CDC FACT SHEET: HIV Testing in the United States

Transcript

1 CDC HIV Testing in the FAC T SHEET United States HIV testing is essential for improving the health of people living with HIV and helping to prevent new infections. CDC estimates that 13 percent of people infected with HIV in the United States are unaware of their infection – more than 161,200 people. As many as 50,000 new HIV infections occur each year, and many of these are transmitted by people who do not know they are HIV-positive. Percentage of HIV-Infected Individuals CDC recommends all adolescents and adults get tested at Engaged in Selected Stages least once for HIV as a routine part of medical care, and that of the Continuum of HIV Care, 2012 gay and bisexual men and others at high risk be tested more Out of the more than 1.2 million Americans with HIV: frequently. CDC is working to increase testing in a wide range of settings – outside of the medical system – among 1,062,100 know they are infected 87% people at higher risk for HIV infection. 476,366 are seeing 39% Benefits of Knowing your an HIV doctor HIV Status 441,422 are receiving treatment 36% HIV testing has never been quicker or easier than it is today – and it has significant benefits for individuals who are have 368,338 a very low 30% infected with HIV and those who are not. amount of virus in their bodies For those who have HIV, testing is the gateway to treatment and care. Highly effective treatments make it lower viral load, and reduce the risk of transmitting HIV possible to live a long, healthy life with HIV. However, one- to others by 96 percent. third of people learn they are infected with HIV less than And, for people who do not have HIV, testing is just as critical a year before being diagnosed with AIDS, meaning they because this information can help link them with important have already been infected for many years and may not prevention services so they can remain HIV-free. fully benefit from treatment. Thanks to increased testing efforts, of the approximately Testing also helps reduce the transmission of HIV. Early 1.2 million Americans living with HIV, 87 percent have diagnosis allows those infected to take steps to protect been diagnosed and are aware of their infection. their partners from infection, and early treatment can Following are three types of HIV tests. If the first test is positive, a follow-up test is necessary to validate the result. Antibody Test : Detects the presence of antibodies against HIV, which typically develop within two to eight weeks n after exposure to the virus. An antibody test can be conducted on a sample of blood or oral fluid. Combination Antigen-Antibody Test : Detects both the antibody to HIV and the antigen “p24” – a protein that is n part of the virus itself. Because the p24 antigen can be detected within four to seven days before antibodies appear, combination tests can also identify very early infections. RNA Test : Detects the presence of the virus in the blood. An RNA test can detect very early infection, within n 10-15 days of exposure, before antibody tests are able to detect HIV. National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention AUGUST 2016

2 HIV Testing Progress and Percentage of People Who Have Ever Been Tested for HIV, Overall and by Population, 2010 Challenges While HIV testing rates have steadily increased, more than half of Overall 45 Americans still have not been tested for HIV in their lifetime. Men 40 Lack of access to healthcare, fear and misperceptions about HIV By Sex 50 Women risk and the testing process itself are key barriers to increasing HIV 18-24 35 testing. In addition, some healthcare settings have not yet made 25-34 57 HIV testing a routine part of medical care. By Age 57 35-44 37 45-64 Testing rates remain far too low even among groups at high risk for HIV infection, including men who have sex with men (MSM), White 41 African Americans and youth. Other 42 By Race/ Ethnicity Hispanic 46 n In a study of MSM in 20 U.S. cities, 34 percent of MSM American African- 65 infected with HIV were unaware of their infection. Of those, 60 50 20 0 40 30 10 70 more than one-third (35 percent) had not been tested in the past 12 months, as CDC recommends. Although African Americans are more likely to get tested for HIV than Latinos or whites, more than a third have never n been tested. n Nearly half of high school students report having had sex, but CDC data show that only 22 percent of those have ever been tested for HIV. Working to Increase HIV Testing and Linkage to Care HIV testing is a core part of CDC’s commitment to High-Impact Prevention – an approach to HIV prevention that aims to achieve a higher level of impact on the epidemic with every federal prevention dollar spent. It is also a key element of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, which seeks to ensure that 90 percent of Americans with HIV are aware of their status and that more people are linked to care within one month of their diagnosis. CDC is working to improve testing efforts on many fronts—in both healthcare settings and diverse community venues. For example: n Providing funding for health departments to implement CDC’s routine testing recommendations and provide free or low-cost testing in other settings Piloting HIV testing programs in urban and rural pharmacies n n Guiding individuals to nearby testing sites through HIVtest.cdc.gov n Updating HIV testing recommendations for laboratories to capitalize on the latest available testing technology to identify infections earlier n Launching new phases of the Act Against AIDS campaign to increase testing in targeted populations, and supporting the Greater than AIDS public awareness and information campaign. Recent CDC campaigns include Doing It ; Start Talking. HIV Screening. Standard Care Stop HIV. HIV Treatment Works ; We Can Stop HIV Together ; and ; . If you are a member of the news media and need more information, please visit www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom or contact the News Media Line at CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention 404-639-8895 or . [email protected] 2 AUGUST 2016

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