circ1405

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1 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 Circular 14 05 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey

2 B A C D F H E G I Photo collage of water use and supply. A , Watts Bar Nuclear Powerplant, Front cover. Rhea County, Tennessee (photo by Alan Cressler, USGS). B , Student with trout at the Aquaculture Research Institute, Hagerman, Idaho (photo from University of Idaho, used with permission). C Center-pivot irrigation, Mitchell County, Georgia (photo by Alan Cressler, USGS). D , Windmill , on Pawnee Butte Grasslands (photo by Ray Klocek, used with permission). E, Water tower in Council, Idaho, Adams County (photo by Justin Woody, used with permission). F, Pulp mill, Wayne County, Georiga (photo by Alan Cressler, USGS). G, Sheep at water trough on the open range (photo by Saeid Tadayon, USGS). H, Bingham Canyon Mine, Salt Lake County, Utah (photo by Alan Cressler, USGS). I, Domestic water use in the kitchen (photo from Wikimedia Commons).

3 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 By Molly A. Maupin, Joan F. Kenny, Susan S. Hutson, John K. Lovelace, Nancy L. Barber, and Kristin S. Linsey Circular 1405 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey

4 U.S. Department of the Interior SALLY JEWELL, Secretary U.S. Geological Survey Suzette M. Kimball, Acting Director U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia: 2014 For more information on the USGS—the Federal source for science about the Earth, its natural and living resources, natural hazards, and the environment—visit http://www.usgs.gov or call 1-888-ASK-USGS For an overview of USGS information products, including maps, imagery, and publications, visit http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod To order this and other USGS information products, visit http://store.usgs.gov Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Although this information product, for the most part, is in the public domain, it also may contain copyrighted materials as noted in the text. Permission to reproduce copyrighted items must be secured from the copyright owner. Suggested citation: Maupin, M.A., Kenny, J.F., Hutson, S.S., Lovelace, J.K., Barber, N.L., and Linsey, K.S., 2014, Estimated use of water in the United States in 2010: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1405, 56 p., . http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/cir1405 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Maupin, Molly A., author. Estimated use of water in the United States in 2010 / by Molly A. Maupin, Joan F. Kenny, Susan S. Hutson, John K. Lovelace, Nancy L. Barber, and Kristin S. Linsey. pages cm. -- (Circular ; 1405) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 978-1-4113-3862-3 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Water consumption--United States. I. Kenny, J. F., author. II. Hutson, Susan S., author. III. Lovelace, John K., author. IV. Barber, Nancy L., author. V. Linsey, Kristin S., author. VI. Geological Survey (U.S.), issuing body. VII. Title. VIII. Series: U.S. Geological Survey circular ; 1405. TD223.M365 2015 333.91’130973--dc23 2014041921 ISSN 1067-084X (Print) ISSN 2330-5703 (Online)

5 iii Contents ... Abstract 1 2 ... Introduction ... 4 Purpose and Scope Terminology Used in This Report 4 ... ... 5 Changes for the 2010 Report Sources of Data and Methods of Analysis ... 5 Total Water Use ... 7 18 Public Supply ... ... Domestic 21 Irrigation ... 25 Livestock ... 28 Aquaculture 31 ... ... Industrial 34 ... Mining 37 Thermoelectric Power ... 40 Trends in Water Use, 1950 –2010 ... 44 References Cited 48 ... Glossary ... 49 Cooperating Agencies and Organizations ... 52 Acknowledgments This national compilation of water use would not be possible without the assistance and data provided by the many State and local agencies that manage water resources, operate data- collection programs, and administer regulations for use of water and other natural resources. The agencies and other organizations that provided assistance are listed for each State at the end of this report. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the USGS personnel in each State who compiled the data for this report.

6 iv Conversion Factors By Multiply To obtain Area 2 4,047 acre square meter (m ) acre 0.4047 hectare (ha) 2 square mile (mi acre 0.001562 ) Volume 3 1,233 cubic meter (m acre-foot (acre-ft) ) acre-foot (acre-ft) 325,851 gallon (gal) 3 cubic foot (ft acre-foot (acre-ft) 43,560 ) 3 cubic foot (ft gallon (gal) ) 7.48 liter (L) 3.785 gallon (gal) 3 3.785 cubic decimeter (dm gallon (gal) ) 3 million gallons (Mgal) 3,785 cubic meter (m ) million gallons (Mgal) 3.07 acre-foot (acre-ft) Flow rate 3 acre-foot per year (acre-ft/yr) 1,233 cubic meter per year (m /yr) billion gallons per day (Bgal/d) 1.3815 billion cubic meters per year gallon per day (gal/d) 3.785 liter per day (L/d) 3 0.04381 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) cubic meter per second (m /s) 3 1.547 cubic foot per second (ft million gallons per day (Mgal/d) /sec) million gallons per day (Mgal/d) 1.121 thousand acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr) 1.3815 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) million cubic meters per year 0.8921 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) thousand acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr) Energy 3,600,000 Megajoule (MJ) gigawatt-hour (gWh) kilowatt-hour (kWh) 3,600,000 joule (J) Abbreviations EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency NWC National Water Census National Water Use Information Program NWUIP SDWIS Safe Drinking Water Information System SECURE Science and Engineering to Comprehensively Understand and Responsibly Enhance USDA ARS U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service USDA NASS U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service USDA NRCS U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service USDOE EIA U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration USGS U.S. Geological Survey

7 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 By Molly A. Maupin, Joan F. Kenny, Susan S. Hutson, John K. Lovelace, Nancy L. Barber, and Kristin S. Linsey accounted for 45 percent of total withdrawals for all uses, and Abstract freshwater withdrawals for thermoelectric power accounted for 38 percent of the total freshwater withdrawals for all uses. Water use in the United States in 2010 was estimated to Irrigation withdrawals were 115 Bgal/d in 2010 and be about 355 billion gallons per day (Bgal/d), which was represented the lowest levels since before 1965. Irrigation 13 percent less than in 2005. The 2010 estimates put total withdrawals, all freshwater, accounted for 38 percent of total withdrawals at the lowest level since before 1970. Freshwater freshwater withdrawals for all uses, or 61 percent of total withdrawals were 306 Bgal/d, or 86 percent of total with - freshwater withdrawals for all uses excluding thermoelectric drawals, and saline-water withdrawals were 48.3 Bgal/d, power. Surface-water withdrawals (65.9 Bgal/d) accounted percent of total withdrawals. Fresh surface-water or 14 for 57 percent of the total irrigation withdrawals, or about withdrawals (230 Bgal/d) were almost 15 percent less than 12 percent less than in 2005. Groundwater withdrawals were in 2005, and fresh groundwater withdrawals (76.0 Bgal/d) 49.5 Bgal/d in 2010, about 6 percent less than in 2005. About were about 4 percent less than in 2005. Saline surface-water 62,400 thousand acres were irrigated in 2010, an increase from withdrawals were 45.0 Bgal/d, or 24 percent less than in 2005. 2005 of about 950 thousand acres (1.5 percent). The number Updates to the 2005 saline groundwater withdrawals, mostly of acres irrigated using sprinkler and microirrigation systems for thermoelectric power, reduced total saline groundwater continued to increase and accounted for 58 percent of the total withdrawals to 1.51 Bgal/d, down from the originally reported irrigated lands in 2010. 3.02 Bgal/d. Total saline groundwater withdrawals in 2010 Public-supply withdrawals in 2010 were 42.0 Bgal/d, or were 3.29 Bgal/d, mostly for mining use. 5 percent less than in 2005, and represented the first declines Thermoelectric power and irrigation remained the two in public-supply withdrawals since the 5-year reporting began largest uses of water in 2010, and total withdrawals for both in 1950. Total population in the United States increased were notably less than in 2005. Withdrawals in 2010 for from 300.7 million people in 2005 to 313.0 million people thermoelectric power were 20 percent less and withdrawals in 2010, an increase of 4 percent. Public-supply withdrawals for irrigation were 9 percent less than in 2005. Similarly, other accounted for 14 percent of the total freshwater withdrawals uses showed reductions compared to 2005, specifically public for all uses and 22 percent of freshwater withdrawals for all supply (–5 percent), self-supplied domestic (–3 percent), self- uses excluding thermoelectric power. The number of people supplied industrial (–12 percent), and livestock (–7 percent). that received potable water from public-supply facilities in Only mining (39 percent) and aquaculture (7 percent) reported 2010 was 268 million, or about 86 percent of the total U.S. larger withdrawals in 2010 compared to 2005. Thermoelectric lation. This percentage was unchanged from 2005. Self- popu power, irrigation, and public-supply withdrawals accounted supplied domestic withdrawals were 3.60 Bgal/d, or 3 percent for 90 percent of total withdrawals in 2010. less than in 2005. More than 98 percent of the self-supplied Withdrawals for thermoelectric power were 161 Bgal/d domestic withdrawals were from groundwater sources. in 2010 and represented the lowest levels since before 1970. Self-supplied industrial withdrawals were 15.9 Bgal/d Surface-water withdrawals accounted for more than 99 percent in 2010, a 12 percent decline from 2005, and continued the of total thermoelectric-power withdrawals, and 73 percent downward trend since the peak of 47 Bgal/d in 1970. Total of those surface-water withdrawals were from freshwater self-supplied industrial withdrawals were 4 percent of total sources. Saline surface-water withdrawals for thermoelectric withdrawals for all uses and 8 percent of total withdrawals power accounted for 97 percent of total saline surface-water for all uses excluding thermoelectric power. Most of the total withdrawals for all uses. Thermoelectric-power withdrawals

8 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 2 describes current and historic conditions and enables a self-supplied industrial withdrawals were from surface-water better understanding of the Earth’s precious water resources. sources (82 percent), and nearly all (93 percent) of those Water-use information complements and supports surface- surface-water withdrawals were from freshwater sources. water and groundwater availability studies and water budgets Nearly all of the groundwater withdrawals for self-supplied that are critical to these studies. This information is also industrial use (98 percent) were from freshwater sources. essential to accurately understand how future water demands Total aquaculture withdrawals were 9.42 Bgal/d in 2010, will be met while maintaining adequate water quality and or 7 percent more than in 2005, and surface water was the quantities for human and ecosystem needs. primary source (81 percent). Most of the surface-water The National Water Use Information Program (NWUIP) withdrawals occurred at facilities that operated flowthrough http://water.usgs.gov/watuse/ is the USGS program ( ) that raceways, which returned the water to the source directly facilitates the 5-year compilation of water use and over after use. Aquaculture withdrawals accounted for 3 percent time has met various challenges in estimating water use of the total withdrawals for all uses and 5 percent of the in the United States. The program, however, has reduced total withdrawals for all uses excluding thermoelectric. some data collections over time to address limitations of Total mining withdrawals in 2010 were 5.32 Bgal/d, - available resources for analysis and limitations of capabili or about 1 percent of total withdrawals from all uses and ties for accurate interpolations. The National Water Census 3 percent of total withdrawals from all uses excluding (NWC) is a recent USGS program, implemented as part of electric. Mining withdrawals accounted for the largest thermo the SECURE (Science and Engineering to Comprehensively percentage increase (39 percent) in water use between 2005 Understand and Responsibly Enhance) Water Act and 2010 among all the categories. Groundwater withdrawals (Subtitle F of Public Law 111–11, the Omnibus Public Land accounted for 73 percent of the total mining withdrawals, Management Act) to study national water availability and and the majority of the groundwater was saline (71 percent). use by integrating diverse research and building new water The majority (80 percent) of surface-water withdrawals for accounting tools, such as decision support capacity. These mining was freshwater. tools and research are designed to enable water managers to Livestock withdrawals in 2010 were 2.00 Bgal/d, or accurately assess water availability at regional and national percent less than in 2005. All livestock withdrawals 7 http://water.usgs.gov/watercensus/ ). To meet NWC scales ( were from freshwater sources, mostly from groundwater goals of building water budget assessments at regional and (60 percent). Livestock withdrawals accounted for about national scales, accurate and complete water-use estimates percent of total freshwater withdrawals for all uses 1 are necessary. The NWUIP is working closely with the NWC excluding thermoelectric power. to provide water-use data for accurate water budget assess - In 2010, more than 50 percent of the total withdrawals in ments in the NWC study areas. To meet these goals, several the United States were accounted for by 12 States. California water-use specific research studies supported by the NWC accounted for about 11 percent of the total withdrawals were begun, some are completed, and some are ongoing. and 10 percent of freshwater withdrawals in the United Each study specifically addresses a water-use data collec - States, predominantly for irrigation. Texas accounted for tion challenge, such as improvement in the dissemination of percent of total withdrawals, predominantly for about 7 information on data inventories, collection of more accurate thermo electric power, irrigation, and public supply . Florida information, use of better methods for analysis, and upgrade accounted for 18 percent of the total saline-water withdrawals of data dissemination tools. in the United States, mostly from surface-water sources for NWC-supported projects with direct relevance to water thermoelectric power. Oklahoma and Texas accounted for use were conducted concurrently with the NWUIP 2010 about 70 percent of the total saline groundwater withdrawals compilation efforts and focused on the three largest catego - in the United States, mostly for mining. ries of water use, irrigation, thermoelectric power, and public supply. For irrigation water use, methods and documenta - tion were synthesized into a national report using the 2000 Introduction and 2005 compilation data and suggested improved esti - This report, “Estimated use of water in the United States mation methods (Dickens and others, 2011). Additionally, in 2010,” is the 13th in a series of U.S. Geological Survey methods were developed to assist in estimating irrigation (USGS) Circular reports that have been published every water use in humid Eastern States, using two predictive 5 years since 1950. The 60-year span of national reports models that use climate, soils, and crop data to explain the represents the longest compilation record of water-use potential for irrigation (Levin and Zarriello, 2013). For data by a Federal agency in the United States. Estimates of thermoelectric power, linked heat and water budget models withdrawals enable the depiction of trends in total water use were developed for 1,290 thermoelectric powerplants in for the Nation among different geographic areas, categories the United States (Diehl and others, 2013). This project of use, and sources over time. The USGS is dedicated to entailed a indepth inventory of powerplants and associated providing reliable scientific information that accurately information. Data from this project considerably improved

9 Introduction 3 The Boise River Diversion Dam in Ada County, Idaho, was completed in 1909 and diverts water into the New York Canal, the primary irrigation canal for Ada and Canyon Counties. Photo by Jeff Woody, used with permission. 5-year compilation reports. Because data are updated periodi the NWUIP understanding of the cooling systems used at - cally and revised during interim years, the Web site will enable individual powerplants as well as provided a more complete inventory of powerplant locations and net power generation. quick and easy access to the most current water-use data. Factors such as demographics, new manufacturing and On the basis of the water budget models, Diehl and Harris - (2014) reported powerplant-specific estimates of with cooling-system technologies, economic trends, legal decisions, and climatic fluctuations have varying effects on water use. drawals and consumptive use. For public supply, the U.S. Between 2000 and 2010, population growth in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provided a public- was 9.7 percent, lower than the 13.2 percent growth for the supply dataset from the Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS). These data included site-specific well, 1990–2000 period (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011). More popu- surface-water intake, and distribution-system informa - lation growth was recorded in Southern and Western States (14.3 and 13.8 percent, respectively) between 2000 and 2010 tion, which was filtered through a USGS database (Price and Maupin, 2014) and enhanced for quality control using compared to Midwestern States (3.9 percent) and Northeastern States (3.2 percent). Southern and Western States accounted associated USGS data. These data were disseminated as State for more than 84 percent of the total U.S. population growth datasets to each USGS Water Science Center to help construct a site-specific database capable of storing public-supply with - from 2000 to 2010. Population growth puts additional pressure on existing public utilities and increases demand on some - drawal, distribution, use, and return data for each State. times already limited water supplies. In parts of the United Data dissemination capabilities and data-collection efforts have improved over the course of each 5-year compilation. States, communities have sought additional water sources or instituted water-conservation measures to meet increasing The online resource, “USGS Water Use Data for the Nation” demands. New cooling-system technologies and wastewater - ), provides the best avail ( http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/wu management practices at thermoelectric powerplants and able county water-use data (1985–2010). These county-level industrial facilities are examples of water-saving practices that estimates are the foundation for the statewide totals presented in each 5-year compilation report and are stored, updated, and are being implemented. Powerplants have reduced the demand disseminated using the USGS National Water Information for cooling water by implementing more efficient cooling System (NWIS) database. Data are retrievable as county, State, systems, such as changing to recirculating systems or building and national totals for each category of use as reported in the new plants with dry-cooling systems. Industrial facilities are

10 4 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 - using more efficient water-conserving manufacturing technol 1,000 milligrams per liter or more. All withdrawals for the ogies, driven by higher costs for water and energy. Industrial public supply, domestic, irrigation, and livestock categories manufacturing has declined with more goods being produced are reported as totals, although in some areas water is treated outside of the United States. Increases in industrial reuse and to reduce salinity for these uses. Aquaculture totals include recycling of wastewater help to reduce withdrawals from the a small amount of saline surface-water withdrawals for available resources and treated discharges to surface waters two States. Both freshwater and saline-water withdrawals over time. are reported for industrial, mining, and thermoelectric- power uses. Climate fluctuations affect water use, particularly for The series of 5-year national water-use estimates compiled irrigation, power generation, and public supply. In 2010, by the USGS serves as one of the few sources of information the contiguous United States (CONUS) experienced about regional and national trends in water withdrawals. average annual air temperatures slightly above normal tation above the long-term average. An abnor - These historical reports (MacKichan, 1951, 1957; MacKichan and precipi and Kammerer, 1961; Murray, 1968; Murray and Reeves, mally cold winter with abundant moisture resulted in 1972, 1977; Solley and others, 1983, 1988, 1993, 1998; record-breaking precipitation in the East and Northeast for Hutson and others, 2004, Kenny and others, 2009) are avail December–February. While the East enjoyed an abnormally - warm spring, the Western United States experienced below able online at http://water.usgs.gov/watuse/50years.html . normal temperatures. The summer of 2010 was the fourth Statewide data between 1950 and 2010 produced for the 5-year national water-use estimates are available online at warmest on record for the CONUS, but was the ninth wettest http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/wu/ . County-level data are in 116 years in the Upper Midwest and Great Lakes. The available only for 1985–2010 from the same Web site West and Southeast had below-normal precipitation during the summer. The fall of 2010 was warmer than normal, but the Upper Midwest and Northeast continued to receive above-average precipitation, while Florida suffered through Terminology Used in This Report the second driest September–November period on record (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National A glossary of the terms and units used in this report is Climatic Data Center, 2010). located at the end of the report and is available online at Cooling-system technology in thermoelectric power - http://water.usgs.gov/watuse/wuglossary.html . Terms and plants has dramatically improved in recent years, causing units depicting withdrawals and ancillary data for the 5-year large changes in withdrawals between 2005 and 2010. compilations have not changed since 2000. Withdrawal for Improvements driven by the Clean Water Act and other each category of use represents the total amount of water economic factors have changed the way industrial facilities removed from the water source for a particular use, regardless use, reuse, and recycle water, resulting in reduced discharges of how much of that total is consumptively used or returned to wastewater-treatment plants or surface-water bodies. to the hydrologic system for future use. In most cases, some Cooling water is essential for producing most of the thermo - fraction of the total withdrawal will be returned to a water electric power in the United States, and an increase in electric source after use and will be available for other subsequent energy use has resulted in additional demands for water. uses. Consumptive use, however, precludes the subsequent Limitations on water supplies have led to the use of less withdrawal for another use, at least temporarily, because it - water-intensive cooling technologies for producing thermo represents that fraction of water that is removed from avail - electric power in newer powerplants. ability due to evaporation, transpiration, or incorporation into products or crop, or consumed by livestock or human. Estimates of return flows and consumptive use were discon - tinued after 1995, primarily because of resource and data Purpose and Scope constraints on the USGS National Water Use Information This report presents average daily withdrawals (in millions Program (NWUIP). Recent efforts by other programs in coordination with NWUIP have been implemented to of gallons per day) for calendar year 2010, by source (ground - reinstate the consumptive-use estimates for thermoelectric water and surface water) and quality (fresh and saline) for power and irrigation, but those data are not included in this the 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and report. Estimates of wastewater reuse were compiled by some the U.S. Virgin Islands (hereafter referred to as “States” for States for the industrial, thermoelectric power, and irrigation brevity). Withdrawals are reported by category of use: public supply, domestic (including self-supplied domestic and categories, but these estimates were not included in the totals reported in tables in this report because of the small volumes - deliveries from public supply), irrigation, livestock, aqua of water compared to the totals and the incomplete reporting culture, self-supplied industrial (referred to as “industrial” electric power for brevity), mining, and self-supplied thermo across the Nation. (referred to as “thermoelectric power” for brevity). Saline Withdrawals are expressed in terms of millions of gallons water is defined as water containing dissolved solids of per day and thousands of acre-feet per year. The term billions

11 5 Introduction by Energy Information of gallons per day is used in the Abstract and Administration (EIA) were used to estimate Trends in Water Use thermoelectric-power sections of this report withdrawals. As in 2005, to more simply express large numbers for total deliveries from public supply for domestic use uses. Units of millions or billions of gallons were again compiled in 2010, but public-supply per day do not repre - deliveries for commer - sent actual daily rates, cial, industrial, and but rather are used to thermoelectric-power express total amounts as an average daily uses were not. Data were not compiled for hydro - rate over a single year. logic units (watersheds). Water demands fluctuate Data were not compiled seasonally and may be very different between for commercial water use, hydroelectric-power hot summer months and generation, wastewater cold winter months. Therefore, withdrawal treatment (returns), consumptive use by cate estimates in this report - gory of use, and convey- represent the total annual ance losses. Some of withdrawals averaged these additional data may over 365 days. have been collected by Withdrawals are individual States but are rounded to three signifi - cant figures. All values not compiled as a national are rounded indepen dataset or included in - this report. dently, so the sums of individual rounded The Trends in Water Use section of this report numbers may not equal includes national totals the totals. The percentage Fountain water display, Meridian, Idaho. Photo by Molly Maupin, USGS. of changes discussed for withdrawals by category of use and source in the text are calculated of water from 1950 to 2010. Totals have changed for some from the unrounded data and are expressed as integers. All categories and years because of revisions to individual State population data are rounded to three significant figures. In discussions of States that compose the majority of withdrawals data during interim years. Because of these revisions, some of the percentage changes in this report will be slightly different for a given category, the State names are listed in order of from data published previously by Kenny and others (2009). decreasing magnitude of withdrawals. Sources of Data and Methods of Analysis Changes for the 2010 Report Data presented in this report were compiled from various A matrix showing the different categories of use and how the terminology has changed over time is available online at sources, depending on the category of use and the information available for each State. USGS personnel in each State deter - . http://water.usgs.gov/watuse/WU-Category-Changes.html mined the best sources of information available, then compiled Links to definitions of water-use categories are included in the matrix. This report includes the same categories of use that or estimated the data and prepared documentation of the sources and methods used to determine the water use totals. were reported in 2005, and every category of use includes data Data in this report may have been derived from reported, from every State. Some States may have compiled their esti - mates for livestock, aquaculture, or mining categories by using estimated, or calculated means using different sources and methods described by Lovelace (2009a, b). Similarly, some methods and, therefore, will have varying levels of accuracy. States may have compiled their estimates for thermo electric Because the largest users and the most prominent categories power by using methods derived from Diehl and others of use within each State have the greatest effect on the totals, (2013). Data from the NWC-supported thermoelectric-power obtaining reliable information for these large users and catego - study represent a substantial change in how data reported ries was the primary focus of the compilation effort.

12 6 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 Sources of information used in the compilation include of information are discussed in greater detail in the individual national datasets, State agency data, individual questionnaires, category sections of this report. and local contacts. National datasets available to each State Many of these data, such as those from NASS and include the EPA SDWIS data (U.S. Environmental Protection USDOE EIA, are collected annually. Other data are provided Agency, 2014), U.S. Census Bureau population estimates for years other than 2010, but were used to develop the (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011), U.S. Department of Agriculture 2010 estimates in some States because they were the most (USDA) Farm and Ranch Irrigation Survey, USDA Census of complete data available. For example, the USDA Census of Agriculture, USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Agriculture is produced in years ending in 2 and 7, and the (NASS) crop and livestock estimates, including digital USDA Farm and Ranch Irrigation Survey is produced in datasets derived from satellite imagery (Cropland Data years ending in 3 and 8. Correlation of water-use data in this Layer) for 2010, with associated confidence interval data - - report with specific climatic conditions for 2010 is not recom sets, and U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) EIA facility mended because some data for years other than 2010 may reports. Additional data for thermoelectric power, specifically have been used to develop some water-use estimates. locations and cooling-system classifications for powerplants, Guidelines for preparing the 2010 water-use estimates were were provided from internal USGS sources (Diehl and others, distributed to USGS personnel in each Water Science Center 2013) using USDOE and project ancillary data. A list of through workshops, Web-based seminars, and written docu - industrial and commercial establishments was provided to ments. The same guidelines used in 2005 were implemented in USGS personnel from a commercial database for use in the 2010 without change and are published as USGS Techniques and industrial estimates. Datasets and sources of information used Methods Book 4, Chapter E1, “Guidelines for preparation of State - to produce the national estimates for the livestock, aqua water-use estimates for 2005” (Hutson, 2007). Reports published culture, and mining categories include the USDA NASS, by individual USGS Water Science Centers as part of the NWUIP, as well as a list of contact personnel in each USGS Water Science USDA county extension agents, USGS Minerals Information . Team, USDOE EIA, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines. Sources Center, also are available online at http://water.usgs.gov/watuse/ Cabbage field in Wellton Valley, Yuma County, Arizona. Photo by Saeid Tadayon, USGS.

13 Total Water Use 7 355,000 million gallons per day Total Water Use for about 7 percent of total withdrawals for all categories, Total water withdrawals in the United States for 2010 were predominantly for thermoelectric power, irrigation, and public estimated for eight categories of use: public supply, domestic, supply. Florida had the largest saline withdrawals, accounting irrigation, livestock, aquaculture, industrial, mining, and for 18 percent of the total in the United States, mostly thermoelectric power (fig. 1). The three largest categories saline surface-water withdrawals for thermoelectric power. were thermoelectric power, irrigation, and public supply, Oklahoma and Texas accounted for about 70 percent of the cumulatively accounting for 90 percent of the national total. total saline groundwater withdrawals in the United States, The remaining categories of industrial, aquaculture, mining, mostly for mining. domestic, and livestock together were just about 10 percent of Water withdrawals by category and State are listed for total water withdrawals estimated in this report. and 3 and for groundwater in B surface water in tables 3 A Total State populations and withdrawals by source for tables 4 A and 4 B . In 2010, more surface water than ground - 2010 are listed in table 1. Total freshwater and saline-water - water was withdrawn for all uses except domestic, live withdrawals were estimated to be 355,000 million gallons stock, and mining. Thermoelectric power accounted for per day (Mgal/d), or 397,000 thousand acre-feet per year percent of the total fresh surface-water withdrawals and 51 (acre-ft/yr). Freshwater withdrawals of 306,000 Mgal/d made up 86 percent of the total, and saline-water withdrawals made irrigation accounted for 29 percent. The largest surface- water withdrawals in the Nation were in California, where up the remaining 48,300 Mgal/d (14 percent). Most saline- water withdrawals were seawater and brackish coastal water irrigation accounted for 76 percent of total fresh surface- used for thermoelectric power. Total surface-water with water withdrawals. Large quantities of fresh surface water - drawals were estimated to be 275,000 Mgal/d, or 78 percent were also withdrawn for thermoelectric power in Illinois, of the total. About 84 percent (230,000 Mgal/d) of total Texas, Michigan, and Alabama. Large saline surface-water surface-water withdrawals were freshwater. Total ground- withdrawals for thermoelectric power occurred in Florida, water withdrawals were 79,300 Mgal/d, of which 96 percent California, Maryland, and New York, which cumulatively (76,000 Mgal/d) was freshwater. accounted for 57 percent of the national total saline surface- Total withdrawals by category and State are listed in water withdrawals. A , in million gallons per day, and in table 2 B table Of the total fresh groundwater withdrawals 2 , in thousand acre-feet per year. Withdrawals for thermoelectric Mgal/d), irrigation accounted for 65 percent, (76,000 power (161,000 Mgal/d) are mostly derived from freshwater primarily in California, Arkansas, Texas, and Nebraska. sources and accounted for 38 percent of the total freshwater Fresh groundwater irrigation withdrawals in these four States cumulatively accounted for 42 percent of the national total withdrawals and about 91 percent of total saline-water fresh groundwater withdrawals. Nearly all groundwater withdrawals. Irrigation withdrawals totaled 115,000 Mgal/d and accounted for 38 percent of total freshwater withdrawals. withdrawals (96 percent) were from freshwater, and irrigation - Total withdrawals for public supply (42,000 Mgal/d) repre used greater than three times more fresh groundwater than sented nearly 14 percent of the total freshwater withdrawals. public supply, which was the next largest use of groundwater in the Nation. The largest withdrawals of saline groundwater In 2010, more than 50 percent of the total withdrawals in the United States were accounted for by 12 States: occurred in Oklahoma and Texas. The geographic distribution of total withdrawals in the California, Texas, Idaho, Florida, Illinois, North Carolina, Arkansas, Colorado, Michigan, New York, Alabama, and United States is shown in figure 2. The geographic distri - bution of total surface water and groundwater, and total Ohio. California accounted for 11 percent of the total with - drawals for all categories and 10 percent of total freshwater freshwater and saline-water withdrawals by State is shown in figure 3. withdrawals for all categories nationwide. Texas accounted

14 8 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 Public supply, 12 percent Domestic, 1 percent Erin McDaniel, used with permission Water tower, Newton, Kansas Photo used with permission from Whilpool High-efficiency washer and dryer Irrigation, 33 percent Livestock, 1 percent Molly Maupin, USGS Saeid Tadayon, USGS Sprinkler irrigation system, Blaine County, Idaho Sheep at water trough on the open range Aquaculture, 3 percent Industrial, 4 percent Photo ©Keith Philpott Alan Cressler, USGS Wild Rose Fish Hatchery, Waushara County, Wisconsin Industrial paper mill in Glynn County, Georgia Mining, 1 percent Thermoelectric power, 45 percent Joan Kenny, USGS Alan Cressler, USGS Pumpjack in Gove County, Kansas Watts Bar Nuclear Powerplant, Rhea County, Tennessee Figure 1 Total water withdrawals by category, 2010. Figure 1.

15 Total Water Use 9 Total water withdrawals by source and State, 2010. Table 1. [Values may not sum to totals because of independent rounding] Withdrawals Withdrawals Withdrawals (in million gallons per day) (in million gallons per day) (in thousand acre-feet per year) Population (in State By source and type Total Total thousands) Surface water Groundwater Total Total Saline Saline Fresh Saline Fresh Saline Fresh Fresh Total Total 494 0 494 9,470 0 9,470 9,960 0 9,960 11,200 0 11,200 ... 4,780 Alabama 710 478 144 622 391 80.7 869 225 1,090 975 252 1,230 ... 472 Alaska 6,390 2,550 0 2,550 3,540 0 3,540 6,090 0 6,090 6,820 0 6,820 ... Arizona 11,300 7,780 5.05 7,790 3,540 0 3,540 2,920 5.05 11,300 12,700 5.66 12,700 ... Arkansas ... 37,300 12,300 369 12,700 18,800 6,490 25,300 6,860 38,000 34,900 7,690 42,600 31,100 California Colorado 5,030 ... 1,560 9,440 0 9,440 11,000 19.4 11,000 12,300 21.8 12,300 1,540 19.4 3,310 3,570 216 600 2,490 3,090 816 2,490 0 915 2,800 3,710 216 ... Connecticut 898 156 0 156 144 417 300 417 717 337 468 804 ... 561 Delaware 0 0 0.05 0 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.10 0.11 0 0.11 0.10 District of Columbia... 602 18,800 3,970 154 4,120 2,230 8,580 10,800 6,200 8,740 14,900 6,950 9,790 16,700 Florida ... Georgia 4,440 1,230 0 1,230 3,210 283 3,490 9,690 283 4,720 4,970 317 5,290 ... ... 1,360 423 50.8 474 248 552 800 1,430 603 1,270 752 676 671 Hawaii ... 4,250 0 4,250 13,000 0 13,000 17,200 0 17,200 19,300 0 19,300 1,570 Idaho 853 25.5 879 12,200 0 12,200 13,100 25.5 13,100 14,600 28.6 14,700 ... 12,800 Illinois 0 720 0 720 7,920 0 7,920 8,640 8,640 9,690 0 9,690 ... 6,480 Indiana Iowa 3,050 650 0 650 2,420 0 3,070 0 3,070 3,440 0 3,440 ... 2,420 2,850 3,200 0 3,200 800 0 800 4,000 0 4,000 4,490 0 4,490 ... Kansas 4,130 4,340 199 0 199 4,130 0 ... 4,330 0 4,330 4,850 0 4,850 Kentucky ... 4,530 1,570 0 1,570 6,960 1.68 9,570 8,540 1.68 8,540 9,570 1.88 6,970 Louisiana ... 99.4 0 99.4 309 40.8 350 408 40.8 449 458 45.8 504 1,330 Maine Maryland 260 0 260 1,210 5,910 7,120 1,470 5,910 7,380 1,650 6,630 8,280 5,770 ... 1,060 ... 361 0 361 703 1,930 2,640 6,550 1,930 3,000 1,190 2,170 3,360 Massachusetts ... 9,880 693 0.57 694 10,100 0 10,100 10,800 0.57 10,800 12,100 0.64 12,100 Michigan 5,300 736 0 736 3,080 0 ... 3,820 0 3,820 4,280 0 4,280 3,080 Minnesota 1,300 2,970 2,610 19.6 2,630 1,240 62.4 ... 3,850 82.0 3,930 4,320 92.0 4,410 Mississippi Missouri ... 5,990 1,810 0 1,810 6,750 0 6,750 8,570 0 8,570 9,610 0 9,610 7,360 268 18.6 286 7,360 0 989 7,630 18.6 7,650 8,550 20.9 8,570 ... Montana 8,040 0.13 4,710 3,320 0 3,320 4,710 0.13 8,040 9,010 0.15 9,010 ... 1,830 Nebraska 11.9 ... 11.9 1,200 1,420 0 1,420 2,610 1,190 2,620 2,930 13.4 2,940 2,700 Nevada ... 1,320 89.7 0 89.7 277 848 1,120 367 848 1,210 411 951 1,360 New Hampshire New Jersey 612 0 612 1,320 3,740 5,060 1,930 3,740 5,670 2,170 4,190 6,360 ... 8,790 3,160 ... 1,570 0 1,570 1,590 0 1,590 2,060 0 3,160 3,540 0 3,540 New Mexico ... 19,400 704 0 704 5,020 4,850 9,870 5,730 4,850 10,600 6,420 5,430 11,900 New York 9,540 694 0 694 10,400 1,360 ... 11,100 1,360 12,400 12,400 1,530 13,900 11,700 North Carolina ... 139 13.6 153 994 0 994 1,130 13.6 1,150 1,270 15.3 1,290 673 North Dakota 9,440 0 929 8,510 0 8,510 929 0 9,440 10,600 0 10,600 Ohio... 11,500 ... 3,750 635 1,400 2,030 1,140 0 1,140 3,550 1,400 3,170 1,990 1,570 1,770 Oklahoma 6,730 2,130 0 2,130 4,600 0 4,600 3,830 0 6,730 7,550 0 7,550 ... Oregon ... 12,700 657 0 657 7,480 0 7,480 8,130 0 8,130 9,120 0 9,120 Pennsylvania 421 ... 1,050 36.5 0 36.5 98.0 241 339 134 241 376 151 270 Rhode Island South Carolina ... 4,630 0 339 6,440 0 6,440 6,780 0 6,780 7,600 0 7,600 339 ... 626 339 0 339 287 0 287 0 626 701 0 701 814 South Dakota 7,230 6,350 470 0 470 7,230 0 7,700 0 7,700 8,630 0 8,630 ... Tennessee ... 25,100 6,830 884 7,710 15,800 1,280 17,100 22,600 2,160 24,800 25,400 2,420 27,800 Texas 2,760 1,030 92.6 1,120 3,110 238 ... 4,130 331 4,460 4,630 371 5,000 3,340 Utah Vermont 626 41.6 0 41.6 389 0 ... 431 0 431 483 0 483 389 Virginia ... 8,000 299 9.97 309 4,140 3,200 7,340 4,440 3,210 7,650 4,970 3,600 8,570 Washington ... 1,600 0 1,600 3,320 33.1 3,350 4,920 33.1 4,960 5,520 37.1 5,560 6,720 3,530 1,850 121 4.82 125 3,410 0 3,410 ... 4.82 3,530 3,960 5.40 3,960 West Virginia 5,400 ... 5,690 754 0 754 5,400 0 6,160 0 6,160 6,900 0 6,900 Wisconsin Wyoming ... 564 550 67.1 617 4,080 0 4,080 4,630 67.1 4,700 5,200 75.2 5,270 2,880 3,730 125 0.32 125 611 2,270 ... 736 2,270 3,010 825 2,550 3,370 Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands... 106 1.14 0 1.14 2.85 124 127 3.99 124 128 4.47 139 143 45,000 313,000 76,000 3,290 79,300 230,000 TOTAL 275,000 306,000 48,300 355,000 343,000 54,200 397,000

16 10 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 A . Total water withdrawals by water-use category, 2010, in million gallons per day. Table 2 [Values may not sum to totals because of independent rounding] Thermoelectric Self-supplied Self- Total Mining Irriga- Live- Aqua- Public power industrial supplied State stock tion culture supply domestic Fresh Saline Fresh Saline Total Saline Saline Fresh Fresh Alabama 8,250 26.5 831 574 0 20.2 0 159 0 9,960 0 9,960 ... 38.0 59.1 79.0 14.8 1.59 0.25 684 7.78 4.30 24.1 221 58.0 0 869 1,090 ... 225 Alaska 1,210 27.2 4,570 27.0 47.3 12.9 0 86.6 0 104 0 6,090 0 6,090 ... Arizona 0 12.8 8,720 39.0 268 271 5.05 44.3 429 1,540 0 11,300 5.05 11,300 ... Arkansas ... 6,300 172 23,100 188 973 400 0 36.4 236 6,540 31,100 6,860 38,000 65.4 California 848 37.9 9,710 36.9 122 130 0 ... 19.4 77 0 11,000 19.4 11,000 8.51 Colorado 198 ... 1.01 29.7 66.5 38.5 4.72 0 24.0 2,460 816 2,490 3,310 427 65.4 Connecticut 0 ... 101 1.31 0.06 96.0 0 0.85 14.8 7.82 417 300 417 717 78.1 Delaware 0 0.10 0 0 0 0 0 District of Columbia 0 0 0.10 0 0.10 0 0 2,270 214 2,920 21.3 1.86 213 0 113 0 613 8,570 6,200 8,740 14,900 ... Florida 27.7 1,120 115 839 29.3 49.8 487 0 ... 0 1,770 283 4,440 283 4,720 Georgia ... 274 8.02 323 1.83 4.54 4.63 0 1.51 1,270 53.2 603 671 603 0 Hawaii ... 79.0 14,000 47.5 2,750 49.7 0 20.2 0 0.88 0 17,200 0 17,200 239 Idaho 92.4 226 36.1 32.0 390 0 70.9 25.5 10,700 0 13,100 25.5 13,100 ... 1,500 Illinois 0 126 137 39.2 8.57 2,210 0 88.2 656 5,380 0 8,640 0 8,640 ... Indiana ... 393 38.4 42.8 136 18.9 125 0 0 2,240 0 3,070 0 3,070 79.6 Iowa 391 14.9 3,040 114 12.9 40.3 0 ... 0 377 0 4,000 0 4,000 13.3 Kansas 30.8 ... 33.2 29.0 43.8 34.1 228 0 572 0 3,360 0 4,330 0 4,330 Kentucky ... 746 47.0 928 8.03 311 2,060 8,540 11.3 0 4,430 1.68 8,540 1.68 0 Louisiana ... 33.0 11.3 2.29 46.9 192 14.8 4.87 0 26.8 26.0 408 40.8 449 91.3 Maine 790 85.6 72.1 8.25 20.8 50.0 146 9.43 0 436 5,760 1,470 5,910 7,380 ... Maryland 6.60 679 37.9 139 1.40 49.6 16.3 0 ... 0 134 1,930 1,060 1,930 3,000 Massachusetts ... 1,090 231 209 19.6 82.7 612 0 76.2 0.57 8,520 0 10,800 0.57 10,800 Michigan 542 79.0 197 59.3 16.9 134 ... 285 0 2,510 0 3,820 0 3,820 0 Minnesota 0 395 44.6 2,090 18.4 133 203 ... 8.78 12.6 956 69.5 3,850 82.0 3,930 Mississippi 8,570 ... 836 61.8 1,400 72.9 181 68.4 0 32.9 0 5,910 0 8,570 0 Missouri 138 22.2 7,160 41.8 18.9 66.4 ... 27.9 18.6 151 0 7,630 18.6 7,650 0 Montana 0.13 5,660 114 88.3 31.1 0 8.86 44.0 1,790 0 8,040 0.13 8,040 ... 296 Nebraska 0.95 ... 1,570 5.06 49.5 5.23 0 345 29.8 21.6 11.0 2,610 11.9 2,620 581 Nevada ... 91.2 33.3 1.92 0.89 16.6 17.7 0 2.85 0 202 848 367 848 1,210 New Hampshire 1,080 98.3 138 0.98 9.16 83.3 0 8.64 0 513 3,740 1,930 3,740 5,670 ... New Jersey 283 25.8 2,700 35.8 20.1 11.1 0 ... 0 51.9 0 3,160 0 3,160 37.1 New Mexico ... 2,260 152 70.4 22.6 40.2 352 0 72.4 0 2,760 4,850 5,730 4,850 10,600 New York 960 231 367 72.0 1,470 271 ... 32.6 0 7,660 1,360 11,100 1,360 12,400 0 North Carolina ... 3.68 165 21.6 5.92 18.7 0 13.4 13.6 837 0 1,130 13.6 1,150 68.8 North Dakota 0 52.6 24.0 34.3 489 0 115 137 7,220 0 9,440 0 9,440 Ohio... 1,370 ... 657 26.8 564 88.8 10.7 20.8 0 3,170 1,400 385 0 1,770 1,400 18.0 Oklahoma 8.64 67.1 5,260 17.0 712 126 0 534 0 12.7 0 6,730 0 6,730 ... Oregon ... 1,420 201 27.1 52.3 108 866 0 62.0 0 5,390 0 8,130 0 8,130 Pennsylvania 376 ... 108 8.02 2.69 0.18 14.5 7.52 0 0.92 0 1.44 232 135 241 Rhode Island 619 115 125 12.0 11.0 388 ... 8.43 0 5,500 0 6,780 0 6,780 0 South Carolina ... 5.37 362 47.4 48.4 9.48 0 18.2 0 10.3 0 626 0 626 124 South Dakota 14.6 918 38.7 71.9 27.5 52.6 776 0 0 5,800 0 7,700 0 7,700 ... Tennessee ... 3,990 259 6,830 259 31.4 680 610 203 810 10,500 661 22,600 2,160 24,800 Texas 673 8.44 3,220 16.5 97.1 47.6 ... 4.19 246 69.6 11.0 4,130 331 4,460 70.6 Utah 0 43.1 13.6 2.45 5.63 10.9 5.69 ... 3.85 0 345 0 431 0 431 Vermont Virginia ... 665 124 61.4 27.4 295 383 56.1 34.9 0 2,860 3,150 4,440 3,210 7,650 Washington ... 113 3,150 27.8 213 458 33.1 16.7 0 37.9 0 4,920 33.1 4,960 910 14.5 189 31.5 0.09 5.08 52.3 764 3.80 ... 1.02 2,470 0 3,530 4.82 3,530 West Virginia 0 ... 481 78.4 379 73.1 55.8 436 19.6 0 4,630 0 6,160 0 6,160 Wisconsin 4,700 ... 99.0 8.55 4,370 16.5 20.8 6.74 0 50.1 67.1 63.4 0 4,630 67.1 Wyoming 0 ... 677 2.41 38.2 7.81 0.41 4.30 1.61 0.32 3.78 2,270 736 2,270 3,010 Puerto Rico 128 ... 5.86 2.67 0 0.02 0 0.22 2.62 0 0.04 0.17 116 3.99 124 U.S. Virgin Islands 355,000 TOTAL 42,000 3,600 115,000 2,000 9,420 986 2,250 3,070 117,000 43,900 306,000 48,300 15,000

17 Total Water Use 11 B . Total water withdrawals by water-use category, 2010, in thousand acre-feet per year. Table 2 [Values may not sum to totals because of independent rounding] Thermoelectric Self-supplied Self- Total Mining Irriga- Live- Aqua- Public power industrial supplied State tion culture stock supply domestic Saline Fresh Saline Total Fresh Saline Saline Fresh Fresh Alabama 178 29.7 644 0 22.7 0 9,250 0 11,200 0 11,200 ... 932 42.6 66.3 Alaska 16.6 1.78 0.28 767 8.72 4.82 27.0 65.0 0 975 252 1,230 ... 88.6 248 Arizona 30.5 5,120 30.2 53 14.5 0 97.1 0 117 0 6,820 0 6,820 ... 1,360 Arkansas 1,730 9,770 43.7 300 303 5.66 49.6 0 14.4 0 12,700 5.66 12,700 ... 481 California 7,060 193 25,800 211 1,090 449 0 40.8 265 73.3 34,900 7,690 42,600 ... 7,330 Colorado 950 42.5 10,900 41.3 137 146 0 9.54 21.8 86.3 0 12,300 21.8 12,300 ... Connecticut ... 26.9 1.13 33.3 74.5 43.1 5.29 0 222 2,750 915 2,800 3,710 479 73.3 Delaware 0 114 1.47 0.07 108 0 0.95 16.6 8.77 468 337 468 804 ... 87.5 0 0.11 0 0 0 0 0 0 District of Columbia 0 0.11 0 0.11 0 0 Florida 2,540 240 3,270 23.9 2.09 239 0 127 0 687 9,610 6,950 9,790 16,700 ... Georgia 0 129 940 32.8 55.8 546 0 31.0 1,250 1,990 317 4,970 317 5,290 ... Hawaii ... 307 8.99 363 2.05 5.09 5.19 0 1.69 59.6 676 752 676 1,430 0 Idaho ... 267 15,700 53.3 3,090 55.7 0 22.6 0 0.99 0 19,300 0 19,300 88.6 Illinois ... 253 40.4 35.8 438 0 79.4 28.6 12,000 0 14,600 28.6 14,700 1,690 104 Indiana 6,030 154 43.9 9.61 2,470 0 98.9 0 141 0 9,690 0 9,690 ... 735 Iowa 440 43.0 48.0 152 21.2 140 0 89.2 2,510 0 3,440 0 3,440 ... 0 Kansas 439 16.7 3,410 128 14.5 45.2 0 14.9 0 423 0 4,490 0 4,490 ... Kentucky 0 37.2 32.5 49.1 38.2 255 0 34.5 641 3,760 0 4,850 0 4,850 ... Louisiana ... 837 52.7 1,040 9.00 349 2,310 0 0 4,960 1.88 9,570 1.88 9,570 12.6 Maine ... 102 12.6 2.57 52.6 215 16.6 5.46 0 30.1 29.1 458 45.8 504 37.0 Maryland ... 95.9 80.8 9.25 23.3 56.0 164 10.6 489 6,460 1,650 6,630 8,280 0 885 Massachusetts 0 42.5 156 1.57 55.7 18.3 0 7.40 761 151 2,160 1,190 2,170 3,360 ... Michigan 1,220 259 235 22.0 92.7 686 0 85.4 0.64 9,550 0 12,100 0.64 12,100 ... Minnesota 0 ... 221 66.5 18.9 150 0 319 88.5 2,810 0 4,280 0 4,280 607 Mississippi 443 50.0 2,350 20.6 149 227 0 9.84 14.1 1,070 77.9 4,320 92.0 4,410 ... Missouri ... 938 69.3 1,570 81.7 202 76.7 0 36.8 0 6,630 0 9,610 0 9,610 Montana 155 24.9 8,030 46.9 21.2 74.5 0 31.3 20.9 169 0 8,550 20.9 8,570 ... Nebraska 49.3 6,340 128 99.0 34.9 0 9.93 0.15 2,010 0 9,010 0.15 9,010 ... 331 Nevada 24.2 1,760 5.67 55.4 5.86 0 387 1.06 33.4 12.3 2,930 13.4 2,940 ... 651 New Hampshire 102 37.4 2.15 1.00 18.6 19.8 0 3.19 0 227 951 411 951 1,360 ... New Jersey 110 154 1.10 10.3 93.3 0 9.69 0 575 4,190 2,170 4,190 6,360 ... 1,210 New Mexico 0 28.9 3,020 40.1 22.5 12.4 0 41.6 318 58.1 0 3,540 0 3,540 ... New York ... 2,540 171 78.9 25.3 45.0 395 0 81.1 0 3,090 5,430 6,420 5,430 11,900 North Carolina 1,080 259 411 80.7 1,640 304 0 36.6 0 8,580 1,530 12,400 1,530 13,900 ... North Dakota 4.13 185 24.2 6.64 20.9 0 15.0 15.3 938 0 1,270 15.3 1,290 ... 77.2 8,090 154 26.9 38.5 548 0 129 0 58.9 0 10,600 0 10,600 Ohio... 1,540 Oklahoma ... 737 30.1 632 99.6 12.0 23.3 0 20.2 432 0 1,990 1,570 3,550 1,570 Oregon 0 ... 5,890 19.1 798 141 0 9.69 75.2 14.2 0 7550 0 7,550 598 Pennsylvania 1,600 225 30.4 58.6 121 971 0 69.5 0 6,050 0 9,120 0 9,120 ... Rhode Island ... 121 8.99 3.02 0.20 16.3 8.43 0 1.03 0 1.61 260 151 270 421 South Carolina 693 129 140 13.5 12.3 435 0 9.45 0 6,170 0 7,600 0 7,600 ... South Dakota 6.02 406 53.1 54.3 10.6 0 20.4 0 11.5 0 701 0 701 ... 139 Tennessee 0 43.4 80.6 30.8 59.0 870 0 16.4 1,030 6,500 0 8,630 0 8,630 ... Texas ... 4,480 290 7,660 290 35.2 762 227 908 11,700 741 25,400 2,420 27,800 684 Utah 276 ... 3,610 18.5 109 53.3 79.2 4.70 9.46 78.0 12.3 4,630 371 5,000 754 Vermont 4.32 ... 15.3 2.75 6.31 12.3 6.38 0 48.3 0 387 0 483 0 483 Virginia ... 745 139 68.8 30.7 331 429 62.9 39.1 0 3,200 3,530 4,970 3,600 8,570 Washington ... 126 3,530 31.1 239 513 37.1 18.7 0 42.5 0 5,520 37.1 5,560 1,020 West Virginia 212 35.3 0.10 5.69 58.7 857 4.26 16.3 1.14 2,770 0 3,960 5.40 3,960 ... Wisconsin 540 87.8 425 81.9 62.5 489 0 ... 0 5,200 0 6,900 0 6,900 21.9 Wyoming ... 111 9.58 4,900 18.5 23.4 7.56 0 56.2 75.2 71.0 0 5,200 75.2 5,270 Puerto Rico 759 2.70 42.8 8.76 0.46 4.82 0 ... 0.36 4.24 2,540 825 2,550 3,370 1.80 U.S. Virgin Islands ... 6.57 2.99 0 0.02 0 0.25 2.94 0 0.04 0.19 130 4.47 139 143 1,100 47,100 4,040 129,000 2,240 10,600 16,800 TOTAL 2,520 3,440 131,000 49,200 343,000 54,200 397,000

18 12 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 A . Surface-water withdrawals by water-use category , 2010, in million gallons per day. Table 3 [Values may not sum to totals because of independent rounding] Thermoelectric Self-supplied Self- Total Mining Public Aqua- Live- power industrial State Irrigation supplied supply culture stock domestic Fresh Fresh Fresh Total Saline Saline Saline Fresh Saline Alabama 14.8 26.6 540 0 7.49 0 8,250 0 9,470 0 9,470 ... 551 0 74.0 Alaska 0.66 0.02 0.15 255 4.40 4.30 76.4 55.8 0 391 80.7 472 ... 51.8 24.1 Arizona 0 2,880 0 7.77 0 0 0 0 27.1 0 3,540 0 3,540 ... 628 1,540 ... 1,340 23.4 86.5 214 0 44.1 0 0 0 3,540 0 3,540 295 Arkansas California 3,470 29.4 14,400 103 802 1.13 0 12.2 0.05 32.2 18,800 6,490 25,300 ... 6,490 717 0 8,420 11.8 99.0 127 0 3.05 0 60.2 0 9,440 0 9,440 ... Colorado Connecticut 0 23.1 0 23.0 60.2 38.5 3.80 0 198 2,460 600 2,490 3,090 ... 292 0 33.3 15.2 0 0 87.5 0 0.41 0 7.45 417 144 417 561 ... Delaware 0 0.05 0 0 0 0 0 District of Columbia 0 0 0.05 0 0.05 0 0 Florida 256 0 1,340 2.22 0 47.7 0 34.1 0 570 8,570 2,230 8,580 10,800 ... 0 0 202 26.9 45.9 281 0 8.41 873 1,770 283 3,210 283 3,490 ... Georgia Hawaii ... 15.8 6.17 223 1.20 2.40 0 0 0.11 0 552 248 552 800 0 Idaho ... 27.1 10,200 9.01 2,690 17.2 0 18.9 0 0 0 13,000 0 13,000 0 Illinois ... 17.5 0.03 27.2 267 0 55.4 0 10,700 0 12,200 0 12,200 1,140 0 Indiana 0 38.7 13.0 1.97 2,120 0 83.7 0 5,360 0 7,920 0 7,920 ... 304 ... 84.3 0 1.18 33.8 4.45 2.70 0 0 2,220 0 2,420 0 2,420 78.1 Iowa Kansas 366 231 23.0 8.57 6.79 0 3.98 0 160 0 800 0 800 0 ... Kentucky 501 13.5 27.4 41.6 33.5 146 0 23.0 0 3,340 0 4,130 0 4,130 ... ... 368 0 258 3.88 114 1,830 0 6,970 0 4,390 1.68 6,960 1.68 5.94 Louisiana Maine 0 8.77 0.58 21.2 185 14.8 3.73 0 25.9 26.0 309 40.8 350 ... 63.6 ... 2.18 0 18.6 2.23 15.7 38.6 146 0 434 5,760 1,210 5,910 7,120 701 Maryland Massachusetts 4.78 0 21.4 0.50 42.4 12.1 0 0 134 1,930 703 1,930 2,640 489 ... Michigan ... 0 62.6 1.90 78.5 537 0 66.0 0 8,510 0 10,100 0 10,100 883 Minnesota 188 0 26.7 0 15.2 71.7 0 276 0 2,510 0 3,080 0 3,080 ... Mississippi 46.3 0 133 11.1 19.3 125 ... 0.55 0 905 62.4 1,240 62.4 1,300 0 6,750 ... 543 0 49.6 54.4 170 34.1 0 8.41 0 5,890 0 6,750 0 Missouri Montana ... 72.4 7,030 29.5 16.4 29.6 0 26.2 0 150 0 7,360 0 7,360 1.04 Nebraska ... 1,360 21.2 82.2 2.33 0 8.77 0 1,790 0 3,320 0 3,320 61.4 0 Nevada 0 921 0 38.8 4.53 0 4.11 0 3.68 0 1,420 0 1,420 ... 448 ... 56.6 0 0.67 0.22 8.48 7.06 0 0 201 848 277 848 1,120 2.84 New Hampshire 682 0 70.1 0 0 48.5 0 ... 0 512 3,740 1,320 3,740 5,060 6.91 New Jersey New Mexico 9.68 0 1,460 3.03 4.32 0.83 0 72.4 0 42.3 0 1,590 0 1,590 ... ... 1,810 0 40.2 8.00 36.8 316 9,870 64.0 0 2,750 4,850 5,020 4,850 0 New York North Carolina 0 279 15.0 1,450 188 0 4.87 0 7,660 1,360 10,400 1,360 11,700 ... 766 North Dakota ... 0 87.2 8.62 5.92 12.9 0 0 837 0 994 0 994 4.63 38.3 7,190 2.75 16.3 19.0 293 0 35.8 0 35.4 0 8,510 0 8,510 Ohio... 918 Oklahoma 527 0 135 56.3 7.43 14.3 0 13.3 0 384 0 1,140 0 1,140 ... Oregon 0 ... 3,350 14.0 679 123 0 1.17 7.07 11.2 0 4,600 0 4,600 420 Pennsylvania 1,200 0 19.8 6.75 59.7 792 0 10.5 0 5,390 0 7,480 0 7,480 ... Rhode Island ... 92.2 0 0.39 0.01 8.90 3.35 0 0.49 0 1.44 232 98.0 241 339 1.74 0 57.4 6.79 8.97 365 0 504 0 5,500 0 6,440 0 6,440 ... South Carolina South Dakota 0 165 28.3 23.6 2.63 0 11.0 0 6.93 0 287 0 287 ... 49.9 Tennessee 0 0 27.6 13.4 37.2 728 0 7.73 618 5,800 0 7,230 0 7,230 ... Texas ... 2,860 0 1,730 127 22.2 571 81.2 0.49 10,400 661 15,800 1,280 17,100 608 309 0 2,730 8.76 0 16.4 ... 1.60 205 45.6 0.47 3,110 238 3,340 33.1 Utah 0 29.2 0 1.68 1.41 4.96 3.69 ... 3.53 0 344 0 389 0 389 Vermont Virginia ... 594 0 45.4 20.8 286 309 56.1 28.4 0 2,850 3,150 4,140 3,200 7,340 Washington ... 0.02 2,350 8.55 127 358 33.1 3.36 0 36.4 0 3,320 33.1 3,350 439 West Virginia 155 0.63 0.04 3.42 40.6 729 0 9.00 0 2,470 0 3,410 0 3,410 ... Wisconsin 221 0 123 7.30 30.2 382 ... 8.63 0 4,630 0 5,400 0 5,400 0 4,080 ... 47.5 0 3,930 10.3 18.7 1.82 0 13.0 0 61.1 0 4,080 0 Wyoming Puerto Rico 0.18 ... 0 15.7 2.24 0.40 0 590 0 2.61 2,270 611 2,270 2,880 0 U.S. Virgin Islands .. 4.95 2.67 0 0.01 0 0 2.62 0 0.04 0.17 116 2.85 124 127 937 26,300 63.9 65,900 797 7,610 12,100 TOTAL 1,130 282 116,000 43,800 230,000 45,000 275,000

19 Total Water Use 13 B . Surface-water withdrawals by water-use category , 2010, in thousand acre-feet per year. Table 3 [Values may not sum to totals because of independent rounding] Thermoelectric Self-supplied Self- Total Mining Aqua- Live- Public power industrial supplied Irrigation State stock culture supply domestic Fresh Saline Fresh Saline Total Fresh Saline Saline Fresh Alabama 0 16.6 29.9 617 0 8.40 0 9,250 83.0 10,600 0 10,600 0 ... 606 Alaska 0.74 0.02 0.17 285 4.93 4.82 27.0 85.6 62.6 0 439 529 ... 58.1 90.4 Arizona 0 3,220 0 8.71 0 0 0 0 30.4 0 3,970 0 3,970 ... 704 Arkansas 0 1,500 26.2 96.9 240 0 49.4 0 1,720 0 3,970 0 3,970 331 ... ... 3,890 33.0 16,100 116 899 1.27 0 13.7 0.06 36.1 21,100 7,270 28,400 7,270 California 804 0 9,440 13.2 111 142 0 ... 0 67.5 0 10,600 0 10,600 3.42 Colorado Connecticut ... 25.9 0 25.8 67.5 43.1 4.26 0 222 2,750 673 2,800 3,470 327 0 0 ... 17.1 0 0 98.1 0 0.46 0 8.35 468 161 468 629 37.3 Delaware 0 0.06 0 0 0 0 0 District of Columbia 0 0 0.06 0 0.06 0 0 Florida 287 0 1,500 2.49 0 53.5 0 38.2 0 639 9,600 2,500 9,620 12,100 ... 9.43 ... 0 227 30.1 51.4 315 0 979 0 1,980 317 3,600 317 3,910 Georgia ... 17.7 6.92 249 1.35 2.69 0 0 0.12 897 0 619 278 619 0 Hawaii Idaho 0 11,500 10.1 3,010 19.2 0 21.2 0 0 0 14,600 0 14,600 ... 30.4 Illinois ... 19.6 0.03 30.5 299 0 62.1 0 12,000 0 13,700 0 13,700 1,280 0 Indiana 0 43.4 14.6 2.21 2,380 0 93.9 0 6,010 0 8,880 0 8,880 ... 341 ... 94.5 0 1.32 37.9 4.99 3.03 0 87.5 2,480 0 2,710 0 2,710 0 Iowa Kansas 410 259 25.8 9.61 7.61 0 4.46 0 179 0 897 0 897 0 ... Kentucky 15.1 30.7 46.6 37.6 164 0 25.7 0 3,740 0 4,630 0 4,630 ... 562 Louisiana ... 413 0 289 4.35 127 2,050 6.66 0 4,920 1.88 7,810 1.88 7,810 0 71.3 0 9.83 0.65 23.7 208 ... 4.18 0 29.0 29.1 347 45.8 392 16.6 Maine ... 0 20.9 2.50 17.6 43.3 164 2.44 0 486 6,460 1,360 6,630 7,980 785 Maryland Massachusetts 5.36 0 24.0 0.56 47.6 13.5 0 0 150 2,160 788 2,170 2,950 548 ... Michigan ... 0 0 70.1 2.13 88.0 602 74.0 0 9,540 0 11,400 0 11,400 990 310 211 0 29.9 0 17.0 80.4 0 ... 0 2,810 0 3,460 0 3,460 Minnesota Mississippi ... 51.9 0 149 12.4 21.6 140 0.62 0 1,020 70.0 1,390 70.0 1,460 0 7,570 ... 609 0 55.6 61.0 191 38.3 0 9.43 0 6,610 0 7,570 0 Missouri Montana ... 81.1 7,880 33.0 18.4 33.1 0 29.3 0 168 0 8,250 0 8,250 1.17 Nebraska ... 1,520 23.7 92.1 2.61 0 9.83 0 2,010 0 3,730 0 3,730 68.8 0 Nevada 4.13 1,030 0 43.5 5.08 0 4.61 0 0 0 1,590 0 1,590 ... 502 New Hampshire 63.4 0 0.75 0.25 9.51 7.91 0 3.18 225 951 310 951 1,260 ... 0 765 0 78.5 0 0 54.4 0 7.75 0 574 4,190 1,480 4,190 5,670 ... New Jersey New Mexico 10.9 0 1,640 3.40 4.84 0.93 0 0 47.4 0 1,780 0 1,780 81.1 ... New York ... 2,020 0 45.0 8.97 41.3 354 71.8 0 3,090 5,430 5,630 5,430 11,100 0 858 0 312 16.8 1,630 210 ... 5.46 0 8,580 1,530 11,600 1,530 13,100 0 North Carolina North Dakota 0 97.8 9.66 6.64 14.5 0 5.19 0 938 0 1,110 0 1,110 ... 42.9 8,060 3.08 18.2 21.3 328 0 40.2 0 39.7 0 9,540 0 9,540 Ohio... 1,030 Oklahoma ... 591 0 151 63.1 8.33 16.0 0 14.9 431 0 1,270 0 1,270 0 471 7.93 3,750 15.7 761 138 ... 1.31 0 12.6 0 5,160 0 5,160 0 Oregon Pennsylvania 1,340 0 22.1 7.57 66.9 888 0 ... 0 6,040 0 8,380 0 8,380 11.8 Rhode Island ... 103 0 0.44 0.01 9.98 3.76 0 0.55 0 1.61 260 110 270 380 1.95 0 64.4 7.61 10.1 409 0 565 0 6,160 0 7,220 0 7,220 ... South Carolina South Dakota 0 185 31.7 26.4 2.95 0 12.3 0 7.77 0 322 0 322 ... 56.0 Tennessee 0 0 31.0 15.1 41.7 817 0 8.67 692 6,500 0 8,100 0 8,100 ... Texas ... 3,200 0 1,940 143 24.9 641 91.0 0.55 11,700 741 17,700 1,430 19,200 682 Utah 229 ... 3,060 9.82 0 18.4 37.1 1.79 0 51.1 0.53 3,480 267 3,750 346 ... 32.7 0 1.88 1.58 5.56 4.14 0 3.96 0 386 0 436 0 436 Vermont Virginia ... 666 0 50.8 23.4 320 346 62.9 31.8 0 3,200 3,530 4,640 3,590 8,230 Washington ... 0.02 2,630 9.58 142 402 37.1 3.77 0 40.8 0 3,720 37.1 3,760 492 West Virginia 174 0.71 0.04 3.83 45.5 817 0 10.1 0 2,770 0 3,820 0 3,820 ... 0 247 0 138 8.18 33.9 428 ... 9.67 0 5,190 0 6,060 0 6,060 Wisconsin 4,580 ... 53.3 0 4,410 11.6 21.0 2.04 0 14.6 0 68.4 0 4,580 0 Wyoming Puerto Rico 0.20 ... 0 17.6 2.51 0.45 0 661 0 2.93 2,540 685 2,540 3,230 0 U.S. Virgin Islands .. 5.55 2.99 0 0.01 0 0 2.94 0 0.04 0.19 130 3.19 139 142 1,050 29,500 71.7 73,900 893 8,530 13,500 TOTAL 1,270 316 130,000 49,100 258,000 50,500 309,000

20 14 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 A . Groundwater withdrawals by water-use category , 2010, in million gallons per day. Table 4 [Values may not sum to totals because of independent rounding] Thermoelectric Self-supplied Self- Total Mining Public Aqua- Live- power industrial State Irrigation supplied supply culture stock domestic Fresh Fresh Fresh Total Saline Saline Saline Fresh Saline Alabama 11.7 32.4 34.0 0 12.7 0 0 0 494 0 494 ... 280 38.0 84.9 Alaska 14.1 1.57 0.10 429 3.38 0 144 2.19 0 478 144 622 ... 27.2 0.01 ... 27.2 1,690 27.0 39.5 12.9 0 86.6 0 77.3 0 2,550 0 2,550 585 Arizona Arkansas 0 7,380 15.6 181 56.1 5.05 0.18 4.26 0 7,780 5.05 7,790 ... 12.8 134 California 2,830 142 8,690 84.4 171 399 0 24.1 236 33.1 12,300 369 12,700 ... 48.4 130 37.9 1,300 25.1 23.0 3.45 0 5.46 19.4 16.8 0 1,540 19.4 1,560 ... Colorado 65.4 0.85 1.01 6.67 6.28 0 0.92 0 0 0 216 0 216 ... 135 Connecticut Delaware 0 86.1 1.31 0.06 8.43 0 0.44 44.8 0.37 0 156 0 156 14.8 ... 0 0.05 0 0 0 0 0 District of Columbia 0 0 0.05 0 0.05 0 0 Florida 2,010 214 1,580 19.1 1.86 165 0 78.8 0 43.5 6.54 3,970 154 4,120 ... 0 115 636 2.38 3.92 206 0 19.3 243 2.92 0 1,230 0 1,230 ... Georgia Hawaii ... 258 1.85 101 0.63 2.14 4.63 0 1.40 53.2 50.8 423 50.8 474 0 Idaho ... 212 3,820 38.5 65.6 32.6 0 1.28 0 0.88 0 4,250 0 4,250 79.0 Illinois ... 208 36.0 4.78 124 0 15.5 25.5 5.65 0 853 25.5 879 367 92.4 Indiana 0 98.4 26.2 6.60 82.2 0 4.52 126 24.6 0 720 0 720 ... 351 ... 309 38.4 41.6 102 14.4 123 0 1.53 21.2 0 650 0 650 0 Iowa Kansas 11.2 160 91.0 4.37 33.5 0 9.34 0 2,880 0 3,200 0 3,200 ... 14.9 ... 19.7 1.65 2.21 0.53 81.4 0 7.80 0 15.3 0 199 0 199 71.0 Kentucky Louisiana ... 378 47.0 670 4.15 197 231 0 0 41.1 0 1,570 0 1,570 5.32 Maine ... 27.7 2.51 1.71 25.8 6.54 0 1.14 0 0.96 0 99.4 0 99.4 33.0 ... 0 85.6 53.4 6.02 5.06 11.3 0 7.25 2.25 0 260 0 260 89.2 Maryland Massachusetts 1.82 37.9 118 0.90 7.23 4.28 0 0 0.21 0 361 0 361 191 ... Michigan ... 231 147 17.7 4.21 75.0 0 10.1 0.57 4.12 0 693 0.57 694 204 Minnesota 353 79.0 171 59.3 1.69 61.8 0 8.32 0 2.34 0 736 0 736 ... Mississippi 349 44.6 1,960 7.35 113 77.8 ... 8.23 12.6 50.0 7.05 2,610 19.6 2,630 0 1,810 ... 293 61.8 1,350 18.4 10.5 34.3 0 24.4 0 19.9 0 1,810 0 Missouri Montana ... 65.6 127 12.4 2.45 36.9 0 1.73 18.6 0.85 0 268 18.6 286 21.2 Nebraska ... 4,300 93.0 6.07 28.8 0 0.09 0.13 5.25 0 4,710 0.13 4,710 234 44.0 Nevada 0.95 653 5.06 10.6 0.70 0 341 29.8 17.9 11.0 1,190 11.9 1,200 ... 133 ... 34.7 33.3 1.25 0.67 8.09 10.6 0 0 1.02 0 89.7 0 89.7 0.01 New Hampshire 398 98.3 67.6 0.98 9.16 34.8 0 ... 0 1.57 0 612 0 612 1.73 New Jersey New Mexico 27.4 25.8 1,240 32.8 15.8 10.3 0 211 0 9.59 0 1,570 0 1,570 ... ... 457 152 30.2 14.6 3.36 35.9 704 8.34 0 2.39 0 704 0 0 New York North Carolina 231 88.3 56.9 11.5 83.8 0 27.8 0 0.37 0 694 0 694 ... 194 North Dakota ... 3.68 77.5 12.9 0 5.77 0 13.6 0 0 139 13.6 153 8.73 30.5 23.0 134 7.70 15.4 197 0 79.0 0 17.2 0 929 0 929 Ohio... 455 Oklahoma 130 26.8 429 32.5 3.25 6.46 0 4.75 1,400 1.26 0 635 1,400 2,030 ... Oregon 0 ... 1,910 3.00 33.4 2.62 0 7.47 60.0 1.48 0 2,130 0 2,130 114 Pennsylvania 226 201 7.39 45.6 47.9 73.8 0 51.4 0 4.49 0 657 0 657 ... Rhode Island ... 15.8 8.02 2.30 0.17 5.60 4.17 0 0.43 0 0 0 36.5 0 36.5 6.69 115 67.7 5.23 2.00 22.7 0 114 0 4.86 0 339 0 339 ... South Carolina South Dakota 5.37 198 19.1 24.8 6.85 0 7.22 0 3.34 0 339 0 339 ... 74.3 Tennessee 6.89 38.7 44.3 14.0 15.4 47.6 0 301 0 1.78 0 470 0 470 ... ... 1,130 259 5,100 131 9.13 108 7,710 122 810 38.8 0 6,830 884 2.04 Texas Utah 2.59 8.44 494 7.77 97.1 31.2 37.5 364 41.6 24.0 10.5 1,030 92.6 1,120 ... ... 14.0 13.6 0.77 4.22 5.97 2.00 0 0.32 0 0.74 0 41.6 0 41.6 Vermont Virginia ... 71.0 124 16.0 6.52 9.39 74.2 0.02 6.56 0 1.55 0 299 9.97 309 Washington ... 113 798 19.2 86.4 99.4 0 13.4 0 1.57 0 1,600 0 1,600 471 West Virginia 34.2 30.9 0.05 1.66 11.7 35.1 3.80 5.53 1.02 1.40 0 121 4.82 125 ... Wisconsin 261 78.4 256 65.8 25.5 54.3 ... 10.9 0 2.78 0 754 0 754 0 617 ... 51.5 8.55 437 6.14 2.10 4.92 0 37.1 67.1 2.29 0 550 67.1 Wyoming Puerto Rico 1.43 ... 2.41 22.4 5.57 0.01 4.30 87.3 0.32 1.17 0 125 0.32 125 0 U.S. Virgin Islands ... 0.91 0 0 0.01 0 0.22 0 0 0 0 0 1.14 0 1.14 48.4 15,700 3,540 49,500 1,200 1,820 2,900 TOTAL 1,120 2,790 587 134 76,000 3,290 79,300

21 Total Water Use 15 B . Groundwater withdrawals by water-use category , 2010, in thousand acre-feet per year. Table 4 [Values may not sum to totals because of independent rounding] Self-supplied Thermoelectric Self- Total Mining Live- Aqua- Public power industrial Irrigation supplied State culture stock supply domestic Saline Fresh Saline Total Fresh Saline Saline Fresh Fresh Alabama 95.2 13.1 38.1 0 14.3 0 0 0 554 0 554 ... 314 42.6 36.4 30.5 15.9 1.76 0.11 481 3.79 0 0.01 2.45 0 536 162 698 ... 162 Alaska Arizona 30.5 1,900 30.2 44.3 14.5 0 97.1 0 86.6 0 2,860 0 2,860 656 ... Arkansas 4.78 8,270 17.4 203 62.9 5.66 0.20 0 14.4 0 8,720 5.66 8,730 150 ... California 3,170 160 9,740 94.6 192 448 0 27.0 265 37.1 13,800 413 14,200 ... 54.3 146 42.5 1,450 28.1 25.8 3.87 0 6.12 21.8 18.8 0 1,720 21.8 1,750 ... Colorado Connecticut 73.3 0.95 1.13 7.48 7.04 0 1.03 0 0 0 242 0 242 ... 151 Delaware 0 96.5 1.47 0.07 9.45 0 0.49 16.6 0.41 0 175 0 175 50.2 ... 0 0.06 0 0 0 0 0 District of Columbia 0 0 0.06 0 0.06 0 0 Florida 2,260 240 1,770 21.4 2.09 185 0 88.3 0 48.7 7.33 4,450 173 4,620 ... 0 129 713 2.67 4.39 231 0 21.6 272 3.27 0 1,380 0 1,380 ... Georgia Hawaii ... 289 2.07 113 0.71 2.40 5.19 0 1.57 59.6 56.9 474 56.9 531 0 Idaho ... 237 4,280 43.2 73.6 36.5 0 1.43 0 0.99 0 4,760 0 4,760 88.6 Illinois ... 233 40.4 5.36 139 0 17.4 28.6 6.33 0 956 28.6 985 411 104 Indiana 0 110 29.4 7.40 92.1 0 5.07 141 27.5 0 807 0 807 ... 394 ... 346 43.0 46.7 114 16.2 137 0 1.72 23.7 0 729 0 729 0 Iowa Kansas 12.5 179 102 4.90 37.6 0 10.5 0 3,230 0 3,590 0 3,590 ... 16.7 ... 22.1 1.85 2.48 0.59 91.2 0 8.74 0 17.2 0 224 0 224 79.5 Kentucky Louisiana ... 424 52.7 751 4.65 221 259 0 0 46.0 0 1,760 0 1,760 5.96 Maine ... 31.0 2.81 1.92 28.9 7.33 0 1.28 0 1.08 0 111 0 111 37.0 ... 0 95.9 59.9 6.75 5.67 12.7 0 8.13 2.52 0 292 0 292 100 Maryland 2.04 214 42.5 132 1.01 8.10 4.80 0 0 0.24 0 404 0 404 ... Massachusetts Michigan ... 259 164 19.9 4.72 84.1 0 11.4 0.64 4.62 0 777 0.64 778 229 Minnesota 396 88.5 191 66.5 1.89 69.3 0 9.33 0 2.62 0 826 0 826 ... Mississippi 391 50.0 2,200 8.24 127 87.2 ... 9.23 14.1 56.1 7.90 2,930 22.0 2,950 0 2,030 ... 328 69.3 1,520 20.6 11.7 38.4 0 27.4 0 22.3 0 2,030 0 Missouri Montana ... 73.5 142 13.8 2.75 41.3 0 1.94 20.9 0.95 0 300 20.9 321 23.8 Nebraska ... 4,820 104 6.80 32.3 0 0.1 0.15 5.89 0 5,280 0.15 5,280 263 49.3 Nevada 20.1 732 5.67 11.9 0.78 0 383 1.06 33.4 12.3 1,340 13.4 1,350 ... 149 New Hampshire 38.9 37.4 1.40 0.75 9.07 11.9 0 0.01 1.14 0 101 0 101 ... 0 446 110 75.8 1.10 10.3 39.0 0 1.94 0 1.76 0 686 0 686 ... New Jersey 30.7 236 28.9 1,390 36.7 17.7 11.5 0 0 10.8 0 1,760 0 1,760 ... New Mexico New York ... 512 171 33.9 16.3 3.77 40.2 9.35 0 2.68 0 789 0 789 0 North Carolina ... 218 98.9 63.8 12.9 94.0 0 31.1 0 0.41 0 778 0 778 259 North Dakota ... 4.13 86.9 14.5 0 6.47 0 15.3 0 0 156 15.3 171 9.79 34.2 25.8 151 8.63 17.2 221 0 88.6 0 19.2 0 1,040 0 1,040 Ohio... 510 Oklahoma ... 30.1 481 36.4 3.64 7.24 0 5.32 1,570 1.41 0 712 1,570 2,280 146 Oregon 0 ... 2,140 3.36 37.4 2.94 0 8.37 67.3 1.66 0 2,390 0 2,390 128 Pennsylvania 254 225 8.28 51.1 53.7 82.7 0 57.7 0 5.03 0 737 0 737 ... Rhode Island ... 17.7 8.99 2.58 0.19 6.28 4.67 0 0.48 0 0 0 40.9 0 40.9 7.50 129 75.9 5.86 2.24 25.5 0 128 0 5.45 0 380 0 380 ... South Carolina South Dakota 6.02 221 21.4 27.9 7.68 0 8.09 0 3.74 0 380 0 380 ... 83.3 Tennessee 7.72 43.4 49.6 15.8 17.3 53.3 0 337 0 2.00 0 526 0 526 ... ... 1,270 290 5,710 147 10.2 121 8,640 136 908 43.5 0 7,650 991 2.29 Texas Utah 2.90 9.46 554 8.71 109 34.9 42.1 408 46.6 26.9 11.7 1,150 104 1,250 ... ... 15.6 15.3 0.86 4.73 6.69 2.24 0 0.36 0 0.83 0 46.6 0 46.6 Vermont Virginia ... 79.6 139 18.0 7.31 10.5 83.2 0.02 7.35 0 1.74 0 335 11.2 346 Washington ... 126 894 21.5 96.9 111 0 15.0 0 1.76 0 1,800 0 1,800 528 West Virginia 38.3 34.6 0.06 1.86 13.1 39.4 4.26 6.20 1.14 1.57 0 135 5.40 141 ... Wisconsin 292 87.8 287 73.7 28.6 60.9 ... 12.3 0 3.12 0 845 0 845 0 692 ... 57.7 9.58 490 6.88 2.35 5.52 0 41.6 75.2 2.57 0 616 75.2 Wyoming Puerto Rico 1.60 ... 2.70 25.1 6.24 0.01 4.82 97.9 0.36 1.31 0 140 0.36 140 0 U.S. Virgin Islands ... 1.02 0 0 0.01 0 0.25 0 0 0 0 0 1.28 0 1.28 54.3 17,600 3,970 55,400 1,350 2,030 3,250 TOTAL 1,250 3,130 658 150 85,200 3,690 88,900

22 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 16 Total withdrawals Washington New Hampshire e r p i o u S r e Montana Maine k a North Dakota L Vermont Minnesota Oregon L a k e H n a u o i g r r Massachusetts a t i Wisconsin n o O Idaho e k h n a South Dakota L c i M New York Wyoming e Rhode Island Michigan k e i a r E L Connecticut e k a L Iowa Pennsylvania New Jersey Nebraska Nevada District of Columbia Ohio Utah Indiana Delaware Illinois Maryland Colorado West California Virginia Virginia Kansas Missouri Kentucky North Carolina Tennessee Arizona EXPLANATION Oklahoma Arkansas New Mexico South Water withdrawals, Carolina in million gallons Georgia per day Alabama Texas 0 to 2,000 Mississippi 2,001 to 5,000 Hawaii Louisiana Florida 5,001 to 10,000 10,001 to 20,000 Alaska 20,001 to 38,000 U.S. Puerto Virgin Rico Islands EAST WEST 40,000 35,000 EXPLANATION Public supply Other 30,000 Irrigation Industrial 25,000 Thermoelectric power 20,000 15,000 10,000 Total withdrawals, in million gallons per day 5,000 0 D.C. Ohio Utah Iowa Idaho Texas Maine Illinois Alaska Florida Oregon Hawaii Kansas Indiana Virginia Arizona Nevada Georgia Vermont Missouri Alabama Montana Colorado Kentucky Arkansas Michigan Wyoming Louisiana Maryland California New York Delaware Nebraska Oklahoma Wisconsin Minnesota Tennessee Mississippi Puerto Rico Connecticut New Jersey Washington New Mexico Rhode Island Pennsylvania North Dakota West Virginia South Dakota North Carolina South Carolina Massachusetts New Hampshire U.S. Virgin Islands Figure 2. Total withdrawals Total water withdrawals by State and barchart showing categories by State from west to east, 2010. Figure 2.

23 17 Total Water Use Surface-water withdrawals Groundwater withdrawals EXPLANATION Water withdrawals, in million gallons per day 0 to 2,000 2,001 to 5,000 5,001 to 10,000 10,001 to 20,000 20,001 to 38,000 Freshwater withdrawals Saline-water withdrawals EXPLANATION Water withdrawals, in million gallons per day 0 >0 to 2,000 2,001 to 5,000 5,001 to 10,000 10,001 to 20,000 20,001 to 31,200 Figure 3. Total withdrawals surface water/groundwater Surface-water and groundwater, and freshwater and saline-water withdrawals, 2010. Figure 3.

24 18 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 42,000 million gallons per day Public Supply supply. In 36 States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Public supply refers to water withdrawn by public and 12 percent Virgin Islands, surface-water sources provided more than people private water suppliers that provide water to at least 25 or have a minimum of 15 connections. Public-supply water is half of the total public-supply withdrawals. delivered to users for domestic, commercial, and industrial Three States — California, Florida, and Texas — each purposes, and also is used for public services and withdrew more than 1,000 Mgal/d of groundwater for system losses. public supply in 2010 and accounted for 38 percent of total groundwater withdrawals for public supply. States that relied Approximately 42,000 Mgal/d (table 5), or 47,100 thou- on groundwater for 75 percent or more of their public-supply sand acre-ft/yr (table 2 B ), of water were withdrawn for public supply in 2010. This amount is 5 percent less than the esti - withdrawals were Hawaii, Florida, Idaho, Mississippi, mated amount of water withdrawn for public supply in 2005. Nebraska, and Iowa. Public supply represents about 14 percent of total freshwater Most of the public-supply withdrawals are delivered to withdrawals and 22 percent of all withdrawals excluding customers for domestic, commercial, and industrial needs. thermo electric power. In some States, public-supply water Part of the total is used for public services, such as public pools, parks, sources include firefighting, water desalinated and wastewater seawater or brackish ground- treatment, and municipal buildings, water that has been treated to reduce and some is dissolved solids. A unaccounted for because of leaks, combined total of flushing, tower 23.5 Mgal/d saline maintenance, and surface-water other system losses. withdrawals for Domestic deliveries public-supply use were reported in represent the largest single component Florida, the U.S. of public-supply Virgin Islands, withdrawals, Massachusetts, and Texas. A combined averaging 57 percent of the total of 317 Mgal/d total nationally. saline groundwater Public supply water tanks, Yuma, Arizona. Photo by Saeid Tadayon, USGS. Estimates of public- withdrawals for supply deliveries to public-supply use domestic use, representing indoor and outdoor water uses at were identified in Florida, California, Texas, Virginia, and occupied residences, are identified in table 5. Estimates for Utah. Because these saline withdrawals were identified for commercial and industrial deliveries, public use, and system only seven States and represent less than 1 percent of total losses were not available for all States and, therefore, are public-supply withdrawals, they are not listed separately 5 as an aggregate number. included in table in table 5 but were included in the calculations. Methods for estimating public-supply withdrawals, source An estimated 268 million people relied on public- of water, population served, and domestic deliveries varied by supply water for their household use in 2010. This number State. Common sources of information about withdrawals by represents about 86 percent of the total U.S. population. source included data collected from water suppliers by State About 35 percent of all public-supply withdrawals were water regulatory agencies or through surveys. Estimates of in the four States with the largest populations: California, the population served by public supply were derived using York, and Florida (fig. 4). Sixty-three percent of Texas, New various sources, including reports from State agencies, the water withdrawn for public supply in 2010 was from surface EPA SDWIS database, U.S. Census data, and information sources, such as lakes and streams; the other 37 percent was on service connections from public suppliers. Methods for from groundwater. estimating domestic deliveries included surveys of public- Five States—California, Texas, New York, Pennsylvania, supply sales information, calculations using coefficients for and Illinois—each withdrew more than 1,000 Mgal/d of per capita use, and development of average percentages of surface water for public supply in 2010 and together accounted deliveries to various customer categories. for 40 percent of the total surface-water withdrawals for public

25 Public Supply 19 Public-supply water withdrawals, 2010. Table 5. [Values may not sum to totals because of independent rounding; Mgal/d, million gallons per day; n/a, not applicable] Population (in thousands) Withdrawals (in Mgal/d) Public-supply deliveries All other uses By source Served by public supply State Domestic use Domestic use and system Total Total Ground- Surface Population (in Mgal/d) (in percent) Population losses (in Mgal/d) (in percent) water water 4,240 89 280 551 831 327 39 504 ... 4,780 Alabama 710 450 27.2 51.8 79.0 49.2 62 29.9 ... 63 Alaska 6,390 6,170 97 585 628 1,210 912 75 301 ... Arizona 429 2,770 95 134 295 2,920 295 69 133 ... Arkansas ... 37,300 34,800 93 2,830 6,300 3,870 61 2,430 3,470 California 5,030 4,720 94 130 ... 848 521 61 327 717 Colorado 203 ... 135 292 427 76 47 224 3,570 2,700 Connecticut 57.0 ... 79 44.8 33.3 78.1 713 73 21.0 898 Delaware 602 100 0 0 0 District of Columbia n/a n/a 602 74.9 18,800 16,900 90 2,010 256 2,270 1,430 63 838 ... Florida 873 9,690 8,160 84 243 ... 1,120 651 58 465 Georgia ... 1,360 1,300 96 86.0 15.8 274 188 69 258 Hawaii ... 1,140 72 212 27.1 239 184 77 54.2 1,570 Idaho 11,700 91 367 1,140 1,500 934 62 571 ... 12,800 Illinois 656 4,830 74 351 304 6,480 367 56 289 ... Indiana ... 3,050 2,450 81 309 393 160 41 233 84.3 Iowa 2,850 2,700 95 160 ... 391 194 50 197 231 Kansas 572 ... 3,680 85 71.0 501 4,340 257 45 315 Kentucky ... 4,530 3,950 87 378 321 746 426 57 368 Louisiana ... 768 58 27.7 63.6 91.3 39.4 43 51.9 1,330 Maine 5,770 4,700 81 89.2 701 790 506 64 283 ... Maryland 489 6,550 6,010 92 191 ... 679 385 57 294 Massachusetts ... 9,880 7,210 73 204 883 1,090 548 50 540 Michigan 5,300 4,180 79 353 ... 542 248 46 294 188 Minnesota 46.3 2,970 2,520 85 349 ... 395 252 64 143 Mississippi 369 ... 5,990 5,110 85 293 543 836 467 56 Missouri 989 704 71 65.6 ... 138 83.2 60 54.7 72.4 Montana 296 81 234 61.4 1,480 130 44 165 ... 1,830 Nebraska 331 ... 94 133 448 581 2,540 57 250 2,700 Nevada ... 1,320 871 66 34.7 56.6 91.2 58.6 64 32.6 New Hampshire 8,790 7,830 89 398 682 1,080 605 56 475 ... New Jersey 2,060 1,760 85 211 ... 283 160 57 123 72.4 New Mexico ... 19,400 17,300 89 457 1,810 2,260 1,370 61 889 New York 9,540 6,230 65 194 ... 960 436 45 524 766 North Carolina ... 623 93 30.5 38.3 68.8 49.9 72 19.0 673 North Dakota 1,370 84 455 918 9,710 619 45 755 Ohio... 11,500 ... 3,750 3,440 92 130 527 365 292 44 657 Oklahoma 534 3,220 84 114 420 3,830 365 68 169 ... Oregon ... 12,700 9,360 74 226 1,200 1,420 548 38 877 Pennsylvania 40.4 ... 1,050 940 89 15.8 92.2 108 67.6 63 Rhode Island 4,630 3,470 75 114 ... 619 347 56 271 504 South Carolina ... 739 91 74.3 49.9 124 70.7 57 53.5 814 South Dakota 618 6,350 5,810 92 301 918 470 51 448 ... Tennessee ... 25,100 22,700 90 1,130 2,860 3,990 2,050 51 1,940 Texas 2,760 2,710 98 364 ... 673 453 67 220 309 Utah 29.2 626 444 71 14.0 ... 43.1 26.3 61 16.8 Vermont Virginia ... 8,000 6,350 79 71.0 594 665 476 72 188 Washington ... 5,720 85 471 439 910 634 70 276 6,720 155 1,850 1,460 79 34.2 ... 189 117 62 72.4 West Virginia 261 ... 5,690 4,040 71 221 481 211 44 270 Wisconsin 26.1 ... 564 450 80 51.5 47.5 99.0 72.9 74 Wyoming 87.3 ... 3,730 3,690 99 590 677 230 34 447 Puerto Rico 2.19 ... 106 69.0 65 0.91 4.95 5.86 3.67 63 U.S. Virgin Islands 18,200 TOTAL 313,000 268,000 86 26,300 42,000 23,800 57 15,700

26 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 20 Total withdrawals Washington e r p New Hampshire i o u S r e k Montana Maine a L North Dakota Vermont Minnesota Oregon L a k e H n u a o i r r Massachusetts g a t Wisconsin o n i O Idaho e k n a h South Dakota L c i New York M Wyoming e Rhode Island Michigan k e i r a E Connecticut L e k a L Iowa Pennsylvania New Jersey Nebraska Nevada District of Columbia Ohio Utah Indiana Delaware Illinois Maryland Colorado West California Virginia Virginia Kansas Missouri Kentucky North Carolina Tennessee Arizona EXPLANATION Oklahoma Arkansas New Mexico South Water withdrawals, Carolina in million gallons Georgia per day Alabama Texas 0 to 200 Mississippi 201 to 500 Hawaii Louisiana Florida 501 to 1,000 1,001 to 2,000 Alaska 2,001 to 6,300 U.S. Puerto Virgin Rico Islands WEST EAST 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 Total withdrawals, in million gallons per day 1,000 0 D.C. Ohio Utah Iowa Idaho Texas Maine Illinois Alaska Florida Oregon Hawaii Kansas Indiana Arizona Virginia Nevada Georgia Vermont Missouri Alabama Colorado Montana Kentucky Arkansas Michigan Wyoming Louisiana California Maryland Nebraska Delaware New York Oklahoma Wisconsin Minnesota Tennessee Mississippi Puerto Rico Connecticut Washington New Jersey New Mexico Rhode Island North Dakota Pennsylvania South Dakota West Virginia North Carolina South Carolina Massachusetts New Hampshire U.S. Virgin Islands Groundwater withdrawals Surface-water withdrawals Figuire 4. Public supply Figure 4. Public-supply withdrawals by source and State, 2010.

27 Domestic 21 3,600 million gallons per day (self-supplied) Domestic 23,800 million gallons per day (public-supply deliveries) Domestic water use includes indoor and outdoor uses at public suppliers. Other States used the same coefficient for all counties, commonly one used by State regulatory or planning residences. Common indoor water uses are drinking, food agencies. Self-supplied domestic per capita use ranged from preparation, washing clothes and dishes, and flushing toilets. 1 percent 48 gpcd in Wisconsin to 189 gpcd in Nevada. Generally, per Common outdoor uses are watering lawns and gardens or maintaining pools, ponds, or other landscape features in a capita use is least in the Northern and Eastern States and domestic environment. Domestic water is either self-supplied greatest in the Mountain and Western States where outdoor or provided by public suppliers. Self-supplied domestic watering is more common. The national average self- water use is typically withdrawn from a private supplied domestic per capita use in 2010 was gpcd (table 6). source, such as a well, or captured as rainwater in 81 Self-supplied a cistern. Domestic deliveries are provided to The majority of people in the United withdrawals 3,600 Mgal/d States used water provided by public homes by public suppliers. Figure 5 illus - 13 percent suppliers. Domestic deliveries by public trates the proportions of total domestic water from public-supply deliveries and self- water suppliers totaled 23,800 Mgal/d in 2010 and represented water provided supply domestic withdrawals. Table 6 lists the estimated self-supplied to 268 million people at single-family Public-supply deliveries and multifamily dwellings. Per capita and public-supplied population in each 23,800 Mgal/d 87 percent water use for domestic deliveries ranged State, as well as the amounts used by each segment of the population for domestic needs from 51 gpcd in Maine to 167 gpcd in and the respective per capita use in gallons per Utah. The national average was 89 gpcd for public-supplied domestic water use. This per day (gallons per capita daily, gpcd). Domestic self-supplied withdrawals and public-supplied capita usage is less than the rate of 101 gpcd Figure 5. Total domestic observed in 1995 and 100 gpcd in 2005. deliveries also are combined in table 6 to show water use from public-supply Domestic deliveries from public supply the total estimated domestic use in 2010 and the deliveries and self-supplied - weighted per capita use in gallons per day calcu were not compiled nationally in 2000. withdrawals, 2010. lated for all domestic use. Combined self-supplied domestic withdrawals and public-supply deliveries An estimated 44.5 million people in the United totaled 27,400 States, or 14 percent of the population, provided their own Mgal/d in 2010, and the national average per gpcd. The corresponding average per capita usage was 88 water for domestic use in 2010. These self-supplied with - capita use for total domestic use in 2005 was 98 drawals were estimated at 3,600 Mgal/d (4,040 thousand gpcd. The geographic distribution of total domestic water use by State is acre-ft/yr), or about 1 percent of total withdrawals for all uses - in 2010. Nearly all (98 percent) of these self-supplied with . Self-supplied domestic population in each A shown in figure 6 drawals were from fresh groundwater sources. Self-supplied State, in thousands of people and as a percentage of total State population, are shown in figure - domestic withdrawals are rarely metered or reported; typi . Self-supplied domestic B 6 cally this usage is calculated by multiplying an estimate of the populations were largest in Pennsylvania, North Carolina, popu and Michigan. States with the largest percentages of their lation not served by public supply by a coefficient for daily per capita use. For some States, these coefficients were population that were self- county-specific averages derived from observed residential supplied were Maine, Alaska, water use and population estimates in nearby areas served by and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Domestic water use in the bathroom (left, photo used with permission from Tyrrell and Laning International, Inc.) and in the kitchen (right, photos from Wikimedia Commons).

28 22 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 Domestic water withdrawals and deliveries, 2010. Table 6. [Values may not sum to totals because of independent rounding; Mgal/d, million gallons per day; gal/d, gallons per day] Self-supplied domestic Public supply Total use Total Water use Public- Public- Self- Self- Withdrawals (in Mgal/d) Total Population Percent domestic (withdrawals supply supply supplied supplied State population served of total By source per capita and per capita deliveries to per capita population (in thou- (in thou- popula- Total deliveries, use use domestic use use (in thou- Surface Ground- sands) sands) tion water water (in gal/d) in Mgal/d) (in gal/d) (in Mgal/d) (in gal/d) sands) Alabama 11 38.0 0 38.0 70 4,240 327 77 4,780 365 76 ... 539 260 14.8 14.1 0.66 ... 57 450 49.2 109 710 64.0 90 37 Alaska 912 3 27.2 0 27.2 125 6,170 148 6,390 939 147 ... 218 Arizona ... 144 5 12.8 0 12.8 89 2,770 295 107 2,920 308 106 Arkansas 2,480 7 142 29.4 172 69 34,800 3,870 111 37,300 4,040 108 ... California 6 37.9 0 37.9 122 4,720 521 110 5,030 559 111 ... 312 Colorado 203 24 65.4 0 65.4 75 2,700 871 75 3,570 268 75 ... Connecticut ... 185 21 14.8 0 14.8 80 713 57.0 80 898 71.8 80 Delaware 0 0 0 0 0 602 74.9 125 602 74.9 125 District of Columbia 0 16,900 10 214 0 214 112 1,910 1,430 85 18,800 1,640 87 ... Florida ... 1,530 16 115 0 115 75 8,160 651 80 9,690 765 79 Georgia 55.7 4 1.85 6.17 8.02 ... 1,300 188 144 1,360 196 144 144 Hawaii 184 79.0 0 79.0 183 1,140 28 162 1,570 263 168 ... 432 Idaho 934 ... 92.4 0 92.4 80 11,700 9 80 12,800 1,030 80 1,160 Illinois ... 1,660 26 126 0 126 76 4,830 367 76 6,480 493 76 Indiana 591 19 38.4 0 38.4 65 2,450 160 65 3,050 198 65 ... Iowa 151 5 14.9 0 14.9 99 ... 194 72 2,850 209 73 2,700 Kansas ... 664 15 19.7 13.5 33.2 50 3,680 257 70 4,340 290 67 Kentucky 588 13 47.0 0 47.0 ... 3,950 426 108 4,530 473 104 80 Louisiana ... 42 33.0 0 33.0 59 768 39.4 51 1,330 72.4 55 561 Maine 4,700 1,070 19 85.6 0 85.6 80 506 108 5,770 592 103 ... Maryland ... 534 8 37.9 0 37.9 71 6,010 385 64 6,550 423 65 Massachusetts 2,680 27 231 0 231 ... 7,210 548 76 9,880 779 79 86 Michigan 70 1,130 21 79.0 0 79.0 ... 4,180 248 59 5,300 327 62 Minnesota 100 ... 446 15 44.6 0 44.6 100 2,520 252 100 2,970 297 Mississippi 883 15 61.8 0 61.8 ... 5,110 467 91 5,990 529 88 70 Missouri 83.2 21.2 1.04 22.2 78 704 29 118 989 105 107 ... 285 Montana 130 ... 44.0 0 44.0 127 1,480 19 88 1,830 174 95 346 Nebraska ... 158 6 29.8 0 29.8 189 2,540 331 130 2,700 361 134 Nevada 446 34 33.3 0 33.3 75 871 58.6 67 1,320 92.0 70 ... New Hampshire 964 11 98.3 0 98.3 102 ... 605 77 8,790 703 80 7,830 New Jersey ... 303 15 25.8 0 25.8 85 1,760 160 91 2,060 186 90 New Mexico 74 2,050 11 152 0 152 ... 17,300 1,370 79 19,400 1,530 79 New York ... 35 231 0 231 70 6,230 436 70 9,540 668 70 3,300 North Carolina 623 49.4 7 3.68 0 3.68 75 49.9 80 673 53.6 80 ... North Dakota 1,830 16 134 2.75 137 75 9,710 619 64 11,500 756 66 Ohio... ... 316 8 26.8 0 26.8 85 3,440 292 85 3,750 319 85 Oklahoma 111 607 16 60.0 7.07 67.1 ... 3,220 365 113 3,830 432 113 Oregon 60 3,350 26 201 0 201 ... 9,360 548 59 12,700 749 59 Pennsylvania 72 ... 113 11 8.02 0 8.02 71 940 67.6 72 1,050 75.7 Rhode Island 1,150 25 115 0 115 ... 3,470 347 100 4,630 463 100 100 South Carolina ... 9 5.37 0 5.37 71 739 70.7 96 814 76.1 93 75.6 South Dakota 5,810 538 8 38.7 0 38.7 72 470 81 6,350 509 80 ... Tennessee ... 2,440 10 259 0 259 106 22,700 2,050 90 25,100 2,310 92 Texas 50.5 2 8.44 0 8.44 ... 2,710 453 167 2,760 462 167 167 Utah 75 182 29 13.6 0 13.6 ... 444 26.3 59 626 39.9 64 Vermont Virginia ... 1,650 21 124 0 124 75 6,350 476 75 8,000 600 75 Washington ... 15 113 0.02 113 113 5,720 634 111 6,720 747 111 1,000 1,460 393 21 30.9 0.63 31.5 80 ... 117 80 1,850 148 80 West Virginia 48 ... 1,640 29 78.4 0 78.4 4,040 211 52 5,690 290 51 Wisconsin 144 ... 114 20 8.55 0 8.55 75 450 72.9 162 564 81.4 Wyoming 63 ... 38.0 1 2.41 0 2.41 3,690 230 62 3,730 232 62 Puerto Rico 60 ... 37.4 35 0 2.67 2.67 71 69.0 3.67 53 106 6.34 U.S. Virgin Islands 88 TOTAL 44,500 14 3,540 63.9 81 268,000 23,800 89 313,000 27,400 3,600

29 23 Domestic Total withdrawals and deliveries Washington New Hampshire e r p i o u S r e Montana Maine k a North Dakota L Vermont Minnesota Oregon L a k e H n a u o i g r r Massachusetts a t i Wisconsin n o O Idaho e k h n a South Dakota L c i M New York Wyoming e Michigan Rhode Island k e i a r E L Connecticut e k a L Iowa Pennsylvania New Jersey Nebraska Nevada District of Columbia Ohio Utah Indiana Delaware Illinois Maryland Colorado West California Virginia Virginia Kansas Missouri Kentucky North Carolina Tennessee Arizona EXPLANATION Oklahoma Arkansas New Mexico South Water withdrawals Carolina and/or deliveries, Georgia in million gallons Alabama per day Texas Mississippi 0 to 50 Hawaii Louisiana Florida 51 to 250 251 to 500 501 to 1,000 Alaska U.S. Puerto 1,001 to 4,040 Virgin Rico Islands WEST EAST 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 in million gallons per day 0 Total withdrawals and deliveries, D.C. Ohio Utah Iowa Idaho Texas Maine Illinois Florida Alaska Oregon Hawaii Kansas Indiana Virginia Arizona Nevada Georgia Vermont Missouri Alabama Montana Colorado Kentucky Michigan Arkansas Wyoming Maryland Louisiana California New York Delaware Nebraska Oklahoma Wisconsin Minnesota Tennessee Mississippi Puerto Rico Connecticut New Jersey Washington New Mexico Rhode Island Pennsylvania North Dakota West Virginia South Dakota North Carolina South Carolina Massachusetts New Hampshire U.S. Virgin Islands Total self-supplied withdrawals Total deliveries Figure 6 A Domestic withdrawals and deliveries by State, 2010. . Figure 6A. Domestic

30 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 24 Self-supplied domestic population Washington New Hampshire e r p i o u S r e Montana Maine k a North Dakota L Vermont Minnesota Oregon L a k e H n a u o i g r r Massachusetts a t i Wisconsin n o O Idaho e k h n a South Dakota L c i M New York Wyoming e Rhode Island Michigan k e i a r E L Connecticut e k a L Iowa Pennsylvania New Jersey Nebraska Nevada District of Columbia Ohio Utah Indiana Delaware Illinois Maryland Colorado West California Virginia Virginia Kansas Missouri Kentucky North Carolina Tennessee Arizona EXPLANATION Oklahoma Arkansas New Mexico South Carolina Domestic self-supplied population, in thousands Georgia Alabama 0 to 100 Texas Mississippi 101 to 500 Hawaii Louisiana Florida 501 to 1,000 1,001 to 3,350 Alaska U.S. Puerto Virgin Rico Islands Self-supplied domestic population as a percentage of the total State population EXPLANATION Domestic self-supplied population, as a percentage of total State population 0 to 10 11 to 30 31 to 42 Self-supplied domestic population and percentage of total population by State, 2010. B . Figure 6 Figure 6B. Total self supply

31 Irrigation 25 115,000 million gallons per day Irrigation Irrigation water use includes water that is applied by an supplemental water. Surface water was the primary source of irrigation system to sustain plant growth in all agricultural water in the arid West, except in Kansas, Oklahoma, Nebraska, and horticultural practices. Irrigation also includes water Texas, and South Dakota, where more groundwater was used. The 17 Western States cumulatively accounted for 93 percent that is used for pre-irrigation, frost protection, application of total surface-water irrigation withdrawals and 69 percent of of chemicals, weed control, field preparation, crop cooling, total groundwater irrigation withdrawals. harvesting, dust suppression, and leaching salts from the root zone. Estimates of irrigation withdrawals include water that Because the 17 Western States accounted for the majority is lost in conveyance prior to application on fields as well as of total irrigation withdrawals, changes in those States had a great effect on the overall total. Total irrigation withdrawals water that may subsequently return to a surface-water body declined noticeably in Nebraska, Montana, Idaho, Colorado, as runoff after application, water consumed as evapotrans - piration (ET) from plants and ground surfaces, or water that and California. Groundwater irrigation withdrawals declined in the West and increased in the East, and surface-water irrigation recharges aquifers as it seeps past the root zone. Irrigation of 33 percent golf courses, parks, nurseries, turf farms, cemeteries, and other withdrawals declined in both regions. Total irrigated acres increased in both regions —1 percent (568 thousand acres) in self-supplied landscape-watering uses also are included in the estimates. Irrigation water use includes self-supplied with - the West, and 2 percent (381 thousand acres) in the East. In the drawals and deliveries from irrigation companies or districts, West, the total number of acres irrigated by the less-efficient cooperatives, or governmental entities. Some irrigation water surface-irrigation methods decreased by about 500 thousand is reclaimed wastewater from nearby treatment facilities or acres, and the number of acres irrigated by more efficient industries although these quantities are not included in irriga sprinkler (including microirrigation) methods increased by - about 1,080 thousand acres. tion withdrawals reported here. All irrigation withdrawals are considered freshwater. Irrigated acres are reported by three Average application rates are calculated as a function of total irrigation withdrawals and total irrigated acres. The types of irrigation methods: sprinkler, microirrigation, and surface (flood) systems. highest application rates are found in arid Western States, - where more surface water than groundwater is used for irriga Irrigation withdrawals and irrigated acres by type of tion and water typically is conveyed longer distances in canals irrigation system are listed by State in table 7. For 2010, between the points of diversion and use. Among the Western total irrigation withdrawals were 115,000 Mgal/d, or 129,000 thousand acre-ft/yr, which accounted for 38 percent States, cumulatively, more lands were irrigated with sprinkler - (including microirrigation) systems than surface methods, of total freshwater withdrawals and 61 percent of total fresh water withdrawals for all categories excluding thermoelectric and land using the microirrigation system are increasing at a faster rate than the other two types of systems. Several States power. Total irrigation withdrawals were 9 percent less that used the large quantities of water for irrigation in 2010, than in 2005. Withdrawals from surface-water sources were such as California, Idaho, Colorado, Texas, and Nebraska, 65,900 Mgal/d, which accounted for 57 percent of the total showed declines in application rates from 2005 levels, and in irrigation withdrawals, and were almost 12 percent less than in all of these States the number of acres irrigated by sprinkler or 2005. Groundwater withdrawals for 2010 were 49,500 Mgal/d, microirrigation systems increased in 2010. or 6 percent less than in 2005. Sources of data for irrigation withdrawals and irrigated acres About 62,400 thousand acres were irrigated in 2010, an included State and Federal crop reporting programs, irrigation increase of about 950 thousand acres (1.5 percent) from 2005. districts, canal companies, incorporated management areas, and About 31,600 thousand acres (51 percent) were irrigated with satellite data depicting 2010 cropland landscapes. Withdrawals sprinkler systems, 26,200 thousand acres with surface (flood), also were estimated using information on irrigated crop and 4,610 thousand acres with microirrigation systems. The acreages by crop type and specific crop water-consumption national average application rate for 2010 was 2.07 acre- coefficients, or irrigation-system application rates, as well as feet per acre, or 11 percent less than the 2005 average of soil moisture balance models. Estimation methods varied from 2.32 acre-feet per acre. one State to the next and sometimes between geographic areas The geographic distribution of total, surface-water, and within a State. Estimation methods ideally included adjust - groundwater withdrawals for irrigation is shown in figure 7. ments for climate, system efficiencies, conveyance losses, and The majority of total U.S. irrigation withdrawals (83 percent) other irrigation practices such as pre-irrigation, salt leaching, and irrigated acres (74 percent) were in the 17 conterminous or frost protection. Other methods for estimating irrigation Western States (west of solid line in figure 7), which are withdrawals included extrapolation of sample data on crop typical of areas where average annual precipitation is less than water-application rates or power-consumption coefficients. 20 inches and generally insufficient to support crops without

32 26 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 Irrigation water withdrawals, 2010. Table 7. [Values may not sum to totals because of independent rounding] Irrigated land Withdrawals Withdrawals Average (in million gallons per day) (in thousand acres) (in thousand acre-feet per year) application rate State By source By source By type of irrigation (in acre-feet Total Total Total Micro- Surface Ground- Surface Ground- Sprinkler Surface per acre) irrigation water water water water 83.0 1.42 152 84.9 74.0 159 95.2 0.52 178 1.18 ... 150 Alabama 3.10 0 3.17 1.57 0.02 1.59 1.76 0.02 1.78 0.56 ... 0.07 Alaska 195 28.1 770 993 1,690 2,880 4,570 1,900 3,220 5,120 5.16 ... Arizona 8,720 0 4,150 4,670 7,380 1,340 518 8,270 1,500 9,770 2.09 ... Arkansas ... 1,790 2,890 5,670 8,690 14,400 23,100 9,740 16,100 25,800 2.50 10,400 California Colorado 1,410 ... 3,340 1,300 8,420 9,710 1,450 9,440 10,900 3.26 0.20 1,930 24.0 0.95 0 25.8 0.85 23.1 24.0 ... 25.9 26.9 1.04 1.83 Connecticut Delaware 101 0 133 86.1 15.2 96.5 17.1 114 0.85 ... 1.11 132 0 0 0.32 0.05 0.05 0.10 0.06 0.06 0.11 0.35 District of Columbia 0.32 Florida 548 712 731 1,990 1,580 1,340 2,920 1,770 1,500 3,270 1.64 ... 839 ... 152 0 1,430 636 202 1,280 713 227 940 0.66 Georgia ... 11.2 158 0 2.14 101 223 323 113 249 363 169 Hawaii Idaho 4.57 1,180 3,600 3,820 10,200 14,000 4,280 11,500 15,700 4.37 ... 2,420 Illinois ... 0 483 208 17.5 226 233 19.6 253 0.52 483 0 Indiana 110 0 397 98.4 38.7 137 0 43.4 154 0.39 ... 397 ... 187 0 0 187 41.6 1.18 46.7 1.32 48.0 0.26 42.8 Iowa Kansas 179 2,840 3,080 2,880 160 3,040 3,230 217 3,410 1.11 18.0 ... Kentucky 54.4 3.56 2.35 60.3 1.65 27.4 29.0 1.85 30.7 32.5 0.54 ... ... 87.3 0 839 926 670 1.12 928 751 289 1,040 258 Louisiana Maine 0.06 1.18 47.8 2.51 8.77 11.3 2.81 9.83 12.6 0.26 ... 46.6 Maryland ... 3.43 0 105 53.4 18.6 59.9 20.9 80.8 0.77 72.1 102 Massachusetts 139 2.02 12.0 40.3 118 21.4 26.2 132 24.0 156 3.87 ... Michigan ... 27.2 1.54 506 147 62.6 209 164 70.1 235 0.46 477 Minnesota 516 0 24.5 540 171 26.7 197 191 29.9 221 0.41 ... Mississippi 409 0 1,380 1,790 1,960 ... 2,090 2,200 149 2,350 1.31 133 Missouri ... 544 2.08 760 1,310 1,350 49.6 1,400 1,520 55.6 1,570 1.20 7,030 0.64 886 1,640 127 753 7,160 142 7,880 8,030 4.90 ... Montana 5,660 2,360 8,730 4,300 1,360 0.57 4,820 1,520 6,340 0.73 ... 6,370 Nebraska 732 ... 319 577 653 921 1,570 0.07 1,030 1,760 3.06 258 Nevada ... 4.87 0.82 0.23 5.92 1.25 0.67 1.92 1.40 0.75 2.15 0.36 New Hampshire 68.8 25.6 4.93 99.3 67.6 70.1 138 75.8 78.5 154 1.55 ... New Jersey 461 19.6 397 878 1,240 ... 2,700 1,390 1,640 3,020 3.44 1,460 New Mexico ... 81.1 24.6 2.77 108 30.2 40.2 70.4 33.9 45.0 78.9 0.73 New York 262 6.18 0 268 88.3 ... 367 98.9 312 411 1.53 279 North Carolina ... 0 42.2 234 77.5 87.2 165 86.9 97.8 185 0.79 192 North Dakota 52.6 0 65.9 17.2 35.4 6.06 19.2 39.7 58.9 0.89 Ohio... 59.8 ... 440 5.28 89.1 534 429 135 1.18 481 151 632 564 Oklahoma 5,260 97.0 594 1,900 1,910 3,350 1,210 2,140 3,750 5,890 3.10 ... Oregon ... 53.0 15.1 0 68.1 7.39 19.8 27.1 8.28 22.1 30.4 0.45 Pennsylvania 0.49 ... 4.93 1.24 0.02 6.19 2.30 0.39 2.69 2.58 0.44 3.02 Rhode Island 141 8.05 4.04 154 67.7 ... 125 75.9 64.4 140 0.91 57.4 South Carolina ... 0 49.6 194 198 165 362 221 185 406 2.10 144 South Dakota 27.6 74.0 9.80 7.98 91.8 44.3 71.9 49.6 31.0 80.6 0.88 ... Tennessee ... 3,770 244 1,910 5,920 5,100 1,730 6,830 5,710 1,940 7,660 1.29 Texas 625 1.45 710 1,340 494 ... 3,220 554 3,060 3,610 2.70 2,730 Utah 1.68 2.98 0.69 0.31 3.98 0.77 ... 2.45 0.86 1.88 2.75 0.69 Vermont Virginia ... 102 14.6 0 117 16.0 45.4 61.4 18.0 50.8 68.8 0.59 Washington ... 86.1 221 1,580 798 2,350 3,150 894 2,630 3,530 2.24 1,270 0.04 2.52 0 1.09 3.61 0.05 ... 0.09 0.06 0.04 0.10 0.03 West Virginia 256 ... 356 0 50.3 406 123 379 287 138 425 1.04 Wisconsin 4.53 ... 184 4.12 893 1,080 437 3,930 4,370 490 4,410 4,900 Wyoming 22.4 ... 8.17 32.7 0 40.8 15.7 38.2 25.1 17.6 42.8 1.05 Puerto Rico 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 U.S. Virgin Islands 2.07 TOTAL 31,600 4,610 26,200 62,400 65,900 115,000 55,400 73,900 129,000 49,500

33 27 Irrigation Total withdrawals Washington e r p New Hampshire i o u S r e k Montana Maine a L North Dakota Vermont Minnesota Oregon L a k e H n a u o i r g r Massachusetts a t i Wisconsin o n O Idaho e k h n a South Dakota L c i M New York Wyoming e Rhode Island Michigan k e i a r E L Connecticut e k a L Iowa Pennsylvania New Jersey Nebraska Nevada District of Columbia Ohio Utah Indiana Delaware Illinois Maryland Colorado West California Virginia Virginia Kansas Missouri Kentucky North Carolina Tennessee Arizona EXPLANATION Oklahoma Arkansas New Mexico South Water withdrawals, Carolina in million gallons Georgia Alabama per day Texas 0 to 200 Mississippi 201 to 1,000 Hawaii Louisiana Florida 1,001 to 5,000 5,001 to 15,000 West–East Alaska U.S. 15,001 to 23,100 Puerto division for Virgin Rico this report Islands WEST EAST 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 Total withdrawals, in million gallons per day 0 D.C. Ohio Utah Iowa Idaho Texas Maine Illinois Alaska Florida Hawaii Oregon Kansas Indiana Virginia Arizona Nevada Georgia Vermont Missouri Alabama Montana Colorado Kentucky Arkansas Michigan Wyoming Maryland Louisiana California Delaware New York Nebraska Oklahoma Wisconsin Minnesota Tennessee Mississippi Puerto Rico New Jersey Washington Connecticut New Mexico Rhode Island Pennsylvania North Dakota West Virginia South Dakota North Carolina South Carolina Massachusetts New Hampshire U.S. Virgin Islands Groundwater withdrawals Surface-water withdrawals Figure 7. Irrigation Irrigation withdrawals by source and State, 2010. Figure 7.

34 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 28 Livestock 2,000 million gallons per day more than 100 Mgal/d for livestock and together accounted Livestock water use is water associated with livestock watering, feedlots, dairy operations, and other on-farm for 41 percent of total livestock withdrawals in 2010. Texas, needs. Livestock includes dairy cows and heifers, beef cattle Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, and California each used more than and calves, sheep and lambs, goats, hogs and pigs, horses, 80 Mgal/d of groundwater for livestock and accounted for and poultry. Other livestock water uses include cooling of 42 percent of groundwater withdrawals for this use. Texas and facilities for the animals and products, dairy sanitation and California each used more than 100 Mgal/d of surface water wash down of facilities, animal waste-disposal systems, and for livestock, and accounted for 29 percent of surface-water incidental water losses. All withdrawals were considered withdrawals for livestock. Few State agencies require livestock operations to report freshwater and self supplied. The livestock category excludes water withdrawals; therefore, most estimates of livestock on-farm domestic use, lawn and garden watering, and irriga - withdrawals were derived using animal population data and tion water use. water-use coefficients, in gallons per head per day for each Livestock withdrawals for 2010 are listed by State in 8. During 2010, withdrawals for livestock use were table animal type. Animal population data generally are available from State agricultural agencies and the NASS. Coefficients an estimated 2,000 Mgal/d, or 2,240 thousand acre-ft/yr B vary by State and, for many States, were provided by agri - 2 (table ). Livestock withdrawals were about 1 percent of total freshwater withdrawals and about 1 percent of total cultural extension agents or water-permitting agencies. freshwater withdrawals for all categories excluding thermo Coefficients may reflect facility maintenance needs and - - effects of climate on animal watering. Many of the 2010 with electric power. Groundwater was the source for 60 percent drawals for livestock were estimated according to methods of total livestock withdrawals. Estimated total livestock withdrawals for 2010 were 7 percent less than in 2005. described by Lovelace (2009a), using livestock population data compiled for the NASS 2007 Census of Agriculture The geographic distribution of total, surface-water, and groundwater livestock withdrawals is shown in figure 8. (Robert Hunt, National Agricultural Statistics Service, written commun., 2013) and water-use coefficients. Texas, California, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas each used 1 percent Stock ponds, Chase County, Kansas. Photo by Joan Kenny, USGS.

35 Livestock 29 Table 8. Livestock water withdrawals, 2010. [Values may not sum to totals because of independent rounding] Withdrawals (in million gallons per day) State By source Total Groundwater Surface water Alabama 26.5 11.7 ... 14.8 0.10 0.15 0.25 ... Alaska ... 0 27.0 27.0 Arizona 15.6 23.4 39.0 ... Arkansas ... 84.4 103 188 California 25.1 11.8 36.9 ... Colorado ... 1.01 1.01 0 Connecticut ... 0 1.31 1.31 Delaware 0 0 District of Columbia 0 ... 2.22 21.3 19.1 Florida 2.38 26.9 29.3 ... Georgia ... 0.63 1.20 1.83 Hawaii ... 9.01 47.5 38.5 Idaho 0.03 36.1 ... 36.0 Illinois 26.2 13.0 39.2 ... Indiana ... 102 136 33.8 Iowa ... 91.0 23.0 114 Kansas ... 2.21 41.6 43.8 Kentucky ... 4.15 8.03 3.88 Louisiana ... 0.58 2.29 1.71 Maine 6.02 2.23 8.25 ... Maryland ... 0.90 0.50 1.40 Massachusetts ... 17.7 1.90 19.6 Michigan ... 59.3 0 59.3 Minnesota ... 7.35 11.1 18.4 Mississippi 72.9 ... 18.4 54.4 Missouri 12.4 29.5 41.8 ... Montana 21.2 114 ... 93.0 Nebraska 5.06 0 5.06 ... Nevada ... 0.67 0.22 0.89 New Hampshire 0.98 0 0.98 ... New Jersey ... 3.03 35.8 32.8 New Mexico 14.6 8.00 22.6 ... New York ... 56.9 15.0 72.0 North Carolina 12.9 8.62 21.6 ... North Dakota 16.3 7.70 Ohio... 24.0 ... 32.5 56.3 88.8 Oklahoma ... 3.00 14.0 17.0 Oregon ... 45.6 6.75 52.3 Pennsylvania ... 0.17 0.01 0.18 Rhode Island ... 5.23 6.79 12.0 South Carolina 19.1 28.3 47.4 ... South Dakota ... 13.4 27.5 14.0 Tennessee 131 127 259 ... Texas ... 7.77 8.76 16.5 Utah ... 4.22 1.41 5.63 Vermont ... 6.52 20.8 27.4 Virginia Washington ... 19.2 8.55 27.8 3.42 5.08 ... 1.66 West Virginia ... 7.30 73.1 65.8 Wisconsin ... 6.14 10.3 16.5 Wyoming ... 5.57 2.24 7.81 Puerto Rico 0.01 0.01 0.02 ... U.S. Virgin Islands Windmill on Pawnee Butte Grasslands. Photo by Ray Klocek, used TOTAL 1,200 797 2,000 with permission.

36 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 30 Total withdrawals Washington e r p New Hampshire i o u S r e k Montana Maine a L North Dakota Vermont Minnesota Oregon L a k e H n a u o i r g r Massachusetts a t i Wisconsin o n O Idaho e k h n a South Dakota L c i M New York Wyoming e Rhode Island Michigan k e i a r E L Connecticut e k a L Iowa Pennsylvania New Jersey Nebraska Nevada District of Columbia Ohio Utah Indiana Delaware Illinois Maryland Colorado West California Virginia Virginia Kansas Missouri Kentucky North Carolina Tennessee Arizona EXPLANATION Oklahoma Arkansas New Mexico South Water withdrawals, Carolina in million gallons Georgia Alabama per day Texas 0 to 10 Mississippi 11 to 50 Hawaii Louisiana Florida 51 to 100 101 to 250 Alaska U.S. 251 to 260 Puerto Virgin Rico Islands EAST WEST 300 250 200 150 100 Total withdrawals, in 50 million gallons per day 0 D.C. Ohio Utah Iowa Idaho Texas Maine Illinois Alaska Florida Hawaii Oregon Kansas Indiana Virginia Arizona Nevada Georgia Vermont Missouri Alabama Colorado Montana Kentucky Arkansas Wyoming Michigan Maryland California Louisiana New York Delaware Nebraska Oklahoma Wisconsin Minnesota Tennessee Mississippi Puerto Rico New Jersey Washington Connecticut New Mexico Rhode Island Pennsylvania North Dakota West Virginia South Dakota North Carolina South Carolina Massachusetts New Hampshire U.S. Virgin Islands Groundwater withdrawals Surface-water withdrawals Figure 8. Livestock withdrawals by source and State, 2010. Figure 8. Livestock

37 Aquaculture 31 9,420 million gallons per day Aquaculture Aquaculture water use is water associated with raising Several sources of information were used to estimate organisms that live in water—such as finfish and shellfish— 2010 aquaculture withdrawals. Some estimates were derived for food, restoration, conservation, or sport. Aquaculture from State permits that reported water withdrawals or return production occurs under controlled feeding, sanitation, flows for aquaculture facilities. The EPA Permit Compliance and harvesting procedures primarily in ponds, flowthrough System database also was a source of return-flow data that were used to estimate water withdrawals. Individual aqua raceways, and, to a lesser extent, cages, net pens, and closed- - recirculation tanks. All withdrawals were culture operations, State regulatory agencies, State offices of the NASS, and Cooperative considered self supplied. - Total withdrawals for aquaculture Extension Service offices also provided infor mation that was used to estimate aquaculture during 2010 are listed by State in table 9 at Mgal/d, or 10,600 thousand acre-ft/yr 9,420 withdrawals in some States. ). Surface water was the source B (table 2 - Many of the 2010 withdrawals for aqua for about 81 percent of the withdrawals for culture were estimated by multiplying the number of aquaculture farms in operation this category. Much of the surface water was used for flowthrough raceways and was in each county during 2007 by the average returned to the source after use. A combined groundwater and surface-water withdrawal total of 14.2 Mgal/d saline surface-water rates for aquaculture farms in the county. For withdrawals, less than 0.2 percent of total the purpose of these estimates, the change aquaculture withdrawals, were reported culture farms in each in the number of aqua in Rhode Island (8.80 Mgal/d) and Texas county from 2002 to 2007 was assumed to be representative of withdrawal changes Mgal/d); these amounts are not shown (5.37 from 2005 to 2010. The average groundwater separately in table 9 but are included in the total. Aquaculture withdrawals were 3 and surface-water withdrawal rates for each county were percent of total calculated by dividing the estimated groundwater and surface- withdrawals and 5 percent of total withdrawals for all catego - 3 percent ries excluding thermoelectric power. Estimated aquaculture water withdrawals for aquaculture in 2005 in the county by withdrawals in 2010 were 7 percent more than in 2005. the number of aqua culture farms in operation in the county The geographic distribution of total, surface-water, and in 2002. The numbers of aquaculture farms in operation in 2002 and 2007 in each county were provided by the NASS groundwater withdrawals for aquaculture is shown in figure 9. (Robert Hunt, National Agricultural Statistics Service, written Idaho, North Carolina, California, and Oregon used the most water for aquaculture, about 63 percent of the total and about commun., 2013). In counties where no aquaculture operations 74 percent of the surface-water withdrawals for aquaculture. existed in 2002, but one or more farms existed in 2007, the State average groundwater and surface-water withdrawal Alaska, Louisiana, Arkansas, California, and Mississippi combined accounted for 60 percent of the total groundwater rates per farm were multiplied by the number of farms in the county. withdrawals for aquaculture. Left, trout in raceways at the historic Leadville National Fish Hatchery, Leadville, Colorado. Photo by Christopher Brown, USGS. Above, student with trout at the Aquaculture Research Institute in Hagerman, Idaho. Photo from University of Idaho, used with permission.

38 32 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 Table 9. Aquaculture water withdrawals, 2010. [Values may not sum to totals because of independent rounding] Withdrawals (in million gallons per day) State By source Total Groundwater Surface water Alabama 59.1 32.4 ... 26.6 429 255 684 ... Alaska ... 7.77 47.3 39.5 Arizona 181 86.5 268 ... Arkansas ... 171 802 973 California 23.0 99.0 122 ... Colorado ... 29.7 6.67 23.0 Connecticut ... 0 0.06 0.06 Delaware 0 0 District of Columbia 0 ... 0 1.86 1.86 Florida 3.92 45.9 49.8 ... Georgia ... 2.14 2.40 4.54 Hawaii ... 2,690 2,750 65.6 Idaho 27.2 32.0 ... 4.78 Illinois 6.60 1.97 8.57 ... Indiana ... 14.4 18.9 4.45 Iowa ... 4.37 8.57 12.9 Kansas ... 0.53 33.5 34.1 Kentucky ... 197 311 114 Louisiana ... 21.2 46.9 25.8 Maine 5.06 15.7 20.8 ... Maryland ... 7.23 42.4 49.6 Massachusetts ... 4.21 78.5 82.7 Michigan ... 1.69 15.2 16.9 Minnesota ... 113 19.3 133 Mississippi 181 ... 10.5 170 Missouri 2.45 16.4 18.9 ... Montana 82.2 88.3 ... 6.07 Nebraska 10.6 38.8 49.5 ... Nevada ... 8.09 8.48 16.6 New Hampshire 9.16 0 9.16 ... New Jersey ... 4.32 20.1 15.8 New Mexico 3.36 36.8 40.2 ... New York ... 11.5 1,450 1,470 North Carolina 0 5.92 5.92 ... North Dakota 19.0 15.4 Ohio... 34.3 ... 3.25 7.43 10.7 Oklahoma ... 33.4 679 712 Oregon ... 47.9 59.7 108 Pennsylvania ... 5.60 8.90 14.5 Rhode Island ... 2.00 8.97 11.0 South Carolina 24.8 23.6 48.4 ... South Dakota ... 37.2 52.6 15.4 Tennessee 9.13 22.2 31.4 ... Texas ... 97.1 0 97.1 Utah ... 5.97 4.96 10.9 Vermont ... 9.39 286 295 Virginia Washington ... 86.4 127 213 40.6 52.3 ... 11.7 West Virginia ... 30.2 55.8 25.5 Wisconsin ... 2.10 18.7 20.8 Wyoming ... 0.01 0.40 0.41 Puerto Rico 0 0 0 ... U.S. Virgin Islands Raceway at historic Leadville National Fish Hatchery, Leadville, TOTAL 1,820 7,610 9,420 Colorado. Photo by Christopher Brown, USGS.

39 33 Aquaculture Total withdrawals Washington e r p New Hampshire i o u S r e k Montana Maine a L North Dakota Vermont Minnesota Oregon L a k e H n a u o i r g r Massachusetts a t i Wisconsin o n O Idaho e k h n a South Dakota L c i M New York Wyoming e Rhode Island Michigan k e i a r E L Connecticut e k a L Iowa Pennsylvania New Jersey Nebraska Nevada District of Columbia Ohio Utah Indiana Delaware Illinois Maryland Colorado West California Virginia Virginia Kansas Missouri Kentucky North Carolina Tennessee Arizona EXPLANATION Oklahoma Arkansas New Mexico South Water withdrawals, Carolina in million gallons Georgia Alabama per day Texas 0 to 10 Mississippi 11 to 50 Hawaii Louisiana Florida 51 to 100 101 to 500 Alaska U.S. 501 to 2,760 Puerto Virgin Rico Islands EAST WEST 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 Total withdrawals, in 500 million gallons per day 0 D.C. Ohio Utah Iowa Idaho Texas Maine Illinois Florida Alaska Hawaii Oregon Kansas Indiana Virginia Arizona Nevada Georgia Vermont Missouri Alabama Colorado Montana Kentucky Arkansas Michigan Wyoming Maryland Louisiana California New York Delaware Nebraska Oklahoma Wisconsin Minnesota Tennessee Mississippi Puerto Rico New Jersey Connecticut Washington New Mexico Rhode Island Pennsylvania North Dakota West Virginia South Dakota North Carolina South Carolina Massachusetts New Hampshire U.S. Virgin Islands Groundwater withdrawals Surface-water withdrawals Figure 9. Aquaculture withdrawals by source and State, 2010. Figure 9. Aquaculture

40 34 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 15,900 million gallons per day Industrial Industrial withdrawals provide water for such purposes The geographic distribution of total, total surface-water, as fabricating, processing, washing, diluting, cooling, or and total groundwater withdrawals for industrial use is shown in figure 10. Indiana, Louisiana, and Texas accounted for transporting a product; incorporating water into a product; or for sanitation needs within the manufacturing facility. 35 percent of total industrial withdrawals, and Indiana and Louisiana accounted for 33 percent of the total fresh surface- Some industries that use large amounts of water produce - such commodities as food, paper, chemicals, refined petro water withdrawals. Texas accounted for 65 percent of the leum, or primary metals. Water for industrial use may be saline surface-water industrial withdrawals, mostly from areas along the Gulf coast. The largest fresh groundwater delivered from a public supplier or be self supplied. In this industrial withdrawals were in California, which accounted - report, industrial use refers to self-supplied industrial with - for 14 percent of the total national fresh groundwater indus drawals only. Withdrawals were reported as freshwater or trial withdrawals. Most of the saline groundwater industrial saline water. As in the 2000 and 2005 reports, public-supply withdrawals were in Utah. deliveries for industrial and consumptive uses were not reported for 2010. Sources of data for industrial withdrawals included information obtained directly from facilities or State and Industrial withdrawals are listed by State in table 10. Federal permit programs that require reporting of industrial For 2010, withdrawals were an estimated 15,900 Mgal/d, or ). Industrial withdrawals withdrawals or return flows. Industrial withdrawals also 17,900 thousand acre-ft/yr (table 2 B were estimated using industry-group employment data and were about 4 percent of total withdrawals and about 8 percent per employee water-use coefficients. A notable improvement - of total withdrawals for all categories excluding thermo percent from historical estimation methods include additional facility electric power. Surface water was the source for 82 of total industrial withdrawals, and 93 percent of the surface- information provided to each USGS Water Science Center that water withdrawals for industrial use was freshwater. More included information about the type of business, number of than 98 percent of the groundwater withdrawals for industrial employees, the location of the facilities, as well as economic - use also was freshwater. For 2010, total industrial with indicators of the size of the business. These data were derived drawals were 12 percent less than in 2005. from a commercial database and were kept confidential. 4 percent Lumber mill, Adams County, Idaho. Photo by Molly Maupin, USGS.

41 Industrial 35 Industrial self-supplied water withdrawals, 2010. Table 10. [Values may not sum to totals because of independent rounding] Withdrawals (in million gallons per day) By source and type State Total Surface water Groundwater Saline Fresh Saline Total Fresh Saline Total Fresh Total 0 540 0 540 574 0 574 ... 34.0 34.0 Alabama 3.38 0 3.38 4.40 4.30 7.78 4.30 12.1 ... 8.70 Alaska 12.9 0 12.9 0 0 0 12.9 0 12.9 ... Arizona 214 5.05 61.2 214 0 56.1 271 5.05 276 ... Arkansas ... 399 0 399 1.13 0 1.13 400 0 400 California 3.45 0 3.45 127 ... 127 130 0 130 0 Colorado 66.5 ... 60.2 38.5 98.6 6.28 38.5 105 6.28 0 Connecticut 96.0 ... 8.43 87.5 0 87.5 0 0 96.0 8.43 Delaware 0 0 0 0 0 District of Columbia 0 0 0 0 165 0 165 47.7 0 47.7 213 0 213 ... Florida 0 206 0 206 281 ... 281 487 0 487 Georgia ... 4.63 0 4.63 0 0 0 4.63 4.63 0 Hawaii ... 0 32.6 17.2 0 17.2 49.7 0 49.7 32.6 Idaho 0 124 267 0 267 390 0 390 ... 124 Illinois 2,120 0 82.2 2,120 0 82.2 2,210 0 2,210 ... Indiana ... 123 0 123 2.70 2.70 125 0 125 0 Iowa 33.5 0 33.5 6.79 ... 6.79 40.3 0 40.3 0 Kansas 146 ... 0 81.4 146 0 81.4 228 0 228 Kentucky ... 231 0 231 1,830 2,060 1,830 2,060 0 0 Louisiana ... 0 6.54 185 14.8 200 192 14.8 207 6.54 Maine 11.3 0 11.3 38.6 146 185 50.0 146 196 ... Maryland 0 4.28 0 4.28 12.1 ... 12.1 16.3 0 16.3 Massachusetts ... 75.0 0 75.0 537 0 537 612 0 612 Michigan 61.8 0 61.8 71.7 ... 71.7 134 0 134 0 Minnesota 0 77.8 0 77.8 125 ... 125 203 0 203 Mississippi 68.4 ... 34.3 0 34.3 34.1 0 34.1 68.4 0 Missouri 36.9 0 36.9 29.6 ... 29.6 66.4 0 66.4 0 Montana 2.33 28.8 2.33 0 0 31.1 0 31.1 ... 28.8 Nebraska 5.23 ... 0.70 4.53 0 4.53 0 0 5.23 0.70 Nevada ... 10.6 0 10.6 7.06 0 7.06 17.7 0 17.7 New Hampshire 34.8 0 34.8 48.5 0 48.5 83.3 0 83.3 ... New Jersey 10.3 0 10.3 0.83 ... 0.83 11.1 0 11.1 0 New Mexico ... 35.9 0 35.9 316 0 316 352 0 352 New York 83.8 0 83.8 188 ... 188 271 0 271 0 North Carolina ... 0 5.77 12.9 0 12.9 18.7 0 18.7 5.77 North Dakota 293 197 293 0 0 489 0 489 Ohio... 197 ... 6.46 0 6.46 14.3 0 20.8 20.8 0 14.3 Oklahoma 123 0 2.62 123 0 2.62 126 0 126 ... Oregon ... 73.8 0 73.8 792 0 792 866 0 866 Pennsylvania 7.52 ... 4.17 0 4.17 3.35 0 3.35 7.52 0 Rhode Island 22.7 0 22.7 365 ... 365 388 0 388 0 South Carolina ... 0 6.85 2.63 0 2.63 9.48 0 9.48 6.85 South Dakota 0 47.6 0 47.6 728 728 776 0 776 ... Tennessee ... 108 2.04 110 571 608 1,180 680 610 1,290 Texas 31.2 37.5 68.7 16.4 ... 49.5 47.6 70.6 118 33.1 Utah 0 2.00 0 2.00 3.69 ... 3.69 5.69 0 5.69 Vermont Virginia ... 74.2 0.02 74.3 309 56.1 365 383 56.1 439 Washington ... 0 99.4 358 33.1 392 458 33.1 491 99.4 0 35.1 3.80 38.9 729 ... 729 764 3.80 768 West Virginia 382 ... 54.3 0 54.3 0 382 436 0 436 Wisconsin 6.74 ... 4.92 0 4.92 1.82 0 1.82 6.74 0 Wyoming 0 ... 4.30 0 4.30 0 0 4.30 0 4.30 Puerto Rico 2.84 ... 0.22 0 0.22 0 2.62 2.62 0.22 2.62 U.S. Virgin Islands 15,900 TOTAL 2,900 48.4 2,950 937 13,000 15,000 986 12,100

42 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 36 Total withdrawals Washington New Hampshire e r p i o u S r e Montana Maine k a North Dakota L Vermont Minnesota Oregon L a k e H n a u o i g r r Massachusetts a t i Wisconsin n o O Idaho e k h n a South Dakota L c i M New York Wyoming e Rhode Island Michigan k e i a r E L Connecticut e k a L Iowa Pennsylvania New Jersey Nebraska Nevada District of Columbia Ohio Utah Indiana Delaware Illinois Maryland Colorado West California Virginia Virginia Kansas Missouri Kentucky North Carolina Tennessee Arizona EXPLANATION Oklahoma Arkansas New Mexico South Water withdrawals, Carolina in million gallons Georgia Alabama per day Texas 0 to 100 Mississippi 101 to 300 Hawaii Louisiana Florida 301 to 600 601 to 1,500 Alaska 1,501 to 2,210 U.S. Puerto Virgin Rico Islands WEST EAST 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 Total withdrawals, in million gallons per day 0 D.C. Ohio Utah Iowa Idaho Texas Maine Illinois Alaska Florida Oregon Hawaii Kansas Indiana Arizona Virginia Nevada Georgia Vermont Missouri Alabama Colorado Montana Kentucky Arkansas Wyoming Michigan Louisiana California Maryland Nebraska New York Delaware Oklahoma Wisconsin Minnesota Tennessee Mississippi Puerto Rico Connecticut Washington New Jersey New Mexico Rhode Island North Dakota Pennsylvania South Dakota West Virginia North Carolina South Carolina Massachusetts New Hampshire U.S. Virgin Islands Groundwater withdrawals Surface-water withdrawals Industrial withdrawals by source and State, 2010. Figure 10. Figure 10. Industrial

43 37 Mining 5,320 million gallons per day Mining Mining water use is water used for the extraction of than in 2005. Some of the increase in saline withdrawals was minerals that may be in the form of solids, such as coal, attributed to increased accounting of water produced as a iron, sand, and gravel; liquids, such as crude petroleum; and byproduct during oil and gas extraction and then re-injected for secondary oil and gas recovery. gases, such as natural gas. The category includes quarrying, The geographic distribution of total, total freshwater, milling of mined materials, injection of water for secondary and total saline-water withdrawals is shown in figure 11. oil recovery or for unconventional oil and gas recovery (such as hydraulic fracturing), and other operations associated with Oklahoma and Texas accounted for 46 percent of the total mining activities. All mining withdrawals were considered withdrawals for mining. Nevada and Texas accounted for 41 to be self supplied. Water withdrawals were reported as percent of fresh groundwater withdrawals, and Oklahoma and Texas accounted for 79 percent of saline groundwater freshwater or saline water. Dewatering was not reported as a mining withdrawal unless the water was used beneficially, withdrawals. Minnesota, Indiana, Texas, and Iowa accounted for 46 percent of fresh surface-water withdrawals. Utah and such as dampening roads for dust control. Mining withdrawals during 2010 are listed by State Alaska accounted for almost 100 percent of saline surface- in table 11. During 2010, an estimated 5,320 Mgal/d, or water withdrawals. Sources of data used to estimate water use for mining ), were withdrawn. Mining B 5,960 thousand acre-ft/yr (table 2 withdrawals were about 1 percent of total withdrawals included surveys of mining operations and State and Federal agencies that collect water withdrawal, discharge, and about 3 percent of total withdrawals for all categories or mineral production data for mining operations. Many of excluding thermoelectric power. Groundwater was the source for 73 percent of total withdrawals for mining. Seventy-one the 2010 withdrawals for mining were estimated according to methods described by Lovelace (2009b), using mineral percent of the groundwater withdrawn for mining was saline. - production data and water-use coefficients, in gallons per Eighty percent of the surface-water withdrawn was fresh weight or volume of minerals produced. Production data water. Saline groundwater withdrawals and fresh surface- water withdrawals together represented 74 percent of the total for nonfuel minerals, including metals and nonmetallic minerals, were provided by the USGS Minerals Information withdrawals for mining. Team (Robert Callaghan, U.S. Geological Survey, written Total mining withdrawals in 2010 were 39 percent more commun., 2012). Production or water-injection data for fuel than in 2005. Groundwater withdrawals were 54 percent more, and surface-water withdrawals were 9 percent more. minerals, including coal, petroleum, and natural gas, were 1 percent Freshwater withdrawals in 2010 were only 1 percent less than obtained from the Energy Information Administration and various State agencies. in 2005, but saline-water withdrawals were 97 percent more The Bingham Canyon Mine in Salt Lake County, Utah. Photo by Alan Cressler, USGS.

44 38 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 Mining water withdrawals, 2010. Table 11. [Values may not sum to totals because of independent rounding] Withdrawals (in million gallons per day) By source and type State Total Surface water Groundwater Saline Fresh Saline Total Fresh Saline Total Fresh Total 0 7.49 0 7.49 20.2 0 20.2 ... 12.7 12.7 Alabama 0.01 144 144 24.1 76.4 24.1 221 245 ... 100 Alaska 86.6 0 86.6 0 0 0 86.6 0 86.6 ... Arizona 44.1 0 0.18 44.1 0 0.18 44.3 0 44.3 ... Arkansas ... 24.1 236 260 12.2 0.05 12.3 36.4 236 272 California 5.46 19.4 24.9 3.05 ... 3.05 8.51 19.4 27.9 0 Colorado 4.72 ... 3.80 0 3.80 0.92 0 4.72 0.92 0 Connecticut 0.85 ... 0.44 0.41 0 0.41 0 0 0.85 0.44 Delaware 0 0 0 0 0 District of Columbia 0 0 0 0 78.8 0 78.8 34.1 0 34.1 113 0 113 ... Florida 0 19.3 0 19.3 8.41 ... 8.41 27.7 0 27.7 Georgia ... 1.40 0 1.40 0.11 0 0.11 1.51 1.51 0 Hawaii ... 0 1.28 18.9 0 18.9 20.2 0 20.2 1.28 Idaho 25.5 41.0 55.4 0 55.4 70.9 25.5 96.3 ... 15.5 Illinois 83.7 0 4.52 83.7 0 4.52 88.2 0 88.2 ... Indiana ... 1.53 0 1.53 78.1 78.1 79.6 0 79.6 0 Iowa 9.34 0 9.34 3.98 ... 3.98 13.3 0 13.3 0 Kansas 23.0 ... 0 7.80 23.0 0 7.80 30.8 0 30.8 Kentucky ... 5.32 0 5.32 5.94 11.3 5.94 11.3 0 0 Louisiana ... 0 1.14 3.73 0 3.73 4.87 0 4.87 1.14 Maine 7.25 0 7.25 2.18 0 2.18 9.43 0 9.43 ... Maryland 0 1.82 0 1.82 4.78 ... 4.78 6.60 0 6.60 Massachusetts ... 10.1 0.57 10.7 66.0 0 66.0 76.2 0.57 76.8 Michigan 8.32 0 8.32 276 ... 276 285 0 285 0 Minnesota 0 8.23 12.6 20.8 0.55 ... 0.55 8.78 12.6 21.4 Mississippi 32.9 ... 24.4 0 24.4 8.41 0 8.41 32.9 0 Missouri 1.73 18.6 20.3 26.2 ... 26.2 27.9 18.6 46.5 0 Montana 8.77 0.22 8.77 0 0.13 8.86 0.13 8.99 ... 0.09 Nebraska 345 ... 342 4.11 0 4.11 0.95 0.95 346 341 Nevada ... 0.01 0 0.01 2.84 0 2.84 2.85 0 2.85 New Hampshire 1.73 0 1.73 6.91 0 6.91 8.64 0 8.64 ... New Jersey 27.4 0 27.4 9.68 ... 9.68 37.1 0 37.1 0 New Mexico ... 8.34 0 8.34 64.0 0 64.0 72.4 0 72.4 New York 27.8 0 27.8 4.87 ... 4.87 32.6 0 32.6 0 North Carolina ... 13.6 22.3 4.63 0 4.63 13.4 13.6 27.0 8.73 North Dakota 35.8 79.0 35.8 0 0 115 0 115 Ohio... 79.0 ... 4.75 1,400 1,400 13.3 0 1,410 18.0 1,400 13.3 Oklahoma 1.17 0 7.47 1.17 0 7.47 8.64 0 8.64 ... Oregon ... 51.4 0 51.4 10.5 0 10.5 62.0 0 62.0 Pennsylvania 0.92 ... 0.43 0 0.43 0.49 0 0.49 0.92 0 Rhode Island 6.69 0 6.69 1.74 ... 1.74 8.43 0 8.43 0 South Carolina ... 0 7.22 11.0 0 11.0 18.2 0 18.2 7.22 South Dakota 0 6.89 0 6.89 7.73 7.73 14.6 0 14.6 ... Tennessee ... 122 810 931 81.2 0.49 81.7 203 810 1,010 Texas 2.59 41.6 44.2 1.60 ... 206 4.19 246 250 205 Utah 0 0.32 0 0.32 3.53 ... 3.53 3.85 0 3.85 Vermont Virginia ... 6.56 0 6.56 28.4 0 28.4 34.9 0 34.9 Washington ... 0 13.4 3.36 0 3.36 16.7 0 16.7 13.4 0 5.53 1.02 6.55 9.00 ... 9.00 14.5 1.02 15.6 West Virginia 8.63 ... 10.9 0 10.9 0 8.63 19.6 0 19.6 Wisconsin 117 ... 37.1 67.1 104 13.0 0 13.0 50.1 67.1 Wyoming 0.18 ... 1.43 0.32 1.75 0 0.18 1.61 0.32 1.93 Puerto Rico 0.04 0.04 0 0 0 0 0 0.04 0.04 U.S. Virgin Islands ... TOTAL 1,120 2,790 5,320 1,130 282 1,410 2,250 3,070 3,900

45 39 Mining Total withdrawals Washington New Hampshire e r p i o u S r e Montana Maine k a North Dakota L Vermont Minnesota Oregon L a k e H n a u o i g r r Massachusetts a t i Wisconsin n o O Idaho e k h n a South Dakota L c i M New York Wyoming e Rhode Island Michigan k e i a r E L Connecticut e k a L Iowa Pennsylvania New Jersey Nebraska Nevada District of Columbia Ohio Utah Indiana Delaware Illinois Maryland Colorado West California Virginia Virginia Kansas Missouri Kentucky North Carolina Tennessee Arizona EXPLANATION Oklahoma Arkansas New Mexico South Water withdrawals, Carolina in million gallons Georgia per day Alabama Texas 0 to 10 Mississippi 11 to 50 Hawaii Louisiana Florida 51 to 100 101 to 200 Alaska U.S. 201 to 1,420 Puerto Virgin Rico Islands EAST WEST 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 Total withdrawals, in million gallons per day 200 0 D.C. Ohio Utah Iowa Idaho Texas Maine Illinois Alaska Florida Oregon Hawaii Kansas Indiana Arizona Virginia Nevada Georgia Vermont Missouri Alabama Colorado Montana Kentucky Arkansas Wyoming Michigan Louisiana California Maryland Nebraska New York Delaware Oklahoma Wisconsin Minnesota Tennessee Mississippi Puerto Rico Connecticut Washington New Jersey New Mexico Rhode Island North Dakota Pennsylvania South Dakota West Virginia North Carolina South Carolina Massachusetts New Hampshire U.S. Virgin Islands Saline-water withdrawals Freshwater withdrawals Mining withdrawals by water quality and State, 2010. Figure 11. Figure 11. Mining

46 40 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 161,000 million gallons per day Thermoelectric Power Water for thermoelectric power is used in generating Michigan, and Alabama, together accounted for more than electricity with steam-driven turbine generators. Thermoelectric- percent of freshwater withdrawals for thermoelectric 32 power withdrawals were compiled by cooling-system type. power. Florida, California, and Maryland accounted for Once-through cooling systems circulate water through about 48 percent of total saline withdrawals, nearly all from heat exchangers and then return the water to the source. surface water. Hawaii, California, and Nevada accounted for Recirculation cooling systems circulate water through heat percent of the total saline groundwater withdrawals. 82 exchangers, then cool the water using ponds or towers, and then Estimated 2010 thermoelectric withdrawals were the water is recirculated. Water withdrawals for a recirculation percent less than estimates for 2005. Reasons for this large 20 system are used to replace water lost to evaporation, blowdown, difference include plant closures, use of the linked heat and drift, and leakage. Thermoelectric-power withdrawals were water budget model data, decrease in use of coal and increase reported as freshwater or saline water, as well as by cooling in use of natural gas, and new powerplants using more water- system. Net power generation is also reported by cooling system. efficient cooling technology. For 2010, public-supply deliveries to thermoelectric Eastern States accounted for 86 percent of total powerplants and consumptive use were not reported. thermoelectric-power withdrawals in the United States and However, 1,290 thermoelectric powerplants from the linked 75 percent of the related net power generation. Hydroelectric- heat and water budget models provided monthly and annual power generation is not included in this report but meets estimates of withdrawals and consumptive use by powerplant. the demand for a significant amount of the U.S. total energy These data were provided as supplemental and supportive needs, predominantly in Western States. In 2010, 61 percent datasets for the compilation. Datasets substantially improved of the total 257,000 gWh from hydroelectric powerplants existing NWUIP capabilities with more accurate and complete was produced by public utilities in Washington, California, - information on thermoelectric powerplant locations, catego Oregon, and New York (U.S. Department of Energy, 2011). rization of cooling-system types, and water sources. Quality- Thermoelectric-power withdrawals and net power generated assured data for net power generation were also provided - 13. Power by cooling-system type are listed by State in table with linked information about cooling system and fuels, plants with once-through cooling systems accounted for monthly and annual (2010) estimates of withdrawals based percent of total withdrawals and 47 percent of net power 94 on the models, and associated monthly and annual estimates generated. Plants with recirculating cooling systems required of consumptive use by plant (Diehl and others, 2013; Diehl much less water (6 percent) and produced the majority and Harris, 2014). These data were used either in whole, or in percent) of the net power generated. Power (53 plants with part, for this compilation. Compilers in some States obtained recirculating cooling systems are found in every State but electric powerplants. data reported directly from thermo were the predominant type of cooling system at power - Thermoelectric-power withdrawals and net power plants in Western inland States such as Arizona, Oklahoma, generation are listed by State in table 12. Total withdrawals Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Kansas, and New Mexico. for thermo electric power for 2010 were 161,000 Mgal/d or Reclaimed wastewater is a supplemental source of water ). Surface water was B 180,000 thousand acre-ft/yr (table 2 for thermoelectric power, especially in areas where additional the source for over 99 percent of total thermoelectric-power water sources are needed for plant operations, such as for withdrawals, and 73 percent of those surface-water withdrawals air pollution control equipment, or scrubbers (Veil, 2007). were from freshwater sources. Saline surface-water withdrawals Arizona (67.6 Mgal/d) and California (22.8 Mgal/d) reported percent of total saline for thermoelectric power accounted for 97 substantial amounts of reclaimed water use. Reclaimed surface-water withdrawals for all uses. Total withdrawals for wastewater is not included in the thermoelectric-power data 45 percent thermoelectric power accounted for 45 percent of total water or national totals for this report. withdrawals, 38 percent of total freshwater withdrawals, and Sources for thermoelectric-power withdrawals, cooling- 51 percent of fresh surface-water withdrawals for all uses. Net system information, and net power generation included power generation associated with thermoelectric-power with - data collected directly from facilities, State permitting or drawals was 3,130,000 gWh (gigawatt-hours), or about 2 percent regulatory agencies, the USDOE EIA, and a linked heat gal (gallons) were used to less than in 2005. On average, 19 and water budget for powerplants in the United States, as produce 1 kWh (kilowatt-hour) of electricity in 2010, compared mentioned previously. Using information gleaned from the to almost 23 gal/kWh (gallons per kilowatt-hour) in 2005. NWC thermoelectric project, some powerplant’s cooling- The geographic distribution of total, total freshwater, system classifications were changed, thereby making them and total saline-water withdrawals for thermoelectric power different from previous compilations. Similarly, net power- is shown in figure 12. The largest total withdrawals for generation data from EIA were scrutinized for each plant to thermoelectric power were in Texas, where nearly all the determine whether the power that was reported and used in withdrawals were from freshwater sources. Illinois, Texas, this compilation was associated with a water use.

47 Thermoelectric Power 41 Thermoelectric-power water withdrawals, 2010. Table 12. [Values may not sum to totals because of independent rounding] Withdrawals (in million gallons per day) Power By source and type generated Total State (in million Groundwater Surface water kilowatt-hours) Saline Fresh Saline Total Fresh Fresh Saline Total Total ... Alabama 8,250 8,250 8,250 0 0 125,000 0 0 0 8,250 2.19 0 2.19 55.8 55.8 58.0 0 58.0 1,760 ... 0 Alaska 77.3 0 77.3 27.1 0 27.1 104 0 104 86,700 ... Arizona 1,540 0 4.26 1,540 0 1,540 4.26 0 1,540 49,000 ... Arkansas ... 33.1 48.4 81.6 32.2 6,490 6,520 65.4 6,600 85,400 6,540 California 16.8 0 16.8 60.2 0 ... 77.0 0 77.0 38,300 60.2 Colorado 2,460 ... 198 2,460 2,650 198 0 2,650 21,600 0 0 Connecticut 7.82 ... 0.37 7.45 417 425 0 417 425 5,150 0.37 Delaware 0 0 0 0 0 District of Columbia 0 0 0 0 0 43.5 6.54 50.0 570 8,570 9,140 613 8,570 9,190 199,000 ... Florida 2,050 2.92 0 2.92 1,770 283 ... 1,770 283 2,060 110,000 Georgia ... 53.2 50.8 104 0 552 552 53.2 6,830 656 603 Hawaii ... 0 0.88 0 0 0 0.88 0 0.88 515 0.88 Idaho 0 5.65 10,700 0 10,700 10,700 0 10,700 192,000 ... 5.65 Illinois 5,380 0 24.6 5,360 0 5,360 24.6 0 5,380 108,000 ... Indiana ... 21.2 0 21.2 2,220 0 2,240 0 2,240 44,700 2,220 Iowa 11.2 0 11.2 366 0 ... 377 0 377 43,600 366 Kansas 3,340 ... 0 15.3 3,340 0 15.3 3,360 0 3,360 93,400 Kentucky ... 41.1 0 41.1 4,390 63,500 4,390 4,430 1.68 4,430 1.68 Louisiana ... 0 0.96 25.9 26.0 51.9 26.8 26.0 52.8 7,650 0.96 Maine 2.25 0 2.25 434 5,760 6,200 436 5,760 6,200 41,100 ... Maryland 2,070 0.21 0 0.21 134 1,930 ... 134 1,930 2,070 18,500 Massachusetts ... 4.12 0 4.12 8,510 0 8,510 8,520 0 8,520 107,000 Michigan 2.34 0 2.34 2,510 ... 2,510 2,510 0 2,510 42,400 0 Minnesota 62.4 50.0 7.05 57.1 905 ... 968 956 69.5 1,020 44,200 Mississippi 86,200 ... 19.9 0 19.9 5,890 0 5,890 5,910 0 5,910 Missouri 0.85 0 0.85 150 ... 150 151 0 151 19,000 0 Montana 1,790 5.25 1,790 0 1,790 0 0 1,790 34,400 ... 5.25 Nebraska 21.6 ... 28.9 3.68 0 3.68 11.0 11.0 32.6 9,990 17.9 Nevada ... 1.02 0 1.02 201 848 1,050 202 848 1,050 19,500 New Hampshire 1.57 0 1.57 512 3,740 4,250 513 3,740 4,250 46,000 ... New Jersey 9.59 0 9.59 42.3 0 ... 51.9 0 51.9 29,700 42.3 New Mexico ... 2.39 0 2.39 2,750 4,850 7,600 2,760 4,850 7,600 77,900 New York 0.37 0 0.37 7,660 ... 9,020 7,660 1,360 9,020 110,000 1,360 North Carolina ... 0 0 837 0 837 837 0 837 28,400 0 North Dakota 7,220 23.0 7,190 0 7,190 0 0 7,220 137,000 Ohio... 23.0 ... 1.26 0 1.26 384 0 48,700 385 0 385 384 Oklahoma 11.2 0 1.48 11.2 0 1.48 12.7 0 12.7 8,820 ... Oregon ... 4.49 0 4.49 5,390 0 5,390 5,390 0 5,390 201,000 Pennsylvania 1,140 ... 0 0 0 1.44 232 234 1.44 232 234 Rhode Island 4.86 0 4.86 5,500 ... 5,500 5,500 0 5,500 97,800 0 South Carolina ... 0 3.34 6.93 0 6.93 10.3 0 10.3 3,300 3.34 South Dakota 5,800 1.78 0 1.78 5,800 0 5,800 0 5,800 71,900 ... Tennessee ... 38.8 0 38.8 10,400 661 11,100 10,500 661 11,100 249,000 Texas 24.0 10.5 34.5 45.6 ... 46.0 69.6 11.0 80.6 38,900 0.47 Utah 0 0.74 0 0.74 344 ... 344 345 0 345 5,230 Vermont Virginia ... 1.55 0 1.55 2,850 3,150 6,000 2,860 3,150 6,000 53,500 Washington ... 0 1.57 36.4 0 36.4 37.9 0 37.9 20,100 1.57 2,470 1.40 0 1.40 2,470 0 ... 2,470 0 2,470 77,500 West Virginia 0 ... 2.78 0 2.78 4,630 4,630 4,630 0 4,630 55,400 Wisconsin 39,600 ... 2.29 0 2.29 61.1 0 61.1 63.4 0 63.4 Wyoming 2,270 ... 1.17 0 1.17 2.61 2,270 3.78 2,270 2,270 19,900 Puerto Rico 830 116 116 0 0 0 0.17 116 116 0.17 U.S. Virgin Islands ... TOTAL 587 134 3,130,000 116,000 43,800 160,000 117,000 43,900 161,000 721

48 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 42 Total withdrawals Washington e r p New Hampshire i o u S r e k Montana Maine a L North Dakota Vermont Minnesota Oregon L a k e H n a u o i r g r Massachusetts a t i Wisconsin o n O Idaho e k h n a South Dakota L c i M New York Wyoming e Rhode Island Michigan k e i a r E L Connecticut e k a L Iowa Pennsylvania New Jersey Nebraska Nevada District of Columbia Ohio Utah Indiana Delaware Illinois Maryland Colorado West California Virginia Virginia Kansas Missouri Kentucky North Carolina Tennessee Arizona EXPLANATION Oklahoma Arkansas New Mexico South Carolina Water withdrawals, in million gallons per day Georgia Alabama 0 Texas Mississippi 1 to 2,000 Hawaii 2,001 to 4,000 Louisiana Florida 4,001 to 6,000 6,001 to 9,000 West–east Alaska U.S. 9,001 to 11,200 division for Puerto Virgin Rico this report Islands WEST EAST 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 Total withdrawals, in million gallons per day 0 D.C. Ohio Utah Iowa Idaho Texas Maine Illinois Alaska Florida Oregon Hawaii Kansas Indiana Virginia Arizona Nevada Georgia Vermont Missouri Alabama Colorado Montana Kentucky Arkansas Wyoming Michigan Maryland California Louisiana Delaware New York Nebraska Oklahoma Wisconsin Minnesota Tennessee Mississippi Puerto Rico Connecticut New Jersey Washington New Mexico Rhode Island Pennsylvania North Dakota West Virginia South Dakota North Carolina South Carolina Massachusetts New Hampshire U.S. Virgin Islands Freshwater withdrawals Saline-water withdrawals Thermoelectric-power withdrawals by water quality and State, 2010. Figure 12. Figure 12 . Thermo

49 Thermoelectric Power 43 Thermoelectric-power water withdrawals by cooling type, 2010. Table 13. [Values may not sum to totals because of independent rounding. All withdrawal values are in million gallons per day] Withdrawals for recirculation cooling Withdrawals for once-through cooling Power Power By source and type By source and type generated generated Surface water Groundwater Surface water Groundwater (in million (in million State Total Total kilowatt- kilowatt- Fresh Saline Fresh Saline Fresh Saline Fresh Saline hours) hours) Alabama ... 134 8,120 0 0 134 0 74,300 50,700 0 8,120 0 0 0 0 0 55.8 533 2.19 0 0 0 2.19 1,230 ... 55.8 Alaska 0 0 0 0 0 0 77.3 0 27.1 0 104 86,700 ... Arizona 0 0 1,480 0 1,480 20,100 3.46 0.80 58.5 0 62.0 28,900 ... Arkansas ... 0.73 0 0 6,490 6,490 32.4 48.4 32.2 1.04 114 45,300 40,100 California 3.93 0 13.8 0 17.7 722 ... 0 46.4 0 59.3 37,600 12.8 Colorado 0.10 ... 2,460 2,650 21,500 0 0 198 0 0.10 56.8 0 0 Connecticut 0 ... 0 417 417 2,950 0.37 0 7.45 0 7.82 2,210 0 Delaware 0 0 0 0 0 0 District of Columbia 0 0 0 0 0 0 8.12 0 520 8,460 8,990 98,400 35.4 6.54 49.3 104 195 101,000 ... Florida 1.46 1.46 0 1,470 283 1,760 16,700 ... 0 299 0 300 92,900 Georgia ... 52.8 46.9 0 552 652 1,740 0.32 3.83 0 0 4.15 5,090 Hawaii ... 0 0 0 0 0 0.88 0 0 0 0.88 515 0 Idaho 0 10,100 0 10,100 92,000 2.23 0 631 0 633 99,500 ... 3.42 Illinois 0 0 5,240 0 5,260 57,100 3.96 20.6 116 0 120 51,100 ... Indiana ... 9.39 0 2,200 0 2,210 29,600 0 17.6 0 29.4 15,100 11.8 Iowa 0.05 0 311 0 311 11,900 ... 0 54.6 0 65.7 31,700 11.1 Kansas 15.3 ... 0 3,270 0 3,270 44,900 0 0 71.2 0 86.5 48,500 Kentucky ... 30.4 0 4,030 1.68 4,060 35,100 10.7 0 359 0 370 28,400 Louisiana ... 0 24.1 24.2 48.3 280 0.96 0 1.78 1.80 4.54 7,370 0 Maine 2.25 0 393 5,750 6,150 32,900 0 0 40.6 11.7 52.3 8,150 ... Maryland 0.21 0 0 133 1,930 2,060 18,100 ... 0 1.62 0.05 1.88 378 Massachusetts ... 0.56 0 8,320 0 8,320 84,900 3.56 0 199 0 202 22,000 Michigan 2.19 0 1,560 0 1,560 ... 0.15 0 946 0 946 13,600 28,800 Minnesota 18,000 1.48 0 900 62.4 964 ... 48.5 7.05 5.26 0 60.8 26,200 Mississippi 15,600 ... 7.07 0 5,870 0 5,880 70,700 12.8 0 22.8 0 35.6 Missouri 0 0 122 0 122 ... 0.85 0 27.9 0 28.8 17,700 1,280 Montana 0 1,770 0 1,770 22,500 5.25 0 21.3 0 26.6 11,900 ... 0 Nebraska 11.0 ... 0 0 0 0 17.9 0 3.68 0 32.6 9,990 0 Nevada ... 0.27 0 200 846 1,050 14,600 0.75 0 1.13 2.42 4.30 4,940 New Hampshire 0 0 433 3,740 4,170 28,300 1.57 0 78.6 0 80.1 17,800 ... New Jersey 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 42.3 0 51.9 29,700 9.59 New Mexico ... 0 0 2,750 4,850 7,600 75,300 2.39 0 4.09 0 6.48 2,620 New York 71,700 0 0 6,290 1,360 7,660 ... 0.37 0 1,360 0 1,360 38,600 North Carolina 0 812 0 812 10,300 0 0 24.6 0 24.6 18,100 ... 0 North Dakota 0 0 0 6,650 61,200 8.49 6,640 558 0 566 75,400 Ohio... 14.5 ... 0.08 0 290 0 290 2,730 1.18 0 94.2 0 95.4 46,000 Oklahoma 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 1.48 0 11.2 0 12.7 8,820 Oregon 28,400 0.08 0 3,040 0 3,040 ... 4.41 0 2,350 0 2,360 173,000 Pennsylvania 639 ... 0 0 0 232 232 0 0 1.44 0 1.44 499 Rhode Island 59,800 ... 1.02 0 4,420 0 4,420 38,000 3.84 0 1,080 0 1,090 South Carolina 0 0 0 0 0 ... 3.34 0 6.93 0 10.3 3,300 0 South Dakota ... 0 5,780 0 5,780 60,500 1.78 0 20.0 0 21.8 11,400 0 Tennessee 38.8 0 0 10,200 658 10,900 129,000 0 189 3.81 231 120,000 ... Texas ... 0 0 0 0 0 183 24.0 10.5 45.6 0.47 80.6 38,700 Utah 0 0 344 0 344 ... 0.74 0 0.29 0 1.03 447 4,780 Vermont 1.55 ... 0 2,830 3,150 5,970 41,800 0 0 25.4 0 27.0 11,600 Virginia Washington ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.57 0 36.4 0 37.9 20,100 1.38 0 2,320 0 2,320 16,000 0.02 0 154 0 156 61,500 ... West Virginia 40,000 1.35 0 4,600 0 4,600 ... 1.43 0 34.2 0 35.6 15,400 Wisconsin 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 2.29 0 61.1 0 63.4 39,600 Wyoming 3,190 ... 1.15 0 1.12 2,270 2,270 16,700 0.02 0 1.49 0 1.51 Puerto Rico 0 0 0 0 0 0 .17 116 116 83 0 0 0 0 U.S. Virgin Islands ... TOTAL 164 46.9 107,000 43, 1,660,000 00 151,000 1,460,000 423 87.3 9,360 125 9,990 6

50 44 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 2010 Trends in Water Use, 1950 – (14.3 and 13.8 percent, respectively) compared to Midwestern The USGS has conducted water-use compilations every http://water.usgs.gov/watuse/50years.html ). years since 1950 ( 5 States (3.9 percent) and Northeastern States (3.2 percent). A summary of population growth and withdrawal estimates Thermoelectric power continued to account for the by category of use and source of water is discussed in this largest withdrawals for any category of use at 161 Bgal/d, or section and shown in table 14 for each 5-year period from percent of the total withdrawals from all categories of use. 45 Total thermoelectric-power withdrawals in 2010 were about 1950 through 2010. These trends are shown graphically for freshwater uses in figure 13 and total uses in figure 14. 20 percent less than in 2005; freshwater withdrawals were Table 14 shows withdrawals for categories of use for 18 percent less, and saline-water withdrawals were 24 percent each compilation period. Some categories were compiled less. These were the largest reductions in total withdrawals and presented differently since compilations were begun. For between 2005 and 2010 when considering all uses and example, self-supplied domestic and livestock withdrawals are accounted for the majority of the 13 percent decline in total withdrawals for all uses. Total withdrawals for thermoelectric shown separately in table 14; however, they were combined as power in 1985 were 11 percent less than in 1980, and fluctua - - “rural” in the 1950 and 1955 reports. Prior to 1985, the indus trial water-use category included withdrawals for commercial, tions in total withdrawals during the 5-year intervals between mining, and aquaculture; after 1985 these categories were 1985 and 2005 were never more than 5 percent. Several factors may be attributed to the 20 percent estimated separately. Water use at fish hatcheries was reported as commercial use in 1990 and 1995, but was included in decline in total thermoelectric withdrawals. Since the 1970s, an increasing number of powerplants were built with or the aquaculture category for 2000, 2005, and again in 2010. converted to recirculating cooling systems or dry cooling Estimates of commercial withdrawals were not compiled systems, which use less water than powerplants with once- nationally for 2000, 2005 or 2010. Totals in table 14 represent the most current data and incorporate revisions to previously through cooling systems. Withdrawals at powerplants have published data; therefore, percentage differences and national declined in some States due to the implementation of new rules designed to minimize adverse effects to aquatic life at totals may be slightly different from previous reports. powerplant intakes. The decrease in use of coal and increase Total withdrawals for all categories of use in 2010 were estimated to be 355 Bgal/d, a level of withdrawal not reported in use of natural gas and new powerplants coming online that since before 1970. Total withdrawals in 2010 were 13 use more water-efficient cooling technology also have helped percent to reduce withdrawals for thermoelectric power. less than in 2005, causing an abrupt downward shift to The plant-specific information pertaining to cooling the mostly steady trend exhibited since 1985. This down- systems, water sources, and net power generation provided ward trend was caused by significant declines in the largest estimates of thermoelectric-power withdrawals from the categories of use, including thermoelectric power, irrigation, linked heat and water budget models. These data were used public supply, and industrial. Categories with larger with- drawals in 2010 than in 2005 were mining and aquaculture, in place of data reported to EIA if plant-reported data were but these categories are small and increased total withdrawals not available. Finally, between 2005 and 2010, the closing of once-through plants also contributed significantly to the for those categories of use did not offset the much larger overall decrease of 54 Bgal/d from the other uses. reduction in total withdrawals. Withdrawals in California were nearly 50 percent less between 2005 and 2010 primarily Although the trend in total population since 1950 has due to plant closures and upgrades to intakes and cooling been steadily upward, the rate of increase has varied over systems implemented in order to comply with State regula - time (table 14). Most recently, total population in the United tions (California State Water Resources Control Board, 2013). States increased only 4 percent between 2005 and 2010, or Net power generation associated with thermoelectric an additional 12.3 million people. This continues the upward trend in total population growth exhibited since 1950, but at a power was 3,130,000 gWh in 2010 (table 12), or about 2.5 percent less than the 3,200,000 gWh in 2005. Net slightly slower rate. Historically, decadal growth rates in the power generation increased nearly 50 percent between 1985 United States were at their highest between 1950 and 1960, (2,140,000 gWh) and 2010. On average, 19 gallons were used with an 19 percent increase from an additional 29 million to produce 1 kWh of electricity in 2010, compared to almost people. Then growth rates exhibited an overall steady trend 23 gal/kWh in 2005. million between 1960 and 1990, with no more than a 27 Irrigation withdrawals were 9 percent less between 2005 person per year increase in the 30 year period. The rates million) sharply increased with a 13.2 percent increase (32.7 and 2010, from 127 Bgal/d to 115 Bgal/d, a level not reported since before 1965. This marks the second consecutive between 1990 and 2000 and were most recently at a million) increase from 2000 to 2010. (U.S. 5-year period of decline in irrigation withdrawals and placed 9.7 percent (27.3 Census Bureau, 2011). In the last decade, population growth 2010 withdrawals 23 percent less than 1980, when with - rate recorded was much faster in Southern and Western States drawals peaked. However, irrigation withdrawals remained

51 Trends in Water Use, 1950–2010 45 Trends in estimated water use in the United States, 1950–2010. Table 14. [Data for 2005 and earlier from Kenny and others (2009). Water-use data are in billion gallons per day (thousand million gallons per day) and are rounded to two significant figures for 1950 – 80, and to three significant figures for 1985–2005; percentage change is calculated from unrounded numbers. Geographic extent: 1950, 48 States and District of Columbia, and Hawaii; 1955, 48 States and District of Columbia; 1960 and 1975–2005, 50 States and District of Colum - bia, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands; 1965 –70, 50 States and District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico] Year Percentage change 1955 1950 1995 2005 2000 2010 1990 1985 1980 1975 1970 1965 1960 2005 to 2010 Population, in millions 216.4 313 300.7 285.3 252.3 242.4 229.6 205.9 267.1 193.8 179.3 164 150.7 4 1 1 Total withdrawals 270 180 310 370 240 420 397 430 404 –13 398 413 409 355 1 1 1 1 40.2 21 17 14 Public supply –5 42.0 36.6 44.3 43.3 38.7 24 27 29 33 Rural domestic and livestock 1 3.58 3.4 3.71 3.60 –3 3.39 2.8 2.6 2.3 2.0 2.1 2.1 3.39 3.32 Self-supplied domestic 1 1 2.39 2.00 2.28 2.25 2.23 2.2 –7 1.9 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5 Livestock 2.15 2.1 1 130 120 110 110 89 Irrigation 115 127 134 139 130 –9 135 150 140 –20 200 201 195 190 194 187 210 161 170 130 100 72 40 Thermoelectric power Other 1 1 1 1 18.1 21.6 15.9 22.5 –12 25.8 19.7 Self-supplied 45 47 46 38 39 37 45 industrial (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) 1 1 1 4.93 3.59 39 4.16 Mining 3.83 5.32 3.44 (3) (3) (2) (2) (2) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) 2.39 Commercial 2.89 1.23 (3) (3) (3) (3) 1 1 (3) (3) (3) 1 1 3.23 2.24 5.78 2.24 Aquaculture 8.84 9.42 7 Source of water Ground 1 1 1 1 83 60 68 82 73.4 Fresh 79.4 34 76.3 47 84.4 50 78.9 76.0 –4 1 (2) 1 0.93 2.48 0.66 1.22 1.51 3.29 118 1.0 0.5 0.4 0.6 1.11 Saline 1.0 Surface 1 –15 180 190 210 250 260 280 263 Fresh 256 261 265 270 230 140 1 1 59.6 18 31 43 53 69 71 Saline 67.1 59.7 61.0 10 59.4 45.0 –24 1 Revised data values. 2 Data not available. 3 Included in self-supplied industrial category. electric. In high population growth rates during those periods. Percentage the second-largest category of use after thermo increases in public-supply withdrawals during the next three 1950, irrigation withdrawals accounted for 64 percent of total freshwater withdrawals excluding thermoelectric, and decadal periods between 1960 and 1990 averaged 23 percent, again coinciding with the rate of growth in population during in 2010 irrigation withdrawals accounted for 61 percent the same time periods. Between 1990 and 2000, the rate of of total freshwater withdrawals excluding thermoelectric. increase in public-supply withdrawals was lower at 12 percent. Between 1985 and 2010, the majority of irrigation water was Between 1990 and 2010, public-supply withdrawals have been supplied by surface-water sources, ranging from 66 percent in roughly 60 percent from surface water and 40 percent from 1985 to 57 percent in 2010. The use of more water-efficient groundwater sources. The percentage of the population that irrigation systems continued to increase with nearly 3 percent is served from public-supply withdrawals has increased from more irrigated acres using sprinkler systems in 2010 than in percent in 1950 to 86 percent in 2010. 2005. Nearly 2 percent fewer irrigated acres were reported 62 Self-supplied domestic withdrawals declined 3 percent using flood (surface) irrigation systems in 2010 compared to between 2005 and 2010, from 3.71 Bgal/d to 3.60 Bgal/d. 2005. Microirrigation systems showed the largest percentage increase between 2005 and 2010, with 14 percent more irri - Since 1985, the rate of change in self-supplied domestic with - drawals has remained fairly steady with, at most, a 6 percent gated acres with this type of system. Total irrigated acres were only 2 percent more in 2010 than in 2005. increase (1995–2000). Between 1985 and 2010, the percentage Public-supply withdrawals in 2010 were 5 percent less of total population that was self-supplied has continuously declined, from about 18 percent to 14 percent. The average per than in 2005, decreasing from 44.3 Bgal/d to 42.0 Bgal/d and marking the first decline since public-supply withdrawals were capita use for self-supplied domestic withdrawals decreased initially reported in 1950. Total public-supply withdrawals in from 89 gallons per day in 2005 to 81 gallons per day in 2010 were at levels not reported since prior to 2000. During 2010. Estimates of self-supplied domestic withdrawals are decadal periods between 1950 and 1960, public-supply computed either using a standard coefficient of use or a withdrawals increased 50 percent in conjunction with the coefficient derived from data about public-supply domestic

52 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 46 350 400 EXPLANATION 350 Groundwater 300 Surface water Total 300 Population 250 250 200 200 150 150 Population, in millions 100 Withdrawals, in billion gallons per day 100 50 50 0 0 1975 1985 1980 2005 2000 1995 1990 1970 1965 1960 1955 1950 2010 Trends in population and freshwater withdrawals by source, 1950–2010. Figure 13. Figure 13. 500 300 EXPLANATION 450 (see right axis) Total withdrawals Public supply Rural domestic and livestock 250 400 Irrigation Thermoelectric power 350 Other 200 300 250 150 200 100 150 Withdrawals, in billion gallons per day Total withdrawals, in billion gallons per day 100 50 50 0 0 1955 1985 1980 1975 1970 1965 1960 2010 2000 1995 1950 1990 2005 Trends in total water withdrawals by water-use category, 1950–2010. Figure 14. Figure 14.

53 Trends in Water Use, 1950–2010 47 of wood products, primary metals, paper, and chemicals, all of deliveries. The national average public-supply domestic delivery per capita use declined from 105 gallons per day in which had lower production following the 2008 U.S. recession (Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, 2014). 1985 to 89 gallons per day in 2010. The decline in the self- supplied domestic per capita use is most likely a function of Livestock, mining, and aquaculture withdrawals were the decline in the public-supply domestic delivery per capita included with other categories prior to 1985. Livestock use. In particular, California (7 percent self-supplied popula initially was included with rural domestic, but since 1960 has - tion) reported 179 gpcd for self-supplied domestic use in been estimated as a separate category and has consistently accounted for about 1 percent of total withdrawals excluding 2005, and 69 gpcd in 2010. Similarly, Texas (10 percent self- supplied population) and Wisconsin (30 percent self-supplied thermoelectric throughout the 1960–2010 period. Withdrawals for livestock decreased 7 percent from 2.15 Bgal/d in 2005 to population) both reported 8 percent declines in self-supplied 2.00 Bgal/d in 2010, showing the second consecutive period of domestic per capita use between 2005 and 2010. decline. Livestock withdrawals in 2010 were 16 percent less Changes in the industrial category can be compared for than the peak year of 2000, when 2.39 Bgal/d was reported. 1985 through 2010, which are the years this category was Mining withdrawals were 5.32 Bgal/d in 2010, or a compiled separately for commercial, mining, and aquaculture percent increase over 2005 (3.83 Bgal/d). This represented uses. Total industrial withdrawals decreased 12 percent 39 between 2005 and 2010, continuing the decline shown each the largest percentage increase of any category of use between 2005 and 2010, but since mining is a relatively small category period since 1985. Total industrial withdrawals decreased by 38 percent between 1985 to 2010, from 25.8 Bgal/d in 1985 to in terms of total withdrawals, the increase did not offset the 15.9 Bgal/d in 2010. Groundwater provided 14 percent of the large national decreases in total water use. Prior to 1985, total industrial withdrawals in 1985; this proportion has been mining was included in other industrial withdrawals, but since 1985 has represented from 1.6 to 2.7 percent of total with - - in the range of 17 to 18 percent since. Almost all of the indus - drawals excluding thermoelectric. Trends in mining with trial groundwater withdrawals were freshwater. Fresh surface- water withdrawals have accounted for more than 90 percent drawals have fluctuated between 1985 and 2010, ranging from an increase of 43 percent between 1985 and 1990, followed by of surface-water withdrawals for industrial use since 1995 and was 93 percent in 2010. a 27 percent decrease between 1990 and 1995. Aquaculture withdrawals were 9.42 Bgal/d in 2010, or Declines in industrial withdrawals reflects greater effi- a 7 percent increase from 2005. Aquaculture was the other ciencies in industrial processes and an emphasis on water reuse and recycling within industrial facilities, both driven by category along with mining that showed an increase in with - - environmental regulations and limited availability of fresh drawals between 2005 and 2010. Since 1985, aquaculture has water resources in some areas. The larger decline in industrial - grown from 1 percent of total withdrawals excluding thermo withdrawals from 2005 to 2010 compared to 2000 to 2005 electric to almost 5 percent in 2010 with the most increase change between 1995 and 2000 when the total withdrawals (12 percent compared to 8 percent) may be due in part to increased nearly 80 percent. lower industrial production in the major water-using industries The Plant Bowen coal-fired powerplant outside Euharlee in Bartow County, Georgia. Photo by Alan Cressler, USGS.

54 48 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 MacKichan, K.A., 1951, Estimated use of water in the United References Cited States, 1950: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 115, 13 p. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, 2014, MacKichan, K.A., 1957, Estimated use of water in the United Industrial Production and Capacity Utilization–G.17, States, 1955: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 398, 18 p. accessed September 19, 2014, at http://www.federalreserve. MacKichan, K.A., and Kammerer, J.C., 1961, Estimated use gov/releases/g17/About.htm . of water in the United States, 1960: U.S. Geological Sur - California State Water Resources Control Board, 2013, vey Circular 456, 26 p. Once-through cooling policy protects marine life and Murray, C.R., 1968, Estimated use of water in the United insures electric grid reliability, accessed July 7, 2014, States, 1965: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 556, 53 p. http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/publications_forms/ at Murray, C.R., and Reeves, E.B., 1972, Estimated use of water publications/factsheets/docs/oncethroughcooling.pdf . in the United States, 1970: U.S. Geological Survey Dickens, J.M., Forbes, B.T., Cobean, D.S., and Tadayon, Saeid, Circular 676, 37 p. - 2011, Documentation of methods and inventory of irriga Murray, C.R., and Reeves, E.B., 1977, Estimated use of water tion data collected for the 2000 and 2005 U.S. Geological in the United States in 1975: U.S. Geological Survey Survey “Estimated use of water in the United States,” com - Circular 765, 39 p. parison of USGS-compiled irrigation data to other sources, and recommendations for future compilations: U.S. Geo - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National logical Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2011–5166, Climate Data Center, 2010, State of the climate, Entire . http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2011/5166/ 60 p., report–annual 2010, accessed August 25, 2014, at . http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/2010/13 Diehl, T.H., and Harris, M.A., 2014, Withdrawals and con - sumption of water by thermoelectric power plants in the Price, C,V., and Maupin, M,A., 2014, Documentation for United States, 2010: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific the U.S. Geological Survey Public Supply Database org/ http://dx.doi. Investigations Report 2014–5184, 28 p., —A database of permitted public-supply wells, (PSDB) 10.3133/sir20145184 . surface-water intakes, and systems in the United States: Diehl, T.H., Harris, M.A., Murphy, J.C., Hutson, S.S., and –1212, 14 p. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014 Ladd, D.E., 2013, Methods for estimating water consump - Solley, W.B., Chase, E.B., and Mann, W.B., IV, 1983, tion for thermoelectric power plants in the United States: Estimated use of water in the United States in 1980: U.S. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report Geological Survey Circular 1001, 56 p. 2013–5188, 78 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20135188 . Solley, W.B., Merk, C.F., and Pierce, R.R., 1988, Estimated Hutson, S.S., compiler, 2007, Guidelines for preparation of use of water in the United States in 1985: U.S. Geological State water-use estimates for 2005: U.S. Geological Survey Survey Circular 1004, 82 p. Techniques and Methods, book 4, chap. E1, 28 p. (Also Solley, W.B., Pierce, R.R., and Perlman, H.A., 1993, http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/2007/tm4e1 available at .) Estimated use of water in the United States in 1990: Hutson, S.S., Barber, N.L., Kenny, J.F., Linsey, K.S., Lumia, D.S., U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1081, 76 p. and Maupin, M.A., 2004, Estimated use of water in the Solley, W.B., Pierce, R.R., and Perlman, H.A., 1998, United States in 2000: U.S. Geological Survey Circular Estimated use of water in the United States in 1995: 1268, 46 p., . http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/2004/circ1268/ U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1200, 71 p. Kenny, J.F., Barber, N.L., Hutson, S.S., Linsey, K.S., U.S. Census Bureau, 2011, Population distribution and Lovelace, J.K., and Maupin, M.A., 2009, Estimated use of changes—2000 to 2010: United States Census Bureau, water in the United States in 2005: U.S. Geological Survey http://www.census.gov/prod/ access July 7, 2014, at Circular 1344, 52 p., http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1344/ . cen2010/briefs/c2010br-01.pdf . Levin, S.B., and Zarriello, P.J., 2013, Estimating irrigation U.S. Department of Energy, 2011, Annual energy outlook water use in the humid eastern United States: U.S. Geo - 2011 with projections to 2035: U.S. Energy Information logical Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2013–5066, Administration, Office of Integrated and International 32 p., . http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2013/5066/ Energy Analysis, DOE/EIA-0383(2011), 235 p. - Lovelace, J.K., 2009a, Method for estimating water with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2014, Laws & drawals for livestock in the United States, 2005: U.S. Geo - Statues—The Safe Drinking Water Act, accessed logical Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009–5041, March 14, 2014, at http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/ . http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5041/ 7 p., . guidance/sdwa/laws_statutes.cfm Lovelace, J.K., 2009b, Methods for estimating water withdrawals for mining in the United States, 2005: U.S. Geological Veil, J.A., 2007, Use of reclaimed water for power plant Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009–5053, 7 p., cooling: Argonne, Ill., Argonne National Laboratory, . http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5053/ Environmental Science Division, ANL/EVS/R-07/3, 60 p.

55 Glossary 49 Glossary The following terms are referenced in the text or are part of the water-use Circular series. An equipment system that cooling system - Water use associ animal-specialties water use provides water for cooling purposes, such as to ated with the production of fish in captivity, except condensers at powerplants or at factories. May for fish hatcheries, and the raising of horses and include water intakes, outlets, cooling towers, such fur-bearing animals as rabbits and pets. See also ponds, canals, pumps, and pipes. cooling- Animal-specialties water-use estimates were - system type, industrial water use, and thermo included in the 1990 and 1995 water-use Circulars, electric-power water use. but were combined with the livestock categories or aquaculture categories beginning in 2000. See Defined as either once- cooling-system type aquaculture water use, fish-farm water use, also through or recirculation cooling system. See also livestock water use, and rural water use. industrial water use, once-through cooling system, recirculation cooling system, and thermoelectric- aquaculture water use Water use associated power water use. with the farming of organisms that live in water (such as finfish and shellfish) and offstream water Water used for indoor domestic water use fish- use associated with fish hatcheries. See also household purposes such as drinking, food farm water use, fish-hatchery water use, animal- preparation, bathing, washing clothes and dishes, specialties water use, and livestock water use. flushing toilets, and outdoor purposes such as watering lawns and gardens. Domestic water use recirculation closed-loop cooling system See includes water provided to households by a public cooling system. water supply (domestic deliveries from public public- See also suppliers) and self-supplied water. commercial water use Water for motels, hotels, supply deliveries, public-supply water use, rural restaurants, office buildings, other commercial water use, and self-supplied water use. facilities, military and nonmilitary institutions, and (for 1990 and 1995) offstream fish hatcheries. Water used for the produc - fish-farm water use Water may be obtained from a public-supply tion of finfish and shellfish under controlled system or may be self-supplied. Commercial feeding, sanitation, and harvesting procedures for water-use estimates were included in some commercial purposes. Water use by fish farms is previous water-use Circulars but were omitted See also classified in the aquaculture category. See also beginning in 2000. fish-hatchery water animal-specialties water use, aquaculture water - use, public-supply water use, public-supply deliv use, and fish-hatchery water use. eries, and self-supplied water use. Water used for raising fish-hatchery water use consumptive use The part of water withdrawn fish for later release and in association with the that is evaporated, transpired, incorporated operation of fish hatcheries or fishing preserves. into products or crops, consumed by humans Fish-hatchery water use has been included in the or livestock, or otherwise removed from the See also - aquacul aquaculture category since 2000. immediate water environment. Consumptive-use ture water use, commercial water use, and fish-farm estimates were included in some previous water- water use. use Circulars but were omitted beginning in 2000. Also referred to as water consumed. freshwater Water that contains less than 1,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L) of dissolved Water that is lost in transit conveyance loss mg/L solids. Generally, water with more than 500 from a pipe, canal, conduit, or ditch by leakage or of dissolved solids is undesirable for drinking and evaporation. Generally, the water is not available saline water. See also many industrial uses. - for further use; however, leakage from an irriga - industrial water use Water used for fabrica - tion ditch, for example, may percolate to a ground tion, processing, washing, and cooling. Includes water source and be available for further use. industries such as chemical and allied products, Conveyance-loss estimates were included in some - food, mining, paper and allied products, petro previous water-use Circulars but were omitted leum refining, and steel. Term used in previous See also beginning in 2000. irrigation water use.

56 50 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 water-use Circulars to describe the combined Water used for the extraction mining water use public-supply deliveries to industrial users and of naturally occurring minerals including solids self-supplied industrial withdrawals. Since 2000, (such as coal, sand, gravel, and other ores), liquids industrial water use refers only to self-supplied (such as crude petroleum), and gases (such as industrial withdrawals. cooling system, See also natural gas). Also includes uses associated with cooling-system type, mining water use, public- quarrying, milling of mined materials, injection supply deliveries, public-supply water use, and of water for secondary oil recovery or for uncon - self-supplied water use. ventional oil and gas recovery (such as hydraulic fracturing), and other operations associated with instream use - Water that is used, but not with mining activity. Does not include water associated drawn, from a surface-water source for such with dewatering of the aquifer that is not put to purposes as hydroelectric-power generation, beneficial use. Also does not include water used in navigation, water-quality improvement, fish processing, such as smelting, refining petroleum, propagation, and recreation. Instream water-use or slurry pipeline operations. These processing estimates for hydroelectric power were included uses are included in industrial water use. See also in some previous water-use Circulars but were industrial water use and self-supplied water use. omitted since 2000. Water withdrawn or diverted offstream use irrigation district A cooperative, self-governing from a groundwater or surface-water source for public corporation set up as a subdivision of aquaculture, commercial, self-supplied domestic, the State government, with definite geographic industrial, irrigation, livestock, mining, public boundaries, organized, and having taxing power to supply, thermoelectric power, and other uses. See obtain and distribute water for irrigation of lands also entries for each of these categories of use. within the district. Created under the authority of a State legislature with the consent of a designated Also known as once-through cooling system See also fraction of the landowners or citizens. open-loop cooling system. Cooling system in irrigation water use. which the water is withdrawn from a source, circulated through the heat exchangers, and then Water that is applied by an irrigation water use - returned to a body of water at a higher tempera irrigation system to assist crop and pasture growth, cooling system, cooling-system ture. See also or to maintain vegetation on recreational lands type, industrial water use, and thermoelectric- such as parks and golf courses. Irrigation includes power water use. water that is applied for pre-irrigation, frost protection, chemical application, weed control, Amount of water deliv - public-supply deliveries field preparation, crop cooling, harvesting, dust ered from a public supplier to users for domestic, suppression, leaching of salts from the root zone, commercial, industrial, thermoelectric-power, or and conveyance losses. See also conveyance loss, public-use purposes. Estimates of deliveries for microirrigation system, sprinkler irrigation system, each purpose were provided for 1995 and earlier and surface irrigation system. years, but not for 2000. For 2005 and 2010, only domestic deliveries were estimated nationally. Water used for livestock livestock water use See also commercial water use, domestic water watering, feedlots, dairy operations, and other use, industrial water use, public-supply water use, on-farm needs. Types of livestock include dairy public water use, and thermoelectric-power use. cows and heifers, beef cattle and calves, sheep and lambs, goats, hogs and pigs, horses and poultry. Water withdrawn by public-supply water use animal-specialties water use, aquaculture See also public and private water suppliers that furnish water use, and rural water use. water to at least 25 people or have a minimum of 15 connections. Public suppliers provide water for An irrigation system that microirrigation system a variety of uses, such as domestic, commercial, wets only a discrete portion of the soil surface industrial, thermoelectric-power, and public water - in the vicinity of the plant by means of applica use. See also commercial water use, domestic tors (such as orifices, emitters, porous tubing, or water use, industrial water use, public-supply perforated pipe) and operated under low pressure. deliveries, public water use, and thermoelectric- The applicators may be placed on or below the power water use. surface of the ground or suspended from supports. See also irrigation water use, sprinkler irrigation system, and surface irrigation system.

57 Glossary 51 Water supplied from a public public water use surface irrigation system Irrigation by means supplier and used for such purposes as fire of flood, furrow, or gravity. Flood irrigation is the - application of irrigation water in which the entire fighting, street washing, flushing of water lines, and maintaining municipal parks and swimming soil surface is covered by ponded water. Furrow is a partial surface-flooding method of irrigation pools. Generally, public-use water is not billed by the public supplier. - public-supply deliv See also normally used with clean-tilled crops in which eries and public-supply water use. water is applied in furrows or rows of sufficient capacity to contain the design irrigation stream. recirculation cooling system Also known as Gravity is an irrigation method in which water is closed-loop cooling system. Water is withdrawn not pumped, but flows in ditches or pipes and is from a source, circulated through heat exchangers, distributed by gravity. irrigation water See also cooled, and then re-used in the same process. use, microirrigation system, and sprinkler irriga - Recirculation cooling systems may use induced tion system. draft cooling towers, forced draft cooling towers, See also cooling ponds, or canals. Water used in thermoelectric-power water use cooling system, cooling-system type, industrial water use, and the process of generating electricity with steam- driven turbine generators. Term used in previous thermoelectric-power water use. water-use Circulars to describe the combined reclaimed wastewater Wastewater-treatment public-supply deliveries to thermoelectric-power - plant effluent that has been diverted for beneficial plants and self-supplied thermoelectric-power uses such as irrigation, industry, or thermoelectric- withdrawals. Since 2000, thermoelectric-power power cooling instead of being released to a water use refers only to self-supplied thermoelec - natural waterway or aquifer. See also water use. See also tric-power withdrawals. cooling system, cooling-system type, public-supply water use, and return flow Water that reaches a groundwater or self-supplied water use. surface-water source after release from the point of use and thus becomes available for further use. wastewater-treatment return flow Term used See also water use. in previous water-use Circulars to describe water returned to the hydrologic system by wastewater- Water used in suburban or rural water use See also treatment facilities. water use. farm areas for domestic and livestock needs. The water generally is self-supplied, and includes water use In a restrictive sense, the term refers domestic use, drinking water for livestock, and to water that is withdrawn for a specific purpose, other uses such as dairy sanitation, cleaning, and such as for public supply, domestic use, irriga - waste disposal. Term used in previous water-use tion, thermoelectric-power cooling, or industrial animal-specialties water use, Circulars. See also processing. In previous water-use Circulars, water domestic water use, livestock water use, and self- use for the domestic, commercial, industrial, and supplied water use. thermoelectric categories included both self- supplied withdrawals and deliveries from public saline water Water that contains 1,000 mg/L or supply. More broadly, water use pertains to the more of dissolved solids. freshwater. See also interaction of humans with and influence on the self-supplied water use Water withdrawn from a hydrologic cycle, and includes elements such as groundwater or surface-water source by a user rather water withdrawal, delivery, consumptive use, than being obtained from a public-supply source. wastewater release, reclaimed wastewater, return flow, and instream use. See also offstream use and sprinkler irrigation system An irrigation system instream use. in which water is applied by means of perforated pipes or nozzles operated under pressure so Water removed from a water withdrawal groundwater or surface-water source for use. See irrigation See also as to form a spray pattern. also offstream use and self-supplied water use. water use, microirrigation system, and surface irrigation system. watt-hour (Wh) An electrical energy unit of standard industrial classification (SIC) codes measure equal to 1 watt of power supplied to, or Four-digit codes established by the Office of taken from, an electric circuit steadily for 1 hour. Management and Budget, published in 1987, and used in the classification of establishments by type of activity in which they are engaged.

58 52 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 Cooperating Agencies and Organizations The following State, regional, and local organizations provided assistance and data as part of the water-use compilation. In addition, State, regional, and national offices of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Agricultural Statistics Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and other Federal agencies provided assistance and data for various States. Alabama Colorado Alabama Department of Economic and Community Develop - Colorado Department of Health and Environment ment, Office of Water Resources, Water Management Branch Colorado Division of Local Affairs Alabama Department of Environmental Management, Colorado Division of Reclamation Mining and Safety Drinking Water Branch Colorado Division of Water Resources Alaska Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission Alaska Department of Administration, Oil and Gas Colorado Water Conservation Board Conservation Commission Rocky Mountain Golf Course Superintendents Association Alaska Department of Commerce, Community and Connecticut Economic Development State of Connecticut Department of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Environmental Protection Division of Water Alaska Department of Fish and Game Delaware Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Calpine Mid-Atlantic Generation LLC Division of Agriculture City of Lewes, Delaware Alaska Department of Natural Resources, City of Newark, Delaware Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys City of Wilmington, Brandywine Pumping Station, Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Delaware Division of Mining Land and Water Cogentrix (Logan Generating Co. LP) Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil and Gas Delaware Agricultural Extension Service University of Alaska, Cooperative Extension Service Delaware City Refinery (former Premcor) Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Arizona Environmental Control Arizona Department of Water Resources FPL Energy, Marcus Hook, LP General Chemical Corp. Arkansas Indian River Power, LLC Arkansas Association of Conservation Districts NACP irrigated data (2012) Arkansas Department of Health, Engineering Division NRG Indian River Power LLC Arkansas Natural Resources Commission United Water Comp., Delaware California Florida California Department of Food and Agriculture, Annual County Agriculture Commissioner Reports Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Office of Water Policy California Department of Public Health Northwest Florida Water Management District California Department of Water Resources, Land and Water Use South Florida Water Management District California State Water Resources Control Board, Southwest Florida Water Management District Water Recycling Funding Program St. Johns River Water Management District Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations Suwannee River Water Management District Golf Course Superintendents Association of America

59 Cooperating Agencies and Organizations 53 Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality Georgia Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals Georgia Environmental Protection Division, Watershed Protection Branch Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development Georgia Power Company Louisiana Office of Conservation - Injection and Mining Division Georgia Soil and Water Conservation Commission Louisiana State University Agricultural Center University of Georgia, Cooperative Extension Service Maine Hawaii Maine Department of Agriculture Hawaii Department of Water Supply Maine Department of Environmental Protection Hawaiian Electric Company Maine Department of Health and Human Services Honolulu Board of Water Supply Maine Geological Survey Kauai Department of Water Maine Public Utilities Commission Maui Department of Water Supply Maryland Idaho Maryland Department of the Environment Idaho Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Statistics Service Massachusetts Idaho Department of Environmental Quality Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection Idaho Department of Fish and Game Massachusetts Water Resources Authority Idaho Department of Labor Michigan Idaho Department of Water Resources Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, Idaho Power Company Water Use Program United Water Idaho University of Idaho, Research and Extension Center at Kimberly Minnesota Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Illinois Exelon Corporation Mississippi Illinois Association of Wastewater Agencies Mississippi Agriculture and Forestry Extension Service Illinois State Water Survey—Illinois Water Inventory Program Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Land and Water Resources U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farm Services Agency Mississippi State Department of Health Indiana Yazoo Mississippi Delta Joint Management District Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Missouri Iowa Missouri Department of Natural Resources Iowa Department of Natural Resources— Water Allocation and Use Program Montana Dry Prairie Rural Water Authority Kansas Fort Peck Rural County Water District Kansas Department of Agriculture—Division of Water Resources Hill County Water District Kansas Water Office Montana Department of Environmental Quality Kentucky Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet, Department of Montana Department of Revenue Environmental Protection, Division of Water Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks Louisiana Montana State University, Central Agricultural Research Center Capitol Area Ground Water Conservation Committee Montana Water Company Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service Multiple cities in Montana

60 54 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 PPL Montana Pershing County Water Conservation District Prairie County Community Hospital Southern Nevada Water Authority Rosebud Operating Services, Inc. Truckee Carson Irrigation District Valley Capitol, Inc. Truckee Meadows Water Authority U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nebraska Virgin Valley Water District Central Nebraska Public Power and Irrigation District New Hampshire Central Platte Natural Resource District New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, Lewis and Clark Natural Resource District Water Management Bureau Little Blue Natural Resource District New Jersey Lower Big Blue Natural Resource District New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Lower Elkhorn Natural Resource District Lower Loup Natural Resource District New Mexico Lower Niobrara Natural Resource District New Mexico Office of the State Engineer— Water Conservation Bureau Lower Platte North Natural Resource District Lower Republican Natural Resource District New York Middle Republican Natural Resource District New York City Department of Environmental Protection Nebraska Association of Natural Resource Districts New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Nebraska Department of Natural Resources New York State Department of Health Nemaha Natural Resource District North Carolina North Platte Natural Resource District Carolinas Golf Course Superintendents Association South Platte Natural Resource District Duke Energy Company Tri-Basin Natural Resource District North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Twin Platte Natural Resource District Services, Agribusiness and Aquaculture Upper Big Blue Natural Resource District North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Upper Elkhorn Natural Resource District Resources, Division of Water Resources Upper Loup Natural Resource District North Carolina State University, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cooperative Extension Upper Niobrara-White Natural Resource District North Carolina State University, College of Agriculture and Upper Republican Natural Resource District Life Sciences, Department of Crop Science Progress Energy Company Nevada Boulder City Water Department North Dakota Carson City Public Works North Dakota Industrial Commission - Oil and Gas Division Chevron Global Power Company North Dakota Regional Water Systems Colorado River Commission North Dakota Rural Water Systems Association Federal Water Master North Dakota State Climate Office Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology North Dakota State Data Center - North Dakota State University Nevada Commission on Mineral Resources North Dakota State Department of Commerce Nevada Department of Business and Industry North Dakota State University, Department of Agriculture Nevada Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, North Dakota State Water Commission Division of Environmental Protection Ohio Nevada Department of Wildlife Ohio Department of Natural Resources Nevada Division of Water Resources

61 55 Cooperating Agencies and Organizations Oklahoma South Dakota South Dakota Department of Agriculture City of Oklahoma City—Water & Wastewater Utilities South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural City of Tulsa—Department of Public Works Resources Grand River Dam Authority Tennessee National Weather Service Memphis Light, Gas and Water Oklahoma Agricultural Statistics Service Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Oklahoma Climatological Survey Division of Water Resources Oklahoma Corporation Commission Tennessee Valley Authority Oklahoma Department of Commerce U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality Texas Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Oklahoma Water Resources Board Texas Railroad Commission Southwest Power Administration Texas Water Development Board—Water Use and Oregon Projections & Planning Oregon Golf Association U.S. Virgin Islands Oregon Health Authority Drinking Water Services U.S. Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority Oregon State University Extension Service Oregon Water Resources Department Utah State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center Pennsylvania Utah Department of Agriculture Delaware River Basin Commission Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection Gas, and Mining Puerto Rico Utah Department of Natural Resources, Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority Division of Water Resources Puerto Rico Department of Agriculture Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights Puerto Rico Department of Health Utah Department of Natural Resources, Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Division of Wildlife Resources Resources Puerto Rico Electric and Power Authority Vermont Puerto Rico Land Authority Champlain Water District Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, Rhode Island Department of Environmental Conservation Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management Vermont Golf Course Superintendents Association Rhode Island Department of Health Rhode Island Water Resources Board Virginia Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, South Carolina Water Supply Planning Program Duke Energy Corporation Virginia Department of Health, Office of Drinking Water Santee Cooper Power Washington South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Washington State Department of Ecology South Carolina Electric and Gas Washington State Department of Health

62 56 Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 West Virginia West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water And Waste Management West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources, Bureau for Public Health West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin— Water and Energy Divisions Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Wyoming Wyoming Agricultural Statistics Service Wyoming Department of Employment Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission Wyoming Water Development Commission

63 Manuscript approved on September 24, 2014 Prepared by the USGS Science Publishing Network Raleigh Publishing Service Center (PSC) Edited by Kay P. Naugle Illustrations and layout by Caryl J. Wipperfurth Cover by Carol A. Quesenberry, Denver PSC For more information about this publication contact: U.S. Geological Survey National Water Use Program [email protected] http://water.usgs.gov/watuse/

64 Maupin and others —Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010 — Circular 1405 ISSN 1067-084X (Print) ISSN 2330-5703 (Online) Printed on recycled paper http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/cir1405

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