LittleStones CompleteToolkit

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1 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT “I always feel the movement is a sort of mosaic. Each of us puts in one little stone.” ALICE PAUL, WOMEN’S RIGHTS ACTIVIST

2 2 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LITTLE STONES SPONSORS PRODUCTION TEAM Sophia Kruz Little Stones Educational Toolkit was The Director/Producer supported in part by a grant from the Michigan Meena Singh Cinematographer/Co-Producer Council for Arts and Cultural Affairs. Additional funding was provided by Verizon Wireless’ Karoliina Tuovinen Editor HopeLine Program. Original Score Amritha Vaz The documentary film Little Stones and its associated outreach and education campaign DRIFTSEED FOUNDERS were supported in part by the University of Sophia Kruz Michigan Center for the Education of Women’s Twink Frey Visiting Social Activist Fellowship and Ankita Singh the Christobel Kotelawela Weerasinghe Fund. Meena Singh OUTREACH AND ENGAGEMENT PARTNERS American Dance Therapy Association EDUCATION & COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT Art Works for Change TOOLKIT DEVELOPMENT Driftseed Design Coordinator Darin Stockdill Global Fund for Women Center for Education Design, Evaluation, and Research, International Expressive Arts Therapy Association School of Education, University of Michigan University of Michigan Center for Education Design, Evaluation, and Research Student Researcher Elizabeth Chon University of Michigan Center for University of Michigan the Education of Women Sheridan Cole Student Researcher Vital Voices University of Michigan Zonta International Asia Korkmaz Student Researcher Washtenaw International High School Ben Alfaro CONTACT US InsideOut Literary Arts Project, Detroit Have questions about instructional Vicki Haviland design services? Visit ceder.soe.umich.edu School of Education, University of Michigan or write to us at [email protected] Graphic Design Oliver Uberti Center for Education Design, Oliver Uberti Creative Evaluation, and Research University of Michigan 610 East University, Room 1042 Ann Arbor, MI 48109 Have questions about Driftseed or the film ? Visit Little Stones littlestones.org or write to: [email protected] Copyright © 2017 Driftseed

3 3 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES CONTENTS 4 Introduction About Driftseed and the Women Behind It 5 About the Film 6 From the Director 7 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES Overview 9 Pre-screening Lessons Where do the Women in Live? Little Stones lesson one: 10 How Does Art Express Identity? lesson two: 27 Discussion Guide Little Stones 39 Post-screening Lessons What is Gender-Based Violence? lesson three: 42 lesson four: Culture and the Roots of Gender-Based Violence 53 The Law vs. Gender-Based Violence lesson five: 74 How Does Money Lead to Gender-Based Violence? lesson six: 87 lesson seven: Popular Music and the Objectification of Women 94 Challenging Gender-Based Violence in our Communities lesson eight: 108 Inspiring Action final project: 117 Workshops How Can Design Make People Think & Care? graphic design: 119 spoken word: How Can Poetry Make People Think & Care? 126 COMMUNITY SCREENING RESOURCES 135 TAKE ACTION! RESOURCE GUIDE 145

4 4 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES INTRODUCTION strategies, resources, and activities for community and/or One in three women globally are victims of school groups, high school teachers and students, and uni- violence, and this has had a profound effect on versity instructors and students. Also included are ideas for extended opportunities to process, learn, and take artful action international development. Violence against to further gender equity, fight against gender-based violence, women hinders mothers from being able and to extend these lessons into other social justice issues. The education toolkit for Little Stones is the product of a to take care of their families, trapping entire collaboration between Driftseed, a not-for-profit organization generations in a cycle of poverty. Governments dedicated to “education, outreach and documentary storytell- ing building a better world for women and girls,” and CEDER, and businesses lose billions of dollars annually the Center for Education Design, Evaluation, and Research at in health care, employment, lost productivity the University of Michigan’s School of Education. CEDER is a center devoted to offering high-quality designs, evaluations, and criminal justice costs. and research on teaching and learning across educational con- texts, with a particular interest in promoting social justice and One of the best strategies to reduce rates of violence against equity through this work. women, and to also reduce extreme poverty, improve child and maternal health, and increase educational access for children is to empower women socially and economically. However, GOALS OF THIS TOOLKIT only a small percentage of international development funds are directed towards projects that benefit women and girls. The toolkit was designed to support the mission of both orga- Increasingly, leaders in government, education, public health nizations by offering educators and community organizers a and international development have begun to think creatively menu of activity options for a variety of settings. In the devel- to find cost-effective and sustainable solutions to the world’s opment of the activities we tried to emphasize the following most pressing challenges facing women and girls. principles: One of the best strategies for igniting social change and encouraging healing is through the creative and performing We are all responsible for learning about arts. In places where psychological trauma and rates of PTSD and promoting gender equality and for are high, perhaps due to war, rape, or human trafficking, challenging violence against women. expressive arts therapies offer a highly effective form of psychi- atric care, often without the need for expensive pharmaceuti- We can all play a role in creating cals. In regions where violent practices occur due to long-stand- social change through the arts. ing cultural traditions, such as female genital mutilation, the creative arts can serve as a less-confrontational way to challenge The arts provide powerful tools for social norms by tapping into positive aspects of local culture to making positive social change. define female identity. One of the primary reasons women and girls are victims of violence and abuse at higher rates than men The toolkit can be taken up and used in a variety of ways; For is due to unequal access to economic opportunities. By offering instance, as a collection of lessons from which you can select fair-wage, home-based craft and tailoring jobs to women in pov- texts and activities to accompany the video or as an in-depth erty, the arts and crafts sector can break the cycle of poverty. inquiry-based unit that explores gender-based violence and art Little Stones is a documentary film that explores this global for social change. We recognize that curricular demands today issue of gender-based violence and illustrates how innovative mean that many teachers have fewer opportunities to go deep and impactful women around the world are using different into a problem like gender based violence, but we invite you to forms of art to challenge violence and promote gender equity. be creative! We also hope that high school teachers fortunate This education toolkit supplements the film and provides enough to get to teach social science electives like Sociology,

5 5 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT (continued) INTRODUCTION Women’s Studies, or Global Issues will take up and use the Ankita Singh Founding Member entire toolkit along with the movie. English Language Arts, Ankita is an attorney licensed in the State of New York and Communications, and Arts teachers will likewise find valuable educated in the United States and France. She earned a JD from American University in DC and two Masters from the resources and tools that they can take up and use in their class- University of Paris Nanterre. She then worked in Paris, primar- rooms. The materials are most appropriate for upper level high ily as an international arbitration associate at White & Case, a school classes due to text complexity and subject matter. As all curricula and educational material should be, this top-ranking firm in the practice. After living in Paris for seven toolkit is a work in progress. As you engage with the film and years, Ankita moved back to DC and back to her roots in policy and development, most recently as a legal consultant for the the materials, please share your feedback and ideas. The activi- World Bank Group. As a passionate advocate for issues of social ties are designed to be interactive and flexible, and to promote critical thinking, dialogue, and social justice. Lesson develop- justice, gender equality, and international development, Ankita was immediately energized and thrilled at the opportunity to ment was informed by the principles of Understanding by Design collaborate with Sophia and Meena. , so lessons focus on essential questions (McTighe & Wiggins, 1998) and enduring understandings. In addition, there are opportu- nities for arts integration throughout the toolkit. Founding Member Meena Singh The ideas here are meant to spark your own thinking and Meena is a Los Angeles based Cinematographer whose work creativity, so please adapt, modify, extend, and improve! Thank has been celebrated in New York Times and Hollywood you for sharing our interest in this work. produced by Hollidaysburg Reporter. Her latest feature film Good Will Hunting, American Pie ) was the subject Chris Moore ( of Starz docu-series “The Chair,” which filmed Meena and her team throughout production. She most recently shot the Netflix ABOUT DRIFTSEED AND THE WOMEN BEHIND IT documentary series “The Confession Tapes,” and previously The name Driftseed comes from the name for a seed or fruit, has worked on such notable projects as OSCAR® winning like the coconut, which is adapted for long distance dispersal film , for which she shot additional Twenty Feet From Stardom by water. Most drift seeds are produced by tropical trees, and photography. Meena is an alum of Columbia College Chicago can be found on distant beaches after drifting thousands of and the American Film Institute. She is a member of the miles through ocean currents. International Cinematographer’s Guild. At Driftseed, we believe powerful stories, told with compas- sion, can carry ideas quickly over vast distances. Like the seeds whose name we’ve borrowed, we hope our documentary work will disperse to far away places, take root, and build a more safe, just and equitable world for men, women, boys and girls around the world. Founding Member Sophia Kruz EMMY® award-winning documentary filmmaker Sophia Kruz has a passion for non-fiction storytelling and women’s rights. Her work has screened at film festivals, museums, libraries, community centers, and healthcare facilities globally, and broadcast on PBS. Kruz’s documentary films have been sup - ported by the National Endowment for the Arts, Michigan Council for Arts & Cultural Affairs, International Expressive Arts Therapy Association and the Womanity Foundation. Kruz is the recipient of the University of Michigan Center for the Education of Women 2015-2016 Visiting Social Activist LITTLE STONES On location in Senegal, 2015. From left: Interpreter Yaye Ami Mbaye Diop; . She is an alum of the Little Stones fellowship for her work on Cinematographer Rob Migrin; Director/Producer Sophia Kruz; Director of University of Michigan’s Screen Arts & Cultures program. Photography/Co-Producer Meena Singh; Driver Muniru.

6 6 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT INTRODUCTION (continued) “I always feel the movement is a sort of mosaic. Each of us puts in one little stone.” ALICE PAUL, WOMEN’S RIGHTS ACTIVIST ABOUT THE FILM Little Stones weaves together the personal narratives of four women around the world who are using art to create positive change in their communities. From a graffiti artist speaking out against domestic violence in the favelas of Brazil to a dancer rehabilitating sex-trafficking survivors in India, each of these women is contributing a stone to the mosaic of the women’s movement LITTLE STONES On the first day of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, Brazilian graffiti artist Panmela through their art. Castro organized a kilometer-long mural protesting domestic violence. Anna Taylor American fashion designer first moved to Kenya has risen to the top of the Panmela Castro Graffiti artist to work in Nairobi’s slums when she was in high school. There, male-dominated graffiti world in Brazil by blazing her own trail, she met an unemployed seamstress named Judith, whom she and using street-art to raise awareness about an issue that hits hired to sew her clothing designs. In 2011, Taylor founded very close to home: domestic violence. Judith & James to train and employ impoverished Kenyan Sohini Chakraborty was a dancer and sociologist in 1996 women to produce high fashion clothing. In 2013, at the age of when she began volunteering at a shelter for sex trafficking 22, Taylor debuted her collection at New York Fashion Week. survivors in India. She knew instinctively that dance could help This 87-minute documentary (58-minute version available), girls reclaim their bodies after the trauma of trafficking. Over directed by Emmy Award-winning filmmaker Sophia Kruz and the past two decades, Chakraborty has touched the lives of over Hollidaysburg, 20 Feet from Star- cinematographer Meena Singh ( 65,00 survivors throughout South-East Asia, training over 50 dom ), with music by Sundance Composing Lab alumni Amritha survivors to become professional dance movement therapists. ), was produced from 2014-2016 in 500 Days of Summer Vaz ( is a survivor of Sister Fa Senegalese singer and activist Senegal, Kenya, Brazil, Germany, India and the United States. childhood female genital mutilation. She now lives in Berlin, The film and accompanying education initiative have been but is a controversial figure throughout West Africa, where designed to raise awareness about women’s rights issues, and to she regularly tours, using her fame to spark a dialogue around celebrate creative, entrepreneurial, and arts-therapy based solu- genital mutilation, which is still too taboo to discuss in many tions to the most pressing challenges facing women globally. communities.

7 7 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES From the Director follows four women whose lives are dedicated to empowering Little Stones survivors of gender-based violence and eradicating the atrocities of domestic violence, human trafficking, extreme poverty and female genital mutilation. These women are therapists, activists, missionaries, and entrepreneurs. These women are artists. kora player Sona Jobarteh and female bansuri player Sheela Art is what drives these four women, provides an avenue Bringi. Karoliina Tuovinen was the film’s finishing editor, and for self-expression, and allows them to heal other women and a nearly-all female team at Technicolor studios finished the Little Stones girls in their communities. Each artist featured in is film’s color correction and sound mix. In short, Little Stones is a creative visionary, and I wanted to tell their stories with the a film about women who are using art to create social change, same aesthetic care as they give their own life’s work, which by women artists who believe their creativity can help other is why I selected Meena Singh as the film’s cinematographer. women in their own communities, and around the world. Singh has a background in narrative filmmaking, and our The film’s title comes from suffragist and women’s rights Little Stones from a plan was to approach the photography of activist Alice Paul’s 1974 quote, “I always feel the movement is cinematic view, focusing on detail and aesthetics, playing with a sort of mosaic. Each of us puts in one little stone.” The senti- visual transitions and juxtapositions, and interweaving the four ment, that we all have a role to play in the global fight for equal stories through a compelling visual narrative. From the hazy rights, to me perfectly encapsulated the work of each artist - orange skies in Sohini’s Kolkata to the hot pink paint of Panme featured in the documentary, and my own goals for Little Stones . la’s graffiti, the bright primary colors of Anna’s Kenyan prints I hope the documentary encourages creative dialogue and to the dry hot yellow desert sun of Senegalese villages on Sister expression around issues of global gender-based violence, and Fa’s tour, viewers get a taste of traveling around the world, hear - that through Driftseed, the 501(c)(3) non-profit organization ing stories of social injustice that are strikingly similar while which Singh and I founded during production, we will continue culturally unique. to grow the mosaic of the women’s movement, stone by stone. Singh and I traveled alone with our camera gear or occa- sionally with the support of a local interpreter or driver. In this way, we were able to take a fly-on-the-wall approach to our subjects; safe and intimate, without making the women feel self-conscious about being filmed. We stayed close to, or in some cases, in, our subjects’ homes, being granted intimate access to their personal lives. This approach allowed us to capture previously unseen footage inside India’s government Sophia Kruz shelter homes, villages in rural Senegal, and heart-wrenching Little Stones Director, interviews with sex-trafficking and domestic-violence survivors. We tried to make our subjects feel comfortable by working with only female interpreters and an all-female production team, ensuring interviews and verité scenes were honest and emo- tional in societies where genital mutilation, prostitution, and even sexuality are taboo. I wanted to continue to highlight the work of female art- ists by selecting women to perform the film’s key creative post-production positions. Sundance Composing Lab alumni Amritha Vaz wrote an original score featuring female Gambian

8 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT

9 9 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT OVERVIEW Driftseed—in partnership with the Center for Education Design, Evaluation and Research ( ceder at the ) University of Michigan School of Education—is distributing Little Stones to high school and university classrooms across the U.S. and internationally, accompanied by education toolkits. The purpose of this classroom initiative is to educate and involve school social workers and/or counselors in a conver- inspire future leaders, not only raising awareness of the sation about supporting students who may experience strong underlying issues involved in violence against women but reactions to the subject matter. Gender-based violence is a also inspiring innovative, collaborative, and non-traditional global problem, and young people are certainly not immune. means of outreach through the arts. The toolkit offers teachers Students may be witnessing domestic violence at home or may and students additional learning resources and ideas to help have been subjected to violence themselves. It is important to them implement an arts-based project in their communities, have resources at hand to support students who may be con- creating an experience beyond both the film and the classroom. fronting violence in their own lives. The lessons in the toolkit utilize a range of instructional In addition, the sensitivity of the subject matter may make strategies and routines. Three commonly referenced ones are some students uncomfortable. This is a natural and logical explained briefly below: reaction, so this should not deter anyone from dealing with these issues, but rather encourage conversation and prepara- This quick strategy is just what it sounds like. Turn and Talk – tion. After test screenings and conversations with teachers and After students have read a selection of text, they are prompted students, we have come to consensus that the film is definitely to turn to a neighbor to engage in a short, targeted conversation appropriate for most high school age audiences. However, dif- in response to an open-ended question. This activity should be ferent communities have different standards, so it is important kept brief and can be timed. The teacher should move through to preview the film before screening it. the room to monitor conversations and listen for points in need Please read the language of the content warning below and of clarification or expansion. Some teachers choose to assign consider sharing it with students and parents, as appropriate. partners to avoid anyone being left out. Turn and Talk Think-Pair-Share – In this strategy, a problem or question is presented to the class. Students take a set amount of time to CONTENT WARNING think about it on their own, then they work in pairs to answer This film deals with different forms of gender- the question or solve the problem, and then they share their based violence. The content may be triggering to synthesized thinking with the class. survivors and generally upsetting to others. Exit Pass – This formative assessment strategy is used to transi- Please take care of yourself while watching this tion from one activity to another or to end a lesson. The teacher material. If you need to leave the room, presents a question or problem to the class, preferably open- please let the teacher know. If you would like ended, and students share their thinking on a sticky note or piece of paper that serves as their “exit pass” out of the class or to speak with someone at any point, we will reach to the next activity. The prompt should be designed to elicit stu- out to ____________________________________ , who is aware of dent learning or thinking so that the teacher can assess overall the film and the issues it addresses. student learning of important ideas and plan next steps. Teachers showing the film and using these resources should

10 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON ONE do THE where Women In the documentary little stones USE THIS LESSON BEFORE VIEWING THE FILM if you feel your students need . . . basic background knowledge live? about the countries in which the documentary was filmed. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Students will be able to locate four countries on a map; compare their strengths and challenges; discuss their legacies of colonialism; and analyze data about gender inequality in these nations.

11 11 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON ONE: WHERE DO THE WOMEN IN LIVE? LITTLE STONES O2 RVIEw Little Stones : Kenya, Senegal, In this lesson, students gain basic knowledge about four nations featured in Brazil, and India. In doing so, they will analyze each nation’s strengths, challenges, and legacies of colonialism. KEY CONCEPTS QUESTIONS – the policy or practice of How are the histories and experiences of colonialism people in developing, post-colonial nations acquiring full or partial political control over both similar and different? another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically. What challenges do post-colonial societies share? independence – the state in which a country exercises self-government over its territory. What common challenges do women face – refers to the time period after postcolonial in different nations? the end of colonial rule. Female genital mutilation (FGM) – cutting or the practice, traditional in some cultures, of TAKEAWAYS partially or totally removing the external genitalia Developing nations with histories of colonialism often have of girls and young women for nonmedical reasons. economic issues related to exploitation of human and natural It is illegal in many countries. resources by former colonizers, dependence upon former colonizers, – the illegal business of recruiting, sex trafficking and/or reliance on a very limited economic production model. harboring, transporting, obtaining, or providing a These nations also often have social hierarchies and inequalities person, especially a minor, for the purpose of sex. that were made worse, or even created, by colonial powers. – a pattern of abusive domestic violence behavior in any relationship that is used by one Patriarchal systems in these nations often marginalize women partner to gain or maintain power and control socially, culturally, politically, and economically. over another intimate partner. Domestic violence can be physical, sexual, emotional, economic, or psychological actions or threats of actions that influence another person. – condition characterized by extreme poverty severe deprivation of basic human needs, includ- ing food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information. RESOURCES • Computer, projector, and screen, or whiteboard and dry erase markers Wall maps, atlas, or internet and devices • to access maps • Lesson handouts (1a, 1b, 1c, 1d)

12 12 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON ONE: WHERE DO THE WOMEN IN LITTLE STONES LIVE? tEacher preP DURATION Use this lesson before viewing the film if you feel your 2 class periods students need basic background knowledge about Assuming a class period is 56 minutes. the countries in which the documentary was filmed. This lesson might not be necessary if your students have COMMON CORE CONNECTIONS already studied these countries. ccss.ela-literacy.rh.11-12.2 Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among SUGGESTIONS the key details and ideas. Students will carry out cooperative group work, so it is helpful to have a plan for creating groups ahead of time. HANDOUTS If internet access is an issue, you can do much of this lesson 1a – Background Knowledge note sheet with an atlas or world map. 1b – Country readings (4) 1c – Country Comparisons 1d – Analyzing Gender Equity CONTACT US Have questions or need help with this lesson? Write to us at: [email protected]

13 13 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON ONE: WHERE DO THE WOMEN IN LIVE? LITTLE STONES LESso2 equEnc. OPENING ACTIVITY 1b ) ( to students Country readings Pass out the appropriate List-Group-Label Begin the lesson with a modified activity. based upon their group assignments (again, one per student Divide your class into four quadrants, and assign each quad- 1 if possible). Review the note-taking sheet with the students, rant one of the nations they will see in the film Little Stones : explaining that the first row is just for the name of the nation Kenya, Senegal, Brazil, or India. Then create groups of three to they are reading about. If they are not familiar with the concept four students within each quadrant who will work together to of colonialism, or if they need a refresher, take a moment to brainstorm facts and details about their assigned nation. discuss this concept with them. Explain that in the second row, Direct the students to work in their small groups to quickly they should jot down notes about the lasting impact of colonial- list every fact or piece of information they know about the coun- ism on the nation. The third and fourth rows are for strengths try they are assigned. Next, have them group the facts in what- and challenges of each nation. Tell the students that they will ever way seems most logical to them, and then have them label have to make inferences—best guesses using clues in the text— each group of facts (e.g. Physical Features). Let them decide to identify these. They will not find direct, literal answers in the upon their own labels. Direct the small groups in each quadrant text. If your students struggle to make text-based inferences, to share their lists with each other and create a compiled list of choose one section from one of the texts to read out loud and their categories for their quadrant and nation of focus. do a Think-Aloud to model how you would decide if a particular Have each group quickly reflect on what they know about characteristic is a strength or a challenge for a nation. their country and surface some of the key repeating ideas. Bring the whole class together and surface some of what is known about each nation by having different students share out and reflect on their lists. Ask students to reflect on and talk about INDEPENDENT PRACTICE NOT know? Also ask them to what is missing . . . what do they Then, direct the students to read the overview of their reflect on and talk about which countries are more familiar to assigned nation and work together to compile their notes as 3 the class as a whole. a group. Although they can work together, each student should have their own sheet. Give them time to read and take notes as you move from group to group monitoring their progress. GUIDED INQUIRY Next explain to the students that they are going to watch a Once the groups have completed their notes, the next step is to engage students in comparing across these four documentary film about four women artists confronting 2 4 different forms of violence against women. Explain that the nations. There are two ways to do this. women are from the four countries they just discussed, and that 1c Pass out the If you . ) ( a. they will briefly study these countries in this lesson to develop Country Comparisons handout background knowledge. This lesson will give them a broad have time, you can jigsaw students and create new groups that each contain a student who read about a different overview of each of these countries so that they understand the country. These are “analysis groups” in which each student context of each of the stories a little bit better. 1a Pass out the Background Knowledge note sheet ) teaches other students about the country. They should take , one ( turns highlighting key details in each area about the nation to each student. Students will each read about one nation and they studied and then work together to answer the com- use this sheet to take notes, although they may work in groups parison questions at the end. Each group should turn in a to do so. Next, using the already-existing quadrants and small groups from the opening activity, explain to the students that completed table. Once the new groups have completed their comparisons, bring the whole class together and ask dif- they will read in small groups about the country they just dis- ferent groups to share their answers. Have students reflect cussed. Explain to the students they are now in “Expert Groups” upon the commonalities and differences in their thinking. and their job is to become an expert in their assigned reading and country.

14 14 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON ONE: WHERE DO THE WOMEN IN LITTLE STONES LIVE? (continued) LESso2 equEnc. If students struggle with question #5, you might choose to - b. If you don’t have the time or space for the jigsaw group explore that question as a whole class. The low reporting of ing, bring the class back together as a whole group after the rapes and other crimes against women is common in all coun- Country initial reading exercise and project the table on the 1c tries and reflects the fact that our judicial and law enforcement Comparisons handout ) ( , or recreate it on your white- systems are patriarchal and not always sensitive to the chal- board. Calling on students from different groups, complete lenges faced by women. Women also face social stigma in all the table as a whole class exercise. Alternatively, you can ask nations (although much worse in some places) when they pub- each group to write down key ideas on sticky notes and come licly report being the victim of a crime. Explain to the students place the sticky notes in a table on the whiteboard. Then, that this is beginning to change, albeit slowly, and that we need have the class address the comparison questions at the end to work on this as a society. using a routine (students think about it, Think-Pair-Share pair up and discuss, and share their ideas with the class), and then process the ideas as a whole class. When groups have worked through the data, bring the class together to compare their answers and explore the 6 Help the students understand that colonialism left these data as a whole group. Encourage students to refer back to the nations with many challenges, including slow economic data when they make claims or share conclusions, and help to development after having been used for resource exploitation. clarify any remaining misunderstandings. Also stress that general social hierarchy—levels of power in society—has historically worked against women and marginal- ized them. This marginalization happens in different ways, and REFLECTION they will be learning through the film about how women use to have students reflect on what they Exit Pass Use an the arts to challenge this. learned in this lesson. Use the Visible Thinking Routine, 7 “I used to think . . . But now I think . . .” as the prompt. Students Explain to the students that they will continue working in have to write a brief reflection about how this lesson changed Analyzing Gender Equity their small groups. Pass out the 5 their thinking about anything they learned. 1d ( handout ) . Explain to the students that they will now ana- lyze data from these four countries, along with data from the U.S., to explore the level of gender equality and make some ASSESSMENT generalizations about this topic. Explain that gender equality There is an optional extension activity at the end of has to do with the different opportunities and rights that men the lesson that can be used as a project for assessment. 8 and women get simply because of their gender. With the whole Alternatively, teachers can monitor participation in groups class, quickly review variables in the data table and explain any prompt and discussion and assign points, or alter the Exit Pass that the students do not seem to understand. What to more generally capture big ideas from the lesson. (e.g. Direct each group to answer questions #1-7 on a separate common struggles do these nations face? What challenges do sheet of paper, one sheet per group. Move through the groups ) Teachers can also use the com- women in particular confront? to make sure that everyone is participating. If helpful, direct pleted handouts to assess understanding. groups to assign different questions to different group members. The answers to these questions can vary, but push students to think and support their answers with data. They may resist the idea that there is no one right answer (although there are better answers) so this might take some additional , or maybe whole group process- modeling through Think-Alouds ing of a question or two.

15 HANDOUT 1A LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON ONE: WHERE DO THE WOMEN IN LITTLE STONES LIVE? Background Knowledge note sheet PART ONE KEY CONCEPTS Use this sheet to take notes on what you read from your assigned country handout. colonialism – the policy or prac- tice of acquiring full or partial Nation political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically – the state in independence Legacy of colonialism which a country exercises self- government over its territory postcolonial – refers to the time period after colonial rule female genital mutilation (FGM) – the practice, cutting or traditional in some cultures, of partially or totally removing the Strengths external genitalia of girls and young women for nonmedical rea- sons. It is illegal in many countries. sex trafficking – the illegal business of recruiting, harboring, transporting, obtaining, or provid- ing a person, especially a minor, for the purpose of sex domestic violence – a pattern of Challenges abusive behavior in any relation- ship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over another intimate partner. Domestic violence can be physical, sexual, emotional, economic, or psychological actions or threats of actions that influence another person What was extreme poverty – condition char- most surprising acterized by severe deprivation or interesting? of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sani- tation facilities, health, shelter, education and information

16 HANDOUT 1B LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LIVE? LITTLE STONES LESSON ONE: WHERE DO THE WOMEN IN SOUTH Brazil AMERICA BRAZIL Brasília Rio de Janeiro In your groups, read the text below and then use what you learned to complete your Background Knowledge note sheet. Brazil , the fifth largest country in the world in terms of population and land area, has extremely diverse geography including rivers, rainforests, highlands, and plateaus. - What is now known as Brazil has been home to a wide range of indige nous people living in small, family oriented foraging communities for at least 8,000 years. Their lives changed little until Portuguese colonization began in 1500. As the Portuguese settled there, they established planta- tions in Brazil and brought enslaved people from Africa. Disease and warfare decimated the population of the native peo- ples (similar in many ways to historical patterns in the United States). - Portugal ruled Brazil until 1822, when Brazil officially declared inde pendence. Brazil was still ruled as an empire by Portuguese-descended royalty, however, until it became a republic in 1889. A military coup in 1964 resulted in military governments for almost 20 years, but in 1989, a democratic civilian leader was elected. Although the Portuguese have been out of power for a very long time, the legacy of colonialism is still present in Brazil. The Portu - guese brought Africans to Brazil as slaves for labor, and they waged war on indigenous people. Even today, power tends to be held by lighter skinned Brazilians. Black Brazilians face discrimination and less opportunity, and native Brazilians still living in the Amazon struggle to keep their lands and cultures intact. Class distinctions are often made on the basis of income and the color of one’s skin. Darker ethnicities tend to be disadvantaged, and upper classes rarely interact with lower classes. Women are generally employed in lower-paying positions such as teaching and nursing. Brazil also has the world’s largest Roman Catholic population, which is a result of the Portuguese occupation. Families are extremely important in Brazilian culture, and they tend to be large and close-knit. In terms of Gross Domestic Product, Brazil has the world’s ninth largest economy—since the 1990s, the country has been working towards achieving fiscal sustainability, and liberalizing and opening the economy. Despite the economic growth, poverty is a pressing issue in Brazil, particularly in rural areas as well as the favelas , poor urban com- munities that surround the larger cities. Violence and crime are major issues in the favelas, and many young people struggle to obtain a good education in the poorer communities. At the same time, because of

17 HANDOUT 1B-2 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LIVE? LESSON ONE: WHERE DO THE WOMEN IN (continued) Brazil SOPHIA KRUZ Brazil’s success in technological and scientific development, it has been Graffiti art is legal in Brazil. Murals, like Panmela Castro’s favorable to foreign direct investment. The country’s agricultural sector (above), are found in urban has also played a significant role in its economic status, and the govern - areas throughout the country. ment has also improved its tax and social security systems. Brazil is thus growing and developing as it faces the difficult challenge of ensuring that growth benefits all Brazilians and not just the rich.

18 HANDOUT 1B-3 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LIVE? LITTLE STONES LESSON ONE: WHERE DO THE WOMEN IN India ASIA New Delhi Kolkata INDIA In your groups, read the text below and then use what you learned to complete your Background Knowledge note sheet. India is the seventh largest country by area in the world, and the population consists of more than 1.2 billion people. The country is located in southern Asia just above the Indian Ocean, sharing a border with Pakistan. India’s climate varies greatly depending on the region; there are deserts, glaciers, and humid tropical areas. From June to September, there is a monsoon season in which there is heavy rain and wind. India was the birthplace of the Indus Valley Civilization around 3,300 bce and the location of important ancient sites like Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. The emperor Ashoka united most of today’s India in the 5th century, and he converted to Buddhism and helped spread that religion to other regions. Under the Maurya Empire, around 300 , bce Hinduism became the primary religion. In the 17th century, European powers began to push into India, and the British East India Company gained control over much territory in the 19th century. There was an attempt to rebel against the company that was defeated, and India was officially, and forcibly, made part of the British Empire in 1858. Resis - tance to British rule continued however, notably led by Mahatma Gandhi in the 1940s, and the British were forced out in 1947 when India finally achieved independence. The cultural impact of British colonialism is still felt, primarily in the dominance of English as the main common language. The emphasis on education in English in India has in effect created a large labor pool of English speaking workers who don’t need to be paid as much as workers in Great Britain and the US. Regional languages are being neglected, and some culture is being lost. The government is a parliamentary democratic republic; the federal government consists of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. India’s social structure is based on the antiquated caste system, a social hierarchy in which people were divided into four groups. The caste system was, and still is in some ways, a powerful aspect of Indian culture that determined every part of a person’s life, including social interactions and career opportunities. Caste-based discrimination is now illegal, but the effects still persist. Although it is no longer blatantly present in edu- cation and jobs, it still has a significant influence in politics, as well as

19 HANDOUT 1B-4 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LIVE? LITTLE STONES LESSON ONE: WHERE DO THE WOMEN IN (continued) India LITTLE STONES marriage. Like most cultures, Indian families have been predominantly Senior Dance Movement Therapy Practitioner Jhulan patriarchal from the start, which still impacts familial structure and Mondal leads a group dance cultural norms today. Violence against women in many forms is a major at Kolkata Sanved’s 10th issue in the nation, and domestic violence, labor exploitation, rape and Anniversary Celebration. sex-trafficking are societal problems. Throughout the late 1800s, technology developed rapidly and agricul- ture became commercialized, yet there were many economic problems that caused large-scale famines and a lack of industrial employment. However, today the economy of India is one of the largest in the world in terms of the amount of goods and services produced. The country is classified as a newly industrialized country with an average growth rate of - approximately 7% over the last two decades. Although the country’s econ omy grew quickly, poverty still persists in both urban and rural areas, as well as violence related to religion and caste. However, because India has a large population of young people, the economy has a great deal of potential for long-term growth.

20 HANDOUT 1B-5 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LIVE? LESSON ONE: WHERE DO THE WOMEN IN Kenya AFRICA KENYA Nairobi In your groups, read the text below and then use what you learned to complete your Background Knowledge note sheet. Kenya is a nation on the eastern coast of central Africa, located directly along the Equator. The physical geography of Kenya is diverse and includes everything from snowy mountains to dense rainforest. Early in the human history of Kenya, bands of hunter-gatherers moved through the land living off of the wide range of plants and animals there. Around 2,000 bce , new groups of pastoral nomads (herders) moved into the region and began living there. With a central, coastal location on the continent, many groups of people came to Kenya over time including Arab traders who sailed down the east African coastline. Some of these merchants settled there and began to intermarry with people already living there, and the Swahili culture developed as a result. Kenya was colonized by the Portuguese in the 16th century, but was then controlled by the Imam of Oman during the 17th century. Late in the 19th century, the British took control and formed the East African Protectorate in 1896. They opened the best lands in Kenya to white settlers, and Kenya was officially declared a British colony in 1920. The British used force and violence to keep control, and African Kenyans were not allowed to participate in government until 1944. Resistance to colonialism led many Kenyans of different backgrounds to join together in 1942 and take a secret oath to fight for independence against the British. This came to be known as the Mau Mau movement and emerged into open rebellion in 1952. The British ruled Kenya under a state of emergency from 1952 to 1959, jailing and killing many Ken - yans in an effort to stop the rebellion. Jomo Kenyatta, a national leader, was accused of being a Mau Mau leader and jailed in 1952. Kenyans eventually won the right to vote and participate politically by 1954, and in 1957, they had achieved the goal of winning seats in the Legislation. With support from many Kenyans, and as the British began losing con - trol of the country, Kenyatta was released in 1962 and became the Prime Minister of Kenya. Kenya officially earned its independence in 1963. As a result of the colonial policies that treated Kenya as an economic resource for the British Empire, Kenya’s economy is still rather limited in focus. A few primary products like coffee, tea, and flowers—encour - aged early on by the British—still dominate the economy. Other import- ant industries in Kenya today include: forestry and fishing, mining and minerals, industrial manufacturing, energy, tourism and financial ser - vices. Land ownership is also not widespread as a result of colonialism,

21 HANDOUT 1B-6 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LIVE? LITTLE STONES LESSON ONE: WHERE DO THE WOMEN IN (continued) KENYA LITTLE STONES with large tracts of land still controlled by international corporations. Jane Naisimoi, founder of the women’s jewelry co-op Women in Kenya play a very important role in agriculture and produce Olonana Women’s Group, most of the food, yet nevertheless earn far less income than men and and her mother practice have less access to education. traditional Maasai beading outside of Jane’s home in the Politically, Kenya still suffers from periods of ethnic conflict, a prod - Kona Baridi district of Kenya. uct of the artificial border created by Britain that lumped different tribal groups into the same territories, and then often gave one group power over the other. In 2007, political conflict around an election combined with ethnic suspicions to create a period of violence in which over 1,000 people were killed and over 300,000 were left homeless. Overall, since independence, Kenya has experienced periods of growth and stability as well as violence and decline. The population of Kenya today is 45 million and includes a range of ethnic and cultural - groups. Despite periods of conflict and widespread poverty, the econ omy of Kenya is developing fast. Many are optimistic about its future.

22 HANDOUT 1B-7 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LIVE? LESSON ONE: WHERE DO THE WOMEN IN Senegal AFRICA Dakar SENEGAL In your groups, read the text below and then use what you learned to complete your Background Knowledge note sheet. Senegal is a nation on the Western coast of Africa, covered in rolling sandy plains and foothills. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic era. Organized kingdoms developed there in the seventh century, and areas of the country were under the influence of regional powers like the Jolof Empire at different times. In the 1600s, the Dutch West India Company, the French, and the British all competed for control of Senegalese land. Eventually, by the 19th century (1800s) Senegal came under French control, despite local resistance to colonialism. Under this colonization, Senegal was a strategic area for the slave trade and was used as a base for ships taking enslaved Africans to the Americas. In 1959, Senegal peacefully obtained independence from France as part of the Mali Federation. The federation quickly collapsed and Senegal became an independent republic in 1960. Since then, it has been one of the more stable nations in Africa. There are several different ethnic groups in Senegal, but there is little tension between them as they have many shared customs. Traditionally, Senegalese society is based on community and confor- mity to social norms, with the elder members of society being revered and holding large amounts of power and influence. Women in Senegal play a very important role in household and agricultural work, and cur- rently make up less than 10% of the formal work force (work that is offi - cially recognized, relatively secure, and often taxed). They do work and produce, but in “informal” jobs that receive little or no pay and offer no benefits or job security. Women generally face a number of struggles with respect to their social status, and female genital mutilation is practiced widely in some areas and among some ethnic groups. As Senegal is mostly rural and has limited natural resources, the Sene- galese economy is focused on fish, phosphates, groundnuts, tourism and services. However, the agricultural sector of Senegal is extremely vulner- able to changes in weather and rainfall, as well as to changes in world commodity prices. Additionally, Senegal has a highly developed tourism industry which brings in some economic benefit. The way in which France left Senegal allowed France to continue to have a major influence there, and Senegal still depends economically on France. France is Senegal’s most important trading partner and provides

23 HANDOUT 1B-8 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LIVE? LITTLE STONES LESSON ONE: WHERE DO THE WOMEN IN (continued) Senegal SOPHIA KRUZ large amounts of foreign aid to support the nation. Development has Most villagers in the rural Vélingara region of Senegal been slow overall, with infrastructure like the road system still being farm and travel by foot, bike, vastly underdeveloped. and donkey. However, innovations in agriculture and a growing emphasis on improving the infrastructure provide some hope for faster development. The French language has actually helped unite different ethnic groups by providing a common language and some shared history of resistance and a common Senegalese identity. Today, Senegal is one of the most stable African democracies and has a history of international peace- keeping and regional mediation. It has a lively political scene, with parties competing across ethnic, religious, and ideological lines, and has one of the most unrestricted press climates in the region. However, poverty persists, and economic growth is well below the rates necessary for significant poverty reduction.

24 HANDOUT 1C LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON ONE: WHERE DO THE WOMEN IN LITTLE STONES LIVE? Country Comparisons PART TWO Use this sheet to take notes on what you read from your assigned country handout. Nation Legacy of Colonialism Strengths Challenges What was surprising or interesting? Brazil India Kenya Senegal What challenges do all of these post-colonial societies share? What common challenges do women face in these different nations?

25 HANDOUT 1D LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON ONE: WHERE DO THE WOMEN IN LITTLE STONES LIVE? Analyzing gender equity PART THREE Working with your partner or group, look at the statistics below. Do you see any differences between countries?* United States Statistic Kenya Brazil India female Adult mortality rate, 76 250 158 97 (per 1,000 people) male Adult mortality rate, 239 197 128 (per 1,000 people) 299 Gross national income (GNI) per capita (2011 PPP$) 15,175 52,946 2,761 5,497 Adolescent birth rate 93.6 32.8 70.8 (births per 1,000 women ages 15-19) 31 Estimated GNI per capita, female (2011 PPP$) 11,393 2,115 2,255 43,053 Estimated GNI per capita, male (2011 PPP$) 19,083 8,656 3,270 63,157 Labor force participation rate, female (% ages 15+) 56.3 62.2 27 59.4 male Labor force participation rate, 68.9 (% ages 15+) 80.8 79.9 72.4 Maternal mortality ratio 28 400 190 69 (deaths per 100,000 live births) female Mean years of schooling, 13 (years) 5.9 7.8 3.6 Mean years of schooling, male (years) 7.5 7.2 12.9 7.3 Share of seats in parliament (% held by women) 12.2 9.6 20.8 19.4 Child labor n /a 25.9 11.8 8.3 (% of ages 5 to 14) Mandatory paid maternity leave 0 (days) 120 90 84 Rape incidents (per 100,000 citizens) 27.3 1.8 27.75 2.1 Note: figures do not take into account rape incidents that go unreported to the police. Sources: United Nations Human Development Programme; UN Crime Stats; Guimaraes, K. (2016, May 28). Brazil’s rape culture in numbers. *Data for Senegal were not available.

26 HANDOUT 1D-2 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LIVE? LITTLE STONES LESSON ONE: WHERE DO THE WOMEN IN (continued) analyzing gender equity PART FOUR Working with your partner or group, answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. OPTIONAL EXTENSION 1. Based on the data, which country seems to face the Use a limited set of the statistics above to design most challenges overall? Explain your choice. an infographic about the need to improve women’s quality of life around the world. Use one of the following tag lines or develop your own: 2. Which country seems to have the biggest We’ve come a long way . . . but we can do better! differences between men and women with respect to the quality of their lives? How do you know? Gender equity . . . let’s make it happen! A quality infographic starts with a compelling story or message (in this case a call for gender equity), 3. Which variables have the biggest it uses data represented in charts of graphs to differences by gender? make a case, it includes a limited amount of text to explain the data and communicate the message; and it has graphics and design that connect to the topic, guide the reader, and grab attention. 4. Which country do you think has achieved the most gender equality? Why? Which country would For example: you put in “second place”? 5. Looking at the statistics on reported rapes, why do you think all the numbers are pretty low? a. Do you think the countries with very low numbers actually have fewer rapes? b. What might explain the differences you see in the numbers? 6. Looking across the short articles as well as the data, what important struggles or challenges do the four nations from the film face? http://www.ilo.org/gender/Informationresources/ WCMS_463094/lang--en/index.htm 7. What are the common struggles of women in http://www.unwomen.org/en/digital-library/multimedia/2015/9/ particular, across all of these nations? infographic-gender-equality-whereare-we-today

27 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON TWO HOW DoES USE THIS LESSON or after BEFORE VIEWING THE FILM if you feel your students need . . . basic background knowledge about the countries and art forms featured Little Stones. ART in EXPRESs iDentiTy ? LEARNING OBJECTIVES Students will be able to describe an art form in the film; analyze and discuss its significance; and evaluate this art form by reviewing a particular work of art with supporting examples and reasoning.

28 28 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON TWO: HOW DOES ART EXPRESS IDENTITY? O2 RVIEw In this lesson, students gain basic knowledge about art forms or artists in the nations of Kenya, Senegal, Little Stones. Brazil, and India. In particular, students are introduced to art forms featured in the film, QUESTIONS KEY CONCEPTS – rectangular, printed cloth with What can we learn about different cultures kanga and peoples by analyzing their art forms? unique designs that are worn by women, and occasionally men, in Kenya and across What can the arts of a nation tell us about their the region in a variety of ways. history and their people? – a string instrument that is very important in kora the musical history of Senegal and other nations How do people use different forms of art to express of West Africa, and in today’s music as well. both personal and national orcultural identities? , the oral historians/poets/ jali – also called griot storytellers of West Africa. – the sprawling, low-income, urban favelas TAKEAWAYS communities that have sprung up informally Art is an extremely important form of cultural expression that around most major Brazilian cities. can inform us in many ways about a people or nation. funkeiros – the up and coming hip hop artists Art can shed light on cultural influences from other places, and rappers of the Brazilian favelas historical events, cultural values, the persistence of certain nationalism – ideology based on the premise that traditions, and resistance and change to certain traditions. the individual’s loyalty and devotion to the nation- state surpass other individual or group interests People use art to express their own individuality, but also to connect with others in the culture and express a shared identity. nationalist – one who practices nationalism; one who promotes loyalty to and pride in the nation RESOURCES Computers or other devices with internet • and video playback capabilities • Lesson handouts (2a, 2b)

29 29 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON TWO: HOW DOES ART EXPRESS IDENTITY? tEacher preP You should be prepared to model a bit of reflection and DURATION 1 – 2 class periods analysis for a particular work of art that speaks to you. Variable, depending upon how you This can be a song, visual art, a poem, etc. You will assign the readings briefly share it with students and then use it to model the thinking that students will use in the lesson, so it have it COMMON CORE CONNECTIONS ccss.ela-literacy.rh.11-12.2 ready to go for the lesson. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas. SUGGESTIONS Students might carry out cooperative group work, so it is helpful to have a plan for creating groups ahead of time if you are going to use groups. HANDOUTS 2a – Analyzing Art worksheet This lesson can be organized a few different ways, so it is important to 2b – Country readings (4) read the lesson plan and choose a pathway before beginning! If internet access is an issue, you can do much of this lesson without it. CONTACT US Have questions or need help with this lesson? Write to us at: [email protected]

30 30 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON TWO: HOW DOES ART EXPRESS IDENTITY? LESso2 equEnc. OPENING ACTIVITY statements. Explain they will do something similar in writing Ask students to for one minute, and then Stop and Jot for the next part of the activity. Turn and Talk in response to the following prompt, which 1 you should have on your board or screen: INDEPENDENT PRACTICE What form and genre of art is most important This next portion of the lesson can be structured in a to you? Why? How does this art connect to variety of ways, but it basically involves students exploring 3 or reflect your identity? short articles (and websites if you have devices and reliable Describe, internet access) on one or more art samples using the You may need to remind students that art is a very broad term Analyze, Evaluate prompts to write short paragraphs. Try to that includes visual art (painting, drawing, sculpture, etc) or insure that someone is studying each country. Below are some performing arts (music, dance, film, etc). You might also need options for organizing this activity: to define genre and/or give them some examples, perhaps by sharing your own art interests. a. Assign all students one of the articles to read, either as Invite several students to share their comments about their classwork or homework, have them write their responses to own interest in art, and then explain to the students that they the prompts, and then have them pick an additional article will be learning about different art forms in the four countries on their own to explore based on personal interest. Have connected to the documentary film, Little Stones. students share afterwards in a whole group setting. Put students into groups of three to four and assign each b. group all four readings, allowing them to structure the work GUIDED INQUIRY as long as everyone is contributing. Remind the students that the film they are going to Develop a jigsaw activity in which each group is assigned c. watch (or already watched) is about four women artists 2 one topic (country). They read the article and do the confronting different forms of violence against women. questions together. They then form into new groups in Explain that the women are from Kenya, Senegal, Brazil, and which each student studied a different nation and art form. India, and that they will briefly study the art in these countries They then compare and contrast the art forms and share in order to develop background knowledge. This lesson will with each other. give them a broad overview of one art form or artist in each of these countries so that they understand the context of each Put students into cooperative groups and allow them d. of the stories a little bit better. to pick which art form they are going to study. Have each 2a Analyzing Art worksheet Pass out the ) ( . Next share a piece group prepare a poster about the art form they studied, then of art that you particularly enjoy and that the students might have the students do a “Gallery Walk” to see what other also find interesting. Display it for students, and then use the students created. questions on the handout you just passed out to reflect on Depending upon how you structure the activity, pass out the it out loud. Don’t spend too long on this though . . . just enough 2b to the students. ) appropriate Country readings ( to give students an idea of what they are being asked to do. If helpful for your students, jot some key ideas down on your board or screen as you talk. Then, direct the students to read the overview of their Quickly display a new sample of art (you can use something assigned nation, and then work to answer the questions. 4 related to the piece you just shared) and engage the class in a Again, how this will happen will change depending upon how Describe, Analyze, Evaluate whole-group discussion using the you organize the activity. prompts. Ask students to describe what they see or hear, make some analytical statements, and then develop some evaluative

31 31 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON TWO: HOW DOES ART EXPRESS IDENTITY? LESso2 equEnc. (continued) REFLECTION To gather and synthesize ideas from the students together, post or create a four-column chart on your board or screen 5 padlet.com (or use a technology tool like and create four spaces for recording). Label each column with one of the country names, and ask students to share their observations about each nation and its culture based upon their exploration of the art work. Encourage students to ask questions or each other, to add to each others’ answers, and to work together to create as complete an overview as they can. Consider showing the whole class some of the suggested video clips and having them See, Think, Wonder protocol: What do you respond (you can use a see? What does it make you think? What do you wonder? ASSESSMENT Have students write an Exit Pass that summarizes some - thing important they learned about the culture of the 6 country they read about and connects it to, or compares it to, their own culture or art forms they enjoy.

32 HANDOUT 2A EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON TWO: HOW DOES ART EXPRESS IDENTITY? analyzing Art DESCRIBE Describe the art presented in this article. If possible, find more examples online. If there is a performance, get your teacher’s permission and try to watch a video. On a separate sheet of paper, jot down a list of adjectives to describe this art. Now, write a short descriptive paragraph in your own words, explaining what the art form is. Then use several of the adjectives you thought of to add depth and detail to your description. ANALYZE Analyze the art presented in this article. Write a short paragraph in response to one of the following analytical questions: What does this art form tell us about traditions and customs of this nation, and the way that people are changing or pushing back on those customs? How do people who create or use this art express their own unique identity while also identifying with their larger culture? How has the history and larger culture of this nation, including interaction with other cultures, shaped or changed this art form? EVALUATE Evaluate the art presented in this article. Write a short evaluative paragraph about it that responds to the following prompts. Do you like it? Why? What do you find interesting about it, or why does it not interest you? What criteria or standards do you use to judge art? How do they apply in this case?

33 HANDOUT 2B LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON TWO: HOW DOES ART EXPRESS IDENTITY? SOUTH Arts of Brazil: AMERICA BRAZIL Brasília hip-hop & the Funkeiros Rio de Janeiro In your groups, read the text below and then use what you learned Analyzing Art worksheet. to complete your In the favelas of Brazil, funk rules. Funk, in this context, is hip-hop-informed music with a Brazilian flavor. Favelas are the sprawling, low-income communities that have sprung up informally around most major Brazilian cities. Favelas are densely populated areas, often struggling with poverty, drug trafficking, gangs, and violence, but also full of cultural innovation, art, and a strong sense of pride, community, and resistance. Brazilian funk provides an outlet for frustration and anger in these communities, but also an opportunity for celebration and living for the moment. Funkeiros are the up-and-coming hip-hop artists and rappers of the favelas, and many of them use their music to analyze and critique the liv - ing conditions and problems of the favelas. The funkeiro scene includes the music, but also breakdancing and graffiti art. Large parties and concerts regularly occur in the favelas where rappers and break dancers perform and new artists seek to break out and make a name for them- selves. Social media is also very important in the scene as artists share their music and fans follow their favorite artists. are also under funkeiros Despite their popularity in the favelas, the political attack by law enforcement and conservative politicians who con- FESTIVAL CONTATO Funkeira Karol Conka uses nect the parties and music with drugs, gangs, and crime. Indeed, some hip-hop to express social critique. sub-genres of Brazilian hip-hop, like Miami bass-inspired funk proibidão , do glorify these things in much the same ways as gangsta rap in the funkeiras Listen to some United States. Other sub-genres are criticized because of their sexually https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cbOG2HS1WKo explicit lyrics and objectification of women. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rX2rIxwxa_A Despite these critiques, the music is only increasing in popularity, and https://genius.com/8327480 are beginning to take charge of their own role and repre- female funkeiras sentation in the genre even though the genre has been largely dominated For more information on hip-hop in Brazil by men. Female artists are now staking their own claim and creating http://www.thefader.com/2016/08/04/9-brazilian- music that celebrates their sexuality while also laying claim to power, mcs-mc-bin-laden-karol-conka resistance to oppression and marginalization, and independence from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-24642328 patriarchy. Their music often addresses sex and sexuality, but in ways https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/the_americas/rap-in-rio- that assert female control over their own bodies and choices, opening why-hip-hop-isthe-new-sound-in-the-city-of-samba/2015/07/05/ up new dialogues about the role of women in society in general, and in f9a32eec-1a7d-11e5-bed8-1093ee58dad0_story.html?utm_term=. music in particular. Some still criticize the funkeiras, arguing that they e45491781916 are objectifying themselves and promoting hyper-sexualized identities http://mastersofmedia.hum.uva.nl/blog/2011/06/16/ among younger women and girls. de-funkification-the-fight-for-the-right-of-the-funkeiro/ But performers like Karol Conka push back on those critiques and work to find a balance of expressing social critique and having a good

34 HANDOUT 2B-2 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON TWO: HOW DOES ART EXPRESS IDENTITY? arts of Brazil: (continued) Funkeiros hip-hop & the LITTLE STONES Graffiti, like the mural by time. Conka was quoted in an interview with Afropunk, saying, “Music the street artist “Toys” for me is a kind of resistance to many forms of prejudice that I have (above), is considered part suffered in life [for] being black, female, and poor.” Her music promotes of the hip-hop movement in her own self-assurance and models confidence and self-worth for young Brazil, and woven into the fabric of everyday life. women, perhaps influencing up-and-coming funkeiras like MC Soffia. MC Soffia is gaining popularity already at the young age of 12 years old, and uses her music to challenge racism and empower other girls. She raps, “I’m black and I’m proud of my color,” in the song Menina Pretinha. In the video for the song, she is surrounded by even younger girls, positioning herself as role model and conveyor of a strong, fun message of self-acceptance and power, and perhaps shaping the direction of new musical expressions in the favelas. As you watch the film, look for examples of art in the favelas.

35 HANDOUT 2B-3 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON TWO: HOW DOES ART EXPRESS IDENTITY? Arts of India: 2 .2 New Delhi Kolkata Poetry INDIA In your groups, read the text below and then use what you learned Analyzing Art worksheet. to complete your Art and culture in India, especially in the city of Kolkata, the capital of the state of West Bengal, can’t really be explored without considering the impact of Rabindranath Tagore. Tagore was a globally recognized song-writer, novelist, poet, painter, educator, and political commentator who had a deep and powerful impact on India as well as on neighboring Bangladesh. He is an icon and hero in both of these nations, and was the first Asian winner of a Nobel Prize, which he won for literature. He wrote the national anthems of India and Bangladesh, and is seen in many ways as the greatest figure in Bengali culture (Bengal is a region that includes India’s West Bengal state and Bangladesh, and has a unique ethnic identity and language). Tagore produced forty volumes of poetry that represent this culture and a collection of more than 5,000 songs that are still sung and performed regularly today. Tagore was born in Bengal in 1861 into a large family with 13 siblings. He grew up surrounded by art, poetry, and politics, and began produc- ing his own poetry when he was only 10 years old. He died at the age of 80 in 1941, but his work lives on. Nobel Prize-winning poet Rabindranath Tagore is a globally Tagore was a nationalist who spoke out against British colonialism in recognized song-writer, novelist, poet, painter, educator, and India, but he also cautioned against extreme nationalism and promoted political commentator from West Bengal. a vision of universal acceptance and a value for human rights and free- dom. Tagore was so influential, and his ideas so powerful, that his work For More Information on Tagore helped motivate the independence movement that lead to the creation https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/ of the nation of Bangladesh. In 1967, what is now Bangladesh was still 1913/tagore-article.html part of Pakistan (called East Pakistan), and the government of Pakistan http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/freedom/tagore.htm banned Tagore’s music on the state controlled radio, likely threatened https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems-and-poets/poets/ by the Bengali pride he generated. In response, Bengalis in Pakistan detail/rabindranath-tagore began playing his music and reading his poems in protest, and they http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/ became important sources of inspiration in their struggle to create an features/rabindranath-tagores-legacy-lies-in-the-freedom-seeking- independent nation (which they did in 1971 after a war with Pakistan). women-of-his-fiction-2279473.html His poems were lyrical and innovative, although also informed by http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/Celebrating- traditional Bengali folk music, and took up themes of romance, divin- Rabindranath-Tagores-legacy/article13894877.ece ity, and human nature. His short stories and novels were both personal and political and dealt with issues of identity, poverty, patriarchy, and colonialism. He often portrayed women as struggling under the burden of patriarchy and having to make difficult, almost impossible choices as they sought to claim their own independence.

36 HANDOUT 2B-4 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON TWO: HOW DOES ART EXPRESS IDENTITY? (continued) arts of India: Poetry by Rabindranath Tagore Fruit-gathering LV Tulsidas, the poet, was wandering, deep in thought, by the Ganges, in that lonely spot where they burn their dead. He found a woman sitting at the feet of the corpse of her dead husband, gaily dressed as for a wedding. She rose as she saw him, bowed to him, and said, “Permit me, Master, with your blessing, to follow my husband to heaven.” “Why such hurry, my daughter?” asked Tulsidas. “Is not this earth also His who made heaven?” “For heaven I do not long,” said the woman. “I want my husband.” Tulsidas smiled and said to her, “Go back to your home, my child. Before the month is over you will find your husband.” The woman went back with glad hope. Tulsidas came to her every day and gave her high thoughts to think, till her heart was filled to the brim with divine love. When the month was scarcely over, her neighbours came to her, asking, “Woman, have you found your husband?” The widow smiled and said, “I have.” Eagerly they asked, “Where is he?” “In my heart is my lord, one with me,” said the woman. Tagore also painted, even though he did not start this until he was in his sixties. He generated thousands of works and his art was shown across Europe and the United States. His paintings included innovative, fantastic images of animals and mythical creatures that are at times comic and strange. He also produced many portraits, often serious and somber in tone, as well as a smaller number of landscapes. In general, his art is bold but relatively simple, and often very imaginative, dramatic, and expressive. As you watch the film, look for the poem that inspired Sohini.

37 HANDOUT 2B-5 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON TWO: HOW DOES ART EXPRESS IDENTITY? Arts of Kenya: AFRICA KENYA Nairobi Fashion & Design In your groups, read the text below and then use what you learned Analyzing Art worksheet. to complete your The is an important piece of fashion and design kanga in Kenya, as well as throughout the Great Lakes region of East Africa. Kangas are rectangular, printed cloths with unique designs that are worn by women, and occasion- ally men, in Kenya and across the region in a variety of ways. Kangas are often sold in pairs and make up a wom - an’s entire outfit, being used as a sort of body wrap, but can also be worn as a skirt, like a sari, or even as a turban or scarf. Their standard size is around 64 x 44 inches. Kangas, also called , have their origin in ancient trade networks leso that connected India, Europe, and East Africa, and have influences from a wide range of cultures in the patterns and prints they display. Kangas were first produced on the east coast of Africa in the mid-1800s, perhaps by fashionable women who sewed together colorful handker- chiefs brought by Portuguese traders in order to make larger pieces of fabric for use (at least that is one origin story). They are produced today LITTLE STONES in textile mills in Kenya and Tanzania, and some are even made in India, Little Stones In the documentary , a woman in the James 127 Foundation but for a time in the early 1900s many were actually made in Europe and Sewing Training Program wears a dress imported to Africa. that she made out of kanga fabric. Kangas are an important form of communication and personal expression. A traditional kanga has a wide border called a , a central pindo For More Information jina design called the mji . or ujumbe , and writing on the border called the http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi? ujumbe generally contain Swahili sayings, such as “In this world we The article=1735&context=tsaconf ). Sisi sote abiria dereva ni mungu are all passengers, God is the driver” ( http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/research_projects/ These sayings allow women to display ideas and messages that are complete_projects/kanga_and_printed_textiles.aspx important to them. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kOnG7Aa1UsY Kangas are generally printed as repeated patterns on long rolls of cloth, and individual kangas are then cut off of the roll and sold. In http://www.encyclopedia.com/fashion/encyclopedias- almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/kanga Kenya, kangas unify women across religion, ethnicity, and social class, and play an important cultural role as they are used in so many different ways, from swaddling and carrying newborn babies to wrapping and covering the bodies of women who have died. kanga . As you watch the film, look for examples of

38 HANDOUT 2B-6 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON TWO: HOW DOES ART EXPRESS IDENTITY? Arts of Senegal: AFRICA Dakar SENEGAL music In your groups, read the text below and then use what you learned to complete your Analyzing Art worksheet. The is a string instrument that is very important in kora the musical history of Senegal and other nations of West Africa, and in today’s music as well. Traditionally, the , the oral storytellers of kora was carried by griots, or jali used the kora to help them sing and West Africa. The jali tell traditional stories. It is considered to be a lute-harp, having the straight shaft and resonating chamber of a lute and the perpendicular strings of a harp. The body of the kora is made from a large gourd, or calabash, that is cut in half, hollowed out and dried, and then covered with goat or calf skin that is stretched and tied with leather laces (at least traditionally). Two handles run under the skin and stick out from the sides, and a bridge is connected to the center of this handle. A long neck made of hardwood, with twenty-one strings, extends out from the gourd. In the past, strings were made from animal materials, like thin strips of ante- lope skin, but they are now typically made from nylon fishing line. The strings connect to a traditional hide ‘konso ring,’ or in modern versions to a guitar machine head, at the end of the neck. Players use their left hand to play the eleven left strings, and the SLAWEK PRZERWA Gambian musician Sona Jobarteh right hand to play the remaining ten. The music of the kora sounds performs the kora live at the something like a harp, though the music can resemble flamenco or even Brave Festival in Poland, 2015. blues guitar. Strings are plucked by the musician using only their index finger and thumb. Listen to Sona Jobarteh Historically, primarily men played the kora, but that is beginning to https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oToZfPGMMBY , is the Little Stones change. Sona Jobarteh, whose music is featured in https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PtmmlOQnTXM leading female kora player in the world right now, and is generally rec- ognized as an extremely gifted musician. Listen to Youssou N’Dour If you want to hear more Senegalese music, explore the music of https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o-p7DZ3NeQg Youssou N’Dour, perhaps Senegal’s most globally known artist. His https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wqCpjFMvz-k , with global music mixes a traditional style of Senegalese music, mbalax influences including Cuban rumba, hip-hop, jazz, and soul. N’Dour has For More Information collaborated with artists like Peter Gabriel, Sting, Neneh Cherry, Wyclef http://www.thekoraworkshop.co.uk/kora-information/history/ Jean, Paul Simon, Bruce Springsteen, Tracy Chapman, and Branford http://kouraba.org/kora/ Marsalis, among others. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YcV0rlpEiMM kora . As you watch the film, listen for the music of the

39 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT DiSCUsSIoN GUiDE for use immediately after viewing the film

40 40 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES DiSCUsSIoN GUiDE What did you think about the ways in which This discussion session moves quickly through these women are using art to make change? different participation structures. Students do Which art forms really caught your attention? Why? some thinking on their own, in pairs, in small groups, and then also as a whole group. This is an Bring the class back together for whole group discussion. intentional design meant to give all students the Have someone from each group share some of their ideas 4 opportunity to talk at some point and to provide and responses from both sets of questions they have discussed. Gently cut off people who talk too long. Limit them to about them with some space to try out ideas in small 30-40 seconds per group. The idea is to get some ideas out in groups before sharing them with the class. the open that now be taken up in whole group conversation. Ask the students to respond to each other’s ideas by ask - OPENING ACTIVITY ing questions, agreeing, extending, or politely challenging. If discussion seems slow, try using Think, Pair, Share again where Discussion Guide Introduce yourself and distribute the dg students think, talk about a question with a partner, and then ) ( . Remind the students that they only have about handout 1 share their thoughts with the whole group. 30 (to 45, your decision!) minutes for this activity. Quickly estab- The overall idea is to get as many students engaged as pos- lish norms by asking everyone to participate, listen, give others sible and to give them space and time to surface their thinking time to talk, and ask for clarification when needed. about art and social change. Your primary responsibility is to monitor time, encourage students to talk, ask questions, and move them through the steps of the activity. Facilitators should refrain from sharing their own views in order to give students time to talk. Then have students break back into small groups and talk about the following questions: 5 GUIDED INQUIRY What issue or social problem do you care about? Ask students to , giving them one minute Think, Pair, Share How can you use art to help make change to think about the following questions on their handout: 2 around those issues? Which story impacted you the most and why? After a few minutes, direct students to take the remaining time to think on their own about an issue or social problem that What did these women all have in common? they each care about. Ask them to come up with examples of images, symbols, or graphics that are associated with this topic, Next, have them pair up with another student (or two) and along with words, slogans, or phrases connected to this issue. share their thinking about these questions for three to four They should jot down their ideas on the back of their handout. minutes. Monitor to make sure they are giving each other time When the time is almost up, get their attention so they can be to share and keep them moving through the activity. directed to the next activity. Next direct them to form groups of three or four to discuss OPTIONAL WORKSHOP the questions below for about five minutes. Monitor par - 3 ticipation to make sure that no one is being left out, and that You can move from this discussion into one or both of the no one is dominating discussions. Monitor the time as well. Little Stones workshops (pp. 119–134) in which students take Then ask each group to identify one or two important ideas they their ideas about social problems and develop graphic arts and talked about and be ready to share with the whole group. spoken word pieces in response.

41 HANDOUT DG EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES DISCUSSION GUIDE analyzing the Film PART THREE PART ONE Take one to two minutes to think about these questions: Come together as a class. Each small group should quickly share a big idea. As groups share, other groups can agree, ask for clarification, or respectfully question/challenge an idea. Which story impacted you the most and why? What did these women all have in common? PART FOUR Then pair up with another student (or two) and share your thinking about this question. Talk for three to four minutes, Break back into small groups. Discuss the following questions: giving each other time to share. What issue or social problem do you care about? What about your society makes you angry? PART TWO Now form groups of three or four and discuss the questions How can you use art to help make change around one of these issues? below for about five minutes. Listen to each other respectfully, and ask each other for clarification if necessary. Pay attention to the time and be sure that no single person does all the talking! What did you think about the ways in which these women are using art to make change? Which art forms really caught your attention and why? As a group, identify one or two important ideas you talked about and be ready to share them with the whole group. OPTIONAL EXTENSION On your own, think about the issue or social problem that you care about. If you couldn’t speak, how could you express your feelings about this problem? What images, symbols, or graphics are associated with this topic? What words, slogans, or phrases are connected to this issue? Jot down some ideas on the back of this sheet.

42 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON THREE What IS gender-based vIolenCe? — and — why is It considered a global problem? LEARNING OBJECTIVE Students will be able to analyze information across texts in order to describe gender-based violence as a global issue and differentiate between its sociocultural, economic, legal, and political aspects.

43 43 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON THREE: WHAT IS GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE? O2 RVIEw In this lesson, students explore gender-based violence as a global problem, developing an understanding of its causes, effects, and possible solutions by reading texts, watching videos, and analyzing infographics. KEY CONCEPTS QUESTIONS sociocultural – relating to the customs, lifestyles, What is gender-based violence (GBV) and why is it considered a global problem? and values that characterize a society or group – relating to the system by which goods economic and services are produced, sold, and bought SUPPORTING QUESTIONS – based on, or relating to, the law legal Who is affected by gender-based violence? In what parts of – relating to government, policy, decision political the world is it a problem? making, and the division of power in a society What are the causes and effects of gender-based violence? Solutions? Additional vocabulary Why is it helpful to consider sociocultural, legal, political, – a person with whom one intimate partner and economic factors of gender-based violence? has a close personal relationship prevalence – the condition of being common brothel – a house where men can visit prostitutes TAKEAWAYS – African diaspora refers to the commu- diaspora Gender-based violence is violence directed against a girl or woman nities throughout the world that have resulted by primarily because of her gender; it also includes violence that affects descent from the movement in historic times of women and girls disproportionately. gender-based violence is an peoples from Africa, predominantly to the Ameri- expression of the power inequalities between men and women. cas and among other areas around the globe. Gender-based violence affects women all over the world from every female genital mutilation or cutting group of people. That being said, women in developing nations, and ) – ritual removal of some or all of or fgc (fgm women living in poor communities in developed nations, as well as the external female genitalia women from racial or ethnic minorities, often have less power than export market – “exports” refer to selling goods more privileged women and are more at-risk. and services produced in the homecountry to Gender-based violence is a complex problem with social, cultural, other markets economic, legal, and political aspects. Generally speaking, it is caused Masai – ethnic group inhabiting southern Kenya by the interaction of a range of factors at the individual, family, com- and northern Tanzania munity, and societal levels. At a basic level, it is enabled in patriarchal dependency – the state of relying on or being societies (where men traditionally have more power than women) by the controlled by someone or something else notion that women should be controlled by men. – NGO (Non-Governmental Organization) The effects of gender-based violence also impact people at many levels. a non-profit that is independent from states There are direct physical and psychological effects on individuals, and international governmental organizations. damage to families and communities, and economic losses that hurt private sector – the part of the national economy entire societies. It is a far-reaching problem that hurts us all, although that is not under direct government control obviously women who experience it are hurt the most. Many thousands of women are killed every year across the world in incidents of GBV. RESOURCES Because GBV is such a complex problem, there is no one single solution. A wide range of actions, policies, and programs can help reduce it. Computers or other devices with internet • Cultural values that denigrate or objectify women (and these exist world- and video playback capabilities wide) need to be challenged and replaced with more empowering and • Headphones (optional, but helpful) healthy notions that recognize the inherent equality of women. • Lesson handouts (3a, 3b)

44 44 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON THREE: WHAT IS GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE? tEacher preP DURATION While this lesson deals less directly with violence and 1 – 3 class periods trauma, discussing issues of gender-based violence, Variable, depending upon if you use videos, in any way, can trigger very personal issues for some and how much time you allot for discussion participants. Preparation of students and staff, as well as COMMON CORE CONNECTIONS communication with parents as appropriate, is advised. ccss.ela-literacy.rh.11-12.2 As with other lessons, teachers can include a trigger warning at the Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate beginning of this lesson in case there are students who have witnessed summary that makes clear the relationships among or experienced gender-based violence and could potentially find the the key details and ideas. activity stressful or upsetting. Students should also be informed of ccss.ela-literacy.rh.11-12.7 resources they can utilize if they need someone to talk to after the Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of informa- lesson, such as a school counselor or peer counseling organization. tion presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order As needed, teachers should take a moment at the beginning of the to address a question or solve a problem. activity to explicitly: Recognize the potentially sensitive topics and material in the lesson. HANDOUTS 3a – Infographic Analysis Acknowledge that this material may make students emotional, and 3b – Bonus Clips Analysis express that they are justified in these emotions. available school or local resources that students can utilize. List Additional Resources Violence Against Women Infographic http://unstats.un.org/unsd/gender/downloads/Ch6_VaW_info.pdf SUGGESTIONS Causes of Gender-Based Violence http://www.health-genderviolence.org/guidance-for- Students will do some work in cooperative groups, so it can be health-care-professionals-in-strengthening-health-system- helpful to form those ahead of time. responses-to-gender-based-vi-0 Preview the videos linked below to make sure you are comfortable showing them in your classroom. The bonus clip for Sister Fa focuses on female genital mutilation, or female genital cutting, so you may need CONTACT US to build some background knowledge and set the tone for a mature Have questions or need help with this lesson? conversation if students have not yet watched the full documentary. Write to us at: [email protected] If internet access is an issue, or if you are concerned about the videos, you can do much of this lesson without the bonus clips.

45 45 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON THREE: WHAT IS GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE? LESso2 equEnc. GUIDED INQUIRY OPENING ACTIVITY Start the lesson by sharing the statistics on violence against Infographic Analysis Next, provide students with the 3a ( women in the squares below. The statistics can also be handout as well as access to the infographic and short ) 1 2 accessed at the link below the images. article about gender-based violence from the United Nations stats office: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/gender/downloads/Ch6_VaW_info.pdf Explain to the students that they will use the two graphic What, Who, Where, and Why ; and organizers on the handout ( Cause and Effect ) to pull out key information from the info- graphic and the article. Depending upon how you structure reading in your class, you may choose to have students work in groups at the outset, or you may assign them to review the materials and take some notes independently. INDEPENDENT PRACTICE Once students have read the texts and taken some initial notes, have them work in small groups to add detail to 3 their notes in the graphic organizers. Direct them to share and discuss the initial ideas they wrote down as to What, Who, of gender-based Cause and Effect , as well as the Where, and Why violence and to elaborate their notes as new ideas get shared. (silent writing for one Next, have students Stop and Jot using the prompts below: minute) and then Turn and Talk 4 Based on the reading you just did, Stop and Jot: what do you think some solutions to gender-based http://www.care.org/work/womens-empowerment/violence-against-women violence might be? Turn and Talk: Share your thinking with a partner. Stop and Jot Have students a personal response to the Discuss how your ideas are similar or different. information. What does it make them think? What questions do they have? Invite a couple of students to share their responses (but Turn and Talk Once students have had time to , ask different don’t force it) and explain to the students that they are going groupings of students to share their thinking. to learn about gender-based violence and why it can be consid- 3b ered a global problem during this lesson. handouts . Next, pass out the Bonus Clips Analysis ) ( Ask students to quickly with a partner about Turn and Talk Review the key concepts and vocabulary with the students. 5 what they think the phrase “global problem” means. When is a Use open-ended questions to check for understanding, or have problem not global, and when is it global? Have a few student students rephrase the definitions in their own words. pairs share their thinking, using probing questions as needed Each bonus clip has a set of guiding questions. You have to push their thinking. options as to how students engage with these questions. You can have students watch the clips and take notes, or jot down ideas right after the clip on individual handouts. Alternatively, you might show the clips and have students work in small

46 46 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON THREE: WHAT IS GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE? LESso2 equEnc. (continued) You may choose to open this question up to class discussion groups to discuss the questions and collaboratively write down as well, either at the end of this activity or at the beginning of answers after viewing each clip. Either way, it is important to the next one. give students some time to talk in small groups, and then to If students struggle with these concepts, have a class discus- have groups report out some of the main ideas they discussed - sion first to help surface the connections, and then have stu with the whole class. dents write. You can refer them back to specific examples in the Alternatively, if you have laptops and headphones and film to make these connections clear as needed. For example, internet, you might be able to jigsaw the video clips and have the girls from the clip about India can end up in a court system different groups of students focus in on one clip and then share that is controlled and run by men who have cultural beliefs that information with the other students. girls and women can be treated as property, and these same The main goal is to engage students in the stories of the girls are very poor and can not afford quality legal assistance. women by focusing them in on the specific problems and The culture of the society, the legal systems, and the economic solutions being discussed, and then having students categorize system are all factors in the problem, so they all need to be them as either socio-cultural, economic, or legal/political. addressed as part of the solution. Be sure to review each clip with the students by having differ- ent groups share their thinking about each question and then opening up the discussion to the class to see if others want to ASSESSMENT support, extend, or challenge the thinking of their classmates. provides an opportunity to assess student Exit Pass The understanding of some of the big issues tackled in this 7 REFLECTION lesson. This can be a formative assessment moment to look for patterns in students’ answers to see if the class met your After students have watched the clips and discussed the learning expectations, or you can turn the prompt into a more questions, they need to pull all of the pieces together and 6 formalized piece of writing in which students are expected to reflect on the big picture of all that they have learned about clearly present an argument that is supported with examples in gender-based violence. Have students write an Exit Pass from the reading and bonus clips. response to the reflection question below: What are the connections between social and cultural, economic, legal, and political solutions to gender-based violence? Why might we need to pull from these types of solutions? Explain how these different aspects of the problems discussed in the movie are connected.

47 HANDOUT 3A LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON THREE: WHAT IS GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE? Infographic analySis PART ONE Use the prompts below to analyze the map and article on gender-based violence from the United Nations. Who does it affect? What is it? Gender- Based Violence Where does it happen? Why is it a problem for everyone?

48 HANDOUT 3A-1 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON THREE: WHAT IS GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE? Infographic analysis PART TWO In the columns below, list the causes and effects of gender-based violence. EFFECTS CAUSES

49 HANDOUT 3B EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON THREE: WHAT IS GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE? Bonus Clips Analysis You will now watch three bonus feature clips from the movie . For each clip, take notes Little Stones in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper to answer the following questions. Bonus Clip: Sister Fa’s Hip-Hop to End European Female Genital Mutilation What is the problem discussed in this clip? What are the solutions discussed? LITTLE STONES https://vimeo.com/driftseed/sisterfa-euro-fgm Why does a tradition like female genital cutting continue among some families even after they leave their home countries and move to countries in Europe, or even to the United States? Are the solutions discussed more social and cultural, economic, or legal and political? How do you know? What practices and policies could be helpful in the United States to prevent and stop FGM? KEY CONCEPTS political – based on, legal – relating to sociocultural economic – relating to govern- – relating to the or relating to, the law the customs, lifestyles, and ment, policy, decision making, system by which goods and services are produced, sold, and the division of power in values that characterize a and bought a society society or group

50 HANDOUT 3B-2 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON THREE: WHAT IS GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE? (continued) Bonus Clips analySis Bonus Clip: Anna Taylor Learns Maasai Beading What is the problem discussed in this clip? What are the solutions discussed? LITTLE STONES https://vimeo.com/driftseed/annataylor-maasai Are the solutions discussed more social and cultural, economic, or legal and political? How do you know? What social problems make the economic problems discussed in the video even worse? Why are export markets so important to business women like Jane?

51 HANDOUT 3B-3 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON THREE: WHAT IS GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE? (continued) Bonus Clips analySis Bonus Clip: Sohini Chakraborty Uses Dance to Empower Victims in Court What is the problem discussed in this clip? Why would a girl who has escaped human trafficking rather return to the brothel than deal with the court system? LITTLE STONES https://vimeo.com/driftseed/sohini-court What are the problems with the legal process in India for women and girls who have been victimized? Why might their experience with the courts cause new problems? How is this legal problem also a sociocultural problem? Do you think issues in legal systems are unique to India? Why or why not?

52 HANDOUT 3B-4 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON THREE: WHAT IS GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE? Bonus Clips analySis (continued) Read the passage below and explain how it connects to the problems discussed in the video clip. by Jane E. Brody The Twice-Victimized of Sexual Assault “There is no other crime I can think of where the victim Experts on sexual assault and rape report that even today, is more victimized,” said Rebecca Campbell, a professor of despite improvements in early sex education and widespread psychology at Michigan State University who for 20 years has publicity about sexual assaults, the overwhelming majority of been studying what happens legally and medically to women both felony and misdemeanor cases never come to public or who are raped. “The victim is always on trial. Rape is treated legal attention. very differently than other felonies.” It is all too easy to see why. More often than not, women who bring charges of sexual assault are victims twice over, treated , December 12, 2011 The New York Times — by the legal system and sometimes by the news media as lying http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/13/health/the-twice-victimized-of-sexual-assault.html until proved truthful. What solutions are offered in this clip to help prepare girls for testifying in court? Are the solutions discussed more social and cultural, economic, or legal and political? How do you know? What can we do in the United States to insure justice for the survivors of gender-based violence?

53 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON FOUR CULTURE AND the roots of gender-based vIolenCe LEARNING OBJECTIVES Students will be able to cite examples of gender-based violence from four countries; identify similarities and differences between them; and develop and communicate independent conclusions about the relationship between culture and gender-based violence.

54 54 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON FOUR: THE ROOTS OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE O2 RVIEw In this lesson, students compare and contrast examples of gender-based violence across the globe. They will reflect on their learning through an art project that explores how culture can be used to change culture. QUESTIONS KEY CONCEPTS – the customary beliefs, practices, How is culture both part of the problem and solution culture with respect to gender-based violence? social organization, and material characteristics of a racial, religious, or social group Is gender-based violence culturally specific or a global – a social system in which power is held patriarchy epidemic? How do you know? by men, through cultural norms and customs that favor men and withhold opportunity from women gender-based violence – any harm perpetrated TAKEAWAYS against a person’s will that results from power Gender-based violence transcends specific cultures inequalities based on gender roles and religions and is a global epidemic. cultural relativism – the idea that all cultural beliefs are equally valid and that truth is relative, Culture has a role in shaping our understanding depending on the cultural environment of gender and gender-based violence. Universal Human Rights – the idea that each Culture has the power to condemn or justify gender-based human being is entitled to human rights by virtue violence, as to perpetuate it or challenge it. of being human, regardless of nation, location, lan- guage, religion, ethnic origin, or any other status structural violence – when social and economic structures or institutions harm people by limiting their rights and/or their ability to meet their basic needs – taking unfair advantage of labor exploitation unequal power relationships in the workplace – economic sector in which jobs formal sector have normal, scheduled hours, regular wages, and are officially recognized and taxed informal sector – economic sector in which jobs and/or work is not officially recognized as employ- ment; wages are often irregular and not taxed female genital mutilation – procedures that intentionally alter or cause injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons – the unjust and institutionalized discrimination discriminatory mistreatment of an individual or group of individuals by society and its institutions as a whole RESOURCES • Lesson handouts (4a, 4b, 4c, 4d) • Lesson Powerpoint

55 55 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON FOUR: THE ROOTS OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE tEacher preP Given the sensitive topics in this lesson, revisit the DURATION 2 – 3 class periods Content Advisory in the introduction to the toolkit. Variable, depending on what Preparation of students and staff, as well as commun- components you use ication with parents as appropriate, is advised. COMMON CORE CONNECTIONS As with other lessons, teachers can include a trigger warning at the ccss.ela-literacy.rh.11-12.1 beginning of this lesson in case there are students who have witnessed Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis or experienced gender-based violence and could potentially find the of primary and secondary sources, connecting activity stressful or upsetting. Students should also be informed of - insights gained from specific details to an under standing of the text as a whole. resources they can utilize if they need someone to talk to after the lesson, such as a school counselor or peer counseling organization. ccss.ela-literacy.rh.11-12.2 Determine the central ideas or information of a As needed, teachers should take a moment at the beginning of the primary or secondary source; provide an accurate activity to explicitly: summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas. the potentially sensitive topics and material in the lesson. Recognize HANDOUTS that this material may make students emotional, Acknowledge and express that they are justified in these emotions. 4a – Country readings (4) 4b – Country response sheets available school or local resources that students can utilize. List 4c – Group Analysis worksheet 4d – Group Reflection SUGGESTIONS Students will work in cooperative groups of three to four students, so it CONTACT US can be helpful to organize groups before the lesson in order to save time. Have questions or need help with this lesson? Write to us at: [email protected]

56 56 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON FOUR: THE ROOTS OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE LESso2 equEnc. GUIDED INQUIRY OPENING ACTIVITY Next, students will engage in a reading activity in which Gather students and re-introduce the topic of gender-based they first form into “expert groups,” with a few groups violence. Begin a short class discussion by first inviting 2 1 students to reflect on a photo (chosen from several options in assigned to focus on each country. In these groups, they will read and respond to an article about gender-based violence in the links under Step #5 below). Explain to the students that the image(s) is connected to the topic of gender-based violence, that nation. Then they will “jigsaw” into an analysis group to compare and synthesize information across the four articles. then ask them to study one or all of the images and respond in writing with the See-Think-Wonder visible thinking routine: Divide the class into groups of three to four students and Then What do you See? What do you Think? What do you Wonder? assign each group a country to focus on (Brazil, India, Kenya, or ask students to share their thinking and notes with a partner, Senegal). Try to evenly distribute the groups so that each nation also discussing how they think this picture relates to themes of is covered by roughly the same amount of groups and students. 4a response Country readings ) ( gender-based violence. Distribute the appropriate and 4b sheets Once students have had some time to talk, bring them back to each group. If possible, provide each student a ) ( together and ask different pairs to share their ideas. Explain to copy. Direct students to read the article in their groups and then discuss each question before writing down any answers. the students that they will be continuing to explore the issues of Move from group to group monitoring their work. Encour- Little Stones gender-based violence that were raised by the film in this lesson, focusing on a few different examples in the coun- age them to talk before they write. Keep your eyes open for any tries profiled in the movie. Explain that their goal is to be able groups struggling with the demands of the text. If you notice to answer the following driving questions: that students are struggling, you can have them ask another group for help, or you might choose to model a bit of thinking about the text with a Think-Aloud . If helpful, select a chunk of How is culture both part of the problem and Think-Aloud for the whole class to text to project and model a solution with respect to gender-based violence? help them better understand the thinking you are looking for as they read. Allow groups working on the same article to consult Is gender-based violence culturally specific or a with each other, but make sure they are not just copying. global epidemic? How do you know? INDEPENDENT PRACTICE Once all of the groups are confident in their understanding of their articles and have answered the response questions, 3 develop new groups with one member from each previous group, or one “expert” on each country. Pass out the Group 4c , one per group. Have each student pres- ( ) Analysis worksheet ent what they learned and found important about the cultural context in their given country to their new group, and then have Analysis worksheet them complete the Group as a team. To do so, each group will complete comparative analysis about the gender-based violence which exists in each country and the connections between each and all of the cases using the comparative graphic organizer provided. Have the stu - dents note at least two to three characteristics of gender-based violence in each country and then two to three similarities between all instances of gender-based violence in the center.

57 57 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON FOUR: THE ROOTS OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE (continued) LESso2 equEnc. REFLECTION When they have completed this, have a few groups share their thinking about the similarities, and invite other 4 To end this lesson, invite student groups to model the pos- groups to support, extend, or respectfully challenge their ideas. itive power of culture to transform gender-based violence 5 4d and direct Group Reflection handout ) Then, pass out the ( by having each group create a mural/poster/artwork inspired by the groups to study and discuss the statistics on the handout. either Dipti Kulkarni or Luba Lukova (see links below). The art Each group should answer the questions at the bottom of the can either bring awareness to a current issue of gender-based handout in their discussion. violence or challenge a traditional stereotype, issue or custom Next, ask each group to share their reactions to the statis- related to gender-based violence. tics and their thinking about the reflection questions. Again, As groups complete their individual sections, connect each encourage groups to respond to each other’s ideas as they individual piece into a “quilt” of the positive power of culture. also share their own. If there is interest, transition into a class Graphic Design Workshop after If you already completed the discussion about the trends the students see between all of the the film (p. 119) you can remind students of the basic design cultural contexts, using questions like the ones below: concepts they explored in that activity. If not, the resources for that activity can be pulled forward and used in this lesson with What patterns do you see in gender-based the prompt slightly modified. violence in the countries you learned about? https://www.lukova.net What differences did you see in the cultural http://www.diptiarts.net/my-gallery/woman-rights-and-empowerment practices between the countries? Is gender-based violence only a problem for ASSESSMENT some cultures? If so, what kinds? In the last five minutes of the class period, have students complete an , where each student is handed Exit Pass 6 Is culture powerful? If so, in what ways? a sticky note. On the sticky note, they will write individual responses to the question, What is the relationship between cul- How can culture be used as a positive force Use these responses as a way to ture and gender-based violence? and what would this look like in the world? gauge understanding of the concepts covered in the lesson.

58 HANDOUT 4A EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON FOUR: THE ROOTS OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE Brazil: abuse in Institutionalized Healthcare In your groups, read the article below and then discuss each question before writing your answers on the reponse sheets. Healthcare inequality KEY CONCEPTS is a form of institutional inequality – when the resources, opportu- social inequality that is present in situations where individuals lack equal nities, and rewards in a society are not distributed opportunities for quality healthcare or when people from evenly, and instead are distributed more to peo- ple who belong to groups with higher status and different groups do not have an equal opportunity to more power, often on the basis of characteristics receive quality care. Inequality within the institutional- like race, culture, and/or gender – how this unfairness is institutional inequality ized healthcare system is a large problem in Brazil, and created and expressed through institutions, like it reflects a culture of patriarchy within the society and a court systems, schooling, and organized religions. Institutional inequality thus reflects large patterns deep prejudice against women. It is a form of structural of unequal action. violence because it can directly harm the health and well- individual inequality – what happens at smaller being of women, and because it is primarily directed at scales, in interactions between individual people, such as when one person harrasses another and women, it is also an example of gender-based violence. denies them a safe working environment. structural violence – when social and economic While women make up two-thirds of public hospital service users in institutions harm people by limiting their rights Brazil, they are not well served and are often exploited within the health - and/or their ability to meet their basic needs care system. Though women are more dependent on the system than men, it is structured in a way that does not serve their needs. Brazil’s healthcare industry is composed of a public and private sector, or pieces References which are financed by the government, and pieces which are privately owned. The private sector generally has better care, but it is exclusive Parts of passage adapted from: because many individuals cannot afford it, especially women who are Diniz, S. G., D’oliveira, A. F., & Lansky, S. (2012, November). Equity more likely to earn less, particularly black women. Thus, lower-income and women’s health services for contraception, abortion and individuals are forced to use public care which operates under the , 20(40), 94-101. Reproductive Health Matters childbirth in Brazil. doi:10.1016/s0968-8080(12)40657-7 government, and also operates under the government’s legislation. Private clinics offer access to services like safe abortions to their wealthy Vellos, C. (2017). The current state of gender in Brazil. clients, even though abortion is illegal in most cases in Brazil. In this Retrieved from https://www.wilsoncenter.org/blog-post/ the-current-state-gender-brazil way, wealth allows citizens to ignore the law, even though it is supposed to apply to everyone, and the laws in question affect medical conditions unique to women. Many impoverished women in Brazil suffer from dan - gerous abortion procedures because of their inability to afford private care, and this is a significant factor in higher maternal death rates for poor women, again especially for black women. Much of the institutional gender-based violence within the health- care system focuses on issues of female health such as childbirth and the taboo issue of abortion, as already mentioned. Over half of Brazilian women experienced violence from healthcare providers while getting

59 HANDOUT 4A-2 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON FOUR: THE ROOTS OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE Brazil: abuse in (continued) Institutionalized Healthcare LITTLE STONES treatment for abortion complications, such as patients being denied Graffiti artist Panmela Castro fights for gender equality in information, doctors failing to get patient consent, neglecting patients, Brazil through her work. threatening patients, and verbal abuse. A quarter of Brazilian women experience violence during childbirth, such as verbal abuse, refusal of pain relief, and physical abuse. This violence not only infringes on human rights, but is deeply entrenched within the healthcare system, and creates huge inequalities in the quality of care received by male patients and the quality of care received by female patients. Brazil ranks 154th in the world with respect to the number of women in the legislative branch of government, so the laws affecting public healthcare are primarily being written by men. There is also a patri- archal culture in which women are seen as second-class citizens, and issues of health, particularly around reproduction, are seen as private issues over which men have primary authority.

60 HANDOUT 4B LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON FOUR: THE ROOTS OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE Brazil: response worksheet Once you have read the article and discussed these questions in your group, write your answers below. How is institutional inequality different than individual situations of inequality? What cultural norms allow this inequality to exist within the healthcare system in Brazil? What policies or changes could be made to eliminate healthcare inequalities in Brazil?

61 HANDOUT 4A-3 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON FOUR: THE ROOTS OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE INDia: women and labor exploitation In your groups, read the article below and then discuss each question before writing your answers on the reponse sheets. A significant form KEY CONCEPTS of structural violence confronting formal sector – economic sector in which jobs women in India takes place at the intersection of culture have normal, scheduled hours, regular wages, labor exploitation. and economics through what is called and are officially recognized and taxed – economic sector in which jobs informal sector Exploitation describes social relationships in which and/or work is not officially recognized as employ- someone, or some institution, unfairly takes advantage ment; wages are often irregular and not taxed of unequal power relationships with other people for References their own benefit. In other words, exploitation occurs Subhalakshmi, G. (2012, June 6). Impact of globalization on women when someone with more power benefits by taking workers in India. The International Models Project for Women’s . Retrieved from Rights (IMPOWR) http://www.impowr.org/journal/ advantage of and using someone with less power. In the impact-globalization-women-workers-india labor market, this occurs through workplace relation- Nagaraj, A. (2016, April 4). Women workers exploited in India’s high end shoe industry, say campaigners. Thomas Reuters Foundation. ships and the treatment of workers. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/us-india-women- labour-idUSKCN0X11ST Labor exploitation is a huge problem in India, particularly for women. Women garment factory workers in India face sexual, physical India, like many other nations, is a patriarchal society in which men abuse, new report says. (2016, June 24). . Retrieved from Reuters generally have more influence and power, and women are positioned as http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-06-25/abuse-rife-in-indias- garment-industry/7543498 having less value and power. This unequal relationship plays out in all aspects of Indian society, but it is especially damaging in the work sec- tor, both formal and informal. At the societal level, as women are treated as second-class citizens, so too are they treated this way at work. Many women have to work to support their families, yet they are still expected to raise the children and take care of their spouses and in-laws. Although globalization has brought more international companies to India and created more opportunities for employment, including higher wages and more chances for women to work and achieve independence, it has also contributed to workplace exploitation. There are almost 400 million workers in India; roughly one-third of these are women, yet 96% of women are in the informal work sector, working for example in agriculture, selling vegetables or crafts, cutting leather for handbags, or as domestic workers such as maids and home cooks. These women gen- erally receive low pay, no job security, little to no workplace protection, and no benefits beyond the low pay (Subhalakshmi, 2012) . Women in the informal sector are also at greater risk of dangerous work conditions; work-related stress, illness, and injury; and sexual harassment and rape. Poverty is widespread in India, so it is necessary for many women to work to support their families. Often, informal jobs are the only ones

62 HANDOUT 4A-4 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON FOUR: THE ROOTS OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE INdia: women and labor exploitation (continued) available to women, especially those with less education. In this infor- mal sector, women have to work when it is available, so they often work Little long hours, without regular schedules. For example, Mehraj from was paid only 25 rupees ($.39) once she cut 1000 leather pieces. Stones Informal workers are often fired without any notice and many times do not receive pay for work they have completed. Many women, like Mehraj, work in jobs where they get paid per piece or item produced, and this causes physical strain and mental stress as they constantly try to push themselves in order to earn a little more for their families. Work-related illnesses and injuries can cause job loss as well, and workers often have to pay for their own treatment. However, long hours and low wages are also a problem in the formal sector, with women (and many men) often working 12-hour days in indus- tries such as technology and manufacturing. The developing shoe industry in India provides an interesting case study for many of these prob- lems. In an article for the Reuters Foundation, Anuradha Nagaraj (2016) describes the struggles and challenges women face working in this industry. Nagaraj writes that, “The women, part of a global supply chain making high-end shoes, are paid less than $0.14 per pair of shoes, which are LITTLE STONES sold in Britain for between $60 and $140 . . . The work requires women to sit on the floor, crouched over shoes for long Senior Dance Movement Therapy Practitioner hours, repeatedly pulling a needle through tough leather. They suffer Mehraj Khatoon performs neck, back and shoulder pain, problems with eyesight and chronic at the Kolkata Sanved headaches, and injuries to their hands and fingers.” 10th Anniversary Celebration in 2014. A report on women working in garment factories describes an additional problem women face in the workplace: “One in every seven women working in the garment industry in the southern Indian city of Bengaluru have been raped or forced into a sexual act at work.” (Women . Sexual harassment and abuse, as well as garment factory workers..., 2016) physical abuse and punishment, are daily occurrences for many women workers, and poor regulation and law enforcement mean that these problems are seldom addressed. In order to improve women’s access to better working conditions and formalized employment, women and girls need improved access to - quality education. Organizations like the Self-Employed Women’s Asso ciation also play an important role by organizing women to collectively struggle for better jobs and protections, and also by providing economic and training support for women to run their own businesses.

63 HANDOUT 4B-2 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON FOUR: THE ROOTS OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE INDiA: response worksheet Once you have read the article and discussed these questions in your group, write your answers below. Why do you think the labor exploitation of women persists as a serious problem in India? How does the secondary status of women in society relate to labor exploitation? Laws and labor rules might not be enough to stop labor exploitation. What else do you think should be done to prevent it?

64 HANDOUT 4A-5 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON FOUR: THE ROOTS OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE Kenya: Economic and social Inequality In your groups, read the article below and then discuss each question before writing your answers on the reponse sheets. “Gender-based violence KEY CONCEPTS remains an area of significant – economic sector in which jobs formal sector - concern in Kenya. Historically, both women and chil have normal, scheduled hours, regular wages, dren have borne the brunt of cultural ideas and practices and are officially recognized and taxed informal sector – economic sector in which jobs that perpetuate sexual and gender-based violence. Such and/or work is not officially recognized as employ- situations affect women and girls in negative ways, and ment; wages are often irregular and not taxed impede their ability to contribute to the progress of the References country. About 45 percent of women between the ages Gender-Based Violence. (2017). USAID. Retrieved from of 15–49 have experienced physical or sexual violence. https://www.usaid.gov/kenya/gender-equality-and- womens-empowerment-kenya/gender-based-violence Many survivors have limited access to appropriate ser- Gender equity issues in Kenya. (2016). Foundation vices. For this reason and many others, incidences of Retrieved from for Sustainable Development. http://www.fsdinternational.org/country/kenya/weissues gender-based violence, against both men and women, remain under-reported.” (Gender Based Violence, 2017) “Throughout Kenya’s history, women have been subjugated to consistent rights abuses while shouldering an overwhelming amount of responsibilities. A prominent example of this relates to agricul- ture, which creates over 80 percent of Kenya’s jobs and 60 percent of household incomes. Currently, women in Kenya do the vast majority of agricultural work and market the majority of food. Yet, they earn only a fraction of the income generated and own a nominal percentage of assets. Only 29 percent of those working in the formal sector and earn- ing an official wage throughout the country are women, leaving a huge percentage of women to work in the informal sector without any federal support. The effect is severe with nearly 40 percent of households run solely by women, and, because of a lack of fair income, nearly all these homes suffer from poverty or extreme poverty. Women continue to be educated at an inferior rate to their counter- parts, increasing their reliance upon men. They are also limited from owning, acquiring, and controlling property throughout Kenya, regard - less of social class, religion, or ethnic group. If women attempt to assert property rights over men or in-laws, they are often ostracized by their families and communities. This practice of disinheritance seems to be on the rise, particularly in areas hit hard by poverty. Other grave women’s rights abuses continue to be practiced through - out the country. Examples include wife inheritance, widows ‘inherited’

65 HANDOUT 4A-6 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON FOUR: THE ROOTS OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE Kenya: economic and (continued) social Inequality LITTLE STONES by male relatives of the deceased husband; and ritual cleansing, the Anna Taylor looks at a skirt made by a requirement of sex with a man of low social standing to ‘cleanse’ a woman in training at the widow of her dead husband’s ‘evil spirits.’ These cultural practices James 127 Foundation’s maintain low self-esteem for women while ignoring the threat of HIV. tailor training program One out of every eight adults in rural Kenya and almost one out of every five adults in urban areas are infected with HIV. The infection rate in girls and young women is exponentially higher than in their male counterparts. Since women are predominantly infected by their hus- bands, they are essentially left to die when their land, home, and assets are taken from them by their husband’s family. The cultural norms - described here affect the majority of women in Kenya; yet the govern ment consistently fails to provide resources for the empowerment of women.” (Gender equity issues in Kenya, 2016)

66 HANDOUT 4B-3 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON FOUR: THE ROOTS OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE Kenya: response worksheet Once you have read the article and discussed these questions in your group, write your answers below. How have women traditionally been treated within Kenyan society? How does this treatment of women harm the entire nation of Kenya? What policies could be created to combat harmful cultural practices?

67 HANDOUT 4A-7 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON FOUR: THE ROOTS OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE Senegal: female genital mutIlation In your groups, read the article below and then discuss each question before writing your answers on the reponse sheets. “It is now widely acknowledged KEY CONCEPTS that female genital – procedures that female genital mutilation mutilation (FGM) functions as a self-enforcing social intentionally alter or cause injury to the female convention or social norm. In societies where it is prac- genital organs for non-medical reasons ticed it is a socially upheld behavioral rule. Families and How is FGM justified within individuals uphold the practice because they believe that the societies that practice it? their group or society expects them to do so. Abandon- – As a way to bring “cleanliness” to female genitalia ment of the practice requires a process of social change – Belief that FGM is proscribed by religion that results in new expectations on families.” – As a tool to preserve virginity before marriage – As a tool to improve marriage prospects Female genital mutilation is practiced across the globe. Though its and insure integration in society origins are not clear, the practice is a predecessor to modern religions, such as Islam, Christianity and Judaism, yet it is often practiced with reli- – As a tool to control and remove gious justification. Just over 25% of young women in Senegal are victims female sexual pleasure of FGM. “Although the Government has criminalized FGM, it is now likely to be done at a younger age and in secret.” (Hernlund and Shell-Duncan, 2007) Legislation against FGM seems to be ineffective as it is a deeply-rooted References cultural practice and is correlated with “traditional values, such as the Adapted from: 28 Country Profile: FGM in Senegal. (2015, June). respect for elders, which is a cornerstone of many traditional African Too Many. Retrieved from http://www.28toomany.org/media/file/ profile/CountryProfile_Senegal_2015_Compressed.pdf societies” (Country Profile..., 2015) . Thus, resistance to FGM or encouragement to abandon it, “can be seen as outsiders bringing a subtle form of cultural Fall. (1997). Women Living Under Islam Website: colonialism disguised as development. The state is seen to be corrupted Dossier 17: Cultures and Religions in Senegal. by the international community . This stance allows FGM to (O’Neill, 2012) Hernlund, Y. & Shell-Duncan, B. (2007). Contingency, Context, become a symbol of resistance and thus prevalence remains high” . (2015) and Change: Negotiating Female Genital Cutting in The Gambia However, female genital mutilation is a practice which greatly affects 53(4), 43-57. Africa Today and Senegal. the health of women. Normal body parts are removed, which can affect O’Neill, Sarah. 2012. Defying the law, negotiating change: urination, menstruation, intercourse, childbirth, mental health, sexual The Futanke’s opposition to the national ban on FGM in Senegal. health, and cause infection. Doctoral thesis, Goldsmiths, University of London. [Thesis]: Goldsmiths Research Online. The majority of Senegal’s population is Muslim, however it has been noted that within Senegalese culture, “on the surface people are adher- ents to Islam or Christianity, but their ancestral beliefs are lived daily and determine the behavior of people” . Thus, though some Muslims (Fall, 1997) have justified FGM, the biggest motivator of this practice is cultural tradi - tion, not actual religious doctrine. This is reflected within data collected by 28 Too Many, which notes that FGM is a much more common phe- nomenon in rural areas than urban. Conventionally, those living in rural areas are more steeped in traditional cultural beliefs, and experience less of the integration and standardization provided by urban life.

68 HANDOUT 4B-4 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON FOUR: THE ROOTS OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE Senegal: response worksheet Once you have read the article and discussed these questions in your group, write your answers below. What is the relationship between FGM and religion? What is the relationship between FGM and culture? How does FGM physically, mentally, and emotionally harm women? How might FGM harm the society as a whole?

69 HANDOUT 4A-8 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON FOUR: THE ROOTS OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE United States: a problem with many dImensions In your groups, read the article below and then discuss each question before writing your answers on the reponse sheets. Gender-based violence KEY CONCEPTS in the United States, as is – economic sector in which jobs formal sector everywhere, is a complex problem with many different have normal, scheduled hours, regular wages, dimensions. In the U.S. this violence takes many forms and are officially recognized and taxed – economic sector in which jobs informal sector and has affected millions of women; it is estimated, and/or work is not officially recognized as employ- for example, that over 17 million women have been ment; wages are often irregular and not taxed the victims of rape or attempted rape since 1998 References (Victims of sexual violence: Statistics, 2016) . Baker, K.J.M. (2016, June 3). Here is the powerful letter the . Retrieved from Stanford victim read aloud to her attacker. Buzzfeed Many believe that this problem persists in part because of the con- https://www.buzzfeed.com/katiejmbaker/heres-the-powerful- tinued presence of what is termed “rape culture.” Rape culture refers to letter-the-stanford-victim-read-to-her-ra?utm_term=.cgwV6Y84e#. a cultural environment that normalizes, tolerates, or minimizes sexual jyEmDGpkr assault and rape. This issue was covered widely in the media after an Cone, A. (2017, February 5). Report: Human trafficking in U.S. rose incident that has become known as the Stanford Rape Case. In 2015, UPI 35.7 percent in one year. . Retrieved from http://www.upi.com/ a college student at Stanford named Brock Turner met a woman at a Top_News/US/2017/02/05/Report-Human-trafficking-in-US-rose- 357-percent-in-one-year/5571486328579/ fraternity party. Turner was seen sexually assaulting the woman behind a dumpster by two passers-by who stopped him and detained him until Izadi, E. (2014, September 8). Nearly a third of U.S. women have the police arrived. The woman was unconscious at the time, having . Retrieved experienced domestic violence. The Washington Post https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/ from apparently passed out from drinking too much alcohol. Turner was wp/2014/09/08/nearly-a-third-of-u-s-women-have-experienced- arrested, but later given a very light sentence. The survivor of the assault domestic-violence/?utm_term=.d2246ce5e33a wrote a letter that was read in court and later distributed online. She Victims of sexual violence: Statistics. (2016) RAINN . Retrieved from wanted to address Turner’s lack of remorse and excuses and challenge https://www.rainn.org/statistics/victims-sexual-violence the attitude of the sentencing judge. Her letter is excerpted below: Unfortunately, after reading the defendant’s report, I am severely disap- pointed and feel that he has failed to exhibit sincere remorse or respon- sibility for his conduct. I fully respected his right to a trial, but even after twelve jurors unanimously convicted him guilty of three felonies, all he has admitted to doing is ingesting alcohol. Someone who cannot take full accountability for his actions does not deserve a mitigating sentence. It is deeply offensive that he would try and dilute rape with a suggestion of “promiscuity.” By definition, rape is the absence of promiscuity, rape is the absence of consent, and it perturbs me deeply that he can’t even see that distinction. The probation officer factored in that the defendant is youthful and has no prior convictions. In my opinion, he is old enough to know what he did was wrong. When you are eighteen in this country you can go to war. When you are nineteen, you are old enough to pay the consequences for

70 HANDOUT 4A-9 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON FOUR: THE ROOTS OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE United states: a problem with many dImensions (continued) attempting to rape someone. He is young, but old enough to know better. For More Information On the Stanford case, and on As this is a first offence I can see where leniency would beckon. On sexual assault in general the other hand, as a society, we cannot forgive everyone’s first sexual assault or digital rape. It doesn’t make sense. The seriousness of rape has https://www.theatlantic.com/news/archive/2016/06/ to be communicated clearly, we should not create a culture that suggests stanford-sexual-assault-letters/485837 we learn that rape is wrong through trial and error. The consequences http://www.cnn.com/2016/06/07/opinions/stanford- of sexual assault needs to be severe enough that people feel enough fear rape-case-letter-robbins/ to exercise good judgment even if they are drunk, severe enough to be http://www.nsvrc.org/sites/default/files/publications_nsvrc_fact- preventative. The probation officer weighed the fact that he has surren - sheet_media-packet_statistics-about-sexual-violence_0.pdf dered a hard earned swimming scholarship. How fast Brock swims does not lessen the severity of what happened to me, and should not lessen the On human trafficking in the U.S. severity of his punishment. If a first time offender from an underprivileged http://www.upi.com/Top_News/US/2017/02/05/Report-Human- background was accused of three felonies and displayed no accountability trafficking-in-US-rose-357-percent-in-one-year/5571486328579/ for his actions other than drinking, what would his sentence be? The fact http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/5-things-you-didnt- that Brock was an athlete at a private university should not be seen as know-about-human-trafficking-20140819 an entitlement to leniency, but as an opportunity to send a message that http://www.vanityfair.com/news/2011/05/sex-trafficking-201105 sexual assault is against the law regardless of social class. (Baker, 2016) This particular case brought to light the painful reality that many On the practice of FGM in the U.S. women face when they try to obtain justice after a sexual assault: in http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2017/04/genital-cutting- many cases our society still questions the behavior and values of women indian-doctor-women-khatna who are attacked. These attitudes, present even among judges and law http://www.npr.org/2017/04/24/525441611/writer-recalls- enforcement, complicate legal and policy solutions to the problem. undergoing-female-genital-mutilation-in-the-u-s Beside sexual assault, women in the U.S. are at significant risk of https://mobile.nytimes.com/2017/06/10/health/genital- what is called intimate partner violence, or domestic violence. Almost mutilation-muslim-dawoodi-bohramichigan-case.html one-third of all women in the U.S. have been physically abused by some- one close to them at some time in their life Rape and domes- (Izadi, 2014) . tic violence, however, are not the only forms of gender-based violence confronting the US. Gender-based violence in this nation also includes problems often associated with less economically-developed nations, including human trafficking and female genital mutilation. Trafficking in this context is “a form of modern-day slavery in which traffickers use force, fraud or coercion to control victims for the purpose of engaging in commercial sex acts or labor services against his/her will.” In 2016, reports of human trafficking in the U.S. increased by over 35% and involved over 7,500 cases, of which over 6,000 were female (Cone, 2017) . Female genital mutilation also occurs in diaspora communities orig- inating from countries where it is traditionally practiced. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated that in 2012 up to 500,000 girls in the U.S. either were subjected to FGM or at serious risk. A recent case in Michigan made national headlines when a doctor was arrested for allegedly performing the illegal procedures on two young girls. Clearly, the United States has work to do as well in the struggle to prevent and eliminate gender-based violence, in all its different forms.

71 HANDOUT 4B-5 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON FOUR: THE ROOTS OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE United States: response worksheet Once you have read the article and discussed these questions in your group, write your answers below. How are the different forms of gender-based violence in the United States related to each other? How does gender-based violence harm women on the individual level, and how does it harm our society in general? What can we change about our society and culture that will have a positive impact on all different types of gender-based violence?

72 HANDOUT 4C LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON FOUR: THE ROOTS OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE Group AnalySis worksheet PART THREE In your analysis group, take turns sharing the big ideas from your article, including the answers to your questions. As a group, identify two or three unique characteristics about gender-based violence in each nation and write those in the space below each country name. Then, in the middle space, identify and describe two or three common characteristics of gender-based violence across all of these nations. India Brazil GLOBAL Kenya Senegal United States

73 HANDOUT 4D EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON FOUR: THE ROOTS OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE Group Reflection PART FOUR Study and discuss the statistics below from the National Organization of Women.* As a group, discuss the following question and In 2005, 1,181 women in the United States were murdered by an be prepared to share your ideas with the class: intimate partner. That’s an average of three women every day. According to the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Is gender-based violence truly a women experience about 4.8 million intimate-partner-related physical global problem, or does it only happen assaults and rapes every year. Less than 20 percent of battered women in places with fewer resources? sought medical treatment following an injury. What evidence do you have to According to the National Crime Victimization Survey, which includes support your answer? crimes that were not reported to the police, 232,960 women in the U.S. were raped or sexually assaulted in 2006. That’s more than 600 women every day. Young women, low-income women and some minorities are dispropor- tionately victims of domestic violence and rape. Women ages 20-24 are at greatest risk of nonfatal domestic violence, and women age 24 and under suffer from the highest rates of rape. - The Justice Department estimates that one in five women will experi ence rape or attempted rape during their college years, and that less than five percent of these rapes will be reported. Income is also a factor: the poorer the household, the higher the rate of domestic violence—with women in the lowest income category experiencing more than six times the rate of nonfatal intimate-partner violence as compared to women in the highest income category. When we consider race, we see that African-American women face higher rates of domestic violence than white women, and American- Indian women are victimized at a rate more than double that of women of other races. * http://now.org/resource/violence-against-women-in-the-united-states-statistic

74 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON FIVE THE law Vs. gender-based vIolenCe LEARNING OBJECTIVE Students will be able to compare and contrast excerpts from domestic violence laws from different countries; they will be able to discuss aspects of each country’s culture that may contribute to gender-based violence and the difficulty of eradicating it.

75 75 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON FIVE: THE LAW VS. GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE O2 RVIEw In this lesson, students learn about specific laws in each country from the film. They explore how the power dynamics of a culture can make it extremely hard to enforce laws designed to stop gender-based violence. QUESTIONS KEY CONCEPTS legislation and enforcement – recognizing How can laws against different forms of gender-based violence be improved? differences between making the law and enforcing the law; there is a general assumption How do laws and legal systems reflect the that legislation results in effective enforcement, cultures in which they are developed? which is not always the case. patriarchy – a societal system in which men Why are laws only a part of the solution are the dominant gender in terms of power, to gender-based violence? and women do not receive the same social and political privileges as their male counterparts. What other types of solutions are needed? RESOURCES TAKEAWAYS • Lesson handouts (5a, 5b, 5c, 5d) Combinations of different economic, social, and political factors Additional Resources in any country have a significant impact on problems such as Taking on Violence Against Women article: gender-based violence. http://www.un.org/africarenewal/magazine/july-2007/ Many factors shape how legal changes related to gender-based taking-violence-against-women-africa violence are implemented and whether or not they are effective. Laws are established and enforced by people with social and cultural beliefs and practices, and these people are often men. Many laws related to gender-based violence have loopholes or gaps, and even good laws may not be enforced. Legal solutions must be complemented with cultural shifts that challenge patriarchal views on violence against women.

76 76 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON FIVE: THE LAW VS. GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE tEacher preP While this lesson deals less directly with violence and DURATION 1 – 2 class periods trauma, discussing issues of gender-based violence, Variable, depending upon if you use videos, in any way, can trigger very personal issues for some and how much time you allot for discussion participants. Preparation of students and staff, as well as communication with parents as appropriate, is advised. COMMON CORE CONNECTIONS ccss.ela-literacy.rh.11-12.1 As with other lessons, teachers can include a trigger warning at the Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, connecting beginning of this lesson in case there are students who have witnessed insights gained from specific details to an under - or experienced gender-based violence and could potentially find the standing of the text as a whole. activity stressful or upsetting. Students should also be informed of ccss.ela-literacy.rh.11-12.2 resources they can utilize if they need someone to talk to after the Determine the central ideas or information of a lesson, such as a school counselor or peer counseling organization. primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among As needed, teachers should take a moment at the beginning of the the key details and ideas. activity to explicitly: ccss.ela-literacy.rh.11-12.3 Evaluate various explanations for actions or events the potentially sensitive topics and material in the lesson. Recognize and determine which explanation best accords with textual evidence, acknowledging where the that this material may make students emotional, and Acknowledge text leaves matters uncertain. express that they are justified in these emotions. List available school or local resources that students can utilize. HANDOUTS 5a – Domestic Violence Laws reading guide 5b – The Law in Idaho practice exercise SUGGESTIONS 5c – Country readings (5) Students will do some work in cooperative groups, so it can be 5d – Group Law Analysis worksheet helpful to form those ahead of time. CONTACT US Have questions or need help with this lesson? Write to us at: [email protected]

77 77 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON FIVE: THE LAW VS. GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE LESso2 equEnc. INDEPENDENT PRACTICE OPENING ACTIVITY Stop and Jot Next, students will engage in a jigsaw reading activity Begin this lesson by asking students to (brief free write) in response to the following questions: in which they first form into “expert groups,” with a few 3 1 groups assigned to focus in on each country, as well as on the United States. In these groups, they will focus on one specific Why is it important to have laws that specifically country, reading and responding to an article about the laws make gender-based violence illegal? around domestic violence in that nation. Then they will “jigsaw” into analysis group to compare and synthesize information Why is it not enough to just pass these laws? What else needs to happen? across the five articles, comparing the laws across the nations. Divide the class into groups of three or four students and assign each group a country to focus on (Brazil, India, Kenya, After a minute or two, direct students to Turn and Talk with a Senegal, or the United States). Try to evenly distribute the partner to share their thinking. After another minute or two, groups so that each nation is covered by roughly the same call on several pairs and ask them to share their answers. amount of groups and students. Distribute the appropri- Have a brief discussion by asking other students to respond 5c to each group and make sure they ) ( Country readings ate to the ideas shared, and also by asking them to identify exam- understand that they now will again use the questions from the (for example, Little Stones ples of these issues from the film 5a reading guide ( . If possible, provide each student their own ) when Panmela Castro talks about a new domestic violence law copy of both the country reading and reading guide. in Brazil that many people were not aware of). Then explain to Direct students to read the article in their groups, and then the students that in this lesson they will explore these issues by discuss each question on the reading guide before writing analyzing some actual laws from the countries they have been down any answers (ideally on another sheet of paper). Move learning about. from group to group monitoring their work. Encourage them to talk before they write. Keep your eyes open for any groups strug - gling with the demands of the text. If you notice that students GUIDED INQUIRY are struggling, you can have them ask another group for help, To get students ready for group work, they will analyze a or you might choose to model a bit of thinking about the text domestic violence law from Idaho as a whole class. (The 2 Think-Aloud with a . If helpful, select a chunk of text to project Idaho example is more limited than many other states and thus for the whole class to help them better and model a Think-Aloud Domestic serves as an effective practice model). Pass out the understand the thinking you are looking for as they read. Allow 5a ( ) and The Law in Idaho reading guide Violence Laws practice student groups working on the same article to consult with 5b ) exercise ( . Explain to the students that they should not write each other, but make sure they are not just copying. on the reading guide, but instead will use the questions there first with a classroom discussion. - Once all of the groups are confident in their understand Direct their attention to the law excerpt and statistics on ing of the material in their article and have answered the 4 5b . Have students help you practice ( The Law in Idaho ) exercise response questions, develop new groups with one member read the law and information out loud. Then read the first two from each previous group, or one “expert” on each country. questions from the reading guide out loud, and begin answer- These groups will have four or five students (at least one group ing them yourself as a , then ask students to help Think-Aloud might not have members for all countries). Pass out the Group you answer the remaining questions out loud. If nobody speaks 5d Law Analysis worksheet ( ) , one per group. Have each student first for 30 seconds about up, direct students to Turn and Talk present what they learned and found important about the laws the next question, and then ask different people to share their and legal system in their given country to their new group, and thoughts. This is meant to be a practice exercise and can be car- then have them complete the graphic organizer on the Group ried out verbally in order to model the type of thinking students Law Analysis worksheet as a team. should do as they read.

78 78 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON FIVE: THE LAW VS. GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE (continued) LESso2 equEnc. REFLECTION When they have completed this, ask each group to summa- rize their responses to the reflection questions about the 5 in Turn and Talk To close out this lesson, have students laws and legal systems. Ask each group to respond to a different response to the following question: How do you think high 6 question so that there is not too much overlap. The following school students can promote social and legal change and spread questions can be used to generate additional discussion to awareness on issues such as domestic violence? Then, have process the information they have been given. them share out with the class, explaining that everyone is part of the solution when a problem is so important and widespread. What are the most significant problems with these domestic violence laws and what are some ASSESSMENT ways that they can be improved? To assess their understanding of key points from the Exit Pass lesson have them complete an addressing the 7 What are some of the social and cultural factors following questions: contributing to domestic violence issues in Brazil, India, Senegal, Kenya, and the United States? What are two (or more) things that you learned during this activity? What makes a good law? Why are well written laws only part of the solution What are some of the biggest challenges of for problems like domestic violence? ensuring that a new law is effective? How does the information in this lesson connect to the stories in the film?

79 HANDOUT 5A LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON FIVE: THE LAW VS. GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE DomesTic VIolence LAWS Reading Guide In your assigned “expert” group, read the information about the law for the nation you are assigned. Discuss the questions below as a group and use a separate sheet of paper to jot down the answers. You will have to explain these answers to a new group, so make sure you understand them as a team! Is there a clear, specific definition of domestic violence in this law? Is this definition easy to understand? Why or why not? 1. 2. Does the definition extend beyond married, heterosexual couples (man and woman)? 3. As best you can tell, who is included in this law? 4. Can you think of anyone, or any situations, that should be included in this law but that seem to be left out? 5. Is the definition of domestic violence limited to physical violence? If not, what else is included? 6. Are these violations of this law? a. A woman lives with her brother. Her brother keeps all of the money she earns and won’t let her leave the house without him. b. A husband hits his wife in the face and then apologizes. She is bruised, but not severely injured. c. A man threatens to kill his girlfriend’s children if she leaves him. d. A man beats his elderly father. e. A woman threatens to kill her girlfriend’s dog if she leaves her. 7. How do you think this law can be improved? 8. Based on the additional information provided, what problems are there (if any) with the way that this law is being used to address gender-based violence?

80 HANDOUT 5B LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON FIVE: THE LAW VS. GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE The law in Idaho a practice exercise DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN IDAHO** IDAHO STATE LAW In 2012, less than 2% of physical intimate- “Domestic violence” means the physical injury, sexual partner violence incidents in Idaho were reported to law enforcement. 0% of intimate- abuse or forced imprisonment or threat thereof of a partner sexual abuse was reported. family or household member, or of a minor child by a In 2012, the estimated domestic violence rate person with whom the minor child has had or is having in Idaho was 19 victims/survivors per 1000 people, totaling approximately 30,000 domestic a dating relationship, or of an adult by a person with violence individual victims/survivors. whom the adult has had or is having a dating relation- 35,270 domestic violence incidents were ship. “Family member” means spouses, former spouses reported to Idaho law enforcement between 2007 and 2012, almost one third of violent and persons related by blood, adoption, or marriage. crime reported statewide. “Household member” means persons who reside or Although an arrest was more likely in a have resided together, and persons who have a child in domestic violence situation than in other violent situations, violence against an intimate common regardless of whether they have been married partner was less likely to be charged in court or have lived together at any time.* than other violent crimes. Idaho courts dismissed 37% of misdemeanor domestic violence charges and almost 31% of felony domestic violence charges. Between 2003 and 2012, 69% of domestic violence homicides were committed with firearms. http://www.ncjfcj.org/sites/default/files/chart-dv-state-definitions.pdf * https://www.ncadv.org/files/Idaho.pdf **

81 HANDOUT 5C-1 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON FIVE: THE LAW VS. GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE The law in Brazil GLOSSARY MARIA DA PENHA LAW (2006) – neglect of a legal obligation omission For the effect of this Law, domestic and family violence – an act that causes financial patrimonial damage against women is defined as any action or omission loss to one’s spouse, whether it is from physical damage (to one’s property, for example) or mone- based on gender that causes the woman’s death, injury, tary loss directly resulting from the act. physical, sexual or psychological suffering and moral or – refers to partners who sporadically aggregated may or may not be married/live together but are patrimonial damage: still in a partnership – the act of living together and being cohabitation I. in the scope of the domestic unit, understood as the in a relationship without marriage. permanent space shared by people, with or without family ties, including people sporadically aggregated; BACKGROUND In 1983, Maria da Penha Fernandes was shot by her husband while she was sleeping. II. in the scope of the family, understood as the The incident left the lower half of her body community formed by individuals that are or consider paralyzed for life, and two weeks after returning from the hospital, her husband attempted to themselves related, joined by natural ties, by affinity electrocute her. or by express will; Despite getting the court involved, her case was not taken seriously and her husband did not go III. in any intimate relationship of affection, in which to jail. the aggressor lives or has lived with the abused Before the Maria da Penha law was passed in 2006, domestic violence was not considered a woman, regardless of cohabitation.* serious crime. Although the passing of the law marked signif- icant progress on the part of the Brazilian gov - ernment, very few people knew about the law. In 2013, the rate of female homicide in Brazil was the highest compared to other countries. *from Title II, Article 1, Chapter 1

82 HANDOUT 5C-2 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON FIVE: THE LAW VS. GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE The law in INDiA PROTECTION OF WOMEN FROM DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ACT (2005) BACKGROUND The Protection of Women Against Domestic Definition of domestic violence. For the purposes of this Violence Act was implemented in 2005 as the - result of women’s rights and legal groups lob Act, any act, omission or commission or conduct of the bying for decades. respondent shall constitute domestic violence in case it Police enforcement is one of the major issues hindering progress—despite having a new law (a) harms or injures or dangers the health, safety, life, against domestic violence, the police do not limb or well-being, whether mental or physical, of the always comply and are often not well-trained. aggrieved person or tends to do so and includes caus- Patriarchal views that women are subject to the authority of spouses, brothers, and fathers ing physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal or emotional are still common and often make it difficult to abuse and economic abuse; or bring cases to justice even when reported. When the Act was first implemented, only (b) harasses, harms, injures or endangers the aggrieved males could be prosecuted. But in 2016, the law person with a view to coerce her or any other person was changed to include women as potential perpetrators of domestic violence as well. related to her to meet any unlawful demand for any Statistical studies on domestic violence have dowry or other property or valuable security; or limitations, particularly in developing coun- tries—gender-based violence is deeply rooted (c) has the effect of threatening the aggrieved person in India’s culture and is still considered socially or any person related to her by any conduct mentioned acceptable by many people. in clause (a) or clause (b); or (d) otherwise injures or causes harm, whether physical or mental, to the aggrieved person.* *from Chapter II

83 HANDOUT 5C-3 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON FIVE: THE LAW VS. GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE The law in Kenya THE PROTECTION AGAINST DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ACT (2015) GLOSSARY female genital mutilation – cutting/removal In this Act, “violence” means: of some or all of a female’s genitalia. The practice stems from beliefs surrounding sexual (a) abuse that includes purity and modesty, and it is considered a rite (i) child marriage; of passage for girls. (ii) female genital mutilation; wife inheritance – a practice in which a widow is forced to marry the brother/male relative (iii) forced marriage; of her late husband (iv) forced wife inheritance; – a practice in which a widow cleansing widow is required to have sex with the brother (v) interference from in-laws; or male relative of her late husband, or with (vi) sexual violence within marriage; a “village cleanser” (vii) virginity testing; and defilement – non-consensual sex; rape (viii) widow cleansing; BACKGROUND (b) damage to property; The recently passed Protection Against (c) defilement; Domestic Violence Bill provides clear and specific definitions for situations in which (d) depriving the applicant of or hindering the applicant domestic violence can occur. from access to or a reasonable share of the facilities It also recognizes both actions and behavior associated with the applicant’s place of residence; patterns that are considered abusive, and is inclusive of all types of relationships, not just (f) emotional or psychological abuse; marriage (for example, co-parenting, family (g) forcible entry into the applicant’s residence where relationships, and cohabitation. the parties do not share the same residence; The Bill allows domestic violence victims to request a police officer of the same gender (h) harassment; when reporting the crime. (i) incest; According to the Bill, victims of domestic (j) intimidation; violence are entitled to protection, but many are concerned that women are not receiving (k) physical abuse the services that the bill promises. (l) sexual abuse Many survivors of domestic violence are (m) stalking; still afraid to speak out, and there is a lack of support services for those who do. (n) verbal abuse; or (o) any other conduct against a person, where such conduct harms or may cause imminent harm to the safety, health, or well-being of the person.

84 HANDOUT 5C-4 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON FIVE: THE LAW VS. GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE The law in Senegal ACT PENAL CODE – AMENDMENT (1999) BACKGROUND The Act Penal Code was amended in 1999. Any person who deliberately injures, hits or otherwise The law allows the use of a woman’s sexual attacks or assaults his or her spouse shall be liable to one history to defend her rapist. to five years’ imprisonment and a fine of between 50,000 Although women are protected against rape, and 500,000 CFA francs if such violence results in infirmity the definition excludes spousal rape. or incapacity to work for a period exceeding 20 days. Prosecutions for rape are usually minimal due to insufficient evidence that the rape occurred, particularly in the case of rape within a family. If the injury, blow or other act of violence or abuse does Rape cases are often settled outside the court not lead to infirmity or incapacity to work for the period to avoid the negative consequences of publicity specified in the preceding paragraph, the offender and the costs associated with prosecution. shall be liable to the penalties set forth in article 294, In 2009, the Ministry of Justice estimated that 47 percent of individuals accused of rape paragraph 2 . . . If the various acts of violence lead to are released without going to trial. Though there were 400 documented incidents of rape mutilation, amputation or loss of use of a limb, blindness and sexual abuse in that year, approximately or loss of an eye, or any other permanent disability, the 60 percent of those accused of rape or incest did not suffer any legal consequences due to penalty shall be ten to twenty years’ hard labour. familial connections to the complainant. If the blows or recurring acts of violence lead to the death of the victim, the perpetrators shall be prosecuted for murder.”* *from Article 297

85 HANDOUT 5C-5 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON FIVE: THE LAW VS. GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE The law in the U.S. VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN ACT (1994, REAUTHORIZED IN 2013) BACKGROUND The Violence Against Women Act (1994) The term “domestic violence” includes felony or encouraged states to implement mandatory arrest policies—if the police have enough misdemeanor crimes of violence committed by a reason to believe that domestic violence has current or former spouse or intimate partner of the taken place, they are required to arrest the alleged abuser on the spot. victim, by a person with whom the victim shares a child However, many are critical of this policy in common, by a person who is cohabitating with or has because it may discourage victims from report- cohabitated with the victim as a spouse or intimate ing in fear that their partner will immediately be arrested and put into jail. If their partner partner, by a person similarly situated to a spouse of is the primary earner of the family, this may the victim under the domestic or family violence laws create financial hardships. of the jurisdiction receiving grant monies, or by any Many believe that the law does not adequately address the causes of domestic violence, and other person against an adult or youth victim who is focuses too much on law enforcement. protected from that person’s acts under the domestic Domestic violence cases are handled differently or family violence laws of the jurisdiction.”* depending on the state (each has its own set of laws), and even the particular police station. Because domestic violence is often difficult to prove, there is a lot of wiggle room in terms of how law enforcement can choose to handle these situations. On average, nearly 20 people per minute are physically abused by an intimate partner in the United States. During one year, this equates to more than 10 million women and men. domestic violence laws vary from state to state , *The Violence Against Women Act does not explicitly define domestic violence, as but the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting Handbook defines domestic violence as described above. http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/administrative/domestic_violence1/Charts/2016%20CPO%20Availability%20Chart.authcheckdam.pdf

86 HANDOUT 5D EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON FIVE: THE LAW VS. GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE Group law analysis As a team, complete the table below based on the reports from your classmates. Nation Limitations of the Law? Suggested Improvements What do you think about this law? Brazil India Kenya Senegal United States Which law needs the most improvement? Why do you think this? Which law do you think is the best? Why? What problem do all of these nations share as they try to combat domestic violence?

87 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON SIX HOW DOES MonEY lead to gender-ba$ed vIOlEnce? LEARNING OBJECTIVE Students will be able to generate and communicate evidence-based conclusions about the economic and structural aspects of gender-based violence.

88 88 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON SIX: HOW DOES MONEY LEAD TO GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE? O2 RVIEw In this lesson, students will read a short text on economics and gender-based violence. They will also watch one of the film’s bonus clips, analyze economic data, and complete a writing task about structural violence. QUESTIONS KEY CONCEPTS microeconomics – the study of the economic How is gender-based violence both an individual and a structural, systemic problem? decisions and actions of individual people, companies, etc. How are economic decisions and systems connected to gender-based violence? macroeconomics – a study of economics in terms of whole systems especially with reference to What is structural violence? general levels of output and income and to the interrelations among sectors of the economy – when social and economic structural violence TAKEAWAYS structures or institutions harm people by Gender-based violence has both individual and systemic causes and limiting their rights and/or their ability to meet effects. Perpetrators use violence to try and control others, and the their basic needs survivors of violence face a wide range of effects. Women generally have less economic independence than men, and RESOURCES can find it difficult to leave violent situations when they have limited resources. In addition, women are more vulnerable to the violence of Bonus video clip on Jane Naisimoi called • poverty: sickness, hunger, and homelessness. “The Importance of Export Markets” https://vimeo.com/194291717 Structural violence refers to the systems and social arrangements Lesson handout (6a) • in a society that cause harm to others. Gender-based violence is one example of structural violence as it is often tied to unequal power and opportunities between men and women.

89 89 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON SIX: HOW DOES MONEY LEAD TO GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE? tEacher preP While this lesson deals less directly with violence and DURATION 1 – 2 class periods trauma, discussing issues of gender-based violence, Variable, depending upon if you use videos, in any way, can trigger very personal issues for some and how much time you allot for discussion participants. Preparation of students and staff, as well as communication with parents as appropriate, is advised. COMMON CORE CONNECTIONS ccss.ela-literacy.rh.11-12.7 As with other lessons, teachers can include a trigger warning at the Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats beginning of this lesson in case there are students who have witnessed and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well or experienced gender-based violence and could potentially find the as in words) in order to address a question activity stressful or upsetting. Students should also be informed of or solve a problem. resources they can utilize if they need someone to talk to after the Integrate information from diverse sources, both primary and secondary, into a coherent lesson, such as a school counselor or peer counseling organization. understanding of an idea or event, noting As needed, teachers should take a moment at the beginning of the discrepancies among sources. activity to explicitly: HANDOUTS Recognize the potentially sensitive topics and material in the lesson. 6a – Economics and Gender-Based Violence that this material may make students emotional, and Acknowledge express that they are justified in these emotions. CONTACT US available school or local resources that students can utilize. List Have questions or need help with this lesson? Write to us at: [email protected] SUGGESTIONS Students will do some work in cooperative groups, so it can be helpful to form those ahead of time. If internet access is an issue, you can do much of this lesson without watching the bonus clip.

90 90 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON SIX: HOW DOES MONEY LEAD TO GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE? LESso2 equEnc. INDEPENDENT PRACTICE OPENING ACTIVITY After modeling the first paragraph, direct the students to Begin the lesson by posing the following question to Turn and Talk about it for work on the other sections of the article. You might allow students and then having them 3 1 no more than one minute: them to work with a partner if it is helpful. Monitor their progress, and when they have completed the reading and taken notes, ask several different students to share their thinking. How are your personal choices every day limited Visible Thinking Routines Use probing questions and to elicit by the amount of resources you have? thinking and explanations (“Say more,” “What makes you say that?" etc). If students struggle with the question, pose it in a different Then have students in small groups to respond to questions way, for example by asking them what they want to do, but can’t in Part Two. If time is short, you might choose to work through because they don’t have the necessary resources. these as a class. Again, monitor their progress, and when most After students have talked, ask a few to share their ideas. have them are done bring the class back together and have dif- Then explain to the students that our individual economic deci- ferent students who have not yet spoken up share their thinking sions, about how we use our own resources, are often shaped about their responses. The overall goal is to get students think- by larger forces in society. Explain that microeconomics is the ing and talking about economic structures and gender-based study of these smaller economic decisions, and that macroeco- violence, and less about them getting every question “correct.” nomics is the study of the larger economic forces that shape our lives, at the national and global levels. Tell the students that gender-based violence is a problem that is impacted by factors REFLECTION at both levels, and that in this lesson, they will consider these Visible To close the lesson out, have students use the issues as they read and watch a short a video. Thinking Routine Stop , “I used to think, but now I think” to 4 and Jot about the economics of gender-based violence. Ask them to write a short reflection that explains how their thinking GUIDED INQUIRY about the topic has changed. Pass out the handout for this lesson, Economics and 6a ) ( Gender-Based Violence . Explain to students that they ASSESSMENT 2 will be using a format for this reading. They Text in the Middle At the end of the lesson is an optional writing prompt you should read each paragraph, then pause to reflect. In the left- can use to assess student understanding with an explana- 5 hand column, they should jot down the big idea of the para- tory paragraph. Students are to use examples from the movie to graph, and in the right-hand column, they should write down explain the concept of structural violence. If you want to extend any questions they have or connect the ideas in the text to the this writing into a more formal assessment, you can use the stories from the movie. explanatory writing rubric from Smarter Balanced for writing To help the students you might model the first paragraph guidlines for a more extended piece: out loud or jot down ideas on your board. You can summarize https://commoncore.tcoe.org/content/public/doc/ the first paragraph by telling the students that you think it is Smarter_Balanced_6-11_Inf_Exp_Writing_Rubric.pdf saying that sometimes women have economic needs that influ - ence their relationships with a boyfriend or husband. You could then say that this reminds you of the experience of Panmela from the movie, noting that Panmela was only able to leave her boyfriend because she had a safe place to go. You could raise the question of what would have happened to her if she had not been able to leave.

91 HANDOUT 6A LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON SIX: HOW DOES MONEY LEAD TO GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE? EConomics & gENDER-BASED VIOLENCE PART ONE The article below is about the economics of domestic violence in South Africa. As you read it, think about whether the problems Little Stones. described are unique to that nation. Also, as you read, look for connections to the stories in Questions Big Ideas The Economics of Domestic Violence* by Lisa Vetten or Connections Raise a question Women typically earn less than men, experience greater Summarize each paragraph: or connect an idea rates of unemployment, are concentrated in the lowest- in each paragraph to the film: paying sectors of the job market and over-represented amongst the poor of South African society. As a result, finding a man and then sticking to him, is often as much a matter of economic necessity as it is a romantic choice. Relationships where one partner is economically dependent upon the other can be unequal, perhaps granting one person greater author- ity over the other in terms of household and financial decision-making. Such situations often lead to domestic violence. Economic dependence upon a man may also limit the options available to abused women. Lay- ing criminal charges which lead to the man’s imprisonment may result in the loss of his earnings, imposing serious economic hardships. Leaving is no simple option either. For poor women, divorce or end- ing of the relationship may represent the difference between scraping by or destitution. Divorce or separation may still result in economic difficulties even for women in less precarious situations. US research found that divorce typically lowered a woman’s standard of living by an average of 73% while typically raising a man’s by an average of 42% (unfortunately no comparable data is available for South Africa). Preventing and dealing with domestic violence is very much a mat- ter of economics. While improved policing and effective prosecution of cases is important, so is attention to patterns of employment or pay differentials between men and women. The economics of domes- tic violence demand that we address economic disparities between women and men and challenge the state to provide far more financial assistance to women than it currently does. *In “Reconstruct,” The Sunday Independent , 12 March 2000. © Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation http://www.csvr.org.za/index.php/media-articles/latest-csvr-in-the-media/2173-the-economicsof-domestic-violence.html

92 HANDOUT 6A-1 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON SIX: HOW DOES MONEY LEAD TO GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE? EConomics & (continued) GENDER-bASED VIOLENCE PART TWO and discuss your responses to the questions below. Bonus Clip: Anna Taylor Learns Maasai Beading In small groups, watch Micro-economics refers to the study of economic decisions at Which of the following statements do you think best aligns with the point of view of the smaller scales, including how individuals make choices about author of the article excerpted in Part One? how to obtain, use, and distribute scarce resources. In the table below, describe the experience of Jane Naisimoi. Helping women to become more economically a. independent can help reduce domestic violence and What factors at each level limited the choices that Jane could make and made things more other forms of gender-based violence. difficult for her? Gender-based violence exists in all countries, rich and b. What factors at each level improved the options poor, so economics has nothing to do with the problem. that Jane had and made things better for her? The only way to reduce domestic violence is to pass c. strong laws against it and then strictly enforce these laws. – global and national Macroeconomics Explain your choice. What statements in the article support your thinking? Microeconomics – individual decisions LITTLE STONES https://vimeo.com/driftseed/annataylor-maasai Watch the Bonus Clip that tells the story of Jane Naisimoi. It’s called “Anna Taylor Learns Maaasai Beading.” Does Jane’s experience support, extend, or challenge the statement you selected for the article in Part One? Explain your thinking.

93 HANDOUT 6A-2 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON SIX: HOW DOES MONEY LEAD TO GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE? EConomics & (continued) GENDER-bASED VIOLENCE Little Stones Think back to the other women profiled in and Some of the young women that work with Sohini were able to consider the economic aspects of their stories. Panmela Castro support their own families and help fight human trafficking was living with an abusive man, but she was able to leave him because they had employment. Now, study the statistics in the in part because she had family members who supported her. table below and then answer the questions.* Kenya United States India Brazil Estimated gross national income per 2,255 2,116 11,394 43,054 capita, female (2011 Purchasing Power Parity $) Estimated gross national income per 63,158 19,084 8,656 3,270 capita, male (2011 PPP $) Labor force participation rate, female 56.3 62.2 27.0 % 59.4 (% ages 15 and older) Labor force participation rate, male 68.9 % 80.8 79.9 72.4 (% ages 15 and older) *Data for Senegal were not available. What do you notice? Do women make the same amounts of money as men, and do they work as much? with a partner about how this might Turn and Talk connect to gender-based violence. OPTIONAL WRITING PROMPT harm to people, or make them more vulnerable to harm, injury, In the film Little Stones , Jeni Klugman, who is a senior advisor to and sickness, so that makes them violent . What examples of the World Bank, talks about the concept of structural violence. structural violence from the movie can you tie to economic Structural violence can be thought of as systems and social systems? Think about the experiences of people like Judith arrangements in a society that do harm to people. These systems (the woman from Kenya working with Anna Taylor). Write and arrangements are embedded in political, cultural, and eco- a paragraph, using examples from the film, to explain how one nomic structures (such as courts systems, religious institutions, story from the movie is an example of structural violence. structural . They do business ownership) and that makes them

94 94 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON SEVEN POPULAR MUSIC AND THE OBJECTIFICATiON OF WOMEN LEARNING OBJECTIVE Students will be able to analyze the types of objectification present in song lyrics and music videos and critique the portrayal of women in samples of popular music.

95 95 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON SEVEN: POPULAR MUSIC AND THE OBJECTIFICATION OF WOMEN OVERVIEw In this lesson, students learn about the concept of objectification, analyze the objectification of women in popular music, and explore the ways that popular music can challenge objectification and empower women. KEY CONCEPTS QUESTIONS can be roughly defined as Objectification How does the objectification of women contribute to gender-based violence? seeing and/or treating a person (usually a woman) as an object. In this lesson, the focus How does this objectification happen through music is primarily on sexual objectification. and music videos, and how can these art forms be used to challenge it? Types of Objectification instrumentality – treating a person as a tool to be used by the objectifier SUPPORTING QUESTIONS denial of autonomy – taking away the self-determination of a person What is objectification and how does it happen? fungibility – treating a person as if they are Who “does” the objectification and who is objectified? interchangeable with other objects Are there different types of objectification? violability – not recognizing any personal boundaries of someone What impact does music have on society? – treating someone like they are ownership What is the central focus of contemporary popular music? How does the property of another that focus impact the perceptions and priorities of a culture? reduction to body – treating or viewing a person What is the role/responsibility of music in contributing to as if they are just a body, or body parts objectification and gender-based violence? What of consumers? – only recognizing or reduction to appearance What can one do to fight harmful messages of unavoidably valuing a person for their appearance ubiquitous media, especially concerning messages of objectification – taking away or ignoring a person’s silencing and gender-based violence in music? capacity to speak TAKEAWAYS RESOURCES • The objectification of women in popular music, through devices Computers or other devices with internet and video playback capabilities such as silencing, denial of subjectivity, and ownership, have the Headphones (optional, but helpful) • potential to legitimize the abuse of the person being objectified. Lesson handouts (7a, 7b, 7c, 7d) Because objectivity removes the human factor, it is easier to treat • a person being objectified as a dispensable thing, which makes Additional Resources violence against that person permissible. Kristin Lieb: “Pop culture is teaching the wrong Music is one of the most common avenues of cultural expression. ‘lessons’ about gender & sexuality” Through song are passed values, perceptions, and stereotypes that tedx talk: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OUN019leZUA impact the worldview of media consumers and society at large. Themes of objectification and violence against women are common – a documentary on Killing Us Softly in contemporary popular music, across genres. The content of these objectification in advertising by Jean Kilbourn songs legitimizes the abuse of women, and leads to the perpetuation http://documentarylovers.com/film/killing-us- full film: softly-4-advertising-women/ of harmful cultural norms. trailer: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PTlmho_RovY One way to contradict these harmful cultural norms is through repurposing, and reclaiming media.

96 96 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON SEVEN: POPULAR MUSIC AND THE OBJECTIFICATION OF WOMEN tEacher preP DURATION While this lesson deals less directly with violence and 1 – 2 class periods trauma, discussing issues of gender-based violence, Variable, depending upon if you use videos, in any way, can trigger very personal issues for some and how much time you allot for discussion participants. Preparation of students and staff, as well as communication with parents as appropriate, is advised. COMMON CORE CONNECTIONS As with other lessons, teachers can include a trigger warning at the ccss.ela-literacy.whst.11-12.7 beginning of this lesson in case there are students who have witnessed Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question or experienced gender-based violence and could potentially find the (including a self-generated question) or solve a activity stressful or upsetting. Students should also be informed of problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when resources they can utilize if they need someone to talk to after the appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understand- lesson, such as a school counselor or peer counseling organization. ing of the subject under investigation. As needed, teachers should take a moment at the beginning of the activity to explicitly: HANDOUTS Recognize the potentially sensitive topics and material in the lesson. 7a – Analyzing Lyrics Acknowledge that this material may make students emotional, and 7b – The Power of Parody express that they are justified in these emotions. 7c – Changing the Conversation List available school or local resources that students can utilize. 7d – Analyzing Music Videos CONTACT US SUGGESTIONS Have questions or need help with this lesson? Students will do some work in cooperative groups, so it can be Write to us at: [email protected] helpful to form those ahead of time. Preview the videos linked below to make sure you are comfortable showing them in your classroom. All people are fully clothed (though clothing is minimal in some of the videos). You may also choose to not have students select songs of their own choosing, or you may prefer to set some guidelines (e.g. clean, radio versions only). You are encouraged, however, to find ways to really engage students in the analysis of the music they actually listen to! Some of the lyrics are sexually explicit, so also preview them to make sure you are comfortable using them. Almost all students are inundated with these types of lyrics, so it is important to help them analyze them more critically! If internet access is an issue, or if you are concerned about the videos, you can do much of this lesson only using song lyrics.

97 97 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON SEVEN: POPULAR MUSIC AND THE OBJECTIFICATION OF WOMEN LESsoN SequEncE OPENING ACTIVITY 7a ) Put students into groups of three or four and ask each ( handout Analyzing Lyrics Pass out the . Have student student to list three favorite songs on a sheet of paper. They volunteers read the first verse out loud, and as a group, 1 4 analyze how this passage objectifies women. Ask students to should then share their list with group members and explain share ideas with the whole class, and share your own analysis why they chose any one of the songs. Post the following ques- tions up on your screen or board, and have students use them if students don’t speak up. Help students see that the woman to talk about the music they listen to for three to five minutes: being spoken to in the lyrics is being reduced to a “ho,” a “bird,” a “creeper,” etc. She is being simplified and reduced to a series of unfavorable stereotypes that position her only What is the message of these songs? in relationship to men. Are there any ideas the songs are conveying indirectly? INDEPENDENT PRACTICE Have you watched a music video produced Direct students to finish Part One of the Analyzing Lyrics by the artist for this song? If so, what do you handout in their small groups by looking at all three song 5 remember about how women were portrayed excerpts and analyzing the lyrics. Periodically do whole class and treated in the video? check-ins if they are drifting off task. If time and technology allow, have students analyze a video for one of these songs as How do songs, including music videos, suggested on the handout. Have each group share their analysis communicate indirect messages that suggest of one song with the whole class. a point of view or perspective? If time allows, have students move on to Part Two of the Have each group share some reflections from their discussion. handout, where they will look for examples of specific types 6 - Explain that they are going to explore the issue of objectifica of objectification. If time is limited, this section of the lesson tion of women in popular music in this lesson. can be cut without losing the big ideas of the lesson. Review the definitions of types of objectification with the whole class, then have students look for examples of the different types in each DIRECT INSTRUCTION AND GUIDED INQUIRY song. Finally, each group should choose one song to analyze more in-depth and complete the analysis activity at the end. Ask students to suggest possible definitions for objectifica - Ask each group to share their analysis with the class when they tion, helping them focus in on the word “object” if neces- 2 are done. sary. Display the definition included in the lesson plan on your , or simply an informal Exit Pass Then have students write an board or screen. reflection, about how the attitudes represented in the examples they examined might help excuse or justify violence against Show the trailer for https://www.youtube.com/ Killing Us Softly ( women. If time allows, discuss this question as a class. watch?v=PTlmho_RovY 3 ), a documentary about objectification in advertising. Ask students to Turn and Talk about how the ideas in the video might connect to music and music videos. Then The lesson contains an additional activity, if you have time, ask several students to share their ideas. Explain to students in which students engage with parodies of popular music 7 that the same types of images of women that are common in videos as a means to further their analysis of objectification. 7b advertising are also used in music videos and represented in handout ( Pass out the ) , review the The Power of Parody lyrics. Explain that they are going to analyze lyrics and possibly instructions, provide students with access to the videos, and music videos, and then look into how music can also send more have them complete the questions to guide their analysis. This positive messages about and to women. can also be done as a whole class activity if that is more feasible.

98 98 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON SEVEN: POPULAR MUSIC AND THE OBJECTIFICATION OF WOMEN LESsoN SequEncE (continued) REFLECTION Once students have completed the organizer on parody (preferably in groups), have them share their ideas and reflect Have a whole class discussion about the last question on on these questions together: Changing the Conversation the handout : 9 Did you notice any similarities between How do these songs counter or challenge the the different song pairings? messages in the previous songs? How did your perception and understanding How can rappers and other artists use their work of the genre you covered change between the to change the conversation about objectification, first and second song your group examined? gender equity, and gender-based violence? Has this exercise impacted how you Ask students to write their own verse as homework as directed enjoy music? In what way? on the handout (consider allowing performances if you have any brave volunteers!). . Explain Little Stones Now connect this exercise to the film to the students that it is hard for people, especially young 8 people, to ignore the influence of media that objectifies ASSESSMENT women. The prevalence of media objectifying women can To assess student understanding, have students return make gender-based violence seem more culturally accept- to the original lists of their favorite songs, and select 10 able. Explain that art also has the power to push back against Analyzing Music Videos one to analyze in depth. Pass out the this message and can be reclaimed to empower women. The 7d handout ( ) and direct students to produce a more developed Little Stones , in particular Sister Fa, use this strat- women in analysis of a song they like as homework. egy and succeed in spreading their message, thus influencing their audiences’ outlook on gender-based violence and female Changing the Conversation empowerment. Pass out the 7c ( ) handout and have students work with groups to analyze these lyrics. There are three different songs excerpted in the handout, so you can have each group analyze all three, allow them to pick one, or you can assign each group a different song. After they have read the lyrics and answered the questions, have each group share their new ideas. Consider showing a portion of one of the videos to also explore how women are represented visually.

99 HANDOUT 7A EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON SEVEN: POPULAR MUSIC AND THE OBJECTIFICATION OF WOMEN analyzing lyrics Objectification can be roughly defined as seeing and/or treating a person (usually a woman) as an object. In this lesson, we focus primarily on sexual objectification. PART ONE Read the excerpted song lyrics below. Then jot down your responses to the questions in the right-hand column. by K Camp ft. 2 Chainz What do you notice in these lyrics? “Cut Her Off” Why is this an example of Hook objectification? It ain’t nothing to cut that b---h off It ain’t nothing to cut that b---h off So what you saying ho? You know I’m the man ho Nothing but a bird, I’mma leave you where you stand, ho Heard you got a man ho, hope he understand though You ain’t nothing but a creeper baby, I’m just saying though Saying though, aye, it ain’t nothing to cut that b---h off It ain’t nothing to cut that b---h off Verse 3 Baby I’m ashamed, why you acting this way? Heard she ‘bout that action, you can bring her this way Hit her on yo mattress, make you feel some type of way *, they gonna bust it, migos Pass her to my ¡Andale! ** Please don’t play no games cause I know that’s what you like Knock it out the frame, baby girl, it’s alright . . . , the word for “friends” in Spanish amigos *short for **Spanish for “Hurry up!” or “Let’s go!”

100 HANDOUT 7A-2 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON SEVEN: POPULAR MUSIC AND THE OBJECTIFICATION OF WOMEN analyzing lyrics (continued) What do you notice in these lyrics? by Maroon 5 “Animals” Why is this an example of objectification? Baby I’m preying on you tonight Hunt you down eat you alive Just like animals Animals Like animals-mals Maybe you think that you can hide I can smell your scent for miles Just like animals Animals Like animals-mals “Fine China” by Chris Brown What do you notice in these lyrics? Why is this an example of objectification? It’s alright, I’m not dangerous When you’re mine, I’ll be generous You’re irreplaceable, a collectible Just like fine china Favorite, You’re my favorite It’s like all the girls around me don’t have faces And the saying goes Life is just a game but I’m not playin’ Whoah oh OPTIONAL EXTENSION Provided you have teacher permission, locate the video for one of these songs. On a separate sheet of paper, describe how (7d). Analyzing Music Videos handout the women in the video are portrayed, using the questions from the

101 HANDOUT 7A-3 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON SEVEN: POPULAR MUSIC AND THE OBJECTIFICATION OF WOMEN analyzing lyrics (continued) PART TWO The table below defines several different types of objectification. There is also a column for each of the songs you analyzed in Part One. If you think a particular type of objectification applies to a song, put a check in that box. Be ready to discuss your choices and the thinking behind them in a small group. “Animals” “Fine China” Types of Objectification “Cut Her Off” by Chris Brown by Maroon 5 by K Camp ft. 2 Chainz Instrumentality – treating a person as a tool to be used by the objectifier Denial of autonomy – taking away the self-determination of a person Fungibility – treating a person as if they are interchangeable with other objects – not recognizing any personal Violability boundaries of someone Ownership – treating someone like they are the property of another Reduction to body – treating or viewing a person as if they are just a body, or body parts Reduction to appearance – only recognizing or valuing a person for their appearance Silencing – taking away or ignoring a person’s capacity to speak PART THREE Pick one song to analyze as a group and come up with an argument about which types of objectification are present in the song. Be ready to present your argument to the class and explain your thinking with examples. EXIT PASS Using one or two of the types of objectification, explain how objectifying a person might make it easier to do them harm.

102 HANDOUT 7B EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON SEVEN: POPULAR MUSIC AND THE OBJECTIFICATION OF WOMEN thE POweR of parOdy Now, still working in a small group, choose and access one set of the following videos. You are going to analyze the video for one song, and then also analyze a parody of that song. Use the questions in the table below to guide your analysis. Talk as a group after you watch the videos and before you write down your answers. SET ONE SET TWO by Robin Thicke, ft. T.I., Pharrell by Luke Bryan “Blurred Lines” “Country Girl (Shake it for me)” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7HX4SfnVlP4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yyDUC1LUXSU “Girl in a Country Song” by Maddie and Tae by Mod Carousel Sexy Boys Parody of “Blurred Lines” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PN2IaNUuM10 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_MOavH-Eivw&list=RD_MOavH-Eivw Analysis Song Parody Artist Song Title Genre What are the women in the video doing? How are the women interacting with the men and vice versa? How are the women dressed?

103 HANDOUT 7B-2 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON SEVEN: POPULAR MUSIC AND THE OBJECTIFICATION OF WOMEN thE POweR of parOdy (continued) Analysis Song Parody What words or phrases in the lyrics refer to women? Which types of objectification are present? Keeping the above in mind, what do you think is the main message being conveyed about women? How does the parody change the message and purpose of the first song? How does this change your perception of the first song?

104 HANDOUT 7C EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON SEVEN: POPULAR MUSIC AND THE OBJECTIFICATION OF WOMEN Changing the Conversation Read the excerpted song lyrics below. Then jot down your responses to the questions in the right-hand column. What words or phrases in the lyrics “U.N.I.T.Y.” by Queen Latifah refer to women? Hook With all these factors in mind, U.N.I.T.Y., U.N.I.T.Y. that’s a unity (You gotta let him know) what do you think is the main message being conveyed about women? (You go, come on here we go) U.N.I.T.Y., Love a black woman from (You got to let him know) infinity to infinity (You ain’t a bitch or a ho) U.N.I.T.Y., U.N.I.T.Y. that’s a unity (You gotta let him know) (You go, come on here we go) U.N.I.T.Y., Love a black man from (You got to let him know) (You ain’t a bitch or a ho) infinity to infinity Verse 1 Instinct leads me to another flow Every time I hear a brother call a girl a bitch or a ho Trying to make a sister feel low You know all of that gots to go Now everybody knows there’s exceptions to this rule Now don’t be getting mad, when we playing, it’s cool But don’t you be calling out my name I bring wrath to those who disrespect me like a dame That’s why I’m talking, one day I was walking down the block I had my cutoff shorts on right cause it was crazy hot I walked past these dudes when they passed me One of ‘em felt my booty, he was nasty I turned around red, somebody was catching the wrath Then the little one said, “Yeah me, bitch,” and laughed Since he was with his boys, he tried to break fly Huh, I punched him dead in his eye And said, “Who you calling a bitch?”

105 HANDOUT 7C-2 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON SEVEN: POPULAR MUSIC AND THE OBJECTIFICATION OF WOMEN (continued) changing the conversation by Sister Fa* What words or phrases in the lyrics refer “Milyamba” to women? With the sun burning bright in the middle of the day What do you think “being traumatized” We brave women work in fields means in this verse? What might happen to a woman in this situation that would Like slaves on one of those plantations be traumatizing? We take care of our crops with attention We avoid trampling them because of our affection With all these factors in mind, what do While you in your air-conditioned room you think is the main message being conveyed about women? You take a nap without the risk of being traumatized While I think about, it your room is scented sweetly And your curtains protect you from the sun Sleep well little Sister because you do not have any worries LITTLE STONES Senegalese hip-hop star Sister Fa performs in the Vélingara region of Senegal. *Full lyrics in French, Wolof and English translation http://www.africaresource.com/lifestyle/profiles/699-sister-fa

106 HANDOUT 7C-3 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON SEVEN: POPULAR MUSIC AND THE OBJECTIFICATION OF WOMEN changing the conversation (continued) “State of Grace” What words or phrases in the lyrics refer by Talib Kweli to women? She wanna to be the first in her family with a higher education With all these factors in mind, what do Her entire graduation was a dire situation you think is the main message being conveyed about women? Did a paper on the state of the hip hop generation But no longer felt a part of the conversation Which type of song is more popular? Used to be I’m a “ride or die” chick Why do you think this is the case? B.I.G. with the “Me And My Bitch” No objections, being an object, major label seeing a profit She ain’t never been a bitch or a ho But she used to sing along when she heard it in a song She used to be front row at the shows ‘til she overdosed on the testosterone Her favorite rapper invited her backstage would have stayed But she felt like she really ain’t belong When she wouldn’t let him hit, this nigga called her a bitch She erased all her songs from the phone QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION How do these songs counter or challenge the messages in the previous songs? How can rappers and other artists use their work to change the conversation about objectification, gender equity, and gender-based violence? OPTIONAL EXTENSION On a separate sheet of paper, create your own song verse(s) that promotes a positive message about gender-based violence and/or gender equity.

107 HANDOUT 7D EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON SEVEN: POPULAR MUSIC AND THE OBJECTIFICATION OF WOMEN anAlyziNg MuSic vIdEos You are going to analyze the portrayal of women in a music video. If one of your favorite songs that you just discussed has a video, find that video online. If none of those songs have accessible videos, choose another song and video with which you are familiar. Also find the lyrics if possible (unless you know them by heart!). Again, you will be analyzing how this video portrays women, so select a video that actually has women in it. Analyze the video by filling out the chart below and jotting down answers to the questions. Artist Song Title Genre What are the women in the video doing? How are the women interacting with the men and vice versa? How are the women dressed? What words or phrases in the lyrics refer to women? Keeping your responses above in mind, what do you think is the main message being conveyed about women in this video?

108 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON EIGHT chalLenGing gender-baSed vIOlEnce in ouR COMmUNiTiES LEARNING OBJECTIVE Students will be able to summarize and evaluate actions that can stop gender-based violence. Students will be able to conduct basic research into a particular issue related to gender equity and/or gender-based violence and share how others can help address this problem.

109 109 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON EIGHT: CHALLENGING GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE IN OUR COMMUNITIES O2 RVIEw In this lesson, students will read two articles on how to prevent and stop gender-based violence. Then, they will choose a issue related to gender equity that is pertinent to their community and conduct basic research. QUESTIONS KEY CONCEPTS What issues of gender-based violence and gender equity prevention – When talking about social problems, do girls and women in our community face? prevention refers to the methods or activities that people use to reduce or block predictable What issues are important to me personally? problems, protect the well-being of those at risk of harm, and/or promote positive behaviors as a way to decrease negative behaviors. How can I contribute to gender equity and the fight against gender-based violence in my own community? community mobilization – A capacity building process through which a community—individu- als, groups, or organizations—plans, carries out, SUPPORTING QUESTION and evaluates activities on a consistent basis to How do we define “our community?” improve health and other needs on their own initiative or motivated by others. TAKEAWAYS – When women and men, and gender equality girls and boys, enjoy the same rights, resources, Gender-based violence is a global issue, meaning that it affects opportunities and protections. It does not require people everywhere, even in our own communities. that girls and boys, or women and men, be the We can all learn more about this issue and help make things better. same, or that they be treated exactly alike. There are many ways to challenge gender-based violence, including the use of the arts to raise awareness and change harmful attitudes. RESOURCES • Computers or other devices with internet and video playback capabilities Lesson handout (8a) • • Research project handout (8b)

110 110 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON EIGHT: CHALLENGING GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE IN OUR COMMUNITIES tEacher preP DURATION Discussing issues of gender-based violence, in any way, 1 class period can trigger very personal issues for some participants. Variable, depending upon how much Preparation of students and staff, as well as communica- time you use for research. tion with parents as appropriate, is advised. COMMON CORE CONNECTIONS As with other lessons, teachers can include a trigger warning at the ccss.ela-literacy.rh.11-12.7 beginning of this lesson in case there are students who have witnessed Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of or experienced gender-based violence and could potentially find the information presented in diverse formats and activity stressful or upsetting. Students should also be informed of media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve resources they can utilize if they need someone to talk to after the a problem. Integrate information from diverse lesson, such as a school counselor or peer counseling organization. sources, both primary and secondary, into a As needed, teachers should take a moment at the beginning of the coherent understanding of an idea or event, noting discrepancies among sources. activity to explicitly: ccss.ela-literacy.whst.11-12.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research Recognize the potentially sensitive topics and material in the lesson projects to answer a question (including a self- generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or Acknowledge that this material may make students emotional, and broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize express that they are justified in these emotions multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. List available school or local resources that students can utilize. ccss.ela-literacy.whst.11-12.8 Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using SUGGESTIONS advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms Students will work with partners, so have a strategy in mind of the specific task, purpose, and audience; or partnerships already established. integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. ccss.ela-literacy.whst.11-12.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research HANDOUTS 8a – Taking Action 8b – Research Project CONTACT US Have questions or need help with this lesson? Write to us at: [email protected]

111 111 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON EIGHT: CHALLENGING GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE IN OUR COMMUNITIES LESso2 equEnc. INDEPENDENT PRACTICE OPENING ACTIVITY Students will next engage in independent research to Direct students to work in small groups of three or four to brainstorm action steps that people can take to help explore an aspect of these issues that is closer to home. 4 1 improve gender equity and stop gender-based violence. You will need to decide if students will do this individually or Explain to students that they can reference examples from the in pairs or small groups, and also whether or not this will take place in class or out of class. If possible, use class time so that film Little Stones as well as their own ideas and experiences. you can monitor the work and support students more proac- After a few minutes, have each group share two or three 8b ). Review the ( Research Project handout tively. Pass out the ideas. Keep track of these on your whiteboard or smartboard. instructions and questions to guide note taking with students. Explain to the students that they are going to read about and discuss solutions that are already being tested. Also explain Next, pass out the handout for the final project, Inspiring ( that they will do some small-group research into specific issues Action ). Students will use their research to inform a creative, 9 that might be present in their own communities and are educational project that should inspire action. The handout encouraged to identify potential solutions to these issues. describes the choices and requirements. If you choose to use the attached sample rubric, or create your own, this is a good time to share that as well. The goal here is to set purpose for the initial research, to let students know why they are gathering DIRECT INSTRUCTION AND GUIDED INQUIRY information and how they will use it, and to clarify the expecta- ( Taking Action! handout Pass out the 8a ). Review the tions for the final product. instructions together with the students. There are two 2 Direct students to choose one of the following topics, or different articles in the handout. For each one, students come up with their own ideas and get your approval. Using should highlight or underline important ideas about solutions websites they locate, or the links provided with this lesson, for gender-based violence. Then, in the space provided, they they will do some basic research on the topic and use the should summarize the ideas they highlighted. This can be Research Notes table to take notes in response to the specific independent work or with their partner. questions on the handout. As students are reading, move through the room to support them as needed. If you notice that students are off-task or seem Healthy relationships confused, call the class together and project part of one of the Body image; objectification of women texts on your board or screen. Select a short section and model what you would underline or highlight. Then talk through how Sexual assault; rape culture; rape and the criminal justice system you would summarize the idea. After you have modeled, explain Economic inequity (pink tax, double burden, pay gap, glass ceiling) to the students that they should use similar processes and Political inequality (proportion of female representatives in all direct them back into their work. levels of government) When they have read, annotated, and summarized, direct Women in STEM (science, technology, engineering, math) the students to talk with their partners and identify the three solutions they think are the most important, as well as explain Other why they chose these three. They should write these in the space provided and then be prepared to share with the class. Provide students time and access to resources. Remind them to focus in on the questions on the handout as they research. Ask pairs to share the solutions they thought were most When they have gathered enough information, direct them important. Begin a discussion by asking other pairs to sup- 3 to work on their final products. You want to build in a step at port what was said or to explain why they chose differently. Keep which each student or group communicates to you the format track of what students found most compelling to see if there is of their final product. consensus. Ask students to consider how complex problems like gender-based violence need to be addressed in many ways.

112 112 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON EIGHT: CHALLENGING GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE IN OUR COMMUNITIES LESso2 equEnc. (continued) REFLECTION AND ASSESSMENT Use the rubric below or develop your own to assess the final product. You can also have students complete a final 5 for these lessons using the following prompt: Exit Pass How has my thinking about gender-based violence (GBV) changed during these lessons? What was the most important thing I learned? Almost there Accomplished Assessment Developing Beginning Rubric Suggests an issue, Identifies an issue Identifies an issue Problem Statement Identifies an issue but the actual problem related to gender equity related to gender equity related to gender is not clear. and/or GBV in the and/or GBV in the com- equity and/or GBV community but does not munity; explains why we in the community; explain its importance. should care, but explana- effectively explains why tion needs development. we should care. Mentions causes but Explains important Explains important Explains important Causes does not explain them causes but only on one causes on both local and causes on both local and or make connections. level; does not connect societal levels; attempts societal levels; connects different types of causal to connect different at least two different factors. types of causal factors types of causal factors. but needs development. Mentions consequences Explains important Explains important Explains important Consequences but does not consequences but only consequences on both consequences on both explain them or make on one level; does not local and societal levels; local and societal levels; connections. connect different types attempts to connect connects at least of consequences. different types of con- two different types of sequences but needs consequences. development. Suggests vague action Attempts to identify Identifies action steps Clearly identifies Action Steps steps people can take action steps to address to address the problem, feasible action steps to or fails to suggest action the problem but needs both on the local and address the problem, steps at all. development or fails to community levels; needs both on the local and address both levels. clarity and/or more community levels; attention to feasibility. inspires action. Presentation Organized, accurate, Needs revision. Errors Organized; some errors; Disorganized; needs shows some creativity. revision due to errors. and creative. detract from meaning.

113 HANDOUT 8A LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON EIGHT: CHALLENGING GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE IN OUR COMMUNITIES Taking Action! PART ONE Read and discuss the two short articles below. As you read, underline or highlight important ideas about solutions. Summarize them in the space alongside each article, then discuss with a partner. What specific solutions do you think are the most important? Why? Be ready to share! Summary notes: Focusing on Prevention to Stop the Violence* Violence against women and girls is rooted in gender-based discrimination and social norms and gender stereotypes that perpetuate such violence. Given the devastating effect violence has on women, efforts have mainly focused on responses and services for survivors. However, the best way to end violence against women and girls is to prevent it from happening in the first place by addressing its root and structural causes. Prevention should start early in life, by educating and work- ing with young boys and girls promoting respectful relation- Six Ways to End the Violence** ships and gender equality. Working with youth is a “best bet” for faster, sustained progress on preventing and eradicating Provide women with access to legal representation and gender-based violence. While public policies and interventions opportunities to pursue justice against perpetrators of vio- 1 often overlook this stage of life, it is a critical time when values lence through the formal legal system. and norms around gender equality are forged. Prevention entails supporting the implementation of the Promote gender equality in schools and widen access to agreed conclusions of the 57th Session of the Commission on education for girls. It has been proven time and time again 2 the Status of Women that placed a strong focus on prevention that girls enrolled in school are less likely to be married early - through the promotion of gender equality, women’s empower and become pregnant. If that weren’t reason enough, girls that ment and their enjoyment of human rights. It also means mak - - obtain higher levels of education are more likely to find employ ing home and public spaces safer for women and girls, ensuring ment and become empowered as a result of their financial women’s economic autonomy and security, and increasing contributions to the family and community. women’s participation and decision-making powers—in the home and relationships, as well as in public life and politics. End forced early marriage and premature pregnancy, the Working with men and boys helps accelerate progress in pre- leading cause of death of girls between 15 to 19 years of 3 venting and ending violence against women and girls. They can age. With more than 142 million girls expected to marry before begin to challenge the deeply-rooted inequalities and social they turn 18 over the next decade, programs like Apni Beti Apna norms perpetuating men’s control and power over women, and Dhan (ABAD) , which offer conditional cash transfers to incen- reinforce tolerance for violence against women and girls. tivize families to delay their daughter’s marriages, will likely Awareness-raising and community mobilization is another help reduce arranged marriages and allow girls to develop both important component of an effective prevention strategy. physically and mentally before marriage and childbirth.

114 HANDOUT 8A-2 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON EIGHT: CHALLENGING GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE IN OUR COMMUNITIES taking action! (continued) Bring greater attention to violence that is perpetrated by Summary notes: a partner or spouse. Stella Mukasa, Director of Gender 4 Violence and Rights at ICRW, told the story of a woman who was forced by her husband to breast-feed his dog’s litter. When she sought help from the community, her claim was ignored because abuse from a spouse was not considered to be a viola- tion of a woman’s right. Provide access to credit to start a business and support micro-finance organizations like Grameen Bank. This is 5 a way to end structural violence against women and increase economic empowerment which can help prevent physical, sexual and emotional violence/domestic violence, increase understanding of reproductive rights, and better education and health outcomes for women and their children. Revise marriage laws that are institutionally biased against women, particularly those that deny women 6 custody over their children, inheritance, and land rights in cases of death, separation or divorce. The revised national constitution in Kenya is one example that has brought about unprecedented rights for women, including the right to oversee property-related transactions, manage family land and resources, and retain a portion of land to live on and cultivate if widowed or divorced. PART TWO With your partner, select three of the specific actions/strategies you think are the most important. Briefly restate them in your own words and also explain why you think they are important. 1 2 3 * http://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/ending-violence-against-women/prevention#WAGGGS ** https://www.one.org/us/2013/03/13/5-ways-to-reduce-violence-against-women-and-girls

115 HANDOUT 8B EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES LESSON EIGHT: CHALLENGING GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE IN OUR COMMUNITIES RESEARCH PROJECT Choose one of the following topics, or come up with your own idea and get your teacher’s approval. Using websites you locate, or the links provided with this lesson, do some basic research on the topic. Use the table below to take notes in response to specific questions. • Healthy Relationships • Body Image, objectification of women • Sexual assault and rape • Economic inequity (pink tax, double burden, pay gap, glass ceiling) • Political inequity • Women in STEM Research Notes What is your topic? How is it connected to gender-based violence (if not a direct example of violence like sexual assault)? Why is it a problem? To what extent is it a problem in my community? How do I know it is a problem?

116 HANDOUT 8B-2 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LESSON EIGHT: CHALLENGING GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE IN OUR COMMUNITIES RESeARCH PROJECT (continued) Research Notes Why does it matter? Who is working on this issue in my community? (state, county, city, neighborhood, school, etc. however you choose to define this) What can I do to help solve the problem? Optional – How can I use the arts to help spread a relevant message about this topic?

117 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT FINAL PROJECT INSPRing ACTion LEARNING OBJECTIVE How can I contribute to gender equity and the fight against gender-based violence in my own community?

118 HANDOUT 9 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES FINAL PROJECT INSPirinG ACTion How can I contribute to gender equity and the fight against gender-based violence in my own community? Develop a project or presentation that will: Identify a specific issue connected to gender equity and/or gender-based violence 1. in your community (it is up to you and your teacher to define “your community”!) 2. Explain or demonstrate why it is a problem that matters to you Explain or demonstrate some of the causes, both on micro and macro levels, connecting at least 3. two different types of causal factors (economic, political, legal, social, cultural) 4. Explain or demonstrate its consequences for both individuals and communities Suggest a possible way to make it better and develop a presentation 5. or product that communicates this to an audience! 6. Provide necessary references 7. Share the product with that audience Choose one of the following project types OR develop your own proposal and submit it to your teacher for review: Performance Written product Multimedia product with artist statement with artist statement Letter to the editor, legislator Public Service Announcement (PSA) Original song, rap, or spoken word with content outline and references or other public figure with lyrics, artist’s statement, and references as needed. One-act play with script Graphic novel with references Educational brochure for data and historical information and references as needed. Artwork/graphic design Research report for a legislative hearing with artist’s statement, visual analysis, to support new legislation and references as needed Teacher-approved student proposal: Teacher-approved student proposal: Teacher-approved student proposal: Note: All final products will involve some form of written reflection, but they will vary with the form of product selected.

119 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT GRAPHIC DESIGN WORKSHOP how can DESIGN make People THINK & CARE? LEARNING OBJECTIVE Students will take their ideas about social problems and develop graphic arts pieces in response.

120 120 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES GRAPHIC DESIGN WORKSHOP WORKSHOP SequEncE TEACHER PREP The discussion of design can be open-ended using the This graphic design session should provide following prompts: clear, structured options, but should also allow What message is the artist communicating? students to pursue their own ideas independently as appropriate. The only real non-negotiable is does this artist How How do you know? communicate this? that you will ask students to design something What do you think the artist wants you to think connected to a social issue they care about. and/or do in response to this work? Materials How do words and images interact in this piece? Colored pencils, markers, pencils, computer paper, scissors, glue, magazines, drawing aids like rulers and protractors, PowerPoint, and computer with projector Another option is to focus students’ attention in on the different elements of design employed by designers to convey their messages. You can start with this question: How does the artist use the different elements OPENING ACTIVITY of design to communicate? Welcome participants and quickly introduce yourselves. Introduce the driving question: 1 Elements of To aid students in their analysis, pass out the gd-b ). ( Design handout How can graphic design be used to make people think and care about an important issue? gd-c ( Now pass out the Direct Brainstorm worksheet ). students to list ideas about the issue they identified, 4 Then explain that students will study a few sample works of including symbols, basic images, and words or phrases. They art before they create their own and mention that students can can also think about adding other design elements like color. choose to have their work posted online (if that is an option for Allow students to work on their own or in pairs. your organization). If helpful, share the following basic process outline: Ask a few students to share the social justice issues they a. Define your issue. are interested in. Then ask students to quickly brainstorm 2 Define and clarify your message. What do you want to say in b. images, symbols, and words they associate with one or two of particular about the issue? the issues. Explain that these ideas will help them create their c. Develop a slogan that will stop people in their tracks. art work, and that they will first look at the ideas of others to get A slogan can be thought of as an advertising tagline for some inspiration. your issue that communicates the gist of your message in a powerful way. Some examples are below: gd-a ) Pass out the Examples handout ( to show models of graphic design that connect to social justice. Select a 3 – Equal pay for equal work. particular work, or have students select one, and work out loud – Women’s rights are human rights. with them to analyze the design. Have students focus in on how – Never again. complex ideas can be communicated and expressed through – There is no Planet B. symbols, images, and basic text.

121 121 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT GRAPHIC DESIGN WORKSHOP (continued) Workshop SequEncE Decide if your slogan needs an image or symbol to d. accompany it. Often text alone will suffice if it is arranged dramatically. See the example (I AM A MAN) at right. If needed, identify or develop a symbol/image to e. complement the text. Explore possible lines, colors, fonts, and f. other design elements. g. Design a poster, book or album cover, stamp, or T-shirt that uses images and words to convey your message. The simplest way to engage students in this design process is to provide lots of blank paper, a variety of drawing materials including pencils, colored pencils, and markers. Rulers and different drawing tools like protractors can be helpful as well. You might also provide magazines, scissors, and glue sticks if you want students to engage in collage. If you have visiting artists or art students, have them move through groups providing feedback and encouragement. 6 This workshop could also be led by your school’s art educator. 1968 by Glenn Ligon Civil rights poster Give students a 10-minute warning before the end of the session, so that they can finish their idea and gather 7 materials. Have students help with cleanup. If possible (and pending you have the necessary permis- sions), document students’ work by taking pictures of 8 them with their artwork (with their consent of course). You can Little Stones team on Facebook and share these photos with the Twitter ( ) for a chance to be featured in the film’s @littlestonesdoc Artist Spotlight Blog: littlestones.org/blog

122 HANDOUT GD-A EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES GRAPHIC DESIGN WORKSHOP Examples left to right, top row: 1963 Booklet cover from the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom by Louis Lo Monaco Poster for 2017 The Women’s March by Shepard Fairey middle rows: 1942 World War II work-incentive poster by U.S. Government Printing Office 2006 Poster for environmental action by Hilppa Hyrkäs 2009 Anti-war poster by Luba Lukova 1968 Civil rights poster by Glenn Ligon bottom row: 2011 Poster for Occupy Wall Street by John Emerson 1969 Poster for the Black Panther Party by Emory Douglas 2008 Presidential campaign poster by Shepard Fairey

123 HANDOUT GD-B LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT GRAPHIC DESIGN WORKSHOP Elements of Design Examples Design element Line – used to underline words, separate sections, call attention to something, connect things, develop visual patterns, etc. underlined word Color – used to call attention, create contrast between ideas or images, call upon emotions, or connect design to a recognizable brand or color scheme (for example, the American flag) red, white, blue Texture – used to develop patterns, suggest texture on the surface of an object; add visual interest Shape – use of geometric, abstract or natural shapes to call attention or create interesting images Size – used to emphasize or de-emphasize, suggest "I AM A MAN" = large importance, gain attention, create contrast MEMPHIS = small Symbol – graphic representations of human thought, using basic images to convey messages (without spoken or written words) across language and educational barriers home, sunrise, polar bear Space / composition – the arrangement of design centering the melting polar bear symbol and surrounding it elements, including the space between and around with space creates a sense of isolation and helplessness them; used to isolate, group, or emphasize elements Juxtaposition – the act of placing things side-by-side, woman + bomb + work = emphasizing similarities particularly two contrasting or unexpected elements; pencil + bomb = emphasizing differences used to emphasize similarities or differences US flag + hijab = emphasizing similarities Font – the shape and style of the text; used to communicate an attitude, mood or urgency

124 HANDOUT GD-C1 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT GRAPHIC DESIGN WORKSHOP Brainstorm Worksheet This table may be useful to help you make connections between words, images, symbols, sayings and the issues that you care about most. Words Images/symbols Expressions Issue Police violence and abuse Voting rights "Two wrongs don’t noose, electric chair, Death penalty life, justice, solution, make a right." peace sign, balance of cruel & unusual, abolish, justice, stop sign stop, dead , liberty Climate change School funding or quality Substance abuse and addiction Gender equality

125 HANDOUT GD–C2 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT GRAPHIC DESIGN WORKSHOP (continued) Brainstorm Worksheet Issue Words Images/symbols Expressions Domestic violence Bullying Animal rights LGBTQ rights

126 LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT SPOKEN WORD WORKSHOP how can PoETRY make People THINK & CARE? LEARNING OBJECTIVE Students will take their ideas about social problems and develop spoken word pieces in response.

127 127 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES SPOKEN WORD WORKSHOP #1: IMAGINING OUR FUTURES WORKSHOP SequEncE #1 developed by InsideOut Literary Arts Project of Detroit insideoutdetroit.org OPENING ACTIVITY TEACHER PREP Think about the social issue that you previously brain- Each of the workshop ideas below has students stormed about and write it down in the smallest square of 3 sw-a ) ( the . Notice the other Imagining Our Futures worksheet consider their own identities and visions for the squares are cut in half. world at both individual and global levels. The On the left side of the medium square, list ideas or images that relate to your personal experience with this issue. Empha- workshops cycle through pre-writing activities, size ideas as they relate to your family, your friends, your com - literature reviews, writing time, and then munity, or yourself. On the left side of the largest square, list ideas or images opportunities for discussion and reflection. that relate to the global experience with this issue. Emphasize ideas as they relate to humanity at large. During discussion and reflection, have students Turn and On the right side of the medium square, list ideas or images Talk to share ideas and maybe even their poems. Ask students of what a solution to personal imagination that relate to your if anyone wants to share their work and encourage others this social issue may be. Think of what it would look like to be to listen and provide positive feedback. (However, students resolved in your life, the life of your family, and the lives of your should not be compelled to share their work). friends or community. It is important to stress to young writers that they are, at On the right side of the large square, list ideas or images that this point, writing for themselves. Invite them to share and of what a solution to this social global imagination relate to your perform, but also let them know they can keep these poems to issue may be. Think of what it would look like to be resolved at a themselves. This can relieve pressure and allow hesitant writers national, continental, or humanistic level. to take a risk and put real emotions down on the paper. Also let them know that this type of writing never really ends. They can keep working on a poem as long as they like. Let them LITERATURE REVIEW know that some poets will perform a poem even while they sw-b worksheet On the back side of their ) , participants ( keep working at it, and may make changes and updates to it will find a poem by Martín Espada. Have participants read 4 for years. Emphasize that the goal here is not to earn a grade, the poem and then discuss the following questions: but to use their voices, to express, and explore, and to use the power of words to make change. What social issues does the speaker highlight? What does the assertion “this is the year” tell us about the future? BEFORE YOU BEGIN What role does imagination play in This workshop connects to the final part of the Little Stones problem solving? Discussion Guide (p. 39). If students have not identified 1 social issues that they care about, begin by giving them time to WRITING TIME brainstorm examples of social issues that concern them. Tell a story about your social issue and what you imagine future solutions may look like. Feel free to use the repeti- 5 ICEBREAKER tion of “This is the year” to help get you started. Welcome participants and quickly introduce yourselves. Ask participants to answer the following question: 2 DISCUSSION & REFLECTION to share ideas and, for willing Turn and Talk H ave students What’s one experience in the past year volunteers, maybe even their poems. 6 that you wish you could do over?

128 HANDOUT SW-A LITTLE STONES EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT SPOKEN WORD WORKSHOP #1 ImagIning our futures On the right side of the medium square, list ideas or images Think about the social issue that you previously brainstormed of what a solution to personal imagination that relate to your and write it down in the center square. Notice the other squares this social issue may be. Think of what it would look like to be are cut in half. On the left side of the medium square, list ideas resolved in your life, the life of your family, and the lives of your or images that relate to your personal experience with this issue. friends or community. On the right side of the large square, list Emphasize ideas that relate to your family, your friends, your ideas or images that relate to your global imagination of what a community, or yourself. On the left side of the largest square, solution to this social issue may be. Think of what it would look with this global experience list ideas or images that relate to the like to be resolved at a national, continental, or global level. issue. Emphasize ideas as they relate to humanity at large. Global experience Global imagination Personal experience Personal imagination Social issue

129 HANDOUT SW-B EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES SPOKEN WORD WORKSHOP #1 (continued) ImagIning our futures What social issues does the by Martín Espada (1996) “Imagine the Angels of Bread” speaker highlight? This is the year that squatters evict landlords, gazing like admirals from the rail of the roofdeck or levitating hands in praise of steam in the shower; this is the year that shawled refugees deport judges What does the assertion “this is the year” tell us about the future? who stare at the floor and their swollen feet as files are stamped with their destination; this is the year that police revolvers, stove-hot, blister the fingers of raging cops, and nightsticks splinter in their palms; this is the year that darkskinned men What role does imagination play in lynched a century ago problem solving? return to sip coffee quietly with the apologizing descendants of their executioners. This is the year that those who swim the borders undertow and shiver in boxcars are greeted with trumpets and drums at the first railroad crossing WRITING PROMPT Tell a story about your social issue and what you imagine future solutions may look like. Feel free to use the repetition of “This is the year” to help get you started.

130 130 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES SPOKEN WORD WORKSHOP #2: THE LEGACY OF NAMES WORKSHOP SequEncE #2 developed by InsideOut Literary Arts Project of Detroit insideoutdetroit.org TEACHER PREP OPENING ACTIVITY Write down your full name. Underneath it, complete the Each of the workshop ideas below has students following statement: “I am named after _____________.” 3 Encourage participants to be creative if they don’t know how consider their own identities and visions for the can be to answer this question. Remember the concept of after world at both individual and global levels. The interpreted in many ways. Next, make a list of at least three nicknames that you’ve workshops cycle through pre-writing activities, taken on over the years. These can be names your friends gave literature reviews, writing time, and then you, names your family calls you, or any names you welcome being called. opportunities for discussion and reflection. Next, make a list of at least three derogatory names, or names intended to hurt you, that you’ve been called over the During discussion and reflection, have students Turn and years. Try to make them as specific as possible, or add a small Talk to share ideas and maybe even their poems. Ask students note about when and where you were called that name. if anyone wants to share their work and encourage others Lastly, make a list of at least three other aliases—pennames, to listen and provide positive feedback. (However, students Twitter handles, gamer tags, MC names, etc.—and add a note should not be compelled to share their work). next to each about how and when you take on those personas. It is important to stress to young writers that they are, at this point, writing for themselves. Invite them to share and perform, but also let them know they can keep these poems to LITERATURE REVIEW themselves. This can relieve pressure and allow hesitant writers sw-c . Pass out the Legacy of Names worksheet ( ) to take a risk and put real emotions down on the paper. Have participants read the poems and then discuss the 4 Also let them know that this type of writing never really ends. following questions: They can keep working on a poem as long as they like. Let them know that some poets will perform a poem even while they How does the speaker’s name operate keep working at it, and may make changes and updates to it in different contexts? for years. Emphasize that the goal here is not to earn a grade, but to use their voices, to express, and explore, and to use the In what ways does your name(s) power of words to make change. move through the world? What history or memory does a name carry? When has your name(s) been a burden? BEFORE YOU BEGIN This workshop connects to the final part of the Little Stones WRITING TIME Discussion Guide (p. 39). If students have not identified 1 social issues that they care about, begin by giving them time to Tell a story about one of the names listed in the earlier brainstorm examples of social issues that concern them. activity. How does that person approach the world 5 differently? What history or legacy is carried in that name? ICEBREAKER DISCUSSION & REFLECTION Welcome participants and quickly introduce yourselves. H ave students Turn and Talk to share ideas and, for willing Ask participants to answer the following question: 2 volunteers, maybe even their poems. 6 What’s a motto or lesson you learned growing up that you always remember?

131 HANDOUT SW-C EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES SPOKEN WORD WORKSHOP #2 the Legacy of Names How by Idris Goodwin (1996) “Say My Name” does the watch the performance: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xE1YNefJ1eQ speaker’s name operate by Franny Choi (1996) “Choi Jeong Min” in different we still practice in the new world. myths we whisper contexts? to each other to keep warm. my korean name for my parents, Choi Inyeong & Nam Songeun In what is the star my mother cooks into the jjigae in the first grade i asked my mother permission ways does to follow home when i am lost, which is always to go by frances at school. at seven years old, your name(s) move through in this gray country, this violent foster home i already knew the exhaustion of hearing my name the world? whose streets are paved with shame, this factory yard butchered by hammerhead tongues. already knew What riddled with bullies ready to steal your skin to let my salty gook name drag behind me history or & sell it back to your mother for profit, in the sand, safely out of sight. in fourth grade memory does a name land where they stuff our throats with soil i wanted to be a writer & worried carry? & accuse us of gluttony when we learn to swallow it. about how to escape my surname — choi When i confess. i am greedy. i think i deserve to be seen is nothing if not korean, if not garlic breath, has your for what i am: a boundless, burning wick. if not seaweed & sesame & food stamps name(s) been a a minor chord. i confess: if someone has looked during the lean years — could i go by f.j.c.? could i be burden? at my crooked spine and called it elmwood, paper thin & raceless? dust jacket & coffee stain, i’ve accepted. if someone has loved me more boneless rumor smoldering behind the curtain for my gook name, for my saint name, & speaking through an ink-stained puppet? WRITING PROMPT for my good vocabulary & bad joints, my father ran through all his possible rechristenings— Tell a story i’ve welcomed them into this house. ian, isaac, ivan — and we laughed at each one, about one of the names i’ve cooked them each a meal with a star singing knowing his accent would always give him away. listed in the at the bottom of the bowl, a secret ingredient you can hear the pride in my mother’s voice earlier activity. How does to follow home when we are lost: when she answers the phone this is grace, & it is that person sunflower oil, blood sausage, a name some kind of strange grace she’s spun herself, approach the world given by your dead grandfather who eventually some lightning made of chain mail. grace is not differently? forgot everything he’d touched. i promise: her pseudonym, though everyone in my family is a poet. What history or legacy is i’ll never stop stealing back what’s mine. these are the shields for the names we speak in the dark carried in that i promise: i won’t forget again. to remember our darkness. savage death rites name?

132 132 EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES SPOKEN WORD WORKSHOP #3: ON BEING AMERICAN WORKSHOP SequEncE #3 developed by InsideOut Literary Arts Project of Detroit insideoutdetroit.org TEACHER PREP OPENING ACTIVITY Create a bubble map with your name in the middle. Each of the workshop ideas below has students Around your name, connect words and ideas that speak to 3 the following ideas: consider their own identities and visions for the world at both individual and global levels. The your relationship to America, historically a. workshops cycle through pre-writing activities, b. your relationship to America, in the future literature reviews, writing time, and then what it means to be American, historically c. opportunities for discussion and reflection. what it means to be American, in the future d. Turn and During discussion and reflection, have students Talk to share ideas and maybe even their poems. Ask students if anyone wants to share their work and encourage others to listen and provide positive feedback. (However, students LITERATURE REVIEW should not be compelled to share their work). sw-d sw-e On Being American handouts Pass out the ) ( ) ( . It is important to stress to young writers that they are, at Have participants read the poems and then discuss the 4 this point, writing for themselves. Invite them to share and following questions: perform, but also let them know they can keep these poems to themselves. This can relieve pressure and allow hesitant writers What does the speaker hope to achieve to take a risk and put real emotions down on the paper. through this poem? Also let them know that this type of writing never really ends. They can keep working on a poem as long as they like. Let them How does this poem explore the fabric know that some poets will perform a poem even while they of American culture? keep working at it, and may make changes and updates to it for years. Emphasize that the goal here is not to earn a grade, How do the poems differ? but to use their voices, to express, and explore, and to use the power of words to make change. Why does the speaker want to live on another planet? BEFORE YOU BEGIN WRITING TIME Tell a story that answers one or both of the Little Stones This workshop connects to the final part of the (p. 39). If students have not identified Discussion Guide following questions: Are you American to you? 1 5 social issues that they care about, begin by giving them time to Are you American to America? brainstorm examples of social issues that concern them. DISCUSSION & REFLECTION to share ideas and, for willing ICEBREAKER Turn and Talk H ave students volunteers, maybe even their poems. 6 Welcome participants and quickly introduce yourselves. Ask participants to answer the following question: 2 What’s one (small) way you’ve empowered yourself every day?

133 HANDOUT SW-D EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES SPOKEN WORD WORKSHOP #3 On being AMerican by Danez Smith (2014) “Dear White America” with lines from Amiri Baraka & James Baldwin you spent my brother’s funeral making plans for I have left Earth in search of darker planets, a brunch, talking too loud next to his bones. You solar system that revolves too near a black hole. interrupted my black veiled mourning with some I have left a patch of dirt in my place & many of mess about an article you read on Buzzfeed. You you won’t know the difference; we are indeed the took one look at the river, plump with the body of same color, one of us would eventually become boy after boy after boy & asked ‘why does it always the other. You may give it my name if it makes you have to be about race?’ Because you made it so! feel better while running your hands through its - Because you put an asterisk on my sister’s gor soiled scalp. I have left Earth in search of a new geous face! Because you call her pretty (for a black God. I do not trust the God you have given us. My girl)! Because black girls go missing without so grandmother’s hallelujah is only outdone by the Because there is no where?! much as a whisper of fear she nurses every time the blood-fat summer Amber Alert for the Amber Skinned Girls! Because swallows another child who used to sing in the our heroes always end up shot or shootin-up! choir. Take your God back, though his songs are Because we didn’t invent the bullet! Because crack beautiful, his miracles are inconsistent. I want was not our recipe! Because Jordan boomed. the fate of Lazarus for Renisha, I want Chucky, Bo, Because Emmitt whistled. Because Huey P. spoke. Meech, Trayvon, Sean & Jonylah risen three days Because Martin preached. Because black boys after their entombing, their ghost re-gifted flesh & can always be too loud to live. Because this land is blood, their flesh & blood re-gifted their children. scared of the Black mind. Because they have sold I have left Earth, I am equal parts sick of your ‘go it’s the Black body & appropriated Soul. Because back to Africa’ as I am your ‘I just don’t see color’ taken my father’s time, my mother’s time, my uncle’s (neither did the poplar tree). We did not build your time, my brother’s & my sister’s time, my niece’s & boats (though we did leave a trail of kin to guide my nephew’s time ... how much time do you want for us home). We did not build your prisons (though your progress? I have left Earth to find a land where we did & we fill them too). We did not ask to be my kin can be safe. I will not rest until black peo- part of your America (though are we not Amer- ple ain’t but people the same color as the good, ica? Her joints brittle & dragging a ripped gown wet earth, until that means something, until our through Oakland?). I can’t stand your ground. existence isn’t up for debate, until it is honored I am sick of calling your recklessness the law. & blessed & loved & left alone, until then I bid you Each night, I count my brothers. & in the morning, well, I bid you war, I bid you our lives to gamble when some do not survive to be counted, I count with no more. I have left Earth & I am touching the holes they leave. I reach for black folks & touch everything you beg your telescopes to show you. I only air. Your master magic trick, America. Now am giving the stars their right names. & this life, he’s breathing, now he don’t. Abra-cadaver. White this new story & history you cannot own or ruin bread voodoo. This systemic sorcery you claim not to practice, but have no problem benefitting This, if only this one, is ours. from. I tried, white people. I tried to love you, but

134 HANDOUT SW-E EDUCATIONAL TOOLKIT LITTLE STONES SPOKEN WORD WORKSHOP #3 (continued) on Being American What does the speaker hope to achieve by Langston Hughes (1926) “I, Too” through this poem? I, too, sing America. I am the darker brother. They send me to eat in the kitchen When company comes, But I laugh, How does this poem explore the fabric And eat well, of American culture? And grow strong. Tomorrow, I’ll be at the table When company comes. Nobody’ll dare Say to me, How do the poems differ? “Eat in the kitchen,” Then. Besides, They’ll see how beautiful I am And be ashamed— I, too, am America. Why does the speaker want to live on another planet? WRITING PROMPT Tell a story that answers one or both of the following questions: Are you American to you? Are you American to America?

135 LITTLE STONES COMMUNITY SCREENING RESOURCES

136 136 LITTLE STONES COMMUNITY SCREENING RESOURCES INTRODUCTION Little Stones and Driftseed have established partnerships in the U. S. and around the world to educate and inspire non-traditional and creative outreach on critical gender-based violence issues. In the fall of 2016, we piloted our first community screening We encourage community organizations to reach out to . In the Little Stones and small group discussion event with women’s organizations in their area to host tables and provide - next few pages, you will find the planning checklist and discus counselors who specialize in issues of domestic violence and sion guide we used to plan and prepare these events. other forms of gender-based violence to support viewers both It is our hope that community organizations will take these during and after the film. materials and use them, or even better, adapt and improve For our initial viewing, we recruited volunteer discussion them to align with their context and needs, and host com- facilitators from our supporting organizations and provided munity screenings. As groups come together, it is crucial that them with the following before the screening. Discussion Guide people have the opportunity to process and talk together after We also met with them thirty minutes before the screening to viewing the film. It is also important that people leave with a - review the protocol and questions. We also worked with domes sense of how they can be a part of the many efforts to combat tic violence counseling organizations and had them set up gender-based violence and work for social change, especially tables in the lobby. Counselors were stationed near the theater through the arts. exits where people could find them as needed. Please read the language of the content warning below and consider sharing it on screen before the start of the film. CONTENT WARNING This film deals with different forms of gender-based violence, and the content may be triggering to survivors, and generally upsetting to others. Please take care of yourself while watching this material. If you need to leave the room, please feel free to do so. If you would like to speak with someone now, ____________________________ will have ____________________________ and certified counselors available in the lobby.

137 137 COMMUNITY SCREENING RESOURCES LITTLE STONES CHECKList Community Screenings might range in scale from a small community group event with 30 people to large events with hundreds of attendees and a VIP reception. Depending upon the size and scope of your event, some fields below might not apply. EVENT DATES: NOTES: Consider using this space to list initials for people who get assigned different tasks, so you don’t have to write their full names in the “Assigned to” column. Completed? Assigned To Due Date Task 4–9 months Site visit to theater/screening location. prior Develop event budget. 6–9 months 6 months Marketing and outreach planning meeting. Finalize screening location; complete any agreements 4–6 months needed with venues for screening. Plan for ticketing, registration, donations or any financial 4 months transactions needed, including any equipment rentals needed (tables, chairs, etc.). Schedule walkthrough of space with key event participants 4 months (event lead, venue lead, volunteer coordinator, etc) to beginning logistical planning. 4–9 months Contact event speakers (including host, keynote, panelist etc) to determine interest and availability. Ensure an hono- rarium is in the budget if a well-known speaker is desired. To request the Little Stones filmmakers or featured artists at your event, please submit an application if you haven’t done so already: littlestones.org/hostscreening , which includes a Little Stones Purchase a screening copy of 4–6 months public performance license. littlestones.org/purchase Recruit community organizations to host exhibit tables. 1–3 months

138 138 LITTLE STONES COMMUNITY SCREENING RESOURCES CHECKLiST (continued) Task Completed? Due Date Assigned To 1–3 months prior Recruit any local artists or activists if you are planning on having a panel discussion as part of the event. Also, identify local artist(s) who uses art for change to do a live show or art piece tied to the event. Obtain catering quotes for reception; select caterer. 3 months Identify donors and key allies or organizations to invite to 3 months special reception (if you are going to have one). 3 months Generate list of VIP guests for reception. 3 months Plan discussion activities for after the film. Create discussion guide or adapt the one in the toolkit. Determine how many volunteers you will need as discussion facilitators, etc. 2 months Finalize event description for outreach, web presence, etc. 2 months Finalize details for reception and guest list, including any equipment rentals (tables, chairs, etc.). 2 months Develop marketing materials for event outreach: postcards, flyers, email announcement. 2 months Send out email invites to VIP reception. 2 months Draft sample program. 2 months Review project budget. 2 months Send out event announcement on listservs, etc. 2 months Recruit volunteers from local organizations to help facilitate discussions as needed. 1 month Draft article/press release to publicize event in local media. 3 weeks Conduct scheduled walkthrough of screening venue. 3 weeks Confirm menu with caterer.

139 139 LITTLE STONES COMMUNITY SCREENING RESOURCES CHECKLiST (continued) Due Date Task Assigned To Completed? Confirm participation of any local artists or activists for 3 weeks prior panel discussions, art show, etc. 1 week Schedule test screening to review media format of film and available technology. 1 week Have programs printed. 1 week Confirm plan with volunteer and facilitators and provide Discussion Guide. them with Little Stones 2 days Test screening at venue and event rehearsal. 2 days Pick up programs and event flyers from printer. 2 days Send out reminder email to guests for VIP reception. 2 days Send out reminder email to registrants for film screening. 1 day Final test of film projection. 6 hours Set up space for event and reception; if necessary, pick up rental projection equipment or be available for delivery. 2 hours Volunteers and/or staff arrive and set up registration/sign-in tables. Review Discussion Guide with volunteers. Set up separate table for reception guests; lay out name badges. 2 hours Community exhibitors, vendors, counselors set up in lobby. 45 minutes Guests/viewers arrive, volunteers assist with seating. 15 minutes Welcomes and introductions. Film screening begins. Screening time Q&A with filmmakers and discussion. After the film ADDITIONAL RESOURCES Download free marketing templates, including flyers, postcards, a sample program, and a draft press release at littlestones.org/resources

140 140 COMMUNITY SCREENING RESOURCES LITTLE STONES DiSCUsSIoN GUiDE to ten. This can help to relieve any strong emotions. Activity Thank you for volunteering! We appreciate your leaders might also have everyone stretch their arms above their time and dedication! We’re attempting something heads, bend over and touch their toes, twist in their seats, or lead a series of simple yoga poses to release tension. rather ambitious. We couldn’t do it without you. ● As a facilitator, your role is to give people time to GUIDED DISCUSSION talk about the film, keep the discussion moving, As people gather around, quickly introduce yourself. and help insure broad participation across the Explain that they will first talk in groups of three or four for 2 group you are with. We will provide you each with about 10 minutes, guided by a provided list of questions. They can work their way through the questions, or dig into any one or a colored folder and ask you to hold it up when two of them that really get them talking. Clarify that the ques- directed so that the people near you who would tions are there just to help get the conversation going. like to participate will gather around you. If you Let them know that you will reconvene the larger group see other facilitators without participants, and so that each small group can share out some of their 3 reflections and insights and engage in large group discussion you have too many, try to help redistribute them each small group that they Inform for another 10 minutes or so. by politely asking people to shift to another group. will need to select a spokesperson by the end of the ten minutes to share some reflections. We hope to form groups of six to eight people (roughly) who will have a discussion for about remind them You can also that resources for people deal- ing with gender-based violence or other issues in their own 4 twenty minutes. lives are available in the lobby at the organization tables. There are a LOT of people coming to the film, and it is very At that point, ask them to form small groups of three or hard to estimate how many will stick around for discussions. four to maximize interaction and pass out the questions on 5 So, you will be provided with extra question sheets, and if there the provided half sheets of paper (one per group). are too many people milling around, we’ll ask facilitators to shift their roles a bit to pass out question sheets and help get reconvene When 10 minutes are up, the small groups into multiple groups started. one whole group. Remind groups that they should have 6 selected a spokesperson. Briefly review the norms for the large group discussion (on the back of the half sheet with questions) OPENING ACTIVITY This film deals with powerful, emotional issues. In the spirit Listen carefully to what others are saying. - of the work being done by the women in the film, partic 1 Respect the ideas and time of others. ularly the breathing and movement work done by Sohini, we When speaking, be clear and concise strongly recommend audiences take a moment immediately so that others have time to speak. after the film to breathe and move. If you have community resource people who do work with dance, yoga, meditation, Ask clarifying questions if you don’t breathing and stress, or with movement and stress, please con- understand a point. sider involving them in leading a brief post-screening activity. Focus disagreements on ideas, not people. Activity leaders might ask everyone to take a deep breath for Remember that our goal is to start the a count of three, hold it for three, and then exhale for three, conversation, not find the answer! and then repeat, adding another count with each repetition up

141 141 COMMUNITY SCREENING RESOURCES LITTLE STONES DiSCUsSIoN GUiDE (continued) Ask that each group have someone share one or two take- aways or big ideas from their conversation. Encourage 7 others to ask clarifying questions as needed, but keep the shar- ing moving so that each group can participate. Invite groups to support, extend, or challenge the thinking of others. After each group has shared, invite participants to indi- vidually voice questions or comments. Refer back to the 8 questions on the handout if the conversation stalls, bringing up questions that have been discussed less. At the end of 10 minutes, thank the participants and invite them to continue the conversation through social media 9 Little Stones website: they can access through the littlestones.org OPTIONAL EXTENSION If participants want to engage in other forms of action, whether that be fundraising or volunteering or direct service, direct Take Action! Resource Guide. Little Stones them to consult the In this guide, you can find information about many different organizations across the world and in the United States that are taking on issues of gender-based violence and/or are engaged in art for social change.

142 LITTLE STONES Discussion Questions ART & SOCIAL CHANGE GENERAL Why do these women choose different forms of art as their Which stories, or which aspects of any of the stories, primary tool in working against gender-based violence? had the most impact on you? Why? What are the important commonalities in the stories of these What ideas do you have about how art can be used in your own four women? What connecting threads did you see? community as a tool for transformation and social change? Do you think, based on the film or your own experiences, GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE that it matters whether or not a change-agent is considered an insider or outsider in a community? For example, Anna How and why does gender-based violence cut across borders? could be considered an outsider in Kenya because she hasn’t What makes it a global issue? experienced poverty personally and is not from Kenya, whereas Panmela could be considered an insider because she is both a Across all of the contexts and stories, what connections survivor of domestic violence and from Brazil. did you see between economic opportunity, social/political power, and gender-based violence? What steps or actions are you motivated to take with respect to challenging gender-based violence or other forms What aspects of gender-based violence do you think of injustice/oppression? are most common in your own community? LITTLE STONES Discussion Questions ART & SOCIAL CHANGE GENERAL Which stories, or which aspects of any of the stories, Why do these women choose different forms of art as their primary tool in working against gender-based violence? had the most impact on you? Why? What ideas do you have about how art can be used in your own What are the important commonalities in the stories of these four women? What connecting threads did you see? community as a tool for transformation and social change? Do you think, based on the film or your own experiences, GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE that it matters whether or not a change-agent is considered an insider or outsider in a community? For example, Anna How and why does gender-based violence cut across borders? could be considered an outsider in Kenya because she hasn’t What makes it a global issue? experienced poverty personally and is not from Kenya, whereas Panmela could be considered an insider because she is both a Across all of the contexts and stories, what connections survivor of domestic violence and from Brazil. did you see between economic opportunity, social/political power, and gender-based violence? What steps or actions are you motivated to take with respect to challenging gender-based violence or other forms What aspects of gender-based violence do you think of injustice/oppression? are most common in your own community?

143 LITTLE STONES Discussion NORMS Listen carefully to what others are saying. Respect the ideas and time of others. When speaking, be clear and concise so others have time to speak. Ask clarifying questions if you don’t understand a point. Focus disagreements on ideas, not people. Remember that our goal is to start the conversation, not find the answer! LITTLE STONES Discussion NORMS Listen carefully to what others are saying. Respect the ideas and time of others. When speaking, be clear and concise so others have time to speak. Ask clarifying questions if you don’t understand a point. Focus disagreements on ideas, not people. Remember that our goal is to start the conversation, not find the answer!

144 144 LITTLE STONES COMMUNITY SCREENING RESOURCES Taking Action! This toolkit includes ideas for arts-based activities, NEXT STEPS If you want to engage in other forms of action, including a graphic design workshop and a spoken whether that be fundraising or volunteering word workshop, that can easily be adapted for use Little Stones or direct service, consult the Take Action! Resource Guide (p. 145). in community settings. These activities can be found on pages 119–134. In this guide, you can find information about many different organizations across the world Art projects that respond to the film can take place right after view - and in the United States that are taking on ing, or they can be long-term projects that take months. They can be issues of gender-based violence and/or are small-scale or involve hundreds of people, ranging from online gal- engaged in art for social change. leries to community murals to one-time spoken-word performances. People can work collaboratively to create, or they can create on their own time, panels for a quilt to be hung in a women’s shelter, or tiles for a mosaic to be installed in a public space, and engage in collabo- ration through compilation. We are only limited by our imaginations! When planning your community art project, the following questions can help guide your development process: Who will be involved and what roles will they play? Who are your community partners? Do you need artists to help develop and lead the project? What art form will be used? What are the space and materials required for this type of project? Where will production take place, and where/how will the project be shared with the larger community? Who is your audience? What is your overall mission? What do you hope to accomplish? What is the message you want to communicate? How long will this project take place? How much (if anything) will it cost?

145 LITTLE STONES TAKE ACTION! RESOURCE GUIDE “I always feel the movement is a sort of mosaic. Each of us puts in one little stone.” ALICE PAUL, WOMEN’S RIGHTS ACTIVIST

146 146 LITTLE STONES TAKE ACTION! RESOURCE GUIDE OVERVIEW The organizations listed on the following pages are not endorsed by Driftseed or the University of Michigan but are listed to help you learn about the wide range of organizations that support women, support the arts, and challenge different forms of gender-based violence. Please research organizations before you donate or volunteer. A little bit of effort can help you spend your money and time effectively. WHAT WOULD YOU LIKE TO DO? CAN’T DECIDE? The following websites provide initial reviews of different organizations. These lists are by no means comprehensive. DONATE see page 147 charitywatch.org/top-rated-charities charitynavigator.org ngoadvisor.net/top100ngos WANT TO HELP A FEATURED ARTIST? VolunteEr 150 Don’t forget the great work being done by the artists profiled in the film. Consider giving them your support! 151 shop ethically Panmela Castro panmelacastro.carbonmade.com Rede Nami redenami.com kolkatasanved.org Sohini Chakraborty Sister Fa sisterfa.com 152 gEt info Anna Taylor j127foundation.com Judith & James judithandjames.com WANT TO SUPPORT LITTLE STONES ? 154 GeT funding You can make a tax-deductible donation to support Driftseed or any of the women featured in Little Stones : driftseed.org GEt help 155 Sign up to host a community screening of the film: littlestones.org/hostscreening INDEX 156 Use the curriculum with Little Stones your students: littlestones.org/educators Copyright © 2017 Driftseed

147 147 TAKE ACTION! RESOURCE GUIDE LITTLE STONES DONATE an international organization, working primarily in Senegal, which driftseed.org Driftseed partners with other agencies with community programs. GMP director/producer Sophia Little Stones Founded by focuses on intergenerational relationships and involves elders in Kruz, cinematographer/co-producer Meena Singh, the movement towards gender equality in communities. and attorney Ankita Singh, Driftseed is a nonprofit dedicated to empowering women and girls through documentary The Orchid Project Little Stones education storytelling. Donations support the orchidproject.org campaign as well as screenings of the film worldwide. The Orchid Project collaborates with other organizations such as Tostan to create and develop programs and hold advocacy events. They focus on increasing resources and raising awareness to end female genital cutting. TO END DOMESTIC VIOLENCE Sister Fa HopeLine from Verizon sisterfa.com verizon.com/about/responsibility/domestic-violence-prevention Support Senegalese singer and activist Sister Fa in her work to end child marriage and female genital mutilation globally. Make a HopeLine from Verizon collects no-longer used wireless phones, tax-deductible donation through Driftseed: batteries, chargers, and accessories (in any condition from any driftseed.org service provider) to benefit victims and survivors of domestic violence. Donated phones are then turned into valuable resources tostan.org Tostan for non-profit organizations and agencies that support domestic Tostan is an international organization working with rural communi- violence victims and survivors nationwide. HopeLine from Verizon ties in Africa. Their goals are to improve issues surrounding provided funding for the impact campaign. Little Stones human rights, literacy, child welfare, and the environment. Tostan’s Community Empowerment Program encourages communities National Coalition Against Domestic Violence to initiate development and social transformation, particularly in ncadv.org stopping female genital cutting. NACDV seeks to be the voice of victims and survivors and a catalyst for changing society to have zero tolerance for domestic violence. They do this by affecting public policy, increasing under- standing of the impact of domestic violence, and providing pro- TO END SEX TRAFFiCKING grams and education that drive that change and support survivors. Apne-Aap Women Worldwide apneaap.org Promundo As a grassroots organization working to end sex trafficking, promundoglobal.org Apne-Aap Women Worldwide brings together marginalized women Promundo is an organization working to include men and boys into empowerment groups. The women work together to claim in the fight for gender justice. They conduct research, develop their social, legal, political, and economic rights. The organization programs, and create campaigns and events. has created approximately 150 groups in red-light districts, brothels, and slums since 2002. Rede Nami redenami.com Founded by Panmela Castro, Rede Nami empowers women and Kolkata Sanved girls and seeks to end domestic violence in Brazil—through graffiti. kolkatasanved.org Make a tax-deductible donation through Driftseed: driftseed.org Founded by Sohini Chakraborty, Kolkata Sanved uses dance to help heal survivors of trafficking, abuse, and neglect in India. Make a tax-deductible donation through Driftseed: driftseed.org TO END Female Genital Mutilation missingkids.com National Center for Missing & Exploited Children NCMEC is an organization serving as an information clearing- Grandmother Project: Change Through Culture grandmotherproject.org house for parents and law enforcement in the United States. Their Grandmother Project: Change Through Culture (GMP) works services include a national missing children’s hotline and database. towards promoting women’s health (and children’s health). It is

148 148 TAKE ACTION! RESOURCE GUIDE LITTLE STONES DONAT2 (continued) Kiva kiva.org They collaborate with law enforcement to distribute information and locate missing children. Kiva is an international nonprofit seeking to alleviate poverty through microloans. Donors can give start-up funds directly to National Human Trafficking Hotline women entrepreneurs in need. humantraffickinghotline.org The National Human Trafficking Hotline is a toll-free hotline for Pro Mujer survivors of human trafficking in the United States. The goal of the promujer.org organization is to provide individuals with support and resources in Pro Mujer is a leading women’s development organization order to receive the help that they need. providing microloans to poor women in Latin America so they can start small businesses. These women then invest their incomes Project Liberty back into their communities and families, creating a ripple effect. projectliberty.net Project Liberty is an organization that helps search for and rescue trafficking victims worldwide. They often coordinate with local law enforcement. TO SUPPORT WOMEN American Association of University Women aauw.org TO END GENDER-BASED POVERTY AAUW seeks to advance equity for women and girls through advocacy, education, philanthropy, and research. They are a member-based organization in the United States working to create aidtoartisans.org Aid to Artisans gender equality in colleges and universities, in the workplace, and Aid to Artisans creates economic opportunities for artisan around the world, by providing opportunities in STEM education groups around the world where livelihoods, communities, and and careers, closing the gender pay gap, and awarding fellowships craft traditions are marginal or at risk. They work with partners in to more than 3,500 women in more than 140 countries. the artisans’ countries and in international markets, leaving behind an infrastructure that continues to support the artisan community American Jewish World Service long after mentoring is complete. ajws.org AJWS strives to end poverty and promote human rights in the Global Giving developing world. They focus on sexual health and rights, civil/ globalgiving.org political rights, and land/water rights through grants and advocacy. The largest global crowdfunding community which allows nonprofits to access tools, training, and support. Ashoka ashoka.org Grameen Foundation grameenfoundation.org Ashoka Fellows are social entrepreneurs selected by the organi- zation to implement their ideas to create social change. Ashoka A global nonprofit that works to enable the poor, especially Fellows work in 93 countries and focus on areas such as social women, to create innovative solutions to fight poverty and hunger, enterprise, environment and sustainability, and civic engagement. combining partnership, technology, and self-help solutions. Center for the Education of Women Heifer International cew.umich.edu heifer.org CEW advances diversity and inclusion at the University of Michigan Heifer International’s goal is to eliminate hunger and poverty. by serving as a resource, voice, and advocate to empower women They give animals as well as agricultural and values-based training and nontraditional students. They provide immediate and ongoing to people around the world. Those who receive Heifer’s resources services and financial support to ensure educational success and must “pass on the gift” by sharing their animals and new agricultural skills with other families. degree completion. Equality Now James 127 Foundation equalitynow.org/take-action j127foundation.com Founded by Anna Taylor, the James 127 Foundation is a nonprofit Equality Now works for the protection and promotion of the human rights of women and girls around the world. Working with that trains impoverished Kenyan women to become certified grassroots organizations, Equality Now documents violence and Kenyan tailors, teaches them important life skills, and helps place them in jobs after graduation. discrimination against women and mobilizes international action to

149 149 LITTLE STONES TAKE ACTION! RESOURCE GUIDE DONAT2 (continued) World Vision International support efforts to stop these abuses. Their international network worldvision.org of lawyers, activists, and supporters holds governments respon- World Vision International is a Christian organization focused on sible for ending legal inequality, sex trafficking, sexual violence providing humanitarian aid around the world. Their efforts include and harmful practices, such as female genital mutilation and child health care, emergency aid, and economic development. They marriage. They believe social change often begins with legal change partner with other UN organizations such as UNICEF, WHO, ILO, and political will to enforce the law. and UNHCR. World Vision also advocates for equality by raising awareness about issues such as child labor and poverty. Futures Without Violence futureswithoutviolence.org FWV aims to advance the health, stability, education, and security of women, men, girls, and boys worldwide. To that end, the organi- TO SUPPORT THE ARTS zation was a big player in developing the Violence Against Women Act (passed by U. S. Congress in 1994) and continues to work with American Dance Therapy Association adta.org policy makers and train professionals (doctors, nurses, athletic The ADTA advocates nationally and internationally for the devel- coaches, and judges) to improve responses to domestic violence opment and expansion of dance/movement therapy training and and educate people about the importance of healthy relationships. services. They stimulate communication among dance/movement therapists through social media, publication of the American Global Fund for Women Journal of Dance Therapy, and the ADTA newsletter. globalfundforwomen.org Global Fund for Women promotes political and economic Art Works for Change empowerment for women, as well as reproductive rights and artworksforchange.org awareness about gender-based violence. They partner with Art Works for Change uses the transformative power of art to women-led organizations promoting gender equality in their promote awareness, provoke dialogue, and inspire action. They communities and have provided financial support to approximately address issues such as human rights, social justice, gender equity, 5,000 grassroots organizations in 175 countries. and environmental stewardship through traveling exhibitions. International Justice Mission ijm.org The IJM is a global Christian organization that strives to protect the poor from violence in the developing world through a global team of lawyers, investigators, social workers, activists, and other professionals. They strive to rescue victims, bring criminals to justice, support survivors, and strengthen the justice system. UN Women unwomen.org UN Women focuses on aspects of human rights that are a priority to women’s equality, such as economic empowerment, peace and security, HIV/AIDS awareness, and stopping gender-based violence. By engaging with grassroots organizations and advocating for legis- lative reform, UN Women supports women across the globe. Vital Voices vitalvoices.org Vital Voices is an international nonprofit that works with women leaders in the areas of economic empowerment, women’s political participation, and human rights. They identify, train, and empower emerging leaders and social entrepreneurs around the globe. Their work challenges many global problems, including human trafficking and other forms of violence against women and girls.

150 150 TAKE ACTION! RESOURCE GUIDE LITTLE2STONES VolunteEr International Justice Mission freedomcommons.ijm.org littlestones.org/hostscreening Little Stones Sign up to host a community or university screening The IJM is a global Christian organization that strives to protect the poor from violence in the developing world. Take action and Little Stones. of the award-winning documentary, volunteer to be an advocate at the IJM Freedom Commons. You can raise funds and awareness for a nonprofit of your choice, while educating your community on global women’s International Rescue Committee issues and the power of art to create change. Whether you are a rescue.org/volunteer high school student, university faculty, or a member of a nonprofit, The IRC offers lifesaving solutions for people whose lives have our Community Screening Resources make it easy Little Stones been shattered by conflict and disaster. Volunteer to mentor to produce a fun and unique event. refugees or help maintain a New Roots garden. American Association of University Women iZōsh International izosh.org aauw.org/get-involved Through microloans, iZōsh International members help impover- AAUW seeks to advance equity for women and girls through advocacy, education, philanthropy, and research. On their website, ished women lift themselves out of poverty and reduce the risk of you can find ways to get involved, including Two-Minute Activism, oppression and exploitation in their lives. Head to iZōsh Interna- joining a student organization, and sharing issues on Facebook. tional’s website to learn how you and a group of friends can form a microloan Giving Circle. Giving Circles meet regularly to decide which women will receive donations to fund their small businesses. American Jewish World Service ajws.org AJWS strives to end poverty and promote human rights in the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence developing world. They offer study tours and Global Justice ncadv.org/get-involved/volunteer Fellowships and host local events across the United States. NACDV seeks to be a catalyst for changing society to have zero Driftseed tolerance for domestic violence. Sign up on their website to driftseed.org volunteer, raise awareness, sign petitions, and write to Congress. Driftseed is a nonprofit dedicated to empowering women and girls through documentary storytelling. Contact the founders for Soroptimist internship and volunteer opportunities. soroptimist.org Soroptimist is a global volunteer organization working to improve Equality Now the lives of women and girls through programs leading to social equalitynow.org/take-action and economic empowerment. Join a local club and volunteer with Take action and join grassroots campaigns to end trafficking, other women in your community. female genital mutilation, child sexual abuse, and all forms of violence against women and girls around the world. Tostan tostan.org/volunteer-intern Futures Without Violence futureswithoutviolence.org/take-action Tostan is an international organization working to improve issues surrounding human rights, literacy, child welfare, and the environ- To help prevent violence before it starts, FWV has a range of ment. Tostan offers two volunteer programs: the Africa Volunteer volunteer resources for teens, students, parents, educators, Program and the Washington, DC Internship Program. coaches, and healthcare workers. Volunteer Match Global Grassroots globalgrassroots.org/get_involved volunteermatch.org On this website, you can search for various terms, including 1600+ Global Grassroots helps vulnerable women. Volunteer to fundraise or to become a certified Conscious Social Change (CSC) practi- volunteer opportunities to combat domestic violence. tioner and travel overseas. Zonta International zonta.org Half the Sky halftheskymovement.org Zonta International is a group of professionals empowering women worldwide through service and advocacy. Join a local club and On the Half the Sky site, you can find a state-by-state guide of volunteer with other Zontians in your community. US volunteer opportunities on the issue of sex trafficking.

151 151 TAKE ACTION! RESOURCE GUIDE LITTLE2STONES SHOP Ethically Global Goods Partners globalgoodspartners.org littlestones.org/purchase Little Stones Global Goods Partners sells handcrafted products by community- Support the Little Stones impact and education based organizations in marginalized regions of Asia, Africa, the campaign by purchasing a DVD or Blu-Ray of the Americas, and the Middle East. Many of their products are made feature documentary. You can also purchase public by former sex workers. Global Goods Partners also provides tech- performance licenses for community screenings or an educational nical assistance to artisans building sustainable livelihoods. copy of the film for use on high school, college, and university campuses. Limited-edition film merchandise, such as tote bags and T-shirts, is also available while supplies last. Judith & James judithandjames.com Founded by Anna Taylor, the proceeds of this clothing line support Acacia Creations tailor-training programs for women in poverty in Kenya. acaciacreations.com/shop Acacia Creations has been making eco-friendly, fair-trade jewelry, Mabinti Centre gifts, and home accents in Kenya since 2007. They go beyond facebook.com/TheMabintiCentre fair trade by creating jobs, providing training, and giving back to The Mabinti Centre trains women recovering from fistula surgery communities through education and healthcare initiatives. in screen-printing, sewing, beading, and crochet. During a twelve- month course, the trainees develop the knowledge and skills they Bead for Life need to establish an income and become financially independent. beadforlife.org/shop Each graduate is supplied with a sewing machine, scissors, a supply Bead for Life offers a wide selection of Ugandan jewelry and of fabric and a calculator. After training for a year, the Mabinti shea butter products that create opportunities for impoverished women are ready to start their own businesses. women in Uganda. Their handmade paper beads are crafted into necklaces, earrings and bracelets. Bead for Life purchases help Noonday Collection more than 12,000 people a year in 1,400 households. noondaycollection.com Noonday Collection designs and sells jewelry and accessories Buy the Change made by artisans across the globe. To make a difference in some of buythechangeusa.com the world’s most vulnerable communities, they partner with artisan Buy the Change USA sells goods created by women in the businesses that share a passion for building a flourishing world. developing world who are victims of sex trafficking, gender-based violence, and deep poverty. Their mission is to encourage Shop Soko consumers to buy goods that support undervalued women. shopsoko.com Soko employs technology to provide equal access to opportunity Catrinka for marginalized artisans. Their supply chain innovation uses the catrinka.com mobile phone to connect independent artisan entrepreneurs to Founded in Brooklyn in 2013, Catrinka creates high quality hand- Soko in an ethical and transparent “virtual factory.” With Soko’s bags featuring traditional textiles in a design that works for the mobile tools, artisans have access to an entire world of consumers, urban streets. Every part of the business is focused on financially expanding their business horizons and entrepreneurial prospects. empowering women and girls, opening doors and creating choices for them so they can have control over their own lives. Thistle Farms thistlefarms.org Global Girlfriend globalgirlfriend.com Thistle Farms is a social enterprise run by the women of Magdalene in Tennessee. By hand, the women create natural bath and body Global Girlfriend offers a line of trend-setting, women-made, fair- products. Purchases of Thistle Farms products directly benefit trade products, including stylish apparel, accessories and gifts with the women by whom they were made. They are the largest social one purpose: helping women in need help themselves. enterprise run by survivors in the United States.

152 152 TAKE ACTION! RESOURCE GUIDE LITTLE2STONES GET iNFO Little Stones littlestones.org/educators Driftseed teamed up with the University of Michigan TO END SEX TRAFFiCKING Little Stones School of Education to create the official Educational Toolkit, featuring: eight high school and National Center for Missing & Exploited Children missingkids.com undergraduate lesson plans, a classroom film discussion guide, NCMEC is an organization serving as an information clearing- bonus educational videos, and two arts workshops. All materials house for parents and law enforcement. They collaborate with law engage students on the themes of ending gender-based violence enforcement to distribute information and locate missing children. and using art for social change. Resources are free to download and use in the classroom. To purchase an educational copy of the National Human Trafficking Hotline humantraffickinghotline.org documentary, go to: littlestones.org/purchase/educational The National Human Trafficking Hotline is a toll-free hotline serving survivors of human trafficking and the anti-trafficking community. The goal of the organization is to provide individuals with support and resources in order to receive the help that they need. TO END DOMESTIC VIOLENCE Slavery Footprint Futures Without Violence slaveryfootprint.org futureswithoutviolence.org/resources-events/get-the-facts Slavery Footprint is a website about modern-day slavery. There is an interactive component that allows users to take a survey FWV aims to advance the health, stability, education, and indicating their tendencies as consumers and calculates the security of women, men, girls, and boys worldwide. Their website number of slaves needed to maintain that lifestyle. has stats on violence against women and children as well as downloadable and shareable resources dedicated to engaging men, global violence prevention, health, judicial education, policy, advocacy, and workplace safety and inequality. TO END GENDER-BASED POVERTY National Sexual Violence Resource Center Care Action Network careaction.org nsvrc.org As a non-profit organization combating sexual violence, NSVRC The Care Action Network is an international humanitarian organization focused on poverty and gender equality. Their distributes information on research, statistics, prevention, and services include delivering emergency aid to areas affected by training curricula. They also coordinate projects on sexual violence, such as disasters/war, and advocating for better education, public health, Engaging Bystanders in Sexual Violence Prevention and Sexual Violence and the Workplace. and economic opportunities. ONE Campaign one.org/international ONE is an organization combating poverty and disease, especially TO END Female Genital Mutilation in Africa. By running grassroots campaigns and lobbying, ONE encourages governments to increase efforts against preventable equalitynow.org/fact-sheets Equality Now and treatable diseases in impoverished parts of the world. On the Equality Now website, you can download fact sheets on female genital mutilation in the U.S. and around the world, sex Self-employed Women’s Association trafficking, sexual violence, and legal inequality. sewa.org SEWA is an Indian trade union supporting low-income, self- The Orchid Project employed women who do not have regular salaries or employment orchidproject.org/resources benefits. It brings together workers from different castes who The Orchid Project collaborates with other organizations such as have experienced gender inequality in the workforce. SEWA’s goal Tostan to create and develop programs and hold advocacy events. is for these women to be fully employed and out of poverty. They focus on increasing resources and raising awareness to end female genital cutting.

153 153 LITTLE2STONES TAKE ACTION! RESOURCE GUIDE GET info (continued) TO SUPPORT THE ARTS TO SUPPORT WOMEN aauw.org American Art Therapy Association arttherapy.org American Association of University Women AAUW is a member-based organization working to create gender AATA is a non-profit, non-partisan, professional, and educational equality in colleges and universities, in the workplace, and around organization dedicated to the growth and development of the the world. They have awarded fellowships to more than 3,500 art therapy profession, which was founded in 1969. AATA provides women in more than 140 countries. members with the latest information, resources, and meaningful networking opportunities. The association advocates for the furtherance of the profession and connects members to the Association of Black Women in Higher Education abwhe.org important work of art therapists around the world. Learn how ABWHE hosts regional, national, and international conferences for you can become an arts therapist, or find an arts therapist in your networking and professional development. They also advocate for community on their website. equality for marginalized groups and circulate job opportunities. American Dance Therapy Association Business and Professional Women’s Foundation bpwfoundation.org adta.org BPWF works with employers to promote equality and diversity The ADTA advocates nationally and internationally for the devel- opment and expansion of dance/movement therapy training and in the workplace. This research and education organization also conducts research on working women and supports workforce services. Learn how you can become a dance therapist, or find a dance therapist in your community on their website. development programs and policies. American Music Therapy Association Center for the Education of Women musictherapy.org cew.umich.edu AMTA’s purpose is the progressive development of the therapeutic CEW advances diversity and inclusion at the University of Michigan by serving as a resource, voice, and advocate to empower women use of music in rehabilitation, special education, and community settings. Learn how you can become a music therapist, or find a and nontraditional students. music therapist in your community on their website. National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women’s Clubs American Society of Group Psychotherapy and Psychodrama nanbpwc.org asgpp.org NANBPWC is a nonprofit supporting African-American women in the professional world. Members are provided with professional The ASGPP promotes the development of creativity, spontaneity development resources and opportunities for scholarships. and encounter to enhance the relationship between individuals, families and communities, and works actively to heal and transform National Council of Negro Women society through the knowledge and practice of psychodrama, ncnw.org group psychotherapy and sociometry in all its diverse applications. NCNW is a nonprofit promoting opportunities for African-American women. Its 28 national affiliate organizations and 200 community- International Expressive Arts Therapy Association based sections focus on human rights and welfare. Programs ieata.org include an early childhood literacy programs and an educational IEATA provides a professional guild and an international exchange between the US and countries in Africa. network for bringing the arts into the world for growth, healing, communication, and collaborative learning. They promote National Women’s Studies Association professional excellence and standards of practice in the field nwsa.org of expressive arts. Learn how to become an expressive arts NWSA is an organization of individuals in the field of women’s therapist on their website. studies with the goal of sharing their knowledge through research, teaching, and service. They have an annual conference in Baltimore National Association for Poetry Therapy to present the latest feminist scholarship. poetrytherapy.org NAPT is a non-profit international organization promoting growth Women’s eNews and healing through written language, symbol and story. Members womensenews.org have forged a community of healers, educators and other helping Women’s eNews is a non-profit online newspaper that covers professionals who value the applications of words and language. topics about women’s issues and publishes stories about women.

154 154 TAKE ACTION! RESOURCE GUIDE LITTLE2STONES GET info (continued) nccata.org National Coalition for Creative Arts Therapies NCCATA is a national coalition of human service professionals who use art and creative processes to optimize health and GET FUNDing wellness. The Coalition includes art therapy, dance/movement therapy, drama therapy, music therapy, poetry therapy, and adta.org/apply-for-a-grant American Dance Therapy Association psychodrama. NCCATA provides a listing of employment resources The ADTA advocates nationally and internationally for the in the arts therapies as well as a listing of granting agencies and development and expansion of dance/movement therapy training resources for professional development. and services. Their Marian Chace Foundation provides research, education, and film/video grants. North American Drama Therapy Association nadta.org Fractured Atlas fracturedatlas.org The North American Drama Therapy Association was founded in 1979. Drama Therapy is an active, experiential approach to Fractured Atlas is a non-profit tech company that empowers facilitating change. Through storytelling, projective play, purpose- artists, arts organizations, and other cultural sector stakeholders by ful improvisation, and performance, participants are invited to eliminating practical barriers to artistic expression. They provide rehearse desired behaviors, practice being in relationships, expand insurance for artists and fiscal sponsorship. and find flexibility between life roles, and perform the change they wish to be and see in the world. Learn how you can become Girlgaze girlgaze.tv a drama therapist, or find a drama therapist in your community Girlgaze supports girls pursuing photography through its on their website. publications and exhibitions (called #girlgaze: A Frame of Mind). They also offer grants through The Girlgaze Foundation. Michigan Council for Arts and Cultural Affairs michiganbusiness.org/community/council-arts-cultural-affairs MCACA is an organization working to strengthen arts and culture in Michigan by increasing its visibility; supporting arts education; encouraging new, creative and innovative works of art; and broad- ening cultural understanding. National Endowment for the Arts arts.gov The National Endowment for the Arts is an independent federal agency that funds, promotes, and strengthens the creative capacity of our communities by providing all Americans with diverse opportunities for arts participation.

155 155 TAKE ACTION! RESOURCE GUIDE LITTLE2STONES GET HELP TO REPORT ABUSE TO FiND a therapist If you are in immediate danger in the United States, call 9-1-1 American Dance Therapy Association adta.org/find-a-dancemovement-therapist/ National Domestic Violence Hotline Find a dance/movement therapist in your community by For anonymous, confidential help, 24/7, please call the searching the ADTA’s directory. National Domestic Violence Hotline at 1-800-799-7233 (SAFE) or 1-800-787-3224 (TTY). American Art Therapy Association arttherapy.org/art-therapist-locator National Coalition Against Domestic Violence The Art Therapy Locator provides a method of searching for ncadv.org/learn-more/get-help Credentialed Professional, Professional, New Professional and NACDV seeks to be the voice of victims and survivors, and a International Professional members of AATA for the exclusive catalyst for changing society to have zero tolerance for domestic purpose of finding an art therapist. AATA member art therapists violence. The NCADV site has a list of helpful resources, including are bound by the association’s code of ethics and are committed planning ahead, financial education, and cosmetic support. to providing competent health services. National Human Trafficking Hotline humantraffickinghotline.org American Music Therapy Association The National Human Trafficking Hotline is a toll-free hotline serving musictherapy.org/about/find survivors of human trafficking and the anti-trafficking community. If you are interested in locating a music therapist, please contact The goal of the organization is to provide individuals with support AMTA at or by searching their online directory. [email protected] and resources in order to receive the help that they need. AMTA National Office staff can provide you with a current list of qualified music therapists in your local area free of charge. Polaris Project polarisproject.org Polaris is a nonprofit that works with human trafficking survivors North American Drama Therapy Association and provides tip and crisis hotlines. Polaris also advocates for nadta.org/what-is-drama-therapy/find-a-drama-therapist better anti-trafficking legislation and encourages communities to On the NADTA’s website, you can find a drama therapist in the support grassroots efforts. United States, Canada, or internationally. The American Board of Examiners in Psychodrama, Sociometry and Group Psychotherapy psychodramacertification.org The American Board of Examiners has certified over four hundred persons in the professional practice of psychodrama, sociometry, and group psychotherapy. Their members have great diversity in their educational degrees and professional training. Areas of expertise include mental health, law & criminal justice, organiza- tional development and training, and education. You can search for members on their online directory.

156 156 LITTLE STONES TAKE ACTION! RESOURCE GUIDE INDEX A O H 152 151 Acacia Creations ... ONE Campaign ... 150 Half the Sky ... 148 147, 152 148 Aid to Artisans ... Heifer International ... The Orchid Project ... 147 HopeLine from Verizon ... American Association of University Women ... P 148, 150, 153 ... American Art Therapy Assoc. 155 153, 155 Polaris Project ... I 148 Pro Mujer ... International Expressive Arts American Board of Examiners ... Therapy Association in Psychodrama, Sociometry 148 153 Project Liberty ... and Group Psychotherapy ... 155 147 Promundo ... International Justice Mission ... 149–50 149, 153–5 International Rescue Committee ... 150 American Dance Therapy Assoc. ... American Jewish World Service ... 148, 150 iZōsh International ... 150 R-S 153, 155 Rede Nami ... 147 American Music Therapy Assoc. ... Self-employed Women’s Assoc. ... J-K American Society of Group 152 Psychotherapy and Psychodrama ... 153 151 148 James 127 Foundation ... Shop Soko ... 151 Sister Fa ... 147 Apne-Aap Women Worldwide ... 147 Judith & James ... 149 Art Works for Change ... Kiva 148 ... 152 Slavery Footprint ... 147 148 ... Ashoka Soroptimist ... Kolkata Sanved ... 150 Association of Black Women ... in Higher Education 153 L-M T 151 ... 150–152 Little Stones Thistle Farms ... ... To s t a n Mabinti Centre ... 147, 150 B-C 151 151 Bead for Life ... Michigan Council for Arts and Cultural Affairs ... Business and Professional U-V 154 Women’s Foundation ... UN Women ... 153 149 Vital Voices ... 151 Buy the Change ... N 149 Volunteer Match ... 150 152 Care Action Network ... National Assoc. of Negro Business and Professional Women’s Clubs ... 151 Catrinka ... 153 148, 153 Center for the Education of Women W-Z National Assoc. for Poetry Therapy ... 153 National Center for Women’s eNews ... 153 Missing & Exploited Children ... World Vision International ... D-F 147, 152 149 Zonta International ... Driftseed National Coalition Against 147, 150 ... 150 Domestic Violence ... Equality Now ... 148, 150, 152 147, 150, 155 National Coalition for Fractured Atlas ... 154 ... Creative Arts Therapies Futures Without Violence ... 149, 150, 152 154 National Council of Negro Women ... 153 National Domestic Violence Hotline ... G 155 National Endowment for the Arts ... 154 154 Girlgaze ... Natl. Human Trafficking Hotline .. Global Fund for Women ... 149 148, 152, 155 National Sexual Violence 151 Global Girlfriend ... ... Resource Center Global Giving ... 152 148 153 National Women’s Studies Assoc. ... Global Goods Partners ... 151 Global Grassroots ... Noonday Collection ... 151 150 North American Grameen Foundation ... 148 Drama Therapy Assoc. ... 154, 155 The Grandmother Project ... 147

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