1 Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response All-Hazards Preparedness Guide Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
2 The All-Hazards Preparedness Guide is a publication of the Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Author Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response Kara M. Stephens, MPH, MSA, Health Communication Specialist Contributors Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response Ali S. Khan, MD, MPH, Director Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response Dagny Olivares, MPA, Health Communication Specialist National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases John O’Connor, MS, Director for Communication Science National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases Kristine M. Sheedy, PhD, Associate Director for Communication Science
3 PHPR All-Hazards Preparedness Guide Table of Contents Introduction...3 About PHPR...4 Three Steps to All-Hazards Preparedness...5 Step 1 Get a Kit...6 All-Hazards Supply Kit Checklist...7-8 Step 2 Make a Plan...9 All-Hazards Communication Plan...10-11 Step 3 - Be Informed...12 Shelter-in-Place...13-15 Advice for Those With Special Needs...16 Bioterrorism...18 Chemical Emergencies...19-20 Earthquake...21-22 Extreme Heat...23-24 Flood...25-27 Hurricane...28-29 Landslides and Mudslides...30-31 Pandemic Influenza...32 Radiation...33-34 Tornado...35-36 Tsunami...37-38 Volcano...39 Wildfire...40-41 Winter Weather...42-43
4 4 | All-Hazards Preparedness Guide Introduction lic Health Emergencies Happen Pub For over 60 years, the Centers for Disease Control an d Prevention (CDC) has been dedicated to protecting health and promoting quality of life through the prevention and control of disease, - injury, and disability. Because of its unique abili ties to respond to infectious, occupational, or environmental outbreaks or events, CDC also plays a pivotal role in preparing our nation for all types of public health emergencies. CDC’s Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR) leads the agency’s preparedness and response activities by providing strategic direction, support, and coordination for activities across CDC as well as with local, state, tribal, national, territorial, and international public health partners. CDC also helps these partners recover and restore public health functions after the initial response. Being prepared to prevent, respond to, and recover rapidly from public health threats can save lives and protect the health and safety of the public. Though some people feel it is impossible to be prepared for unexpected events, the truth is that taking preparedness actions helps people deal with hazards of all types much more effec - tively when they do occur. By reading this guide, you have taken the first step in securing your preparedness. You will learn that emergency preparedness requires attention not just to specific types of hazards but also to steps that increase preparedness for any type of hazard.
5 All-Hazards Preparedness Guide | 5 Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response About Us The Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR) has primary oversight and responsibility for all programs that comprise CDC’s public health preparedness and response portfolio. Through an all-hazards approach to preparedness — focusing on threats from natural, biological, chemical, and radiological events — PHPR helps the nation prepare for and respond to urgent threats to the public’s health. PHPR carries out its mission by emphasizing accountability through performance, progress through public health science, and collaboration through partnerships. Mission Strengthen and support the nation’s health security to save lives and protect against public health threats. Vision Peoples’ Health Protected—Public Health Secured Figure 1: All -hazards approach maximizes available resources.
6 6 | All-Hazards Preparedness Guide Three Steps to All-Hazards Preparedness Get a Kit By gathering supplies for your all-hazards supply kit, you will be better prepared to provide for you and your loved ones in the event of a public health emergency. Take a moment to gather the items listed on the All-Hazards Supply Kit Check - list provided on page 7 and store them in a waterproof bin. Make a Plan You and your loved ones may not be together when an emergency strikes, so take the time now to plan how you will contact one another. Be Informed Being informed means staying up-to-date on the most current information available, such as how to shelter-in-place, infor - mation for those with special needs, and preparedness information for each type of hazard.
7 All-Hazards Preparedness Guide | 7 Get a Kit By gathering supplies for your all-hazards supply kit, you will be better prepared to provide for you and your loved ones when a public health emergency occurs. Take a moment to gather the items listed on the All-Hazards Supply Kit Checklist provided on the next page and store them in a waterproof bin. Additional Resources • CDC Emergency Preparedness and You: Get a Kit Please visit CDC’ s site ( http://emergency.cdc.gov/preparedness/kit/disasters/ ) to learn more about how you can assemble an all-hazards supply kit. Contact Your Local American Red Cross Chapter • Please visit the American Red Cross’ site ( http://www.redcross.org/where/where. html ) to find your local chapter. • FEMA: Ready.gov FEM A’s website ( http://www.ready.gov/ ) has additional information on how to prepare for an emergency .
8 8 | All-Hazards Preparedness Guide All-Hazards Supply Kit Checklist the following items to create kits for use at home, the office, and/or at school: Assemble supply – one gallon per person, per day (three day for evacuation, two week supply for Water home) – non- perishable, easy t o pr epare i tems ( three day suppl y f or evacuat ion, t Food w eek wo supply for home) Flashlight — powered or hand— crank radio (NOAA eather Radio, if possible) and extra batteries Battery W a id s upplies ( whistle, a First o intment, b andages, f ace m asks, g loves) a nd r eference ntibiotic book medicinal day supply) Medications (seven dispensers if necessary and Multi¬purpose supplies (wrench, pliers, plastic sheet, duct tape, scissors, matches) Sanitation/personal items and bleach hygiene tinent per sonal docum ents ( medication l ist and per m edical i nformation, pr oof of Copies of deed/lease to address, home, passports, birth certificates, insurance policies) Cell phone with chargers Emergency (emergency contact Disaster information) Plan Extra cash Emergency blanket, extra clothes, sleeping bag (at least one for each person) needs Tools, of the area, and other items to meet your unique family map(s) Consider the needs of all loved ones and add supplies to your kit as necessary. Suggested items to help meet additional needs are: medical supplies (hearing aids/extra Specific glasses, contact lenses, syringes, cane) batteries, Infant supplies (bottles, formula, baby food, diapers) Games and activities for children Pet supplies (collar, leash, ID, food, carrier, bowl) keys Extra set of car and house keys
9 All-Hazards Preparedness Guide | 9 Examples of Non-Perishable Foods Within six months, use: potatoes Boxed Dried fruit crackers Dry, crisp milk Powdered Within one year, use: Canned, condensed and vegetable soups meat fruits, fruit Canned and vegetables juices Hard candy and canned nuts Jelly Peanut butter instant Ready-to-eat cereals and uncooked cereals Vitamins proper containers and In conditions, the following can be stored indefinitely: Baking powder Bouillon products Dried corn pasta Dry coffee, tea and cocoa Instant Soft drinks Vegetable oils Salt Soybeans Wheat (for bread making) White rice Tip: In an emergency, drink at least 2 quarts of water a day, 3 to 4 quarts a day if you are in a hot climate, pregnant, sick, or a child. If supplies run low, do not ration water. Drink the amount you need today and look for more tomorrow. Don’t risk dehydration. Emergency as - sistance should be available within a few days at most. If a disaster catches you without a stored supply of clean water, you can use the water found: Inside your home hot-water tank • Your and faucets • Pipes • Ice cubes Outside home your • Rainwater • Visibly moving streams, rivers, and other moving bodies of water • Ponds and lakes • Natural springs
10 10 | All-Hazards Preparedness Guide Make a Plan You and your loved ones may not be together when an emergency strikes, so take the time now to plan how you will contact one another. Before you complete your all-hazards Keep a copy of this plan in your communication plan, discuss the following all-hazards supply kit and disseminate a copy of the plan to everyone you have steps with your loved ones: named. Identify the types of emergencies most • likely to happen in your area. Pick two meeting places • Right outside your home in case of a • fire. like emergency, a sudden in case Outside your • neighborhood Additional Resources you can’t return home. Plan your evacuation route. • • CDC Emergency Preparedness and You: Develop a Disaster Plan • Have a plan for your pets and service Please visit CDC’s site ( http://emergency. animals. - ) for more infor cdc.gov/preparedness/plan/ mation on how to develop an all-hazards • communication plan. Practice, practice, practice! Plan on reviewing your plan at least once a Safe and Well Website • month. The American Red Cross developed the Safe and Well website ( https:// - ), safeandwell.communitys.org/cms/ Now that you have had the above discus ones, which enables people within a disaster the out fill sion loved your with communication plan on the following area to let their friends and loved ones page to ensure you and your loved ones outside of the affected region know of their well-being. know what to do during a public health emergency.
11 All-Hazards Preparedness Guide | 11 All-Hazards Communication Plan Fill out the below to identify the standard information your communication plan should have. Neighborhood Meeting Place Telephone Number: Address: Local Meeting Place Telephone Number: Address: Evacuation Location Telephone Number: Address: Out-of-Town Contact Telephone Number: Address:
12 12 | All-Hazards Preparedness Guide All-Hazards Communication Plan Fill out the below information for each of your loved ones (page can be copied for additional persons). Name Social Security Number: Date of Birth: Telephone Number: Work/School Address: Evacuation Location: Important Medical Information: Name Social Security Number: Date of Birth: Telephone Number: Work/School Address: Evacuation Location: Important Medical Information: Name Social Security Number: Date of Birth: Telephone Number: Work/School Address: Evacuation Location: Important Medical Information:
13 All-Hazards Preparedness Guide | 13 Be Informed Being informed means staying up-to-date on the most current information available. Below are some basic steps you can take to help keep you and your loved ones safe. • Learn what public health emergencies may occur in your area. These events can range from those only you and your loved ones, like a home fire or medical emergency , to those fecting affecting af community, like an earthquake or flood. your entire Identify how local authorities will notify you during a disaster and how you will get information, whether • through local radio, TV, or NOAA Weather Radio stations. • Know the difference between different weather alerts such as watches and warnings and what actions to take in each. Know what actions to take to protect yourself during public health emergencies that may occur in • areas where you travel or have moved recently. For example, if you travel to a place where earth - quakes are common and you are not familiar with them, make sure you know what to do to protect yourself should one occur. • When a major public health emergency occurs, your community can change in an instant. Loved ones may be hurt and emergency response is likely to be delayed. Make sure that at least one member of household is trained in first aid your and CPR and knows how to use an automated external defibril - lator (AED). This training is useful in many emergency situations. • Teach children how and when to call 911 or your local Emergency Medical Services number for emergency help. Teach each family member how to use the fire extinguisher, and show them • where it’s kept. • Share what you have learned with your loved ones, household, and neighbors and encourage them to be informed as well. Once you have familiarized yourself with the steps above, read the in-depth information provided in the following sections: • Shelter-in-place • Advice for those with special needs • Tips for pet owners • information for specific hazards Preparedness
14 14 | All-Hazards Preparedness Guide Shelter-in-Place means to take immediate shelter where you are— “Shelter-in-place” at home, work, school, or in between. It may also mean “seal the room”. In other words, take steps to prevent outside air from coming in. This is because local authorities may instruct you to “shelter-in- place” if chemical or radiological contaminants are released into the environment. It is important to listen to TV or radio to understand whether the authorities wish you to merely remain indoors or to take additional steps to protect yourself and your loved ones. To Prepare... At Home Bring children and pets indoors immediately. If your children are at school, • do not try to bring them home unless told to. The school will shelter them. • Close and lock all outside doors and windows. Locking may provide a tighter seal. • If you are told there is danger of explosion, close the window shades, blinds, or curtains. • Turn off the heating, ventilation, or air conditioning system. Turn off all fans, including bathroom fans operated by the light switch. Get your all-hazards supply kit, and make sure the radio is working. • • Take everyone, including pets, into an interior room with no or few windows . • If you are instructed to seal the room, use duct tape and plastic sheeting, such as heavy-duty plastic garbage bags, to seal all cracks around the door into the room. • Call your emergency contact and keep the phone handy in case you need to report a life-threatening condition. Otherwise stay off the phone, so that the lines will be available for use by emergency responders. • When you are told that the emergency is over, open windows and doors, turn on ventilation systems, and go outside until the building’s air has been exchanged with the now clean outdoor air. • Follow any special instructions given by emergency authorities to avoid chemical or radiological contaminants outdoors.
15 All-Hazards Preparedness Guide | 15 Shelter-in-P lace At Work the office , making any custo mers, clie nts, or visitors in the bui • Close aw are that they nee d lding to stay until the emergency is over. Close and lock all windows, exterior doors, and any other openings to the outside. • Turn off all heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems. • • If you are not in imminent danger, call your emergency contacts to let them know where you and your customers are and that they are safe. If time permits and it is not possible for a person to monitor the telephone, turn on call-forwarding • or alternative telephone answering systems or services. • If you are told there is danger of explosion, close any window shades, blinds, or curtains near your workspace. • Take your all-hazards supply kit(s) and go to your pre-determined sheltering room(s) and, when everyone is in, shut and lock the doors. Turn on the radios or TVs. • If instructed to do so by officials, use duct tape and plastic sheeting, such as heavy-duty plastic garbage bags, to seal all cracks around the door(s), vents into the room, and windows. • When you are told that all is safe, open windows and doors, turn on heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems and go outside until the building’s air has been exchanged with the now-clean outdoor air. • Follow any special instructions given by emergency authorities to avoid chemical or radiological contaminants outdoors. At School • Close the school. Activate the school’s emergency plan and bring students, faculty, staff, and visitors indoors. • Ideally, have access to the school-wide public address system in the room where the top school official takes shelter. • Have all children, staff, and visitors take shelter in pre-selected rooms. • Lock all windows, exterior doors and any other openings to the outside and if instructed by officials, use duct tape and plastic sheeting to seal all cracks around the door(s), windows, and vents into the room. • If told there is danger of explosion, make sure window shades, blinds, or curtains are closed. • Turn off heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems.
16 16 | All-Hazards Preparedness Guide At School, Continued If children have cell phones, allow them to use them to call a parent or guardian to let them • know that they have been asked to remain in school until further notice and that they are safe. • Schools should assign one or two people to collect information on who is in the building when an happens so that first responders can emergency know everyone is accounted for , if necessary . • Everyone should stay in the room until school officials, via the public address system, announce that all is safe or say everyone must evacuate. outside Once the word has been given that all is safe, everyone should go • when the building’ s ventilation systems are turned back on. Follow any special instructions given by emergency authorities to avoid chemical and radio - • logical contaminants outdoors. In Your Vehicle • If you are very close to home, your workplace, or a public building, go there immediately and go inside. Follow the “shelter-in-place” recommendations for that location. • If you are unable to get indoors quickly and safely, then pull over to the side of the road. Stop your vehicle in the safest place possible. If it is sunny outside, it is preferable to stop under a bridge or in a shady spot to avoid being overheated. • Turn off the engine and seal windows and vents with duct tape or anything else you have. • Listen to the radio periodically for updated advice and instructions. (Modern car radios consume very little battery power and should not affect your ability to start your car later). • Stay where you are until you are told it is safe to get back on the road.
17 All-Hazards Preparedness Guide | 17 Advice for Those with Special Needs Public health emergencies can strike quickly and without warning which may force confined to evacuate your neighborhood or be you to your home. What would you do if y our basic ser vices — wat er, gas, elect ricity, or com munications — were c ut of f? Learn how to protect yourself and cope with all-hazards by planning ahead. Even if you have physical limitations, you can still protect and prepare yourself. If you undergo routine treatments administered by a clinic or hospital, or if you receive regular services such as home health care or treatment, talk to your service provider about their emergency plans. Create a written list of your treatment to include: • Any medical problems you are being treated for. Any medications (including generic drug names) • you are currently taking and the doses. • Talk to loved ones (and the directors of the facility in which you live, if you are not living indepen - dently) and discuss what your travel arrange - ments would be in the event of an evacuation. • Try to have a two week supply of all medications you are currently taking on-hand. • Ask your doctor what you should do if your emergency supply doesn’t last though an emergency, gets lost, or damaged by heat or water. For example, ask if you can stretch out the supply of some medications by skipping every other dose, or cutting pills in half. This may or may not be advisable. Make sure any medical equipment (e.g. blood sugar monitors, blood pressure monitors, hearing aids with extra batteries, and oxygen) you use regularly is included in your kit. Additional Resources • AARP Offers Tips to Help Older Americans Prepare for Emergencies AARP has compiled a list of resources to aid caregivers of older adults with preparedness planning here.
18 18 | All-Hazards Preparedness Guide Tips for Pet Owners Make plans to ensure your pet’s safety before, during, and after an emergency. Some things you can do to prepare your pets for all-hazards include: Develop a pet buddy system with neighbors, friends, and relatives to ¾ ensure someone is available to care for or evacuate your pet(s) if you are unable to do so. ¾ Contact your local American Red Cross - Animal Safety Chapter and Shelter to find out what Animal community’ s plans and resources your . are for protecting pets in an emergency ¾ Talk to your pet’s veterinarian about emergency planning. Whether you decide to stay put in an emergency or evacuate to a safer location, you will need to make plans in advance for your pets. Keep in mind that what’s best for you is typically what’s best for your animals. If you must evacuate, take your pets with you if possible. However, if you are going to a public shelter, it is important to understand that animals may not be allowed inside. For this reason, it is best to plan in advance for shelter alterna - tives that will work for both you and your pets. Pet All-Hazards Supply Kit Food least three days, stored in an (at airtight container) Water (at least three days) Food and Water Bowls Leash Medications Veterinary Records First Aid ointment) Supplies (alcohol swabs, wound dressings, antibiotic
19 All-Hazards Preparedness Guide | 19 Bioterrorism Attack A bioterrorism attack is the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, or other germs (agents) used to cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants. These agents are typically found in nature, but it is possible that they could be changed to increase their ability to cause disease, make them resistant to current medicines, or to increase their ability to be spread into the environment. Biological agents can be spread through the air, water, or food. Before a Bioterrorism Attack • Create an all-hazards supply kit (pages 7-8) and communication plan (page 10-11). • Check with your doctor to ensure all required or suggested immunizations are up to date. installing a High Efficiency Particulate • (HEPA) filter in your furnace return duct. Consider Air During a Bioterrorism Attack Obtain yo ur a ll-hazards su pply • t a nd co mmunication p lan a nd sta y tun ed to l ocal ra dio o r ki television station for information and from local health officials. instructions • Individuals in the group or area that local health officials have linked to exposure or who have symptoms that match those described should seek emergency medical attention. • who are potentially exposed should f ollow inst Individuals of local health of ficials and ructions expect to receive medical evaluation and treatment. • Individuals who become aware of a suspicious substance nearby should cover their mouths and noses with layers of fabric that can filter the air but still allow breathing, quickly leave the area, wash with soap and water, and contact local authorities once they are in a safe location. After a Bioterrorism Attack • Listen to your NOAA weather radio receiver, battery-powered radio, or TV for information. • People may be alerted to potential exposure. If this is the case, pay close attention to all official warnings and proceed. on how to instructions
20 20 | All-Hazards Preparedness Guide Chemical Emergency CDC has a key role in protecting the public’s health in an emergency involving the release of a chemical that could harm people’s health. Learn how you can be prepared to protect yourself and your loved ones before, during, and after a chemical emergency. Before a Chemical Emergency Know the types of chemical hazards that can cause harm: • from poisons that come ◦ — plants or animals Biotoxins Blister agents/vesicants — che micals th at seve rely bl ister th eyes, resp iratory tra ct, ◦ e and skin on contact Blood agents — poisons that affect the body ◦ by being absorbed into the blood ◦ Caustics (acids) — chemicals that burn or corrode people’ s skin, eyes, and mucus membranes (lining of the nose, mouth, throat, and lungs) on contact severe ◦ — chemicals that cause irritation or swelling Choking/lung/pulmonary agents of the respiratory tract (lining of the nose and throat, lungs) ◦ Incapacitating agents — dr ugs hat m ake people unable t o t hink c learly or t hat c ause t an altered state of consciousness (possibly unconsciousness) ◦ — poisons that prevent blood from clotting properly , Long-acting anticoagulants which can lead to uncontrolled bleeding Metals — agents that consist of metallic poisons ◦ ◦ highly poisonous chemicals that Nerve agents work by preventing the nervous — system from working properly ◦ Organic solvents — agent s t hat dam age t he t issues of liv ing t hings by dis solving fats and oils Riot control agents/tear gas — highly irritating agents ◦ used by law enforce - normally ment for crowd control or by individuals for protection (for example, mace) ◦ Toxic alcohols — poisonous alcohols t hat can damage t he heart , kidneys, and nervous system ◦ Vomiting agents — chemicals that cause nausea and vomiting • Create an all-hazards supply kit (pages 7-8) and communication plan (page 10-11).
21 All-Hazards Preparedness Guide | 21 During a Chemical Emergency t Obtain y our all-haz ards s upply k it and c ommunication plan and s tay t uned • o local radio or television station for information and instructions from local health officials. • Act quickly and follow the instructions of local health officials. Every situation can be different, so local emergency coordinators might have special instructions for you to follow. If you come in contact with a hazardous chemical: • Remove your clothing • Quickly take off clothing that has a chemical on it. Any clothing that has to be pulled over your head should be cut off instead of being pulled over your head. • If you are helping other people remove their clothing, try to avoid touching any contami - nated areas, and remove the clothing as quickly as possible. • Wash yourself: As quickly as possible, wash any chemicals from your skin with large amounts ◦ of soap and water. ◦ If your eyes are burning or your vision is blurred, rinse your eyes with plain water for 10 to 15 minutes. Dispose of your clothes: • ◦ After you have washed yourself, place your clothing inside a plastic bag. Avoid touching contaminated areas of the clothing. If you can’t avoid touching contami - nated areas, or you aren’t sure where the contaminated areas are, wear rubber gloves. Anything that touches the contaminated clothing should also be placed in the bag. ◦ Seal the bag, and then seal that bag inside another plastic bag. When the local or state health department or emergency personnel arrive, tell them ◦ what you did with your clothes. The health department or emergency personnel will arrange for further disposal. Do not dispose of the plastic bags yourself. After a Chemical Emergency • After you have removed your clothing, washed yourself, and disposed of your clothing, you should dress in clothing that is not contaminated. Clothing that has been stored in drawers or closets are unlikely to be contaminated, so • it would be a good choice for you to wear. • You should avoid coming in contact with other people who may have been ex-posed but who have not yet changed their clothes or washed. • Move away from the area where the chemical was released when emergency coordina - tors tell you to do so.
22 22 | All-Hazards Preparedness Guide Earthquake By planning and practicing what to do if an earthquake strikes, you and your loved ones can learn to react correctly and automatically when the shaking begins. During eart hquake, most deat hs and injuries are caused by collapsing building mat erials an ts, hea vy fall ing obj ects, such as boo kcases, cabine and hea ting uni ts. Lea rn and how you can protect yourself and your loved ones before, during, and after an earthquake. Before an Earthquake • Create an all-hazards supply kit (pages 7-8) and communication plan (page 10-11). • Fasten shelves securely to walls. Store breakable items in low cabinets and latch or fasten doors securely. • any large, heavy objects on Place shelves or the floor. • lower Secure large objects • such as the refrigerator, water heater, and furnace to wall studs. • Locate safe spots to shelter in place such as a closet or bathroom with no windows in the center of the house or building. • Practice drills with your loved ones. During an Earthquake If Indoors • Obtain your all-hazards supply kit and communication plan and stay tuned to local radio or television for information and instructions from local health officials. station Get under a sturdy table or desk and hold on to it. • If you’re not near a table or desk, cover your face and head with your arms; and • ◦ stand or crouch in a strongly supported doorway, OR ◦ brace yourself in an inside corner of the house or building. • Stay clear of windows or glass that could shatter or objects that could fall on you. by • If inside, stay inside. Many people are injured at entrances of buildings Remember: falling debris. Go to the ground level • possible. DO NOT use elevators. if
23 All-Hazards Preparedness Guide | 23 If Outdoors Move away from buildings and utility wires. The greatest danger from falling debris is • outside doorways and close to outer walls. just the the Once open, stay there until in shaking stops. • If in a Moving Vehicle • Stop as quickly as possible and stay in the vehicle. • Avoid areas under trees, overpasses, utility wires, or near buildings. • Proceed with caution once the earthquake has stopped. DO NOT attempt to drive • roads, bridges, or ramps that may have been damaged on during the earthquake. After an Earthquake battery-powered to your NOAA weather radio receiver , • Listen radio, or TV for information. • You may need to evacuate a damaged area after an earthquake occurs. If advised to evacuate, do so immediately. • Go to a designated shelter if you have been told to evacuate or feel your home is unsafe. • Help injured or trapped persons by calling 9-1-1 for help. Do not attempt to move injured of persons they are in immediate danger unless further injury. • Expect aftershocks. These secondary shockwaves are typically less forceful than the main earthquake, but can cause further damage to already weakened structures. • If you live in a coastal area, be aware of possible tsunamis and listen for local weather alerts. • Only return inside your home after local authorities say it is safe. possession. • saf ety is more import ant t han any Your O pen cabinet s caut iously, check f or gas leaks, and inspect utilities. If you smell smoke, gas, or fumes, evacuate the area immediately and contact local authorities.
24 24 | All-Hazards Preparedness Guide Extreme Heat People suffer heat-related illness when their bodies are unable to compensate and properly cool themselves. The body normally cools itself by sweating, but under some sweating just isn’t enough. In such cases, conditions, person’s body temperature a rises rapidly. Very high body temperatures may damage the brain or other vital organs. Several factors affect the body’s ability to cool itself during extremely hot weather: ¾ When the humidity is high, sweat will not evaporate as quickly, preventing the body from releasing heat quickly. ¾ Other condit ions rel ated to risk incl ude age, obesit y, fever , dehydrat ion, heart disease, mental illness, poor circulation, sunburn, and prescription drug and alcohol use. Before Exposure to Extreme Heat • Create an all-hazards supply kit (pages 7-8) and communication plan (page 10-11). • Install temporary window reflectors to reflect heat back outside. • Cover windows that receive morning or afternoon sun with shades or drapes. Listen to local weather forecasts and stay informed about upcoming temperature changes. NOTE : Persons living in urban ar eas are at a people living greater risk heat exhaustion than in rural areas.
25 All-Hazards Preparedness Guide | 25 During Exposure to Extreme Heat or Obtain all-hazards supply kit and communication plan and stay tuned to local radio your • for information and instructions from station local health officials. television Stay indoors as much as possible. • • NEVER leave children or pets alone in vehicles. Even with the windows cracked open, temperatures can interior almost 20 degrees Fahrenheit within the first 10 minutes. rise • Eat light and regular meals throughout the day. Drink plenty of fluids; approximately 16-32 ounces per hour. • Do NOT drink liquids that contain alcohol or large • amounts of sugar — these actually cause you to lose body fluid. more Dress loose-fitting, lightweight in clothing. • Schedule Ou tdoor Acti vities • arefully. If you mu st C be outdoors, try to limit your outdoor activity to morning and evening hours. Try to rest often in shady areas so that your body’s thermostat will have a chance to recover. • Use a Buddy System. When working in the heat, monitor the condition of your co-workers and have someone do the same for you. • Monitor Those at High Risk. Although anyone at any time can suffer from heat-related illness — infants, young children, and elderly are at a greater risk. After Exposure to Extreme Heat children, Continue to monitor those at high risk — infants, young • and the elderly. • Drink plenty of clean water. • Continue to eat light and regular meals throughout the day. Did You Know: Heat-related deaths and illness are preventable, yet from 1979-2003 excessive heat exposure caused 8,015 deaths in the United States. During this period, more people in this country died from extreme heat than from hurricanes, lightning, tornadoes, and earthquakes combined. floods,
26 26 | All-Hazards Preparedness Guide Flood ar e one of t he most c ommon haz ards in t he Unit ed S tates. M ost fl oods Floods away slowly; however , flash floods can occur , destructively sweeping develop most things in its path with a rush of water. Know Your Local Warning System flooding Flood watch – is possible. ¾ ¾ Flash F lood W atch – F lash fl ooding i s sible; pr epare t o m ove t o hi gh pos ground. ¾ – F looding i s oc curring or w ill oc cur s oon; be pr epared t o ev acuate Flooding if advised. Before a Flood • Create an all-hazards supply kit (pages 7-8) and communication plan (pages 10-11). the county geologist or county planning department • Contact to find out if your home is located in a flash-flood-prone area and avoid building new homes in flood-prone areas. • Learn y our c ommunity’s em ergency pl ans, w arning s ignals, ev acuation r outes, about and locations of emergency shelters. a nd p ractice a fl ood e vacuation r oute w ith • Plan our l oved o nes. A sk a n o ut-of-state y relative or friend to be the “emergency contact” in case your loved ones are separated during a fl ood. M ake s ure ev eryone k nows t he nam e, addr ess, and phone num ber of this contact person. ential hom e hazar ds and know how t o • Identify e pot or pr otect t hem bef ore t he secur flood strikes. • Buy and install sump pumps with back-up power. • Anchor f uel t anks w hich can cont aminate your basem ent i f t orn f ree. A n unanchor ed tank outside can be swept downstream and damage other houses.
27 All-Hazards Preparedness Guide | 27 During a Flood Watch or Warning Obtain our al l-hazards s upply k it and c ommunication pl an and s tay t uned t o y l ocal r adio or • for information and instructions station from local health officials. television • Turn off all utilities at the main power switch and close the main gas valve if evacuation appears necessary. first Fill bathtubs, sinks and plastic soda bottles with clean water. Sanitize the sinks and tubs • by using bleach. Rinse and fill with clean water. Preparing to Evacuate • Fill your vehicle’s gas tank and make sure the emergency kit for your car is ready. • If no vehicle is available, make arrangements with friends or loved ones for transportation. • Locate your emergency kit and important documents. • Listen to your NOAA weather radio receiver, battery-powered radio, or TV for information. • Listen for disaster sirens and warning signals. If You Are Ordered to Evacuate • You should never ignore an evacuation order. Authorities will direct you to leave if you are in low-lying area, or within the greatest potential path of the rising waters. If a a warning is flood issued for your area or you are directed by authorities to evacuate the area: Take only essential items, your all-hazards supply kit, and communication plan with you. • If you have time, turn off the gas, electricity, and water. • • Disconnect appliances to prevent electrical shock when power is restored. Follow the designated • routes and expect heavy traffic. evacuation • Do not attempt to drive or walk across creeks or flooded roads. If You Are Ordered NOT to Evacuate: Shelter-In-Place updates. Monitor your NAOO weather, battery-powered radio, or television for weather • • Prepare to evacuate to a shelter or to a neighbor’s home if your home is damaged, or if you are instructed to do by local health officials. so
28 28 | All-Hazards Preparedness Guide After a Flood receiver Listen to your NOAA weather radio • , battery-powered radio, or TV for information. • Use the telephone only for emergency calls. • Stay away from damaged structures and buildings. Flood water can cause structurally damaged floors and walls to collapse. officials • home only when local health Return say it is safe. Source: NOAA 2010
29 All-Hazards Preparedness Guide | 29 Hurricane A hurricane is a type of tropical cyclone or severe tropical storm that originates in areas of low pressure equatorial regions of the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, southern of Pacific Mexico, and in the eastern Gulf Gu Al Atl antic a nd lf o f Me xico Ocean. l areas are subject to hurricanes. coastal The Atlantic hurricane season lasts from the November , with peak season June to mid-August to late October . Parts of from United States and the Pacific Coast Southwest are subjected to heavy rains and the floods each year due to hurricanes off of Mexico. Before a Hurricane Create an all-hazards supply kit (pages 7-8) and communication plan (pages 10-11). • Learn about your community’s emergency plans, warning signals, evacuation routes, and • locations of emergency shelters. • Identify potential home hazards and know how to secure or protect them before the hurricane strikes. • Be prepared to turn off electrical power, gas and water before you evacuate. Buy a fire extinguisher and make sure your loved • ones know where t o find it and how t o use it . • Inform local authorities about any special needs (e.g. elderly, bedridden, or disabled persons). • Prepare an emergency kit f or your car (page 14) wit h it ems such as f ood, flares, boost er cables, maps, tools, a first aid kit, fire extinguisher, and sleeping bags. • Fill your automobile’s gas tank. If no vehicle is available, make arrangements with friends or loved ones for transportation. • Make plans to ensure your pets’ safety (http://www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/petprotect.asp).
30 30 | All-Hazards Preparedness Guide During a Hurricane Watch and Obtain all-hazards supply kit and communication plan your stay tuned to local radio or • station for information and instructions television local health officials. from • Secure any items outside which may damage property in a storm, such as bicycles, grills, propane tanks, etc. • Cover windows and doors with plywood or boards or place large strips of masking tape or tape on the windows to reduce adhesive risk of breakage and flying glass. the • Fill sinks and bathtubs with water as an extra supply for washing. • Adjust the thermostat on refrigerators and freezers to the coolest possible temperature. If You are Ordered to Evacuate Because of the destructive power of a hurricane, you should never ignore an evacuation order. If ning is issued for your area or you are directed by authorities to evacuate the area: a hurricane war Take only essential items, your all-hazards supply kit, and communication plan with you. • • If you have time, turn off the gas, electricity, and water. • Make sure your automobile’s emergency kit is ready. Follow the designated evacuation traffic. routes and expect heavy • If You Are Ordered NOT To Evacuate: Shelter-In-Place • Refer to pages 13-14. After a Hurricane • Listen to a NOAA weather radio, battery-powered radio, or television for the latest emergency information. • Stay away from damaged structures and buildings. Standing water can cause structurally floors and damaged to collapse. walls • Return safe. only when local health officials say it is home
31 All-Hazards Preparedness Guide | 31 Landslides and Mudslides Landslides occur when masses of rock, earth, slope. move down a debris Debris flows, or also known as mudslides, are a common type f ast-moving landslide of t hat t ends t o flow in channels. What Causes Landslides and Mudslides? Landslides are caused by disturbances in the natural stability of a slope. They can accompany heavy rains or follow droughts, earth - quakes, or volcanic eruptions. Mudslides develop when water rapidly accumulates in the ground and results in a surge of water-saturated rock, earth, and debris. Mudslides usually start on steep slopes and can be activated by natural disasters. Areas where wildfires or human modificat ion of the land have destroyed vegetation on slopes are particularly vulnerable to landslides during and after heavy rains. Areas That Are at Risk ¾ Areas where wildfires or human modificat ion of t he land have dest royed veget ation, Areas where landslides have occurred before, ¾ ¾ Steep slopes and areas at the bottom of slopes or canyons, ¾ Slopes that have been altered for construction of buildings and roads, ¾ Channels along a stream or river, and ¾ Areas where surface runoff is directed.
32 32 | All-Hazards Preparedness Guide Before Intense Storms and Heavy Rainfall Create an all-hazards supply kit (pages 7-8) and communication plan (pages 10-11). • t hat s teep s lopes and ar eas burned by wildfi res ar e v ulnerable t o lands lides and debr is Assume • flows. landslides or debris flows have occurred previously • in whether your area by contacting Learn local authorities, a county geologist or the county planning department, state geological surveys or departments of natural resources, or university departments of geology. • Contact local authorities about emergency and evacuation plans. • If you live in an area vulnerable to landslides, consider leaving it. During Intense Storms and Heavy Rainfall Obtain your all-hazards supply kit and comm unication plan • st ay t uned t o loc al radio or and television station for information and instructions from local health officials. Be aware of any sudden increase or decrease in water level on a stream or creek that might • debris flow upstream. A trickle of flowing mud may precede a larger flow. indicate • Look for tilted trees, telephone poles, fences, or walls, and for new holes or bare spots on hillsides. for rumbling sounds that might • Listen an approaching landslide or mudflow. indicate • Be alert when driving. Roads may become blocked or closed due to collapsed pavement or debris. • If la ndslide or de bris flow da nger is immi nent, qu ickly move aw ay from the pa th of the sli de. b Getting ut o f the p ath o f a d ebris flo w i s yo ur o est p rotection. Mo ve to the n earest h igh g round in a direction away from the path. If rocks and debris are approaching, run for the nearest shelter and take cover (if possible, under a desk, table, or other piece of sturdy furniture). After a landslide or mudslide • Stay away from the site. Flooding or additional slides may occur after the initial landslide or mudflow. • Check for i njured o r tra pped p eople n ear the a ffected a rea, i f i t i s p ossible to d o so w ithout entering path of the the landslide or mudflow. • Listen to a NOAA weather radio, battery-powered radio, or television for the latest emergency information.
33 All-Hazards Preparedness Guide | 33 Pandemic Influenza pandemic is a global disease outbreak. An influenza pandemic occurs when a new A (flu) A virus emerges for which there is little or no immunity in the human popu- influenza lation and spreads easily from person-to-person. A pandemic is determined by spread of disease, not necessarily severity of disease. CDC has been preparing to respond to an pandem ic in a num ber of influenza way s, inc luding t he im provement of diagnos tic t esting capabilities, laboratory detection equipment, and influenza virus surveillance systems. Pandemics are rare and unpredictable, with the severity of the pandemic being determined largely by characteristics of the the new virus. However, influenza viruses share similar properties in terms of how they transmit and, based on this information, it is possible to develop general recommendations for everyday actions that can slow the spread of novel influenza infection within communities: • Know the signs and symptoms of the specific disease outbreak by visiting www.cdc.gov/flu . If you • a loved one develop symptoms, follow the advice of local health officials or regarding when to seek medical care. • In some cases, vaccine may be available to protect against this new virus, or may be under production. A flu vaccine is the best way to protect against influenza viruses. Take everyday preventive measures to stop the spread of germs. These are sometimes called “appropriate respiratory and hand hygiene precautions,” and include: • covering your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze; • washing your hands often with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand rub; • not touching your eyes, nose, or mouth; avoiding close contact with people displaying signs and symptoms; • • and staying home for at least 24 hours after your fever is gone. Follow local health official • regarding school closures, avoiding crowds or other social advice distancing measures. Tip For additional information, visit www.cdc.gov/flu or call 1-800-CDC-INFO to stay in- formed and be prepared to respond when an influenza pandemic occurs.
34 34 | All-Hazards Preparedness Guide Radiation CDC has a key role in protecting the public’s health in an emergency involving the release of radiation that could harm people’s health. Below are some steps you can take to better prepare. What Is Radiation? ¾ Radiation is a form of energy that is naturally present all around us. Different types of radiation exist, some of which have more energy than others. ¾ Radioactive material is a substance that gives off radiation ¾ How Can Exposure Occur? People are exposed to small amounts of radiation every day, both from naturally ¾ curring sources (such as elements in the soil or cosmic rays from the sun), oc and man-made sources. Man-made sources include some electronic equipment ( such as older television sets), medical sources (such as x-rays, certain diagnostic tests, and treatments), and from nuclear weapons testing. ¾ The amount of radiation from natural or man-made sources to which people are exposed is usually small; a radiation emergency (such as a nuclear power plant acci dent or a terrorist event) could expose people to small or large doses of radiation, depending on the severity of the incident. What Happens When People Are Exposed to Radiation? ¾ Radiation in large doses can affect the body in a number of ways, and the adverse health ef fects of exposure may not be apparent for many years.
35 All-Hazards Preparedness Guide | 35 Before a Radiation Emergency Occurs Create an all-hazards supply kit (pages 7-8) and communication plan (pages 10-11). • • Your community should have a plan in place in case of a radiation emergency. Check with community leaders to learn more about the plan and possible evacuation routes. Check with your child’s school, the nursing home of a loved one, and your employer to see • what their plans are for dealing with a radiation emergency. During a Radiation Emergency During and after a release of radioactive materials, local, state and federal authorities will • monitor the levels of radiation and determine what protective actions to take. • The most appropriate action will depend on the situation. Obtain your all-hazards supply kit and communication plan and stay • tuned to local radio or television station for information and instructions from local health officials. • If a radiation emergency involves the release of large amounts of radioactive materials, you may be advised to “sh elter in pla ce,” wh ich means to stay in your home or office ; or you may be advised to move to another location. If You Are Ordered NOT To Evacuate: Shelter-In-Place Refer to pages 13-14. • If You Are Ordered To Evacuate: • Take only essential items, your all-hazards supply kit, and communication plan with you. Follow the directions that your local health officials • provide. Leave the area as quickly and orderly as possible. • Take pets only if you are using your own vehicle and going to a place you know will accept animals. Emergency vehicles and shelters usually will not accept animals. After a Radiation Emergency • Listen to a NOAA weather radio, or bat tery-powered radio, or t elevision for the lat est emergency information. Use the telephone only for emergency calls. • • Return home only when safe. health officials say it is local
36 36 | All-Hazards Preparedness Guide Tornado Knowing what to do when you see a tornado, or when you hear a tornado warning, can help protect you and your loved ones. During a tornado, people face hazards extremely high winds and risk being struck by flying and falling objects. After from tornado, a the wreckage left behind poses additional injury risks. Although nothing can be done to prevent tornadoes, there are actions you can take to protect your health and safety. Know Your Local Warning System ¾ A is issued when weather conditions favor the formation of tornadoes, for tornado watch example, during a severe thunderstorm. • Stay t uned t o l ocal r adio and T V s tations or a N ational O ceanographic and A tmos- pheric (NOAA) Weather Radio for further weather information. Administration Watch the weather and be prepared to take shelter immediately if conditions worsen. • ¾ A tornado warning is issued when a tornado funnel is sighted or indicated by weather radar. You should obtain your all-hazards supply kit and communication plan and take • shelter immediately . Before a Tornado • Create an all-hazards supply kit (pages 7-8) and communication plan (pages 10-11). • Strengthen the areas of connection between the wall studs and roof rafters with hurricane clips ahead of time. • Shut off utilities (Gas, Electric, & Water). • Arrange and secure items such as furniture away from windows, pictures, or glass. • Move heavy objects to lowest shelves and secure large pieces of furniture and cabinets if possible. Plan ahead and pick a place where persons can gather if a tornado is headed your way. • One basic rule is A VOID kill. An exploding window can injure or WINDOWS.
37 All-Hazards Preparedness Guide | 37 During a Tornado If you are under a tornado warning, seek shelter immediately. Although there is no completely safe place during a tornado, some locations are much safer than others. Here is how you can remain safe in the following locations. In a Vehicle, Trailer, or Mobile Home • ST AY IN A VEHICLE, TRAILER, OR MOBILE NOT HOME DURING A T ORNADO. These DO items can turn over during strong winds. Even trailers and mobile homes with a tie-down system cannot withstand the force of tornado winds. A HEAD. I f • y ou liv e in a m obile hom e, go t o t he lowes t fl oor of a near by building, PLAN one with a basement. If preferably there is no shelter nearby , lie flat in the nearest ditch, ravine, or culvert and protect your head with an object or with your arms. you DO NOT TRY TO • A TORNADO IN YOUR CAR. If see a tornado, stop your OUTRUN vehicle and get out. Do not get under your vehicle. Follow the directions for seeking shelter outdoors (see next section). Outdoors If you are caught outside during a tornado and there is no adequate shelter immediately avail - able: • Avoid areas with many trees. • Avoid vehicles. • Lie down flat in the nearest ditch, ravine, or culvert. • Protect your head with an object or with your arms. After a Tornado • to a NOAA weather radio, battery-powered radio, or television for the latest emer- Listen gency information. • Use the telephone only for emergency calls. Return home only when local health officials say it • safe. is Helmet and Tornado Statement continues to recommend, CDC its first recommen - as dation, that people in the path of a tornado find a shelter or a tornado-safe room. The safest place in the home is the interior part of a basement. If possible, get under something sturdy such as a heavy table or workbench. If outdoors, lie down in a gully or ditch. We understand that people are looking for any useful and effective ways to protect themselves. We don’t have research on the effectiveness of helmet use to prevent head injuries during a tornado, but we do during know that head injuries are common causes of death tornadoes. CDC has long made the recom - mendation that people try to protect their heads. Because the time to react may be very short, if people choose to use helmets they should know where they are and have them readily accessible.
38 38 | All-Hazards Preparedness Guide Tsunami Tsunamis are a series of enormous ocean waves generated by large undersea such as a major earthquake on the sea disturbances, or a landslide. T sunamis floor can occur on any ocean shoreline and can strike suddenly, violently, and without warning. Below are some steps you can take to better prepare. Before a Tsunami • Create an all-hazards supply kit (pages 7-8) and communication plan (pages 10-11). • Create an evacuation plan and practice this plan with everyone in your household. • Know your community’s warning systems and disaster plans, including evacuation routes. • If an earthquake occurs and you are in a coastal area, turn on your battery-powered radio to learn if there is a tsunami warning. If schools in your area require you to pick up your children, be aware routes may be barri - • caded our jammed. • If you are ordered to evacuate, follow the directions that your local health officials provide. Leave the area as quickly and orderly as possible.
39 All-Hazards Preparedness Guide | 39 During a Tsunami st Obtain all-haz ards supply kit and com munication plan and your ay tuned • to local radio or television station for information and instructions from health officials. local Move inland to higher ground immediately. Pick areas • 100 feet above sea level or go as far as 2 miles inland, away from the coastline. • Stay away from beach areas. NEVER go down to the beach to witness a tsunami coming to shore. Save yourself – not • possessions. your • Help others that require special assistance such as infants, children, elderly people, and individuals with functional needs. • Stay out of any building with surrounding water. Flood water can cause damaged floors and structurally to collapse. walls After a Tsunami Listen • a NOAA weather radio, battery-powered radio, or television for to the latest emer-gency information. • home only after local health officials tell you it is safe. Return • Go to a designated shelter if you have been told to evacuate or feel your home is unsafe. • Avoid disaster areas and debris in the water. Tip: Natural Warning Signs • Severe ground shaking from local earthquakes may cause tsunamis. • As a tsunami approaches shorelines, water may recede from the coast, exposing the ocean reefs and fish. floor, • Abnormal ocean activity, a wall of water, and an approaching tsunami create a loud “roaring” sound similar to that of a train or jet aircraft. don’t If you experience any of these phenomena, wait for official evacuation orders. Immedi - ately leave low-lying coastal areas and move to higher ground.
40 40 | All-Hazards Preparedness Guide Volcano You can do many things to protect yourself and your loved ones from the dangers eruption can cause. V olcanoes can volcanic produce ash, t oxic gases, flash - a of hot water , and debris called floods lahars, lava flows, and fast-moving flows of hot gases and debris called pyroclastic flows. Although some volcanic threats can occur with little or no notice after an eruption occurs, there are some actions you can take beforehand to protect yourself and your loved ones. Before a Volcanic Eruption • Create an all-hazards supply kit (pages 5-6) and communication plan (page 8). • Purchase a N-95 respirator (or a multi-use dust mask as a last resort). directions you are ordered to evacuate, follow • If your local health officials provide. the Leave the area as quickly and orderly as possible. During a Volcanic Eruption Obtain your all-hazards supply kit and communication plan and stay tuned to local radio • from station for information and instructions or local health officials. television Follow evacuation orders as issued by local authorities. • If you are unable to evacuate, protect yourself from falling ash by remaining indoors with • doors, windows, and ventilation ducts closed until the ash settles. • Help others that require special assistance such as infants, children, elderly people, and individuals with functional needs. After a Volcanic Eruption Listen to a NOAA weather radio, battery-powered radio, or television for the latest • emergen- cy information. you Return home only after local health officials tell • it is safe. • Go to a designated shelter if you have been told to evacuate or feel your home is unsafe. • Stay indoors if at all possible. If you must go outdoors, use a respirator, dust mask or damp cloth over your face. • Avoid driving in heavy ash fall unless absolutely required.
41 All-Hazards Preparedness Guide | 41 Wildfire from wildfires is a mixture and fine particles from burning trees Smoke of gases and other plant materials. Smoke can hurt your eyes, irritate your respiratory system, and worsen chronic heart and lung diseases. To keep yourself and your loved ones safe, you should wildfire-related problems and know how to prevent what to do if wildfire threatens your area. Before Wildfire Threatens • Create an all-hazards supply kit (pages 7-8) and communication plan (pages 10-11). • to a NOAA weather radio, battery-powered radio, or television for the latest emer- Listen gency and evacuation information. • Follow the instructions of local health officials. • Back your car into the garage or park it in an open space facing the direction of escape. Shut doors and roll up windows. Leave the key in the ignition. • Close garage windows and doors, but leave them unlocked. Disconnect automatic garage door openers. • Confine pets to one room. Make plans to care for your pets in case you must evacuate. • Arrange temporary housing at a friend or relative’s home outside the threatened area. If you are sure you have time, take steps to protect your home: • Indoors • Close windows, vents, and doors with noncombustible window coverings and heavy drapes. Remove lightweight curtains. • Shut off all utilities (e.g. water, electricity, and gas) if possible.. • Open fireplace damper. Close fireplace screens. • Move flammable furniture into the center of the home away from windows and sliding glass doors. • Turn on a light in each room to increase the visibility of your home in heavy smoke. Outdoors Seal attic and ground vents with noncombustible coverings. • • Turn off propane tanks. • Place combustible patio furniture inside. • Connect the garden hose to outside taps. • Set up a portable gasoline-powered pump. • Place lawn sprinklers on the roof and near above ground fuel tanks. Wetting the roof may help if it is shake-shingled. • Wet or remove shrubs within 15 feet of the home.
42 42 | All-Hazards Preparedness Guide During a Wildfire Obtain supply kit and communication plan and stay tuned to local radio • your all-hazards or television station for information and instructions from local health officials. • If advised to evacuate, do so immediately. Wear protective clothing — sturdy shoes, cotton • clothing, long pants, a long- or woolen sleeved shirt, gloves, and a handkerchief to protect your face. Tell someone when you left and where you are going. • • Choose a route away from fire hazards. for changes in the speed and direction of Watch fire and smoke. After a Wildfire • If you are with burn victims, call 9-1-1 or seek help immediately. Cool burned areas with cool, sterile water and cover with a loose sterile dressing to reduce the chance of further injury or infection. Listen to a NOAA weather radio, battery-powered radio, or television • for the latest emer- gency information. • Return home only after local health officials tell you it is safe. • Go to a designated shelter if you have been told to evacuate or feel your home is unsafe. • If you remained at home, or return home, check the roof immediately after the danger has passed. Put out any fires, sparks, or embers and check the attic for hidden embers. • Re-check for smoke and embers throughout the house several hours after the fire. Hot spots can flare up without warning. • If you detect heat or smoke, evacuate immediately.
43 All-Hazards Preparedness Guide | 43 Winter Weather winter warm and drop significantly below normal, staying When temperatures safe can become a challenge. Exposure to cold temperatures, whether indoors or outside, can cause serious or life-threatening health problems. Infants and the elderly are particularly at risk, but anyone can be affected. To keep yourself and your loved ones safe, you should know how to prevent cold-related health problems and what to do if a cold-weather health emergency arises. Before Winter Weather • Create an all-hazards supply kit (pages 7-8) and communication plan (pages 10-11). • Spread rock salt or alternate environmentally safe products on walkways, steps, and driveways. • Place snow shovels and other snow removal equipment in an easily accessible location. • Store an adequate supply of dry, seasoned wood for your fireplace in a dry and easily accessible location within your home. • Listen to your radio and other local news channels for critical information and weather alerts. • Bring pets indoors and move livestock to sheltered areas.
44 44 | All-Hazards Preparedness Guide During Winter Weather Listen a NOAA weather radio, battery-powered radio, or television for the latest emer- • to gency information. Stay indoors. If you must go outside, walk carefully on snow • covered walkways as ice may form underneath. ov erexertion when shoveling Avoid . O verexertion can br ing • snow a heart attack on — a major cause of death in winter. • Keep dry. Change wet clothing frequently to prevent the loss of body heat. • Watch for signs of frostbite. • Drive only if absolutely necessary. If you must drive, inform someone of your destination, route, and expected time of arrival. • If you get stuck, stay in your vehicle until help arrives. After Winter Weather Listen to a NOAA weather radio, • battery-powered radio, or television for the latest emer- gency information. • Go to a designated shelter if you have been told to evacuate or feel your home is unsafe. • Continue to p rotect you rself fro m fro stbite a nd h ypothermia b y w earing w arm, l oose-fitting, lightweight clothing in several layers. • Stay indoors, if possible. Winterize Your Vehicle • Check your antifreeze levels, battery and ignition system, brakes, exhaust system, heater and de-froster, lights and hazards, oil, thermostat, and windshield wiper equipment. • Install good winter tires with adequate tread. • Maintain at least a half a tank of gas during the winter season. a winter emergency kit in • Have vehicle: shovel, windshield scraper , small broom, flash - your light, battery powered radio and extra batteries, water, food, matches, extra hats, socks, and mittens; first aid supplies; all-purpose utility knife; blanket; tow chain or rope; road salt or sand; jumper cables; emergency flares; and a fluorescent distress flag.
45 For more information about CDC’s emergency preparedness and response activites, go to www.cdc.gov/phpr.