WJP ROLI 2017 18 Online Edition 0

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1 l i a a o a i z a n r a s n i a i i a a n a e r d v v z F o i g a w i B o l l o l o m s d J a I o b e r t u g e s a t a u l a n i e i m e o B u B B n i l m z a r y g h s a a B r l k a m a n i o r J l i c C e e a C a C a a d e h u i h p B a H C J s B a b K B C o b e n a a r r & s m z d d c a a a i a o a a k l l n i B h R m e o g s n r a a a t i i n a t C s r h K o n s t a a K o e v s o a B y n I B i ’ u a r B y t i g C d l a a A y a z o e r s r t t t c a i s o L C a l n e u n b b C i t u a A n n p o e k e n r a g R L a r d M i b h u m a A e c c b r n e r i d e a e a o a z n c D B a i i a i C , n n F & i Y a a R M m b l o u a d A g c a D i i g l t a n b s a n u c t a p s r i A e n R a n h M a r g a c f o l i a d w A n a i i u c m E o M D a l a y s t i a p y g E M e x i c o r o d a v l a S l E M o l d o v a a i n o t s E M o n g o l i a a i p o i h t E M o r c o c o r a m n F a y i n M l a n d l a p e N F r a n c e s d n a l r G e h e t e o N r g i a d n a l G a e e Z r w m e N a n a y u g a r a c i G N h a a i n r e a g i N G r y e a e w c r G e H o N r e o n G n a t n a s u i d g k a a a t P a e K m m a o a n G n a l a P u u g H r e y P o S a n n s A e a d R n i u p , r d p C a H i n l s i a h l h u l i o P n n a P I g a g n u a t a d r I e r n r o o y o P a d n i e K i n e w f a a a b a s o i i I a i m s c r b a s i b s i o l a m u v b m R m n i a e u a R a a Z p Z l n i N e t e c s e R n & u i u e a z l s L y V t n t e a i . a s t t i i n s a g d u i S e k e a e K e g t b e . m V n n t n s r a u e b o e e t r S r e e o z r e a t S d S i e S o a U a U n a G g y i c n L p n r d d a i a i i e n e e o a e i a e a r d i n a n r k a t i h k f s v r g g i t m e i n a r m k K r n p n o a n n A a l E d a n g e u i & a S a l U d i b S U i e t n u S z T h L U b e S o i t a t n T n w i a r i T e u r h r a S u n c o S T A T & S n U S i d d V e . a t t i d S i n n U i r T World Justice Project ® Rule of Law Index 2017–2018

2 ® The report was prepared by the World Justice Project’s research team. The Index’s WJP Rule of Law Index 2017–2018 conceptual framework and methodology were developed by Juan Carlos Botero, Mark David Agrast, and Alejandro Ponce. Data collection and analysis for the 2017–2018 report was performed by Kate Adams, Juan Carlos Botero, Alicia Evangelides, Amy Gryskiewicz, Camilo Gutiérrez Patiño, Matthew Harman, Roberto Hernández, Alexa Hopkins, Jeremy Levine-Drizin, Sarah Chamness Long, Rachel Martin, Layda Negrete, Alejandro Ponce, Christine S. Pratt, and Leslie Solís Saravia, with the assistance of Abigail Cameron, Erin Campbell, Ben Carleton, Annette Coto, Loralys McDaniel, Carolyne Musyoka, Kelly Ranttila, Jessica Sawadogo, Nathan Treacy, and Katie Welgan. Lead graphic designer for this report was Priya Khosla. Lead website designer was Dan McCarey, with assistance from Priya Khosla. The World Justice Project : Sheikha Abdulla Al-Misnad, Kamel Ayadi, William C. Hubbard, Hassan Bubacar Jallow, Suet-Fern Lee, Board of Directors Mondli Makhanya, William H. Neukom, Ellen Gracie Northfleet, James R. Silkenat, Petar Stoyanov. Directors Emeritus: President Dr. Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai Mark D. Agrast, Vice President Officers: Vice President ; William C. Hubbard, Chairman of the Board ; ; Deborah Enix-Ross, Gerold W. Libby, General Counsel and Secretary ; Judy Perry Martinez, Vice President ; William H. Neukom, Founder and CEO ; James R. Silkenat, Director and Treasurer . Juan Carlos Botero Executive Director: Chief Research Officer: Alejandro Ponce The WJP Rule of Law Index 2017–2018 report was made possible by the generous supporters of the work of the World Justice Project listed in this report on page 191. IBSN (print version): 978-0-9882846-2-3 IBSN (online version): 978-0-9882846-3-0 © Copyright 2018 by the World Justice Project. The WJP Rule of Law Index and the World Justice Project Rule of Law Index are trademarks of the World Justice Project. All Rights Reserved. Requests to reproduce this document should be sent to Alejandro Ponce, The World Justice Project, 1025 Vermont Avenue, N.W., Suite 1200, Washington, D.C. 20005 U.S.A. E-mail: [email protected]

3 Table of Contents 15 02 Part Two Part One Status of Rule of Introduction Law Around the World 02 Executive Summary 03 Scores & Rankings Rule of Law Around the World 16 04 Features of the Rule of Law Index Rule of Law by Region 18 06 Defining the Rule of Law Rule of Law by Income 22 o8 Conceptual Framework of the Rule of Law Index Rule of Law Performance & Changes 26 10 Indicators of the Rule of Law Index 27 41 Part Four Part Three Country Profiles Factor Trends Changes in Factor Scores 28 155 Overview of Factor Changes 30 Overview of Factor Performance 31 Part Five 32 Rule of Law by Factor Behind the Numbers 32 Factor 1: Constraints on Government Powers 33 Factor 2: Absence of Corruption Methodology 156 Factor 3: Open Government 34 164 Contributing Experts Factor 4: Fundamental Rights 35 187 Acknowledgements 36 Factor 5: Order & Security About the World Justice Project 190 37 Factor 6: Regulatory Enforcement Factor 7: Civil Justice 38 Factor 8: Criminal Justice 39

4 Part One: Introduction World Justice Project Rule of Law Index ® World Justice Project Rule of Law Index is the world’s most comprehensive The dataset of its kind and the only to rely principally on primary data, measuring countries’ adherence to the rule of law from the perspective of ordinary people and their experiences. The country scores and rankings for the World Justice Project (WJP) Rule of Law Index 2017– The WJP Rule of Law Index 2017–2018 are derived from more than 110,000 2018 is the seventh report in an annual series, which household surveys and 3,000 expert surveys in 113 measures the rule of law based on the experiences and countries and jurisdictions. The Index is the world’s most perceptions of the general public and in-country experts comprehensive dataset of its kind and the only to rely worldwide. Strengthening the rule of law is a major goal of principally on primary data, measuring countries’ adherence citizens, governments, donors, businesses, and civil society organizations around the world. To be effective, rule of to the rule of law from the perspective of ordinary people and their experiences. law development requires clarity about the fundamental features that define the rule of law, as well as an adequate The Index is intended for a broad audience that includes basis for its evaluation and measurement. policy makers, civil society organizations, and academics, The among others. It is our hope that this diagnostic tool will WJP Rule of Law Index 2017–2018 presents a portrait help identify countries’ strengths and weaknesses and of the rule of law in 113 countries by providing scores and rankings based on eight factors: constraints on government encourage policy choices that strengthen the rule of law - powers, absence of corruption, open government, funda within and across countries. mental rights, order and security, regulatory enforcement, civil justice, and criminal justice. The table on the following page presents the scores WJP Rule of Law Index 2017–2018 , and rankings of the in alphabetical order. Scores range from 0 to 1, with 1 indicating the strongest adherence to the rule of law. I 2 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

5 Rank Global Score Global Score Rank 2 1 2 1 1 1 Change Change Change Rank Rank Country/Jurisdiction Country/Jurisdiction Score Score Change 111 Afghanistan 0.00 – 0.34 95 0.02 Kenya 0.45 5 0.00 Albania 0.51 68 4 Kyrgyzstan 1 0.00 82 0.47 0.01 Antigua & Barbuda Lebanon 87 47 0. -0.04 0.63 5 34 2 0.01 Argentina 0.58 46 5 0.03 – Liberia 0. 94 45 -0.01 1 10 0.00 0.81 Australia 53 57 0. 3 Macedonia, FYR -0.02 1 -0.02 8 0.81 Austria 44 0. Madagascar 8 98 -0.01 Bahamas 0.60 40 2 0. Malawi 51 66 3 0.00 1 0.00 Bangladesh 0.41 102 0. 0.00 3 53 54 Malaysia 2 -0.02 Barbados 30 0.65 Mexico 0.00 4 92 45 0. 0.51 -0.02 8 65 Belarus 49 0. Moldova 1 78 0.00 Belgium 0.77 15 2 -0.02 4 Mongolia 0. 54 51 0.00 -0.02 1 Belize 0.47 81 0.00 0. 7 67 51 Morocco -0.01 106 0.38 2 Bolivia -0.02 42 100 Myanmar 0. 2 0.01 Bosnia & 5 53 Nepal 0. 58 -0.03 56 0.53 6 Herzegovina -0.01 5 Netherlands – 0. 85 Botswana 45 – 0.01 0.58 1 7 83 0. New Zealand 0.00 Brazil -0.02 – 52 0.54 0.01 43 2 99 Nicaragua 0. 55 -0.01 2 0.53 Bulgaria -0.01 44 0. Nigeria 1 97 0.02 9 70 0.51 Burkina Faso 0.01 89 – 2 0. Norway 0.00 – Cambodia 112 0.32 0.01 1 Pakistan 0.39 105 – 109 0.00 0.37 Cameroon 0.00 Panama 0. 52 61 1 9 3 0.00 Canada 0.81 0.01 Peru 0. 5 60 52 -0.02 Chile 0.67 27 1 -0.04 Philippines 0. 47 18 88 China 5 75 0.50 0.02 -0.04 0. Poland 3 25 67 0.50 Colombia 0.00 72 1 0.01 Portugal 2 21 72 0. 24 Costa Rica 0.68 1 0.00 -0.01 20 1 Republic of Korea 0. 72 3 0.01 47 0. Cote d’Ivoire 84 0.00 0. 65 29 Romania 3 0. 35 Croatia 4 0.01 61 0.01 89 47 0. Russia 3 0. Czech Republic – -0.01 17 74 -0.02 0. 49 55 Senegal 3 Denmark 1 – 0.01 0. 89 0.00 76 2 50 0. Serbia 41 -0.01 1 60 0. Dominica 0.01 Sierra Leone 2 45 93 0. Dominican Republic 0. 47 90 5 0.00 -0.02 0. Singapore 4 13 80 Ecuador 6 85 47 0. 0.02 0.00 Slovenia 0. 67 26 1 110 Egypt 0.00 36 0. – South Africa 0. 59 44 0.00 1 El Salvador 48 79 4 -0.01 0. 0.01 23 Spain 0. 1 70 Estonia 0.01 2 12 80 0. 0.01 9 Sri Lanka 0. 52 59 0.00 – 107 38 0. Ethiopia 2 28 0.00 66 0. St. Kitts & Nevis 87 0.00 0. 3 – Finland -0.01 St. Lucia 63 3 33 0. 3 0.74 France 18 0.02 St. Vincent & the 0.00 0. 61 37 – 4 Georgia 0. 61 38 -0.04 Grenadines -0.02 0. – Germany 0.00 6 83 Suriname 0. 51 69 10 59 0.01 0. 43 Ghana 1 0.00 Sweden 0. 86 4 – 39 2 0.00 0. 60 Greece Tanzania 0. 47 86 2 0.00 -0.01 36 Grenada 61 5 0. -0.05 0. 50 71 7 Thailand -0.01 Guatemala 0.00 96 44 1 0. Trinidad & Tobago – 48 56 0. 73 3 50 0. Guyana 0.01 4 0.00 54 53 0. Tunisia -0.01 Honduras -0.02 0. 40 103 1 101 2 42 0. Turkey 0.01 Hong Kong SAR, 104 40 Uganda 0. 1 0. 77 16 – 0.00 China 0.01 0. 50 77 1 Ukraine Hungary 55 50 1 -0.02 0. -0.01 United Arab Emirates 65 1 32 0. 4 0.00 India 0. 52 62 81 0. 11 United Kingdom 1 0.00 Indonesia 0. 52 63 2 0.00 -0.01 United States 1 19 73 0. 0.01 6 80 48 0. Iran -0.01 71 2 22 0. Uruguay Italy 0. 65 31 4 0.00 0.01 2 91 46 0. Uzbekistan 58 0.00 47 0. – Jamaica 0.01 Venezuela 29 – 113 0. 0.01 0. Japan 79 14 1 -0.01 Vietnam 0. 50 74 7 0.01 Jordan – 42 60 0. Zambia 2 83 47 0. 0.00 51 0. Kazakhstan 0.01 9 64 0.00 108 37 0. Zimbabwe – 1 Scores and change in scores are rounded to two decimal points. 2 The change in rankings was calculated by comparing the positions of the 113 countries measured in 2016 with the rankings of the same 113 countries in 2017–2018. I 3 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

6 Part One: Introduction Features of the WJP Rule of Law Index 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index The World Justice Project developed the to serve as a quantitative tool that measures the rule of law in practice. The Index’s methodology and comprehensive definition of the rule of law are the products of intensive consultation and vetting with academics, practitioners, and community leaders from more than 100 countries and 17 professional disciplines. civil and commercial law, criminal justice, labor law, and The scores and rankings of the eight factors and 44 3 sub-factors of the Index draw from two sources of data public health. collected by the WJP in 113 countries: Taken together, these two data sources provide current, conducted by leading 1. A General Population Poll (GPP) firsthand information about the experiences and percep - local polling companies, using a representative sample tions of a large number of people. Their insights address of 1,000 respondents in the three largest cities of each - the government, the police, the courts, the state's open country; ness and accountability, the extent of corruption, and the magnitude of common crimes to which the general public 2. Qualified Respondents’ Questionnaires (QRQs) is exposed. consisting of closed-ended questions completed by in-country practitioners and academics with expertise in Box 1 Country-Specific Data and Online Tools ® In addition to this written report, an interactive online platform for country-specific WJP Rule of Law Index data data.worldjusticeproject.org. is available at: The interactive data site invites viewers to browse each of the 113 country profiles, and explore country and factor scores. The site features the Index’s entire dataset, as well as global, regional, and income group rankings. 3 page 156 of this report for more detailed information regarding data collection Please see the “Methodology” section on and score computation. I 4 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

7 Main Features includes several features that set it apart from other indices and The WJP Rule of Law Index make it useful for analysis across a large number of countries: New Data Anchored in Actual Experiences Rule of Law in Practice The Index measures adherence to the rule of The Index is the only comprehensive set of indi - cators on the rule of law that is based on primary law by looking at policy outcomes, such as whether people have access to courts or whether crime is data. The Index’s scores are built from the as - effectively controlled. This stands in contrast to sessments of residents (1,000 respondents per efforts that focus on the written legal code, or the country) and local legal experts, which ensure that the findings reflect the conditions experienced by institutional means by which a society may seek to actual people, including residents from marginal achieve these policy outcomes. - ized sectors of society. Comprehensive and Multi-Dimensional Culturally Competent While other indices cover particular aspects of The Index has been designed to be applied in the rule of law, such as absence of corruption or human rights, they do not yield a full picture of countries with vastly different social, cultural, the state of the rule of law. The economic, and political systems. No society has WJP Rule of Law is the only global instrument that looks at the ever attained — let alone sustained — a perfect Index rule of law comprehensively. realization of the rule of law. Every country faces the perpetual challenge of building and renewing the structures, institutions, and norms that can Perspective of Ordinary People WJP Rule of Law Index puts people at its support and sustain a rule of law culture. The core. It looks at a country’s adherence to the rule of law from the perspective of ordinary individuals and their experiences with the rule of law in their societies. The Index examines practical, everyday situations, such as whether people can access public services and whether a dispute among neighbors can be resolved peacefully and cost- effectively by an independent adjudicator. I 5 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

8 Part One: Introduction Defining the Rule of Law Effective rule of law reduces corruption, combats poverty and disease, and protects people from injustices large and small. It is the foundation for communities of peace, opportunity, and equity – underpinning development, accountable government, and respect for fundamental rights. The rule of law is not just the rule of lawyers and judges: all members of society are stakeholders. This is measured in factors 5, 6, 7, and 8 of the Index. Despite its profound importance for fair and functioning societies, the rule of law is notoriously difficult to define Although broad in scope, this framework assumes very and measure. A simple way of approaching it is in terms little about the functions of the state, and when it does, it incorporates functions that are recognized by practically all of some of the outcomes that the rule of law brings to societies, such as the provision of justice or the guarantee societies, each of which reflects one aspect of the complex concept of the rule of law. The WJP Rule of Law Index seeks of order and security. to embody these outcomes within a simple and coherent The resulting set of indicators is also an effort to strike a framework. balance between what scholars call a “thin” or minimal - ist conception of the rule of law that focuses on formal, captures adherence to the rule of WJP Rule of Law Index The (see Box 2) law as defined by the WJP’s universal principles procedural rules, and a “thick” conception that includes substantive characteristics, such as self-government and through a comprehensive and multi-dimensional set of out - various fundamental rights and freedoms. Striking this bal come indicators, each of which reflects a particular aspect - ance between “thin” and “thick” conceptions of the rule of of this complex concept. The theoretical framework linking law enables the Index to apply to different types of social these outcome indicators draws upon two main principles and political systems, including those which lack many of pertaining to the relationship between the state and the governed. The first principle measures whether the law the features that characterize democratic nations, while imposes limits on the exercise of power by the state and including sufficient substantive characteristics to render its agents, as well as individuals and private entities. This is the rule of law as more than a system of rules. Indeed, the measured in factors 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the Index. The second Index recognizes that a system of law that fails to respect core human rights guaranteed under international law is at principle measures whether the state limits the actions of best “rule by law” and does not deserve to be called a rule members of society and fulfills its basic duties towards its of law system. population so that the public interest is served, people are protected from violence, and all members of society have access to dispute settlement and grievance mechanisms. I 6 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

9 Box 2 Four Universal Principles of the Rule of Law The WJP uses a working definition of the rule of law based on four universal principles, derived from internationally accepted standards. The rule of law is a system where the following four universal principles are upheld: 1. Accountability 3. Open Government The processes by which the laws are enacted, The government as well as private actors are administered, and enforced are accessible, fair, and accountable under the law. efficient. 2. Just Laws 4. Accessible & Impartial Dispute Resolution Justice is delivered timely by competent, ethical, and The laws are clear, publicized, stable, and just; are applied evenly; and protect fundamental rights, independent representatives and neutrals who are including the security of persons and property and accessible, have adequate resources, and reflect the certain core human rights. makeup of the communities they serve. The rule of law affects all of us in our everyday lives. and corruption decrease the security of physical Although we may not be aware of it, the rule of law is - infrastructure and waste scarce resources, which are es profoundly important – and not just for lawyers or judges. sential to a thriving economy. It is the foundation for a system of rules to keep us safe, Public Health & Environment resolve disputes, and enable us to prosper. Every sector of Consider the implications of pollution, wildlife poaching, society is a stakeholder in the rule of law. Below are a few and deforestation for public health and the environment. examples: What would happen if a company were pouring harmful Business Environment chemicals into a river in a highly populated area and the Imagine an investor seeking to commit resources abroad. environmental inspector ignored these actions in exchange She would probably think twice before investing in a for a bribe? Adherence to the rule of law is essential for - holding governments, businesses, civil society organiza country where corruption is rampant, property rights are ill-defined, and contracts are difficult to enforce. Uneven tions, and communities accountable for protecting public health and the environment. enforcement of regulations, corruption, insecure property rights, and ineffective means to settle disputes undermine legitimate business and deter both domestic and foreign investment. Public Works Consider the bridges, roads, or runways we traverse daily – or the offices and buildings in which we live, work, and play. What would happen if building codes governing their design and safety were not enforced, or if government officials and contractors used low-quality materials in order to pocket the surplus? Weak regulatory enforcement I 7 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

10 Part One: Introduction Conceptual Framework of the WJP Rule of Law Index The conceptual framework of the is comprised of eight factors WJP Rule of Law Index further disaggregated into 44 sub-factors. The WJP also collects data on a ninth factor, informal justice, which are not calculated into the aggregate scores and rankings. These factors and sub-factors are presented below and described in detail in the section that follows. Factor 3 Factor 1 Constraints on Government Powers Open Government 3.1 Government powers are effectively limited by Publicized laws and government data 1.1 the legislature 3.2 Right to information Government powers are effectively limited by 1.2 3.3 Civic participation the judiciary 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 1.3 Government powers are effectively limited by independent auditing and review Factor 4 1.4 Government officials are sanctioned for misconduct Fundamental Rights 1.5 Government powers are subject to non- 4.1 Equal treatment and absence of discrimination governmental checks 4.2 The right to life and security of the person is Transition of power is subject to the law 1.6 effectively guaranteed 4.3 Due process of the law and rights of the Factor 2 accused Absence of Corruption 4.4 Freedom of opinion and expression is effectively 2.1 Government officials in the executive branch guaranteed do not use public office for private gain 4.5 Freedom of belief and religion is effectively 2.2 Government officials in the judicial branch do not use guaranteed public office for private gain 4.6 Freedom from arbitrary interference with privacy 2.3 Government officials in the police and military do not is effectively guaranteed use public office for private gain 4.7 Freedom of assembly and association is 2.4 Government officials in the legislative branch do effectively guaranteed not use public office for private gain 4.8 Fundamental labor rights are effectively guaranteed I 8 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

11 Factor 5 Factor 7 Order & Security Civil Justice 7.1 People can access and afford civil justice Crime is effectively controlled 5.1 5.2 7. 2 Civil conflict is effectively limited Civil justice is free of discrimination 7. 3 5.3 People do not resort to violence to redress Civil justice is free of corruption personal grievances 7. 4 Civil justice is free of improper government influence 7. 5 Civil justice is not subject to unreasonable delay Factor 6 7. 6 Regulatory Enforcement Civil justice is effectively enforced 7. 7 Alternative dispute resolution mechanisms are 6.1 Government regulations are effectively enforced accessible, impartial, and effective 6.2 Government regulations are applied and enforced without improper influence Factor 8 6.3 Administrative proceedings are conducted without Criminal Justice unreasonable delay 8.1 Criminal investigation system is effective 6.4 Due process is respected in administrative proceedings 8.2 Criminal adjudication system is timely and effective 6.5 The government does not expropriate without Correctional system is effective in reducing criminal 8.3 lawful process and adequate compensation behavior 8.4 Criminal justice system is impartial 8.5 Criminal justice system is free of corruption 8.6 Criminal justice system is free of improper government influence 8.7 Due process of the law and rights of the accused Box 3 Factor 9 Informal Justice and the Rule of Law Freedom of opinion and expression is effectively Informal Justice guaranteed 9.1 Informal justice is timely and effective The conceptual framework of the Index includes a ninth factor on informal justice that is not included 9. 2 Informal justice is impartial and free of in the Index’s aggregate scores and rankings. Informal improper influence justice systems often play a large role in countries 9. 3 Informal justice respects and protects where formal legal institutions are weak, remote, or fundamental rights perceived as ineffective. For this reason, the WJP has devoted significant effort to collecting data on systematically measuring their fairness and effective- ness make cross-country assessments extraordinarily informal justice in a dozen countries. Nonetheless, the challenging. complexities of these systems and the difficulties of I 9 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

12 Part One: Introduction Indicators of the WJP Rule of Law Index Factor 1 Factor 2 Absence of Corruption Constraints on Government Powers 2.1 Government officials in the executive branch do 1.1 Government powers are effectively limited by the legislature not use public office for private gain Measures the prevalence of bribery, informal Measures whether legislative bodies have the ability in payments, and other inducements in the delivery of practice to exercise effective checks on and oversight public services and the enforcement of regulations. of the government It also measures whether government procurement Government powers are effectively limited by 1.2 and public works contracts are awarded through the judiciary an open and competitive bidding process, and whether government officials at various levels Measures whether the judiciary has the independence of the executive branch refrain from embezzling and the ability in practice to exercise effective checks public funds on the government Government officials in the judicial branch do not use 2.2 1.3 Government powers are effectively limited by public office for private gain independent auditing and review Measures whether judges and judicial officials Measures whether comptrollers or auditors, as well refrain from soliciting and accepting bribes to per - as national human rights ombudsman agencies, have form duties or expedite processes, and whether the sufficient independence and the ability to exercise judiciary and judicial rulings are free of improper effective checks on and oversight of the government influence by the government, private interests, and criminal organizations 1.4 Government officials are sanctioned for misconduct Measures whether government officials in the execu - 2.3 Government officials in the police and military do not tive, legislature, judiciary, and the police are investigat - use public office for private gain ed, prosecuted, and punished for official misconduct Measures whether police officers and criminal and other violations investigators refrain from soliciting and accepting bribes to perform basic police services or to inves - Government powers are subject to non- 1.5 tigate crimes, and whether government officials governmental checks in the police and the military are free of improper Measures whether an independent media, civil society influence by private interests or criminal organiza - organizations, political parties, and individuals are free tions - to report and comment on government policies with out fear of retaliation 2.4 Government officials in the legislative branch do not use public office for private gain Transition of power is subject to the law 1.6 Measures whether members of the legislature Measures whether government officials are elected or refrain from soliciting or accepting bribes or other appointed in accordance with the rules and procedures inducements in exchange for political favors or set forth in the constitution. Where elections take favorable votes on legislation place, it also measures the integrity of the electoral process, including access to the ballot, the absence of intimidation, and public scrutiny of election results I 10 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

13 Factor 4 Factor 3 Open Government Fundamental Rights 4.1 3.1 Publicized laws and government data Equal treatment and absence of discrimination Measures whether individuals are free from Measures whether basic laws and information on based on socio-economic status, discrimination — legal rights are publicly available, presented in plain gender, ethnicity, religion, national origin, sexual language, and made accessible in all languages. orientation, or gender identity — with respect to It also measures the quality and accessibility of public services, employment, court proceedings, information published by the government in print and the justice system or online, and whether administrative regulations, drafts of legislation, and high court decisions are 4.2 The right to life and security of the person is made accessible to the public in a timely manner effectively guaranteed 3.2 Right to information Measures whether the police inflict physical harm upon criminal suspects during arrest and interroga - Measures whether requests for information held by tion, and whether political dissidents or members a government agency are granted, whether these - of the media are subjected to unreasonable search requests are granted within a reasonable time es or to arrest, detention, imprisonment, threats, period, if the information provided is pertinent and abusive treatment, or violence - complete, and if requests for information are grant ed at a reasonable cost and without having to pay 4.3 Due process of the law and rights of the accused a bribe. It also measures whether people are aware Measures whether the basic rights of criminal of their right to information, and whether relevant suspects are respected, including the presumption records are accessible to the public upon request of innocence and the freedom from arbitrary arrest and unreasonable pre-trial detention. It also mea - 3.3 Civic participation sures whether criminal suspects are able to access - Measures the effectiveness of civic participa and challenge evidence used against them, whether tion mechanisms, including the protection of the they are subject to abusive treatment, and whether freedoms of opinion and expression, assembly and they are provided with adequate legal assistance. association, and the right to petition the govern - In addition, it measures whether the basic rights ment. It also measures whether people can voice of prisoners are respected once they have been concerns to various government officers, and convicted of a crime whether government officials provide sufficient information and notice about decisions affecting 4.4 Freedom of opinion and expression is effectively the community guaranteed Measures whether an independent media, civil so - 3.4 Complaint mechanisms ciety organizations, political parties, and individuals Measures whether people are able to bring specific are free to report and comment on government complaints to the government about the provision policies without fear of retaliation - of public services or the performance of govern 4.5 Freedom of belief and religion is effectively ment officers in carrying out their legal duties in practice, and how government officials respond to guaranteed such complaints Measures whether members of religious minorities can worship and conduct religious practices freely - and publicly, and whether non-adherents are pro tected from having to submit to religious laws (cont'd) I 11 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

14 Part One: Introduction Factor 4 Factor 6 Fundamental Rights Regulatory Enforcement 4.6 6.1 Freedom from arbitrary interference with privacy Government regulations are effectively enforced is effectively guaranteed Measures whether government regulations, such Measures whether the police or other government as labor, environmental, public health, commercial, officials conduct physical searches without war - and consumer protection regulations, are effective - rants, or intercept electronic communications of ly enforced private individuals without judicial authorization 6.2 Government regulations are applied and enforced 4.7 Freedom of assembly and association is without improper influence effectively guaranteed Measures whether the enforcement of regulations is subject to bribery or improper influence by - Measures whether people can freely attend com private interests, and whether public services, such munity meetings, join political organizations, hold - as the issuance of permits and licenses and the ad peaceful public demonstrations, sign petitions, and ministration of public health services, are provided express opinions against government policies and without bribery or other inducements actions without fear of retaliation 6.3 Administrative proceedings are conducted without 4.8 Fundamental labor rights are effectively unreasonable delay guaranteed Measures whether administrative proceedings at Measures the effective enforcement of fundamen - the national and local levels are conducted without tal labor rights, including freedom of association unreasonable delay and the right to collective bargaining, the absence of discrimination with respect to employment, and 6.4 Due process is respected in administrative freedom from forced labor and child labor proceedings - Measures whether the due process of law is re spected in administrative proceedings conducted by national and local authorities, including such Factor 5 areas as the environment, taxes, and labor Order & Security 6.5 The government does not expropriate without 5.1 Crime is effectively controlled lawful process and adequate compensation Measures the prevalence of common crimes, Measures whether the government respects the including homicide, kidnapping, burglary and theft, property rights of people and corporations, refrains armed robbery, and extortion, as well as people’s from the illegal seizure of private property, and general perceptions of safety in their communities provides adequate compensation when property is legally expropriated 5.2 Civil conflict is effectively limited Measures whether people are effectively protected from armed conflict and terrorism 5.3 People do not resort to violence to redress personal grievances Measures whether people resort to intimidation or - violence to resolve civil disputes amongst them selves or to seek redress from the government, and whether people are free from mob violence I 12 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

15 Factor 8 Factor 7 Civil Justice Criminal Justice 7.1 8.1 Criminal investigation system is effective People can access and afford civil justice Measures whether perpetrators of crimes are Measures the accessibility and affordability of effectively apprehended and charged. It also mea - civil courts, including whether people are aware sures whether police, investigators, and prosecu - of available remedies; can access and afford legal tors have adequate resources, are free of corrup - advice and representation; and can access the tion, and perform their duties competently court system without incurring unreasonable fees, encountering unreasonable procedural hurdles, or Criminal adjudication system is timely and effective 8.2 experiencing physical or linguistic barriers Measures whether perpetrators of crimes are ef - 7. 2 Civil justice is free of discrimination fectively prosecuted and punished. It also measures whether criminal judges and other judicial officers - Measures whether the civil justice system discrim are competent and produce speedy decisions inates in practice based on socio-economic status, gender, ethnicity, religion, national origin, sexual 8.3 Correctional system is effective in reducing criminal orientation, or gender identity behavior 7. 3 Civil justice is free of corruption Measures whether correctional institutions are secure, respect prisoners’ rights, and are effective Measures whether the civil justice system is free of in preventing recidivism bribery and improper influence by private interests 8.4 Criminal justice system is impartial 7. 4 Civil justice is free of improper government influence Measures whether the police and criminal judges Measures whether the civil justice system is free of are impartial and whether they discriminate in improper government or political influence practice based on socio-economic status, gender, - ethnicity, religion, national origin, sexual orienta 7. 5 Civil justice is not subject to unreasonable delay tion, or gender identity Measures whether civil justice proceedings are conducted and judgments are produced in a timely 8.5 Criminal justice system is free of corruption manner without unreasonable delay Measures whether the police, prosecutors, and judges are free of bribery and improper influence 7. 6 Civil justice is effectively enforced from criminal organizations Measures the effectiveness and timeliness of the - enforcement of civil justice decisions and judg 8.6 Criminal justice system is free of improper ments in practice government influence Measures whether the criminal justice system is in - 7. 7 Alternative dispute resolution mechanisms are dependent from government or political influence accessible, impartial, and effective Measures whether alternative dispute resolution 8.7 Due process of the law and rights of the accused - mechanisms (ADRs) are affordable, efficient, en Measures whether the basic rights of criminal forceable, and free of corruption suspects are respected, including the presumption of innocence and the freedom from arbitrary arrest and unreasonable pre-trial detention. It also mea - sures whether criminal suspects are able to access and challenge evidence used against them, whether they are subject to abusive treatment, and whether they are provided with adequate legal assistance. In addition, it measures whether the basic rights of prisoners are respected once they have been convicted of a crime I 13 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

16

17 15 Part Two Status of Rule of Law Around the World 16 Rule of Law Around the World 18 Rule of Law by Region 22 Rule of Law by Income 26 Rule of Law Performance & Changes

18 Part Two: Status of Rule of Law Around the World Rule of Law Around the World: Scores & Rankings .51 – .60 .81 & Above .40 & Below .61 – .70 .71 – .80 .41 – .50 stronger adherence to the rule of law weaker adherence to the rule of law Overall Global Score* Country/Jurisdiction Ranking 0.89 Denmark 1 34 0.63 Antigua & Barbuda 0.61 Croatia 2 0.89 Norway 35 Finland 0.87 3 36 0.61 Grenada 0.86 St. Vincent & the Grenadines 37 0.61 4 Sweden Georgia 5 0.85 Netherlands 0.61 38 6 Germany 0.83 Greece 0.60 39 40 0.60 Bahamas New Zealand 0.83 7 8 0.81 41 0.60 Dominica Austria Jordan 0.81 42 Canada 0.60 9 Australia Ghana 43 10 0.81 0.59 United Kingdom 11 44 0.59 South Africa 0.81 45 0.80 12 0.58 Botswana Estonia 46 13 0.80 Singapore 0.58 Argentina 0.79 47 0.58 Jamaica 14 Japan Belgium Trinidad & Tobago 15 0.56 48 0.77 0.55 Hong Kong SAR, China 0.77 Senegal 16 49 17 Czech Republic 0.74 50 0.55 Hungary 0.74 0.54 Mongolia 18 51 France Brazil 0.54 19 0.73 United States 52 53 Republic of Korea 0.54 0.72 20 Malaysia 0.72 21 Portugal 54 0.53 Tunisia 0.53 Uruguay 55 Bulgaria 0.71 22 0.53 0.70 Spain 56 23 Bosnia & Herzegovina 0.53 Costa Rica 24 57 0.68 Macedonia, FYR 0.67 Poland Nepal 0.53 58 25 59 0.52 Slovenia 0.67 26 Sri Lanka 0.67 0.52 Peru Chile 60 27 St. Kitts & Nevis 0.52 28 0.66 61 Panama Romania 29 0.65 62 0.52 India 30 63 Indonesia 0.65 Barbados 0.52 Italy 64 0.51 Kazakhstan 0.65 31 32 Belarus 65 United Arab Emirates 0.65 0.51 0.51 66 St. Lucia 33 0.63 Malawi *Scores and change in scores are rounded to two decimal points.

19 Morocco 0.51 91 0.46 Uzbekistan 67 0.51 92 0.45 Mexico 68 Albania 93 0.45 Sierra Leone Suriname 69 0.51 Liberia 0.51 Burkina Faso 70 0.45 94 0.50 Kenya 95 71 0.45 Thailand Guatemala 96 Colombia 0.44 0.50 72 97 0.44 Nigeria 73 Guyana 0.50 Madagascar 0.50 Vietnam 74 0.44 98 0.50 Nicaragua 99 75 0.43 China Myanmar 100 Serbia 0.50 0.42 76 0.42 101 Turkey Ukraine 0.50 77 Moldova 78 102 0.41 Bangladesh 0.49 79 0.48 El Salvador Honduras 0.40 103 Iran 0.48 104 Uganda 0.40 80 Pakistan 81 105 0.47 Belize 0.39 0.47 Kyrgyzstan 106 0.38 Bolivia 82 83 0.47 Zambia Ethiopia 0.38 107 o C te d'Ivoire 0.47 84 Zimbabwe 0.37 108 109 Ecuador 85 Cameroon 0.37 0.47 86 110 Tanzania 0.47 Egypt 0.36 87 0.47 111 Lebanon Afghanistan 0.34 0.47 112 0.32 Philippines Cambodia 88 89 Russia 0.47 0.29 Venezuela 113 90 0.47 Dominican Republic I 17 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

20 Status of Rule of Law Around the World Part Two: Rule of Law Around the World by Region Region's Region's Top Average Rank Performer Score Region 0.60 East Asia & Pacific 2/7 New Zealand 0.50 Georgia Eastern Europe & Central Asia 5/7 1/7 EU & EFTA & NA Denmark 0.74 0.54 Uruguay 3/7 Latin America & Caribbean 0.51 4/7 United Arab Emirates Middle East & North Africa 7/7 Nepal South Asia 0.45 6/7 0.47 Ghana Sub-Saharan Africa East Asia & Pacific Regional Overall Global Change in Change in Average Regional Factor Score Average Regional Factor Score Country/Jurisdiction Country/Jurisdiction Rank Rank Score* Overall Score* Global Rank New Zealand 1/15 0.00 7/113 1 0.83 0.59 Australia 0.81 1 10/113 0.00 2/15 0.60 0.54 Singapore 0.80 13/113 4 3/15 -0.02 Japan 0.01 1 4/15 0.79 14/113 Hong Kong SAR, China – 16/113 0.00 5/15 0.77 Republic of Korea 0.55 -0.01 6/15 0.72 20/113 1 0.58 Mongolia 0.00 4 51/113 0.54 7/15 Malaysia 53/113 8/15 0.00 3 0.54 Indonesia 63/113 0.00 2 9/15 0.52 0.60 0.56 Thailand 10/15 0.50 71/113 7 -0.01 0.79 Vietnam 0.50 74/113 -0.01 7 11/15 China 75/113 5 0.50 12/15 0.02 Philippines 13/15 -0.04 18 0.47 88/113 Absence of Open Fundamental Constraints Corruption Government Rights on Gov't Myanmar 100/113 14/15 -0.01 2 0.42 Powers Cambodia – 15/15 0.32 112/113 0.00 Regulatory Civil Order & Criminal Enforcement Justice Security Justice .40 & Below .41 – .50 .51 – .60 .61 – .70 .71 – .80 .81 & Above stronger adherence to the rule of law weaker adherence to the rule of law *Scores and change in scores are rounded to two decimal points.

21 Eastern Europe & Central Asia Regional Overall Global Change in Change in Rank Score* Rank Country/Jurisdiction Global Rank Overall Score* Georgia 38/113 4 -0.04 0.61 1/13 0.43 Bosnia & Herzegovina 0.53 56/113 6 -0.03 2/13 0.43 0.42 Macedonia, FYR 0.53 57/113 3 -0.01 3/13 Kazakhstan 4/13 64/113 9 0.01 0.51 Belarus -0.02 5/13 0.51 65/113 8 0.48 Albania 6/13 0.51 68/113 4 0.00 0.51 Serbia 7/13 0.50 76/113 0.00 2 Ukraine 77/113 0.01 8/13 0.50 1 Moldova 0.49 1 9/13 0.00 78/113 0.47 0.51 Kyrgyzstan 0.47 82/113 1 0.00 10/13 0.76 Russia 3 0.01 0.47 11/13 89/113 Uzbekistan 0.46 2 0.01 12/13 91/113 Turkey 101/113 2 13/13 0.42 -0.01 (European Union, European Free Trade Association, and North America) EU & EFTA & NA Overall Regional Global Change in Change in Average Regional Factor Score Score* Rank Rank Overall Score* Global Rank Country/Jurisdiction Denmark 0.89 1/24 1/113 0.01 – 0.76 0.89 2/113 Norway 2/24 0.01 – 0.74 0.67 0.87 3/24 Finland 3/113 – 0.00 4/113 0.86 4/24 Sweden – 0.00 Netherlands 5/24 0.85 5/113 -0.01 – 0.73 6/24 0.83 6/113 – Germany 0.00 0.70 7/24 8/113 1 Austria 0.81 -0.02 8/24 9/113 Canada 3 0.81 0.00 9/24 0.81 11/113 1 United Kingdom 0.00 0.71 0.77 Estonia 10/24 0.80 12/113 2 0.01 0.84 15/113 0.77 11/24 Belgium 2 -0.02 Czech Republic 12/24 0.74 17/113 – -0.01 3 0.74 13/24 France 18/113 0.02 Absence of Open Fundamental Constraints Corruption Government 1 19/113 United States 0.73 14/24 Rights on Gov't -0.01 Powers 2 0.72 15/24 Portugal 21/113 0.01 Spain 16/24 0.70 23/113 1 0.01 Regulatory Civil Order & Criminal Enforcement Justice Security Justice 17/24 25/113 3 Poland 0.67 -0.04 1 Slovenia 18/24 0.67 26/113 0.00 29/113 3 0.65 19/24 Romania 0.00 0.65 20/24 31/113 4 Italy 0.00 21/24 0.61 35/113 4 Croatia 0.01 Greece 22/24 0.60 39/113 2 0.00 23/24 0.55 50/113 1 Hungary -0.02 2 Bulgaria 24/24 0.53 55/113 -0.01 I 19 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

22 Status of Rule of Law Around the World Part Two: Latin America & Caribbean Global Regional Overall Change in Change in Average Regional Factor Score Rank Rank Score* Global Rank Country/Jurisdiction Overall Score* Uruguay 0.71 22/113 2 1/30 -0.01 0.55 Costa Rica 24/113 0.00 1 2/30 0.68 Chile 0.51 0.43 27/113 3/30 -0.02 1 0.67 St. Kitts & Nevis 4/30 0.66 28/113 2 0.00 Barbados 2 -0.02 30/113 5/30 0.65 St. Lucia 0.53 3 -0.01 6/30 0.63 33/113 0.53 Antigua & Barbuda 0.63 7/30 34/113 5 -0.04 Grenada 36/113 0.61 5 -0.05 8/30 St. Vincent & the Grenadines 0.61 37/113 – 0.00 9/30 0.49 0.61 Bahamas 0.60 40/113 2 -0.01 10/30 0.67 Dominica 1 41/113 -0.01 11/30 0.60 Argentina 12/30 0.58 46/113 0.03 5 Jamaica – 13/30 0.58 47/113 0.00 Absence of Open Fundamental Constraints Trinidad & Tobago Corruption Government Rights on Gov't 14/30 0.56 48/113 – -0.01 Powers Brazil 0.54 52/113 – -0.02 15/30 Peru 0.01 0.52 60/113 5 16/30 Regulatory Civil Order & Criminal Enforcement Justice Security Justice Panama 61/113 0.52 1 17/30 0.00 Suriname 10 69/113 0.51 18/30 -0.02 Colombia 19/30 0.00 0.50 72/113 1 Guyana 0.01 20/30 0.50 73/113 3 El Salvador 79/113 4 -0.01 21/30 0.48 Belize 0.47 81/113 1 0.00 22/30 Ecuador 23/30 0.47 85/113 6 0.02 Dominican Republic 24/30 0.47 90/113 5 0.00 Mexico 92/113 25/30 0.45 4 0.00 Guatemala 26/30 96/113 1 0.00 0.44 Nicaragua 0.43 99/113 2 0.01 27/30 Honduras 28/30 103/113 1 -0.02 0.40 Bolivia 29/30 0.38 106/113 2 -0.02 Venezuela – 113/113 0.29 0.01 30/30 .40 & Below .41 – .50 .51 – .60 .61 – .70 .71 – .80 .81 & Above stronger adherence to the rule of law weaker adherence to the rule of law *Scores and change in scores are rounded to two decimal points.

23 Middle East & North Africa Overall Global Regional Change in Change in Average Regional Factor Score Score* Rank Rank Overall Score* Global Rank Country/Jurisdiction United Arab Emirates 32/113 1 1/7 -0.01 0.65 0.51 Jordan 2/7 0.01 – 0.60 42/113 0.53 0.48 Tunisia 0.00 4 0.53 3/7 54/113 Morocco 4/7 0.51 67/113 -0.02 7 Iran 0.48 0.01 6 80/113 5/7 0.40 Lebanon 0.53 6/7 0.47 87/113 2 0.01 Egypt – 7/7 0.36 0.00 110/113 0.51 0.44 0.71 South Asia Change in Regional Global Overall Change in Average Regional Factor Score Global Rank Score* Rank Rank Country/Jurisdiction Overall Score* Nepal 58/113 1/6 0.53 5 0.01 0.53 Sri Lanka 0.52 59/113 0.01 9 2/6 0.38 0.39 India 3/6 0.52 62/113 4 0.00 Bangladesh 0.00 4/6 0.41 102/113 1 Pakistan 0.01 5/6 0.39 105/113 1 0.49 Afghanistan 6/6 111/113 0.00 – 0.34 0.41 0.43 0.45 Sub-Saharan Africa 0.54 Regional Global Change in Overall Change in Rank Rank Overall Score* Score* Global Rank Country/Jurisdiction Average Regional Factor Score Ghana 0.59 43/113 1/18 1 0.01 0.50 South Africa 2/18 0.59 44/113 1 0.00 0.39 0.40 Botswana 0.01 – 45/113 0.58 3/18 Senegal -0.02 4/18 0.55 49/113 3 Malawi 0.51 0.00 3 66/113 5/18 Burkina Faso 0.43 70/113 9 0.02 0.51 6/18 0.49 Zambia 7/18 0.00 0.47 83/113 2 Cote d'Ivoire 0.47 84/113 3 0.01 8/18 Tanzania 0.00 9/18 0.47 86/113 2 0.44 0.50 Sierra Leone 2 0.01 10/18 0.45 93/113 0.63 Liberia – 0.01 11/18 0.45 94/113 Kenya 0.02 5 95/113 0.45 12/18 Nigeria -0.01 1 97/113 0.44 13/18 Absence of Open Fundamental Constraints Corruption Government Rights on Gov't Madagascar 0.44 98/113 -0.02 14/18 8 Powers Uganda 0.40 104/113 0.01 1 15/18 Regulatory Civil Order & Criminal Ethiopia 0.00 0.38 107/113 – 16/18 Enforcement Justice Security Justice Zimbabwe 0.00 – 108/113 0.37 17/18 Cameroon 18/18 0.37 109/113 – 0.00 I 21 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

24 Status of Rule of Law Around the World Part Two: Rule of Law Around the World by Income Income Group Income Group Top Income Group Average Score Rank Performer Low Income 4/4 0.45 Senegal Lower Middle Income Georgia 3/4 0.47 2/4 Costa Rica 0.53 Upper Middle Income High Income 1/4 0.74 Denmark Low Income Low Income Global Overall Score* Rank Rank Country/Jurisdiction Senegal Liberia 7/12 0.45 1/12 0.55 49/113 94/113 Nepal 98/113 0.44 8/12 Madagascar 58/113 0.53 2/12 Malawi 104/113 66/113 0.51 3/12 Uganda 9/12 0.40 0.51 107/113 0.38 10/12 Ethiopia Burkina Faso 4/12 70/113 86/113 Zimbabwe 11/12 0.37 108/113 Tanzania 5/12 0.47 111/113 12/12 Afghanistan 93/113 0.45 6/12 Sierra Leone 0.34 .40 & Below .41 – .50 .51 – .60 .61 – .70 .71 – .80 .81 & Above stronger adherence to the rule of law weaker adherence to the rule of law *Scores and change in scores are rounded to two decimal points.

25 Lower Middle Income Lower Middle Global Overall Income Rank Score* Rank Country/Jurisdiction o te d'Ivoire Georgia 16/30 0.47 C 1/30 0.61 38/113 84/113 17/30 Philippines 0.47 42/113 0.60 2/30 Jordan 88/113 43/113 Uzbekistan Ghana 91/113 0.46 18/30 3/30 0.59 19/30 51/113 0.54 4/30 Mongolia 95/113 0.45 Kenya 0.44 Tunisia 5/30 20/30 Guatemala 0.53 54/113 96/113 0.44 0.52 59/113 Nigeria 21/30 Sri Lanka 97/113 6/30 India 7/30 0.52 62/113 Nicaragua 22/30 0.43 99/113 23/30 Myanmar 100/113 63/113 0.52 8/30 0.42 Indonesia Morocco 9/30 0.51 67/113 Bangladesh 24/30 0.41 102/113 74/113 103/113 0.40 0.50 Vietnam 25/30 Honduras 10/30 Ukraine 0.50 77/113 Pakistan 26/30 0.39 105/113 11/30 78/113 27/30 0.38 106/113 Moldova 12/30 0.49 Bolivia 109/113 Cameroon 28/30 0.37 79/113 0.48 13/30 El Salvador 0.36 29/30 Egypt 82/113 Kyrgyzstan 14/30 0.47 110/113 0.47 Cambodia 30/30 0.32 112 /113 15/30 Zambia 83/113 .40 & Below .41 – .50 .51 – .60 .61 – .70 .71 – .80 .81 & Above weaker adherence to the rule of law stronger adherence to the rule of law I 23 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

26 Status of Rule of Law Around the World Part Two: Upper Middle Income Upper Middle Global Overall Income Rank Score* Rank Country/Jurisdiction Costa Rica 0.51 64/113 Kazakhstan 1/36 19/36 0.68 24/113 65/113 Romania 0.65 29/113 Belarus 20/36 0.51 2/36 Albania 21/36 0.51 68/113 St. Lucia 3/36 0.63 33/113 69/113 0.51 22/36 Suriname Croatia 4/36 0.61 35/113 Grenada 0.61 5/36 36/113 Thailand 23/36 0.50 71/113 6/36 72/113 0.50 0.61 37/113 24/36 St. Vincent & the Grenadines Colombia Guyana 0.60 41/113 73/113 0.50 25/36 Dominica 7/36 0.50 44/113 75/113 0.59 China 26/36 South Africa 8/36 Botswana 9/36 0.58 Serbia 27/36 0.50 76/113 45/113 10/36 Argentina Iran 28/36 80/113 46/113 0.58 0.48 Jamaica 11/36 0.58 47/113 Belize 29/36 0.47 81/113 30/36 0.54 12/36 Brazil Ecuador 52/113 85/113 0.47 Malaysia 13/36 0.54 53/113 87/113 Lebanon 31/36 0.47 32/36 Bulgaria 89/113 0.53 55/113 0.47 Russia 14/36 90/113 0.47 56/113 0.53 15/36 Bosnia & Herzegovina 33/36 Dominican Republic 34/36 0.45 92/113 Mexico 0.53 16/36 Macedonia, FYR 57/113 35/36 0.42 Peru 60/113 Turkey 17/36 0.52 101/113 0.29 113 /113 Venezuela 0.52 18/36 Panama 61/113 36/36 .40 & Below .41 – .50 .51 – .60 .61 – .70 .71 – .80 .81 & Above stronger adherence to the rule of law weaker adherence to the rule of law *Scores and change in scores are rounded to two decimal points.

27 High Income High Income Global Overall Rank Rank Score* Country/Jurisdiction 0.89 1/113 United States Denmark 1/35 19/113 0.73 19/35 20/35 20/113 Norway Republic of Korea 2/35 0.89 2/113 0.72 3/35 Finland 3/113 0.72 21/35 0.87 Portugal 21/113 4/113 0.86 4/35 Sweden 22/113 0.71 22/35 Uruguay Netherlands 5/35 0.85 5/113 Spain 23/35 23/113 0.70 0.83 6/35 Germany 6/113 24/35 0.67 25/113 Poland 7/113 0.83 New Zealand 7/35 Slovenia 25/35 0.67 26/113 0.81 8/113 Austria 8/35 26/35 0.67 Chile 27/113 9/113 0.81 9/35 Canada St. Kitts & Nevis 0.66 28/113 27/35 0.81 10/35 Australia 10/113 0.65 30/113 28/35 Barbados 0.81 11/35 United Kingdom 11/113 Italy 31/113 0.65 29/35 Estonia 12/35 0.80 12/113 United Arab Emirates 32/113 0.65 30/35 13/35 0.80 13/113 Singapore 34/113 0.63 31/35 Antigua & Barbuda 14/35 Japan 14/113 0.79 39/113 32/35 0.60 Greece Belgium 15/113 15/35 0.77 40/113 0.60 Bahamas 33/35 Hong Kong SAR, China 0.77 16/35 16/113 Trinidad & Tobago 48/113 34/35 0.56 17/113 0.74 17/35 Czech Republic 50/113 0.55 35/35 Hungary 18/113 0.74 18/35 France .40 & Below .41 – .50 .51 – .60 .61 – .70 .71 – .80 .81 & Above weaker adherence to the rule of law stronger adherence to the rule of law I 25 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

28 Status of Rule of Law Around the World Part Two: Rule of Law Performance & Changes This chart categorizes countries according to whether their overall 2017–2018 rule of law score is above or below the median, and whether their score has improved, remained stable, or declined since 2016. Rule of Law Score Positioning Region 0.9 0.90 East Asia & Pacific Grenada Eastern Europe & Central Asia Change: -0.051 EU & EFTA & North America France Above Median Georgia 0.8 0.80 Change: +0.019 LaKn America & Caribbean Change: -0.043 Middle East & North Africa Poland Change: -0.041 South Asia 0.7 0.70 Sub-Saharan Africa Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Change: -0.038 Change: +0.027 0.6 0.60 Index Score 2017–2018 Median: 0.53 0.5 0.50 Burkina Faso Change: +0.023 Philippines ROL 2017 Score 0.4 0.40 Change: -0.038 0.. 0.30 Below Median -0.03 +0.01 0.00 +0.005 -0.005 -0.01 -0.02 -0.04 -0.05 +0.03 +0.02 0.- Change in Score declining improving since 2016 EU & EFTA & NA Latin America & Caribbean East Asia & Pacific Eastern Europe & Central Asia 0.1 Middle East & North Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa 0.0 the Median Above the Median Above the Median Above Stable Rule of Law Declining Rule of Law Improving Rule of Law 0.01 0.00 -0.01 0.0. -0.03 -0.04 -0.05 0.0- -0.02 Australia Antigua & Barbuda Ghana Argentina Hungary New Zealand Botswana Austria Macedonia, FYR Canada Romania Japan (median) Bahamas Jordan Costa Rica Slovenia Croatia Netherlands Finland Norway Barbados Poland South Africa Denmark Republic of Korea St. Kitts & Nevis Belgium Estonia Germany Portugal Bosnia & Herzegovina Senegal St. Vincent & the France Spain Greece Brazil Grenadines Singapore Hong Kong SAR, China Sweden St. Lucia Bulgaria Italy Change in Score Chile Tunisia Jamaica Trinidad & Tobago United Arab Emirates Czech Republic Malaysia United Kingdom Sum of Change in Score vs. sum of ROL 2017 Score. Color shows details about Region. Details are shown for Country1. The view Dominica United States Mongolia is filtered on Region, which keeps 7 of 7 members. Georgia Uruguay Grenada the Median Below the Median Below the Median Below Improving Rule of Law Stable Rule of Law Declining Rule of Law Burkina Faso India Afghanistan Nicaragua Belarus Nigeria Indonesia Pakistan China Albania Bolivia Philippines Kyrgyzstan Bangladesh Cote d'Ivoire Peru El Salvador Suriname Russia Malawi Ecuador Belize Honduras Thailand Guyana Mexico Cambodia Sierra Leone Turkey Madagascar Iran Cameroon Moldova Sri Lanka Morocco Vietnam Panama Kazakhstan Uganda Colombia Myanmar Ukraine Serbia Kenya Dominican Republic Egypt Lebanon Uzbekistan Tanzania Liberia Ethiopia Venezuela Zambia Guatemala Zimbabwe Nepal

29 27 Part Three Factor Trends 28 Changes in Factor Scores 30 Overview of Factor Changes 31 Overview of Factor Performance 32 Rule of Law by Factor 32 Factor 1: Constraints on Government Powers 33 Factor 2: Absence of Corruption 34 Factor 3: Open Government 35 Factor 4: Fundamental Rights 36 Factor 5: Order & Security 37 Factor 6: Regulatory Enforcement 38 Factor 7: Civil Justice 39 Factor 8: Criminal Justice

30 Part Three: Factor Trends Change in -0.04 -0.03 -0.03 0.00 0.12 -0.04 0.06 0.02 Antigua & Barbuda 0.02 0.08 0.03 -0.01 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.05 Argentina 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.01 -0.01 -0.02 -0.05 0.00 Bahamas Factor Scores 0.00 -0.02 -0.03 -0.01 -0.03 -0.02 -0.03 -0.02 Barbados -0.04 0.03 0.03 -0.05 0.00 0.01 0.02 -0.01 Belize 0.01 -0.05 0.00 -0.02 -0.03 -0.03 -0.03 -0.01 Bolivia -0.01 0.05 -0.02 0.01 0.00 -0.02 0.03 -0.02 Brazil These charts present changes in country scores* for the eight aggregated factors by region. -0.01 0.04 0.00 -0.02 -0.01 -0.01 -0.02 -0.02 Chile An arrow pointing up indicates a statistically significant improvement, while an arrow pointing 0.00 0.00 -0.02 0.00 0.02 -0.01 -0.01 0.00 Colombia -0.02 0.03 -0.02 0.02 -0.04 0.01 0.00 0.01 Costa Rica down represents a statistically significant decline. 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.01 0.00 0.00 -0.02 -0.01 Dominica -0.01 0.02 0.01 0.00 -0.01 -0.01 0.00 -0.01 Dominican Republic 0.04 0.03 -0.01 0.02 0.02 0.04 -0.01 0.00 Ecuador 0.02 0.01 -0.03 -0.04 0.00 -0.01 0.03 -0.04 El Salvador -0.02 -0.04 0.00 -0.09 -0.05 -0.03 -0.06 0.13 Grenada EU & EFTA & NA East Asia & Pacific -0.01 0.01 -0.03 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.02 -0.01 Guatemala Total Countries: 15 Total Countries: 24 0.00 0.02 0.03 0.05 -0.01 -0.02 0.01 -0.01 Guyana -0.05 -0.02 -0.01 0.05 -0.01 -0.03 -0.04 -0.01 Honduras 0.02 -0.02 0.04 0.00 -0.01 0.01 0.00 -0.02 Jamaica 0.00 0.02 0.00 -0.02 -0.03 -0.01 0.01 0.00 Mexico -0.02 0.00 -0.04 -0.03 0.01 -0.02 0.07 0.00 Austria 0.02 0.00 -0.02 -0.01 0.02 -0.01 0.00 0.00 Australia 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.03 -0.01 0.04 Nicaragua 0.00 -0.01 0.02 0.06 0.00 -0.03 -0.03 -0.01 Belgium -0.01 0.01 -0.01 -0.01 0.01 -0.03 0.01 0.01 Cambodia 0.04 -0.01 0.02 -0.03 0.00 0.01 0.00 -0.03 Panama -0.01 -0.02 -0.01 -0.01 -0.04 0.02 0.01 0.04 Bulgaria 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 -0.01 0.01 0.03 China 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.02 Peru 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 Canada -0.08 0.00 0.02 0.04 -0.03 0.08 -0.02 -0.04 Hong Kong SAR, China 0.01 -0.05 0.00 0.01 -0.03 0.01 0.01 0.02 St. Kitts & Nevis 0.03 -0.03 -0.01 0.02 -0.01 -0.03 0.05 0.04 Croatia -0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 -0.01 0.05 -0.01 0.00 Indonesia 0.01 0.05 -0.06 -0.01 -0.05 0.00 -0.03 -0.02 St. Lucia -0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 -0.01 -0.03 -0.03 Czech Republic 0.02 0.01 0.01 -0.02 -0.03 0.05 0.02 0.00 Japan 0.00 0.01 0.00 -0.01 0.00 -0.02 0.01 -0.02 St. Vincent & the Grenadines 0.02 0.00 0.02 -0.02 0.01 0.01 -0.01 0.00 Denmark 0.03 0.04 -0.01 -0.01 -0.01 0.03 -0.05 0.05 Malaysia 0.01 0.09 -0.05 -0.02 -0.01 0.00 0.01 -0.01 Suriname -0.02 0.01 0.04 -0.01 0.04 0.02 -0.02 0.01 Estonia 0.01 -0.02 0.01 0.01 -0.01 0.00 -0.01 0.03 Mongolia -0.05 0.01 0.02 -0.01 -0.02 -0.02 0.00 -0.02 Trinidad & Tobago 0.01 0.03 -0.01 -0.01 -0.02 0.00 0.00 -0.02 Finland -0.02 0.02 0.00 -0.04 -0.01 -0.06 0.03 -0.03 Myanmar -0.01 0.00 -0.02 -0.02 0.01 0.01 0.03 -0.04 Uruguay -0.01 0.05 0.12 -0.03 0.03 0.00 -0.01 0.00 France 0.00 -0.01 -0.03 0.00 0.02 -0.01 -0.02 0.03 New Zealand 0.00 0.05 -0.02 0.02 -0.01 0.00 0.04 0.01 Venezuela -0.01 0.00 0.01 -0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 Germany 0.01 0.15 0.01 -0.02 0.04 0.02 0.05 0.08 Philippines 0.00 0.02 0.00 -0.01 -0.03 -0.02 0.03 0.04 Greece 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 -0.03 -0.07 -0.01 0.02 Republic of Korea -0.02 -0.04 0.05 0.03 -0.03 0.00 -0.02 -0.07 Hungary -0.03 -0.03 0.02 -0.03 -0.02 -0.04 -0.01 0.01 Singapore 0.01 -0.01 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.00 -0.01 Italy -0.04 -0.01 0.01 0.00 -0.01 0.00 -0.05 0.03 Thailand -0.02 -0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.01 -0.01 Netherlands 0.02 -0.01 -0.01 -0.04 0.02 -0.01 -0.03 -0.02 Vietnam 0.03 -0.01 0.01 0.01 -0.01 0.02 0.00 0.00 Norway -0.01 0.07 0.08 0.00 -0.01 -0.02 0.08 0.06 Poland 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.03 -0.03 Portugal Eastern Europe & Central Asia -0.02 -0.01 -0.01 0.00 -0.01 0.00 0.02 -0.01 -0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 -0.05 -0.01 0.01 -0.01 Romania Egypt Total Countries: 13 0.01 0.06 0.02 0.06 0.03 0.08 -0.03 0.01 -0.03 -0.03 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.00 0.02 Slovenia Iran 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.02 -0.01 0.01 -0.01 0.01 -0.01 Spain Jordan 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.06 0.00 0.03 0.01 -0.02 0.01 0.02 -0.02 Sweden Lebanon -0.01 0.00 -0.02 0.00 -0.01 -0.02 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 -0.04 -0.02 0.07 -0.02 United Kingdom Morocco -0.01 0.02 0.03 -0.01 0.02 0.00 -0.03 0.01 Albania 0.02 -0.02 -0.01 -0.03 -0.02 0.04 0.01 0.02 -0.03 -0.04 0.02 -0.01 0.00 0.05 0.02 0.00 United States Tunisia 0.05 -0.02 0.03 -0.01 -0.02 0.01 -0.04 0.09 Belarus 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.04 -0.03 -0.05 0.01 United Arab Emirates 0.01 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.00 0.00 -0.05 0.11 Bosnia & Herzegovina 0.06 0.01 0.06 0.07 -0.01 -0.04 0.07 -0.05 Georgia 0.02 0.00 -0.01 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.01 Kazakhstan -0.02 0.01 0.04 0.00 0.05 0.04 -0.02 0.01 Kyrgyzstan -0.03 -0.07 0.00 0.04 -0.01 0.00 -0.05 0.02 Macedonia, FYR 0.04 -0.01 -0.04 -0.01 0.01 0.00 -0.03 0.01 Moldova -0.01 0.02 -0.01 0.00 0.09 0.01 0.01 0.00 Russia -0.04 0.02 0.08 -0.02 0.05 0.02 0.03 0.02 Serbia -0.02 0.00 -0.02 0.00 0.07 -0.02 0.00 0.02 Turkey -0.02 0.00 -0.04 0.09 0.02 0.04 -0.02 0.00 Ukraine 0.03 0.01 -0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 -0.03 0.01 Uzbekistan *Scores and change in scores are rounded to two decimal points.

31 South Asia Latin America & Caribbean Total Countries: 30 Total Countries: 6 -0.01 -0.04 0.04 -0.02 0.00 -0.02 0.04 0.00 Afghanistan -0.03 -0.03 0.00 0.12 -0.04 0.02 0.06 -0.04 Antigua & Barbuda 0.00 0.01 0.00 -0.02 0.01 0.00 0.02 -0.01 Bangladesh -0.01 0.02 0.08 0.03 0.05 0.03 0.01 0.01 Argentina 0.03 0.01 -0.01 0.03 0.01 0.01 -0.01 -0.04 India 0.03 0.00 0.01 -0.01 -0.05 0.00 0.00 -0.02 Bahamas 0.00 -0.01 0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0.05 0.02 -0.01 Nepal -0.02 0.00 -0.02 -0.03 -0.02 -0.03 -0.01 -0.03 Barbados 0.01 0.01 -0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.01 Pakistan -0.04 -0.01 0.03 0.03 -0.05 0.00 0.01 0.02 Belize -0.01 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.04 -0.02 Sri Lanka 0.01 -0.03 -0.03 -0.05 0.00 -0.02 -0.01 -0.03 Bolivia 0.01 0.03 0.05 -0.02 -0.02 0.00 -0.02 -0.01 Brazil 0.04 0.00 -0.02 -0.01 -0.02 -0.02 -0.01 -0.01 Chile 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.02 -0.01 0.02 -0.01 Colombia Sub-Saharan Africa 0.02 0.01 0.00 -0.04 -0.02 -0.02 0.03 0.01 Costa Rica Total Countries: 18 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.01 -0.01 -0.02 0.00 Dominica 0.02 -0.01 -0.01 -0.01 0.00 0.01 -0.01 0.00 Dominican Republic 0.04 0.04 -0.01 0.03 -0.01 0.02 0.02 0.00 Ecuador 0.00 0.03 0.02 -0.04 -0.01 -0.03 -0.04 0.01 El Salvador 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.04 -0.01 -0.01 0.06 -0.03 Botswana -0.02 -0.04 -0.03 -0.09 0.00 0.13 -0.05 -0.06 Grenada 0.07 -0.04 0.00 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.01 Burkina Faso 0.00 -0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 -0.03 -0.01 Guatemala -0.02 0.00 0.02 0.00 -0.01 0.01 -0.02 0.02 Cameroon 0.05 0.03 -0.02 0.02 0.00 -0.01 0.01 -0.01 Guyana 0.01 0.01 -0.03 0.02 0.01 0.03 -0.01 0.02 Cote d'Ivoire -0.02 -0.01 0.05 -0.05 -0.01 -0.03 -0.01 -0.04 Honduras 0.00 0.02 0.01 -0.02 0.02 0.01 0.07 0.01 Ethiopia 0.01 0.04 -0.02 0.00 0.00 0.02 -0.01 -0.02 Jamaica 0.01 -0.02 0.03 0.00 -0.01 0.01 0.05 0.04 Ghana 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.00 -0.03 0.00 -0.01 -0.02 Mexico 0.00 0.06 -0.01 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.03 -0.01 Kenya 0.00 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.04 -0.01 0.02 0.00 Nicaragua -0.01 0.02 0.00 -0.01 0.02 -0.02 0.04 0.00 Liberia 0.00 0.04 -0.03 0.00 0.01 -0.03 -0.01 0.02 Panama -0.04 -0.01 -0.02 0.00 -0.01 -0.01 -0.04 -0.02 Madagascar 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.01 Peru 0.06 0.00 0.05 0.05 0.00 -0.01 0.00 -0.03 Malawi -0.05 0.01 0.01 -0.03 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.00 St. Kitts & Nevis 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 -0.01 0.11 Nigeria -0.06 -0.02 -0.03 0.00 -0.05 -0.01 0.01 0.05 St. Lucia -0.01 0.01 -0.03 0.08 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.01 Senegal -0.02 0.00 0.01 0.00 -0.01 0.00 -0.02 0.01 St. Vincent & the Grenadines 0.02 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.05 0.04 Sierra Leone -0.01 -0.05 0.01 0.09 0.01 0.00 -0.01 -0.02 Suriname 0.00 0.00 -0.02 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 South Africa -0.02 -0.05 0.02 0.01 -0.02 0.00 -0.02 -0.01 Trinidad & Tobago 0.01 0.00 -0.01 0.00 0.02 -0.02 0.00 -0.01 Tanzania -0.02 0.01 0.00 -0.02 0.01 -0.01 0.03 -0.04 Uruguay 0.02 -0.01 0.01 0.00 0.04 0.03 0.00 -0.01 Uganda -0.01 0.02 -0.02 0.05 0.00 0.01 0.04 0.00 Venezuela 0.00 -0.02 0.03 -0.01 -0.01 0.02 -0.01 -0.01 Zambia 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.01 -0.01 0.00 -0.03 0.01 Zimbabwe Middle East & North Africa Total Countries: 7 -0.05 0.02 0.01 0.02 -0.02 -0.01 -0.01 0.01 Egypt 0.00 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.02 -0.03 -0.03 0.02 Iran 0.02 -0.01 0.03 0.01 -0.01 0.01 -0.01 0.02 Jordan 0.06 0.03 0.01 -0.02 0.01 0.02 -0.02 0.00 Lebanon -0.02 0.07 -0.02 0.00 -0.04 0.00 0.01 0.01 Morocco -0.04 0.02 -0.01 0.00 0.05 0.02 0.00 -0.03 Tunisia -0.05 -0.03 0.04 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 United Arab Emirates Statistically significant Statistically significant improvement decline Regulatory Absence of Open Civil Fundamental Order & Constraints on Criminal Enforcement Corruption Government Justice Rights Security Gov't Powers Justice I 29 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

32 Part Three: Factor Trends Overview of Factor Changes The chart below summarizes the number of countries whose score has improved or declined for each of the eight aggregated factors of the Index. 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 (out of 113) 10 Number of Countries 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Criminal Absence of Constraints on Open Fundamental Order & Regulatory Civil Justice Corruption Gov't Powers Rights Government Security Enforcement Justice Improvement Decline Statistically Significant Decline Statistically Significant Improvement

33 Overview of Factor Performance This chart presents country performance for the eight aggregated factors of the WJP Rule of Law Index. Denmark Nepal Sri Lanka Norway Finland Peru Sweden Panama Netherlands India Germany Indonesia New Zealand Kazakhstan Austria Belarus Canada Malawi Australia Morocco United Kingdom Albania Estonia Suriname Singapore Burkina Faso Japan Thailand Belgium Colombia Hong Kong SAR, China Guyana Czech Republic Vietnam France China United States Serbia Republic of Korea Ukraine Portugal Moldova Uruguay El Salvador Spain Iran Costa Rica Belize Poland Kyrgyzstan Slovenia Zambia Chile Cote d'Ivoire St. Kitts & Nevis Ecuador Romania Tanzania Barbados Lebanon Italy Philippines United Arab Emirates Russia St. Lucia Dominican Republic Antigua & Barbuda Uzbekistan Croatia Mexico Grenada Sierra Leone St. Vincent & the Grenadines Liberia Georgia Kenya Greece Guatemala Bahamas Nigeria Dominica Madagascar Jordan Nicaragua Ghana Myanmar South Africa Tur key Botswana Bangladesh Argentina Honduras Jamaica Uganda Trinidad & Tobago Pakistan Senegal Bolivia Hungary Ethiopia Mongolia Zimbabwe Brazil Cameroon Malaysia Egypt Tunisia Afghanistan Bulgaria Cambodia Bosnia & Herzegovina Venezuela Macedonia, FYR Top Tercile Bottom Tercile Regulatory Absence of Open Civil Fundamental Order & Constraints on Criminal Enforcement Corruption Government Justice Rights Security Gov't Powers Justice 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 31

34 Part Three: Factor Trends Constraints on Government Powers Factor 1 measures the extent to which those who govern are bound by law. It comprises the means, both constitutional and institutional, by which the powers of the government and its officials and agents are limited and held accountable under the law. It also includes non-governmental checks on the government’s power, such as a free and independent page 10 . press. For a further breakdown of Constraints on Government Powers by sub-factor, please refer to Factor Factor Country/Jurisdiction Rank Score 0.48 El Salvador St. Lucia 0.62 39 76 1 0.94 Denmark 0.61 Zambia 0.47 40 77 Poland 0.94 2 Norway 0.61 South Africa Suriname 0.47 78 41 0.92 Finland 3 Nepal 79 0.47 Belize 0.61 42 0.88 4 Netherlands Bahamas 0.61 43 80 0.47 Thailand 5 0.88 Sweden Grenada Vietnam 0.46 81 44 0.61 Germany 0.86 6 82 45 Tunisia 0.60 0.46 Bosnia & Herzegovina 7 0.85 New Zealand 0.59 Antigua & Barbuda 46 Mexico 83 0.46 Canada 0.84 8 0.59 47 0.46 Myanmar 84 Croatia United Kingdom 9 0.84 85 0.45 0.58 Senegal Kazakhstan 48 0.84 Australia 10 Ukraine United Arab Emirates 0.58 49 86 0.45 0.84 Estonia 11 87 0.45 Bulgaria Brazil 0.58 50 Austria 12 0.83 88 St. Vincent & Dominican Republic 0.45 Belgium 0.81 13 51 0.57 the Grenadines 89 Macedonia, FYR 0.45 0.80 Portugal 14 0.57 Georgia 52 0.45 90 Madagascar 15 0.79 Costa Rica 0.57 53 Dominica Moldova 0.44 91 United States 0.77 16 54 0.57 Malawi Cote d'Ivoire 92 0.44 France 0.76 17 Sri Lanka 0.56 55 Uruguay 0.44 93 0.76 18 Hungary 0.56 56 Jordan Japan 0.74 19 0.43 Iran 94 0.55 57 Guyana 0.74 20 Czech Republic 95 Afghanistan 0.43 58 0.55 Botswana Ghana 0.72 21 0.43 96 Ecuador 59 0.55 Philippines 0.71 Chile 22 Serbia 97 0.42 0.55 Liberia 60 Spain 0.71 23 0.42 Bangladesh 98 Morocco 61 0.55 Italy 0.71 24 Uganda 0.42 99 62 Mongolia 0.55 0.70 Singapore 25 China 0.40 100 63 0.55 Nigeria 0.70 26 Republic of Korea 0.39 101 Russia 64 0.54 Guatemala 27 0.68 Greece 102 Cameroon 0.39 0.53 Colombia 65 28 0.68 St. Kitts & Nevis 0.39 Honduras 103 66 0.53 Pakistan 0.66 Romania 29 104 Bolivia 0.36 67 0.53 Burkina Faso 0.66 Hong Kong SAR, China 30 105 0.34 Belarus Panama 0.53 68 Barbados 0.66 31 Ethiopia 0.33 106 69 0.52 Sierra Leone 32 0.65 Peru 107 Egypt 0.33 0.52 70 Albania 33 0.64 Indonesia 108 Uzbekistan 0.32 Tanzania 0.52 71 0.63 34 Argentina Nicaragua 0.32 109 0.49 Lebanon 72 0.63 35 Slovenia 110 Cambodia 0.32 Kenya 0.49 73 0.63 India 36 Turkey 0.30 111 Malaysia 74 0.49 0.63 37 Trinidad & Tobago 0.28 112 Zimbabwe Kyrgyzstan 0.48 75 38 Jamaica 0.62 113 0.18 Venezuela .51 – .60 .81 & Above .71 – .80 .40 & Below .61 – .70 .41 – .50 weaker adherence to the rule of law stronger adherence to the rule of law

35 Absence of Corruption Factor 2 measures the absence of corruption in government. The factor considers three forms of corruption: bribery, improper influence by public or private interests, and misappropriation of public funds or other resources. These three forms of corruption are examined with respect to government officers in the executive branch, the judiciary, the military, police, and the legislature. For a further breakdown of Absence of Corruption by sub-factor, please refer to page 10 . Factor Factor Country/Jurisdiction Rank Score 0.42 El Salvador 76 38 0.62 Botswana 1 0.95 Denmark Zambia 0.62 0.42 Italy 77 39 Norway 0.93 2 0.42 Antigua & Barbuda 0.60 40 Ecuador 78 0.91 Sweden 3 41 0.60 Croatia 79 0.42 Ghana Singapore 4 0.91 0.41 80 42 0.58 Romania Nepal Finland 0.89 5 Suriname 43 0.57 Malawi 0.41 81 New Zealand 0.88 6 0.56 44 Bulgaria 0.41 82 Malaysia 7 Netherlands 0.86 Greece 0.55 45 83 Colombia 0.41 8 Japan 0.85 0.55 46 Tanzania Jamaica 0.40 84 Austria 9 0.84 85 China 0.55 47 0.40 Egypt 10 Hong Kong SAR, China 0.83 Belarus 0.40 Cote d'Ivoire 86 48 0.54 0.83 11 Canada 49 0.53 South Africa 0.39 87 Lebanon Australia 0.83 12 0.38 88 Nicaragua Senegal 0.53 50 Germany 13 0.83 Peru 89 0.53 Argentina 51 0.38 United Kingdom 14 0.82 0.37 Indonesia 52 90 0.53 Iran 15 0.79 Estonia 0.37 53 0.51 Dominican Republic Hungary 91 16 0.78 Belgium 54 Guatemala 0.50 Turkey 92 0.35 0.76 17 United Arab Emirates 0.76 Uruguay 18 0.35 93 Trinidad & Tobago 0.50 55 Bangladesh 19 United States 0.75 Thailand 0.49 Albania 0.35 94 56 0.75 France 20 95 0.34 Ukraine 57 0.49 Tunisia Portugal 0.74 21 0.34 58 0.48 Sri Lanka Uzbekistan 96 Poland 0.72 22 Morocco 97 59 0.34 0.47 Sierra Leone Georgia 0.71 23 0.47 Macedonia, FYR Honduras 0.34 98 60 0.71 24 Spain 61 0.47 Myanmar Pakistan 0.33 99 St. Kitts & Nevis 0.69 25 0.32 Philippines Nigeria 0.47 100 62 26 0.69 Chile Moldova 0.46 Brazil 0.32 101 63 27 0.68 Costa Rica 64 0.46 102 Mexico 0.31 Guyana Barbados 0.68 28 65 0.30 Venezuela 103 Ethiopia 0.46 St. Vincent & 0.45 Kyrgyzstan 104 Kazakhstan 0.29 66 0.68 29 the Grenadines 0.45 India 105 67 0.29 Kenya 0.67 30 Republic of Korea Zimbabwe 0.28 106 Panama 68 0.45 31 0.66 Grenada Burkina Faso 107 0.28 Madagascar 0.44 69 32 Jordan 0.66 0.44 Mongolia 70 Liberia 0.28 108 St. Lucia 0.66 33 71 0.27 Afghanistan Vietnam 0.44 109 34 0.65 Czech Republic 72 110 Bolivia 0.26 Belize 0.44 35 Dominica 0.65 Bosnia & Herzegovina 73 0.43 111 0.26 Uganda 36 Bahamas 0.64 Cameroon 74 0.43 Serbia 0.25 112 0.63 Slovenia 37 Cambodia Russia 0.43 75 113 0.25 .81 & Above .71 – .80 .61 – .70 .51 – .60 .41 – .50 .40 & Below weaker adherence to the rule of law stronger adherence to the rule of law I 33 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

36 Part Three: Factor Trends Open Government Factor 3 measures the openness of government defined by the extent to which a government shares information, empowers people with tools to hold the government accountable, and fosters citizen participation in public policy deliberations. This factor measures whether basic laws and information of legal rights are publicized and evaluates the quality of information published by the government. For a further breakdown of Open Government by sub-factor, please refer to page 11. Factor Factor Country/Jurisdiction Rank Score 76 0.46 39 Madagascar Jamaica 0.59 0.88 1 Norway 77 Trinidad & Tobago 0.57 40 0.46 Burkina Faso 0.86 Finland 2 41 0.46 Botswana Moldova 0.57 78 0.86 3 Denmark 79 0.45 Jordan Georgia 42 0.57 0.85 4 Sweden Kyrgyzstan 0.56 80 0.45 Pakistan 43 5 0.84 Netherlands 44 Bolivia Peru 0.45 81 0.56 0.82 6 Canada 45 0.55 Bulgaria Malawi 0.45 82 0.81 New Zealand 7 46 0.55 83 0.45 China Ukraine United Kingdom 0.81 8 84 0.44 0.54 Morocco Indonesia 47 Australia 9 0.80 0.44 48 85 Vietnam 0.53 Antigua & Barbuda 10 France 0.80 Ghana 86 49 0.44 Senegal 0.52 11 0.79 Germany Albania 0.44 Dominican Republic 0.52 50 87 0.79 12 Estonia 0.52 51 Nepal 88 0.44 Nigeria 0.77 13 United States 0.52 El Salvador 89 0.44 52 Lebanon 0.75 Belgium 14 Belize 0.52 St. Lucia 90 0.44 53 0.75 Hong Kong SAR, China 15 91 54 0.52 Philippines Honduras 0.43 16 Austria 0.72 St. Kitts & Nevis 0.42 92 0.50 55 Grenada 17 0.72 Costa Rica 56 18 Dominica 0.50 93 0.42 Turkey Chile 0.71 Uruguay 19 0.71 Tunisia 57 Zambia 0.42 0.50 94 Japan 0.70 20 Sierra Leone 0.42 95 58 0.49 Ecuador Spain 0.69 21 0.41 96 Nicaragua St. Vincent & 59 0.49 the Grenadines Republic of Korea 0.69 22 Malaysia 97 0.39 Barbados 60 0.49 Portugal 23 0.68 United Arab Emirates 98 0.39 Mongolia 0.49 61 24 0.67 Slovenia 99 0.38 Uganda 0.49 62 Sri Lanka Czech Republic 0.66 25 100 0.38 Tanzania Hungary 63 0.49 26 0.66 Romania 0.37 Cote d'Ivoire 101 Macedonia, FYR 0.49 64 Poland 0.66 27 102 0.37 Iran 65 Kenya 0.49 0.65 Singapore 28 Afghanistan 0.36 103 66 Guatemala 0.49 Argentina 0.64 29 0.36 Suriname 104 67 0.49 Serbia 30 0.64 Italy 0.35 Belarus 105 Thailand 0.48 68 Colombia 0.63 31 106 0.33 Cameroon Russia 0.48 69 India 32 0.63 0.32 Myanmar 107 0.48 Kazakhstan 70 Croatia 0.62 33 Uzbekistan 0.30 108 Bosnia & Herzegovina 0.48 71 34 0.62 South Africa 109 0.30 Zimbabwe 72 Bahamas 0.48 0.61 Brazil 35 Venezuela 110 0.30 0.48 Liberia 73 0.61 Mexico 36 111 0.28 Ethiopia Guyana 0.46 74 37 0.60 Greece Egypt 0.25 112 75 0.46 Bangladesh 38 Panama 0.59 0.23 Cambodia 113 .40 & Below .41 – .50 .51 – .60 .61 – .70 .71 – .80 .81 & Above stronger adherence to the rule of law weaker adherence to the rule of law

37 Fundamental Rights Factor 4 recognizes that a system of positive law that fails to respect core human rights established under international law is at best “rule by law,” and does not deserve to be called a rule of law system. Since there are many other indices that address human rights, and as it would be impossible for the Index to assess adherence to the full range of rights, this factor focuses on a relatively modest menu of rights that are firmly established under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and are most closely related to rule of law concerns. The selected menu of rights can be found on page 11 . Factor Factor Country/Jurisdiction Rank Score Jordan Bahamas 76 0.51 0.66 38 1 Finland 0.91 Ecuador 39 0.66 Poland 77 0.51 2 0.90 Denmark Peru 0.65 40 78 0.51 Indonesia 3 0.88 Norway Vietnam 0.50 79 Albania 0.63 41 Sweden 0.87 4 80 Kyrgyzstan 0.50 Grenada 42 0.63 5 Germany 0.85 0.49 Greece 43 0.63 Lebanon 81 Netherlands 0.85 6 South Africa 0.48 82 Madagascar 44 0.63 0.85 7 Austria Jamaica 45 0.63 Tanzania 0.48 83 8 0.83 Belgium United Arab Emirates Georgia 0.61 46 84 0.47 9 Canada 0.82 0.60 Bulgaria 85 0.47 Nigeria 47 10 0.82 Estonia 48 Nicaragua 86 Burkina Faso 0.47 0.60 New Zealand 0.81 11 49 0.59 Ukraine 0.47 Malaysia 87 United Kingdom 0.81 12 88 Panama Thailand 0.47 0.59 50 13 0.81 Australia 89 0.59 51 Belarus 0.47 Trinidad & Tobago 14 0.80 Czech Republic 90 Bosnia & Herzegovina Cote d'Ivoire 0.46 0.59 52 0.79 15 Portugal 0.59 Hungary 53 91 0.46 Kenya 16 0.78 Uruguay Dominican Republic 54 Bolivia 0.46 92 0.59 17 0.78 Costa Rica 0.59 Morocco 55 Barbados 0.77 Senegal 18 93 0.45 Spain 0.77 19 Kazakhstan 0.45 0.59 Mongolia 56 94 Japan 0.76 20 95 0.58 Malawi Russia 0.44 57 St. Kitts & Nevis 0.75 21 96 0.57 58 Botswana 0.43 Zambia Slovenia 0.74 22 97 Brazil 0.57 59 Honduras 0.43 23 Chile 0.73 98 0.43 Cameroon Tunisia 60 0.57 France 0.72 24 0.42 0.56 Serbia Philippines 99 61 25 Argentina 0.72 Liberia Pakistan 0.40 62 100 0.56 United States 26 0.72 0.40 101 Colombia 0.56 63 Uganda 27 Romania 0.72 0.39 102 64 Afghanistan 0.55 Guyana 28 0.71 Italy Guatemala 0.55 65 0.38 Uzbekistan 103 29 0.71 Republic of Korea 66 Macedonia, FYR Cambodia 0.38 104 0.54 0.36 0.54 Moldova 67 105 Venezuela St. Vincent & 0.70 30 the Grenadines 68 El Salvador 106 0.34 Bangladesh 0.53 31 Antigua & Barbuda 0.70 Turkey 107 Belize 0.32 69 0.53 Singapore 0.70 32 70 0.31 Sri Lanka China 0.53 108 St. Lucia 0.68 33 71 Nepal Ethiopia 0.31 109 0.53 0.68 34 Ghana 0.52 72 0.31 Myanmar Mexico 110 Hong Kong SAR, China 0.67 35 111 0.30 73 0.52 Suriname Iran 0.67 Croatia 36 Sierra Leone 0.52 74 112 0.30 Egypt 0.67 Dominica 37 75 India Zimbabwe 0.29 113 0.52 .81 & Above .41 – .50 .51 – .60 .61 – .70 .71 – .80 .40 & Below weaker adherence to the rule of law stronger adherence to the rule of law I 35 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

38 Part Three: Factor Trends Order & Security Factor 5 measures how well a society assures the security of persons and property. Security is one of the defining aspects of any rule of law society and is a fundamental function of the state. It is also a precondition for the realization of the rights and freedoms that the rule of law seeks to advance. For a further breakdown of Order & Security by sub-factor, please refer to page 12 . Factor Factor Country/Jurisdiction Rank Score 76 39 0.78 Mongolia Trinidad & Tobago 0.67 0.93 1 Singapore Tanzania 0.67 77 0.77 40 Serbia Sweden 2 0.93 41 0.77 Malaysia Panama 78 0.67 Norway 3 0.93 Zimbabwe 0.77 79 42 Vietnam 0.67 4 0.92 Hong Kong SAR, China 80 Albania Sierra Leone 0.66 43 0.77 Denmark 0.92 5 Bosnia & Herzegovina 81 44 Cambodia 0.66 0.76 0.92 6 Finland Barbados 0.75 45 Lebanon 0.66 82 0.92 7 Uzbekistan Brazil France 0.75 46 83 0.65 0.91 Japan 8 0.75 Russia 0.65 84 Dominica 47 0.91 Canada 9 85 0.65 Suriname 10 0.90 Czech Republic St. Vincent & 0.75 48 the Grenadines 86 Peru 0.64 11 0.90 United Arab Emirates 87 0.63 Burkina Faso 0.90 Hungary 12 Indonesia 0.74 49 88 0.63 Ecuador 13 0.90 Austria 0.74 50 Italy 89 South Africa 0.62 14 Estonia 0.90 0.74 51 Kyrgyzstan 90 0.62 Jamaica 15 0.89 Slovenia 52 Bulgaria 0.74 Guyana 0.62 91 New Zealand 0.89 16 53 0.73 Ukraine Honduras 0.61 92 0.88 Germany 17 54 Iran 0.73 Australia 0.86 18 93 0.61 Argentina Belize 55 0.73 19 0.85 Poland 94 Dominican Republic 0.61 0.73 56 Botswana 20 Netherlands 0.85 Ethiopia 95 0.60 Nepal 0.73 57 0.84 United Kingdom 21 96 0.60 El Salvador Bahamas 58 0.72 22 Republic of Korea 0.84 97 Liberia 0.59 Sri Lanka 59 0.72 23 Romania 0.84 India 0.59 98 60 Madagascar 0.72 Belarus 0.82 24 0.59 99 Mexico St. Lucia 61 0.72 St. Kitts & Nevis 25 0.82 100 0.58 Guatemala 62 0.72 Greece 26 Croatia 0.81 Bolivia 0.58 101 Uruguay 0.71 63 Moldova 27 0.80 Bangladesh 0.58 102 0.70 64 Myanmar 0.80 28 China 103 0.57 Kenya Nicaragua 65 0.70 Grenada 0.79 29 Colombia 0.57 104 66 0.70 Ghana 0.79 30 Georgia Uganda 0.56 105 67 0.69 Zambia 31 0.79 United States 0.52 Turkey 106 68 Costa Rica 0.69 32 0.79 Portugal Philippines 107 0.51 Thailand 0.69 69 0.79 Antigua & Barbuda 33 108 0.51 Egypt 0.69 70 Morocco 0.78 Belgium 34 Cameroon 109 0.49 0.69 Tunisia 71 0.78 35 Macedonia, FYR 110 0.47 Venezuela Senegal 72 0.69 36 0.78 Kazakhstan Nigeria 0.37 111 73 0.68 Malawi 0.78 37 Spain 0.32 Afghanistan 112 Chile 74 0.68 Jordan 0.78 38 0.32 113 Pakistan Cote d'Ivoire 75 0.68 .40 & Below .41 – .50 .51 – .60 .61 – .70 .71 – .80 .81 & Above stronger adherence to the rule of law weaker adherence to the rule of law

39 Regulatory Enforcement Factor 6 measures the extent to which regulations are fairly and effectively implemented and enforced. Regulations, both legal and administrative, structure behaviors within and outside of the government. This factor does not assess which activities a government chooses to regulate, nor does it consider how much regulation of a particular activity is appropriate. Rather, it examines how regulations are implemented and enforced. For a further breakdown of Regulatory Enforcement by sub-factor, please refer to . page 12 Factor Factor Country/Jurisdiction Rank Score 0.56 Romania Hungary 39 76 0.46 0.88 1 Netherlands Macedonia, FYR South Africa 0.55 40 0.46 77 Singapore 2 0.87 Uzbekistan 41 0.55 Grenada 0.46 78 0.87 3 Denmark Greece 0.54 42 Myanmar 0.46 79 Norway 0.87 4 0.54 Morocco 80 0.45 Burkina Faso 43 Sweden 0.85 5 Bulgaria 0.53 44 Nicaragua 0.45 81 New Zealand 6 0.85 82 0.45 45 0.53 Indonesia Ecuador Australia 7 0.85 46 83 0.45 Vietnam Panama 0.52 Germany 8 0.85 Turkey 0.44 84 United Kingdom 0.84 9 St. Vincent & 0.52 47 the Grenadines Kenya 85 0.44 0.81 10 Austria 86 0.44 Lebanon Hong Kong SAR, China 0.81 11 Brazil 48 0.52 0.44 87 Mexico Finland 0.81 12 Trinidad & Tobago 0.52 49 Zambia 0.43 88 13 Japan 0.80 0.52 Dominica 50 Kyrgyzstan 0.43 89 14 Canada 0.79 Kazakhstan 0.52 51 0.43 Nigeria 90 Estonia 15 0.77 Croatia 52 0.52 0.43 91 Albania 16 France 0.77 53 Tunisia 0.52 Malawi 0.43 92 Belgium 17 0.77 Colombia 54 0.51 0.72 Republic of Korea 18 93 0.42 Liberia 0.51 55 Philippines United States 0.72 19 94 0.42 Bangladesh 0.51 Antigua & Barbuda 56 United Arab Emirates 0.69 20 Moldova 0.42 95 0.51 Cote d'Ivoire 57 21 0.69 Uruguay Ukraine 0.42 96 Argentina 0.50 58 22 0.67 Czech Republic 0.41 Uganda 97 Thailand 0.50 59 Spain 23 0.66 Bolivia 0.41 98 Malaysia 0.50 60 Costa Rica 0.64 24 0.40 99 Dominican Republic Bosnia & Herzegovina 61 0.50 Slovenia 25 0.63 100 0.40 Tanzania 62 0.50 Nepal 26 Chile 0.62 Belize 0.39 101 Peru 0.50 63 St. Kitts & Nevis 27 0.61 Cameroon 0.38 102 0.49 64 Belarus 0.61 28 Portugal 103 0.37 Sierra Leone El Salvador 65 0.49 Poland 0.61 29 Honduras 0.37 104 66 0.49 India 0.60 30 Barbados Pakistan 0.35 105 67 0.48 Russia 31 0.59 Jordan 0.35 Guatemala 106 68 Sri Lanka 0.48 32 0.58 Georgia Zimbabwe 107 0.35 China 0.48 69 0.58 Botswana 33 108 0.34 Madagascar 0.48 70 Bahamas 0.58 St. Lucia 34 Afghanistan 109 0.34 0.48 Suriname 71 0.57 35 Italy 110 0.31 Egypt Mongolia 72 0.47 36 0.57 Senegal Ethiopia 0.31 111 73 0.47 Serbia Jamaica 0.56 37 112 0.27 Cambodia 0.47 74 Iran 38 Ghana 0.56 Venezuela 113 0.22 0.47 Guyana 75 .81 & Above .41 – .50 .51 – .60 .61 – .70 .71 – .80 .40 & Below weaker adherence to the rule of law stronger adherence to the rule of law I 37 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

40 Part Three: Factor Trends Civil Justice Factor 7 measures whether ordinary people can resolve their grievances peacefully and effectively through the civil justice system. It measures whether civil justice systems are accessible; affordable; and free of discrimination, corruption, and improper influence by public officials. It examines whether court proceedings are conducted without unreasonable delays, and if decisions are enforced effectively. It also measures the accessibility, impartiality, and effectiveness of alternative dispute resolution mechanisms. For a further breakdown of Civil Justice by sub-factor, please refer to page 13 . Factor Factor Country/Jurisdiction Rank Score 0.59 Belarus 0.49 76 Burkina Faso 39 1 Netherlands 0.87 Colombia 0.59 40 77 0.49 Trinidad & Tobago 0.86 2 Denmark 0.48 78 Panama Grenada 0.59 41 0.85 3 Germany Lebanon 0.47 79 Slovenia 0.59 42 Norway 4 0.85 Belize Argentina 43 0.58 80 0.47 5 0.81 Singapore Philippines 0.57 Croatia 81 44 0.47 0.81 Sweden 6 82 0.47 Nepal Finland 7 0.80 St. Vincent & 0.57 45 the Grenadines Moldova 0.47 83 8 0.79 New Zealand 0.46 84 Kyrgyzstan 0.79 Austria 9 Greece 0.57 46 85 0.46 Kenya 0.79 Japan 10 0.56 Senegal 47 86 Ecuador 0.46 0.78 11 Estonia 0.56 48 Macedonia, FYR 87 0.45 Albania Hong Kong SAR, China 12 0.77 Bulgaria 0.56 49 88 Dominican Republic 0.45 13 0.75 Australia Kazakhstan 0.56 50 Uganda 89 0.45 United Kingdom 14 0.75 Malaysia 0.56 51 90 Indonesia 0.45 0.74 15 Republic of Korea 0.56 Italy 52 91 0.45 Sri Lanka 16 Uruguay 0.74 53 0.54 Jamaica 92 0.44 Vietnam St. Kitts & Nevis 0.74 17 54 0.54 Morocco Belgium 0.44 93 0.73 Peru 18 Georgia 0.54 55 Czech Republic 0.72 19 Turkey 94 0.44 0.54 56 Malawi 20 0.72 Canada Zimbabwe 0.43 95 0.54 57 China Antigua & Barbuda 0.72 21 96 0.43 Liberia 58 0.53 Mongolia 22 France 0.70 0.42 97 India Thailand 0.53 59 23 Portugal 0.69 Sierra Leone 0.41 98 60 0.53 Russia 24 0.68 United Arab Emirates Honduras 99 0.41 61 0.53 Brazil St. Lucia 0.68 25 Mexico 0.40 100 62 0.52 Iran United States 26 0.67 101 Madagascar 0.39 0.52 63 Cote d'Ivoire 27 0.66 Spain Nicaragua 0.39 102 64 0.51 Guyana Barbados 0.65 28 Ethiopia 0.39 103 65 0.51 Ukraine Romania 29 0.65 0.38 Afghanistan 104 66 Tanzania 0.50 0.64 Poland 30 Egypt 0.38 105 67 Suriname 0.50 0.63 Chile 31 Bangladesh 0.37 106 0.50 Hungary 68 32 0.63 Costa Rica 0.37 Pakistan 107 69 0.50 Bosnia & Herzegovina 0.62 33 Ghana Cameroon 0.37 108 Nigeria 70 0.50 34 0.62 Jordan 109 0.37 Myanmar 71 0.50 El Salvador 35 South Africa 0.61 110 0.35 Guatemala 72 Serbia 0.49 Botswana 0.61 36 0.34 111 Bolivia 73 0.49 Tunisia Dominica 37 0.60 112 0.33 Venezuela 74 0.49 Uzbekistan 38 0.60 Bahamas 113 Cambodia 0.20 75 0.49 Zambia .40 & Below .41 – .50 .51 – .60 .61 – .70 .71 – .80 .81 & Above stronger adherence to the rule of law weaker adherence to the rule of law

41 Criminal Justice Factor 8 evaluates a country's criminal justice system. An effective criminal justice system is a key aspect of the rule of law, as it constitutes the conventional mechanism to redress grievances and bring action against individuals for offenses against society. An assessment of the delivery of criminal justice should take into consideration the entire system, including the police, lawyers, prosecutors, judges, and prison officers. For a further breakdown of Criminal Justice . by sub-factor, please refer to page 13 Factor Factor Country/Jurisdiction Rank Score 76 0.39 Cote d'Ivoire 38 0.55 Botswana 1 Finland 0.85 0.39 39 0.55 Trinidad & Tobago Malaysia 77 2 Norway 0.83 78 Ecuador 40 0.54 Uruguay 0.38 Denmark 3 0.82 0.38 Dominica 0.54 Sierra Leone 79 41 Sweden 0.80 4 80 0.38 Kenya 0.53 42 Greece 5 Singapore 0.80 Pakistan 0.38 0.52 South Africa 81 43 6 Netherlands 0.80 Zimbabwe Suriname 0.52 44 82 0.38 0.77 Germany 7 Ukraine 83 0.37 Ghana 0.51 45 8 0.77 Austria Bosnia & Herzegovina Morocco 0.37 84 46 0.51 9 Czech Republic 0.74 0.37 Brazil 47 0.51 Georgia 85 10 0.74 Canada 0.51 0.37 86 48 Lebanon Croatia United Kingdom 0.74 11 Jamaica 0.36 49 0.50 Madagascar 87 Japan 0.74 12 Peru Mongolia 0.50 50 0.36 88 13 0.74 Australia 51 0.36 89 Belarus 0.50 Serbia 14 0.74 New Zealand 52 0.36 Moldova 0.49 Vietnam 90 0.72 15 Belgium 0.35 Indonesia 91 53 0.48 Sri Lanka 16 0.72 Hong Kong SAR, China Colombia 92 China 0.48 54 0.34 17 0.70 Republic of Korea Nicaragua Hungary 0.34 United Arab Emirates 93 0.69 18 55 0.47 Estonia 19 0.68 0.47 Uganda Macedonia, FYR 94 56 0.34 United States 0.65 20 0.47 Albania 57 Ethiopia 0.34 95 21 0.65 France 0.34 Bangladesh Burkina Faso 96 58 0.45 22 0.64 Italy Russia 97 0.33 Iran 0.45 59 23 Portugal 0.64 0.45 Uzbekistan 60 Belize 0.33 98 Spain 24 0.64 0.33 Argentina 99 0.43 Panama 61 Bahamas 0.63 25 Senegal 62 Dominican Republic 0.33 0.43 100 0.62 26 Poland 0.32 Kyrgyzstan 101 63 Nepal 0.43 Jordan 27 0.60 0.43 64 Malawi 102 0.31 Philippines 65 Liberia Tunisia 0.43 103 0.31 St. Vincent & 28 0.60 the Grenadines India 0.42 66 Guatemala 0.30 104 Barbados 29 0.59 0.30 67 0.42 Nigeria Mexico 105 30 0.59 St. Lucia El Salvador Egypt 106 68 0.42 0.30 31 Antigua & Barbuda 0.59 0.29 Myanmar Zambia 0.42 69 107 St. Kitts & Nevis 0.58 32 108 70 0.41 0.28 Afghanistan Kazakhstan Slovenia 0.58 33 0.41 109 Cameroon Bulgaria 0.28 71 34 0.57 Romania 110 Cambodia 0.27 0.40 Thailand 72 Grenada 0.56 35 111 0.40 Guyana 73 Honduras 0.24 Costa Rica 0.56 36 Turkey 0.40 74 112 0.21 Bolivia 0.56 Chile 37 113 Venezuela Tanzania 0.39 75 0.14 .81 & Above .41 – .50 .51 – .60 .61 – .70 .71 – .80 .40 & Below stronger adherence to the rule of law weaker adherence to the rule of law I 39 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

42 How to Read the Country Profiles The next section presents profiles for the 113 countries and jurisdictions included in the ® WJP Rule of Law Index report. 2017–2018 The scores range from 0 and 1, where 1 signifies the Each profile presents the featured country's scores for each of the highest possible score (high adherence to rule of law) and factors and sub-factors, WJP Rule of Law Index's and draws comparisons between the scores of the featured 0 signifies the lowest possible score (low adherence to rule of law). The country profiles consist of four sections, country and the scores of other indexed countries in the outlined below. same regional and income groups. : Eastern Europe & Central Asia Region : Upper Middle Income Group Macedonia, FYR Income Rank Global Rank Overall Score Regional Rank Section 1: Displays the country’s overall rule of law score; Constraints on Government 0.53 16/36 57/113 3/13 Powers its overall global, income, and regional ranks; and its change 1.1 1.2 8.7 Criminal 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 Justice 8.4 1.5 in score and rank from 2016. 8.3 1.6 -0.01 -3 8.2 2.1 Absence of Regional Factor Factor Global Income Corruption 2.2 8.1 0.5 Rank Rank Rank Score Trend 2.3 7.7 Constraints on 7.6 2.4 0.45 28/36 7/13 89/113 Government Powers Section 2: Displays the featured country’s individual factor 7.5 3.1 0 19/36 60/113 Absence of Corruption 0.47 4/13 Open 7.4 3.2 Government Civil 7.3 3.3 scores, along with the global, regional, and income group Justice 0.49 19/36 64/113 Open Government 5/13 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 66/113 22/36 6/13 0.54 Fundamental Rights rankings. The scores for the global rank, regional rank, and 4.2 6.5 35/113 Order and Security 0.78 5/13 6/36 6.4 4.3 income rank are distributed across three tiers — high, 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 77/113 28/36 0.46 Regulatory Enforcement 7/13 6.1 4.6 Regulatory 4.7 5.3 4.8 5.2 5.1 Fundamental Enforcement medium, and low — as indicated by the color of the box Rights 0.56 12/36 2/13 48/113 Civil Justice Order and Security Criminal Justice 56/113 16/36 4/13 0.47 where the score is found. 2017 Score 2016 Score High Trending down Trending up Medium Low Eastern Europe & Central Asia Upper Middle Macedonia, FYR Displays the country’s disaggregated scores for Section 3: Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Fundamental Rights WJP Rule of Law each of the sub-factors that compose the 0.56 0.55 0.61 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 0.64 0.36 0.57 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination Index. 0.49 0.42 0.54 4.3 Due process of law 7.3 No corruption 1.3 Independent auditing 0.34 0.47 0.37 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct The featured country’s score is represented by the 0.70 0.58 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.47 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.29 0.63 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy purple bar and labeled at the end of the bar. The average 0.49 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.58 0.74 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association score of the country’s region is represented by the orange 0.56 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice 0.40 2.1 In the executive branch line. The average score of the country’s income group is 0.48 Order and Security Section 4: Presents the individual sub-factor scores 8.1 Effective investigations 0.55 2.2 In the judiciary represented by the green line. 0.51 0.78 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 0.69 underlying each of the factors listed in Section 3 of 2.3 In the police/military adjudication 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.24 0.35 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional the country profile. 0.57 system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.52 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Regulatory Enforcement 0.52 8.5 No corruption 0.48 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.44 6.1 Effective regulatory Each of the 44 sub-factors is represented by a gray line 0.36 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.53 3.2 Right to information enforcement 0.54 8.7 Due process of law 0.44 0.50 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation drawn from the center to the periphery of the circle. 0.48 0.45 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay The center of the circle corresponds to the worst 0.38 6.4 Respect for due process 0.57 6.5 No expropriation w/out possible score for each sub-factor (0), and the outer adequate compensation edge of the circle marks the best possible score for each sub-factor (1). The featured country’s scores for 2017–2018 are represented by the purple line. The featured country’s scores for 2016 are represented by the gray line. 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 40

43 41 Part Four Country Profiles 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 41

44 : Eastern Europe & Central Asia : South Asia Region Region : Low Income Group : Upper Middle Income Group Albania Afghanistan Overall Score Global Rank Overall Score Regional Rank Income Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 68/113 6/6 12/12 111/113 0.51 0.34 21/36 6/13 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Score Change Rank Change Rank Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 8.4 1.5 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 0.00 4 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Income Global Income Regional Factor Factor Regional Factor Factor Global Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Trend Score Rank Rank Score Rank Rank Rank Rank Trend 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 7.6 2.4 2.4 7.6 5/6 70/113 9/12 2/13 0.52 95/113 17/36 0.43 Government Powers Government Powers 7.5 3.1 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 0.27 34/36 6/6 9/13 0.35 11/12 Absence of Corruption 109/113 94/113 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 28/36 103/113 10/12 Open Government 0.36 87/113 6/6 0.44 10/13 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 7.1 4.1 7.1 4.1 Fundamental Rights 5/6 0.63 1/13 9/36 41/113 Fundamental Rights 10/12 0.39 102/113 6.5 4.2 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 112/113 5/6 0.32 Order and Security 12/12 10/36 0.77 43/113 8/13 6.4 4.3 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 4.4 6.3 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 11/12 109/113 33/36 11/13 0.43 91/113 Regulatory Enforcement 0.34 6/6 6.1 4.6 4.6 6.1 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 0.38 Civil Justice 4/6 12/12 104/113 0.45 12/13 31/36 87/113 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 6/6 12/12 0.47 Criminal Justice 5/13 17/36 57/113 0.28 108/113 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score High Low Trending up Trending down Medium Trending up High Medium Low Trending down Upper Middle Albania Low South Asia Afghanistan Eastern Europe & Central Asia Constraints on Government Powers Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Civil Justice Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.52 0.38 0.46 0.66 0.49 0.58 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 0.27 0.31 0.26 0.48 0.35 0.73 7.2 No discrimination 1.2 Limits by judiciary 4.2 Right to life & security 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 0.28 0.44 0.62 0.20 0.62 0.14 4.3 Due process of law 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 4.3 Due process of law 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 0.56 0.34 0.35 0.43 0.57 0.35 7.4 No improper gov't influence 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 4.4 Freedom of expression misconduct misconduct 0.49 0.40 0.45 0.89 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 0.56 0.57 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.52 0.24 0.58 0.65 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 0.54 0.35 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.65 0.57 0.46 0.58 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 0.47 0.39 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.37 0.32 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.49 0.29 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.32 0.18 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.36 0.54 0.85 0.44 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.40 0.52 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.09 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.41 0.18 0.17 0.26 8.3 Effective correctional 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 2.4 In the legislature 0.32 0.45 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.20 0.57 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.25 0.33 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.22 0.45 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.27 0.45 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.32 0.41 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.36 0.44 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.62 0.28 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.33 0.52 0.39 0.47 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.34 0.50 0.41 0.50 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 0.20 0.38 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.37 0.41 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 42

45 Region : South Asia : Eastern Europe & Central Asia Region Income Group : Low : Upper Middle Income Group Afghanistan Albania Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 68/113 21/36 6/13 0.51 6/6 0.34 111/113 12/12 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Score Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 1.6 8.3 8.3 1.6 0.00 0.00 4 2.1 8.2 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Global Factor Factor Regional Regional Global Factor Income Factor Income Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 2.3 7.7 7.7 2.3 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 17/36 2/13 95/113 0.52 9/12 5/6 0.43 70/113 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 7.5 3.1 0 0 109/113 11/12 94/113 0.35 34/36 9/13 6/6 Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption 0.27 Open Open 7.4 3.2 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice 10/13 103/113 Open Government 0.36 Open Government 0.44 6/6 28/36 87/113 10/12 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.39 5/6 10/12 102/113 0.63 1/13 9/36 41/113 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 5/6 12/12 112/113 Order and Security 0.32 0.77 Order and Security 8/13 10/36 43/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 6/6 11/12 0.34 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 33/36 91/113 11/13 109/113 0.43 4.6 6.1 4.6 6.1 Regulatory Regulatory 4.7 5.3 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights 0.38 12/12 Civil Justice 4/6 104/113 Civil Justice 87/113 31/36 12/13 0.45 Order and Order and Security Security 17/36 57/113 5/13 0.47 Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.28 6/6 12/12 108/113 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Trending up Low High Trending up Trending down Trending down High Medium Low Medium Afghanistan Low Upper Middle Eastern Europe & Central Asia Albania South Asia Fundamental Rights Civil Justice Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice 0.46 0.38 0.52 0.66 0.58 0.49 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 4.1 No discrimination 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 0.35 0.73 0.26 0.48 0.31 0.27 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 4.2 Right to life & security 7.2 No discrimination 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 0.62 0.28 0.44 0.14 0.20 0.62 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 1.3 Independent auditing 0.34 0.35 0.56 0.43 0.57 0.35 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 4.4 Freedom of expression misconduct misconduct 0.40 0.49 0.89 0.45 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 4.5 Freedom of religion 0.56 0.57 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.65 0.24 0.58 0.52 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 0.35 0.54 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.58 0.46 0.65 0.57 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.47 0.39 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.37 0.32 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.49 0.29 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.18 0.32 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.44 0.54 0.85 0.36 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 0.40 0.52 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.09 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.41 0.18 0.26 0.17 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.32 0.45 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.20 0.57 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.25 0.33 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.22 0.45 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.45 0.27 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.41 0.32 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.44 0.36 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.62 0.28 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.52 0.33 0.39 0.47 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.34 0.41 0.50 0.50 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.38 0.20 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.37 0.41 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 43

46 : Latin America & Caribbean : Latin America & Caribbean Region Region : High Income Group : Upper Middle Income Group Argentina Antigua and Barbuda Overall Score Global Rank Overall Score Regional Rank Income Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 31/35 46/113 10/36 0.63 7/30 34/113 12/30 0.58 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Score Change Rank Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 8.4 1.5 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 -0.04 5 0.03 -5 2.1 8.2 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Income Factor Global Regional Factor Factor Global Income Factor Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank Rank Trend 7.7 2.3 7.7 2.3 Constraints on Constraints on 7.6 2.4 2.4 7.6 13/30 0.59 33/35 46/113 0.63 34/113 4/36 7/30 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 7.5 3.1 0 0 Absence of Corruption 11/30 32/35 40/113 Absence of Corruption 15/36 14/30 0.53 0.60 51/113 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice 3/36 29/113 4/30 0.64 Open Government 12/30 30/35 48/113 0.53 Open Government 7.2 3.4 7.2 3.4 7.1 4.1 7.1 4.1 Fundamental Rights 27/35 6/30 0.70 25/113 2/36 0.72 Fundamental Rights 8/30 31/113 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 33/113 23/30 93/113 31/36 3/30 0.79 Order and Security 0.61 25/35 6.4 4.3 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 33/35 56/113 16/36 16/30 0.50 58/113 Regulatory Enforcement 0.51 15/30 6.1 4.6 4.6 6.1 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 0.58 12/30 9/36 0.72 Civil Justice 3/30 21/35 21/113 43/113 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 5/30 28/35 0.43 Criminal Justice 14/30 19/36 61/113 0.59 31/113 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score High Low Trending up Trending down Medium Trending up High Medium Low Trending down Upper Middle Argentina High Latin America & Caribbean Antigua and Barbuda Latin America & Caribbean Constraints on Government Powers Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Civil Justice Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.60 0.67 0.73 0.69 0.76 0.64 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 0.62 0.48 0.81 0.70 0.71 0.80 7.2 No discrimination 1.2 Limits by judiciary 4.2 Right to life & security 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 0.64 0.49 0.61 0.58 0.71 0.86 4.3 Due process of law 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 4.3 Due process of law 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 0.38 0.59 0.77 0.71 0.50 0.50 7.4 No improper gov't influence 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 4.4 Freedom of expression misconduct misconduct 0.32 0.54 0.79 0.61 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 0.77 0.59 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.55 0.68 0.66 0.72 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 0.80 0.67 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.70 0.80 0.86 0.67 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 0.64 0.86 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.52 0.57 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.27 0.53 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.67 0.86 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.61 0.79 0.55 0.42 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.59 0.71 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.26 0.35 0.34 0.52 2.4 In the legislature 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 8.3 Effective correctional 0.28 0.57 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.51 0.52 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.68 0.48 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.71 0.28 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.41 0.46 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.38 0.61 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.58 0.55 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.61 0.64 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.71 0.61 0.58 0.73 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.65 0.45 0.59 0.40 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 0.48 0.47 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.54 0.54 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 44

47 Region : Latin America & Caribbean : Latin America & Caribbean Region Income Group : High : Upper Middle Income Group Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 46/113 10/36 12/30 0.58 7/30 0.63 34/113 31/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 5 -5 -0.04 0.03 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 46/113 13/30 34/113 4/36 7/30 0.59 33/35 0.63 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 40/113 32/35 11/30 Absence of Corruption 0.60 15/36 51/113 14/30 0.53 Absence of Corruption Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 30/35 29/113 0.53 48/113 Open Government 0.64 4/30 3/36 12/30 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 8/30 0.70 0.72 27/35 31/113 Fundamental Rights 6/30 25/113 2/36 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 33/113 0.79 Order and Security 0.61 23/30 31/36 3/30 25/35 93/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.50 33/35 15/30 0.51 56/113 16/30 16/36 58/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 21/35 21/113 43/113 9/36 12/30 0.58 Civil Justice 0.72 3/30 Order and Order and Security Security 5/30 31/113 28/35 0.59 Criminal Justice 0.43 14/30 61/113 Criminal Justice 19/36 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Antigua and Barbuda Upper Middle Latin America & Caribbean Argentina Latin America & Caribbean High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.67 0.73 0.60 0.64 0.76 0.69 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.48 0.71 0.80 0.81 0.70 0.62 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.64 0.49 0.86 0.71 0.61 0.58 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.71 0.50 0.77 0.50 0.38 0.59 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.61 0.79 0.54 0.32 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.77 0.59 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.66 0.68 0.55 0.72 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.67 0.80 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.70 0.80 0.86 0.67 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.86 0.64 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.52 0.57 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.53 0.27 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.86 0.67 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.61 0.42 0.79 0.55 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.71 0.59 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.26 0.34 0.35 0.52 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.28 0.57 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.51 0.52 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.68 0.48 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.71 0.28 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.46 0.41 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.38 0.61 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.58 0.55 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.61 0.64 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.71 0.61 0.73 0.58 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.40 0.45 0.59 0.65 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.47 0.48 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.54 0.54 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 45

48 Region : EU & EFTA & North America : East Asia & Pacific Region Income Group : High : High Income Group Austria Australia Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 10/113 10/35 2/15 0.81 7/24 0.81 8/113 8/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 1 -1 -0.02 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 12/113 10/24 10/113 10/35 2/15 0.83 12/35 0.84 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 12/35 12/113 5/15 0.83 Absence of Corruption 9/113 9/35 6/24 0.84 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 16/35 9/113 0.72 16/113 Open Government 0.80 2/15 9/35 13/24 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 7/24 0.85 0.81 7/35 7/113 Fundamental Rights 2/15 13/113 13/35 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 13/113 0.90 Order and Security 0.86 5/15 17/35 8/24 12/35 18/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.85 10/35 7/24 0.81 10/113 3/15 7/35 7/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 9/35 9/113 13/113 13/35 5/15 0.75 Civil Justice 0.79 7/24 Order and Order and Security Security 7/24 8/113 8/35 0.77 Criminal Justice 0.74 3/15 13/113 Criminal Justice 13/35 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Austria High East Asia & Pacific Australia EU & EFTA & North America High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.85 0.72 0.82 0.67 0.64 0.57 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.83 0.83 0.92 0.98 0.67 0.75 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.80 0.76 0.89 0.81 0.77 0.89 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.86 0.80 0.83 0.89 0.79 0.85 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.84 0.81 0.77 0.65 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.83 0.85 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.84 0.91 0.74 0.84 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.95 0.92 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.85 0.85 0.76 0.89 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.81 0.76 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.79 0.81 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.64 0.69 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.96 0.96 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.82 0.74 0.90 0.90 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.92 0.90 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.98 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.66 0.65 0.63 0.71 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.71 0.80 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.66 0.58 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.87 0.85 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.91 0.71 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.74 0.84 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.90 0.87 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.64 0.66 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.77 0.80 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.86 0.83 0.82 0.90 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.64 0.79 0.82 0.69 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.91 0.86 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.86 0.89 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 46

49 Region : EU & EFTA & North America : East Asia & Pacific Region Income Group : High : High Income Group Austria Australia Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 10/113 10/35 2/15 0.81 7/24 0.81 8/113 8/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 1 -1 -0.02 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 12/113 10/24 10/113 10/35 2/15 0.83 12/35 0.84 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 12/35 12/113 5/15 0.83 9/113 9/35 6/24 Absence of Corruption 0.84 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice 9/113 9/35 0.80 2/15 Open Government 16/35 Open Government 16/113 13/24 0.72 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 7.1 4.1 Fundamental Rights 0.81 0.85 7/24 7/35 7/113 2/15 Fundamental Rights 13/35 13/113 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 12/35 13/113 Order and Security 0.86 5/15 17/35 0.90 8/24 18/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 7/24 10/35 3/15 0.85 7/113 7/35 0.81 10/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 9/35 9/113 13/113 13/35 5/15 0.75 Civil Justice 0.79 7/24 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.74 3/15 8/113 8/35 13/113 0.77 Criminal Justice 13/35 7/24 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Austria High East Asia & Pacific Australia EU & EFTA & North America High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.85 0.72 0.82 0.67 0.64 0.57 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.83 0.83 0.92 0.98 0.67 0.75 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.80 0.76 0.89 0.81 0.77 0.89 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.86 0.80 0.83 0.89 0.79 0.85 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.84 0.81 0.77 0.65 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.83 0.85 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.84 0.91 0.74 0.84 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.95 0.92 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.85 0.85 0.76 0.89 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.81 0.76 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.79 0.81 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.64 0.69 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.96 0.96 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.82 0.74 0.90 0.90 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.92 0.90 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.98 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.66 0.65 0.63 0.71 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.71 0.80 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.66 0.58 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.87 0.85 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.91 0.71 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.74 0.84 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.90 0.87 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.64 0.66 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.77 0.80 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.86 0.83 0.82 0.90 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.64 0.79 0.82 0.69 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.91 0.86 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.86 0.89 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 47

50 Region : South Asia : Latin America & Caribbean Region Income Group : Lower Middle : High Income Group Bangladesh Bahamas Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 40/113 33/35 10/30 0.6 4/6 0.41 102/113 24/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 2 1 0.00 0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 98/113 6/6 43/113 32/35 11/30 0.42 23/30 0.61 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 29/35 36/113 10/30 0.64 Absence of Corruption 93/113 19/30 4/6 0.35 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 15/30 72/113 0.46 75/113 Open Government 0.48 22/30 33/35 4/6 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 6/6 0.34 0.66 28/30 106/113 Fundamental Rights 11/30 38/113 30/35 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 102/113 0.58 Order and Security 0.72 8/30 31/35 4/6 24/30 58/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.48 21/30 4/6 0.42 94/113 19/30 34/35 70/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 24/30 106/113 38/113 30/35 9/30 0.60 Civil Justice 0.37 5/6 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 5/6 1/30 96/113 21/30 25/113 0.34 Criminal Justice 0.63 25/35 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Bangladesh High Latin America & Caribbean Bahamas South Asia Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.64 0.39 0.58 0.54 0.38 0.61 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.65 0.50 0.86 0.22 0.51 0.36 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.29 0.37 0.34 0.48 0.62 0.72 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.43 0.36 0.68 0.58 0.43 0.31 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.47 0.68 0.21 0.49 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.68 0.31 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.34 0.19 0.49 0.60 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.40 0.75 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.81 0.73 0.54 0.40 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.41 0.59 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.61 0.43 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.37 0.50 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.30 0.82 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.47 0.57 0.78 0.72 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.31 0.80 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.74 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.37 0.31 0.47 0.35 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.45 0.21 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.28 0.63 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.35 0.78 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.35 0.37 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.30 0.46 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.81 0.23 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.58 0.44 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.62 0.29 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.43 0.36 0.66 0.73 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.34 0.36 0.47 0.54 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.46 0.29 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.59 0.54 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 48

51 Region : South Asia : Latin America & Caribbean Region Income Group : Lower Middle : High Income Group Bangladesh Bahamas Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 40/113 33/35 10/30 0.6 4/6 0.41 102/113 24/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 2 1 0.00 0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 98/113 6/6 43/113 32/35 11/30 0.42 23/30 0.61 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 29/35 36/113 10/30 0.64 93/113 19/30 4/6 Absence of Corruption 0.35 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.46 4/6 15/30 72/113 75/113 0.48 22/30 33/35 Open Government 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.34 0.66 28/30 106/113 11/30 6/6 30/35 38/113 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 24/30 102/113 Order and Security 0.72 8/30 31/35 0.58 4/6 58/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 4/6 21/30 19/30 0.48 70/113 34/35 0.42 94/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 24/30 106/113 38/113 30/35 9/30 0.60 Civil Justice 0.37 5/6 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.63 1/30 96/113 21/30 25/113 0.34 Criminal Justice 25/35 5/6 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Bangladesh High Latin America & Caribbean Bahamas South Asia Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.64 0.39 0.58 0.54 0.38 0.61 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.65 0.50 0.86 0.22 0.51 0.36 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.29 0.37 0.34 0.48 0.62 0.72 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.43 0.36 0.68 0.58 0.43 0.31 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.47 0.68 0.21 0.49 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.68 0.31 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.34 0.19 0.49 0.60 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.40 0.75 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.81 0.73 0.54 0.40 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.41 0.59 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.61 0.43 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.37 0.50 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.30 0.82 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.47 0.57 0.78 0.72 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.31 0.80 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.74 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.37 0.31 0.47 0.35 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.45 0.21 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.28 0.63 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.35 0.78 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.35 0.37 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.30 0.46 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.81 0.23 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.58 0.44 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.62 0.29 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.43 0.36 0.66 0.73 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.34 0.36 0.47 0.54 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.46 0.29 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.59 0.54 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 49

52 Region : Eastern Europe & Central Asia : Latin America & Caribbean Region Income Group : Upper Middle : High Income Group Belarus Barbados Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 30/113 28/35 5/30 0.65 5/13 0.51 65/113 20/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 2 8 0.02 0.02 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 105/113 11/13 31/113 28/35 5/30 0.34 34/36 0.66 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 26/35 28/113 5/30 0.68 Absence of Corruption 48/113 13/36 2/13 0.54 Open Open 7.4 3.2 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice 105/113 35/36 Open Government 12/13 0.35 Open Government 0.49 20/30 31/35 60/113 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 9/13 0.47 0.77 30/36 89/113 Fundamental Rights 3/30 18/113 17/35 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 24/113 0.82 Order and Security 0.75 4/30 28/35 2/13 2/36 45/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 0.60 0.49 30/113 29/35 4/13 Regulatory Enforcement 64/113 5/30 21/36 4.6 6.1 4.6 6.1 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights 7/36 39/113 0.59 Civil Justice 1/13 Civil Justice 28/113 27/35 5/30 0.65 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 3/13 3/30 51/113 14/36 29/113 0.50 Criminal Justice 0.59 27/35 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Belarus High Latin America & Caribbean Barbados Eastern Europe & Central Asia Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.76 0.72 0.27 0.77 0.51 0.71 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.75 0.29 0.84 0.59 0.81 0.71 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.46 0.37 0.61 0.44 0.60 0.86 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.28 0.55 0.71 0.76 0.53 0.24 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.60 0.81 0.82 0.39 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.71 0.24 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.57 0.29 0.34 0.86 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.32 0.77 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.70 0.81 0.65 0.35 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.47 0.80 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.64 0.46 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.56 0.59 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.74 0.90 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.67 0.45 0.90 0.90 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.63 0.79 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.34 0.38 0.58 0.42 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.35 0.57 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.75 0.41 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.52 0.77 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.22 0.22 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.59 0.61 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.74 0.10 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.36 0.47 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.60 0.46 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.54 0.31 0.71 0.77 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.66 0.28 0.57 0.49 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.66 0.33 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.33 0.72 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 50

53 Region : Eastern Europe & Central Asia : Latin America & Caribbean Region Income Group : Upper Middle : High Income Group Belarus Barbados Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 30/113 28/35 5/30 0.65 5/13 0.51 65/113 20/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 2 8 0.02 0.02 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 105/113 11/13 31/113 28/35 5/30 0.34 34/36 0.66 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 26/35 28/113 5/30 0.68 48/113 13/36 2/13 Absence of Corruption 0.54 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.35 12/13 35/36 60/113 105/113 0.49 20/30 31/35 Open Government 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.47 0.77 30/36 89/113 3/30 9/13 17/35 18/113 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 2/36 24/113 Order and Security 0.75 4/30 28/35 0.82 2/13 45/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 4/13 21/36 5/30 0.60 30/113 29/35 0.49 64/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 7/36 39/113 28/113 27/35 5/30 0.65 Civil Justice 0.59 1/13 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.59 3/30 51/113 14/36 29/113 0.50 Criminal Justice 27/35 3/13 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Belarus High Latin America & Caribbean Barbados Eastern Europe & Central Asia Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.76 0.72 0.27 0.77 0.51 0.71 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.75 0.29 0.84 0.59 0.81 0.71 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.46 0.37 0.61 0.44 0.60 0.86 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.28 0.55 0.71 0.76 0.53 0.24 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.60 0.81 0.82 0.39 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.71 0.24 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.57 0.29 0.34 0.86 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.32 0.77 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.70 0.81 0.65 0.35 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.47 0.80 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.64 0.46 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.56 0.59 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.74 0.90 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.67 0.45 0.90 0.90 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.63 0.79 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.34 0.38 0.58 0.42 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.35 0.57 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.75 0.41 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.52 0.77 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.22 0.22 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.59 0.61 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.74 0.10 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.36 0.47 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.60 0.46 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.54 0.31 0.71 0.77 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.66 0.28 0.57 0.49 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.66 0.33 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.33 0.72 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 51

54 : Latin America & Caribbean : EU & EFTA & North America Region Region : High Income Group : Upper Middle Income Group Belize Belgium Overall Score Global Rank Overall Score Regional Rank Income Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 81/113 29/36 0. 11/24 15/35 15/113 22/30 0.47 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 8.6 1.3 Score Change Rank Change Score Change Rank Change 8.5 1.4 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 0.00 2 1 0.02 2.1 8.2 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Factor Regional Global Factor Income Regional Factor Income Global Factor Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Score Rank Rank Score Rank Trend Rank Rank Trend 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 11/24 13/35 21/36 23/30 0.47 13/113 79/113 0.81 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 7.5 3.1 0 0 Absence of Corruption 11/24 16/35 16/113 Absence of Corruption 24/36 19/30 0.44 0.78 72/113 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 30/36 14/113 0.75 Open Government 90/113 14/35 25/30 0.44 12/24 7.2 3.4 7.2 3.4 7.1 4.1 7.1 4.1 Fundamental Rights 8/35 23/30 0.83 69/113 23/36 0.53 Fundamental Rights 8/24 8/113 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 34/113 7/30 55/113 16/36 19/24 0.78 Order and Security 0.73 26/35 6.4 4.3 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 17/35 17/113 35/36 27/30 0.39 101/113 Regulatory Enforcement 0.77 12/24 6.1 4.6 4.6 6.1 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 0.47 21/30 29/36 0.73 Civil Justice 10/24 18/35 18/113 80/113 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 11/24 15/35 0.33 Criminal Justice 22/30 32/36 98/113 0.72 15/113 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score High Low Trending up Trending down Medium Trending up High Medium Low Trending down Upper Middle Belize High EU & EFTA & North America Belgium Latin America & Caribbean Constraints on Government Powers Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Civil Justice Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.84 0.54 0.76 0.47 0.66 0.44 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 0.81 0.48 0.95 0.41 0.79 0.60 7.2 No discrimination 1.2 Limits by judiciary 4.2 Right to life & security 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 0.79 0.84 0.38 0.56 0.34 0.84 4.3 Due process of law 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 4.3 Due process of law 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 0.26 0.80 0.56 0.81 0.42 0.72 7.4 No improper gov't influence 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 4.4 Freedom of expression misconduct misconduct 0.46 0.45 0.56 0.83 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 0.56 0.80 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.42 0.86 0.78 0.45 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 0.63 0.90 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.58 0.56 0.79 0.85 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 0.72 0.78 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.39 0.73 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.36 0.60 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.60 0.94 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.70 0.85 0.70 0.28 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.55 0.88 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.83 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.57 0.23 0.20 0.60 2.4 In the legislature 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 8.3 Effective correctional 0.49 0.67 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.70 0.31 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.83 0.52 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.36 0.68 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.72 0.39 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.25 0.85 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.68 0.37 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.38 0.79 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.85 0.83 0.51 0.54 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.81 0.28 0.48 0.61 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 0.75 0.30 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.91 0.45 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 52

55 Region : EU & EFTA & North America : Latin America & Caribbean Region Income Group : High : Upper Middle Income Group Belgium Belize Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 81/113 29/36 22/30 0.47 11/24 0. 15/113 15/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 1 2 0.02 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 13/113 11/24 79/113 21/36 23/30 0.81 13/35 0.47 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption 72/113 19/30 0.44 11/24 0.78 16/113 24/36 16/35 Open Open 7.4 3.2 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 14/35 0.75 Open Government 0.44 25/30 30/36 14/113 12/24 90/113 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 0.53 0.83 8/24 8/35 8/113 23/30 Fundamental Rights 23/36 69/113 6.5 4.2 4.2 6.5 19/24 26/35 34/113 Order and Security 0.78 0.73 Order and Security 7/30 16/36 55/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 12/24 Regulatory Enforcement 101/113 27/30 35/36 17/113 0.39 17/35 0.77 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 18/35 18/113 80/113 29/36 21/30 0.47 Civil Justice 0.73 10/24 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 11/24 22/30 15/113 15/35 98/113 0.72 Criminal Justice 0.33 32/36 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Belgium Upper Middle Latin America & Caribbean Belize EU & EFTA & North America High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.54 0.76 0.84 0.44 0.66 0.47 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.48 0.79 0.60 0.95 0.41 0.81 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.79 0.84 0.84 0.34 0.38 0.56 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.81 0.72 0.56 0.42 0.26 0.80 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.83 0.56 0.45 0.46 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.56 0.80 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.78 0.86 0.42 0.45 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.90 0.63 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.58 0.56 0.79 0.85 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.78 0.72 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.39 0.73 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.60 0.36 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.94 0.60 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.70 0.28 0.85 0.70 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.88 0.55 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.83 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.57 0.20 0.23 0.60 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.49 0.67 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.70 0.31 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.83 0.52 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.36 0.68 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.39 0.72 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.25 0.85 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.68 0.37 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.38 0.79 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.85 0.83 0.54 0.51 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.61 0.28 0.48 0.81 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.30 0.75 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.91 0.45 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 53

56 Region : Eastern Europe & Central Asia : Latin America & Caribbean Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Lower Middle Income Group Bosnia and Herzegovina Bolivia Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 106/113 27/30 29/30 0.38 2/13 0.53 56/113 15/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Score Change Rank Change Score Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 -2 -6 -0.02 -0.03 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Global Global Income Factor Income Regional Factor Factor Regional Factor Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Score Trend Score Rank Rank Rank Trend Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 104/113 28/30 0.36 26/30 82/113 0.46 23/36 4/13 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption 110/113 30/30 0.26 6/13 0.43 73/113 28/30 25/36 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice 9/13 71/113 24/36 0.48 Open Government 0.45 24/30 18/30 81/113 Open Government 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 7.1 4.1 Fundamental Rights 0.59 4/13 15/36 52/113 0.46 28/30 Fundamental Rights 19/30 92/113 6.5 4.2 4.2 6.5 9/13 11/36 44/113 Order and Security 0.76 0.58 Order and Security 28/30 23/30 101/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 3/13 Regulatory Enforcement 98/113 25/30 24/30 61/113 0.41 19/36 0.50 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 24/36 69/113 111/113 29/30 29/30 0.34 Civil Justice 0.50 7/13 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 1/13 29/30 46/113 11/36 112/113 0.51 Criminal Justice 0.21 30/30 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Bosnia and Herzegovina Lower Middle Latin America & Caribbean Bolivia Eastern Europe & Central Asia Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.33 0.60 0.53 0.39 0.53 0.45 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.24 0.41 0.46 0.71 0.38 0.64 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.63 0.51 0.45 0.38 0.35 0.20 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.46 0.35 0.46 0.21 0.31 0.44 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.64 0.63 0.32 0.20 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.46 0.44 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.43 0.55 0.35 0.30 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.55 0.45 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.56 0.54 0.66 0.56 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.61 0.51 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.38 0.36 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.44 0.21 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.59 0.16 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.62 0.15 0.83 0.55 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.62 0.25 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.16 0.25 0.24 0.41 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.19 0.44 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.62 0.23 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.54 0.18 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.32 0.44 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.43 0.36 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.10 0.32 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.52 0.42 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.35 0.63 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.42 0.45 0.47 0.45 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.53 0.45 0.58 0.52 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.25 0.53 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.64 0.45 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 54

57 Region : Eastern Europe & Central Asia : Latin America & Caribbean Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Lower Middle Income Group Bosnia and Herzegovina Bolivia Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 106/113 27/30 29/30 0.38 2/13 0.53 56/113 15/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 -2 -6 -0.03 -0.02 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 82/113 4/13 104/113 26/30 28/30 0.46 23/36 0.36 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 28/30 110/113 30/30 0.26 73/113 25/36 6/13 Absence of Corruption 0.43 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.48 9/13 24/36 81/113 71/113 0.45 24/30 18/30 Open Government 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.59 0.46 15/36 52/113 28/30 4/13 19/30 92/113 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 11/36 44/113 Order and Security 0.58 28/30 23/30 0.76 9/13 101/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 3/13 19/36 25/30 0.41 98/113 24/30 0.50 61/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 24/36 69/113 111/113 29/30 29/30 0.34 Civil Justice 0.50 7/13 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.21 29/30 46/113 11/36 112/113 0.51 Criminal Justice 30/30 1/13 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Bosnia and Herzegovina Lower Middle Latin America & Caribbean Bolivia Eastern Europe & Central Asia Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.33 0.60 0.53 0.39 0.53 0.45 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.24 0.41 0.46 0.71 0.38 0.64 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.63 0.51 0.45 0.38 0.35 0.20 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.46 0.35 0.46 0.21 0.31 0.44 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.64 0.63 0.32 0.20 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.46 0.44 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.43 0.55 0.35 0.30 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.55 0.45 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.56 0.54 0.66 0.56 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.61 0.51 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.38 0.36 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.44 0.21 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.59 0.16 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.62 0.15 0.83 0.55 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.62 0.25 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.16 0.25 0.24 0.41 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.19 0.44 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.62 0.23 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.54 0.18 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.32 0.44 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.43 0.36 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.10 0.32 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.52 0.42 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.35 0.63 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.42 0.45 0.47 0.45 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.53 0.45 0.58 0.52 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.25 0.53 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.64 0.45 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 55

58 Region : Latin America & Caribbean : Sub-Saharan Africa Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Upper Middle Income Group Brazil Botswana Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 45/113 9/36 3/18 0.58 15/30 0.54 52/113 12/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Score Change Rank Change Rank Change Score Change 1.4 8.5 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 0.01 0.02 8.2 2.1 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Factor Global Factor Factor Regional Global Income Income Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Score Score Rank Rank Rank Trend Rank 7.7 2.3 7.7 2.3 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 14/36 5/18 0.55 58/113 10/36 50/113 14/30 0.58 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 7.5 3.1 0 0 Absence of Corruption 1/18 63/113 16/30 Absence of Corruption 0.62 38/113 20/36 0.46 6/36 Open Open 3.2 7.4 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 78/113 6/30 0.61 Open Government 0.46 7/18 26/36 7/36 35/113 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 0.57 18/30 18/36 59/113 17/36 Fundamental Rights 58/113 6/18 0.57 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 17/36 0.65 23/36 16/30 Order and Security 0.73 56/113 83/113 1/18 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 4.4 6.3 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 11/30 33/113 2/36 1/18 0.58 Regulatory Enforcement 11/36 48/113 0.52 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 4.7 5.3 5.3 4.7 4.8 5.2 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 15/30 20/36 61/113 36/113 5/36 3/18 0.61 Civil Justice 0.53 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 26/36 0.55 38/113 85/113 1/18 18/30 0.37 Criminal Justice 6/36 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Trending down Trending up High Medium High Low Trending down Trending up Medium Low Brazil Upper Middle Sub-Saharan Africa Botswana Latin America & Caribbean Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.52 0.54 0.75 0.67 0.55 0.48 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.60 0.66 0.60 0.59 0.55 0.60 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.38 0.52 0.69 0.44 0.54 0.74 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.62 0.32 0.48 0.61 0.54 0.59 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.69 0.61 0.24 0.52 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.48 0.59 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.41 0.56 0.61 0.47 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.62 0.73 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.68 0.61 0.59 0.65 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.56 0.57 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.58 0.41 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.31 0.45 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.74 0.78 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.32 0.49 0.52 0.67 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.61 0.75 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.10 0.39 0.48 0.18 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.52 0.43 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.19 0.55 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.56 0.72 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.22 0.72 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.53 0.52 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.64 0.65 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.62 0.54 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.54 0.38 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.61 0.57 0.54 0.66 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.28 0.39 0.52 0.54 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.62 0.55 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.64 0.69 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 56

59 Region : Latin America & Caribbean : Sub-Saharan Africa Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Upper Middle Income Group Brazil Botswana Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 45/113 9/36 3/18 0.58 15/30 0.54 52/113 12/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Score Change Rank Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 1.6 8.3 1.6 8.3 0.01 0.02 8.2 2.1 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Income Regional Global Factor Global Factor Income Factor Factor Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Score Rank Trend Score Rank Trend Rank Rank Rank Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 7.6 2.4 10/36 58/113 14/36 5/18 0.55 50/113 14/30 0.58 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 63/113 1/18 6/36 0.62 20/36 38/113 16/30 0.46 Absence of Corruption Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.61 6/30 35/113 0.46 7/18 26/36 7/36 78/113 Open Government 3.4 7.2 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 17/36 Fundamental Rights 0.57 18/30 18/36 59/113 6/18 0.57 58/113 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 16/30 23/36 83/113 0.73 1/18 17/36 56/113 Order and Security 0.65 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 0.52 Regulatory Enforcement 11/30 48/113 33/113 2/36 1/18 0.58 11/36 6.1 4.6 4.6 6.1 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 15/30 20/36 61/113 36/113 5/36 3/18 0.61 Civil Justice 0.53 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 6/36 0.55 38/113 85/113 1/18 18/30 0.37 Criminal Justice 26/36 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Trending down Trending up High Medium High Low Trending down Trending up Medium Low Brazil Upper Middle Sub-Saharan Africa Botswana Latin America & Caribbean Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.52 0.54 0.75 0.67 0.55 0.48 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.60 0.66 0.60 0.59 0.55 0.60 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.38 0.52 0.69 0.44 0.54 0.74 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.62 0.32 0.48 0.61 0.54 0.59 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.69 0.61 0.24 0.52 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.48 0.59 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.41 0.56 0.61 0.47 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.62 0.73 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.68 0.61 0.59 0.65 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.56 0.57 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.58 0.41 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.31 0.45 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.74 0.78 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.32 0.49 0.52 0.67 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.61 0.75 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.10 0.39 0.48 0.18 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.52 0.43 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.19 0.55 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.56 0.72 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.22 0.72 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.53 0.52 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.64 0.65 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.62 0.54 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.54 0.38 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.61 0.57 0.54 0.66 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.28 0.39 0.52 0.54 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.62 0.55 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.64 0.69 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 57

60 Region : Sub-Saharan Africa : EU & EFTA & North America Region Income Group : Low : Upper Middle Income Group Burkina Faso Bulgaria Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 55/113 14/36 24/24 0.53 6/18 0.51 70/113 4/12 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Score Change Rank Change Score Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 2 9 0.01 0.02 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Global Global Income Factor Income Regional Factor Factor Regional Factor Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Score Trend Score Rank Rank Rank Trend Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 87/113 23/24 0.45 26/36 67/113 0.53 5/12 8/18 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 69/113 3/12 5/18 Absence of Corruption 0.44 29/36 82/113 24/24 0.41 Absence of Corruption Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 4/12 45/113 0.46 77/113 Open Government 0.55 23/24 12/36 6/18 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 3/18 0.60 0.60 1/12 48/113 Fundamental Rights 23/24 47/113 13/36 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 87/113 0.63 Order and Security 0.74 23/24 14/36 11/18 8/12 52/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.53 3/12 6/18 0.45 80/113 22/24 8/36 44/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 4/12 76/113 49/113 13/36 22/24 0.56 Civil Justice 0.49 10/18 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 4/18 24/24 58/113 1/12 71/113 0.45 Criminal Justice 0.41 21/36 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Burkina Faso Upper Middle EU & EFTA & North America Bulgaria Sub-Saharan Africa Low Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.45 0.71 0.62 0.61 0.32 0.68 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.35 0.52 0.63 0.65 0.67 0.62 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.51 0.50 0.41 0.41 0.50 0.47 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.42 0.36 0.62 0.46 0.34 0.62 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.72 0.73 0.52 0.35 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.62 0.62 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.46 0.38 0.59 0.37 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.55 0.55 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.72 0.67 0.67 0.67 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.52 0.66 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.41 0.42 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.42 0.35 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.53 0.57 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.43 0.50 0.70 0.82 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.57 0.56 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.81 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.23 0.11 0.37 0.39 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.39 0.40 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.54 0.40 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.49 0.42 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.58 0.29 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.59 0.44 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.31 0.40 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.43 0.47 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.50 0.51 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.55 0.60 0.59 0.52 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.27 0.60 0.57 0.51 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.41 0.38 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.61 0.53 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 58

61 Region : Sub-Saharan Africa : EU & EFTA & North America Region Income Group : Low : Upper Middle Income Group Burkina Faso Bulgaria Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 55/113 14/36 24/24 0.53 6/18 0.51 70/113 4/12 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Rank Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 8.4 1.5 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 0.02 9 2 0.01 2.1 8.2 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Factor Factor Regional Regional Global Factor Factor Income Global Income Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Score Rank Rank Score Rank Rank Rank Trend Trend Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 5/12 0.53 8/18 67/113 87/113 26/36 23/24 0.45 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 5/18 24/24 0.41 29/36 82/113 Absence of Corruption 0.44 69/113 3/12 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 6/18 4/12 0.55 23/24 12/36 45/113 0.46 Open Government 77/113 3.4 7.2 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 0.60 Fundamental Rights 0.60 3/18 1/12 23/24 13/36 47/113 48/113 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 Order and Security Order and Security 8/12 0.74 52/113 23/24 0.63 11/18 87/113 14/36 6.4 4.3 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 4.4 6.3 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 44/113 0.45 0.53 8/36 Regulatory Enforcement 22/24 80/113 3/12 6/18 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice Civil Justice 0.56 4/12 76/113 49/113 22/24 0.49 13/36 10/18 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 58/113 1/12 4/18 0.45 Criminal Justice 71/113 21/36 24/24 0.41 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Medium High Trending up Trending down Low Trending up Trending down Low High Medium Bulgaria Burkina Faso Sub-Saharan Africa Low Upper Middle EU & EFTA & North America Civil Justice Civil Justice Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Constraints on Government Powers 0.32 0.62 0.45 0.71 0.61 0.68 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 4.1 No discrimination 0.65 0.35 0.67 0.63 0.52 0.62 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 4.2 Right to life & security 7.2 No discrimination 0.41 0.51 0.41 0.50 0.50 0.47 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 7.3 No corruption 1.3 Independent auditing 4.3 Due process of law 1.3 Independent auditing 0.62 0.34 0.42 0.62 0.46 0.36 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression misconduct misconduct 0.52 0.72 0.35 0.73 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 0.62 0.62 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.59 0.46 0.37 0.38 7.6 Effective enforcement 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 4.6 Right to privacy 0.55 0.55 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.67 0.72 0.67 0.67 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 0.52 0.66 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.41 0.42 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.42 0.35 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.53 0.57 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.82 0.50 0.70 0.43 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 0.57 0.56 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.81 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.39 0.23 0.11 0.37 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.40 0.39 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.40 0.54 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.42 0.49 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.58 0.29 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.44 0.59 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.40 0.31 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.43 0.47 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.51 0.50 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.60 0.59 0.52 0.55 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 0.27 0.60 0.51 0.57 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.38 0.41 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.61 0.53 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 59

62 Region : Sub-Saharan Africa : East Asia & Pacific Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Lower Middle Income Group Cameroon Cambodia Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 112/113 30/30 15/15 0.32 18/18 0.37 109/113 28/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Score Change Score Change Rank Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 1.6 8.3 8.3 1.6 0.00 0.00 8.2 2.1 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Income Regional Global Factor Global Factor Income Factor Factor Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Rank Trend Score Trend Score Rank Rank Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 7.6 2.4 7.6 2.4 24/30 110/113 30/30 15/15 0.32 102/113 16/18 0.39 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 7.5 3.1 0 0 Absence of Corruption 15/15 112/113 18/18 Absence of Corruption 0.25 113/113 29/30 0.25 30/30 Open Open 3.2 7.4 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 113/113 16/18 0.33 Open Government 0.23 15/15 30/30 26/30 106/113 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 27/30 0.43 15/18 23/30 98/113 Fundamental Rights 104/113 13/15 0.38 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 18/30 0.49 28/30 17/18 Order and Security 0.66 81/113 109/113 14/15 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 4.4 6.3 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 14/18 112/113 30/30 15/15 0.27 Regulatory Enforcement 25/30 102/113 0.38 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 4.7 5.3 5.3 4.7 4.8 5.2 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 18/18 26/30 108/113 113/113 30/30 15/15 0.20 Civil Justice 0.37 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 27/30 0.27 110/113 109/113 15/15 18/18 0.28 Criminal Justice 28/30 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Trending down Trending up High Medium High Low Trending down Trending up Medium Low Cameroon Lower Middle East Asia & Pacific Cambodia Sub-Saharan Africa Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.41 0.49 0.36 0.39 0.42 0.30 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.25 0.28 0.42 0.33 0.31 0.22 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.33 0.52 0.26 0.23 0.29 0.11 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.21 0.42 0.33 0.17 0.30 0.37 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.74 0.51 0.40 0.17 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.33 0.37 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.36 0.15 0.07 0.29 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.39 0.39 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.35 0.45 0.52 0.51 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.51 0.44 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.28 0.30 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.36 0.35 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.27 0.15 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.34 0.38 0.61 0.81 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.31 0.25 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.63 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.13 0.31 0.24 0.08 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.17 0.25 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.47 0.24 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.26 0.18 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.20 0.19 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.25 0.46 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.20 0.10 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.44 0.20 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.29 0.33 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.40 0.41 0.35 0.21 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.23 0.47 0.17 0.30 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.15 0.34 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.48 0.26 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 60

63 Region : Sub-Saharan Africa : East Asia & Pacific Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Lower Middle Income Group Cameroon Cambodia Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 112/113 30/30 15/15 0.32 18/18 0.37 109/113 28/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Score Change Rank Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 1.6 8.3 1.6 8.3 0.00 0.00 8.2 2.1 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Income Regional Global Factor Global Factor Income Factor Factor Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Score Rank Trend Score Rank Trend Rank Rank Rank Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 7.6 2.4 24/30 110/113 30/30 15/15 0.32 102/113 16/18 0.39 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 112/113 15/15 30/30 0.25 29/30 113/113 18/18 0.25 Absence of Corruption Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.33 16/18 106/113 0.23 15/15 30/30 26/30 113/113 Open Government 3.4 7.2 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 27/30 Fundamental Rights 0.43 15/18 23/30 98/113 13/15 0.38 104/113 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 17/18 28/30 109/113 0.66 14/15 18/30 81/113 Order and Security 0.49 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 0.38 Regulatory Enforcement 14/18 102/113 112/113 30/30 15/15 0.27 25/30 6.1 4.6 4.6 6.1 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 18/18 26/30 108/113 113/113 30/30 15/15 0.20 Civil Justice 0.37 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 28/30 0.27 110/113 109/113 15/15 18/18 0.28 Criminal Justice 27/30 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Trending down Trending up High Medium High Low Trending down Trending up Medium Low Cameroon Lower Middle East Asia & Pacific Cambodia Sub-Saharan Africa Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.41 0.49 0.36 0.39 0.42 0.30 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.25 0.28 0.42 0.33 0.31 0.22 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.33 0.52 0.26 0.23 0.29 0.11 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.21 0.42 0.33 0.17 0.30 0.37 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.74 0.51 0.40 0.17 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.33 0.37 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.36 0.15 0.07 0.29 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.39 0.39 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.35 0.45 0.52 0.51 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.51 0.44 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.28 0.30 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.36 0.35 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.27 0.15 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.34 0.38 0.61 0.81 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.31 0.25 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.63 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.13 0.31 0.24 0.08 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.17 0.25 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.47 0.24 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.26 0.18 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.20 0.19 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.25 0.46 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.20 0.10 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.44 0.20 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.29 0.33 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.40 0.41 0.35 0.21 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.23 0.47 0.17 0.30 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.15 0.34 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.48 0.26 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 61

64 Region : Latin America & Caribbean : EU & EFTA & North America Region Income Group : High : High Income Group Chile Canada Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 9/113 9/35 8/24 0.81 3/30 0.6 2/113 26/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 3 1 0.02 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 22/113 3/30 8/113 8/35 7/24 0.71 20/35 0.84 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 11/35 11/113 7/24 0.83 Absence of Corruption 26/113 25/35 3/30 0.69 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 17/35 6/113 0.71 18/113 Open Government 0.82 6/24 6/35 2/30 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 5/30 0.73 0.82 22/35 23/113 Fundamental Rights 9/24 9/113 9/35 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 74/113 0.68 Order and Security 0.91 5/24 8/35 13/30 34/35 9/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 3/30 26/113 0.62 25/35 Regulatory Enforcement 0.79 Regulatory Enforcement 9/24 14/35 14/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 29/35 31/113 20/113 20/35 12/24 0.72 Civil Justice 0.63 6/30 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 9/30 9/24 37/113 31/35 10/113 0.56 Criminal Justice 0.74 10/35 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Chile High EU & EFTA & North America Canada Latin America & Caribbean High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.81 0.57 0.71 0.69 0.66 0.55 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.85 0.57 0.95 0.85 0.61 0.62 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.63 0.82 0.64 0.80 0.78 0.90 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.67 0.57 0.85 0.90 0.80 0.72 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.78 0.84 0.44 0.51 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.85 0.72 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.63 0.84 0.77 0.86 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.87 0.95 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.80 0.86 0.74 0.74 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.71 0.77 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.78 0.62 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.36 0.70 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.83 0.95 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.61 0.72 0.76 0.92 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.81 0.88 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.48 0.72 0.61 0.33 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.80 0.28 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.53 0.60 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.68 0.85 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.88 0.66 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.73 0.60 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.93 0.75 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.72 0.68 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.78 0.63 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.73 0.68 0.84 0.86 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.55 0.71 0.86 0.78 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.88 0.46 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.76 0.79 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 62

65 Region : Latin America & Caribbean : EU & EFTA & North America Region Income Group : High : High Income Group Chile Canada Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 9/113 9/35 8/24 0.81 3/30 0.6 2/113 26/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 3 1 0.02 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 22/113 3/30 8/113 8/35 7/24 0.71 20/35 0.84 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 11/35 11/113 7/24 0.83 26/113 25/35 3/30 Absence of Corruption 0.69 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice 6/113 6/35 0.82 6/24 Open Government 17/35 Open Government 18/113 2/30 0.71 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 7.1 4.1 Fundamental Rights 0.82 0.73 5/30 22/35 23/113 9/24 Fundamental Rights 9/35 9/113 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 34/35 74/113 Order and Security 0.91 5/24 8/35 0.68 13/30 9/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 3/30 25/35 9/24 0.79 14/113 14/35 0.62 26/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 29/35 31/113 20/113 20/35 12/24 0.72 Civil Justice 0.63 6/30 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.74 9/24 37/113 31/35 10/113 0.56 Criminal Justice 10/35 9/30 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Chile High EU & EFTA & North America Canada Latin America & Caribbean High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.81 0.57 0.71 0.69 0.66 0.55 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.85 0.57 0.95 0.85 0.61 0.62 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.63 0.82 0.64 0.80 0.78 0.90 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.67 0.57 0.85 0.90 0.80 0.72 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.78 0.84 0.44 0.51 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.85 0.72 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.63 0.84 0.77 0.86 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.87 0.95 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.80 0.86 0.74 0.74 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.71 0.77 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.78 0.62 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.36 0.70 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.83 0.95 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.61 0.72 0.76 0.92 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.81 0.88 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.48 0.72 0.61 0.33 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.80 0.28 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.53 0.60 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.68 0.85 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.88 0.66 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.73 0.60 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.93 0.75 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.72 0.68 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.78 0.63 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.73 0.68 0.84 0.86 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.55 0.71 0.86 0.78 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.88 0.46 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.76 0.79 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 63

66 Region : Latin America & Caribbean : East Asia & Pacific Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Upper Middle Income Group Colombia China Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 75/113 26/36 12/15 0.5 19/30 0.5 72/113 24/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 5 -1 0.00 0.02 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 65/113 19/30 100/113 32/36 14/15 0.53 15/36 0.40 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 12/36 47/113 8/15 0.55 Absence of Corruption 83/113 30/36 22/30 0.41 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 4/36 83/113 0.63 31/113 Open Government 0.45 11/15 27/36 5/30 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 19/30 0.56 0.31 20/36 63/113 Fundamental Rights 14/15 108/113 35/36 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 104/113 0.57 Order and Security 0.80 7/15 4/36 29/30 34/36 28/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.48 15/36 14/30 0.51 54/113 11/15 23/36 69/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 26/36 77/113 57/113 17/36 8/15 0.54 Civil Justice 0.49 19/30 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 20/30 10/15 92/113 30/36 54/113 0.34 Criminal Justice 0.48 15/36 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Colombia Upper Middle East Asia & Pacific China Latin America & Caribbean Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.60 0.51 0.57 0.43 0.53 0.59 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.40 0.48 0.45 0.57 0.44 0.52 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.42 0.50 0.45 0.50 0.51 0.45 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.51 0.42 0.14 0.25 0.49 0.59 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.68 0.30 0.23 0.71 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.14 0.59 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.44 0.50 0.63 0.22 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.62 0.27 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.70 0.18 0.72 0.64 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.53 0.27 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.50 0.47 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.17 0.60 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.53 0.58 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.33 0.59 0.48 0.79 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.50 0.69 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.92 0.94 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.13 0.41 0.47 0.27 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.69 0.29 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.33 0.36 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.39 0.61 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.44 0.67 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.54 0.53 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.20 0.48 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.62 0.61 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.51 0.42 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.59 0.59 0.21 0.58 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.37 0.58 0.52 0.63 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.28 0.43 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.62 0.42 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 64

67 Region : Latin America & Caribbean : East Asia & Pacific Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Upper Middle Income Group Colombia China Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 75/113 26/36 12/15 0.5 19/30 0.5 72/113 24/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 5 -1 0.00 0.02 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 65/113 19/30 100/113 32/36 14/15 0.53 15/36 0.40 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 12/36 8/15 0.55 83/113 30/36 22/30 0.41 47/113 Absence of Corruption Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 5/30 4/36 27/36 31/113 0.45 11/15 Open Government 83/113 0.63 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 7.1 4.1 Fundamental Rights 19/30 0.31 63/113 14/15 Fundamental Rights 35/36 108/113 0.56 20/36 6.5 4.2 4.2 6.5 7/15 4/36 0.80 Order and Security 28/113 29/30 34/36 104/113 Order and Security 0.57 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 14/30 15/36 11/15 0.48 69/113 23/36 0.51 54/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 26/36 77/113 57/113 17/36 8/15 0.54 Civil Justice 0.49 19/30 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.48 10/15 92/113 30/36 54/113 0.34 Criminal Justice 15/36 20/30 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Colombia Upper Middle East Asia & Pacific China Latin America & Caribbean Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.60 0.51 0.57 0.43 0.53 0.59 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.40 0.48 0.45 0.57 0.44 0.52 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.42 0.50 0.45 0.50 0.51 0.45 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.51 0.42 0.14 0.25 0.49 0.59 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.68 0.30 0.23 0.71 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.14 0.59 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.44 0.50 0.63 0.22 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.62 0.27 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.70 0.18 0.72 0.64 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.53 0.27 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.50 0.47 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.17 0.60 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.53 0.58 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.33 0.59 0.48 0.79 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.50 0.69 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.92 0.94 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.13 0.41 0.47 0.27 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.69 0.29 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.33 0.36 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.39 0.61 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.44 0.67 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.54 0.53 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.20 0.48 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.62 0.61 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.51 0.42 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.59 0.59 0.21 0.58 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.37 0.58 0.52 0.63 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.28 0.43 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.62 0.42 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 65

68 Region : Sub-Saharan Africa : Latin America & Caribbean Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Upper Middle Income Group Cote d'Ivoire Costa Rica Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 24/113 1/36 2/30 0.68 8/18 0.47 84/113 16/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 1 3 0.01 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 92/113 14/18 15/113 1/36 1/30 0.44 22/30 0.79 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 1/36 27/113 4/30 0.68 Absence of Corruption 86/113 15/30 10/18 0.40 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 25/30 17/113 0.37 101/113 Open Government 0.72 1/30 1/36 15/18 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 12/18 0.46 0.78 17/30 90/113 Fundamental Rights 2/30 17/113 1/36 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 75/113 0.68 Order and Security 0.69 12/30 19/36 7/18 17/30 68/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.64 8/30 5/18 0.51 57/113 2/30 1/36 24/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 6/30 63/113 32/113 3/36 7/30 0.63 Civil Justice 0.52 6/18 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 10/18 8/30 76/113 13/30 36/113 0.39 Criminal Justice 0.56 5/36 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Cote d'Ivoire Upper Middle Latin America & Caribbean Costa Rica Sub-Saharan Africa Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.80 0.58 0.43 0.64 0.46 0.60 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.75 0.40 0.91 0.35 0.77 0.51 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.41 0.49 0.39 0.81 0.69 0.78 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.39 0.39 0.83 0.74 0.60 0.37 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.75 0.81 0.60 0.26 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.83 0.37 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.52 0.14 0.47 0.81 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.53 0.92 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.77 0.82 0.75 0.58 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.51 0.69 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.68 0.36 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.27 0.42 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.45 0.82 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.54 0.43 0.68 0.70 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.48 0.74 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.98 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.29 0.47 0.32 0.31 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.38 0.38 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.50 0.66 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.43 0.68 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.46 0.20 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.62 0.43 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.68 0.29 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.39 0.80 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.69 0.41 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.46 0.47 0.78 0.67 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.50 0.45 0.82 0.44 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.64 0.51 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.63 0.81 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 66

69 Region : Sub-Saharan Africa : Latin America & Caribbean Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Upper Middle Income Group Cote d'Ivoire Costa Rica Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 24/113 1/36 2/30 0.68 8/18 0.47 84/113 16/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 1 3 0.01 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 92/113 14/18 15/113 1/36 1/30 0.44 22/30 0.79 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 1/36 27/113 4/30 0.68 86/113 15/30 10/18 Absence of Corruption 0.40 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice 17/113 1/36 0.72 1/30 Open Government 25/30 Open Government 101/113 15/18 0.37 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 7.1 4.1 Fundamental Rights 0.78 0.46 12/18 17/30 90/113 2/30 Fundamental Rights 1/36 17/113 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 17/30 75/113 Order and Security 0.69 12/30 19/36 0.68 7/18 68/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 5/18 8/30 2/30 0.64 24/113 1/36 0.51 57/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 6/30 63/113 32/113 3/36 7/30 0.63 Civil Justice 0.52 6/18 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.56 8/30 76/113 13/30 36/113 0.39 Criminal Justice 5/36 10/18 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Cote d'Ivoire Upper Middle Latin America & Caribbean Costa Rica Sub-Saharan Africa Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.80 0.58 0.43 0.64 0.46 0.60 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.75 0.40 0.91 0.35 0.77 0.51 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.41 0.49 0.39 0.81 0.69 0.78 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.39 0.39 0.83 0.74 0.60 0.37 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.75 0.81 0.60 0.26 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.83 0.37 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.52 0.14 0.47 0.81 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.53 0.92 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.77 0.82 0.75 0.58 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.51 0.69 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.68 0.36 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.27 0.42 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.45 0.82 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.54 0.43 0.68 0.70 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.48 0.74 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.98 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.29 0.47 0.32 0.31 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.38 0.38 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.50 0.66 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.43 0.68 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.46 0.20 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.62 0.43 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.68 0.29 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.39 0.80 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.69 0.41 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.46 0.47 0.78 0.67 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.50 0.45 0.82 0.44 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.64 0.51 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.63 0.81 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 67

70 Region : EU & EFTA & North America : EU & EFTA & North America Region Income Group : High : Upper Middle Income Group Czech Republic Croatia Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 35/113 4/36 21/24 0.61 12/24 0.4 1/113 1/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Score Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 1.6 8.3 8.3 1.6 0.01 0.01 4 2.1 8.2 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Global Factor Factor Regional Regional Global Factor Income Factor Income Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 2.3 7.7 7.7 2.3 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 9/36 22/24 20/113 0.59 19/35 15/24 0.74 47/113 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 20/24 Absence of Corruption 0.60 41/113 34/113 28/35 17/24 7/36 0.65 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.66 17/24 Open Government 0.62 21/24 5/36 24/35 33/113 25/113 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 0.80 12/24 14/35 0.67 36/113 20/24 Fundamental Rights 6/36 14/113 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 10/113 0.90 Order and Security 0.81 16/24 3/36 6/24 9/35 26/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 23/24 14/24 Regulatory Enforcement 0.52 0.67 22/35 52/113 22/113 14/36 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 19/35 19/113 44/113 10/36 20/24 0.57 Civil Justice 0.72 11/24 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 9/35 0.51 48/113 9/113 22/24 8/24 0.74 Criminal Justice 12/36 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Trending down Trending up High Medium High Low Trending down Trending up Medium Low Czech Republic Upper Middle EU & EFTA & North America Croatia EU & EFTA & North America High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.66 0.80 0.73 0.62 0.63 0.61 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.51 0.73 0.84 0.73 0.97 0.64 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.79 0.72 0.77 0.55 0.60 0.59 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.78 0.66 0.68 0.58 0.45 0.72 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.75 0.68 0.56 0.31 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.68 0.72 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.68 0.85 0.54 0.56 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.89 0.69 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.73 0.76 0.81 0.75 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.75 0.71 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.55 0.61 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.68 0.50 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.87 0.70 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.75 0.50 0.89 0.94 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.77 0.75 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.36 0.37 0.38 0.54 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.49 0.82 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.79 0.42 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.76 0.59 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.55 0.67 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.60 0.65 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.55 0.87 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.64 0.67 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.60 0.79 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.71 0.69 0.66 0.62 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.62 0.38 0.61 0.66 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.37 0.65 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.74 0.61 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 68

71 Region : EU & EFTA & North America : EU & EFTA & North America Region Income Group : High : Upper Middle Income Group Czech Republic Croatia Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 35/113 4/36 21/24 0.61 12/24 0.4 1/113 1/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Score Change Score Change Rank Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 0.01 0.01 4 8.2 2.1 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Global Factor Factor Regional Regional Global Factor Income Factor Income Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 9/36 22/24 20/113 0.59 19/35 15/24 0.74 47/113 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 0.60 20/24 7/36 41/113 34/113 28/35 17/24 Absence of Corruption 0.65 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.62 21/24 5/36 33/113 17/24 24/35 25/113 Open Government 0.66 7.2 3.4 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.80 12/24 14/35 14/113 20/24 0.67 6/36 36/113 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 9/35 10/113 Order and Security 0.81 16/24 3/36 0.90 6/24 26/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 6.3 4.4 4.4 6.3 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 0.52 22/35 14/24 52/113 14/36 23/24 0.67 22/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 4.6 6.1 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights 10/36 20/24 0.57 Civil Justice 44/113 19/113 19/35 11/24 0.72 Civil Justice Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 48/113 0.51 22/24 12/36 Criminal Justice 0.74 8/24 9/113 9/35 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score High Low Medium High Trending up Medium Low Trending down Trending up Trending down Upper Middle Czech Republic Croatia EU & EFTA & North America EU & EFTA & North America High Constraints on Government Powers Fundamental Rights Civil Justice Civil Justice Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers 0.63 0.73 0.62 0.61 0.66 0.80 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 4.1 No discrimination 4.1 No discrimination 0.51 0.97 0.64 0.73 0.84 0.73 1.2 Limits by judiciary 4.2 Right to life & security 7.2 No discrimination 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.77 0.60 0.59 0.55 0.72 0.79 4.3 Due process of law 7.3 No corruption 1.3 Independent auditing 4.3 Due process of law 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 0.45 0.58 0.72 0.78 0.66 0.68 1.4 Sanctions for official 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence misconduct misconduct 0.75 0.56 0.68 0.31 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.68 0.72 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.56 0.68 0.54 0.85 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 0.89 0.69 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.76 0.75 0.81 0.73 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 0.71 0.75 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.55 0.61 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.50 0.68 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.87 0.70 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.50 0.89 0.75 0.94 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 0.75 0.77 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.54 0.38 0.37 0.36 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.82 0.49 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.79 0.42 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.76 0.59 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.55 0.67 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.60 0.65 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.55 0.87 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.64 0.67 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.60 0.79 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.71 0.69 0.66 0.62 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.62 0.38 0.61 0.66 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.37 0.65 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.74 0.61 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 69

72 : Latin America & Caribbean : EU & EFTA & North America Region Region Income Group : Upper Middle : High Income Group Denmark Dominica Overall Score Overall Score Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 7/36 1/35 1/24 0.89 11/30 0.6 41/113 1/113 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Score Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 1.6 8.3 8.3 1.6 0.01 -1 -0.01 8.2 2.1 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Regional Regional Income Factor Global Factor Income Factor Global Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Rank Trend Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 2.3 7.7 7.7 2.3 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 0.94 53/113 16/30 1/113 1/35 1/24 0.57 12/36 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 7.5 3.1 0 0 Absence of Corruption 1/113 0.95 9/30 1/24 1/35 Absence of Corruption 5/36 0.65 35/113 Open Open 3.2 7.4 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 3/113 17/30 0.50 Open Government 0.86 3/24 3/35 16/36 56/113 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 2/35 0.67 10/30 7/36 37/113 2/113 2/24 0.90 Fundamental Rights 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 5/35 0.75 12/36 5/30 Order and Security 0.92 5/113 47/113 3/24 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 4.4 6.3 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 13/30 3/113 3/35 2/24 0.87 Regulatory Enforcement 12/36 50/113 0.52 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 8/30 6/36 37/113 2/113 2/35 2/24 0.86 Civil Justice 0.60 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 11/30 3/24 41/113 8/36 3/113 0.54 Criminal Justice 0.82 3/35 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Dominica High EU & EFTA & North America Denmark Latin America & Caribbean Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.92 0.49 0.44 0.74 0.73 0.76 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.95 0.65 0.98 0.81 0.89 0.56 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.56 0.76 0.77 0.92 0.85 0.98 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.79 0.45 0.97 0.91 0.92 0.53 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.72 0.79 0.34 0.71 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.97 0.53 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.41 0.95 0.91 0.96 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.55 0.98 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.87 0.98 0.62 0.62 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.66 0.95 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.92 0.59 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.42 0.69 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.87 0.98 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.49 0.79 0.89 0.94 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.75 0.97 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.37 0.94 0.69 0.26 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.84 0.35 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.60 0.79 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.75 0.97 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.84 0.38 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.83 0.45 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.94 0.67 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.58 0.79 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.85 0.56 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.68 0.59 0.93 0.95 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.34 0.86 0.89 0.45 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.84 0.54 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.57 0.87 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 70

73 : Latin America & Caribbean : EU & EFTA & North America Region Region Income Group : Upper Middle : High Income Group Denmark Dominica Overall Score Overall Score Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 7/36 1/35 1/24 0.89 11/30 0.6 41/113 1/113 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Score Change Score Change Rank Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 0.01 -1 -0.01 8.2 2.1 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Factor Regional Regional Income Factor Global Factor Income Factor Global Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Rank Trend Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 0.94 53/113 16/30 1/113 1/35 1/24 0.57 12/36 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 0.95 1/24 35/113 5/36 1/35 1/113 9/30 0.65 Absence of Corruption Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.50 17/30 16/36 0.86 3/24 3/35 56/113 3/113 Open Government 3.4 7.2 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 2/35 Fundamental Rights 0.67 10/30 7/36 37/113 2/24 0.90 2/113 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 5/30 12/36 47/113 0.92 3/24 5/35 5/113 Order and Security 0.75 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 0.52 Regulatory Enforcement 13/30 50/113 3/113 3/35 2/24 0.87 12/36 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 8/30 6/36 37/113 2/113 2/35 2/24 0.86 Civil Justice 0.60 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.82 3/24 41/113 8/36 3/113 0.54 Criminal Justice 3/35 11/30 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Dominica High EU & EFTA & North America Denmark Latin America & Caribbean Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.92 0.49 0.44 0.74 0.73 0.76 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.95 0.65 0.98 0.81 0.89 0.56 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.56 0.76 0.77 0.92 0.85 0.98 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.79 0.45 0.97 0.91 0.92 0.53 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.72 0.79 0.34 0.71 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.97 0.53 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.41 0.95 0.91 0.96 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.55 0.98 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.87 0.98 0.62 0.62 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.66 0.95 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.92 0.59 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.42 0.69 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.87 0.98 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.49 0.79 0.89 0.94 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.75 0.97 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.37 0.94 0.69 0.26 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.84 0.35 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.60 0.79 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.75 0.97 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.84 0.38 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.83 0.45 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.94 0.67 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.58 0.79 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.85 0.56 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.68 0.59 0.93 0.95 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.34 0.86 0.89 0.45 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.84 0.54 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.57 0.87 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 71

74 Region : Latin America & Caribbean : Latin America & Caribbean Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Upper Middle Income Group Ecuador Dominican Republic Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 90/113 33/36 24/30 0.47 23/30 0.47 85/113 30/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Score Change Rank Change Score Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 -5 6 0.00 0.02 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Global Global Income Factor Income Regional Factor Factor Regional Factor Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Score Trend Score Rank Rank Rank Trend Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 88/113 25/30 0.45 27/36 96/113 0.43 30/36 26/30 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 33/36 91/113 25/30 0.37 Absence of Corruption 78/113 28/36 21/30 0.42 Open Open 7.4 3.2 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice 58/113 17/36 Open Government 18/30 0.49 Open Government 0.52 13/30 13/36 50/113 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 26/30 0.51 0.59 26/36 77/113 Fundamental Rights 17/30 54/113 16/36 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 88/113 0.63 Order and Security 0.61 24/30 32/36 19/30 27/36 94/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.40 29/36 23/30 0.45 82/113 26/30 34/36 99/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 30/36 86/113 88/113 32/36 23/30 0.45 Civil Justice 0.46 22/30 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 17/30 24/30 78/113 25/36 100/113 0.38 Criminal Justice 0.33 34/36 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Ecuador Upper Middle Latin America & Caribbean Dominican Republic Latin America & Caribbean Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.51 0.49 0.48 0.49 0.53 0.51 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.39 0.37 0.60 0.52 0.57 0.45 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.46 0.39 0.42 0.35 0.43 0.43 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.27 0.37 0.64 0.38 0.29 0.48 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.66 0.72 0.42 0.29 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.64 0.48 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.43 0.33 0.38 0.54 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.48 0.55 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.63 0.66 0.69 0.54 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.57 0.63 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.38 0.43 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.30 0.30 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.44 0.49 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.46 0.39 0.57 0.59 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.55 0.44 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.25 0.17 0.18 0.34 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.23 0.31 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.40 0.29 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.47 0.38 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.36 0.40 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.37 0.49 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.31 0.22 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.47 0.54 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.43 0.46 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.55 0.49 0.56 0.56 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.47 0.39 0.64 0.62 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.21 0.25 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.49 0.47 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 72

75 Region : Latin America & Caribbean : Latin America & Caribbean Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Upper Middle Income Group Ecuador Dominican Republic Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 90/113 33/36 24/30 0.47 23/30 0.47 85/113 30/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 -5 6 0.02 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 96/113 26/30 88/113 27/36 25/30 0.43 30/36 0.45 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 33/36 91/113 25/30 0.37 78/113 28/36 21/30 Absence of Corruption 0.42 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.49 18/30 17/36 50/113 58/113 0.52 13/30 13/36 Open Government 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.51 0.59 26/36 77/113 17/30 26/30 16/36 54/113 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 27/36 88/113 Order and Security 0.61 24/30 32/36 0.63 19/30 94/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 23/30 29/36 26/30 0.40 99/113 34/36 0.45 82/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 30/36 86/113 88/113 32/36 23/30 0.45 Civil Justice 0.46 22/30 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.33 24/30 78/113 25/36 100/113 0.38 Criminal Justice 34/36 17/30 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Ecuador Upper Middle Latin America & Caribbean Dominican Republic Latin America & Caribbean Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.51 0.49 0.48 0.49 0.53 0.51 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.39 0.37 0.60 0.52 0.57 0.45 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.46 0.39 0.42 0.35 0.43 0.43 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.27 0.37 0.64 0.38 0.29 0.48 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.66 0.72 0.42 0.29 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.64 0.48 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.43 0.33 0.38 0.54 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.48 0.55 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.63 0.66 0.69 0.54 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.57 0.63 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.38 0.43 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.30 0.30 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.44 0.49 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.46 0.39 0.57 0.59 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.55 0.44 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.25 0.17 0.18 0.34 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.23 0.31 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.40 0.29 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.47 0.38 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.36 0.40 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.37 0.49 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.31 0.22 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.47 0.54 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.43 0.46 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.55 0.49 0.56 0.56 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.47 0.39 0.64 0.62 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.21 0.25 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.49 0.47 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 73

76 : Latin America & Caribbean : Middle East & North Africa Region Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Lower Middle Income Group Egypt El Salvador Overall Score Overall Score Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 13/30 29/30 7/7 0.36 21/30 0.48 79/113 110/113 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 8.6 1.3 Score Change Rank Change Score Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 -4 -0.01 0.00 8.2 2.1 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Factor Factor Regional Regional Factor Income Income Global Global Factor Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank Trend Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 7.7 2.3 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 27/30 7/7 0.33 107/113 21/30 76/113 0.48 16/30 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 7.5 3.1 0 0 Absence of Corruption 85/113 0.40 20/30 6/7 14/30 Absence of Corruption 11/30 0.42 76/113 Open Open 3.2 7.4 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 112/113 14/30 0.52 Open Government 0.25 7/7 29/30 8/30 52/113 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 30/30 0.53 22/30 8/30 68/113 112/113 7/7 0.30 Fundamental Rights 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 27/30 0.60 20/30 25/30 Order and Security 0.51 108/113 96/113 7/7 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 4.4 6.3 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 18/30 110/113 29/30 7/7 0.31 Regulatory Enforcement 9/30 65/113 0.49 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 18/30 9/30 71/113 105/113 23/30 7/7 0.38 Civil Justice 0.50 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 27/30 5/7 106/113 25/30 68/113 0.30 Criminal Justice 0.42 11/30 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium El Salvador Lower Middle Middle East & North Africa Egypt Latin America & Caribbean Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.19 0.48 0.57 0.48 0.54 0.44 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.43 0.46 0.32 0.60 0.30 0.58 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.37 0.41 0.47 0.37 0.35 0.50 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.41 0.37 0.16 0.48 0.40 0.56 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.64 0.30 0.40 0.23 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.16 0.56 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.48 0.56 0.20 0.22 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.50 0.41 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.48 0.26 0.61 0.58 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.48 0.33 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.43 0.47 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.17 0.45 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.46 0.47 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.33 0.42 0.37 0.75 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.56 0.39 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.46 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.21 0.30 0.30 0.15 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.33 0.42 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.23 0.47 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.43 0.48 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.28 0.42 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.42 0.47 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.44 0.40 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.56 0.11 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.35 0.37 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.58 0.51 0.22 0.43 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.48 0.08 0.40 0.60 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.25 0.38 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.53 0.38 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 74

77 : Latin America & Caribbean : Middle East & North Africa Region Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Lower Middle Income Group Egypt El Salvador Overall Score Overall Score Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 13/30 29/30 7/7 0.36 21/30 0.48 79/113 110/113 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Score Change Score Change Rank Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 0.00 -4 -0.01 8.2 2.1 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Factor Regional Regional Income Factor Global Factor Income Factor Global Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Rank Trend Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 0.33 76/113 21/30 107/113 27/30 7/7 0.48 16/30 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 0.40 6/7 76/113 11/30 14/30 85/113 20/30 0.42 Absence of Corruption Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.52 14/30 8/30 0.25 7/7 29/30 52/113 112/113 Open Government 3.4 7.2 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 30/30 Fundamental Rights 0.53 22/30 8/30 68/113 7/7 0.30 112/113 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 25/30 20/30 96/113 0.51 7/7 27/30 108/113 Order and Security 0.60 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 0.49 Regulatory Enforcement 18/30 65/113 110/113 29/30 7/7 0.31 9/30 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 18/30 9/30 71/113 105/113 23/30 7/7 0.38 Civil Justice 0.50 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.42 5/7 106/113 25/30 68/113 0.30 Criminal Justice 11/30 27/30 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium El Salvador Lower Middle Middle East & North Africa Egypt Latin America & Caribbean Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.19 0.48 0.57 0.48 0.54 0.44 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.43 0.46 0.32 0.60 0.30 0.58 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.37 0.41 0.47 0.37 0.35 0.50 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.41 0.37 0.16 0.48 0.40 0.56 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.64 0.30 0.40 0.23 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.16 0.56 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.48 0.56 0.20 0.22 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.50 0.41 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.48 0.26 0.61 0.58 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.48 0.33 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.43 0.47 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.17 0.45 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.46 0.47 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.33 0.42 0.37 0.75 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.56 0.39 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.46 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.21 0.30 0.30 0.15 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.33 0.42 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.23 0.47 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.43 0.48 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.28 0.42 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.42 0.47 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.44 0.40 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.56 0.11 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.35 0.37 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.58 0.51 0.22 0.43 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.48 0.08 0.40 0.60 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.25 0.38 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.53 0.38 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 75

78 Region : Sub-Saharan Africa : EU & EFTA & North America Region Income Group : Low : High Income Group Ethiopia Estonia Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 12/113 12/35 10/24 0.8 16/18 0.38 107/113 10/12 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Score Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 1.6 8.3 8.3 1.6 0.00 0.01 2 2.1 8.2 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Global Factor Factor Regional Regional Global Factor Income Factor Income Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 2.3 7.7 7.7 2.3 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 11/35 9/24 106/113 0.84 11/12 17/18 0.33 11/113 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 7.5 3.1 0 0 Absence of Corruption 2/12 15/113 0.79 15/35 10/24 4/18 Absence of Corruption 65/113 0.46 Open Open 7.4 3.2 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 111/113 12/12 0.28 Open Government 0.79 18/18 12/35 12/113 10/24 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 10/24 0.31 17/18 11/12 109/113 0.82 Fundamental Rights 10/35 10/113 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 13/18 9/12 95/113 Order and Security 0.60 0.90 Order and Security 9/24 13/35 14/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 18/18 Regulatory Enforcement 15/113 10/24 15/35 111/113 0.77 12/12 0.31 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 11/12 103/113 11/113 11/35 8/24 0.78 Civil Justice 0.39 17/18 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 10/12 0.68 19/113 95/113 12/24 16/18 0.34 Criminal Justice 19/35 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Trending down Trending up High Medium High Low Trending down Trending up Medium Low Ethiopia High EU & EFTA & North America Estonia Sub-Saharan Africa Low Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.83 0.43 0.40 0.82 0.39 0.66 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.83 0.31 0.34 0.95 0.27 0.83 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.33 0.40 0.31 0.86 0.75 0.89 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.23 0.38 0.79 0.86 0.80 0.22 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.48 0.78 0.41 0.70 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.79 0.22 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.47 0.19 0.71 0.93 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.25 0.91 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.84 0.84 0.59 0.22 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.33 0.72 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.72 0.38 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.39 0.48 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.36 0.95 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.38 0.52 0.65 0.90 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.48 0.91 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.69 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.61 0.58 0.63 0.36 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.79 0.47 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.36 0.70 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.41 0.86 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.86 0.19 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.82 0.29 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.81 0.14 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.38 0.73 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.75 0.33 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.44 0.20 0.79 0.85 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.30 0.77 0.78 0.35 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.67 0.12 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.40 0.74 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 76

79 Region : Sub-Saharan Africa : EU & EFTA & North America Region Income Group : Low : High Income Group Ethiopia Estonia Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 12/113 12/35 10/24 0.8 16/18 0.38 107/113 10/12 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Score Change Score Change Rank Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 0.00 0.01 2 8.2 2.1 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Global Factor Factor Regional Regional Global Factor Income Factor Income Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 11/35 9/24 106/113 0.84 11/12 17/18 0.33 11/113 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 15/35 10/24 0.79 15/113 65/113 2/12 4/18 0.46 Absence of Corruption Open Open 7.4 3.2 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 18/18 12/12 12/35 111/113 0.79 10/24 Open Government 12/113 0.28 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 7.1 4.1 Fundamental Rights 17/18 0.82 109/113 10/24 Fundamental Rights 10/35 10/113 0.31 11/12 6.5 4.2 4.2 6.5 9/24 13/35 0.90 Order and Security 14/113 13/18 9/12 95/113 Order and Security 0.60 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 18/18 12/12 10/24 0.77 15/113 15/35 0.31 111/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 4.8 5.2 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 11/12 103/113 11/113 11/35 8/24 0.78 Civil Justice 0.39 17/18 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 19/35 0.68 19/113 95/113 12/24 16/18 0.34 Criminal Justice 10/12 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Trending down Trending up High Medium High Low Trending down Trending up Medium Low Ethiopia High EU & EFTA & North America Estonia Sub-Saharan Africa Low Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.83 0.43 0.40 0.82 0.39 0.66 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.83 0.31 0.34 0.95 0.27 0.83 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.33 0.40 0.31 0.86 0.75 0.89 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.23 0.38 0.79 0.86 0.80 0.22 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.48 0.78 0.41 0.70 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.79 0.22 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.47 0.19 0.71 0.93 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.25 0.91 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.84 0.84 0.59 0.22 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.33 0.72 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.72 0.38 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.39 0.48 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.36 0.95 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.38 0.52 0.65 0.90 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.48 0.91 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.69 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.61 0.58 0.63 0.36 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.79 0.47 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.36 0.70 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.41 0.86 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.86 0.19 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.82 0.29 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.81 0.14 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.38 0.73 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.75 0.33 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.44 0.20 0.79 0.85 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.30 0.77 0.78 0.35 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.67 0.12 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.40 0.74 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 77

80 : EU & EFTA & North America : EU & EFTA & North America Region Region Income Group : High : High Income Group Finland France Overall Score Overall Score Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 18/35 3/35 3/24 0.8 13/24 0.4 18/113 3/113 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Score Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 1.6 8.3 8.3 1.6 0.00 3 0.02 8.2 2.1 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Regional Regional Income Factor Global Factor Income Factor Global Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Rank Trend Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 2.3 7.7 7.7 2.3 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 0.92 17/113 14/24 3/113 3/35 3/24 0.76 16/35 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 7.5 3.1 0 0 Absence of Corruption 20/35 0.89 20/113 5/113 4/24 Absence of Corruption 5/35 13/24 0.75 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 8/24 10/35 10/113 0.80 Open Government 0.86 2/35 2/113 2/24 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.91 0.72 16/24 23/35 24/113 1/35 1/24 1/113 6.5 4.2 4.2 6.5 0.75 21/24 29/35 46/113 Order and Security 4/24 0.92 6/35 6/113 Order and Security 6.4 4.3 4.3 6.4 4.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 6.2 4.5 4.5 6.2 0.77 11/24 Regulatory Enforcement 16/113 16/35 12/113 Regulatory Enforcement 0.81 8/24 12/35 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 13/24 22/35 22/113 7/113 7/35 6/24 0.80 Civil Justice 0.70 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 14/24 1/24 21/113 21/35 1/113 0.65 Criminal Justice 0.85 1/35 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium France High EU & EFTA & North America Finland EU & EFTA & North America High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.88 0.61 0.71 0.87 0.62 0.63 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.90 0.70 0.95 0.78 0.86 0.64 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.69 0.82 0.79 0.94 0.92 0.94 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.77 0.69 0.91 0.88 0.92 0.76 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.78 0.87 0.56 0.62 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.91 0.76 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.72 0.58 0.88 0.98 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.90 0.98 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.76 0.93 0.81 0.84 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.75 0.85 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.90 0.69 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.58 0.62 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.89 0.98 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.71 0.80 0.81 0.93 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.82 0.97 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.89 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.58 0.72 0.86 0.59 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.83 0.54 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.55 0.87 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.76 0.94 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.90 0.86 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.76 0.68 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.93 0.67 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.77 0.81 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.92 0.69 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.82 0.78 0.89 0.92 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.75 0.74 0.86 0.80 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.91 0.74 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.87 0.74 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 78

81 : EU & EFTA & North America : EU & EFTA & North America Region Region Income Group : High : High Income Group Finland France Overall Score Overall Score Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 18/35 3/35 3/24 0.8 13/24 0.4 18/113 3/113 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Score Change Score Change Rank Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 0.00 3 0.02 8.2 2.1 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Factor Regional Regional Income Factor Global Factor Income Factor Global Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Rank Trend Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 0.92 17/113 14/24 3/113 3/35 3/24 0.76 16/35 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 0.89 4/24 20/113 20/35 5/35 5/113 13/24 0.75 Absence of Corruption Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.80 8/24 10/35 0.86 2/24 2/35 10/113 2/113 Open Government 3.4 7.2 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 1/35 Fundamental Rights 0.72 16/24 23/35 24/113 1/24 0.91 1/113 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 21/24 29/35 46/113 0.92 4/24 6/35 6/113 Order and Security 0.75 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 0.77 Regulatory Enforcement 11/24 16/113 12/113 12/35 8/24 0.81 16/35 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 13/24 22/35 22/113 7/113 7/35 6/24 0.80 Civil Justice 0.70 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.85 1/24 21/113 21/35 1/113 0.65 Criminal Justice 1/35 14/24 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium France High EU & EFTA & North America Finland EU & EFTA & North America High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.88 0.61 0.71 0.87 0.62 0.63 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.90 0.70 0.95 0.78 0.86 0.64 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.69 0.82 0.79 0.94 0.92 0.94 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.77 0.69 0.91 0.88 0.92 0.76 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.78 0.87 0.56 0.62 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.91 0.76 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.72 0.58 0.88 0.98 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.90 0.98 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.76 0.93 0.81 0.84 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.75 0.85 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.90 0.69 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.58 0.62 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.89 0.98 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.71 0.80 0.81 0.93 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.82 0.97 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.89 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.58 0.72 0.86 0.59 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.83 0.54 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.55 0.87 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.76 0.94 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.90 0.86 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.76 0.68 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.93 0.67 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.77 0.81 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.92 0.69 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.82 0.78 0.89 0.92 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.75 0.74 0.86 0.80 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.91 0.74 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.87 0.74 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 79

82 Region : EU & EFTA & North America : Eastern Europe & Central Asia Region Income Group : High : Lower Middle Income Group Germany Georgia Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 3/113 1/30 1/13 0.61 6/24 0.83 6/113 6/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Score Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 1.6 8.3 8.3 1.6 0.00 -0.04 -4 2.1 8.2 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Global Factor Factor Regional Regional Global Factor Income Factor Income Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 2.3 7.7 7.7 2.3 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 5/30 1/13 6/113 0.57 6/35 6/24 0.86 52/113 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 1/13 Absence of Corruption 0.71 23/113 13/113 13/35 8/24 1/30 0.83 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.79 9/24 Open Government 0.57 2/13 3/30 11/35 42/113 11/113 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 0.85 5/24 5/35 0.61 46/113 2/13 Fundamental Rights 2/30 5/113 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 17/113 0.88 Order and Security 0.79 4/13 3/30 11/24 16/35 30/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 1/13 5/24 Regulatory Enforcement 0.58 0.85 8/35 32/113 8/113 2/30 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 3/35 3/113 55/113 4/30 4/13 0.54 Civil Justice 0.85 3/24 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 7/35 0.51 47/113 7/113 2/13 6/24 0.77 Criminal Justice 3/30 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Trending down Trending up High Medium High Low Trending down Trending up Medium Low Germany Lower Middle Eastern Europe & Central Asia Georgia EU & EFTA & North America High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.59 0.75 0.82 0.61 0.73 0.59 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.49 0.86 0.84 0.73 0.94 0.54 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.83 0.86 0.91 0.60 0.57 0.58 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.91 0.81 0.67 0.48 0.44 0.86 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.85 0.63 0.83 0.39 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.67 0.86 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.90 0.81 0.54 0.40 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.95 0.61 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.69 0.69 0.86 0.90 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.86 0.59 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.66 0.80 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.62 0.37 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.94 0.74 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.78 0.52 0.89 0.92 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.90 0.90 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.67 0.55 0.56 0.73 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.45 0.74 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.72 0.44 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.84 0.74 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.49 0.75 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.58 0.77 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.35 0.90 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.75 0.64 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.57 0.83 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.86 0.88 0.62 0.82 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.81 0.48 0.53 0.79 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.41 0.87 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.92 0.61 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 80

83 Region : EU & EFTA & North America : Eastern Europe & Central Asia Region Income Group : High : Lower Middle Income Group Germany Georgia Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 3/113 1/30 1/13 0.61 6/24 0.83 6/113 6/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Score Change Rank Change 8.5 1.4 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 8.4 1.5 1.6 8.3 8.3 1.6 -0.04 -4 0.00 8.2 2.1 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Factor Regional Income Regional Factor Factor Global Income Global Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Rank Score Rank Rank Rank Trend Trend Score Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 6/35 6/24 0.86 6/113 52/113 5/30 1/13 0.57 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 1/13 13/113 13/35 0.71 23/113 1/30 8/24 Absence of Corruption 0.83 Open Open 3.2 7.4 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.57 2/13 3/30 42/113 0.79 9/24 Open Government 11/113 11/35 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 0.61 2/30 Fundamental Rights 46/113 2/13 5/35 5/113 Fundamental Rights 0.85 5/24 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 Order and Security Order and Security 16/35 0.79 30/113 4/13 0.88 11/24 17/113 3/30 6.4 4.3 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 4.4 6.3 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 5/24 0.85 32/113 2/30 Regulatory Enforcement 1/13 8/113 8/35 0.58 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights 4/30 4/13 0.54 Civil Justice 55/113 3/113 3/35 3/24 Civil Justice 0.85 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.51 3/30 47/113 2/13 7/35 6/24 0.77 Criminal Justice 7/113 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Medium Low Trending down Trending up Trending up High High Medium Trending down Germany Eastern Europe & Central Asia Georgia High EU & EFTA & North America Lower Middle Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.75 0.59 0.61 0.73 0.59 0.82 4.1 No discrimination 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.73 0.54 0.84 0.86 0.49 0.94 1.2 Limits by judiciary 4.2 Right to life & security 7.2 No discrimination 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.91 0.57 0.58 0.60 0.86 0.83 4.3 Due process of law 7.3 No corruption 1.3 Independent auditing 4.3 Due process of law 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 0.44 0.48 0.86 0.91 0.81 0.67 1.4 Sanctions for official 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence misconduct misconduct 0.85 0.83 0.63 0.39 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.67 0.86 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.40 0.90 0.54 0.81 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 0.95 0.61 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.69 0.90 0.86 0.69 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 0.59 0.86 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.66 0.80 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.37 0.62 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.94 0.74 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.52 0.89 0.78 0.92 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 0.90 0.90 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.73 0.56 0.55 0.67 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.74 0.45 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.72 0.44 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.84 0.74 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.49 0.75 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.58 0.77 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.35 0.90 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.75 0.64 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.57 0.83 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.86 0.88 0.62 0.82 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.81 0.48 0.53 0.79 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.41 0.87 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.92 0.61 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 81

84 Region : EU & EFTA & North America : Sub-Saharan Africa Region Income Group : High : Lower Middle Income Group Greece Ghana Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 43/113 3/30 1/18 0.59 22/24 0.6 3/113 32/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Score Change Rank Change Score Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 1 2 0.01 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Global Global Income Factor Income Regional Factor Factor Regional Factor Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Score Trend Score Rank Rank Rank Trend Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 21/113 1/18 0.72 1/30 27/113 0.68 25/35 18/24 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 13/30 79/113 7/18 0.42 Absence of Corruption 45/113 33/35 22/24 0.55 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 28/35 49/113 0.60 37/113 Open Government 0.52 2/18 7/30 22/24 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 22/24 0.63 0.68 32/35 43/113 Fundamental Rights 1/18 34/113 1/30 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 62/113 0.72 Order and Security 0.70 3/18 13/30 24/24 32/35 66/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.56 31/35 21/24 0.54 42/113 3/18 3/30 38/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 33/35 46/113 33/113 1/30 1/18 0.62 Civil Justice 0.57 21/24 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 21/24 3/18 42/113 33/35 45/113 0.53 Criminal Justice 0.51 2/30 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Greece Lower Middle Sub-Saharan Africa Ghana EU & EFTA & North America High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.80 0.56 0.64 0.68 0.60 0.56 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.72 0.65 0.72 0.72 0.65 0.61 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.56 0.73 0.71 0.62 0.47 0.53 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.63 0.54 0.84 0.74 0.59 0.68 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.64 0.74 0.30 0.46 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.84 0.68 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.41 0.64 0.66 0.56 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.85 0.73 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.77 0.86 0.72 0.75 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.49 0.52 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.41 0.50 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.59 0.52 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.81 0.54 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.44 0.58 0.81 0.79 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.72 0.43 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.18 0.30 0.31 0.30 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.31 0.34 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.41 0.56 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.67 0.45 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.25 0.56 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.52 0.54 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.70 0.71 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.62 0.49 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.47 0.56 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.48 0.63 0.77 0.53 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.54 0.45 0.58 0.59 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.63 0.46 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.70 0.66 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 82

85 Region : EU & EFTA & North America : Sub-Saharan Africa Region Income Group : High : Lower Middle Income Group Greece Ghana Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 43/113 3/30 1/18 0.59 22/24 0.6 3/113 32/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Rank Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 8.4 1.5 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 0.00 2 1 0.01 2.1 8.2 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Factor Factor Regional Regional Global Factor Factor Income Global Income Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Score Rank Rank Score Rank Rank Rank Trend Trend Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 25/35 0.68 18/24 27/113 21/113 1/30 1/18 0.72 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 22/24 7/18 0.42 13/30 79/113 Absence of Corruption 0.55 45/113 33/35 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 22/24 28/35 0.52 2/18 7/30 49/113 0.60 Open Government 37/113 3.4 7.2 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 0.68 Fundamental Rights 0.63 22/24 32/35 1/18 1/30 34/113 43/113 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 Order and Security Order and Security 32/35 0.70 66/113 3/18 0.72 24/24 62/113 13/30 6.4 4.3 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 4.4 6.3 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 38/113 0.54 0.56 3/30 Regulatory Enforcement 3/18 42/113 31/35 21/24 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice Civil Justice 0.62 33/35 46/113 33/113 1/18 0.57 1/30 21/24 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 42/113 33/35 21/24 0.53 Criminal Justice 45/113 2/30 3/18 0.51 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Medium High Trending up Trending down Low Trending up Trending down Low High Medium Ghana Greece EU & EFTA & North America High Lower Middle Sub-Saharan Africa Civil Justice Civil Justice Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Constraints on Government Powers 0.60 0.64 0.80 0.56 0.68 0.56 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 4.1 No discrimination 0.72 0.72 0.65 0.72 0.65 0.61 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 4.2 Right to life & security 7.2 No discrimination 0.62 0.56 0.71 0.47 0.73 0.53 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 7.3 No corruption 1.3 Independent auditing 4.3 Due process of law 1.3 Independent auditing 0.68 0.59 0.63 0.84 0.74 0.54 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression misconduct misconduct 0.30 0.64 0.46 0.74 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 0.68 0.84 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.66 0.41 0.56 0.64 7.6 Effective enforcement 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 4.6 Right to privacy 0.73 0.85 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.86 0.77 0.72 0.75 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 0.49 0.52 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.41 0.50 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.59 0.52 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.81 0.54 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.79 0.58 0.81 0.44 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 0.72 0.43 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.30 0.18 0.30 0.31 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.34 0.31 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.56 0.41 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.45 0.67 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.25 0.56 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.54 0.52 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.71 0.70 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.62 0.49 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.56 0.47 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.63 0.77 0.53 0.48 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 0.54 0.45 0.59 0.58 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.46 0.63 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.70 0.66 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 83

86 Region : Latin America & Caribbean : Latin America & Caribbean Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Upper Middle Income Group Guatemala Grenada Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 36/113 /36 /30 0.61 26/30 0.44 96/113 20/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 - 1 0.00 -0.0 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 64/113 18/30 44/113 8/36 12/30 0.54 12/30 0.61 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 3/36 31/113 7/30 0.66 Absence of Corruption 92/113 18/30 26/30 0.35 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 14/30 55/113 0.49 66/113 Open Government 0.50 16/30 15/36 21/30 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 21/30 0.55 0.63 6/30 65/113 Fundamental Rights 13/30 42/113 10/36 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 100/113 0.58 Order and Security 0.79 2/30 5/36 27/30 22/30 29/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.55 28/30 29/30 0.35 106/113 8/30 7/36 41/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 28/30 110/113 41/113 8/36 11/30 0.59 Civil Justice 0.35 28/30 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 25/30 7/30 104/113 24/30 35/113 0.30 Criminal Justice 0.56 4/36 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Guatemala Upper Middle Latin America & Caribbean Grenada Latin America & Caribbean Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.60 0.36 0.61 0.75 0.30 0.57 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.73 0.48 0.71 0.64 0.71 0.35 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.41 0.43 0.44 0.51 0.51 0.86 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.36 0.41 0.63 0.71 0.43 0.65 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.69 0.52 0.09 0.34 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.63 0.65 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.27 0.59 0.37 0.59 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.66 0.73 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.57 0.72 0.62 0.64 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.41 0.64 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.62 0.38 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.19 0.56 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.44 0.83 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.26 0.64 0.49 0.93 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.50 0.72 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.10 0.47 0.36 0.09 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.44 0.24 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.31 0.57 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.44 0.69 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.29 0.27 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.51 0.32 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.62 0.43 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.54 0.55 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.51 0.41 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.48 0.57 0.62 0.76 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.29 0.46 0.54 0.56 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.45 0.26 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.42 0.56 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 84

87 Region : Latin America & Caribbean : Latin America & Caribbean Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Upper Middle Income Group Guatemala Grenada Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 36/113 /36 /30 0.61 26/30 0.44 96/113 20/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 - 1 0.00 -0.0 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 64/113 18/30 44/113 8/36 12/30 0.54 12/30 0.61 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 92/113 0.66 3/36 7/30 18/30 31/113 26/30 Absence of Corruption 0.35 Open Open 7.4 3.2 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 14/30 55/113 Open Government 0.50 16/30 15/36 0.49 21/30 66/113 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 7.1 4.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 21/30 6/30 65/113 13/30 0.55 10/36 42/113 0.63 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 22/30 100/113 Order and Security 0.79 2/30 5/36 0.58 27/30 29/113 6.4 4.3 4.3 6.4 4.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 6.2 4.5 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 41/113 7/36 29/30 8/30 0.55 28/30 106/113 0.35 6.1 4.6 4.6 6.1 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights 8/36 11/30 0.59 Civil Justice 41/113 110/113 28/30 28/30 0.35 Civil Justice Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 35/113 0.56 7/30 4/36 Criminal Justice 0.30 25/30 104/113 24/30 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score High Low Medium High Trending up Medium Low Trending down Trending up Trending down Upper Middle Guatemala Grenada Latin America & Caribbean Latin America & Caribbean Lower Middle Constraints on Government Powers Fundamental Rights Civil Justice Civil Justice Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers 0.30 0.61 0.75 0.57 0.60 0.36 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 4.1 No discrimination 4.1 No discrimination 0.73 0.64 0.71 0.48 0.35 0.71 1.2 Limits by judiciary 4.2 Right to life & security 7.2 No discrimination 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.44 0.51 0.86 0.51 0.43 0.41 4.3 Due process of law 7.3 No corruption 1.3 Independent auditing 4.3 Due process of law 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 0.43 0.71 0.65 0.36 0.41 0.63 1.4 Sanctions for official 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence misconduct misconduct 0.69 0.09 0.52 0.34 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.63 0.65 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.59 0.27 0.37 0.59 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 0.66 0.73 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.72 0.64 0.62 0.57 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 0.64 0.41 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.62 0.38 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.56 0.19 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.44 0.83 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.64 0.49 0.26 0.93 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 0.72 0.50 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.09 0.36 0.47 0.10 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.24 0.44 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.31 0.57 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.44 0.69 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.29 0.27 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.51 0.32 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.62 0.43 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.54 0.55 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.51 0.41 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.48 0.57 0.62 0.76 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.29 0.46 0.54 0.56 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.45 0.26 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.42 0.56 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 85

88 Region : Latin America & Caribbean : Latin America & Caribbean Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Upper Middle Income Group Honduras Guyana Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 73/113 25/36 20/30 0.5 28/30 0.4 103/113 25/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 3 1 0.02 0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 103/113 27/30 57/113 13/36 17/30 0.39 25/30 0.55 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption 64/113 17/30 0.46 27/30 0.34 98/113 21/36 22/30 Open Open 7.4 3.2 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 22/30 0.43 Open Government 0.46 23/30 25/36 91/113 26/30 74/113 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 0.55 0.43 29/30 22/30 97/113 20/30 Fundamental Rights 21/36 64/113 6.5 4.2 4.2 6.5 22/30 19/30 92/113 Order and Security 0.61 0.62 Order and Security 21/30 30/36 91/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 28/30 Regulatory Enforcement 75/113 21/30 27/36 104/113 0.47 26/30 0.37 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 21/30 99/113 64/113 22/36 16/30 0.51 Civil Justice 0.41 25/30 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 28/30 15/30 111/113 29/30 73/113 0.24 Criminal Justice 0.40 23/36 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Honduras Upper Middle Latin America & Caribbean Guyana Latin America & Caribbean Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.61 0.39 0.46 0.46 0.41 0.51 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.62 0.35 0.55 0.37 0.38 0.37 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.31 0.34 0.39 0.43 0.40 0.53 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.30 0.28 0.60 0.57 0.43 0.49 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.60 0.69 0.27 0.42 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.60 0.49 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.41 0.25 0.55 0.50 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.41 0.62 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.64 0.63 0.68 0.53 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.48 0.54 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.44 0.37 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.14 0.31 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.38 0.61 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.27 0.43 0.49 0.64 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.47 0.44 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.14 0.36 0.14 0.08 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.22 0.34 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.30 0.45 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.39 0.55 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.29 0.28 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.46 0.33 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.49 0.23 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.43 0.46 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.40 0.31 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.44 0.47 0.58 0.59 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.39 0.42 0.52 0.54 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.40 0.21 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.50 0.46 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 86

89 Region : Latin America & Caribbean : Latin America & Caribbean Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Upper Middle Income Group Honduras Guyana Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 73/113 25/36 20/30 0.5 28/30 0.4 103/113 25/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 3 1 0.02 0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 103/113 27/30 57/113 13/36 17/30 0.39 25/30 0.55 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 21/36 64/113 17/30 0.46 98/113 22/30 27/30 Absence of Corruption 0.34 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.43 26/30 22/30 74/113 91/113 0.46 23/30 25/36 Open Government 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.43 0.55 22/30 97/113 20/30 29/30 21/36 64/113 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 19/30 92/113 Order and Security 0.62 21/30 30/36 0.61 22/30 91/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 28/30 26/30 21/30 0.47 75/113 27/36 0.37 104/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 21/30 99/113 64/113 22/36 16/30 0.51 Civil Justice 0.41 25/30 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.40 15/30 73/113 23/36 0.24 Criminal Justice 29/30 111/113 28/30 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Honduras Upper Middle Latin America & Caribbean Guyana Latin America & Caribbean Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.61 0.39 0.46 0.46 0.41 0.51 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.62 0.35 0.55 0.37 0.38 0.37 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.31 0.34 0.39 0.43 0.40 0.53 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.30 0.28 0.60 0.57 0.43 0.49 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.60 0.69 0.27 0.42 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.60 0.49 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.41 0.25 0.55 0.50 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.41 0.62 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.64 0.63 0.68 0.53 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.48 0.54 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.44 0.37 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.14 0.31 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.38 0.61 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.27 0.43 0.49 0.64 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.47 0.44 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.14 0.36 0.14 0.08 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.22 0.34 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.30 0.45 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.39 0.55 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.29 0.28 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.46 0.33 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.49 0.23 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.43 0.46 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.40 0.31 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.44 0.47 0.58 0.59 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.39 0.42 0.52 0.54 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.40 0.21 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.50 0.46 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 87

90 : EU & EFTA & North America : East Asia & Pacific Region Region Income Group : High : High Income Group Hong Kong SAR, China Hungary Overall Score Overall Score Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 35/35 1/35 5/15 0. 23/24 0.55 50/113 1/113 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Score Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 1.6 8.3 8.3 1.6 0.00 -1 -0.02 8.2 2.1 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Regional Regional Income Factor Global Factor Income Factor Global Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Rank Trend Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 2.3 7.7 7.7 2.3 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 0.66 93/113 24/24 30/113 27/35 6/15 0.44 35/35 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 7.5 3.1 0 0 Absence of Corruption 10/113 0.83 23/24 4/15 10/35 Absence of Corruption 34/35 0.51 53/113 Open Open 3.2 7.4 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 15/113 24/24 0.49 Open Government 0.75 3/15 15/35 32/35 63/113 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 0.59 24/24 34/35 53/113 29/35 35/113 6/15 0.67 Fundamental Rights 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 4/35 0.90 11/35 7/24 Order and Security 0.92 4/113 12/113 2/15 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 4.4 6.3 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 24/24 11/113 11/35 4/15 0.81 Regulatory Enforcement 35/35 76/113 0.46 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 24/24 35/35 68/113 12/113 12/35 4/15 0.77 Civil Justice 0.50 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 23/24 5/15 55/113 34/35 16/113 0.47 Criminal Justice 0.72 16/35 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Hungary High East Asia & Pacific Hong Kong SAR, China EU & EFTA & North America High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.72 0.44 0.36 0.76 0.54 0.60 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.76 0.43 0.71 0.78 0.68 0.35 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.57 0.42 0.68 0.57 0.69 0.95 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.41 0.35 0.59 0.73 0.74 0.49 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.60 0.77 0.39 0.74 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.59 0.49 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.50 0.61 0.80 0.54 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.56 0.59 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.90 0.64 0.64 0.52 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.70 0.68 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.83 0.45 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.52 0.70 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.68 0.95 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.54 0.70 0.91 0.93 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.69 0.87 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.21 0.69 0.70 0.41 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.84 0.80 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.25 0.75 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.61 0.88 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.72 0.57 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.71 0.50 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.63 0.43 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.45 0.76 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.69 0.57 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.56 0.45 0.64 0.86 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.42 0.81 0.86 0.49 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.90 0.34 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.50 0.77 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 88

91 : EU & EFTA & North America : East Asia & Pacific Region Region Income Group : High : High Income Group Hong Kong SAR, China Hungary Overall Score Overall Score Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 35/35 1/35 5/15 0. 23/24 0.55 50/113 1/113 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Score Change Score Change Rank Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 0.00 -1 -0.02 8.2 2.1 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Factor Regional Regional Income Factor Global Factor Income Factor Global Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Rank Trend Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 0.66 93/113 24/24 30/113 27/35 6/15 0.44 35/35 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 0.83 4/15 53/113 34/35 10/35 10/113 23/24 0.51 Absence of Corruption Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.49 24/24 32/35 0.75 3/15 15/35 63/113 15/113 Open Government 3.4 7.2 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 29/35 Fundamental Rights 0.59 24/24 34/35 53/113 6/15 0.67 35/113 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 7/24 11/35 12/113 0.92 2/15 4/35 4/113 Order and Security 0.90 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 0.46 Regulatory Enforcement 24/24 76/113 11/113 11/35 4/15 0.81 35/35 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 24/24 35/35 68/113 12/113 12/35 4/15 0.77 Civil Justice 0.50 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.72 5/15 55/113 34/35 16/113 0.47 Criminal Justice 16/35 23/24 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Hungary High East Asia & Pacific Hong Kong SAR, China EU & EFTA & North America High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.72 0.44 0.36 0.76 0.54 0.60 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.76 0.43 0.71 0.78 0.68 0.35 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.57 0.42 0.68 0.57 0.69 0.95 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.41 0.35 0.59 0.73 0.74 0.49 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.60 0.77 0.39 0.74 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.59 0.49 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.50 0.61 0.80 0.54 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.56 0.59 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.90 0.64 0.64 0.52 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.70 0.68 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.83 0.45 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.52 0.70 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.68 0.95 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.54 0.70 0.91 0.93 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.69 0.87 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.21 0.69 0.70 0.41 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.84 0.80 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.25 0.75 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.61 0.88 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.72 0.57 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.71 0.50 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.63 0.43 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.45 0.76 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.69 0.57 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.56 0.45 0.64 0.86 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.42 0.81 0.86 0.49 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.90 0.34 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.50 0.77 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 89

92 Region : East Asia & Pacific : South Asia Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Lower Middle Income Group Indonesia India Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 62/113 /30 3/6 0.52 9/15 0.52 63/113 8/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 4 -2 0.00 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 33/113 7/15 36/113 3/30 1/6 0.64 2/30 0.63 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 8/30 67/113 2/6 0.45 Absence of Corruption 90/113 17/30 14/15 0.37 Open Open 7.4 3.2 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice 47/113 6/30 Open Government 7/15 0.54 Open Government 0.63 1/6 1/30 32/113 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 8/15 0.51 0.52 12/30 78/113 Fundamental Rights 3/6 75/113 10/30 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 49/113 0.74 Order and Security 0.59 3/6 21/30 11/15 7/30 98/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.49 5/30 7/15 0.53 45/113 2/6 10/30 66/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 17/30 90/113 97/113 20/30 3/6 0.42 Civil Justice 0.45 12/15 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 12/15 3/6 91/113 19/30 66/113 0.35 Criminal Justice 0.42 9/30 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Indonesia Lower Middle South Asia India East Asia & Pacific Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.71 0.42 0.79 0.42 0.49 0.35 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.67 0.66 0.45 0.51 0.35 0.29 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.36 0.54 0.38 0.59 0.42 0.49 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.44 0.54 0.65 0.63 0.38 0.67 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.43 0.58 0.51 0.16 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.65 0.67 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.44 0.38 0.34 0.48 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.67 0.77 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.61 0.64 0.59 0.66 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.60 0.48 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.45 0.48 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.29 0.36 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.27 0.51 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.48 0.43 0.85 0.75 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.48 0.44 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.71 0.98 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.26 0.41 0.37 0.27 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.31 0.41 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.23 0.28 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.44 0.50 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.55 0.36 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.46 0.51 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.61 0.41 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.58 0.62 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.42 0.36 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.61 0.62 0.62 0.45 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.53 0.36 0.71 0.57 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.56 0.39 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.60 0.60 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 90

93 Region : East Asia & Pacific : South Asia Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Lower Middle Income Group Indonesia India Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 62/113 /30 3/6 0.52 9/15 0.52 63/113 8/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 4 -2 0.00 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 33/113 7/15 36/113 3/30 1/6 0.64 2/30 0.63 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 8/30 67/113 2/6 0.45 90/113 17/30 14/15 Absence of Corruption 0.37 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.54 7/15 6/30 32/113 47/113 0.63 1/6 1/30 Open Government 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.51 0.52 12/30 78/113 3/6 8/15 10/30 75/113 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 7/30 49/113 Order and Security 0.59 3/6 21/30 0.74 11/15 98/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 7/15 5/30 2/6 0.49 66/113 10/30 0.53 45/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 17/30 90/113 97/113 20/30 3/6 0.42 Civil Justice 0.45 12/15 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.42 3/6 91/113 19/30 66/113 0.35 Criminal Justice 9/30 12/15 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Indonesia Lower Middle South Asia India East Asia & Pacific Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.71 0.42 0.79 0.42 0.49 0.35 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.67 0.66 0.45 0.51 0.35 0.29 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.36 0.54 0.38 0.59 0.42 0.49 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.44 0.54 0.65 0.63 0.38 0.67 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.43 0.58 0.51 0.16 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.65 0.67 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.44 0.38 0.34 0.48 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.67 0.77 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.61 0.64 0.59 0.66 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.60 0.48 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.45 0.48 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.29 0.36 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.27 0.51 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.48 0.43 0.85 0.75 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.48 0.44 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.71 0.98 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.26 0.41 0.37 0.27 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.31 0.41 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.23 0.28 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.44 0.50 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.55 0.36 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.46 0.51 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.61 0.41 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.58 0.62 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.42 0.36 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.61 0.62 0.62 0.45 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.53 0.36 0.71 0.57 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.56 0.39 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.60 0.60 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 91

94 Region : EU & EFTA & North America : Middle East & North Africa Region Income Group : High : Upper Middle Income Group Italy Iran Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 80/113 28/36 5/7 0.48 20/24 0.65 31/113 2/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 6 4 0.00 0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 24/113 17/24 94/113 29/36 6/7 0.71 22/35 0.43 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 39/113 31/35 19/24 Absence of Corruption 0.62 16/36 52/113 3/7 0.53 Absence of Corruption Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 27/35 102/113 0.64 30/113 Open Government 0.37 6/7 33/36 20/24 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 19/24 0.71 0.30 25/35 28/113 Fundamental Rights 6/7 111/113 36/36 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 50/113 0.74 Order and Security 0.73 3/7 15/36 22/24 30/35 54/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.47 30/35 19/24 0.57 35/113 5/7 26/36 74/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 34/35 52/113 62/113 21/36 4/7 0.52 Civil Justice 0.56 23/24 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 15/24 3/7 22/113 22/35 59/113 0.64 Criminal Justice 0.45 18/36 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Italy Upper Middle Middle East & North Africa Iran EU & EFTA & North America High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.34 0.65 0.72 0.38 0.56 0.56 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.48 0.69 0.34 0.84 0.32 0.58 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.70 0.76 0.68 0.43 0.47 0.45 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.70 0.58 0.32 0.44 0.48 0.69 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.73 0.20 0.31 0.56 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.32 0.69 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.37 0.72 0.63 0.22 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.79 0.54 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.70 0.29 0.69 0.78 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.55 0.21 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.49 0.56 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.48 0.34 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.82 0.53 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.59 0.52 0.79 0.74 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.84 0.63 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.98 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.28 0.44 0.52 0.55 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.48 0.44 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.60 0.39 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.74 0.60 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.36 0.61 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.54 0.54 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.31 0.84 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.65 0.42 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.47 0.70 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.66 0.67 0.32 0.49 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.43 0.41 0.36 0.62 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.39 0.56 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.65 0.54 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 92

95 Region : EU & EFTA & North America : Middle East & North Africa Region Income Group : High : Upper Middle Income Group Italy Iran Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 80/113 28/36 5/7 0.48 20/24 0.65 31/113 2/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 6 4 0.00 0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 24/113 17/24 94/113 29/36 6/7 0.71 22/35 0.43 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 16/36 52/113 3/7 0.53 Absence of Corruption 39/113 31/35 19/24 Absence of Corruption 0.62 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice 102/113 33/36 0.37 6/7 Open Government 27/35 Open Government 30/113 20/24 0.64 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 7.1 4.1 Fundamental Rights 0.30 0.71 19/24 25/35 28/113 6/7 Fundamental Rights 36/36 111/113 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 30/35 50/113 Order and Security 0.73 3/7 15/36 0.74 22/24 54/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 19/24 30/35 5/7 0.47 74/113 26/36 0.57 35/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 34/35 52/113 62/113 21/36 4/7 0.52 Civil Justice 0.56 23/24 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.45 3/7 22/113 22/35 59/113 0.64 Criminal Justice 18/36 15/24 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Italy Upper Middle Middle East & North Africa Iran EU & EFTA & North America High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.34 0.65 0.72 0.38 0.56 0.56 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.48 0.69 0.34 0.84 0.32 0.58 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.70 0.76 0.68 0.43 0.47 0.45 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.70 0.58 0.32 0.44 0.48 0.69 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.73 0.20 0.31 0.56 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.32 0.69 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.37 0.72 0.63 0.22 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.79 0.54 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.70 0.29 0.69 0.78 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.55 0.21 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.49 0.56 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.48 0.34 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.82 0.53 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.59 0.52 0.79 0.74 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.84 0.63 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.98 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.28 0.44 0.52 0.55 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.48 0.44 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.60 0.39 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.74 0.60 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.36 0.61 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.54 0.54 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.31 0.84 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.65 0.42 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.47 0.70 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.66 0.67 0.32 0.49 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.43 0.41 0.36 0.62 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.39 0.56 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.65 0.54 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 93

96 : East Asia & Pacific : Latin America & Caribbean Region Region Income Group : High : Upper Middle Income Group Jamaica Japan Overall Score Overall Score Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 14/3 11/36 13/30 0.58 4/1 0.7 14/113 47/113 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Score Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 1.6 8.3 8.3 1.6 0.00 1 0.01 8.2 2.1 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Regional Regional Income Factor Global Factor Income Factor Global Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Rank Trend Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 2.3 7.7 7.7 2.3 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 0.62 19/113 3/15 38/113 5/36 9/30 0.74 18/35 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 7.5 3.1 0 0 Absence of Corruption 46/113 0.55 3/15 13/30 11/36 Absence of Corruption 8/35 0.85 8/113 Open Open 3.2 7.4 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 39/113 4/15 0.70 Open Government 0.59 9/30 10/36 19/35 20/113 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 12/36 0.76 3/15 19/35 20/113 45/113 14/30 0.63 Fundamental Rights 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 29/36 0.91 7/35 3/15 Order and Security 0.62 90/113 8/113 20/30 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 4.4 6.3 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 5/15 37/113 4/36 7/30 0.56 Regulatory Enforcement 13/35 13/113 0.80 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 3/15 10/35 10/113 53/113 16/36 14/30 0.54 Civil Justice 0.79 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 2/15 13/30 12/113 12/35 49/113 0.74 Criminal Justice 0.50 13/36 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Japan Upper Middle Latin America & Caribbean Jamaica East Asia & Pacific High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.66 0.82 0.65 0.63 0.63 0.51 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.67 0.75 0.58 0.86 0.54 0.82 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.73 0.72 0.95 0.58 0.51 0.71 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.78 0.79 0.64 0.71 0.45 0.73 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.67 0.71 0.69 0.31 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.64 0.73 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.75 0.71 0.38 0.65 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.81 0.74 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.65 0.71 0.89 0.75 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.77 0.59 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.51 0.78 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.68 0.42 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.97 0.81 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.67 0.36 0.92 0.64 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.91 0.59 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.72 0.28 0.27 0.88 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.23 0.82 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.68 0.56 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.89 0.67 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.37 0.74 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.51 0.70 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.70 0.64 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.65 0.70 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.51 0.73 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.93 0.71 0.64 0.69 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.78 0.39 0.63 0.69 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.53 0.80 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.80 0.69 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 94

97 : East Asia & Pacific : Latin America & Caribbean Region Region Income Group : High : Upper Middle Income Group Jamaica Japan Overall Score Overall Score Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 14/3 11/36 13/30 0.58 4/1 0.7 14/113 47/113 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Score Change Score Change Rank Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 0.00 1 0.01 8.2 2.1 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Factor Regional Regional Income Factor Global Factor Income Factor Global Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Rank Trend Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 0.62 19/113 3/15 38/113 5/36 9/30 0.74 18/35 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 0.55 13/30 8/113 8/35 11/36 46/113 3/15 0.85 Absence of Corruption Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.70 4/15 19/35 0.59 9/30 10/36 20/113 39/113 Open Government 3.4 7.2 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 12/36 Fundamental Rights 0.76 3/15 19/35 20/113 14/30 0.63 45/113 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 3/15 7/35 8/113 0.62 20/30 29/36 90/113 Order and Security 0.91 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 0.80 Regulatory Enforcement 5/15 13/113 37/113 4/36 7/30 0.56 13/35 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 3/15 10/35 10/113 53/113 16/36 14/30 0.54 Civil Justice 0.79 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.50 13/30 12/113 12/35 49/113 0.74 Criminal Justice 13/36 2/15 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Japan Upper Middle Latin America & Caribbean Jamaica East Asia & Pacific High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.66 0.82 0.65 0.63 0.63 0.51 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.67 0.75 0.58 0.86 0.54 0.82 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.73 0.72 0.95 0.58 0.51 0.71 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.78 0.79 0.64 0.71 0.45 0.73 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.67 0.71 0.69 0.31 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.64 0.73 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.75 0.71 0.38 0.65 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.81 0.74 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.65 0.71 0.89 0.75 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.77 0.59 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.51 0.78 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.68 0.42 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.97 0.81 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.67 0.36 0.92 0.64 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.91 0.59 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.72 0.28 0.27 0.88 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.23 0.82 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.68 0.56 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.89 0.67 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.37 0.74 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.51 0.70 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.70 0.64 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.65 0.70 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.51 0.73 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.93 0.71 0.64 0.69 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.78 0.39 0.63 0.69 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.53 0.80 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.80 0.69 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 95

98 : Eastern Europe & Central Asia : Middle East & North Africa Region Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Lower Middle Income Group Jordan Kazakhstan Overall Score Overall Score Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 1/36 2/30 2/7 0.6 4/13 0.1 64/113 42/113 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Score Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 1.6 8.3 8.3 1.6 0.01  0.01 8.2 2.1 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Regional Regional Income Factor Global Factor Income Factor Global Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Rank Trend Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 2.3 7.7 7.7 2.3 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 0.56 85/113 5/13 56/113 7/30 3/7 0.45 25/36 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 7.5 3.1 0 0 Absence of Corruption 32/113 0.66 5/13 2/7 2/30 Absence of Corruption 22/36 0.45 66/113 Open Open 3.2 7.4 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 79/113 8/13 0.48 Open Government 0.45 2/7 16/30 23/36 70/113 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 11/30 0.45 10/13 31/36 94/113 76/113 2/7 0.51 Fundamental Rights 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 4/30 0.78 7/36 6/13 Order and Security 0.78 38/113 36/113 2/7 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 4.4 6.3 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 2/13 31/113 1/30 2/7 0.59 Regulatory Enforcement 13/36 51/113 0.52 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 3/13 14/36 50/113 34/113 2/30 2/7 0.62 Civil Justice 0.56 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 7/13 2/7 70/113 20/36 27/113 0.41 Criminal Justice 0.60 1/30 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Kazakhstan Lower Middle Middle East & North Africa Jordan Eastern Europe & Central Asia Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.65 0.56 0.46 0.68 0.50 0.50 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.60 0.44 0.61 0.52 0.75 0.50 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.44 0.53 0.51 0.53 0.55 0.70 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.37 0.49 0.49 0.60 0.58 0.37 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.61 0.47 0.72 0.38 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.49 0.37 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.67 0.21 0.61 0.39 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.44 0.50 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.78 0.46 0.67 0.39 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.50 0.44 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.60 0.48 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.39 0.63 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.48 0.72 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.61 0.71 0.79 0.86 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.49 0.80 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.94 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.37 0.51 0.49 0.40 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.55 0.56 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.28 0.55 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.47 0.76 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.35 0.53 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.58 0.57 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.54 0.28 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.50 0.54 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.55 0.44 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.56 0.39 0.45 0.72 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.59 0.50 0.46 0.51 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.50 0.31 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.54 0.66 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 96

99 : Eastern Europe & Central Asia : Middle East & North Africa Region Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Lower Middle Income Group Jordan Kazakhstan Overall Score Overall Score Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 1/36 2/30 2/7 0.6 4/13 0.1 64/113 42/113 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Score Change Score Change Rank Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 0.01  0.01 8.2 2.1 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Factor Regional Regional Income Factor Global Factor Income Factor Global Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Rank Trend Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 0.56 85/113 5/13 56/113 7/30 3/7 0.45 25/36 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 0.66 2/7 66/113 22/36 2/30 32/113 5/13 0.45 Absence of Corruption Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.48 8/13 23/36 0.45 2/7 16/30 70/113 79/113 Open Government 3.4 7.2 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 11/30 Fundamental Rights 0.45 10/13 31/36 94/113 2/7 0.51 76/113 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 6/13 7/36 36/113 0.78 2/7 4/30 38/113 Order and Security 0.78 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 0.52 Regulatory Enforcement 2/13 51/113 31/113 1/30 2/7 0.59 13/36 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 3/13 14/36 50/113 34/113 2/30 2/7 0.62 Civil Justice 0.56 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.60 2/7 70/113 20/36 27/113 0.41 Criminal Justice 1/30 7/13 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Kazakhstan Lower Middle Middle East & North Africa Jordan Eastern Europe & Central Asia Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.65 0.56 0.46 0.68 0.50 0.50 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.60 0.44 0.61 0.52 0.75 0.50 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.44 0.53 0.51 0.53 0.55 0.70 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.37 0.49 0.49 0.60 0.58 0.37 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.61 0.47 0.72 0.38 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.49 0.37 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.67 0.21 0.61 0.39 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.44 0.50 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.78 0.46 0.67 0.39 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.50 0.44 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.60 0.48 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.39 0.63 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.48 0.72 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.61 0.71 0.79 0.86 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.49 0.80 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.94 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.37 0.51 0.49 0.40 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.55 0.56 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.28 0.55 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.47 0.76 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.35 0.53 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.58 0.57 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.54 0.28 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.50 0.54 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.55 0.44 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.56 0.39 0.45 0.72 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.59 0.50 0.46 0.51 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.50 0.31 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.54 0.66 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 97

100 Region : Eastern Europe & Central Asia : Sub-Saharan Africa Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Lower Middle Income Group Kyrgyzstan Kenya Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 95/113 19/30 12/18 0.45 10/13 0.47 82/113 14/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 5 1 0.00 0.02 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 75/113 3/13 73/113 14/30 11/18 0.48 15/30 0.49 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 27/30 105/113 13/18 0.29 Absence of Corruption 104/113 26/30 13/13 0.29 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 4/30 65/113 0.56 43/113 Open Government 0.49 3/18 13/30 3/13 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 0.50 14/30 80/113 8/13 0.46 Fundamental Rights 13/18 91/113 18/30 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 51/113 0.74 Order and Security 0.57 15/18 25/30 10/13 8/30 103/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.44 19/30 10/13 0.43 89/113 7/18 17/30 85/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 15/30 84/113 85/113 16/30 11/18 0.46 Civil Justice 0.46 11/13 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 13/13 12/18 101/113 22/30 80/113 0.32 Criminal Justice 0.38 14/30 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Kyrgyzstan Lower Middle Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya Eastern Europe & Central Asia Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.61 0.46 0.52 0.42 0.59 0.38 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.53 0.29 0.36 0.41 0.47 0.50 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.35 0.45 0.28 0.46 0.38 0.41 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.38 0.45 0.55 0.55 0.31 0.60 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.62 0.59 0.51 0.29 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.55 0.60 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.39 0.31 0.46 0.30 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.57 0.49 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.65 0.58 0.59 0.70 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.54 0.48 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.31 0.34 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.41 0.32 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.33 0.45 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.47 0.40 0.77 0.58 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.34 0.27 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.78 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.16 0.13 0.35 0.26 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.36 0.45 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.31 0.40 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.23 0.29 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.25 0.55 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.41 0.44 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.52 0.20 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.57 0.46 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.38 0.35 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.34 0.59 0.58 0.41 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.55 0.39 0.66 0.54 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.36 0.38 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.42 0.63 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 98

101 Region : Eastern Europe & Central Asia : Sub-Saharan Africa Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Lower Middle Income Group Kyrgyzstan Kenya Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 95/113 19/30 12/18 0.45 10/13 0.47 82/113 14/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 5 1 0.00 0.02 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 75/113 3/13 73/113 14/30 11/18 0.48 15/30 0.49 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 105/113 Absence of Corruption 27/30 13/18 0.29 26/30 Absence of Corruption 0.29 13/13 104/113 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.56 3/13 4/30 13/30 43/113 0.49 3/18 Open Government 65/113 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.50 8/13 14/30 0.46 13/18 80/113 18/30 91/113 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 0.57 15/18 25/30 103/113 10/13 8/30 51/113 Order and Security 0.74 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 10/13 19/30 7/18 0.44 85/113 17/30 0.43 89/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 15/30 84/113 85/113 16/30 11/18 0.46 Civil Justice 0.46 11/13 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.38 12/18 101/113 22/30 80/113 0.32 Criminal Justice 14/30 13/13 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Kyrgyzstan Lower Middle Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya Eastern Europe & Central Asia Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.61 0.46 0.52 0.42 0.59 0.38 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.53 0.29 0.36 0.41 0.47 0.50 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.35 0.45 0.28 0.46 0.38 0.41 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.38 0.45 0.55 0.55 0.31 0.60 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.62 0.59 0.51 0.29 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.55 0.60 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.39 0.31 0.46 0.30 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.57 0.49 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.65 0.58 0.59 0.70 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.54 0.48 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.31 0.34 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.41 0.32 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.33 0.45 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.47 0.40 0.77 0.58 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.34 0.27 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.78 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.16 0.13 0.35 0.26 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.36 0.45 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.31 0.40 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.23 0.29 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.25 0.55 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.41 0.44 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.52 0.20 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.57 0.46 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.38 0.35 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.34 0.59 0.58 0.41 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.55 0.39 0.66 0.54 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.36 0.38 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.42 0.63 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 99

102 Region : Sub-Saharan Africa : Middle East & North Africa Region Income Group : Low : Upper Middle Income Group Liberia Lebanon Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 8/113 31/36 6/ 0.4 11/18 0.45 94/113 7/12 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Score Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 1.6 8.3 8.3 1.6 0.01 0.01 2 2.1 8.2 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Global Factor Factor Regional Regional Global Factor Income Factor Income Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 2.3 7.7 7.7 2.3 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 18/36 5/7 60/113 0.49 4/12 6/18 0.55 72/113 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 7/7 Absence of Corruption 0.39 87/113 108/113 10/12 16/18 31/36 0.28 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.48 4/18 Open Government 0.44 4/7 29/36 2/12 89/113 73/113 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 0.56 7/18 4/12 0.49 81/113 3/7 Fundamental Rights 27/36 62/113 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 97/113 0.59 Order and Security 0.66 6/7 22/36 14/18 10/12 82/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 6/7 11/18 Regulatory Enforcement 0.44 0.42 5/12 86/113 93/113 31/36 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 8/12 96/113 79/113 28/36 6/7 0.47 Civil Justice 0.43 14/18 Order and Order and Security Security 11/12 103/113 17/18 0.31 Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.37 86/113 7/7 27/36 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Trending down Trending up High Medium High Low Trending down Trending up Medium Low Liberia Upper Middle Middle East & North Africa Lebanon Sub-Saharan Africa Low Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.76 0.51 0.63 0.37 0.43 0.50 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.46 0.52 0.53 0.59 0.45 0.37 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.34 0.46 0.28 0.33 0.43 0.45 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.41 0.37 0.60 0.38 0.29 0.66 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.79 0.50 0.37 0.40 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.60 0.66 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.57 0.40 0.54 0.36 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.65 0.52 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.69 0.65 0.42 0.78 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.54 0.46 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.37 0.33 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.40 0.46 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.32 0.50 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.32 0.41 0.48 0.71 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.35 0.50 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.92 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.12 0.17 0.32 0.15 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.35 0.31 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.34 0.21 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.32 0.43 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.27 0.14 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.40 0.48 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.32 0.27 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.49 0.46 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.43 0.34 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.40 0.65 0.55 0.40 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.38 0.45 0.48 0.63 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.52 0.44 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.41 0.43 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 100

103 Region : Sub-Saharan Africa : Middle East & North Africa Region Income Group : Low : Upper Middle Income Group Liberia Lebanon Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 8/113 31/36 6/ 0.4 11/18 0.45 94/113 7/12 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Score Change Score Change Rank Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 0.01 0.01 2 8.2 2.1 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Global Factor Factor Regional Regional Global Factor Income Factor Income Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 18/36 5/7 60/113 0.49 4/12 6/18 0.55 72/113 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 31/36 0.39 7/7 87/113 108/113 10/12 16/18 Absence of Corruption 0.28 Open Open 7.4 3.2 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.48 4/18 2/12 73/113 89/113 0.44 4/7 29/36 Open Government 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.56 0.49 4/12 62/113 3/7 7/18 27/36 81/113 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 10/12 97/113 Order and Security 0.66 6/7 22/36 0.59 14/18 82/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 11/18 5/12 6/7 0.44 86/113 31/36 0.42 93/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 4.8 5.2 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 8/12 96/113 79/113 28/36 6/7 0.47 Civil Justice 0.43 14/18 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 27/36 0.37 86/113 103/113 7/7 17/18 0.31 Criminal Justice 11/12 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Trending down Trending up High Medium High Low Trending down Trending up Medium Low Liberia Upper Middle Middle East & North Africa Lebanon Sub-Saharan Africa Low Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.76 0.51 0.63 0.37 0.43 0.50 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.46 0.52 0.53 0.59 0.45 0.37 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.34 0.46 0.28 0.33 0.43 0.45 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.41 0.37 0.60 0.38 0.29 0.66 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.79 0.50 0.37 0.40 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.60 0.66 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.57 0.40 0.54 0.36 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.65 0.52 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.69 0.65 0.42 0.78 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.54 0.46 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.37 0.33 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.40 0.46 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.32 0.50 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.32 0.41 0.48 0.71 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.35 0.50 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.92 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.12 0.17 0.32 0.15 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.35 0.31 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.34 0.21 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.32 0.43 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.27 0.14 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.40 0.48 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.32 0.27 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.49 0.46 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.43 0.34 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.40 0.65 0.55 0.40 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.38 0.45 0.48 0.63 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.52 0.44 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.41 0.43 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 101

104 : Sub-Saharan Africa : Eastern Europe & Central Asia Region Region : Upper Middle Income Group : Low Income Group Madagascar Macedonia, FYR Overall Score Global Rank Overall Score Regional Rank Income Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 98/113 8/12 0.53 3/13 16/36 57/113 14/18 0.44 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 8.6 1.3 Score Change Rank Change Score Change Rank Change 8.5 1.4 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 -0.02 -3 -8 -0.01 2.1 8.2 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Factor Regional Global Factor Income Regional Factor Income Global Factor Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Score Rank Rank Score Rank Trend Rank Rank Trend 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 7/13 28/36 8/12 13/18 0.45 89/113 90/113 0.45 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 7.5 3.1 0 0 Absence of Corruption 4/13 19/36 60/113 Absence of Corruption 9/12 15/18 0.28 0.47 107/113 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 3/12 64/113 0.49 Open Government 76/113 19/36 5/18 0.46 5/13 7.2 3.4 7.2 3.4 7.1 4.1 7.1 4.1 Fundamental Rights 22/36 9/18 0.54 82/113 7/12 0.48 Fundamental Rights 6/13 66/113 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 35/113 2/18 60/113 2/12 5/13 0.78 Order and Security 0.72 6/36 6.4 4.3 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 28/36 77/113 10/12 17/18 0.34 108/113 Regulatory Enforcement 0.46 7/13 6.1 4.6 4.6 6.1 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 0.39 16/18 10/12 0.56 Civil Justice 2/13 12/36 48/113 101/113 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 4/13 16/36 0.36 Criminal Justice 14/18 8/12 87/113 0.47 56/113 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score High Low Trending up Trending down Medium Trending up High Medium Low Trending down Low Madagascar Upper Middle Eastern Europe & Central Asia Macedonia, FYR Sub-Saharan Africa Constraints on Government Powers Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Civil Justice Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.55 0.48 0.61 0.33 0.56 0.60 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 0.64 0.39 0.57 0.46 0.36 0.36 7.2 No discrimination 1.2 Limits by judiciary 4.2 Right to life & security 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 0.54 0.49 0.37 0.32 0.42 0.42 4.3 Due process of law 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 4.3 Due process of law 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 0.39 0.47 0.50 0.37 0.30 0.34 7.4 No improper gov't influence 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 4.4 Freedom of expression misconduct misconduct 0.45 0.58 0.65 0.70 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 0.50 0.47 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.33 0.29 0.63 0.27 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 0.53 0.49 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.56 0.55 0.74 0.58 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 0.57 0.56 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.32 0.40 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.36 0.48 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.31 0.55 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.51 0.78 0.70 0.53 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.36 0.69 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.24 0.19 0.14 0.35 2.4 In the legislature 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 8.3 Effective correctional 0.45 0.57 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.52 0.41 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.52 0.35 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.34 0.48 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.44 0.29 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.29 0.36 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.53 0.47 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.37 0.54 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.44 0.50 0.34 0.50 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.45 0.44 0.52 0.48 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 0.38 0.26 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.57 0.39 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 102

105 Region : Eastern Europe & Central Asia : Sub-Saharan Africa Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Low Income Group Macedonia, FYR Madagascar Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 98/113 8/12 14/18 0.44 3/13 0.53 57/113 16/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 -8 -3 -0.01 -0.02 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 89/113 7/13 90/113 8/12 13/18 0.45 28/36 0.45 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 9/12 107/113 15/18 0.28 Absence of Corruption 60/113 19/36 4/13 0.47 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 19/36 76/113 0.49 64/113 Open Government 0.46 5/18 3/12 5/13 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 6/13 0.54 0.48 22/36 66/113 Fundamental Rights 9/18 82/113 7/12 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 35/113 0.78 Order and Security 0.72 2/18 2/12 5/13 6/36 60/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.34 28/36 7/13 0.46 77/113 17/18 10/12 108/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 12/36 48/113 101/113 10/12 16/18 0.39 Civil Justice 0.56 2/13 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 4/13 14/18 56/113 16/36 87/113 0.47 Criminal Justice 0.36 8/12 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Macedonia, FYR Low Sub-Saharan Africa Madagascar Eastern Europe & Central Asia Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.48 0.61 0.55 0.60 0.56 0.33 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.39 0.36 0.36 0.57 0.46 0.64 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.54 0.49 0.42 0.42 0.37 0.32 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.37 0.34 0.50 0.30 0.39 0.47 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.70 0.65 0.58 0.45 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.50 0.47 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.63 0.29 0.33 0.27 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.49 0.53 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.56 0.55 0.74 0.58 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.56 0.57 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.32 0.40 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.48 0.36 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.55 0.31 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.51 0.53 0.78 0.70 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.69 0.36 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.24 0.14 0.19 0.35 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.45 0.57 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.52 0.41 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.52 0.35 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.34 0.48 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.29 0.44 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.29 0.36 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.53 0.47 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.37 0.54 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.44 0.50 0.50 0.34 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.48 0.44 0.52 0.45 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.26 0.38 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.57 0.39 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 103

106 Region : East Asia & Pacific : Sub-Saharan Africa Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Low Income Group Malaysia Malawi Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 66/113 3/12 5/18 0.51 /1 0.4 3/113 13/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 3 3 0.00 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 74/113 10/15 54/113 3/12 4/18 0.49 19/36 0.57 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 44/113 10/36 7/15 Absence of Corruption 0.56 5/12 81/113 8/18 0.41 Absence of Corruption Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 32/36 82/113 0.39 97/113 Open Government 0.45 8/18 5/12 13/15 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 10/15 0.47 0.58 28/36 87/113 Fundamental Rights 5/18 57/113 3/12 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 41/113 0.77 Order and Security 0.68 6/18 4/12 9/15 9/36 73/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.43 18/36 10/15 0.50 60/113 10/18 4/12 92/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 15/36 51/113 56/113 2/12 5/18 0.54 Civil Justice 0.56 7/15 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 7/15 6/18 39/113 7/36 64/113 0.55 Criminal Justice 0.43 4/12 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Malaysia Low Sub-Saharan Africa Malawi East Asia & Pacific Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.62 0.46 0.49 0.55 0.58 0.44 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.62 0.53 0.60 0.50 0.62 0.56 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.53 0.55 0.62 0.46 0.36 0.49 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.43 0.50 0.61 0.62 0.44 0.38 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.41 0.75 0.61 0.45 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.61 0.38 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.58 0.54 0.65 0.56 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.47 0.65 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.52 0.69 0.53 0.38 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.57 0.53 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.39 0.50 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.58 0.36 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.76 0.52 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.55 0.50 0.73 0.70 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.57 0.41 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.40 0.34 0.29 0.62 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.35 0.59 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.45 0.46 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.67 0.46 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.20 0.27 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.38 0.46 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.58 0.42 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.45 0.38 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.36 0.53 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.60 0.41 0.61 0.39 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.49 0.33 0.59 0.44 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.50 0.48 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.47 0.54 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 104

107 Region : East Asia & Pacific : Sub-Saharan Africa Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Low Income Group Malaysia Malawi Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 66/113 3/12 5/18 0.51 /1 0.4 3/113 13/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 3 3 0.00 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 74/113 10/15 54/113 3/12 4/18 0.49 19/36 0.57 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 81/113 Absence of Corruption 5/12 8/18 0.41 44/113 Absence of Corruption 0.56 7/15 10/36 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice 82/113 5/12 8/18 0.45 Open Government 32/36 Open Government 97/113 13/15 0.39 3.4 7.2 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.47 0.58 28/36 87/113 5/18 10/15 3/12 57/113 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 0.68 6/18 4/12 73/113 9/15 9/36 41/113 Order and Security 0.77 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 10/15 18/36 10/18 0.43 92/113 4/12 0.50 60/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 15/36 51/113 56/113 2/12 5/18 0.54 Civil Justice 0.56 7/15 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.43 6/18 39/113 7/36 64/113 0.55 Criminal Justice 4/12 7/15 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Malaysia Low Sub-Saharan Africa Malawi East Asia & Pacific Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.62 0.46 0.49 0.55 0.58 0.44 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.62 0.53 0.60 0.50 0.62 0.56 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.53 0.55 0.62 0.46 0.36 0.49 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.43 0.50 0.61 0.62 0.44 0.38 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.41 0.75 0.61 0.45 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.61 0.38 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.58 0.54 0.65 0.56 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.47 0.65 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.52 0.69 0.53 0.38 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.57 0.53 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.39 0.50 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.58 0.36 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.76 0.52 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.55 0.50 0.73 0.70 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.57 0.41 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.40 0.34 0.29 0.62 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.35 0.59 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.45 0.46 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.67 0.46 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.20 0.27 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.38 0.46 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.58 0.42 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.45 0.38 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.36 0.53 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.60 0.41 0.61 0.39 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.49 0.33 0.59 0.44 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.50 0.48 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.47 0.54 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 105

108 Region : Eastern Europe & Central Asia : Latin America & Caribbean Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Upper Middle Income Group Moldova Mexico Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 92/113 34/36 25/30 0.45 9/13 0.49 78/113 12/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 -4 -1 0.00 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 91/113 8/13 83/113 24/36 24/30 0.44 21/30 0.46 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 35/36 102/113 28/30 0.31 Absence of Corruption 101/113 25/30 12/13 0.32 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 2/30 36/113 0.57 41/113 Open Government 0.61 7/30 8/36 1/13 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 7/13 0.54 0.52 7/30 67/113 Fundamental Rights 24/30 72/113 24/36 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 27/113 0.80 Order and Security 0.59 26/30 33/36 3/13 2/30 99/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.44 22/30 12/13 0.42 95/113 24/30 32/36 87/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 14/30 83/113 100/113 35/36 26/30 0.40 Civil Justice 0.47 10/13 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 11/13 26/30 90/113 18/30 105/113 0.36 Criminal Justice 0.30 35/36 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Moldova Upper Middle Latin America & Caribbean Mexico Eastern Europe & Central Asia Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.58 0.51 0.60 0.34 0.45 0.39 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.46 0.35 0.47 0.66 0.32 0.42 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.44 0.43 0.28 0.39 0.43 0.34 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.34 0.30 0.52 0.52 0.25 0.53 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.64 0.74 0.49 0.27 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.52 0.53 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.56 0.44 0.39 0.50 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.45 0.57 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.59 0.65 0.72 0.63 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.46 0.52 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.33 0.34 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.27 0.26 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.36 0.36 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.50 0.29 0.82 0.47 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.52 0.35 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.07 0.19 0.19 0.29 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.29 0.59 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.40 0.28 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.37 0.29 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.68 0.60 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.48 0.53 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.39 0.22 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.55 0.63 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.43 0.44 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.45 0.55 0.54 0.43 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.48 0.33 0.59 0.59 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.38 0.21 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.42 0.57 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 106

109 Region : Eastern Europe & Central Asia : Latin America & Caribbean Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Upper Middle Income Group Moldova Mexico Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 92/113 34/36 25/30 0.45 9/13 0.49 78/113 12/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 -4 -1 0.00 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 91/113 8/13 83/113 24/36 24/30 0.44 21/30 0.46 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 35/36 102/113 28/30 0.31 101/113 25/30 12/13 Absence of Corruption 0.32 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.57 1/13 2/30 36/113 41/113 0.61 7/30 8/36 Open Government 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.54 0.52 7/30 67/113 24/30 7/13 24/36 72/113 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 2/30 27/113 Order and Security 0.59 26/30 33/36 0.80 3/13 99/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 12/13 22/30 24/30 0.44 87/113 32/36 0.42 95/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 14/30 83/113 100/113 35/36 26/30 0.40 Civil Justice 0.47 10/13 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.30 26/30 90/113 18/30 105/113 0.36 Criminal Justice 35/36 11/13 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Moldova Upper Middle Latin America & Caribbean Mexico Eastern Europe & Central Asia Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.58 0.51 0.60 0.34 0.45 0.39 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.46 0.35 0.47 0.66 0.32 0.42 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.44 0.43 0.28 0.39 0.43 0.34 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.34 0.30 0.52 0.52 0.25 0.53 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.64 0.74 0.49 0.27 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.52 0.53 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.56 0.44 0.39 0.50 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.45 0.57 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.59 0.65 0.72 0.63 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.46 0.52 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.33 0.34 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.27 0.26 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.36 0.36 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.50 0.29 0.82 0.47 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.52 0.35 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.07 0.19 0.19 0.29 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.29 0.59 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.40 0.28 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.37 0.29 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.68 0.60 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.48 0.53 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.39 0.22 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.55 0.63 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.43 0.44 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.45 0.55 0.54 0.43 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.48 0.33 0.59 0.59 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.38 0.21 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.42 0.57 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 107

110 Region : Middle East & North Africa : East Asia & Pacific Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Lower Middle Income Group Morocco Mongolia Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 51/113 /30 /15 0.5 4/7 0.51 67/113 9/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6  -7 -0.02 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 61/113 4/7 62/113 10/30 9/15 0.55 9/30 0.55 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 59/113 5/30 5/7 Absence of Corruption 0.47 9/30 70/113 12/15 0.44 Absence of Corruption Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 19/30 61/113 0.44 84/113 Open Government 0.49 9/15 11/30 3/7 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 5/7 0.45 0.59 20/30 93/113 Fundamental Rights 7/15 56/113 4/30 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 70/113 0.69 Order and Security 0.78 8/15 5/30 4/7 15/30 39/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.47 4/30 3/7 0.54 43/113 12/15 12/30 72/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 3/30 54/113 58/113 5/30 9/15 0.53 Civil Justice 0.54 3/7 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 6/7 8/15 84/113 17/30 50/113 0.37 Criminal Justice 0.50 4/30 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Morocco Lower Middle East Asia & Pacific Mongolia Middle East & North Africa Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.69 0.58 0.64 0.56 0.49 0.49 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.53 0.53 0.66 0.40 0.57 0.49 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.34 0.50 0.44 0.45 0.51 0.50 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.45 0.51 0.63 0.52 0.41 0.48 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.46 0.65 0.68 0.64 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.63 0.48 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.55 0.28 0.44 0.46 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.63 0.58 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.58 0.67 0.70 0.52 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.57 0.55 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.44 0.49 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.46 0.44 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.48 0.52 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.45 0.57 0.67 0.85 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.45 0.62 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.46 0.17 0.49 0.37 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.50 0.39 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.36 0.52 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.41 0.56 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.41 0.37 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.53 0.50 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.41 0.22 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.45 0.50 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.51 0.34 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.60 0.47 0.61 0.47 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.47 0.58 0.45 0.49 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.36 0.51 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.63 0.44 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 108

111 Region : Middle East & North Africa : East Asia & Pacific Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Lower Middle Income Group Morocco Mongolia Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 51/113 /30 /15 0.5 4/7 0.51 67/113 9/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6  -7 -0.02 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 61/113 4/7 62/113 10/30 9/15 0.55 9/30 0.55 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 9/30 70/113 12/15 0.44 59/113 5/30 5/7 Absence of Corruption 0.47 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.44 3/7 19/30 61/113 84/113 0.49 9/15 11/30 Open Government 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.45 0.59 20/30 93/113 7/15 5/7 4/30 56/113 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 15/30 70/113 Order and Security 0.78 8/15 5/30 0.69 4/7 39/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 3/7 4/30 12/15 0.47 72/113 12/30 0.54 43/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 3/30 54/113 58/113 5/30 9/15 0.53 Civil Justice 0.54 3/7 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.50 8/15 84/113 17/30 50/113 0.37 Criminal Justice 4/30 6/7 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Morocco Lower Middle East Asia & Pacific Mongolia Middle East & North Africa Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.69 0.58 0.64 0.56 0.49 0.49 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.53 0.53 0.66 0.40 0.57 0.49 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.34 0.50 0.44 0.45 0.51 0.50 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.45 0.51 0.63 0.52 0.41 0.48 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.46 0.65 0.68 0.64 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.63 0.48 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.55 0.28 0.44 0.46 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.63 0.58 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.58 0.67 0.70 0.52 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.57 0.55 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.44 0.49 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.46 0.44 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.48 0.52 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.45 0.57 0.67 0.85 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.45 0.62 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.46 0.17 0.49 0.37 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.50 0.39 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.36 0.52 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.41 0.56 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.41 0.37 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.53 0.50 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.41 0.22 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.45 0.50 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.51 0.34 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.60 0.47 0.61 0.47 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.47 0.58 0.45 0.49 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.36 0.51 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.63 0.44 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 109

112 Region : South Asia : East Asia & Pacific Region Income Group : Low : Lower Middle Income Group Nepal Myanmar Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 100/113 23/30 14/15 0.42 1/6 0.53 58/113 2/12 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 -2 5 0.01 -0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 42/113 2/6 84/113 19/30 13/15 0.61 1/12 0.46 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 6/30 61/113 10/15 0.47 Absence of Corruption 80/113 4/12 3/6 0.41 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 1/12 107/113 0.52 51/113 Open Government 0.32 14/15 27/30 2/6 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 2/6 0.53 0.31 5/12 71/113 Fundamental Rights 15/15 110/113 29/30 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 57/113 0.73 Order and Security 0.70 12/15 11/30 1/6 1/12 64/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.46 2/12 1/6 0.50 62/113 13/15 14/30 79/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 5/12 82/113 109/113 27/30 14/15 0.37 Civil Justice 0.47 1/6 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 2/6 14/15 63/113 3/12 107/113 0.43 Criminal Justice 0.29 26/30 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Nepal Lower Middle East Asia & Pacific Myanmar South Asia Low Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.55 0.51 0.77 0.35 0.43 0.37 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.47 0.62 0.24 0.45 0.26 0.44 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.37 0.55 0.39 0.40 0.26 0.30 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.48 0.43 0.32 0.26 0.50 0.66 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.69 0.27 0.50 0.47 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.32 0.66 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.43 0.36 0.37 0.22 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.65 0.54 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.53 0.34 0.59 0.67 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.55 0.45 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.54 0.49 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.48 0.32 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.39 0.28 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.58 0.35 0.77 0.83 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.58 0.51 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.69 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.20 0.54 0.26 0.33 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.60 0.41 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.37 0.14 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.49 0.44 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.19 0.28 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.42 0.43 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.24 0.39 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.53 0.37 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.26 0.37 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.53 0.64 0.33 0.57 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.53 0.57 0.40 0.64 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.38 0.42 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.57 0.33 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 110

113 Region : South Asia : East Asia & Pacific Region Income Group : Low : Lower Middle Income Group Nepal Myanmar Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 100/113 23/30 14/15 0.42 1/6 0.53 58/113 2/12 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 -2 5 0.01 -0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 42/113 2/6 84/113 19/30 13/15 0.61 1/12 0.46 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 6/30 61/113 10/15 0.47 80/113 4/12 3/6 Absence of Corruption 0.41 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.52 2/6 1/12 107/113 51/113 0.32 14/15 27/30 Open Government 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.53 0.31 5/12 71/113 15/15 2/6 29/30 110/113 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 1/12 57/113 Order and Security 0.70 12/15 11/30 0.73 1/6 64/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 1/6 2/12 13/15 0.46 79/113 14/30 0.50 62/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 5/12 82/113 109/113 27/30 14/15 0.37 Civil Justice 0.47 1/6 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.29 14/15 63/113 3/12 107/113 0.43 Criminal Justice 26/30 2/6 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Nepal Lower Middle East Asia & Pacific Myanmar South Asia Low Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.55 0.51 0.77 0.35 0.43 0.37 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.47 0.62 0.24 0.45 0.26 0.44 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.37 0.55 0.39 0.40 0.26 0.30 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.48 0.43 0.32 0.26 0.50 0.66 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.69 0.27 0.50 0.47 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.32 0.66 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.43 0.36 0.37 0.22 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.65 0.54 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.53 0.34 0.59 0.67 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.55 0.45 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.54 0.49 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.48 0.32 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.39 0.28 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.58 0.35 0.77 0.83 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.58 0.51 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.69 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.20 0.54 0.26 0.33 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.60 0.41 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.37 0.14 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.49 0.44 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.19 0.28 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.42 0.43 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.24 0.39 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.53 0.37 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.26 0.37 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.53 0.64 0.33 0.57 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.53 0.57 0.40 0.64 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.38 0.42 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.57 0.33 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 111

114 : East Asia & Pacific : EU & EFTA & North America Region Region Income Group : High : High Income Group Netherlands New Zealand Overall Score Overall Score Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 7/35 5/35 5/24 0.85 1/15 0.83 7/113 5/113 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Score Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 1.6 8.3 8.3 1.6 0.01 1 0.00 8.2 2.1 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Regional Regional Income Factor Global Factor Income Factor Global Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Rank Trend Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 2.3 7.7 7.7 2.3 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 0.88 7/113 1/15 4/113 4/35 4/24 0.85 7/35 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 7.5 3.1 0 0 Absence of Corruption 7/113 0.86 2/15 5/24 7/35 Absence of Corruption 6/35 0.88 6/113 Open Open 3.2 7.4 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 5/113 1/15 0.81 Open Government 0.84 5/24 5/35 7/35 7/113 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 6/35 0.81 1/15 11/35 11/113 6/113 6/24 0.85 Fundamental Rights 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 19/35 0.89 15/35 4/15 Order and Security 0.85 20/113 16/113 13/24 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 4.4 6.3 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 2/15 1/113 1/35 1/24 0.88 Regulatory Enforcement 6/35 6/113 0.85 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 2/15 8/35 8/113 1/113 1/35 1/24 0.87 Civil Justice 0.79 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 4/15 5/24 14/113 14/35 6/113 0.74 Criminal Justice 0.80 6/35 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium New Zealand High EU & EFTA & North America Netherlands East Asia & Pacific High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.90 0.74 0.83 0.82 0.70 0.83 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.91 0.86 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.76 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.78 0.84 0.94 0.87 0.86 0.94 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.85 0.81 0.85 0.92 0.85 0.83 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.83 0.78 0.75 0.77 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.85 0.83 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.73 0.81 0.89 0.83 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.92 0.91 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.86 0.87 0.78 0.84 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.76 0.82 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.82 0.86 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.63 0.62 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.96 0.95 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.74 0.76 0.89 0.89 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.92 0.89 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.76 0.79 0.80 0.65 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.65 0.78 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.61 0.74 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.90 0.87 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.79 0.86 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.82 0.76 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.93 0.85 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.75 0.80 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.86 0.78 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.91 0.82 0.86 0.94 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.84 0.88 0.93 0.83 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.85 0.89 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.85 0.89 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 112

115 : East Asia & Pacific : EU & EFTA & North America Region Region Income Group : High : High Income Group Netherlands New Zealand Overall Score Overall Score Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 7/35 5/35 5/24 0.85 1/15 0.83 7/113 5/113 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Score Change Score Change Rank Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 0.01 1 0.00 8.2 2.1 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Factor Regional Regional Income Factor Global Factor Income Factor Global Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Rank Trend Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 0.88 7/113 1/15 4/113 4/35 4/24 0.85 7/35 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 0.86 5/24 6/113 6/35 7/35 7/113 2/15 0.88 Absence of Corruption Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.81 1/15 7/35 0.84 5/24 5/35 7/113 5/113 Open Government 3.4 7.2 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 6/35 Fundamental Rights 0.81 1/15 11/35 11/113 6/24 0.85 6/113 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 4/15 15/35 16/113 0.85 13/24 19/35 20/113 Order and Security 0.89 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 0.85 Regulatory Enforcement 2/15 6/113 1/113 1/35 1/24 0.88 6/35 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 2/15 8/35 8/113 1/113 1/35 1/24 0.87 Civil Justice 0.79 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.80 5/24 14/113 14/35 6/113 0.74 Criminal Justice 6/35 4/15 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium New Zealand High EU & EFTA & North America Netherlands East Asia & Pacific High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.90 0.74 0.83 0.82 0.70 0.83 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.91 0.86 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.76 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.78 0.84 0.94 0.87 0.86 0.94 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.85 0.81 0.85 0.92 0.85 0.83 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.83 0.78 0.75 0.77 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.85 0.83 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.73 0.81 0.89 0.83 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.92 0.91 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.86 0.87 0.78 0.84 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.76 0.82 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.82 0.86 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.63 0.62 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.96 0.95 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.74 0.76 0.89 0.89 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.92 0.89 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.76 0.79 0.80 0.65 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.65 0.78 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.61 0.74 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.90 0.87 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.79 0.86 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.82 0.76 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.93 0.85 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.75 0.80 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.86 0.78 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.91 0.82 0.86 0.94 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.84 0.88 0.93 0.83 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.85 0.89 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.85 0.89 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 113

116 Region : Sub-Saharan Africa : Latin America & Caribbean Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Lower Middle Income Group Nigeria Nicaragua Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 99/113 22/30 27/30 0.43 13/18 0.44 97/113 21/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 2 -1 -0.01 0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 63/113 7/18 109/113 29/30 29/30 0.55 11/30 0.32 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption 88/113 23/30 0.38 12/18 0.32 100/113 16/30 24/30 Open Open 7.4 3.2 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 21/30 0.44 Open Government 0.41 28/30 24/30 88/113 10/18 96/113 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 0.47 0.47 11/18 15/30 85/113 27/30 Fundamental Rights 16/30 86/113 6.5 4.2 4.2 6.5 18/18 29/30 111/113 Order and Security 0.37 0.70 Order and Security 11/30 12/30 65/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 9/18 Regulatory Enforcement 81/113 22/30 15/30 90/113 0.45 20/30 0.43 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 8/30 70/113 102/113 22/30 27/30 0.39 Civil Justice 0.50 8/18 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 7/18 21/30 67/113 10/30 93/113 0.42 Criminal Justice 0.34 20/30 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Nigeria Lower Middle Latin America & Caribbean Nicaragua Sub-Saharan Africa Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.36 0.51 0.68 0.46 0.54 0.45 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.32 0.59 0.53 0.35 0.42 0.52 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.36 0.46 0.53 0.29 0.33 0.35 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.52 0.48 0.44 0.20 0.21 0.51 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.55 0.69 0.28 0.38 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.44 0.51 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.43 0.44 0.42 0.33 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.56 0.30 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.54 0.47 0.66 0.59 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.49 0.53 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.45 0.31 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.45 0.35 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.52 0.34 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.40 0.55 0.58 0.67 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.36 0.52 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.16 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.10 0.23 0.27 0.30 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.44 0.36 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.47 0.36 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.38 0.43 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.37 0.20 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.46 0.41 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.10 0.56 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.47 0.27 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.33 0.36 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.45 0.53 0.43 0.55 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.36 0.47 0.57 0.56 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.34 0.43 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.49 0.44 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 114

117 Region : Sub-Saharan Africa : Latin America & Caribbean Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Lower Middle Income Group Nigeria Nicaragua Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 99/113 22/30 27/30 0.43 13/18 0.44 97/113 21/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 2 -1 -0.01 0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 63/113 7/18 109/113 29/30 29/30 0.55 11/30 0.32 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 16/30 88/113 23/30 0.38 100/113 24/30 12/18 Absence of Corruption 0.32 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.44 10/18 21/30 96/113 88/113 0.41 28/30 24/30 Open Government 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.47 0.47 15/30 85/113 27/30 11/18 16/30 86/113 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 29/30 111/113 Order and Security 0.70 11/30 12/30 0.37 18/18 65/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 9/18 20/30 22/30 0.45 81/113 15/30 0.43 90/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 8/30 70/113 102/113 22/30 27/30 0.39 Civil Justice 0.50 8/18 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.34 21/30 67/113 10/30 93/113 0.42 Criminal Justice 20/30 7/18 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Nigeria Lower Middle Latin America & Caribbean Nicaragua Sub-Saharan Africa Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.36 0.51 0.68 0.46 0.54 0.45 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.32 0.59 0.53 0.35 0.42 0.52 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.36 0.46 0.53 0.29 0.33 0.35 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.52 0.48 0.44 0.20 0.21 0.51 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.55 0.69 0.28 0.38 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.44 0.51 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.43 0.44 0.42 0.33 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.56 0.30 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.54 0.47 0.66 0.59 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.49 0.53 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.45 0.31 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.45 0.35 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.52 0.34 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.40 0.55 0.58 0.67 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.36 0.52 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.16 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.10 0.23 0.27 0.30 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.44 0.36 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.47 0.36 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.38 0.43 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.37 0.20 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.46 0.41 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.10 0.56 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.47 0.27 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.33 0.36 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.45 0.53 0.43 0.55 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.36 0.47 0.57 0.56 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.34 0.43 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.49 0.44 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 115

118 : South Asia : EU & EFTA & North America Region Region Income Group : Lower Middle : High Income Group Norway Pakistan Overall Score Overall Score Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 26/30 2/35 2/24 0.89 5/6 0.39 105/113 2/113 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Score Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 1.6 8.3 8.3 1.6 0.01 1 0.01 8.2 2.1 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Regional Regional Income Factor Global Factor Income Factor Global Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Rank Trend Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 2.3 7.7 7.7 2.3 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 0.94 66/113 4/6 2/113 2/35 2/24 0.53 13/30 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 7.5 3.1 0 0 Absence of Corruption 2/113 0.93 5/6 2/24 2/35 Absence of Corruption 23/30 0.33 99/113 Open Open 3.2 7.4 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 1/113 5/6 0.45 Open Government 0.88 1/24 1/35 17/30 80/113 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 3/35 0.40 4/6 25/30 100/113 3/113 3/24 0.88 Fundamental Rights 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 3/35 0.32 30/30 6/6 Order and Security 0.93 3/113 113/113 2/24 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 4.4 6.3 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 5/6 4/113 4/35 3/24 0.87 Regulatory Enforcement 27/30 105/113 0.35 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 6/6 25/30 107/113 4/113 4/35 4/24 0.85 Civil Justice 0.37 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 4/6 2/24 81/113 15/30 2/113 0.38 Criminal Justice 0.83 2/35 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Pakistan High EU & EFTA & North America Norway South Asia Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.95 0.35 0.57 0.78 0.37 0.69 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.95 0.55 0.93 0.29 0.67 0.30 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.34 0.54 0.28 0.94 0.91 0.96 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.49 0.38 0.93 0.93 0.90 0.60 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.50 0.86 0.34 0.83 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.93 0.60 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.37 0.27 0.91 0.83 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.54 0.97 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.97 0.94 0.43 0.63 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.25 0.86 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.92 0.37 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.26 0.66 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.38 0.98 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.42 0.77 0.57 0.96 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.30 0.95 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.06 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.27 0.89 0.83 0.37 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.82 0.32 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.24 0.73 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.38 0.95 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.88 0.26 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.81 0.36 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.93 0.65 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.49 0.88 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.91 0.34 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.40 0.58 0.90 0.94 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.35 0.81 0.86 0.47 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.86 0.16 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.50 0.90 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 116

119 : South Asia : EU & EFTA & North America Region Region Income Group : Lower Middle : High Income Group Norway Pakistan Overall Score Overall Score Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 26/30 2/35 2/24 0.89 5/6 0.39 105/113 2/113 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Score Change Score Change Rank Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 0.01 1 0.01 8.2 2.1 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Factor Regional Regional Income Factor Global Factor Income Factor Global Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Rank Trend Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 0.94 66/113 4/6 2/113 2/35 2/24 0.53 13/30 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 0.93 2/24 99/113 23/30 2/35 2/113 5/6 0.33 Absence of Corruption Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.45 5/6 17/30 0.88 1/24 1/35 80/113 1/113 Open Government 3.4 7.2 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 3/35 Fundamental Rights 0.40 4/6 25/30 100/113 3/24 0.88 3/113 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 6/6 30/30 113/113 0.93 2/24 3/35 3/113 Order and Security 0.32 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 0.35 Regulatory Enforcement 5/6 105/113 4/113 4/35 3/24 0.87 27/30 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 6/6 25/30 107/113 4/113 4/35 4/24 0.85 Civil Justice 0.37 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.83 2/24 81/113 15/30 2/113 0.38 Criminal Justice 2/35 4/6 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Pakistan High EU & EFTA & North America Norway South Asia Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.95 0.35 0.57 0.78 0.37 0.69 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.95 0.55 0.93 0.29 0.67 0.30 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.34 0.54 0.28 0.94 0.91 0.96 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.49 0.38 0.93 0.93 0.90 0.60 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.50 0.86 0.34 0.83 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.93 0.60 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.37 0.27 0.91 0.83 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.54 0.97 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.97 0.94 0.43 0.63 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.25 0.86 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.92 0.37 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.26 0.66 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.38 0.98 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.42 0.77 0.57 0.96 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.30 0.95 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.06 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.27 0.89 0.83 0.37 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.82 0.32 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.24 0.73 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.38 0.95 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.88 0.26 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.81 0.36 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.93 0.65 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.49 0.88 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.91 0.34 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.40 0.58 0.90 0.94 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.35 0.81 0.86 0.47 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.86 0.16 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.50 0.90 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 117

120 Region : Latin America & Caribbean : Latin America & Caribbean Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Upper Middle Income Group Panama Peru Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 60/113 17/36 16/30 0.52 1/30 0.52 61/113 18/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 5 1 0.00 0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 68/113 20/30 32/113 3/36 6/30 0.53 16/36 0.65 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 32/36 89/113 24/30 0.38 68/113 23/36 18/30 Absence of Corruption 0.45 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.59 8/30 9/36 44/113 38/113 0.56 11/30 11/36 Open Government 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.59 0.65 14/36 50/113 12/30 15/30 8/36 40/113 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 21/36 78/113 Order and Security 0.64 18/30 26/36 0.67 15/30 86/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 9/30 9/36 17/30 0.50 63/113 20/36 0.52 46/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 27/36 78/113 93/113 33/36 24/30 0.44 Civil Justice 0.48 20/30 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.36 19/30 99/113 33/36 88/113 0.33 Criminal Justice 28/36 23/30 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Panama Upper Middle Latin America & Caribbean Peru Latin America & Caribbean Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.78 0.47 0.53 0.50 0.59 0.41 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.52 0.46 0.74 0.60 0.48 0.47 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.47 0.40 0.48 0.58 0.45 0.35 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.40 0.35 0.74 0.49 0.46 0.64 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.75 0.80 0.25 0.25 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.74 0.64 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.51 0.45 0.46 0.67 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.79 0.82 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.64 0.82 0.67 0.71 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.66 0.52 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.49 0.45 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.35 0.30 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.51 0.42 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.31 0.27 0.63 0.57 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.58 0.38 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.24 0.22 0.20 0.14 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.35 0.37 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.30 0.49 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.50 0.35 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.37 0.42 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.53 0.47 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.44 0.23 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.62 0.59 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.45 0.47 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.57 0.63 0.68 0.57 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.56 0.38 0.61 0.70 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.37 0.47 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.54 0.63 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 118

121 Region : Latin America & Caribbean : Latin America & Caribbean Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Upper Middle Income Group Panama Peru Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 60/113 17/36 16/30 0.52 1/30 0.52 61/113 18/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 5 1 0.00 0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 68/113 20/30 32/113 3/36 6/30 0.53 16/36 0.65 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 32/36 89/113 24/30 0.38 Absence of Corruption 68/113 23/36 18/30 0.45 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 9/36 44/113 0.59 38/113 Open Government 0.56 11/30 11/36 8/30 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 15/30 0.59 0.65 14/36 50/113 Fundamental Rights 12/30 40/113 8/36 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 78/113 0.67 Order and Security 0.64 18/30 26/36 15/30 21/36 86/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.50 9/36 9/30 0.52 46/113 17/30 20/36 63/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 27/36 78/113 93/113 33/36 24/30 0.44 Civil Justice 0.48 20/30 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 23/30 19/30 99/113 33/36 88/113 0.33 Criminal Justice 0.36 28/36 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Panama Upper Middle Latin America & Caribbean Peru Latin America & Caribbean Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.78 0.47 0.53 0.50 0.59 0.41 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.52 0.46 0.74 0.60 0.48 0.47 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.47 0.40 0.48 0.58 0.45 0.35 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.40 0.35 0.74 0.49 0.46 0.64 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.75 0.80 0.25 0.25 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.74 0.64 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.51 0.45 0.46 0.67 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.79 0.82 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.64 0.82 0.67 0.71 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.66 0.52 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.49 0.45 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.35 0.30 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.51 0.42 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.31 0.27 0.63 0.57 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.58 0.38 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.24 0.22 0.20 0.14 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.35 0.37 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.30 0.49 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.50 0.35 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.37 0.42 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.53 0.47 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.44 0.23 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.62 0.59 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.45 0.47 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.57 0.63 0.68 0.57 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.56 0.38 0.61 0.70 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.37 0.47 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.54 0.63 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 119

122 Region : EU & EFTA & North America : East Asia & Pacific Region Income Group : High : Lower Middle Income Group Poland Philippines Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 88/113 17/30 13/15 0.47 17/24 0.67 25/113 24/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Score Change Rank Change Score Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 -18 -3 -0.04 -0.04 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Global Global Income Factor Income Regional Factor Factor Regional Factor Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Score Trend Score Rank Rank Rank Trend Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 59/113 8/15 0.55 8/30 40/113 0.61 31/35 21/24 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 7/30 62/113 11/15 0.47 Absence of Corruption 22/113 22/35 15/24 0.72 Open Open 7.4 3.2 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice 27/113 25/35 Open Government 19/24 0.66 Open Government 0.52 8/15 9/30 54/113 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 0.66 31/35 39/113 21/24 0.42 Fundamental Rights 12/15 99/113 24/30 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 19/113 0.85 Order and Security 0.51 15/15 26/30 12/24 18/35 107/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.51 28/35 18/24 0.61 29/113 8/15 7/30 55/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 28/35 30/113 81/113 13/30 11/15 0.47 Civil Justice 0.64 18/24 Order and Order and Security Security 18/24 26/113 26/35 0.62 Criminal Justice 0.31 13/15 102/113 Criminal Justice 23/30 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Poland Lower Middle East Asia & Pacific Philippines EU & EFTA & North America High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.61 0.73 0.54 0.47 0.55 0.48 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.58 0.56 0.20 0.72 0.46 0.80 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.64 0.59 0.76 0.53 0.26 0.49 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.59 0.57 0.57 0.45 0.43 0.63 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.57 0.60 0.35 0.31 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.57 0.63 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.62 0.61 0.46 0.30 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.79 0.57 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.62 0.56 0.83 0.64 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.71 0.41 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.52 0.68 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.56 0.39 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.86 0.42 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.58 0.33 0.93 0.67 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.82 0.51 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.33 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.52 0.41 0.17 0.58 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.54 0.63 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.61 0.20 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.75 0.50 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.43 0.62 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.53 0.61 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.32 0.59 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.66 0.61 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.26 0.64 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.75 0.63 0.55 0.63 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.50 0.43 0.48 0.72 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.45 0.52 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.67 0.52 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 120

123 Region : EU & EFTA & North America : East Asia & Pacific Region Income Group : High : Lower Middle Income Group Poland Philippines Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 88/113 17/30 13/15 0.47 17/24 0.67 25/113 24/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Rank Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 8.4 1.5 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 -0.04 -3 -18 -0.04 2.1 8.2 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Factor Factor Regional Regional Global Factor Factor Income Global Income Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Score Rank Rank Score Rank Rank Rank Trend Trend Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 31/35 0.61 21/24 40/113 59/113 8/30 8/15 0.55 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 11/15 22/113 22/35 0.47 62/113 7/30 15/24 Absence of Corruption 0.72 Open Open 3.2 7.4 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 54/113 0.66 0.52 8/15 9/30 19/24 Open Government 27/113 25/35 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 0.42 24/30 Fundamental Rights 99/113 12/15 31/35 39/113 Fundamental Rights 0.66 21/24 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 0.51 Order and Security 26/30 107/113 15/15 18/35 12/24 19/113 0.85 Order and Security 6.4 4.3 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 4.4 6.3 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 55/113 0.61 0.51 7/30 Regulatory Enforcement 8/15 29/113 28/35 18/24 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice Civil Justice 0.47 81/113 18/24 0.64 30/113 28/35 13/30 11/15 Order and Order and Security Security 13/15 23/30 102/113 Criminal Justice 0.31 Criminal Justice 26/113 26/35 18/24 0.62 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Medium High Trending up Trending down Low Trending up Trending down Low High Medium Philippines Poland EU & EFTA & North America High Lower Middle East Asia & Pacific Civil Justice Civil Justice Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Constraints on Government Powers 0.55 0.54 0.61 0.73 0.47 0.48 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 4.1 No discrimination 0.72 0.58 0.46 0.20 0.56 0.80 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 4.2 Right to life & security 7.2 No discrimination 0.53 0.64 0.76 0.26 0.59 0.49 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 7.3 No corruption 1.3 Independent auditing 4.3 Due process of law 1.3 Independent auditing 0.63 0.43 0.59 0.57 0.45 0.57 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression misconduct misconduct 0.35 0.57 0.31 0.60 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 0.63 0.57 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.46 0.62 0.30 0.61 7.6 Effective enforcement 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 4.6 Right to privacy 0.57 0.79 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.56 0.62 0.83 0.64 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 0.71 0.41 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.52 0.68 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.56 0.39 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.86 0.42 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.67 0.33 0.93 0.58 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 0.82 0.51 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.33 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.58 0.52 0.41 0.17 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.63 0.54 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.20 0.61 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.50 0.75 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.43 0.62 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.61 0.53 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.59 0.32 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.66 0.61 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.64 0.26 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.63 0.55 0.63 0.75 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 0.50 0.43 0.72 0.48 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.52 0.45 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.67 0.52 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 121

124 Region : East Asia & Pacific : EU & EFTA & North America Region Income Group : High : High Income Group Republic of Korea Portugal Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 21/113 21/35 15/24 0.72 6/15 0.2 20/113 20/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 2 1 0.01 0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 26/113 5/15 14/113 14/35 12/24 0.70 24/35 0.80 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 21/35 21/113 14/24 0.74 Absence of Corruption 30/113 27/35 6/15 0.67 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 21/35 23/113 0.69 22/113 Open Government 0.68 15/24 22/35 5/15 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 4/15 0.71 0.79 26/35 29/113 Fundamental Rights 13/24 15/113 15/35 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 22/113 0.84 Order and Security 0.79 18/24 24/35 6/15 21/35 32/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.61 18/35 6/15 0.72 18/113 17/24 27/35 28/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 15/35 15/113 23/113 23/35 14/24 0.69 Civil Justice 0.74 6/15 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 6/15 16/24 17/113 17/35 23/113 0.70 Criminal Justice 0.64 23/35 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Republic of Korea High EU & EFTA & North America Portugal East Asia & Pacific High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.84 0.66 0.63 0.69 0.59 0.68 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.77 0.59 0.88 0.93 0.78 0.67 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.77 0.80 0.76 0.79 0.69 0.77 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.71 0.69 0.82 0.79 0.69 0.63 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.72 0.82 0.79 0.47 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.82 0.62 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.80 0.68 0.55 0.88 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.86 0.92 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.80 0.86 0.87 0.65 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.60 0.70 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.67 0.67 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.61 0.55 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.86 0.88 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.77 0.47 0.89 0.90 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.81 0.91 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.33 0.50 0.53 0.68 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.46 0.64 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.68 0.54 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.68 0.81 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.54 0.70 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.62 0.54 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.91 0.68 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.72 0.66 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.69 0.77 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.74 0.64 0.80 0.73 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.84 0.56 0.70 0.70 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.46 0.71 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.79 0.70 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 122

125 Region : East Asia & Pacific : EU & EFTA & North America Region Income Group : High : High Income Group Republic of Korea Portugal Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 21/113 21/35 15/24 0.72 6/15 0.2 20/113 20/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 2 1 0.01 0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 26/113 5/15 14/113 14/35 12/24 0.70 24/35 0.80 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 21/35 21/113 14/24 0.74 30/113 27/35 6/15 Absence of Corruption 0.67 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.69 5/15 21/35 23/113 22/113 0.68 15/24 22/35 Open Government 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.71 0.79 26/35 29/113 13/24 4/15 15/35 15/113 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 21/35 22/113 Order and Security 0.79 18/24 24/35 0.84 6/15 32/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 6/15 18/35 17/24 0.61 28/113 27/35 0.72 18/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 15/35 15/113 23/113 23/35 14/24 0.69 Civil Justice 0.74 6/15 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.64 16/24 17/113 17/35 23/113 0.70 Criminal Justice 23/35 6/15 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Republic of Korea High EU & EFTA & North America Portugal East Asia & Pacific High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.84 0.66 0.63 0.69 0.59 0.68 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.77 0.59 0.88 0.93 0.78 0.67 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.77 0.80 0.76 0.79 0.69 0.77 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.71 0.69 0.82 0.79 0.69 0.63 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.72 0.82 0.79 0.47 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.82 0.62 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.80 0.68 0.55 0.88 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.86 0.92 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.80 0.86 0.87 0.65 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.60 0.70 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.67 0.67 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.61 0.55 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.86 0.88 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.77 0.47 0.89 0.90 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.81 0.91 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.33 0.50 0.53 0.68 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.46 0.64 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.68 0.54 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.68 0.81 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.54 0.70 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.62 0.54 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.91 0.68 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.72 0.66 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.69 0.77 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.74 0.64 0.80 0.73 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.84 0.56 0.70 0.70 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.46 0.71 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.79 0.70 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 123

126 Region : Eastern Europe & Central Asia : EU & EFTA & North America Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Upper Middle Income Group Russia Romania Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 2/113 2/36 1/24 0.65 11/13 0.47 89/113 32/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 3 3 0.01 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 101/113 10/13 29/113 2/36 19/24 0.39 33/36 0.66 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption 42/113 21/24 0.58 8/13 0.43 75/113 8/36 27/36 Open Open 7.4 3.2 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 22/36 0.48 Open Government 0.66 18/24 2/36 69/113 7/13 26/113 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 0.72 0.44 11/13 32/36 95/113 18/24 Fundamental Rights 3/36 27/113 6.5 4.2 4.2 6.5 12/13 24/36 84/113 Order and Security 0.65 0.84 Order and Security 15/24 1/36 23/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 5/13 Regulatory Enforcement 39/113 20/24 5/36 67/113 0.56 22/36 0.48 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 19/36 60/113 29/113 2/36 17/24 0.65 Civil Justice 0.53 5/13 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 12/13 20/24 97/113 31/36 34/113 0.33 Criminal Justice 0.57 3/36 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Russia Upper Middle EU & EFTA & North America Romania Eastern Europe & Central Asia Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.73 0.58 0.36 0.71 0.52 0.53 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.65 0.37 0.81 0.44 0.72 0.58 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.37 0.41 0.51 0.55 0.60 0.67 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.34 0.37 0.76 0.66 0.56 0.42 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.52 0.79 0.74 0.50 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.76 0.42 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.45 0.19 0.66 0.61 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.42 0.73 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.79 0.74 0.57 0.45 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.57 0.72 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.51 0.41 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.27 0.64 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.54 0.74 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.39 0.52 0.76 0.90 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.52 0.76 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.85 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.23 0.29 0.36 0.37 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.61 0.34 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.35 0.63 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.46 0.67 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.61 0.53 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.61 0.57 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.60 0.12 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.35 0.60 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.60 0.37 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.54 0.43 0.69 0.60 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.62 0.47 0.73 0.62 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.42 0.30 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.39 0.68 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 124

127 Region : Eastern Europe & Central Asia : EU & EFTA & North America Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Upper Middle Income Group Russia Romania Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 2/113 2/36 1/24 0.65 11/13 0.47 89/113 32/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 3 3 0.01 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 101/113 10/13 29/113 2/36 19/24 0.39 33/36 0.66 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 8/36 42/113 21/24 0.58 75/113 27/36 8/13 Absence of Corruption 0.43 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.48 7/13 22/36 26/113 69/113 0.66 18/24 2/36 Open Government 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.44 0.72 32/36 95/113 18/24 11/13 3/36 27/113 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 24/36 84/113 Order and Security 0.84 15/24 1/36 0.65 12/13 23/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 5/13 22/36 20/24 0.56 39/113 5/36 0.48 67/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 19/36 60/113 29/113 2/36 17/24 0.65 Civil Justice 0.53 5/13 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.57 20/24 97/113 31/36 34/113 0.33 Criminal Justice 3/36 12/13 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Russia Upper Middle EU & EFTA & North America Romania Eastern Europe & Central Asia Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.73 0.58 0.36 0.71 0.52 0.53 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.65 0.37 0.81 0.44 0.72 0.58 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.37 0.41 0.51 0.55 0.60 0.67 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.34 0.37 0.76 0.66 0.56 0.42 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.52 0.79 0.74 0.50 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.76 0.42 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.45 0.19 0.66 0.61 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.42 0.73 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.79 0.74 0.57 0.45 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.57 0.72 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.51 0.41 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.27 0.64 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.54 0.74 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.39 0.52 0.76 0.90 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.52 0.76 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.85 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.23 0.29 0.36 0.37 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.61 0.34 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.35 0.63 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.46 0.67 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.61 0.53 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.61 0.57 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.60 0.12 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.35 0.60 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.60 0.37 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.54 0.43 0.69 0.60 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.62 0.47 0.73 0.62 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.42 0.30 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.39 0.68 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 125

128 Region : Eastern Europe & Central Asia : Sub-Saharan Africa Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Low Income Group Serbia Senegal Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 49/113 1/12 4/18 0.55 /13 0.5 6/113 2/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 -3 2 0.00 -0.02 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 97/113 9/13 48/113 2/12 3/18 0.42 31/36 0.58 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption 50/113 3/18 0.53 7/13 0.43 74/113 1/12 26/36 Open Open 7.4 3.2 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 20/36 0.49 6/13 67/113 9/18 6/12 0.44 Open Government 86/113 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 0.59 0.56 5/13 19/36 61/113 4/18 Fundamental Rights 2/12 55/113 6.5 4.2 4.2 6.5 7/13 8/36 40/113 Order and Security 0.77 0.69 Order and Security 5/18 3/12 72/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 6/13 Regulatory Enforcement 36/113 2/18 1/12 73/113 0.57 25/36 0.47 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 25/36 72/113 47/113 1/12 4/18 0.56 Civil Justice 0.49 8/13 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 10/13 5/18 89/113 29/36 62/113 0.36 Criminal Justice 0.43 2/12 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Serbia Low Sub-Saharan Africa Senegal Eastern Europe & Central Asia Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.58 0.67 0.45 0.68 0.54 0.46 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.46 0.35 0.51 0.60 0.70 0.69 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.44 0.45 0.47 0.56 0.43 0.47 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.35 0.29 0.65 0.44 0.54 0.49 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.71 0.76 0.37 0.61 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.65 0.49 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.50 0.39 0.61 0.28 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.52 0.73 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.65 0.71 0.52 0.60 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.62 0.69 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.49 0.48 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.29 0.52 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.44 0.56 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.43 0.46 0.88 0.66 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.53 0.66 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.26 0.43 0.28 0.41 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.39 0.44 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.31 0.52 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.38 0.58 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.34 0.53 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.52 0.45 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.23 0.24 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.47 0.47 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.43 0.44 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.47 0.49 0.64 0.59 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.40 0.51 0.32 0.46 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.47 0.49 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.55 0.73 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 126

129 Region : Eastern Europe & Central Asia : Sub-Saharan Africa Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Low Income Group Serbia Senegal Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 49/113 1/12 4/18 0.55 /13 0.5 6/113 2/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Rank Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 8.4 1.5 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 0.00 2 -3 -0.02 2.1 8.2 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Factor Factor Regional Regional Global Factor Factor Income Global Income Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Score Rank Rank Score Rank Rank Rank Trend Trend Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 31/36 0.42 9/13 97/113 48/113 2/12 3/18 0.58 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 0.43 3/18 0.53 1/12 50/113 Absence of Corruption 74/113 7/13 26/36 Open Open 3.2 7.4 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice 0.44 9/18 6/12 86/113 Open Government 67/113 6/13 20/36 0.49 Open Government 3.4 7.2 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 0.59 Fundamental Rights 0.56 5/13 19/36 4/18 2/12 55/113 61/113 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 Order and Security Order and Security 8/36 0.69 72/113 5/18 0.77 7/13 40/113 3/12 6.4 4.3 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 4.4 6.3 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 36/113 0.47 0.57 1/12 Regulatory Enforcement 2/18 73/113 25/36 6/13 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice Civil Justice 0.56 25/36 72/113 47/113 4/18 0.49 1/12 8/13 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 89/113 29/36 10/13 0.36 Criminal Justice 62/113 2/12 5/18 0.43 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Medium High Trending up Trending down Low Trending up Trending down Low High Medium Senegal Serbia Eastern Europe & Central Asia Upper Middle Low Sub-Saharan Africa Civil Justice Civil Justice Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Constraints on Government Powers 0.54 0.45 0.58 0.67 0.68 0.46 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 4.1 No discrimination 0.60 0.46 0.70 0.51 0.35 0.69 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 4.2 Right to life & security 7.2 No discrimination 0.56 0.44 0.47 0.43 0.45 0.47 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 7.3 No corruption 1.3 Independent auditing 4.3 Due process of law 1.3 Independent auditing 0.49 0.54 0.35 0.65 0.44 0.29 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression misconduct misconduct 0.37 0.71 0.61 0.76 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 0.49 0.65 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.61 0.50 0.28 0.39 7.6 Effective enforcement 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 4.6 Right to privacy 0.73 0.52 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.71 0.65 0.52 0.60 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 0.62 0.69 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.49 0.48 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.29 0.52 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.44 0.56 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.66 0.46 0.88 0.43 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 0.53 0.66 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.41 0.26 0.43 0.28 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.44 0.39 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.52 0.31 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.58 0.38 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.34 0.53 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.45 0.52 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.24 0.23 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.47 0.47 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.44 0.43 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.49 0.64 0.59 0.47 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 0.40 0.51 0.46 0.32 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.49 0.47 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.55 0.73 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 127

130 Region : East Asia & Pacific : Sub-Saharan Africa Region Income Group : High : Low Income Group Singapore Sierra Leone Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 93/113 6/12 10/18 0.45 3/15 0.8 13/113 13/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 2 4 0.02 0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 25/113 4/15 69/113 6/12 9/18 0.70 23/35 0.52 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 7/12 97/113 11/18 0.34 Absence of Corruption 4/113 4/35 1/15 0.91 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 26/35 95/113 0.65 28/113 Open Government 0.42 12/18 7/12 6/15 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 5/15 0.70 0.52 28/35 32/113 Fundamental Rights 8/18 74/113 6/12 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 1/113 0.93 Order and Security 0.66 10/18 7/12 1/15 1/35 80/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 1/15 2/113 0.87 2/35 Regulatory Enforcement 0.37 Regulatory Enforcement 15/18 8/12 103/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 5/35 5/113 98/113 9/12 15/18 0.41 Civil Justice 0.81 1/15 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 1/15 11/18 5/113 5/35 79/113 0.80 Criminal Justice 0.38 6/12 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Singapore Low Sub-Saharan Africa Sierra Leone East Asia & Pacific High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.54 0.86 0.54 0.57 0.61 0.46 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.42 0.75 0.43 0.77 0.53 0.88 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.74 0.65 0.84 0.55 0.46 0.33 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.72 0.93 0.52 0.29 0.50 0.52 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.79 0.74 0.94 0.33 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.52 0.52 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.94 0.57 0.47 0.26 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.82 0.61 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.49 0.66 0.77 0.55 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.78 0.51 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.37 0.91 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.82 0.53 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.87 0.37 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.86 0.34 0.98 0.60 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.93 0.39 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.93 0.24 0.20 0.80 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.39 0.81 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.85 0.42 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.90 0.40 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.11 0.81 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.41 0.82 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.30 0.62 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.66 0.50 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.46 0.74 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.97 0.56 0.55 0.40 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.88 0.30 0.50 0.57 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.30 0.90 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.78 0.46 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 128

131 Region : East Asia & Pacific : Sub-Saharan Africa Region Income Group : High : Low Income Group Singapore Sierra Leone Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 93/113 6/12 10/18 0.45 3/15 0.8 13/113 13/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 2 4 0.02 0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 25/113 4/15 69/113 6/12 9/18 0.70 23/35 0.52 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 7/12 97/113 11/18 0.34 Absence of Corruption 4/113 4/35 1/15 Absence of Corruption 0.91 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.65 6/15 26/35 95/113 28/113 0.42 12/18 7/12 Open Government 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 0.52 8/18 Fundamental Rights 6/12 74/113 32/113 Fundamental Rights 0.70 5/15 28/35 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 1/35 1/113 Order and Security 0.66 10/18 7/12 0.93 1/15 80/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 1/15 2/35 15/18 0.37 103/113 8/12 0.87 2/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 5/35 5/113 98/113 9/12 15/18 0.41 Civil Justice 0.81 1/15 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.38 11/18 5/113 5/35 79/113 0.80 Criminal Justice 6/12 1/15 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Singapore Low Sub-Saharan Africa Sierra Leone East Asia & Pacific High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.54 0.86 0.54 0.57 0.61 0.46 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.42 0.75 0.43 0.77 0.53 0.88 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.74 0.65 0.84 0.55 0.46 0.33 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.72 0.93 0.52 0.29 0.50 0.52 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.79 0.74 0.94 0.33 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.52 0.52 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.94 0.57 0.47 0.26 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.82 0.61 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.49 0.66 0.77 0.55 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.78 0.51 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.37 0.91 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.82 0.53 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.87 0.37 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.86 0.34 0.98 0.60 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.93 0.39 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.93 0.24 0.20 0.80 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.39 0.81 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.85 0.42 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.90 0.40 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.11 0.81 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.41 0.82 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.30 0.62 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.66 0.50 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.46 0.74 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.97 0.56 0.55 0.40 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.88 0.30 0.50 0.57 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.30 0.90 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.78 0.46 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 129

132 Region : Sub-Saharan Africa : EU & EFTA & North America Region Income Group : Upper Middle : High Income Group South Africa Slovenia Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 26/113 25/35 18/24 0.67 2/18 0.59 44/113 8/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 1 -1 0.00 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 41/113 2/18 35/113 29/35 20/24 0.61 7/36 0.63 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 30/35 37/113 18/24 0.63 Absence of Corruption 49/113 14/36 2/18 0.53 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 6/36 24/113 0.62 34/113 Open Government 0.67 16/24 23/35 1/18 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 2/18 0.63 0.74 11/36 44/113 Fundamental Rights 15/24 22/113 21/35 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 89/113 0.62 Order and Security 0.89 10/24 14/35 12/18 28/36 15/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.63 6/36 4/18 0.55 40/113 16/24 24/35 25/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 4/36 35/113 42/113 32/35 19/24 0.59 Civil Justice 0.61 2/18 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 2/18 19/24 43/113 9/36 33/113 0.52 Criminal Justice 0.58 30/35 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium South Africa High EU & EFTA & North America Slovenia Sub-Saharan Africa Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.68 0.52 0.54 0.65 0.46 0.61 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.56 0.66 0.90 0.66 0.70 0.48 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.53 0.64 0.70 0.63 0.74 0.61 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.65 0.48 0.70 0.56 0.46 0.67 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.75 0.82 0.54 0.41 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.70 0.67 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.65 0.57 0.49 0.67 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.70 0.78 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.73 0.77 0.77 0.73 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.62 0.69 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.63 0.47 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.42 0.48 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.72 0.68 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.52 0.53 0.49 0.95 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.59 0.76 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.35 0.46 0.61 0.32 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.73 0.38 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.52 0.42 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.65 0.68 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.69 0.54 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.68 0.45 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.60 0.69 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.58 0.65 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.74 0.53 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.62 0.65 0.69 0.73 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.44 0.66 0.66 0.72 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.45 0.57 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.65 0.64 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 130

133 Region : Sub-Saharan Africa : EU & EFTA & North America Region Income Group : Upper Middle : High Income Group South Africa Slovenia Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 26/113 25/35 18/24 0.67 2/18 0.59 44/113 8/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 1 -1 0.00 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 41/113 2/18 35/113 29/35 20/24 0.61 7/36 0.63 Government Powers Government Powers 7.5 3.1 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 2/18 30/35 37/113 0.63 49/113 Absence of Corruption 0.53 18/24 14/36 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 1/18 0.62 23/35 0.67 16/24 34/113 24/113 6/36 Open Government 7.2 3.4 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 7.1 4.1 Fundamental Rights 22/113 0.63 2/18 11/36 44/113 15/24 0.74 21/35 Fundamental Rights 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 0.89 10/24 14/35 15/113 12/18 28/36 89/113 Order and Security 0.62 6.4 4.3 4.3 6.4 4.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 6.2 4.5 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 25/113 24/35 4/18 16/24 0.63 6/36 40/113 0.55 6.1 4.6 4.6 6.1 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights 32/35 19/24 0.59 Civil Justice 42/113 0.61 Civil Justice 2/18 4/36 35/113 Order and Order and Security Security 33/113 30/35 0.58 19/24 Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.52 2/18 43/113 9/36 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score High Low Medium High Trending up Medium Low Trending down Trending up Trending down High South Africa Slovenia EU & EFTA & North America Sub-Saharan Africa Upper Middle Constraints on Government Powers Fundamental Rights Civil Justice Civil Justice Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers 0.46 0.54 0.65 0.61 0.68 0.52 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 4.1 No discrimination 4.1 No discrimination 0.56 0.66 0.70 0.66 0.48 0.90 1.2 Limits by judiciary 4.2 Right to life & security 7.2 No discrimination 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.70 0.74 0.61 0.63 0.64 0.53 4.3 Due process of law 7.3 No corruption 1.3 Independent auditing 4.3 Due process of law 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 0.46 0.56 0.67 0.65 0.48 0.70 1.4 Sanctions for official 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence misconduct misconduct 0.75 0.54 0.82 0.41 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.70 0.67 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.67 0.65 0.49 0.57 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 0.70 0.78 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.77 0.73 0.77 0.73 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 0.69 0.62 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.63 0.47 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.48 0.42 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.72 0.68 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.53 0.49 0.52 0.95 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 0.76 0.59 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.32 0.61 0.46 0.35 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.38 0.73 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.52 0.42 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.65 0.68 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.69 0.54 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.68 0.45 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.60 0.69 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.58 0.65 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.74 0.53 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.62 0.65 0.69 0.73 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.44 0.66 0.66 0.72 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.45 0.57 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.65 0.64 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 131

134 Region : South Asia : EU & EFTA & North America Region Income Group : Lower Middle : High Income Group Sri Lanka Spain Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 23/113 23/35 16/24 0. 2/6 0.52 59/113 6/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 1 9 0.01 0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 55/113 3/6 23/113 21/35 16/24 0.56 6/30 0.71 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption 24/113 16/24 0.71 1/6 0.48 58/113 23/35 4/30 Open Open 7.4 3.2 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 12/30 0.49 Open Government 0.69 14/24 20/35 62/113 3/6 21/113 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 0.77 0.53 1/6 9/30 70/113 14/24 Fundamental Rights 18/35 19/113 6.5 4.2 4.2 6.5 2/6 10/30 59/113 Order and Security 0.72 0.78 Order and Security 20/24 27/35 37/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 3/6 Regulatory Enforcement 23/113 15/24 23/35 68/113 0.66 11/30 0.48 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 18/30 91/113 27/113 26/35 16/24 0.66 Civil Justice 0.45 2/6 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 1/6 17/24 53/113 6/30 24/113 0.48 Criminal Justice 0.64 24/35 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Sri Lanka High EU & EFTA & North America Spain South Asia Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.70 0.51 0.57 0.69 0.40 0.70 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.62 0.60 0.85 0.41 0.74 0.43 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.47 0.56 0.58 0.70 0.77 0.72 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.47 0.42 0.74 0.63 0.63 0.55 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.64 0.79 0.29 0.51 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.74 0.55 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.37 0.39 0.53 0.80 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.67 0.87 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.80 0.81 0.60 0.66 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.63 0.72 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.66 0.44 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.45 0.58 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.60 0.85 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.39 0.54 0.84 0.85 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.58 0.86 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.98 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.28 0.47 0.69 0.37 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.52 0.32 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.62 0.53 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.63 0.73 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.70 0.38 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.65 0.54 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.60 0.45 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.48 0.62 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.77 0.47 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.54 0.57 0.71 0.78 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.48 0.53 0.72 0.53 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.69 0.33 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.53 0.65 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 132

135 Region : South Asia : EU & EFTA & North America Region Income Group : Lower Middle : High Income Group Sri Lanka Spain Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 23/113 23/35 16/24 0. 2/6 0.52 59/113 6/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 1 9 0.01 0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 55/113 3/6 23/113 21/35 16/24 0.56 6/30 0.71 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 23/35 24/113 16/24 0.71 58/113 4/30 1/6 Absence of Corruption 0.48 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.49 3/6 12/30 21/113 62/113 0.69 14/24 20/35 Open Government 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.53 0.77 9/30 70/113 14/24 1/6 18/35 19/113 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 10/30 59/113 Order and Security 0.78 20/24 27/35 0.72 2/6 37/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 3/6 11/30 15/24 0.66 23/113 23/35 0.48 68/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 18/30 91/113 27/113 26/35 16/24 0.66 Civil Justice 0.45 2/6 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.64 17/24 53/113 6/30 24/113 0.48 Criminal Justice 24/35 1/6 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Sri Lanka High EU & EFTA & North America Spain South Asia Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.70 0.51 0.57 0.69 0.40 0.70 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.62 0.60 0.85 0.41 0.74 0.43 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.47 0.56 0.58 0.70 0.77 0.72 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.47 0.42 0.74 0.63 0.63 0.55 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.64 0.79 0.29 0.51 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.74 0.55 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.37 0.39 0.53 0.80 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.67 0.87 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.80 0.81 0.60 0.66 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.63 0.72 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.66 0.44 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.45 0.58 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.60 0.85 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.39 0.54 0.84 0.85 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.58 0.86 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.98 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.28 0.47 0.69 0.37 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.52 0.32 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.62 0.53 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.63 0.73 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.70 0.38 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.65 0.54 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.60 0.45 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.48 0.62 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.77 0.47 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.54 0.57 0.71 0.78 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.48 0.53 0.72 0.53 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.69 0.33 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.53 0.65 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 133

136 : Latin America & Caribbean : Latin America & Caribbean Region Region : High Income Group : Upper Middle Income Group St. Lucia St. Kitts and Nevis Overall Score Global Rank Overall Score Regional Rank Income Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 33/113 3/36 0.66 4/30 27/35 28/113 6/30 0.63 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 8.6 1.3 Score Change Rank Change Score Change Rank Change 8.5 1.4 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 -0.01 2 3 0.00 2.1 8.2 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Factor Regional Global Factor Income Regional Factor Income Global Factor Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Score Rank Rank Score Rank Trend Rank Rank Trend 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 4/30 26/35 6/36 10/30 0.62 28/113 39/113 0.68 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 7.5 3.1 0 0 Absence of Corruption 2/30 24/35 25/113 Absence of Corruption 4/36 8/30 0.66 0.69 33/113 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 14/36 92/113 0.42 Open Government 53/113 34/35 15/30 0.52 27/30 7.2 3.4 7.2 3.4 7.1 4.1 7.1 4.1 Fundamental Rights 20/35 9/30 0.75 33/113 5/36 0.68 Fundamental Rights 4/30 21/113 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 25/113 9/30 61/113 18/36 1/30 0.82 Order and Security 0.72 22/35 6.4 4.3 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 26/35 27/113 3/36 6/30 0.58 34/113 Regulatory Enforcement 0.61 4/30 6.1 4.6 4.6 6.1 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 0.68 4/30 1/36 0.74 Civil Justice 2/30 17/35 17/113 25/113 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 6/30 29/35 0.59 Criminal Justice 4/30 2/36 30/113 0.58 32/113 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score High Low Trending up Trending down Medium Trending up High Medium Low Trending down Upper Middle St. Lucia High Latin America & Caribbean St. Kitts and Nevis Latin America & Caribbean Constraints on Government Powers Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Civil Justice Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.69 0.65 0.72 0.58 0.65 0.76 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 0.82 0.73 0.85 0.75 0.80 0.67 7.2 No discrimination 1.2 Limits by judiciary 4.2 Right to life & security 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 0.65 0.59 0.58 0.81 0.44 0.88 4.3 Due process of law 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 4.3 Due process of law 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 0.46 0.70 0.68 0.87 0.72 0.57 7.4 No improper gov't influence 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 4.4 Freedom of expression misconduct misconduct 0.55 0.60 0.71 0.73 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 0.68 0.70 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.48 0.80 0.52 0.59 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 0.76 0.70 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.83 0.74 0.81 0.76 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 0.69 0.75 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.60 0.52 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.47 0.45 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.92 0.96 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.51 0.83 0.80 0.48 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.64 0.81 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.47 0.49 0.45 0.32 2.4 In the legislature 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 8.3 Effective correctional 0.35 0.62 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.61 0.60 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.80 0.72 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.32 0.21 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.56 0.43 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.76 0.75 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.33 0.55 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.58 0.65 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.76 0.68 0.65 0.69 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.48 0.40 0.52 0.54 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 0.54 0.69 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.67 0.71 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 134

137 Region : Latin America & Caribbean : Latin America & Caribbean Region Income Group : High : Upper Middle Income Group St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 33/113 3/36 6/30 0.63 4/30 0.66 28/113 27/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 3 2 0.00 -0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 28/113 4/30 39/113 6/36 10/30 0.68 26/35 0.62 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 4/36 33/113 8/30 0.66 Absence of Corruption 25/113 24/35 2/30 0.69 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 34/35 53/113 0.42 92/113 Open Government 0.52 15/30 14/36 27/30 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 4/30 0.75 0.68 20/35 21/113 Fundamental Rights 9/30 33/113 5/36 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 25/113 0.82 Order and Security 0.72 9/30 18/36 1/30 22/35 61/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.58 26/35 4/30 0.61 27/113 6/30 3/36 34/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 17/35 17/113 25/113 1/36 4/30 0.68 Civil Justice 0.74 2/30 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 6/30 4/30 32/113 29/35 30/113 0.58 Criminal Justice 0.59 2/36 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium St. Kitts and Nevis Upper Middle Latin America & Caribbean St. Lucia Latin America & Caribbean High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.65 0.72 0.69 0.76 0.65 0.58 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.73 0.80 0.67 0.85 0.75 0.82 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.65 0.59 0.88 0.44 0.58 0.81 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.87 0.57 0.68 0.72 0.46 0.70 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.73 0.71 0.60 0.55 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.68 0.70 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.52 0.80 0.48 0.59 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.70 0.76 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.83 0.74 0.81 0.76 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.75 0.69 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.60 0.52 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.45 0.47 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.96 0.92 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.51 0.48 0.83 0.80 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.81 0.64 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.47 0.45 0.49 0.32 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.35 0.62 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.61 0.60 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.80 0.72 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.32 0.21 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.43 0.56 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.76 0.75 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.33 0.55 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.58 0.65 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.76 0.68 0.69 0.65 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.54 0.40 0.52 0.48 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.69 0.54 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.67 0.71 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 135

138 : Latin America & Caribbean : Latin America & Caribbean Region Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Upper Middle Income Group St. Vincent and the Grenadines Suriname Overall Score Overall Score Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 22/36 6/36 9/30 0.61 18/30 0.51 69/113 37/113 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Score Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 1.6 8.3 8.3 1.6 0.00 -10 -0.02 8.2 2.1 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Regional Regional Income Factor Global Factor Income Factor Global Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Rank Trend Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 2.3 7.7 7.7 2.3 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 0.57 78/113 22/30 51/113 11/36 15/30 0.47 20/36 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 7.5 3.1 0 0 Absence of Corruption 29/113 0.68 12/30 6/30 2/36 Absence of Corruption 9/36 0.57 43/113 Open Open 3.2 7.4 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 29/30 0.36 34/36 104/113 0.49 19/30 18/36 59/113 Open Government 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 4/36 0.52 25/30 25/36 73/113 30/113 7/30 0.70 Fundamental Rights 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 13/36 0.65 25/36 17/30 Order and Security 0.75 48/113 85/113 6/30 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 4.4 6.3 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 20/30 47/113 10/36 10/30 0.52 Regulatory Enforcement 24/36 71/113 0.48 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 17/30 23/36 67/113 45/113 11/36 13/30 0.57 Civil Justice 0.50 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 12/30 2/30 44/113 10/36 28/113 0.52 Criminal Justice 0.60 1/36 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Suriname Upper Middle Latin America & Caribbean St. Vincent and the Grenadines Latin America & Caribbean Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.52 0.49 0.47 0.67 0.44 0.61 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.54 0.57 0.85 0.53 0.53 0.57 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.45 0.27 0.71 0.61 0.62 0.71 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.50 0.43 0.57 0.61 0.54 0.52 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.70 0.87 0.39 0.31 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.57 0.52 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.68 0.40 0.44 0.67 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.55 0.65 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.78 0.70 0.22 0.60 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.48 0.67 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.59 0.50 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.44 0.43 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.76 0.81 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.58 0.54 0.74 0.78 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.69 0.78 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.34 0.53 0.63 0.36 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.46 0.21 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.48 0.49 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.70 0.72 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.26 0.30 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.44 0.43 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.76 0.60 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.31 0.52 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.62 0.45 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.63 0.51 0.58 0.77 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.42 0.45 0.61 0.31 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.54 0.40 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.49 0.42 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 136

139 : Latin America & Caribbean : Latin America & Caribbean Region Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Upper Middle Income Group St. Vincent and the Grenadines Suriname Overall Score Overall Score Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 22/36 6/36 9/30 0.61 18/30 0.51 69/113 37/113 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Score Change Score Change Rank Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 0.00 -10 -0.02 8.2 2.1 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Factor Regional Regional Income Factor Global Factor Income Factor Global Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Rank Trend Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 0.57 78/113 22/30 51/113 11/36 15/30 0.47 20/36 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 0.68 6/30 43/113 9/36 2/36 29/113 12/30 0.57 Absence of Corruption Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.36 29/30 34/36 0.49 19/30 18/36 104/113 59/113 Open Government 3.4 7.2 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 4/36 Fundamental Rights 0.52 25/30 25/36 73/113 7/30 0.70 30/113 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 17/30 25/36 85/113 0.75 6/30 13/36 48/113 Order and Security 0.65 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 0.48 Regulatory Enforcement 20/30 71/113 47/113 10/36 10/30 0.52 24/36 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 17/30 23/36 67/113 45/113 11/36 13/30 0.57 Civil Justice 0.50 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.60 2/30 44/113 10/36 28/113 0.52 Criminal Justice 1/36 12/30 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Suriname Upper Middle Latin America & Caribbean St. Vincent and the Grenadines Latin America & Caribbean Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.52 0.49 0.47 0.67 0.44 0.61 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.54 0.57 0.85 0.53 0.53 0.57 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.45 0.27 0.71 0.61 0.62 0.71 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.50 0.43 0.57 0.61 0.54 0.52 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.70 0.87 0.39 0.31 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.57 0.52 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.68 0.40 0.44 0.67 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.55 0.65 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.78 0.70 0.22 0.60 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.48 0.67 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.59 0.50 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.44 0.43 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.76 0.81 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.58 0.54 0.74 0.78 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.69 0.78 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.34 0.53 0.63 0.36 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.46 0.21 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.48 0.49 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.70 0.72 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.26 0.30 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.44 0.43 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.76 0.60 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.31 0.52 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.62 0.45 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.63 0.51 0.58 0.77 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.42 0.45 0.61 0.31 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.54 0.40 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.49 0.42 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 137

140 : Sub-Saharan Africa : EU & EFTA & North America Region Region Income Group : Low : High Income Group Sweden Tanzania Overall Score Overall Score Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 5/12 4/35 4/24 0.86 9/18 0.47 86/113 4/113 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Score Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 1.6 8.3 8.3 1.6 0.00 -2 0.00 8.2 2.1 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Regional Regional Income Factor Global Factor Income Factor Global Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Rank Trend Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 2.3 7.7 7.7 2.3 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 0.88 71/113 10/18 5/113 5/35 5/24 0.52 7/12 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 7.5 3.1 0 0 Absence of Corruption 3/113 0.91 9/18 3/24 3/35 Absence of Corruption 6/12 0.40 84/113 Open Open 3.2 7.4 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 4/113 14/18 0.38 Open Government 0.85 4/24 4/35 9/12 100/113 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 4/35 0.48 10/18 8/12 83/113 4/113 4/24 0.87 Fundamental Rights 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 2/35 0.67 5/12 8/18 Order and Security 0.93 2/113 77/113 1/24 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 4.4 6.3 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 13/18 5/113 5/35 4/24 0.85 Regulatory Enforcement 7/12 100/113 0.40 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 7/18 3/12 66/113 6/113 6/35 5/24 0.81 Civil Justice 0.50 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 9/18 4/24 75/113 5/12 4/113 0.39 Criminal Justice 0.80 4/35 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Tanzania High EU & EFTA & North America Sweden Sub-Saharan Africa Low Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.83 0.58 0.49 0.71 0.45 0.67 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.83 0.51 0.97 0.39 0.71 0.61 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.36 0.51 0.42 0.94 0.91 0.91 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.43 0.59 0.92 0.88 0.83 0.46 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.60 0.83 0.39 0.75 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.92 0.46 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.57 0.37 0.93 0.98 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.57 0.94 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.81 0.87 0.65 0.54 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.51 0.77 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.88 0.45 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.44 0.54 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.40 0.98 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.44 0.73 0.65 0.91 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.34 0.96 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.43 0.84 0.83 0.23 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.87 0.35 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.43 0.78 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.38 0.90 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.79 0.24 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.79 0.50 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.91 0.48 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.41 0.95 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.91 0.36 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.42 0.49 0.87 0.96 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.37 0.87 0.81 0.39 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.76 0.19 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.52 0.87 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 138

141 : Sub-Saharan Africa : EU & EFTA & North America Region Region Income Group : Low : High Income Group Sweden Tanzania Overall Score Overall Score Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 5/12 4/35 4/24 0.86 9/18 0.47 86/113 4/113 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Score Change Score Change Rank Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 0.00 -2 0.00 8.2 2.1 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Factor Regional Regional Income Factor Global Factor Income Factor Global Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Rank Trend Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 0.88 71/113 10/18 5/113 5/35 5/24 0.52 7/12 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 0.91 3/24 84/113 6/12 3/35 3/113 9/18 0.40 Absence of Corruption Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.38 14/18 9/12 0.85 4/24 4/35 100/113 4/113 Open Government 3.4 7.2 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 4/35 Fundamental Rights 0.48 10/18 8/12 83/113 4/24 0.87 4/113 4.2 6.5 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 8/18 5/12 77/113 0.93 1/24 2/35 2/113 Order and Security 0.67 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 0.40 Regulatory Enforcement 13/18 100/113 5/113 5/35 4/24 0.85 7/12 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 7/18 3/12 66/113 6/113 6/35 5/24 0.81 Civil Justice 0.50 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.80 4/24 75/113 5/12 4/113 0.39 Criminal Justice 4/35 9/18 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Tanzania High EU & EFTA & North America Sweden Sub-Saharan Africa Low Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.83 0.58 0.49 0.71 0.45 0.67 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.83 0.51 0.97 0.39 0.71 0.61 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.36 0.51 0.42 0.94 0.91 0.91 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.43 0.59 0.92 0.88 0.83 0.46 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.60 0.83 0.39 0.75 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.92 0.46 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.57 0.37 0.93 0.98 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.57 0.94 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.81 0.87 0.65 0.54 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.51 0.77 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.88 0.45 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.44 0.54 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.40 0.98 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.44 0.73 0.65 0.91 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.34 0.96 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.43 0.84 0.83 0.23 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.87 0.35 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.43 0.78 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.38 0.90 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.79 0.24 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.79 0.50 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.91 0.48 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.41 0.95 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.91 0.36 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.42 0.49 0.87 0.96 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.37 0.87 0.81 0.39 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.76 0.19 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.52 0.87 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 139

142 Region : Latin America & Caribbean : East Asia & Pacific Region Income Group : High : Upper Middle Income Group Trinidad and Tobago Thailand Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 1/113 23/36 10/15 0.5 14/30 0.56 48/113 34/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Score Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 1.6 8.3 8.3 1.6 -0.01 0.01  2.1 8.2 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Global Factor Factor Regional Regional Global Factor Income Factor Income Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 2.3 7.7 7.7 2.3 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 22/36 11/15 37/113 0.47 30/35 8/30 0.63 80/113 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 9/15 Absence of Corruption 0.49 56/113 55/113 35/35 15/30 18/36 0.50 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.57 10/30 Open Government 0.48 10/15 21/36 29/35 68/113 40/113 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 0.59 16/30 33/35 0.47 88/113 11/15 Fundamental Rights 29/36 51/113 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 76/113 0.67 Order and Security 0.69 13/15 20/36 14/30 35/35 69/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 9/15 12/30 Regulatory Enforcement 0.50 0.52 32/35 59/113 49/113 17/36 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 31/35 40/113 59/113 18/36 10/15 0.53 Civil Justice 0.59 10/30 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 35/35 0.40 72/113 77/113 11/15 16/30 0.39 Criminal Justice 22/36 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Trending down Trending up High Medium High Low Trending down Trending up Medium Low Trinidad and Tobago Upper Middle East Asia & Pacific Thailand Latin America & Caribbean High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.53 0.58 0.77 0.51 0.55 0.57 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.54 0.78 0.61 0.37 0.56 0.51 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.36 0.40 0.79 0.38 0.38 0.67 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.72 0.39 0.49 0.55 0.46 0.68 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.77 0.64 0.36 0.44 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.49 0.68 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.41 0.41 0.43 0.31 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.75 0.39 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.56 0.50 0.68 0.74 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.64 0.54 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.49 0.42 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.31 0.42 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.73 0.71 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.30 0.38 0.70 0.80 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.58 0.45 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.85 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.26 0.31 0.27 0.17 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.43 0.31 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.45 0.34 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.60 0.55 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.46 0.37 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.50 0.43 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.48 0.53 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.60 0.48 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.38 0.36 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.68 0.66 0.50 0.60 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.36 0.48 0.51 0.66 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.36 0.54 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.59 0.56 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 140

143 Region : Latin America & Caribbean : East Asia & Pacific Region Income Group : High : Upper Middle Income Group Trinidad and Tobago Thailand Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 1/113 23/36 10/15 0.5 14/30 0.56 48/113 34/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Score Change Score Change Rank Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 -0.01 0.01  8.2 2.1 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Global Factor Factor Regional Regional Global Factor Income Factor Income Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 22/36 11/15 37/113 0.47 30/35 8/30 0.63 80/113 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 18/36 0.49 9/15 56/113 55/113 35/35 15/30 Absence of Corruption 0.50 Open Open 7.4 3.2 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.57 10/30 29/35 40/113 68/113 0.48 10/15 21/36 Open Government 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.59 0.47 33/35 51/113 11/15 16/30 29/36 88/113 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 35/35 76/113 Order and Security 0.69 13/15 20/36 0.67 14/30 69/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 12/30 32/35 9/15 0.50 59/113 17/36 0.52 49/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 4.8 5.2 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 31/35 40/113 59/113 18/36 10/15 0.53 Civil Justice 0.59 10/30 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 22/36 0.40 72/113 77/113 11/15 16/30 0.39 Criminal Justice 35/35 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Trending down Trending up High Medium High Low Trending down Trending up Medium Low Trinidad and Tobago Upper Middle East Asia & Pacific Thailand Latin America & Caribbean High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.53 0.58 0.77 0.51 0.55 0.57 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.54 0.78 0.61 0.37 0.56 0.51 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.36 0.40 0.79 0.38 0.38 0.67 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.72 0.39 0.49 0.55 0.46 0.68 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.77 0.64 0.36 0.44 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.49 0.68 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.41 0.41 0.43 0.31 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.75 0.39 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.56 0.50 0.68 0.74 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.64 0.54 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.49 0.42 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.31 0.42 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.73 0.71 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.30 0.38 0.70 0.80 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.58 0.45 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.85 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.26 0.31 0.27 0.17 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.43 0.31 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.45 0.34 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.60 0.55 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.46 0.37 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.50 0.43 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.48 0.53 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.60 0.48 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.38 0.36 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.68 0.66 0.50 0.60 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.36 0.48 0.51 0.66 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.36 0.54 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.59 0.56 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 141

144 Region : Eastern Europe & Central Asia : Middle East & North Africa Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Lower Middle Income Group Turkey Tunisia Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 5/113 5/30 3/ 0.53 13/13 0.42 101/113 35/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6  2 0.01 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 111/113 13/13 45/113 4/30 1/7 0.30 35/36 0.60 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption 57/113 4/7 0.49 3/13 0.50 54/113 3/30 17/36 Open Open 7.4 3.2 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 31/36 0.42 Open Government 0.50 1/7 10/30 93/113 11/13 57/113 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 0.57 0.32 13/13 34/36 107/113 1/7 Fundamental Rights 5/30 60/113 6.5 4.2 4.2 6.5 13/13 35/36 106/113 Order and Security 0.52 0.69 Order and Security 5/7 16/30 71/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 9/13 Regulatory Enforcement 53/113 4/7 6/30 84/113 0.52 30/36 0.44 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 34/36 94/113 73/113 10/30 5/7 0.49 Civil Justice 0.44 13/13 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 8/13 4/7 74/113 24/36 65/113 0.40 Criminal Justice 0.43 8/30 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Turkey Lower Middle Middle East & North Africa Tunisia Eastern Europe & Central Asia Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.64 0.43 0.40 0.63 0.48 0.49 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.51 0.28 0.63 0.38 0.65 0.32 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.43 0.29 0.44 0.64 0.42 0.35 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.23 0.28 0.64 0.55 0.44 0.22 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.21 0.51 0.37 0.43 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.64 0.22 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.52 0.27 0.40 0.47 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.33 0.72 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.57 0.67 0.71 0.26 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.36 0.55 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.56 0.47 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.51 0.43 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.57 0.45 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.40 0.48 0.76 0.77 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.64 0.58 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.92 0.32 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.31 0.35 0.40 0.44 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.38 0.49 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.31 0.37 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.53 0.48 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.36 0.44 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.54 0.42 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.43 0.15 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.53 0.49 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.42 0.43 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.59 0.23 0.59 0.62 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.49 0.32 0.55 0.47 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.47 0.23 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.48 0.62 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 142

145 Region : Eastern Europe & Central Asia : Middle East & North Africa Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Lower Middle Income Group Turkey Tunisia Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 5/113 5/30 3/ 0.53 13/13 0.42 101/113 35/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6  2 0.01 0.00 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 111/113 13/13 45/113 4/30 1/7 0.30 35/36 0.60 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 3/30 4/7 0.49 54/113 17/36 3/13 0.50 57/113 Absence of Corruption Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 11/13 31/36 10/30 93/113 0.50 1/7 Open Government 57/113 0.42 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 7.1 4.1 Fundamental Rights 13/13 0.57 107/113 1/7 Fundamental Rights 5/30 60/113 0.32 34/36 6.5 4.2 4.2 6.5 5/7 16/30 0.69 Order and Security 71/113 13/13 35/36 106/113 Order and Security 0.52 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 9/13 30/36 4/7 0.52 53/113 6/30 0.44 84/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 34/36 94/113 73/113 10/30 5/7 0.49 Civil Justice 0.44 13/13 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.43 4/7 74/113 24/36 65/113 0.40 Criminal Justice 8/30 8/13 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Turkey Lower Middle Middle East & North Africa Tunisia Eastern Europe & Central Asia Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.64 0.43 0.40 0.63 0.48 0.49 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.51 0.28 0.63 0.38 0.65 0.32 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.43 0.29 0.44 0.64 0.42 0.35 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.23 0.28 0.64 0.55 0.44 0.22 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.21 0.51 0.37 0.43 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.64 0.22 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.52 0.27 0.40 0.47 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.33 0.72 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.57 0.67 0.71 0.26 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.36 0.55 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.56 0.47 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.51 0.43 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.57 0.45 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.40 0.48 0.76 0.77 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.64 0.58 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.92 0.32 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.31 0.35 0.40 0.44 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.38 0.49 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.31 0.37 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.53 0.48 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.36 0.44 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.54 0.42 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.43 0.15 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.53 0.49 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.42 0.43 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.59 0.23 0.59 0.62 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.49 0.32 0.55 0.47 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.47 0.23 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.48 0.62 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 143

146 Region : Eastern Europe & Central Asia : Sub-Saharan Africa Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Low Income Group Ukraine Uganda Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 104/113 9/12 15/18 0.4 8/13 0.5 77/113 11/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 1 1 0.01 0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 86/113 6/13 99/113 10/12 15/18 0.45 20/30 0.42 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption 111/113 17/18 0.26 10/13 0.34 95/113 12/12 20/30 Open Open 7.4 3.2 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 5/30 0.55 Open Government 0.38 13/18 8/12 46/113 4/13 99/113 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 7.1 4.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 0.40 0.59 3/13 3/30 49/113 16/18 Fundamental Rights 9/12 101/113 6.5 4.2 4.2 6.5 11/13 9/30 53/113 Order and Security 0.73 0.56 Order and Security 16/18 11/12 105/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 13/13 Regulatory Enforcement 97/113 12/18 6/12 96/113 0.41 23/30 0.42 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 7/30 65/113 89/113 6/12 12/18 0.45 Civil Justice 0.51 6/13 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 9/13 15/18 83/113 16/30 94/113 0.37 Criminal Justice 0.34 9/12 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Ukraine Low Sub-Saharan Africa Uganda Eastern Europe & Central Asia Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.41 0.64 0.56 0.50 0.49 0.42 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.43 0.30 0.28 0.54 0.45 0.63 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.46 0.44 0.36 0.49 0.30 0.38 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.33 0.28 0.44 0.46 0.40 0.60 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.74 0.67 0.68 0.36 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.44 0.60 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.47 0.43 0.48 0.07 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.55 0.33 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.63 0.53 0.64 0.63 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.71 0.43 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.27 0.35 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.31 0.35 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.43 0.34 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.45 0.41 0.76 0.54 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.43 0.24 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.94 0.88 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.16 0.17 0.41 0.42 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.20 0.57 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.43 0.26 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.31 0.29 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.12 0.61 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.43 0.43 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.36 0.23 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.51 0.40 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.30 0.46 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.40 0.56 0.47 0.34 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.56 0.38 0.54 0.53 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.34 0.33 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.36 0.55 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 144

147 Region : Eastern Europe & Central Asia : Sub-Saharan Africa Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Low Income Group Ukraine Uganda Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 104/113 9/12 15/18 0.4 8/13 0.5 77/113 11/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 1 1 0.01 0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 86/113 6/13 99/113 10/12 15/18 0.45 20/30 0.42 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 12/12 111/113 17/18 0.26 95/113 20/30 10/13 Absence of Corruption 0.34 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.55 4/13 5/30 99/113 46/113 0.38 13/18 8/12 Open Government 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.59 0.40 3/30 49/113 16/18 3/13 9/12 101/113 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 9/30 53/113 Order and Security 0.56 16/18 11/12 0.73 11/13 105/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 13/13 23/30 12/18 0.41 97/113 6/12 0.42 96/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 7/30 65/113 89/113 6/12 12/18 0.45 Civil Justice 0.51 6/13 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.34 15/18 83/113 16/30 94/113 0.37 Criminal Justice 9/12 9/13 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Ukraine Low Sub-Saharan Africa Uganda Eastern Europe & Central Asia Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.41 0.64 0.56 0.50 0.49 0.42 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.43 0.30 0.28 0.54 0.45 0.63 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.46 0.44 0.36 0.49 0.30 0.38 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.33 0.28 0.44 0.46 0.40 0.60 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.74 0.67 0.68 0.36 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.44 0.60 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.47 0.43 0.48 0.07 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.55 0.33 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.63 0.53 0.64 0.63 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.71 0.43 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.27 0.35 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.31 0.35 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.43 0.34 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.45 0.41 0.76 0.54 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.43 0.24 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.94 0.88 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.16 0.17 0.41 0.42 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.20 0.57 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.43 0.26 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.31 0.29 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.12 0.61 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.43 0.43 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.36 0.23 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.51 0.40 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.30 0.46 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.40 0.56 0.47 0.34 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.56 0.38 0.54 0.53 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.34 0.33 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.36 0.55 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 145

148 Region : EU & EFTA & North America : Middle East & North Africa Region Income Group : High : High Income Group United Kingdom United Arab Emirates Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 32/113 30/35 1/ 0.65 9/24 0.81 11/113 11/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 1 -1 0.00 0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 9/113 8/24 49/113 34/35 2/7 0.84 9/35 0.58 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 17/35 17/113 1/7 0.76 Absence of Corruption 14/113 14/35 9/24 0.82 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 8/35 98/113 0.81 8/113 Open Government 0.39 5/7 35/35 7/24 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 11/24 0.81 0.47 12/35 12/113 Fundamental Rights 4/7 84/113 35/35 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 21/113 0.84 Order and Security 0.90 1/7 10/35 14/24 20/35 11/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 6/24 9/113 0.84 9/35 Regulatory Enforcement 0.69 Regulatory Enforcement 1/7 20/35 20/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 14/35 14/113 24/113 24/35 1/7 0.68 Civil Justice 0.75 9/24 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 10/24 1/7 11/113 11/35 18/113 0.74 Criminal Justice 0.69 18/35 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium United Kingdom High Middle East & North Africa United Arab Emirates EU & EFTA & North America High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.55 0.71 0.84 0.64 0.52 0.48 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.57 0.84 0.59 0.88 0.61 0.69 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.79 0.82 0.89 0.72 0.73 0.81 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.87 0.79 0.36 0.67 0.75 0.85 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.85 0.45 0.73 0.73 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.36 0.85 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.77 0.79 0.78 0.29 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.91 0.54 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.71 0.27 0.78 0.89 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.68 0.46 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.78 0.82 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.68 0.67 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.96 0.77 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.76 0.75 0.90 0.92 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.85 0.80 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.95 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.67 0.71 0.69 0.53 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.79 0.68 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.69 0.61 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.84 0.72 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.35 0.90 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.68 0.77 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.67 0.89 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.69 0.43 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.73 0.79 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.91 0.85 0.34 0.88 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.88 0.57 0.42 0.80 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.65 0.89 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.77 0.68 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 146

149 Region : EU & EFTA & North America : Middle East & North Africa Region Income Group : High : High Income Group United Kingdom United Arab Emirates Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 32/113 30/35 1/ 0.65 9/24 0.81 11/113 11/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 1 -1 0.00 0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 9/113 8/24 49/113 34/35 2/7 0.84 9/35 0.58 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 17/35 17/113 1/7 0.76 Absence of Corruption 14/113 14/35 9/24 Absence of Corruption 0.82 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.81 7/24 8/35 98/113 8/113 0.39 5/7 35/35 Open Government 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.81 0.47 12/35 12/113 4/7 11/24 35/35 84/113 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 20/35 21/113 Order and Security 0.90 1/7 10/35 0.84 14/24 11/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 6/24 9/35 1/7 0.69 20/113 20/35 0.84 9/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 14/35 14/113 24/113 24/35 1/7 0.68 Civil Justice 0.75 9/24 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.69 1/7 11/113 11/35 18/113 0.74 Criminal Justice 18/35 10/24 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium United Kingdom High Middle East & North Africa United Arab Emirates EU & EFTA & North America High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.55 0.71 0.84 0.64 0.52 0.48 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.57 0.84 0.59 0.88 0.61 0.69 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.79 0.82 0.89 0.72 0.73 0.81 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.87 0.79 0.36 0.67 0.75 0.85 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.85 0.45 0.73 0.73 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.36 0.85 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.77 0.79 0.78 0.29 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.91 0.54 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.71 0.27 0.78 0.89 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.68 0.46 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.78 0.82 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.68 0.67 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.96 0.77 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.76 0.75 0.90 0.92 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.85 0.80 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 0.95 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.67 0.71 0.69 0.53 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.79 0.68 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.69 0.61 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.84 0.72 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.35 0.90 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.68 0.77 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.67 0.89 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.69 0.43 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.73 0.79 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.91 0.85 0.34 0.88 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.88 0.57 0.42 0.80 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.65 0.89 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.77 0.68 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 147

150 Region : Latin America & Caribbean : EU & EFTA & North America Region Income Group : High : High Income Group Uruguay United States Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 19/113 19/35 14/24 0.73 1/30 0.71 22/113 22/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Score Change Rank Change Score Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 -1 -2 -0.01 -0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Global Global Income Factor Income Regional Factor Factor Regional Factor Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Score Trend Score Rank Rank Rank Trend Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 16/113 13/24 0.77 15/35 18/113 0.76 17/35 2/30 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 19/35 19/113 12/24 0.75 Absence of Corruption 18/113 18/35 1/30 0.76 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 18/35 13/113 0.71 19/113 Open Government 0.77 11/24 13/35 3/30 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 1/30 0.78 0.72 16/35 16/113 Fundamental Rights 17/24 26/113 24/35 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 63/113 0.71 Order and Security 0.79 17/24 23/35 10/30 33/35 31/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.72 21/35 1/30 0.69 21/113 13/24 19/35 19/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 16/35 16/113 26/113 25/35 15/24 0.67 Civil Justice 0.74 1/30 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 10/30 13/24 40/113 32/35 20/113 0.54 Criminal Justice 0.65 20/35 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Uruguay High EU & EFTA & North America United States Latin America & Caribbean High Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.83 0.72 0.78 0.50 0.78 0.42 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.80 0.69 0.84 0.82 0.48 0.88 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.62 0.67 0.77 0.78 0.64 0.87 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.73 0.66 0.81 0.75 0.67 0.83 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.87 0.75 0.59 0.63 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.81 0.83 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.65 0.70 0.73 0.80 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.90 0.76 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.79 0.83 0.77 0.86 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.81 0.58 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.73 0.71 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.48 0.69 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.91 0.90 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.40 0.71 0.69 0.84 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.82 0.83 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.89 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.58 0.55 0.58 0.33 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.64 0.44 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.52 0.37 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.75 0.79 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.77 0.71 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.71 0.62 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.81 0.69 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.65 0.71 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.64 0.62 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.82 0.79 0.80 0.85 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.56 0.56 0.79 0.69 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.74 0.61 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.82 0.74 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 148

151 Region : Latin America & Caribbean : EU & EFTA & North America Region Income Group : High : High Income Group Uruguay United States Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 19/113 19/35 14/24 0.73 1/30 0.71 22/113 22/35 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Rank Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 8.4 1.5 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 -0.01 -2 -1 -0.01 2.1 8.2 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Factor Factor Regional Regional Global Factor Factor Income Global Income Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Score Rank Rank Score Rank Rank Rank Trend Trend Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 17/35 0.76 2/30 18/113 16/113 15/35 13/24 0.77 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 1/30 12/24 0.75 19/35 19/113 Absence of Corruption 0.76 18/113 18/35 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 3/30 18/35 0.77 11/24 13/35 13/113 0.71 Open Government 19/113 3.4 7.2 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 0.72 Fundamental Rights 0.78 1/30 16/35 17/24 24/35 26/113 16/113 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 Order and Security Order and Security 33/35 0.79 31/113 17/24 0.71 10/30 63/113 23/35 6.4 4.3 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 4.4 6.3 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 19/113 0.69 0.72 19/35 Regulatory Enforcement 13/24 21/113 21/35 1/30 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.3 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice Civil Justice 0.67 16/35 16/113 26/113 15/24 0.74 25/35 1/30 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 40/113 32/35 10/30 0.54 Criminal Justice 20/113 20/35 13/24 0.65 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Medium High Trending up Trending down Low Trending up Trending down Low High Medium United States Uruguay Latin America & Caribbean High High EU & EFTA & North America Civil Justice Civil Justice Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Constraints on Government Powers 0.78 0.78 0.83 0.72 0.50 0.42 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 4.1 No discrimination 0.82 0.80 0.48 0.84 0.69 0.88 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 4.2 Right to life & security 7.2 No discrimination 0.78 0.62 0.77 0.64 0.67 0.87 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 7.3 No corruption 1.3 Independent auditing 4.3 Due process of law 1.3 Independent auditing 0.83 0.67 0.73 0.81 0.75 0.66 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression misconduct misconduct 0.59 0.87 0.63 0.75 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 0.83 0.81 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.73 0.65 0.80 0.70 7.6 Effective enforcement 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 4.6 Right to privacy 0.76 0.90 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.83 0.79 0.77 0.86 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 0.81 0.58 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.73 0.71 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.48 0.69 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.91 0.90 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.84 0.71 0.69 0.40 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 0.82 0.83 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 0.89 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.33 0.58 0.55 0.58 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.44 0.64 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.37 0.52 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.79 0.75 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.77 0.71 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.62 0.71 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.69 0.81 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.65 0.71 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.62 0.64 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.79 0.80 0.85 0.82 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 0.56 0.56 0.69 0.79 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.61 0.74 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.82 0.74 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 149

152 Region : Latin America & Caribbean : Eastern Europe & Central Asia Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Lower Middle Income Group Venezuela Uzbekistan Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 91/113 18/30 12/13 0.46 30/30 0.29 113/113 36/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change Score Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 1.4 8.5 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 1.6 8.3 8.3 1.6 0.01 0.01 2 2.1 8.2 8.2 2.1 Absence of Absence of Global Factor Factor Regional Regional Global Factor Income Factor Income Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 2.3 7.7 7.7 2.3 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 28/30 12/13 113/113 0.32 36/36 30/30 0.18 108/113 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 11/13 Absence of Corruption 0.34 96/113 103/113 36/36 29/30 21/30 0.30 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.30 30/30 Open Government 0.30 13/13 28/30 36/36 108/113 110/113 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 0.36 30/30 33/36 0.38 103/113 12/13 Fundamental Rights 26/30 105/113 4.2 6.5 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 110/113 0.47 Order and Security 0.92 1/13 1/30 30/30 36/36 7/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 4.5 6.2 Regulatory Enforcement 8/13 30/30 Regulatory Enforcement 0.46 0.22 36/36 78/113 113/113 13/30 4.6 6.1 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 36/36 112/113 74/113 11/30 9/13 0.49 Civil Justice 0.33 30/30 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 36/36 0.45 60/113 113/113 6/13 30/30 0.14 Criminal Justice 7/30 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Trending down Trending up High Medium High Low Trending down Trending up Medium Low Venezuela Lower Middle Eastern Europe & Central Asia Uzbekistan Latin America & Caribbean Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.11 0.61 0.27 0.62 0.54 0.38 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.20 0.14 0.54 0.40 0.19 0.63 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.20 0.12 0.20 0.44 0.37 0.30 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.05 0.11 0.27 0.37 0.46 0.21 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.65 0.50 0.14 0.66 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.27 0.21 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.32 0.05 0.48 0.22 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.21 0.46 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.61 0.13 0.50 0.35 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.57 0.56 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.30 0.28 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.15 0.68 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.21 0.32 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.14 0.72 0.21 0.89 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.31 0.34 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.38 0.42 0.54 0.06 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.88 0.21 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.20 0.35 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.22 0.30 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.29 0.23 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.62 0.36 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.19 0.03 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.27 0.24 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.37 0.20 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.43 0.29 0.23 0.42 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.13 0.65 0.45 0.41 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.30 0.01 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.17 0.31 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 150

153 Region : Latin America & Caribbean : Eastern Europe & Central Asia Region Income Group : Upper Middle : Lower Middle Income Group Venezuela Uzbekistan Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 91/113 18/30 12/13 0.46 30/30 0.29 113/113 36/36 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 8.7 1.2 8.7 1.2 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 1.3 8.6 Score Change Score Change Rank Change Rank Change 1.4 8.5 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 8.4 1.5 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 1.6 8.3 0.01 0.01 2 8.2 2.1 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Global Factor Factor Regional Regional Global Factor Income Factor Income Corruption Corruption 2.2 8.1 2.2 8.1 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Trend Score Score Rank Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 28/30 12/13 113/113 0.32 36/36 30/30 0.18 108/113 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 21/30 0.34 11/13 96/113 103/113 36/36 29/30 Absence of Corruption 0.30 Open Open 7.4 3.2 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 3.3 7.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.30 30/30 36/36 110/113 108/113 0.30 13/13 28/30 Open Government 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.36 0.38 33/36 105/113 12/13 30/30 26/30 103/113 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 36/36 110/113 Order and Security 0.92 1/13 1/30 0.47 30/30 7/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 30/30 36/36 8/13 0.46 78/113 13/30 0.22 113/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 4.8 5.2 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 36/36 112/113 74/113 11/30 9/13 0.49 Civil Justice 0.33 30/30 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 7/30 0.45 60/113 113/113 6/13 30/30 0.14 Criminal Justice 36/36 2017 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Trending down Trending up High Medium High Low Trending down Trending up Medium Low Venezuela Lower Middle Eastern Europe & Central Asia Uzbekistan Latin America & Caribbean Upper Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.11 0.61 0.27 0.62 0.54 0.38 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.20 0.14 0.54 0.40 0.19 0.63 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.20 0.12 0.20 0.44 0.37 0.30 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.05 0.11 0.27 0.37 0.46 0.21 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.65 0.50 0.14 0.66 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.27 0.21 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.32 0.05 0.48 0.22 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.21 0.46 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.61 0.13 0.50 0.35 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.57 0.56 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.30 0.28 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.15 0.68 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.21 0.32 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.14 0.72 0.21 0.89 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.31 0.34 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.38 0.42 0.54 0.06 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.88 0.21 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.20 0.35 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.22 0.30 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.29 0.23 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.62 0.36 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.19 0.03 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.27 0.24 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.37 0.20 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.43 0.29 0.23 0.42 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.13 0.65 0.45 0.41 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.30 0.01 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.17 0.31 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 151

154 Region : Sub-Saharan Africa : East Asia & Pacific Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Lower Middle Income Group Zambia 9ietnam Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 74/113 10/30 11/15 0.5 7/18 0.47 83/113 15/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 1.3 8.6 8.6 1.3 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 -7 -2 0.00 -0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 77/113 12/18 81/113 18/30 12/15 0.47 17/30 0.46 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 10/30 71/113 13/15 0.44 Absence of Corruption 77/113 12/30 6/18 0.42 Open Open 7.4 3.2 7.4 3.2 Government Government Civil Civil 3.3 7.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 23/30 85/113 0.42 94/113 Open Government 0.44 12/15 20/30 11/18 7.2 3.4 3.4 7.2 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights 14/18 0.43 0.50 21/30 96/113 Fundamental Rights 9/15 79/113 13/30 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 67/113 0.69 Order and Security 0.77 10/15 6/30 4/18 14/30 42/113 4.3 6.4 6.4 4.3 4.4 6.3 6.3 4.4 6.2 4.5 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.45 18/30 8/18 0.43 88/113 14/15 16/30 83/113 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 12/30 75/113 92/113 19/30 13/15 0.44 Civil Justice 0.49 9/18 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 8/18 9/15 69/113 12/30 52/113 0.42 Criminal Justice 0.49 5/30 2017 Score 2016 Score 2016 Score 2017 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Zambia Lower Middle East Asia & Pacific 9ietnam Sub-Saharan Africa Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.42 0.49 0.49 0.61 0.42 0.49 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.37 0.37 0.55 0.35 0.59 0.51 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.39 0.54 0.42 0.48 0.53 0.36 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.47 0.53 0.41 0.31 0.62 0.43 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.68 0.42 0.40 0.46 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.41 0.43 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.73 0.25 0.39 0.53 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.47 0.48 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.51 0.37 0.47 0.42 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.44 0.58 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.49 0.43 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.53 0.51 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.55 0.40 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.50 0.53 0.62 0.88 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.37 0.47 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.34 0.39 0.46 0.24 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.44 0.47 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.47 0.59 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.39 0.53 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.54 0.24 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.54 0.49 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.28 0.39 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.49 0.36 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.53 0.39 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.41 0.46 0.42 0.40 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.40 0.48 0.46 0.48 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.46 0.41 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.46 0.36 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 152

155 Region : Sub-Saharan Africa : East Asia & Pacific Region Income Group : Lower Middle : Lower Middle Income Group Zambia 9ietnam Overall Score Regional Rank Global Rank Global Rank Income Rank Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Constraints on Constraints on Government Government 74/113 10/30 11/15 0.5 7/18 0.47 83/113 15/30 Powers Powers 1.1 1.1 1.2 8.7 1.2 8.7 Criminal Criminal 8.6 1.3 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Rank Change Score Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 8.5 1.4 Justice Justice 1.5 8.4 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 8.3 1.6 -7 -2 0.00 -0.01 2.1 8.2 2.1 8.2 Absence of Absence of Factor Income Factor Income Factor Global Factor Global Regional Regional Corruption Corruption 8.1 2.2 8.1 2.2 0.5 0.5 Rank Trend Rank Rank Score Rank Score Rank Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 2.3 7.7 Constraints on Constraints on 2.4 7.6 2.4 7.6 77/113 12/18 81/113 18/30 12/15 0.47 17/30 0.46 Government Powers Government Powers 3.1 7.5 3.1 7.5 0 0 Absence of Corruption 10/30 71/113 13/15 0.44 77/113 12/30 6/18 Absence of Corruption 0.42 Open Open 3.2 7.4 3.2 7.4 Government Government Civil Civil 7.3 3.3 7.3 3.3 Justice Justice Open Government 0.42 11/18 23/30 85/113 94/113 0.44 12/15 20/30 Open Government 3.4 7.2 7.2 3.4 4.1 7.1 4.1 7.1 Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights 0.43 0.50 21/30 96/113 9/15 14/18 13/30 79/113 6.5 4.2 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 14/30 67/113 Order and Security 0.77 10/15 6/30 0.69 4/18 42/113 4.3 6.4 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 8/18 18/30 14/15 0.45 83/113 16/30 0.43 88/113 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 6.1 4.6 Regulatory Regulatory 5.3 4.7 5.3 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.1 5.1 Fundamental Fundamental Enforcement Enforcement Rights Rights Civil Justice 12/30 75/113 92/113 19/30 13/15 0.44 Civil Justice 0.49 9/18 Order and Order and Security Security Criminal Justice 0.49 9/15 69/113 12/30 52/113 0.42 Criminal Justice 5/30 8/18 2016 Score 2017 Score 2017 Score 2016 Score Low Trending down Trending up Low High Trending down Trending up Medium High Medium Zambia Lower Middle East Asia & Pacific 9ietnam Sub-Saharan Africa Lower Middle Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Civil Justice Fundamental Rights 0.42 0.49 0.49 0.61 0.42 0.49 4.1 No discrimination 1.1 Limits by legislature 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 0.37 0.37 0.55 0.35 0.59 0.51 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 1.2 Limits by judiciary 0.39 0.54 0.42 0.48 0.53 0.36 1.3 Independent auditing 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 7.3 No corruption 4.3 Due process of law 4.3 Due process of law 0.47 0.53 0.41 0.31 0.62 0.43 4.4 Freedom of expression 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official misconduct misconduct 0.68 0.42 0.40 0.46 4.5 Freedom of religion 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.41 0.43 1.5 Non-governmental checks 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.73 0.25 0.39 0.53 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.47 0.48 1.6 Lawful transition of power 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.51 0.37 0.47 0.42 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 4.7 Freedom of association 0.44 0.58 4.8 Labor rights 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice Criminal Justice 0.49 0.43 2.1 In the executive branch 2.1 In the executive branch 0.53 0.51 Order and Security Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 8.1 Effective investigations 0.55 0.40 2.2 In the judiciary 2.2 In the judiciary 0.50 0.53 0.62 0.88 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.37 0.47 2.3 In the police/military 2.3 In the police/military adjudication adjudication 1.00 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.34 0.39 0.46 0.24 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 2.4 In the legislature 0.44 0.47 system system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.47 0.59 8.4 No discrimination 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Open Government Regulatory Enforcement Regulatory Enforcement 0.39 0.53 8.5 No corruption 8.5 No corruption 0.54 0.24 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.54 0.49 6.1 Effective regulatory 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.28 0.39 8.6 No improper gov't influence 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.49 0.36 3.2 Right to information 3.2 Right to information enforcement enforcement 0.53 0.39 8.7 Due process of law 8.7 Due process of law 0.41 0.46 0.42 0.40 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.40 0.48 0.46 0.48 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.46 0.41 6.4 Respect for due process 6.4 Respect for due process 0.46 0.36 6.5 No expropriation w/out 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 153

156 : Sub-Saharan Africa Region : Low Income Group Zimbabwe Overall Score Income Rank Regional Rank Global Rank Constraints on Government 11/12 108/113 0.3 1/18 Powers 1.1 1.2 8.7 Criminal 1.3 8.6 Rank Change Score Change 8.5 1.4 Justice 1.5 8.4 8.3 1.6 0.00 8.2 2.1 Absence of Regional Income Factor Factor Global Corruption 8.1 2.2 0.5 Score Rank Trend Rank Rank 7.7 2.3 Constraints on 2.4 7.6 112/113 12/12 18/18 0.28 Government Powers 7.5 3.1 0 Absence of Corruption 106/113 8/12 14/18 0.28 Open 7.4 3.2 Government Civil 3.3 7.3 Justice Open Government 0.30 17/18 11/12 109/113 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 113/113 12/12 Fundamental Rights 18/18 0.29 6.5 4.2 Order and Security 0.67 6/12 79/113 9/18 4.3 6.4 6.3 4.4 4.5 6.2 9/12 107/113 0.35 16/18 Regulatory Enforcement 6.1 4.6 Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.8 5.2 5.1 Fundamental Enforcement Rights Civil Justice 0.43 13/18 7/12 95/113 Order and Security Criminal Justice 13/18 7/12 82/113 0.38 2017 Score 2016 Score High Trending down Trending up Medium Low Zimbabwe Sub-Saharan Africa Low Civil Justice Fundamental Rights Constraints on Government Powers 0.36 0.31 0.39 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature 0.40 0.33 0.25 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 0.38 0.35 0.37 1.3 Independent auditing 4.3 Due process of law 7.3 No corruption 0.34 0.15 0.25 1.4 Sanctions for official 7.4 No improper gov't influence 4.4 Freedom of expression misconduct 0.51 0.42 4.5 Freedom of religion 7.5 No unreasonable delay 0.15 1.5 Non-governmental checks 0.59 0.11 7.6 Effective enforcement 4.6 Right to privacy 0.15 1.6 Lawful transition of power 0.19 0.54 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 0.47 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice 0.27 2.1 In the executive branch 0.47 Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 0.40 2.2 In the judiciary 0.66 0.55 8.2 Timely & effective 5.1 Absence of crime 0.28 2.3 In the police/military adjudication 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.36 0.19 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 0.34 system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.42 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Regulatory Enforcement 0.31 8.5 No corruption 0.17 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.46 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.16 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.46 3.2 Right to information enforcement 0.37 8.7 Due process of law 0.41 0.19 6.2 No improper influence 3.3 Civic participation 0.31 0.38 6.3 No unreasonable delay 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 0.33 6.4 Respect for due process 0.25 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index I 154

157 : Sub-Saharan Africa Region Income Group : Low Zimbabwe Regional Rank Income Rank Global Rank Overall Score Constraints on Government 11/12 1/18 0.3 108/113 Powers 1.1 1.2 8.7 Criminal 1.3 8.6 Score Change Rank Change 8.5 1.4 Justice 8.4 1.5 8.3 1.6 0.00 8.2 2.1 Absence of Global Regional Factor Factor Income Corruption 2.2 8.1 0.5 Rank Rank Score Trend Rank 2.3 7.7 Constraints on 2.4 7.6 0.28 18/18 112/113 12/12 Government Powers 7.5 3.1 0 Absence of Corruption 0.28 8/12 106/113 14/18 Open 3.2 7.4 Government Civil 7.3 3.3 Justice Open Government 17/18 0.30 11/12 109/113 3.4 7.2 7.1 4.1 Fundamental Rights 18/18 12/12 113/113 0.29 4.2 6.5 Order and Security 0.67 9/18 6/12 79/113 4.3 6.4 4.4 6.3 6.2 4.5 Regulatory Enforcement 0.35 16/18 107/113 9/12 6.1 4.6 Regulatory 5.3 4.7 4.8 5.2 5.1 Fundamental Enforcement Rights Civil Justice 7/12 0.43 95/113 13/18 Order and Security Criminal Justice 82/113 0.38 13/18 7/12 2016 Score 2017 Score Medium High Trending up Trending down Low Low Zimbabwe Sub-Saharan Africa 155 Civil Justice Constraints on Government Powers Fundamental Rights Part Five 0.31 0.36 0.39 4.1 No discrimination 7.1 Accessibility & affordability 1.1 Limits by legislature Behind the Numbers 0.33 0.40 0.25 1.2 Limits by judiciary 7.2 No discrimination 4.2 Right to life & security 0.35 0.38 0.37 4.3 Due process of law 1.3 Independent auditing 7.3 No corruption 0.25 0.15 0.34 7.4 No improper gov't influence 1.4 Sanctions for official 4.4 Freedom of expression misconduct 156 Methodology 0.51 0.42 7.5 No unreasonable delay 4.5 Freedom of religion 0.15 1.5 Non-governmental checks Contributing Experts 165 0.59 0.11 4.6 Right to privacy 7.6 Effective enforcement 0.15 1.6 Lawful transition of power Acknowledgements 187 0.54 0.19 7.7 Impartial & effective ADRs 4.7 Freedom of association 190 About the World Justice Project 0.47 4.8 Labor rights Absence of Corruption Criminal Justice 0.27 2.1 In the executive branch 0.47 Order and Security 8.1 Effective investigations 0.40 2.2 In the judiciary 0.66 0.55 5.1 Absence of crime 8.2 Timely & effective 0.28 2.3 In the police/military adjudication 1.00 5.2 Absence of civil conflict 0.19 0.36 2.4 In the legislature 8.3 Effective correctional 0.34 system 5.3 Absence of violent redress 0.42 8.4 No discrimination Open Government Regulatory Enforcement 0.31 8.5 No corruption 0.17 3.1 Publicized laws & gov't data 0.46 6.1 Effective regulatory 0.16 8.6 No improper gov't influence 0.46 3.2 Right to information enforcement 0.37 8.7 Due process of law 0.41 0.19 3.3 Civic participation 6.2 No improper influence 0.31 0.38 3.4 Complaint mechanisms 6.3 No unreasonable delay 0.33 6.4 Respect for due process 0.25 6.5 No expropriation w/out adequate compensation I 155 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

158 Part Five: Behind the Numbers Methodology ® is the first attempt to systematically and comprehensively WJP Rule of Law Index The quantify the rule of law around the world, and remains unique in its operationalization of rule of law dimensions into concrete questions. The WJP Rule of Law Index 2017-2018 report presents The - systematically and comprehen WJP Rule of Law Index information on eight composite factors that are further sively quantifies the rule of law in 113 countries around (see pages 8–9) WJP Rule of Law Index . can disaggregated into 44 specific sub-factors the world. The production of the be summarized in eleven steps: Factor 9, Informal Justice, is included in the conceptual framework, but has been excluded from the aggregated scores The WJP developed the conceptual framework summarized 1. and rankings in order to provide meaningful cross-country comparisons. To present an image that accurately portrays - in the Index’s nine factors and 47 sub-factors, in consulta the rule of law as experienced by ordinary people, each tion with academics, practitioners, and community leaders from around the world. score of the Index is calculated using a large number of questions drawn from two original data sources collected 2. The Index team developed a set of five questionnaires by the World Justice Project in each country: a General based on the Index’s conceptual framework to be admin - Population Poll (GPP) and a series of Qualified Respondents’ istered to experts and the general public. Questionnaires Questionnaires (QRQs). were translated into several languages and adapted to reflect commonly used terms and expressions. These two data sources collect up-to-date firsthand The team identified, on average, more than 300 poten 3. - information that is not available at the global level, and tial local experts per country to respond to the QRQs and constitute the world’s most comprehensive dataset of engaged the services of leading local polling companies to its kind. They capture the experiences and perceptions implement the household surveys. of ordinary citizens and in-country professionals concerning the performance of the state and its agents and the actual 4. Polling companies conducted pilot tests of the GPP in operation of the legal framework in their country. The consultation with the Index team, and launched the final country scores and rankings presented in this report survey for full fieldwork. are built from more than 500 variables drawn from the The team sent the questionnaires to local experts 5. assessments of more than 110,000 citizens and 3,000 legal and engaged in continual interaction with them. experts in 113 countries and jurisdictions, making it the most accurate portrayal of the factors that contribute to The Index team collected and mapped the data onto the 6. shaping the rule of law in a nation. 44 sub-factors with global comparability.

159 The Index team constructed the final scores using a five 7. Data Sources step process: - Every year the WJP collects data from representative sam a. Codified the questionnaire items as numeric values ples of the general public (the General Population Polls or b. Produced raw country scores by aggregating the GPPs) and legal professionals (the Qualified Respondents’ responses from several individuals (experts or general Questionnaires or QRQs) to compute the Index scores and public) rankings. The GPP surveys provide firsthand information c. Normalized the raw scores on the experiences and the perceptions of ordinary people d. Aggregated the normalized scores into sub-factors regarding a range of pertinent rule of law information, and factors using simple averages including their dealings with the government, the ease of e. Produced the normalized scores, which are rounded interacting with state bureaucracy, the extent of bribery to two decimal points, and the final rankings and corruption, the availability of dispute resolution sys - tems, and the prevalence of common crimes to which they 8. The data were subject to a series of tests to identify - are exposed. The GPP questionnaire includes 153 percep possible biases and errors. For example, the Index team tion-based questions and 191 experience-based questions, cross-checked all sub-factors against more than 70 - along with socio-demographic information on all respon third-party sources, including quantitative data and qual - dents. The questionnaire is translated into local languages, itative assessments drawn from local and international adapted to common expressions, and administered by organizations. leading local polling companies using a probability sample of 1,000 respondents in the three largest cities of each 4 A sensitivity analysis was conducted by the Econometrics 9. country. Depending on the particular situation of each and Applied Statistics Unit of the European Commission’s country, three different polling methodologies are used: Joint Research Centre, in collaboration with the Index team, face-to-face, telephone, or online. The GPP is carried out to assess the statistical reliability of the results. in each country every other year. The polling data used in this year’s report were collected during the fall of 2017 (for 10. To illustrate whether the rule of law in a country signifi - 52 countries), the fall of 2016 (for 57 countries), the fall of cantly changed over the course of the past year, a measure 2014 (for 3 countries), and the fall of 2011 (for 1 country). of change over time was produced based on the annual - Detailed information regarding the cities covered, the poll difference in the country-level factor scores, the standard ing companies contracted to administer the questionnaire, - errors of these scores (estimated from a set of 100 boot and the polling methodology employed in each of the 113 strap samples), and the results of the corresponding t-tests. countries is presented on page 161. 11. The data were organized into country reports, tables, The QRQs complement the household data with assess - and figures to facilitate their presentation and interpre - ments from in-country professionals with expertise in civil tation. For tables organized by income group, the WJP and commercial law, criminal justice, labor law, and public follows the World Bank income classifications. health. These questionnaires gather timely input on a range of topics from practitioners who frequently interact A detailed description of the process by which data are collected and the rule of law is measured is provided on the (cont'd) following pages. 4 Last year, the WJP added 11 Latin American and Caribbean countries to the Index. Due to the small populations of many of these countries and the difficulties of collecting enough respondents that met the quotas in the three largest cities, the sampling plan was adjusted accordingly in some cases. One adjustment was to decrease the sample size to 500 respondents. A second was to conduct a nationally representative poll that covered a larger portion of the country. For more information on the specific countries and sample sizes, see page 161 on city coverage and polling methodology. I 157 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

160 Part Five: Behind the Numbers with state institutions. Such topics include information on A full picture of how questions are mapped onto indicators - the efficacy of courts, the strength of regulatory enforce Rule of Law and how they are weighted is available on the page at Index ment, and the reliability of accountability mechanisms. The worldjusticeproject.org. questionnaires contain closed-ended perception questions Data Validation and several hypothetical scenarios with highly detailed As a final step, data are validated and cross-checked against factual assumptions aimed at ensuring comparability across qualitative and quantitative third-party sources to provide countries. The QRQ surveys are conducted annually, and an additional layer of analysis and to identify possible the questionnaires are completed by respondents selected mistakes or inconsistencies within the data. Most of the - from directories of law firms, universities and colleges, re third-party data sources used to cross-check the Index search organizations, and non-governmental organizations 5 scores are described in Botero and Ponce (2011). (NGOs), as well as through referrals from the WJP global Methodological Changes to this Year’s Report network of practitioners, and vetted by WJP staff based on Every year, the WJP reviews the methods of data collection their expertise. The expert surveys are administered in four to ensure that the information produced is valid, useful, languages: English, French, Russian, and Spanish. The QRQ and continues to capture the status of the rule of law in the data for this report include over 3,000 surveys, which world. To maintain consistency with previous editions and represents an average of 26 respondents per country. to facilitate tracking changes over time, this year’s ques - These data were collected from May 2017 through early tionnaires and data maps are closely aligned with those November 2017. administered in the past. Data Cleaning and Score Computation Once collected, the data are carefully processed to arrive In order to improve the accuracy of the QRQ results and at country-level scores. As a first step, the respondent-level reduce respondent burden, proactive dependent inter - data are edited to exclude partially-completed surveys, viewing techniques were used to remind respondents who suspicious data, and outliers (which are detected using the participated in last year’s survey of their responses in the Z-score method). Individual answers are then mapped onto previous year. the 44 sub-factors of the Index (or onto the intermediate categories that make up each sub-factor), codified so that This year, a few changes were made to some of the indica - all values fall between 0 (least rule of law) and 1 (most tors and questions of the Index. These changes occurred in rule of law), and aggregated at the country level using the sub-factors 2.2, 4.3, 8.1, 8.5, and 8.7. simple (or unweighted) average of all respondents. In the construction of sub-factor 2.2 “Government 1. This year, to allow for an easier comparison across years, officials in the judicial branch do not use public office for the resulting 2017-2018 scores have been normalized private gain," five questions were added. Sub-factor 2.2 using the Min-Max method with a base year of 2015. now contains 18 questions. These normalized scores were then successively aggregated from the variable level all the way up to the factor level In the construction of sub-factor 4.3 “Due process of the 2. to produce the final country scores, rounded to two law and rights of the accused," four questions were added. decimal points, and rankings. In most cases, the GPP and Sub-factor 4.3 now contains 35 questions. QRQ questions are equally weighted in the calculation of the scores of the intermediate categories (sub-factors and In the construction of sub-factor 8.1 “Criminal investi 3. - sub-sub-factors). gation system is effective," seven questions were added. Sub-factor 8.1 now contains 24 questions. In the 5 Botero, J. and Ponce, A. (2011) "Measuring the Rule of Law": WJP Working Paper No.1, available at worldjusticeproject.org/publications.

161 standard errors. To calculate these errors, 100 samples of construction of sub-factor 8.5 “Criminal justice system is - free of corruption," five questions were added. Sub-fac respondent-level observations (of equal size to the original sample) are randomly selected with replacement for each tor 8.5 now contains 26 questions. In the construction of country from the pooled set of respondents for last year sub-factor 8.7 “Due process of the law and rights of the accused," four questions were added. Sub-factor 8.7 now and this year. These samples are used to produce a set of 100 country-level scores for each factor and each country, contains 35 questions. which are utilized to calculate the final standard errors. Overall, 96% of questions remained the same between the These errors – which measure the uncertainty associated with picking a particular sample of respondents – are then 2016 and 2017-2018 editions of the Index. A description . worldjusticeproject.org of the new variables is available at employed to conduct pair-wise t-tests for each country and each factor. In a few instances, the WJP uses data from third-party Finally, to illustrate the annual change, a measure of sources to measure an element of the rule of law that is 3. change over time is produced based on the value of the not possible to measure through the GPP or QRQs. Out of annual difference and its statistical significance (at the 95 more than 500 variables used to calculate the Index, five percent level). variables are from third-party sources. Strengths & Limitations Tracking Changes Over Time - This year’s report includes a measure to illustrate wheth - The Index methodology displays both strengths and limita tions. Among its strengths is the inclusion of both expert er the rule of law in a country, as measured through the , changed from 2016 WJP Rule of Law Index and household surveys to ensure that the findings reflect factors of the the conditions experienced by the population. Another to 2017–2018. This measure is presented in the form of strength is that it approaches the measurement of rule of arrows and represents a summary of rigorous statistical testing based on the use of bootstrapping procedures law from various angles by triangulating information across (see below). For each factor, this measure takes the value data sources and types of questions. This approach not of zero (no arrow) if there was no statistically significant only enables accounting for different perspectives on the rule of law, but it also helps to reduce possible bias that change in the score since last year, a positive value (upward arrow) if there was a change leading to a statistically might be introduced by any other particular data collection significant improvement in the score, and a negative value method. Finally, it relies on statistical testing to determine (downward arrow) if there was a change leading to a statis the significance of the changes in the factor scores over the - last year. tically significant deterioration in the score. This measure complements the numerical scores and rankings presented in this report, which benchmark each country’s current With the aforementioned methodological strengths come a number of limitations. First, the data shed light on rule of performance on the factors and sub-factors of the Index law dimensions that appear comparatively strong or weak, against that of other countries. The measure of change over but are not specific enough to establish causation. Thus, time is constructed in three steps: it will be necessary to use the Index in combination with 1. First, last year’s scores are subtracted from this year’s other analytical tools to provide a full picture of causes and possible solutions. Second, the methodology has only been to obtain, for each country and each factor, the annual difference in scores. applied in three major urban areas in each of the indexed countries for the General Population Poll. The WJP is 2. therefore piloting the application of the methodology to ru To test whether the annual changes are statistically - significant, a bootstrapping procedure is used to estimate ral areas. Third, given the rapid changes occurring in some (cont'd) I 159 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

162 Part Five: Behind the Numbers countries, scores for some countries may be sensitive to law dimensions in various countries. the specific points in time when the data were collected. The Index’s rankings and scores are the product of a 2. To address this, the WJP is piloting test methods of moving rigorous data collection and aggregation methodology. averages to account for short-term fluctuations. Fourth, Nonetheless, as with all measures, they are subject to the QRQ data may be subject to problems of measure - measurement error. ment error due to the limited number of experts in some Given the uncertainty associated with picking a particular 3. countries, resulting in less precise estimates. To address - sample of respondents, standard errors have been calculat this, the WJP works constantly to expand its network of ed using bootstrapping methods to test whether the annual - in-country academic and practitioner experts who contrib changes in the factor scores are statistically significant. ute their time and expertise to this endeavor. Finally, due to the limited number of experts in some countries (which Indices and indicators are subject to potential abuse and 4. implies higher standard errors) and the fact that the GPP is misinterpretation. Once released to the public, they can carried out in each country every other year (which implies take on a life of their own and be used for purposes unan - that for some countries, some variables do not change from ticipated by their creators. If data are taken out of context, one year to another), it is possible that the test described it can lead to unintended or erroneous policy decisions. above fails to detect small changes in a country’s situation Rule of law concepts measured by the Index may have 5. over time. different meanings across countries. Users are encouraged Other Methodological Considerations to consult the specific definitions of the variables employed A detailed presentation of the methodology, including in the construction of the Index, which are discussed in a table and description of the more than 500 variables greater detail in the methodology section of the WJP Rule used to construct the Index scores, is available at: website. of Law Index worldjusticeproject.org and in Botero, J. and Ponce, A. - The Index is generally intended to be used in com 6. (2011) “Measuring the Rule of Law”: WJP Working Paper bination with other instruments, both quantitative and worldjusticeproject.org/publications. No.1, available at: qualitative. Just as in the areas of health or economics, no single index conveys a full picture of a country’s situation. Using the WJP Rule of Law Index Policy-making in the area of rule of law requires careful has been designed to offer a The WJP Rule of Law Index consideration of all relevant dimensions – which may vary reliable and independent data source for policy makers, from country to country – and a combination of sources, businesses, non-governmental organizations, and other instruments, and methods. constituencies to assess a nation’s adherence to the rule of law as perceived and experienced by the average person, 7. Pursuant to the sensitivity analysis of the Index data identify a nation’s strengths and weaknesses in comparison conducted in collaboration with the Econometrics and to similarly situated countries, and track changes over time. Applied Statistics Unit of the European Commission’s Joint The Index has been designed to include several features - Research Centre, confidence intervals have been calcu that set it apart from other indices and make it valuable lated for all figures included in the WJP Rule of Law Index for a large number of countries, thus providing a powerful These confidence intervals and other relevant 2017–2018 . resource that can inform policy debates both within and considerations regarding measurement error are reported across countries. However, the Index’s findings must be in Saisana and Saltelli (2015) and Botero and Ponce (2011). interpreted in light of certain inherent limitations. The following pages ( ) list the city coverage 161–163 The does not identify priorities for WJP Rule of Law Index 1. and polling methodology for the GPP in the 113 indexed reform and is not intended to establish causation or to countries and jurisdictions. ascertain the complex relationship among different rule of

163 Year Country/Territory Cities Covered Polling Company Methodology Sample Afghanistan 2017 992 Face-to-face ACSOR, a subsidiary of D3 Systems, Inc. Kabul City, Kandahar City, Herat City Face-to-face 1000 2016 Tirana, Durres, Fier Albania IDRA Research & Consulting 2016 510 Face-to-face Mercaplan Nationally representative sample Antigua & Barbuda 1006 2016 Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Rosario Face-to-face Argentina Statmark Group 1000 Online Survey Sampling International Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane Australia 2016 Vienna, Graz, Linz Yo u G o v Online 1008 2017 Austria 516 Bahamas Nassau, Freeport, Lucaya CID-Gallup Face-to-face 2016 Face-to-face 1000 2016 Org-Quest Research Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna Bangladesh 2016 Face-to-face Mercaplan Nationally representative sample Barbados 506 Market Research & Polls - EURASIA Minsk, Gomel, Mogilev 2014/2017 (MRP-EURASIA)/WJP in collaboration Belarus* Face-to-face 1000/401 with local partner 2016 Belgium Brussels, Antwerp, Liège Yo u G o v Online 1001 2017 1000 Face-to-face CID-Gallup Belize City, Belmopan, San Ignacio/Santa Elena Belize Face-to-face 1000 2016 La Paz/El Alto, Santa Cruz, Cochabamba Bolivia CAPTURA Consulting SRL 2017 1000 Face-to-face Kantar TNS MIB Sarajevo, Banja Luka, Tuzla Bosnia & Herzegovina Botswana Face-to-face 999 2016 Molepolole, Gaborone, Francistown Intraspace Market Consultancy Ltd. Datum Internacional/About Brazil Brazil São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador Face-to-face 1049 2017 Market Research 2016 Bulgaria Sofia, Plovdiv, Varna Alpha Research Face-to-face 1001 Burkina Faso 1029 Face-to-face Kantar TNS Ouagadougou, Bobo Dioulasso, Koudougou 2017 2014 Indochina Research Cambodia* Face-to-face 1000 Phnom Penh, Battambang, Kampong Cham 1000 Cameroon Douala, Yaoundé, Bamenda Liaison Marketing Face-to-face 2016 2017 Online Yo u G o v Toronto, Montreal, Calgary Canada 1000 2017 Chile 1011 Face-to-face Datum Internacional S.A./Cadem S.A. Santiago, Valparaíso/Viña del Mar, Antofagasta Face-to-face 1014 2016 Shanghai, Chongqing, Beijing China WJP in collaboration with local partner 1007 2016 Face-to-face Tempo Group Bogotá, Medellín, Cali Colombia Dichter and Neira Face-to-face 561 2017 Costa Rica San José, Alajuela, Cartago Abidjan, Bouaké, Daloa Liaison Marketing Cote d'Ivoire 1011 2017 Face-to-face 2016 Croatia Zagreb, Split, Rijeka Ipsos d.o.o. Face-to-face 1004 Czech Republic 1013 Online Yo u G o v Prague, Brno, Ostrava 2017 Denmark Copenhagen, Aarhus, Aalborg Yo u G o v Online 1016 2017 500 Dominica Nationally representative sample Statmark Group Face-to-face 2016 2016 Face-to-face CID-Gallup Santo Domingo, Santiago, La Romana Dominican Republic 1016 2017 Guayaquil, Quito, Cuenca Ecuador 703 Face-to-face Dichter and Neira Cairo, Alexandria, Giza WJP in collaboration with local partner Egypt 1000 2017 Face-to-face El Salvador San Salvador, Santa Ana, San Miguel CID-Gallup Face-to-face 1004 2016 1010 Estonia Tallinn, Tartu, Narva Norstat Eesti Online 2017 1037 Face-to-face Infinite Insight Ltd. Addis Ababa, Gonder, Nazret Ethiopia 2017 *Due to difficulties with data collection, the World Justice Project was unable to complete the 2017 General Population Poll in Belarus, Cambodia, the United Arab Emirates, and Uzbekistan. As a result, GPP data from previous years have been used for these four countries. (cont'd) I 161 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

164 Year Methodology Polling Company Cities Covered Country/Territory Sample Helsinki, Espoo, Tampere Yo u G o v Online 1014 2017 Finland France 1011 Online Yo u G o v Paris, Lyon, Marseille 2016 ACT Market Research and Consulting Tbilisi, Batumi, Kutaisi 2017 Face-to-face 1000 Georgia Company 2016 Germany Yo u G o v Online 1012 Berlin, Hamburg, Munich Ghana Kumasi, Accra, Sekondi-Takoradi FACTS International Ghana Limited Face-to-face 1016 2016 2017 Greece Athens, Thessaloniki, Patras Yo u G o v Online 1015 2016 Nationally representative sample Mercaplan Face-to-face 510 Grenada 1036 Guatemala Guatemala City, Villa Nueva, Mixco CID-Gallup Face-to-face 2016 CID-Gallup 2016 Georgetown, Linden, New Amsterdam 506 Guyana Face-to-face CID-Gallup 2017 1100 Face-to-face Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula, Choloma Honduras Hong Kong SAR, China Hong Kong WJP in collaboration with local partner Face-to-face 1004 2017 Hungary Ipsos Hungary Face-to-face 1000 2017 Budapest, Debrecen, Szeged 2016 Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore DataPrompt International Pvt. Ltd. Face-to-face 1002 India 1004 MRI (Marketing Research Indonesia) Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung 2017 Face-to-face Indonesia Iran Tehran, Isfahan, Mashhad Ipsos Public Affairs Telephone 1005 2016 1004 Online Yo u G o v Rome, Milan, Naples Italy 2017 401 Jamaica Kingston, Portmore, Spanish Town Dichter and Neira Face-to-face 2017 Survey Sampling International Online 1000 2016 Japan Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya 2016 Amman, Irbid, Zarqa WJP in collaboration with local partner Face-to-face 1000 Jordan 2017 Kazakhstan Almaty, Astana, Shymkent WJP in collaboration with local partner Face-to-face 1000 Nairobi, Mombasa, Nakuru 1085 Face-to-face Infinite Insight Kenya 2016 2016 Bishkek, Osh, Jalalabad WJP in collaboration with local partner Face-to-face 1000 Kyrgyzstan Face-to-face Lebanon Beirut, Tripoli, Sidon 2017 1000 REACH SAL Monrovia, Gbarnga, Kakata FACTS International Ghana Limited Face-to-face 1008 2016 Liberia Macedonia, FYR Ipsos dooel Skopje Face-to-face 1017 2017 Skopje, Kumanovo, Bitola 2017 Antananarivo, Toamasina, Antsirabe DCDM Research Face-to-face 1000 Madagascar Face-to-face Malawi Lilongwe, Blantyre, Mzuzu Infinite Insight Ltd. 1039 2017 Acorn Marketing & Research Consultant Malaysia Klang Valley, Johor Bahru, Ipoh Face-to-face 1000 2017 (M) Sdn Bhd 2017 Mexico Data Opinión Pública y Mercados Face-to-face 1000 Mexico City, Guadalajara, Monterrey Georgian Opinion Research Business Moldova Chisinau, Balti, Cahul Face-to-face 520 2017 International (GORBI) Mongolian Marketing Consulting Group 2017 Ulaanbaatar, Erdenet, Darkhan Face-to-face 1000 Mongolia LLC 2017 Face-to-face WJP in collaboration with local partner Casablanca, Fes, Tangier Morocco 1000 1008 2016 Myanmar Mandalay, Yangon, Naypyidaw APMI Partners Face-to-face 2017 Nepal Solutions Consultant Kathmandu, Pokhara, Lalitpur 1000 Face-to-face Yo u G o v Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague Netherlands 2016 1017 Online Big Picture Online 1000 New Zealand 2017 Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch Managua, León,, Masaya CID-Gallup Face-to-face 1100 2017 Nicaragua Nigeria Lagos, Kano, Ibadan Marketing Support Consultancy Face-to-face 1050 2016 Yo u G o v 2017 1007 Online Oslo, Bergen, Trondheim Norway Gallup Pakistan (affiliated with Gallup 1840 Pakistan Karachi, Lahore, Faisalabad Face-to-face 2017 International)

165 Year Country/Territory Cities Covered Polling Company Methodology Sample 2017 Panama Panama City, San Miguelito, La Cumbres Gallup Panamá Face-to-face 1000 2016 Lima, Arequipa, Trujillo Datum Internacional S.A. Face-to-face 1007 Peru 2016 Manila, Cebu, Davao APMI Partners Face-to-face 1008 Philippines IQS Sp. z o.o. Face-to-face 1000 2016 Poland Warsaw, Krakow, Lodz 2017 Portugal Lisbon, Porto, Amadora Yo u G o v Online 1016 Seoul, Busan, Incheon 2016 Republic of Korea Online 1025 Survey Sampling International Romania Ipsos S.R.L. Face-to-face 1000 2016 Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Timisoara 2016 Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk WJP in collaboration with local partner Face-to-face 1000 Russia 2017 Senegal Pikine, Dakar, Thiès Kantar TNS Face-to-face 1012 2017 Face-to-face Ipsos Strategic Marketing d.o.o. Belgrade, Novi Sad, Nis Serbia 1002 Liaison Marketing Sierra Leone Freetown, Bo, Kenema Face-to-face 1000 2016 1000 Singapore Singapore Survey Sampling International Online 2017 2017 1006 Face-to-face Ipsos d.o.o. Ljubljana, Maribor, Celje Slovenia 1000 South Africa Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban Quest Research Services Face-to-face 2016 Spain Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia Yo u G o v Online 1005 2016 Face-to-face Colombo, Kaduwela, Maharagama Kantar LMRB 1010 2017 Sri Lanka St. Kitts & Nevis Basseterre, St. Peter, St. Thomas Middle Island UNIMER Face-to-face 508 2016 St. Lucia Castries, Vieux Fort, Micoud Statmark Group Face-to-face 1004 2016 St. Vincent & the 501 Face-to-face 2016 Calliaqua, Kingstown, Kingstown Park UNIMER Grenadines Paramaribo, Brokopondo, Lelydrop CID-Gallup Face-to-face 507 Suriname 2016 Yo u G o v 1002 Online 2016 Stockholm, Gothenburg, Malmo Sweden 1017 Tanzania Mwanza, Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar Consumer Options Ltd. Face-to-face 2016 Face-to-face 1005 2016 Bangkok, Nakhon Ratchasima, Udon Thani Infosearch Limited Thailand Changuanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain CID-Gallup Face-to-face 1005 2016 Trinidad & Tobago Tunisia Big Tunis, Sfax, Sousse BJKA Consulting Face-to-face 1001 2017 Turkey Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir TNS Turkey Face-to-face 1011 2016 1078 Uganda Kampala, Kira, Mbarara TNS-RMS Cameroon Face-to-face 2016 Face-to-face 1079 Gfk Ukraine Kyiv, Kharkiv, Odessa Ukraine 2017 Feedback Market Research/Dolfin 2011/2017 United Arab Emirates* Market Research & Consultancy Face-to-face 1011/200 Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Sharjah (DolfinX) 1024 2016 Yo u G o v London, Birmingham, Manchester United Kingdom Online 2017 Online United States New York, Los Angeles, Chicago Yo u G o v 1004 Face-to-face 2016 1000 Datum Internacional S.A. Montevideo, Salto, Paysandú Uruguay Market Research & Polls - EURASIA Uzbekistan* 1000 2014 Tashkent, Samarkand, Fergana Face-to-face (MRP-EURASIA) 2016 Venezuela Caracas, Maracaibo, Barquisimeto WJP in collaboration with local partner Face-to-face 1000 Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City, Ha Noi, Hai Phong Indochina Research (Vietnam) Ltd. Face-to-face 1000 2017 Lusaka, Kitwe, Chipata Face-to-face Intraspace Market Consultancy Ltd. 1014 Zambia 2017 1008 Zimbabwe Harare, Bulawayo, Chitungwiza Intraspace Market Consultancy Ltd. Face-to-face 2016 *Due to difficulties with data collection, the World Justice Project was unable to complete the 2017 General Population Poll in Belarus, Cambodia, the United Arab Emirates, and Uzbekistan. As a result, GPP data from previous years have been used for these four countries. I 163 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

166 Part Five: Behind the Numbers Contributing Experts was made possible by the generous The WJP Rule of Law Index 2017–2018 contributions of academics and practitioners who contributed their time and expertise. The names of those experts wishing to be acknowledged individually are listed in the following pages. This report was also made possible by the work of the polling companies who conducted fieldwork, and the thousands of individuals who have responded to the General Population Poll around the world.

167 Esther Stern Dante Omar Graña Johann Brunner Brunilda Subashi Afghanistan Johannes Kepler University Fundación Avedis Donabedian Universiteti Ismail Qemali Flinders University of South Vlorë Australia Linz Baryalai Hakimi Kabul University Diego Silva Ortiz Dorant Ekmekçiu Fiona McDonald Julian Feichtinger Silva Ortiz, Alfonso, Pavic & Hoxha, Memi & Hoxha CHSH Louge Australian Centre for Health Belquis Ahmadi Law Research USIP Drini Hakorja Karl Stöger Enrique Mariano Stile Marval, O'Farrell & Mairal University of Graz Fiona McLeay Hashmat Khalil Nadirpor Justice Connect Legal Education Support Eris Hoxha Federico A. Borzi Cirilli Program Hoxha, Memi & Hoxha Manfred Ketzer Greg Patmore Hausmaninger Kletter Estudio Ceballos y Ceballos University of Sydney Khalid C. Sekander Esa Hala Martin Reinisch Federico M. Basile Brauneis Klauser Prändl John Denton M. Khalid Massoudi Gentiana Tirana M. & M. Bomchil Abogados Masnad Legal Consultancy Corrs Chambers Westgarth Tirana Law Firm Rechtsanwälte GmbH Humberto Federico Rios Mohammad Shafiq Kate Burns Gjergji Gjika Estudio Rios Abogados Martin Risak University of New South University of Vienna Hamdam Gjika & Associates Wales Anti-Corruption Watch Joaquín E. Zappa Organization J.P. O'Farrell Abogados Irv Vaso Rupert Manhart Manhart Einsle Partner Mary E Crock Kalo & Associates María Eugenia Cantenys Niamatullah Brakzai Rechtsanwälte; ÖRAK; CCBE Sydney Law School Lex Ferghana Marval, O'Farrell & Mairal Jonida Braja Melani Merrilyn Walton Stefan Schumann Wolf Theiss University of Sydney Rahmanullah Shahab María Paola Trigiani Johannes Kepler University Romeo Merruko Afghan Anglo Legal Linz Alfaro Abogados Neil James Consultancy Services Kalo & Associates Marta Pardini Company Stefan Zleptnig Australia Defence Association Shirli Gorenca Estudio Pardini Abogados University of Vienna Saeeq Shajjan Nicholas Cowdery Kalo & Associates Martín Langsam Thomas Frad University of Sydney; Shajjan & Associates P.A. Karasek Wietrzyk Universidad Isalud University of New South Anonymous Contributors Rechtsanwälte GmbH Wales Sanzar Kakar Maximo Julio Fonrouge Afghanistan Holding Group Antigua & Barbuda Peter Sainsbury Thomas Hofmann Será Justicia Sayed Ramiz Husaini PALLAS Rechtsanwälte Craig L. Jacas Partnerschaft Mercedes Balado Stapleton Chambers Roy Baker Afghanistan Sustainable Education Organization Macquarie Law School Bevilacqua MBB Abogados E. Ann Henry Anonymous Contributors Selay Ghaffar Sean Cooney Henry & Burnette University of Melbourne Bahamas Mercedes Lorenzo Shahrzad Shamim Hewlett Packard Enterprise Janeille Zorina Matthews University of the West Indies, Simon Rice G Deon Thompson Shajjan & Associates P.A. Mona Nicolás Soler Sturrup, Thompson & Co. Australian National Univeristy Shamsi Maqsoudi Sonia Allan Omar Eidelstein Shajjan & Associates P.A. Shavon D. Bethel Kema M. L. M. Benjamin Deakin University Douglas Sands & Associates LKEC Abogados Marshall & Co. Tareq Eqtedary Thomas Faunce Mark H. Harris Pablo Alejandro Pirovano Tavares K. LaRoda G+ Generation Positive Marshall & Co. Sunshine Holdings Limited P&BA Pirovano & Bello Australian National University Zabihullah Anonymous Contributors Wayne R. Munroe CAHPO Sandra Guillan Anonymous Contributors De Dios & Goyena Abogados Munroe & Associates Zamira Saidi Austria Argentina Consultores Shajjan & Associates P.A. Anonymous Contributors Adolfo Rouillon Andreas Hable Santiago Legarre Binder Grösswang Poder Judicial Bangladesh Pontificia Universidad Católica Anonymous Contributors Argentina Alberto Justo Giles A. H. M. Belal Chowdhury Albania Christoph Konrath FM Consulting International Walter Fernando Godoy Austrian Parliamentary Analia Duran Administration Agron Alibali A. S. A. Bari Anonymous Contributors MBB Abogados Frost & Fire Consulting A.S & Associates Claudia Habl Albana Fona Australia Gesundheit Österreich GmbH Andres Sanguinetti Estudio Moltedo A. S. M. Alamgir Legal and Professional Institute of Epidemiology, Benedict Coyne Services Albania Clemens Egermann Disease Control and Research Carlos Dodds Barnert Egermann Illigasch Australian Lawyers for Human Ana Spahiu Baker & McKenzie Rights Abu Sayeed M M Rahman Gerhard Jarosch LPA Law Firm Albania Breen Creighton United Hospital, Dhaka Carlos María Ferrer Deheza Austrian Association of Estudio Ferrer Deheza RMIT University Prosecutors Andi Mani K&H Law Firm Ajmalul Hossain Carlos Martínez Sagasta A Hossain & Associates E. Tursan d'Espaignet Ivo Greiter Greiter Pegger Kofler & University of Newcastle Universidad del Salvador Aurela Saliaj Partners Al Amin Rahman Universiteti Ismail Qemali FM Associates Vlorë Caros José Laplacete Cassagne Abogados I 165 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

168 Bilqis Amin Hoque Barbados Juan Pablo Alvarez Olivier De Witte Illia Salei Borovtsov & Salei Law Firm Environment and Population Université Libre de Bruxelles Belmonte Research Centre Jaydene O. Thomas Lima & Asociados Patrick Goffaux Capital Law Chambers Katerina Akinschewa Université Libre de Bruxelles Julio César Landívar Castro Bulbul Ahmed Panna Lis And Lex Lada Maisenia Guevara & Gutiérrez S.C. Jefferson O'B Cumberbatch Valerie Flohimont Borovtsov & Salei Law Firm University of the West Indies Farhana Islam Khan Unamur Karen Jimena Montaño Lalu Hanuman Syed Ishtiaq Ahmed & Liliya Katkovskaya Valenzuela Synagogue Chambers LABIMED UMSS Walter P. Verstrepen Associates Nadezhda Elegis Manuel Urenda Natasha D.S. Green Ferdaus Rahman Uridicheskaya Companiya Fact Charlton Chambers A.S & Associates Anonymous Contributors Urenda Abogados Gazi Md Rokib Bin Hossain Belize Shazard Mohammed Miguel Guzman-Rivero Oksana Puchkovskaya Universidad Mayor de San The Legal Circle Stepanovski, Papakul and Simón Partners T. Alafia Samuels Andrea McSweaney Mckoy Imran Anwar University of the West Indies Mckoy Torres LLP Tanjib Alam and Associates Mirko Rojas Cortez Sergey Demianenko David S. Morales Westmin R.A. James Verkhovodko & Partners LLC Morales Peyrefitte LLP Nicolás Soliz Peinado University of the West Indies, Imteaz Ibne Mannan Cave Hill Tatiana Ignatovskaya Salazar & Asociados Save the Children Stepanovski, Papakul and Marvin L. Manzanero Partners Anonymous Contributors Kamruzzaman Ministry of Health Pablo Marin Lima & Asociados Daffodil International University Belarus Oneyda K. Flores Piper Tomashevski Kirill Pedro Barrientos Loayza International University Khandaker Mashfique Rodwell R. A. Williams MITSO Alesia Vladimirovna Raul A Baldivia Karpitskaya Barrow & Williams LLP Ahmed Vadzim Samaryn Legal Consultation of Rahman's Chambers Baldivia Unzaga & Asociados Dribinsky District VMD Lizarraga Belarusian State University Mir Shamsur Rahman Rene Soria-Saucedo University of Florida University of Asia Pacific Alexander Botian Valentina Ogarkova Wayne A. Piper Borovtsov & Salei Law Firm Stepanovski, Papakul and Musa & Balderamos LLP Partners Mohammad Rafiqul Islam Rodrigo Jimenez Cusicanqui Anonymous Contributors Alexander Liessem Salazar & Asociados Chowdhury BNT Legal & Tax Viachaslau Shastak M. R. I. Chowdhury & Rosario Baptista Canedo Associates Bolivia Alexandre Khrapoutski Anonymous Contributors Sysouev, Bondar, Khrapoutski Carlos Gerke S Mohammed Mutahar Sandra Salinas Estudio Jurídico Gerke Belgium Hossain C.R. & F. Rojas Law Office Hossain & Khan Associates Alexey Korol Adrien Masset Victor Vargas Montaño Cesar Burgoa Rodriguez Uliège Saira Rahman Khan Herrera & Abogados Bufete Burgoa Stepanovski, Papakul and Partners BRAC University Edgar Jaime Eguino William Herrera Añez Andrée Puttemans Alexsander Korsak Sanwar Hossain IT-Legal Bolivia Université Libre de Bruxelles Arzinger Attorneys at Law Anonymous Contributors S Hossain & Associates Anna Gibello Ernesto Rojas Cabrera Anastasiya Bykouskaya Universidad Mayor de San Sayeed Abdullah Al Mamun Bosnia & Herzegovina Flinn Law Stepanovski, Papakul and Khan Simón Partners A.S & Associates Christoph Van der Elst Adis Arapovic Centres for Civic Initiatives Tilburg University; Gent Gary Marcos Méndez Avilés Universidad de Aquino University Sheikh Abdur Rahim Andrei Famenka Adnan Duraković Daffodil International WHO Country Office Belarus University of Zenica Delvaux University Ivan B. Cáceres Ibañez Antonina Ivanova Caceres & Asoc. Elegis Sheikh Faisal Shahrier Ziad Andrea Zubović-Devedžić Diana Ivanova Next Legal Emmanuel Ruchat Ivan Lima Magne Darko Brkan Lexial Centro de Estudios de Justicia Belarusian State University Tanim Hussain Shawon Civic Association Why Not y Participación Dmitry Kovalchik Supreme Court Jean Bornet Stepanovski, Papakul and Javier Mir Peña Denis Pajić University of Mostar Džemal Tanvir Quader Partners Jean François Brichant Mir & Asociados Vertex Chambers CHU de Liège Bijedić Jorge Luis Inchauste Dmitry Semashko Guevara & Gutiérrez S.C. Jean Jacqmain Stepanovski, Papakul and Tanzeer Ahmad Edin Halapic Université Libre de Bruxelles Rahman's Chambers University of Sarajevo Partners Jorge Omar Mostajo Goran Šimić Elena Sapego Barrios Jean-François van Tasmiah Nuhiya Ahmed Drooghenbroeck International University of Stepanovski, Papakul and Universidad Mayor de San Bangladesh Institute of Law and International Affairs Partners Sarajevo Andrés Université catholique de Louvain Elena Sheleg José Carlos Bernal Rivera Anonymous Contributors Hajrija Sijercic-Colic University of Sarajevo Michel De Wolf Stepanovski, Papakul and Guevara & Gutiérrez S.C. Partners Université catholique de Louvain Hana Korać University of Travnik

169 Luiz Guilherme Primos Mphoentle Molaodi Elival Ramos Raquel Betty de Castro Lana Bubalo Pimenta Desai Law Group University of Mostar Džemal Universidade de São Paulo Primos e Primos Advogados Tribunal Regional do Trabalho Bijedić Emilio Peluso Neder Meyer da 3ª Região Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro Munyaka Wadaira Augusto Mehmed Ganic Makuyana Federal University of Minas Raquel Lima Scalcon Tribunal Regional do Trabalho Makuyana Legal Practice International University of Gerais Uniritter School of Law da 2ª Região Sarajevo Neo Thelma Moatlhodi Eraldo Silva Júnior Y S Moncho Attorneys Defensoria Pública da União Mehmed Spaho Marcelo Maciel Ramos Roberta de Freitas Campos Law Office Spaho Ltd. Oswaldo Cruz Foundation Universidade Federal de Fabio Martins Di Jorge Patient S Thuto Minas Gerais Peixoto & Cury Advogados Miodrag N. Simović Rodrigo Ghiringhelli de Chibanda, Makgalemele & Co. Azevedo Constitutional Court of Bosnia Maria Celina Bodin de Pontifícia Universidade Moraes Fabio Queiroz Pereira and Herzegovina Patrick Akhiwu Pakmed Pty Ltd. Universidade do Estado do Católica do Rio Grande do Sul Universidade Federal de Mirela Cokic Dzinic Rio de Janeiro; Pontifícia Minas Gerais Rodrigo Giordano de Castro University of Tuzla Piyush Sharma Universidade Católica do Rio Fabio Ulhoa Coelho Peixoto & Cury Advogados Piyush Sharmna Attorneys de Janeiro Pontifícia Universidade Mirjana Šarkinović & Co. Maria Clara Oliveira Santos Católica de São Paulo Rômulo Soares Valentini Tshekiso Tshekiso Universidade Federal De Universidade Federal de São Osman Sinanović Felipe Dutra Asensi Tshekiso Ditiro & Jani Minas Gerais; Tribunal University of Tuzla João del-Rei Regional do Trabalho da 3a Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Região Randzana Hadzibegovic Anonymous Contributors Maria-Valéria Junho Penna Federal University of Rio de Haracic Janeiro Fernanda V Terrazas Sérgio Cruz Arenhart Brazil Općinski sud Bugojno Conselho Nacional de Universidade Federal do Alexandre Fragoso Silvestre Marilia Bense Othero Paraná Secretarias Municipais de Samil Ramić Basic court in Bugojno Premier Hospital - São Paulo Saúde Briganti Advogados Sergio Mannheimer Selma Demirović-Hamzić Ana Paula de Barcellos Mário de Barros Duarte Fernando Aith Garcia Marić & Co. Law Firm Ltd. University of São Paulo Soraia Ghassab Saleh Universidade do Estado do Duarte Garcia, Caselli Rio de Janeiro Saleh Advogados Associados Guimarães e Terra Advogados Flávia Souza Máximo Slaven Dizdar Sueli Dallari Pereira André de Melo Ribeiro Tijana Milačić CEPEDISA, Universidade de Federal University of Ouro Matheus Cherulli Alcantara Dias Carneiro Advogados Preto Viana Law Firm Sajić São Paulo Viana e Azevedo Sociedade de André Gustavo Isola Zijad Dzafic Gabriel Costa Advogados Fonseca Suzana De Queiroz Alves Defensoria Pública da União University of Tuzla Koury Lopes Advogados Shell Brasil Petróleo Ltda. Mauricio Faragone Zoran Dakic Bruno Carazza dos Santos Faragone Advogados Thiago Bottino Gerson Luiz Carlos Branco Folha de S. Paulo Universidade Federal do Rio FGV Law School Bijeljina Grande do Sul Ordelio Azevedo Sette Caitlin Mulholland Azevedo Sette Advogados Anonymous Contributors Victor Hugo Criscuolo Pontifícia Universidade Boson Guilherme Bier Barcelos Universidade Federal de Bier Barcelos Advogados Católica do Rio de Janeiro Paulo Brancher Botswana Azevedo Sette Advogados Minas Gerais Heloisa Estellita Carlos Ayres A. R. Khan Anonymous Contributors Paulo Prado Maeda, Ayres e Sarubbi FGV DIREITO SP Rahim Khan & Co. Advogados Koury Lopes Advogados Igor Parente Bulgaria Abel Modimo Shell Brasil Petróleo Ltda. Paulo R. Sehn Carolina G. F. Korbage de Modimo & Associates Trench, Rossi e Watanabe Delchev & Partners Castro Korbage de Castro Advocacia Angelica Bojosi Isabel Franco Advogados Denitsa Sacheva Desai Law Group Koury Lopes Advogados Carolina Haber Paulo Sergio João International Healthcare and Atang Hilton Latelang Paulo Sergio João Sociedade José Ricardo dos Santos Health Insurance Institute Defensoria Pública RJ Luz Júnior de Advogados Piyush Sharmna Attorneys Braga Nascimento e Zilio & Co. Desislava Anastasova César Rossi Machado Demarest Advogados Advogados Associados CMS Sofia Pedro Aguiar de Freitas Boikaego N Mogae Veirano Advogados Clara Iglesias Keller Desislava Todorova Juliana Cesario Alvim Collins Newman & Co. CMS Sofia Gomes Universidade do Estado do Pedro Augusto Gravatá Nicoli Rio de Janeiro Buhle Ncube Universidade do Estado do Gergana Ilieva LegalWise Botswana Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro Kolcheva, Smilenov, Koev & Daniel Bushatsky Minas Gerais Kagiso Jani Advocacia Bushatsky Leandro Bonini Farias Partners Rafael Villac Vicente de Tshekiso Ditiro & Jani Coutinho e Farias Sociedade Daniela Muradas Reis Carvalho de Advogados Ivelina Vassileva and Stefana Tsekova Universidade Federal de Peixoto & Cury Advogados Kwadwo Osei-Ofei Minas Gerais Schönherr Osei-Ofei Swabi & Co. Lília Carvalho Finelli Federal University of Minas Raoni Macedo David Braga Jr. Bielschowsky Lethogonolo Makgane Ivo Baev Gerais Ivo Baev and Partners Makgane Attorneys Universidade Federal de Hospital dos Servidores Uberlândia Luciano Feldens Públicos do Estado de São Pontifícia Universidade Paulo Motsomi Ndala Marobela Católica do Rio Grande do Sul University of Botswana I 167 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

170 Laurent Dongmo Jean Crombois N. Marcellin Somé Eduardo González Lara Gaynor Roger Associé Cabinet Jing & American University in Shibley Righton LLP Universidad de Valparaíso y Andrés Bello Partners Ouedraogo Stephane Marie Bulgaria Glen E Luther Ibrahim University of Saskatchewan Jenia Dimitrova Lekeanyi Nkengasong Epse Fabio Jordan Samuel Ibrahim Guitanga Asibong Queenta CMS Cameron McKenna Poder Judicial Barreau du Burkina Faso Jabeur Fathally Nabarro Olswang The Abeng Law Firm Fernando Lolas Stepke University of Ottawa Universidad de Chile Mbanda Epanty Agbor Nde Wilfried Zoundi Lachezar Raichev Conseil National des OSC D. Moukouri & Partners Jason Foster Penkov, Markov & Partners Fernando Maturana Crino Athabasca University Eyzaguirre y Compañía Anonymous Contributors Njini Rose Futrih Ngong Lidia Georgieva Regional Hospital Bamenda Medical University, Sofia John M. Buhlman Gabriela Novoa Cambodia WeirFoulds LLP Nyamboli Joyce Ngwe Lucia F. Miree Red de Salud UC CHRISTUS Karen Busby Destiny Chambers Allen Prak Pheap American University in Gonzalo Hoyl M. P&A Asia Law Office University of Manitoba Bulgaria Roland Abeng Hoyl Alliende & Cía. Abogados The Abeng Law Firm Billy Chia-Lung Tai Lise Desmarais Momyana Guneva Université de Sherbrooke Burgas Free University Humberto Sánchez Serges Doumtsop Pacheco Fil B. Tabayoyong, Jr. Nikolai Hristov Pannasastra University of Louis Letellier de St-Just Jorge A. Canales González Stanley Abane Cambodia Medical University, Sofia The Abeng Law Firm Michel Drapeau Peralta, Gutiérrez & Asociados Michel Drapeau Law Office Pavel Petkov Kit Touch Community Legal Education Tarh Frambo Jorge Bofill Genzsch Centre The Global Citizens' Initiative Nayha Acharya Bofill Escobar Abogados Peter Petrov Schulich School of Law Yosifova, Ivanov & Petrov Tsamayem Dongkeu Oscar Juan Enrique Vargas Samnang Sun Petko Salchev Viancos Sotheaphal, Samnang, Sophy The Abeng Law Firm Rick Molz National Center of Public & Partners Concordia University Universidad Diego Portales Health and Analyses Woumbou Nzetchie Alain Juan Pablo Cox Leixelard Sonny Goldstein Bruno Sek Sophorn Rights & Business Law Office Cabinet d'Avocats Josette Stanley B Gyoshev Goldstein Financial Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez University of Exeter Kadji Consultants Sia Phearum Luis Felipe Hubner Uribe, Hubner & Canales Stela Ivanova Yatchet Youndja Georges Anonymous Contributors Housing Rights Task Force Institut für Ostrecht München; Patric Abogados Neupert Ivanova & Koledi Chile Prudent Law Consulting Sopheap Chak Cambodian Center for Human Luis Parada Alberto Alcalde H. BAZ | DLA Piper Anonymous Contributors Rights Anonymous Contributors PUGA ORTIZ Abogados Canada Manuel Jiménez Vichuta Ly Burkina Faso Alfonso Canales Undurraga Pfingsthorn LSCW Uribe, Hubner & Canales Jara del Favero Abogados Abdoulaye Soma Brian Etherington Abogados Société Burkinabé de Droit University of Windsor Anonymous Contributors Manuel José Fernández B. Constitutionnel Cameroon Brian Langille Andrés Milano García CMZ Abogados University of Toronto Marcelo Soto U. Ali Karambiri UH&C; Universidad de los Barreau du Burkina Faso Barthélemy Tchepnang Andes Centre d'Appui à la Justice Benjamin Ferrada Brian M. Pukier Stikeman Elliott LLP Ali Neya Ferada y Cia. et d'Animation pour le María Elena Santibáñez Développement Cabinet d’Avocats Ali Neya Torres Charlyn Black Carlos Ossandón Salas Pontificia Universidad Católica Charles Harold Kooh Eluchans y Compañía University of British Columbia Apollinaire Joachimson Abogados Kyélem de Tambèla de Chile The Abeng Law Firm Craig R. Janes Barreau du Burkina Faso Etakong Tabeyang María Inés Horvitz Lennon University of Waterloo Catalina Salem Gesell Pontificia Universidad Católica Ministry of External Relations Universidad de Chile Boubacar Nacro Daniel M. Campbell de Chile CHUSS Bobo-Dioulasso Gilbert Awah Bongam Cox & Palmer María Norma Oliva Lagos Boubakar Toure Corporación de Asistencia Bongam and Youmbi Law Firm Caterina Guidi Moggia Université Ouaga I Pr Joseph Judicial Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez Del Atwood Nova Scotia Judiciary J. J. Claude Siewe Ki-Zerbo Siewe & Partners Claudio Fuentes Maureira Martín Besio Hernández Domenic A. Crolla Universidad Diego Portales Constance Kyelem-Terrah Universidad Diego Portales Gowling WLG LLP Cabinet d'Avocat Kyelem- Jean-Aimé Kounga Matías Donoso Lamas The Abeng Law Firm Terrah Daniela Horvitz Lennon Horvitz & Cia Abogados Dwight Newman Urenda & Cia. University of Saskatchewan John Esandua Morfaw Habib Ahmed Djiga Université Ouaga II Michele Daroch Sagredo Strategic Development Daniela Pérez Abdala & Cia. Abogados Initiatives Fabien Gélinas Domingo Eyzaguirre Koulika Arnaud Nikiema McGill University Justin Njifack Centre d'études et de Omar Morales Della Maggiora Eyzaguirre recherche sur les TIC et la Ferrada Abogados Montt y Cía. S.A. UNV, UNDP South Sudan Finn Makela cyberactivité Université de Sherbrooke Kouagnang Nana Claude Lalogo Julien Manuella

171 David F. Varela Luis Ángel Sánchez Joachim Bilé-Aka Patricio Morales Aguirre Paula Samper Salazar Pontificia Universidad Bilé-Aka, Brizoua-Bi & Montero Estudio Jurídico Pérez Donoso Gómez-Pinzón Zuleta Associes Javeriana Facio & Cañas Abogados S.A.S. Paulo Larrain NLD Rafael Tuesca Molina Jules Gotre Diego Felipe Valdivieso M. Enrique Lizano Universidad del Norte Lizano Pacheco Abogados Rueda ONG Amepouh VS+M Abogados Ramón García Louis Metan Universidad Católica Raúl Alberto Suárez Arcila María del Rocío Quirós Arroyo Eduardo Cárdenas Suárez Arcila Abogados Santísima Concepción Bufete AG Legal Raphael Abauleth Dentons Cárdenas & Asociados Raúl Novoa Galán Cárdenas Ricardo Posada-Maya Séritouba Gnangue Miguel Ruiz Elizabeth Castillo Castillo Ricardo Lillo Barreau de Côte d'Ivoire Universidad de los Andes Lex Counsel Universidad Diego Portales Municipio de Santiago de Cali Souleymane Sakho Santiago Martínez Méndez Rafael Angel Rodriguez Universidad de los Andes; Roberto Guerrero V. Salazar SCPA Sakho-Yapobi-Fofana Enrique Alvarez P. Lloreda Camacho & Co. Pontificia Universidad Católica Godoy Córdoba Abogados La Firma de Abogados CR de Chile Théodore Hoegah Tatiana Gacés Cabinet Théodore Hoegah & Felipe Aristizabal Randall Madrigal Madrigal Michel Etté Colegio de Abogados y Rodolfo Fuenzalida Nieto & Chalela Abogados Baker & McKenzie Abogadas de Costa Rica Sanhueza GFSU Abogados Anonymous Contributors William Javier Araque Fernando Arteaga-Suárez René Ramos Carmon Universidad del Valle Jaimes Rodrigo Zegers Reyes Croatia Gómez-Pinzón Zuleta Abogados S.A.S. Fernando Pabon Santander Rivadeneira Colombara Zegers Rodrigo Campos Esquivel Poder Judicial Pabon Abogados Alan Bosnar University of Rijeka Anonymous Contributors Anonymous Contributors Sergio Amador Hasbun Gustavo Tamayo China Alan Soric Batalla Salto Luna Costa Rica Lloreda Camacho & Co. Soric & Tomekovic Dunda Silvia Alvarado Quijano Adrian Alvarenga Jonathan Isaacs Attorneys Ignacio Santamaría Baker & McKenzie Bufete AG Legal Lloreda Camacho & Co. Batalla Salto Luna Anita Krizmanic Joe Bonilla Gálvez Armando A. Guardia Thelma Petrucci Matthew Murphy Macesic & Partners LLC MMLC Group BLP Abogados Muñoz Tamayo & Asociados Guardia & Cubero Arsen Bacic Vivian Liberman University of Split Jorge Acosta Reyes Arnoldo André Qingjie He Lexincorp BLP Abogados Universidad del Norte Yongping Xiao Boris Kozjak Wuhan University Institute of Jorge Diaz Cardenas Arturo Herrera Barquero Boris Kozjak Law Office Wilber Elias Montenegro International Law Diaz Cardenas Abogados Reyes Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social Bufete AG Legal Boris Savoric Savoric & Partners LLC Jorge Enrique Galvis Tovar Anonymous Contributors Lloreda Camacho & Co. Carlos Humberto Góngora Anonymous Contributors Colombia Fuentes Darko Jurišić Jorge Lara Urbaneja Cote d’Ivoire General Hospital Dr. Josip Benčević Alba Yaneth Rincón Carlos José Valerio Monge LaraConsultores Méndez Abdramane Fofana Lucas Fajardo Gutiérrez David Gutierrez Floriana Bulic-Jakus Universidad Industrial de BLP Abogados University of Zagreb Santander Alexandre Baïro Brigard & Urrutía Abogados SCPA Luis Alberto Tafur Calderón Hrvoje Banfic Ana Liliana Rios Garcia Emilia Saborio Pozuelo KlemetSawadogoKouadio University of Zagreb Bufete Soley, Saborio & Universidad del Valle Universidad del Norte Arsene Dable Asociados Hrvoje Kraljičković Andrés Esteban Naranjo Luis Fernando Ramírez Hrvoje Kraljičković Law Office Barrera Assa Akoh Simone Enrique López Jiménez Contreras Sala Penal Tribunal Superior Dentons Muñoz - Costa Rica ARI Consulting Group S.A.S. Association des Femmes Ivan Kos Juristes de Côte d'Ivoire de Bogotá PETOŠEVIĆ Erick Ramos Fallas Angela María Ruiz Charles Kignima Sternberg Manuel Mejía Florez Fátima Porras Moya Ivan Vuljanić Hewlett Packard Enterprise Universidad del Rosario Barreau de Côte d'Ivoire Martínez & Porras Abogados Hrvoje Kraljičković Law Office Camilo Torres Serna Marcela Castro-Ruiz Eric Bably Universidad de los Andes Ivo Grga Fernán Vargas BK & Associes Universidad Libre de Cali Law Office Ivo Grga Lex Counsel Carlos Andrés Gómez Maria Transito Diaz del Françoise Angeline Assi- Marko Lovrić Castillo Kaudjhis-Offoumou Francinie Obando Porras González Universidad Jorge Tadeo Universidad del Valle; ANEC Marko Lovrić Law Office Association Internationale pour la Démocratie Francisco José Aguilar-de Lozano B. Urbina Neven Cirkveni Martha Eugenia Uribe Geneviève Diallo-Sissoko Law Office Cirkveni Carlos Mario Molina Publicola Project Mutis Arrubla Universidad Libre de Cali Barreau de Côte d'Ivoire; Paix Molina Diaz & Abogados Jimmy Solano et Sécurité pour les Femmes Rudolf Gregurek de l'Espace CEDEAO Miguel Angel Ramirez University of Zagreb José Antonio Muñoz Catalina Herrera von Gaitan World Legal Corporation Isabelle Sokolo-Boni Dentons Muñoz - Costa Rica Norden Bilé-Aka, Brizoua-Bi & ARI Consulting Group S.A.S. Associes I 169 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

172 Višnja Drenški Lasan Ana Belen Posso Jaime Roca Mario I. Armendáriz Y. Jacob Hjortshøj Armendáriz & Andino Law Firm Višnja Drenški Lasan J. J. Roca & Asociados Bech-Bruun Law Firm Ontaneda & Posso Abogados Abogados Jesus Feris-Iglesias Jacob Schall Holberg Avelina Ponce Gómez de Zoran Vujasin Hospital Infantil Dr. Robert Nathaly Alexandra Salazar Bech-Bruun Law Firm; la Torre Vujasin & Patners Reid Cabral Ponce & Ponce Abogados Ulloa University of Copenhagen Consultores Anonymous Contributors Jesus Francos Rodriguez Jakob S. Johnsen Pablo Andino Fiallos Medina Garrigo Abogados Carlos Carrasco Yepez Czech Republic HjulmandKaptain Armendáriz & Andino AC Abogados & Consultores Abogados Jens Rye-Andersen Hedvika Hartmanova José Cruz Campillo Pablo Mencías Cisneros Carlos Solines Coronel Advokatfirmaet Eurojuris Jiménez Cruz Peña Hartmanova & Steininger Sempértegui Ontaneda Jurídico Asociado Solines Aalborg Abogados Helena Hangler Juan Carlos Ortiz Abreu Ortiz & Comprés Lars Lindencrone Petersen Ciro Pazmino Zurita Schönherr Santiago Solines Bech-Bruun Law Firm P&P Abogados Loraine Maldonado Jan Hurdík Solines & Asociados Marianne Granhøj Masaryk University Brno Mesa & Mesa Claudia Storini Universidad Pública de Kromann Reumert Simón Santiago Dávalos Lupo Alfonso Hernandez Jan Hurdík Navarra Ochoa Morten Broberg Okresní soud v Třebíči Contreras University of Copenhagen Tatiana Villacres David Ponce Gómez de la Jan Poláček Torre Lupo Hernández Bisonó Quantics Cia. Ltda. Natalie Videbaek Poláček, Tryznová & Prudlová Ponce & Ponce Abogados Munkholm Magdalena Rathe Washington Bolivar Trujillo Consultores Aarhus University Lukáš Prudil Fundación PLENITUD Realpe AK PRUDIL a spol., S.R.O. Edgar Neira Orellana Poul Hvilsted Gallegos, Valarezo & Neira Manuel E. Colomé Hidalgo Anonymous Contributors Hospital Pediátrico Dr. Hugo Matej Smolar Horten Law Firm Egypt Felix a spol. Mendoza Edmundo Bodero Cali Anonymous Contributors Estudio Jurídico Bodero & Michal Peškar Bodero Manuel Fermín Cabral Abdel Aziz Zaki Fermín & Guerrero Dominica Eldib & Co. Francisco Dávalos Morán Miloslav Jančík Ayman Sherif Nour Rose-Anne Charles González Peñaherrera & Maria Esther Fernandez A. Asociados Alick Lawrence Chambers Ondřej Dušek de Pou Nour & Selim in association Peterka & Partners with Al Tamimi & Co. Dominican Republic Gabriel Pinto Navarrete Mary Fernández Headrick Rizik Alvarez & Pavel Holec Bassem S Wadie Estudio Jurídico Prado Urology & Nephrology Center Holec, Zuska & Partners Alberto E. Fiallo-Billini S. Fernández Gustavo Ortega Trujillo Fiallo-Billini Scanlon Abogados Ibrahim Ahmad Ibrahim Pavel Urban Ortega Abogados & Asociados Rafael Antonio Santana Goico National Institute of Public Alberto Hernández Herrera H.R.A.F., S.R.L. James Stanley Pilco Loren-Rouse-Hernández & Khaled El Shalakany Health Luzuriaga Asoc. Shalakany Law Office Radek Matouš Universidad del Azuay Rodolfo Mesa Chavez Mesa & Mesa Dvořák Hager & Partners Alfredo I. Lachapel Mohamed Abdelaal Alexandria University Lachapel Toribio Abogados José Alberto Ontaneda Simona Stocesova Rosa Ypania Burgos Minaya Andrade Mohamed Hanafi Universidad Autónoma de Ontaneda & Posso Abogados University of West Bohemia Arismendi Díaz Santana Mahmoud Santo Domingo (Pilsen) Juan Carlos Riofrío Ministry of Justice Arturo J. Ramirez Samir R. Chami Isa Martínez-Villalba Štěpán Holub Ibert & Ramirez Holubová Advokáti S.R.O. Participación Ciudadana Mohamed Kandel Universidad de los Hemisferios Domingo Suzaña Abreu Ibrachy & Dermarkar Law Suzaña & Asociados Tomas Cihula Stalin Ciprián Firm Juan José Campaña SMARTLEXSERVICES S.A. Kinstellar Ciprian Arriaga & Asocs. Erika Julissa Suero Feliz Mohamed T. Elrafie Tomas Matejovsky Leonardo Sempertegui Alliance Law Firm Virgilio A. Mendez Amaro Mendez & Asociados Sempértegui Ontaneda Francisco Alvarez Valdez CMS Cameron McKenna Abogados Anonymous Contributors Participación Ciudadana Nabarro Olswang Yamil Musri Canalda Luis Ponce Palacios Vojtech Steininger El Salvador Georges Santoni Recio Russin Vecchi & Heredia Estudio Jurídico Quevedo & Anonymous Contributors Hartmanova & Steininger Benjamin Valdez Iraheta Bonetti Ponce Ecuador Benjamin Valdez & Asociados Anonymous Contributors Marcelo Guerra Gilberto Objío Subero Carlos Enrique Castillo Universidad Católica de Medical Law RD Alberto Vivanco Aguirre Denmark Cuenca González Peñaherrera & García Anette Storgaard Romero Pineda & Asociados Asociados Iván A. Cunillera Aarhus University Alburquerque Marcelo Proaño Paredes Carlos R. Urbina Blandón Alfredo G. Brito Ivan Cunillera y Asociados Romero Arteta Ponce Asociados Valdes, Suárez & Velasco, Anne Brandt Christensen Brito & Pinto Ltda. Jaime M. Senior Fernández Advokatfirmaet Brandt Alvaro José Freile Franco Christensen María Sol Sevilla Headrick Rizik Alvarez & Universidad de los Hemisferios Fernández Sempértegui Ontaneda Carolina Lazo Hans Henrik Edlund Abogados Arias Law Aarhus University

173 Melita Sogomonjan Christian Bara Cousin Tamrat Assefa Elisabeth Grabli Mardoqueo J. Tóchez Tamrat Assefa Liban Law Molina Barreau de Paris Bara Legal Corporation Tallinn University of Lawyers Corp Office Technology David Ernesto Claros Flores Francis Tartour Merle Erikson Mariana Fermina Bolaños Tegegne Zergaw García & Bodán University of Tartu Gauthier Chassang Meardi Bahir Dar University García & Bodán Inserm David Osvaldo Toledo Temesgen Sisay Mihkel Gaver Marroquín Universidad Católica de El Bahir Dar University Isabelle Carbuccia Mario Cativo Advokaadibüroo RS MERCATORIA IVCH Paris Law Firm Bufete Cativo Salvador Anonymous Contributors Marta Celina Rodriguez de Rauno Ligi Delmer Edmundo Jean Louis Brochen Barreau de Lille Law Office COBALT Estonia Finland Parada Rodríguez Cruz Escuela Superior de Economía Le Maigat Patrice y Negocios Ari Miettinen Senny Pello Oscar Torres Cañas Université de Rennes 1 García & Bodán Advokaadibüroo Concordia Fimlab Laboratories Ltd. Diego Martín-Menjívar Consortium Legal Piero Rusconi Jukka Peltonen Tanel Kerikmäe Marie Christine Cimadevilla Central Law El Salvador Asianajotoimisto DLA Piper Tallinn University of Cimadevilla Avocats Technology Ernesto Sánchez Finland Oy Arias Law Porfirio Diaz Fuentes Nicolas Mathieu Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher Tanel Küün DLM Abogados Jussi Tapani University of Turku Feridee Hazel Alabí TARK Law Firm and Flom LLP Rebeca Atanacio de Romero Pineda & Asociados Philippe Marin Basagoitia Anonymous Contributors Katja Lindroos University of Eastern Finland Escalon & Atanacio Guillermo Alexander Cabinet Imavocats Ethiopia Parada Gámez Parada Josa & Asociados Markku Fredman Rommell Sandoval Sébastien Ducamp Sesame Avocats I&D Consulting; SBA Firma Abdurahman Seid Asianajotoimisto Fredman & Legal Månsson Oy Ivan Séassal I&D Consulting Stolowy Aberra Degefa Nagawo Addis Ababa University Teresa Beatriz Merino Matti Ilmari Niemi HEC PARIS Jackson Parada Benítez University of Eastern Finland Romero Pineda & Asociados Anonymous Contributors Abiyou Girma Tamrat Jonathan Menjivar Matti Reinikainen Kolari & Co. Oy Abrham Yohannes Hailu Georgia Central Law El Salvador Yudy Aracely Jiménez Rivera Abrham Law Office Abashidze Ana Gold Service S.A. de C.V. Matti Tolvanen José Eduardo Barrientos University of Eastern Finland NGO Partnership for Human Belay Ketema Homa Aguirre Rights Anonymous Contributors Sandoval-Barrientos & Mika J. Lehtimäki Biniam Shiferaw Ayalew Asociados S.A. de C.V. Anna Arganashvili Estonia Global Center on Cooperative Attorneys-at-Law Trust José Eduardo Tomasino NGO Partnership for Human Security Andres Vutt Mika Launiala Hurtado Rights Debebe Hailegebriel University of Eastern Finland Consortium Legal University of Tartu Debebe Hailegebriel Law Ekaterina Aleksidze José Roberto Romero Patrick Lindgren BGI Legal Office Ene Soop Romero Pineda & Asociados ADVOCARE Law Office Law Firm Narlex Endalkachew Geremew Giorgi Beraia Negash Josué Reyes Gaabriel Tavits Paula Bock Institute for Development of Arias Law Freedom of Information ADVISE Attorneys-at-law Olli Hannes Küün G. Khalid Kebede Pohjakallio Ltd Gocha Svanidze TARK Law Firm Juan José Pilía Alberto Bahir Dar University Raimo Isoaho Pilía - Santos & Asociados Law Firm Svanidze & Partners University of Turku Janika Aben Girma Kassa Kumsa Juan José Planas Carías Adama Science and Grigol Gagnidze Tallinn University of Technology University Georgian Bar Asociation; Escuela Superior de Economía Technology Tatu Hyttinen Georgian Barristers & Lawyers y Negocios University of Turku Kaimo Räppo Guadie Sharew W. International Observatory Bahir Dar University Anonymous Contributors Karla Patricia Alas de RS MERCATORIA Law Firm Duarte Guram Imnadze Kaja Põlluste Hiruy Wubie Romero Pineda & Asociados France Human Rights Education and University of Tartu Gebreegziabher Monitoring Center Barral Bruno Kelly Beartiz Romero Monash University Kari Käsper Nassar Abogados El Salvador Ivdity Chikovani CHU Lyon Mehari Redae Curatio International Estonian Human Rights Addis Ababa University Laura Elizabeth Urrutia Foundation Centre Bien Vásquez Groupe ESC Clermont- Kristel Urke Kakha Sharabidze Ferrand Laboratorios Vijosa, S.A de Mekdem Belayneh Business Legal Bureau C .V. Woldeselassie Ellex Raidla Law Firm Bottini Fabien Mekdem Law Office Université Le Havre- Margit Vutt Lourdes Dueñas Lasha Gogiberidze Supreme Court of Estonia Michael Teshome Asociación Salvadoreña de Normandie BGI Legal Infectologia Martin Hirvoja Tameru Wondm Agegnehu David Levy Lina Ghvinianidze Barreau de Paris Tameru Wondm Agegnehu Luis Hector Alberto Perez Human Rights Education and Law Offices Monitoring Center Aguirre I 171 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

174 Mariam Tutberidze Kwame Owusu Agyeman Roberto Kunz-Hallstein Nigel Bowen-Morris Dirk Vielhuber University of Cape Coast Institute for Development of Berufsgenossenschaft der Stephenson Harwood Bauwirtschaft Freedom of Information Roland Gross Nikolaos Kondylis Nana Esi Aferba Ahlijah Mariam Vashakidze S. Beckmann-Koßmann N. Kondylis & Partners Law Ariel Avery Law Friederike Lemme Business Legal Bureau Office Kanzlei Lemme Nana Tawiah Okyir Sebastian Reinsch Gernot A. Warmuth Ghana Institute of Panagiotis Gioulakos Janke & Reinsch Maya Mtsariashvili Rechtsanwaelte e-nomos Business Consultants Scheiber & Partner Management and Public Business Legal Bureau Administration Gregor Dornbusch Nata Kazakhashvili Stefanos Tsimikalis Stefan Huster Nii Nortey Hanson-Nortey Tsimikalis Kalonarou Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State Ruhr-Universität Bochum Helmuth Jordan Ghana Health Service University Kanzlei Jordan Gaensheidestr Stefan Müller-Römer Stelios Grigoriou Gregoriou & Associates Law Nino Merebashvili Richmond Aryeetey Thilo Mahnhold N(N)LE; Institute for Firm University of Ghana Henning Rosenau Justem Development of Freedom of Martin-Luther-Universität Information Halle-Wittenberg Yota Kremmida Sam Okudzeto Sam Okudzeto & Associates Thomas Feltes Hewlett Packard Enterprise Ruhr-Universität Bochum Hermann Bietz Nona Kurdovanidze Anonymous Contributors Georgian Young Lawyers' Shirley Somuah Association Thomas Jürgens Ingo Friedrich Ntrakwah & Co. Grenada Dr. Friedrich und Partner Jürgens Anonymous Contributors Revaz Beridze Rechtsanwaelte mbB Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH Darshan Ramdhani McGill Ingo Klaus Wamser Greece Law Office of Ramdhani and Tobias Singelnstein Vakhtang Natsvlishvili Associates Anthony Mavrides Ruhr-Universität Bochum Jessica Jacobi Open Society Georgia Dawn De Coteau Foundation Kliemt & Vollstädt Ballas, Pelecanos & Associates EMA Solutions Legal Services Ulrich Keil L.P.C. University of Muenster Juergen Nazarek Anonymous Contributors James Bristol Christina Papadopoulou Centre for Media Freedom Henry, Henry & Bristol Jürgen Baumann Ulrike Köllner Germany in the Middle East & North Alexander Putz Karen M. M. Samuel Kerstin Niethammer- Africa Volker von Moers Putz und Partner, Samuel Phillip & Associates Jürgens Lawyers von Moers Damaskou Anna Steuerberater & Rechtsanwalt Jürgens Wolf Stahl Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft Transparency International Martin Forde mbH St. George's University Andreas Grillo Dionyssis Balourdos Wolfgang Hau Hewlett Packard Enterprise National Centre for Social Lars Rieck University of Passau Skeeta A. Chitan Anna Lindenberg Mitchell & Co. Research IPCL Rieck & Partner Rechtsanwälte Anonymous Contributors Effimia Tsangalidou Annegret Berne Tanya K. Lambert Effimi Tsangalidou & Partners Anwaltskanzlei Berne Marc Seifert Ghana Hewlett Packard Enterprise Anonymous Contributors Law Firm Antje Schwarz Abena Ntrakwah-Mensah Martin Reufels Daimler AG Ntrakwah & Co. Fotini N Skopouli Guatemala Harokopio University Heuking Kühn Lüer Wojtek Akosua Akoma Asiama Bernd Weller Alejandro Cofino Rodriguez QIL+4 Abogados Martin Sträßer George Ballas Ntrakwah & Co. Heuking Kühn Lüer Wojtek Sträßer Rehm Barfield, Ballas, Pelecanos & Associates Chemnitz Alfredo Rodríguez Mahuad Azanne Kofi Akainyah L.P.C. Burkhard Klüver A & A Law Consult Consortium Legal Ahlers & Vogel Rechtsanwälte Matthias Nodorf Grace Katsoulis PartG mbB Ballas, Pelecanos & Associates Clement Kojo Akapame Alvaro Ricardo Cordon L.P.C. Cordon & Ovalle Law Firm Carsten Momsen Michael Staudenmayer Ghana Institute of Freie Universitaet Berlin Management and Public Monika Hagen Administration Ilias Anagnostopoulos Ana Gisela Castillo Anagnostopoulos Law Firm Christian E. Naundorf Saravia y Muñoz Comfort Nyameba Opoku Nicola Kreutzer Kreutzer & Kreuzau Christian Wolff Ghana Health Service; Lekma Konstantinos Andrés Hernández Apostolopoulos Martínez Schock Rechtsanwälte GbR Hospital Apostolopoulos Law Office Oliver Bolthausen Bufete LITISGROUP DWF Christina Reifelsberger Dinah Baah-Odoom Ministry of Health Konstantinos Valmas- Carlos Roberto Cordón HessenChemie Oliver Schellbach Vloutis Krumme Christof Kerwer Cordón Krumme & Asociados Esi Tawia Addo-Ashong Schellbach Rechtsanwälte Ashong Benjamin and Julius-Maximilians-Universität Kostoula Mazaraki Nomos Law Firm David Erales Jop Associates Othmar K. Traber Würzburg Ahlers & Vogel Rechtsanwälte Consortium Legal Magda Tazedaki Kapoti Christoph Dirk Hexel PartG mbB Isidore Tufuor Ghana Institute of David Ernesto Chacón Heuking Kühn Lüer Wojtek Tazedakis Law Firm Rainer M. Hofmann Estrada Management and Public Melina Avagianou Christoph Lindner Administration Universidad de San Carlos de Kanzlei im Hofhaus Aachen Klimaka Ngo Guatemala Joyce Franklyn Thompson Reinhard Arndts Ntrakwah & Co. Mittelstein Rechtsanwälte

175 Mario Roberto Guadron Rajas Kasbekar András Jakab Diego Alejos Rivera Melvin Tejada Consortium Legal Pázmány Péter Catholic CCSHH Rouanet Ruchi Sinha Palomo & Porras University Odir Aaron Fernández Edson López Tata Institute of Social Marvin Javier Dávila Sciences Daniel Gera Integrum Patricia A. Solorzano Villegas Gábor Baruch Emanuel Callejas A. Sachidananda Kannarnuji Carrillo & Asociados Baruch Law Office Ricardo A. Padilla P. Pedro Mendoza Montano Iurisconsulti Abogados y Sanjay R Hegde Central Law Honduras Nóra Nagy-Baranyi Supreme Court of India Notarios Enrique Möller EY Law JSLO Legal Services Rosalinda Cruz Sequeira Casco-Fortin, Cruz y Saurabh Misra Rodolfo Alegría Toruño Carrillo & Asociados Fredy Anibal Quinteros Asociados Saurabh Misra & Associates Petra Bárd National Institute of Sagastume Valerya Theodoracopoulos Vilma Chavez De Pop Shankar Das Asociación Derecho Somos Criminology Todos IBFAN Guatemala Lopez Tata Institute of Social Sciences Arias Law Réka Mező Anonymous Contributors Gabriel Arturo Muadi Vanessa Oquelí Garcia Subhash Bhatnagar Viktor Lorincz Guyana Hungarian Academy of Muadi, Murga & Jimenez Indian Institutes of García & Bodán Sciences Management Esther Sam Gonzalo Menendez Park Anonymous Contributors Subhrarag Mukherjee Lexincorp Zsolt Zengődi Eusi Anderson Hong Kong SAR, China Hewlett Packard Enterprise Harvey Álvarez Pacay Anonymous Contributors Gabriel Anderson Law Vipender Mann Christopher R J Hooley HP Abogados India Eva Rawana Scott KNM & Partners Oldham, Li & Nie Jorge Rolando Barrios Rawana-Scott and Associates Danny Chan A P S Narula Bonilla, Montano, Toriello & Yadlapalli Kusuma AIIMS Century Chambers Mahendra Satram Barrios Satram & Satram Amit Vijaykar Yashomati Ghosh David C. Donald Hewlett Packard Enterprise José Arturo Rosales Cano The Chinese University of Anonymous Contributors García & Bodán National Law School of India Anil Fernandes Hong Kong University Anil Fernandes & Associates José Eduardo Martí Guilló Honduras Universidad Rafael Landívar Edward Alder Yazdi P Dandiwala Prince's Chambers Claudia Marcela Midence Anil Kumar K Mulla and Mulla and Craigie Soto José Federico Zelada Tata Institute of Social Blunt and Caroe Arias Law Farzana Aslam Sciences Cifuentes Anonymous Contributors University of Hong Kong Consortium Legal David Israel Díaz Anil Paleri José Miguel Argueta Bone Hernández Ian Scott Indonesia City University of Hong Kong Anuvinda Varkey García & Bodán Universidad de San Carlos de Christian Coalition for Health Alamo D. Laiman Guatemala Legisperitus Lawyers Edilka Ramos James A. Rice Juan José Porras Castillo Apar Gupta Lingnan University Ely Abel Pinto Jimenez Palomo & Porras Law Offices of Apar Gupta Alexandra Gerungan James L.W. Wong Makarim & Taira S. Ashima Das Erick Fernando Lezama Juan Pablo Nimatuj Century Chambers Lainez Mansilla Erinda Resti Goesyen AHIS, Mumbai Bufete Castro Basteguieta & Arias Law Michael Chai Leks&Co Bernacchi Chambers Ashok N. Ramgir Asociados J. Humberto Medina Alva Harsh Impex Gilang Mursito Aji Central Law Honduras Michael Vidler Luis Enrique Solares AM Oktarina Bontha V. Babu Vidler & Co Solicitors Larrave Hanim Hamzah Jessica Marleni Palma Asensio Andrade Flores Rick Glofcheski Olivares ZICOlaw Damodhar Padmanabha Abogados University of Hong Kong DXC Technology Immanuel A. Indrawan Jorge Lopez Luis Pedro Cazali Drushya Sridhar Susan Kendall Indrawan Darsyah Santoso Hewlett Packard Enterprise Baker & McKenzie Jorge Roberto Urmeneta Marco Antonio Palacios Andres López Marco Kumar Palacios & Asociados AM Oktarina Universidad Nacional Victor Yang Ishwar Chandra Dwivedi Zhong Lun Law Firm Autonoma de Honduras Noverizky Tri Putra Nagarathna A. Marco Antonio Villeda National Law School of India Pasaribu Sandoval José Ángel Lara Pinto Yat Hung Tam AM Oktarina University Universidad Nacional Yun Zhao Autonoma de Honduras Marcos Palma Integrum University of Hong Kong Nirmal Kanti Chakrabarti Poltak Arif Kiit University Bahar & Partners Juan José Alcerro Milla María Mercedes Castro Anonymous Contributors Aguilar Castillo Love Rahayu Ningsih Hoed Guerra Pramod Singh Makarim & Taira S. Lux Veritas Hungary Karla Gabriela Aguilar R. García & Bodán BLP Abogados Pravarshini Palanivel Ákos Bajorfi Mario Archila Sandi Adila Noerr & Partners Law Office Leobildo Cabrera Cabrera Mochtar Karuwin Komar Arias Law Puneet Misra I 173 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

176 Sianti Candra Hiroshi Nishihara Jamaica Tareef Nabeel Carlo Casonato University of Trento Nabeel Law Offices Roosdiono & Partners Waseda University (ZICOlaw) Alan T Barnett University of the West Indies, Zaid Al-Aqaileh Davide Cacchioli Junko Ogushi Mu'tah University Mona Atsumi & Sakai Sunardjo Sumargono Pedersoli Studio Legale Law Office of Semar Anthony Clayton Junko Suetomi Emanuele Cortesi Anonymous Contributors Suryakencana Cipta Justiceindo Baker & McKenzie University of the West Indies Caffii, Maroncelli & Associati Kazakhstan Tauvik M Soeherman Masanori Iwasa Antoinette Barton-Gooden Emanuele Scafato Artem Timoshenko University of the West Indies, Società Italiana di Alcologia The Law Offices of Takashi Tristam Pascal Moeliono Mona Unicase Law Firm Takano Catholic University of Francesco Maria Avato University of Ferrara Masanori Tanabe Parahyangan-Bandung Bolat Miyatov Audrey Brown GRATA International Sakai Law Office Anonymous Contributors Gianfranco Di Garbo Carla-Anne Harris-Roper Baker & McKenzie Dmitriy Chumakov Nobuo Koinuma Devine White Iran Tohoku Medical and Sayat Zholshy & Partners Giovanni Nardulli Westmoreland Parish Court Pharmaceutical University Ivan Omarov Ahmad Daryani Legance - Avvocati Associati Sayaka Hara Emile G.R. Leiba SION & Partners International Arash Izadi Japan Federation of Bar DunnCox Law Firm Giuseppe Lorenzo Rosa Izadi Law Firm Giuseppe L. Rosa, Esq. & Association Eris Schoburgh Larissa Orlova Associated Counsels Ehsan Hosseinzadeh University of the West Indies, Michael Wilson & Partners, Shigeji Ishiguro Mona Luigi Mori Ltd. Educated Lawyers Law Firm Oguri & Ishiguro Law Office Biolato Longo Ridola & Mori Encyeh Seyed Sadr Hadrian R. Christie Shigetoshi (Toshi) Hirano Maxim Sukhoterin Oh-Ebashi LPC & Partners Marco Esposito SION & Partners International Bayan Emrooz Law Firm Law Firm Università Parthenope J Peter Figueroa Tomohisa Muranushi University of the West Indies, Farhad Derhami Mona Mariano Cingolani Perizat Nurlankyzy Baker & McKenzie Bayan Emrooz Law Firm SIGNUM Law Firm LLP University of Macerata Hamid Bagherzadeh Toshiaki Higashi Jacqueline D Goulbourner Farama Law Firm Sergei Vataev Mario Perini University of Occupational University of the West Indies Università degli Studi di Siena and Environmental Health Dechert Kazakhstan Ltd. Joanne Wood Rattray Mahnaz Mehrinfar Micaela Vitaletti Behrooz Akhlaghi & Associates Yasuhiro Fujii Sofiya Zhylkaidarova DunnCox University of Teramo Toranomon Square Law Office SIGNUM Law Firm LLP Kevin O. Powell Mohammad Rahmani Patrizio Ivo D'Andrea Yuki Mukaeda Hylton Powell Bayan Emrooz Law Firm Svetlana Sylkina Kazakh National University of University of Ferrara LTE Law Offices Marie Freckleton Sara Tajdini al-Farabi Anonymous Contributors University of the West Indies Gheidi Law Office Pierpaolo Martucci Tajibaev Shamil Saginovich University of Trieste Jordan Kazakh Academy of Nutrition Soheila Rahimi Narda Graham-Laird Educated Lawyers Law Firm DunnCox Pietro Faraguna Ahmad Faleh Tamimi Vitaliy Vodolazkin LUISS Guido Carli University Soroosh Falahati Orville W. Beckford Sayat Zholshy & Partners Jordan University Hospital University of the West Indies, Riccardo Del Punta Bayan Emrooz Law Firm Ali Mohammad Aldabbas Mona University of Florence Yerjanov Timur Anonymous Contributors Kazakh National University University of Petra Roberto Bin Paul D Brown Università di Ferrara Anwar Batieha Yerzhan Yessimkhanov Italy University of the West Indies GRATA International Jordan University of Science Alberto Fantini and Technology Roberto Caranta Sharon White University of Turin University of the West Indies, Tonucci & Partners Anonymous Contributors Mona George Hazboun Alessia-Ottavia Cozzi Roberto Ceccon Kenya International Consolidated for Legal Consultations Sonia Gatchair Ceccon & Associati Area Science Park Aabid A. Ahmed University of the West Indies, Mona Anna Mastromarino Bomu Hospital Roberto Rosapepe Hisham Ababneh Università di Torino Dentons Salerno University Verona Henry-Ferguson Abbas A. Esmail Roberto Toniatti University of the West Indies, Anna Simonati Ibrahim Aldmour Anjarwalla & Khanna University of Trento Mona University of Trento Kamal Jamal Awad Abdulhafeez Noorani Rocchina Staiano Alawamleh Antonella Antonucci Daly & Inamdar Advocates Anonymous Contributors University of Petra Università degli Studi Aldo Università di Teramo Moro - Bari Alex Inyangu Japan Sergio Bartole Khaled Atwan Ameli Inyangu & Partners Antonio Cassatella Atwan & Partners University of Trieste Daichi Kiriyama University of Trento Atiq S. Anjarwalla Baker & McKenzie Omar Qutishat Simone Boneschi Anjarwalla & Khanna Astolfo Di Amato H.Q Law Firm Hikaru Oguchi UNDP Nishimura & Asahi Naples University Benjamin M Musau and Rasha Laswi Anonymous Contributors Teresia M Munywoki Zalloum and Laswi Law Firm B M Musau & Co

177 Elena Dimova - Ivanoska Saltanat Moldoisaeva Beryl Orao Wissam Kabbara Stephen Mallowah Lebanese American University Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic Kenya National Commission Cakmakova Advocates TripleOKLaw Advocates, LLP on Human Rights University Tabitha Joy Raore Emilija Lokvenec Anonymous Contributors Anjarwalla & Khanna Dennis Mung'ata Saniia Toktogazieva Liberia American University of Gichimu Mung'ata & Ilija Nedelkoski Central Asia Company Advocates Thomas N. Maosa Cakmakova Advocates Maosa and Co. Advocates Alfred Hill Elizabeth Wangari International Development Sanzhar Aldashev Katerina Atanasovska Law Organization GRATA International Odhiambo Wangui Kaniaru and Mary Leonid Trpenoski University of Nairobi Waititu Anjarwalla & Khanna Ulan Tilenbaev Trpenoski Law Firm Cecil B. Griffiths Kalikova & Associates Liberia National Law Eric Kibet Enforcement Association Wilfred N. Nderitu Ljupka Noveska Andonova Lexlink Consulting Zhanyl Abdrakhmanova Nderitu & Partners Advocates; Centil Law Firm Christiana Tah Mišo Dokmanović Francis Gichuhi Kamau PILLARS Ss. Cyril and Methodius Yvonne Wangui Machira University Fred Ondieki Mogotu F. Augustus Caesar Anonymous Contributors Tafiti Research Group Ltd. Anjarwalla & Khanna Caesar Architects Inc. Nikolco Lazarov Lebanon Hannan J Karnley-Bestman George Muchiri Mwangi Anonymous Contributors Law Office Lazarov Daly & Inamdar Advocates Antoine G. Ghafari New World Partners Olivera Grozdanovska Kyrgyzstan Kula L. Jackson Cakmakova Advocates Harrison Mbori Carlos Abou Jaoude Aikanysh Jeenbaeva Heritage Partners & Strathmore University Abou Jaoude & Associates Associates, Inc. Academy of Public Risto Novakovski Law Firm Administration Godzo, Kiceec & Novakovski Jacqueline Nyabwa Elias Chalhouba Anjarwalla & Khanna Lucia D.S. Gbala Heritage Partners & Arab Center for the Akbar Suvanbekov Sinisha Dimitrovski Law Firm TEMIS SB Ministry of Health Development of the Rule of John Morris Ohaga Associates, Inc. Law and Integrity TripleOKLaw Advocates, LLP Malcolm W. Joseph Alexander Orehov Stefan Chichevaliev Elias Matar Center for Media Studies and John Mudegu Vulule Centre for Regional Policy Peacebuilding Kenya Medical Research Abou Jaoude & Associates Azamat Kerimbaev Research and Cooperation Studiorum Institute Law Firm ABA ROLI Mark M. M. Marvey Baktygul Kubanychbekova Josephine L. M. Righa Svetlana Veljanovska Heritage Partners & Jean E. Akl Igeria & Ngugi Advocates Akl Law Practice Associates, Inc. St. Clement of Ohrid Osh oblast Collegium of University Advocates Jihad Irani Robert Numehni Gbarbea Karim S. Anjarwalla Vesna Gavriloska University of Balamand The Carter Center Anjarwalla & Khanna Bekchoro Aliiaskarov Cakmakova Advocates T. Debey Sayndee Kiingati Ndirangu Chinarbek Kurmanbekov Joelle Choueifati Kairu Mbuthia & Kiingati Kofi Annan Institute, Anonymous Contributors Advocates University of Liberia Khatoun Haidar Chynara Esengeldieva Madagascar Synergy-Takamol Lorenz Law Anonymous Contributors Lyla Latif Alain Ramanarivo George & Lydeen Company Mary E. Deeb Elida K. Nogoibaeva L'Ordre des Avocats de Advocates Macedonia, FYR Lebanese American University American University of Central Asia Madagascar Aleksandar Godzo Marabu Fidelis Limo Moahamad Ziad Ramadan Elvira Maratova TripleOKLaw Advocates, LLP Elaref Intrernational Law Godzo, Kiceec & Novakovski Alexandra Rajerison Barreau de Madagascar GRATA International Office Aleksandra Baleva Milly Lwanga Markallan Consulting Agency Ermek Mamaev Pierre Obeid Andry Herisoa Grozdanova Andrianasolo Kalikova & Associates University of Balamand Godzo, Kiceec & Novakovski Naeem Hirani Institut Pasteur de Aleksandra Gruevska Ramy Torbey Iskender Batyrbekov Madagascar Eptalex Drakulevski GRATA International Njeri Wagacha and Milly Minayo Mbedi Bakoly Razaiarisolo Rakotomalala Jyldyz Tagaeva Ardit Memeti Rany Sader Anjarwalla & Khanna SADER & Associates Kalikova & Associates Claude Fanohiza Opundo Samson Leonard Darko Nikodinovski Transparency International Roula Zayat Kanat Seidaliev Trpenoski Law Firm Paul Wanjohi Kihori Arab Center for the GRATA International Development of the Rule of Anjarwalla & Khanna Jean Pierre Rakotovao Darko Spasevski Law and Integrity Jhpiego Madagascar Kerim Begaliev Iustinianus Primus Skopje Protas Saende Centil Law Firm Deljo Kadiev Meritad Law Africa LLP Salah S. Mattar Jeannot Julien Padoue Rafanomezana Mattar Law Firm Klara Sooronkulova Remigeo P. Mugambi International University of Doncho M. Donev Barreau De Madagascar, C.A.M.M. Muthoga Gaturu & Company Souraya Machnouk Central Asia Ss. Cyril and Methodius Abou Jaoude & Associates University Ketakandriana Rafitoson Musabekova Chynara Salima Mohammed Law Firm Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic Dori Kimova Kenya Red Cross Society Liberty 32 Kimova Law Office Tony G. Zreik University Lebanese American University Sarah Mukuhi Anjarwalla & Khanna I 175 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

178 Lala Ratsiharovala Guillermo A. Gatt-Corona Suganthi Singam Teresa Carmona Arcos James Admson Peter Mwaisemba Iteso; Universidad Shearn Delamore & Co. Ministère de la Justice de Consultores Jurídicos Madagascar Panamericana Sanctuary Dental Clinic Valente Damián Fuentes Yusramizza Md Isa @ Yusuff Guillermo Piecarchic Universiti Utara Malaysia Lalao Rasoamiaramanana Tello Jean Rosemary Kayira Maqueo, De Garay y Aguilar, PMC GROUP Malawi Judiciary Laza Andrianirina Zainal A. Ayub S.C. Universiti Utara Malaysia Kamudoni Nyasulu Gustavo Morante Aguirre Académie des Arts, Lettres et Sciences de Madagascar Kamudoni Nyasulu Law Torres Morante Victor Manuel Ortega Anonymous Contributors Consultants Gonzalez Mamy Rakolonandria Hugo Hernández-Ojeda Mexico Anonymous Contributors Alvírez Khumbo Bonzoe Soko Marie Mélanie Soko & Co. Hogan Lovells Rapenitrarivo Alejandra Moreno Moldova Tribunal de Première Instance Altamirano Krishna Savjani Iván García Gárate d'Ankazobe Universidad del Claustro de Savjani & Co. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Adrian Belii Sor Juana State University of Medicine Mike Chinoko Nelly Rakotobe Ralambondrainy Law Commission and Pharmacy Nicolae Alfonso Rodriguez-Arana Jorge Berlin Acosta Legalmex S.C. Association Magistrats – Testemitanu Jorge Luis Silva Antananarivo Patrick Mphatso Chinguwo Alexei Croitor Alfredo Kupfer Domínguez Banco Mundial Attorney Office Alexei Croitor Rachel Sophie Sikwese Olivia Rajerison Cabinet RAJERISON High Court of Malawi Alonso González-Villalobos José Alberto Campos Vargas Ana Galus Ana Paula Berlin Sánchez DeVanny, Eseverri, Rapelanoro Rabenja Redson E. Kapindu Turcan Cazac Law Firm Olavarrieta S.C. High Court of Malawi Université Antananarivo Andrei Briceac Fundación Cultural Baur Madagascar PB & Partners José Rodrigo Moreno Shepher Mumba Golden & Law Raymond Rakotomanga Rodríguez Carlos de Buen Unna Notaría Pública No. 108 Bufete de Buen Jhpiego Madagascar Baciu Inga Sosten Chilumpha Alecu Russo Balti State University Christian Alan Bello Juan Carlos Hernández Rija Ramarijaona Melchor Martínez William Mtchayabweka PRIMELEX Chifa Felicia Chibwe Jr. Notarias 92 y 145 Hernández Torres Abogados Rindra Hasimbelo Wilson and Morgan Cinthya Castillero Vera Constantin Etco Rabarinirinarison Juan Manuel Juarez Meza Gerbera Capital; Universidad CNM William Yakuwawa Msiska State University of Medicine Contramar Abogados Malawi Law Commission Nacional Autónoma de and Pharmacy Nicolae México Saholiniaina Njivasoa Testemitanu L. Alberto Balderas Wongani Mvula Nathalie Rambeloson Jáuregui y Del Valle, S.C. Barreau de Madagascar Malawi Law Commission Corina Oprea Daniel Carranca de la Mora Luciano Mendoza Cruz IMJUS Efrim, Roşca şi Asociaţii Anonymous Contributors Universidad Nacional Tsantatiana S. Autónoma de México Daniel Martin Daniel Cruz González Randrianarimanana Tribunal Administratif Malaysia Notarias 92 y 146 BAA ACI Partners d'Antananarivo Marco Antonio González Emiliano Baidenbaum Eduard Scutaru Anand Ponnudurai Reynoso GRND Abogados Hewlett Packard Enterprise Messrs Bodipalar Ponnudurai Tsarazara Andrianasoavina Galina Obreja De Silva Enrique Camarena Mario Alberto Rocha State University of Medicine Velozandry Léonard Ashgar Ali Ali Mohamed and Pharmacy Nicolae PricewaterhouseCoopers, S.C. Domínguez Barreau de Madagascar Maqueo, De Garay y Aguilar, Testemitanu International Islamic Anonymous Contributors S.C. University Mónica Jazmín Martínez Pérez Graur Eugeniu Esteban Maqueo Barnetche Aspalella A. Rahman AO CISTE Certitudine Fundación Civitas A.C. Malawi Maqueo Barnetche, Aguilar y Universiti Utara Malaysia Monica Schiaffino Perez Camarena, S.C. Ion Galus Adamson S. Muula Littler Mexico, S.C. Azmi & Associates University of Malawi IMSP SR Sangerei Esteban Puentes Epidemiólogo Sanofi Pasteur Iulia Furtuna Allan Hans Muhome Oliva López Arellano Harlida Abdul Wahab Turcan Cazac Law Firm Universiti Utara Malaysia Malawi Law Society Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Francisco Javier Tiburcio Mohd Munzil Muhamad Bruno Paul Matumbi Marica Dumitrasco Celorio Pablo Medina Magallanes Universiti Kebangsaan Basham, Ringe y Correa, S.C. Academy of Sciences of Excellence Law Partners Medina Abogados Moldova Malaysia Chikosa M. Silungwe Franz E. Oberarzbacher Instituto Tecnológico The Mizumali Foundation Rodrigo Lazo Mihail Durnescu Obijiofor Aginam Autónomo de México International Institute for CA Mihail Durnescu Lazo, Villa, Moel y García, S. C. Fresier Chidyaonga-Maseko Global Health Oleg Efrim Univesity of Malawi Salvador Pasquel Villegas Gerardo Moheno Gallardo Rizal Rahman Baker & McKenzie Efrim, Roşca şi Asociaţii Moreno Rodríguez y Gabriel Kambale Asociados, S.C. Universiti Kebangsaan GK Associates Malaysia Patricia Handraman Sergio López Moreno Gladei & Partners Universidad Autónoma Gilberto Miguel Valle Jack N'riva Metropolitana Sharon Kaur Zulbarán Basham, Ringe y Correa, S.C. Malawi Judiciary University of Malaya Ropot Veaceslav Nicolae

179 Madhab Raj Ghimire Serghei Cozma JAC Meeuwissen Nesrine Roudane Munkhjargal Ragchaakhuu Trimbos Institute Nero Boutique Law Firm Batbayar and Partners LLP PSM Global Consultants Serghei Cozma Law Firm (P). Ltd. Jacqueline van den Bosch Nandinchimeg Banzragch Spinei Larisa S. Fenjiro Narayan Prasad Ghimire Tsogt and Nandin LLP State University of Medicine Ivy Advocaten Center for Rule of Law and Pharmacy Nicolae Tarik Mossadek Naransukh Damiran University Hassan I Jeroen Bijnen Testemitanu DXC Technology Narayan Shrestha Mongolian National University Anonymous Contributors Svetlana Doltu of Medical Sciences Shrestha Legal Service Center NGO AFI M.J. de Heer Myanmar Nominchimeg Odsuren Nil Mani Upadhyay Vakbond De Unie Nepalese Army Institute of Vanu Jereghi Health Sciences S.F.H. Jellinghaus Moldovan Institute for Human Aung Htoo Oyunchimeg Dovdoi Rights Legal Aid Network Tilburg University; De Voort Public Participation for Sustainable Development Lawyers and Mediators Nilambar Jha Chester Toh B. P. Koirala Institute of Vasile Gherasim Health Sciences Thomas Timmermans Saranchimeg Byambaa Rajah & Tann Singapore LLP Popa & Associates National Statistical Office of Norton Rose Fulbright LLP Mongolia Victor Burac Christophoros Politis Prabin Subedi Burac and Associates Paramount Legal Advisory UNDP Anonymous Contributors Services Pvt. Ltd. Sugarnyam Peljee MDS KhanLex LLP New Zealand Vieru Vadim Kari Ann Rotkin and Anjali Mohan Gelbort Promo-LEX Rabin Subedi Zanaa Jurmed Justice Base AJ Forbes National Law College Vladimir Palamarciuc Clarendon Chambers Center for Citizens' Alliance Rudra Prasad Pokhrel Turcan Cazac Law Firm Kyaw Kyaw Han Alan Knowsley Anonymous Contributors R P Pokhrel & Associates DFDL Myanmar Ltd. Zama Vitalie Rainey Collins Lawyers Sajjan Bar Singh Thapa Lucas Chen Morocco Lawyers for Human Rights Thanlwin Legal Legal Research Associates Alberto Costi Victoria University of Abdelaziz Bakkali Anonymous Contributors Lucy Wayne & Associates Barreau de Tanger Shankar Limbu Wellington Lawyers' Association for Mongolia Abdelghani Khannous Asha Stewart Min Thein Human Rights of Nepalese Rajah & Tann NK Legal Quigg Partners Ariuntuya Rentsen Indigenous Peoples Abdellah Bakkali MahoneyLiotta LLP Myanmar Co., Ltd. Shirshak Ghimire Bakkali Law Firm Brian Keene Mya Thein B. Enkhbat Dhakal and Ghimire Law Offices Pvt. Ltd. Campbell Roberts Ali Badi Constitutional Tribunal Rtd. MDS KhanLex LLP Association Nationale pour The Salvation Army Nickey Diamond Badamragchaa Purevdorj la Dèfense des Droits de Shiva Prd. Rijal Open Society Forum Fortify Rights D J Lyon Pioneer Law Associates l'Homme au Maroc Lyon O'Neale Arnold Lawyers Ali Lachgar Essahili Shringa Rishi Kafle Batbayar Ganbayar Nyein Kyaw Rajah & Tann NK Legal Merit Legal Consultancy Pvt. Lachgar Essahili Law Firm Batbayar and Partners LLP Danny Jacobson Myanmar Co., Ltd. Employment Lawyers Ltd. Batjargal Gombosuren Amin Hajji and Kaoutar MDS KhanLex LLP Subarna K Khatry Scott Ciment Denise Arnold Faress Lyon O'Neale Arnold Lawyers Nepal Nutrition Intervention UNDP Hajji & Associés Bayar Budragchaa Project ELC Advocates LLP Anis Mouafik Frances Joychild Thu Ya Zaw Sudeep Gautam Queens Counsel MLE Law Firm Mouafik Law Firm David C. Buxbaum and Otgontuya Davaanyam Anonymous Contributors Gay Morgan Tin Sein Azzedine Kettani Anderson and Anderson LLP Kettani Law Firm University of Waikato Polastri Wint & Partners Legal Services Ltd. Netherlands Benmakhlouf Abdelhamid Dorjdamba Zumberellkham Gordon Anderson Win Naing Arnold C. Hoegen Dijkhof Mongolian Bar Association Victoria University of El Mernissi Mohamed Win & Cho Law Firm Wellington Hoegen Dijkhof Attorneys & Figes Mernissi Erdenebalsuren Damdin Tax Counsellors Anonymous Contributors Grace Haden The Supreme Court of Ibrahim Tanfouss Arnold Versteeg Transparency New Zealand Mongolia Nepal Macro & Versteeg Advocaten Ltd. Ganbat Byambaa Khachie Abdelmajid Ian Gault Eugenie Nunes Bijay Singh Sijapati Gunbileg Boldbaatar Dentons Boekel Lhassan M'Barki Bell Gully Tribhuvan University South for Studies and Mongolian Bar Association Gabriel Meijers Jeremy N. Bioletti Sustainable Development Bijaya Prasad Mishra Indermohan S Narula Meijers Canatan Advocaten Kalyan Law Firm Global Fund Mimoun Charqi Jyostana Haria Gerben den Hertog Budhi Karki Amicus Law Charqi Lex Consulting Galavazi Den Hertog Khishigsaikhan Batchuluun Open Society Forum Kevin Riordan Mohamed Baske Manar Gourish Krishna Kharel Kto Inc. Hansko Broeksteeg Office of the Judge Advocate Faculté des Sciences General Radboud University Nijmegen Juridiques, Economiques et Khunan Jargalsaikhan Legal Aid and Consultancy Sociales Marrakech Hoegen Dijkhof Attorneys Center Munkhdorj Badral M B Rodriguez Ferrere & Tax Counsellors University of Otago Mongol-Advocates LLP Moummi Saad I 177 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

180 Malcolm Rabson Trevor Daya-Winterbottom Norway Maryam Belgore Ahmed Nigeria Law University of Waikato Kwara State Magistracy Abdulfattah Adewale Baker Margaret Wilson Arild Vaktskjold Høgskulen i Innlandet; W. John Hopkins Michael Abayomi Bisade Legal Aid Council of Nigeria University of Waikato Sjukehuset Innlandet University of Canterbury Alliyu Abdulhamid Abdullahi Marie Bismark Chief Yomi Alliyu & Co. Bagara Bent Endresen W.M. Thomson University of Melbourne Community Health and University of Otago Michael C Asuzu EBT AS Marie J Grills Research Initiative University of Ibadan William Akel Carl A. Christiansen RPB Law Nelson C.S Ogbuanya Adamu M. Usman Ræder Simpson Grierson Nocs Consults F. O. Akinrele & Co. Mark Bennett Anonymous Contributors Erling Lind Victoria University of Nnenna Ejekam Adebola Sobowale Wellington Advokatfirmaet Wiersholm Nnenna Ejekam Associates Olisa Agbakoba Legal Nicaragua Mark Winger Frank S. Thrana Obiajulu Nnamuchi MedBase Holmden Horrocks Ana Teresa Rizo Briseño Adewale Akande Arias Law Auxilium Attorneys University of Nigeria Mary-Rose Russell Geir Steinberg Oghogho Makinde, Aluko & Aina Precious Aderemi Tauranga Angelica Maria Toruño Advokatfirmaet Haavind AS Babalakin & Co. Oyebode Garcia Gunnar Tellnes Universidad Evangelica Matt Berkahn Oladejo Olowu Massey University University of Oslo Bisi Bright Nicaraguense Martin Luther American University of Nigeria King Jr. LiveWell Initiative Michael Bott Harald B. Ciarlo Bolanle O. Jibogun David Jose Sanchez Soza Olaniyi Felix Olayinka Ivar Alvik Consortium Legal Legal Aid Council of Nigeria The Polytechnic Ibadan Nick Crang Duncan Cotterill University of Oslo Olasupo Olaibi Dayana Trejos Cunningham Chioma Kanu Agomo Supo Olaibi & Co. Centro Nicaraguense de University of Lagos Nigel Hampton Jan Frich University of Oslo Conservación Ambiental Olumide Ekisola Pam Nuttall Chukwunweike A. Auckland University of Karl Harald Søvig Ogbuabor Adejumo & Ekisola Edgard Leonel Torres Mendieta University of Bergen University of Nigeria Technology Arias Law Oluwadamilare Yomi-Alliyu Enoch Mozong Azariah Magne Strandberg Paul Michalik Chief Yomi Alliyu & Co. Gerardo Martin Hernandez University of Bergen Legal Aid Council of Nigeria Paul Roth Consortium Legal Osuntogun Abiodun Jacob University of Otago Felicia Nwanne Monye Niels R. Kiaer University of Ibadan John Lordsal Minnella- Rime Advokatfirma DA University of Nigeria Ozofu Olatunde Ogiemudia Penny Bright Romano Minnella Romano and Ola Mestad Udo Udoma & Belo-Osagie Femi David Ikotun Ikotun Temowo & Co. Associates University of Oslo Peter Watts University of Auckland (Ziongates Chambers) Peter K. Fogam Universty of Lagos Olaf Halvorsen Rønning Juan Ramón Avilés Molina Petra Butler University of Oslo Festus Okechukwu Pontian N Okoli Ukwueze Victoria University of Luis Manuel Perezalonso University of Nigeria University of Dundee Wellington Rajvinder Bains Lanzas Advokatfirmaet Haavind AS Bufete Jurídico y de Mediación Robin W Ord Seyi Akinwunmi Festus Onyia Udo Udoma & Belo-Osagie Luis Mariano Chavarria Akinwunmi & Busari Stella M. Tuft Microsoft Roderick Mulgan Orozco Taiwo Elijah Adewale Laboratorios Procaps Gbenga Odusola Roger Brooking Acme Law Partners in Terje Einarsen Adekunle Ajasin University University of Bergen VUW association with Gbenga Maryeling Suyen Guevara Sequeira Terrumun Z. Swende Odusola & Co. Scott Wilson Arias Law Tor Vale Benue State University Duncan Cotterill Gbenga Oyebode Ulf Stridbeck Roger Guevara Mena Titilola Ayotunde-Rotifa Aluko & Oyebode Simon Ladd Valuespeak Solicitors University of Oslo CORPLAW Bell Gully Godwin Anthony Etim Soraya Arbella Montoya AELEX Anonymous Contributors Uju Obuka Sonja M Cooper Herrera University of Nigeria Cooper Legal Ibrahim Imam CR Consultores Pakistan Wahab Egbewole University of Ilorin Agha Xaher Gul University of Ilorin Urania Ruiz Condega Stephen Eliot Smith Marie Stopes International John Oluwole A. Akintayo University of Otago Víctor Jesús Méndez Yomi Dare University of Ibadan Stephen Franks Asim Nasim Dussán Checkers Consultancy ANSAP Joseph E.O. Abugu Services Orr, Dignam & Co. Franks Ogilvie Abugu & Co. Steven Zindel Yali Molina Palacios Yusuf Ali Faisal Mahmood Ghani Zindels Central Law Nicaragua Keji Osilaja Yusuf Ali San Mahmood Abdul Ghani & Co. Susanne Ruthven Anonymous Contributors Yaser Gabriel Bonilla Laura Omolola Ikwuagwu Faiza Muzaffar Punjab Health Initiative George Ikoli & Okagbue Harbour Chambers Central Law Nicaragua Management Company Anonymous Contributors

181 Evan E. Morgan Hasan Hameed Bhatti Ciriaco S. Calalang Jose Alberto Barraza Krzysztof Kowalczyk Evan Morgan & Asociados; Calalang and Associates Lahore Waste Management Serracin BSJP Brockhuis Jurczak Prusak Centro de Proyeccion Legal Company Universidad Metropolitana Sp. K. Castro Carazo y Social Emerico O. De Guzman Krzysztof Rastawicki ACCRALAW Imdad Ali Soomro Fernando Meléndez Marie Stopes International José Rigoberto Acevedo C. Rastawicki Mianowski Sawicki Sp.K. Universidad Latina Fernández Enriquito J. Mendoza Kausar S Khan ROMULO Law Firm Gonzalo Garcia Calderon Małgorzata Grzelak Aga Khan University; Kurt Louis Beermann Squire Patton Boggs Francis Tom Temprosa Interactive Research & Hermmerling Gustavo Victor de los Ríos Ateneo de Manila University Development & Indus Hospital Beermann & Bocharel Michał Bitner Abogados Network Woolls Warsaw University Rey & de los Ríos Abogados James Fulton B. Almagro Liriola Pérez Broce Mohammad Akmal Wasim Almagro Law Office Héctor Ignacio Zúñiga Luy Supreme Court of Pakistan Michał Raczkowski Pérez Broce & Pino-Pinto University of Warsaw Rey & de los Ríos Abogados Javier Javier Law; Integrated Bar of Mohammad Akram Sheikh Mario Adolfo Rognoni Arosemena Noriega & Jean Paul Borit Akram Sheikh Law Associates the Philippines Piotr Jakub Rastawicki Contreras Rastawicki Mianowski Sawicki Hewlett Packard Enterprise Muhammad Farhad Tirmazi Jesusito G Morallos Sp.K. Mayte Sanchez Gonzalez Manuel Villa-García Follosco Morallos & Herce Muhammad Farhad & Piotr Sadownik, Krzysztof Morgan & Morgan Associates Estudio Olaechea Jonathan Sale Ciepliński, Paweł Meus, and Aleksandra Połatyńska Muhammad Nouman Ramón Ricardo Arias Marcos Ricardo Revatta Shams Jose Cochingyan III Salas Gide Tokarczuk Grześkowiak Galindo, Arias & López Qazi Law Associates Cochingyan & Peralta Law Sp. K. Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga de Ica Offices Roberto Moreno Muzaffar Islam Universidad Especializada de Radoslaw T. Skowron Karen S. Gomez Dumpit Marino Costa Bauer KKPW Law Office The Urban Unit las Américas Commission on Human Rights Xavier Saez Llorens Shahid Raza Mario Castillo Freyre of the Philippines Stefan Jaworski Hospital del Niño Dr. José Estudio Mario Castillo Freyre Orr, Dignam & Co. Szymon Kubiak Renán Esquivel Krisanto Karlo Nicolas Nicolas & De Vega Law Shams ul Haq Qazi Wardynski & Partners Myriam Velarde I Qazi Law Associates Anonymous Contributors Offices Instituto Médico de Lenguaje y Wojciech Babicki Aprendizaje Ma. Louisa M. Viloria-Yap Miller Canfield Peru Shams-ul-Haque Joiya Garcia Iñigo & Partners Right Law Company Ricardo Antonio Pauli Montenegro Anonymous Contributors Alberto Varillas C. García Sayán Abogados Maita Chan-Gonzaga Tariq Rahim Tariq Rahim Law Associates Ateneo de Manila University Portugal Romy Chang Kcomt Arturo Gárate Salazar Padilla & Chang Abogados Ana Cláudia Cavaco de Umer Farooq Universidad Nacional Federico Ramil E. Bugayong Sousa Ayub Medical College Villareal Rossana Maccera PJS Law Universidade Atlântica Zahid Jamil Reginald A. Tongol Carlos Felipe Palacios Teodoro German Jimenez Rosado TOVEN & Associates Ana Maria de São Pedro Borra IREN SUR Anonymous Contributors Pires Muñiz, Ramirez, Perez Taiman Universidade Atlântica Ronahlee A. Asuncion & Olaya Carlos Margary Brignole Panama University of the Philippines António José Casa Nova Salas Rizo Patron & Margary Walter Albán Diliman Transparencia Internacional Alberto H. Gonzalez Abogados Escola Superior de Saúde de Herrera Portalegre Anonymous Contributors Universidad de Panama Yrma Quispe Zapana Cecilia Melba Ma Cardenas INCN Ministerio de Economía y António Vaz de Castro Poland Finanzas Alcides Castillo Rivera Universidade de Coimbra Agnieszka Helsztyńska Acabogadopty Anonymous Contributors Carlos Pinto de Abreu César Puntriano Alexis Carles Barraza Carlos Pinto de Abreu e Estudio Muñiz Philippines Andrzej Brodziak Institute of Occupational Carles-Barraza Abogados Associados SP, RL Afdal B. Kunting Dennis Oswaldo Vilchez Medicine and Environmental Health Ramirez Catia Barata Martins Arlene Calvo Zamboanga City Medical University of South Florida Center Estudio Ghersi Abogados MDM Legal Bogusław Lackoroński Eduardo Buisson Loureiro University of Warsaw Eduardo Benavides Ernesto Shirley Alfredo Z. Pio de Roda, III Shirley & Asociados Quasha Ancheta Pena & Berninzon & Benavides Jacek Wierciński Abogados Eduardo Correia de Nolasco Wierciński Law Office Azevedo Evans A. Loo Escritorio Juridico Loo Augusto San Pedro Jr. Eduardo Herrera Velarde Chaves, Roquette, Matos, Azevedo & Associados Escudo Azul S.A. Villaraza & Angangco Jerzy Lachowski Nicolaus Copernicus Ibis Sánchez-Serrano Elena Victoria Timoteo Fernando Alves Correia University Core Model Corporation, S.A. Carmelita Gopez Nuqui Quispe Universidade de Coimbra Development Action for Women Network Jaime A. Jácome de la Joanna Kosińska- EsSalud Guardia Wiercińska Inês Reis PBBR Cesar L. Villanueva Jácome de la Guardia y Villanueva Gabionza & Dy Asociados Law Firm I 179 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

182 Isabel Rocha St. Kitts & Nevis Hong Bok Ki Simona Petrina Gavrila Dragos Daghie Daghie & Asociatii Yonsei University Rocha, Miranda, Vieira & Dunărea de Jos University Associados, RL Galati Charles Wilkin Hwang Lee Felicia Rosioru Kelsick, Wilkin and Ferdinand Korea University Babeș-Bolyai University Stefania Stanciu Joana Barrilaro Ruas Magda Volonciu and Dia C. Forrester Ferreira da Conceição, Associates Menezes & Associados Daniel Brantley Florentin Timoianu Jaehyuk Ahn Rubin Meyer Doru & Trandafir Kim & Chang Valeriu M. Ciuca Leonora Walwyn Joao Tavares Ribeiro Law Firm JTR Advogado Jaeseop Song WalwynLaw Alexandru Ioan Cuza Shin&Kim University Florin Streteanu Michella Adrien José Alves do Carmo Universitatea Babeș-Bolyai AVM Advogados Jeong-Oh Kim Anonymous Contributors Michella Adrien Law Offices George Nedelcu Yonsei University Russia Morton Robinson, L.P. Libertário Teixeira Jiyong Park LTCF Sociedade de Advogados Ioana Maria Dumitru and Yonsei Law School Madalina-Beatrice Tatu Rayana Dowden RL Alexei Kasatkin Popovici Nitu Stoica & WEBSTER ZKS, Attorneys-at-Law Junsok Yang Luis Brito Correia Asociatii SCA The Catholic University of Theodore L. Hobson Luis Brito Correia Advogados Andrey Neznamov Theodore L. Hobson & Iulian Alexander Stoia Korea Dentons Associates Luis Miguel Amaral Bucharest Bar Association Luis Miguel Amaral Advogados Sang hoon Han Andrey Zelenin Larion Alina-Paula Anonymous Contributors Lidings Law Offices Yonsei University Manuel Nobre Correia Ştefan cel Mare University Eduard Margulyan St. Lucia Sang Won Lee FCB Sociedade de Advogados Seoul National University Margulyan & Kovalev Laura Lazar Babeș-Bolyai University Margarida Lucas Rodrigues Andie George ACE Sociedade de Advogados, George & Co. Chambers Elena Gerasimova Sangbong Lee Lazar Ioan Hwang Mok Park P.C. National Research University RL Candace Natalie Polius Baroul Alba Higher School of Economics Maria do Rosário Anjos Polius & Associates Sung Kyu (Scott) Lee Lucian Bondoc Anjos, Martins & Associados Kim & Chang Galina Osokina SP, RL Тomsk State University Bondoc si Asociatii SCA Daniel E.J. Francis Norman Francis Chambers Anonymous Contributors Marius Balan Gleb Glinka Miguel Andrade Leandra Gabrielle Verneuil Romania Glinka, Rubinstein & Partners Alexandru Ioan Cuza University Paulo Sá e Cunha Jennifer Remy & Associates Cuatrecasas, Gonçalves Maria Filatova Andrei Danciu SCA Cataniciu & Asociatii Pereira National Research University Samanthia George Mihai Carabas Carabas, Lungu Attorneys Tamara Foster Andrei Mircea Zamfirescu Pedro Miguel Branco Maria Voskobitova PMB Advogado Andra Gokool-Foster's Gilescu, Valeanu, Nathanzon Mihai Dunea ABA ROLI & Partners Chambers Alexandru Ioan Cuza Natalia G. Prisekina University Pedro Rodrigues da Mata Aurora Ciuca Trudy O. Glasgow PRM & Associados Russin & Vecchi LLC Mihail Romeo Nicolescu Trudy O. Glasgow & Ştefan cel Mare University Natalya Morozova Raul Soares da Veiga Associates Romeo Nicolescu Law Office Raul Soares da Veiga & Vinson & Elkins LLP Batranu Ciuca Cezara Cab. av. Cezara Batranu Ciuca Associados Miloiu Ciprian Virginia Joseph Nikolai Kostenko Miloiu Ciprian Cabinet de Spartan Health Sciences Bogdan C. Stoica Avocat Rui Tavares Correia Moscow Helsinki Group University School of Medicine Abreu & Marques e Popovici Nitu Stoica & Anonymous Contributors Olga Fonotova Asociatii SCA Nestor Alina Associados Norton Rose Fulbright LLP Bar of Suceava St. Vincent & the Sandrine Bisson Marvão Campeanu Aura Bisson Marvão Nicolae-Bogdan Bulai Grenadines PETOŠEVIĆ Romanov Alexander RANEPA University of Bucharest Israel R. Bruce Spencer Dohner Ciprian Dragomir Sergey Stepanov Țuca Zbârcea & Asociații Ovidiu Podaru Bruce Law Chambers Inc. MDM Legal Babeș-Bolyai University The Institute of Private Law Vânia Costa Ramos J. H. Bayliss Frederick Dan Oancea Sinelnikova Elena Carlos Pinto de Abreu e Fredericks Attorneys & Dan Oancea Law Office Radu Chiita Associados SP, RL Universitatea Babeș-Bolyai Saint-Petersburg State Notaries Public Pediatric Medical University Daniel Nitu Radu Rizoiu Jozelle Miller Babeș-Bolyai University Anonymous Contributors Vladimir Dubyanskiy Ministry of Health, Wellness University of Bucharest and the Environment Stavropol Plague Control Dariescu Cosmin Republic of Korea Alexandru Ioan Cuza Roxana Iordachescu-Nitu Research Institute Marcia Shirlan Barnwell University Changwoo Lee Iordachescu & Associates Vyacheslav Chasnyk Legal Ease SVG Inc. Donghwa Labor Consulting Company Sergiu Bogdan Saint-Petersburg State Diana Agafiței Babeș-Bolyai University Mikhail Charles Pediatric Medical University Țuca Zbârcea & Asociații Eastern Caribbean Supreme Duk Yeon Lee Diana Lavinia Botau Yonsei Law School Anonymous Contributors Court Sergiu Golub Babeș-Bolyai University Babeș-Bolyai University Haksoo Ko Seoul National University

183 Anonymous Contributors Roxann F. Williams Primož Rožman Mildred Bekink Djordje Djurisic University of South Africa Knights & Co. Law Office of Djordje Djurisic Blood Transfusion Centre of Singapore Slovenia Milton Seligson Dragan Nikolić Stephen Williams Institute for Public Health Williams & Williams Tine Mišic Chia Boon Teck Cape Bar ODI Law Firm Chia Wong LLP Anonymous Contributors Dragan Psodorov Mpfariseni Budeli- Dan W. Puchniak Joksovic, Stojanovic & Tjasa Drgan Nemakonde University of South Africa Partners Senegal National University of Law Office Drnovsek Singapore Neil Cameron Dušan Stojković Ameth Ba Anonymous Contributors SCP BA & TANDIAN Ortačko Advokatsko Društvo Stellenbosch University Elizabeth Ng Siew Kuan National University of Stojković South Africa Ntombifikile Mtshali Singapore Anta Marie Anne Diop Altair Richards University of KwaZulu-Natal Ivan Kovacevic Lalin Law Office Novi Sad Eric Tin Keng Seng ENSafrica Christian Faye Donaldson & Burkinshaw LLP Peter Jordi Cabinet d'Avocats Christian E. Faye Bart Willems Wits Law Clinic Ivan Krsikapa Ninkovic Law Office Sellenbosch University Eugene K B Tan Ciré Clédor Ly Philip Stoop Singapore Management University University of South Africa Birgit Kuschke Liliana Ristic Liliana Ristic Law Office University of Pretoria Clément Diarga Basse Ministère de la Santé et de Pierre de Vos Foo Cheow Ming Nadica Figar Templars Law LLC Christa Rautenbach University of Cape Town l'Action Sociale North-West University Nebojsa Stankovic Harry Elias Diéne Kolly A. Ousseynou PJ Schwikkard Diouf Stankovic & Partners Law Derek Adriaan Hellenberg University of Cape Town Eversheds-Harryelias LLP University of Cape Town Université de Ziguinchor Office René Koraan Scott Gordon Wheeler Petar Bulat Hassane Kone Francois Venter North-West University North-West University Geni & Kébé Simon Chesterman University of Belgrade National University of Riette du Plessis University of the Funmi Abioye Magna Brice Sylva Petar Stojanovic Singapore Joksovic, Stojanovic & Witwatersrand LPS Law University of South Africa Partners Stefanie Yuen Thio Mamadou Ba Rolien Roos Gugu Mchunu TSMP Law Corporation Simonida Sladojevic- University of KwaZulu-Natal United States African North-West University Stanimirovic Anonymous Contributors Development Foundation Gusha Xolani Ngantweni Rudolph Zinn Unisa Slovenia Srdja M. Markovic University of South Africa Meissa Toure Euromed Université Law Offices Markovic Helen Kruuse SS Terblanche Alenka Sagmeister Ranzinger Violeta Mitrovic Rhodes University University of South Africa Moustapha Ndoye Radovic & Ratkovic Attorneys Susan Goldstein Andrej Bukovnik Hugh Corder Ndeye Khoudia Tounkara PETOŠEVIĆ University of Cape Town Soul City Institute for Social SCPA Me Mayacine Tounkara Vladimir Marinkov et Associés Justice Guberina-Marinkov Law Office J. Berning Anton Gradišek Victoria Bronstein Ndiouma Ndour University of South Africa Zoran V. Radovic Dagra D.O.O. Radovic & Ratkovic Attorneys University of the Universite Assane Seck de Johann Kriegler Witwatersrand Ziguinchor Borut Bernik Bogataj Anonymous Contributors Freedom Under Law Odvetniška Pisarna W du Plessis Paul Babacar Faye Grega Strban John Brand SCPA Sow-Seck-Diagne & North-West University Sierra Leone Bowmans University of Ljubljana Associes Ady Macauley Wayne Mentz Anti Corruption Commission Josip Sever Lesiba Lolly Motsepe Rahimine Toure University of South Africa Geni & Kébé Sierra Leone Werner D. van Straaten University of Pretoria Katja Šumah Alhaji Mohamed Warisay Miro Senica and Attorneys, Lourens J. Erasmus Samba Cor Sarr Anonymous Contributors North-West University Democracy Sierra Leone Ltd. Ministère de la Santé et de l'Action Sociale Augustine Sorie-Sengbe Margaretha Engelbrecht Spain Luka Ticar Semou Ndiaye Marrah University of Ljubljana Johannesburg Society of Alfonso Pedrajas Herrero Advocates Université Cheikh Anta Diop Yada Williams and Associates Matija Repolusk Abdón Pedrajas & Molero de Dakar RepoluskLaw Ibrahim Sorie Koroma Marlize I van Jaarsveld M.S. Turay and Associates Anonymous Contributors Alfonso Trallero Fairleigh Dickinson University Nina Persak Bajo & Trallero Abogados Martin Brassey Lornard Taylor Serbia Institute for Criminal-Law Taylor & Associates Antonio Pedrajas Quiles Ethics and Criminology Martin van Staden Abdón Pedrajas & Molero Aleksandar Milosavljevic Peter Fašun Free Market Foundation Law Office Milosavljevic Patrick Ngenda Johnbull Araceli Peláez Rodríguez Centre for Access to Justice FMMS Peace and Human Rights, Bo. Norman M. Davis De Castro Gabinete Jurídico Branislav Majstorović Free Market Foundation Peter Stanovnik Law Office Majstorovic Institute for Economic Rowland S. V. Wright August Tora Barnadas JAUSAS Wright & Co. Research I 181 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

184 Carlos Alvarez Dardet Joan R Villalbí Remedios Aranda Raja Goonaratne Manuel Álvarez Feijoo Rodríguez Agència de Salut Pública de The Open University of Sri Universidad de Alicante Uría Menéndez Abogados, S.L.P. Barcelona Lanka Universidad Carlos III de Carlos Campillo-Artero Madrid Jorge Medialdea Cuevas Manuel Ángel de las Heras Universitat Pompeu Fabra S. Ruchira Lakshan Rosa Remedios Menéndez Calvo García The Open University of Sri Universidad de Alcalá Jorge Sirvent García Carlos Pinilla Domínguez Universidad de Alicante Lanka J&A Garrigues, S.L.P. Universidad Carlos III de Roberto Mazorriaga Las Manuel Cachón Cadenas Madrid S.S. Jayasundera Carlos Ramón Fernández Hayas Universitat Autònoma de José Cid Liesa Rambla Abogados y Asesores Barcelona Savantha De Saram D. L. & F. De Saram S.L. Universidad Carlos III de Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Madrid Manuel Cancio Meliá Universidad Autónoma de Rosario Vicente Martínez Sugath Hettiarachchi Madrid Carmen Sáez Lara Universidad de Castilla-La José Fernández-Rañada Thidas Herath Universidad de Córdoba J&A Garrigues, S.L.P. Mancha Margarita Isabel Ramos Sudath Perera Associates Quintana Santiago Fernández César Aguado Renedo José Luis Cembrano Reder Universidad de La Laguna Anonymous Contributors Universidad Autónoma de Asociación Española de Redondo Abogados de Familia Madrid Hospital Universitario La María Acale Sánchez Suriname Princesa Daniel Marin, Carla Palau Universidad de Cádiz José Luis de Peray Sebastián Cantallops Mir Anne-Marel Linger and Ariadna Galimany Rambla Abogados y Asesores Gómez-Acebo & Pombo José Luis Goñi Sein María Barberá Riera 4 Justice Advocaten Universidad Pública de Abogados, S.L.P. S.L. Sociedad Española de Sanidad Araldo Codrington Navarra Ambiental Teresa Martin Zuriaga Lim A Po Law Firm Eduardo Santamaría Moral Salud Pública del Gobierno María Cristina Pumar Atrio José Mª Ordóñez Iriarte J&A Garrigues, S.L.P. Rambla Abogados y Asesores Sociedad Española de Sanidad de Aragón Elleson M. Fraenk Schurman Advocaten Ambiental Elena Espinosa S.L. Xavier Castells María Elena Sánchez Jordán Eloa van der Hilst Emilio Díaz Ruiz Universitat Autònoma de José Manuel Mateo Sierra Barcelona Universidad de La Laguna N.V. 4 Justice Advocaten J&A Garrigues, S.L.P. Enric Fossas Espadaler José María Labeaga Azcona Anonymous Contributors María José Aguilar Idáñez Universitat Autònoma de Hugo. A.M. Essed Barcelona Universidad Nacional de Law Firm Essed & Sohansingh Universidad de Castilla-La Educación a Distancia Sri Lanka Mancha Esther Fernández Molina Humphrey R. Schurman José R. Repullo María José Benítez Jiménez Ajithaa Edirimane Schurman Advocaten Universidad de Castilla-La Escuela Nacional de Sanidad Universidad de Málaga Mancha Ramesh Malahe Anusha Wickramasinghe Federico A. Rodriguez José-Vicente Martí Boscà Marina Lorente Lara Law Firm Malahe Advocaten Ayendra Wickremesekera Morata Universitat de Valéncia J&A Garrigues, S.L.P. Universidad de Castilla-La Ruby C.A. Bleau and Thuwaraka Ganeshan Advokatenkantoor Lim A Po Josefa Cantero Martínez Martín Godino Mancha Tiruchelvam Associates Universidad de Castilla-La Asociación Nacional de Laboralistas Mancha; Asociación de Federico Durán López Anonymous Contributors Chandravathany Vasavan Selvaa and Vasavan Juristas de la Salud Universidad de Córdoba Matilde Fourey González Sweden Assocaites Uría Menéndez Abogados, Juan Alberto Díaz López Fernando Alberich Arjona Chrishantha Abeysena De Castro Gabinete Jurídico Birgitta Nyström S.L.P. Juan Antonio Lascuraín University of Kelaniya Lund University Universidad Autónoma de Montserrat Casamitjana Fernando Bondía Román Björn Ohde Universidad Carlos III de Abella Madrid Dhanushka Dissanayake Consorci Sanitari de Barcelona Madrid Advokataktiebolagaet Sudath Perera Associates Roslagen Juan Francisco Aguiar Rodriguez Orlanda Díaz-García Gamini Perera Ignacio de Castro García International Law Chambers De Castro Gabinete Jurídico Universidad de Castilla-La Boel Flodgren Consejeria de Sanidad del Gobierno de Canarias Mancha Lund University Kandiah Neelakandan Jacobo Dopico Gómez-Aller Oscar Morales Catherine Lions Juan M. Terradillos Basoco Neelakandan & Neelakandan Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Umea University Universidad de Cádiz Uría Menéndez N Sivarajah Pablo López Ferrer Christer Thordson Juan Oliva-Moreno University of Jaffna Jaime Flores Pérez-Durías Legal Edge J&A Garrigues, S.L.P. Universidad de Castilla-La Uría Menéndez Mancha Nalin Kumudu Ashubodha Javier Melero Kolonnawa Nursing Home Christian Diesen Paz Mercedes de la Cuesta Melero & Gené Abogados Aguado Stockholm University Juan Roca Guillamón Universidad de Murcia Nihal Gamini Balasooriya Universidad de Cantabria Fredrik Gustafsson Javier Paz Esquete Sudath Perera Associates Advokatfirma DLA Piper Luis Gaite Rafael Ortiz Cervello Complejo Hospitalario PB Mudannayake Universitario de Pontevedra Observatorio de Salud Pública Sweden KB J&A Garrigues, S.L.P. de Cantabria Jesús Padilla Gálvez R. Surenthirakumaran Rebeca Benarroch Gunilla Lindmark Universidad de Castilla-La M. Ciprian Benarroch University of Jaffna University of Uppsala Mancha Ciudad Autonoma de Ceuta Auxmundus Abogados Gustaf Sjöberg Stockholm University

185 Turkey Aymen Zaghdoudi Henrik Wenander Ronnakorn Bunmee Maulana Ayoub Ali Sharda University University of Gabes Lund University Thammasat University Cagatay Yilmaz Ben Nasr Mohamed Mehdi Jack Ågren Ruengrit Pooprasert Oliva Mkula Mkanzabi Yilmaz Law Offices Stockholm University Cabinet Ben Nasr Gabriel&Co. Blumenthal Richter & Sumet Esenyel Barak Bal Limited Cailliau & Colakel Law Firm Jessika van der Sluijs Patricia Boshe Bessem Ben Salem Sumet Sirikunchoat Ben Salem Law Firm Stockholm University The Open University of Eser Tekeli Soylu Thammasat University Tanzania Johan Sangborn Adana Bar Association Hamza Wajdi Thananan Sangnuan Hamza Wajdi Business The Swedish Bar Association Salum Mshamu CSK Research Solutions Lawyers Fatih Selim Yurdakul Baker & McKenzie Limited Jur Claes Sandgren Yurdakul Law Office Stockholm University Timothy R. Wales Hassine Fekih Ahmed Idil Isirkan Tilleke & Gibbins International Saudin J. Mwakaje NexLaw Advocates Schindhelm Turkey Karl-Arne Olsson Hechmi Louzir Ltd. Wesslau Söderqvist Institut Pasteur de Tunis Woraphong Leksakulchai Stella Ndikimi Mahmut Kacan Advokatbyrå East African Law Chambers Hughes Krupica Consulting MK Law Office Hedia Kedadi Ltd. Karol Nowak Imed Oussaifi Murat Volkan Dülger Lund University Thomas Mihayo Sipemba Dülger Law Firm East African Law Chambers Cabinet Maître Oussaifi Anonymous Contributors Laura Carlson Ines Mustafa Alp Vintan Willgis Mbiro Stockholm University Trinidad & Tobago Breakthrough Attorneys Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Karim Ben Hamida Maria Lindegård Eiderholm Asaf Hosein Karim Ben Hamida Law Firm Advokatfirman Lindberg & Nuray Gökçek Karaca Anonymous Contributors Anadolu University Saxon Christopher Sieuchand Khadija Anane Thailand M.G. Daly & Partners Orhan Yavuz Mavioğlu Mats Hellström Anant Akanisthaphichat Gerard Hutchinson Knani Houda Hellström Law Firm ADMD Law Office University of the West Indies, Thai Law Firm Zaanouni Law Firm Mauro Zamboni Osman Hayran St. Augustine İstanbul Medipol University Stockholm University Apinop Atipiboonsin Lassâad Dhaouadi Thammasat University Institut Tunisien des Gina Maharaj Conseillers Fiscaux Ozer Tuncay Organization for Abused and Mikael Johansson Chacrit Sitdhiwej Tuncay Law Office Battered Individuals Raoul Wallenberg Institute Thammasat University Lejmi Zied of Human Rights and Zaanouni Law Firm Hasine Shaikh Sinan Aslan Humanitarian Law Chanvit Tharathep Ministry of Health Jonathan Walker Olle Marsater Teoman Akünal Mahmoud Yacoub University of Uppsala Akunallawfirm Ordre National des Avocats M. Hamel-Smith & Co. Chulapong Yukate de Tunisie Reinhold Fahlbeck ZICOlaw Ufuk Aydin Kaveeta Persad Fitzwilliam, Stone, Furness- Mounir Baatour Lund University Anadolu University Association Shams Smith & Morgan Chusert Supasitthumrong Staffan Michelson Anonymous Contributors Tilleke & Gibbins International Nadhir Ben Ammou Hellström Advokatbyrå Keri A. Kitson Ltd. Faculté de Droit et des Uganda Sciences Politiques de Tunis Sverker Jönsson Henning Glaser Linda A. Greene Penco Court Law Chambers German-Southeast Asian Adrian Jjuuko Lund University Human Rights Awareness and Center of Excellence for Public Nadhir Ben Yedder Promotion Forum Thomas G. Lindqvist Policy and Good Governance M. Glenn Hamel-Smith Reseau National de Lutte Contre la Corruption M. Hamel-Smith & Co. Hammarskiöld & Co. Alan Shonubi Ittichai Prasongprasit Shonubi, Musoke & Co. Nizar Sdiri Mark Ramkerrysingh Ulf Maunsbach R&T Asia (Thailand) Ltd. Lund University Fitzwilliam, Stone, Furness- Nizar Sdiri Law Firm Jakkrit Kuanpoth Smith & Morgan Albert Turyahabwe Vilhelm Persson Rachida Jelassi Agaba Muhairwe & Co. Thailand Development Michelle T. Ramnarine Research Institute; Tilleke and Conseil Supérieur de la Advocates Lund University Magistrature; Université de Gibbins International Anonymous Contributors Alexander Kibandama Natalie Persadie Tunis El Manar Jeeranun Klaewkla University of Trinidad and ENSafrica Tobago Tanzania Mahidol University Radhouane Elaiba Augustine M Kaheeru Munin Pongsapan Bahemuka Anne Outwater Ridha Mezghani Nisha K. Persad Muhimbili University of Health N. K. Persad & Co. R. Mezghani Law Office Thammasat University M/S Kahuma, Khalayi & and Allied Sciences Kaheeru Advocates Samir Abdelly and Salma Tamara Jackson Panu Patani Bernard Mukasa Panu & Partners Asina Omari Chaari Anonymous Contributors Abdelly & Associates ENSafrica Pisut Rakwong Eliud Kitime Pisut & Partners Brian Kalule Sarra Elloumi The Open University of Tunisia Bowmans Tanzania Amel Gorbej Ploynapa Julagasigorn Anonymous Contributors Tilleke & Gibbins International Brigitte Kusiima Byarugaba Kheri R. Mbiro Breakthrough Attorneys Amine Hamdi Sendi Ltd. Shonubi, Musoke & Co. Barreau de Tunis I 183 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

186 Mirza R. Baig C. K. Kalumiya Tony Ward Igor Svechkar Kepler B. Funk Northumbria Univeristy Funk, Szachacz & Diamond, Asters Law Firm Dubai Pharmacy College Kampala Associated LLC Advocates Anonymous Contributors Nazanin Aleyaseen Iryna Senyuta Leonard A. Sandler K&L Gates LLP Emmanuel Luyirika Foundation of Medical Law United States African Palliative Care University of Iowa and Bioethics of Ukraine Stuart Paterson Association Ivan Horodyskyy A. Renee Pobjecky Marcela Horvitz-Lennon Tarek Nakkach Ukrainian Catholic University Cambridge Health Alliance Evelyn Atim Pobjecky and Pobjecky, LLP Buwembo and Co. Advocates Hewlett Packard Enterprise Andrea J. Boyack Ivchuk Viktoriia Mary Kreiner Ramirez Regional Medical Center for Anonymous Contributors Francis Gimara Washburn University Washburn University Health and Sports Medicine Uganda Law Society United Kingdom Arthur Hunter Matthew T. Lockaby Lockaby PLLC Orleans Parish District Court Lyubomyr Drozdovskyy Francis Opedun Khasin & Drozdovskyy Adam Winchester EVAMOR International Ltd. Lancaster University Michael S. Blass Barristers Association Barbara J. Fick University of Notre Dame Arent Fox LLP Irene Ovonji-Odida Oksana Voynarovska Alan J. Masson The Uganda Association of Michele Forzley Vasil Kisil & Partners Anderson Strathern LLP Women Lawyers Christopher R. Drahozal Forzley & Associates University of Kansas Albert Sanchez-Graells Isaac Newton Kyagaba Oleksandr Denysenko Christopher R. Kelley Ilyashev & Partners Law Firm Paul Bender University of Bristol Kampala Associated University of Arkansas Advocates Arizona State University Oleksandr Skliarenko Alexander Mills City, University of London Skliarenko, Sydorenko and Renaldy J. Gutierrez J.B. Rwakimari Claudia Rast Partners Gutierrez & Associates Butzel Long PLLC Christopher May Joaninne Nanyange Human Rights Awareness and Lancaster University D. Majeeda Snead Renée M. Landers Olexander Martinenko Loyola University Suffolk University Law School CMS Cameron McKenna Promotion Forum J. Mulder Nabarro Olswang Reynolds, Swartz, Crouse, University of Bristol Kwikiriza Benson A Elise Groulx Diggs Insurance Regulatory Doughty Street Chambers Anderson, Walker, Katz, Pavlo Lukomskyi Salkom Law Firm Authority of Uganda Jill Stavert and Levine Attorneys Judicial Mediators Foeng Toan "Bill" Tham Edinburgh Napier University Global Oral, Legal & Dental Laura Nyirinkindi Roman Maydanyk Consulting Team Kyiv National Taras Helping Hands Foundation Pro Initiatives Agency Jonathan Nguyen-Van-Tam Shevchenko University Robert J. Collins Jr. University of Nottingham H. David Kelly, Jr. University of Pennsylvania Lilian Keene-Mugerwa Sergii Dvoriak Platform for Labour Action Katie Bales Beins, Axelrod, P.C. University of Bristol Roy M Poses Ukrainian Institute of Public Health Policy Lydia Bwiite Brown University Jaime Ramon Platform for Labour Action Dykema Cox Smith Kiron Reid Sergiy Gryshko University of Liverpool Sara Elizabeth Dill James F. Cleary Mercy Odu Redcliffe Partners American Bar Association AF Mpanga Advocates M. Reynolds and Team UW Carbone Cancer Center Attorneys Judicial Mediators Sherman L. Cohn Taras Tsymbrivskyy Georgetown University Consulting Team James H. Pietsch Mpiima Jamir Ssenoga Ukrainian Catholic University University of Hawaii Kiwanuka & Mpiima Advocates Tarasov Andrey Mark Lubbock Stephen Allan Saltzburg Jason Coates Tarasov and Partners George Washington University Ashurst LLP Naboth Muhairwe American Public Health Agaba Muhairwe & Co. Association Valentyn Gvozdiy Stephen C. Veltri Marvin Hanna Smith Bean & Co. Advocates Ohio Northern University GOLAW Jeffrey Aresty InternetBar.org Institute, Inc. Nigel Duncan Valeriia V. Gudiy Steven A. Ramirez Namusobya Salima Loyola University City, University of London Initiative for Social and Partners Law Firm Joanne Katz Economic Rights Johns Hopkins University Vitalii Gatseliuk Taryn Vian Peter Hungerford-Welch Rachel Musoke National Academy of Sciences City, University of London Boston University John Hummel ENSafrica Peter McTigue Deschutes County Oregon Yaroslav Ognevyuk Therese McGinn Ronald Tusingwire Doubinsky & Osharova District Attorney Columbia University Nottingham Trent University ENSafrica Richard Ashcroft John Pollock Thomas D. Haney Zoryana Chernenko Public Justice Center Stevens and Brand LLP Susan Baluka National University of Kyiv- Queen Mary University of Mohyla Academy London Human Rights Awareness and John R. LaBar Promotion Forum Tim Ken Mackey Henry, McCord, Bean, Miller, Anonymous Contributors Richard W Whitecross UC San Diego Tracy Kakongi Nkwanzi Gabriel & LaBar, P.L.L.C. Edinburgh Napier University United Arab Emirates ENSafrica Timothy E. Dolan Policy Foresight Jonathan Hiatt Sara Fovargue Anonymous Contributors Lancaster University Bashar Malkawi Karen Lash University of Sharjah Anonymous Contributors American University Ukraine Tonia Novitz Essam Al Tamimi University of Bristol Armen G. Khachaturyan Al Tamimi & Company Asters Law Firm

187 Uruguay Zimbabwe Ricardo Mezzera Danny Duy Vo Gilberto A Guerrero-Rocca Florida International Santa Lawyers Company Mezzera Abogados Abraham Mateta University Alejandro Rey Jiménez de Derek Phan Van Cong Danh Santiago Pereira Campos Muvingi and Mugadza Aréchaga LE & TRAN Gonzalo Himiob Santomé Posadas, Posadas & Vecino Rueda Abadi Pereira; Foro Penal Venezolano Universidad de Montevideo Andrew Makoni Hannah Huynh Thi My Alfredo Taullard and Sandra Mbidzo Muchadehama & Garín Tomás Guerrero Costa Hanh Gregory Odreman Makoni Legal Practitioners LE & TRAN Odreman & Asociados Hughes & Hughes Posadas, Posadas & Vecino Abogados Ashton Mufari Anonymous Contributors Hoang Quoc Nhat Trung Zimbabwe Human Rights Amalia Laborde Advocates Gustavo Adolfo Parra University of the Republic Delgado Uzbekistan Huu Phuoc Nguyen Bellinda R. Chinowawa Phuoc & Partners Law Firm Parra & Salas Ana Ines Alfaro De Ltd. Hegedus Alisher K. Zaynutdinov Zimbabwe Lawyers for Jaime Martínez Estévez Human Rights Fischer & Schickendantz Virtus Leo Law Firm Rodner, Martínez & Asociados Kent Wong Beatriz Murguía VCI Legal Firuza Bobokulova Brighton Mahuni Scanlen & Holderness Jennifer Jean Jahnke Murguía - Aguirre Zarifovna Kieu Anh Vu Westminster International Marshall Denning KAV Lawyers Camilo Martinez Blanco University, Tashkent Caroline Kudzai Tandi Universidad de Montevideo Jesus Alejandro Loreto C. Lê An Hải M. Ahmedov Casper Pound Phuoc & Partners Law Firm Family AIDS Support Jesus Escudero Carlos Noble Tabarez Organisation Shahin Huseynov Ltd. Torres, Plaz & Araujo Ferrere Abogados WHO Carlos Pittamiglio José Alberto Ramírez León Ngo Huu Nhi Dzinomwa T NUST Thien An Law Office Bartesaghi Abogados Hoet, Pelaez, Castillo & Duque Anonymous Contributors Abogados Edwin Isaac Manikai Venezuela Escandor El Ters Pham Van Phat An Phat Pham Law Firm Juan Carlos Garantón- Instituto Nacional de Dube, Manikai and Hwacha Blanco Alberto Blanco-Uribe Oncología Quang Nguyen Nhan Quintero Emilia Mandaza Muhonde Attorneys Universidad Central de Juan Manuel Raffalli Federico Formento Fischer & Schickendantz Stephen Le Hoang Chuong Venezuela RDHOO Abogados Fraser Edkins LE & TRAN Alberto Jurado Fischer & Schickendantz Coghlan Welsh and Guest Leonel Alfonso Ferrer Tran Thanh Tung Universidad Central de ALC Penal Gonzalo Gari Irureta Phuoc & Partners Law Firm Venezuela Gavin Gomwe Alexander Marcano Ltd. Goyena Clairwood Chambers Luis Ortiz Alvarez Posadas, Posadas & Vecino Montero Lawyers Group Godfrey Sibanda Vu Dzung Joaquin Reyes Puig Luis Rafael Ávila López Mbidzo Muchadehama & Alexis E. Aguirre S. Vu Kieu Anh Badell & Grau Estudio Reyes Rius Makoni Legal Practitioners ARAQUEREYNA Apolat Legal Juan Andrés Fuentes Manuel A Gomez Godman Chingoma Arcia Storace Fuentes Medina Anonymous Contributors Florida International Dube, Manikai and Hwacha Alvaro Badell Madrid Abogados University Badell & Grau Gregory Nyamupanedengu Zambia Juan Diego Menghi Mageza and Nyamwanza Nathalie González Andreina Peláez E. Escritorio Jurídico Rodríguez & Badell & Grau Anne Namakando-Phiri Arburúas University of Zambia John T. Burombo Pérez del Castillo & Asociados Mendoza Maja & Associates Andrés L. Halvorssen Julio Lens Chifumu K Banda Rafael de Lemos RDHOO Abogados Mordecai Pilate Mahlangu LENS Raul Sanchez Urribarri Gill Godlonton & Gerrans Fares Phiri Andrés Linares Benzo La Trobe University Hoet, Pelaez, Castillo & Duque Nodi Trust School Manuel Reyes Puig Abogados Obey Shava Estudio Reyes Rius Ricardo J. Cruz Rincón John P. Sangwa Mbidzo Muchadehama & María Durán Arturo De Sola Simeza, Sangwa & Associates Makoni Legal Practitioners Escritorio Chumaceiro González Hughes & Hughes De Sola Pate & Brown Melvin Leslie Mbao Patience Chair Carlos Alberto Henríquez Simon Jurado-Blanco North-West University Mariana Fernández Fasciolo Posadas, Posadas & Vecino ARAQUEREYNA Philemon Mutukwa Salazar Musengi and Sigauke Mulopa Ndalameta Martín Fridman Vicente González De La Carlos Simón Bello Rengifo Musa Dudhia & Co Vega Ferrere Abogados Universidad Central de Philip Givemore Nyakutombwa Venezuela Universidad Central de Naomy Lintini RayBeam Enterprises Nyakutombwa Mugabe Legal Martín Risso Ferrand Venezuela; Universidad Metropolitana Catherina Gallardo Universidad Católica del Counsel Gallardo Vaudo y Asociados Uruguay Pamela Sibanda Mumbi Anonymous Contributors Charles Siamutwa Legal Roselyn Hanzi Zimbabwe Lawyers for Eugenio Hernandez-Breton Nicolás Mariano Pallas Practitioners Human Rights Vietnam Universidad Central de Posadas, Posadas & Vecino Tiziana Marietta Venezuela Sharpe & Howard Chi Mai Pedro Montano Simon Sadomba Gill Godlonton & Gerrans Scelza & Montano Anonymous Contributors I 185 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

188 Simplicio Bhebhe Kantor & Immerman Legal Practitioners Sonja Vas Scanlen & Holderness Tamuka Moyo Tamuka Moyo Attorneys Tarisai Mutangi Donsa-Nkomo & Mutangi Legal Practice Taurai Blessed Kativu Kantor & Immerman Legal Practitioners Tavonga George Chigudugudze Chihambakwe, Mutizwa & Partners Tawanda Tandi Kantor & Immerman Legal Practitioners Terence Hussein Hussein Ranchhod & Co. Wellington Chimwaradze Anonymous Contributors

189 Part Five: Behind the Numbers Acknowledgements The World Justice Project’s Honorary Chairs, Directors, Officers, Staff, Financial Supporters, and Sponsoring Organizations are listed in the last section of this report. Polling companies, research organizations, and contributing experts are listed in the Methodology section of this report. Harb, Arab Center for the Development of Rule of Law and Academic Advisors Integrity; Nathaniel Heller, Open Government Partnership; Mark David Agrast, American Society of International Vanessa Herringshaw, Transparency and Accountability Law; Jose M. Alonso, World Wide Web Foundation; Rolf Initiative; Susan Hirsch, George Mason University; Ronald Alter, OECD; Eduardo Barajas, Universidad del Rosario; Janse, University of Amsterdam Law School; Erik G. Jensen, Maurits Barendrecht, Tilburg University; Tonu Basu, Open Stanford University; Haroon Khadim, PAE; Rachel Kleinfeld, Government Partnership; Lowell Bergman, University of Carnegie Endowment; Jack Knight, Duke University; Harold - California, Berkeley; Tim Besley, London School of Econom H. Koh, Yale University; Margaret Levi, Stanford University; ics; Christina Biebesheimer, The World Bank; Paul Brest, Iris Litt, Stanford University; Clare Lockhart, The Institute Stanford University; Jose Caballero, IMD Business School; for State Effectiveness; Zsuzsanna Lonti, OECD; Diego David Caron, Kings College, London; Thomas Carothers, Lopez, Universidad de los Andes; William T. Loris, Loyola Carnegie Endowment; Marcela Castro, Universidad de University; Lauren E. Loveland, National Democratic Insti - los Andes; Peter Chapman, Open Society Justice Initia - tute (NDI); Paul Maassen, Open Government Partnership; tive (OSJI); Eduardo Cifuentes, Universidad de los Andes; Beatriz Magaloni, Stanford University; Jenny S. Martinez, Sherman Cohn, Georgetown University; Christine M. Cole, Stanford University; Toby McIntosh, FreedomInfo.org; Toby Crime & Justice Institute; Mariano-Florentino Cuellar, Mendel, Centre for Law and Democracy; Nicholas Menzies, Stanford University; Helen Darbishire, Access Info Europe; The World Bank; Ghada Moussa, Cairo University; Sam Nicolas Dassen, Inter-American Development Bank; Larry Muller, HiiL; Robert L. Nelson, American Bar Foundation Diamond, Stanford University; Claudia J. Dumas, Trans - and Northwestern University; Alfonsina Peñaloza, Hewlett parency International USA; Sandra Elena, Ministerio de - Foundation; Harris Pastides, University of South Caroli Justicia y Derechos Humanos; Brad Epperly, University of na; Randal Peerenboom, La Trobe University and Oxford South Carolina; Julio Faundez, Warwick University; Hazel University; Angela Pinzon, Universidad del Rosario; Pascoe Feigenblatt, Global Integrity; Todd Foglesong, Munk School Pleasence, University College London; Shannon Portillo, - of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto; Tom Gins George Mason University; Michael H. Posner, New York - burg, University of Chicago; Joseph Foti, Open Govern University; Roy L. Prosterman, University of Washington; ment Partnership; James Goldston, Open Society Justice Anita Ramasastry, University of Washington; Mor Rubin - Initiative (OSJI); Jorge Gonzalez, Universidad Javeriana; stein, Open Knowledge Foundation; Angela Ruiz, Universi - Alejandro Gonzalez-Arriola, Open Government Partnership; dad del Rosario; Audrey Sacks, The World Bank; Lutforah - Jon Gould, American University; Martin Gramatikov, HiiL; man Saeed, Kabul University; Michaela Saisana, EU-JRC; - Brendan Halloran, Transparency and Accountability Initia Andrea Saltelli, EU-JRC; tive; Linn Hammergren; Tim Hanstad, Landesa; Wassim I 187 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

190 Moises Sanchez, Alianza Regional por la Libertad de Bubacar Jallow; Sunil Kumar Joshi; Marie-Therese Julita; Expresión; Andrei Shleifer, Harvard University; Jorge Luis Megan Kabre; Jessica Kane; Rashvin Kaur; Anne Kelley; Silva, The World Bank; Gordon Smith, University of South Howard Kenison; Junaid Khalid; Elsa Khwaja; Se Hwan Kim; Stuti Kokkalera; Laurie Kontopidis; Simeon Koroma; Carolina; Christopher Stone, Open Society Foundations; Steven H. Kraft; Larry D. Kramer; Jack Krumholtz; Lianne John Temple, University of California, Berkeley; Rene Labossiere; Jeremy Levine-Drizin; Samantha Liberman; Uruena, Universidad de los Andes; Stefan Voigt, University - Joanna Lim; Deborah Lindholm; Hongxia Liu; Annie Living of Hamburg; Barry Weingast, Stanford University; Michael ston; Jeanne L. Long; Carlos López; Clarissa Lopez-Diarte; Woolcock, The World Bank. Stephen Lurie; Biola Macaulay; Ahna B. Machan; Maha Mahmoud; Biawakant Mainali; Andrew Makoni; Dijana Roland Abeng; Lukman Abdul-Rahim; Mame Adjei; Priya Malbaša; Ermek Mamaev; Frank Mantero; Madison Marks; Agarwal-Harding; Mariam Ahmed; Lina Alameddine; Sarah Alexander; Jessica Álvarez; Erica Jaye Ames; Rose Karikari Roger Martella; Vivek Maru; John Mason; Elisa Massimino; Hiroshi Matsuo; Michael Maya; Bethany McGann; Matthew Anang; Evelyn Ankumah; Jassim Alshamsi; Jessica Álvarez; Lindsay Aramayo-Lipa; Amanda Arcaya; Ekaterina Baksano - Mead; Sindi Medar-Gould; Ludmila Mendonça; Nathan Me - non; Ellen Mignoni; Aisha Minhas; María Cristina Montaño; va; Hamud M. Balfas; Laila El Baradei; Sophie Barral; April - Baskin; Ivan Batishchev; Rachael Beitler; Laurel Bellows; Jorge Antonio Morales Alfaro; Claros Morean; Liliana More no; Junichi Morioka; Carrie Moore; Katrina Moore; Marion Ayzada Bengel; Dounia Bennani; Clever Bere; Loveridge - Muller; Xavier Muller; Jenny Murphy; Rose Murray; Norha Bere; Rindala Beydoun; Karan K. Bhatia; Eric C. Black; yati Mustapha; Reinford Mwangonde; Doreen Ndishabandi; Cherie Blair; Rob Boone; Juan Manuel Botero; Oussama Ilija Nedelkoski; Niku Neshati; Javier Nicolás; Daniel Nitu; Bouchebti; Raúl Izurieta Mora Bowen; Ariel Braunstein; Elida Nogoibaeva; Victoria Norelid; Justin Nyekan; Sean Kathleen A. Bresnahan; Michael Brown; Susanna Brown; O’Brien; Peggy Ochanderena; Bolaji Olaniran; Joy Olson; William R. Brownfield; David Bruscino; Carolina Cabrera; - Mohamed Olwan; Fernando Omedé; Gustavo Alanis Or Ted Carrol; Javier Castro De León; John Catalfamo; Fahima Charaffeddine; David Cheyette; Nabiha Chowdhury; Jose tega; Bolaji Owasanoye; Pablo Parás; Kedar Patel; Angeles Melano Paz; Karina Pena; Valentina Pérez Botero; Ronen Cochingyan, III; Kate Coffey; Sonkita Conteh; Barbara Cooperman; Hans Corell; Adriana Cosgriff; Ana Victoria Plechnin; Kamal Pokhrel; John Pollock; Mercy Alejandra Cruz; Alexander E. Davis; Beth Davis; Néstor de Buen; - Portillo; Cynthia Powell; Humberto Prado Sifontes; Nath alie Rakotomalia; Javier Ramirez; Eduardo Ramos-Gómez; Bryce de Flamand; James P. DeHart; Brackett B. Denniston, III; Russell C. Deyo; Surya Dhungel; Adama Dieng; Andrew Daniela Rampani; Alex Randall; Richard Randerson; Claudia - Rast; Yahya Rayegani; Nick Rehmus; Adrian F. Revilla; Sal Domingoes; Alyssa Dougherty; Megan Duffy; Sandra Elena; Roger El Khoury; Sanal Enkhbaatar; Adele Ewan; Juan vador Reyes; Lopes Ribeiro; Kelly Roberts; Nigel H. Roberts; Farré; Fatima Fettar; Steve Fisher; Eric Florenz; Abderrahim Amir Ron; Maria Rosales; Liz Ross; Steve Ross; Faith Rotich; Foukara; Kristina Fridman; Morly Frishman; Viorel Furdui; Patricia Ruiz de Vergara; Irma Russell; Rosemarie Sandino; Minoru Furuyama; Daniel Gamboa Rinckoar; Amir Gal Marc Sepama; Adam Severance; Bruce Sewell; Uli Parmlian - Sihombing; Hajrija Sijerčić-Čolić; William Sinnott; Lumba ván; William H. Gates, Sr.; Anna Gardner; Dorothy Garcia; Siyanga; Brad Smith; Julie Smith; Joshua Steele; Lourdes Sophie Gebreselassie; Dwight Gee; Sujith George; Adam Stein; Thomas M. Susman; Elizabeth Thomas-Hope; Jinni Gerstenmier; Jacqueline Gichinga; Suzanne E. Gilbert; Brian Tran; Laurence Tribe; Martha Uc; Christina Vachon; Patricia Gitau; Travis Glynn; Arturo Gomez; Felipe Gómez; Nengak van Nispen; Robert Varenik; Jessica Villegas; Maria Vinot; Daniel Gondyi; Lindsey Graham; Deweh Gray; Michael S. - Quinn Walker; Raymond Webster; Robin Weiss; Doroth Greco; Elise Groulx; Paula F. Guevara; Heena Gupta; Arkady ee Wildt; Jennifer Wilmore; Jason Wilks; Malin Winbom; Gutnikov; Karen Hall; Margaret Halpin; Kunio Hamada; Russom Woldezghi; Nazgul Yergalieva; Hunter Zachwieja; Mohammad Hamze; Leila Hanafi; Sana Hawamdeh; Kate Stephen Zack; Keyvan Zamani; Jorge Zapp-Glauser; Roula Helms; Alvaro Herrero; Sheila Hollis; Michael Holston; R. William Ide, III; Murtaza Jaffer; Chelsea Jaeztold; Hassan Zayat; Fanny Zhao.

191 - Altus Global Alliance; APCO Worldwide; Fleishman-Hil Program, UC Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism; The lard; The Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Legal Department of Hewlett-Packard Limited; The Legal Department of Microsoft Corporation; The Whitney and Sciences, Stanford University; The Center on Democracy, Betty MacMillan Center for International and Area Studies, - Development, and the Rule of Law, Stanford Universi ty; The German Bar Association in Brussels; Governance Yale University; Rule of Law Collaborative, University of South Carolina; The University of Chicago Law School; Vera Data Alliance; Google Inc.; The Hague Institute for the Internationalisation of Law (HiiL); Investigative Reporting Institute of Justice. I 189 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

192 Part Five: Behind the Numbers About the World Justice Project The World Justice Project (WJP) is an independent, multidisciplinary organization working to advance the rule of law around the world. Effective rule of law reduces corruption, combats poverty and disease, and protects people from injustices large and small. It is the foundation for communities of equity, opportunity, and peace—underpinning development, accountable government, and respect for fundamental rights. Founded by William H. Neukom in 2006 as a presidential WJP Rule of Law Index ® initiative of the American Bar Association (ABA), and with The WJP Rule of Law Index provides original, impartial data the initial support of 21 other strategic partners, the World on how the rule of law is experienced and perceived by the Justice Project transitioned into an independent 501(c)(3) general public in 113 countries around the globe. It is the non-profit organization in 2009. Its offices are located in most comprehensive index of its kind. To date, more than Washington, DC and Seattle, WA, USA; Mexico City, Mexi - 330,000 households and experts have been interviewed co; and Singapore. worldwide. Index findings have been referenced by heads of state, chief justices, business leaders, public officials, and Our Approach the press, including media outlets in over 125 countries Traditionally, the rule of law has been viewed as the domain worldwide. of lawyers and judges. But everyday issues of safety, rights, Engagement - justice, and governance affect us all; everyone is a stake Engagement efforts include connecting and developing - holder in the rule of law. Based on this, WJP’s mutual a global network, organizing strategic convenings, and ly-reinforcing lines of business employ a multi-disciplinary fostering practical, on-the-ground programs. At our World approach through original research and data, an active Justice Forum, regional conferences, and single-country and global network, and practical, locally-led programs to engagements, citizens and leaders come together to learn advance the rule of law worldwide. about the rule of law, build their networks, and design pragmatic solutions to local rule of law challenges. In Research & Scholarship addition, the World Justice Challenge provides seed grants The WJP’s Research & Scholarship work supports research to support practical, on-the-ground programs addressing about the meaning and measurement of the rule of law, discrimination, corruption, violence, and more. - and how it matters for economic, socio-political, and hu man development. The Rule of Law Research Consortium (RLRC) is a community of leading scholars from a variety of - fields harnessing diverse methods and approaches to pro duce research on the rule of law and its effects on society.

193 World Justice Project Funders Honorary Chairs The World Justice Project has the support of outstanding - The World Justice Project thanks the following major cur leaders representing a range of disciplines around the rent funders for their generous support: world. The Honorary Chairs of the World Justice Project Anonymous are: Anonymous Madeleine Albright; Giuliano Amato; Robert Badinter; Apple, Inc. BGC3 James A. Baker III; Cherie Blair; Stephen G. Breyer; Sharan Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Burrow; David Byrne; Jimmy Carter; Maria Livanos Cattaui; Arthur Chaskalson;* Emil Constantinescu; Hans Corell; City of The Hague Hilario G. Davide, Jr.; Hernando de Soto; Adama Dieng; European Commission - Ford Foundation William H. Gates, Sr.; Ruth Bader Ginsburg; Richard J. Gold Microsoft Corporation stone; Kunio Hamada; Lee H. Hamilton; Mohamed Ibrahim; Neukom Family Foundation Tassaduq Hussain Jillani; Anthony M. Kennedy; Beverley McLachlin; George J. Mitchell; John Edwin Mroz;* Indra Sally & William H. Neukom Nooyi; Sandra Day O’Connor; Ana Palacio; Colin L. Pow Open Society Justice Initiative - ell; Roy L. Prosterman; Richard W. Riley; Mary Robinson; Singapore Ministry of Law United States Department of State Richard Trumka; Desmond Tutu; Antonio Vitorino; Paul A. Diana Walsh & Kent Walker Volcker; Harold Woolf; Andrew Young; Zhelyu Zhelev.* William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Board of Directors A list of previous funders can be found at: Sheikha Abdulla Al-Misnad; Kamel Ayadi; William C. Hub - bard; Hassan Bubacar Jallow; Suet-Fern Lee; Mondli Makh - worldjusticeproject.org anya; William H. Neukom; Ellen Grace Northfleet; James R. Strategic Partners Silkenat; Petar Stoyanov. American Bar Association; American Public Health Associ - ation; American Society of Civil Engineers; Arab Center for Directors Emeritus the Development of the Rule of Law and Integrity; Avocats President Dr. Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai Sans Frontières; Canadian Bar Association; Club of Madrid; Officers & Staff Hague Institute for the Internationalisation of Law; Human ; William H. William C. Hubbard, Chairman of the Board Rights First; Human Rights Watch; Inter-American Bar Neukom, ; Vice President ; Mark D. Agrast, Founder and CEO Association; International Bar Association; International Vice President Deborah Enix-Ross, ; Judy Perry Martinez, Chamber of Commerce; International Institute for Applied ; James R. Silkenat, Director and Treasurer ; Vice President Systems Analysis; International Organization of Employers; . Gerold W. Libby, General Counsel and Secretary International Trade Union Confederation; Inter-Pacific Bar ; Alejandro Executive Director Staff: Juan Carlos Botero, Association; Karamah: Muslim Women Lawyers for Human Chief Research Officer Ponce, ; Kate Adams; Rebecca Billings; Rights; Landesa; NAFSA: Association of International Josiah Byers; Killian Dorier; Alicia Evangelides; Radha Fried - Educators; Norwegian Bar Association; People to People man; Amy Gryskiewicz; Camilo Gutiérrez Patiño; Matthew International; Union Internationale des Avocats; Union Harman; Roberto Hernández; Alexa Hopkins; Clara Jiang; of Turkish Bar Associations; U.S. Chamber of Commerce; Priya Kholsa; Sarah Chamness Long; Ahna Machan; Debby The World Council of Religious Leaders; World Federation Manley; Rachel Martin; Joel Martinez; Jorge Morales; of Engineering Organisations; World Federation of Public Layda Negrete; Nikki Ngbichi-Moore; Afua Ofosu-Barko; Health Associations Christine Pratt; Adriana Rios; Leslie Solís; Gerard Vinluan; Nancy Ward. * deceased I 191 2017–2018 WJP Rule of Law Index

194 “Laws of justice which Hammurabi, the wise king, “Treat the people equally in your court and give them established... That the strong might not injure the weak, equal attention, so that the noble shall not aspire to your partiality, nor the humble despair of your justice.” in order to protect the widows and orphans..., in order to declare justice in the land, to settle all disputes, and heal all injuries.” Judicial Guidelines from ‘Umar Bin Al-Khattab, The Second Khalifa of Islam’ Codex Hammurabi “No freeman is to be taken or imprisoned or disseised “I could adjudicate lawsuits as well as anyone. But I would of his free tenement or of his liberties or free customs, prefer to make lawsuits unnecessary.” or outlawed or exiled or in any way ruined, nor will we go against such a man or send against him save by lawful Analects of Confucius judgement of his peers or by the law of the land. To no-one will we sell or deny or delay right or justice.” “It is more proper that law should govern than any one of Magna Carta the citizens.” Aristotle, Politics (350 BCE) “Where-ever law ends, tyranny begins.” John Locke, Two Treatises of Government (1689) “If someone disobeys the law, even if he is (otherwise) worthy, he must be punished. If someone meets the standard, even if he is (otherwise) unworthy, he must be “Good civil laws are the greatest good that men can give found innocent. Thus the Way of the public good will be and receive. They are the source of morals, the palladium opened up, and that of private interest will be blocked.” of property, and the guarantee of all public and private The Huainanzi 139 BCE (Han Dynasty, China) peace. If they are not the foundation of government, they are its supports; they moderate power and help ensure respect for it, as though power were justice itself.” “We are all servants of the laws in order that we may be free.” Jean-Étienne-Marie Portalis, Discours Préliminaire du Premier Projet de Code Civil Cicero (106 BCE - 43 BCE) “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and “The Law of Nations, however, is common to the entire rights... Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms - human race, for all nations have established for them set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any selves certain regulations exacted by custom and human kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political necessity.” or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.” Corpus Juris Civilis Universal Declaration of Human Rights

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