msis educating all students

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1 Minority Serving Institutions: Educating All Students Marybeth Gasman , University of Pennsylvania Clifton F. Conrad , University of Wisconsin, Madison & Associates

2 Minority Serving Institutions: Educating All Students MArybEth GASMAn & Clifton f . ConrAd MSI RepoR t ReSeaRCh teaM thai-huy nguyen todd lundberg Ufuoma Abiola Andrés Castro Samayoa Seher Ahmad felecia Commodore heather huskey Collins Spon SoR ed by

3 Dear friends, - In 2010, we started on a journey across the nation to understand the work and con tributions of Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs), conducting extensive case stud - ies of 12 MSIs throughout the United States. Calling our research the MSI Models of Success study, we sought to capture the place of MSIs in society and their role in American higher education. With this report, we tell their story, situating them within the larger higher education context, detailing their major strengths and chal - lenges, and bringing to the forefront their contributions to student success. MSIs enroll over 20 percent of all college students in the United States, and for decades they have been doing the majority of the work of educating and empowering minority and low-income students. Along the way, they have developed many strategies for helping these often-underprepared students succeed in college. As the nation continues to grow and evolve demographically and socioeconomi- cally, our postsecondary education system should look to these institutions for proven strategies and practices for increasing college access and student success for students of color. We are grateful to Lumina Foundation for Education, The Kresge Foundation, USA Funds, and Edu- cational Testing Service (ETS) for sponsoring our research and committing their support to Minority Serving Institutions. We also want to express our admiration for and gratitude to the 12 MSIs that participated in our national study. We learned immensely from the students, staff, faculty, and admin- istrators who commit themselves to educating low-income students and students of color. These institutions are San Diego City College (CA), La Sierra University (CA), El Paso Community College (TX), Morehouse College (GA), Norfolk State University (VA), Paul Quinn College (TX), Salish Kootenai College (MT), Chief Dull Knife College (MT), College of Menominee Nation (WI), North Seattle Com- munity College (WA), California State University-Sacramento (CA), and the College of the Marshall Islands (RMI). Lastly, we are thankful to our research assistants, who have worked side by side with us on this national study—much gratitude to Thai-Huy Nguyen, Todd Lundberg, Andrés Castro Samayoa, Felecia Commo- dore, Ufuoma Abiola, Seher Ahmad, Heather Huskey Collins, Yvonne Hyde Carter, and Michael Armijo. We hope that this report moves readers to pay more attention to the important work of Minority Serv- ing Institutions. All our best, MaRybeth GaSMan , University of Pennsylvania ClIFton F. ConRad , University of Wisconsin--Madison 1

4 Changing demographics of the nation the United States is becoming more racially and ethnically diverse (U.S. Census, 2011). this in- creased diversity reflects two forces. first, immigration has been a major influence on both the size u.S. hISpanIC and the age structure of the population. Although most immigrants arrive as young adults, when populatIon they are most likely and willing to assume the risks of moving to a new country, U.S. immigration policy has also favored the entry of parents and other family members of these young immigrants. ■ hispanic ■ non-hispanic Second, racial and ethnic groups are aging at different rates, depending upon fertility, mortality, and immigration within these groups. According to the 2010 Census, by 2050, we will be a plurality nation. f urthermore, when combined, people of color will outnumber the White population. one 83.65% 93.55% can see evidence of these changes already, as more babies of color were born in 2012 than White babies. latinos and Asians are growing at the fastest rate. According to U.S. Census data (2002 & 2011) between 1980-2010, the nation grew by nearly 40 percent. over that same period, Asians and Pacific islanders increased by 335 percent, followed by hispanics by 246 percent, American indians/native Alaskans by 106 percent, and blacks by nearly a 50 percent increase. in contrast, the White population grew by only 29 percent. As a result, the distribution of the White population declined by 11 percent, while Asian American and native American Pacific islanders, for instance, increased from less than 2 percent of the population to 1 from just under 7 percent to 16 percent. And between 2000-2010, the 5 percent and hispanics nation saw a 32 percent growth in individuals who identify with more than one race. in short, racial and ethnic diversity in the United States is rapidly increasing. MSI leadeR SpotlIGht “The mission of Paul Quinn College is to transform our students into servant leaders (people who practice educational, ethical, and economic leadership) who embrace our institutional ethos of “We over Me.” “We over Me” translates 16.35% to the needs of the community take precedence over the wants of an individual.” 6.45% MICHAEL J. SoRRELL 1980 2010 President, Paul Quinn College Source: U.S. Census, 2002 & 2011. 1 hispanics include individuals who identify across the various racial groups. because collection of data is inconsistent between the period of 1980-2010, we decided to show the growth of all hispanics, regardless of race. EdUCA tinG All StUdEntS 2 MInoRIty SeRvInG InStItutIonS:

5 u.S. populatIon by Ra Ce, 1980 & 2010 ■ White Asian and Pacific islander ■ black Some other race ■ ■ American indian / native Alaska ■ ■ two or More races 2010 1980 1% 1% 3% 3% 1% 6% 5% 12% 13% 72% 83% SoUr CE: 1980, U.S. Census, 2002; 2010, U.S. Census, 2002 & 2011. CEntEr for Minority SErvinG inStitUtionS 3

6 20000 Changing demographics of Colleges and Universities 15000 Similar patterns exist within the postsecondary education populace. between 1980 and 2011 (U.S. department of Education, 2011a), total undergraduate fall enrollment increased by 73 percent, The six-year graduation rate for with minority student enrollment increasing by almost 300 percent. Specifically, hispanic enroll- the cohort of full-time degree- ment increased a little over 500 percent, black student enrollment increased by 165 percent, Asian and Pacific islanders by 336 percent, and American indians/Alaska natives by 118 percent, whereas seeking students who started 10000 the share of the student body that is White declined by more than 26 percent. college in 2003 is 57 percent. Just over 60 percent of Whites and 68 percent of Asian Ameri - total unde RGRaduate F ollMent, 1980–2011 all enR gradu- cans and Pacific Islanders ate within six years, whereas Blacks, Hispanics, and American 20,000 Indians/Alaska Natives gradu- 18,063 18,079 ate at rates of 39.1 percent, 48.7 percent, and 38.3 percent, 73% respectively (U.S. Department of Education, 2011b). 15,000 13,155 11,959 10,469 10,000 1990 2010 2011 1980 2000 Minority StUdEnt EnrollMEnt 300% CE: U.S. department of Education, national Center for Education Statistics, higher Education General information Sur- SoUr vey (hEGiS), “fall Enrollment in Colleges and Universities” surveys, 1976 and 1980; integrated Postsecondary Education data :90); and iPEdS Spring 2001 through Spring 2011, Enrollment component. System (iPEdS), “fall Enrollment Survey” (iPEdS-Ef (this table was prepared november 2011.) EdUCA tinG All StUdEntS 4 MInoRIty SeRvInG InStItutIonS:

7 An Overview s): Minority Serving inStitutionS (MSi Minority Serving Institutions emerged in response to a history of inequity, lack of minority people’s access to majority institutions, and significant demographic changes in the country. Now an integral part of American higher education, MSIs—specifically Historically Black Colleges and Universi- ties (HBCUs), Tribal Colleges and Universities (TCUs), Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs), and Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander Serving Institutions (AANAPISIs) — have carved out a unique niche in the nation: serving the needs of low-income and underrepresented students of color. These institutions boast diverse faculties and staffs, provide environments that significantly enhance student learning and cultivate leadership skills, offer role models of various racial and ethnic backgrounds, provide programs of study that challenge students, address deficiencies resulting from inadequate preparation in primary and secondary school, and prepare students to succeed in the workforce and in graduate and professional educa- tion. Because MSIs enroll a substantial share of minority students, many of whom might not otherwise attend college, the continuous development and success of these institutions is critical for realizing our nation’s higher education and workforce goals and for the benefit of American society. MSIs play vital roles for the nation’s economy, especially with respect to elevating the workforce prospects of disadvantaged populations and reducing the under- representation of minorities and disadvantaged people in graduate and professional schools and the careers that require post baccalaureate education and training. MSIs, RetentIon, and GRaduatIon MSI leadeR SpotlIGht • - HBCU’s and TCU’s full-time student retention rates of 61 percent and 49 percent, respec tively, are below the national average of 66 percent. AAnAPiSis and hSis, at 78 percent and 67 percent, respectively, perform comparatively better than the national average in terms of “Many students are drawn to More- ower retention rates at hbCUs and t CUs can be attributed, in part, to the larger retention. l house because they understand and percentages of low-income students at these institutions, as income correlates with retention ow-income students often do not have access to the same preparation as across the nation. l appreciate the values that create the middle class and upper-income students and this lack of access can lead to a more difficult time staying in college. institutional identity and define the Despite having strong retention rates, six-year graduation rates at AANAPISIs and HSIs—33 • characteristics of the ‘Morehouse percent and 29 percent, respectively—are below the national average of 57.4 percent (U.S. department of Education, 2011b). Clearly, these institutions still have many challenges to Man’. Our students vary significantly CUs have graduation rates of 30 percent and 21 percent, respectively. overcome. hbCUs and t in socioeconomic status, religion these rates reflect, at least in part, the substantial proportion of low-income students, who CUs. have not been well served by American education, enrolled in hbCUs and t - and interests, but share many im portant aspirational goals.” oduCtIon oF SCIenCe, teChnoloGy, MSIs and pR enGIneeRInG, & Math (SteM) deGReeS JANN H. ADAMS Associate Professor of Psychology Seventy-six percent of scientists and engineers with a bachelor’s degree in the United States are Morehouse College White (nSf , 2008). if the nation is to maintain its legacy of innovation in science and technology, we should look to MSis to address the racial and ethnic disparities in StEM education, as diversity leads to innovation. between 2006-2010, many MSis have been among the top 20 academic institutions that award science and engineering degrees to racial minority graduates. • Of the top 20 institutions that award science and engineering degrees to Asians or Pacific islanders, seven identify as AAnAPiSis. these include large, regional universities, such as San Jose State University, which is located in the California bay Area, and the University of hawaii at Manoa. - • Equally impressive, 10 HSIs are among the top 20 institutions that award science and engineer exas, and ing degrees to hispanics/latinos. Most of these institutions are located in California, t Puerto rico. 2 the retentions rates noted for each MSi type pertains only to four-year degree institutions. Although two-year institutions make up almost half of all MSis, the reporting of retention rates for these institutions is less consistent and comparable. CEntEr for Minority SErvinG inStitUtionS 5

8 Ten HBCUs are among the top 20 institutions that award science and engineering degrees to • blacks/African Americans. these institutions vary in size and public and private status, and in- pell GRantS clude institutions such as Alabama A&M University and hampton University, ,which is located in virginia. Compared to 49 percent of students Of the top 20 institutions that award science and engineering degrees to Native Americans, • across all colleges and universities: only one TCU—Haskell Indian Nations University—is included. Considering that most TCUs are community colleges, with few awarding degrees beyond the associate’s level, this is not as us hbC aanapISIs alarming as it sounds. eduCatIon deGReeS MSIs play an outsized role in educating our nation’s teaching force. In 2011, across all postsecond - ary education institutions, 17.9 percent of undergraduate degrees in education were awarded to racial minorities. 71% of students 38% of students In 2010-2011, over 10 percent (n=10,825) of all undergraduate degrees in education were • receive Pell grants receive Pell grants conferred by MSis. hSIs tCus In 2010-2011, 55 percent of Hispanic/Latino students receiving undergraduate degrees in • education graduated from an MSi. • In 2010-2011, 31 percent of Black or African American students receiving undergraduate degrees in education graduated from an MSi. Pacific students Islander • receiving or Other In 2010-2011, 31 percent of Native Hawaiian undergraduate degrees in education graduated from an MSi. 48% of students 58% of students In 2010-2011, 28 percent of Asian American students receiving undergraduate degrees in • receive Pell grants receive Pell grants education graduated from an MSi. • In 2010-2011, 13 percent of American Indian students receiving undergraduate degrees in education graduated from an MSi. Source: U.S department of Education, national Center for Education Statistics. integrated Postsec- ondary Education System (iPEdS). fall 2011, Completions component. MSI leadeR SpotlIGht “A key to our success has been continual assessment and refine - ment of our program based on our outcomes.” MELANIE JobE director, Center for Student Academic Success la Sierra University EdUCA tinG All StUdEntS 6 MInoRIty SeRvInG InStItutIonS:

9 (t Cus) tRIbal ColleGeS and unIveRSItIeS TCUs By The NUmBers the 34 colleges and universities that are regular members of the American indian higher Educa- Despite making up less than one tion Consortium are spread across 13 states and include 13 four-year and 21 two-year colleges. percent of all postsecondary institu- CUs have grown significantly since the first tribal college, With nearly 30,000 students enrolled, t tions, TCUs enroll nearly 10 percent of diné College in Arizona (Gasman, baez, & t urner, 2008), opened its doors (under the name navajo Community College) over four decades ago. Predominantly public institutions (over 75 percent), all American Indian and Alaska Native tCUs vary in enrollments from under 100 to nearly 3,000 students. Most t CUs are located on undergraduates. reservations: among the 34 t CUs are 4 urban or suburban campuses, 3 campuses located in distant Forty-two percent of faculty at TCUs or remote towns, and 27 rural campuses. With their roots in native American movements for identify as American Indian or Alaska self-determination, t CUs were established to provide educational opportunities for a local tribe(s) Native, whereas nationally American and expand a network of regional higher education opportunities for indians and non-indians alike. Indians or Alaska Natives make up less tCUs serve as places where students find the support and social capital they need to get degrees than 1 percent of faculty. that lead to careers. t CUs have also focused considerable educational resources on the survival and development of socially and economically marginalized communities, and these institutions have helped maintain and invigorate tribal languages and cultures while at the same time developing cur- 3 ricula that speak to the experiences and backgrounds of native Americans. 4 InStItutIonS In the MSI ModelS oF SuCCeSS Study SalISh KootenaI ColleGe ChIeF dull KnIFe ColleGe Type tCU, public, two-year tCU, public, two-year Type 1977 ablished esT esT ablished 1975 1,438 enrollmenT 539 enrollmenT -year reTenTion ra FirsT 53% Te FirsT -year reTenTion ra Te 32% six- six- Tion ra Te 55% Tion ra Te year Gradua 41% year Gradua endowmenT $945,457 $10,149,035 endowmenT the first t to address the challenge of preparing students CU accredited in the northwest, Salish to be successful in college-level mathematics Kootenai College (SKC) is redesigning the college courses, Chief dull Knife College (CdKC) has experience, at once helping underprepared stu- dents move into academic programs and guiding experimented with a series of innovations over students with an interest in StEM to careers in the past decade. After initial success with a self- the field. the department of Academic Success paced, computer-assisted approach to remedial (d AS) serves as a hub for developmental educa- mathematics education, the college has devel- tion, coordinating a bridge program and student- oped a hybrid math emporium where students work on their own, in small groups, and as a class success courses and workshops as well as assess- to master the mathematics they need to succeed ing student progress to ensure that faculty and staff know what support—from tutoring to career in their education. this approach combines an advising to advice in course selection—students emphasis on problem solving with constant need and how to access it. the cluster of science feedback from faculty, software, and peers. the programs at SKC is quickly becoming a regional emporium provides students a safe space in center for science education that incorporates a which to learn mathematics and at the same time challenges them to use mathematics in real-world native worldview. Across these programs, stu- dents learn science through daily interaction with problem solving. faculty as they work together on real projects in cutting-edge laboratories. Their coursework— which typically includes a summer internship at a regional research university—is linked to solving real-world problems on the reservation and to jobs as StEM professionals. 3 TCUs focus on accessibility. Only one TCU requires the submission of an SAT for admission. We omitted SAT data for TCUs. 4 these 2011 data are culled from the U.S. department of Education. CEntEr for Minority SErvinG inStitUtionS 7

10 MSI leadeR CONTINUEd — tCus SpotlIGht InStItutIonS In the MSI ModelS oF SuCCeSS Study “We give students a non-traditional MI nee nat Ion F Meno Ge o Colle choice in higher education. While tCU, public, two-year Type esT 1993 ablished providing a high quality academic 1,130 enrollmenT FirsT -year reTenTion ra Te 69% education, we are close to home Te 11% six- year Gradua Tion ra for rural families. We support the endowmenT $2,815,606 beliefs and values that are part of a A decade ago, the College of Menominee nation (CMn) made an investment in StEM education, re- cruiting native students into StEM careers and retooling StEM teaching. At the center of this invest- Native American and help them to ment are two models of success that have dramatically increased student retention and persistence of American indians in StEM fields. the first, the StEM Scholars Programs, provides a point of access to coexist with traditional education StEM programs for students with limited academic preparation. this cohort-based program connects based on a non-native worldview. mentors, customized academic support, and extracurricular activities to students who begin college with developmental education needs. the StEM Scholars community draws students into academic Our support encourages commu - eaders, is a program that prepares high-achieving programs and careers. the second model, StEM l native American students to succeed in advanced StEM education and then to bring the benefits of nity, a sharing of knowledge, and their StEM education back to their tribal communities. At CMn, StEM l eaders meet regularly with mentors and tribal leaders and complete service projects. they also attend national meetings of native a respect for the journey of each American StEM students and complete a summer internship at a university or research laboratory in their field of study. individual.” DIANA MoRRIS Chief Academic officer College of Menominee nation EdUCA tinG All StUdEntS 8 MInoRIty SeRvInG InStItutIonS:

11 (hSIs) hISpanIC SeRvInG InStItutIonS HSIs By tHe NumBerS Colleges and universities that serve large numbers of hispanics date to the founding of the Univer- Despite making up less than 5 percent sity of Puerto rico (1903). in the 1960s and 70s, drawing on the example of the African American of all postsecondary institutions, HSIs civil rights movement and historically black Colleges and Universities (hbCUs), latino/a student enroll nearly one-half of all Hispanic and community activists advocated changes in admissions policies and founded grassroots hispanic colleges—Boricua College (1968), Hostos Community College (1969), National Hispanic Univer - undergraduates. sity (1981) are living legacies of community action. l de facto hispanic Serving institu- eaders of HSI SAT averages are as follows: Critical tions founded the hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (1986) and coined the phrase Reading (490), Mathematics (504), “hispanic Serving institution.” this name became official federal policy in 1992, and since the 2008 Writing (480); National SAT numbers amendment of the higher Education Act, “hispanic Serving institution” came to designate any ac- are as follows: Reading (524), Math credited and degree-granting public or private nonprofit institution with an undergraduate hispanic (532), Writing (522) full-time equivalent student enrollment of 25 percent or higher coupled with substantial enrollment of low-income students. Twenty-one percent of faculty at HSIs identify as Latino, whereas nationally in the absence of a formal federal list of hSis, the name is generally applied to institutions that Latinos make up just over 4 percent of meet the federal institutional and enrollment criteria. based on these criteria, 311 institutions in the 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia qualified as HSIs in 2011. Scattered across faculty. 15 states and all institutional sectors, these institutions—just over 6 percent of all degree-granting institutions—enrolled almost four million undergraduates, including one quarter of all minority undergraduates in higher education in the United States, and nearly one-half of hispanic under- graduates. Predominantly public (70 percent) and two-year (49 percent) institutions, hSis also count among their numbers 10 research universities and more than 50 master’s degree institutions. As a group, these institutions play a critical role in making college accessible and starting hispanic students on the path to degrees. hSis are some of the most diverse institutions in the United States, serving as critical points of access to technology, information, and public space for communities with few such resources. InStItutIonS In the MSI ModelS oF SuCCeSS Study el paSo Co Ge Ity Colle un MM MSI leadeR SpotlIGht Type hSi, public, two-year esT ablished 1969 enrollmenT : 41,258 “El Paso Community College (EPCC) 68% FirsT -year reTenTion ra Te students have a strong commitment year Gradua 10% Te Tion ra six- $738,681 endowmenT and desire to attend and succeed in One of the nation’s largest two-year colleges, El Paso Community College (EPCC) has implemented - a college environment. EPCC stu several innovations that have helped many economically disadvantaged and first-generation students successfully move through developmental education classes to the core courses and then on to college dents have a commitment to help completion. t wo of these are notable. the first, the College readiness initiative, redesigns the tradi- support and improve the quality of tional pathway to college for high school students who need additional preparation before they enroll in college-level courses. this initiative combines a “high-tech” pathway with “high-touch” networks of life for their families, wanting higher support through the enrollment process. Computer-based assessments of students’ college readiness provide detailed data about what they need to learn in order to start college in college-level English education to be their bridge to and math classes; these assessments are linked to courseware that guides them to becoming college ready. this “high-tech” process is facilitated by a network of counselors, advisors, and tutors who higher wage opportunities and help explain the enrollment process to students and help them use an array of EPCC resources to get ready for college. the second program, the Early College high School (EChS) initiative, is anchored in part- improve family environments.” nerships between EPCC and surrounding school districts. EChS gives eighth graders the chance to join a high school with a strong college-going culture and access to dual-credit classes in their high school CHRISTY PoNCE and college classes at a co-located EPCC campus. EChS staff and teachers guide students in getting Executive director, f oundation & development ready for college, and the ECHS experience—including a curriculum that is completely aligned with the El Paso Community College curriculum at EPCC and regional four-year colleges—leads many students to finish their first two, and sometimes three, years of college by the time they graduate from high school. CEntEr for Minority SErvinG inStitUtionS 9

12 Student hSIs — CONTINUEd SpotlIGht InStItutIonS In the MSI ModelS oF SuCCeSS Study “I am 18 and majoring in family and la SIeRRa unIveRSIty San dIeGo CIty ColleGe child psychology. I am determined hSi, private, four-year Type Type hSi, public, two-year 1922 ablished ablished esT esT 1914 to graduate and do something good enrollmenT 24,688 enrollmenT 2,936 60% Te FirsT -year reTenTion ra Te 75% -year reTenTion ra FirsT with life. I am trying to prove to my- 12% year Gradua Tion ra six- six- Te year Gradua Te Tion ra 45% self that I can do this; I’m smart and endowmenT $15,388,109 endowmenT n/a talented enough. If it were not for la Sierra University (lSU) has developed the in the past few decades, San diego City College (SdCC) has introduced a range of innovations year Experience (fyE), which has been first- First Year Experience, I don’t think I aimed at serving traditionally underserved highly successful in helping a greatly diverse populations. one of these innovations, the first- student population become integrated into lSU, would be doing as well as I have in develop expectations for college, enhance their year Experience Program, has been especially college. They guided me through my successful. the program designs college entry problem-solving skills, and complete both pre- for students, drawing on information about their foundational and foundational courses. While the first year, helping me get used to the needs to structure their first-year experience and FYE has many components— such as a writing center and required workshops on topics such as connect them to a network of staff and students. college experience.” the fyE program is supported by first-year fac- time management and test-taking strategies— two features of the program are critical to its ulty who teach courses that are both relevant to AVIS AYSHA MARIE D students’ needs and collaborative. While faculty success. first is personal and academic coaching San diego City College by a full-time staff member with a bachelor’s initially “take students by the hand,” over time degree who works directly with first-year they challenge them to pursue their goals—all students in a carefully designed developmental while creating spaces for talk about college-going process in which students gradually assume and nurturing a collaborative network of faculty, greater responsibility for their success. Second staff, and students to enhance student learning and persistence. are the first- year Seminars, which are co-taught by a faculty member and an academic coach who guides first-year students in thinking about their purpose in college and beyond. EdUCA tinG All StUdEntS 10 MInoRIty SeRvInG InStItutIonS:

13 hIStoRICally bla CK ColleGeS and unIveRSItIeS (hbC us) HBCUs By tHe NUmBers hbCUs were officially defined in the 1965 higher Education Act as a “college or university that was Despite making up less than 3 percent established prior to 1964, whose principal mission was, and is, the education of black Americans.” of all postsecondary institutions, born out of segregation and spread across 20 states, the district of Columbia, and the U.S. virgin HBCUs enroll over 11 percent of all islands, these 105 institutions have played a critical role in providing education to black Americans since the founding of Cheney University in 1837. in 2011 hbCUs made up 2 percent of the degree- Black undergraduates. Black under- granting Title IV institutions and enrolled nearly 346,338, students—including 1.6 percent of all graduates also make up 14 percent of undergraduate students in the United States, 3.7 percent of total minority undergraduates, .3 per- undergraduates at non-MSIs. cent of White undergraduates, and 7 percent of black undergraduates (iPEdS, 2011). hbCUs get HBCU SAT averages are as follows: students, especially black students, to degrees, and they do this at the same rate as Predominantly Critical Reading (431), Mathematics White institutions (PWis) but with less funding. (flores & Park, 2013 Kim & Conrad, 2006). (432), Writing (416); National SAT hbCUs have long graduated a disproportionate percentage of the black students who earn bach- numbers are as follows: Reading (524), elor’s degrees and who go on to graduate or professional schools. In 2011 (NSF), HBCUs made up Math (532), Writing (522) less than 3 percent of all degree-granting postsecondary institutions but accounted for nearly 18 Fifty-seven percent of faculty at HBCUs - percent of bachelor’s degrees awarded to Black students. HBCUs not only guide students in attain - ing the benefits of a first college degree (income, employment) but also contribute to students’ mo identify as Black, whereas nationally mentum toward further education and the professions. but hbCUs do more than produce degrees: Blacks make up 5.5 percent of faculty. HBCUs contribute to their students’—especially their Black students’—psychosocial adjustments to college and career as well as to their cultural awareness, self-confidence, and social capital. InStItutIonS In the MSI ModelS oF SuCCeSS Study Mo Rehou Se Colle Ge noRFolK State unIveRSIty hbCU, private, four-year Type h bCU, public, four-year Type esT ablished 1935 ablished esT 1867 2,574 enrollmenT 8,318 enrollmenT 73% Te 87% Te FirsT year reTenTion ra FirsT -year reTenTion ra 55% Te 34% 6-year Gradua Tion ra year Gradua six- Tion ra Te endowmenT endowmenT $139,825,000 $8,050,262 A private, all-male college located in Atlanta, An urban, public university located in eastern virginia, norfolk State University (nfU) is the Morehouse College is the home of two models home to two models of success. one is the Sum- of success. both have been highly successful in enhancing both the retention and achievement mer bridge Program that helps academically challenged students to make the transition from of students in the sciences, along with increasing the likelihood that students will pursue graduate high school to college. held during a four-week study. the first model of success is the Peer l ed summer session, this nonresidential program addresses the academic, developmental, and team l earning (Pltl) initiative. An innovative al- ternative to conventional peer learning, faculty in social integration needs of students through courses in such fields as English and mathematics Pltl use a facilitated learning approach in which as well as through co-curricular programming and individual faculty members develop and provide learning content modules for Pltl workshops developmental advising. the other model of suc- that are tied to relevant course cess is the Faculty Communities of Inquiry (COI) content. the second is the Minority biomedi- Program, in which faculty and staff engage in a cal research Support & research initiative for year-long interdisciplinary program that includes sharing pedagogical ideas for enhancing student Scientific Enhancement (MbrS-riSE) program, learning and development at both the under- which has increased the number of Morehouse graduates majoring in science disciplines and the graduate and master’s level in such domains as critical thinking assessment, service-learning, and number of graduates choosing to pursue gradu- ate study in biomedical research. scientific reasoning. CEntEr for Minority SErvinG inStitUtionS 11

14 Student hbCu s — CONTINUEd SpotlIGht InStItutIonS In the MSI ModelS oF SuCCeSS Study “I am 22 years old and a business Inn Colle Ge paul Qu administration and management hbCU, private, four-year Type 1872 ablished esT major. I decided to attend Paul 222 enrollmenT 77 Te FirsT -year reTenTion ra Quinn College because of President 10% six- year Gradua Tion ra Te Sorrell, “Prez” for short. He spoke endowmenT $5,061,187 at my church. I remember that he over the past several years, Paul Quinn College (PQC) has developed an innovative and highly suc- cessful campus-wide program entitled “l eave no Quinnite behind” that helps to ensure that every asked me one simple question that PQC student is nurtured, developed, and retained—and then graduates. Comprehensive in scope and layered to address both the on-campus and off-campus lives of students, the program includes many helped me decide whether or not I noteworthy features: a summer academic bridge program in which students have the opportunity to would attend Paul Quinn, “Do you receive up to 12 hours of academic credit, an institution-wide writing program requirement along with a writing assistance program, and an overhauled core curriculum that has been accompanied by the want to be the person who works introduction of an innovative entrepreneurship course. on the cars or do you want to be the person signing the front of the checks of the people working on the cars?” Ever since I have been sold on Paul Quinn College—they create leaders.” VALETTE LA TR oYCE REESE Paul Quinn College EdUCA tinG All StUdEntS 12 MInoRIty SeRvInG InStItutIonS:

15 aSIan aMeRICan and natIve aMeRICan p aCIFIC AANAPISIs By the (aanapISIs) ISlandeR SeRvInG InStItutIonS NumBerS in 1960 the Asian American and Pacific islander (AAPi) population was less than one million, but it Despite making up less than 3 percent has nearly doubled in size every decade since then, changing the face of America and subsequently of all postsecondary institutions, American higher education. this rapid growth is the result of immigration patterns, and these pat- AANAPISIs enroll over 25 percent of terns have also led to an increased presence of the AAPi population on college campuses across the nation. As a result, a small group of institutions now identify—through a federal designation all AAPI undergraduates. Asians make and funding program—as Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander Serving Institutions up 4 percent of undergraduates at (AAnAPiSis). non-MSIs. In 2009, the Congressional Research Service determined that 116 institutions met the require - Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific ments of the federal designation. Ten percent of these institutions’ student populations are low- Islanders make up nearly 2 percent of income Asian Americans or Pacific islanders. Although the model minority myth perpetuates the undergraduates at AANAPISIs. This false belief that all Asian Americans are academically advanced, AAPI students are in reality quite student group makes up less than one diverse and have needs that are similar to other underrepresented racial and ethnic populations. half of one percent of undergraduates there are 48 different ethnicities among the AAPi population, and these individuals speak more at non-MSIs. than 300 languages. of note, the most poverty stricken of the AAPi groups in terms of socioeco- AANAPISI SAT averages are as follows: nomic status are the hmong (38% live below the poverty line), Samoans, (20% live in poverty), and filipinos (6% live below the poverty line) (CArE, 2008). Still finding their identity, AAnAPiSis are Critical Reading (508), Mathematics already unearthing the activist spirit within AAPi populations, creating pathways to graduate school (535), Writing (537); National SAT for low-income AAPis, providing them with mentors, and contributing to a Pan-Asian outlook that numbers are as follows: Reading (524), empowers the larger AAPi community. Math (532), Writing (522) Fourteen percent of faculty at AANAPI- InStItutIonS In the MSI ModelS oF SuCCeSS Study SIs identify as Asian American, whereas F the Ma RS hall IF oRnIa State Cal Colle Ge o nationally Asian Americans makes up 9 CR aMento S ISland ty, Sa unIve RSI percent of faculty. Type AAnAPiSi, public, four-year AAnAPiSi, public, two-year Type Nearly 2 percent of faculty at AANAPI- esT ablished 1989 esT ablished 1947 SIs identify as Native Hawaiian or enrollmenT enrollmenT 1,310 30,535 Other Pacific Islander, whereas nation- 57% Te FirsT 83% FirsT -year reTenTion ra Te -year reTenTion ra ally the same group makes up less than six- 42% Tion ra year Gradua Te six- 15% Te Tion ra year Gradua one half of one percent of faculty. endowmenT $36,255 endowmenT $27,927,979 California State University, Sacramento is the College of the Marshall islands (CMi), in the republic of the Marshall islands (rMi), has ull Circle Project (fCP). fCP is a home to the f developed the first y ear residential Experience comprehensive approach that involves collabora- (fyrE) aimed at prospective college students tion among programs, departments, and units to who are severely underprepared for college. A implement a strategically focused, campus-wide effort to improve retention and graduation rates one-year program, fyrE is an all-embracing and of Asian American and Pacific islander (AAPi) stu- vibrant residential learning community that is dents. fCP provides AAPi students with strong both a demanding and nurturing sanctuary in advising support, planned leadership options, and which students are free from distractions in their cocurricular opportunities to engage in campus everyday lives. Along with rigorous training of students to become disciplined learners, fyrE and community-based service activities. engages students in a college-prep community in which mathematics and English (the second language for most students) are the focus, and faculty who live on campus support students through tutoring and mentoring in addition to teaching classes. fyrE is preparing self-directed learners with the capabilities and discipline to flourish in college. CEntEr for Minority SErvinG inStitUtionS 13

16 CONTINUEd — aanapISIs MM un Ity Colle Ge noRth Seattle Co Student SpotlIGht AAnAPiSi, public, two-year Type 1970 ablished esT enrollmenT 10,561 “I am 24 and I’m majoring in psy - 54% FirsT -year reTenTion ra Te chology. My family and friends Te 29% six- Tion ra year Gradua endowmenT $4,859,370 have played a significant role in motivating me to succeed in college. north Seattle Community College (nSCC) is reworking the entry into college for diverse students, The faculty as well as the staff in - many of whom are learning how to be college students while they raise families and work. NSCC’s part nerships with multiple organizations ensure that students can start and stay in college by helping them the math learning center at North wo such partnerships stand out. the nSCC financial Assets navigate their way to financial stability. t building Program coordinates workshops and one-on-one consultations in the opportunity Center Seattle Community College have for Employment and Education—a one-stop facility where people can access social and educational services that they need. Using a similar approach, nSCC partnered with the State Workforce develop- played a part in my college success.” ment Council and local employers to recruit a cohort of entry-level incumbent healthcare workers into an academic program that packages all the prerequisite courses and nursing courses for an associate’s ALICIA LAWRENCE GEHRING degree in nursing. At the heart of this program is a cohort of motivated students, a College Success north Seattle Community Collegee navigator, and an instructional team. the students work closely with their navigator, who guides them through the program—from registering to learning study habits to managing work and family sched - ules. the instructional team develops a holistic curriculum to ensure that each member of the cohort is ready to enter and succeed in a rigorous nursing program. (U.S. department of Education, 2011c) EdUCA tinG All StUdEntS 14 MInoRIty SeRvInG InStItutIonS:

17 MInoRIty SeRvInG InStItutIonS “ModelS oF SuCCeSS” advISoRy boaRd Student SpotlIGht , Morgan State University (former president) eaRl RIChaRdSon antonIo FloReS , President, hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities “I’m 20 years old and I’m , former executive director of American indian higher Education Consortium GeRald GIpp - majoring in forestry. My big President, institute for higher Education Policy R, MIChelle Coope gest influence would probably exas aMy Fann , Assistant Professor, University of north t have to be my family, and my KaRl ReId, Senior vice President of Academic Programs and Strategic initiatives, United negro College f und job. I work as an intern and President, Asian & Pacific islander American Scholarship f und neIl hoRIK oSh I, a temporary employee at my John S. WIlSon , President, Morehouse College tribal forestry. When I gradu- , Associate Professor, University of denver SaM MuSeuS ederal Student Aid John GRIttS , Management and Program Analyst, f ate college I am guaranteed a anderbilt University Stella FloReS , Assistant Professor, v forester position there. I have , Professor, UClA Robe Rt teRanIShI a big family, and not many in my family went to college. I would like to be the one who gets a college degree. The main reason I decided to attend Salish Kootenai is because it is so close to home. Being a tribal member, our tribe offers a lot of help. They give us the first year’s tuition free and a couple the penn Penn Center for GRaduate of tribal scholarships. SKC isn’t SChool oF eduCatIon Minority Serving institutions a big school, for me it’s a per - fect place to get an education, the classes are not too big, and penn CenteR FoR MInoRIty Se RvInG InStItutIonS , located at the Univer- the sity of Pennsylvania and under the direction of Professor Marybeth Gasman, focuses there is a lot of one on one help on elevating the educational contributions of MSis by 1) ensuring their participation in from the instructors.” national conversations; 2) increasing rigorous scholarship on MSis; 3) connecting MSi academic and administrative leadership to leading reform and improvement organi- MATTHEW LEVINICHoLAS PIERRE zations and initiatives in the United States; 4) advancing effective policies that will Salish Kootenai College strengthen MSis, the development and support of their students and faculty, and the quality of the elementary and secondary schools within their communities; 5) bringing together MSis around their common interests, strengths, and challenges to increase efficiency and optimize resources; 6) bolstering the efforts of MSis to close educational achievement gaps and assessment performance of disadvantaged communities; and 7) ensuring that the academic program offerings of MSis are connected with the leading innovations in higher education. www.gse.upenn.edu/cmsi CEntEr for Minority SErvinG inStitUtionS 15

18 total MSIs In the unIted StateS total MSIS 11-20 1-10 0 51-80 80+ 21-50 Washington Maine Montana North Dak ota Minnesota Vt . Oregon N.H. Wisconsin Mass. Idaho South Dak ota ork New Y R.I. Conn. Michigan Wyoming Pennsylvania Iowa New Jerse y aska Nebr Nevada Ohio Md Delaware Illinois Indiana Utah West Color ado Virginia Virginia Kansas Missouri California Kentucky North Carolina Tennessee Oklahoma 175 South Carolina Arizona Arkansas xico New Me Mississippi Georgia Alabama Te xas Louisiana Florida 72 49 Alaska Puerto Rico Hawaii EdUCA tinG All StUdEntS 16 MInoRIty SeRvInG InStItutIonS:

19 State/ State/ us hbC hSIs tCus total total u.S. t hSIs us hbC aanapISIs erritory u.S. t aanapISIs erritory tCus 2 2 nebraska 2 1 1 alaska alabama 1 4 3 nevada 15 15 8 new Jersey 1 1 american Samoa 2 6 4 23 26 4 arkansas new Mexico 3 2 9 1 arizona 18 33 12 11 new y ork 70 California 11 11 175 105 north Carolina # 1 5 4 north dakota Colorado 8 8 3 ohio 2 Connecticut 3 2 3 1 1 delaware oklahoma 1 1 1 oregon 1 2 3 1 Federates States of Micronesia 1 1 palau 18 Florida 4 14 3 1 2 pennsylvania 10 10 Georgia 49 puerto Rico 49 3 # 3 3 Guam South Carolina 8 8 11 hawaii 11 South dakota 3 3 7 12 19 Illinois 7 7 tennessee 1 1 Indiana 56 9 7 texas 72 2 # 5 1 4 Kansas 6 7 1 virginia 1 1 Kentucky u.S. virgin 1 1 6 Islands louisiana 6 3 1 1 Marshall Islands 8 Washington 1 12 2 Maryland 2 4 6 Washington, d .C. 2 2 West virginia 7 Massachusetts 4 2 3 4 Michigan Wisconsin 2 3 2 1 1 3 1 Wyoming 3 6 Minnesota 2 2 Missouri 7 311 596 105 146 34 Mississippi 7 total 7 7 Montana Although there are currently, 116 AAnAPiSis, we have also included 30 ‘emerging’ AANAPISIs as these institutions are on the verge of becoming AAnAPiSis due to the rapidly growing AAPi population. CEntEr for Minority SErvinG inStitUtionS 17

20 What Can We l earn from MSis about Cultivating Student Success? if our colleges and universities are to reach the degree attainment goals advanced by lumina MSI leadeR foundation for Education and the obama Administration, they will need to graduate far more stu- SpotlIGht dents. We will meet this goal only if our institutions of higher learning are prepared to support and educate students who are diverse not only with respect to race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, - “Morehouse has a strong institu but also with respect to their life experiences and expectations of college. Minority Serving institu- tions, which already enroll a substantial share of our nation’s minority students—students who - tional identity and students ben soon will make up more than half of our college-going population—are moving higher education toward realizing this agenda. the institutions in our three-year study of Minority Serving institu- efit from clear expectations about tions are embarking on new programs and practices that guide students toward their educational what it means to be a Morehouse goals. these practices offer valuable lessons about how to enhance educational opportunity for all students. We offer here some of the lessons we have learned through our research. - man. Expectations related to in onMentS In WhICh eveRyone ContRIbuteS to the SuCCeSS eStablISh envIR tegrity, character and service are MSis have a record of success with underserved and often underprepared . oF eveRy Student students in part because they believe that the challenges that many of their students face are not clear. Morehouse understands the due to a lack of capabilities but rather to a lack of opportunities . Why does this belief matter? by be- importance of its history, tradition lieving in every student and expecting them to succeed, MSis create environments where students or example, at who have had little success in school in the past find hope, motivation, and support. f and mission. Students are taught eave no Quinnite behind” is more than rhetoric: leaders, faculty, Paul Quinn College, the motto “l and staff are prepared to track students down in their dorm rooms or visit them outside of the class- to learn from history and value the room or even supervise their studying to help students stay on course. Additionally, San diego City contributions of men and women College has developed practices for taking inexperienced first-year students by the hand as they learn how to be college students. who came before them.” Ge StudentS In CultuRally Relevant pR enGa obleM-SolvInG. A hallmark of JANN H. ADAMS MSIs in the Models of Success study is the use of problem-based learning—including research ex - Associate Professor of Psychology periences within courses and student internships—that engage students in opportunities to inquire Morehouse College into issues of concern to them and their communities. At Salish Kootenai College, for example, stu- dents’ study of water quality in their local watershed has helped shape standards for fish consump - tion. Why does this matter? in engaging in real-world problem solving, students often become far more invested in their education—viewing their education as closely linked to their personal lives and the well-being of their communities. EdUCA tinG All StUdEntS 18 MInoRIty SeRvInG InStItutIonS:

21 ata to GuIde the leaRnInG and pR oGReSS oF ea Ch Student. ColleCt d MSI leadeR because MSis recruit and enroll students who are sometimes not yet prepared to progress through SpotlIGht college, these institutions routinely collect data about students’ developing academic performance so that they are able to provide students with appropriate support. in addition to looking at bench- At Paul Quinn College, student - marks such as semester-to-semester persistence and course-completion rates, MSIs gather qualita tive and quantitative data about students’ prior educational experience, their subjective experience retention is paramount. The more of college, their interactions with staff and faculty, and other aspects of their college experience. beyond determining what factors contribute to student success and failure in college, MSis use retention has become the focus, and these data to reassess their educational practices and devise new practices. Why does this matter? the more retention strategies are Students who have had limited success in school are often not well served by traditional approaches to college education. A willingness to gather and use detailed data enables MSis to develop alterna- implemented across the campus, or instance, after noticing that nursing students who were already tive educational practices. f working in healthcare stalled out in college math and biology courses, north Seattle Community the more it is proven that student College established instructional teams to look at student performance data across classes in order retention is everyone’s role. Any to create interventions that helped more than 90 percent of one cohort persist through the first year of a pre-nursing program. threat to a student’s success is a oM expeR tS Who aRe pRovIde StudentS WIth oppoR tunItIeS to leaRn FR retention issue.” MSis have discovered that student learning is enhanced when students not theIR tea CheRS. have a wide range of opportunities to learn from individuals who are not their classroom instruc- KIzUWANDA GRANT tors. They recruit a range of experts—tutors, supplemental instructors, coaches, advisors, and vice President for Academic Affairs others—to meet with individual students and groups in diverse settings to enhance their learning, Paul Quinn College covering everything from course content to their study habits to the challenges they are facing. Why does this matter? Students have different learning styles and knowledge of subject matter, and many students do not begin college prepared to ask the right questions or find the support they need. the MSis in our study have found that students who interact with more than one expert have a chance to think about ideas and solve problems multiple times from multiple points of view without worrying about grades or the pressures of classroom dynamics. At la Sierra University, for instance, all first-year students have a coach—a La Sierra staff member who co-instructs students’ first-year seminar and helps them choose classes, connect with a tutor when they need one, and negotiate the personal challenges of the first year of college. . ooM - MSIs often require their stu ReQuIRe StudentS to leaRn outSIde the ClaSSR dents to participate in service learning experiences or internships or apprenticeships. Why does this matter? MSi students, many of whom have had little experience outside their home communities, often have a limited sense of where a college education can lead and why the hard work of college is worth it. by going off campus and contributing to a lab or a community organization, students discover that they are learning things that matter and, quite often, figure out what they want to do with their education. Part of the College of Menominee’s STEM Leaders program, for instance, is a short internship at a university or lab far from the Menominee reservation. Students return to campus with new confidence in their capabilities and new ideas about how they can use science to sustain the land and other resources that their communities depend on. CEntEr for Minority SErvinG inStitUtionS 19

22 MSI leadeR SpotlIGht “Student success is measured primarily through students’ participation in campus life, persistence in their academic status/progression, and academic achievement (mainly, but not exclusively, grade point average). Given the relatively small size of the campus population, anecdotal data is also taken into account.” LER oY HAMILT oN JR. Assistant Professor of English norfolk State University EdUCA tinG All StUdEntS 20 MInoRIty SeRvInG InStItutIonS:

23 rEfErEnCES flores, S.M., & Park, t .J. (2013). race, ethnicity, and college success: Examining the continued significance of Educational Researcher Minority Serving institutions. 42(3), , 115-128. Kim, M. & Conrad, C. (2006). the impact of historically black Colleges and Universities on the academic success of African American students. Research in Higher Education , 47(4), 339-427. national Commission on Asian American and Pacific islander research in Education. (2008). Asian islanders facts, not fiction: Setting the record straight. Americans and Pacific ny : new york new york, University. retrieved from http://www.nyu.edu/projects/care/docs/2008_CArE_report.pdf national Science f oundation (2008). national Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Scientists and Engineers Statistical data System (SESt At), t able 9-7, Employed scientists and engineers, by occupation, race/ethnicity, highest degree level, and sex. national Science f oundation (2010). national Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, special tabulations of U.S. department of Education, national Center for Education Statistics, integrated Postsecondary Education data System, Completions Survey, 2001–10. U.S. Census bureau. (2002). historical Census Statistics on Population t otals by race, 1790 to 1990, and by hispanic origin, 1970 to 1990, for the United States, regions, divisions, and States. retrieved August 18, 2013, from http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0056/twps0056.html. U.S. Census bureau. (2011). overview of race and hispanic origin: 2010. retrieved August 18, 2013, from http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-02.pdf. U.S. department of Education (2010). national Center for Education Statistics, integrated Postsecondary Education data System (iPEdS), Graduation rates 200 component. U.S. department of Education (2011a). national Center for Education Statistics, higher Education General information Survey (hEGiS), “fall Enrollment in Colleges and Universities” surveys, 1976 and 1980; integrated Postsecondary Education data System (iPEdS), “fall Enrollment Survey” (iPEdS-Ef :90); and iPEdS Spring 2001 through Spring 2012, Enrollment component. U.S. department of Education (2011b). national Center for Education Statistics, integrated Postsecondary Education data System (iPEdS), fall 2001 and Spring 2002 through Spring 2011, Graduation rates component. U.S. department of Education (2011c). national Center for Education Statistics, integrated Postsecondary Education data System (iPEdS). retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/datacenter/institutionbyname. aspx. CEntEr for Minority SErvinG inStitUtionS 21

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