Meeting 1 100 25 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 19 0 0 6 0 0 12 0 44 The 0 3 7 0 0 0 0 0 Language of 14 0 29 0 0 Learning 0 0 0 18 0 0 0 0 0 18 0 0 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 0 100 8 0 0 25 8 3 5 0 A1 2 5 0 24 1 0 Program - wide 1 A2 34 2 26 0 Key Mindset Character Interpersonal Cognitive Emotional 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 0 100 Total % of (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution , etc. ) A1 = program activities targeting each skill = Total % of program activities targeting each domain (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, etc.) A2 254

256 7 PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION P Figure 5. ercentage of Program Activities 7 Employing Each Teaching Method As shown in Figure 5 to the right, Responsive Classroom uses a wide range of activities. The most frequently used instructional methods are games (used in 46% of program activities) and teacher choice (34%). Teachers are frequently able to select which activity to use during Morning Meeting using examples from the Morning Meeting and 99 Activities and Greetings for Morning Meeting book. Responsive Classroom also uses skill practice (used in 19% of activities), role-play (19%), kinesthetic activities (17%), and discussion (11%). For example, book teaches students Language of Learning the specific social, emotional, and cognitive skills for learning, and provides suggested activities that can be used in the classroom. A teacher may use activities such as partner chats, games, or various class gatherings to reinforce the material throughout the day. All other instructional methods occur in less than 10% of activities. 7 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the proportions of program activities employing each instructional method may not add up to 100%. 255

257 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Classroom Activities Morning Meetings are an integral part of Responsive Classroom. A series of books provide more than 99 x activities/greetings and 180 sample Morning Meeting messages that help welcome students to school, set a positive tone for the day, reinforce academic skills, encourage a sense of community, and prepare students to learn. In a series of three books, Responsive Classroom provides ways to incorporate language arts, math, and science into Morning Meetings. x Responsive Classroom also provides 50 Closing Circle activities that help end the school day in a positive, peaceful way. The Energizers! booklet also provides 88 quick movement activities that can be used anytime throughout the school x day to help students refresh and refocus. Responsive Classroom also offers resources for incorporating Responsive Classroom skills, rules, routines, and x teacher practices into music, art, physical education, and other special areas. book also offers mini-lessons for teaching students core thinking, listening, and speaking x The Language of Learning skills. Climate and Culture Supports Responsive School Discipline provides school leaders with practical strategies for building a safe, calm, and respectful x school climate. x provides teachers with practical strategies for creating safe, inclusive classrooms . How to Bullyproof Your Classroom book supports teachers to use positive discipline, spark student engagement, and x The First Six Weeks of School establish routines to ensure that arrival, recess, lunch, dismissal, and other transition times are calm and orderly. Classroom Spaces That Work instructs the teacher on how to best create a physical environment . x x Teaching Children to Care: Classroom Management for Ethical and Academic Growth includes strategies for setting establishing routines, avoiding power struggles, and using effective language . expectations, x Rules in Sch ool: Teaching Discipline in the Responsive Classroom supports teachers to establish classroom rules that encourage positive be havior and help students develop self - control . x Solving Thorny Behavior Problems and Teasing, Tattling, Defiance and More: Positiv e Approaches to 10 Common techniques for handling disruptive behaviors such as easy - to - implement Classroom Behaviors provide listening/attention challenges, teasing, exclusion, tattling, defiance, disengagement, silliness, showing off, physical contact, di shonesty, and frustration/meltdowns. supports teachers to use language and tone to x The Power of Our Words: Teacher Language That Helps Children Learn increase student engagement, build a positive classroom community, and manage behavior by helping students develop confidence, competence, and self - control. x Learning Through Academic Choice and The Joyful Classroom both support teachers to foster student motivation through academic choice and/or instructional strategies for facilitating interactive and relevant lessons. - wide activities are provided. x No school Applications to Out - of - School Time x No OST adaptions provided. Adaptability to Local Context Responsive Classroom is an approach to teaching rather than a program with sequenced lessons, there is x As flexibility in how it might look from school to school ; however, all staff should embrace the core pri nciples and and Closing Circles . classroom practices, including the use of Morning Meetings 256

258 Professional Development and Training x Responsive Classroom offers more than 30 books designed to promote professional development and build teacher competencies. Books may be purchased online and used by anyone at any time; however, the program is most effective when all adult members of the school community are trained in Responsive Classroom practices. x Services include trainings for schools and districts, including on-site and off-site trainings, consultation, and coaching as well as resources for school-based study. Schools may choose to have trainings once or to include follow- up sessions throughout the year. School staff may also register for local workshops as well as the annual Responsive Classroom teacher and leadership conferences to learn best practices and build a support network of peers from across the country. x Responsive Classroom offers a school-wide elementary school professional development model that includes a one -day workshop to introduce Responsive Classroom to the school community; the menu of training options: a Responsive Classroom Course for Elementary Educators package, a four-day training in Responsive Classroom our -day training in advanced Responsive practices for up to 30 staff members; the Advanced Course package, a f Classroom practices for up to 30 staff members seeking to strengthen their implementation; and ongoing, follow- up support as needed. Responsive Classroom also offers several professional development kits and DVDs for leading short professional x development sessions in the following areas: Teacher Language for Engaged Learning, Teaching Discipline in the Classroom, Morning Meetings, and Teacher Language. Support for Implementation x Sample daily schedules are provide d for each grade level for the first six weeks of school. x Training packages include access to online leadership resources to support school - wide implementation, including staff meeting plans and discussion boards to ask ques tions and share best practices. classroom and honing basic The x the What Every Teacher Needs to Know series offer a practical guide for setting up instructional and behavior management techniques. x Energize Your Meetings! offers strategies for making Responsive Classroom staff meetings and professional development sessions engaging, meaningful, and productive. Tools to Assess Program Outcomes x No information provided. Tools to Assess Implementation x Classroom provides tools for assessing teachers on 125 aspects of Responsive Classroom practice, Responsive including several measures of instructional practice such as how well teachers use interactive modeling, lead guided choice, organize and manage their classroom, use positive language, and discovery, provide students with academic work with families. These assessment tools are designed to help school leaders and staff monitor progress and make informed decisions about professional development opportunities. Family Engagement x Parents & Teachers Working Together provides ideas for collaborating with parents, including sample letters and forms that can be adapted for use as needed. Community Engagement No information provided. x 257

259 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT Low emphasis on emotional processes and interpersonal skills, particularly ‰ Skill Focus conflict resolution Moderately high focus on attention control ‰ ‰ Moderately low focus on character Wider variety of instructional methods ‰ Instructional Methods ‰ Highest use of teacher choice ‰ High use of games and kinesthetic activities ‰ Moderately high use of role-play Low use of discussion, didactic instruction, and visual displays ‰ ‰ Flexible, non-curricular approach Program Components ‰ Intensive professional development and training ‰ Extensive sup port for school climate/culture ‰ No tools to assess program outcomes For more information about programs with common features, please see Summary Tables in Section 3. Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 8 SKILL FOCUS Responsive Classroom primarily targets cognitive and interpersonal skills; however, relative to other programs, it actually has a low focus on interpersonal skills (24% below the cross-program mean), particularly conflict resolution (13% below the mean). Responsive Classroom provides a typical focus on cognitive skills (9% above the mean); however, it has a moderately high focus on attention control (15% above the mean). With only 2% of activities targeting emotional processes, Responsive Classroom places very little emphasis on emotional processes relative to other programs (35% below the mean). With only 1% of activities targeting character, Responsive Classroom also provides a moderately low focus on character (15% below the mean). And while no activities target mindset, this is typical in comparison to other programs (5% below the mean). 8 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS Responsive Classroom offers a slightly greater variety of instructional methods than most other programs (6 methods occur in ≥10% of program activities, while most programs have fewer than 4). Because Responsive Classroom is a non- curricular approach that offers teachers more flexibility to choose from a variety of instructional options, Responsive Classroom provides the highest use of teacher choice activities of all 25 programs (30% above the cross-program mean) . Responsive Classroom also uses more games than most programs; along with WINGS, it has the second highest use of games (40% above the mean), preceded only by Playworks. In addition, Responsive Classroom has a high use of a moderately high use of role-play (11% above the mean). Compare kinesthetic activities (13% above the mean) and to d other programs, Responsive Classroom also uses little discussion (38% below the mean), didactic instruction (10% below the mean), or visual displays (15% below the mean). 8 For more information on how skill focus and instructional method comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. 258

260 PROGRAM COMPONENTS Relative to other programs, unique aspects of Responsive Classroom include extensive flexibility, strong focus on professional development and training, and extensive climate and culture supports. Responsive Classroom’s approach to social and emotional learning offers a great deal Adaptability to Local Context: more flexibility than most programs (n=21; 84%). While a majority of programs are structured around a set of pre- packaged lessons or activities to be delivered at a discrete time during the day, Responsive Classroom provides an approach to teaching and an array of classroom structures that can be integrated into the fabric of any school or program. Professional Development and Training: All programs (n=25; 100%) provide some form of professional development and training; however, Responsive Classroom is one of only two programs (8%) for which professional development is a highly integral component. As a teaching approach that primarily focuses on adults as levers for improving the learning environment, Responsive Classroom centers on adult development. Climate and Culture Supports: While most programs (n=23 ; 92%) offer at least some support for school climate and culture, Responsive Classroom is one of only three programs (12%) to offer extensive supports. As a pedagogical approach , Responsive Classroom’s program structure is heavily based on offering teachers strategies to change the learning environment. Responsive Classroom is also one of seven programs (28%) to not provide any tools to assess program outcomes . For a detailed breakdown of how Responsive Classroom compares to other programs across all program component 37-38. categories, please see Table 3 on p. VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information . For a free http://www.responsiveclassroom.org/store Responsive Classroom materials can be purchased online at program consultation for your school or district, please visit https://www.responsiveclassroom.org/on-site- services/ or use the phone number provided below. Contact Information https://www.responsiveclassroom.org Website: Allison Henry, Director of Program Sales and Customer Care Contact Person: [email protected] Phone: 1 (800) 360 - 6332, ext. 143 (School and District Services) [email protected] Email: [email protected] 259

261 PROGRAM PROFILES : OUT-OF-SCHOOL T IME S EL PROGRAMS The following pages provide a detailed summary for each of the 3 SEL programs for OST settings. Programs SEL 3 O ut - of - School Time p. 261 B efore the Bullying A.F.T.E.R Sc hool Prog ram G p. 270 irls on the Run p. 2 79 WINGS for Kids 260

262 BEFORE THE BULLYING A.F.T.E.R. SCHOOL PR OGRAM I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT 8 universal prevention program designed to prevent bullying and teach positive social Before the Bullying is a K- skills through the use of music, videos, and the performing arts. Before the Bullying’s afterschool curriculum, the A.F.T.E.R. School Program, includes 25 lessons structured around the use of 26 original songs and 6 music videos , and can be used either as a stand-alone program or as a multimedia add-on to an existing anti-bullying program. curriculum is divided into five weekly themes, each consisting of five daily lessons intended The A.F.T.E.R. School for use with all ages. Lessons typically last 30-60 minutes and are comprised of an original music video or song related to the lesson theme, followed by an interactive activity or discussion. Activities are designed to be easy to integrate into any afterschool program in any community. Developed by GROWING SOUND, a division of Children, Inc. K - 8 with one set of lessons for use with all ages Grade Range Duration and 5 weeks; 1 lesson/day; 30 - 60 min /lesson Timing of Focus Areas Acceptance, friendship, teamwork, empathy, and responsibility (as stated by program) Other Curricula - Cl assroom Activities Program for Grades K - 8 (not included in GE Performing Arts Program for G - ON STA 8 rades K - analysis) Evidence of No evaluations currently available . Effectiveness Emotional Mindset Cognitive Character Interpersonal Processes Skills Regulation Skill Focus 39% 17% 37% 4% 55% Instructional equently uses discussion and songs Most fr Methods - High emphasis on character , mindset, empathy/perspective - taking, and prosocial behavior - Low focus on cognitive regu l ation (highest) and art/creative projects High use of songs - Unique Features - Low use of skill practice and didactic instruction Relative to - time Primary focus on out - of - school Other Programs - professional development and training Optional - structured support for academic integration , climate/culture , or implementation No No activities beyond core lessons - 261

263 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS There are no evaluations of Before the Bullying currently available. Grades: N/A Geographic Location: N/A Race/Ethnicity: N/A Free/Reduced Lunch: N/A Outcomes: N/A N/A Implementation Experiences: 262

264 1 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 2 PROGRAM FOCUS As shown in Figure 1 below, Before the Bullying A.F.T.E.R. School Program activities primarily focuses on interpersonal 37%), and mindset skills (targeted by 55% of program activities), followed by emotional processes (39%), character ( (17%). Very few A.F.T.E.R. School Program activities target cognitive regulation (4%). Figure 1. Percentage of Program 2 Activities Targeting Each Domain Developmental Considerations Before the Bullying lessons are not differentiated by grade level; however, occasional guidance is provided for adapting activities for older or younger children. 3 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation Before the Bullying A.F.T.E.R. School Program provides little to no emphasis on the cognitive domain (targeted in 4% of program activities). Emotional Processes Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by As shown in Figure 2 to the right, the 39% of Before the Bullying 3 Activities that Build Emotional Processes A.F.T.E.R. School Program activities that target emotional processes most frequently focus on empathy/perspective-taking Emotion Knowledge/ (59% of the time), followed to a lesser extent by emotion Expression knowledge/expression (35%). For example, children might be 35% of a song about perspective-taking or asked to expand on the lyrics Emotion/Behavior to work with a partner to list all of the positive and negative Regulation feelings they can think of. Activities that build emotional processes 59% Empathy/ 5% of the time). rarely address emotion/behavior regulation (only Perspective-Taking 5% 1 Data collected from Grades 1, 3, and 5. 2 A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not add up to 100%. 3 The proportions in this section represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., empathy) relative to other skills in the same domain (e.g., 59% of the time, those activities build empathy. emotion/behavior regulation). For example, if 39% of program activities target emotional processes, 263

265 Interpersonal Skills As shown in Figure 3 to the right, the 55% of A.F.T.E.R. School Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by Program activities that target the interpersonal domain most 3 Activities that Build Interpersonal Skills 88% of the time), frequently focus on prosocial behavior ( 2% followed to a much lesser extent by conflict resolution (10%). Understanding Examples might include practicing cooperation by working 10% Social Cues together to keep a balloon up in the air, or brainstorming Conflict appropriate ways to express annoyance. A.F.T.E.R. School Resolution Program activities that build interpersonal skills rarely address Prosocial 88% understanding social cues (only 2% of the time). Behavior 4 Character The 37% of Before the Bullying A.F.T.E.R. School Program activities that build character primarily focus on accepting and celebrating differences, making responsible choices, and standing up for what is right. Activities that build these skills might include watching a music video or listening to a song about the importance of diversity, making paper cranes as symbols of world peace, or working as a group to categorize certain behaviors as responsible or not. 4 Mindset The 17% of Before the Bullying A.F.T.E.R. School Program activities that build mindset primarily focus on self- acceptance and gratitude. Activities that build these skills might include singing a song about liking oneself, creating and practicing positive self-talk statements, or thanking each of their peers for something they have done for the group. 4 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapt ing our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are ≥ 10% of program activities. targeted by 264

266 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS The heat map in Figure 4 below provides a more detailed look at where and when Before the Bullying A.F.T.E.R. School Program addresses specific skills over the course of 5 weeks. The vertical progression of the map could be thought of as time, moving from one unit to the next and one grade to the next, with the shading representing degree of concentration in a particular skill at that rough point in time. The map can be used as a planning tool to help ol-wide practitioners determine where Before the Bullying programming might align with specific academic plans, scho programming, and social emotional learning standards. (Please see p. 41 for specific examples.) Figure 4. Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Targeting Each Domain and Skill by Unit and Program-wide Cognitive Regulation Interpersonal Processes Character Mindset Emotional Processes - Unit Taking Control Control Conflict Mindset Emotion Working Planning Grade Behavior Behavior Prosocial Cognitive Flexibility Attention Inhibitory Character Emotion / Memory / Empathy / Regulation Resolution Expression Social Cues Perspective Knowledge / Understands TIME 32 0 1 0 0 0 27 5 50 0 0 18 23 5 - 10 2 10 0 10 0 0 0 10 0 20 80 10 8 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 92 31 28 0 0 0 0 22 0 4 6 6 33 61 6 Grades K Progression) (Developmental 5 0 5 0 0 16 5 21 0 11 68 47 21 52 17 37 A1 1 1 1 0 16 2 27 1 6 Program wide - A2 4 39 55 37 17 Key Mindset Character Emotional Interpersonal Cognitive 0 0 100 0 100 100 0 100 100 0 Total % of program activities targeting each skill (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution , etc. ) A1 = (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, etc.) Total % of program activities targeting each domain = A2 265

267 5 PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION P Figure 5. ercentage of Program Activities 5 Employing Each Teaching Method As shown in Figure 5 to the right, the most common instructional method in Before the Bullying A.F.T.E.R. School Program is discussion (used in 52% of program activities), followed by song (39%). Discussions typically appear more than once per lesson and are often used after songs and music videos to discuss social and emotional concepts related to how lyrics pertain to students’ lives. Songs and music videos are used at the beginning of every lesson to introduce the targeted social and emotional skill for the day. Subsequent discussions and activities typically focus on the primary message in the song or music video. All other instructional methods occur in less than 15% of program activities. 5 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the proportions of program activities employing each instructional method may not add up to 100%. 266

268 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Activities Beyond Core Lessons x No information provided. Climate and Culture Supports x No information provided. Applications to Out - of - School Time As an afterschool program, all activities take place outside of the regular school day . x Adapt ability Program - x The A.F.T.E.R. School Program can be used as a stand - alon e program or as a multi - media adjunct to other anti s. bullying program x No guidance for adapt ing content, timing, or context provided. Professional Development and Training x Trainings are optional, and program sites may hire trainers to lead interactive professional development and schedule trainings on the GROWING SOUND website. Trainers specialize in a variety of areas, and program sites may workshops . on topics that best suit their needs Support for Implementation Lessons are structured, but not scripted. x Tools to Assess Student Outcomes x Before the Bullying recommends using the Devereux Student Strengths Assessment (DESSA) or DESSA - Mini to monitor student progress, evaluate program outcomes, and guide program planning. The DESSA is a research based - ocial - emotional competence in school instrument for measuring s age children and can be purchased online at the - Center for Resil ient Children website . Tools to Assess Implementation x No information provided. Family Engagement x The A.F.T.E.R. School Program includes a parent information sheet that can be used to provide families with a general overview of the program as well as tips for reinforcing s ocial and emotional learning at home. x A t the end of each week, students take home slips of paper containing i deas or questions related to each day's theme to encourage discussion of s ocial and emotional skills at home. Community Engagement x No information provided. 267

269 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT ‰ High focus on character Skill Focus Moderately high focus on mindset, empathy/perspective-taking, and ‰ prosocial behavior Low focus on cognitive regulation ‰ Highest use of songs ‰ Instructional Methods Moderately high use of art/creative projects ‰ Low use of skill practice and didactic instruction ‰ ‰ Primary focus on out- of-school time Program Components ‰ Less intensive professional development/training No structured support for academic integration, climate/culture, ‰ or implementation ‰ No activities beyond core lessons For more information about programs with common features, please see Summary Tables in Section 3 . Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 6 SKILL FOCUS Before the Bullying A.F.T.E.R. School Program places a high emphasis on character (21% above the cross-program mean) and a moderately high emphasis on mindset (12% above the mean) relative to other programs . While the A.F.T.E.R. School Program provides a typical emphasis on emotional processes as a whole (2% above the mean), it offers a moderately high focus on empathy/perspective-taking (13% above the mean). The A.F.T.E.R. School Program also provides a typical emphasis on interpersonal skills as a whole (5% above the mean), but places a moderately high emphasis on prosocial behavior relative to other programs (14% above the mean). The A.F.T.E.R. School Program provides the lowest focus on cognitive regulation of all 25 programs (21% below the mean). 6 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS As a multimedia program, Before the Bullying A.F.T.E.R. School Program provides the highest use of songs across all 25 programs (37% above the cross-program mean), and while art/creative projects only appear in 9% of program (6% above the activities, they are still used more frequently in the A.F.T.E.R. School Program than in most others mean) . In addition, although discussion is the most commonly used activity in the A.F.T.E.R. School Program (used in 52% of activities), this is fairly typical across programs. The A.F.T.E.R. School Program also uses less skill practice and didactic instruction than most programs (both 10% below the mean). PROGRAM COMPONENTS Relative to other programs, unique aspects of Before the Bullying A.F.T.E.R. School Program include its primary focus on out- of-school time (OST) and less intensive professional development and training. 6 For more information on how skill focus and instructional method comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. 268

270 Applications to OST: While approximately half of all programs (n=14; 56%) are either designed to be applicable t – or o – OST settings, Before the Bullying A.F.T.E.R. School Program is one of only three have been successfully adopted in programs in this guide (12%), along with WINGS and Girls on the Run to have a primary focus on OST programming. Professional Development and Training: All programs (n=25; 100%) provide some form of professional development and training; however, while most (n=17; 68%) require training, Before the Bullying trainings are optional. As an afterschool program, Before the Bullying A.F.T.E.R. School Program also offers less structured support for academic integration and climate and culture than most other programs (n=19; 76% and n=23; 92% respectively), and is one of three programs (12%) that does not offer . It also offers less structured support activities beyond core lessons for implementation than other programs (n=23; 92%). For a detailed breakdown of how Before the Bullying A.F.T.E.R. School Program compares to other programs across all program component categories, please see Table 3 on p. 37- 38. VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information Before the Bullying resources may be purchased by contacting GROWING SOUND directly using the information below or online via their distributor at https://www.kaplanco.com/product/53590/before-the-bullying-after- . For more information about the program, please use the contact information school-program?c=30%7CBA1035 provided below. Contact Information - Website: http://growing - sound.com/music - more/before - the bullying/ Phone: 859 - 431 - 2075, ext. 116 Email [email protected] 269

271 GIRLS ON THE RUN I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT - terschool program for girls in G rades 3 - 8. Girls on the Run is a physical activity based positive youth development af Much more than a running program, Girls on the Run is designed to inspire girls to recognize their inner strength and celebrate what makes them one of a kind. During the program, trained coaches lead small teams through a 10 - dynamic discussions, activities, and running games. The program also provides girls week curriculum that includes with an opportunity to positively impact their community through a service project and emotionally prepares them to complete a celebratory 5k event at the end of the 10 wee ks. Developed by Girls on the Run International. Grades 3 - 8 with separate lessons for G rades 3 - 5 and 6 - 8 Grade Range Duration and - 10 w eeks; 2 lessons/week; 75 90 min /lesson Timing Areas of Focus self Self - care, self - awareness, - knowledge, teamwork, healthy relationships, and empowerment (as stated by program) Additional Curricula 8 - Heart & Sole program for girls in G rades 6 (not included in analysis) Evidence of experimental studies - Multiple q uasi experimental and non - Effectiveness Cognitive Mindset Character Emotional Interpersonal Regulation Processes Skills Skill Focus 20% 11% 35% 7% 49% Instructional Most frequently uses disc ussion and kinesthetic activities Methods - Highest focus on mindset processes , emotional and interpersonal skills , - Low focus on cognitive regulation activities, song/chants, and (visualizations) - Hig h use of kinesthetic activities “ other ” Unique Features Based Positive Youth Development (PA - PYD) program - Physical Activity - Relative to school time - Primary focus on out - of - Other Programs Service - learning component built into the core curriculum - Little - support for academic integration tools to assess program outcomes - No 270

272 1 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS Girls on the Run has been evaluated in multiple quasi-experimental and non-experimental studies. The primary measures and assessments used in these studies include student self-reports. Results from these studies are summarized below. 3 - 8 Grades: Geographic Location: Southern, Midwestern, Northeast, Pacific regions, or not otherwise stated Race/Ethnicity: Diverse Free/Reduced Lunch: 33% of students received free or reduced - price lunch, or not otherwise stated x confidence, positive connections with others, - esteem, self - Gains in character, caring, self concept, commitment to physical body size satisfaction, physical self - concept, running self - Outcomes: activity, physical activity levels, frequency of physical activity, and positive att itude toward physical activity x Reductions in sedentary behaviors (TV and screen time) Implementation Experiences: No information available. 1 & Racine (2011); Martin, Waldron, DeBate, Gabriel, Zwald, Huberty & Zhang (2009); DeBate, Zhang & Thompson (2007); Gabriel, DeBate, High, References: McCabe & Choi (2009); Riley & Weiss (2015) 271

273 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 2 PROGRAM FOCUS As shown in Figure 1 below, Girls on the Run provides a strong focus on mindset (targeted in 49% of program a smaller percentage of activities targeting character (20%). The program activities) and interpersonal skills (35%), with has little emphasis on the emotion and cognitive domains (each targeted in ≤11% of program activities) . Figure 1. Percentage of Program 2 Activities Targeting Each Domain Considerations tal Developmen not programming is Girls on the Run’s elementary school - different iated by grade. Girls in G rades 3 5 participate in the same program activities together, and the curriculum guide provides some guidance for ensuring that younger girls feel included and understand lesson concepts. 3 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation Girls on the Run rarely addresses cognitive regulation (targeted in <10% of program activities). Emotional Processes Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by Figure 2 to the right, the 11% of Girls on the Run As shown in 3 Activities that Build Emotional Processes activities that build emotional processes tend to focus most on emotion knowledge/expression (51% of the time). For example, Emotion Knowledge/ girls might play a game during which they must guess an emotion Expression 21% using hints about the context or physical feelings associated with Emotion/Behavior that emotion . To a lesser extent, Girls on the Run also targets Regulation 51% emotion/behavior regulation (28%) and empathy/perspective- 28% Empathy/ taking (21% ). Perspective-Taking 2 add up to 100%. A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not 3 Proportions represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., empathy) relative to other skills in the same domain (e.g., emotion/behavior regulation, etc.). For example, if 11% of program activities target emotional processes, 21% of the time, those activities build empathy. 272

274 Interpersonal Skills As shown in Figure 3 to the right, the 35% of Girls on the Run Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by activities that build interpersonal skills most frequently target 3 Activities that Build Interpersonal Skills 2% of the time), followed to a lesser extent prosocial behavior (7 1% by conflict resolution (27%). Activities that build these skills Understanding might include cooperating with teammates to complete a Social Cues 27% physical task as quickly as possible or learning techniques for Conflict resisting peer pressure and standing up for oneself. Girls on the Resolution Run activities that build interpersonal skills rarely address 72% Prosocial understanding social cues (only 1% of the time ). Behavior 4 Character The 20% of Girls on the Run activities that build character primarily focus on celebrating diversity, making respectful and responsible choices, and contributing to one’s community and the world. Activities that build these skills might include playing running games that showcase group diversity or analyzing choices made by characters from popular TV shows and movies to determine whether they are honest, respectful, encouraging, accepting, compassionate, helpful, kind, etc. Girls also spend five full lessons planning and carrying out a community service project of their choice to practice and learn the value of using their skills to help those around them. 4 Mindset The 49% of Girls on the Run activities that build character primarily focus on building self-confidence by teaching girls how to identify positive traits in themselves and others as well as manage negative thoughts and perspectives. Activities that build these skills might include discussing why people engage in negative self-talk, using a visualization exercise to imagine breathing negative thoughts out and positive thoughts in, running through a tunnel of peers who shout out positive words that describe you, or using your unique strengths to contribute to a group community service project. Girls on the Run also contains a lesson dedicated to building a healthy mind-body connection during which girls learn about healthy eating habits and the link between physical fitness and mental health. 4 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapt ing our data collection system to better summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are ≥ 10% of program activities. targeted by 273

275 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS The heat map in Figure 4 below provides a more detailed look at where and when Girls on the Run addresses specific skills over the course of 10 weeks. The vertical progression of the map could be thought of as time, moving from one unit to the next, with the shading representing degree of concentration in a particular skill at that rough point in time. The map can be used as a planning tool to help practitioners determine where Girls on the Run programming might nd emotional learning standards throughout the align with specific OST plans, scho ol-wide programming, and social a for specific examples.) year. (Please see p. 41 Figure 4. Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Targeting Each Domain and Skill by Unit and Program-wide. Mindset Cognitive Regulation Emotional Processes Interpersonal Processes Character - Unit Taking Control Control Conflict Grade Mindset Emotion Working Planning Behavior Behavior Prosocial Cognitive Flexibility Attention Inhibitory Character Emotion / Memory / Empathy / Regulation Resolution Expression Social Cues Perspective Knowledge / Understands TIME 66 18 9 1 1 10 0 0 12 5 1 1 0 Grades 1 2 0 5 1 3 0 5 0 31 56 10 23 5 3 - 0 3 2 0 0 2 4 2 0 4 34 36 55 0 49 A1 0 7 0 7 4 3 0 11 31 20 Program (Developmental Progression) - wide A2 7 11 35 20 49 Key Mindset Character Emotional Interpersonal Cognitive 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 ) of Total % = A1 program activities targeting each skill , etc. (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution etc.) Total % of program activities targeting each domain (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, = A2 . Figure 5 ercentage of Program Activities P 5 PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION 5 Employing Each Teaching Method As shown in Figure 5 to the right, discussion is the most commonly employed instructional method in Girls on the Run (used in 43% of program activities), followed by kinesthetic activities (38%), and to a much lesser extent, didactic instruction (11%). Every Girls on the Run lesson begins with a group discussion that introduces the lesson topic before moving on to physical activities that reinforce the lesson. Such activities might include shouting out a new social problem-solving step every time they complete a lap or running a short distance to a partner with whom they practice turning negative self-talk statements into positive ones. All other instructional methods occur in ≤ 10% of program activities. 5 Program activities may employ two instructional methods simultaneously (e.g., using a visual display like a poster to facilitate a discussion). For this reason, the ng each instructional method may not add up to 100%. proportions of program activities employi 274

276 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Activities Beyond Core Lessons - x he program culminates in a req uired, non - competitive 5k event that offers girls a tangible sense of goal T setting and achievement. Girls on the Run does not provide x homework support. Climate and Culture Supports x Girls on the Run - based positive youth provides coaches with suggestions for setting up a successful physical activity development program, including specific ideas and suggestions for setting up a safe and inclusive environment, honoring cultural and human diversity, setti ng up clear expectations, building positive relationships, motivating girls, setting goals, celebrating success, and addressing behavior challenges. x sources The program encourages coaches to partner with schools and other program sites but provides no specific re for doing so. Applications to Out- of-School Time As part of an afterschool program, all Girls on the Run activities take place outside of the regular school day. x Adaptability to Local Context to be delivered as outlined in the curriculum and should not be x To maximize efficacy and fidelity, lessons are customized outside of the provided recommendations. Volunteers are also not permitted to skip or alter content, ss ons. Program sites may, however change the order of lessons, or incorporate outside experts or speakers into le choose to implement either a 10 - or 12 - week version of the program b ased on their scheduling needs. x teams are established and led by a minimum of two local volunteers associated with one of 200+ Girls on the Run local councils across the United States and thus dependent on community interest and support. Areas not currently served by an existing council may apply to est ablish an independent council for a fee. Professional Development and Training x Prior to impl ementation, Head and Assistant C oaches must attend a free National Coach Training led by certified staff from their local council. The training includes four online modules on program philosophy, policies and procedures, curriculum content, an d person training that the of young girls , followed by a 4.5 hour in - development prepares coaches to put core concepts of youth development into practice. x Head and Assist ant Coaches are also required to attend a refresher training after one year and a returning coach training every two years. x An online CPR course is also required for at least one coach per team. (Training may be required for Junior Coaches at the discreti on of local councils.) x To become certified to lead National Coach Training, council staff must pay to attend a Coaching Training “Train - the - - work and 1.5 day in - person training. At least two Trainer” (Coach T3) workshop, which includes 3 hours of pre rs from each local council are encouraged to attend. membe Support for Implementation Lessons are scripted with embedded support for coach modeling. x Each lesson includes tips and ideas for how to involve girls who have already participated in the program, x including variations on activities designed to keep girls engaged, challenged, and inspired, and to accommodate each girl’s needs. that come up during lessons and x Girls on the Run also provides general guidelines for responding to sensitive topics 275

277 include several scripted role plays that coaches can practice working through with a partner. - that contains detailed recommendations and best practices from x Coaches are also provided with a Playbook experienced coaches on topics such as working with girls of vario us ages, communicating with parents/guardians, running program sessions, addressing behavior challenges, motivating girls, providing healthy snacks, running a 5k, ing a community impact project. Additional resources can also be found on their on line Coach Portal. and organiz Program Outcomes Tools to Assess x No information provided. Tools to Assess Implementation No information provided. x Family Engagement x Girls on the Run includes a Grown-Up Guide for parents and caregivers, which is designed to increase family engagement in order to ensure girls receive additional social support, positive reinforcement, and feedback at home. The guide includes an overview of each lesson, along with questions and conversation starters designed to facilitate conversations about lesson topics at home. Coaches are also encouraged to remain in regular contact with parents through email, phone calls, or in-person discussions. Community Engagement teams plan and implement a small community service project as an integral part of the curriculum, x Girls on the Run which provides girls with the opportunity to interact with and make a difference in their local community. Project topics are determined by the girls and oft en focus on helping schools, animals, or the environmen t. 276

278 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT ‰ Highest focus on mindset Skill Focus ‰ Low focus on cognitive, emotional, and interpersonal domains ‰ Hig h use of kinesthetic activities Instructional Methods Moderately high use of songs and “other” activities (visualizations) ‰ ‰ of-school time Primary focus on out- Program Components Extensive support for community engagement ‰ Does not provide tools to assess program outcomes ‰ Little support for academic integration ‰ For more information about programs with common features, please see Summary Tables in Section 3 . Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 6 SKILL FOCUS Girls on the Run offers the greatest focus on mindset of all 25 programs (44% above the cross-program mean), likely care. Despite the program’s secondary focus on interpersonal skills, Girls on due to its focus on empowerment and self- the Run targets these skills less frequently than most other programs (15% below the mean). Girls on the Run also places less emphasis on cognitive regulation ( 18% below the mean) and emotional processes (26% below the mean), particularly emotion knowledge/expression (18% below the mean), relative to other programs. Girls on the Run provides an average focus on character (within 4% of the mean). 6 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS As a physical-activity based program, Girls on the Run has the second highest use of kinesthetic activities across all 25 programs (34% above the cross-program mean), preceded only by Playworks, a recess program focused on active sports and games. Girls on the Run also uses moderately more songs/chants and “other” activities (primarily visualization techniques) than most other programs (both 7-8% above the mean). PROGRAM COMPONENTS of-school time (OST) and its strong community Unique aspects of Girls on the Run include its primary focus on out- service component. While approximately half of all programs (n=14; 56%) are either designed to be applicable to – Applications to OST: or have been successfully adopted in – OST settings, Girls on the Run is one of only three programs in this guide (12%) , along with WINGS and Before the Bullying A.F.T.E.R. School Program, to have a primary focus on OST programming. It is also the only physical activity-based afterschool program. While most programs (n=18; 72%) offer little to no opportunities for community Community Engagement: engagement, Girls on the Run has a strong service-learning component embedded in its core curriculum . Only seven programs (28%) offer any opportunity for community service, and Girls on the Run is one of just three (12%), including . Lions Quest and WINGS, that incorporate a long-term project directly into the curriculum or program 6 For more information on how skill focus and instructional method comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. 277

279 Girls on the Run also offers less than most programs (n=19; 76) and is one of seven support for academic integration (28%) that do es not provide tools to assess program outcomes . For a detailed breakdown of how Girls on the Run compares to other programs across all program component categories, please see Table 3 on p. 37-38. VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information . To search for the council nearest you or learn more about bringing Girls Girls on the Run has councils in all 50 states on the Run council to your community, please visit https://www.girlsontherun.org/ or use the contact information provided below. Contact Information https://www.girlsontherun.org/ Website: Phone: 704 -376 -9817 or 1- 800 -901-9965 Email: [email protected] 278

280 WINGS FOR KIDS I. PROGRAM SNAPSHOT -5 afterschool program that combines traditional elements of afterschool programming with a WINGS for Kids is a K - comprehensive social decision and emotional learning curriculum to promote positive behavior, responsible - making, and healthy relationships among students. WINGS organizes students by grade into small, gender , which are led by college -age AmeriCorps members who serve as groups of 10 differentiated -12 students each WINGSLeaders. The program meets Monda y- Friday throughout the school year, and its curriculum is centered around 30 weekly social and emotional learning objectives that span 5 units over the course of the year. Monday -building activity; through Thursday, WINGS sessions include a welcome period; a snack; a small -group community an activity period consisting of either a community service activity, discussion of the weekly learning objective, or ly social and free play; a free choice period that integrates electives of interest with short lessons about the week emotional objective; and 40 minutes of academic support time. On Fridays, students take part in a 90 -minute WildWINGS activity, which uses games, discussion, and role -play to explore the relationship between thoughts, emotions, and actions. W INGS’ scope, sequence, structure, and weekly objectives remain the same across all , lessons are designed by regional staff to meet local needs and may therefore vary across program sites; however s. Developed by WINGS For Kids, Inc. region K- 5 with separate activities for students in Grades K -1, 2- 3, and 4 Grade Range -5 Duration and Year -long; 5 days/week; 3 hours/day Timing of Focus Areas Self -awareness, self -management, responsible decision -making, social awareness, and relationship skills (as stated by program) Additional Curricula No additional or supplementary curricula available (not included in analysis) Evidence of Several quasi -experimental, non -experimental , and randomized control trials Effectiveness Emotional Mindset Interpersonal Character Cognitive Skills Processes Regulation Skill Focus 16% 41% 36% 9% 3% Instructional Primarily uses games and discussion Methods -Typical emphasis on all domains -High use of games Unique Features -Low use of visual displays Relative to -Primary focus on out -of-school time Other Programs -AmeriCorps volunteer training only -Service- learning component built into the core curriculum 279

281 1 II. EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS unpublished quasi , and randomized control -experimental multiple WINGS has been evaluated in -experimental, non tests . A 3- year randomized trials. Evaluation in these studies relied on report cards, questionnaires, and intelligence funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) is currently underway. Results from five of the most control trial recent studies are summarized here. Grades: K-6 Geographic Location: Urban Race/Ethnicity: African- American Free/Reduced Lunch: 95% Gains in respect; adherence to classroom and school rules; on- time completion of homework and school assignments; respect for classroom materials ; executive func tion; visual spatial Outcomes: skills; numerical literacy; self -esteem; satisfact ion with school; grades in math, social studies, music, science ; and ELA scores , and health Implementation Experiences: No information provided. 1 (n.d .) rackett References: Abry, Brock, & Rimm -Kaufman (n.d.); Grissmer (n.d .); Ivcevic, Rivers, & Brackett (n.d .); Ivcevic & B 280

282 2 III. CURRICULAR CONTENT 3 PROGRAM FOCUS As shown in ( targeted by processes Figure 1 below, WINGS predominantly focuses on emotional 41% of program (36%) . Fewer activities focus on cognitive regulation (16%) and activities) almost no activities and interpersonal skills address m indset (3%). Figure 1. Percentage of Program 3 Activities Targeting Each Domain Developmental Considerations -level WINGS divides students into groups based on grade or age and typically includes differentiated activities for Grades K -1, 2 -3, and 4 -5; however, there are students in few notable differences in skill focus across grades. The program also frequently provides instructions or tips for adapting implementation procedures and level of freedom or choice for students of different ages. 4 BREAKDOWN OF SKILLS TARGETED Cognitive Regulation 16% of WINGS activities As shown in Figure 2 to the right, the Figure 2. Frequency of Skills Targeted by focus on most frequently build cognitive regulation that 4 AcRviRes that Build CogniRve RegulaRon (34%) inhibitory control (42% of the time) and attention control WINGS ance. h movement activities, such as Freeze D throug Aeenfon Control cogniti ve activities that build cognitive regulation focus on 12% Working Memory/ /planning skills to a much lesser flexibility and working memory 34% Planning ). 12% of the time each extent (only Inhibitory Control 42% 12% Cognifve Flexibility 2 . Data collected from sample lessons created around fixed weekly learning objectives, including discussion lessons, Circle Game s, and WildWINGS lessons represents signed by regional staff to meet local needs, only a cross -section of what WINGS Because individual lessons are de our analysis of sample lessons . Skill focus and instructional methods may vary in actual implementation. may offer 3 A single program activity may target more than one domain. For this reason, the proportions of activities targeting each domain may not add up to 100%. 4 ibitory control, Proportions represent how often the program targets a specific skill (e.g., attention control) relative to other skills in th e same domain (e.g., inh on control etc.). For example, if 16% of program activities build cognitive regulation, 34% of the time, those activities target attenti . 281

283 al Processes Emotion the 41% of WINGS activities As shown in Figure 3 to the right, Figure 3. Frequency of Skills Targeted by focus on most frequently build emotional processes that 4 AcRviRes that Build EmoRonal Processes ) and emotion of the time regulation (49% emotion/behavior 10% knowledge/expression (42%). For example, students might sing Emofon Knowledge/ Expression or read a book about a different a song about emotions character who has a bad day and discuss how they might have 42% Emofon/Behavior managed their emotions more appropriately in the same Regulafon ation rarely situation . WINGS activities that build cognitive regul 49% Empathy/ ( only 10% of the time -taking empathy/perspective address ). Perspecfve-Taking Interpersonal Skills As shown in Figure 4 to the right, WINGS activities the 36% of Figure 4. Frequency of Skills Targeted by build interpersonal skills most frequently focus on prosocial that 4 AcRviRes that Build Interpersonal Skills behavior (71% conflict resolution ), followed by of the time -based games that . For example, students might play team (22%) 7% Understanding require them to cooperate to succeed or practice working Social Cues -step plan for solving disagreements with peers or through a five 22% Conflict adults. WINGS activities that build interpersonal s kills rarely Resolufon address understanding social cues (only 7% of the time ). 71% Prosocial Behavior 5 Character WINGS offers little to no focus on character (only targeted in 9% of program activities). 5 Mindset WINGS offers little to no focus on mindset (only targeted in 3% of progr am activities). 5 This profile does not offer a detailed breakdown of how programs target specific skills within the character and mindset domains as this information was not captured in our initial round of data collection. While we are in the process of adapting our data collection system to bette r summarize information about character and mindset at the skill level, we have provided more general descriptions of how each program tends to address these topics wherever they are 10% of program activities. targeted by ≥ 282

284 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF SKILLS The heat map in Figure 5 below provides a more detailed look at where and when WINGS addresses specific skills over . The vertical progression of the map could be thought the course of the school year , within and across different grades of as time, moving from one unit to the next and one grade to the next, with the shading representing degree of concentration in a particular skill at that rough point in time. The map can be used as a planning tool to help prac titioners determine where WINGS programming might align with specific academic plans, school -wide 41 for specific standards throughout the year. (Please see p. learning emotional programming, and social and examples.) . Heat Map Showing Percent of Program Activities Targeting Each Domain and Skill by Unit, Grade, and Program Figure 5 -wide Cognitive Regulation Emotional Processes Interpersonal Processes Character Mindset - Unit Taking Control Control Conflict Mindset Emotion Working Planning Grade Behavior Behavior Prosocial Cognitive Flexibility Attention Inhibitory Character Emotion / Memory / Empathy / Resolution Expression Regulation Social Cues Perspective Knowledge / Understands TIME 4 20 1 2 1 3 0 44 36 4 0 0 14 1 16 2 2 24 3 28 57 8 1 3 17 1 5 6 5 6 5 5 3 12 3 3 13 29 9 s K-1 17 4 0 6 31 0 0 10 3 27 9 4 3 0 5 0 0 1 7 7 5 4 23 52 5 5 Grade A1 7 2 8 2 24 27 6 3 8 27 9 3 A2 41 35 9 3 16 3 1 3 1 43 36 2 0 0 15 20 5 1 2 16 3 25 2 29 58 7 2 3 16 2 2 6 5 28 13 10 3 3 6 6 9 14 2 3 s 2-3 4 1 0 0 3 32 1 19 6 3 28 10 4 6 5 0 0 1 5 5 3 4 22 56 6 0 Grade A1 3 3 8 2 24 28 5 6 8 28 10 3 A2 40 36 10 3 16 (Developmental Progression) 1 1 3 0 43 38 2 0 1 1 19 5 17 2 2 25 2 29 59 16 3 3 18 2 3 7 12 7 3 3 7 5 8 10 11 3 3 14 28 s 4-5 4 0 0 3 29 0 2 6 3 32 6 5 20 5 5 0 0 1 6 7 4 5 23 54 5 0 Grade A1 6 2 8 2 24 28 5 3 9 29 9 4 A2 41 38 9 4 16 3 9 28 9 A1 6 2 8 2 24 28 5 3 Program -wide A2 16 41 36 9 3 Key Mindset Character Interpersonal Emotional Cognitive 1 1 1 1 1 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 100 0 ) , etc. (e.g., attention control, conflict resolution of program activities targeting each skill = Total % A1 A2 = Total % of program activities targeting each domain (e.g., cognitive regulation, emotional processes, etc.) 283

285 6 PRIMARY METHODS OF INSTRUCTION P ercentage of Program Activities Figure 6. 6 Employing Each Teaching Method to the right, Figure 6 As shown in WINGS most frequently uses games (used in 46% of program activities) and discussion (45%) . For example, students reinforces may begin the day by playing a game that introducing students to the weekly objective, such as -awareness by having them guess the concept of self feeling words using clues about tone of voice, facial WildWINGS expression, and context. In addition, -minute discussion related lessons typically include a 90 to the weekly objective during which WINGSLeaders use a set of focus questions to engage students in a . All other i nstructional methods occur group dialogue in <10 % of progra m activities. 6 ). For this reason, the simultaneously (e.g., Program activities may a poster to facilitate a discussion employ two instructional methods using a visual display like may not add up to 100%. proportions of program activities employing each instructional method 284

286 IV. PROGRAM COMPONENTS Activities Beyond Core Lessons As an out -of-school time program, WINGS includes multiple activities common to afterschool settings, including • ime, free play, and 4 0 minutes of daily academic support during which students complete homework snack/dinner t with the assistance of an adult. • WINGS encourages program staff to tie lessons to district standards, such as focusing on math standards when e arts standards when leading discussions. creating teams or focusing on languag Climate and Culture Supports • WINGS promotes a strong culture of positivity and caring in the afterschool space, providing specific routines, -mindedness, and personal responsibility strategies, and language with which to reinforce positive attitudes, open . • WINGS also provides WINGSLead ers with detailed techniques and tools for managing student behavior that focus on prevention, positive reinforcement, corrective feedback, and effective consequences. • WINGSLeaders sit in on classes during the day during the months of September and January to observe and gain a in school. They better understanding of how children behave are also encouraged to establish open communication behavioral issues occurring during WINGS. with teachers about any Applications to Out -of-School Time • As an afterschool program, all WINGS activities take place outside of the regular school day. Adaptability to Local Context , but lesson content is • The overall program structure and core learning objectives must be followed with full fidelity open to adaptation, and WINGS staff are able to tailor lessons to the students and schools within their region . local access and volu • WINGS is an AmeriCorps program and thus dependent on nteer support. Professional Development and Training -60 hours of intensive for school staff is not part of the program . WINGSLeaders, however, undergo 50 • Training training over the summer before the start of the school year, followed by three regional trainings throughout the year. Support for Implementation • Lessons are scripted and provide tips for implementation and behavior management. -hand every day to assist WINGSLeaders and model effective behavior WINGS Program Directors are also on • managemen t and instructional techniques. T hey also attend staff meetings with school personnel every nine weeks to provide program updates and . discuss ongoing issues Program Directors also touch with teachers -ins with administrators and keep in • conduct informal weekly check -needed behavior notifications, SEL newsletters, and quarterly feedback through weekly learning objective emails, as surveys or emails. Tools to Assess Program Outcomes • Teachers and WINGSLeaders fill out an abbreviated Devereux Student Strengths Assessment (DESSA -mini) questionnaire for each student in the program 2 -3 times per year to assess students’ social -emotional competence. In some cases, a full DESSA questionnaire may be used. • WINGSLeaders also administer an Objective Kno wledge Assessment (OKA) for each child in their group to assess understanding of the weekly learning objectives after each of the program’s five units. 285

287 Tools to Assess Implementation • Experienced WINGS staff monitor implementation and identify areas for improvement and support through monthly site visits . WINGSLeaders also undergo monthly competency assessments and quarterly evaluations. WINGSLeaders are rated • on their coaching and mentoring skills, and those who score poorly on the ir competency assessments work with program staff to create individual improvement plans in order to build skills in areas of weakness. On-site program staff are also evaluated quarterly. WINGS also conducts end -of-year child and parent/guardian surveys to examine satisfaction with the program. • Family Engagement • WINGS sends home quarterly updates and hosts parent events 3 -4 times a year. The events are designed to involve parents in the WINGS program, inform them of social and emotional learning opportunities, and promote engagement in their children’s lives. Family events include a beginning -of-year parent orientati on, WINGS graduation, and more. s to socialize • WINGS also builds connections between families through its Family Lounge, an area allotted for parent as they come to pick up their children. • Parents can download the DIY SEL Kit from the WINGS website, which includes a menu of techniques for building social and emotional skills in their children at home. Community Engagement -long service projects that help students learn to give back to and better their • WINGS inco rporates two semester community. Each group is free to choose their own project related to the semester themes: healthy living and safety. Students work on their projects for a pproximately 45 minutes each week. activities throughout the • WINGS invites community members to share their talents or skills during regular elective year. WINGS also recruits volunteers from the community to provide small group or one -on- one support during the program’s daily academic support time. Volunteers include high school students, retirees, fraternity members, and others. Volunteers may also be trained to serve snack/dinner. 286

288 V. HOW DOES IT COMPARE? COMPARISON SNAPSHOT q emphasis on all domains Typical Skill Focus q High use of games Instructional Methods Moderately low use of visual displays q q -of-school time Primary focus on out Program Components Less intensive professional development and training q Extensive support for community engagement q For more information about programs with common features, please see Summary Tables in Section 3 . Note: All comparisons are relative to other programs included in our analysis. 7 SKILL FOCUS WINGS is one of only four programs to offer a fairly typical emphasis on all domains relative to other programs (each of the cross within -program mean). While it does not provide much emphasis on cognitive regulation (targeted by 14% 16% of program activities), character (9%), or m indset (3%), this is fairly typical across programs. 7 INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS As an afterschool program with 46% of program activities that use games, WINGS, along with Responsive Classroom, -program mean), preceded only by has the second highest use of games of all 25 programs (40% above the cross Playworks. WINGS use of visual displays is also moderately low co mpared to other programs (15% below the mean). instructional methods are used a typical am ount relative to other programs. All other Although it uses discussion in 45% of program activities, this is fairly typical across programs. PROGRAM COMPONENTS -of-school time, less intensive Relati nique aspects of ve to other programs, u WINGS include a primary focus on out professional development and training, and extensive support for community engagement. or Applications to OST: While appr oximately half of all programs (n=14; 56%) are either designed to be applicable to – is one of only three programs in this guide (12%) , along with have been successfully adopted in – OST settings, WINGS Before the Bullying A.F.T.E.R. School Program and Girls on the Run , to have a pr imary focus on OST programming. Professional Development and Training: All programs (n=25; 100%) provide some form of professional development and training; however, while all other programs (n=24; 96%) offer at least some training or development for schoo l- or site -based staff, WINGS training – while extensive – is only provided for the program’s AmeriCorps volunteers. Community Engagement: n=18; 72%) offer little to no opportunities for community While most programs ( engagement, WINGS has a strong service -learning component embedded in its core curriculum. Only seven programs (28%) offer any opportunity for community service, and WINGS is one of just three programs (12%), including Lions -term project direct ly into the curriculum or program . Quest and Girls on the Run, that incorporate a long For a detailed breakdown of how WINGS compares to other programs across all program component categories, please see Table 3 on p. 37- 38. 7 comparisons were made, please see the Data Analysis Section of Appendix B. method For more information on how skill focus and instructional 287

289 VI. PURCHASING AND CONTACT INFORMATION Purchasing Information WINGS operates in the greater Atlanta, Charlotte, and Charleston areas. For more information about the program, please visit http://www.wingsforkids.org or use the contact information provided below. Contact Informati on http://www.wingsforkids.org Website: Phone: 843- 296- 1667 Email: bridget @wingsforkids.org 288

290 REFERENCES A preliminary report of the contribution of the WINGS after-school Abry, T. D. S., Brock, L. L., Rimm-Kaufman, S. (2013) program to students' social development and classroom behavior. Abry, T., Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Larsen, R. A., & Brewer, A. J. (n.d.). The influence of fidelity of implementation on teacher – student interaction quality in the context of a randomized controlled trial of the Responsive Classroom approach. Journal , 51 (4), 437-453. of School Psychology Astor, R. A., Meyer, H. A., & Pitner, R. O. (2001). Elementary and middle school students' perceptions of violence-prone The Elementary School Journal , school subcontexts. (5), 511-528. 101 Battistich, V., Schaps, E., Watson, M., Solomon, D., & Lewis, C. (2000 ). Effects of the Child Development Project on students’ drug use and other problem behaviors. Journal of Primary Prevention , 21 (1), 75- 99. Bavarian, N., Lewis, K. M., DuBois, D. L., Acock, A., Vuchinich, S., Silverthorn, N., Snyder, F. J., Day, J., Ji, P., & Flay, B. R. (2013). Using social‐emotional and character development to improve academic outcomes: A matched‐pair, cluster‐randomized controlled trial in low‐income, urban s chools . Journal of School Health , 83 (11), 771-779. Becker, K. D., & Domitrovich, C. E. (2011). The conceptualization, integration, and support of evidence-based interventions in the schools. School Psychology Review , 40 (4), 582- 589. Beets, M. W., Flay, B. R., Vuchinich, S., Snyder, F. J., Acock, A., Li, K. K., Burns, K., Washburn, I.J., & Durlak, J. (2009). Use of a social and character development program to prevent substance use, violent behaviors, and sexual activity among elementary-school students in Hawaii. American Journal of Public Health , 99 (8), 1438- 45. Beyler, N., Bleeker, on students' physical of Playworks The impact M., James-Burdumy, S., Fortson, J. & Benjamin, M. (2014). activity during recess: Findings from a randomized controlled trial. 69 , S20- S26. , Preventive Medicine Beyler, N., Bleeker, M., James-Burdumy, S., Fortson, J., London, R. A., Westrich, L., Stokes-Guinan, K. & Castrechini, S. (2013). Findings from an experimental evaluation of Playworks: Effects on play, physical activity an d recess. Retrieved from https://gardnercenter.stanford.edu/publications/findings-experimental-evaluation-playworks-effects-play-physical- activity-and-recess Bierman, K. L., Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., Greenberg, M. T., Lochman, J. E., McMahon, R. J., & Pinderhughes, E. (2010). The effects of a multiyear universal social – emotional learning program: The role of student and school characteristics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 78 (2), 156 – 168. Blair, C., & Razza, R. P. (2007). Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math Child Development, 78 and literacy ability in kindergarten. (2), 647-663. Bleeker M., Beyler N., James-Burdumy, S., & Fortson J. (2015). boys’ and girls’ physical activity The impact of Playworks on during recess. Journal of School Health, 85 , 171- 178. Bouffard, S., Parkinson, J., Jacob, R., & Jones, S.M. (2009). Designing SECURe: A summary of literature and SEL programs reviewed in preparation for the development of SECURe. Harvard Graduate School of Education, Harvard University, Cambridge MA. Boyle, D. & Hassett-Walker, C. (2008). Reducing overt and relational aggression among young children. Journal of School Violence, 7 (1) , 27- 42. Brackett, M.A., Rivers, S. E. , Reyes, M. R. & Salovey, P.T. (2012) Enhancing academic performance and social and emotional , 218- 224. competence with the RULER feeling words curriculum. Learning and Individual Differences , 22 289

291 Brion-Meisels, G., & Jones, S. M. (2012). Learning about relationships. In S. Roffey (Ed.), Positive relationships: Evidence based (pp. 55 72). New York, NY: Springer. practice across the world – Brock, L. L., Nishida, T. K., Chiong, C., Grimm, K. J., & Rimm-Kaufman, S. E. (2008). Childr en’s perceptions of the classroom environment and social and academic performance: A longitudinal analysis of the contribution of the Responsive Journal of School Psychology Classroom approach. 46 (2), 129-149. , Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (1998). The ecology of developmental processes. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (pp. 993-1028). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Brown, J. L., Jones, S. M., LaRusso, M. D., & Aber, J. L. (2010). Improving classroom quality: Teacher influences and experimental impacts of the 4Rs program. Journal of Educational Psychology , 102 (1), 153- 167. Buckner, J. C., Mezzacappa, E., & Beardslee, W. R. (2003). Characteristics of resilient youths living in poverty: The role of self- Development and psychopathology , 15 (1), 139-162. regulatory processes. Buckner, J. C., Mezzacappa, E., & Beardslee, W. R. (2009). Self-regulation and its relations to adaptive functioning in low income youths. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry , 79 (1), 19-30. Bull, R., Espy, K. A., & Wiebe, S. A. (2008). Short-term memory, working memory, and executive functioning in preschoolers: Developmental Neuropsychology, 33 (3), 205-228. Longitudinal predictors of mathematical achievement at age 7 years. Caldarella, P., Page, N. W., & Gunter, L. (2012). Early child hood educators’ perceptions of conscious discipline. Education, 132 (3), 589- 599. Cappella, E., Jackson, D. R., Bilal, C., Hamre, B. K., & Soulé, C. (2011). Bridging mental health and education in urban (4), 486- 40 , elementary schools: Participatory research to inform intervention development. School Psychology Review 508. Character Education Partnership (n.d.). s view of character recognizes two aspects: Core ethical Performance values: CEP’ Retrieved from is-character- values and performance values. http://character.org/key-topics/what- education/performance-values/ Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL). (2003). Safe and sound: An educational leader’s guide to . Chicago, IL: Author. evidence-based social and emotional learning (SEL) programs Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL). (2006). CASEL practice rubric for schoolwide SEL Retrieved from http://casel.org/publications/practice-rubric-for-schoolwide-implementation implementation. Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL). (2013). Effective Social and Emotional Learning Programs – Preschool and Elementary School Edition. Chicago, IL: Author. Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL). (2015). Effective Social and Emotional Learning Programs – Middle and High School Edition. Chicago, IL: Author. Cooke, M. B., Ford, J., Levine, J., Bourke, C., Newell, L., & Lapidus, G. (2007). The effects of city-wide implementation of aggressive behaviors. Journal of Primary Prevention , 28( 2), “Second Step” on elementary school students’ prosocial and 93-115. Crean, H. F., & Johnson, D. B. (2013). Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) and Elementary School Aged Children’s Aggression: Re sults from a Cluster Randomized Trial. American Journal of Community Psychology , 52 (1 -2), 56- 72. Curby, T. W., Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., & Abry, T. (2013). Do emotional support and classroom organization earlier in the year set 51 (5), 557-569. the stage for higher quality instruction? Journal of School Psychology , 290

292 Curtis, C., & Norgate, R. (2007). An evaluation of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies Curriculum at Key Stage Educational Psychology in Practice 23 (1), 33-44. 1. , DeBate, R. D., Gabriel, K. P, Zwald, M., Huberty, J. & Zhang Yan. (2009). Changes in psychosocial factors and physical activity frequency among third- to eighth-grade girls who participated in a developmentally focused youth sport program: A Journal of School Health, 78 (10), 474-484. preliminary study. to- 11-year-old girls DeBate, R., Zhang, Y. & Thompson, S. H. (2007). Changes in commitment to physical activity among 8- participating in a curriculum-based running program. American Journal of Health Education, 38 (5), 276-283. Denham, S. A. (2006). Social-emotional competence as support for school readiness: What is it and how do we assess it? Early Education and Development, Special Issue: Measurement of School Readiness, 17 , 57- 89. Developmental Studies Center. (N.D.a) . Retrieved from Evaluation: Caring school communities http://www.collaborativeclassroom.org Developmental Studies Center. (N.D.b). Outcome data: Comb ined effect of DSC’s in -school programs: Making Meaning, SIPPS, and Caring School Community . Retrieved from http://www.collaborativeclassroom.org Diamond, A., & Lee, K. (2011). Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old. Science, 333 (6045), 959-964. Donaldson, J. M., Vollmer, T. R., Krous, T. K., Downs, S. & Berard, K. P. (2011). An evaluation of the good behavior game in 605-609. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44, kindergarten classrooms. Drolet, M., Arcand, I., Ducharme, D., & Leblanc, R. (2013). The sense of school belonging and implementation of a prevention Child and Adolescent Social Work program: Toward healthier interpersonal relationships among early adolescents. Journal, 30 (6), 535- 551. Durlak, J.A. & Weissberg, R.P. (2013). Afterschool programs that follow evidence-based practices to promote social and Retrieved from: emotional development are effective. Big Views Forward: A Compendium on Expanded Learning. http://www.expandinglearning.org/docs/Durlak&Weissberg_Final.pdf Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82 (1), 405- 432. Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., & Pachan, M. (2010). A meta-analysis of after-school programs that seek to promote personal , 294-309. and social skills in children and adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45 Edwards, D., Hunt, M. H., Meyers, J., Grogg, K. R., & Jarrett, O. (2005). Acceptability and student outcomes of a violence The Journal of Primary Prevention, 26 (5), 401-418. prevention curriculum. Elias, M. J., Gara, M. A., Schuyler, T. F., Branden-Muller, L. R. & Sayette, M. A. (1991). The promotion of social competence: Longitudinal study of a preventive school-based program. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61( 3), 409-417. Eisenberg, N., Valiente, C., & Eggum, N. D. (2010). Self-regulation and school readiness. Early Education and Development , 21 (5), 681-698. Eisen, M., Zellman, G. L., Massett, H. A., & Murray, D. M. (2002). Evaluating the Lions Quest “Skills for Adolescence” drug education program: First-year behavior outcomes. Addictive Behaviors, 27 (4), 619- 632. Eisen, M., Zellman, G., & Murray, D. (2003). Evaluating the Lions-Quest "Skills for Adolescence" drug education program. (5), 883-897. Addictive Behaviors, 28 Second-year behavior outcomes. Espy, K. A., McDiarmid, M. M., Cwik, M. F., Stalets, M. M., Hamby, A., & Senn, T. E. (2004). The contribution of executive 291

293 functions to emergent mathematic skills in preschool children. (1), 465- 486. Developmental Neuropsychology, 26 L. V., & Hirschstein, M. K. (2005). Effects of a school-based social-emotional competence Frey, K. S., Nolen, S. B., Edstrom, s, attributions, and behavior. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology , 26, 171-200. program: Linking children’s goal Fortson, J., James-Burdumy, S., Bleeker, M., Beyler, N., London, R. A., Westrich, L., Stokes-Guinan, K. & Castrechini, S. (2013). Impact and implementation Findings from an experimental evaluation of Playworks: Effects on school climate, academic . Retrieved from learning, student social skills and behavior http://www.rwjf.org/content/dam/farm/reports/evaluations/2013/rwjf405971 Gabriel, K. K. P, DeBate, R. G., High, R. R. & Racine, E. F. (2011). Girls on the run: A quasi-experimental evaluation of a developmentally focused youth sport program. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 8 (s2), S285-S294. Gesten, E. L., Rains, M. H., Rapkin, B. D., Weissberg, R. P., Folres de Apocada, R., Cowen, E. L. & Bowen, R. (1982). Training children in social-problem solving competencies: A first and second look. American Journal of Community Psychology, (1), 95-115. 10 The CHARACTERplus Way results monograph. Gibbons, L., Foster, J., Owens, J. Caldwell, S. D. & Marshall, J. C. (2006). Retrieved from: http://www.edplus.org Griggs, M. S., Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Merritt, E. G., & Patton, C. L. (2013). The Responsive Classroom approach and fifth grade students’ math and scie nce anxiety and self-efficacy. School Psychology Quarterly , 28 (4), 360-373. Grissmer, D. (n.d.) Minds in Motion: Research update . Retrieved from in-motion http://curry.virginia.edu/research/centers/castl/project/minds- Hagelskamp, C., Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E. & Salovey, P. (2013). Improving classroom quality with the RULER approach to , 51 , 530- 543. American Journal of Community Psychology social and emotional learning: Proximal and distal outcomes. Hall, B. W., & Bacon, T. P. (2006). Building a foundation against violence: Impact of a school-based prevention program on Journal of school violence, 4 (4), 63- 83. elementary students. Hassan, K. E. & Mouganie, Z. (2014). Implementation of the Social Decision-Making Skills Curriculum on primary students (grades 1-3) in Lebanon. School Psychology International, 35(2 ), 167- 175. Heckman, J. J., & Kautz, T. (2012). Hard evidence on soft skills. Labour Economics , 19 (4), 451-464. Hennessey, B. A. (2007). Promoting social competence in school-aged children: The effects of the Open Circle program. Journal of School Psychology , 45 (3), 349-360. Hoffman, L. L., Hutchinson, C. J., & Reiss, E. (2005). Training teachers in classroom management: Evidence of positive effect s on the behavior of difficult children. The Journal of the Southeastern Regional Association of Teacher Educators, 14 (1), 36-43. Hoffman, L. L., Hutchinson, C. J., & Reiss, E. (2009). On improving school climate: Reducing reliance on rewards and punishment. International Journal of Whole Schooling, 5 (1), 13-24. Holsen, I., Smith, B. H., & Frey, K. S. (2008). Outcomes of the social competence program Second Step in Norwegian elementary schools. School Psychology International , 29 (1), 71-88. Howse, R. B., Lange, G., Farran, D. C., & Boyles, C. D. (2003). Motivation and self-regulation as predictors of achievement in (2), 151-174. 71 , economically disadvantaged young children. The Journal of Experimental Education 292

294 Humphrey, N., Kalambouka, A., Wigelsworth, M., Lendrum, A., Deighton, J., & Wolpert, M. (2011). Measures of social and emotional skills for children and young people: A systematic review. Educational and Psychological Measurement , 71 (4), 617-637. Ivcevic, Z. & Brackett, M. A. (n.d.) Wings for Kids evaluation study: Academic years 2001/2002, 2002/2003, and 2003/2004, Academic Outcomes. Ivcevic, Z., Rivers, S. R. & Brackett, M. A. (n.d.) Wings for Kids evaluation study: Academic years 2001/2002, 2002/2003, and 2003/2004, Social and Emotional Outcomes. Jones, S.M. & Bailey, R. (2014, March). Preliminary impacts of the SECURe PreK on child and classroom- level outcomes . Paper presented at the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, Washington, DC. Jones, S. M. & Bailey, R. (2015, September). An organizing model and developmental sequence for social-emotional learning. Presentation at the National Governors Association (NGA) Expert Roundtable Meeting on Social and Intellectual Habits, Washington, D.C. Jones, S. M., Bailey, R., Brion-Meisels, G., & Partee, A. (2016). Choosing to be positive. Educational Leadership , 74 (1), 63- 68. Phi Delta Kappa, Jones, S., Bailey, R. & Jacob, R. (2014) Social-emotional learning is essential to classroom management. 96, 19-24. Jones, S. M., & Bouffard, S. M. (2012). Social and emotional learning in schools: From programs to strategies. Society for Research in Child Development Social Policy Report. 26 (4), 1-33. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED540203.pdf Jones, S. M., Brown, J. L., & Aber, J. L. (2008). Classroom settings as targets of intervention and research. In M. Shinn & H. , (pp. 58-77). New Toward positive youth development: Transforming schools and community programs Yoshikawa (Eds.), York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc. Jones, S. M., Brown, J. L., Hoglund, W. L. G. , & Aber, J. L. (2010). A school-randomized clinical trial of an integrated social- Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , emotional learning and literacy intervention: Impacts after 1 school year. 78 (6), 829-842. Jones, S. M., Brown, J. L., & Aber, J. L. (2011). Two-year impacts of a universal school-based social-emotional and literacy , intervention: An experiment in translational developmental research. 82 (2), 533-554. Child Development Jones, S.M., Jacob, R., & Morrison, F. (in preparation) Evaluating the impact of a self-regulation intervention (SECURe) on self- regulation and achievement. Jones, S. M., Weissbourd, R., Bouffard, S., & Kahn, J., & Ross, T. (2014). A Content Analysis of Empathy-Focused School Curricula, a Re-Conceptualized Model of Empathy, and Strategies for Promoting Empathy in Practice. Executive Summary. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Education. Karoly, P. (1993). Mechanisms of self-regulation: A systems view. , 44 (1), 23- 52. Annual Review of Psychology Kellam, S. G., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J. M., Ialongo, N. S., Wang, W. Toyinbo, P., Petra, H., Ford, C., Windham, A. & Wilcox, H. C. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 95S, S5- S28. Kremenitzer, J. P. (2005). The emotionally intelligent early childhood educator: Self-reflective journaling. Early Childhood Education Journal , 33 (1), 3- 9. Kumpfer, K. L., Alvarado, R., Tait, C., & Turner, C. (2002). Effectiveness of school-based family and children’s skills training for 8-year-old rural children. , 65- 71. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16 substance abuse prevention among 6 – 293

295 (1999). Children’s social and sch olastic lives in kindergarten: Related spheres of Ladd, G. W., Birch, S. H., & Buhs, E. S. influence? Child Development, 70 (6), 1373-1400. Larsen, T., & Samdal, O. (2007). Implementing second step: Balancing fidelity and program adaptation. Journal of Educationa l and Psychological Consultation, 17 (1), 1- 29. LaRusso, M. D., Brown, J. L., Jones, S. M., & Aber, J. L. (2009). School context and microcontexts: The complexity of studying school settings. In L. M. Dinella (Ed.), Conducting science- based psychology research in schools, (pp. 175-197). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Leblanc, R., Drolet, M., Ducharme, D., Arcand, I., Head, R., & Alphonse, J. R. (2015). The conception of risk in minority young 367. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 3 adolescents Aged 12-14 years. (6), 359- f Leflot, G., van Lier, P. A. C., Onghena, P. & Colpin, H. (2010). The role of teacher behavior management in the development o disruptive behaviors: An intervention study with the good behavior game. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 869- 882. Lewis, K. M., Bavarian, N., Snyder, F. J., Acock, A., Day, J., DuBois, D. L., Ji, P, Schure, M.B., Silverthorn, N., Vuchinich, S., & Flay, B. R. (2012). Direct and mediated effects of a social-emotional and character development program on adolescent The International Journal of Emotional Education, 4 substance use. (1), 56- 78. Lewis, K. M., DuBois, D. L., Bavarian, N., Acock, A., Silverthorn, N., Day, J., Ji, P., Vuchinich, S., & Flay, B. R. (2013). Effects of Positive Action on the emotional health of urban youth: A cluster-randomized trial. Journal of Adolescent Health , 53 (6), 706-711. & Flay, B. R. Vuchinich, S., Lewis, K. M., Schure, M. B., Bavarian, N., DuBois, D. L., Day, J., Ji, P., Silverthorn, N., Acock, A., (2013). Problem behavior and urban, low-income youth: A randomized controlled trial of Positive Action in Chicago. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 44 (6), 622-630. Li, K. K., Washburn, I., DuBois, D. L., Vuchinich, S., Ji, P., Brechling, V., Day, J., Beets, M. W., Acock, A. C., Berbaum, M., Snyder, F., & Flay, B. R. (2011). Effects of the Positive Action programme on problem behaviours in elementary school students: A matched-pair randomised control trial in Chicago. Psychology and Health, 26 (2), 187- 204. Lickona, T., & Davidson, M. (2005). Smart & good high schools: Integrating excellence and ethics for success in school, work, and beyond. Cortland, NY: Center for the 4th and 5th Rs (Respect and Responsibility)/Washington, DC: Character Education Partnership. Linares, L. O., Rosbruch, N., Stern, M. B., Edwards, M. E., Walker, G., Abikoff, H. B., & Alvir, J. M. J. (2005). Developing cognitive ‐ social 417. emotional competencies to enhance academic learning. Psychology in the Schools, 42 (4), 405- ‐ Lopes, P. N., Mestre, J. M., Guil, R., Kremenitzer, J. P., & Salovey, P. (2012). The role of knowledge and skills for managin g emot American Educational Research ions in adaptation to school: Social behavior and misconduct in the classroom. Journal , 49 (4), 710- 742. Marquez, B., Marquez, J., Vincent, C. G., Pennefather, J., Sprague, J. R., Smolkowski, K., & Yeaton, P. (2014). The iterative development and initial evaluation of We Have Skills: An innovative approach to teaching social skills to elementary students. Education and Treatment of Children, 37 (1), 137-161. Martin, J. J., Waldron, J. J., McCabe, A. & Choi, Y.S. (2009). The impact of "Girls on the Run" on self-concept and fat attitudes. Journal of Clinical Sports Psychology, 3 (2) , 127-138. McClelland, M. M., Cameron, C. E., Connor, C. M., Farris, C. L., Jewkes, A. M., & Morrison, F. J. (2007). Links between behavioral regulation and preschoolers’ literacy, vocabulary, and math skills. Developmental Psychology, 43 (4), 947-959. Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., & Rodriguez, M. I. (1989). Delay of gratification in children. Science, 244 (4907), 933-938. 294

296 Moffitt, T. E., Arseneault, L., Belsky, D., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., ... Caspi, A. (2011). A gradient of childhood Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108 self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. (7), 2693- 2698. Morrison, F., Jacob, R., & Jones, S.M. (2013, February). Evaluating SECURe: Preliminary findings. Presented at the meeting of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Cambridge, MA. st Nagaoka, J., Farrington, C. A., & Ehrlich, S. B. (2014). century. A framework for developing young adult success in the 21 Retrieved from https://consortium.uchicago.edu/publications/foundations-young-adult-success-developmental- framework Osher, D., Kidron, Y., Brackett, M., Dymnicki, A., Jones, S. M. & Weissberg, R. P. (in press). Advancing the science and practice of social and emotional learning: Looking back and moving forward. Review of Research in Education , 40 (1), 644-681. Petra, H., Masyn, K. & Ialongo, N. (2011) The developmental impact of two first grade preventive interventions on aggressive/disruptive behavior in childhood and adolescence: An application of latent transition growth mixture modeling. Prevention Science, 12, 300-313. Ponitz, C. E. C., McClelland, M. M., Jewkes, A. M., Connor, C. M., Farris, C. L., & Morrison, F. J. (2008). Touch your toes! Developing a direct measure of behavioral regulation in early childhood. Early Childhood Research Quarterly , 23 (2), 141- 158. Raver, C. C. (2002). Emotions matter: Making the case for the role of young children’s emotional development for early school readiness. Social Policy Report, 16 (3), 3- 19. Reyes, M. R., Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., Elbertson, N. A. & Salovey, P. (2012). The interaction effects of program training, dosage, and implementation quality on targeted student outcomes for the RULER approach to social and emotional , 41 82- 99. learning. School Psychology Review , Riggs, N. R., Greenberg, M. T., Kusché, C. A., & Pentz, M. A. (2006). The mediational role of neurocognition in the behavioral outcomes of a social-emotional prevention program in elementary school students: Effects of the PATHS Prevention Science , 7 (1), 91-102. curriculum. Summary Report: Spring Evaluation . Retrieved from Riley, A. & Weiss, M. R. (2015). https://www.girlsontherun.org/assets/img/uploads/media/Spring%20Evaluation%20Report_FINAL_for%20website.pdf Rimm-Kaufman, S. E. & Chiu, Y, I. (2007). Promoting social and academic competence in the classroom: An intervention study examining the contribution of the Responsive Classroom approach. , 44(4), 397-413. Psychology in the Schools Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Fan, X., Chiu, Y. J., & You, W. (2007). The contribution of the Responsive Classroom Approach on 401- Journal of School Psychology , 45 (4), children’s academic achievement: Results from a three year longitudinal study. 421. Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Larsen, R. A. A., Baroody, A. E., Curby, T. W., Ko, M., Thomas, J. B., Merrit, T.A. & DeCoster, J. (2014). American Efficacy of the Responsive Classroom approach: Results from a 3-year, longitudinal randomized controlled trial. Educational Research Journal , 51 (3), 567- 603. Rivers, S. E., Brackett, M. A., Reyes, M. R., Elbertson, N. A., & Salovey, P. (2013). Improving the social and emotional climate of classrooms: A clustered randomized controlled trial testing the RULER approach. Prevention Science , 14( 1), 77- 87. Sameroff, A. (2010). A unified theory of development: A dialectic integration of nature and nurture. Child Development , 81 (1), 6- 22. Santos Elias, L. C., Marutrano, E. M., Almeida Motta, A. M. & Giurlani, A. G. (2003). Treating boys with low school Psychological Reports, 92 116. , 105- achievement and behavior problems: Comparison of two kinds of intervention. 295

297 Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Oberle, E., Lawlor, M. S., Abbott, D., Thomson, K., Oberlander, T. F., & Diamond, (2015). Enhancing – to-administer mindfulness-based school program for cognitive and social emotional development through a simple- elementary school children: A randomized controlled trial. Developmental Psychology, 51 (1), 52-66. From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Shonkoff, J. & Phillips, D. (Eds.). (2000). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Shure, M. B., & Spivack, G. (1982). Interpersonal problem solving in young children: A cognitive approach to prevention. American Journal of Community Psychology, 10 , 341 – 356. Smith-Donald, R., Raver, C. C., Hayes, T., & Richardson, B. (2007). Preliminary construct and concurrent validity of the Preschool Self-regulation Assessment (PSRA) for field- based research. Early Childhood Research Quarterly , 22 (2), 173- 187. s Snyder, F. J., Acock, A. C., Vuchinich, S., Beets, M. W., Washburn, I. J., & Flay, B. R. (2013). Preventing negative behavior among elementary-school students through enhancing students' social-emotional and character development. American Journal of Health Promotion, 28 (1), 50- 58. Snyder, F. J., Flay, B. R., Vuchinich, S., Acock, A., Washburn, I. J., Beets, M. W., & Li, K. K. (2010). Impact of a social-emotional and character development program on school-level indicators of academic achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes: A matched-pair, cluster-randomized, controlled trial. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 3 (1), 26-55. Snyder, F. J., Vuchinich, S., Acock, A., Washburn, I. J., & Flay, B. R. (2012). Improving elementary school quality t hrough the ‐ ‐ randomized, controlled trial in use of a social ‐ emotional and character development program: A matched pair, cluster Hawai'i. 20. (1), 11- Journal of School Health, 82 Social and Character Development Research Consortium. (2010). Efficacy of schoolwide programs to promote social and character development and reduce problem behavior in elementary school children . Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/ncer/pubs/20112001/ Taylor, C. A., Liang, B., Tracy, A. J., Williams, L. M. & Seigle, P. (2002). Gender differences in middle school adjustment, ical fighting, and social skills: Evaluation of a social competency program. Journal of Primary Prevention , 23 (2), 259- phys 272. U.S. Department of Education (2005). Character education... o ur shared responsibility. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/admins/lead/character/brochure.html Vuijk, P., van Lier, P. A. C., Crijnen, A. A. M. & Huizink, A. C. (2006). Testing sex -specific pathways from peer victimization to anxiety and depression in early adolescents through a randomized intervention trial. Journal of Affective Disorders, 100, 221-226. Washburn, I. J., Acock, A., Vuchinich, S., Snyder, F. J., Li, K. K., Ji, P., Day, J., DuBois, D., & Flay, B. R. (2011). Effects of a social- emotional and character development program on the trajectory of behaviors associated with social-emotional and character development: findings from three randomized trials. Prevention Science, 12 (3), 314-323. Witvliet, M., van Lier, P. A. C., Cuijpers, P. & Koot, H. M. (2009). Testing links between childhood positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes through a randomized controlled intervention study. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 77 (5), 909-915. http://education.muttigrees.org/evaluation Retrieved from Yale 21C. (n.d.) The Mutt-i-grees Curriculum: Evaluation. 296

298 APPENDIX A: SCOPE OF WORK This report stems from a research project commissioned by The Wallace Foundation (Wallace) in Fall 2015. Wallace hired Stephanie M. Jones, Ph.D. and colleagues to prepare a Draft Report for use by as part of Wallace’s SEL Wallace and a small number of organizations applying to receive grants initiative. The project resulted in a non-public report in February 2016 that documented what is known about leading SEL programs for elementary-school-age children, and key features, attributes and comparisons of those programs a s determined through Dr. Jones’s analysis and coding system. The Draft Report was designed to support grantee organizations in the selection or adaptation of an SEL program intended for use with elementary-school-age children in school settings, out- of-sch ool-time settings, or both. The Draft Report was intended to inform their decisions about which SEL program or features to use for their Wallace-funded activities. Following this project, Wallace provided Dr. Jones and her colleagues with additional funding to adapt the Draft Report into public-facing tools a nd resources, including this report, that all practitioners can use to make decisions about the SEL programming appropriate for their school or program. 297

299 APPENDIX B : METHODOLOGY Here we summarize the methods by which our analyses were conducted. PROGRAM IDENTIFICATION AND SELECTION Our team used the 2013 CASEL Guide: Effective Social and Emotional Learning Programs (Preschool and Elementary Edition) and internal expertise to generate an initial list of 15 SEL programs with some evidence of impact and effectiveness. We then expanded the list to incorporate 10 additional programs for their focus on out- of-school time and character education. The final 25 programs were ultimately selected for inclusion based upon relevance to the project, diversity of focus and approach, and accessibility of program materials to the project team. The selected programs include in alphabetical order: 4Rs (Reading, Writing, Respect and Resolution) ; Before the Bullying A.F.T.E.R. School Program ; Caring School Community; Character First; Competent Kids, Caring Communities; Conscious Discipline; Girls on the Run; Good Behavior Game; I Can Problem Solve; Lions Quest; MindUP; the Mutt-i-grees Curriculum; Open Circle; PATHS; Playworks; Positive Action; Responsive Classroom; RULER; Social Decision Making/Problem Solving Program; Second Step; SECURe; Too Good for Violence; We Have Skills; WINGS for Kids; and Wise Skills. Each program met a majority of the following inclusion criteria: 1. sufficient evidence to support impact on social and emotional skills, including results from randomized control trials and/or multiple research studies; widely implemented; 2. well-aligned with the theory and practice of social and emotional learning; 3. 4. available information about implementation; 5. a clear scope and sequence and well-defined set of activities and supports; 6. covers the K-5 elementary age span; and accessible and codable materials. 7. Program materials were made available to us either by permission of the developers or through purchase online. COLLECTION AND CODIN G SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT OF DATA The data collection and coding system we employed was developed to document the key features and attributes of each program and to describe the degree to which each program targets the major SEL outcomes (described above in Section 1) across the cognitive, social, 1 emotional, character and mindset domains at the activity-level. With this system, we captured data for each program in three major areas: Activities (Activity-Level System), Program 1 Our coding system was initially designed for a curriculum development project that included a detailed content analysis of 5 social and emotional learning programs. We adapted and expanded it for use in this project. 298

300 Components (Program-Level System), and Research and Evidence (Evidence-Based System; see coding guide in Appendix B). Activity-Level data collection and coding involved careful and detailed reading and coding of each program’s curriculum to capture the specific skills targeted by the program (as evidenced by what is addressed in lessons, activities, routines, and structures) as well as the specific types of activities teachers/staff use to do so. Activity Codes and Domain Within the Activity-Level System, there were two types of codes: . Codes Activity Codes Activity Codes described the types of activities used in the curriculum. For example: 1 Read aloud book/story with SEL theme 6 Art or other creative project with an SEL theme 13 Games related to SEL skill (e.g., name game, feelings charades) Each activity received both a primary and secondary Activity Code. For a complete list of the Activity Codes, see the coding guide in Appendix B. In addition, the major activity types are listed and described in a table at the end of this section. Domain Codes Domain Codes described the specific social, emotional, and cognitive regulation skills that were targeted by the program. Each Domain Code fell under one of three broader categories: Cognitive Regulation, Emotional Processes, and Interpersonal Processes. For example: Cognitive Regulation (construct) 101 Attention Control (domain) 102 Working Memory and Planning Skills (domain) 103 Inhibitory Control (domain) 104 Cognitive Flexibility (domain) Two additional categories were added for this project, Character and Mindset. Because they were developed and grew out of the coding process, we did not generate sub- domains for them at this time and they were thus assigned their own Domain Codes. For example: 401 Character Development (construct) 402 Mindset (construct) For a complete list of the Domain Codes, including operational definitions for each code, see the coding guide in Appendix C. 299

301 Program-Level data collection and coding involved the narrative recording of information about program features beyond the specific content of lessons, as reported in the materials and online resources provided by the program (e.g., teacher guides, website, etc.). In the Program-Level system, there were 12 general categories of information: Content, Applications Outside the Classroom, Technology, Time, Assessments, Adult Training & Support, Support for Implementation, Environment, Flexibility, OST Adaptation, Family & Community Engagement, and Pros/Cons. Each category was divided into sub-categories related to that topic. For example: Content (category) Lesson structure (sub-category) SEL goals/competencies targeted (sub-category) Activities beyond specific lesson plans (sub-category) For a complete list of the Program-Level Codes see the coding guide in Appendix C. Research and evidence data collection and coding involved the recording of program effects and implementation experiences, as determined from outside materials such as research papers, reports, etc. In some instances, coders had to follow a set of guidelines to make judgments about how to interpret information from these sources (e.g., using research papers to determine the weight and quality of program evidence). Within the Evidence-Based codes, there were two categories of information: Evidence Implementation As with the Program-Level system, each of these categories was further divided into specific sub-categories related to that topic. For example: Implementation (category) Components implemented (sub-category) Tracked implementation (sub-category) Experience of program users (sub-category) For a complete list of the Evidence-Based codes, see the coding guide in Appendix C. Given the length of time that we had to complete this project, as well as our knowledge of the programs and their existing materials, we chose to code non-consecutive grades in most of the programs. This decision made sense for several reasons: (1) we found that there tended to be repetition in content focus and type of activities in consecutive grades; (2) some programs did not differentiate by grade, but rather clustered their programmatic materials in developmental 300

302 buckets (e.g., K/1, 2/3, 4/5); and (3) given our knowledge of the developmental salience of different SEL skills, there is reason to expect overlap in the skills targeted in consecutive grades. Below, we indicate the grade-levels that were coded for each program, making note of programs that did not organize themselves by grade. 4 K 1 2 Program 5 6 3 X X X 4Rs Before the Bullying X X CSC X X Character First X CKCC X X Conscious Discipline X Girls on the Run X Good Behavior Game X Primary Intermediate 2 ICPS X grades Elementary Lions Quest X X X MindUP X X Mutt-i- grees X X X Open Circle X X X X X PATHS X 3 Playworks X 3 Responsive Classroom X X X X RULER X X SECURe X Second Step X X SDM/PS Program X X X X Too Good for Violence X X We Have Skills X WINGS X X X X Wise Skills X Positive Action X X X 2 ICPS divided their lessons into Kindergarten & Primary Grades and Intermediate Elementary Grades and it was unclear at which grade primary grades ended and intermediate elementary began. For that reason, we counted primary grades as Grades 1-2 and intermediate elementary as 5. Grades 3- 3 Responsive Classroom and Playworks identified different grade ranges for each activity that made it difficult to break them up by grade, so we coded all relevant activities rather than dividing them by grade. For Responsive Classroom, we coded all Morning Meeting Activities. For Playworks, we coded the entire Playbook. 301

303 CODING PROCESS The primary goals of the coding process were to train research assistants as coders, check for reliability across coders, and complete the coding of all programs. (1) Research Assistant Training Our team included three lead research assistants, all of whom were hired to work solely on this Ed. in either the Mind, Brain, and Education or project. Each of the RAs had earned his/her M. the Human Development and Psychology programs at the Harvard Graduate School of Education; as a result, all had some level of familiarity with prior research on SEL. Lead research assistants supervised an additional team of part-time researchers, who helped with data collection and coding. Lead research assistants were initially trained in the processes of data collection and coding by the Principal Investigator (Jones) with input from the analytic team (advanced doctoral students and post-docs). Together, using prior work by the PI as a guide, this team created the SEL Analysis Coding Guide (for training and reference purposes), a Coding Packet (for use while coding), and a coding plan. The written documents created by this lead research team were used to train all research assistants. Research assistants spent time learning about the purpose of the project, the coding system, and the codebook. RAs were shown an example of a fully coded program (Second Step), and were given an opportunity to preview materials from other programs to better understand the nature of the program materials. They then had an opportunity to practice coding under the supervision of a lead RA. All research assistants had at least four hours of training prior to the start of coding. Coders worked in pairs for all activity and program-level coding so that any discrepancies could . be discussed in real time. Two separate RAs coded all of the evidence-based data (2) Inter-coder Reliability In addition to working in pairs, we worked to ensure inter-rater reliability in several other ways. Coders met regularly with the lead RAs, who met regularly as a team to check their progress and address any questions in the codebook. As much as possible, coders worked in the same physical space so that when questions arose they were able to make collaborative decisions. The codebook was regularly updated to reflect these decisions so that anyone not in the room could easily check their understanding. Finally, approximately 10% of the Lions Quest lessons were coded twice for comparison. A pair of RAs coded the lessons first. These codes were then compared to a second set of codes generated by a lead research assistant and were found to be consistent. 302

304 (3) Coding Procedures Once all research assistants had been trained and we were confident we had achieved a reasonable level of inter-coder consistency, we began the process of coding each program at the three levels described above: activity, program, and evidence. Activity-Level information was coded initially in hard copy and then using Excel. Lessons were initially coded by marking the codes associated with each activity clearly next to the activity in the curriculum materials. Hard copy materials were coded using Post-It notes. Digital materials were coded using the comments feature in a PDF reader. This system made it easy to return to specific activities to review/update codes. After the lessons had been coded, all of the codes from each lesson were transferred into a matrix. The coding matrix was an Excel spreadsheet into which all of the Activity-Level codes from each lesson in each grade were compiled. Please see example below. The matrix allowed us to record and summarize how often and in what ways the skills domains and constructs were being targeted across grades, units, and lessons. Each coded activity received its own row in the matrix. Each column in the matrix represented one domain (e.g., Attention Control). Every activity was coded as a 1 or a 0 for every domain (1 = yes, the activity targeted the domain; 0 = no the activity did not target the domain). Each activity was then given a primary and secondary code for activity type (e.g., “read aloud book with SEL theme” or “games related to SEL skill”). A separate matrix was completed for each grade within each program. Program-Level information was recorded in narrative/bullet point form in an Excel spreadsheet. The spreadsheet was organized by category with each column representing a sub-category. Several sub-categories were broken down further by grade. When this was the case, coders were asked to provide any program-level information in the first row followed by grade-specific information in the following rows. If it was unclear whether a program had a particular feature or the information needed to fill in the cell for a sub-category was unavailable, coders were instructed to write “unclear” or “unavailable” in the box. This helped to clearly distinguish 303

305 between categories for which there was no information versus cells that were left unfilled by accident. Coders completed a separate spreadsheet for each program. Regardless of the level of coding, coders were instructed to only include program features explicitly addressed by the program developers in their guides and materials or on their website. For example, a coder may have felt that a program could be easily adapted to OST settings, but unless the program explicitly provided support to do so or addressed the issue in some way in its materials, that coder would not record anything in the “OST Adaptation” section. Instead, if the coder felt strongly about the issue, he/she could make note of his/her opinion in the “Other Considerations” column under “Pros & Cons.” Research and Evidence was recorded in narrative/bullet point form in an Excel spreadsheet. The spreadsheet was organized by category with each column representing a sub-category. Every study reviewed had its own row in the spreadsheet. When information needed to complete a cel l was unavailable, coders were instructed to record “unavailable” in the cell. This helped to clearly distinguish between categories for which there was no information versus cells that were left unfilled by accident. A separate spreadsheet was completed for each program. To identify and compile source material, coders were instructed to look at the following types of external documents with a focus on the last 10 years as much as possible: x Journal papers from online databases (e.g., ERIC, PsychInfo, MedLine, etc.) Research reports x Studies/reports/evaluations included under program website research tabs x Details from ongoing or unpublished studies (noted as such) x Coders were instructed to extract objective results from external materials and exclude author opinion/bias. author ’s interpretation to avoid DATA ANALYSIS We analyzed these data in a variety of ways. Our primary approach was descriptive. Specifically, we employed the activity, program, and evidence-data to generate detailed summaries of each of the 25 programs. These within-program descriptions (or program profiles) include graphs, charts, and heat maps that summarize the domain focus of each program (e.g., to what degree the program activities target cognitive versus emotion skills), as well as the types of activities (i.e. instructional methods) employed in the program. Also included with these summaries are example activities. We also conducted a quantitative cross-program analysis in which we examined domain focus and made a judgment about whether each program’s and activity types across all programs focus in those areas was high, typical, or low relative to other programs in our analysis based on above/below the cross-program mean for a whether the percent of activities targeted was particular domain, skill, or instructional method (e.g., cognitive regulation, conflict resolution, 304

306 book/story). These comparisons were made using the criteria below and are summarized in Tables 1 and 2 on p. 33- 36. Program focus was considered high in a domain, skill, or instructional method when: 1. program average was +15% above the cross-program mean (for cross-program averages >10%); 2. program average was +10% above the cross-program mean (for cross-program averages between 5-10%); or 3. program average was +5% above the cross-program mean (for cross-program averages <5% ). Program focus was considered low in a domain, skill, or instructional method when: program average was -15% below the cross-program mean (for cross-program averages x >10%); x program average was -10% below the cross-program mean (for cross-program averages between 5-10%); or x program average was -5% below the cross-program mean (for cross-program averages <5%). Program focus was considered typical in a domain, skill, or instructional method when: program average did not otherwise qualify as high or low. x Our approach to summarizing the above activity-level data was largely quantitative, whereas we employed a largely qualitative approach to compiling and summarizing the program-level data. Here, we made a judgment about the degree to which each program, relative to the others, covered 10 important program features. For example, some programs included minimal or no activities for outside the classroom, while others included highly structured activities for use outside the classroom. These comparisons are summarized in Table 3 on p. 37-38 . For a breakdown of how we made these distinctions, please see the Table 3 Key on the following and found them to CASEL Guide page. We compared our summary to that provided in the 2013 be largely consistent. 305

307 Table 3 Key Professional Development and Training Classroom Activities Beyond Core Lessons May suggest reinforcing lesson concepts outside of core lessons, but provides no specific No professional development or training offered. suggestions/activities for doing so. May offer site-facilitated, online, or some optional trainings, typically with little or no follow- up Supplementary activities or materials (e.g., books) suggested, but no structured activities support; training primarily for external AmeriCorps members or volunteers (e.g., not site-based provided; or, minimal structured activities provided (e.g., only for a small number of lessons). school staff/OST coordinators); training may not be curriculum-specific. Required training or extensive optional trainings; primarily developer-led; primarily for teachers Structured supplementary activities regularly or frequently provided. and/or administrators; follow- up support may or may not be offered . Required supplementary activities provided Professional development is primary or highly integral focus of program. Offers training/PD/ strategies that help adults build their Support for Academic Integration: Provides activities/lessons/supports for linking SEL skills to Adult Social-Emotional Competence: 9 9 academic content; or, program is designed to be integrated with academic subject (e.g., literacy). own social-emotional skills. Climate and Culture Supports Support for Implementation No school-wide activities designed to build climate/culture or strategies for managing student No implementation guidelines, manuals, kits, or best practices provided; unscripted lessons. behavior provided. School-wide activities designed to build climate/culture suggested, but no structured activities Checklists or guidelines/best practices provided; or, scripted lessons with little additional support; may or may not include support for adult modeling. provided; and/or, includes some strategies for managing student behavior. Structured school-wide activities designed to build positive school climate/culture provided ; Highly detailed or integral implementation packages, manuals, and/or trainings offered; lessons and/or, includes comprehensive set of strategies for managing student behavior. may or may not be scripted; support for adult modeling typically provided. Highly integral or required school-wide activities designed to build positive school Not applicable. No programs offer more extensive supports than others. climate/culture; or, program structure heavily based on offering teachers strategies to change the learning environment. Tools to Assess Implementation Applications to OST No applications to OST offered. No tools provided or suggested. Designed to be adapted to OST settings; or, all or part of program has been used successfully in Tips and suggestions for assessing implementation provided, but no assessment tools offered. OST context. Set OST curricula or specific instructions for adapting program to OST settings provided. Tools such as checklists, teacher logs, and surveys provided. Not applicable. No programs offered more extensive tools than others. Designed specifically or primarily for OST settings (e.g., is an afterschool program). Tools to Assess Program Outcomes Adaptability to Local Context Rigid or non-flexible; lessons must be delivered in sequence as scripted with few exceptions; or, No tools or suggestions provided. no information/guidance provided. Small modifications to lesson timing, context (e.g., who delivers lessons and when), and/or Informal observations or learning checks to assess student outcomes; formal assessments may ed as scripted/prescribed; or, no content may be permitted, but must generally be deliver be suggested but are not provided. modifications permitted but offers adaptations for diverse learners (e.g., special education or ELL). Modifications to lesson timing, context, and/or content encouraged; or, only small modifications Formal, structured assessments to assess student outcomes. permitted but offers adaptations for diverse learners (e.g., special education or ELL) and/or resources for aligning program with existing student support systems (e.g., PBIS). No prescribed curriculum; or, freedom to extensively modify lesson content and/or pick and Provides formal tools for assessing student and adult outcomes. choose content from a wide range of suggestions. 306

308 Family Engagement Community Engagement No family engagement opportunities provided. No community engagement opportunities provided. Provides parents with information about program (optional one-off parent event/orientation, Provides loose suggestions for involving community members in lessons/program activities. handouts to summarize skills for parents, etc.) but little in-person engagement; may provide ideas for ongoing family engagement, but no resources. Provides highly structured community activities or supplementary community kit/manual; may Provides materials to actively engage parents in program/skill-building (take-home worksheets, include short community service project; may incorporate use of regular community volunteers. suggested family events, workshops, etc.). Provides highly structured materials (e.g., kits) for family workshops and/or other family service-learning project integral to program. term Long- activities. 307

309 APPENDIX C : CODING GUIDE To use this coding system in your own work, please contact Dr. Stephanie Jones at 617-496-2223 or [email protected] . Wallace SEL Analysis Coding and Data Collection Guidelines PART I: INTRODUCTION Project Overview The Wallace Foundation has commissioned an internal report that documents the key features, attributes, and comparisons of leading social and emotional learning programs for elementary-school-age children. The report is intended for use by Wallace and organizations selected to receive grants as part of Wallace’s social and emotional learning initiative; these organizations will select a social-emotional learning program, or will adapt features of one or more programs, for their Wallace-funded activities. The report is intended to inform their decisions about which social and emotional learning program or features to use. Purpose and History of the Coding Process The coding process is a method for documenting the key features and attributes of each program and monitoring whether and how each program is targeting SEL outcomes across the cognitive, social, and emotional domains at the activity-level. This coding system was initially developed for a content analysis of previous social and emotional learning programs and adapted for use on this project. The coding will be analyzed and summarized in several ways (described later in this and strategies. document) that will serve to describe and compare each program’s scope 308

310 PART II: CODING SYSTEM OVERVI EW : , Program- The coding system incorporates three levels of data collection Activity-Level , and Level . Evidence-Based Activity-Level System Activity-Level data collection involves an in-depth reading and coding of each program’s curriculum to capture the specific social, emotional, and cognitive skills targeted by the program as well as the activities teachers are using to do so. Activity Code s and Domain Within the Activity-Level system, there are two types of codes: Codes . Activity Codes Activity Codes describe the types of activities used in the curriculum. For example: 1 Read aloud book with SEL theme 6 Art or other creative project with an SEL theme Games related to SEL skill (e.g., name game, feelings charades) 13 Each activity receives both a primary and secondary Activity Code. Domain Codes Domain Codes describe the specific social, emotional, and cognitive regulation skills that are targeted by the program. Each Domain Code falls under one of three constructs: Interpersonal Processes. For example: and Cognitive Regulation, Emotional Processes, Cognitive Regulation (construct) Attention Control (domain) 101 Working Memory and Planning Skills (domain) 102 103 Inhibitory Control (domain) 104 Cognitive Flexibility (domain) Two additional constructs, Character Development and Mindset, do not have any sub- domains and were thus assigned their own Domain Codes. For example: 401 Character Development (construct) Mindset (construct) 402 309

311 Program-Level System data collection involves the narrative recording of information about program Program-Level features beyond the specific content of lessons, as reported in materials and online resources provided by the program (e.g., teacher guides, website, etc.). Within the Program-Level system, there are 12 categories of information: Content, Applications Outside the Classroom, Technology, Time, Assessments, Adult Training & Support, Support for Implementation, Environment, Flexibility, OST Adaptation, Family & Community Engagement, and Pros/Cons. Each category is divided into more specific sub-categories related to that topic. For example: Content (category) Lesson structure (subcategory) SEL goals/competencies targeted (sub-category) Activities beyond specific lesson plans (sub-category) Evidence-Based System Evidence-Based data collection involves the narrative recording of information about program features beyond the specific content of lessons, as determined from outside materials such as research papers, reports, etc. In some instances, coders must follow a set of guidelines to make judgments about how to interpret information from these sources (e.g., using research papers to determine the weight and quality of program evidence). Within the Evidence-Based system, there are two categories of information: Evidence and Feedback. As with the Program-Level system, each of these categories is further divided into specific sub-categories related to that topic. For exampl e: Feedback (category) Available information and analysis on practical implementation of lessons (sub-category) Available information on experience of program users (sub-category) 310

312 PART III: ACTIVITY-LEVEL CODING GUIDELINES How to Code Lessons Method Lessons are initially coded by marking the codes associated with each activity clearly next to the activity in the curriculum materials. Hard copy materials should be coded using Post-It notes. Digital materials should be coded using the comments feature in your PDF reader. This system makes it easy to return to specific activities to review/update codes. Activity Code Tips It is important to determine amongst co-coders what constitutes a unique activity within the context of a particular program to ensure that lessons are being coded at the same level of specificity throughout. In most cases, coders should default to how the curriculum itself breaks up lessons into separate activities (i.e. Introduction, Discussion, Wrap-Up, etc.). However, in some cases it is not always immediately clear what should constitute a unique activity within a lesson. It is possible that the program doesn’t denote concrete activities within a lesson, or it might be that a single activity as defined by the curriculum (e.g., “Play Brain Builder Game”) is actually a combination of multiple smaller activities (e.g., playing the game, discussing the game, and teaching vocab words associated with the game), which might constitute separate activities. If more than two Activity Codes apply to an activity, code the two most relevant to the central goal of the activity (primary and secondary), giving priority to media (e.g., videos, songs , books , etc.). For example, the two lesson activities below both involve vocabulary; however, it is only coded in Example 2. This is because in Example 1, book and discussion are the more primary activity types. EXAMPLE 1 EXAMPLE 2 Activity coded as Activity coded as book/story (primary) (primary) and discussion vocabulary/language Empathy Word Web Empathy Read Aloud and discussion (secondary) (secondary) by Trudy Ludwig aloud to the class, giving students Remind students that this week they have been learning about empathy. The Invisible Boy Read time to look at the pictures. The book is about Brian, a boy who feels means thinking empathy Write the word on the board. Remind them that and caring about how someone else is feeling, or understanding exactly invisible and excluded at school until a new student, Justin, joins his class. how someone feels. Invite students to think about what they have learned Discuss as a class: about empathy this week. How did Brian feel at the beginning of the story? Why did he x Ask: What words come to mind when you think about empathy? feel that way? How can you tell? ) feelings, kindness, caring, perspective, good friend, hug, etc. ( What happened when Justin joined the class? How did he x Write their answers on the board and use lines to connect them to the treat Brian? How did this make Brian feel? How can you tell? word “empathy,” creating a word web. Have students use the word web to help them write a sentence that empathy means thinking and caring about x Tell students that how someone else is feeling, or understanding exactly how defines empathy using their own words someone feels. How did Justin show empathy toward Brian? What happened as a result? x Ask students to share times they have felt empathy for another person. How can empathy help us get along with each other? How can we show empathy in our classroom? 311

313 Domain Code Tips When reading lessons to code them, it is important to remember to only apply the codes to explicit examples of skill building. This includes situations where the teacher explicitly refers to the skill, the activity is clearly designed to target the skill, or the activity requires a higher than usual level of the skill. It is important not to assign codes for benchmarks that are implicit because this could result in nearly all codes being applied for all activities, thereby rendering the coding meaningless. For example, while it could be argued that reading a book out loud to a class would implicitly require students to practice skills from the “Attention Control” construct, if the codes were applied in that case, it would mean that it was necessary to code almost every activity as addressing “Attention Control.” Instead, there are activities in the curricula that specifically address “Attention Control” skills (e.g., a game of Simon Says), and we are only concerned with coding those explicit activities. Note: It is possible that an activity that receives an Activity Code won’t target any of the domains we are coding for and therefore not receive a Domain Code, especially if they are introductions to a lesson. This is fine. Entering Codes in the Matrix The coding matrix is an Excel spreadsheet where all of the Activity-Level codes from each lesson in each grade are compiled. The matrix is organized so that we can record and summarize how often and in what ways the domains and constructs are being targeted across grades, units, and lessons. After lessons have been coded, all of the codes from each lesson are transferred into the matrix. Each coded activity gets its own row in the matrix. Each column in the matrix represents one domain (e.g., Attention Control). Every activity should be coded as a 1 or a 0 for every domain (1 = yes, the activity targeted the domain; 0 = no the activity did not target the domain). You will complete a separate matrix for each grade within each program. Please see Part VI for how to name and submit your matrices. The Codes The following pages include the Activity Codes and Domain Codes for the SEL Analysis project along with notes about when to code for each. 312

314 Activity Codes 1 Read aloud book with SEL theme Discussion of SEL theme (may be related to book, students’ own lives, etc.) Includes both teacher and kid 2 talk. Role play (may be with puppets or props, may be adult or child led, children may be engaged in role play or 3 observing an adult engaging in ro le play, e.g., with a puppet) This code is about acting /dramatic demonstrations of an SEL concept or skill. Writing activity about an SEL theme (or drawing if students are too young to write) with the goal of depicting 4 or “writing” about an experience. This code should capture strategies intended to build students’ literacy skills related to an experience, story, or other narrative depiction . Drawing activity about an SEL theme with goal other than depicting an experience. This code is for drawing 5 act ivities not intended to build literacy or narrative depiction skills. 6 Art or other creative project other than drawing with an SEL theme (e.g., crafts) 7 Language/vocabulary exercise 8 Song or other musical activity related to SEL theme (including sing-song -y chants) 9 Charts or other visual displays (e.g., feeling thermometer, chart of feeling words) 10 Using tools and materials to promote SEL strategies (e.g., problem box; student handouts, etc.) Only code if teacher is providing specific Didactic instruction in SEL theme (e.g., teacher talk). 11 instructions/teaching; do not code if teacher is leading a general discussion. Practice using SEL skills/strategies (e.g., practice paraphrasing for acti ve listening, using the Stop and Stay 12 Cool process to cope with anger.) Check to make sure it does not fit better under role play or games. 13 Games related to SEL skills (e.g., name game, feelings charades) 14 y field) Other (provide details in open text activit 15 Kinesthetic activity (e.g., dance, posture, etc.) 16 Video or audio clip 17 Computer games 18 Handheld devices/apps Choose/create your own (e.g. , play brain game of your choosing, deliver lesson of your choice, use the 19 following template to deliver lesson on a topic of your choosing). To be used when teachers are given the n lesson. freedom to choose between several different activities or to create their ow 313

315 Domain Codes Cognitive Regulation 101 Attention Control 102 Working Memory and Planning Skills 103 Inhibitory Control 104 Cognitive Flexibility 101 Attention Control Operational Definition: Selecting and attending to relevant information and goal-directed tasks while resisting distractions and shifting tasks when necessary (e.g., listening to the teacher and ignoring kids outside on the playground). Sustains attention by focusing on task at hand x Ignores distractions when doing a task x Uses strategies to maintain attention (e.g., self talk) x x Uses listening strategies to focus (e.g., looks at speaker, sits still, puts hands in lap, doesn’t talk) Coding Tips: x Code if the activity is designed specifically to promote attention, or is not specifically designed to promote attention but poses significant challenges to attention (e.g., paying attention to who has and has not received the ball during noisy game). x include activities such as group discussions, retelling the story, watching role- DO NOT play, etc., which do not require higher than normal amounts of attention. Examples: Games where kids have to attend to one stimulus while another is distracting , n ame game (e.g., shouting each child’s name as he/she receives the ball) 314

316 102 Working Memory and Planning Skills Operational Definition: Working memory involves cognitively maintaining and manipulating information over a relatively short period of time and. Planning skills include identifying and organizing the steps or sequence of events needed to complete an activity and achieve a desired goal. x Uses strategies to make a plan (independently and under direction of teacher) x Carries out complex, multi-step tasks x Engages in goal-directed behavior (e.g., finishing a task to earn a reward) Remembers and follows complex (e.g., two- and three-part) commands x x Uses strategies to remember and follow commands (e.g., repeating directions out loud or in head, making a list, periodically consulting the directions, etc.) x Remembers and recalls information (e.g., recalls multiple rules during a game) x Uses strategies to remember and recall information (e.g., self talk) Prepares oneself to accomplish task/goal efficiently; plans and organizes ahead x Coding Tips: For memory skills, code to the extent than an activity explicitly asks students to use x memory skills or requires greater memory skills than typically required for everyday activities x DO NOT code activities that simply require memory of facts or procedures unless the teacher specifically prompts students to use their memory skills (e.g., a discussion in which students are asked questions about the book that was read the day before should not be coded unless the teacher specifically asks them to “use your memory muscles” or something similar) For planning skills, code to the extent that planning skills are embedded in the activity, x instructions for an activity, or the activity requires students to identify the order of steps he or she will need to complete a task Examples: Memory board game, name game, discussing a sequence of steps or creating a plan to achieve a goal, etc. 103 Inhibitory Control Operational Definition: The ability to suppress or modify a behavioral response in the service of attaining a longer- term goal (e.g., inhibiting automatic reactions like shouting out the answer while initiating controlled responses appropriate to the situation such as remembering to raise one’s hand). x Inhibits inappropriate automatic responses in favor of more appropriate behavior (e.g., raising hand instead of shouting out answer) 315

317 Uses self-control techniques to meet demands of situation (e.g., taking a deep breath, x counting to 10, sitting on hands, covering mouth, self talk, covering ears, folding arms, etc.) x Waits and uses contextually appropriate strategies to cope with waiting (e.g., sitting on hands when wants to speak out of turn, self talk, singing a song to help you wait, etc.) Coding Tips: x Code to the extent that the activity involves resisting an impulse or desired response to speak, use an object, etc.) (e.g., waiting one’s turn x Coded with Emotional and Behavioral Regulation when activity is explicit about avoiding automatic reactions in the context of emotionally charged situations x DO NOT code activities that simply require patience or cooperation (e.g., simply waiting in line) Examples: Mother May I, Freeze Frame, Head-Shoulders-Knees-Toes, Simon Says, etc. 104 Cognitive Flexibility Operational Definition: The mental ability to switch between thinking about two different concepts to think about multiple concepts simultaneously. Additionally, the ability to redirect or shift one’s focus of attention away from one salient object, instruction, or strategy to another. x Transitions easily from one task to another or from one part of a task to another x Uses strategies to transition to new tasks or activities (e.g., song, two-minute warning) x Shifts easily from one part of a problem to another x Shifts attention from one task, aspect, or perspective to another potential outcomes to problems, one’s own x Compares and contrasts ideas (e.g., feelings/perspective to those of another) x Generates and updates hypotheses (e.g., consequential thinking: “if X, then Y”) x Downplays less relevant information when solving problems x Approaches problems in new and flexible ways Coding Tips: x Code to the extent that an activity specifically requires students to switch attention between tasks, information sources, ideas, or strategies (may include both teacher- prompted and activity-directed shifts) Rarely coded, but usually appear around problem-solving activities x Examples: Creating if-than statements to determine consequences of actions, etc. 316

318 Emotional Processes 201 Emotional Knowledge and Expression 202 Emotional and Behavioral Regulation 203 Empathy/Perspective Taking - 201 Emotional Knowledge and Expression Operational Definition: Emotional knowledge/understanding refers to the ability to recognize, comprehend, and label one’s own and others’ feelings. Emotional expression refers to the ability to express one’s feelings in ways appropriate to the context. Identifies emotions in self or others x Identifies intensity of emotions/feelings in self and others x x Uses feeling words appropriate to the situation x Appropriately uses a range of feeling words of varying intensity (e.g., I felt angry vs. I felt furious) x Expresses emotions to others in effective ways (e.g., u ses “I messages” ) x Understands relationship between situation and emotion (e.g., accurately identifies the emotion a particular situation would elicit) Differentiates between feelings and behaviors (e.g., I feel angry vs. I feel like hitting you) x Coding Tips: May be a lot of overlap with empathy/perspective-taking subconstruct x s x Can refer to a character’s feeling Examples: Create chart of feeling words, identify how character in a story feels, discuss a time you felt angry 202 Emotional and Behavioral Regulation Operational Definition: ctivity (e.g., to cope ne’s emotional rea Ability to use effortful control strategies to moderate o with aversive feelings) and/or automatic behavioral responses. 317

319 Can regulate ones emotions (including anxiety, anger, and other emotions) x x Uses effective regulatory strategies when upset (e.g., self talk, taking deep breaths, walking away from situation until calmer) x Utilizes effective strategies to cope with disappointment and failure x Understands what constitutes appropriate vs. inappropriate expressions of emotion and expresses oneself appropriately x Understands how feelings and behaviors influence each other (e.g., thoughts influence feelings; feelings influence behavior) x Uses feeling words to explain one’s behavior x Identifies and communicates how a problem or challenge makes one feel Co ding Tips: x Code to the extent than an activity supports the development and practice of skills and strategies for coping with negative feelings, challenging situations, etc. x May overlap with Inhibitory Control Examples: Practicing strategies to deal with waiting (e.g., singing), making lists of strategies for coping with anger, using “Stop and Stay Cool” or “Doing the Turtle” or other strategies for coping with anger and frustration. 203 Empathy/Perspective-Taking Operational Definition: understand another person’s viewpoint, opinion, and/or feelings. Can also include Ability to emotional matching and the vicarious experiencing of another person’s emotions. Identifies and acknowledges the experiences, feelings, and viewpoints of others x x Relates others’ experiences to one’s own (e.g., offers examples of times when one had similar emotions or experiences) x Acknowledges how another’s feelings , point of view, or thoughts differ from one’s own x Makes connections (compare and contrast) between self and other x taking (considering oneself in another’s situation) Verbally demonstrates active role- x Identifies the relationship between the behaviors/emotions/situation of one individual and the feelings of another (e.g., Suzy is sad because her mom is sad/ sick/crying”) x Recognizes/lists potential ways to respond to empathic concern (e.g., asking for help, laughing at a victim, giving verbal reassurance) x Identifies which responses to empathic concern are most appropriate and effective (e.g., whether solution was effective, whether all parties are satisfied) Seeks help or comfort from others to deal with distress caused by empathy (verbal and x physical) 318

320 Uses effective self-control strategies to cope with distress caused by empathy (e.g., self x talk, deep breaths, etc.) x Uses physical gestures or verbal expressions to comfort or provide relief to another person in distress (e.g., hugs, pats, expressing concern, verbal sympathy) x Uses active interpersonal listening strategies to elicit and understand the feelings and opinions of others (e.g., asking probing questions, making eye contact, paraphrasing and reflecting, nodding, and leaning forward) Coding Tips: x Code for the extent to which activities are focused on helping students understand others’ feelings and viewpoints (whereas activities focused on helping students interpret the reasons behind another person’s social behavior should be coded under USC, although there may be overlap) x Includes characters x May be lots of overlap with EKE Examples: Generating strategies for how to help a classmate who is sad, practice active listening (e.g., paraphrasing what classmate said), discussing why a person/character feels a certain way, discussing how a student would feel or what they would do in the same situation) Interpersonal Processes 301 Understanding Social Cues 302 Conflict Resolution/Social Problem - Solving 303 Prosocial/Cooperative Behavior 301 Understanding Social Cues Operational Definition: Processes through which children interpret cues from their social environment, including causal attributions and intent attributions for others’ behavior. Uses social cues such as body language and tone of voice in standard and appropriate x ways (refers to self) x Responds to others’ social cues such as body language and tone of voice in ways that show one understands them (refers to others, including characters) Identifies motivations and intentions of others (including when others’ actions are x accidental or purposeful) 319

321 Correctly identifies whether another child’s intention was hostile (or not) in a challenging x interpersonal situation x Indicates that they are listening in the context of interpersonal situations using social cues such as eye contact, nodding, paraphrasing, leaning forward, etc. Coding Tips: x Code to the extent that activities help students understand the intent behind others’ behavior (not others’ feelings or perspectives about a situation) and address hostile attribution bias and other maladaptive cognitions. 302 Conflict Resolution/Social Problem-Solving Operational Definition: Ability to generate and act on effective strategies/solutions to deal with challenging interpersonal situations. x Understands that conflict and anger are normal parts of life but how one handles them is important x Faces conflicts and deals with them in constructive ways x Identifies the problem or its antecedents Generates and evaluates potential responses and their consequences x Identifies effective and ineffective outcomes to conflict x After conflict, reflects appropriately on its outcome(s) x x Uses self-control techniques to cope with challenging interpersonal situations (e.g., taking a deep breath, walking away, self talk) x Identifies and uses strategies to effectively address social dilemmas and conflicts (e.g., talking to an adult, seeking out mediation, using “I messages,” etc.) Uses strategies to avoid classroom “hurdles” and interpersonal conflicts (hurdles include x jumping to conclusions, not waiting, interrupting, etc) x Asserts oneself in an appropriate manner (e.g., uses I messages, calmly and diplomatically states values and preferences, etc.) Coding Tips: x Includes situations involving characters x Activities coded here should focus on dealing with challenging interpersonal situations (e.g., conflict, tension, solving a problem as part of a group) x Activities focused on working well in group situations without challenges should be coded under prosocial behavior. Examples: Strategies for resisting peer pressure, generating or practicing productive responses to bullying or peer pressure, etc. 320

322 303 Prosocial/Cooperative Behavior Operational Definition: Ability to organize and navigate social relationships, including the ability to interact effectively with others and develop positive relationships. Includes listening, communication, cooperation, helping, and community-building. x Understands the value of the community and of each member’s role within it (individual strengths/weaknesses) Understands how one’s actions affect the c ommunity x x Follows classroom rules and expectations and exhibits appropriate classroom behavior x Actively contributes to the classroom (e.g., participates in class, helps with classroom chores/tasks) Participates as an active and successful member of a team/community (e.g., completes x ones responsibilities on a team, listens to other team members and asks about their opinions and feelings, encourages team members, demonstrates leadership, allows others to lead) x Effectively enters and engages in a variety of social situations x Listens to other children and adults/team members x Acts respectfully and kindly toward other children and adults x Encourages/supports other children/team members x Gives compliments to others pressure him or her Stands one’s ground when another child tries to x x Calmly and diplomatically states values and preferences x Manages/copes with unfair situations or personal situations one perceives to be unfair x Actively works to correct unfairness in the classroom/school community x Understands value of correcting unfairness in the world/promoting social justice x Understands and articulates one’s own and others’ roles in conflicts and other harmful situations x Identifies and takes action to correct hurtful situations Is inclusive of other children x x Stands up for other children when they are teased, insulted, or left out Mediates conflicts among other children x x Understands the actions and behaviors that foster friendship (e.g., understands what a friend is and how to make and sustain them) x Takes turns with peers x Shares stories and ideas with others x Shares or shows toys or objects to others Knows how and when to ask others for help/assistance x Coding Tips: There will be a lot of overlap with CRSPS as prosocial behaviors are often strategies for x dealing with conflict - it is perfectly acceptable to code an activity under both constructs. 321

323 Most problem-solving activities will also be prosocial activities, but many prosocial x activities (e.g., active listening, interviewing a classmate about likes and dislikes) will not be problem-solving activities. x Any community-building activity should be coded as prosocial behavior. x Many benchmarks will be coded infrequently as they are rarely targeted by specific activities. Activities that address these benchmarks appear most often in lessons directed toward later grades. Character & Mindset 401 Character 402 Mindset 401 Character Operational Definition: Understanding, caring about, and acting upon core ethical values such as respect, justice, citizenship, and responsibility for self and others. x Verbalizes opinions about right and wrong (e.g., makes ethical judgments) x Weighs options and considers consequences to make responsible and ethical decisions x Is tolerant and accepting of differences in other children and adults, and values individuality and diversity x Understands the value of acting respectfully and kindly toward other children and adults x Shows consideration for the feelings of others (e.g., shows forgiveness, compassion, generosity, patience, appreciation) x Accepts res ponsibility for one’s words, actions, and attitudes x Shows a willingness to learn from one’s mistakes Exhibits modesty/humility x x Understands the value and importance of following through on commitments Tries one’s best/tries hard in challenging situations (e.g., perseveres, does not easily x quit/give up) x Conducts self with honesty and integrity (e.g., tells the truth, admits wrong-doing) x Does the right thing in the face of difficulty (e.g., follows conscience instead of the crowd) x Understands the value of community and civic responsibility Is aware of and works to correct unfairness/promote social justice in school and the world x Identifies and understands personality/character traits (e.g., hardworking, curious, x modest, selfish, etc.) Coding Tips 322

324 x This code is new and coders should use their discretion to determine which activities might fall under this domain. Activities that explicitly focus on right vs. wrong, honesty, integrity, responsibility, perseverance, caring/compassion, citizenship, courage, fairness, respect are good places to start. There will likely be considerable overlap with Prosocial/Cooperative Behavior, but there x are also times when they might not be coded together. For example, it might be confusing to know where to code an activity that addresses fairness. A quick way to think about it is that Prosocial/Cooperative Behavior focuses on actions and behavior, or the “how” (e.g., how to be fair, how to deal with situations that are not fair, what are fair responses to a problem, etc.) whereas Char acter focuses on values and ethics, or the “why” or (e.g., why it is important to be fair, what situations are or are not fair, etc.) 402 Mindset Operational Definition: A way of thinking, attitude, or belief; attitudes and beliefs about oneself, others, and situations or circumstances. x Understand s that one’s basic abilities – intelligence, talents, etc. – are not fixed traits but can be developed through dedication and hard work (e.g., exhibits a growth mindset) ’s ability to improve x Expresses confidence in oneself and in one x Identifies positive attributes/strengths in self and others Approaches challenging situations with a positive attitude x Understands and expresses thankfulness and gratitude x x Expresses optimism and/or maintains an optimistic outlook x Is aware of and in touch with the present moment (e.g., practices mindfulness) x Understands the importance of a healthy physical and mental lifestyle x Understands how thoughts/mindset, feelings, and behaviors influence each other (e.g., thoughts influence feelings, feelings influence behaviors, feelings influence thoughts, etc.) Coding Tips This code is new and coders should use their discretion to determine which activities x might fall under this domain. Activities that explicitly focus on attitudes and beliefs about oneself and one’s abilities (e.g. , self- concept, growth mindset, etc.), one’s circumstances (e.g., being thankful, grateful, etc.), or outlook on life (e.g., optimism, etc.). x There may be considerable overlap with Emotion/Behavior Regulation, but there are also times when they might not be coded together. Emotion/Behavior Regulation is about the skills required to deal with negative emotions while Mindset is about attitude and outlooks that may be useful in protecting against or countering negative feelings. 323

325 IV: PROGRAM-LEVEL DATA COLLECTION GUIDELINES PART How to Record Program Information Method Program-Level information is recorded in narrative/bullet point form in an Excel spreadsheet. The spreadsheet is organized by category with each column representing a sub-category. Several sub- categories (noted in the “Categories” section below) are broken down further by grade. When this is the case, provide any program-level information in the first row followed by grade-specific information in the following rows. For example: In this case, the program (Second Step) targets self-regulation skills overall, with more specific skills described for each grade. If it is unclear whether a program has a particular feature or the information needed to fill in the cell for a sub- category is unavailable, write “unclear” or “unavailable” in the box. This helps clearly distinguish between categories for which there is no information versus cells that were left unfilled by accident. You will complete a separate spreadsheet for each program. Please see Part VI for how to name and submit your spreadsheets. 324

326 Specificity When filling in the spreadsheet, only include program features explicitly addressed by the program developers in their guides and materials or on their website. For example, you may feel that a program could be easily adapted to OST settings, but unless the program explicitly provides support to do so or addresses the issue in some way in its materials, you should not record anything in the “OST Adaptation” section. Instead, you may make a note of your opinion in the “Other Considerations” column under “Pros & Cons.” The “Other Considerations” column is also a good place to record any additional information that might be helpful to evaluate the program. General Tips x Where it exists, it may help to begin by reading the CASEL one-pager for the program as it gives a broad overview of many of the Program-Level categories. x It can be helpful to check the purchasing page on the program’s website. This can provide additional information about what additional features the program offers (e.g., the contents of a toolkit specifically for principals may yield information about the types of school-wide activities that exist). The Categories The following pages include the Program-Level categories for the SEL Analysis project along with notes about what to include for each. Program-Level Categories Content ] Column C by grade Program structure (e.g., number of units and lessons) [ Column D SEL goals and competencies targeted [for whole program and by grade ] – Column E Activities beyond specific lessons (what activities exist and how well - defined are they e.g., specific instructions vs. loose suggestions) Coding Guidelines: It is okay to leave the program-wide row blank under Program Structure. x x The program- wide row of the “SEL goals and competencies targeted” sub -category is intended to describe anything stated as the overall focus of the program (e.g., social problem-solving, self-regulation, empathy, character, literacy, etc.). In some cases, the overall focus may simply be as general as “to develop social and emotional skills” – that is okay. 325

327 x For “Activities Beyond Specific Lessons,” o nly include activities that happen during class time outside of regular program lessons (e.g., integration with math or art class, extra games, etc.). This includes activities that happen in specialized classes such as art, gym, music, etc. It does not include activities that happen in non-class settings such as lunch , recess, assemblies, etc., which should be recorded instead under “Applications Outside the Classroom.” Applications Outside the Classroom of classroom settings (e.g., recess, cafeteria, etc.) Out - - Column F School-wide activities (e.g., assemblies) Column G defined are the activities? How well - H Column How integral are the activities to the program? Column I Coding Guidelines: x Only include activities that take place outside the classroom during the regular school day (e.g., not in OST settings or at home). If activities take place in the before/afterschool space, record under “OST Adaptations.” If activities take place at home, record under “Family & Community Engagement.” Technology Column J What technology is required to implement program? (e.g., app, computers, etc.) Instruction Time Time per lesson [by grade] Column K Column L Lessons per week [by grade] Column M Duration (e.g., several weeks, one semester, full year, etc.) required to have impact? Column N What dosage is Assessments 326

328 Column O Assessment [program - wide and by grade ] Column What assessment measures [checklist by grade ] P - Y Column Z Assessment type (formative vs. summative) [ by grade ] Column AA How delivered [ by grade ] Column AB Frequency [ by grade ] Column AC Reliability, when available (e.g., for evidence-based assessments like the DESSA) If and how adult outcomes (e.g., changes in teacher behavior and/or beliefs) are being Column AD collected and assessed? Coding Guidelines: x It is possible that you will be unable to fill out the checklist for what classroom assessments measure, either because the program doesn’t specify what an assessment is measuring or because it does not fit the list. This is okay. Adult Training & Support Column AE Professional development and training as imbedded in curricular materials (both explicit directions and Column AF Support for adult modeling as part of a teacher talk script) embedded in materials, e.g. , How often does it happen? (e.g., frequency, required training vs. recommended/optional Column AG training, etc.) Coding Guidelines: It is enough to simply provide an overview. For example, it is enough to record that the x program provides monthly trainings – there is no need list the training objectives in detail. Support for Implementation Column AH Tools to support implementation (e.g., checklists, tips, etc.) Tools to assess implementation (e.g., teacher surveys) Column AI 327

329 Environment Supports for changing learning environment in ways not captured in Applications Outside Column AJ Classroom (e.g., supports for adults to manage students’ behavior, strategies for school staff other than teachers, structural supports) Flexibility Column AK Features to be implemented with fideli ty Column AL Features adaptable to local context Coding Guidelines: x Unlikely to find any information on this. OST Adaptation Column AM How, in what ways, and to what extent does the program incorporate OST settings? e.g., - loose suggestions for adaptation, alignment between school defined instructions vs. well time and OST aspects of program, etc.) Column AN How well does the program align with the regular school day? Coding Guidelines: x For programs that take place primarily in an OST setting, make sure to note how they incorporate the regular school day (e.g., How, in what ways, and to what extent can the program be aligned with the regular school day? Family & Community Engagement Column AO How do programs incorporate family involvement? (e.g., ho mework, parent letters, etc.) Column AP How do programs incorporate community involvement? Pros & Cons Column AQ Pros Cons Column AR 328

330 Column AS Other considerations Coding Guidelines: To be filled out last. Briefly summarize the pros and cons of each program. x x Other considerations is a good place to share any opinions, for example, whether a program might be particularly adaptable to OST PART V: EVIDENCE-BASED DATA COLLECTION GUIDELINES How to Record Evidence Method is recorded in narrative/bullet point form in an Excel Evidence-Based information spreadsheet. The spreadsheet is organized by category with each column representing a sub-category. Every study you review should have its own row in the spreadsheet, like so: If the information neede d to fill a cell is unavailable, record “unavailable” in the cell. This helps clearly distinguish between categories for which there is no information versus cells that were left unfilled by accident. You will complete a separate spreadsheet for each program. Please see Part VI for how to name and submit your spreadsheets. Materials The following types of external materials with a focus on the last 10 years (i.e. no materials from earlier than 2005) should be included in data collection: x Journal papers (use ERIC, PsychInfo, MedLine, etc. databases) x Research reports x Studies/reports/evaluations included under website research tabs x Details of ongoing or unpublished studies (will be noted as such) If coders are unable to find evaluations conducted in the 10 years, but there exist extensive materials from earlier evaluation efforts, older materials may be included at the discretion of Dr. Jones and the evidence-based coders. 329

331 Specificity Results from external materials should be recorded as hard numbers and exclude experimenter’s interpretation to avoid experimenter opinion/bias. The Categories The following page includes the Evidence-Based categories for the SEL Analysis project along with notes about what to include for each. Evidence-Based Categories Research/Evidence-Based Column B Citations (new row for each citation) Column C Design (e.g., randomized control trial, quasi - experimental, non - experimental) Column D Ages/grades included in study Column E Subgroup to which the results apply (e.g. , rac e, gender, nationality, etc.) Column F Outcomes (i.e. what the study measures, e.g., aggression, prosocial behavior), including , report survey) brief note of how they were measured (e.g. - self Column G Impacts and effect sizes (i.e. study results) Column H Notes Implementation Column I Components Implemented (i.e. what parts of program were implemented as part of study, e.g., core curriculum, training, homelinks, etc.) Column Tracked Implementation (i.e. was implementation tracked in any way beyond simply noting J which parts of the program were used for the study?) Column J Quantity? (e.g., how many lessons over how many weeks, etc.) Column L Quality? (e.g., did anybody observe a lesson and rate whether it was delivered well/poorly lity?) and/or with fide 330

332 Column M Experience of Program Users (any available information, e.g., quotes from teachers, actual tracking of experience, etc.) N Column Notes PART VI: NAMING AND SUBMITTING DOCUMENTS All completed matrices and spreadsheets should be uploaded to the Final Documents folder on Dropbox. Activity-Level Matrices You will complete one matrix per grade level for each program. While you are working on the matrix, it should be uploaded to Dropbox at the end of each coding session. Once all of the lessons for a particular grade have been entered, you will submit it to Katie for storage. Naming Convention Please name your documents according to the following convention to ensure that they are stored correctly for easy sorting: 3 letter program code_2 letter system level code-grade_YYYY- MM-DD_coder initials rd For example, the 3 grade matrix for Second Step coded by John/Jane Doe on 11/01/2015 should be named: SCS_AL- 3_2015- 11-01_JD Program-Level Spreadsheet You will complete one spreadsheet per program. While you are working on the spreadsheet, it should be uploaded to Dropbox at the end of each data collection session. Once all of the information has been entered, you will submit it to Katie for storage. Naming Convention Please name your documents according to the following convention to ensure that they are stored correctly for easy sorting: MM-DD_coder initials 3 letter program code_2 letter system level code_YYYY- 331

333 For example, the Second Step spreadsheet populated by John/Jane Doe on 11/01/2015 should 11-01_JD be named: SCS_PL_2015- Evidence-Based Spreadsheet You will complete one spreadsheet per program. While you are working on the spreadsheet, it should be uploaded to Dropbox at the end of each data collection session. Once all of t he information has been entered, you will submit it to Katie for storage. Naming Convention Please name your documents according to the following convention to ensure that they are stored correctly for easy sorting: 3 letter program code_2 letter system level code_YYYY- MM-DD_coder initials For example, the Second Step spreadsheet populated by John/Jane Doe on 11/01/2015 should 11-01_JD be named: SCS_EB_2015- Naming Convention Codes Program Codes PATHS 4RS PTH 4RS Before the Bullying Playworks BFB PWK Caring School Community Open Circle CSC OPC Responsive Classroom Character First CHF RCL RULER Competent Kids, Caring Communities RUL CKC Second Step Conscious Discipline SCS CDP Good Behavior Game SECURe SCR GBG Social Decision Making/ Problem Program Girls on the Run Solving GRL SDP Too Good for Violence I Can Problem Solve - TGV ICP Lions Quest We Have Skills LNQ WHS MindUP WINGS WNG MUP - Wise Skills Mutt i - grees MTG WSK Positive Action PAC 332

334 System Level Codes AL Activity - Level System PL Program Level System - EB - Evidence Based System 333

335 ACCOMPANYING TOOLS In this section, we provide a set of worksheets designed to help stakeholders: as any opportunities, limitations, or think about key social and emotional priorities/ goals, as well (1) challenges of their specific school or setting that may influence program selection, and (2) use the information from Sections 3 and 4 (e.g., Summary Tables and Program Profiles) of this report to identify programs or approaches to SEL that align with their vision for SEL programming. We have included separate worksheets for school and OST settings. It is important to note that these worksheets should serve as a starting place for schools and OST providers to engage in larger conversations about the type of SEL programming that best meets their needs. They are tools designed to help readers use the information in this report to guide conversations with the broader community around SEL program selection and implementation. 334

336 SCH OOL SETTINGS WORKSHEET GOALS & PRIORITIES This section of the worksheet is designed to support your school/organization in identifying key priorities and goals as well as limitations or challenges that may influence SEL program selection. These questions are meant to facilitate deeper thought and discussion about the strengths, opportunities, and needs of your specific context, setting the stage for selecting an SEL program that best suits the needs of your community. EXPERT TIP Needs and Goals Use data to guide decision-making. This may 1. Is there a specific content focus or urgent need you hope include student and staff school climate data, to address by implementing a new program? Examples disciplinary records, or qualitative data from include bullying prevention, character education, focus groups or interviews with key behavior management, etc. stakeholders (teachers, students, parents, administrators, etc.). Employing data will aid in the selection of programming that best suits 2. Do you have a specific mission and/or existing your specific needs and context, and will allow requirements or initiatives with which you are trying to you to monitor results over time. align SEL programming, such as school climate, community service, health and wellness, art, etc.? Are there specific skills or social-emotional or behavioral needs you are hoping to address? For example, 3. empathy, attention skills, conflict resolution, etc.? Who will take part in the program? What cultural considerations or learning needs must be addressed? 4. For example, will the program be implemented universally across your school/organization, or is it intended to be used with a specific population (by gender, age, etc., or with English language learners or students with disabilities)? EXPERT TIP Time and Structure SEL programming is most effective when it 5. Do you have any schedule or timing constraints that extends throughout the entirety of a setting, such that it is embedded into daily interactions would influence SEL programming? and improves the quality of relationships. x Is there dedicated time available each day/week for Limiting SEL programming to a specific time- block or location can minimize effectiveness, SEL programming? and can limit the extent to which children learn x Does SEL programming need to be integrated into and apply skills in their daily lives. Look for ways academic time, playground time, or other specific to embed SEL across the day, across micro- settings (classroom, art room, lunchroom, place (e.g., classrooms, gym) in your setting? playground, buses, etc.), and among all the adults who interact with students/children. 335

337 x Is there a specific structure or time you are hoping to use to integrate SEL programming across the school? Examples include advisory periods, P.E./ health or wellness classes, or language arts classrooms. EXPERT TIP Leadership and Training SEL programming is most effective 6. Who are the stakeholders involved in both selecting and when a diverse range of stakeh olders implementing new SEL programming? are involved in the program selection What process will you use to discuss SEL priorities and x process. Making decisions from the review options for SEL programming? down can undermine buy top - in and - compromise effectiveness. ow will you x Who will be involved in each stage, and h ultimately decide which program t o implement? What kind of training will this require? x Who will implement the program? Prioritizing Needs There are a great number of SEL programs to choose from, offering a wide variety of skill focus, teaching strategies, implementation support, evidence of effectiveness, and general approach toward SEL. Determining the program that best suits your school or organization depends on both the goals and needs you have identified, as well as specific factors that may illuminate the importance of different program features and components (e.g., training, cost, skill focus, lesson structure, etc.) Using the questions on the previous page, consider which program features and components are most important for your school or program. Record your top five priorities below. Once you have determined priorities, continue to the following pages for guidance on finding specific programs that align with your priorities. 1. 2. 3. 4. might identify the OR EXAMPLE following top priorities: F , a school - Population – designed with a focus on grades K . 3 with resources for S p anish speakers 1 Evidence of effectiveness – 2. h as shown positive impact among low - income students 3 . Lesson - based – to be integrated with weekly classroom activities 4. Family & Community Engagement – has lots of resources and components related to parents, families, and the broader community 336

338 PROGRAM FEATURES AND COMPONENTS The following pages will help you to narrow in on specific programs based on your priorities. Keep in mind the program features that you have identified as most important. If you are unsure about which program features to prioritize, the following exercises may help you to further clarify the needs and goals of your school or program, as well as identify programs that may be a good fit. We have focused this worksheet on the skill focus, instructional methods, and program components, but you may have identified additional top priorities which further narrow the programs you are most interested in (such as evidence of effectiveness, specific population, etc.). See program profiles for information not included here. SKILL FOCUS SEL SKILLS Skill Skill Domain Attention Control Cognitive Skill Working Inhibitory Control Cognitive Flexibility Memory/Planning Emotional Skills Emotion Knowledge/ Empathy/ Emotion Behavior/ Regul Expression Perspective - Taking ation Interpersonal Skills Prosocial Behavior Understanding Social Conflict Resolution Cues Character Mindset Looking at the chart above, consider specific skill domains EXPERT TIP and skills that are most important for your school or While some programs focus more heavily organization. For a more detailed description of each skill on specific skills, many programs provide 15-18 in Section 1 of domain and skills, please refer to p. s a wide variety of a balanced focus acros the guide. skills. If you would like a program that Step 1: What, if any, specific skill domains would you like provides a balance of skills, write to prioritize? Please list your top priorities below using the “balanced” in top left hand column. left hand column on the following page. Now that you have filled in your top skill domain and/or skill priorities, please refer to Table 1 on p. Step 2: 33- 34 in Section 3 of the guide to find programs that meet these needs. Fill in the names of programs that fit the criteria in the right hand column on the following page. To learn more about the programs in your list, please refer to the program snapshots and more in depth program profiles. 337

339 Skill Domain Programs Skills, SECURe, Second Step, MindUP, Example: Cognitive ICPS, We Have Responsive Classroom 1. 2. 3. Skills Programs Example: Prosocial Behavior Caring School Community, Good Behavior Game, Before the Bullying, Lions Quest, We Have Skills 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS COMMON I NSTRUCTIONAL METHODS SEL Tool/Handout Drawing Art/Creative Projects Visual Display Book/Story Games Skill Practice Vocabulary Songs Didactic Instruction Kinesthetic Writing Discussion Role - Play Video Consider the chart above. Are there specific instructional methods that you are most interested in using? Think about both the students who will be using the program and the instructors who will be leading or facilitating it. For a more detailed description of each instructional method, please refer to p. 19- 20 in Section 1 of the guide. Here are some questions to consider: x Are there certain instructional methods that have been more/less effective for either students or instructors at your school/organization? x Are there any instructional methods that you would like to introduce or see more of relative to current instructional methods? What instructional methods are most developmentally appropriate for your students? x 338

340 List the instructional methods that you would like to prioritize in the left hand column below. If you Step 1: do not have a strong preference or would like to find a program that employs a variety of instructional methods, indicate “variety” below. If there are any instructional methods you would prefer not to employ, write the method(s) below with a note or asterisk alongside. Step 2: Now that you have filled in your instructional methods priorities, please refer to Table 2 on p. 35-36 in Section 3 of the guide to find programs that meet these needs. Fill in the names of programs that fit the criteria in the right hand column below. To learn more about the programs in your list, please refer to the program snapshots and more in depth program profiles. Instructional Methods Programs Songs Before the Bullying, Conscious Discipline, Second Step, Too Example: Good for Violence 1. 2. 3. 4. PROGRAM COMPONENTS COM MON PROGRAM COMPONENTS School Climate/Culture Academic Integration Adult SEL Support for Implementation Family Engagement Assessment Tools Supplementary Activities Community Engagement Adaptability/Flexibility Schoo l Time Out - of - Professional Development The chart above lists common program components and features that are available at varying degrees in different programs. Consider your priorities and the list above to determine if there are any program components that are particularly important to your school or organization. For a more detailed description -26 in Section 1 of the guide. of each component, please refer to p. 25 List the program components that you would like to prioritize in the left hand column on the Step 1: following page. Include any notes about the specific characteristics that you are looking for. 339

341 37- 38 in Now that you have filled in your program component priorities, please refer to Table 3 on p. Step 2: Section 3 of the guide to find programs that meet these needs. Fill in the names of programs that fit the criteria in the right hand column below. To learn more about the programs in your list, please refer to the program snapshots and more in depth program profiles. Programs Program Components Community Engagement — Example: Caring School Community, Girls on the Run, Lions Quest, o program/core WINGS integrated int MindUP, component 1. 2. 3. 4. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER Now that you have identified several potential programs, it’s time to select one. Read through the program snapshots and in-depth profiles to learn more about the programs you have identified. Start with programs that appear more than once on your list (i.e. meet multiple criteria). As you learn more about the program, consider making brief notes below including standout components, pros/cons, or anything else that might help you look across programs and select the best fit. Keep in mind your priorities, including areas of need, time and structure, training, cost, evidence of effectiveness, specific population, etc. Program Notes 1. 2. 3. 4. 340

342 OST SETTINGS WORKSHEET ADAPTING SEL TO OUT- OF-SCHOOL TIME Providing children and youth with opportunities to learn and Four Principles Underlying High-Quality practice social-emotional skills across settings can improve OST and SEL Programming social and emotional outcomes, particularly when adult 1. Provide safe and positive environments expectations are also aligned. However, it is important to consider the specific needs of each context and student Support the development of high quality 2. population when selecting and adapting SEL programming for relationships between adults and children out- of-school time settings. The box to the right highlights Developmentally appropriate, relevant, 3. four common principles underlying high-quality out- of-school engaging time and SEL programming. Building upon these core 4. Provide opportunities for direct skill principles, the following guide is designed to help leaders building identify programs or program components that best fit the needs of their specific context. This guide provides three brief case studies as well as a set of guiding questions intended to support program selection and/or adaptations. Case Studies The three hypothetical cases on th e following page illustrate how OST organizations and their partners (schools, community centers, etc.) might use the information in this report to inform decision-making. In — a set of factors that often cluster together in OST spaces that — each case, we present a program type might shift the considerations listed above. In each of these cases, after considering the different programmatic elements available to them, organizational leaders must return to the four underlying — no matter how it is adapted to fit the specific needs of its principles of the work. Any program must be built on this foundation. — population 341

343 Case 1: Partnerships organized around a common structure Imagine an OST organization whose mission and structure mirror that of a traditional school-day program. Likely, the OST program exists within a school building and/or shares students with a school-day program. In this program, students might be organized in classrooms and engaged in homework and other seated activities. Or, the program might have a stated mission that is aligned with the academic mission of a partner school (e.g., literacy). Here, a leadership team might begin by considering the importance of consistency and the danger of redundancy. Is there an already-existing program in use at the school site? If so, how might it be a dapted? If not, which SEL programs occur within classroom settings, focus on teacher-student relationships, or have implications for key academic domains (e.g., literacy)? A leadership team might further narrow the scope of possible programmatic elements by zooming in on components or content-areas that are most relevant for their student population. With these considerations in mind, leaders could use the program overview chart to consider the programs whose materials best fit these structural, contextual, and content-related demands. Focusing on those programs that are the best match, a leadership team would want to carefully consider how to ensure that OST-based activities were additive (not repetitive) and a ligned in their afterschool setting. Case 2: Partnership organized around a mission Imagine an OST organization whose mission and structure does not match that of a traditional school-day program. Instead, this OST program is driven by a set of offerings that are non-academic in nature. This program might exist within a school building, or it might be community-based. For example, we can imagine an OST program whose mission is to provide children with opportunities to express their life experiences through poetry, a program built around specific sports, or a program that engages children in arts-based exploration. ms Here, one might begin by considering the OST program’s mission and pedagogical approach. Which SEL progra appear to share similar goals and/or use similar pedagogical strategies to those already in place? Are there elements of different programs that might be used in tandem to best match the existing structure? With these considerations in mind, a leadership team would turn to the program overview chart and consider its options in addition to identifying relevant activity types. The team might narrow down its scope by zooming in on the specific components and content-areas that are most relevant for their student population. Here, OST programs would be prioritizing programmatic elements that match the desired content type (skill focus) and pedagogical strategy (instructional method). Case 3: Partnership organized around student or staff needs Imagine an OST program whose desire to engage in SEL work is driven by a particular challenge that their staff /student an O body faces. For example, staff struggle with stress management/emotional regulation or ST program where where students struggle with positive communication skills. In this instance, the starting point might be a consideration of the target population, including data collection around the strengths and struggles of students and staff in the program. A leadership team might use the information within this report that summarizes domain focus across programs to identify which programs are most saturated with activities related to the SEL skills and/or domains of interest. What are the programs that focus on emotional regulation? Do any of them also target teachers? Which programs focus on building positive communication skills? From there, a leadership team might explore questions of mission and pedagogy to narrow down the list of possible programs and/or identify the elements of programs best adapted for their purpose. 342

344 GOALS & PRIORITIES When borrowing and adapting from in-school SEL curricula, it is important to consider how specific program components and strategies can be adapted to fit the specific needs of your population and context. The following questions are meant to facilitate planning and discussion for effectively integrating SEL in to OST, including identifying key priorities and goals, as well as limitations or challenges that may influence your selection of SEL programs or strategies. These questions are meant to facilitate deeper thought and discussion about the strengths, opportunities, and needs of your specific context, setting the stage for selecting or adapting SEL strategies that best suit the needs of your program and population. Needs and Goals EXPERT TIP 1. What is the specific mission/goal of your OST organization de decision Use data to gui making. This may - or program? Do you have a specific content focus or set of include student and staff school climate data, activities and requirements you must accommodate when disciplinary records, or qualitative data from adopting SEL programs or strategies? Examples include focus groups or interviews with key physical activity, service-learning, the arts, etc. stakeholders (program participants, OST coordinators, parents, schools/community Is there a specific focus or urgent need you hope to 2. ata will aid in the centers, etc.). Employing d address by adopting or adapting SEL strategies? Examples selection of programming that best suits your include bullying prevention, character education, specific needs and context, and will allow you behavior management, etc. to monitor results over time. 3. Are there specific skills or social-emotional or behavioral needs you are hoping to address? For example, empathy, growth mindset, conflict resolution, etc. Time and Structure EXPERT TIP 4. Do you have any schedule or timing constraints that would SEL programming is most effective when it extends throughout the entirety of a setting, influence SEL programming? is embedded into daily interactions such that it x Is there dedicated time available during your program and improves the quality of relationships. Limiting SEL programming to a specific time - for SEL programming? block or location can minimize effectiveness, And/or, does the use of SEL programming or strategies x and can limit the extent to which children learn need to be integrated with other program activities? Look for ways and apply skills in their daily lives. - to embed SEL across the day, across micro settings (classroom, art room, lunchroom, playground, buses, etc.), and among all the Leadership and Training adults who interact with students/children. 5. Who are the stakeholders involved in both selecting and implementing new SEL programming? What process will you use to discuss SEL priorities and review options for SEL programming? x 343

345 EXPERT TIP Who will be involved in each stage, and h x ow will you SEL programming is most effective when a ultimately decide which program t o implement? diverse range of stakeholders are involved in the program selection process. Making Who will implement the program? What kind of x decisions from the top - down can undermine training will this require? in and compromise effectiveness. - buy Alignment and Adaptation If you are collaborating with a school or other organization, are they already using any SEL initiatives, 6. strategies, or programs that might be extended to your program? Do they align with your program mission or goal? What steps will you take to align programming while also limiting redundancy? How can program components and strategies be differentiated for your specific population and context? 7. Consider timing, structure, instructional methods, etc. Prioritizing Needs There are a great number of SEL programs to choose from, offering a wide variety of skill focus, teaching strategies, implementation support, evidence of effectiveness, and general approach toward SEL. Determining the program that best suits your school or organization depends on both the goals and needs you have identified, as well as specific factors that may illuminate the importance of different program features and components (e.g., training, cost, skill focus, lesson structure, etc.) Using the questions on the previous page, consider which program features and components are most important for your school or program. Record your top five priorities below. Once you have determined priorities, continue to the following pages for guidance on finding specific programs that align with your priorities. 1. 2. 3. 4. organiz ation might identify the following top priorities: F OR EXAMPLE , a n OST Population grades 4 - 5 1 . – appropriate for - positive impact among low income students 2. Evidence of effectiveness – has shown o be used as/integrated with /inform approach to behavior management 3 . Culture/Climate – t has lots of resources and components related to parents, families, and the – Family & Community Engagement 4. broader community 344

346 PROGRAM FEATURES AND COMPONENTS The following pages will help you to narrow in on specific programs based on your priorities. Keep in mind the program features that you have identified as most important. If you are unsure about which program features to prioritize, the following exercises may help you to further clarify the needs and goals of your school or program, as well as identify programs that may be a good fit. We have focused this worksheet on the skill focus, instructional methods, and program components, but you may have identified additional top priorities which further narrow the programs you are most interested in (such as evidence of effectiveness, specific population, etc.). See program profiles for information not included here. SKILL FOCUS SEL SKILLS Skill Skill Domain Attention Control Cognitive Skill Working Inhibitory Control Cognitive Flexibility Memory/Planning Emotional Skills Emotion Knowledge/ Empathy/ tion Behavior/ Emo Expression Perspective - Taking Regulation Interpersonal Skills Prosocial Behavior Understanding Social Conflict Resolution Cues Character Mindset Looking at the chart above, consider specific skill domains EXPERT TIP and skills that are most important for your school or While some programs focus more heavily program. For a more detailed description of each skill on specific skills, many programs provide domain and skills, please refer to p. 15- 18 in Section 1 of cus across a wide variety of a balanced fo the guide. skills. If you would like a program that What, if any, specific skill domains would you like to Step 1: provides a balance of skills, write prioritize? Are there particular skills with which students or “balanced” in top left hand column. instructors struggle (e.g., conflict resolution or behavior management)? Please list your top priorities below using the left hand column on the following page. Now that you have filled in your top skill domain and/or skill priorities, please refer to Table 1 on p. Step 2: 33- 34 in Section 3 of the guide to find programs that meet these needs. Fill in the names of programs that fit 345

347 the criteria in the right hand column on the following page. To learn more about the programs in your list, please refer to the program snapshots and more in depth program profiles in Section 4. Programs Skill Domain Example: Cognitive ICPS, We Have Skills, SECURe, Second Step, MindUP, Responsive Classroom 1. 2. 3. Skills Programs Pro social Behavior Example: Caring School Community, Good Behavior Game, Before the Bullying, Lions Quest, We Have Skills 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS COMMON INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS Art/Creative Projects Drawing SEL Tool/Handout Visual Display Vocabulary Book/Story Ga mes Skill Practice Kinesthetic Songs Writing Didactic Instruction - Discussion Role Play Video Consider the chart above. Are there specific instructional methods that you are most interested in using? Think about both students and instructors. For a more detailed description of each instructional method, please refer to p. 19- 20 in Section 1 of the guide. Here are some questions to consider: Are there certain instructional methods that have been more/less effective for either students or x instructors at your organization? 346

348 x Are there any instructional methods that you would like to introduce or see more of relative to current instructional methods? x What instructional methods are most developmentally appropriate for your students? Step 1: List the instructional methods that you would like to prioritize in the left hand column below. If you do not have a strong preference or would like to find a program that employs a variety of instructional methods, indicate “variety” below. If there are any ins tructional methods you would prefer not to employ, write the method(s) below with a note or asterisk alongside. Step 2: Now that you have filled in your instructional methods priorities, please refer to Table 2 on p. 35- 36 in Section 3 of the guide to find programs that meet these needs. Fill in the names of programs that fit the criteria in the right hand column below. To learn more about the programs in your list, please refer to the program snapshots and more in depth program profiles. ethods Programs Instructional M Example: Songs Before the Bullying, Conscious Discipline, Second Step, Too Good for Violence 1. 2. 3. 4. PROGRAM COMPONENTS COMMON PROGRAM COMPONENTS School Climate/Culture Adult SEL Academic Integration Support for Implementation Family Engagement Assessment Tools Supplementary Activities Community Engagement Adaptability/Flexibility Professional Development Out - of - School Time The chart above lists common program components and features that are available at varying degrees in different programs. Consider your priorities and the list above to determine if there are any program components that are particularly important to your school or program. For a more detailed description of 25-26 in Section 1 of the guide. each component, please refer to p. 347

349 Step 1: List the program components that you would like to prioritize in the left hand column below. Include any notes about the specific characteristics that you are looking for. Now that you have filled in your program component priorities, please refer to Table 3 on p. 37- 38 in Step 2: Section 3 of the guide to find programs that meet these needs. Fill in the names of programs that fit the criteria in the right hand column below. To learn more about the programs in your list, please refer to the program snapshots and more in depth program profiles. Programs Program Components Example: Community Engagement — Caring School Community, Girls on the Run, Lions Quest, integrated into program/core MindUP, WINGS component 1. 2. 3. 4. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER Now that you have identified several potential programs, it’s time to select one. Read through the program snapshots and in-depth profiles to learn more about the programs you have identified. Start with programs that appear more than once on your list (i.e. meet multiple criteria). As you learn more about the program, consider making brief notes below including standout components, pros/cons, or anything else that might help you look across programs and select the best fit. Keep in mind your priorities, including areas of need, time and structure, training, cost, evidence of effectiveness, specific population, etc. Notes Program 1. 2. 3. 4. 348

Related documents

1 leslie haley wasserman debby zambo

1 leslie haley wasserman debby zambo

Educating the Young Child 7 Advances in Theory and Research, Implications for Practice Leslie Haley Wasserman Debby Zambo Editors Early Childhood and Neuroscience - Links to Development and Learning

More info »
qt9x241227

qt9x241227

UCSF UC San Francisco Electronic Theses and Dissertations Title AMERICAN DREAMS ASKEW: HEALTH-RELATED ADAPTATIONS OF U.S. TRANSNATIONAL IMMIGRANTS FROM THE CARIBBEAN Analysis of Emotional, Social and ...

More info »
Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect

Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect

STATE STATUTES Current Through April 2016 WHAT’S INSIDE Types of abuse Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect Standards for reporting Child abuse and neglect are defined by Federal and Persons respons...

More info »
CFOC4 pdf  FINAL

CFOC4 pdf FINAL

National Health and Safety Performance Standards • Guidelines for Early Care and Education Programs, 4th Edition Caring for Our Children Caring for Our Children Caring for Our National Health and Safe...

More info »
Bandes Salerno Final

Bandes Salerno Final

E , P ROOF AND P MOTION : The REJUDICE Cognitive Science of Gruesome Photos and Victim Impact Statements * & Jessica M. Susan A. Bandes Salerno . Centennial Distinguished Professor, DePaul University ...

More info »
framework cover

framework cover

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! An Initiative for Educating Heart and Mind ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

More info »
Running Head:  Influence of Emotions on Attitude, Belief, and Conceptual Change

Running Head: Influence of Emotions on Attitude, Belief, and Conceptual Change

Emotions, Attitudes, and Conceptual Change , p. 1 “Pluto Has Been a Planet My Whole Life!” ‟ Learning Emotions, Attitudes, and Conceptual Change in Elementary Students about Pluto‟s Reclassification S...

More info »
Microsoft Word   Teacher Shortage Areas Report 2017 18.docx

Microsoft Word Teacher Shortage Areas Report 2017 18.docx

Teacher Shortage Areas Nationwide Listing 1990–1991 through 2017–2018 June 2017 U.S. Department of Education Office of Postsecondary Education Freddie Cross Senior Statistician U.S. Dept. of Education...

More info »
CFOC3 updated final

CFOC3 updated final

Caring for Our Children: National Health and Safety Performance Standards; Guidelines for Early Care and Education Programs, Third Edition A Joint Collaborative Project of American Academy of Pediatri...

More info »
IOM Dying in America

IOM Dying in America

This PDF is available from The National Academies Press at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18748 Dying in America: Improving Quality and Honoring Individual Preferences Near the End of Life C...

More info »
Joshua D. Greene The Terrible Horrible No Good Very Bad Truth about Morality and

Joshua D. Greene The Terrible Horrible No Good Very Bad Truth about Morality and

9/03 The Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Truth about Morality and Note to readers of What to Do About it , Doctoral Dissertation of Joshua D. Greene in the Department of Philosophy, Princeton Un...

More info »
chd408 researchreportvisualart final 0

chd408 researchreportvisualart final 0

Research Coalition Impact of Visual Art on Waiting Behavior in the Emergency Department By Upali Nanda, PhD, Assoc. AIA, EDAC Vice President, Director of Research American Art Resources 1

More info »
HS Full Reduced

HS Full Reduced

State(s) of Head Start

More info »
Microsoft Word   Dissertation Master.doc

Microsoft Word Dissertation Master.doc

Interactive Drama, Art and Artificial Intelligence Michael Mateas December 2002 CMU-CS-02-206 School of Computer Science Computer Science Department Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh PA 15213 Subm...

More info »
campaign sentiment

campaign sentiment

It’s Not Only What you Say, It’s Also How You Say It:  The Strategic Use of Campaign Sentiment y HARLES C C RABTREE University of Michigan z ATT M OLDER G Pennsylvania State University § G HOMAS T SC...

More info »
The Second Self: Computers and the Human Spirit, 20th Anniversary Edition

The Second Self: Computers and the Human Spirit, 20th Anniversary Edition

M820046FRONT.qxd 11/1/05 8:06 AM Page 1 computers/psychology/human development ,!7IA2G2-habbbc!:t;K;k;K;k The Second Self The Second Self Co mp uters and the Human Spirit The Second Self Computers and...

More info »
file://C:\Users\OMID\Documents\Downloads\Compressed\zebras\Why

file://C:\Users\OMID\Documents\Downloads\Compressed\zebras\Why

Pa g e 1 of 212 WHY ZEBRAS DON'T GET ULCERS Third Edition ROBERT M. SAPOLSKY Copyright © 1994,1998 by W. H. Freeman, and 2004 by Robert M. Sapolsky ISBN:9780805073690 For Lisa, my best friend, who has...

More info »