A Look at Black Student Success

Transcript

1 GEORGIA STATE UNIVERSITY WINTHROP UNIVERSITY CUNY JOHN JAY COLLEGE OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT GREENSBORO FRANCIS MARION UNIVERSITY WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY LIBERTY UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF TOLEDO WWW.EDTRUST.ORG YOUNGSTOWN STATE UNIVERSITY

2 The message from these data is clear. Closing the completion gap between Black and White students requires simultaneous work on three fronts. The first is addressing inequities in completion within individual institutions. The second is changing enrollment patterns so selective institutions enroll more Black students. And third, institutions where Black students are more likely to attend must improve the rates at which Black students complete. Copyright © 2017 The Education Trust. All rights reserved.

3 A Look at Black Student Success: Identifying Top- and Bottom-Performing Institutions BY ANDREW H. NICHOLS AND DENZEL EVANS-BELL Given these challenges, how successful are Black In the fall of 2008, over 160,000 Black students began their quest for a bachelor’s degree by enrolling as full-time undergraduates in their quest to earn bachelor’s degrees? 1 freshmen in a four-year college or university. This represents Data from the National Center for Education Statistics show some progress: Those numbers are up 37 percent over that nearly 41 percent of first-time, full-time Black students the past decade, compared with 28 percent growth for all who enrolled at four-year institutions in the fall of 2008 earned undergraduates. What is not captured in the gains in access, a degree within six years. This was the lowest rate among all though, is what happens to these undergraduates after they racial and ethnic groups, approximately 22 percentage points arrive on campus. ). below the graduation rate for White students ( Figure 1 2 Certainly, the Black undergraduate experience isn’t monolithic. But what happens if you dig underneath the national average But many Black students encounter a unique combination of and look at the institutional data? Do graduation rates for financial, academic, and social challenges that can make the Black students at most institutions lag those of White students path to degree completion rugged. Increasing college costs by roughly 22 points? have a disproportionate impact on Black students’ ability to pay, contributing to the accumulation of higher debt levels In this report, as in others our team has done over the years, 3 Damning inequities in K–12 education compared with peers. we look beyond national averages to understand and highlight mean that too many Black students leave high school without patterns in student success at four-year institutions. We identify acquiring the skills they need to immediately succeed in top-performing colleges and universities from which other postsecondary education and are placed in developmental, institutions could potentially learn a great deal, as well as 4 noncredit courses. As if these hurdles weren’t high enough, the underperforming institutions that need to get far more serious constant barrage of racist incidents on many college campuses about success rates for their Black students. Once again, we make it quite clear that on-campus racism is still an issue Black find that what institutions do matters: Some colleges are far students have to deal with — and chilly or hostile campus more successful than otherwise similar ones in enrolling and racial climates have been found to have negative effects on graduating Black students. 5 Black student outcomes. ABOUT THIS REPORT This report examines graduation rates for Black students and Figure 1: Six Year Graduation Rates at Four Year Institutions the completion gap between Black and White students at (2014) all nonspecialized public and private nonprofit institutions, as well as four-year, for-profit institutions. Together, these ● White ● Native American ● Overall ● Asian/Pacific Islander ● Black Hispanic ● institutions — roughly 84 percent of all four-year institutions — enroll over 90 percent of Black first-time, full-time students. 0% 10 In separate sections, we discuss what the data tell us about graduation outcomes for Black students at historically Black 80% colleges and universities and at for-profit institutions. The 70.6% bulk of our analysis, however, focuses on success rates at the 63.2% 59.6% 676 traditional public and private nonprofit colleges and 60% 53.5% universities that enroll nearly 60 percent of Black first-time, full-time students. Among those institutions, we highlight both 41.0% 40.9% 40% the top-performing and the bottom-performing. In addition, collegeresults.org ), using data from College Results Online ( we showcase outcome differences between similar colleges that 20% enroll the same types of students. 0 Andrew Howard Nichols, Ph.D., is director of higher education Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, IPEDS, able 326.10 Fall 2008 starting cohort. T research and data analytics, and Denzel Evans-Bell was a higher education research analyst at The Education Trust. MARCH 2017 | A LOOK AT BLACK STUDENT SUCCESS 1 | THE EDUCATION TRUST

4 Why is the average institutional gap only two-thirds as large SUCCESS PATTERNS IN TRADITIONAL as the national cross-institutional gap? Simply because PUBLIC AND PRIVATE NONPROFIT the national gap is more than the accumulation of all the individual graduation rate gaps between Black and White INSTITUTIONS students at institutions; the remainder comes from differential The graduation rate for Black students at the 676 traditional enrollment patterns. (we did not include HBCUs or specialized institutions) public Stated differently, if the graduation rate for Black students and private nonprofit institutions in our sample is 45.4 were equal to the current graduation rate for White students percent, 19.3 points lower than the 64.7 percent graduation 6 at each institution where a gap exists, the national graduation But among Black and White students rate for White students. rate for Black students would still lag behind the national who attend the same institutions, the average gap is just 13.5 rate for White students. Eliminating institutional gaps at each Figure 2 ). percentage points ( campus in our sample would produce an additional 11,992 Black graduates, and would reduce the national gap in Black and White completion from 19.3 percentage points to 6.6 Figure 3 percentage points ( ). These remaining 6.6 percentage Figure 2: Gaps in Graduation Rates Between Black and White points are the result of divergent enrollment patterns between Students by percentage points (2014) Black and White students. Far too few Black students attend selective institutions, which typically have higher graduation ● Institutional average National average ● rates, and far too many end up at the least selective institutions, where few students complete in six years. 25 22.7 The message from these data is clear. Closing the completion 19.3 18.5 20 gap between Black and White students requires simultaneous 15.1 work on three fronts. The first is addressing inequities in 15 13.5 12.2 completion within individual institutions. The second is 10 changing enrollment patterns so selective institutions enroll percentage points more Black students. And third, institutions where Black 5 students are more likely to attend must improve the rates at 0 which Black students complete. Public All Institutions Private Nonprofit Figure 4 illustrate the nature and extent of the The data in Notes: Analysis includes 676 institutions (362 public and 314 private nonprofit). Only non-HBCU, latter challenges, showing enrollment patterns and graduation non-specialized institutions with 30 students in both Black and White cohorts were included. rates for first-time, full-time Black and White students by s analysis of IPEDS Graduation Rate Survey rust’ Source: Education T SAT quartile for the institutions in our study. The data show considerable enrollment stratification, with Black freshmen less likely to enroll at institutions where most freshmen graduate and more likely to enroll at institutions where few do. About Figure 3: Closing the Gaps in Six-Year Grad Rates Between 25 percent of Black freshmen enroll at the most selective institutions (quartile 4) compared with nearly 40 percent of Black and White Students (2014) White freshmen. On the other end of the spectrum, roughly If gap closed by... 1 in 5 Black freshmen enroll at the least selective schools 100% 50% (quartile 1) compared with fewer than 1 in 10 White freshmen. Grad Rate for Black 59.1% 45.2% 52.1% Colleges in this quartile have an average graduation rate of Students Average roughly 30 percent for Black students and approaching 45 Institutional Grad Rate Gap 6.6 -0.4* 13.5 percent for White students. (percentage points) Grad Rate for Black 58.1% 51.8% 45.4% Students National Grad Rate Gap 6.6 19.3 13.0 (percentage points) Number of Additional Black Bachelor’s Degree Completers 11,992 5,996 *To simulate gap-closing, Black graduation rates at institutions where White students graduated at higher rates than Black students were adjusted so that the Black graduation rate was equivalent to the White graduation rate. Graduation rates at institutions where Black students are currently graduating at higher rates than White students were not adjusted. As a result, the final gap (-0.4) reflects a slightly higher graduation rate for Black students. Notes: Analysis includes 676 institutions (362 public and 314 private nonprofit). Only non-HBCU, non-specialized institutions with 30 students in both Black and White cohorts were included. Source: Education Trust’s analysis of IPEDS Graduation Rate Survey MARCH 2017 | A LOOK AT BLACK STUDENT SUCCESS | THE EDUCATION TRUST 2

5 Figure 5: Enrollment and Six-Year Graduation Rates Within SAT Figure 4: Enrollment and Six-Year Graduation Rates at Quartile (2014) Institutions by SAT Quartile (2014) erage Institutional Av White Grad Black Grad Black Freshmen White Freshmen Graduation Rate s Enrolled Rate Enrolled Rate 5.9% 70.2% 28.5% 80.5% Quartile 4 Quartile 4 70.2% 25.6% T (Highest SA (Highest SA T Scores) 80.5% ● Black Scores) Total Freshmen: 390,072 White ● T otal Black Freshmen: 23,010 39.8% 65.6% ● Other Total Institutions: 159 46.0% Quartile 3 27.7% 9.0% 59.9% 23.9% Quartile 3 46.0% 28.7% ● Black Total Freshmen: 275,559 36.0% 59.9% White ● otal Black Freshmen: 24,849 T 27.1% Quartile 2 ● Other Total Institutions: 162 67.1% 52.0% 22.2% 30.9% 19.6% Quartile 1 11.5% 44.5% 9.3% 21.0% Quartile 2 36.0% Total Freshmen: 211,568 ● Black Notes: Analysis includes 631 institutions. Only non-HBCU, non-specialized institutions with average 52.0% otal Black Freshmen: 24,332 T White ● SA T scores in College Results Online and with 30 students in both Black and White cohorts were Total Institutions: 159 ● Other 67.5% included. The quartiles were: Q1) =990 (n=151), Q2) >990 and =1050 (n=159), Q3) >1050 and =1146 (n=162), Q4) >1146 (n=159). s analysis of IPEDS Graduation Rate Surve Source: Education T y rust’ 15.7% Quartile 1 30.9% 30.7% T Quartile) (Lowest SA 44.5% Black ● When examining these same data from a different perspective, Total Freshmen: 112,020 White ● T otal Black Freshmen: 17,626 53.6% the effect of enrollment stratification becomes even more Total Institutions: 151 Other ● apparent ( ). As selectivity decreases, the percentage of Figure 5 Black freshmen at these institutions increases. Only 5.9 percent Notes: Analysis includes 631 institutions. Only non-HBCU, non-specialized institutions with average of freshmen at the selective colleges and universities in quartile SA T scores in College Results Online and with 30 students in both Black and White cohorts were 4 are Black compared with 15.7 percent of freshmen at the least included. The quartiles were: Q1) ≤990 (n=151) Q2) >990 and ≤1050 (n=159) Q3) >1050 and ≤1146 (n=162) Q4) >1146 (n=159) selective institutions in quartile 1. However, White freshmen Source: Education Tr ust’s analysis of IPEDS Graduation Rate Surve y only make up about 54 percent of freshmen at institutions in quartile 1, despite accounting for nearly two-thirds at the institutions in each of the other quartiles. Certainly, some of these enrollment differences between Black TOP- AND BOTTOM-PERFORMING and White students can be linked to differences in academic INSTITUTIONS FOR BLACK STUDENTS preparation, as Black K–12 students are more likely than their White counterparts to attend underfunded schools, be taught As noted earlier, the average institutional difference in by inexperienced and out-of-field teachers, and be assigned graduation rates for Black and White students in our sample is 7 However, there is a growing body of less rigorous coursework. quite large (13.5 percentage points). But these disparities vary evidence that attributes some of this enrollment stratification widely across institutions. While some institutions have small to undermatching, a pattern where high-performing, low- or no gaps, far too many have gaps that are much, much larger income, and underrepresented minority students tend to ). Figure 6 than average ( apply to and attend colleges that are below their academic 8 qualifications. Clearly, this pattern deserves attention — from On the positive end, nearly 22 percent of colleges and both high schools and colleges. universities have completion gaps at or below 5 percentage points. Among institutions with small or no gaps, 55 colleges and universities are graduating Black students at equal rates — if not higher rates — than White students. | 3 THE EDUCATION TRUST | A LOOK AT BLACK STUDENT SUCCESS MARCH 2017

6 Figure 6: Distribution of Institutions and Black Freshmen by WHY WE LOOK AT GRADUATION RATE Graduation Rate Gap (2014) GAPS BETWEEN BLACK AND WHITE (Average Institutional Gap: 13.5) STUDENTS ● Grad Rate Gap > 20 In K-12 education, we have a fairly robust set of indicators 15 < Grad Rate Gap <= 20 ● 21.2% for monitoring results for all groups of students, including ● 10 < Grad Rate Gap <= 15 25.7% 5 < Grad Rate Gap <= 10 ● indicators of achievement (e.g., test performance, advanced ● 0 < Grad Rate Gap <= 5 courses successfully completed) and graduation rates. ● Grad Rate Gap <= 0 18.6% Looking at both turns out to be important, especially to 19.1% make sure that test performance isn’t going up simply 17.5% because more students are being pushed out. In higher 16.9% education, publicly available data are much more limited: 17.3% There are no consistent measures that show how much 16.6% students learn or what competencies they acquire while 16.1% enrolled at colleges and universities; we have only a less- 13.6% than-perfect database — called IPEDS — that reports 8.1% 9.4% year-to-year persistence and four-, five-, and six-year degree Black Freshmen Institutions completion rates for first-time, full-time students. Although the imperfections of the federal graduation rates are well Notes: Analysis includes 676 institutions (362 public and 314 private nonprofit). Only non-HBCU, non-specialized institutions with 30 students in both Black and White cohorts were chronicled, these rates actually provide the best and most included. comprehensive insights into how effective institutions are Source: Education Tr ust’ s analysis of IPEDS Graduation Rate Survey at helping students persist from matriculation to degree 9 And while what students learn along the completion. path to a degree undoubtedly matters, whether they get that degree is absolutely critical, especially in the current On the other end of the spectrum are many colleges and economic climate. universities that have gaps between Black and White students As our work has repeatedly shown throughout the years, that are considerably larger than the average. Indeed, slightly graduation rates differ for different subgroups of students. more than a quarter of the institutions we studied have gaps Though the rates for each group — and their progress over that exceed 20 percentage points. time — are intrinsically important, readers often want Many of the institutions in this latter, underperforming to know how they compare for students from different category could potentially learn a lot from the institutions racial and economic backgrounds. Typically, we do this by that seem to be getting things right — or closer to right — for comparing the graduation rates of Black, Latino, and Native their Black students. From our sample of 676 institutions, students (when their data are available) to those of White we list 18 colleges and universities that stand out. In order to students. identify institutions with a consistent record of success, we Some critics have argued that this approach reinforces used 2012, 2013, and 2014 graduation rate data. And we used Whiteness as the standard, focusing less on the need to weighted, three-year averages to account for the impact of improve outcomes for people of color regardless of how in Table 1 year-to-year cohort size differences on the data. (See well White students are doing. We certainly appreciate the Appendix.) This list of top-performers includes institutions that perspective. But the truth is that we haven’t found a that have: workable alternative. A completion gap between Black and White students at • If, for example, graduation rates for Black students were or below 5.0 percentage points; compared with the graduation rates of all students at an A graduation rate for Black students at least 10.0 • institution (i.e., the overall graduation rate), the gap or percentage points above the average rate of their peer difference could be understated since completion rates institutions (as defined in College Results Online, for Black students are often lower and would be included ); www.collegeresults.org in the institution’s graduation rate for all students. An • A graduation rate cohort that was at least 5.0 percent approach like this also includes (in the overall graduation 10 Black; and rate) the graduation rates for Latino students and Native students, who are also traditionally underrepresented A graduation rate cohort that included at least 100 Black • 11 and underserved populations. This, too, can have the students and 100 White students. effect — especially in institutions with large numbers of One standout institution is the University of North Carolina underrepresented students — of understating differences at Greensboro (UNCG), where the graduation rate for Black and making those institutions look better than they are. students exceeds the rate for White students by 3.0 percentage MARCH 2017 | A LOOK AT BLACK STUDENT SUCCESS | THE EDUCATION TRUST 4

7 identical to their White peers at George Mason, the completion points. Not only do Black students at this institution complete gap is nearly 16 percentage points at the University of Kansas. their degree requirements at rates higher than their White peers, but these students also surpass the average graduation Another example of peer schools with different outcomes is rate of Black students at all institutions by 13.1 percentage the University of California-Riverside and University of Illinois 12 points (57.7 percent vs. 44.6 percent). Compared with its at Chicago. Again, these schools are similar in size and their peers, UNCG is even more impressive. The graduation rate for first-year students appear to have roughly the same level of Black students at UNCG is 18.6 percentage points higher than academic preparation and financial need. However, unlike the rate for Black students at its top 15 peer institutions. the previous example, the institution with better outcomes for Black students — the University of California-Riverside — In addition to the 18 top-performers, we also identified 21 institutions that have especially low completion rates for Black actually has a lower percentage of Black students than its peer, The University of Illinois at Chicago. Black undergraduates students and large completion gaps between Black and White Table 2 are nearly 8 percent of first-year students at Riverside. But they students. (See in the Appendix.) This list of bottom- account for 10.6 percent at the University of Illinois at Chicago, performers includes institutions that have: where their graduation rate is about 30 percentage points lower A completion gap between Black and White students at • than that of Black students at Riverside, and the completion or above 20.0 percentage points; gap between Black and White students is approaching 20 percentage points. • A graduation rate for Black students at least 10.0 percentage points below the average rate of their peer Francis Marion University and Delta State University are also institutions; fairly comparable institutions where Black students have 13 • and A graduation rate cohort at least 5.0 percent Black; drastically different completion patterns. Both schools are very accessible options for Black students. Nearly half of the • A graduation rate cohort that included at least 100 Black 14 entering class at Francis Marion is Black, as is roughly 40 students and 100 White students. percent of the class at Delta State University. Francis Marion Among this group of institutions is Youngstown State has a higher percentage of low-income, first-year students, but University. On average, fewer than 1 in 10 Black first-time, both of these universities have fewer than 3,500 students and full-time students at Youngstown State University complete freshmen with similar levels of academic preparation. That a bachelor’s degree within six years of enrolling. What’s as said, the graduation rate for Black students at Francis Marion troubling is that White students at Youngstown State University (41.7 percent) is 16.3 percentage points higher than the rate graduate at nearly five times the rate of Black students. A 29.7 at Delta State. Also, the graduation rate for Black students is percentage point gap separating students enrolled at the same 2.3 percentage points above that for White students at Francis institution is far too large. Marion. In contrast, at Delta State, Black students have a graduation rate 10.3 percentage points below that of their White peers. SIMILAR COLLEGES, DIFFERENT OUTCOMES Our final example also highlights institutions with high As our research has shown time and time again, similar Black student enrollment. Middle Tennessee State University colleges that serve the same types of students often have very is a bit larger and has more first-year students receiving Pell different graduation rates. We used our College Results Online Grants than Eastern Michigan University, but students at interactive web tool to provide four examples of institutions both institutions have, on average, identical standardized test that are very similar but have disparate outcomes for the Black scores. Despite these similarities and others, the graduation Figure 7 ). students they serve ( rate for Black students at Middle Tennessee State University is more than two times the rate at Eastern Michigan University. Take, for example, George Mason University and the University And while Black and White students have similar graduation of Kansas. With 8.3 percent of full-time, first-year students rates at Middle Tennessee State, the completion gap at Eastern identifying as Black, the percentage of Black freshmen at Michigan is nearly 25 percentage points. George Mason is slightly more than twice that at the University of Kansas. Both are fairly selective research institutions with admissions test scores near the top quartile of institutions. In addition, the two institutions enroll similar percentages of freshmen receiving federal Pell Grant dollars — a proxy for low-income status. Generally, on paper, these two institutions are quite similar, but we found a notable difference: their completion rate for Black students. At the University of Kansas, only 45.3 percent of Black students graduate within six years compared with 65.9 percent of Black students at George Mason University. While Black students graduate at rates nearly | 5 MARCH 2017 | A LOOK AT BLACK STUDENT SUCCESS THE EDUCATION TRUST

8 Similar Institutions, But Disparate Results (College Results Online Peer Institutions 2014) Figure 7: Black Student Graduation Rate GEORGE MASON 65.9% A) University of Kansas (KS) George Mason University (V KANSAS 45.3% 1,145 Median SA T Score T Score Median SA 1,155 17,868 18,837 Full-Ti me Equivalent Undergraduate Enrollment, Fall me Equivalent Undergraduate Enrollment, Fall Full-Ti 22.8% 25.2% Percent of Pell Recipients Among Freshmen Percent of Pell Recipients Among Freshmen 4.0% 8.3% Percent of Black Full- Time Freshmen Percent of Black Full- Time Freshmen 45.3% 65.9% Black Graduation Rate Black Graduation Rate 15.7 -0.4 Grad Rate Gap Between Black and White Students Grad Rate Gap Between Black and White Students UC RIVERSIDE 73.3% University of Illinois at Chicago (IL) University of California–Riverside (CA) ILLINOIS 43.4% 1,078 1,092 Median SA Median SA T Score T Score 18,344 15,825 Full-Ti me Equivalent Undergraduate Enrollment, Fall Full-Ti me Equivalent Undergraduate Enrollment, Fall 55.3% 55.7% Percent of Pell Recipients Among Freshmen Percent of Pell Recipients Among Freshmen 7.9% 10.6% Percent of Black Full- Time Freshmen Time Freshmen Percent of Black Full- 73.3% 43.4% Black Graduation Rate Black Graduation Rate -4.7 18.6 Grad Rate Gap Between Black and White Students Grad Rate Gap Between Black and White Students FRANCIS MARION 41.7% Francis Marion University (SC) Delta State University (MS) DEL ATE 25.4% ST TA T Score Median SA T Score Median SA 938 950 Full-Ti me Equivalent Undergraduate Enrollment, Fall Full-Ti me Equivalent Undergraduate Enrollment, Fall 3,449 2,323 Percent of Pell Recipients Among Freshmen Percent of Pell Recipients Among Freshmen 66.5% 54.9% Time Freshmen Percent of Black Full- Percent of Black Full-Ti me Freshmen 49.0% 37.0% Black Graduation Rate Black Graduation Rate 41.7% 25.4% Grad Rate Gap Between Black and White Students Grad Rate Gap Between Black and White Students -2.3 10.3 ennessee State University (TN) Eastern Michigan University (MI) Middle T TENNESSEE 46.1% MICHIGAN 20.4% Median SA 1,011 T Score Median SA T Score 1,011 me Equivalent Undergraduate Enrollment, Fall 15,424 Full-Ti me Equivalent Undergraduate Enrollment, Fall Full-Ti 18,641 Percent of Pell Recipients Among Freshmen Percent of Pell Recipients Among Freshmen 47.5% 49.8% me Freshmen Percent of Black Full-Ti Percent of Black Full- 31.8% Time Freshmen 18.3% 20.4% Black Graduation Rate Black Graduation Rate 46.1% Grad Rate Gap Between Black and White Students -24.7 Grad Rate Gap Between Black and White Students 0.1 . *See College Results Online’s Frequently Asked Questions Section for more details about our Median SAT Score calculation: http://www.collegeresults.org/aboutthedata.aspx Source: Education Trust’s analysis of College Results Online database. MARCH 2017 | A LOOK AT BLACK STUDENT SUCCESS | THE EDUCATION TRUST 6

9 In the analysis below, we take these differences into account. GRADUATION RATES AT FOUR-YEAR , we only compare HBCUs and non-HBCUs that In Figure 8 HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND have freshman enrollments where between 40 percent and 75 percent are low-income. Our analysis shows that HBCUs have UNIVERSITIES better completion rates for Black students than non-HBCUs. Enrolling approximately 15 percent of Black degree-seeking The average institutional graduation rate for Black students at undergraduates and 20 percent of first-time, full-time Black HBCUs was 37.8 percent, compared with 32.0 percent for non- students at four-year institutions, historically Black colleges HBCUs. and universities (HBCUs) play a critical role in providing Black While HBCUs fare favorably compared with non-HBCUs with students with access to four-year, postsecondary opportunities. regard to Black student success, it is important to note that And enrollments at many of these institutions are increasing as graduation rates at many HBCUs need to improve. Among more Black students are choosing to attend HBCUs in search HBCUs that enroll the same types of students, the graduation of the cultural enrichment, encouraging academic support, rates vary widely ( ). Take, for example two peer Figure 9 and inclusive sense of community that are unique to these 15 institutions, North Carolina Central University and Alabama institutions. State University. The graduation rate for Black students at The average HBCU six-year graduation rate for Black students North Carolina Central (47.6 percent) is over 20 percentage is 32.1 percent, much lower than the average institutional points higher than Alabama State’s rate (26.0 percent) even graduation rate (45.4 percent) for Black students at the 676 though the schools enroll similar types of students. The first- 16 institutions in our sample. But when we look underneath year students on each campus have negligible differences in the data, an important pattern emerges: Compared with academic preparation and financial need. institutions serving similar student populations, HBCUs have Another example highlights Alabama A&M University higher success rates. and Texas Southern University. Despite similar student All four-year HBCUs have freshman cohorts where at least demographics, Texas Southern’s graduation rate for Black 40 percent of their students are low-income (i.e., receive Pell students (15.4 percent) is less than half that for Black students grants), but only 45 percent of the 676 non-HBCUs that were at Alabama A&M (35.8 percent). Even though Alabama A&M included in the larger study sample enroll a similar or higher significantly outperforms Texas Southern, its graduation rate of percentage of low-income freshmen. And after looking more just 1 out of 3 clearly demands more attention. These examples closely, we found that roughly half of the HBCUs have a show that there is room for improvement at HBCUs that do freshman class where three-quarters of the students are from not perform as well as their peer institutions as well as at those low-income backgrounds. Only 1 percent of the 676 non- like Alabama A&M that outperform their peers. HBCUs serve such a high percentage. Figure 8: Average Institutional Graduation Rates Among HBCUs and Non-HBCUs, Based on Enrollment of Low-Income Students Grad Rate Among Black Students Number of Institutions Average SAT Average Percent Pell HBCU Non-HBCU HBCU Non-HBCU HBCU Non-HBCU Non-HBCU HBCU Institutions With 40%–75% 50.4% 37.8% 32.0% 38 294 860 988 74.1% Pell Freshmen Institutions With 40%–65% 49.2% 41.8% 32.1% 17 277 920 992 54.5% Pell Freshmen Institutions With 65%–75% 34.4% 70.9% 910 856 70.7% 17 21 30.3% Pell Freshmen Source: Education Trust’s analysis of IPEDS and College Results Online database | 7 MARCH 2017 | A LOOK AT BLACK STUDENT SUCCESS THE EDUCATION TRUST

10 Comparisons Among Similar Pairs of HBCUs (College Results Online Peer Institutions 2014) Figure 9: Black Student Graduation Rate NC CENTRAL 47.6% ALABAMA STATE UNIVERSITY (AL) NORTH CAROLINA CENTRAL ATE 26.0% ALABAMA ST UNIVERSITY (NC) 830 T Score Median SA 5,033 Full-Ti me Equivalent Undergraduate Enrollment, Fall 859 Median SA T Score 71.1% Percent of Pell Recipients Among Freshmen 5,605 ime Equivalent Undergraduate Enrollment, Fall Full-T 91.0% ear Black Freshmen Percent of First-Y 78.9% Percent of Pell Recipients Among Freshmen 26.0% Black Graduation Rate 87.1% ear Black Freshmen Percent of First-Y 47.6% Black Graduation Rate ALABAMA A&M 35.8% ) ALABAMA A&M UNIVERSITY (AL TEXAS SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY (TX) TEXAS SOUTHERN 15.4% 823 832 Median SA T Score T Score Median SA 3,883 5,643 Full-Ti me Equivalent Undergraduate Enrollment, Fall Full-Ti me Equivalent Undergraduate Enrollment, Fall 80.4% 79.8% Percent of Pell Recipients Among Freshmen Percent of Pell Recipients Among Freshmen 95.2% 85.2% ear Black Freshmen ear Black Freshmen Percent of First-Y Percent of First-Y 35.8% 15.4% Black Graduation Rate Black Graduation Rate Source: Education Trust’s analysis of College Results Online database MARCH 2017 | A LOOK AT BLACK STUDENT SUCCESS | THE EDUCATION TRUST 8

11 WHAT INSTITUTIONS DO FOR THEIR GRADUATION RATES AT FOUR-YEAR, STUDENTS MATTERS FOR-PROFIT INSTITUTIONS Far too often, institutional leaders attempt to justify low Four-year, for-profit institutions educate nearly 17 percent of completion rates for Black students by highlighting what they all Black undergraduates and over 8 percent of Black first- time, full-time students. Leaders of for-profit institutions perceive to be the inadequacies of the very students they choose to enroll. Yes, some students are better prepared than others, pride themselves on providing postsecondary access to and this explains some graduation rate differences among students who have been left behind by more traditional colleges and universities. However, the data reveal problems institutions. But the wide variation in graduation outcomes when it comes to student success. among schools enrolling roughly the same types of students shows that something else is at work. Figure 10 As is clear in , graduation rates at for-profit After studying institutional differences for more than a institutions are quite low compared with private nonprofit and public institutions. Graduating just 18.8 percent of their decade, we believe that “something else” is bound up in what institutions do for and with the students they serve. This is Black students in six years, for-profit institutions perform why we continue to encourage institutional leaders to learn far worse than institutions in other sectors. The average from leading institutions, set clear improvement goals, mine graduation rate is roughly 22 percentage points below public their data to help identify problems and refine practices, and four-year institutions and 25 points below private four-year optimize the use of whatever resources they have. institutions. For-profit institutions not only have graduation rates for Black students that are much lower than the rates For a detailed look at what campus leaders have done to for Black students enrolled at public and private nonprofit improve outcomes for students of color, please take a look at institutions, they also have significant gaps in completion the following publications (available at www.edtrust.org ): between the Black students they enroll and their White peers. For-profit institutions graduate White students at nearly two times the rate of Black students. Using Data to Improve Student Outcomes: Learning From Leading Colleges Certainly, like HBCUs, many for-profit institutions educate a significant percentage of students who lack adequate This report highlights leading universities that have drastically postsecondary preparation and students from low-income improved student success by consistently reviewing and using backgrounds. We attempted to include them in the analysis their own data to launch campus-wide initiatives, focus the Figure 7 in , but many for-profits have very small first-time, entire college community on student success, and remove full-time cohorts — below our 30-student threshold. This stubborn obstacles that impede large numbers of low-income prevented us from producing any useful analysis based on students and students of color from graduating college with a average institutional graduation rates. degree in hand. Higher Education Practice Guide: Learning From Figure 10: 2008 Six-Year Graduation Rates for Black Students High-Performing and Fast-Gaining Institutions at Four-Year Public and Private Institutions In this guide, we examine the practices at eight institutions that have improved outcomes in both access and success and 100% sustained them over a significant period of time. We also share 10 of the analyses that leaders at these institutions found to be 80% particularly powerful in provoking discussion and action on college completion. 60% Leading the Way in Diversity and Degrees: Rutgers 44.6% 41.2% University–Newark 40% For years, Rutgers University–Newark struggled with its nontraditional student population. As recently as the 1990s, 20% 18.8% students reported feeling unwelcome based on their race, ethnicity, religion, or sexual preference. Fast-forward two 0 decades, and Newark has become a haven for nontraditional Private Nonprofit Public -Profit Private For students of all types, leading to increased overall completion rates and a graduation gap among Black and White students Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education that is almost negligible. This profile shares the institutional able 326.10 Statistics, IPEDS, Fall 2008 starting cohorts. T  practices that led to this turnaround. THE EDUCATION TRUST 9 MARCH 2017 | A LOOK AT BLACK STUDENT SUCCESS |

12 Appendix Table 1: Top-Performing Institutions for Black Students CRO Peer Differential Completion Percent for Grad Gap Between Percentage Grad Rate Pell Among Rate Among for Black Black/White of Black Median First-Time, Black Students Students Freshmen SAT Full-Time (3yr Weighted (3yr Weighted (3yr Weighted Students Institutional Average: 2012, Score Average: 2012, Freshmen Average: 2012, (percentage Control (2014) State (2014) 2013, 2014) 2013, 2014) 2013, 2014) points) Institution Name Public GA 29.5% 1060 57.0% Georgia State University 55.5% -6.1 +13.1 Winthrop University SC 1030 44.3% 25.4% 56.2% -3.5 +16.0 Public CUNY John Jay College of Criminal NY Public 950 63.4% 18.2% 45.4% -3.1 +12.2 Justice University of North Carolina at Public 1029 47.8% 22.6% 57.7% -3.0 +18.6 NC Greensboro Francis Marion University SC Public 938 66.5% 43.4% 43.2% -2.7 +14.7 University of South Florida–Main 10.8% -2.1 FL Public 1168 39.7% 63.7% +15.3 Campus -1.8 42.6% 27.8% 45.3% Public 973 University of South Carolina–Aiken +11.3 SC SUNY at Albany 1102 36.9% 9.2% 67.2% -1.8 +21.0 Public NY CA Public 1078 55.3% 8.0% 69.5% -1.7 +21.1 University of California-Riverside Private FL Keiser University–Ft Lauderdale +18.9 N/A 77.1% 27.6% 49.4% -1.4 Nonprofit 25.2% VA Public 1155 George Mason University 7.5% 65.7% 0.3 +11.9 +10.4 SUNY Buffalo State NY Public 975 59.5% 48.0% 0.9 16.5% Old Dominion University VA 1016 33.8% 19.4% 53.1% 1.6 +10.9 Public East Carolina University Public 1050 34.2% 13.6% 56.4% 1.9 +10.3 NC Texas State University TX Public 1045 38.7% 5.6% 55.5% 2.1 +13.5 Rutgers University–Newark Public 1059 52.1% 13.8% 62.7% 2.2 +28.1 NJ +11.4 TX Public 999 47.5% 17.3% 48.7% 2.7 Sam Houston State University Public 1212 27.1% 9.0% 74.5% 2.7 +11.4 Florida State University FL *Difference between the institution’s grad rate among Black students and the average rate for the institution’s CRO peer group. Three-year weighted averages were used. Source: Education Trust’s analysis of IPEDS and College Results Online database MARCH 2017 | A LOOK AT BLACK STUDENT SUCCESS | THE EDUCATION TRUST 10

13 Table 2: Bottom-Performing Institutions for Black Students CRO Peer Completion Differential Gap Percent for Grad Percentage Between Grad Rate Pell Among Rate Among of Black for Black Black/White First-Time, Median Black Freshmen Students Students Full-Time SAT (3yr Weighted (3yr Weighted (3yr Weighted Students Institutional Average: 2012, Freshmen Average: 2012, Score (percentage Average: 2012, 2013, 2014) 2013, 2014) Control (2014) State (2014) Institution points) 2013, 2014) MI Public 1050 54.5% Wayne State University 11.1% 33.2 -19.2 37.2% Northern Illinois University IL Public 1010 54.0% 21.5% 28.1% 32.5 -11.0 Liberty University VA 1030 40.4% 11.6% 23.7% 31.5 -16.0 Private Nonprofit University of Toledo Public 1031 41.1% 15.1% 20.6% 30.6 -10.9 OH Youngstown State University OH Public N/A 55.5% 15.1% 8.2% 29.7 -16.9 University of Akron Main Campus OH Public 1016 42.6% 14.0% 15.3% 29.6 -18.4 -10.2 Mercy College NY Private Nonprofit N/A 70.8% 25.3% 23.0% 26.9 990 16.1% 9.7% 39.6% Public MI 26.6 -17.4 Saginaw Valley State University Oakland University MI 1070 33.9% 12.3% 22.4% 25.1 -11.3 Public University of Wisconsin- WI Public 1030 38.3% 6.0% 21.0% 24.3 -19.2 Milwaukee University of Missouri-Kansas City MO Public 1105 38.7% 17.4% 27.8% 24.2 -21.3 University of Minnesota-Twin MN Public 1270 20.8% 5.1% 54.9% 23.8 -12.1 Cities University of Southern Indiana IN Public 1004 35.3% 6.5% 15.5% 23.4 -17.2 -10.7 University of Nebraska at Omaha NE Public 1070 36.1% 23.7% 22.6 6.0% Drexel University PA 1197 19.5% 5.6% 46.6% 22.2 -18.4 Private Nonprofit Auburn University Public 1215 13.0% 9.6% 49.8% 22.0 -15.9 AL University of Arkansas at -10.0 AR Public N/A 70.8% 29.1% 8.1% 21.9 Monticello IL Private Nonprofit N/A 39.5% 18.4% 25.4% 21.2 -10.2 Columbia College-Chicago Nova Southeastern University FL Private Nonprofit 1084 40.1% 21.5% 25.2% 21.1 -16.2 Purdue University-Calumet Campus IN Public 975 37.6% 17.2% 13.6% 21.1 -12.6 Private Nonprofit -11.2 921 LIU Brooklyn 43.6% 72.1% 19.1% 20.7 NY *Difference between the institution’s grad rate among Black students and the average rate for the institution’s CRO peer group. Three-year weighted averages were used. Source: Education Trust’s analysis of IPEDS and College Results Online database | 11 MARCH 2017 | A LOOK AT BLACK STUDENT SUCCESS THE EDUCATION TRUST

14 ENDNOTES 1. Education Trust analysis of the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System. 2. Shaun R. Harper and Andrew H. Nichols, “Are they not all the same? Racial heterogeneity among Black male undergraduates,” Journal of College Student Development , 49, no. 3 (April 2008). 3. Mark Huelsman et. al., “Less Debt, More Equity: Lowering Student Debt While Closing the Black-White Wealth Gap” (New York City: Demos; Waltham, Mass.: Institute on Assets and Social Policy, 2015), http://www.demos.org/sites/default/files/publications/Less%20Debt_More%20Equity.pdf . 4. Marni Bromberg and Christine Theokas, “Falling Out of the Lead: Following High Achievers Through High School and Beyond” (Washington, D.C.: The https://edtrust.org/resource/falling-out-of-the-lead-following-high-achievers-through-high-school-and-beyond/ ; Education Trust, April 2014), Marni Bromberg and Christina Theokas, “Meandering Toward Graduation: Transcript Outcomes of High School Graduates” (Washington, D.C.: The https://edtrust.org/resource/meandering-toward-graduation/ ; “Corequisite Remediation: Spanning the Completion Education Trust, April 2016), Divide,” executive summary (Indianapolis: 2016), http://completecollege.org/spanningthedivide/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/CCA-SpanningThe Divide-ExecutiveSummary.pdf. 5. Shaun R. Harper and Sylvia Hurtado, “Nine themes in campus racial climates and implications for institutional transformation,” in S. R. Harper , & L. D. Patton (Eds.), Responding to the Realities of Race on Campus. New Directions for Student Services , Number 120 (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2008, pp. 7–24); Samuel D. Museus, Andrew H. Nichols, and Amber Lambert, “Racial differences in the effects of campus racial climate on degree completion: A structural model,” The Review of Higher Education 32, no. 1 (2008): 107–134. ate nonprofit 6. The national gap separating Black and White students is 18.4 percentage points at public institutions and 22.7 percentage points at priv institutions. Natasha Ushomirsky and David Williams, “Funding Gaps 2015” (Washington, D.C.: The Education Trust, March 2015); Ary Spatig-Amerikaner, “Unequal 7. Education: Federal Loophole Enables Lower Spending on Students of Color” (Washington, D.C.: Center for American Progress, August 2012), https://cdn.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/UnequalEduation.pdf ; U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, “School Composition and the Black-White Achievement Gap,” NCES 2015–018, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2015), . https://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/subject/studies/pdf/school_composition_and_the_bw_achievement_gap_2015.pdf Sandra E. Black, Kalena E. Cortes, and Jane Arnold Lincove, “Academic Undermatching of High-Achieving Minority Students: Evidence from Race- 8. http://users. Neutral and Holistic Admissions Policies,” American Economic Review: Papers & Proceedings 2015 105, no. 5 (May 2015): 604–610, nber.org/~cortesk/aer2015.pdf ; W.G., Bowen, M.M. Chingos, and M.S. McPherson, “Crossing the Finish Line: Completing College at America’s Public Universities (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2009), http://www.avid.org/dl/res_research/research_crossingthefinishline.pdf ; Caroline Hoxby and Christopher Avery, “The Missing ‘One-Offs’: The Hidden Supply of High-Achieving, Low-Income Students, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Spring 2013, (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 2013), https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/2013a_hoxby.pdf ; Kevin Fosnacht, “Selectivity and the College Experience: How Undermatching Shapes the College Experience among High-Achieving Students” (Bloomington, Indiana: Center for Postsecondary Research, Indiana University, 2014), http://cpr.indiana.edu/uploads/Fosnacht%20-%20 Selectivity%20and%20the%20college%20experience%20-%20AERA14%20v3.pdf . Bryan Cook and Natalie Pullaro, “College Graduation Rates: Behind the Numbers” (Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education, Sept. 2010), 9. https://www.insidehighered.com/ ; http://www.acenet.edu/news-room/Documents/College-Graduation-Rates-Behind-the-Numbers.pdf . news/2010/10/01/graduation 10. The number of first-time, full-time bachelor’s or equivalent degree-seeking undergraduates enrolled in fall 2008. 11. Graduation rate cohort includes first-time, full-time bachelor’s or equivalent degree-seeking undergraduates enrolled in fall 2008. 12. This number (44.6) represents the three-year weighted average black grad rates for all institutions. 13. The number of first-time, full-time bachelor’s or equivalent degree-seeking undergraduates enrolled in fall 2008. 14. Graduation rate cohort includes first-time, full-time bachelor’s or equivalent degree-seeking undergraduates enrolled in fall 2008. 15. Amanda Washington and Marybeth Gasman, “Why enrollment is increasing at HBCUs,” The Hill , August 22, 2016, http://thehill.com/blogs/pundits-blog/education/292245-why-enrollment-is-increasing-at-hbcus ; Michel Martin, host, “What’s Causing http://www.npr.org/2016/09/17/494340844/ , Sept. 17, 2016, The Increased Enrollment At HBCUs?” NPR All Things Considered ; Jarrett Carter Sr., “HBCUs With Enrollment Increases,” , Sept. 2, 2016, HBCU Digest whats-causing-the-increased-enrollment-at-hbcus https://hbcudigest.com/hbcus-with-enrollment-increases-599d52739ae2#.r7myjw31t . This graduation rate includes 80 HBCUs that enroll 38,086 first-time, full-time Black undergraduate students or 19.7 percent of all first-time, full-time 16. Black undergraduate students at four-year institutions. 17. Carnegie Classification 24–32. 18. A minimum graduation rate cohort of both 30 Black and 30 White students. MARCH 2017 | A LOOK AT BLACK STUDENT SUCCESS | THE EDUCATION TRUST 12

15 In total, 1499 institutions fit these criteria; however, we also MORE ABOUT THE DATA excluded institutions that: The data used in this report come from the Integrated 17 and Offer specialized curricula • Postsecondary Education Data System, which is a publicly 18 • Enroll very small numbers of Black or White students. available database that includes data colleges and universities are required to report annually to the U.S. Department of Education. Our analysis specifically uses institution-level The 676 institutions we identified included 362 four-year graduation rate data for White and Black full-time, bachelor’s public and 314 four-year, private nonprofit institutions. degree-seeking students who enrolled at an institution for the Together, these institutions served 82.8 percent of the first-time, first time in the fall of 2008 and completed a bachelor’s degree full-time Black students enrolled at the 1499 institutions that within six years (2014) at that institution. The 2014 graduation met our six criteria. Within our sample, public institutions rates are the most current rates that are available to the public enrolled over 75 percent of all the first-time, full-time Black (as of December 9, 2016). students and private nonprofit institutions enrolled nearly 25 percent of all first-time, full-time Black students. Our analysis only includes institutions that met the following six criteria: Classified as public or private nonprofit, • Recipient of Title IV funds, • Not considered a historically Black college or university, • Located in the 50 states or Washington, D.C., • Enrolled first-time, full-time undergraduates in fall 2013, • and • Reported 2013–14 six-year graduation rates for Black and White students in IPEDS. THE EDUCATION TRUST 13 MARCH 2017 | A LOOK AT BLACK STUDENT SUCCESS |

16 ABOUT THE EDUCATION TRUST The Education Trust promotes high academic — achievement for all students at all levels pre-kindergarten through college. We work alongside parents, educators, and community and business leaders across the country in transforming schools and colleges into institutions that serve all students well. Lessons learned in these efforts, together with unflinching data analyses, shape our state and national policy agendas. Our goal is to close the gaps in opportunity and achievement that consign far especially those who too many young people — are Black, Latino, American Indian, or from to lives on the margins — low-income families of the American mainstream. 1250 H STREET, NW, SUITE 700, WASHINGTON, D.C. 20005 P ORG .EDTRUST. WWW 202-293-2605 F 202-293-1217

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