Jan Groover

Transcript

1 Jan Groover Jan Groover Susan Kismaric Susan Kismaric Author Kismaric, Susan Date 1987 Publisher The Museum of Modern Art ISBN 0870703099 Exhibition URL www.moma.org/calendar/exhibitions/2176 The Museum of Modern Art's exhibition history— from our founding in 1929 to the present—is available online. It includes exhibition catalogues, primary documents, installation views, and an index of participating artists. © 2017 The Museum of Modern Art MoMA

2 JAN GROOVER Archive The Museum of Modem Art, New York MoMA 1441

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4 JAN GROOVER Susan Kismaric The Museum of Modern Art, New York

5 Published on the occasion of the exhibition Jan Groover The Museum of Modern Art, New York March 5—June 2, 1987 South Carolina The Gibbes Art Gallery, Charleston, November— December 1987 The Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati, Ohio January— February 1988 Massachusetts The Berkshire Museum, Pittsfield, April— May 1988 Copyright © 1987 by The Museum of Modern Art All rights reserved Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number 86-63598 ISBN 0-87070-309-9 Edited by Harriet Bee with Maura Walsh Designed by Homans/Salsgiver Production by Tim McDonough and Daniel Frank Halftone photography for plates by Robert J. Hennessey Type set by Trufont Typographers, Inc. Printed and bound by Stamperia Valdonega, Verona Distributed outside the United States and Canada by Thames and Hudson Ltd., London The Museum of Modern Art 11 West 53 Street New York, New York 10019 Printed in Italy Cover: Untitled. 1983 Platinum-palladium print 7V2 X 9 3/s" (19 X 23.8 cm) Courtesy Robert Miller Gallery, New York

6 Acknowledgments On behalf of the Museum and its public, I would like to thank Lily Auchincloss for her generous support of this exhibition. Catherine Evans, Curatorial Assistant in the Department of Photography, provided invaluable assistance in the preparation of both the exhibition and catalogue, and in the Department of Publications Tim McDonough, Production Manager, supervised the reproduction of several varieties of photographic prints. 1 am especially grateful for their patience and sensitivity. Richard Benson prepared preliminary proofs to be matched during the book's production, and Robert Hennessey made the halftone negatives with exceptional skill. Thanks go also to the lenders to the exhibition, whose contributions were essential. Most of all, I would like to thank Jan Groover, whose achievement and generosity of spirit have been sources of inspiration throughout the project. S.K.

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8 Within the past decade photography has been inflected by a special awareness of the advances and limitations of its history. The idea of what a photograph is, or what it might be used for, has expanded through the readiness of photographers to test past theories and techniques in new contexts. While a few photographers have pushed this awareness to the extreme, directly appropriating well-known photographs in their own pictures, others have worked in a more traditional fashion, reshaping the successes of their predecessors. Jan Groover has distinguished herself among the latter group, those photographers whose intense and intimate review of photography's history has provided them with a foundation and springboard for their own imagination. After graduating from Pratt Institute in 1965 with a B.F. A. in Painting, and teaching in the public-school system of her hometown, Plainfield, New Jersey, Groover continued her education at Ohio State University and received an M.A. in Art Education in 1970. From 1970 to 1973 she worked as an assistant professor in the art department of the University of Hartford, Connecticut. While teaching, she painted minimalist abstractions, large multiple-panel paintings in which squares, rectangles, and bands of color are balanced. Asked why she began making photographs around this time Groover has said, "With photography I didn't have to make things up, everything was already there.' The directness of this statement disguises its deep meaning and its connotations for her photographic work. It expresses Groover's continuing concern with formalism. She seems to be saying that if everything is already there, it simply has to be selected and arranged before the camera; implicit in her statement, however, is its corollary: that which is selected and arranged creates a subject. The statement also refers to Groover's profound interest in the still life, the genre in which she has primarily worked since 1978. Drawing on her formal training as a painter and her experience as an inveterate museum visitor, photograph connoisseur, and collector, Groover has made a rich and varied contribution to contemporary photography. While photographers traditionally use one camera and one family of materials for their lifework, within fifteen years Groover has made photographs in black- and-white, color, and platinum-palladium; and the camera formats she has used range from the 35mm to the 11 X 14-inch. Each of these technical choices has been consonant with her conception of the subjects to which she

9 has turned her attention, and expresses her commitment to continual artistic change. Groovers earliest serious photography — diptychs, triptychs, and other groupings of black-and-white photographs — relates to the conceptual movement of the early 1970s, in which photographs were used for work which exploited the automatic capabilities of the camera, ostensibly minimizing the notion of authorship and allowing for a purer investigation of ideas. Her work of this period is best exemplified by a small book published in 1973, The Attributes of Positions: Semantics of the Highway (see figure 1). Standing at the side of a road with a 35mm camera on a stationary tripod, Groover released the shutter when vehicles passed and when the frame was empty. The resulting pictures were then arranged in groups of two to four. The differences among frames within a grouping were created by the presence or absence of vehicles, by what was revealed or blocked by the positioning of passing cars and trucks, and by the distance of the vehicles from the camera. The setting for each picture is predetermined; it is the occurrence of the vehicles that alters the design of the piece and our perception of its nominal space. It is not coincidental that in 1973 Groover began to collect photographs, and that she favored first among them the time/motion studies of Eadweard Muybridge (see figure 2). Groovers book is an amusing record of the visual language of the highway, in which cars and trucks appear to be in motion, in competition with each other by virtue of size and design, and oblivious to the landscape. The work is also an investigation of the picture plane as described by the camera, and, for Groover, an exercise in learning the craft of photography. Although these pictures bear a general graphic and perceptual resemblance to her paintings, and, in fact, were often based on drawings, as are many of her photographs, they are among the first examples of Groover's serious interest in photography. When she moved to New York Gity in 1973 she continued making pictures in series, again photographing cars and trucks with a stationary camera, but complicating the problem by the addition of color, often red, yellow, and blue against the neutral gray and brown streets. Control over the total

10 lift,** IO m Tv^7\ Ml Figure 2: Eadweard Muybridge. Entitled. Collotype. Plate 633 from his book Animal Locomotion (Philadelphia, 1887). The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Gift of the Philadelphia Commercial Museum picture was more difficult to sustain with the addition of color, since it was not merely another formal element to contend with, but another descriptive factor which more firmly anchored the objects of the pictures to the real world. However, because the emphasis is on primary colors, the viewer becomes more aware of color as color, as evocative rather than descriptive. Although we know that these pictures depict streets, trucks, buildings, and signs, they have less to do with describing that truck on that street at that moment than they do with using that truck and street as elements in a formal construction. A cool distance from the elements in the pictures is maintained by truncating the cars and trucks, often at the edge of the frame, or by dissecting the individual pictures through the middle with a street post. In these pictures only parts of the vehicles are visible. In plate 2 the red cabin of a truck can be seen to the left of the post and its light brown trailer to the right of the post. These diptychs and triptychs strongly relate to formal issues in painting. Groover has abstracted objects within the frame and photographed the highways and streets without people; this can be read as an attempt to apply minimalist painting techniques to photography. When individual photographs are dissected through the middle of a frame by a street post or directional sign, Groover is echoing the vertical bands of color she used in some of her paintings. Another factor in the execution of these pictures is the space between the two or three mounted images. It, too, is carefully calculated; often its width matches that of a vertical object within the repeated individual frames, making the work an object, not simply a photograph. The conflict between form and content is tilted toward form, in favor of delight in pure visual perception. In addition to the play of color against color and the Cubist-like positioning of objects within the frame there is a repetition of forms and a fracturing of the image.

11 These issues also apply to the central stylistic concerns within "mainstream" photography of the 1960s and 1970s. For example, the photographs Lee Friedlander made at this time were also about interruption of experience, which he described in his pictures by the division and flatness of the picture plane and the fragmentation of objects (see figure 3). While his work was part of a progression away from a "documentary" style, in which the subject of a photograph might be immediately named, toward photographs whose nominal subject was more elusive, the work of both Groover and Friedlander reflected contemporary life in a world which had Figure 3: become, on the surface, more complex, requiring a variety of new solutions Lee Friedlander. New York City. 1963. Gelatin-silver print. The Museum of Modern to the ordering and naming of things. Art, New York. Purchase By 1975 Groover realized that she could move the camera and continue to create diptychs and triptychs. This realization appears to be an expression of the deliberation that is intrinsic to her use of the medium, a deliberation that attempts to consider the potentially infinite choices that a photographer confronts. In these new pieces, comprised of photographs made at different times and places, the conceptual element is loosened in favor of greater perceptual freedom. Individual exposures began to be considered by Groover to have more inherent pictorial value. The photographic object, still a series of images, could be linked by virtue of generally consistent subject matter (facades of buildings, for example) and form, with an increased emphasis on the individual picture. During the United States bicentennial celebration, the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., invited eight photographers, including Groover, to photograph in the nations capital. In addition to generally bad weather conditions in an unfamiliar place, Groover confronted the fact of the project being a kind of assignment (a situation relatively uncommon to her). Most important was the fact that, by law, trucks were not allowed to drive through the downtown area. She was compelled to find new material for subject matter. Groover visited the National Gallery of Art, where she saw and was inspired by three panels from an altarpiece depicting scenes from the life of Saint Anthony by the Siennese painter Sassetta (active 1423-50). She was intrigued by the juxtaposition of three panels with different perspectives, one with a flattened picture plane and two that are Cubist-like in their attempt to describe depth. She also responded to the colors of the work — pinks, reds, black, white, and deep green. This work of Sassetta intensified Groovers continued fascination with the use of color to render space. The objects in her Washington pictures are famous monuments, government architecture, and the elegant houses and tree-lined streets of Georgetown. Although she continued to use some of her

12 earlier devices (for instance, a tree rather than a street post dissects some of the individual pictures), these serial works are more complicated by virtue of the differences among the individual photographs which compose each piece. The balance between images is, once again, more tenuous, dependent upon a splash of green ivy in one picture versus the sprawl of a black shadow in another (see plate 3). The Washington project moved Groover toward a deeper exploration of the descriptive power of photographs and represents a crucial shift in her work. Once she realized she could continue the multiple-image work and move the camera, the original conceptual superstructure was relaxed. Groover's increasing responsiveness to the particular qualities of the subject before her rather than the manipulation of abstract space emerges in the pictures done for the bicentennial project, but is not yet fully developed. In some ol the pieces the individual exposures are perhaps more effective than the composite work. The resolution of the problem is demonstrated in her next series of pictures, made in suburban New Jersey, her childhood home. In these pieces, once again multiple-image works are compiled from pictures made from different viewpoints; the aluminum siding of simple middle-income houses, the spaces between them, and foliage are the things photographed (see plates 4 and 5). The ordinary beauty of such places has rarely been photographed with the quiet eloquence that Groover achieves here. Peopleless, like her earlier work, these pictures describe suburbia as it might have been originally conceived: a kind of refuge, resplendent with blossoming trees, bright green grass, well-maintained houses, and an occasional dog. While the form of the work is the same as that of the Washington project, it is in this series that Groover's sense of place is most clearly expressed, perhaps because she was on the terrain of her personal history, redolent with real and imagined childhood memories. Although the photographer makes a series of choices that determines the subject of a photograph, Groover's work to this point was more about form than sense of place. In her previous pictures things photographed were considered objects to be exploited for their color and form. In the suburban New Jersey photographs, Groover's ability to use the descriptive power of photography matured. The form and content of these pictures are consonant and indivisible. In this new maturity Groover turned from the delicate drawing of the suburban landscape of New Jersey and began to photograph facades of buildings in downtown Manhattan, where the empty streets are like the halls of a museum. In these pieces, again serial in format, the light delicate foims and bright colors of the New Jersey landscape are abandoned for the bold

13 geometric shapes of granite stairways, marble facades, details of buildings, and broad black shadows. The colors of these pictures are somber. Umber n > grays, browns, and blues describe the monumentally of the buildings photographed. In this work Groover mastered color film. A three-part piece from the Museum s collection, Untitled, 1977 (plate 6), is especially beautiful. In addition to the Titian-like harmonizing of grays and browns, the flattening of the picture plane in each frame is particularly effective. The three frames create a balance of color and form that is fully coherent. Our awareness of a small slice of distant slate-gray street in the middle picture i s I o its balanced by a sliver of architectural detail at the center of the picture t left, and by a bright copper-colored band at the left edge of the picture to its right. A close view of the intricate floral pattern of an architectural detail at the light side of the piece is balanced by the frontal thrust of the corner of a Edward Weston. Pepper number 30. 1930. building pictured in the left frame. This acute combini ng of color and form i , . , . Gelatin-silver print. The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Gift of David h. McAipin piesages the work that was to bring Groovers photography immediate publ ic acclaim. The color still lifes of kitchen utensils, plants, and vegetables that Groover began in 1977 and exhibited at Sonnabend Gallery in 1978 were a smash hit of the art season. People who had rarely visited photography galleries and whose knowledge of the medium was limited to reproductions of famous photographs were startled to find pictures that expanded con ventional notions of what photographs looked like, while some photographers and connoisseurs of the medium were disturbed by photographs that seemed to them a retreat from the central issues of advanced photography. The pictuies, in fact, refer clearly to photography's history. The peppers and shells by Edward Weston of the 1920s and the abstractions of bowls, fruit, and machines by Paul Strand of the late 'teens and early 1920s were undoubtedly the source of Groover's intellectual motivation in these works (see figures 4 and 5). However, she extended the formal possibilities of the medium (and the ideas of Strand and Weston) by using color and artificial light, and by printing her pictures in a scale that seemed to require a wall. This work was an overwhelming public and artistic success, but it had been preceded by failure several still lifes of dried flowers, vases, and other objects, since destroyed. Groover has said, "I started with that kind of subject matter because I figured it was the most direct, that it was the heart of the subject. She had been thinking about still life for some time but didn't quite know how to begin. After the false start with vases and flowers, she took her camera to the kitchen sink. Within "half an hour" she knew what she was doing.

14 The formal element put to most startling use in these pictures is the scale of the objects in them. Houseplants, knives, forks, and spoons appear larger than life. Our common understanding of the meaning of these pedestrian objects is transformed to a perception of them as exotic and mysterious. Arrangements of plates, knives, and houseplants engage and delight our sight through their glamorous new incarnation while they simultaneously undermine our sense of their purpose in the natural world (see plate 8). Meticulously controlled artificial light contributes to this effect. Reflections of color and shapes on glass, metal, and water, perceived only lor an instant or not at all in real life, are stilled here, creating a new subject for our contemplation. The natural colors of the things photographed are intensified and heightened. Organic objects are juxtaposed with manmade ones. Soft textures balance against, and touch, hard ones. The sensuous is pitted against the elemental. In the second phase of this work, from 1979 through 1980, the colors are subdued and the number of objects is reduced (see plates 9-12). By this time Groover was using pastry and aspic molds, Figure 5: Paul Strand. Jug and Fruit , Twin Lakes, whisks, and madeleine boats, acquired expressly for her photographs. Connecticut. 1915. Gelatin-silver print from Then in 1979, at the suggestion of her friend Jed Devine, she began the portfolio of photographs On My Doorstep (Millerton, New York: Michael Hoffman, process. This time-consuming method working in the platinum-palladium 1976). The Museum of Modern Art, New of making prints was invented in 1873 for its permanence, since platinum York. Gift of Arthur M. Bullowa is a more stable metal than silver. At the turn of the century the platinum- palladium process was favored by the Photo-Secessionists for its aesthetic qualities — delicacy, soft grays, and warm tones — but it had been abandoned by most photographers by 1930. It is not surprising that Groover turned to this obsolete process. The atmosphere of experimentation in photography through the 1970s generated renewed interest in printing processes and camera formats which had not been used for decades. Following a thirty-year period during which the uncropped black-and-white negative, usually 35mm in format, was the dominant canon, Groover came to photography with the knowledge and working habits of a painter, and an affection for the richness of materials. Within her platinum-palladium work Groover has made forays into backyards and New York streets (see plates 15, 19, and 23). She has also experimented with portraiture, creating photographs that describe the nervous edge between an individual's public and private personae. Her most successful portraits are those of her husband, in which she mines Alfred Stieglitz's idea of the portrait as an extended series of pictures (see plates 13, 14, and 22). As in Stieglitz's series on his wife, Georgia O'Keeffe (see figure 6), Groover's husband is seen in facial close-ups and profiles. Like

15 Stieglitz she has photographed parts of bodies (see plates 20 and 25 and figure 7). Groover also continued the still lifes of cooking objects in the process. Several of these directly refer to Strand s platinum-palladium abstractions from the 1920s. Since 1983 Groover has concentrated on the tabletop still life, the sub ject that first began to intrigue her in 1977. The issue at stake in these photographs was defined in terms of still-life painting by Meyer Schapiro, who wrote, "Often associated with a style that explores patiently and minutely the appearance of nearby things — their textures, lights, reflections and shadows — the still-life objects bring to awareness the complexity of the phenomenal and the subtle interplay of perception and artifice in representation." 1 By using photography instead of painting, Groover complicates the notion of representation, and emphasizes the capacity of Figure 6: photography to make works of the imagination. The drama in Groovers Alfred Stieglitz. Georgia O'Keeffe. 1924. pictures arises from the tension between the form of the picture and the Gelatin-silver print. The Museum of Modern Art. New York. Alfred Stieglitz Collection. things we know to exist in the world. Gift of Georgia O'Keeffe It is surely unlikely that the objects in a toned gelatin-silver print from 1985 (plate 34) would come together without an artists intercession — squash, flowers, a baking tin, a flattened piece of metal, an architectural detail, a clay animal, a spoon, a plate with a leaping fish pattern, and a sleeping cat, all floating improbably in a black space. The picture could be read as the dream of the cat, as a fantasia in which the objects the cat encountered during waking hours and in previous lives are summoned forth during his nap. "It is hard to imagine a circumstance in everyday life in which these objects would occur together in just this way," Schapiro wrote of one such unlikely assemblage in a Cezanne still life. "We are led to consider the whole as an arrangement by the artist, a pure invention." 2 The deft and witty picture reproduced in plate 37 further clarifies Groovers exploration of the tension between form and content. It is a simple picture of five elements — a tabletop, a knife, an onion and its skin, and a piece of brocade — gathered into a kind of drama. Our initial response is one Figure 7: Alfred Stieglitz. Hands and Thimble, ol intrigue at the mysterious tableau before us. The somber tone of the print Georgia 0 Keeffe. 1920. Gelatin-silver print. with its spotlighted tabletop in and out of focus, the simple planarity of the The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Gift of David H. McAlpin table as it recedes into the distance, the knife close at hand, the backdrop of cloth from a Shakespearean play, and ... an onion are arranged, creating a picture with potential metaphorical or narrative content. The success of the photograph is confirmed not only by the perfect placement of the objects within the frame but also by the psychological weight of the knife and onion, both common household objects. The connotations of a knife (cutting and lethal) and those of an onion (a humble recipe ingredient) hold equal weight,

16 both as objects in the picture and as symbols. Our intrigue is momentarily deflated. Once we recognize the content of the picture we are amused by the way Groover has seduced us. Yet, again, we are drawn into the photograph by the manner in which the space has been filled. We find ourselves in a kind of hall of mirrors, with one response negated by another, and the picture open to endless speculation and interpretation. Throughout her work Groover willfully imposes an exacerbated tension between the form of her pictures and their content. While this is a funda mental issue for all photographers, Groover pursues it with extraordinary tenacity and intelligence. Her sense of adventure is quietly but barely contained within a variety of photographic precedents which she gleefully juggles, whether they be Stieglitz's extended portraits of O'Keeffe, Strand's Cubist constructions, or Steichen's luxurious still lifes (see figure 8 and plate 33). While her pictures might be perceived as merely beautiful, upon closer Figure 8: Edward Steichen. Three Pears and an Apple . inspection they are amusing and confounding, intelligent comments on 1921. Gelatin-silver print. The Museum of photography's history, equal in their capacity to engage us as is the Modern Art, New York. Gift of the photographer complexity of the real world. Although Groover's photography emerged from the intuitions and working techniques of a painter, we do not perceive this experience as a liability but as an asset, one in which the historical division between the two mediums is reconciled. This is due not only to the inevitable exchange of ideas between artists but to Groover's willingness to submit herself to what is most challenging. NOTES 1. Meyer Sehapiro, "The Apples of Cezanne: An Essay on the Meaning of Still-life" (1968), in his Modern Art: 19th and 20th Centuries—Selected Papers (New York: Braziller, 1978), p. 19. 2. Meyer Sehapiro, Paul Cezanne (1839—1906) (New York: Abrams, 1952), p. 6.

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57 List of Plates The photographers negative numbers are listed parenthetically. Dimensions are in inches and centimeters, height preceding width. Unless otherwise indicated, all works are courtesy of the photographer. 1. 6. 11. Untitled. 1975 Untitled. 1977 1979 Untitled. (234.9.0.10) (489.3, 490.9, 488.0) (88.4) Three chromogenic color prints color prints Three chromogenic Chromogenic color print X 34.2 cm) Each: 9 X 13 1/2"(22.7 Each: 15 X 15" (38 X 38 cm) u/i6 18 X 14%" (47.5 X 37.5 cm) Overall: 9 X 40%" (22.7 X 102.5 cm) Overall: 15 X 45%" (38 X 113.8 cm) The Museum of Modern Art, New York 12. 2. Acquired with matching funds from Untitled. 1980 1975 Untitled. Mrs. John D. Rockefeller 3rd (104.3) (250.5.2.8) and the National Endowment for the Arts color print Chromogenic Three chromogenic color prints 13/i6" X 18 13/i6 14 (37.6 X 47.9 cm) Each: 15 X 15" (38 X 38 cm) 7. Overall: 15 X 45 9/i6" (38 X 114.8 cm) 1977 Untitled. 13. Collection Arthur and Carol Goldberg (403.9, 404.4.9) Untitled. 1979 color prints Three chromogenic (B37A.3) 3. Each: 15 X 15" (38 X 38 cm) Platinum-palladium print 1976 Untitled. Overall: 15 X 45%" (38 X 113.8 cm) 7/i6 X 3%" (11.3 X 8.6 cm) 4 (346.9, 347.2, 352.6) Three chromogenic color prints 8. 14. Each: 15 X 15" (38 X 38 cm) Untitled. 1978 1979 Untitled. Overall: 15 X 45%" (38 X 113.8 cm) (48.1) (B37A.4) Courtesy Robert Miller Gallery, New York Chromogenic color print print Platinum-palladium 14% X 18 13/i6" (37.8 X 47.7 cm) 7/i6 X 3%" (11.3 X 8.6 cm) 4 4. Untitled. 1977 9. 15. (503.36.28.23) Untitled. 1979 1981 Untitled. color prints Three chromogenic (81.1) (849) Each: 19M6 X 12%" (48.4 X 32.4 cm) Chromogenic color print Platinum-palladium print Overall: 19M X 38%>" (48.4 X 97 cm) 6 18% X 14%" (47.6 X 37.5 cm) 7% X 9%," (19.9 X 24.3 cm) The Museum of Modern Art, New York The Museum of Modern Art, New York 5. Purchased as the gift of Celeste G. Bartos Robert B. Menschel Eund . 1977 Kings Red Vertical with Clapboard (510.27.24.29) 10. 16. color prints Three chromogenic Untitled. 1979 1980 Untitled. Each: 19146 X 12%" (48.4 X 32.3 cm) (76.3) (295) Overall: 19146 X 38%" (48.4 X 97.8 cm) Chromogenic color print Platinum-palladium print The Museum of Modern Art, New York 18% X 15" (48 X 38 cm) 9% X 7%" (24.6 X 19.7 cm) Acquired by exchange Courtesy Robert Miller Gallery, New York

58 31. 24. 17. 1982 Untitled. Untitled. 1983 Untitled. 1981 (D112) (D194) (480) Gelatin-silver print print Platinum-palladium print Platinum-palladium 7yi6" (26 X 34.2 cm) 10V4 X 13 10 (26.5 X 33.7 cm) 5/i6" X 13 7/i6 9/i6 9 (24.3 X 19.9 cm) 13/i6" X 7 Courtesy Robert Miller Gallery, New York 25. 18. 32. Untitled. 1981 Untitled. 1983 Untitled. 1983 (642) (1309) (D202) Platinum-palladium print print Platinum-palladium print Gelatin-silver X 7 9 lA X 19.4 cm) 5/8"(24.1 3/s" (19 X 23.8 cm) T/i X 9 (26.4 X 33.7 cm) 5A6 10 5/i6 X \3 Courtesy Robert Miller Gallery, New York Courtesy Robert Miller Gallery, New York 26. Untitled. 1982 19. 33. (D127) 1981 Untitled. Untitled. 1984 Gelatin-silver print (852) (B117.4) 10 3/i6 7/i6"(25.9 X 34.1 cm) X 13 Platinum-palladium print Gelatin-silver print 7% X 91/8" (20.1 X 24.4 cm) 12 X 14 X 37.9 cm) 7/s"(30.5 27. Courtesy Robert Miller Gallery, New York 1985 Untitled. 20. (B191.4) 1981 Untitled. 34. Gelatin-silver print (1066) 1985 Untitled. \2Vi6 X 15Vi" (30.6 X 38.7 cm) Platinum-palladium print (B201.4) Courtesy Robert Miller Gallery, New \ork 9 (24.3 X 19.4 cm) 9/i6 X 7 5/s" Gelatin-silver print 15 5/i6 (38.9 X 31.2 cm) lA" 12 X 28. 21. Courtesy Robert Miller Gallery, New York Untitled. 1982 1982 Untitled. (D129) (119) 35. Gelatin-silver print Platinum-palladium print 1985 Untitled. 10 y 4 X 13 7yie" (26 X 34.2 cm) 10 Vi X 13 5/i6" (26.1 X 33.4 cm) (B204.1) Gelatin-silver print 29. 22. 7/8 X 14%" ll (30.2 X 37.9 cm) 1985 Untitled. 1980 Untitled. Courtesy Robert Miller Gallery, New York (B157.1) (179) Gelatin-silver print print Platinum-palladium 36. \2Vi6 X 15" (30.7 X 38.2 cm) X Th " (24 X 19 cm) 7/i6 9 1985 Untitled. (B209.2) 30. 23. print Gelatin-silver Untitled. 1985 Untitled. 1983 3y8 13 (33.8 X 43 cm) X 16%" (B163.2) (1175) Gelatin-silver print print Platinum-palladium 37. ll X 14 15/i6" (30.2 X 38 cm) 15/i6 7 9/i6 (19.2 X 24.2 cm) 2" X 9V Untitled. 1985 Courtesy Robert Miller Gallery, New York (B155.1) Gelatin-silver print ll 7/8 X 15" (30.2 X 38 cm)

59 Selected Bibliography Turner, Peter, ed. American Images: Karmel, Pepe. "Groover Goes Platinum." The Books and Catalogues Photography 1945—1980. Harmondsworth, SoHo News, December 8, 1981, p. 47. England: Penguin, 1985, pp. 162, 201-02. Danese, Renato, ed. American Images. "Jan Groover at Sonnabend." Art in 1979, pp. 140-49. New York: McGraw-Hill, America (New York), vol. 68, no. 5 (May 1980), p. 152. Danoff, Michael I. Jan Groover: Color Articles Wisconsin: Milwaukee, Photographs. "Photography, Raising a Hue: The Milwaukee Art Museum, 1980. Andre, Linda. "A Knife Is a Knife." After New Color." Art in America (New York), vol. image (Rochester, New York), vol. 11, no. 3 70, no. 1 (January 1982), pp. 27 ff. Sally. The New Color Photography. Euclaire, (October 1983), pp. 16-17. New York: Abbeville, 1981, pp. 35—41, Lifson, Ben. "Jan Groovers Abstractions 58-67, 257-58. Bourdon, David. "Not Good Ain't Neces Embrace the World." The Village Voice, sarily Bad." The Village Voice, December 8, November 6, 1978, p. 117. Green, Jonathan. American Photography. 1975, pp. 83-84. New York: Abrams, 1984, pp. 154—55, "Jan Groovers Embrace." Aperture 222-23. Carr, Carolyn. "Jan Groover Photographs: New York), no. 85 (1981), (Millerton, An Interview." Dialogue (Akron Art In pp. 34-43. Groover, Jan. The Attributes of Positions: stitute), September-October 1979, pp. Semantics of the Highway. New York: 12-14. Hot and Cold." The "Running s and m, 1973. Village Voice, March 20, 1978, p. 71. of Jan Cooke, Susan. "The Photography New Purchase, Jan Groover: Photographs. Groover. Arts Magazine (New York), vol. 57, "Still Lifes Run Deep." The Village York: Neuberger Museum, State University of no. 10 (June 1983), pp. 80-81. Voice, February 18, 1980, p. 83. 1983. New York at Purchase, Ellis, Stephen. "Jan Groover at Robert Patton, Phil. "Reviews." Artforum (New and Fascination. Kozloff, Max. Photography Miller." Art in America (New York), vol. 74, York), vol. 14, no. 8 (April 1976), pp. 68-69. Addison House, Danbury, New Hampshire: no. 7 (July 1986), p. 115. 1979, pp. 197-209. Perrone, Jeff. "Jan Groover: Degrees of Sally. "Knives, Forms, and Euclaire, Transparency." Artforum (New York), vol. 17, "Photos Within Photographs." In Spoons." Afterimage (Rochester, New York), no. 4 (January 1979), pp. 42-43. Choice. Kelly Wise, ed. The Photographers' vol. 6, no. 7 (February 1979), p. 16. Danbury, New Hampshire: Addison House, Phillips, Deborah. "Jan Groover/ 1975, pp. 26—31, 210. Reprinted in Artforum Foster, Hal. "Jan Groover/Sonnabend." Sonnabend." Art News (New York), vol. 81, (New York), vol. 14, no. 5 (February 1976), Artforum (New York), vol. 18, no. 8 (April no. 3 (March 1982), p. 207. pp. 34 ff. 1980), p. 76. 1 hornton, Gene. "Post-Modern Photography: Livingston, Jane. Jan Groover: The Nations Groover, Jan. "The Medium Is the Use." It Doesn't Look 'Modern' at All." Art News Washington, Capital in Photographs. D.C.: Artforum (New York), vol. 12, no. 3 (New York), vol. 78, no. 4 (April 1979), The Corcoran Gallery of Art, 1976. (November 1973), pp. 79-80. pp. 64—68. Sobieszek, Robert. Masterpieces of Andy, and Julia Scully. Grundberg, "Jan Groover at the Wooster, Ann-Sargent. Photography from the George Eastman House Today." "Currents, American Photography Neuberger Museum." Art in America (New 1985, New York: Abbeville, Collections. (New York), vol. 43, Modern Photography 1983), York), vol. 71, no. 11 (December pp. 408-09, 440. 164-66. no. 9 (September 1979), pp. 82-85, pp. 151-52.

60 Lenders to the Exhibition Arthur and Carol Goldberg Susan and Jerry Goldman, New York Jan Groover, New York Blum Helman Gallery, New York Robert Miller Gallery, New York Whitney Communications Corporation, New York

61 Trustees of The Museum of Modern Art Emeritus William S. Paley, Chairman Mrs. John D. Rockefeller 3rd, Chairman of the Board Mrs. Henry Ives Cobb, Vice Chairman Vice Chairman David Rockefeller, Donald B. Marron, President Mrs. Frank Y. Larkin, Vice President John Parkinson III, Vice President and Treasurer Lily Auchincloss Peter G. Peterson Edward Larrabee Barnes Gifford Phillips Celeste G. Bartos John Rewald** Sid Richardson Bass David Rockefeller, Jr. H.R.H. Prinz Franz von Bayern** Richard E. Salomon Gordon Bunshaft Mrs. Wolfgang Schoenborn* Shirley C. Burden Sidamon-Eristoff Mrs. Constantine Thomas S. Carroll* Mrs. Bertram Smith John B. Carter Jerry I. Speyer Gianluigi Gabetti Mrs. Alfred R. Stern Miss Lillian Gish** Mrs. Donald B. Straus Paul Gottlieb Walter N. Thayer Agnes Gund R. L. B. Tobin Mrs. Melville Wakeman Hall Monroe Wheeler* George Heard Hamilton* Richard S. Zeisler Barbara Jakobson Sidney Janis** * Trustee Emeritus Philip Johnson * ^Honorary Trustee Ronald S. Lauder John L. Loeb* Ex Officio Trustees Ranald H. Macdonald* Edward I. Koch, Mayor of the City of New York Dorothy C. Miller** Harrison J. Goldin, Comptroller of the City of New York J. Irwin Miller* S. I. Newhouse, Jr. Richard E. Oldenburg

62 Committee on Photography Mrs. Henry Ives Cobb, Chairman Vice Chairman Robert B. Menschel, Paul F. Walter, Vice Chairman Arthur M. Bullowa Shirley C. Burden Wendy Larsen Mrs. Ronald S. Lauder Pierre N. Leval Levine Harriette David H. McAlpin Beaumont Newhall* William S. Paley John Parkinson III William A. Turnage John C. Waddell Samuel J. Wagstaff, Jr. Monroe Wheeler Mrs. Bruce Zenkel I *Honorary Member Ex Officio Members Donald B. Marron Mrs. John D. Rockefeller 3rd Richard E. Oldenburg

63

64 300296068

65 ISBN 0-87070-309

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