FCAT 2.0 2018 Science Test Item Specifications Version 2 Grade 5

Transcript

1 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2 Grade 5

2 Copyright Statement for This Office of Assessment Publication Authorization for reproduction of this document is hereby granted to persons acting in an official capacity within the Uniform System of Public K–12 Schools as defined in Section 1000.01(4), Florida Statutes. The copyright notice at the bottom of this page must be included in all copies. All trademarks and trade names found in this publication are the property of their respective owners and are not associated with the publishers of this publication. Permission is NOT granted for distribution or reproduction outside of the Uniform System of Public K–12 Florida Schools or for commercial distribution of the copyrighted materials without written authorization from the Florida Department of Education. Questions regarding use of these copyrighted materials should be sent to the following: The Administrator Office of Assessment Florida Department of Education Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0400 Copyright © 2012 State of Florida Department of State

3 ONTENTS C ABLE OF T 1 Introduction Origin and Purpose of the Specifications Scope of this Document Overall Considerations Item Contexts (Scenarios) 4 Criteria for Statewide Science Assessment Test Items Use of Graphics Item Style and Format Scope of Test Items Guidelines for Item Writers 11 Cognitive Complexity of Statewide Science Assessment Test Items Item Difficulty Cognitive Complexity Universal Design 18 Review Procedures for Statewide Science Assessment Test Items Review for Potential Bias and Community Sensitivity Review of Test Items 19 Guide to the Individual Benchmark Specifications Benchmark Classification System Definitions of Benchmark Specifications Grades K–2 Science Benchmarks Individual Benchmark Specifications for Statewide Science Assessment Grade 5 29 A–1 Appendix A: Directions for Item Review and Statewide Science Assessment Item Rating Form Science Content Assessed by Statewide Science Assessment Grade 5 Appendix B: B–1 C–1 Statewide Science Assessment Item Writer Glossary, Grades 5 and 8 Appendix C: D–1 Appendix D: Reporting Categories for Statewide Science Assessments and Biology 1 End-of-Course Assessment E–1 Appendix E: Statewide Science Assessments and Biology 1 End-of-Course Assessment Test Design Summary F–1 Appendix F: Periodic Table of the Elements, Statewide Science Assessment Grade 8 and Biology 1 End-of-Course Assessment Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | i

4 ii | Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education

5 I NTRODUCTION In recent years, two realities focused attention on the need to reevaluate Florida’s Sunshine State Standards. First, in 2005, outside consultants reviewed the 1996 Sunshine State Standards and suggested that the benchmark language offer greater specificity to indicate clearly what teachers should teach and what students should be able to do. Second, federal (NCLB) holds schools and school No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 legislation through the districts accountable for how well each child is learning, which further emphasizes the need to hone expectations for all students. In January 2006, the Florida Department of Education (FDOE) committed to a six-year cycle of review and revision of the K–12 content standards. The science standards were rewritten, and the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards (NGSSS) for science were adopted by the Florida State Board of Education in February 2008 (available online at http://www.floridastandards.org/Standards/FLStandardSearch.aspx ). For grades K–8, the NGSSS are divided into benchmarks that identify what a student should know and be able to do at each grade level. This document, Statewide Science , provides Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 (Specifications) information about the benchmarks, the stimulus types, and the test items designed to assess the standards for grades 3–5. The Statewide Science Assessments measure achievement of grade 5 and grade 8 Florida students in science. The Biology 1 End-Of-Course (EOC) Assessment measures achievement of Florida students enrolled in Biology 1, or an equivalent course, by assessing student progress on benchmarks from the NGSSS that are assigned to the Biology 1 course. Origin and Purpose of the Specifications The Florida Department of Education and committees of experienced Florida educators is a resource that defines the Specifications . The Specifications developed and approved the content and format of the test and test items for item writers and reviewers. The grade-level indicates the alignment of test items with the NGSSS. It also serves to provide Specifications all stakeholders with information about the format and function of the Statewide Science Assessments. Scope of this Document The Specifications for grade 5 provides general and grade-specific guidelines for the development of all test items used in the Statewide Science Assessment for grade 5. Two additional Specifications documents provide the same information for the Statewide Science Assessment grade 8 and the Biology 1 EOC assessment. The Overall Considerations section in this Introduction provides an explanation of the science concepts assessed by the test. The Criteria for Statewide Science Assessment Test Items section addresses cognitive-complexity levels as well as the review processes used to ensure the quality of the stimuli and test items. The same section explains the general guidelines for selection and development of multiple-choice items. The Individual Benchmark Specifications section contains specific information about each benchmark. This section provides benchmark clarification statements, content limits, stimulus attributes, response attributes, prior knowledge, and a sample item for each benchmark grouping. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 1

6 Overall Considerations This section of the describes the guidelines that apply to all test items Specifications developed for the Statewide Science Assessment for grade 5 and grade 8. Overall considerations are broad item-development issues that should be addressed during the development of test items. Sections of Criteria for Statewide Science Assessment Test Items relate more specifically to one aspect of the development (e.g., content limits, stimulus attributes). Each test item should be written to measure primarily one benchmark; 1. however, other benchmarks may also be reflected in the item context (scenario). Some benchmarks are combined for assessment. The individual specification 2. and Appendix B indicate which benchmarks are combined. Test items may be written to “also assesses” benchmarks; however, the overall theme of the benchmark grouping should be evident in the items. 3. Test items should be appropriate for students in terms of grade-level instruction, experience and difficulty, cognitive development, and reading level. The reading level of the test items should be on grade level, except for specifically assessed science terms or concepts. The Individual Benchmark Specifications and the grade 5 Item Writer Glossary found in Appendix C provide information to the writer on which science terms are appropriate for use in test items at grade 5. For grade 8, words found in the benchmarks and the glossary are appropriate for use in test items unless otherwise noted in the Specifications . The grade 8 glossary is provided as a reference of the terms and concepts that are appropriate for grade 8. 4. Test items should assess the application of the concept rather than the memorization of science fact, law, or theory unless otherwise noted in the Individual Benchmark Specifications. 5. Test items will not require the student to define terms. 6. Test items that include a collection of data should require the student to analyze or interpret that data (e.g., use data from a scenario to identify a trend) rather than retrieve information directly from a passage, chart, graph, or table. Test items or illustrations for grades 5 and 8 may use the following common 7. elementary laboratory tools: balance, battery, beaker, compass, eyedropper, flashlight, globe, graduated cylinder, light bulb, magnet, magnifying glass or hand lens, metric measuring tape, metric ruler, microscope, microscope slide, mirror, model, safety goggles, spring scales, stopwatch, streak plate, telescope, test tube, thermometer, topographic map, and tuning fork. 8. Test items or illustrations for grade 8 may use the following common middle- school laboratory tools in addition to the elementary laboratory tools: dissection equipment, electronic balance, flask, hot plate, meter stick, petri dish, pH sensors, pipette, prism, probe, pulley, test strips, and triple-beam balance. Florida Department of Education 2 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

7 9. Test items referring to technologies familiar to elementary and middle-school students may include computers and computer models (simulations). Test items will not require the creation of a chart, graph, or table. 10. 11. At grade 5, all test items should be written in a conceptual nature. Grade 5 test items should not require the use of a calculator. At grade 8, students are allowed to use a four-function calculator, although test items should not require its use. 12. Test items may require the student to apply knowledge of the science concepts described in the prior knowledge benchmarks from lower grades; however, that knowledge should NOT be assessed in isolation. Each test item should be written clearly and unambiguously to elicit the 13. desired response. 14. Test items will not require the memorization of equations or formulas unless otherwise noted in the Individual Benchmark Specifications. A reference sheet is not provided to students. If equations or formulas are needed, they must be included in the test item. Test items will not require memorization of the periodic table. For grade 8, a 15. periodic table is provided to the students and is also found in Appendix F. Test items should not disadvantage or exhibit disrespect to anyone in regard to 16. age, gender, race, ethnicity, language, religion, socioeconomic status, disability, occupation, or geographic region. Item Contexts (Scenarios) The context in which a test item is presented is called the item context or scenario. Test items should be placed in a context. The test item context should be designed to interest students at the assessed 1. grade level. Scenarios should be appropriate for students in terms of grade- level experience and difficulty, cognitive development, and reading level. 2. The context should be directly related to the question asked. The context should lead the student cognitively to the question. Every effort should be made to keep test items as concise as possible without losing cognitive flow or missing the overall idea or concept. 3. Item contexts should not refer to students using textbooks or the Internet as resources. Item contexts should focus on the students engaging in science learning rather than reading about science. Item contexts should avoid using a simple classroom scenario. Item contexts and illustrations depicting individuals conducting laboratory 4. investigations should include proper safety equipment and model safe laboratory procedures. 5. Scenarios describing scientific investigations should model current science methodology and adhere to the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair Rules and Guidelines unless otherwise noted in the benchmark clarification statements. These rules and guidelines can be found using the Document Library link at http://www.societyforscience.org/ISEF . 6. The test item content should be timely and not likely to become dated. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 3

8 CIENCE RITERIA FOR C TEMS I EST T SSESSMENT A S S TATEWIDE All Statewide Science Assessment test items are in multiple-choice (MC) format. The general through 17 cover the following criteria for the Statewide Science pages 4 specifications on Assessment: Graphics Use of • • Item Style and Format • Scope of Test Items • Guidelines for Item Writers • Item Difficulty Cognitive Complexity of Statewide Science Assessment Test Items • Universal Design • Use of Graphics Graphics are used to provide both necessary and supplemental information––that is, some graphics contain information that is necessary for answering the question, while other graphics illustrate or support the context of the question. Scenarios may include diagrams, illustrations, charts, or tables, unless otherwise noted in the Individual Benchmark Specifications. Test items should not begin with art. Art in test items is always preceded by 1. text. 2. All tables, charts, and graphs should be titled. Titles should be in all caps, boldfaced, and centered. 3. Illustrations and pictures are either titled or introduced. If a title is used, the title shall be set in boldface with initial caps and may be placed above or below the illustration or picture. 4. Whenever possible, the components of graphics should be labeled. Item Style and Format This section presents stylistic guidelines and formatting directions that should be followed while developing test items. General Guidelines 1. Test items should be clear and concise and should use vocabulary and sentence structure appropriate for the assessed grade level. Writers should refer to the resources provided during item writer training and to the Glossary in the back Specifications of the to determine if the language used in the test item is grade- level appropriate. 2. Whenever possible, test items should be written in active voice rather than in passive voice. Scientific concepts should be grade appropriate. Writers should refer to the 3. Prior Knowledge information in the Individual Benchmark Specifications section, the instructional foundation for each benchmark grouping. The grades K–2 benchmarks are found on pages 22–28. 4. Test items should have only one correct answer. The words most likely or best should only be used when appropriate to the question. Florida Department of Education 4 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

9 The final sentence of all test item stems must be expressed as a question. 5. At grade 5, test items addressing temperature should use degrees Celsius with 6. the approximate whole number equivalent in degrees Fahrenheit, e.g., 37°C (99°F). At grade 8, temperatures should be given in degrees Celsius unless otherwise noted in the Individual Benchmark Specifications. 7. Metric units of measure should be used in scenarios addressing mass, length, weight, and/or volume. International System of Units (SI) should be used unless otherwise noted in the Individual Benchmark Specifications. 8. Test items requiring art should be to scale whenever possible. If needed for clarity, a not-to-scale text box should be included at the bottom left of the art. In items with graphics as answer options, the stem may contain the statement “Options are not to scale.” This will avoid repetitive placement of the not-to­ scale box with each option. Graphics in test items should be clearly labeled and contain all necessary 9. information. Test items referring to new developments or discoveries should include phrases 10. or . according to current knowledge similar to based on current knowledge 11. Test item questions using the word not should emphasize the word using not . . . ). Which of the following is NOT an example of all uppercase letters (e.g., 12. As appropriate, boldface type should be used to emphasize key words in the , test item question (e.g., least , most greatest , percent , best ). 13. Masculine pronouns should NOT be used to refer to both sexes. Name(s) should be used whenever possible to avoid gender-specific pronouns (e.g., The student will make changes so that he John and Maria . . . , use instead of will make changes so that they . . . ). 14. An equal balance of male and female names should be used, including names representing current student names and different ethnic groups appropriate for Florida. Grade 8 test items may express values using scientific notation; however, test 15. items should not require calculations involving scientific notation. Use of scientific notation is not appropriate at grade 5. 16. Decimal numbers between −1 and 1 should have a leading zero. SI units should be expressed in a single type of unit when possible (e.g., 1.4 17. kilograms instead of 1 kilogram 400 grams). 18. Decimal notation should be used for numbers with SI units (e.g., 1.5 grams 1 instead of 1 grams). 2 19. Commas should be used in numbers greater than or equal to 1,000 except for numbers having an SI unit. In this case, numbers with four digits should be presented without a comma or a space (e.g., 9960 meters). Numbers with more than four digits should be presented with a thin space inserted in place of a comma (e.g., 10 123 kilograms). Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 5

10 The first occurrence of units of measure should be written out in the test item 20. stem, e.g., kilograms (kg). In graphics, an abbreviation may be used (e.g., g or and the abbreviation for in cm). To avoid confusion between the preposition inches, only units of measure in graphics should be presented, e.g., height (cm) NOT height (in cm). In titles of tables and charts and in labels for axes, the unit of measure should 21. be included, preferably in lowercase and in parentheses, e.g., height (m). 22. In most cases, scenarios involving elements, chemical formulas, or chemical symbols and/or equations should be written out followed by the abbreviation, e.g., carbon dioxide (CO ). 2 23. Test items assessing concepts that require equations should include the equation with the test item unless otherwise noted in the Individual Benchmark Specifications. Test items will not require the memorization of formulas. In the item stem, values needed to compute answers should be presented as 24. numerals. Multiple-Choice (MC) Items MC items should take approximately one minute per item to answer. 1. MC items are worth one point each. 2. MC items should have four answer options (A, B, C, D or F, G, H, I for 3. alternating items). 4. The correct response should be indicated. The rationale for distractors (incorrect answer choices) should be indicated. 5. The rationale should include information explaining why a student would select that distractor. Distractor rationales should represent computational or conceptual errors 6. commonly made by students who have not mastered the assessed concepts. 7. Each distractor should be a believable answer for someone who does not really know the correct answer. 8. Whenever possible, distractors should include common science misconceptions. 9. All distractors should be written in a style appropriate to the question asked. For example, a “how” question should have distractors that explain how. 10. Paired comparison structure of options should be avoided. 11. Options should have parallel structure whenever possible. Test item options should not have an outlier (e.g., an answer option that is significantly longer than or different from the other options). 12. Test items should not be clued or answered by information in the stem or other options. 13. Options such as none of the above , all of the above , not here , not enough information , or cannot be determined should not be used. These responses should not be used as distractor rationales. Florida Department of Education 6 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

11 14. If an option is a single word or a phrase, the option should start with a lowercase letter. If an option is a sentence, the sentence should be conventionally capitalized and punctuated. Options that are imperatives should be treated as sentences. 15. In most cases, answer options should be arranged vertically beneath the item stem. 16. If four graphics are labeled horizontally or vertically and horizontally, the option labeling should be as follows: A. C. A. B. C. D. or D. B. 17. If the answer options for a test item are strictly numerical, they should be arranged in ascending or descending order, with the place values of digits aligned. When the test item requires the identification of a choice from the item stem, table, chart, or illustration, the options should be arranged as they are presented in the item stem, table, chart, or illustration. If the answer options for a test item are neither strictly numerical nor 18. denominate numbers, the options should be arranged by the logic presented in the test item, by alphabetical order, or by length. Options may also be ordered in reverse alphabetical order or from longest to shortest. Answers that are one word in length should be in alphabetical or reverse alphabetical order. Context-Dependent Item Sets Context-dependent (CD) item sets are groups of test items that are written to a common stimulus. The stimulus provides a basis for testing student understanding of science concepts or processes, critical thinking, or problem solving. The stimulus for the CD set may be a passage describing a scientific short 1. event or investigation. The stimulus may include illustrations, graphics, tables, and/or graphs. As a general rule, the stimulus content should focus primarily on two science 2. areas from the NGSSS (Nature of Science, Earth and Space Science, Life Science, or Physical Science). The reading level of the stimulus, excluding science terms, should be on grade 3. level. Test items will be written so that students with benchmark mastery use scientific 4. knowledge and the information in the passage to answer the test items in the set. Test items will not be clued or answered by information in the passage or 5. other test items in the CD set. 6. Test items may require the student to analyze, interpret, evaluate, and/or draw inferences from the information in the stimulus. 7. As many test items as possible should be written to the stimulus. Those test items should represent an appropriate variety of benchmarks. On a test, a minimum of two different benchmarks should be assessed in the CD set. CD sets may be titled; however, titles are not required. 8. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 7

12 The following CD set is provided as an example of three items written to a common stimulus. HE I NDIAN R IVER L AGOON T An estuary is a body of water in which fresh water draining from the land mixes with salt water from the ocean. The result of this mixture is an environment with abundant plant and animal life. The Indian River Lagoon is a 156-mile-long estuary on Florida’s east coast. It is a diverse estuary, supporting thousands of species of plants and animals. The food web and food pyramid shown below are examples of the relationships that exist in the Indian River Lagoon ecosystem. Eg ret Heron Flounder rm Clam wo Crab Insects Sea grass aw eed Se on ytoplankt Ph b Food We Egret Flounder Clam worm Phytoplankton not to scale Food Pyramid Florida Department of Education 8 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

13 Which of the following has the largest population in the Indian River Lagoon ecosystem? rab c A. B. egret C. f lounder D. sea grass ★ Which of the following statements most accurately describes the energy transfer between the levels of the food pyramid in the Indian River Lagoon? Energy stays in the phytoplankton at the lowest level. A. B. Ener gy is released into the environment only from the egret. ★ C. Energy travels up from the phytoplankton to the clam worm. D. gy moves from the flounder to both the clam worm and egret. Ener In the Indian River Lagoon ecosystem, many organisms compete with one another for food sources. Which organism in the food web competes with the egret for food? orm clam w A. B. crab C. lounder f D. heron ★ Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 9

14 Scope of Test Items The scope of Statewide Science Assessment test items for grades 3–5 is presented in Appendix B. The benchmarks serve as the objectives to which the test items are written. Additional guidelines or restrictions are located in the Individual Benchmark Specifications. Guidelines for Item Writers Statewide Science Assessment item writers must have a comprehensive knowledge of the assessed science curriculum and a strong understanding of the scientific concepts and cognitive abilities of the students taking the test. Item writers should know and consistently document, as well as contribute to the apply the guidelines established in this Specifications goal of developing test content that allows students to perform at their best. Item writers are also expected to use their best judgment in writing test items that measure the science benchmarks of the NGSSS without introducing extraneous elements that reflect bias for or against a group of students. Item writers for the Statewide Science Assessment must submit test items in a particular format and must include the following information about each test item. Because test items are rated by committees of Florida educators following submission to the FDOE, familiarity with the directions for rating test items (found in Appendix A) would prove useful to all item writers. Item writers must submit test items in the agreed-upon template. Format All appropriate sections of the template should be completed before the test items are submitted. Sources Item writers are expected to provide sources for all verifiable information included in the test item. Acceptable sources include science magazines, science journals, or Internet sites maintained by reputable organizations such as government agencies, universities, or research centers. Correct Item writers must supply the correct response. Each distractor Response should be a believable answer for someone who does not know the correct answer. Rationales must include an explanation of why a student would choose a certain distractor. Submission When submitting test items, item writers must balance several factors. Test item submissions should: of Items • be written to the appropriate cognitive complexity; ppropriate content focus; • be written to the a • include the content source for the test items; • have a balance in location of the correct answer within benchmarks; • have a balance of different female and different male names; • use names representative of elementary and middle-school students in Florida; and • be scientifically accurate. Florida Department of Education 10 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

15 OMPLEXITY OF C C OGNITIVE S EST CIENCE S TATEWIDE I TEMS T SSESSMENT A Educational standards and assessments can be aligned based on the category of content covered and also on the complexity of knowledge required. The Statewide Science Assessment test items, while assessing Florida’s NGSSS, must also reflect this goal and standard. It is important to develop test items that elicit student responses that demonstrate the complexity of knowledge and skills required to meet these objectives. The degree of challenge of Statewide Science Assessment items is currently categorized in two ways: . cognitive complexity and item difficulty Item Difficulty After a test item appears on a test, item difficulty refers to the actual percentage of students who chose the correct answer. The classification scheme used for item difficulty is based on the following: Easy More than 70 percent of the students are likely to respond correctly. Average Between 40 percent and 70 percent of the students are likely to respond correctly. Challenging Less than 40 percent of the students are likely to respond correctly. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 11

16 Cognitive Complexity Cognitive complexity refers to the cognitive demand associated with a test item. The cognitive classification system implemented by the FDOE is based upon Dr. Norman L. 1 The rationale for classifying a test item by its Webb’s Depth of Knowledge (DOK) levels. , not on the expectations made of the test item ability DOK level of complexity focuses on the of the student . When classifying a test item’s demands on thinking (i.e., what the test item requires the student to recall, understand, analyze, and do), it is assumed that the student is familiar with the basic concepts of the task. Test items are chosen for the Statewide Science Assessment based on the NGSSS and their grade-level appropriateness, but the complexity of the test items remains independent of the particular curriculum a student has experienced. On any given assessment, the cognitive complexity of a multiple-choice item may be affected by the distractors (answer options). The cognitive complexity of a test item depends on the grade level of the assessment; a test item that has a high level of cognitive complexity at one grade may not be as complex at a higher grade. The categories—low complexity, moderate complexity, and high complexity—form an ordered description of the demands a test item may make on a student. For example, low-complexity test items may require a student to solve a one-step problem. Moderate- complexity test items may require multiple steps. However, the number of steps is not always indicative of cognitive level. High-complexity test items may require a student to analyze and synthesize information. The distinctions made in item complexity ensure that test items will assess the depth of student knowledge at each benchmark. The intent of the item writer weighs heavily in determining the complexity of a test item. The three Statewide Science Assessment test items that follow illustrate how a single concept may be assessed by test items with increasing cognitive complexity. The pages that follow illustrate some of the varying demands that test items might make at each complexity level for the Statewide Science Assessment. Note that test items may fit one or more descriptions. In most instances, these test items are classified in the highest level of complexity demanded by the test item. Caution must be used in referring to the table of descriptors that is provided for each cognitive-complexity level. This table is provided for ease of reference, but the ultimate determination of item complexity should be made considering the overall cognitive demand placed on a student. Another table provides the breakdown of the percentage of points by cognitive-complexity level. 1 Webb, Norman L. and others. “Web Alignment Tool” 24 July 2005. Wisconsin Center for Education Research. . http://wat.wceruw.org/index.aspx University of Wisconsin-Madison. 2 Feb. 2006. Florida Department of Education 12 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

17 Low Complexity Science low-complexity test items rely heavily on the recall and recognition of previously learned concepts and principles. Test items typically specify what the student is to do, which often is to carry out some procedure that can be performed mechanically. It is not left to the student to come up with an original method or solution. Felipe and Marsha were studying forces and decided to do an experiment. They placed four equally sized blocks made of different materials on an elevated plastic tray. They watched each of the blocks move down the tray. Their setup is shown below. Sandpaper Sponge Block Block Plastic Ice Block Block Plastic Tray Which of the following forces causes the blocks to move down the tray? electric A. B. friction C. ★ gravity magnetic D. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 13

18 Moderate Complexity Science moderate-complexity test items involve more flexible thinking than low-complexity test items do. They require a response that goes beyond the habitual, is not specified, and ordinarily involves more than a single step or thought process. The student is expected to decide what to do—using informal methods of reasoning and problem-solving strategies— and to bring together skill and knowledge from various domains. Felipe and Marsha were studying forces and decided to do an experiment. They placed four equally sized blocks made of different materials on an elevated plastic tray. They watched each of the blocks move down the tray. Their setup is shown below. Sandpaper Sponge Block Block Plastic Ice Block Block Plastic Tray Which block would experience the least amount of friction as it moved down the tray? Ice Block ★ A. B. Sponge Block C. Sandpa per Block D. Plastic Block Florida Department of Education 14 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

19 High Complexity Science high-complexity test items make heavy demands on student thinking. Students must engage in abstract reasoning, planning, analysis, judgment, and creative thought. The test items require that the student think in an abstract and sophisticated way, often involving multiple steps. Felipe and Marsha were studying forces and decided to do an experiment. They placed four equally sized blocks made of different materials on an elevated plastic tray. They watched each of the blocks move down the tray. Their setup is shown below. Sandpaper Sponge Block Block Plastic Ice Block Block Plastic Tray Which of the following conclusions can Felipe and Marsha make about the forces that cause the blocks to move down the tray? A. The force of friction is the same on each block. B. The force of friction causes the speed of each block to increase. C. The force of gravity causes all the blocks to move at the same speed. D. The force of gravity is greater than the force of friction on all the blocks. ★ Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 15

20 The following table is provided for ease of reference; however, caution must be used in referring to this table of descriptors for each cognitive-complexity level. The ultimate determination of an item’s cognitive complexity should be made considering the intent of the overall cognitive demand placed on a student. Examples of Science Activities across Cognitive-Complexity Levels Moderate-Complexity Science High-Complexity Science Low-Complexity Science • Retrieve information • Interpret data from a • Analyze data from from a chart, table, chart, table, or simple an investigation or diagram, or graph. experiment and formulate graph. • Determine the best way Recognize a standard a conclusion. • to organize or present Develop a generalization scientific representation • from multiple data data from observations, of a simple phenomenon an investigation, or or identify common sources. • Analyze and evaluate an examples. experiments. • Complete a familiar experiment with multiple • Describe or explain single-step procedure or variables. examples and non- examples of scientific solve a problem using a • Analyze an investigation or experiment to identify known formula. processes or concepts. • Specify or explain a flaw and propose a relationships among method for correcting it. different groups, facts, • Analyze a problem, properties, or variables. situation, or system and make long-term • Differentiate structure and functions of different predictions. • Interpret, explain, organisms or systems. or solve a problem • Predict or determine involving complex spatial the next logical step or relationships. outcome. • Apply and use concepts from a standard scientific model or theory. Florida Department of Education 16 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

21 The table below presents the range for the percent of raw score points by cognitive complexity on Statewide Science Assessment grade 5 and grade 8, and the Biology 1 EOC Assessment. Percentage of Points by Cognitive-Complexity Level for Statewide Science Assessment and Biology 1 EOC Assessment High Moderate Low Assessment 5 10%–20% 60%–80% 10%–20% 8 10%–20% 60%–80% 10%–20% Biology 1 10%–20% 10%–20% 60%–80% Universal Design The application of universal design principles helps develop assessments that are usable to the greatest number of test takers, including students with disabilities and nonnative speakers of English. To support the goal of providing access to all students, the test maximizes readability, legibility, and compatibility with accommodations, and test development includes a review for potential bias and sensitivity issues. The FDOE trains both internal and external reviewers to revise test items, allowing for the widest possible range of student participation. Item writers must attend to the best practices suggested by universal design, including, but not limited to: • reduction in wordiness; • avoidance of ambiguity; • selection of reader-friendly construction and terminology; and • consistently applied concept names and graphic conventions. Universal design principles also inform decisions about test layout and design, including, but not limited to, type size, line length, spacing, and graphics. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 17

22 R EVIEW P ROCEDURES FOR S SSESSMENT EST T TATEWIDE A CIENCE S TEMS I Prior to appearing on any Statewide Science Assessment, all science test items must pass several levels of review as part of the Statewide Science Assessment development process. Florida educators and citizens, in conjunction with the FDOE and Statewide Science Assessment contractor, scrutinize all material related to test items prior to accepting it for placement on the tests. Review for Potential Bias and Community Sensitivity Science test items are reviewed by groups of Florida educators generally representative of Florida’s geographic regions and culturally diverse population. Test items are reviewed for the following kinds of bias: gender, racial, ethnic, linguistic, religious, geographic, and socioeconomic. Item reviews also include consideration of issues related to individuals with disabilities. Florida citizens associated with a variety of organizations and institutions review all test items for issues of potential concern to members of the community at large. The intent of this review is to ensure that the primary purpose of assessing science achievement is not undermined by inadvertently including in the test any material that parents and other stakeholders may deem inappropriate. Reviewers are asked to consider the variety of cultural, regional, philosophical, political, and religious backgrounds throughout Florida and to determine whether the subject matter will be acceptable to Florida students, their parents, and other members of Florida communities. Test items are written to meet Statewide Science Assessment criteria and to measure the content in the NGSSS for science. Review of Test Items The FDOE and Statewide Science Assessment contractor review all test items during the item development process. Groups of Florida science educators are subsequently convened to review the test items for content characteristics and item specifications. The content review focuses on validity, determining whether each test item is a valid measure of the designated NGSSS benchmark as defined by grade-level specifications for test items. Separate reviews for bias and sensitivity issues are also conducted as noted above. Due to the theory-based nature of the content area, all potential science test items undergo an extra level of scrutiny. A committee of university-level science researchers, university-level faculty, and practicing scientists from the private sector reviews the test items to ensure the accuracy and currency of the science content. Florida Department of Education 18 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

23 ENCHMARK UIDE TO THE I NDIVIDUAL B G S PECIFICATIONS Benchmark Classification System Each benchmark in the NGSSS is labeled with a system of numbers and letters. • The two letters in the . Subject Area first position of the code identify the • The number(s) in the second position represent the Grade Level to which the benchmark belongs. • The letter in the third position represents the Body of Knowledge to which the benchmark belongs. . fourth position • The number in the represents the Big Idea last position identifies the specific Benchmark under the Big • The number in the Idea. SC. 5. N. 2. 1 Benchmark Subject Area Recognize and explain that Science science is grounded in empirical observations that are testable; explanations must always be Grade Level linked with evidence. Big Idea Grade 5 The Characteristics of Scientific Body of Knowledge Knowledge The Nature of Science Grade 5 Body of Knowledge: The Nature of Science Big Idea 2: The Characteristics of Scientific Knowledge SC.5.N.2.1 Recognize and explain that science is grounded in empirical observations that are testable; explanations must always be linked with evidence. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 19

24 Definitions of Benchmark Specifications Specifications The identifies how the benchmarks in Florida’s NGSSS are assessed on the Statewide Science Assessment at grades 5 and 8. For each benchmark assessed in science, the following information is provided in the Individual Benchmark Specifications section. refers to the categories of related benchmarks from the NGSSS that Reporting are used to summarize and report achievement for the Statewide Category Science Assessments. There are four reporting categories for the Statewide Science Assessments grades 5 and 8: Nature of Science, Earth and Space Science, Physical Science, and Life Science. refers to the standard statement presented in the NGSSS. In the Standard Specifications for grades 5 and 8, the standard also includes the Big Idea. Benchmark refers to the benchmark statement presented in the NGSSS. The benchmarks are specific statements of expected student achievement. The benchmarks are different for each grade at levels K–8. In some cases, two or more benchmarks are grouped together because of the relatedness of the concepts in those benchmarks. The related benchmarks are noted in the Also Assesses section. refers to the benchmarks that are closely related to the benchmark (see Also Assesses description above). explain how achievement of the benchmark will be demonstrated Benchmark Clarifications by students. Clarification statements are written for the benchmark and the Also Assesses benchmark(s). The clarification statements explain what students are expected to do when responding to the question. Content Limits are intended to define for item writers the range of content knowledge and degree of difficulty that should be assessed in the test items for the benchmark. are used by item writers in conjunction with the Overall Considerations, Item Contexts, and the General Guidelines of the Item Style and Format sections in the Specifications . The content limits defined in the Individual Benchmark Specifications section may be an expansion or further restriction of the Overall Considerations, Item Contexts, and the General Guidelines. Stimulus define the types of stimulus materials that should be used in the test Attributes items, including the appropriate use of item context, content, or graphic materials. define the characteristics of the options from which a student must Response Attributes choose to answer the question. Florida Department of Education 20 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

25 refers to benchmarks from lower grades that are the foundation for the Prior concept(s) assessed. Test items may require the student to apply science Knowledge knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades; however, test items should be written to assess the appropriate grade-level benchmark. Sample Items are provided for each assessed benchmark grouping. The sample test items are presented in a format similar to the one used in the test. The correct answer for each sample test item is identified with a star. The benchmark that the sample item is written to assess is provided. The sample items provided represent a range of cognitive complexities. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 21

26 Grades K–2 Science Benchmarks The NGSSS for science are organized by grade level for grades K–8. Although 18 Big Ideas thread throughout all grade levels and build in rigor and depth as students advance, not all grades have benchmarks for each Big Idea. The benchmarks for grades K–2 serve as a foundation for grades 3–5 benchmarks. For that reason, the K–2 science benchmarks are included in this document. In the Individual Benchmark Specifications section for grade 5, K–2 benchmarks are cited in the Prior Knowledge section of the Individual Benchmark Specifications. Big Idea 1 The Practice of Science Grade 2 Grade 1 Kindergarten SC.1.N.1.1 SC.K.N.1.1 SC.2.N.1.1 Raise questions about the Collaborate with a partner to Raise questions about the natural world, investigate collect information. natural world, investigate them in teams through free them in teams through free exploration, and generate exploration and systematic appropriate explanations observations, and generate based on those explorations. appropriate explanations based on those explorations. SC.K.N.1.2 SC.1.N.1.2 SC.2.N.1.2 Make observations of the Using the five senses as tools, Compare the observations natural world and know that make careful observations, made by different groups they are descriptors collected describe objects in terms of using the same tools. using the five senses. number, shape, texture, size, weight, color, and motion, and compare their observations with others. SC.K.N.1.3 SC.1.N.1.3 SC.2.N.1.3 Keep records as appropriate— Keep records as appropriate— Ask “how do you know?” in such as pictorial records—of such as pictorial and written appropriate situations and investigations conducted. records—of investigations attempt reasonable answers conducted. when asked the same question by others. SC.K.N.1.4 SC.2.N.1.4 SC.1.N.1.4 Observe and create a visual Ask “how do you know?” in Explain how particular representation of an object appropriate situations. scientific investigations should which includes its major yield similar conclusions when features. repeated. SC.K.N.1.5 SC.2.N.1.5 Recognize that learning Distinguish between empirical can come from careful observation (what you see, observation. hear, feel, smell, or taste) and ideas or inferences (what you think). SC.2.N.1.6 Explain how scientists alone or in groups are always investigating new ways to solve problems. Florida Department of Education 22 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

27 Grades K–2 Science Benchmarks Big Idea 2 The Characteristics of Science Knowledge Kindergarten Grade 2 Grade 1 Big Idea 3 The Role of Theories, Law, Hypotheses, and Models Grade 2 Grade 1 Kindergarten Big Idea 4 Science and Society Kindergarten Grade 2 Grade 1 Big Idea 5 Earth in Space and Time Kindergarten Grade 2 Grade 1 SC.K.E.5.1 SC.1.E.5.1 Explore the Law of Gravity Observe and discuss that there by investigating how objects are more stars in the sky than are pulled toward the ground anyone can easily count and unless something holds them that they are not scattered up. evenly in the sky. SC.1.E.5.2 SC.K.E.5.2 Recognize the repeating Explore the Law of Gravity by demonstrating that Earth’s pattern of day and night. gravity pulls any object on or near Earth toward it even though nothing is touching the object. SC.1.E.5.3 SC.K.E.5.3 Investigate how magnifiers Recognize that the Sun can only be seen in the daytime. make things appear bigger and help people see things they could not see without them. SC.K.E.5.4 SC.1.E.5.4 Observe that sometimes the Identify the beneficial and Moon can be seen at night harmful properties of the Sun. and sometimes during the day. SC.K.E.5.5 Observe that things can be big and things can be small as seen from Earth. SC.K.E.5.6 Observe that some objects are far away and some are nearby as seen from Earth. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 23

28 Grades K–2 Science Benchmarks Big Idea 6 Earth Structures Kindergarten Grade 2 Grade 1 SC.1.E.6.1 SC.2.E.6.1 Recognize that water, rocks, Recognize that Earth is made soil, and living organisms are up of rocks. Rocks come in found on Earth’s surface. many sizes and shapes. SC.1.E.6.2 SC.2.E.6.2 Describe the need for water Describe how small pieces and how to be safe around of rock and dead plant and water. animal parts can be the basis of soil and explain the process by which soil is formed. SC.1.E.6.3 SC.2.E.6.3 Recognize that some things in Classify soil types based the world around us happen on color, texture (size of fast and some happen slowly. particles), the ability to retain water, and the ability to support the growth of plants. Big Idea 7 Earth Systems and Patterns Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 SC.2.E.7.1 Compare and describe changing patterns in nature that repeat themselves, such as weather conditions including temperature and precipitation, day to day and season to season. SC.2.E.7.2 Investigate by observing and measuring that the Sun’s energy directly and indirectly warms the water, land, and air. SC.2.E.7.3 Investigate, observe and describe how water left in an open container disappears (evaporates), but water in a closed container does not disappear (evaporate). Florida Department of Education 24 | Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5

29 Grades K–2 Science Benchmarks Big Idea 7 Earth Systems and Patterns Grade 1 Grade 2 Kindergarten SC.2.E.7.4 Investigate that air is all around us and that moving air is wind. SC.2.E.7.5 State the importance of preparing for severe weather, lightning, and other weather- related events. Big Idea 8 Properties of Matter Grade 1 Grade 2 Kindergarten SC.K.P.8.1 SC.1.P.8.1 SC.2.P.8.1 Sort objects by observable Sort objects by observable Observe and measure objects properties, such as size, properties, such as size, in terms of their properties, shape, color, temperature shape, color, temperature including size, shape, color, (hot or cold), weight (heavy (hot or cold), weight (heavy temperature, weight, texture, or light) and texture. or light), texture, and whether sinking or floating in water, objects sink or float. and attraction and repulsion of magnets. SC.2.P.8.2 Identify objects and materials as solid, liquid, or gas. SC.2.P.8.3 Recognize that solids have a definite shape and that liquids and gases take the shape of their container. SC.2.P.8.4 Observe and describe water in its solid, liquid, and gaseous states. SC.2.P.8.5 Measure and compare temperatures taken every day at the same time. SC.2.P.8.6 Measure and compare the volume of liquids using containers of various shapes and sizes. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 25

30 Grades K–2 Science Benchmarks Big Idea 9 Changes in Matter Kindergarten Grade 2 Grade 1 SC.K.P.9.1 SC.2.P.9.1 Recognize that the shape Investigate that materials can of materials such as paper be altered to change some of and clay can be changed by their properties, but not all cutting, tearing, crumpling, materials respond the same smashing, or rolling. way to any one alteration. Big Idea 10 Forms of Energy Grade 2 Kindergarten Grade 1 SC.K.P.10.1 SC.2.P.10.1 Observe that things that make Discuss that people use sound vibrate. electricity or other forms of energy to cook their food, cool or warm their homes, and power their cars. Big Idea 11 Energy Transfer and Transformations Grade 2 Kindergarten Grade 1 Big Idea 12 Motion of Objects Grade 2 Kindergarten Grade 1 SC.K.P.12.1 SC.1.P.12.1 Investigate that things move Demonstrate and describe the in different ways, such as fast, various ways that objects can slow, etc. move, such as in a straight line, zigzag, back-and-forth, round-and-round, fast, and slow. Big Idea 13 Forces and Changes in Motion Kindergarten Grade 2 Grade 1 SC.K.P.13.1 SC.1.P.13.1 SC.2.P.13.1 Observe that a push or a pull Demonstrate that the way Investigate the effect of can change the way an object to change the motion of an applying various pushes and is moving. object is by applying a push pulls on different objects. or a pull. SC.2.P.13.2 Demonstrate that magnets can be used to make some things move without touching them. Florida Department of Education 26 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

31 Grades K–2 Science Benchmarks Big Idea 13 Forces and Changes in Motion Grade 1 Kindergarten Grade 2 SC.2.P.13.3 Recognize that objects are pulled toward the ground unless something holds them up. SC.2.P.13.4 Demonstrate that the greater the force (push or pull) applied to an object, the greater the change in motion of the object. Big Idea 14 Organization and Development of Living Organisms Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 SC.K.L.14.1 SC.1.L.14.1 SC.2.L.14.1 Recognize the five senses and Make observations of living Distinguish human body parts related body parts. things and their environment (brain, heart, lungs, stomach, using the five senses. muscles, and skeleton) and their basic functions. SC.K.L.14.2 SC.1.L.14.2 Recognize that some books Identify the major parts of and other media portray plants, including stem, roots, animals and plants with leaves, and flowers. characteristics and behaviors they do not have in real life. SC.K.L.14.3 SC.1.L.14.3 Observe plants and animals, Differentiate between living describe how they are alike and nonliving things. and how they are different in the way they look and in the things they do. Big Idea 15 Diversity and Evolution of Living Organisms Grade 2 Grade 1 Kindergarten Big Idea 16 Heredity and Reproduction Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 SC.1.L.16.1 SC.2.L.16.1 Make observations that Observe and describe major plants and animals closely stages in the life cycles of resemble their parents, plants and animals, including but variations exist among beans and butterflies. individuals within a population. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 27

32 Grades K–2 Science Benchmarks Interdependence Big Idea 17 Grade 1 Kindergarten Grade 2 SC.1.L.17.1 SC.2.L.17.1 Through observation, Compare and contrast the recognize that all plants and basic needs that all living animals, including humans, things, including humans, need the basic necessities of have for survival. air, water, food, and space. SC.2.L.17.2 Recognize and explain that living things are found all over Earth, but each is only able to live in habitats that meet its basic needs. Big Idea 18 Matter and Energy Transformations Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Florida Department of Education 28 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

33 ENCHMARK I NDIVIDUAL B S PECIFICATIONS FOR S A SSESSMENT G 5 TATEWIDE S CIENCE RADE This section of the Specifications describes how the science benchmarks are assessed on the Statewide Science Assessment. Each grade level includes benchmarks from the four Bodies of Knowledge (Nature of Science, Life Science, Earth Science, and Physical Science). Eighteen Big Ideas thread throughout all the grade levels and build in rigor and depth as students advance. The sample test items included in the Specifications represent, whenever possible, a range of difficulty and cognitive complexity. Although most of the test items are of average difficulty and moderate complexity, some of the test items presented will be challenging for some students and are specifically included to prompt item writers to submit test items that will measure the abilities of higher-achieving students. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 29

34 SC.5.N.1.1 Grade 5 enchmark SC.5.N.1.1 B Reporting Category Nature of Science Standard The Practice of Science Big Idea 1 SC.5.N.1.1 Define a problem, use appropriate reference Benchmark materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigations of various types such as: systematic observations; experiments requiring the identification of variables; collecting and organizing data; interpreting data in charts, tables, and graphics; analyze information; make predictions; and defend conclusions. (Also assesses SC.3.N.1.1, SC.4.N.1.1, SC.4.N.1.6, SC.5.N.1.2, and SC.5.N.1.4.) Also Assesses SC.3.N.1.1 Raise questions about the natural world, investigate them individually and in teams through free exploration and systematic investigations, and generate appropriate explanations based on those explorations. Raise questions about the natural world, use SC.4.N.1.1 appropriate reference materials that support understanding to obtain information (identifying the source), conduct both individual and team investigations through free exploration and systematic investigations, and generate appropriate explanations based on those explorations. Keep records that describe observations made, SC.4.N.1.6 carefully distinguishing actual observations from ideas and inferences about the observations. Explain the difference between an experiment and SC.5.N.1.2 other types of scientific investigation. SC.5.N.1.4 Identify a control group and explain its importance in an experiment. Students will evaluate a written procedure or experimental setup. Benchmark Clarifications Students will identify appropriate forms of record keeping. Students will interpret and analyze data to generate appropriate explanations based on that data. Students will identify examples of or distinguish among observations, predictions, and/or inferences. Students will explain the difference between an experiment and other types of scientific investigations. Students will identify a control group and/or explain its importance in an experiment. Florida Department of Education 30 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

35 SC.5.N.1.1 Grade 5 Content Limits Items will not require the identification or evaluation of a hypothesis. Items should not use the term . hypothesis Items will not require the design of a procedure. Items will not require mathematical computations. Items will not require the differentiation between outcome variables (dependent variables) and test variables (independent variables). Items will not assess the reason for differences in data across groups that are investigating the same problem. Items referring to conclusions will not require the formation of a conclusion. Scenarios describing a scientific experiment are limited to one Stimulus Attributes control group. Scenarios referring to observations will not use the term . systematic observation Response Attributes None specified Prior Knowledge Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.K.N.1.1, SC.K.N.1.2, SC.K.N.1.3, SC.K.N.1.4, SC.K.N.1.5, SC.1.N.1.1, SC.1.N.1.2, SC.1.N.1.3, SC.1.N.1.4, SC.1.E.5.3, SC.2.N.1.1, SC.2.N.1.3, SC.3.N.1.3, SC.3.N.1.6, SC.4.N.1.4, and SC.4.E.6.5. SC.5.N.1.1 Sample Item 1 Delilah followed these steps of an investigation: Collect five objects made of different types of metal. • • Place them on a large laboratory table. Touch each metal object with a magnet and lift slowly. • • Record observations. Which of the following statements is Delilah most likely testing? ★ All types of metal are attracted to magnets. A. B. Each magnet can lift the metal object to the same height. C. Larger magnets can pick up heavier metal objects than smaller magnets can. D. Heavier metal objects are more attracted to magnets than lighter metal objects are. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 31

36 SC.5.N.2.1 Grade 5 SC.5.N.2.1 enchmark B Reporting Category Nature of Science Standard The Characteristics of Scientific Knowledge Big Idea 2 Recognize and explain that science is grounded in SC.5.N.2.1 Benchmark empirical observations that are testable; explanation must always be linked with evidence. (Also assesses SC.3.N.1.7, SC.4.N.1.3, SC.4.N.1.7, SC.5.N.1.5, and SC.5.N.1.6.) Also Assesses SC.3.N.1.7 Explain that empirical evidence is information, such as observations or measurements, that is used to help validate explanations of natural phenomena. Explain that science does not always follow a SC.4.N.1.3 rigidly defined method (“the scientific method”) but that science does involve the use of observations and empirical evidence. Recognize and explain that scientists base their SC.4.N.1.7 explanations on evidence. SC.5.N.1.5 Recognize and explain that authentic scientific investigation frequently does not parallel the steps of “the scientific method.” Recognize and explain the difference between SC.5.N.1.6 personal opinion/interpretation and verified observation. Students will identify and/or explain that science is grounded in Benchmark verifiable observations (empirical) that are testable. Clarifications Students will distinguish between personal interpretation and verified observation. Students will distinguish between examples of evidence or observations (empirical) and personal opinions. Content Limit Items will not assess steps or order of scientific method. should be used rather than the phrase The term Stimulus Attributes observations empirical observations or verified observations . The term should be used rather than the phrase evidence empirical evidence . Response Attributes None specified Prior Knowledge Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.2.N.1.5, SC.2.N.1.6, SC.4.N.1.8, and SC.4.N.2.1. Florida Department of Education 32 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

37 Grade 5 SC.5.N.2.1 Sample Item 2 SC.5.N.1.6 Rashan is performing an investigation using several earthworms. He places a rectangular box under a bright lamp and covers one-half of the box so that it is shaded. Then, he puts the earthworms into the box on the side that is still brightly lit. Later, Rashan notices that all of the earthworms have crawled over to the shaded side of the box. Based on his OT a personal opinion? investigation, which of the following is an observation and N A. Earthworms are afraid of light. Earthworms like staying together. B. ★ C. Earthworms move away from light. Earthworms like living in the ground. D. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 33

38 SC.5.N.2.2 Grade 5 SC.5.N.2.2 B enchmark Reporting Category Nature of Science The Characteristics of Scientific Knowledge Big Idea 2 Standard SC.5.N.2.2 Benchmark Recognize and explain that when scientific investigations are carried out, the evidence produced by those investigations should be replicable by others. (Also assesses SC.3.N.1.2, SC.3.N.1.5, SC.4.N.1.2, SC.4.N.1.5, and SC.5.N.1.3.) SC.3.N.1.2 Compare the observations made by different Also Assesses groups using the same tools and seek reasons to explain the differences across groups. Recognize that scientists question, discuss, and SC.3.N.1.5 check each others’ evidence and explanations. Compare the observations made by different SC.4.N.1.2 groups using multiple tools and seek reasons to explain the differences across groups. SC.4.N.1.5 Compare the methods and results of investigations done by other classmates. SC.5.N.1.3 Recognize and explain the need for repeated experimental trials. Benchmark Students will identify and/or explain the need for replication of Clarifications scientific investigations. Students will explain the reason for differences in data across groups as a result of using different tools and/or procedures. Students will identify and/or explain the need for repeated trials in a scientific investigation. valid in context but Content Limit Items may use the terms accurate and/or should not assess these terms or the difference between these terms. Stimulus Attributes None specified Response Attributes None specified Prior Knowledge Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.2.N.1.2, SC.2.N.1.4, and SC.3.N.1.4. Florida Department of Education 34 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

39 Grade 5 SC.5.N.2.2 Sample Item 3 SC.5.N.2.2 Gabriel is designing an experiment to see whether sugar or artificial sweetener will attract best describes why Gabriel should write the greater number of ants. Which statement down his experimental procedure? ★ A. The exact experiment can be repeated by others and the results compared. B. The experiment can be changed by others to get different results. C. The data will help people decide what type of sweetener to use. D. The data will show people which ants are more common. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 35

40 Grade 5 SC.5.E.5.1 enchmark B SC.5.E.5.1 Earth and Space Science Reporting Category Standard Earth in Space and Time Big Idea 5 Recognize that a galaxy consists of gas, dust, SC.5.E.5.1 Benchmark and many stars, including any objects orbiting the stars. Identify our home galaxy as the Milky Way. (Also assesses SC.3.E.5.1, SC.3.E.5.2, and SC.3.E.5.3.) Also Assesses SC.3.E.5.1 Explain that stars can be different; some are smaller, some are larger, and some appear brighter than others; all except the Sun are so far away that they look like points of light. Identify the Sun as a star that emits energy; some SC.3.E.5.2 of it in the form of light. SC.3.E.5.3 Recognize that the Sun appears large and bright because it is the closest star to Earth. Students will identify the basic components of a galaxy. Benchmark Clarifications Students will explain how stars can be different. Students will identify the Sun as a star that emits energy. Students will identify that the Sun’s appearance is due to its proximity to Earth. Items will only assess a conceptual understanding of a galaxy. Content Limits Items will not assess the name of our galaxy in isolation. Items will not assess objects orbiting stars. Items that assess stars are limited to brightness, size, or appearance in relation to distance, and that stars emit energy. Items that address energy emitted by a star are limited to visible light. Items will not assess the effects of the Sun’s energy on Earth. Items will not assess numeric values for distance or number of stars. Items may assess that stars are made of gases but not the specific chemical composition of stars. Stimulus Attributes None specified Response Attributes None specified Florida Department of Education 36 | Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5

41 Grade 5 SC.5.E.5.1 Items may require the student to apply science knowledge Prior Knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.K.E.5.5, SC.K.E.5.6, SC.1.E.5.1, and SC.1.E.5.4. Sample Item 4 SC.3.E.5.1 A star named Sirius appears as the brightest star in the nighttime sky, even though a star explains why Sirius named Pollux actually gives off more light. Which of the following best appears brighter than Pollux in our nighttime sky? Sirius has a different color than Pollux has. A. B. Sirius has different gases than Pollux has. ★ C. Sirius is closer to Earth than Pollux is. Sirius is larger than Pollux is. D. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 37

42 Grade 5 SC.5.E.5.3 B enchmark SC.5.E.5.3 Earth and Space Science Reporting Category Earth in Space and Time Standard Big Idea 5 Benchmark SC.5.E.5.3 Distinguish among the following objects of the Solar System—Sun, planets, moons, asteroids, comets—and identify Earth’s position in it. (Also assesses SC.5.E.5.2.) Recognize the major common characteristics of all SC.5.E.5.2 Also Assesses planets and compare/contrast the properties of inner and outer planets. Students will distinguish among objects in our solar system based Benchmark Clarifications on their relative positions and/or their characteristics. Students will identify common characteristics of all planets. Students will compare and/or contrast the common characteristics of inner and outer planet groups. Items will address a conceptual understanding of our solar Content Limits system and the characteristics of objects in our solar system. Items will not assess characteristics of the Sun. Items assessing inner and outer planet groups are limited to: surface composition (whether they are mostly solid or gas), presence of an atmosphere, size, relative position to the Sun, presence of moons or rings, relative temperature, and relative length of a year. Items will not require specific knowledge of quantitative astronomical data. Items will not assess interactions of objects in our solar system. Items will not assess the force of gravity. None specified Stimulus Attributes Response Attributes None specified Prior Knowledge This benchmark grouping is foundational. These concepts have not been introduced in the NGSSS prior to this grade band. Florida Department of Education 38 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

43 Grade 5 SC.5.E.5.3 Sample Item 5 SC.5.E.5.2 Jacob started creating a diagram to show some of the common characteristics of the planets in our solar system. Which characteristic should Jacob write in the empty circle of the diagram? A. Made Mostly of Gas B. Has a Rocky Surface C. ★ Revolves around a Star Is a Satellite of Another Planet D. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 39

44 Grade 5 SC.4.E.5.4 SC.4.E.5.4 B enchmark Reporting Category Earth and Space Science Big Idea 5 Standard Earth in Space and Time Benchmark Relate that the rotation of Earth (day and SC.4.E.5.4 night) and apparent movements of the Sun, Moon, and stars are connected. (Also assesses SC.4.E.5.1, SC.4.E.5.2, and SC.4.E.5.3.) Also Assesses Observe that the patterns of stars in the sky stay SC.4.E.5.1 the same although they appear to shift across the sky nightly, and different stars can be seen in different seasons. SC.4.E.5.2 Describe the changes in the observable shape of the Moon over the course of about a month. Recognize that Earth revolves around the Sun in a SC.4.E.5.3 year and rotates on its axis in a 24-hour day. Benchmark Students will describe how the rotation of Earth and apparent movement of the Sun, Moon, and/or stars are related. Clarifications Students will identify that the pattern of stars appears to shift across the sky nightly or that different stars can be seen in different seasons. Students will describe the visual changes in the appearance of the Moon. Students will explain that Earth revolves around the Sun in a year. Students will explain that Earth rotates on its axis in a 24-hour day. Content Limits Items will assess a conceptual understanding of the apparent movements of the Sun, Moon, and stars and resulting patterns. Items will not assess the causes of moon phases. Items will not assess or use vocabulary associated with moon waning phases, such as . , waxing , and gibbous Items will not require the identification of specific constellations. Items will not require specific knowledge of quantitative astronomical data. Items will not assess the causes of seasons, directness of sunlight, or Earth’s tilt. Items will not assess solar or lunar eclipses. Stimulus Attribute Scenarios referring to patterns of stars in the sky will not use the . term constellation Response Attributes None specified Florida Department of Education 40 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

45 Grade 5 SC.4.E.5.4 Items may require the student to apply science knowledge Prior Knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.K.E.5.2, SC.K.E.5.3, and SC.K.E.5.4. SC.4.E.5.3 Sample Item 6 Keisha wants to show Amy what happens during one Earth day. Keisha holds a small globe representing Earth, and Amy holds a large ball representing the Sun. Keisha Amy What should Keisha do to show Amy what happens during one Earth day? K A. eisha should move the globe in one complete circle around Amy. B. Keisha should move the globe toward Amy and then away from her. C. Keisha should slowly lift the globe above her head and then lower it. D. Keisha should slowly spin the globe one complete time about its axis. ★ Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 41

46 Grade 5 SC.4.E.6.2 B enchmark SC.4.E.6.2 Reporting Category Earth and Space Science Earth Structures Big Idea 6 Standard Benchmark SC.4.E.6.2 Identify the physical properties of common earth- forming minerals, including hardness, color, luster, cleavage, and streak color, and recognize the role of minerals in the formation of rocks. (Also assesses SC.4.E.6.1.) Identify the three categories of rocks: igneous, Also Assesses SC.4.E.6.1 (formed from molten rock); sedimentary (pieces of other rocks and fossilized organisms); and metamorphic (formed from heat and pressure). Students will identify and/or describe the physical properties of Benchmark Clarifications common minerals. Students will describe and/or explain the role of minerals in the formation of rocks. Students will identify the three categories of rocks and how they were formed. Items will not assess the identification of a specific mineral based Content Limits on its properties. Items addressing common minerals are limited to quartz, feldspar, mica, calcite, talc, pyrite, and graphite. Items will not require the identification of specific mineral composition of any type of rock. Items will not require knowledge of Moh’s hardness scale. Items will not assess the rock cycle. Stimulus Attributes None specified Response Attributes None specified Prior Knowledge Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.1.E.6.1, SC.2.E.6.1, SC.2.E.6.2, SC.2.E.6.3, SC.K.P.8.1, SC.1.P.8.1, and SC.2.P.8.1. Florida Department of Education 42 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

47 Grade 5 SC.4.E.6.2 SC.4.E.6.2 Sample Item 7 Dennis cannot scratch a mineral sample with his fingernail, but he observes that he can scratch the mineral sample with a piece of metal. What physical property of the mineral sample is Dennis investigating? A. cleav age B. ★ hardness C. luster D. streak Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 43

48 Grade 5 SC.4.E.6.3 SC.4.E.6.3 B enchmark Reporting Category Earth and Space Science Standard Big Idea 6 Earth Structures Recognize that humans need resources found on Benchmark SC.4.E.6.3 Earth and that these are either renewable or nonrenewable. (Also assesses SC.4.E.6.6.) Also Assesses SC.4.E.6.6 Identify resources available in Florida (water, phosphate, oil, limestone, silicon, wind, and solar energy). Students will identify and/or distinguish between renewable and Benchmark nonrenewable resources found on Earth. Clarifications Students will identify resources naturally found in Florida. Content Limit Items assessing resources found in Florida are limited to water, phosphate, oil, limestone, silica, wind, and solar energy. Stimulus Attributes None specified None specified Response Attributes Items may require the student to apply science knowledge Prior Knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.1.E.6.2. Sample Item 8 SC.4.E.6.3 There are many different natural resources found in Florida. Which of the following can be described as a renewable resource? limestone A. B. oil C. phosphate D. water ★ Florida Department of Education 44 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

49 Grade 5 SC.4.E.6.4 B enchmark SC.4.E.6.4 Reporting Category Earth and Space Science Earth Structures Standard Big Idea 6 Benchmark SC.4.E.6.4 Describe the basic differences between physical weathering (breaking down of rock by wind, water, ice, temperature change, and plants) and erosion (movement of rock by gravity, wind, water, and ice). Students will identify and/or describe the processes of physical Benchmark Clarifications weathering and/or erosion. Students will compare and contrast the agents and/or the processes of physical weathering and erosion. Items may address but will not assess specific landforms resulting Content Limit from physical weathering and erosion. None specified Stimulus Attributes Response Attributes None specified Items may require the student to apply science knowledge Prior Knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.1.E.6.1, SC.1.E.6.3, and SC.2.E.6.1. Sample Item 9 SC.4.E.6.4 Earth has a great variety of surface features that are caused by weathering and erosion. Which of the following describes a change due only to weathering? A. ocean waves washing sand off the beach B. rivers carrying soil and rocks through valleys C. wind blowing sand and pebbles off a sand dune D. tree roots breaking rocks into smaller pieces of rock ★ Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 45

50 Grade 5 SC.5.E.7.1 SC.5.E.7.1 enchmark B Earth and Space Science Reporting Category Earth Systems and Patterns Big Idea 7 Standard Benchmark SC.5.E.7.1 Create a model to explain the parts of the water cycle. Water can be a gas, a liquid, or a solid and can go back and forth from one state to another. (Also assesses SC.5.E.7.2.) Recognize that the ocean is an integral part of the SC.5.E.7.2 Also Assesses water cycle and is connected to all of Earth’s water reservoirs via evaporation and precipitation processes. Students will identify and/or explain the parts of the water cycle. Benchmark Clarifications Students will identify the states of water associated with each part of the water cycle and/or explain the phase changes that occur as water moves from one part of the water cycle to another. Students will identify and/or describe the role of the ocean in the water cycle. Content Limits Items will not address or assess transpiration, infiltration, or percolation as processes of the water cycle. Items assessing the phases of water are limited to a water cycle context. Stimulus Attribute Scenarios referring to the water cycle will not use the term reservoir . Response Attributes None specified Prior Knowledge Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.2.E.7.1, SC.2.E.7.2, SC.2.E.7.3, and SC.2.P.8.4. Florida Department of Education 46 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

51 SC.5.E.7.1 Grade 5 Sample Item 10 SC.5.E.7.1 A model of the water cycle was made using an aquarium with a glass cover, a container of ice cubes, water, and a lamp. Lamp Ice Cubes Glass Cove r Water Droplets Water Which part of the water cycle causes the water droplets to form on the glass cover? ★ A. condensation B. evaporation C. precipitation D. runoff Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 47

52 SC.5.E.7.3 Grade 5 enchmark B SC.5.E.7.3 Reporting Category Earth and Space Science Earth Systems and Patterns Big Idea 7 Standard Benchmark SC.5.E.7.3 Recognize how air temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, and precipitation determine the weather in a particular place and time. (Also assesses SC.5.E.7.4, SC.5.E.7.5, and SC.5.E.7.6.) Distinguish among the various forms of SC.5.E.7.4 Also Assesses precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, and hail), making connections to the weather in a particular place and time. SC.5.E.7.5 Recognize that some of the weather-related differences, such as temperature and humidity, are found among different environments, such as swamps, deserts, and mountains. Describe characteristics (temperature and SC.5.E.7.6 precipitation) of different climate zones as they relate to latitude, elevation, and proximity to bodies of water. Students will identify and/or describe how air temperature, Benchmark barometric pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, and Clarifications precipitation describe weather in a particular place and time. Students will identify or distinguish the forms of precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, and hail) and their related weather conditions. Students will distinguish weather conditions among different environments. Students will describe the temperature and precipitation of different climate zones as they relate to latitude, elevation, and/or proximity to bodies of water. Content Limits Items assessing weather and climate are limited to conceptual understanding. Items will not assess the difference between climate and weather. Items will not address or assess the interpretation of specific characteristics used to forecast weather. Items addressing the types of clouds are limited to cumulus, cirrus, stratus, and cumulonimbus as they relate to weather but will not require differentiation among these types of clouds. Items assessing climate zones are limited to polar, tropical, and temperate. Florida Department of Education 48 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

53 SC.5.E.7.3 Grade 5 Items assessing weather-related differences among different Content Limits environments may include desert, grassland, rainforest, tundra, and wetland. Items will not require knowledge of specific geographic locations. Items will not assess fronts. Items may refer to common tools used to measure air temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, and precipitation but will not assess specific knowledge of the tools. Stimulus Attributes Scenarios may include a weather map with a key explaining weather symbols. Dual thermometers showing degrees Fahrenheit and degrees Celsius must be used if the scenario requires an illustration of a thermometer. Wind speeds will be shown in miles per hour (mph). The phrase air pressure should be used rather than the phrase barometric pressure . Response Attributes None specified Prior Knowledge Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.2.E.7.1, SC.2.E.7.2, SC.2.E.7.4, SC.2.E.7.5, SC.2.P.8.4, and SC.2.P.8.5. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 49

54 Grade 5 SC.5.E.7.3 Sample Item 11 SC.5.E.7.6 Earth has many types of climate zones. The map below shows the tundra climate zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Tundra Zones of Earth’s Northern Hemisphere N W E S LEGEND Tundra climate Which of the following best describes this type of climate zone? A. It is very hot because it is on the coastline. B. It is very wet because it is below sea level. C. It receives very little snowfall because it is close to the ocean. D. It has very cold temperatures because it is far from the equator. ★ Florida Department of Education 50 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

55 SC.5.P.8.1 Grade 5 SC.5.P.8.1 enchmark B Reporting Category Physical Science Properties of Matter Standard Big Idea 8 SC.5.P.8.1 Compare and contrast the basic properties of Benchmark solids, liquids, and gases, such as mass, volume, color, texture, and temperature. (Also assesses SC.3.P.8.1, SC.3.P.8.2, SC.3.P.8.3, and SC.4.P.8.1.) Also Assesses SC.3.P.8.1 Measure and compare temperatures of various samples of solids and liquids. SC.3.P.8.2 Measure and compare the mass and volume of solids and liquids. SC.3.P.8.3 Compare materials and objects according to properties such as size, shape, color, texture, and hardness. SC.4.P.8.1 Measure and compare objects and materials based on their physical properties including: mass, shape, volume, color, hardness, texture, odor, taste, attraction to magnets. Benchmark Students will compare and/or contrast the physical properties of Clarifications solids, liquids, and/or gases. Students will describe or classify a material as a solid, liquid, or gas. Content Limits Items will not address or assess particle behavior in each state of matter or between states of matter. Items will not address or assess the water cycle. Items may refer to common tools used to measure basic properties of solids, liquids, and gases but will not assess specific knowledge of the tools. Items will not assess the difference between weight and mass. Items will not assess unit of measure. Items will not require unit conversions to compare data. Items will not address or assess density as a property. Stimulus Attribute Dual thermometers showing degrees Fahrenheit and degrees Celsius must be used if the scenario requires an illustration of a thermometer. Response Attributes None specified Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 51

56 SC.5.P.8.1 Grade 5 Prior Knowledge Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.K.P.8.1, SC.1.P.8.1, SC.2.P.8.1, SC.2.P.8.2, SC.2.P.8.3, SC.2.P.8.4, SC.2.P.8.6, and SC.1.E.5.3. SC.5.P.8.1 Sample Item 12 Kyle and Jan are comparing two samples of matter. They make a table of the properties of each sample. PROPERTIES OF SAMPLES Property Sample 2 Sample 1 Red Color Silver 5 Mass (grams) 30 Shape Cube Pyramid 40 3 Volume (milliliters) Which property provides the best evidence that both samples are solids rather than liquids? A. color B. mass ★ shape C. volume D. Florida Department of Education 52 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

57 SC.5.P.8.3 Grade 5 SC.5.P.8.3 enchmark B Physical Science Reporting Category Properties of Matter Big Idea 8 Standard Benchmark SC.5.P.8.3 Demonstrate and explain that mixtures of solids can be separated based on observable properties of their parts such as particle size, shape, color, and magnetic attraction. (Also assesses SC.5.P.8.2.) Investigate and identify materials that will dissolve SC.5.P.8.2 Also Assesses in water and those that will not and identify the conditions that will speed up or slow down the dissolving process. Students will describe and/or explain how mixtures of solids can Benchmark be separated. Clarifications Students will identify common materials that dissolve in water. Students will identify or describe conditions that will speed up or slow down the dissolving process. Content Limits Items assessing conditions used to speed up or slow down the dissolving process are limited to temperature, stirring, and/or surface area. , or Items will not use the term solution, solvent, solute, saturation . catalyst Items will not assess the difference between a mixture and a solution. Stimulus Attribute Dual thermometers showing degrees Fahrenheit and degrees Celsius must be used if the scenario requires an illustration of a thermometer. Response Attributes None specified Prior Knowledge Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.K.P.8.1 and SC.1.P.8.1. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 53

58 Grade 5 SC.5.P.8.3 SC.5.P.8.2 Sample Item 13 Dani adds 10 grams (g) of salt to a jar of water. She then adds 10 g of sand to a second jar of water. She covers and shakes both jars and sets them on the table for five minutes. The materials Dani uses are shown below. Jar Jar Jar Lid Jar Lid Salt Sand What should Dani expect to observe after those five minutes? Both the salt and the sand dissolved in the water. A. B. Both the salt and the sand settled to the bottom of the jar. C. The salt settled to the bottom of the jar, and the sand dissolved in the water. D. The salt dissolved in the water, and the sand settled to the bottom of the jar. ★ 54 | Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education

59 Grade 5 SC.5.P.9.1 SC.5.P.9.1 B enchmark Physical Science Reporting Category Standard Changes in Matter Big Idea 9 Benchmark Investigate and describe that many physical and SC.5.P.9.1 chemical changes are affected by temperature. (Also assesses SC.3.P.9.1 and SC.4.P.9.1.) Also Assesses SC.3.P.9.1 Describe the changes water undergoes when it changes state through heating and cooling by using familiar scientific terms such as melting, freezing, boiling, evaporation, and condensation. Identify some familiar changes in materials that SC.4.P.9.1 result in other materials with different characteristics, such as decaying animal or plant matter, burning, rusting, and cooking. Students will describe how physical and/or chemical changes are Benchmark Clarifications affected by temperature. Students will describe the physical changes water undergoes as it is heated and/or cooled. Students will describe how some familiar changes in materials result in other materials with different characteristics. Items will not assess particle motion in changes of states of Content Limit matter. None specified Stimulus Attributes Response Attributes None specified Prior Knowledge Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.K.P.9.1 and SC.2.P.9.1. Sample Item 14 SC.3.P.9.1 One morning, Ryan noticed there were tiny drops of water on the grass as he walked to school. That afternoon, he did not see any drops of water on the grass when he returned home. Which of the following best explains what happened to the drops of water? The heat from the air caused the water drops to boil. A. B. The air cooled the water and caused the drops to freeze. ★ C. The Sun heated the water and caused the drops to evaporate. The energy from the Sun caused the water drops to condense. D. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 55

60 Grade 5 SC.5.P.10.1 SC.5.P.10.1 B enchmark Reporting Category Physical Science Forms of Energy Big Idea 10 Standard SC.5.P.10.1 Benchmark Investigate and describe some basic forms of energy, including light, heat, sound, electrical, chemical, and mechanical. (Also assesses SC.3.P.10.1, SC.3.P.10.3, SC.3.P.10.4, SC.3.P.11.1, SC.3.P.11.2, SC.4.P.10.1, and SC.4.P.10.3.) SC.3.P.10.1 Identify some basic forms of energy such as light, Also Assesses heat, sound, electrical, and mechanical. Demonstrate that light travels in a straight line SC.3.P.10.3 until it strikes an object or travels from one medium to another. Demonstrate that light can be reflected, refracted, SC.3.P.10.4 and absorbed. SC.3.P.11.1 Investigate, observe, and explain that things that give off light often also give off heat. Investigate, observe, and explain that heat is SC.3.P.11.2 produced when one object rubs against another, such as rubbing one’s hands together. Observe and describe some basic forms of energy, SC.4.P.10.1 including light, heat, sound, electrical, and the energy of motion. Investigate and explain that sound is produced by SC.4.P.10.3 vibrating objects and that pitch depends on how fast or slow the object vibrates. Benchmark Students will identify and/or describe some basic forms of energy. Clarifications Students will describe that light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object or travels from one material to another. Students will explain that heat is produced when two objects are rubbed against each other. Students will explain that sound is produced by vibrations and/or that pitch depends on how fast or slow the object vibrates. Content Limits Items assessing basic forms of energy are limited to light, heat (thermal), sound, electrical, chemical, and mechanical energy. Items will not assess the transformation of energy from one form to another. Items assessing light reflection, refraction, or absorption should use the term reflect , bend , or absorb to describe light’s behavior. Florida Department of Education 56 | Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5

61 Grade 5 SC.5.P.10.1 Stimulus Attributes should be used rather than the The term material or substance medium term media . or Scenarios referring to mechanical energy should not use the term kinetic energy or . potential energy None specified Response Attributes Items may require the student to apply science knowledge Prior Knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.K.P.10.1 and SC.2.P.10.1. SC.4.P.10.3 Sample Item 15 Jason stretches a rubber band between his fingers, as shown below. When he plucks the rubber band, it makes a sound. Which of the following best explains why the rubber band makes a sound when Jason plucks it? A. It heats the air. ★ B. It vibrates the air. C. It absorbs energy from the air. D. It releases molecules into the air. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 57

62 SC.5.P.10.2 Grade 5 enchmark SC.5.P.10.2 B Physical Science Reporting Category Standard Forms of Energy Big Idea 10 Benchmark Investigate and explain that energy has the ability SC.5.P.10.2 to cause motion or create change. (Also assesses SC.3.P.10.2, SC.4.P.10.2, and SC.4.P.10.4.) Also Assesses Recognize that energy has the ability to cause SC.3.P.10.2 motion or create change. SC.4.P.10.2 Investigate and describe that energy has the ability to cause motion or create change. SC.4.P.10.4 Describe how moving water and air are sources of energy and can be used to move things. Benchmark Students will explain that energy has the ability to cause motion Clarifications or create change. Students will identify and/or describe examples where energy has caused motion or created changes. Students will describe and/or explain how water and/or air are sources of energy. Items will not assess sound and chemical energy. Content Limit Stimulus Attributes , or faster less than , , Comparative words such as greater than slower should be used when describing motion. Scenarios will not use weathering and/or erosion as a context. Response Attributes None specified Prior Knowledge Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.K.P.10.1, SC.K.P.12.1, SC.1.P.12.1 and SC.K.P.13.1, SC.1.P.13.1, and SC.2.P.13.1. Sample Item 16 SC.4.P.10.2 Frank uses a bowling ball to demonstrate how energy can cause changes. Which of the following actions would NOT demonstrate a change caused by Frank applying energy to the ball? ★ He holds the bowling ball in both hands. A. B. He spins the bowling ball with one hand. C. He rolls the bowling ball across the floor. D. He lifts the bowling ball to place it on a shelf. Florida Department of Education 58 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

63 Grade 5 SC.5.P.10.4 B enchmark SC.5.P.10.4 Physical Science Reporting Category Standard Big Idea 10 Forms of Energy Benchmark Investigate and explain that electrical energy SC.5.P.10.4 can be transformed into heat, light, and sound energy, as well as the energy of motion. (Also assesses SC.3.E.6.1, SC.4.P.11.1, SC.4.P.11.2, SC.5.P.10.3, SC.5.P.11.1, and SC.5.P.11.2.) Also Assesses Demonstrate that radiant energy from the Sun can SC.3.E.6.1 heat objects and when the Sun is not present, heat may be lost. Recognize that heat flows from a hot object to SC.4.P.11.1 a cold object and that heat flow may cause materials to change temperature. SC.4.P.11.2 Identify common materials that conduct heat well or poorly. Investigate and explain that an electrically charged SC.5.P.10.3 object can attract an uncharged object and can either attract or repel another charged object without any contact between the objects. Investigate and illustrate the fact that the flow of SC.5.P.11.1 electricity requires a closed circuit (a complete loop). SC.5.P.11.2 Identify and classify materials that conduct electricity and materials that do not. Benchmark Students will explain that electrical energy can be transformed into heat, light, and/or sound energy, as well as the energy of motion. Clarifications Students will explain that energy from the Sun can be used to heat objects, and that when sunlight is not present, heat may be lost. Students will identify the flow of heat between hot and cold objects and/or that heat may cause objects to change temperature. Students will identify common materials that conduct heat well or poorly. Students will explain that an electrically charged object can attract an uncharged object and/or either attract or repel another charged object without any contact between the objects. Students will determine that the flow of electricity requires a closed circuit. Students will identify and/or classify materials that conduct electricity and materials that do not. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 59

64 SC.5.P.10.4 Grade 5 Items will not assess parallel and series circuits. Content Limits Items assessing electricity will not refer to electrons or the movement of electrons in producing electrical charge. Items that refer to positive and negative charges in attraction and repulsion properties must be in the context of static electricity. Items will not use more than two energy conversions. Stimulus Attributes Scenarios are limited to abiotic systems. Scenarios referring to energy from the Sun will not use the term radiant . Response Attributes None specified Prior Knowledge Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.2.P.10.1. Sample Item 17 SC.5.P.11.1 Electric circuits must be properly connected or electricity will not flow. Which of the following shows a properly connected circuit that would allow electricity to flow and light the bulb? ★ A. C. B. D. Florida Department of Education 60 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

65 Grade 5 SC.5.P.13.1 B enchmark SC.5.P.13.1 Physical Science Reporting Category Forces and Changes in Motion Standard Big Idea 13 Benchmark SC.5.P.13.1 Identify familiar forces that cause objects to move, such as pushes or pulls, including gravity acting on falling objects. (Also assesses SC.3.E.5.4 and SC.4.P.8.4.) SC.3.E.5.4 Also Assesses Explore the Law of Gravity by demonstrating that gravity is a force that can be overcome. SC.4.P.8.4 Investigate and describe that magnets can attract magnetic materials and attract and repel other magnets. Students will identify familiar forces that affect how objects move. Benchmark Clarifications Students will identify scenarios whereby gravity is overcome. Students will identify and/or describe examples of magnetic attraction and repulsion. Content Limits Items assessing familiar forces are limited to pushes, pulls, friction, gravity, and magnetic force. Items may only require the interpretation of two forces at a time. Items referring to friction will only assess the force of friction as a resistance to movement. Items that assess magnetic attraction will not use the context of separating mixtures and solutions. Stimulus Attributes None specified Response Attributes None specified Prior Knowledge Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.K.E.5.1, SC.1.E.5.2, SC.K.P.13.1, SC.1.P.13.1, SC.2.P.13.1, SC.2.P.13.2, SC.2.P.13.3, and SC.2.P.13.4. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 61

66 Grade 5 SC.5.P.13.1 Sample Item 18 SC.4.P.8.4 Bar magnets have a north pole (N) and a south pole (S). Latrisha places a bar magnet on three small straws so it can roll. Her setup is shown below. N S X Placing which of the following objects at point X will cause the bar magnet to move away from point X ? A. an iron nail B. an aluminum can ★ C. the north end of another bar magnet the south end of another bar magnet D. Florida Department of Education 62 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

67 SC.5.P.13.2 Grade 5 B enchmark SC.5.P.13.2 Reporting Category Physical Science Forces and Changes in Motion Big Idea 13 Standard Benchmark SC.5.P.13.2 Investigate and describe that the greater the force applied to it, the greater the change in motion of a given object. (Also assesses SC.4.P.12.1, SC.4.P.12.2, SC.5.P.13.3, and SC.5.P.13.4.) Recognize that an object in motion always SC.4.P.12.1 Also Assesses changes its position and may change its direction. Investigate and describe that the speed of an SC.4.P.12.2 object is determined by the distance it travels in a unit of time and that objects can move at different speeds. SC.5.P.13.3 Investigate and describe that the more mass an object has, the less effect a given force will have on the object’s motion. SC.5.P.13.4 Investigate and explain that when a force is applied to an object but it does not move, it is because another opposing force is being applied by something in the environment so that the forces are balanced. Students will describe the relationship among mass, force, and Benchmark motion. Clarifications Students will identify and/or describe that an object in motion always changes its position and may change its direction. Students will describe that the speed of an object is determined by the distance an object travels and the time it takes the object to travel that distance. Students will describe that objects can move at different speeds. Content Limits Items assessing relationship between mass, force, and motion are limited to a conceptual understanding. Items will not involve mathematical calculations or formulas. Items will address a conceptual understanding of speed and not require mathematical computations. Items may require the identification of the direction of motion but not the magnitude of motion. Items may refer to balanced forces and/or unbalanced forces but not net force. Items assessing forces applied to objects of different masses are limited to pushes, pulls, and friction. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 63

68 SC.5.P.13.2 Grade 5 Stimulus Attribute Scenarios should use newtons (N) as the unit of measure for forces. None specified Response Attributes Prior Knowledge Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.K.P.13.1, SC.1.P.13.1, SC.2.P.13.1, and SC.2.P.13.4. SC.5.P.13.3 Sample Item 19 Stephanie started pushing a bookcase across the room, as shown in picture 1. Then, she removed the books and continued pushing with the same force and direction, as shown in picture 2. 1 2 How does removing the books affect the motion of the bookcase? The mass is decreased, making the bookcase move faster. ★ A. B. The gravity is increased, making the bookcase move slower. C. The friction is increased, making the bookcase move slower. D. The mechanical energy is decreased, making the bookcase move faster. Florida Department of Education 64 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

69 Grade 5 SC.3.L.14.1 enchmark B SC.3.L.14.1 Reporting Category Life Science Standard Organization and Development of Living Organisms Big Idea 14 Describe structures in plants and their roles in SC.3.L.14.1 Benchmark food production, support, water and nutrient transport, and reproduction. (Also assesses SC.3.L.14.2 and SC.4.L.16.1.) Also Assesses SC.3.L.14.2 Investigate and describe how plants respond to stimuli (heat, light, gravity), such as the way plant stems grow toward light and their roots grow downward in response to gravity. Identify processes of sexual reproduction in SC.4.L.16.1 flowering plants, including pollination, fertilization (seed production), seed dispersal, and germination. Students will identify and/or describe the parts of plants and/or Benchmark the part’s role. Clarifications Students will describe how plants respond to stimuli. Students will describe processes of sexual reproduction in flowering plants. Content Limits Items assessing the structures and functions of major parts of plants are limited to stem, leaf/needle, root, flower, seed, and fruit. Items assessing sexual reproduction in flowering plants are limited to stamen, pistil, ovary, petal, sperm, and egg. Items will not assess cellular processes. Items referring to a plant’s response to stimuli are limited to a conceptual understanding of a plant’s response to heat, light, or gravity. Items will not use the term phototropism , geotropism , hydrotropism . thigmotropism , or Stimulus Attribute Scenarios referring to how plants respond to conditions will not stimulus use the term . or stimuli Response Attributes None specified Prior Knowledge Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.K.L.14.3, SC.1.L.14.1, SC.1.L.14.2, and SC.1.L.14.3. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 65

70 Grade 5 SC.3.L.14.1 Sample Item 20 SC.3.L.14.1 most similar to the The stem is an important part of many plants. Which of the following is role performed by the stem of a plant? A. an anchor holding a boat in place a snack company producing energy bars B. C. a colorful sign attracting people into a store D. an elevator transporting supplies from one floor to another ★ Florida Department of Education 66 | Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5

71 SC.5.L.14.1 Grade 5 B SC.5.L.14.1 enchmark Reporting Category Life Science Organization and Development of Living Organisms Standard Big Idea 14 SC.5.L.14.1 Identify the organs in the human body and describe Benchmark their functions, including the skin, brain, heart, lungs, stomach, liver, intestines, pancreas, muscles and skeleton, reproductive organs, kidneys, bladder, and sensory organs. Benchmark Students will identify organs in the human body and/or describe Clarification their functions. Content Limits Items will not assess human body systems. Items will not require specific knowledge of the parts of organs. Items referring to the intestines may assess the small intestines and/or the large intestines. Items will not require the memorization of the names of muscles or bones. Items referring to muscles will only assess the function of muscles as a group. Stimulus Attribute Diagrams of the reproductive organs will not be used. Response Attributes None specified Prior Knowledge Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.K.L.14.1, SC.K.L.14.3, and SC.2.L.14.1. Sample Item 21 SC.5.L.14.1 Organs in the human body carry out different functions. Which human organ breaks down food so that it can be used by the human body? A. bladder B. heart C. kidneys D. stomach ★ Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 67

72 Grade 5 SC.5.L.14.2 SC.5.L.14.2 enchmark B Reporting Category Life Science Organization and Development of Living Organisms Standard Big Idea 14 Benchmark Compare and contrast the function of organs and SC.5.L.14.2 other physical structures of plants and animals, including humans, for example: some animals have skeletons for support—some with internal skeletons, others with exoskeletons—while some plants have stems for support. (Also assesses SC.3.L.15.1 and SC.3.L.15.2.) Also Assesses SC.3.L.15.1 Classify animals into major groups (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, arthropods, vertebrates and invertebrates, those having live births and those which lay eggs) according to their physical characteristics and behaviors. Classify flowering and nonflowering plants into SC.3.L.15.2 major groups such as those that produce seeds, or those like ferns and mosses that produce spores, according to their physical characteristics. Students will compare and/or contrast the function of organs Benchmark and/or other physical structures of plants and/or animals. Clarifications Students will classify animals into major groups according to their physical characteristics and behaviors. Students will classify flowering and/or nonflowering plants into major groups according to their physical characteristics. Content Limits Items will not require the classification of animals beyond the initial invertebrates grouping. Items referring to classification of vertebrates will only assess general physical characteristics and/or behaviors of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. Items addressing and/or assessing the functions of organs or the comparison of physical structures are limited to the brain, heart, lungs, gills, stomach, liver, intestines, pancreas, muscles, bones, exoskeleton, testes, ovaries, kidneys, bladder, skin or body covering, eyes, ears, nose, and tongue. Items referring to the functions of plant structures are limited to flower, fruit, leaf, root, stem, seed, and spore. Items addressing the comparison of the structure and/or function of plants and animals are limited to skin compared to plant covering, skeleton compared to stem, and reproductive organs compared to flower. Florida Department of Education 68 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

73 Grade 5 SC.5.L.14.2 Content Limits Items will not require specific knowledge of the parts of organs. Stimulus Attributes Scenarios will use common names of organisms and will not include scientific names. Scenarios requiring the classification of organisms as vertebrates or invertebrates must include a description or picture of the organisms. None specified Response Attributes Prior Knowledge Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.K.L.14.3, SC.1.L.14.3, and SC.2.L.14.1. Sample Item 22 SC.3.L.15.2 The drawings below show two plants that grow in Florida, a penta and a sword fern. Sword Fe rn Penta The drawing below shows the spores that appear on the underside of the sword fern’s leaves. Spores Which of the following is present in the penta but NOT in the sword fern? A. root growth B. flower production ★ ability to reproduce C. D. ability to make food Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 69

74 SC.4.L.16.4 Grade 5 enchmark B SC.4.L.16.4 Life Science Reporting Category Heredity and Reproduction Standard Big Idea 16 Benchmark Compare and contrast the major stages in the life SC.4.L.16.4 cycles of Florida plants and animals, such as those that undergo incomplete and complete metamorphosis, and flowering and nonflowering seed-bearing plants. Students will identify, compare, and/or contrast the major life Benchmark Clarification cycles of Florida plants and/or animals. Content Limits Items will only assess the life cycles of plants and animals commonly found in Florida. Items assessing the life cycles of insects are limited to egg, larva, pupa, and adult (complete metamorphosis) or egg, nymph, and adult (incomplete metamorphosis). Items assessing the life cycles of flowering and nonflowering plants are limited to seed, seedling, and other stages of plant development. Items assessing the life cycles of animals are limited to egg, embryo, infant, adolescent, and adult stages. Items will not assess the major stages of the human life cycle. Stimulus Attribute Plants and animals in scenarios and art must be common to Florida. Response Attributes None specified Prior Knowledge Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.2.L.16.1. Florida Department of Education 70 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

75 Grade 5 SC.4.L.16.4 SC.4.L.16.4 Sample Item 23 The life cycle of both butterflies and grasshoppers starts at the same stage. The pictures below show the life cycle of both organisms. Grasshopper Life Cycle Butterf ly Life Cycle Which of the following is the beginning stage of the life cycle for both the butterfly and the grasshopper? ★ A. egg B. larva C. nymph D. pupa Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 71

76 Grade 5 SC.5.L.17.1 B enchmark SC.5.L.17.1 Reporting Category Life Science Interdependence Big Idea 17 Standard Benchmark SC.5.L.17.1 Compare and contrast adaptations displayed by animals and plants that enable them to survive in different environments such as life cycle variations, animal behaviors, and physical characteristics. (Also assesses SC.3.L.17.1, SC.4.L.16.2, SC.4.L.16.3, SC.4.L.17.1, SC.4.L.17.4, and SC.5.L.15.1.) SC.3.L.17.1 Describe how animals and plants respond to Also Assesses changing seasons. SC.4.L.16.2 Explain that although characteristics of plants and animals are inherited, some characteristics can be affected by the environment. SC.4.L.16.3 Recognize that animal behaviors may be shaped by heredity and learning. Compare the seasonal changes in Florida plants SC.4.L.17.1 and animals to those in other regions of the country. Recognize ways plants and animals, including SC.4.L.17.4 humans, can impact the environment. SC.5.L.15.1 Describe how, when the environment changes, differences between individuals allow some plants and animals to survive and reproduce while others die or move to new locations. Benchmark Students will explain, compare, and/or contrast how adaptations Clarifications displayed by animals or plants enable them to survive in different environments. Students will describe or explain how animals and/or plants respond to changing seasons. Students will distinguish plant or animal characteristics that are inherited from those that are affected by the environment. Students will identify characteristics of animals that are inherited or distinguish inherited characteristics from those that are shaped by learning. Students will compare the seasonal changes in Florida plants and/or animals to those in other regions of the country. Students will identify ways in which plants and/or animals can impact the environment. Florida Department of Education 72 | Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5

77 Grade 5 SC.5.L.17.1 Benchmark Students will describe how, when the environment changes, differences between organisms allow some plants and animals to Clarifications survive and reproduce while others die or move to new locations. Content Limits Items referring to the adaptation of organisms to different environments may address but will not assess the different stages of the organism’s life cycle. Items may require knowledge of how animals living in a particular environment are adapted to survive the seasonal changes in that environment. Items will not assess renewable or nonrenewable resources. . trait should be used rather than the term Stimulus Attribute The term characteristic None specified Response Attributes Prior Knowledge Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.1.L.16.1, SC.2.L.17.1, and SC.2.L.17.2. SC.5.L.17.1 Sample Item 24 Loggerhead sea turtles are large turtles that live in the ocean and nest on the Florida coast. The female loggerhead sea turtle lays more than 100 eggs in the beach sand. How is laying so many eggs an important adaptation that helps these turtles to survive? A. Large nests of eggs help keep the eggs warm enough to allow more turtles to hatch. B. If many turtles hatch, they can help defend each other against predators in large numbers. ★ The more eggs that are laid, the greater the chance that more turtles will live to C. . become adults D. A large n umber of eggs in one place makes it possible for the mother to lie on the eggs until they hatch. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 73

78 SC.4.L.17.3 Grade 5 SC.4.L.17.3 enchmark B Life Science Reporting Category Interdependence Big Idea 17 Standard SC.4.L.17.3 Benchmark Trace the flow of energy from the Sun as it is transferred along the food chain through the producers to the consumers. (Also assesses SC.3.L.17.2 and SC.4.L.17.2.) Also Assesses SC.3.L.17.2 Recognize that plants use energy from the Sun, air, and water to make their own food. SC.4.L.17.2 Explain that animals, including humans, cannot make their own food and that when animals eat plants or other animals, the energy stored in the food source is passed to them. Students will describe or explain how energy is transferred from Benchmark the Sun through a food chain. Clarifications Students will explain that plants make their own food using carbon dioxide, water, and energy from the Sun. Students will explain that animals obtain energy from the plants and/or animals they eat. Content Limits Items assessing the flow of energy from the Sun through a food chain are limited to the direction of energy flow. Items will not address or assess the amounts of energy flowing through the food chain or the efficiency of the energy transfers. Items will not address or assess cellular respiration or any other cellular process. Items will not address or assess decomposers. Items will not address or assess food webs, trophic levels, or energy pyramids. Items will not assess more than five components (links) in a food chain. Stimulus Attributes Scenarios addressing food chains may, but are not required to, include the Sun. Scenarios referring to consumers may use the terms carnivore , herbivore , and omnivore . Response Attributes None specified Prior Knowledge Items may require the student to apply science knowledge described in the NGSSS from lower grades. This benchmark requires prerequisite knowledge from SC.1.L.17.1. Florida Department of Education 74 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

79 SC.4.L.17.3 Grade 5 Sample Item 25 SC.4.L.17.3 The Sun provides the energy to be used by the living things in the lagoon food chain shown below. Pe rch Brine Shrimp Green Algae Kingfisher not to scale Which of the following describes the transfer of energy from a producer to a consumer? A. from Perch to Kingfisher B. from Brine Shrimp to Perch C. from the Sun to Green Algae D. from Green Algae to Brine Shrimp ★ Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | 75

80 Grade 5 Appendix A Grade 5 Appendix A EVIEW AND R PPENDIX I IRECTIONS FOR A: D A TEM S ATING TATEWIDE TEM I SSESSMENT A CIENCE S ORM F R Directions: A series of questions is presented below. These questions are designed to assist you with your evaluation of the quality of the Statewide Science Assessment test items you will be reviewing. The form on the next page is an example of the one you will use to record your rating of each test item. Review each test item independently before discussing the items with other committee members. If you identify any problem with the item during in the appropriate column. Crossmarks ) ✘ ( independent review, you should put a crossmark will indicate that no ✘ ( will indicate a problem area, and blank spaces or checks ) ) ( ✔ problem is identified. Questions for Individual Test Items—Record your answers on your rating sheet. Does the test item assess the knowledge required by the benchmark? 1. Does the content of the test item adhere to the content limits described in the 2. Statewide Science Assessment Item Specifications ? 3. Are the context and language of the test item appropriate for the grade level? What is the cognitive complexity of the test item? Is the item best categorized 4. ), or high complexity ( M L as low complexity ( ), moderate complexity ( )? H Is the item clearly worded and dependent on the context (does the item 5. flow cognitively)? If the item has art, does it enhance the item? Is the art scientifically accurate and appropriate? Is the answer free of clang? (Is the answer clued in the context?) Is the assigned content focus appropriate for this item? If not, is there a better 6. or more appropriate content focus? Is there only one correct answer? Record the letter of the correct answer on 7. the rating sheet. 8. Are the options appropriate, plausible, and parallel (both grammatically and conceptually) to the correct response and appropriate for the question asked? 9. Is the item scientifically accurate? Rate the overall quality of the item using these rating definition codes: 10. Overall Quality (Accept) A RR (Revise and Resubmit) (Reject) AM (Accept with Metadata Change) R AR (Accept as Revised) 11. Do you have any additional comments? If so, record your comments on your rating sheet in the additional comments area. A–1 | Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education

81 Appendix A Florida Department of Education Additional Comments AM, AR, RR, R Overall Rating A, ORM F Accurate Is Scientifically ATING Options R Appropriate MC TEM Answer I Only One Correct Focus Students in my (classroom, school, district) [circle one] are given the opportunity to learn the (grade 5, grade 8) [circle one] material that these items test, except as noted in my comments. Appropriate Content Clang Is Clear and Free of SSESSMENT A Complexity (L, M, H) Appropriate Cognitive CIENCE Is Grade Appropriate S Date Limits Adheres to Content Measures Benchmark TATEWIDE S Florida ID Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 | Number Page Signature Grade 5 A–2

82 Grade 5 Appendix A EPENDENT -D ONTEXT C EVIEW OF ETS TEM I IRECTIONS FOR D S R Directions: A series of questions is presented below. These questions are designed to assist you with your evaluation of the quality of the Statewide Science Assessment test items you will be reviewing. The form on page A–5 is an example of the one you will use to record your rating of each context-dependent-set test item. Review each test item independently before discussing the items with other committee members. If you identify any problem ) in the appropriate with the item during independent review, you should put a crossmark ( ✘ ( ( column. Crossmarks will ✔ ) will indicate a problem area, and blank spaces or checks ) ✘ indicate that no problem is identified. Questions for Context-Dependent Item Sets—Record your answers on the rating sheet. Review the main context of the item set. Is the context grade-level appropriate in content and language? 1. 2. Is the main context free of clang, or does it clue test items? 3. Is the context scientifically accurate? 4. Rate the overall quality of the context using these rating definition codes: Overall Quality (Revise and Resubmit) RR A (Accept) (Reject) AM (Accept with Metadata Change) R AR (Accept as Revised) Read each item in the set. Does the test item assess the knowledge required by the benchmark? 5. 6. Does the content of the test item adhere to the content limits described in the Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications ? Is the item clearly worded and dependent on or directly related to the main 7. context? 8. Are the context and language of the test item appropriate for this grade level? 9. What is the cognitive complexity of the test item? Is the item best categorized H )? as low complexity ( L ), moderate complexity ( M ), or high complexity ( 10. Is the answer free of clang? (Does it answer or clue other items in the set or does the main context clue an item?) 11. Is the assigned content focus appropriate for this item? If not, is there a better or more appropriate content focus? 12. Is there only one correct answer? Record the letter of the correct answer on the rating sheet. 13. Are the options appropriate, plausible, and parallel (both grammatically and conceptually) to the correct response and appropriate for the question asked? Florida Department of Education A–3 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

83 Appendix A Grade 5 Is the item scientifically accurate? 14. 15. Rate the overall quality of the item using these rating definition codes: Overall Quality A (Accept) (Revise and Resubmit) RR AM (Accept with Metadata Change) R (Reject) (Accept as Revised) AR 16. Do you have any additional comments? If so, record your comments on your rating sheet in the additional comments area. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | A–4

84 Appendix A Additional Comments Additional Comments Florida Department of Education A, AM, AR, RR, R Overall Rating A, AM, AR, RR, R ORM Overall Rating Accurate F Is Scientifically Options ATING Appropriate MC R Answer Only One Correct TEM Accurate I Focus Is Scientifically Appropriate Content Students in my (classroom, school, district) [circle one] are given the items test, except as noted in my comments. opportunity to learn the (grade 5, grade 8) [circle one] material that these of Clang Is Clear and Free (L, M, H) SSESSMENT of Clang Complexity A Is Clear and Free Appropriate Cognitive Is Grade Appropriate CIENCE Related S Is Dependent or Date Is Grade Appropriate Content Limits Adheres to Benchmark TATEWIDE Measures S Context Code Florida ID Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Page | Page Number Number Context-Dependent Set: Main Context Signature Context-Dependent Set: Items A–5 Grade 5

85 MC 5 Appendix B RADE G are more appropriately Assessed as SC.5.N.2.2. Assessed as SC.5.N.1.1. Florida Department of Education Recognize and explain the Explain the difference Define a problem, use Grade 5 Benchmark Not Assessed SSESSMENT Also assesses SC.3.N.1.1, SC.4.N.1.1, A SC.4.N.1.6, SC.5.N.1.2, and SC.5.N.1.4. need for repeated experimental trials. SC.5.N.1.3 SC.5.N.1.2 between an experiment and other types of scientific investigation. requiring the identification of variables, SC.5.N.1.1 conclusions. appropriate reference materials to support data in charts, tables, and graphics; analyze as: systematic observations; experiments scientific investigations of various types such scientific understanding, plan and carry out collecting and organizing data; interpreting information; make predictions; and defend AA CIENCE assessed through classroom instruction. S Standards marked as TATEWIDE S Assessed as SC.5.N.2.1. Assessed as SC.5.N.2.2. Assessed as SC.5.N.1.1. Explain that science does Compare the observations Raise questions about the Grade 4 Benchmark SSESSED BY A not always follow a rigidly defined method (“the scientific method”) but that science does involve the use of observations and empirical evidence. SC.4.N.1.3 made by different groups using multiple tools and seek reasons to explain the differences across groups. SC.4.N.1.2 natural world, use appropriate reference materials that support understanding to obtain information (identifying the source), conduct both individual and team investigations through free exploration and systematic investigations, and generate appropriate explanations based on those explorations. SC.4.N.1.1 ONTENT C Not Assessed. CIENCE Assessed as SC.5.N.2.2. Assessed as SC.5.N.1.1. B: S Keep records as appropriate, Compare the observations Raise questions about the Grade 3 Benchmark PPENDIX A Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 | SC.3.N.1.3 such as pictorial, written, or simple charts and graphs, of investigations conducted. differences across groups. made by different groups using the same tools and seek reasons to explain the SC.3.N.1.2 SC.3.N.1.1 and in teams through free exploration and systematic investigations, and generate appropriate explanations based on those explorations. natural world, investigate them individually Big Idea 1 The Practice of Science MC = multiple choice AA = annually assessed benchmark Grade 5 B–1

86 5 Appendix B RADE G are more appropriately Assessed as SC.5.N.2.1. Assessed as SC.5.N.2.1. Assessed as SC.5.N.1.1. Florida Department of Education Recognize and explain Recognize and explain that Identify a control group and Grade 5 Benchmark Not Assessed SSESSMENT A the difference between personal opinion/ interpretation and verified observation. SC.5.N.1.6 SC.5.N.1.5 does not parallel the steps of “the scientific method.” authentic scientific investigation frequently explain its importance in an experiment. SC.5.N.1.4 CIENCE assessed through classroom instruction. S Standards marked as Not assessed. Not assessed. TATEWIDE S Assessed as SC.5.N.2.1. Assessed as SC.5.N.1.1. Assessed as SC.5.N.2.2. BY Recognize that science Recognize and explain Keep records that describe Compare the methods Attempt reasonable answers Grade 4 Benchmark SSESSED A evidence. that scientists base their explanations on involves creativity in designing experiments. SC.4.N.1.8 SC.4.N.1.7 inferences about the observations. observations made, carefully distinguishing SC.4.N.1.6 actual observations from ideas and and results of investigations done by other classmates. SC.4.N.1.5 SC.4.N.1.4 support. to scientific questions and cite evidence in ONTENT C Not assessed. Not assessed. CIENCE Assessed as SC.5.N.2.1. Assessed as SC.5.N.2.2. B: S Explain that empirical Infer based on observation. Recognize that scientists Recognize the importance of Grade 3 Benchmark PPENDIX A Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 | SC.3.N.1.7 evidence is information, such as observations or measurements, that is used to help validate explanations of natural phenomena. SC.3.N.1.6 SC.3.N.1.5 evidence and explanations. question, discuss, and check each others’ SC.3.N.1.4 communication among scientists. Big Idea 1 The Practice of Science MC = multiple choice AA = annually assessed benchmark B–2 Grade 5

87 MC MC 5 Appendix B RADE G are more appropriately Florida Department of Education Recognize and explain Recognize and explain Grade 5 Benchmark Grade 5 Benchmark Not Assessed SSESSMENT Also assesses SC.3.N.1.7, SC.4.N.1.3, Also assesses SC.3.N.1.2, SC.3.N.1.5, A SC.4.N.1.7, SC.5.N.1.5, and SC.5.N.1.6. SC.4.N.1.2, SC.4.N.1.5, and SC.5.N.1.3. observations that are testable; explanation that science is grounded in empirical SC.5.N.2.1 must always be linked with evidence. SC.5.N.2.2 AA investigations should be replicable by others. carried out, the evidence produced by those that when scientific investigations are AA CIENCE assessed through classroom instruction. S Standards marked as Not assessed. Not assessed. TATEWIDE S Explain that models can Explain that science focuses Grade 4 Benchmark Grade 4 Benchmark SSESSED BY A model. explanation in your mind, or a computer SC.4.N.3.1 be three dimensional, two dimensional, an solely on the natural world. SC.4.N.2.1 ONTENT C Not assessed. Not assessed. CIENCE B: S Recognize that scientists use Recognize that words in Grade 3 Benchmark Grade 3 Benchmark PPENDIX A Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 | SC.3.N.3.1 cold, and evidence. meanings than their use in everyday science can have different or more specific language; for example, energy, cell, heat/ things work. SC.3.N.3.2 models to help understand and explain how Big Idea 3 The Role of Theories, Laws, Hypotheses, and Models Big Idea 2 The Characteristics of Scientific Knowledge B–3 Grade 5 MC = multiple choice AA = annually assessed benchmark

88 MC 5 Appendix B RADE and SC.3.E.5.3. G are more appropriately Assessed as SC.5.E.5.3. Florida Department of Education Recognize the major Recognize that a galaxy Grade 5 Benchmark Grade 5 Benchmark Grade 5 Benchmark Not Assessed SSESSMENT Also assesses SC.3.E.5.1, SC.3.E.5.2, A outer planets. compare/contrast the properties of inner and SC.5.E.5.2 common characteristics of all planets and AA Identify our home galaxy as the Milky Way. SC.5.E.5.1 consists of gas, dust, and many stars, including any objects orbiting the stars. CIENCE assessed through classroom instruction. S Standards marked as TATEWIDE S Assessed as SC.4.E.5.4. Assessed as SC.4.E.5.4. BY Describe the changes in Observe that the patterns Grade 4 Benchmark Grade 4 Benchmark Grade 4 Benchmark SSESSED A course of about a month. the observable shape of the Moon over the SC.4.E.5.2 seasons. SC.4.E.5.1 of stars in the sky stay the same although they appear to shift across the sky nightly, and different stars can be seen in different ONTENT C Not assessed. CIENCE Assessed as SC.5.E.5.1. Assessed as SC.5.E.5.1. B: S Identify the Sun as a star Explain that stars can be Recognize that all models Grade 3 Benchmark Grade 3 Benchmark Grade 3 Benchmark PPENDIX A Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 | that emits energy; some of it in the form of light. SC.3.E.5.2 SC.3.N.3.3 and some appear brighter than others; all different; some are smaller, some are larger, SC.3.E.5.1 look like points of light. except the Sun are so far away that they observations. as such, they do not perfectly account for all are approximations of natural phenomena; Big Idea 4 Big Idea 3 The Role of Theories, Laws, Hypotheses, and Models Big Idea 5 Earth in Space and Time Grade 5 B–4 MC = multiple choice AA = annually assessed benchmark

89 Sun, 5 — and — Appendix B RADE G are more appropriately Also assesses SC.5.E.5.2. Florida Department of Education Distinguish among the Grade 5 Benchmark Not Assessed SSESSMENT A MC SC.5.E.5.3 AA following objects of the Solar System identify Earth’s position in it. planets, moons, asteroids, comets CIENCE assessed through classroom instruction. S Standards marked as Not assessed. and SC.4.E.5.3. TATEWIDE S Assessed as SC.4.E.5.4. Relate that the rotation Investigate and report the Recognize that Earth Grade 4 Benchmark Also assesses SC.4.E.5.1, SC.4.E.5.2, SSESSED BY MC A of Earth (day and night) and apparent SC.4.E.5.4 connected. movements of the Sun, Moon, and stars are AA the economy and culture of Florida. effects of space research and exploration on SC.4.E.5.5 rotates on its axis in a 24-hour day. SC.4.E.5.3 revolves around the Sun in a year and ONTENT C Not assessed. CIENCE Assessed as SC.5.E.5.1. Assessed as SC.5.P.13.1. B: S Explore the Law of Gravity Investigate that the number Recognize that the Sun Grade 3 Benchmark PPENDIX A Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 | by demonstrating that gravity is a force that can be overcome. SC.3.E.5.4 SC.3.E.5.5 of stars that can be seen through telescopes the unaided eye. is dramatically greater than those seen by SC.3.E.5.3 appears large and bright because it is the closest star to Earth. Big Idea 5 Earth in Space and Time AA = annually assessed benchmark MC = multiple choice B–5 Grade 5

90 5 Appendix B RADE G are more appropriately Florida Department of Education Grade 5 Benchmark Not Assessed SSESSMENT A CIENCE assessed through classroom instruction. S MC MC MC Standards marked as TATEWIDE S Assessed as SC.4.E.6.2. BY Also assesses SC.4.E.6.1. Also assesses SC.4.E.6.6. Identify the physical Describe the basic Identify the three categories Recognize that humans need Grade 4 Benchmark SSESSED A AA (movement of rock by gravity, wind, water, temperature change, and plants) and erosion (breaking down of rock by wind, water, ice, SC.4.E.6.3 SC.4.E.6.1 SC.4.E.6.4 of rocks: igneous (formed from molten rock); sedimentary (pieces of other rocks and fossilized organisms); and metamorphic (formed from heat and pressure). resources found on Earth and that these are SC.4.E.6.2 either renewable or nonrenewable. properties of common earth-forming minerals, including hardness, color, luster, cleavage, and streak color, and recognize the role of minerals in the formation of rocks. differences between physical weathering AA and ice). AA ONTENT C CIENCE Assessed as SC.5.P.10.4. B: S Demonstrate that radiant Grade 3 Benchmark PPENDIX A Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 | lost. when the Sun is not present, heat may be SC.3.E.6.1 energy from the Sun can heat objects and Big Idea 6 Earth Structures MC = multiple choice AA = annually assessed benchmark B–6 Grade 5

91 MC 5 Appendix B RADE G are more appropriately Assessed as SC.5.E.7.1. Also assesses SC.5.E.7.2. Florida Department of Education Recognize that the ocean Create a model to explain Grade 5 Benchmark Grade 5 Benchmark Not Assessed SSESSMENT A AA SC.5.E.7.2 via evaporation and precipitation processes. connected to all of Earth’s water reservoirs gas, a liquid, or a solid and can go back and the parts of the water cycle. Water can be a forth from one state to another. SC.5.E.7.1 is an integral part of the water cycle and is CIENCE assessed through classroom instruction. S Standards marked as Not assessed. TATEWIDE S Assessed as SC.4.E.6.3. Investigate how technology Identify resources available Grade 4 Benchmark Grade 4 Benchmark SSESSED BY A very large things. humans to observe very small things and SC.4.E.6.6 and tools help to extend the ability of in Florida (water, phosphate, oil, limestone, silicon, wind, and solar energy). SC.4.E.6.5 ONTENT C CIENCE B: S Grade 3 Benchmark Grade 3 Benchmark Earth Structures Earth Systems and Patterns PPENDIX A Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 | Big Idea 7 Big Idea 6 B–7 Grade 5 MC = multiple choice AA = annually assessed benchmark

92 MC 5 SC.5.E.7.6. Appendix B RADE G are more appropriately Assessed as SC.5.E.7.3. Assessed as SC.5.E.7.3. Assessed as SC.5.E.7.3. Florida Department of Education Distinguish among the Describe characteristics Recognize that some of Recognize how air Grade 5 Benchmark Not Assessed SSESSMENT A Also assesses SC.5.E.7.4, SC.5.E.7.5, and temperature and humidity, are found among sleet, and hail), making connections to the various forms of precipitation (rain, snow, the weather-related differences, such as SC.5.E.7.6 SC.5.E.7.5 elevation, and proximity to bodies of water. climate zones as they relate to latitude, AA deserts, and mountains. SC.5.E.7.3 weather in a particular place and time. temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, and precipitation determine the weather in a particular place and time. different environments, such as swamps, (temperature and precipitation) of different SC.5.E.7.4 CIENCE assessed through classroom instruction. S Standards marked as TATEWIDE S BY Grade 4 Benchmark SSESSED A ONTENT C CIENCE B: S Grade 3 Benchmark PPENDIX A Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 | Big Idea 7 Earth Systems and Patterns B–8 Grade 5 MC = multiple choice AA = annually assessed benchmark

93 MC 5 Appendix B Not assessed. RADE G are more appropriately Assessed as SC.5.P.8.3. Florida Department of Education SC.3.P.8.3, and SC.4.P.8.1. Investigate and identify Compare and contrast the Design a family Grade 5 Benchmark Grade 5 Benchmark Not Assessed SSESSMENT Also assesses SC.3.P.8.1, SC.3.P.8.2, A materials that will dissolve in water the dissolving process. and those that will not and identify the SC.5.P.8.2 conditions that will speed up or slow down AA temperature. basic properties of solids, liquids, and gases, SC.5.P.8.1 such as mass, volume, color, texture, and identify the reasons for having such a plan. preparedness plan for natural disasters and SC.5.E.7.7 CIENCE assessed through classroom instruction. S Standards marked as Not assessed. TATEWIDE S Assessed as SC.5.P.8.1. Identify properties and Measure and compare Grade 4 Benchmark Grade 4 Benchmark SSESSED BY A SC.4.P.8.2 common uses of water in each of its states. attraction to magnets. SC.4.P.8.1 properties including: mass, shape, volume, objects and materials based on their physical color, hardness, texture, odor, taste, ONTENT C CIENCE Assessed as SC.5.P.8.1. Assessed as SC.5.P.8.1. B: S Measure and compare the Measure and compare Grade 3 Benchmark Grade 3 Benchmark PPENDIX A Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 | mass and volume of solids and liquids. SC.3.P.8.2 SC.3.P.8.1 temperatures of various samples of solids and liquids. Big Idea 8 Properties of Matter Big Idea 7 Earth Systems and Patterns B–9 Grade 5 AA = annually assessed benchmark MC = multiple choice

94 MC MC 5 Appendix B Not assessed. RADE G are more appropriately Also assesses SC.5.P.8.2. Florida Department of Education Investigate and describe that Demonstrate and explain Explore the scientific theory Grade 5 Benchmark Grade 5 Benchmark Not Assessed SSESSMENT A Also assesses SC.3.P.9.1 and SC.4.P.9.1. AA affected by temperature. many physical and chemical changes are SC.5.P.9.1 AA magnification. recognizing that all matter is composed of of atoms (also called atomic theory) by SC.5.P.8.4 parts that are too small to be seen without magnetic attraction. parts such as particle size, shape, color, and based on observable properties of their that mixtures of solids can be separated SC.5.P.8.3 CIENCE assessed through classroom instruction. S Standards marked as Not assessed. TATEWIDE S Assessed as SC.5.P.9.1. Assessed as SC.5.P.13.1. BY Identify some familiar Explore the Law of Investigate and describe that Grade 4 Benchmark Grade 4 Benchmark SSESSED A rusting, and cooking. SC.4.P.9.1 as decaying animal or plant matter, burning, changes in materials that result in other materials with different characteristics, such SC.4.P.8.3 Conservation of Mass by demonstrating SC.4.P.8.4 that the mass of a whole object is always the magnets can attract magnetic materials and attract and repel other magnets. same as the sum of the masses of its parts. ONTENT C CIENCE Assessed as SC.5.P.9.1. Assessed as SC.5.P.8.1. B: S Describe the changes water Compare materials and Grade 3 Benchmark Grade 3 Benchmark PPENDIX Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 A | SC.3.P.9.1 heating and cooling by using familiar undergoes when it changes state through boiling, evaporation, and condensation. scientific terms such as melting, freezing, objects according to properties such as size, shape, color, texture, and hardness. SC.3.P.8.3 Big Idea 9 Changes in Matter Big Idea 8 Properties of Matter B–10 Grade 5 MC = multiple choice AA = annually assessed benchmark

95 MC MC 5 Appendix B SC.4.P.10.4. RADE G are more appropriately Assessed as SC.5.P.10.4. Florida Department of Education Investigate and explain that Investigate and explain that Investigate and describe SC.4.P.10.1, and SC.4.P.10.3. Grade 5 Benchmark Not Assessed SSESSMENT SC.3.P.10.4, SC.3.P.11.1, SC.3.P.11.2, A Also assesses SC.3.P.10.1, SC.3.P.10.3, Also assesses SC.3.P.10.2, SC.4.P.10.2, and SC.5.P.10.3 an electrically charged object can attract an contact between the objects. uncharged object and can either attract or repel another charged object without any energy has the ability to cause motion or AA create change. SC.5.P.10.2 AA some basic forms of energy, including mechanical. SC.5.P.10.1 light, heat, sound, electrical, chemical, and CIENCE assessed through classroom instruction. S Standards marked as TATEWIDE S Assessed as SC.5.P.10.1. Assessed as SC.5.P.10.2. Assessed as SC.5.P.10.1. Investigate and explain that Investigate and describe that Observe and describe some Grade 4 Benchmark SSESSED BY A sound is produced by vibrating objects and that pitch depends on how fast or slow the object vibrates. SC.4.P.10.3 SC.4.P.10.2 energy has the ability to cause motion or create change. SC.4.P.10.1 basic forms of energy, including light, heat, sound, electrical, and the energy of motion. ONTENT C CIENCE Assessed as SC.5.P.10.1. Assessed as SC.5.P.10.2. Assessed as SC.5.P.10.1. B: S Demonstrate that light Recognize that energy has Identify some basic forms of Grade 3 Benchmark PPENDIX Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 A | travels in a straight line until it strikes an object or travels from one medium to SC.3.P.10.3 another. SC.3.P.10.2 the ability to cause motion or create change. and mechanical. energy such as light, heat, sound, electrical, SC.3.P.10.1 Big Idea 10 Forms of Energy MC = multiple choice AA = annually assessed benchmark Grade 5 B–11

96 MC 5 Appendix B SC.5.P.11.2. RADE G are more appropriately Assessed as SC.5.P.10.4. Assessed as SC.5.P.10.4. Florida Department of Education Identify and classify Investigate and illustrate the Investigate and explain that Grade 5 Benchmark Grade 5 Benchmark Grade 5 Benchmark Not Assessed SSESSMENT Also assesses SC.3.E.6.1, SC.4.P.11.1, A SC.4.P.11.2, SC.5.P.10.3, SC.5.P.11.1, and materials that conduct electricity and materials that do not. SC.5.P.11.2 SC.5.P.10.4 fact that the flow of electricity requires a SC.5.P.11.1 AA energy of motion. heat, light, and sound energy, as well as the electrical energy can be transformed into closed circuit (a complete loop). CIENCE assessed through classroom instruction. S Standards marked as TATEWIDE S Assessed as SC.5.P.10.4. Assessed as SC.5.P.10.4. Assessed as SC.5.P.10.2. Assessed as SC.5.P.13.2. BY Identify common materials Recognize that heat flows Describe how moving water Recognize that an object in Grade 4 Benchmark Grade 4 Benchmark Grade 4 Benchmark SSESSED A that conduct heat well or poorly. SC.4.P.11.2 SC.4.P.11.1 and air are sources of energy and can be SC.4.P.10.4 from a hot object to a cold object and that heat flow may cause materials to change temperature. used to move things. change its direction. motion always changes its position and may SC.4.P.12.1 ONTENT C CIENCE Assessed as SC.5.P.10.1. Assessed as SC.5.P.10.1. Assessed as SC.5.P.10.1. B: S Investigate, observe, and Investigate, observe, and Demonstrate that light can Grade 3 Benchmark Grade 3 Benchmark Grade 3 Benchmark PPENDIX Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 A | object rubs against another, such as rubbing one’s hands together. SC.3.P.11.2 explain that heat is produced when one be reflected, refracted, and absorbed. SC.3.P.11.1 SC.3.P.10.4 explain that things that give off light often also give off heat. Big Idea 12 Motion of Objects Big Idea 10 Forms of Energy Big Idea 11 Energy Transfer and Transformations MC = multiple choice AA = annually assessed benchmark B–12 Grade 5

97 MC MC 5 Appendix B RADE G are more appropriately Assessed as SC.5.P.13.2. Florida Department of Education Identify familiar forces that Investigate and describe that Investigate and describe that SC.5.P.13.3, and SC.5.P.13.4. Grade 5 Benchmark Grade 5 Benchmark Not Assessed SSESSMENT A Also assesses SC.4.P.12.1, SC.4.P.12.2, Also assesses SC.3.E.5.4 and SC.4.P.8.4. cause objects to move, such as pushes or the more mass an object has, the less effect a SC.5.P.13.1 objects. the change in motion of a given object. given force will have on the object’s motion. the greater the force applied to it, the greater pulls, including gravity acting on falling AA SC.5.P.13.2 SC.5.P.13.3 AA CIENCE assessed through classroom instruction. S Standards marked as TATEWIDE S Assessed as SC.5.P.13.2. Investigate and describe that Grade 4 Benchmark Grade 4 Benchmark SSESSED BY A distance it travels in a unit of time and that objects can move at different speeds. the speed of an object is determined by the SC.4.P.12.2 ONTENT C CIENCE B: S Grade 3 Benchmark Grade 3 Benchmark PPENDIX Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 A | Big Idea 13 Forces and Changes in Motion Big Idea 12 Motion of Objects B–13 Grade 5 AA = annually assessed benchmark MC = multiple choice

98 MC MC 5 Appendix B RADE G are more appropriately Assessed as SC.5.P.13.2. Florida Department of Education Investigate and explain Identify the organs in the Compare and contrast Grade 5 Benchmark Grade 5 Benchmark Not Assessed SSESSMENT A Also assesses SC.3.L.15.1 and SC.3.L.15.2. but it does not move, it is because another something in the environment so that the forces are balanced. SC.5.P.13.4 opposing force is being applied by that when a force is applied to an object skeletons, others with exoskeletons—while AA humans, for example: some animals have some plants have stems for support. bladder, and sensory organs. and skeleton, reproductive organs, kidneys, stomach, liver, intestines, pancreas, muscles skeletons for support—some with internal including the skin, brain, heart, lungs, human body and describe their functions, SC.5.L.14.2 the function of organs and other physical structures of plants and animals, including SC.5.L.14.1 AA CIENCE assessed through classroom instruction. S Standards marked as TATEWIDE S BY Grade 4 Benchmark Grade 4 Benchmark SSESSED A ONTENT MC C CIENCE Assessed as SC.3.L.14.1. B: S Investigate and describe Describe structures in Grade 3 Benchmark Grade 3 Benchmark PPENDIX A Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Also assesses SC.3.L.14.2 and SC.4.L.16.1. | toward light and their roots grow downward AA in response to gravity. SC.3.L.14.2 reproduction. support, water and nutrient transport, and plants and their roles in food production, SC.3.L.14.1 how plants respond to stimuli (heat, light, gravity), such as the way plant stems grow Big Idea 13 Forces and Changes in Motion Big Idea 14 Organization and Development of Living Organisms MC = multiple choice AA = annually assessed benchmark Grade 5 B–14

99 5 Appendix B RADE G are more appropriately Assessed as SC.5.L.17.1. Florida Department of Education Describe how, when the Grade 5 Benchmark Grade 5 Benchmark Not Assessed SSESSMENT A SC.5.L.15.1 individuals allow some plants and animals move to new locations. to survive and reproduce while others die or environment changes, differences between CIENCE assessed through classroom instruction. S Standards marked as TATEWIDE S Assessed as SC.5.L.17.1. Assessed as SC.3.L.14.1. Identify processes of sexual Explain that although Grade 4 Benchmark Grade 4 Benchmark SSESSED BY A affected by the environment. seed dispersal, and germination. pollination, fertilization (seed production), reproduction in flowering plants, including SC.4.L.16.1 inherited, some characteristics can be SC.4.L.16.2 characteristics of plants and animals are ONTENT C CIENCE Assessed as SC.5.L.14.2. Assessed as SC.5.L.14.2. B: S Classify animals into Classify flowering and Grade 3 Benchmark Grade 3 Benchmark PPENDIX Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 A | SC.3.L.15.1 according to their physical characteristics. like ferns and mosses that produce spores, such as those that produce seeds, or those nonflowering plants into major groups SC.3.L.15.2 and those which lay eggs) according to their and invertebrates, those having live births amphibians, fish, arthropods, vertebrates major groups (mammals, birds, reptiles, physical characteristics and behaviors. Big Idea 16 Heredity and Reproduction Big Idea 15 Diversity and Evolution of Living Organisms MC = multiple choice AA = annually assessed benchmark Grade 5 B–15

100 MC 5 Appendix B RADE and SC.5.L.15.1. G are more appropriately Florida Department of Education Compare and contrast Grade 5 Benchmark Grade 5 Benchmark Not Assessed SSESSMENT A SC.4.L.16.3, SC.4.L.17.1, SC.4.L.17.4, Also assesses SC.3.L.17.1, SC.4.L.16.2, AA adaptations displayed by animals and characteristics. plants that enable them to survive in different environments such as life cycle variations, animal behaviors, and physical SC.5.L.17.1 CIENCE assessed through classroom instruction. S MC Standards marked as TATEWIDE S Assessed as SC.5.L.17.1. Assessed as SC.5.L.17.1. BY Compare the seasonal Recognize that animal Compare and contrast Grade 4 Benchmark Grade 4 Benchmark SSESSED A SC.4.L.17.1 changes in Florida plants and animals to those in other regions of the country. learning. AA SC.4.L.16.4 metamorphosis, and flowering and that undergo incomplete and complete SC.4.L.16.3 the major stages in the life cycles of behaviors may be shaped by heredity and Florida plants and animals, such as those nonflowering seed-bearing plants. ONTENT C CIENCE Assessed as SC.5.L.17.1. B: S Describe how animals and Grade 3 Benchmark Grade 3 Benchmark PPENDIX Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 A | SC.3.L.17.1 plants respond to changing seasons. Big Idea 17 Interdependence Big Idea 16 Heredity and Reproduction Grade 5 B–16 MC = multiple choice AA = annually assessed benchmark

101 5 Appendix B RADE G are more appropriately Florida Department of Education Grade 5 Benchmark Grade 5 Benchmark Not Assessed SSESSMENT A CIENCE assessed through classroom instruction. S MC Standards marked as TATEWIDE S Assessed as SC.5.L.17.1. Assessed as SC.4.L.17.3. Explain that animals, Trace the flow of energy Recognize ways plants and Grade 4 Benchmark Grade 4 Benchmark SSESSED BY A Also assesses SC.3.L.17.2 and SC.4.L.17.2. environment. SC.4.L.17.4 animals, including humans, can impact the consumers. food chain through the producers to the SC.4.L.17.2 from the Sun as it is transferred along the including humans, cannot make their own AA other animals, the energy stored in the food source is passed to them. SC.4.L.17.3 food and that when animals eat plants or ONTENT C CIENCE Assessed as SC.4.L.17.3. B: S Recognize that plants use Grade 3 Benchmark Grade 3 Benchmark PPENDIX Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 A | their own food. energy from the Sun, air, and water to make SC.3.L.17.2 Big Idea 17 Interdependence Big Idea 18 Grade 5 AA = annually assessed benchmark B–17 MC = multiple choice

102 Appendix C Grade 5 A PPENDIX C: S TATEWIDE CIENCE A SSESSMENT S I TEM W RITER G LOSSARY G RADE 5 The following glossary is a reference list provided for the item writers and is intended not to comprise a comprehensive vocabulary list for students. The definitions are not intended to provide a thorough scientific definition of the terms. Some definitions are limited by the extent of knowledge intended for the grade level. The terms and definitions in this glossary are specific to the Florida NGSSS in science for grades 3 through 5 and the content assessed on the Statewide Science Assessment. Absorb —To take up and store energy without reflecting or transmitting that energy. Adaptation —A characteristic of an organism that increases its chances of survival in its environment. Analyze ––To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelatedness. Asteroid —A rocky or metallic object that orbits the Sun and is much smaller than a planet. Attraction —A term used to describe the electric or magnetic force exerted by oppositely charged objects or to describe the gravitational force that pulls objects toward each other. —Forces that are equal in size but opposite in direction. See also force and Balanced forces unbalanced forces. Behavior —A plant or animal action, reaction, or activity that occurs in response to stimuli (e.g., gravity, light, temperature). Carnivore —An animal that obtains nutrients from eating other animals. Characteristic —A feature, quality, property, or trait of an object or organism. Chemical change ––Process by which substances are changed into different substances with different properties. Classify —To arrange in a specific order or group by categories based on similarities. Cleavage —A property used to describe how a mineral breaks apart along smooth surfaces. Climate —The average pattern of weather that occurs in a certain location over many years. Comet —An object made of rock, ice, dust, and gas that revolves around the Sun. | Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 C–1 Florida Department of Education

103 Appendix C Grade 5 A PPENDIX C: S TATEWIDE CIENCE A SSESSMENT S I TEM W RITER G LOSSARY G RADE 5 Community —Populations of different species of organisms living together in the same geographic area. Complete metamorphosis —Type of insect development characterized by the presence of a larval stage with different feeding habits. Conclusion ––A statement that tells what an investigation showed, based on observations and data. Condensation —The process by which water is changed from a gas (water vapor) to a liquid; a stage of the water cycle. —To transmit heat, sound, or electricity through a medium. Conduct Consumer —An organism in a food chain that obtains nutrients from producers or other consumers; consumers may be herbivores or carnivores. Control group —A group in a scientific experiment that serves as a reference for comparison to the experimental group; a group that is untreated by the factor being tested. —Measurements or observations collected and recorded in an experiment or Data investigation. Ecosystem —All the living and nonliving things that interact with each other in an environment. Endangered species —A species whose population is so small that it is in danger of extinction. Environment —An area that includes all living organisms and the surrounding physical features such as air, water, soil, weather, and landforms. —The process by which rock, soil, and other weathered earth materials are moved Erosion from one place to another. Evaporation —The process by which water is changed from a liquid to a gas (water vapor); a stage of the water cycle. Experiment ––A scientific test or procedure that is carried out under controlled conditions to answer a scientific question. Extinct species —A species that no longer exists. Fertilization —The process by which the female reproductive cell (egg) is united with the male reproductive cell (sperm). Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | C–2

104 Appendix C Grade 5 A PPENDIX C: S TATEWIDE CIENCE A SSESSMENT S I TEM W RITER G LOSSARY G RADE 5 Food chain —A diagram representing the transfer of energy from the Sun through producers and a series of consumers. Force —A push or a pull that one object exerts on another object with or without direct contact (e.g., friction, gravity). See also balanced forces and unbalanced forces. Friction —A force that opposes motion through direct contact. Germination —The process by which plants begin to grow from a seed or a spore. —A property of a mineral that describes how easily it can be scratched. Hardness Hemisphere —Half of Earth (i.e., Northern, Southern, Eastern, Western). —An animal that obtains nutrients only from plants. Herbivore —A measure of the amount of water vapor in the air. Humidity Igneous rock —A type of rock that forms from cooled magma or lava. Incomplete metamorphosis —Type of insect development characterized by the similar appearance of pre-adults and adults. Inference ––An explanation based on evidence that is not directly observed. Inherited trait —A trait or characteristic that is passed from parent to offspring. Insulator —A material used to reduce or prevent the transfer of electricity, heat, or sound. Invertebrate —An animal that lacks a backbone. Investigation ––An organized scientific study of the natural world that may include making systematic observations, asking questions, gathering information, analyzing data, summarizing results, drawing conclusions, and/or communicating results. Larva —An early stage in the life cycle of an organism that will undergo complete metamorphosis. Life cycle —The stages of an organism’s growth and development. —A property of a mineral that describes how it appears when it reflects light. Luster Mass —The amount of matter a substance or object has. Florida Department of Education C–3 | Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5

105 Appendix C Grade 5 A PPENDIX C: S TATEWIDE CIENCE A SSESSMENT S I TEM W RITER G LOSSARY G RADE 5 Matter —Anything that takes up space and has mass. Mechanical energy —A type of energy an object has due to its motion or position. Metamorphic rock —A type of rock that is formed over time from existing rock due to extreme pressure and/or heat. Mineral —A naturally occurring inorganic solid with a distinct chemical composition and crystalline structure. ––A natural object that orbits a planet. Moon Nutrient —A substance that an organism needs to survive and grow. —A pre-adult insect undergoing incomplete metamorphosis. Nymph Observation ––Information about the natural world gathered through the senses and/or scientific instruments. —An organism that obtains nutrients from both plants and animals. Omnivore —A living thing. Organism Ovary —The female reproductive organ that produces and contains egg cells. Physical change —A change of a substance from one form to another without a change in its chemical properties. Pistil —The female reproductive structure of a flowering plant. Pitch —The relative frequency (high or low) of a sound as perceived by a listener. Planet —A large body in space that orbits a star and does not produce its own light. Polar zone —A climate zone characterized by very little precipitation and extremely cold temperatures. —The fine dustlike powder that contains the male reproductive cells of seed-bearing Pollen plants. Pollinate —To transfer the pollen from the male reproductive structure to the female reproductive structure to fertilize flowering plants. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | C–4

106 Appendix C Grade 5 PPENDIX C: S TATEWIDE S A SSESSMENT A CIENCE I W G TEM LOSSARY G RADE 5 RITER Population —All members of the same species living together at the same time in the same area. Precipitation —A form of water (e.g., hail, rain, sleet, snow) that condenses in the atmosphere and falls to Earth’s surface. Predator —An organism that kills and eats other organisms (prey). Predict —To state what one thinks will happen under certain conditions based on data or observation. —An organism that is killed and/or eaten by another organism (predator). Prey Producer —An organism that produces its own food. Pupa —A stage in the life cycle of an insect that occurs between larva and adult. —To bounce light, sound, or heat off of a surface. Reflect Repel —To force away or apart. Reproduction ––The process of making more organisms of the same kind. Revolution —The motion of one object around another object. Rotation —The turning of an object on its axis. Sedimentary rock —A type of rock formed from layers of sediment. Soil —The loose top layer of Earth’s surface made of weathered rock and organic matter. Solar system —A system of planets and other bodies that orbits a star. Species —A group of the same kind of organisms that can mate and produce offspring that can reproduce. Speed —The distance traveled by an object in a given amount of time. Spore ––A seedlike structure that produces a new plant (e.g., ferns or mosses). Stamen —The male reproductive structure of a flowering plant. —A large object in space that is made of gas and produces its own light. Star Florida Department of Education C–5 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

107 Appendix C Grade 5 A PPENDIX C: S TATEWIDE CIENCE A SSESSMENT S I TEM W RITER G LOSSARY G RADE 5 State of matter —The form matter can take (e.g., solid, liquid, gas). Streak —The color of the powder of a mineral when it is rubbed on a streak plate. Technology —The use of scientific knowledge and processes to solve practical problems. Temperate zone ––A climate zone located between the tropics and the polar circles generally characterized by moderate temperatures rather than extremely hot or cold temperatures. ––A term used to describe a question that can be answered Testable (scientifically testable) through an experiment or observation. Texture ––A physical property of a solid used to describe its surface. ––Multiple sets of measurements or observations in a scientific investigation. Trials —A climate zone near the equator characterized by warm temperatures. Tropical zone —Forces that are unequal in size and may or may not be opposite in Unbalanced forces direction. See also balanced forces and force. —A term used to describe the certainty of data or results of an investigation or Valid experiment. Variable —An event, condition, or factor that can be changed or controlled in order to study or test a hypothesis in a scientific experiment. Vertebrate —An animal that has a backbone. Volume —The amount of space an object or substance occupies. Water cycle —The continuous movement of water through the environment by evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. —The gas state of water. Water vapor Weather —The condition of the atmosphere at a given time and place. Weathering —The process by which rocks and other surfaces are broken down. Weight —A measure of the force of gravity on an object. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | C–6

108 Grade 5 Appendix C SSESSMENT A CIENCE A PPENDIX C: S TATEWIDE S I RADE 8 TEM G W RITER G LOSSARY intended not The following glossary is a reference list provided for the item writers and is to comprise a comprehensive vocabulary list for students. The definitions are not intended to provide a thorough scientific definition of the terms. Some definitions are limited by the extent of knowledge intended for the grade level. The terms and definitions in this glossary are specific to the Florida NGSSS in science for grades 6 through 8 and the content assessed on Statewide Science Assessment. These terms should not be used in grade 5 test items. Acceleration —The rate at which velocity is changing. The change may involve an increase or decrease in speed and/or a change in direction. The change may be positive or negative. Allele —Any of two or more alternate forms of a gene that an organism may have for a particular trait. Amplitude —The maximum absolute variation of any periodic function (e.g., a wave). Astronomical unit —A unit used to measure distances in the Solar System equal to the average distance between the Sun and Earth, approximately 150 million kilometers, and abbreviated AU. Autotroph —An organism that can produce food from inorganic materials (e.g., carbon dioxide, sunlight, water). Binary fission —An asexual reproductive process in which a single cell divides into two cells. Binomial nomenclature —A system used to name organisms using two words: the genus name and the species name. Boiling point —The temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas. The boiling point of water at sea level is 100°C (212°F). —An asexual reproductive process in which an outgrowth of a parent organism Budding detaches and forms a new individual of the same species. Chemical properties —Characteristics of substances that describe their composition, reactivity, and how the substance changes into different substances. Controlled variable —A factor or condition in a scientific experiment that is purposefully kept the same. Dominant —The form of a trait that is expressed or shown when the combination of alleles for this trait is heterozygous. Dwarf planet —A celestial body similar to a planet but orbiting in a zone that has many other objects in it (e.g., Ceres, Pluto). Florida Department of Education C–7 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

109 Appendix C Grade 5 PPENDIX C: S TATEWIDE S A SSESSMENT A CIENCE I W LOSSARY G TEM G RADE 8 RITER Empirical evidence —Evidence based on observations or experiments rather than theory. Eukaryote —An organism whose cells contain a nucleus surrounded by a membrane. Evolution (scientific theory of evolution) ––A cumulative change in the characteristics of organisms or populations over time from generation to generation. F generation —The first generation of offspring from the mating of parental organisms 1 (P generation). Fault —A crack in Earth’s crust along which movement has occurred. Fold —A bend in a layer or several layers of rock. —A type of mixture in which different parts can be easily distinguished. Heterogeneous —An organism that cannot produce its own food. Heterotroph Heterozygous —A cell or organism that has two different alleles for a particular trait. —The tendency of a cell, organism, or population to maintain internal stability. Homeostasis —A type of mixture in which the different parts are blended evenly so that Homogeneous the mixture is the same throughout. Homozygous —A type of cell or organism that has identical rather than different alleles for a particular trait. Hypothesis ––A statement that can be tested scientifically through experiments and/or other scientific investigations. —A process in which water soaks into the soil. Infiltration Kingdom —The highest Linnaean classification into which organisms are grouped; above phylum. Law (scientific law) ––A scientific principle based on many observations of naturally occurring events that demonstrate it to be without exception under certain stated conditions. See also theory. Light-year —The distance a ray of light travels in a vacuum in one year. Melting point —The temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid. The melting point of ice at sea level is 0°C (32°F). Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | C–8

110 Appendix C Grade 5 PPENDIX C: S TATEWIDE S A SSESSMENT A CIENCE I W RITER LOSSARY TEM G RADE 8 G Model (scientific model) ––A replica or description designed to show the workings or structure of an object or system. Molecule —The smallest unit of matter of a substance that retains all the physical and chemical properties of that substance; consists of a single atom or a group of atoms bonded together. Nebula —A large cloudlike mass of gas and dust in space that may lead to the formation of a star. Net force —The sum of all the forces acting on an object. When forces are balanced, the net force is zero and the object’s motion will remain the same. When forces are unbalanced, the net force is nonzero and the object’s motion will change. Niche —The unique position occupied by a particular species in terms of the area it inhabits and the function it performs within the community. Nucleus —The center region of an atom where protons and neutrons are located; also, the cell structure that contains a cell’s genetic material. Opaque —A term used to describe a material that absorbs and/or reflects light and does not allow light to pass through. Outcome variable (dependent variable) —A factor, usually being measured or observed, that responds to, or depends on, another factor (test variable). P generation —The parental generation in a genetic cross. Percolation —The movement of water through rock or soil. pH —A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution based on a scale from zero to fourteen. Pressure —The force exerted per unit area. Prokaryote —An organism whose cells are characterized by the lack of a defined nucleus. Recessive —The form of a trait that will be masked unless the organism is homozygous for this trait. —The growth of new tissues or organs to replace those lost or damaged by Regeneration injury. Repetition —Making multiple sets of measurements or observations in a scientific investigation. Florida Department of Education C–9 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

111 Appendix C Grade 5 PPENDIX C: S TATEWIDE S CIENCE A SSESSMENT A I TEM W RITER G LOSSARY G RADE 8 Replication —The reproduction of a scientific investigation by another person to ensure accuracy. Saturation —A condition of a solution whereby it has reached a maximum amount of solute under the given conditions. Solute —A substance that is being dissolved by another substance. —A substance that dissolves another substance. Solvent Systematic observations —Observations obtained by following a preplanned method of observation. Temperature ––A measure of how hot or cold a substance is; a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles of a substance. Test variable (independent variable) —The variable manipulated by the experimenter in order to study changes in the outcome variable. Theory (scientific theory) ––An explanation for some naturally occurring event developed from extensive observations, experimentation, and reasoning. See also law. Translucent —A term used to describe a material that cannot be clearly seen through but that allows some light to pass through it. Transparent —A term used to describe a material that can be clearly seen through because it allows light waves to pass through in straight lines. Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | C–10

112 Grade 5 Appendix D ATEGORIES FOR THE EPORTING A PPENDIX D: R C S TATEWIDE S CIENCE A SSESSMENTS AND B OURSE SSESSMENT -C OF A IOLOGY 1 E ND - Reporting Categories The following tables represent the content reporting categories for the Statewide Science Assessment and Biology 1 End-of-Course Assessment, along with the approximate percentage of raw-score points that will be derived from each content category. Statewide Science Assessment Earth and Nature of Physical Grade Life Science Space Science Science Science 5 17% 29% 29% 25% 8 27% 27% 27% 19% Biology 1 End-of-Course Assessment Content Reporting Category Percentage Molecular and Cellular Biology 35% Classification, Heredity, and Evolution 25% Organisms, Populations, and Ecosystems 40% Florida Department of Education D–1 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 |

113 Grade 5 Appendix E TATEWIDE A PPENDIX E: S S CIENCE A SSESSMENTS AND B T UMMARY IOLOGY 1 E ND - OF -C OURSE A SSESSMENT D EST ESIGN S Item Types and Numbers This table provides an approximate range for the number of items on each test. These ranges include both the operational and field-test items. All items are multiple choice (MC). Assessment Item Range 5 60–66 8 60–66 Biology 1 60–66 Duration of Tests The table below displays the number of minutes allowed for regular test takers for the Statewide Science Assessments and Biology 1 End-of-Course Assessment. Assessment Duration (in minutes) 5 160 8 160 Biology 1 160 Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education | E–1

114 Grade 5 Appendix F OF THE E LEMENTS —S TATEWIDE T CIENCE A ERIODIC F: P PPENDIX ABLE S A B IOLOGY 1 E ND - OF -C OURSE A SSESSMENT SSESSMENT G 8 AND RADE 2 54 71 10 36 18 86 222 18 103 8A Neon 4.003 83.80 Lr Ar Kr Argon Xenon 39.948 131.29 20.180 Lu Radon Xe Ne He Helium Rn 174.967 260.105 Krypton Lutetium Lawrencium Nonmetals I 9 70 17 85 35 53 F 210 17 102 7A Cl At Br Iodine 79.904 35.453 173.04 18.998 Yb No 259.101 126.905 Fluorine Astatine Chlorine Bromine Ytterbium Nobelium 8 16 34 69 84 52 S O 16 101 6A 78.96 32.06 Sulfur Te 15.999 127.60 Se Po 258.099 208.982 168.934 Md Tm Thulium Oxygen Selenium Tellurium Polonium Mendelevium Metals 7 33 51 15 68 83 P N 15 100 5A Bi Er 14.007 30.974 74.922 167.26 As Sb Erbium 121.757 257.095 208.980 Fm Arsenic Bismuth Nitrogen Fermium Antimony Phosphorus 6 32 14 50 67 82 99 Tin C 14 4A Lead Si 207.2 72.61 12.011 28.086 Es Sn Pb Silicon Ho Ge Carbon 118.710 252.083 164.930 Holmium Germanium Einsteinium 5 49 31 81 66 98 13 B 13 In Tl 3A 10.81 Al Cf Boron 69.723 114.82 162.50 26.982 Dy Indium Ga 251.080 204.383 Gallium Representative Elements Thallium Aluminum Californium Dysprosium 80 30 48 65 97 12 Zinc 2B 65.39 200.59 Tb Zn Bk Cd Hg 247.070 112.411 158.925 Mercury Terbium Cadmium Berkelium 29 47 96 79 64 11 Gold 1B Silver 63.546 157.25 Copper Ag Au Cu Curium Gd 247.070 196.967 107.868 Cm Gadolinium 0 46 28 78 95 63 Ni Pt Nickel 106.42 58.693 195.08 151.96 Pd Eu 243.061 C = 12.0000) Am Platinum Europium Palladium Americium 6 12 9 1 27 77 45 62 94 Ir 109 (268) Mt 192.22 150.36 58.933 8B Cobalt Pu Iridium Rh Co 102.906 244.064 Sm Rhodium Samarium Plutonium Meitnerium (based on 8 76 44 26 93 61 Iron 108 (265) 190.2 Fe 55.847 Hs 101.07 Ru Np Os 144.913 237.048 Pm Osmium Hassium Ruthenium Neptunium Promethium 7 98 60 92 43 25 75 U 107 7B (264) Tc 54.938 144.24 Re Nd Bh 238.029 186.207 Mn Uranium Bohrium Rhenium Manganese Technetium Neodymium Periodic Table of the Elements 6 74 42 24 59 91 106 6B (263) W 95.94 Pr Cr 183.85 51.996 Pa Sg 140.908 231.036 Mo Symbol Atomic number Average Atomic Mass Name Tungsten Chromium Seaborgium Protactinium Molybdenum Praseodymium 5 58 90 73 23 41 V 105 5B (262) 14 Ta 50.942 92.906 140.12 Th Ce Si Nb Db Cerium 232.038 180.948 Niobium Thorium 28.086 Silicon Dubnium Tantalum Vanadium Actinide series Lanthanide series Inner Transition Metals 4 22 40 72 104 (261) Ti 4B Rf 47.88 Zr Hf 178.49 91.224 Hafnium Titanium Zirconium Rutherfordium Transition Metals 3 89 57 21 39 Y 3B La 88.906 44.956 Sc Ac Yttrium 227.028 138.905 Actinium Scandium Lanthanum 4 2 38 20 88 12 56 2A 87.62 9.012 Sr 40.078 24.305 Ca Be Ba Ra Barium 226.025 137.327 Radium Mg Calcium Beryllium Strontium Magnesium 1 3 1 37 55 11 87 19 223 H K Li 1A 1.008 6.941 Fr 22.990 39.098 85.468 Cs Na Rb Lithium Cesium 132.905 Sodium Francium Rubidium Hydrogen Group Potassium 7 3 1 2 6 4 5 Period F–1 | Statewide Science Assessment Test Item Specifications Version 2, Grade 5 Florida Department of Education

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118 The Florida Department of Education and its test contractors currently employ strategies to protect the environment in the production and destruction of Statewide Science Assessment and Biology 1 EOC Assessment materials. The Department encourages schools and districts to recycle nonsecure Statewide Science Assessment and Biology 1 EOC Assessment interpretive publications after use.

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