altemeyer The Other Authoritarian Personality

Transcript

1 Council. pqcmr? rrisricol ~rhsrr~r~~ ! '. DC: U. S, Igron, I .st[rti.slic.v IYQ, ng Ol'lice. New York: 190). Other "Authoritarian Personality" The Manitoba, Winnipeg. Canada of University Altemeyer Bob team an not include did his Sanford and While from those haunting, your memories up ull "authoritarian their in of dunzinario17" model trait I! rallies. A spectacular scenes of the Nuremberg "au- the prefascist personality to complement the crowd of ardent Nazis fills the stadium on huge thoritarian submission" trait that appear, it is did on Day. while Adolf Hitler feasts the podium Party clear from that the Fascism Scale on several items see the their adoration. on "To the of films the research team thought per- the authoritarian be recaptured is to Nuremberg rallies even today sonality would submit both arid dominate. the hypnotic effect of by thousands of march- men the bicycle rider metaphor sti!l-cited Adorno's of ing in music of the massed perfect order. The who waist bows from the and the up kicks from bands, . the flags and forest of standards thc . . (if you overlook the sums waist down it up F~ct of unity was irresistible" of of force, sense power, that one anything when pedaling does not at kick (Bullock p. 1962, 379). a bicycle). unity and force, that power, decade A after all and a awed the world, the worst war in histoly leaders stood Nazi of the later, many Holocaust against humanity. for crimes Nuremberg trial in I. The Submissive Personality of the ravaged upon horrors As the world learned Europe Reich, people to trying grasp Third the by But to research on a funny thing happened the and barbarity the millions of deaths asked, authoritarianism after never 1950. stud- It almost "Why?" many domination, ied the on but instead focused people our in to had al- Fromm Er-ich psychoanalyst, A (1941), qociely who seem ready to submit ready given He Nazi the that argued answer. an makes focus This a Hitler. wanna-be in scnse that democracy are tyrants comical figures on in a just regime arose from a sickness in the German people. The leaders on the podium at the Nuremberg ral- they soapboxes when have no following. So the the coiled in parts popula- of real fascist threat lay faithful followers be- of lies and the vast crowds : thought, someday to cata- tion itself, it was ready of two faces allegedly manifested the them fore 1 I Hitler next the power with their votes. So to pult ill- the sadistic-masochistic personality. This one lock- groups, Fromm proposed, both drove ness investigators studied submitters. the a dominance-submissive authori- them ing into Research has since painted a fairly clear pic- / 1 tarian embrace. most vulnerable to the appeal of ture those "a of on man horseback." psychoanalytic and explanation This in the Right- theory A< measured by 1 (RWA) Authoritarianism Wing general helped shape the famous "Berkeley" re- (Altemeyer, scale I on search program (Adorno, authoritarianis~l~ 1988, 1981, ver- 1996; see Exhibit 1 for the latest Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, 1950). & Sanford, sion), right-wing authoritarians believe strongly I

2 86 r Psychology Political submission to established authorities in and the kinds of religious training have some that certaln They also social norms these authorities endorse. a times helped their produce ethnocentrism believe in aggressing against whotnever these au- authoritarianism. observ- target. personality structure. This thorities more High RWA5' thinking. memc on based explained by early adulthood and better able by told have what authorities of zation than them social learning than by psychoanalytic is theory. independent. tends to critical appraisal. to develop during adolescence from ear- thought unintegrated. highly compartmentalized, and r lier obedience, conventionalism, and in training ma inconsistencies. Authoritarians harbor with modified subse- individual's the by as aggression, hypocrisies-seemin& double standards and experiences. quent without realizing it-which lead them to "speal Adult authoritarians tend to be highly ethno- out of their mouths" from one citua of both sides centric and heavy users of the "consens~~al valida- procla' another. to tion For example, they will I In tion pill" (Newcomb, 1961). They travel in tight democracy love dr the at of and patriotism their 'OP circles like-minded people so much, they often of ready to chuck also seem they Rut a hat. of m~ ost in held are commonly society, think their views of the of Rights, and no matter how many tin Bill les they or that the "Silent are the "Moral Majority" Pledge the say they ofAllegiance, they never set miss the evidence been hard has Majority." It to and justice for "with coda, its to notice a liberty EXHIBIT Right-Wing Authoritarianism Scale 1997 The 1. of gcneral public opinion concerning a variety of social issues.You will probably find I This survey is part of' an investigation statements, and with others. to varying extents. Please indicate your reaction to e you agree with some of the rii,sacqr.i,e following the according to bubble sheet. the blackening a bobble on by statement scale: if you very .strorrg!): disagree with the statement. -4 Blacken the bubble labeled with disa,qrec tlie statement. stronglj -3 if you nioclercrtc,ly wit11 the'statement. disagrce -2 if you if you disajirec with the statement. -I .rli,qhtlv with the agree +I if you .slightly statement. the bubble labeled Blacken if you statement. a,qreP with the +2 ~nodc,ratelv +3 you srron~k agree, with the statement. if +4 if you ver;r. stronglj ogwe with the statcrnent. If you exactly and precisely an item. blacken the "0" bubble. fccl rlerctral about I very parts of a statement. For example. you might reactions to different have sometimes different You may find that you ( one idea in >I statement, but slightly agree (+I) wit11 another idea in the same item. When strongly disagree (-4) wit11 this t reactions, and write down how you feel "on balance" (i.e., a -3 your case). combine happens, please in this established authorities gencrally turn out to be right The 1. way ourcountly can get through the crisis 7. ah1 The only the radici~ls and protectors are usu- things, while about to is to get back tot our traditional vdlues, put some their ignorance. off n~ouths" showing just "loud ally leaders in power, and silence the troublemakers spre 2. promise to husbancls their should have to Women obey ing bad ideas. when they get married. camps." nudist absolutely nothing wrong with is There 8. 3. will who leader country desperately needs a mighty Our 9. rwed.~ Our free thinkers who country will have the cour- destroy do has to be done what tlie radical new ways to this if upsets many age to defy traditional ways, even are ruining sinfulness that us. and people.* 4. any- Gays and lesbians are just as healthy and moral as ash Our country will be destroyed someday nolsm if we do 10. body else.* rdi- and tr: away e:~ting at the perversions our moral fiber the proper the of judgment au- better to trust It is always 5. bcliefs. tional to listen to than the thorities in government and religion be- religious should have their Everyone I. I own lifestyle, cre- to tryiug our society who are noisy rabble-rousers in dif- liefs, sexual preferences, I them rnakcs if even aritl it in ate doubt people's minds. everyone ferent from else.* and 6. others who li:~ve estab- rebelletl against Atheists tlie ,... "old-fashioned ways" and "old-fashioned values" ! The 12. no bit as good and religions are lished doubt every virtu- way to live. the best show ous as attend who church those regularly.* and those who challenged the law admire to have You 13.

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5 The 89 "Authoritarian Personality" Other best niensure of general prejudice among sider my militarism, else h conser- and punitiveness. ,thing sexism, :,, early 3). But an 1 Y- (Exhibit Manitobans "white" the usually hniinance [ism appeared as predicted when version eye- out banged scale SDO itern of the an China. Israel. Mexico. ale was tested in Canada, with the sum popping pre.judices! .71 RWA of such Liu. (Pratto, and Taiwan Zealand. ,,3W iatiius. Pratto, Levin, SDO and correlated my in Put 38. im- place and Shih. another In 1996). Bachrach, & ~ should guarantee that French language rights exist Sikhs who the in- 4. If turh:lns join wcar RCMP want to cross the country.* the usual hat, fine.* that's stcad of certain train to limc jobs: wastc a is It 15. of r;iccs for good many 11 is good to livc 5. il coilnlry where thcre ac so ill don'^ simply they equal." it takes determination and have the drive i minority ant1 Blacks, Asians, as such groups present, complicated skill. a to learn as much as :quais I ;~boriginals.:% Japanese, as Canada has much are who 16. the fro111 fear to equally.)* :d from too the wrong sorts entirely many people 6. are Thcre ;IS they are ambitious. cruel trics as equals.:r places being into of Canada adrnittcd now. interm:~rriagc with wrong nothing is There 17. the among and Islam Buddhism, Hinduism. likc religions "Foreign" 7. races.:' just things all Christianity, considered." ;ire as ns good scoring rc- is key c should 1s. protcsling keep people Ahoriginal demonstrat- I nd con-rmit itcms. are a :iboriginal group people dishon- lazy, naturally 8. As jus~ in Canada." ing un~il they get treatment frotil blcmcnls Pratlo est. and lawlcss. spoilcd; im- to if they really wanted 19. Many minorities arc n "A< ped: counlry'.: we Ict over the world into our all people from 9. The morc wclfure. prove Ilicir lives. they would gct,iobs and gct off lo th~. channeled bc country, the he~ter.* 20. It is a sad persecuted many minorities have been fact that s~ayed fcrior groups 10. Black are. by their na~ure. more violent and "primi- pcople very our country, sollie arc still lreated in unfairly.* and tive" than others. I 1. Jcws can hc trusted as much ;is everyo~ic else.'" indicates I?. peoplc from India who have recently come to Canada Norr.* The :I con-~r;~ir ircm. for which the scoring key is rcvcrsed.

6 'SL' .rapuaf) paisooq aql iira!n!~~aos 01 '9661 '.~aLaurailv) alens urs!.rluanourllg eqol!ucIq 3nue .alcns 9667 aqL urs!~o!.r~cd s!rl puu 'uaurom OL. jo leA aql alqe!lal jo jso~u pau!c~dxa u!r?Sr! .I pue 'sy3r?18 'slenxasomoq ~su!cSa an!pn[a~d ~LUC~ ISJ!+J ,;x!s d!llnm uaq~ ~MX r!arlL 'oas 1oj awes ail1 la2 no/( 'aldures sllrisal runs,, arll jo sa.rnscaru s'pnc[.rc+~a11\1 :salqcl.rcA 1a8.11?1 Jnoj .aleas nayL auren aql Icuo!lnq!r1lv IC]!xaldmo3 ~IIM sl! Li!p![ma[qt?uo!~sanb u! s!ql rus!~o!.rlcd s,lapaax (9861) 'zapueura,~ 'uos.~a~ad puc sarons puc 'sia2lcl puc 'leu aql 01 do.rp naqano ".rarln]a[+J 'sne~o~!~~ luau1 'paMolloj st? p!p -!3!loqv 'ws!~ioanourl~g paz!p.reput?]s aql Su!ppe napco.rq a~!lna1103 (~661) s,.ray30.1-~ rrraalsg-jlas uo!lez!le.rarra3 .rod s!scq aqi -n.rlsu! j~ no/( Xq 01 s!ql .4u!lrrnonnc ppe Lluo sa!urrad '8861 'dd I '96 I I-LS '(09 uauelqn? Plrc 1-56 aql puc Kru non ssausnoalqS!r-jlasjo '.raLauraj[v) salens Su!u!cura.r aqL '9~' ol .I a[d!llnur alnseaw yea aapira9 .salcmaj p1.10~ sno.ra4uca Lru jo UO!~A~.I ueql c paJams axpn[a.rd aroru 4u! alcn~ su~a3uon sluapnls -ue -,woqs ir!e8c uaqJ 'alaq ~LUI?H~SS,I~~[~~S rno salcm qi!~ LI! 'p.r!ql paiclalirn 01 ucSaq jo ~I!M (cluauruo.r!Aua sapnl!ilv c La~~ns .an!pnra.rd ~cy~) 's! .r!arll ald!llnur .I palcnba ('1~' aqL palrrnonoe aSny.71?d r? sn VM~ '1aIyooq palaldiuon OM] sLcp '.ralul puonas 1p.13~0 JO %OS .roj 'sisal .ramstre 01 asail1 I[I? lcnba puc prrc 'sanue!.rcn punoj lcql OaS sunaru I! TOO] salnu!ur 09-0s SIuapnlwsour 'suo!lnn.rlsu! 01 sa.103~ alp SU!Z~~.I~~III?IS r31~e -un .roj IOJILI~~ .lalyooq papua arnscaur urs!n!lor~nLsd ql!~ ail1 .rnoj '(,,rues rtres s~pirr!1~c~n11\1 s1w1 JO jo wns,?) s.ynuasLg (9~67) puc .luaiun.rls ynuasLg tuns asuws!p v uo!ssar2a.r .pir!qaq jo arll s!s/(lcuc s,3.1aquasoa (~961) uraalsg-jlas -u! 1s Jnoj VM~ aql Sir!~ea[ 'salnscairr la8.rc1 'paMo1 tray] alcns aql lsaq -104 sarons s,ua!ra.O (~661) paaN JOJ a.rninn.rlS alcns :~I!M sd!qsiro!ir!~a.r 11cla.40 peq ayJ anlei\,, ,;sadK~ 'ral(crlnS 's4ir!pu!j s,uoslapv 'pLog 'sauucrlo~ pue s prrt?pirr!l.re+~n11\1 $0 (~661) U! srrla]! ay] jo 95 aJnsearrr \z].1cmi13~ 'sa.rtiscaur arll sllnsa.1 d1Suo.11~ ,..,~3!1ds.r 1) s,ncldad altos 'pa.readde pire lsnf EL^ 11" pl.ro,y, rll~m axpnfa~d 2u!u!eldxa JOJ sv A~!~trros.rad 'aJnscaur alcss puc ail] puc tr!qna uaqL OaS panunoq 'Knua]s!suon .i!q c al!nh lnoqr! lsal leu.ralu! sc llaM sr! s~! r! 13a~a.r aql q12ual jo Jo aql VhiX '(2661 9661 Lq PaM0lIo.l lIo!sJaA all1 ius!IQuarircp 'ra2~aqsun~ 78 .~aLawallv) alt?ns 'scqdlc a.rnscaur jo ~ms!~o!.rlt?d /(1!1!qc!laH M ql!~ ucSaq lalyooq arl] uo!ssas -unj sno!S!la~ c aql puc 'salcns urs!n!loqnLsd puc p[.roh\ ol c snld 'pasn pnq uoslapv ls.ry arll ul .slaqlo "25 Su!aq sno!ldanxa ar11 'suo!lcla.r.lon wal!.ra1u! aql jo isoru jo pur! ayl slsaj pucl.lc+~3p~ suo!slaA 1c.11 ,Juu3 palsod salcns aql jo ~sow ilT~sa~alu! Caql pa.ra~stm 341 ~uaw!.radxa 4i1!.1np qn!q~ 1lnj aql sarnseaw &paw puc aql sd!qsuo!l~:la.r jo -ua3 uo!ssas-o~l sluapnls v u! LSo~oqnhsd K.rolnnporl 30 qqc~ 'p I sluasa.rd aqi n!.riaruoq3Lsd sa!lrado~d -(I! I K~yn!nb 'pa~cu!ase+~ paAloAu! psf i?qol!ur?j/y papq sjund!n!lmd ,ala1dmo3 ol aql rrrs!n!loqoLsd 'ainns ~[n!q,n 0,221 paJ.rnoso ql!~ ssol clr?p 1saZ~cl aqL '2u~qlL~a,ta Lllcnl.~!~ pa.rams .a[qclaru!~ -ire sluapnls aq] .Icnsn Ll!sla~!un sy ucql '(salwraj paxp 101s alnir!rrr-SL uoou.rauc Sql Su!.rnp llcq a.rnl trr uc S~~I?UI Su!aq -nfard Su!u!cruar salens qi!~) aroiu 'Su!sooq:, sdno.19 u! lnoqqo 0~1 LI! c -331 paAlas aql1lejo pcarp 's~uapnls aq1 Suowe lxau uo!~cnba payluap! limo jo '..raqurnu la.rsas,, c Lq Lluo r!arll aql p~ul .l~dLil .[il?s LII '~ncj ~apua4 pa.ralua S~I~~JS yn!q.~ pa1sanba.r 0 01 9 .sa!lda~ aqL 'sluapnls 'arns .sisal ~~.I~III~ILI q.7riu1 anuo onu asaql .il~~n~ios.ia(i 01 -mu ssausnoa~q4!~-jlas aql pup 'sasuodsar 6 0 .I ald!l AJIIIO auoN .aldmcs qnca u! pg jo ay1Ji s!seq ldanxa aq] anlch adL1 'salens qn!qm Pal!,?!los -1nru quaur e dl1 paA.ras pile JO an!pnfa.rd IlcraAo 11~ jo at11 sisal a.ram pa.ramsur: uo c p- 01 b+ -4as uo!ssa~4a.r 's!sKlcuc Lay1 pau!cldxa lual>jj!p 1aAzsrrn 01 salnir!ur 05-op wapnls 'lalyooq s!rll olu! pue '(LO' os uaqm noK payirn~d uaqj 1~') e ~oj Isour yo01 I! .suo!~~nr~su! ql!~ ~cul!u!w paau Llarcq pa13auuon~a)u! sisal o~t1 aqL '~t' c paqslou '19ljooq arll La~.rns nrqde~2oruap r! puc alcns papua j0 Ilc.ra,to 'an!pnCa.rd a[!qM v,ux SlaMSlIr! xapu! I ) scalolS .anuci\qa.r .rayl.~nj aoj lsa1 "!"uv (9~6 qym 05. palc[alron lnoqc puclrr?gsp~ puc s'uoslapv 01 paMO[lOj naqano ~.II?MOI puc s~r!u!2~roqc 'asaql pa~o-rd OaS .saldrucs qloq u! aldru!s L[.ralln saao~ u~or4auroq salnscaur JO (5~-tz sapnl!nc .dd put? Llacu4 a~!nb uaaq a~cq plnoo rlo!qnz sl[nsaJ aql

7 TABLE 4.1. of the September 1996 Study Results pro~erties Preiudice Psychometric toward . . I Mean inter-item No. of of Corr. with Corr. \ "Sum Alpha Homosex. Blacks Women Patriotism "Sum of Sam" Six" Scales dom. RW items corr. social 14 .84 -42 .52 .49 .28 .29 .59 - .22 Orientation Social Dominance .59 .29 .92 .61 .30 Right-Wing Authoritarianism .14 .51 .49 .22 - 30 .38 World .08 .59 -.05 -.07 -.08 .07 -.03 -.03 -.02 .I2 Just 16 12 -.01 .84 .ll .09 for Structure .04 .10 .10 .06 .34 Need .31 .05 .37 .04 -.05 .07 .07 .84 .08 .07 .01 Self-Esteem 10 25 .10 .72 .28 .35 .43 Psychoticism .38 .38 .34 -.01 .03 Collective Self-Esteem .29 .86 -.07 -.20 -. 17 .12 -.I2 -.I4 -.08 .04 16 28 .26 -.23 -.27 -.31 -.I7 -.33 -.31 -.I9 -.I7 Attributional Complexity .91 Value: Conformity 4 -42 .74 .08 .02 -.04 .02 .03 .04 .OO .40 Security .23 7 .66 .OO -.04 -. 1 1 .14 -.01 .02 .03 .17 Power .44 5 .22 .26 .80 .21 .29 .34 .43 .33 .09 Achievement 6 .37 -.08 .OO .77 -.08 .07 -.03 -.03 .01 .OO Hedonism 2 .48 .64 -. 1 1 .07 -.01 .21 .06 .07 -.25 .17 Stimulation 3 .48 .73 .OO .06 .06 .10 .07 .09 .10 -.09 Self-Direction .32 6 -.09 -.28 .73 -.I8 -.06 -.21 -.I9 -.27 -.13 Universalism .32 8 -.35 .79 -.32 -.I7 -.I6 -.34 -.33 -.31 -.I7 Benevolence 7 .42 -.I 0 .83 -.lo -.21 -.I8 -.lo -.I7 -.20 .19 Traditionalism 5 .35 .15 .72 .16 .05 -.02 .I3 .12 .51 .04 Spirituality .26 .56 4 .04 -.02 -.01 -.I2 -.02 -.02 -.08 .26 20 .35 .92 Religious .18 .22 -.04 .28 .26 .04 .77 Fundamentalism .44 Dangerous World .29 .85 .24 .08 .03 -.05 .10 .17 .OO .49 14 Self-Righteousness .46 .87 .47 .19 8 .ll .34 .34 .13 .63 .23 Anomie 5 .24 .60 .15 .22 .09 -.06 .13 .21 .01 .20 Subject's Sex - - .42 .24 .54 .10 .45 .45 .29 .09 - toward 10 .62 .94 .42 .61 Prejudice Homosexuals Blacks .29 .74 .52 .30 8 Women 8 .85 .49 .38 .42 Patriotism 10 .63 .28 .14 .I5 Ethnocentrism 20 .90 .58 .30 .33 Attitudes toward Aboriginals 20 .42 .94 .45 .28 Attitudes Quebec toward 14 .28 .85 .I9 .20 Notes. "Sum of Sam" = sum of standardized scores on Prejudice toward Homosexuals. Blacks. Women, and Patriotism scales. "Sum of Six" = sum of standardized scores on Prejudice toward 0 Homosexuals, Blacks, Ethnocentrism. Aboriginals, and Quebec scales. Subject's sex was coded Women, = female. 1 = male. '0

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10 ,.'I!JIJ~P un.1 111auru~a.\o9 aqt 101 as!n\ s! I! oarlm u 01 am unJ laS1oj moq Lunm sa!uedmo3 'I!C.I aq1 -!.rd sassau -ua~r~o:, jo sa: II~I~ suo!lPnl!s s,nq l[!h\ ,CIII!J.I~ 1~5ptiq "r11 .Aurouoaa p;l5uv >~sr[.~ nro 3q1 S)U~UILIJ~AOQ UnJ P[llOlIS 3M L~?s OlIM aldoad 'z -!snq I(CM 01 -!.roqlni? Su! 1rxjun.II) PLID -lpg,, .,'s.Io~!I!s AJUOLII puads pur: 'Kmouona aql 111 2711 s~ai(edxl!i .suo!ll!m aql ison leql qS!q soas 's .i[{ro :.,SI~II~S pn.ilonrr! 139 K2q1 11.y~ dl1 s3u!q1 yqrid,, s;l!nu2Qc waul sqo! I sqor palcan-lu3rnuJanof) .,l:u!q~ou op,, Lllunsn .I ale Su!.nolloj -qqm,. .~JSJJA "41 ~I!A\ >loss 2111 u!Zaq 1 qq!s!lja .ra1/8!y -one:, 'L a.larl1 plnoqs aq s~q~ saml uo sassau!snq u! (oo!~nq!.lis~p aq] [cs!palu 's~nn~4o.1d 'no!ionnpa pue lno I:'l)aAold~uaun ou ,,'si~caq put? ou ,si!s!lap i?r~!paalq,, '.a.!) a111 a 1) (1 yqnd 13ato~d ~aqZ!q Ll?d 01 Su![l!nz aq plnorls aldoad 'LI 01 'alsl?~ '9 s'axci sn!3ual:u plnorls aq unJ ax![ :sassau!snq ou :an aa.rqi saw!] *.pool: ,:.,C~~unos s!ql Lpnls ; u! sdno~S pa9t?iucnpcs!p 81q mlqnd aql inoqe aonp .rnica.rS Ll!lcnha JOJ wasol u! ]no a.ren iou op sa!r1edu[o3 arll air? Lla~aldruon luau1n.rano9 luamu~ano:! plnoqs auanJalu! u! .!no Xmouooa oi -o~d 'su1n.150.1d 'S aqL aqi ~ood pup at11 oqqnd 111." aq 371?1 ?S!J~JJ~U~ SlOl (,.x!le~!.~d,,) lano JO alI?~!Jd la[ '91 .11 am .L.riuno3 u! -lq%!.~ paql.rr lurlm anl?q 'paulea slatllo alnln8a~ '11 aqi s3o11li pup say ol .rno u! la3 I~!M asJoM 1cn!5oloq3Asd puads '~1 a1ea.n u1?3 ssan!snq Aluo isnrsiuauru~anot) 'q11oa~ ~I!M IU~LUUJ~AO~: IJOUI at11 't. alo,\!.rd as!~d.lalua sa.lapaiu! pau~a3rron ~IIM s,anoL~ana *,a.lqlam 'lnj!n~a~u puo sqo! pue i3alo~d Jno Ir?!nos ,;srne.~So.rd 3u!Lldir1!- .r!aili 'suori ale213 01 ~(JI?ss~~~u U3llM lqap r! 1InJ plnolls SllI~lUllJaA~t) '[ 'J!PJ aq ol aneq s111a~ulr.ra~ot) 'sassau!snq ay!l leu lor -dc Lay) op unl p1noqu~ 'SLL'MII: yqnd -ni!lsu! se 41: 'S~~I~~IUJ~AOS 'fl 1: KVM leqi aql a[oqM Arluno3 seq :pail!lauaq ui 9u!n!l Su!aq pl Ll.ruau pasp pue slaylow jo paqs!l prepucis puads ~C~LIOI~I so qaql I! SMOI~? uo ,saaJl aql slqS11 jo j! pu al!nb -yys a,\!suadxa ~c!sos 'su~s~So.~d rlytl~ Laq~ .psSn~nosua aq plnoqs suo!un ~oqe7 .Z s! -qclsa ancq oi in3 yxq 110 .lno ti~am aq 01 pua anlos ol LUM lsaq i!~!lap '[I malqo.~d scluaiuu~a~o8 aql a41 .iua!3!lja a1om q3nm pue 'suo!l!pc.ll op as!.rd~ai un3 1211aq asnooaq oo!i!iadu~on seq aperu 11 *'OP op iou Jaruloj sr! ?~nn!~d 'op ueo sa!soaZc luauru~ano8 loll1 Srr~qiLrr~j -ua s11?!3!1~o xlqnd se amn ~01x1s. sayem sayels!ur Lunur 6r~~ay3 lnq Inoc -!LllOp [F!3OS '1 I -oAauaq aq OJ qS!q ) 'b1.I -103s .sa!l!nbu! Lur I 'cno!8!13.1 LIJI:] L.rolnnpo.rlu! lscd ley1 aAcy sa!pn~s u~oqs Luo!lcu!u~op papua La~~ns n!qde~Sourap c pug puc u! ; l\ol/~ 'pod c rus!uc!.rn!Joq]nc '( IOU 1 p!p .) ( '9 ~euos.lad 'la~od 'ssauucaru paz!saqlodLq aA!lp .roj p LIU!M-~L~S!J dn lnq '(0~') sLn3 fuorur? aloiu paddo13 a3ul:u auras smal! JOJ 8u1qo~d 's~als8unoL paqs!und sc c aaq ruro.lj I a1qx 'p!p VMX -!mop [c!3os 'u!"e aouo -&' pue ~9' pcq Lay1 ualjo ~oq Inoqe uo!l /(llezi!-sLqd uaaq -UO~ I r 1cn!1!1od iio!4!1a~ SU'MOJS d~i '(,/I.-) 1nq uo paneid al!rlM 'alens -sanb ~a4uv [ciua~cd /(u puc (dunoL a[!y~) e (bo.-) JOU ~I!M s!serldura ms![cluarucpunj sno!S 'aJnscau1 sno!S![aH (dn %U!MOJ~ al!q~) s!scqdurg 30u p!p uo!lc~uapo a~ueu!iuop -!la.l ql!~ ~IG]~JJO~ cqo]!uew pal21 c 'alc3s rus!.~lua~ouq]g aql 9661 (.dno.r% ["!nos .rt?[n"!lcd Lue SU!UII?U ]noql!M salens (p -unoDua sluapnls uaql .pamo[loj ~!q!i s]! dn sapd alcss ail] suo!lcla.rJon sca.raqhz OaS 's1cnxasoruoH pJr puc 3!urouo3g Lqdosol!qd suo!luam 'su~al! IcJaAas u! s[cnxasomorl I! sc 'Su! ~MH puc OaS 9q1 wrnsnaru sapnl!nv LIAJ 1 -s!ldlns 1011 s! s!rl~) .slcnxasouloil p.rc~ol sapnl sno!4!1a~ aql ql!~ UT 'alcns rus!lcluamupund asnunaq Suo.11~ d!qsuo!~cla~ ql!~ -!lie peal jo sl! 'sluapnls cqol!uahT aloru 9 1 1 ol lalyooq s aqJ OM] asaq] an!pn[a.~d 'saluns q]!~ y~x 8rrq" aq1 sLa~1ns lapun lalnas., .'.laqurnu -1puo3 .I: jo ]as arp ruoq anuc!mi\ salons paz!pscpuais jo urns jo 'pucq u! sSu!pa!j asaql q -un pa~a]s!u!wpr: I puc arp pau!i?ldxa Laq] .rarlla%)~ jo '(0~' %9~ 8~') slcnxasoriroq ~JI:MOI L~!~!lsoq puc (L[a~!]~adsa.l '80' lnq qloq 'LZ' pur 55') rus!.uuamuqla palxpald Lliro paiela.l.ron VM~ pue OaS .r~o!i~na~ 1: play sa! Lay .ra!l.rca aql u~olj s4u!pug -pnls aql 'llcjo ISJ!~ !nsn uo?

11 Personality" The Other "Authoritarian I 95 Spence an, Left-\?'in; Philosophy, and apretnier, of muggings, and of heroin deal- notnic ling Authoritar- on Women scale, Next ianism Scales. came an anti-Semitic "Mili- Rape (1980) Vyth ing Acceptance Burt's Scale $7 with these, which scale, tia" booklet. the ended and a I demographic survey developed after the Oklahoma .5s, .45 and The SDO and RWA scores of the 939 R~SLI/IS. City bombing (Exhibit 5). some other out tried I togethe, and A correlated .50 who answered --nts Booklet domination and personal power, meanness. items. sum of the 3f ethnocentrism, respectively, .41 with and 41. I which High in four situations presented Then . and Inter- 57 toward hostility homosexuals. with double standards had shown RWAs in the past: and . ons ships ap. abuse of election an by a left-wing power during 51% of the ecting .17, they accounted for cotin higher SDO or aright-wing provincial government combined (Altemeyer, standardized prejudice of the variance : no such dif- ,cores. did High studies, earlier RWAs in As not p. 1981. ver- Canada leave right to Quebec's 323). sus Montreal's right to leave a seceding Quebec. (.00). .le The than they oth- think prejudiced more would prove - /-- vari- o either SDOs. to some - knew .02). extent, But high sentencing a or prohomosexual an antihomosexual (1 era i scores cane (.28). would opponent demon- upon attack an led activist who they :ss educated about the other Social domi- hat measures? either strators, and sentencing panhandler a or an W no re- 10 had .35 and .20 e and authoritarianism correlated the attacked accountant who other after a sidewalk nancl Finally, high argument. (Accordingly, versions two Booklet of "radicals." help persecute to willingness .I2 with Inore church Trials 32 with sentences handed out in the parents judged B were distributed to homes. In one, . and 13). I-. and .32 with acceptance of myths tion, .24 a conservative government abus- of the seriousness situa -LA.. rape, to .57 with willingness and .20 and auuut to leave Canada. an right ing its power, Quebec's repeal all these While Rights. of Canada's Bill on antihomosexual who led an attack homosexu- RWA rela- expected direction, the in pointed the accountant; attacked an als, a panhandler who and tudy parents judged B stronger all tionships emerged significantly in other Booklet of version in the in the Rape Myth. Let's put that except cases back the booklet ended with the The opposite cases.) scale about question and the Religious Emphasis the rela- of for a moment, along with our minds so- ~risons of ques- variables in this tionships with the remaining up. punished physically being while growing A ~thoritarians to on go the second booklet. tionnaire, and up the task. demographic survey wrapped of about mts Mean ~esults. Militia items 12 to the responses in .s October overall in indicated these parents little stock put 2. B Booklet be answered premise the fed- the a Jewish-led conspiracy in of luthoritarian away everyone's guns and take to government eral Answered by 243 parents, Booklet B began with ., SDO, and the country. But on impose a left-wing dictatorship Fundamentalism, Religious the RWA, SDO, Eco- le Left-Wing mea- test iis lorities dedi- EXHIBIT Scale Attitudes Militia The 5. ent," aggres- to nce the Highly placed people 1. the national government are plan- in to take over the world. That is simply 8. Jews are not trying he Attitudes ning a Communist-type dictatorship soon. to impose to bigots make people a myth spread by and fear hate frec- federal to NOT 2. The plotting government is destroy 'ter-Radicals / Jews.* noc centrism dom in our country." i Our 9. national government has been taken over by homo- Jewisli-owned fi- 3. Our country is basically controlled by 1 nt was asked radical atheistic feminists, Communist-types, sexuals, nancial institutions. by and, especially, Jews. prejudiced truth, the If people knew 4. know that they'd Jcws are caus- the 10. country a much better Jews Our of place because is with the red our country. ing most of the corruption and suffering in who in live it.:" then poked taking away our rights, 5. The federal government is NOT by Jews, want Powerful I. I our elements of government, led meanness, ', our coun- nor is it conspiring to destroy democracy in the take all to guns they the people can and spirit from so to :actions a try.* us. enslave of Canada's that is There is an trying conspiracy 6. international Jewish 12. We elseon earth, anybody than almost more freedom have tse gives "it the banks, the news of to dominate world through control "lelt-wingers" is group of Jews or or and feminists no the media, movie industry, and on. so ographers, from it away take to plotting us.* It is 7. of ridiculous to think that some group Jews or any- p. :r. 1996, out else planning on selling our country is to the one sentences .t scoring the which revursed. lor is key Nore.* indicate(; a con-trait iturn. mythical "world conspiracy."* some or United Nations :ted spit- of

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14 98 Psychology Political my own invention. An up. "Mach-type" items of these I called puzzling people "Wild-Card dated version of the Manitoba scale Ethnocentrism Authoritarians." and the Militia provides wale the once again provided a broad-band measure of key them. of to understanding many respondents asking by it ended prejudice: how The preTent stucly most Wild-Card indicates prejudiced would thought they they be compared Authoritari:~ns militialike sen- have anti-Semitic rest with the my presented then I sample. of the the Of timents. in RWAs-high 25 high the LWAs personal of choicest assortment power, meanness, Booklet that sample answered B, 17 also (68%) A items. demographic dominance and survey quartile scored in the top on the Militia scale. So ended the task. seem most of these "wild-cards" to be right-wing The than considerably stronger proved results I authoritarians who overrode the preamble and had the gave I so to expect, right essentially any table-setters to the they LWA Scale because on the same class untested to another same booklet "know" the Establishment is composed Jews of take-home of answers sim- sets 177 basis. Their and accomplices who control an oppressive, their mered down the earlier findings in. when stirred plotting, gun-grabbing government. Accordingly, and the shall present merged the from results I the scan for revolutionary author- LWA scale's samples. the in authoritarianism such itarianism uncovered anti-Semitic militia-oriented High RWAs. Moving beyond the mystery of the Wild-Card Tricks New and Tricks Results: Old understandable seems more which Authoritarians, sen- militia harbors anti-Semitic overall who now, RWA SDO correlated .I I and with each other. but Of the in scored who respondents 60 the timents? .67 and 40, respectively. with Ethnocentrism. To- were High 20 on scale, Militia the quartile top they explained of gether 54% prejudice the an additional 10 RWAs, 14 and High SDOs, were due mostly to scores-obviously social domi- the were both. So right-wing authoritarianism and RWA usual, high students sel- measure. As nance two dominance-the major consorts of social prejudiced dom realized they would prove more 73% prejudice it seems-provided society our in than average but (-.02), knew usually SDOs high study. this in of the anti-Semitic Militia types would they As before, right-wing authoritar- (.44). (.80), ians tended to be religious fundamentalists teachings of their home (.52), religion the toaccept Studies G. The November 1996 Student churcll(.53). had But high attend and to SDOs no such leanings -. (-.02, 15, -.08). Males popped up Both that SDO-RWA the parent studies indicated than females among the socially domi- often more results obtained with student samples had broader nant high RWAs (.39) (.03). but not among the validity. So I prepared another booklet some for Machiavellianism The new tricks. for some Now yet-unsurveyed introductory psychology Manitoba scale had a low mean interitem correlation of. 1 l students, which Novem- in of them completed 185 .72. and an alpha = Whatever its measure, items under number" conditions. ber "secret However, with .54 correlated SDO and summed score its - had circumstances dictated that this questionnaire social relationship hefty .I8 with RWA. The with answered to be on 48-hour "take-home" basis. a dominance heft got its from such "Mach" items as As this can produce sloppy responding, I attached criminals biggest difference between most "The read. "It is a a slip of paper to each booklet that stupid are criminals that is enough and people other answer care- condition of this study that you will best way "The caught"; to get people is to handle participate not So do fully and honestly. you if hear"; "Never tell to want they what them tell to a conscientious job." cannot do stressed this I pre- unless did something the real reason you anyone in condition when describing the experiment the and so"; do it is useful to it is better all, "All in to students' class. dishon- be humble and honest than important and Religious Funda- began booklet The the with SDOs est" (with which High disagree). and Authoritarianism, mentalism, Right-Wing suspicion that high social dominators tend The Social scales. Dominance Orientation Then re- to be Machiavellian (in the generic sense) was Christie and Geis's (1970) Machiavellianism inforced by the Mach-type items I wrote, nearly ("Mach appeared, scale IV") some followed by all of which correlated with SDO scores. The stron-

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16 ins ~1 jsluapnls Ll!s~a~!rrn Suourr? "Xl!pluaur 'uo!ll?lua!Jo aqL ayl avM-dd UO!IC!~OSS~ ~I!M SI! r[8no.1qi d!qsuo!iela.r rli!~ .[c!nos a~ueo!mop auo UC~ u!l!l!ur,, n!i~aras-!lne ur! 30 sax~'1 pu~j avwdd L~ja!qD '(~9') wsyuasouqla paln!pa~d '8861 'dd '(St-Zt7 Su!aq ~a.uod 'L.rSunq 'ucaw prrc ~).8upaau!urop I '(5 G~aLarua)lv) aldoad .lahisue sKa~~ns e puonas aw!~ 01 VM~ sa.ross a.raM L[lc~u!u!u pa~sauuos iu~e?a leq~ ICllcnsn inq 'lle3 agl u! ucq~ L.I~ uaqM suaddcq pa~vaddnal In8 '(6s') qua.rcd asayl Zuoure sluap u! -nucy 'as!pn[ald Lllc.raua9 Laq] pa~o.rd ra8no~ls -111s d~qsuo!lcla.r ~IIM OaS pau!elqo qi!~ avw ql!~ 'sluapnls qnns se oas ~IIB VM~ ~r~o!lsa~uos 'aSe~a 8~0.11s -dd '88' 30 ~?qdlr? ur! Su!]ea.rs aqL sd!qsuo!wla.r asaql ~IIM paqs!lqmsa Lpea~le 30 suo!l -~c avm-dd paqsalulalu! 65;' uo sway aqi aqL -!pa Mau arll 8u!z!u!ln.r3s u! lu!od ou s! alaqL aVm .saps '(or) ~VMU qg!~~ aq (EC) soas @![I n!l!ruas-!lue c!]![!w put? ~!aq1 -g /C~O q]!~ 'slrra.rcd 3ql 01 Lsuapnai 01 uvd u! anp '(0b') pas!pnra.~d sapni!nt? /(lay![ aq 01 pahold u!~Su ~!r~rouona ah!] pasn slsai pasnds ?uourc waq] aJaM OM] L[sno!hald u~ql (.sluapn~s slualcd Sn~ploq -c~.rasuo3 Suourr? '~usu~uasouq~~ pur! avw-dd xmwmu 'oas lng r: alclarron aln!l Suowe pne slualcd VM~ .rarlS!q JO '~MX aql paluasard-3.1 ,,'pa~[o~u! saless aql u! oas tald~rrcs s!ql pel1 u! 92.30 s.101 '1elana3 LIE .I Llpasod se ICpnls Ll!l!qc!la.r ~s?la.r-lsal,, r! jo l~ed sl! -xpa.rd %'/,8~ pau!l?ldxa OMI aq~) .anun!.rt?~ 30 ar[J 'lalqooq sluapnls -dns palaMsuc ls~g Lq pl aL1sn~wICuoue /C~l~!luclsqns qi!~ 'wspluasouqlg pue ~ayla8ol 8u!~~as prrc palelal.ro3 (9.b') wyue~.~~~.~oq~n~ 3u!fi-lqS!~ L~!M lr!w.roj ,Lauroy-aynl 'Lcp-OM],, slrred!s!lmd arp anucu!ruoa (r!!ms 'alouI asuo (19') uo!leluauo pasn uurnl .sLa.i~ris 11~ aql aa.rql suo!~c?!jsa~u! pasn .'adLl .la!llca swal! '~661 pnq sasscln 3uql Su!l!s!~a~ -tic LLU paJaMsue pur? pay.rom dn woq ws!ue!l[aAe!rlncl,q -qnt?~,, sa!pnls I Llcnucr luapnls a.row aa~qi palnnpuon u! Icaomv pvq 1 ale3s (avng) L]sarroqs!a ah!lelnd!u pr? -em a~!l!oldxg 3oq ur! L~I!M Suolc 'u! paysnl 137VlAJ SCM (6861) SUlal! pal~rasa.rd U! .[RA!3lad pill? Icnxag pasodmon Xlu!r?ru) aless ~uawssc~c~ 30 u1 ural!-91 .sa[l?os pasuelcq c 'uo!l!ppt? (1v~ Xlay!['iou 01 aq qg!q ~VMX alaM ') 1 '(1 Larll 'u!cSc 'Lqdoso[ -ad pur""1~!11ua30rrqlg 'oas 'VMX pue .(6~.) pa~o.rd alom '(Es') 3!.1lrrasonq]a lng Su!u!eluon lalyooq n pa.raMs -!qd n!urouong aql paqood-qood sanss! luawssclcq Ionxas '(Es') OaS Ll3u!S!lqo -ue snr11 '1cj 'alduruxa cc .rod I siua1cd uo .1aq9!rl palons osle slna.rcd qnns .I L' Syaq uo!l aSuallaqo put! anslnd aql sSu!pug ap!M palnlde3 ol -I?laJ.103 /C~~l?llSll (JvM-dd Sl? '[IaM "1 pI?pJ-pI?IN JI?J seuls!Jq3 sLcp![oq 1 4un~ sal!cuuo!~sanb pur! 9%~ 2laM slrra~nd a~j4r-g '$38' Su! uc vrldlr: jO se sv 9661 1!aq1 uoos ruoq s~uapnls pauJnjaJ oz sl! .aSr!.ranr! aq) uo 62 palula.uonlalu! -A!S sural! SLI!LI!MI sasrrodsax 01 3q9!1 ale no.( 'S]!t?.Il jo Isau -.rain! %u!oZ d!p a.re Lllcau olrr! asnld u! s!ql ol alcns (1 ~!q!rlxg) a,i!lclnd!un~ Llsauoqs!a lelowy aql izzau 11 a.qoldx3 oo salons i~?ql asuas noL 'uo!lc~!low leuos nlap nits am aq~ adea L~IL~AJ anunda3sv ,.ra!l.rva ~!aq~ -lad 01 .r!arll yoollrio uo 'apl puc Icn!iaql!lun qn!a."~rla~ ) [ ($3~6 sapnl!liv ~JCMOI rlauroM PUP 11 s! '11~raua5 u! Ll!lmiha lnara.~ 01 pual /Carl1 asncn PUP anuads aql ql!~ az!uomloq sd!qsuo!~cla~ lsoru OaS pue sy~a '(SZ.) asaqk [cnxas luaurssc~cq -aq op aldoad '(82') ucql a.rom alcns arp uo d~rlcnba 1nafa.I ,(aq~;,s.rolnu!urop [e!nos am s.rolnu '(SS') SavW-dd D!LUOllO3a S~A!~I?AJ~SUOD '(6~') -!moa ~r!!ms Luc~u XL~M ol sl: IC~alsLm Lui? alaql s! 01 aq papua] n!.~~ua"ou~pa s') sanss! ~OQS q4!q 'UR~LU put? %u!lr!u!mop 'vaqlo rod leql 'lallcur lcnxas Iuaulssc~cq paz!m!u!ru oq~ suos~ad '(6l.) Su!l~axa JOJ 4u12q 'la~od np!~o.rd Lses sia2.ic1 .~oj uo!lnlal.ros Japna9 ql!~ pa13adxa ayl saplsag '3' sa!l!.lou!ur Iv!n s.ro~r!~r!~uop an ;,pan~pn[a.rd ycaM ur! = Su!pla!X 'aW:~a~c aql uo ZZ. palnauuo3 Pqdl~? s! a.r,7q1 Luc L.ra~sICtu o~ sc 01 -0s Xuciu os X~M sno!.ras [r!!nos (l!n.rl-uon -JXu! s! r! c-'tu~alqo~d umop ,;ql!m XCMC la2 UI:~ noX II?~M ol [nnxas,, :t'ah!lnc~lir: spug ay uo!l~?p!rn!ln! ucwom t,2~o.~~, $1 ~[e on spoq yms 3u!ql sr? .lyS!~. pue 10j rrcur 01 ayvru lcnvas sanuchpc 01 lc.rnlnu 1: c alaqj,,, .saAa!laq a.row ucqi L11l:>.1 ]sour qdoad s! aqL 1uaurssc.rcq Alrlo s! 11,. '.?a) sural! Icnxas pap!nS pcalsn! ~CJOUI 'SMCI OLIM slnar9r 3u!aq Lq YLI') orl~ lapiraa a.rour panpqns Ruourl: aql sluan!d pahold auoaluos o) alll!l sucaw ,l1as11 ssausno~~qS!~

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20 a~doad ayl?ur icy1 .sanua!.iadxa ;Crrcur pag!]uap! aAcq 'aIc3S u! q3Jcasa.r agl8u!sn ~cj dn snq1 JO uo o~ aM 'anss! aq1 snnoj ap!s aq] "a.rnl.rnu,, jo paddot1 a~cq luql s9n!pn!~ lsou~ 2u!snjuo3 3111 VM~ '9~' palenha a3uclqurasar p~!qn-raql sdlarl 'Lllcu!~ no!luiua!.ro 1c!3os anucu!nrop u!eydxa -cj aql puk 'op' sc~ u~op-am-pucq VMH pl!r1" .I!~LII u! Lpms i!ram 'auo LIMO puc 'iq9!.1 d1.12 pnv ul aql arour Surrcad s!rll -raylour Lpnls .~tyuan~ju! rlS!rl ,(lu!n1.ra~oaS .Su!ss!ur sew 'a.~om.rarll.~nj , -de jua.rcd Jaql!au ~I!M '(~9 'd '886 1 '.~aLaruallv) Ut?!Jl?l!JOLllnt? pZ!ll:aJ JaA3U 1 YU![ ~?-uI"s/C"C!~OS ,s~ua~ed .r!aqi \~r\ia salons J~AO Lnciu sa!pnls arlljo Su!ss!m uo!ss!ruqns-uo!lcu!mop aqi KI! yu!l L~I!M 0~' lnoqe paleIaJJos scq t~/s!ut~,~.im!.roylnn . OaS alu3s aql aAsq aM a.rnscarrr lsaq arp sap!~o.rd Kg Y~r!nz-~yB!n 'sluapnis 'uos!~cduron snql pa!pnls sazcrrn? 'aru saldures ~cq~ '.rcj oslv .IlwaAo jo aql aql u! lsa1 s!ql as!pn[a~d lsoru su!eldxa 'Icnsn aql pnq '(st,') .raqS!q s[aAal lnq se saleur 'paapu~ ale3s VMH arll urorj dlaq auros 33!p q]!~ aql Jel!ur!s slaAa1 jo [cpos 'a~treu!mop Lq LCM L~t?u!p.roeqxa a.rnscaru jo -1iTa.rd sey uc pasnpo.rd pue paLelds!p s.raqicj sraqloru jo sr!~?d '(E I ') ,s.ra Lueur 11 (c!z~os ~~nosnon a~~cu!mop .~oj 'srroseal rrl?ql p!p arll -r[loru jo .l!aql s,ua.rpl!q3 OC(S (op') rreo (~66 1) q.1~ la olln.~d lnoqc palyxa la8 auo Lllue3g!uS!s a.rour a~!ls!pard 'sJaql OaS pa~o.rd -cj puc aq~ Su!rr!qmo3 'st.. I I' 1" u! 'Srrn.rdsjlo s]ua!syjaos a~!lnadsar aql (pp =N) sues .rod amen Ic!nos 'a3ul?u!mop pue 1s' ql!~ .r!arll ',s.'aqlt?j ,sJa I Lag1 'paMolloj -ylour rlarll paiclai.ro3 91 ' anucu!mop Ic!nos qi!~ (09 = N) ,s1alq2nca 'sJarllcj J!aql jo ~6 puc sra st? i slapour alor 3111 puc "'s~aqsnd,, J!~L~I sv ualjo sdnqnlam l!ayljo JOJ 01 pol sluapnls -qlour ql!~ 68 JaqurnN arow a.laM pauo!luaur s.rarllr?J Inq :auo j pal .siaaqs alqqnq ,sluarud .r!aql LIO '.laqmnu s!q~ aq : pcq slua.r~?d qioq pa4c.rnon1ra r!aql saA!.rp ol lar3as,, LIMO .r!aql 111d 01 L~A.IIIS 9661 .1aqo120 aql alcy dlalnlosqe I,, ,;Su!sol q%~ soas ualjo p!cs I slua.rccl asoqM slrrapnls aql paysc I .sa! paJaMsur! pun :,,asol I~M I,, :,,Su!sol 1sa1 lou 01 Srr!qlLue op u! pa3ca lxau ail1 01 uo!~c~auaS Lm -pnls arro uloq alt?q I L~~uci.rodur! :,,Su!sol I,, -ap alt?q :G6Su!sol I,, UI?~ aq ur! oas,, 'Sutld!~3s ,,~~ucI!.I~LIu! a~nl~nu I,, a111 puc aqLcm a.loru ayq jo Su!laaj BLI!UU!M Inoqc arnleu snsJaA q8noqil.tj I! sllal sn Zu!qlou iCllea~ !,,su!,M I., tucal LLLI pue uaq~ jjo :'&u!M la2 put .lama3 jo a111 ~sluaurqs!~rnd :lcaj I aur!l Lla~a la8 I s,]~,, asncnaq 30 aql qsn.1 u! 'ajg sp1cMa.r aq1 JO a.lou1 Su!lla8 sucam .la~od jo Luo8c at11 (L[lc!mdsa) puc L.ron!~ 11!rq1 -ap jo pampa8 '~301 rarLrrut?q 'a~uassa sl! Su!i\erl 01 paq!.rssap Laql araqM qdoad lsour ucql ualjo aql 1 c aAcq sucam noL aql ME? jo Inajjg u! asnen ; aJour pamaas ol aAcy paSe2ua LI! a~!]!ladmo3 s1.rods *~a,~od Su!ploq -aq sc 8rr!3~oju!a.r sn aq rren s2u!ql I oslc dn asaql 11?~nlln3 saScssaur 'dl-lna~n Laq~ '~A!ID~JII~ pul? alcl!ru! asoql O~M aAcq .I! puv Maj L1u!n~as sro~co!urop ~c!oos os .;~IJOM s!q1 paqo!d I puc SSO~ (E961) lcll1 uarpl!qn pug ~amod 1n!3os noL KBM raiza aAa!qne LIUO U! I~!M puc s!q~,, s! aql ' rrMouy anu!s 'clnpucg 'sso~ .anrrap!i\a 2M aAeq 01 aq u! lo.~iuon ~noLjo a.mlnj u! sLXepol .,,Xla!oos c apqM paqs!und Lllw!sLqd ynn1 mj--p~!~~n $0 noL lq8nnl s! auoL~a l~!l!laduron aq ley1 aAcq 01 aql Icnsn luamoru aql .roj Su!aq-s~nadsns auo jo a~doad IUUM oi la2 pnaqc jo :.,s.raqlo AZJ,, :sy~o~ ua.42 'ool 'pucy aAcq Suo~ls 01 ascalar pcq aM j! aql p!cs qons s8u!q1 sc s!q~,, ~JOM aql LI?M s! sXnld 1c!3os Su!u~ea( Isomlc Lyu!eua3 lng c 1cr3os 'sinapnls aql s~o~~?u!rrrop aroru 40 .raqio .Sll?l 4rr!rndmo3 ~18)~ aql jO SJaMSUl? "n soas p~qnoxa"a~ :s1q8!] a3uaq Jno apop qn1 11119 LlcIdn ol .;noL 01 aq i,q!l JO saop auou jo s!rp auros .sJay]o u! annpal iCllc3.12 PUC 'sa!3ads LI! lapour ay!l s!ql lcql no/( ~.,.m i,"j!l oa noL aizcq e paa.rq 'a~!ssar22l? lucu!ruop Jo!ncqaq ol alqc uaaq 1UCl SJaqlO I! JaAO ~ah~od lUCM 01 s~!llaS U! n0L puc strnrunq aAnq Ipnq punorc a~unu!ruop srualsXs alaA3 sanua!.radxa no/( pcq lcql L~~elnn!l.n?d iodru! a.re 11c L11cnlr!~ ~Llsno!.ras lt?ur!un al!nh sa!la!nos (>MI uc3 i,Lc~ lcqi la4 noL p!p 1a~y1 .lo noiC awntr .loamuoJ!Aua slnadso~d n!1aua8 aqi aye1 plnoqs aM 1110 se noL i,aJc H pau!m ol v?aq aql .raqlo ,Mollaj uo!lnc.lalu! aql ~I!M ~aq uo La~rour jo saua? puc 3 -.I pun .sno!l!qruc Lllcuowad 'a~~l~laduron lap, soas alaqM op qS!q am(>:, ;.u~oy aql lacrus : SI? no/( JO 3.m noL yn!ql pua op XLIM.. 'iqqooq ayl ?,.. Lw JaqrnaAoN q~ pahras u! 1vLa~~ns 1sc1 r)bbl L~SIIOJ~I sluapn~s aql paqsc 1 .L~SU!-I.I~~~V .aj!j I~M JO 15 Lay] sr! un!ll:~!.rorllnl: SU!M-]~~!.I SS~I a.roru

21 The 1 "Authoritarian Personality" Other 105 "hey go if they become legitimate authorities. were sur- For example, Richard Christie and I who Jen~s then Why do high SDOs tend to end up on the prised highly with associate not did that RWA ey, at the can many I issues? social of- on "high end" RWA In Machiavellianism on scores scale. his fact, it are as 'oU three reasons. First, social fer dominators tend to usually correlated negatively. Now I that we see 'deter. conservative hold and political philoso- economic were ~~~arriers" of a misconception that goes back re? How high that shown have phies. Second, experiments one expected just We of Erich to kind Fromm. three or :) (but trust will lows) not untrustworthy RWAs a play to when in authoritarianism. role personality ly impor- So they want to hear. them what tell who people Machiavellianism fact in die- the associated with in others if-no of intended-you believe that "one offense behavior appearst0 come from high SDOs. mmrial I'..-- You want is skills a person should develop the most useful RWAs. not high you'.'" n straight look to someone how the eye and lie in mystified similarly were navid I Winter and - - 30s with convincingly," where will you find your easiest sell TAT-based his when of measure need-Power (Win- often ore you Whom do on sidle spectrum? the political on ter, 1988) proved uncorrelated with RWA. 1973, world he to and up praise the Lord'? The right-wing confusing dominators again not Want to bet 1 was "Ev- rs"; authoritarians. RWAs usually ,it11 con- may be High submitters? npetitive social dominators Third, some express could tent bow SDOs high but to to those above them, society"; established au- strong belief in submitting to the driving to are the ranks. in rise chieve in tlie RWA scale if they consider them- thorities on a final Ancient Mystery of the RWA Scale, For picked ly selves (now or someday) the authorities others and left-wing correlation positive the between hey also seem would submit should to. Hitler to have been also authoritarianism surprised me. right-~ing 3rts more the students and such role-played who a person, Now it appears the "Wild-Card Authoritarians" that the ribed scores on produced extremely his beliefs high both hostile those in detected high data were mainly de- of ny "High SDO-High scales. Such RWA and tlie SDO SDO "militia-types" inter- who RWA and high -y time I RWAs" rare, as the correlation be- are somewhat Jews, homosexu;ils, preted the Establishment as n wins"; tween only comes in around the two measures .20. feminists, and other "left-wingers." be more my 8% about sanlples did score of upper But in the "I ;"; de- and of quartiles SDO RWA both the distributions. and )sew; "dominating right-wing authoritarians" These "Authoritarians"? SDOs ? High said ften every in distinctive proved study, way. In another es be to of any scores the highest prejudice had they group Other 'Authoritarian "The entitled paper is This ed more sample. They are thus the most worrisome in the the Why Personality."' not high qualification?Are models : persons have found in my investigations. I SDOs and no. I authoritarians?Yes they would say are in the sense that "authoritarian" connotes "dic- tatorial." I think you on high SDOs dic- can count the 0. Improving Social Dominance the they have social author- tating to others when so. ity to do Scale Orientation But social authority probably does not produce (1994) s way thc SDOs, high in dominance it triggers sub- measures, my own constantly tinker with I as Just lsons. It RWAs. Instead, high SDOs will in mission high have tried to improve the internal consistency I of preju- )f dominate others in general, legiti- probably try to scale. Adding SDO the tlie 6 statements following VA scale landed a some group If or otherwise. mately in the to 2 raises 14 in shown ones original Exhibit the in e Flies of Lord wilderness the social authority and the the interitem correlation (and mean tcst's rela- ie. Also SDOs would quickly I think the high evaporated. tionship amount: useful but small prejudice) a with we have alpha start snarling and scheming to become the are everyone "Some people than better much just mission animal. So not 1 call social would dominators else, and have over deserve to power and control realized have not "authoritarians, pure and simple." They do if infe- "This country would be better off others"; ertainly the reverence for established authority that right- people best "The rior groups stayed in their place"; rht. And authoritarians have, its being a wing aside from should accept as not be expected to others explain end. They are social dominators, means their to mightiest with "We should strive 'equals"'; our popped But they will produce pure and authoritar- simple. efforts to increase equality and social justice in de. ian social support with the syrterns high RWAs of our country" (con-trait); "The poor and the weak

22 .E(,-EL '6~ /IJII.II~O~ 'L~allol ye.lp Il!no!lnu ',r2ii.v.sl /i~!.>o~,/i slr~ed!n!i~cd 40 v :lo1 ScJ3LflflLIr! 01 suO!l3l?3J aql u! Xl)nls u! ja![ag 'V 'neldad 78 "Z 'u!qntl lsn! ~[JOA~ I! '(~~61) 'UOI?JU!Jd '3317 UOlaJU!Jd i(l!~.laA!un 'Ss?.ld :fN '(~961) -III!:/~~.s 'S.raquasox ,ila!.~os prri~ ayr III~.J~~/O/JI~ 'p~ 'ZL '.iS'o/oi/~.isd 'FS-LE ~n11.1110~ Ji) ~DII~U!UIOI) /"!.XIS ~IIU ;~~!/JJUO.T.I~~ .L~I~oJ~~I! ~vuo!i~!dnnno a10.1 d1!5 ~apua4 aqL :irlaruu!cnr! v II:!X)S u! D "f 'Sll!Ul:pls "14 '7 'L[llOMllr!lS "2 'Olll?Jd .(~6(,[) 'H 'SllIS '~~Sfl~Ol/.J,<~ /17!.70s )SI)llD lil,l 'C9L-I pL 'L') ~sn!l!lod /~Il.l110f 3~!13!p pUl: -/J~IIos.I.'~,/" 'Wp~l!lll! Il!!3OS v anncu!Lrroa II!!JOS LI![I!IIOS.I?~ ~~~I!!JI?A -a.~d :uo!lelua!JO 'g '"1" ?$ '"1.q '1 'L[IJOMIII?IS "f 'Sfl!UI!P!S ''-1 'OllcJd .(p(j61 ) 'J ,ji~ .SSO.~.JJJ 'S2.I~11/11,7 ,~~!/IIJII~LI! IIO!~U:!IL~I!S,~/ /17!.70~ 1) 'H 'qnc~q~ca anll?Jir!rrroa '(966 I~O!I~IU~!.IO 1x111 'Sn!Ul!p!S "w '11!.431 ''1-1 .f 'll!l ''A '0llC.ld 'L(!LIS "r "S '09 ',i~O/f)y~,<.Sd /17!.7lls /)!In .if! 'L[ E-LOE /IJMII~O[ ,/0 a[ql!J!sap Ll[e!nos u! [e!u -/~llOS.I2~f ~Bu!puodsa.i ."? 'a 'Snq[ncd 1uawanul:qrrg -ap 'a 'pi" .(166[) pur! 'g '9p ,609-86s ',iSolorp.yuauv~rlnl uaalta- as an!l>al[oo JaAo oSe 'paapq s!ql lsanb uc2aq 0s smaX u! aql ~lS!~0lOq3i(~d -SSald 113Jl??S3~ :AN luawdo1a~ap .]rlZ!su! jo a~!le.radoo~ aql u! sauo 'a 'UO"Y"l?f '114.lf~f yJ.ln2f2.l Xr!/n~ro.v.~ad '(S961) 'Ulq~Clf) 'N puv ppc Mau s2u!pug plo lsal s~aqmcasa~ Bunlj-~g .ssaJd sls!R '2p!tlS s,.lOl1J.ll.V!~r~ll~ ~u!llnsuo~ -0lOg3dsd :v3 '011~ Olcd pascq q~!q~ s!j!iua!3s aq~ jo a~n~cn '~sanb u! ~'~~loll~2.111! /~~J!SO/II~/.'I~S~~ 17!11.l(!/llo~ '(L861) 'H 'qznof) s~ 'a3!p -uo!les!lda~ nql salcJlsnI[! laded aql ']lam ~uolsu!~ ;x, 'lJnqau!H X~eu!p~oc~~ -nfa.rd leuos~adjo sa~~nos aql jo Xpms '."'O~~.J.I[ '110~ :yJo,?, fi" UIO.I/~~D,~.VZJ 'UILIIOJJ '3 '([phi) i puc Su!lcada.~ jo v pucllcgnm -xa ~I!M s'uoslapy 'PXR-SLR /U!>OS 'dS0/0y.?:(~d 'IS ~ 'a.lnseau1 .ir!/"uos.~ad,fi) Isnp!n!prl! purl /J~IUUO~ qanuaJajj!p uc ~I!M ??u!so[3 roj ~eaddc 'uo!ln3!lda~ I! rrcsaq ~oj ub' Icuo!inq!.lllV '(9861) 'a 'f) '.'spaax '.a :Al!saldmon u! Xcru pug c u!l?uas X~~aurnrXs s!ql s,.~adcd auo '.r~ .zapul?u.rad 'a 'sx!~o[!ur!a ..o 'f 'f) '~qn"l[-~ 'uos~alad ./(npaiuos alns ,Lundluo3 Lay] 'alc3s plnoqs JUVM OaS 01 as!haJ J!aql -Paw 'aun.13 'yrssn~ 9 IIO~SU~III!~ .;l aq1 X.11 .swal! asay] a~ucu!urop Mau -a1 11?!30S Ino "r '73u?"i(3 'H ) '(6961 .~~,t/~IlO.T.l2d -~711.11.S 'Y~u?sI(~ 'S 'fl suo!snl3uon puc 'suo!iclndod u~o oslc Xw J!aql rr! ~ 'dal!~ M?N :q.lOA s.rarllo ll!~ isal s!qi IE 'lu!od pa!$ I adoq lcql 1ng '2~~0.13 .a '.d ;b7 'IMOIlr!pJ 'a [) '(~96 'a,~!lo~o 21~ 11~~o.1ddi~ 1 pow aq alms OQS aql~cy~f?u!sodo~d lou UII? :yJO,J, .7!111.lpl?.lv M3,q 'SS2.ld I '(l!e.11-~03) siualcd .'a.rc '1u.~!~rn!ll>~7~!y.~~)~4~ II,I ra!pr115 'SIRE) '5 ) I '(0~6 "8 '2!ls!~q3 'IT '.iSo 'hpf-~p~ ssa~p~e%a.r"rli.r!q jo Jtaql O~M .~oj auoha~a ruo.1~ JO SPUIy 'lr11/.7.<.Vd ~'I!]Iv'.uoD,~~I /ll1I.U1/7f 'kl!l!lS'Oq lUa.lq!p I lcnba plnoqs aq rl3nu1 aJow a.rarIL,, Xl!unl.roddo .s'ng ) .V 'aay.ma a ..H .y ~flj u~ b~oluahu! s"!\-\.3csr! aldoad ,'op !(l!c.ll-uon) q3!~ pup pur! [njla~od pwnry. IIIIJ? 'O~T-L 1~ 'sJ~- ~~<~o~o~/.~.ic.~ IJ~!JOS ,il!~r7~lf1.~.12d,{il qnnw aql sl? ah.rasap all1 sa~nsvald jo ajq 1sur cr! .w 'ade.1 ,101 sl.roddns pur! sqliur Ir!rnl[n3 OX^[) .tl 'lnfl

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