All Grain Brewing Instructions

Transcript

1 5401 Linda Vista Road, St 406 Hours: San Diego, CA 92110 10 Mon - Thurs 10:00am :00pm - (619) 295 2337 - Fri & Sat 9:00am 10:00pm - [email protected] Sunday 9:00am 9 :00pm - cover: These instructions  Mashing, Sparging & Lautering  Advanced Methods & Equipment All-Grain Brewing Instructions Welcome to the world of all-grain, home-brewed beer! These instructions show you how to use a 3-tiered all-grain brewing system and assume that you are already familiar with the brewing process, sanitizing equipment, fermentation , while, or you’re new to brewing, we suggest you also pick up our “Beginning and bottling procedures . If it’s been a Brewer’s Instructions , ” which cover these topics. Like our “Beginning Brewer’s Instructions,” the methods outlined as well as published sources such as Charlie Papazian’s The below are drawn from decades of home-brewing experience Joy of Homebrewing and John Palmer’s How to Brew. All-Grain Brewing”? What is “ Brewing “ all-grain ” means that you’re brewing “from scratch,” that is, with raw ingredients instead of with syrup or powdered extract. When you brew with extract, with an already condensed wort: a malter has taken a batch of you’re brewing milled, malted barley, converted the starches inside the malt into sugar, and then reduced that sugar to a powder or syrup. Unfortunately, these processes make a portion of the sugar in the extract less fermentable. When we add this extract to water and boil it, we tend to increase the amount of these unfermentable sugars. This creates a sweeter, denser, and darker beer overall than what can be create d when brewing all-grain. Of course, there are ways to get around this downside to ract brewing, and we’re not suggesting that extract beer is inherently lower ext “ recipes pilsner, . But if you’re trying to brew a light, clean IPA, quality than ” all grain or pale ale, you will have consistently better results brewing from malted barley than from malt extract. Often, the biggest challenge in transitioning to “brewing from scratch” is the initial equipment expense. Buying a mash , tun , a 10 gal brew pot , a burner , and a wort chiller can be quite expensive if purchased all at once. If a hot liquor tank you’re interested in spreading it out a little, we suggest you pick up our Brew -in-a- Bag (BIAB) instructions. BIAB methods only require a large pot, burner, and chiller, allowing you to make the switch to all-grain without having to buy any which e equipment that you don’t , expensiv immediately need. You can also pick up our “Going All Grain” pamphlet details other ways of managing an all-grain brew system by adding one piece of equipment at a time. “al It should also be noted that grain” brewing— BIAB or otherwise — is a significantly longer brew day: with an hour to l- mash, an hour to lauter, and an hour to boil, be prepared to crack open a home brew to pass the time! Ready to make the leap? Read on! 1

2 Overview: For thousands of years, mankind has been turning water and grains into beer, so there are many different ways to do it. As a brewer you will find that everyone has their own strategies to brewing beer, and over time you will develop (and jealously guard) your own secrets of the trade. The following instructions are a good place to start for using the common, 3-tiered all- ain setup, but remember that there’s always room for gr improvement. Beer is all about innovation: brew with friends, experiment, share your ideas, your success stories, and your abysmal failures. Every beer you brew contributes to the beer community! Process: 10 gallon Hot liquor 1. The Mash: Milled grain is soaked at a stable temperature for an hour in tank order to allow naturally occurring enzymes to convert the starches in the Silicone this is ,” -infusion mashing as “single malt into fermentable sugars. Known transfer tube mash tun best accomplished using a : an insulated vessel ( see illustration ) fitting. false bottom ball valve and with a Once the starches are converted, the liquid (sweet wort) needs The Lauter: 2. Sparge arm to be separated from the grain (called “lautering”) . This is why the false bottom and ball valve fittings are necessary. The liquid can drain from the mash tun through the sieve-like false bottom, leaving the spent grain behind. The Sparge: 3. Inconveniently, a significant portion of fermentable sugar will be Wort aerator to get as much of that sugar as we can, we rinse (“sparge”) retained in the mash tun; hot liquor tank. We fill the grain. To do this, we use a second insulated vessel known as a this with hot water and place it on a counter or shelf above the mash tun. By running this hot water gently over the mash as the wort lauters into our kettle, we will greatly increase how much sugar we extract from the grain. 4. If you’ve ever made spaghetti, you probably have a working knowledge The Boil: of boiling liquid, but a couple of points are worth mentioning here regarding In order to end up with 5 gallons in our fermentor, we have to plan volumes. ahead. Unlike extract brewing, you will not add water to your fermentor 10 gallon Mash tun to 5 to top up your volume to 5 gallons. I nstead you’ll be boiling down gallons. Since you will lose volume during your boil, y ou’ll need to start your boil with . Depending on how more than 5 gallons vigorous ly you boil your wort, around 8% will be lost due to Ball val ve evaporation, and (depending on recipe formulation) another gallon or so will be lost False 1 that accumulates at the bottom. gunk to the bottom (cutaway) 6.5 gallons is a good volume to start with. At the end of an hour-long boil, you should have about 6 gallons, and when you leave the trub behind in the kettle, you should end up with 5 gallons in your fermentor. 10 gallon Alright, enough summarizing. Let’s just brew it. Got it? kettle 1 Known as “trub” (pronounced / troob /), this gunk includes broken down proteins and any hops added during the boil. 2

3 Mashing GENERAL 2 1. Measure and heat up your water. PRINCIPLES OF It’s important to use the right amount of water (about 1 quart water to every MASHING ), but the ; we’re shooting for roughly the consistency of oatmeal pound of grain . key to a successful mash is precise temperature control A good mash ratio to start with  is 1 quart of water per pound The enzymes that convert starches to sugar are sensitive; if you stray too far out of grain; aim for oatmeal you want. There are y won’t behave as of the ideal temperature range, the consistency. several different enzymes at work and many different ways of manipulating  You will lose temperature method we’ll start with the two most important ones and the simplest them. But every time you transfer water of harnessing them: or add grain. (Ideal temp: 140-150F): breaks starches into small Beta-amylase Temperature range for the  fermentable sugars should be mash between 148F and 158F. (Ideal temp: 148-158F): breaks starches into larger, less Alpha-amylase  Lower mash temperatures fermentable sugars produce cleaner, drier beers; We will be using “single infusion higher temperatures produce 3 which means that we’ll mashing, ” maltier, sweeter beers. be picking one temperature to maintain for the whole mash. In EXAMPLE RECIPE: order to utilize both enzymes, we Fermentables will pick a temperature in the - 11.5 lbs. American 2-Row range of 148-158F. The lower end - 1 lb. Munich Malt of that range will produce crisper, - 1 lb. Wheat Malt drier, cleaner-tasting beers (e.g . - 0.75 lb. Caravienne Malt pilsners, IPAs, pale ales, etc.), Hops while the higher end will yield denser, sweeter, maltier-tasting beers (e.g . 13.2% 0.75 oz Magnum min: 60 - Scottish ales, nut browns, sweet stouts, etc.). When in doubt, check your recipe; 13.2% 0.25 oz Magnum - 30 min: often enough, a recipe will suggest an appropriate mash temperature for you. 13.2% 0.50 oz Magnum 15 min: - When heating up your mash water, i t’s important to remember that you will Flame 11.2% 2 oz Chinook - out: need to compensate for two temperature losses: 1.) when you pour your mash - Dry Hop: 6 oz Mosaic 12.8% water into your mash tun and 2.) when you pour your grain into your mash Yeast: each time, you’ll want to heat up your water to 20 or lose heat Since you’ll water. - 001 C Ale White Labs - alifornia so degrees above your target mash temperature in your kettle ( for our example Targets: recipe, we’ll be heating our water to 165F before transferring it to the mash tun) . Mash Water: 13qts (3.25 gal) Strike Temperature: 160F 148F Mash Temperature: Mash Duration: 60 min 2 San Diego tap water has excellent minerals for brewing, but the chloramine from city water Target Batch Size: 5 gal needs to be filtered out. You can use a standard carbon filter to do this yourself. Just be sure 1.067 Target O.G.: that 1) you don’t try to filter the water while it’s hot, which will damage your filter and 2) Target F.G.: 1.013 filter slowly; you want a flow rate of about 1 gal/min. to maximize the filter’s effectiveness . 3 If you’re the break -the-mold type, you may do some reading about other methods of 60 Target IBU: mashing: Google “step mashing” or “partygyle” if you’d like to while away a few hours % 7.2 Target ABV: reading about saccharification rests and diastatic conversions. Or better yet, pick up John . He will explain these things to you using a chainsaw metaphor. John How to Brew Palmer’s Palmer is the man. 3

4 Mix water and grain together in your mash tun and seal with lid. 2. AN EFFICIENT carefully into your When your water is at the appropriate temperature, transfer it BREWER degrees so that it’s hovering around our “strike mash tun. It should lose a couple ” temperature” ( 160F mash-in ). At this stage, it’s better to aim fo r a couple of or “  “Efficiency” measures the couple t’s easier to bring the temperature of your mash down a degrees higher; i percent of sugar extracted degrees with a small handful of ice cubes than it is to bring it up by adding quarts of compared to the amount of boiling hot water. sugar available. Remember that grain should be  Most recipes will use a grain milled prior to mashing (otherwise bill that assumes you will fairly non- you’ll wind up with a achieve 70-72% efficiency. alcoholic and mostly husk-flavored You can increase the base  beverage), but you don’t want to mill malt portion of your grain bill too early. If the grain sits too long to compensate if you expect after being milled, the starches will a lower efficiency. go stale and your efficiency will est to purchase and mill suffer. It’s b CHECKING your grain (most home brew shops GRAVITY: will provide a mill) the day before or of your brew. the day You can use a refractometer to check your gravity throughout ou’ll want to pour slowly into the water When adding your grain to the mash tun y your brew day instead of while constantly stirring (this is one of the many instances where having a friend waiting until the end. around is handy). The key here is to ensure that every ounce of your grain is Refractometers use much wetted and thoroughly mixed into the water. Any dough balls that form can harbor smaller samples than dry pockets that will decrease the efficiency of your mash. hydrometers and are much Once your mash is evenly mixed, check the temperature again. Be sure to check more convenient to use to detect any warm or cool spots. If it’s too hot, add 2 -3 ice cubes, multiple places (though they’re only accurate ng the temperature each time. If it’s t oo stirring them into the mash and checki before fermentation). cool, add a quart of boiling water at a time and stir until you reach the desired Checking the gravity at these (148F for our example) . Once you do, lock the lid on your mash tun temperature stages will allow you to adjust tightly and set a timer for an hour. your brew day to be more A note on efficiency: When it comes to brewing, “efficiency” efficient. refers to the percentage of sugars absorbed and extracted  : -boil and final volume Pre during the mash, lauter, and sparge of a brew day. If you were initial reading should be to calculate the maximum amount of sugar possible to extract between 5 and 10 pts lower efficiency ” from a recipe, your “ would be the percent of that if it’s than your target OG; amount that you succeed in extracting (e.g. 70% efficiency means that you not, you can add water to converted and extracted 70% of the availab le sugar in a mash). You shouldn’t dilute or prepare to boil expect to ever reach 100%; you would need to reduce the malt to powder and longer to concentrate your press it like apple pomace to get 100% of the sugars. An efficient home brewer will wort eading so that your final r average somewhere between 72% and 75%; most recipes (like our example recipe) will be right on your target will assume you’re achieving at least 70%. There are tools like BeerSmith™ OG. available to help you improve, track, and adjust the efficiency of your system. If you’re working with a system that is consistently less efficient, you can adjust your recipe by increasing the base malt to hit the same OG/FG targets. 4

5 Lautering and Sparging After an hour at a stable temperature, the enzymes will have completed their ER & LAUT (“lauter” and s time to separate the liquid and rinse the grain so now it’ conversion, SPARGING respectively) to extract as much available sugar as possible. “sparge” PRINCIPLES Set up your hot liquor tank and sparge arm. 1. Milled, malted barley is so absorbent, you will need a total of 10 gallons of water You will need a total of 10  between the mash and sparge in order to extract fermentable sugar in your mash gallons of water for the tun and reach 5 gallons in your fermentor. We already used a portion of this total in mash and the sparge in our mash; the rest we will use for the sparge. The mash will often call for 3 or 5 order to wind up with 5 4 gallons, which means you will need between 5 and 7 gallons for your sparge. gallons in your fermentor. Simply, subtract the e same steps for filling your hot liquor tank (HLT) as for your You’ll want to follow th amount you need for the mash tun. Heat your sparge water to 180F in your kettle so that when you transfer mash, and use the rest for the water to your HLT, it’ll be around 175F. the sparge. 5 In a continuous sparge, which is what we recommend for maximum efficiency, the 0F on  Heat the water to 18 lauter and the sparge happen simultaneously. We rely on gravity to accomplish this, stove so that when so you’ll need three tiers in descending height . At the top, your HLT ; below that, transferred to the HLT, the r kettle your mash tun; at the bottom, you . Be sure each tier will be supported on a sparge water will be 175F. It is stable surface and you can reach the top tier without the use of a ladder.  Recirculate your wort to dangerous to lift large amounts of hot water above your shoulders or up a ladder. remove grain particles. Maintain a slow rate of  6 Recirculate 2. your wort. flow for both the lauter Even with a false bottom installed in and the sparge: 1 hour your mash tun, your first runnings will mash, 1 hour lauter, 1 hour be full of small particles from your boil. mash. If these grain particulates get into  Maintain an inch or so of the end of the world. your boil, it’s not water above the level of However, to avoid cloudiness and bitter grain in your mash tun to astringency in your beer, it’s better during the sparge. filter these out the best you can through recirculation. EXAMPLE RECIPE: The easiest way to do this is to have two pitchers or large measuring cups at the 10 gallons Total Water: - ready. First, open the valve partway so that a moderate stream of wort begins to - 13qts/3.25 gal Mash water: flow into one of the pitchers. Once the first pitcher becomes full, you will swap it 6.75 gallons - Sparge water: out for the empty and carefully pour the first pitcher into the top of the mash tun; 3.25 gallons) (10 gallons – the particulates in this wort will be trapped by the grain in the mash which will now - Sparge water temp: 175F gently pouring against the wall of the by act as a natural filter bed. This is best done Target - 6.5 gal Boil Volume: mash tun so as not to disturb the grain bed. Pouring vigorously can potentially mix up the grain again, dislodging more small particulates and necessitating more time spent recirculating. 4 For precise measurement of brewing volumes, a free calculator is available at: http://www.brew365.com/mash_sparge_water_calculator.php 5 bed in our BIAB instructions. A simpler method of sparging called “batch sparging” is descri 6 . This is often referred to as “the vorlauf” or “vorlaufing ” It’s German. German words are cool. Only call it “the vorlauf” if you’re prepared to sound cool. 5

6 3. Begin lauter and continuous sparge. are very little or no particles Once you observe that there coming through the valve, you can attach a heat-resistant transfer tube (silicone is best) and begin draining the wort into your kettle. Position your sparge arm above the mash tun and open the valve on your hot liquor ta nk so that, as your wort drains from the mash tun, you are rinsing your grain from above at the same time . Shoot for a fairly slow rate of flow from your HLT and your mash tun. The longer the lauter, the more time your mash has to convert and the better your extraction will be. A quick rule of thumb is: an hour mash, an hour lauter, an hour boil. It is important that the rate of sparge remains the same as your lauter. You should maintain about an inch of water above the level of grain in your mash tun. Much more than an inch and the pressure may compact your filter bed and create a stuck mash, where little to no water can escape from your mash tun. If the flow rate from your mash tun is too rapid, and the level of liquid falls below the top of the mash, you risk disturbing the grain bed or creating flow channels through your grain, which can negatively affect the efficiency of the sparge. As you near your target boil volume in your kettle, you may run out of sparge water in yo ur hot liquor tank. Don’t worry; you should have enough water still draining through your mash tun to bring you up to your target boil volume of 6.5 gallons. Boiling For anyone that has ever boiled a pot of spaghetti, this section may seem superfluous. However, there are unique challenges to boiling 6.5 gallons of wort, and we really do not want to stumble on the last lap. 1. Getting your brew volumes right This is going to take some practice. Everyone’s equipment is different, every recipe is unique, and a “rolling boil” is pretty subjective. Accurately predicting how much will evaporate during your boil and how much will be left behind with the trub is som ething that you’ll improve with each recipe. For evaporation, assume you’ll lose around 8 -10% with a moderate rolling boil, bringing us down to 5.75 - 6 gallons. The more vigorous your boil, the more you will lose to evaporation. If you find after your first recipe that even with a modest boil, you lost a gallon or more , you’ll want to use less heat or a larger boil volume. You can also assume that you will leave behind at least ½ gallon with the trub. Remember that IPAs will have a lot more hop additions to the kettle, so you’ll have to be prepared to either leave a lot more wort behind, or start thinking about . investing in a hop spider (see “Dealing with the trub”) By the end of the boil, we should be at about 5 to 5.5 gallons. 6

7 2. Cooling down 6.5 gallons When you have 6.5 gallons in an 8 or 10 gallon pot, the ice bath method of cooling down your wort pretty much goes out the window. It’s time to upgrade to a wort chiller. An immersion wort chiller is a copper coil that you connect to a water source and submerge in your pot. Water runs through the copper coil, absorbs the heat from the liquid, and carries it out again, thereby cooling the wort. It is important to immerse the coil while the wort is still above 190F (it needs to be this hot so the surface of the wort chiller is sanitized by heat). Some people choose to dunk it in while the wort is still boiling (15 min mark), some wait until after the boil is complete so that they have the chance to perform a whirlpool (see “Dealing with the trub”) , and some put it in right at flame out and perform the whirlpool with the wort chiller present. That part will be up to you, but we highly recommend that you connect the chiller to your hoses before immersion. Copper is an excellent conductor of heat; you do not want to try while they’re to handle those fittings literally boiling hot. Once you’re ready to cool, you will begin running water through your chiller. This water will absorb heat and carry it out your hose (ideally into a collection bucket for your garden, washing your dishes, or your car — we are in a drought after all). You don’t want to turn it on full blast, either. A modest flow rate will do the best job. You’ll know it’s the ideal rate if the water exiting the wort chiller is steaming. You will notice that the first 100F will pass quite rapidly, especially if you stir the wort with a sanitized metal spoon. The home-stretch between 90F and 70F can take much longer depending on the temperature of your ground water, but you can accelerate this part by using a pre-chiller . This is a second coil of copper spliced into the hose between your water spigot and your kettle, then placed in a tub of water. Be sure that the length of hose from your pre-chiller to your wort chiller is as short as possible to prevent temperature change i n the hose. Once you’re down to 100F, you can add ice to the water in this pre-chiller tub to cool the ground water before it reaches your kettle. This will greatly lessen the time er. spent waiting for those last few degrees, especially on summer days when the groundwater is warm 7

8 3. Dealing with the trub Dumping your entire batch, trub included, into your fermentor would not make your beer undrinkable. However, it’s an inevitable truth that the more crud gets into your beer, the more likely you’ll taste crud in your beer . Here are a couple recommendations we have for keeping the crud out: Hop Spider: For especially hoppy beers, it can become difficult to  contain all of the sediment from hop pellets. Consider investing in a stainless mesh hop spider or fine nylon steeping bag (see Fig. a.) to contain your boil additions. Hops can be added to the spider or to the bag during the boil, and when the boil is complete, the spider or bag can be removed along with all of the residual hop sediment (see Fig. b.) . Fig. a. Cool down rapidly: This is the first step to separating the trub from your  wort. The faster you can cool down your wort, the more of that gunk will sink to the bottom of your pot, allowing you to easily leave it behind. Whirlpool: Vigorously stirring your wort in order to create a “whirlpool”  (see Fig. c.) will suck the crud into the center and bottom of your kettle, making it easier to leave behind during the transfer to the fermentor. Don’t forget to give the trub ample opportunity to settle. Put the pot somewhere stable for 10- 15 min; any jostling of the pot can shake the F ig. b . trub back into suspension. Rack it out: Some brew pots come equipped with a ball valve port on  the side of the pot near the bottom. Carefully opening this valve will allow you to slowly drain your kettle into your fermentor, leaving the trub at the center and bottom of the pot. If you don’t have a ball valve, or are having poor luck using it, o you can use an auto-siphon or old-fashioned racking cane. Treat the kettle like your fermentor and siphon the wort off the trub ig. c F . as you would off the dead yeast in your carboy. Oxygenation During this stage, yeast rtant of which is “respiration.” Every fermentation goes through stages, the first and most impo will consume oxygen in order to fuel yeast cell reproduction. The more yeast cells in your wort, the healthier your fermentation will be and the better your beer will taste. However, since you boiled your wort for an hour, you have ntation, it’s effectively removed most if not all of the oxygen from the liquid. So, in order to have the best possible ferme back in: time to put the O₂ Low tech and cost-efficient, shaking the carboy has been a common Shaking the carboy:  homebrew practice for generations. By shaking the carboy for 5 min, you can manually introduce oxygen into your wort from the atmosphere. But, since the atmosphere is only 21% oxygen, and shaking can only absorb a portion of that 21%, this will not yield the ideal st. oxygenation for your yea  Using Pure Oxygen: Your best option is to invest in an oxygenation system. This consists of than medical grade O₂) a regulator and a sanitary air filter (necessary for anything other connected to a porous, gas diffusion stone. With this system, you can grab a $13 tank spray pure O₂ into your wort for 30 sec and have as much oxygen as from Home Depot, you could possibly want for your fermentation. 8

9 Measuring gravity Here it is. The moment of truth. The moment when you find out if your mash was as efficient as you hoped. You have mashed, recirculated, lautered, sparged, boiled, cooled, racked, and oxygenated. Be brave. Grab yourself a sample — — and drop in that with a sanitized thief, of course unsympathetic hydrometer. Remind yourself that whatever happens, you have created beer, and beer is awesome. Pitching y east The very last step, ye road-weary traveler, is adding your yeast. Remember that when it comes to yeast, more is almost always better. When using White Labs Pure Pitch, one package is usually enough for a 5 gallon batch. However, there are certain circumstances that recommend, if not require, the pitching of multiple packages or of a yeast starter:  Recipes with an original gravity higher than 1.065  Recipes that call for low fermentation temperatures Remember to sanitize the package and your scissors before cutting into any yeast pouch and to follow fermentation recommendations according to the yeast that’s used. That’s pretty much it! Remember that we’ve been doing this for millennia. Remember that, though there are many different methods to brewing, the chemical processes to brewing have remained the same for thousands of years and if you understand the principle s, and model your own methods to suit them, you’ll make great beer every time! Cheers to good, cold beer! 9

10 3-Tier All Grain System Hot Liquor Tank with Sparge Arm Assembly: Mash Tun with Stainless $160 .95 w/ out Thermometer Steel False Bottom $229 .95 w/ Thermometer $17 .95 0 w/out Thermometer .95 $229 w/ Thermometer ...also available: 9 gal Kettle w/ fittings: $140.84 10 gallon Brew Built Kettle $224.99 Spider Kettle .99 9 3 $ Wort Chiller Refractometer $ 74.99 25ft Chiller $ 49.95 Fine Mesh Bag $139.99 50ft Chiller .99 $ 19 10

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